Shocks in collisionless plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Parks, G. K.; Lee, E.; Fu, S. Y.; Lin, N.; Liu, Y.; Yang, Z. W.
2017-06-01
The Earth's bow shock is the best-known collisionless shock in space. Although much is known about the bow shock, the mechanisms of heating and thermalization processes still remain poorly understood. Collisionless shocks are different from ordinary fluid shocks, because a fraction of the incident solar wind is reflected from the bow shock and the transmitted particles are not immediately thermalized. The reflected particles interact with the incident solar wind producing waves and instabilities that can heat and accelerate particles to high energies. Some of the waves can grow to large amplitudes such as Short Large Amplitude Magnetic Structures. Other upstream nonlinear structures include hot flow anomalies and density holes. The upstream nonlinear structures subsequently convect Earthward with the SW and could impact the structure and dynamics of the bow shock. These observations have clearly indicated that the upstream dynamics are an integral part of the bow shock system. Although much has been learned about the behavior of Earth's bow shock dynamics from the existing data, many fundamental questions remain not answered. This article will review observations of ion dynamics of Earth's bow shock system, what we have learned from recent and past observations. We provide new perspectives from multi-spacecraft Cluster observations about the spatial and temporal variations including the fundamental shock heating, acceleration, and entropy generation processes.
Scattering of radiation in collisionless dusty plasmas
Tolias, P.; Ratynskaia, S.
2013-04-15
Scattering of electromagnetic waves in collisionless dusty plasmas is studied in the framework of a multi-component kinetic model. The investigation focuses on the spectral distribution of the scattered radiation. Pronounced dust signatures are identified in the coherent spectrum due to scattering from the shielding cloud around the dust grains, dust acoustic waves, and dust-ion acoustic waves. The magnitude and shape of the scattered signal near these spectral regions are determined with the aid of analytical expressions and its dependence on the dust parameters is investigated. The use of radiation scattering as a potential diagnostic tool for dust detection is discussed.
A collisionless plasma thruster plume expansion model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Merino, Mario; Cichocki, Filippo; Ahedo, Eduardo
2015-06-01
A two-fluid model of the unmagnetized, collisionless far region expansion of the plasma plume for gridded ion thrusters and Hall effect thrusters is presented. The model is integrated into two semi-analytical solutions valid in the hypersonic case. These solutions are discussed and compared against the results from the (exact) method of characteristics; the relative errors in density and velocity increase slowly axially and radially and are of the order of 10-2-10-3 in the cases studied. The plasma density, ion flux and ambipolar electric field are investigated. A sensitivity analysis of the problem parameters and initial conditions is carried out in order to characterize the far plume divergence angle in the range of interest for space electric propulsion. A qualitative discussion of the physics of the secondary plasma plume is also provided.
Nonlinear Gyroviscous Force in a Collisionless Plasma
Belova, E.V.
2001-05-23
Nonlinear gyroviscous forces in a collisionless plasma with temperature variations are calculated from the gyrofluid moments of the gyrokinetic Vlasov equation. The low-frequency gyrokinetic ordering and electrostatic perturbations are assumed, and an additional finite Larmor radius (FLR) expansion is performed. This approach leads naturally to an expression for the gyroviscous force in terms of the gyrocenter distribution function, thus including all resonant effects, and represents a systematic FLR expansion in a general form (no assumption of any closure is made). The expression for the gyroviscous force is also calculated in terms of the particle-fluid moments by making the transformation from the gyrocenter to particle coordinates. The calculated expression represents a modification of the Braginskii gyroviscosity for a collisionless plasma with nonuniform temperature. It is compared with previous calculations based on the traditional fluid approach. As a byproduct of the gyroviscosity calculations, we derive a set of nonlinear reduced gyrofluid (and a corresponding set of particle-fluid) moment equations with FLR corrections, which exhibit a generalized form of the ''gyroviscous cancellation.''
Turbulent dynamo in a collisionless plasma
Rincon, François; Califano, Francesco; Schekochihin, Alexander A.; Valentini, Francesco
2016-01-01
Magnetic fields pervade the entire universe and affect the formation and evolution of astrophysical systems from cosmological to planetary scales. The generation and dynamical amplification of extragalactic magnetic fields through cosmic times (up to microgauss levels reported in nearby galaxy clusters, near equipartition with kinetic energy of plasma motions, and on scales of at least tens of kiloparsecs) are major puzzles largely unconstrained by observations. A dynamo effect converting kinetic flow energy into magnetic energy is often invoked in that context; however, extragalactic plasmas are weakly collisional (as opposed to magnetohydrodynamic fluids), and whether magnetic field growth and sustainment through an efficient turbulent dynamo instability are possible in such plasmas is not established. Fully kinetic numerical simulations of the Vlasov equation in a 6D-phase space necessary to answer this question have, until recently, remained beyond computational capabilities. Here, we show by means of such simulations that magnetic field amplification by dynamo instability does occur in a stochastically driven, nonrelativistic subsonic flow of initially unmagnetized collisionless plasma. We also find that the dynamo self-accelerates and becomes entangled with kinetic instabilities as magnetization increases. The results suggest that such a plasma dynamo may be realizable in laboratory experiments, support the idea that intracluster medium turbulence may have significantly contributed to the amplification of cluster magnetic fields up to near-equipartition levels on a timescale shorter than the Hubble time, and emphasize the crucial role of multiscale kinetic physics in high-energy astrophysical plasmas. PMID:27035981
Turbulent dynamo in a collisionless plasma
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rincon, François; Califano, Francesco; Schekochihin, Alexander A.; Valentini, Francesco
2016-04-01
Magnetic fields pervade the entire universe and affect the formation and evolution of astrophysical systems from cosmological to planetary scales. The generation and dynamical amplification of extragalactic magnetic fields through cosmic times (up to microgauss levels reported in nearby galaxy clusters, near equipartition with kinetic energy of plasma motions, and on scales of at least tens of kiloparsecs) are major puzzles largely unconstrained by observations. A dynamo effect converting kinetic flow energy into magnetic energy is often invoked in that context; however, extragalactic plasmas are weakly collisional (as opposed to magnetohydrodynamic fluids), and whether magnetic field growth and sustainment through an efficient turbulent dynamo instability are possible in such plasmas is not established. Fully kinetic numerical simulations of the Vlasov equation in a 6D-phase space necessary to answer this question have, until recently, remained beyond computational capabilities. Here, we show by means of such simulations that magnetic field amplification by dynamo instability does occur in a stochastically driven, nonrelativistic subsonic flow of initially unmagnetized collisionless plasma. We also find that the dynamo self-accelerates and becomes entangled with kinetic instabilities as magnetization increases. The results suggest that such a plasma dynamo may be realizable in laboratory experiments, support the idea that intracluster medium turbulence may have significantly contributed to the amplification of cluster magnetic fields up to near-equipartition levels on a timescale shorter than the Hubble time, and emphasize the crucial role of multiscale kinetic physics in high-energy astrophysical plasmas.
Collisionless Magnetic Reconnection in Space Plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Treumann, Rudolf A.; Baumjohann, Wolfgang
2013-12-01
Magnetic reconnection, the merging of oppositely directed magnetic fields that leads to field reconfiguration, plasma heating, jetting and acceleration, is one of the most celebrated processes in collisionless plasmas. It requires the violation of the frozen-in condition which ties gyrating charged particles to the magnetic field inhibiting diffusion. Ongoing reconnection has been identified in near-Earth space as being responsible for the excitation of substorms, magnetic storms, generation of field aligned currents and their consequences, the wealth of auroral phenomena. Its theoretical understanding is now on the verge of being completed. Reconnection takes place in thin current sheets. Analytical concepts proceeded gradually down to the microscopic scale, the scale of the electron skin depth or inertial length, recognizing that current layers that thin do preferentially undergo spontaneous reconnection. Thick current layers start reconnecting when being forced by plasma inflow to thin. For almost half a century the physical mechanism of reconnection has remained a mystery. Spacecraft in situ observations in combination with sophisticated numerical simulations in two and three dimensions recently clarified the mist, finding that reconnection produces a specific structure of the current layer inside the electron inertial (also called electron diffusion) region around the reconnection site, the X line. Onset of reconnection is attributed to pseudo-viscous contributions of the electron pressure tensor aided by electron inertia and drag, creating a complicated structured electron current sheet, electric fields, and an electron exhaust extended along the current layer. We review the general background theory and recent developments in numerical simulation on collisionless reconnection. It is impossible to cover the entire field of reconnection in a short space-limited review. The presentation necessarily remains cursory, determined by our taste, preferences, and kn
Kinetic model for the collisionless sheath of a collisional plasma
Tang, Xian-Zhu Guo, Zehua
2016-08-15
Collisional plasmas typically have mean-free-path still much greater than the Debye length, so the sheath is mostly collisionless. Once the plasma density, temperature, and flow are specified at the sheath entrance, the profile variation of electron and ion density, temperature, flow speed, and conductive heat fluxes inside the sheath is set by collisionless dynamics, and can be predicted by an analytical kinetic model distribution. These predictions are contrasted here with direct kinetic simulations, showing good agreement.
Collisionless relaxation in beam-plasma systems
Backhaus, Ekaterina Yu.
2001-01-01
This thesis reports the results from the theoretical investigations, both numerical and analytical, of collisionless relaxation phenomena in beam-plasma systems. Many results of this work can also be applied to other lossless systems of plasma physics, beam physics and astrophysics. Different aspects of the physics of collisionless relaxation and its modeling are addressed. A new theoretical framework, named Coupled Moment Equations (CME), is derived and used in numerical and analytical studies of the relaxation of second order moments such as beam size and emittance oscillations. This technique extends the well-known envelope equation formalism, and it can be applied to general systems with nonlinear forces. It is based on a systematic moment expansion of the Vlasov equation. In contrast to the envelope equation, which is derived assuming constant rms beam emittance, the CME model allows the emittance to vary through coupling to higher order moments. The CME model is implemented in slab geometry in the absence of return currents. The CME simulation yields rms beam sizes, velocity spreads and emittances that are in good agreement with particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations for a wide range of system parameters. The mechanism of relaxation is also considered within the framework of the CME system. It is discovered that the rapid relaxation or beam size oscillations can be attributed to a resonant coupling between different modes of the system. A simple analytical estimate of the relaxation time is developed. The final state of the system reached after the relaxation is complete is investigated. New and accurate analytical results for the second order moments in the phase-mixed state are obtained. Unlike previous results, these connect the final values of the second order moments with the initial beam mismatch. These analytical estimates are in good agreement with the CME model and PIC simulations. Predictions for the final density and temperature are developed that show
Lithium plasma emitter for collisionless magnetized plasma experiment.
Kawamori, Eiichirou; Lee, Jyun-Yi; Huang, Yi-Jue; Syugu, Wun-Jheng; Song, Sung-Xuang; Hsieh, Tung-Yuan; Cheng, C Z
2011-09-01
This paper presents a newly developed lithium plasma emitter, which can provide quiescent and low-temperature collisionless conditions for magnetized plasma experiments. This plasma emitter generates thermal emissions of lithium ions and electrons to produce a lithium plasma. Lithium type beta-eucryptite and lanthanum-hexaboride (LaB(6)) powders were mixed and directly heated with a tungsten heater to synthesize ion and electron emissions. As a result, a plasma with a diameter of ~15 cm was obtained in a magnetic mirror configuration. The typical range of electron density was 10(12)-10(13) m(-3) and that of electron temperature was 0.1-0.8 eV with the emitter operation temperature of about 1500 K. The amplitude fluctuations for the plasma density were lower than 1%. © 2011 American Institute of Physics
How to Patch Active Plasma and Collisionless Sheath: Practical Guide
Kaganovich, Igor D.
2002-08-22
Most plasmas have a very thin sheath compared with the plasma dimension. This necessitates separate calculations of the plasma and sheath. The Bohm criterion provides the boundary condition for calculation of plasma profiles. To calculate sheath properties, a value of electric field at the plasma-sheath interface has to be specified in addition to the Bohm criterion. The value of the boundary electric field and robust procedure to approximately patch plasma and collisionless sheath with a very good accuracy are reported.
Nonlinearly interacting trapped particle solitons in collisionless plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mandal, Debraj; Sharma, Devendra
2016-02-01
The formulation of collective waves in collisionless plasmas is complicated by the kinetic effects produced by the resonant particles, capable of responding to the smallest of the amplitude disturbance. The dispersive plasma manifests this response by generating coherent nonlinear structures associated with phase-space vortices, or holes, at very small amplitudes. The nonlinear interaction between solitary electron phase-space holes is studied in the electron acoustic regime of a collisionless plasma using Vlasov simulations. Evolution of the analytic trapped particle solitary solutions is examined, observing them propagate stably, preserve their identity across strong mutual interactions in adiabatic processes, and display close correspondence with observable processes in nature.
Shearing Box Simulations of the MRI in a Collisionless Plasma
Sharma, Prateek; Hammett, Gregory, W.; Quataert, Eliot; Stone, James, M.
2005-08-31
We describe local shearing box simulations of turbulence driven by the magnetorotational instability (MRI) in a collisionless plasma. Collisionless effects may be important in radiatively inefficient accretion flows, such as near the black hole in the Galactic Center. The MHD version of ZEUS is modified to evolve an anisotropic pressure tensor. A fluid closure approximation is used to calculate heat conduction along magnetic field lines. The anisotropic pressure tensor provides a qualitatively new mechanism for transporting angular momentum in accretion flows (in addition to the Maxwell and Reynolds stresses). We estimate limits on the pressure anisotropy due to pitch angle scattering by kinetic instabilities. Such instabilities provide an effective ''collision'' rate in a collisionless plasma and lead to more MHD-like dynamics. We find that the MRI leads to efficient growth of the magnetic field in a collisionless plasma, with saturation amplitudes comparable to those in MHD. In the saturated state, the anisotropic stress is comparable to the Maxwell stress, implying that the rate of angular momentum transport may be moderately enhanced in a collisionless plasma.
Scaled Laboratory Collisionless Shock Experiments in the Large Plasma Device
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Clark, S. E.; Schaeffer, D.; Everson, E.; Bondarenko, A.; Winske, D.; Constantin, C.; Niemann, C.
2013-12-01
Collisionless shocks in space plasmas have been investigated since the fifties and are typically studied via in-situ satellite observations, which are limited due to the large structure of collisionless shocks in space environments relative to the satellite observation platform. Scaled, repeatable experiments in the Large Plasma Device (LAPD) at UCLA provide a test bed for studying collisionless shocks in the laboratory, where questions of ion and electron heating and acceleration can be addressed and examined in detail. The experiments are performed by ablating a graphite or plastic target using the Raptor kilojoule-class laser facility at UCLA. The laser provides an on-target energy in the range of 100-500 J that drives a super-Alfvénic (MA > 1) debris plasma across a background magnetic field (200-800 G) into the ambient, magnetized LAPD plasma. Typical plasma parameters in the LAPD consist of a H+ or He+ ambient plasma with a core column (diameter > 20 cm ) density ni ~ 1013 cm-3 and electron temperature Te ~ 10 eV embedded in a larger plasma discharge (diameter ~ 80 cm) of density ni ~ 1012 cm-3 and Te ~ 5 eV. The ambient ion temperature is Ti ~ 1 eV. Experimental results from the latest collisionless shock campaign will be presented and compared with two dimensional hybrid simulations of the experiment. Fielded diagnostics include Thomson scattering, ion spectroscopy, magnetic flux probes, Langmuir probes, and microwave reflectometry.
How to Patch Active Plasma and Collisionless Sheath: Pragmatical Guide
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shneider, Mikhail N.; Kaganovich, Igor D.
2002-11-01
Most plasmas have very thin sheath compared with plasma dimension. This necessitates separate calculation of plasma and sheath. Bohm criterion provides boundary condition for calculation of plasma profiles. To calculate sheath properties a value of electric field at the plasma-sheath interface has to be specified in addition to Bohm criterion. The value of the boundary electric field and robust procedure to approximately patch plasma and collisionless sheath with a very good accuracy is reported. Additional information on the subject will be posted in http://www.pppl.gov/pub/report/2002/ http://arxiv.org/abs/physics/ Work supported by the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory through a University Research Support Program.
A mean field Ohm`s law for collisionless plasmas
Biglari, H.; Diamond, P.H. |
1993-06-01
A mean field Ohm`s law valid for collisionless plasmas is derived kinetically. It is shown that contrary to conventional thinking, the resulting hyper-resistivity is significantly smaller than its fluid counterpart due to the fact that the turbulent decorrelation rate is linked to the rapid electron ballistic motion rather than the slower nonlinear mixing time. Moreover, the off-diagonal contributions to the parallel electron momentum flux are shown to result in Ohm`s law renormalizations that dwarf the current diffusivity and break radial parity symmetry. Thus, the conventional wisdom of tearing and twisting parity solutions appears to be vitiated in the turbulent collisionless regime.
Langmuir probe in collisionless and collisional plasma including dusty plasma
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bose, Sayak; Kaur, Manjit; Chattopadhyay, P. K.; Ghosh, J.; Saxena, Y. C.; Pal, R.
2017-04-01
Measurements of local plasma parameters in dusty plasma are crucial for understanding the physics issues related to such systems. The Langmuir probe, a small electrode immersed in the plasma, provides such measurements. However, designing of a Langmuir probe system in a dusty plasma environment demands special consideration. First, the probe has to be miniaturized enough so that its perturbation on the ambient dust structure is minimal. At the same time, the probe dimensions must be such that a well-defined theory exists for interpretation of its characteristics. The associated instrumentation must also support the measurement of current collected by the probe with high signal to noise ratio. The most important consideration, of course, comes from the fact that the probes are prone to dust contamination, as the dust particles tend to stick to the probe surface and alter the current collecting area in unpredictable ways. This article describes the design and operation of a Langmuir probe system that resolves these challenging issues in dusty plasma. In doing so, first, different theories that are used to interpret the probe characteristics in collisionless as well as in collisional regimes are discussed, with special emphasis on application. The critical issues associated with the current-voltage characteristics of Langmuir probe obtained in different operating regimes are discussed. Then, an algorithm for processing these characteristics efficiently in presence of ion-neutral collisions in the probe sheath is presented.
Collisionless Coupling between Explosive Debris Plasma and Magnetized Ambient Plasma
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bondarenko, Anton
2016-10-01
The explosive expansion of a dense debris plasma cloud into relatively tenuous, magnetized, ambient plasma characterizes a wide variety of astrophysical and space phenomena, including supernova remnants, interplanetary coronal mass ejections, and ionospheric explosions. In these rarified environments, collective electromagnetic processes rather than Coulomb collisions typically mediate the transfer of momentum and energy from the debris plasma to the ambient plasma. In an effort to better understand the detailed physics of collisionless coupling mechanisms in a reproducible laboratory setting, the present research jointly utilizes the Large Plasma Device (LAPD) and the Phoenix laser facility at UCLA to study the super-Alfvénic, quasi-perpendicular expansion of laser-produced carbon (C) and hydrogen (H) debris plasma through preformed, magnetized helium (He) ambient plasma via a variety of diagnostics, including emission spectroscopy, wavelength-filtered imaging, and magnetic field induction probes. Large Doppler shifts detected in a He II ion spectral line directly indicate initial ambient ion acceleration transverse to both the debris plasma flow and the background magnetic field, indicative of a fundamental process known as Larmor coupling. Characterization of the laser-produced debris plasma via a radiation-hydrodynamics code permits an explicit calculation of the laminar electric field in the framework of a ``hybrid'' model (kinetic ions, charge-neutralizing massless fluid electrons), thus allowing for a simulation of the initial response of a distribution of He II test ions. A synthetic Doppler-shifted spectrum constructed from the simulated velocity distribution of the accelerated test ions excellently reproduces the spectroscopic measurements, confirming the role of Larmor coupling in the debris-ambient interaction.
Collisionless Reconnection in an Electron-Positron Plasma
Bessho, N.; Bhattacharjee, A.
2005-12-09
Electromagnetic particle-in-cell simulations of fast collisionless reconnection in a two-dimensional electron-positron plasma (without an equilibrium guide field) are presented. A generalized Ohm's law in which the Hall current cancels out exactly is given. It is suggested that the key to fast reconnection in this plasma is the localization caused by the off-diagonal components of the pressure tensors, which produce an effect analogous to a spatially localized resistivity.
Sheath structure in plasma with two species of positive ions and secondary electrons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xiao-Yun, Zhao; Nong, Xiang; Jing, Ou; De-Hui, Li; Bin-Bin, Lin
2016-02-01
The properties of a collisionless plasma sheath are investigated by using a fluid model in which two species of positive ions and secondary electrons are taken into account. It is shown that the positive ion speeds at the sheath edge increase with secondary electron emission (SEE) coefficient, and the sheath structure is affected by the interplay between the two species of positive ions and secondary electrons. The critical SEE coefficients and the sheath widths depend strongly on the positive ion charge number, mass and concentration in the cases with and without SEE. In addition, ion kinetic energy flux to the wall and the impact of positive ion species on secondary electron density at the sheath edge are also discussed. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11475220 and 11405208), the Program of Fusion Reactor Physics and Digital Tokamak with the CAS “One-Three-Five” Strategic Planning, the National ITER Program of China (Grant No. 2015GB101003), and the Higher Education Natural Science Research Project of Anhui Province, China (Grant No. 2015KJ009).
Generalized Kinetic Description of Steady-State Collisionless Plasmas
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Khazanov, G. V.; Liemohn, M. W.; Krivorutsky, E. N.
1997-01-01
We present a general solution to the collisionless Boltzmann (Vlasov) equation for a free-flowing plasma along a magnetic field line using Liouville's theorem, allowing for an arbitrary potential structure including non-monotonicities. The constraints of the existing collisionless kinetic transport models are explored, and the need for a more general approach to the problem of self- consistent potential energy calculations is described. Then a technique that handles an arbitrary potential energy distribution along the field line is presented and discussed. For precipitation of magnetospherically trapped hot plasma, this model yields moment calculations that vary by up to a factor of two for various potential energy structures with the same total potential drop. The differences are much greater for the high-latitude outflow scenario, giving order of magnitude variations depending on the shape of the potential energy distribution.
The interaction of quasiperpendicular shock waves in a collisionless plasma
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cargill, P. J.; Goodrich, C. C.
1987-01-01
The interaction between collisionless shocks is examined from a kinetic viewpoint using computer simulations of shock collisions spanning the range of ambient plasma and shock parameters typical of the interplanetary medium. It is found that the interaction between two subcritical, perpendicular shocks is largely fluidlike with no evidence for accelerated particles. The electromagnetic fields associated with each shock, but not the plasmas, pass through each other during the collision. This interaction is due to self-consistently generated electric fields which adjust to the value needed to bring to rest the two incoming streams. The interaction between two supercritical perpendicular collisionless shocks is similar to the subcritical case, in that the electromagnetic fields associated with each shock are transmitted whereas particles are not. However, the interaction is also highly dynamic with substantial acceleration of ions. Increasing the Mach number gives rise to an increasing number of energetic particles.
Generalized Kinetic Description of Steady-State Collisionless Plasmas
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Khazanov, G. V.; Liemohn, M. W.; Krivorutsky, E. N.
1997-01-01
We present a general solution to the collisionless Boltzmann (Vlasov) equation for a free-flowing plasma along a magnetic field line using Liouville's theorem, allowing for an arbitrary potential structure including non-monotonicities. The constraints of the existing collisionless kinetic transport models are explored, and the need for a more general approach to the problem of self- consistent potential energy calculations is described. Then a technique that handles an arbitrary potential energy distribution along the field line is presented and discussed. For precipitation of magnetospherically trapped hot plasma, this model yields moment calculations that vary by up to a factor of two for various potential energy structures with the same total potential drop. The differences are much greater for the high-latitude outflow scenario, giving order of magnitude variations depending on the shape of the potential energy distribution.
Intercomponent momentum transport and electrical conductivity of collisionless plasma
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wilhelm, H. E.
1973-01-01
Based on the Lenard-Balescu equation, the interaction integral for the intercomponent momentum transfer in a two-component, collisionless plasma is evaluated in closed form. The distribution functions of the electrons and ions are represented in the form of nonisothermal, displaced Maxwellians corresponding to the 5-moment approximation. As an application, the transport of electrical current in an electric field is discussed for infrasonic up to sonic electron-ion drift velocities.
Intercomponent momentum transport and electrical conductivity of collisionless plasma
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wilhelm, H. E.
1973-01-01
Based on the Lenard-Balescu equation, the interaction integral for the intercomponent momentum transfer in a two-component, collisionless plasma is evaluated in closed form. The distribution functions of the electrons and ions are represented in the form of nonisothermal, displaced Maxwellians corresponding to the 5-moment approximation. As an application, the transport of electrical current in an electric field is discussed for infrasonic up to sonic electron-ion drift velocities.
How to Patch Active Plasma and Collisionless Sheath: Pragmatical Guide
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kaganovich, Igor D.
2002-10-01
Most plasmas have very thin sheath compared with plasma dimension. This necessitates separate calculation of plasma and sheath. Bohm criterion provides boundary condition for calculation of plasma profiles. To calculate sheath properties a value of electric field at the plasma-sheath interface has to be specified in addition to Bohm criterion. The value of the boundary electric field and robust procedure to approximately patch plasma and collisionless sheath with a very good accuracy is reported. Additional information on the subject is posted on the web http://www.pppl.gov/pub/report/2002/ http://arxiv.org/abs/physics/0208041. Work supported by the Department of Energy via the University Research Support Program of Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory.
Parallel collisionless-shock experiments at the Large Plasma Device
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Weidl, Martin; Heuer, Peter; Bondarenko, Anton; Schaeffer, Derek; Winske, Dan; Constantin, Carmen; Jenko, Frank; Niemann, Christoph
2017-04-01
Previous research on parallel collisionless shocks, which constitute an important part of the Earth's bow shock region, has been limited to satellite measurements and simulations. However, whether and how these collisionless shocks form depends on a wide range of parameters and scales, some of which can be established and measured more easily in a laboratory experiment. Using a kJ-class laser, an ongoing experimental campaign at the Large Plasma Device (LAPD) at UCLA in Los Angeles is expected to produce the first laboratory measurements of the formation of a parallel collisionless shock. We present hybrid kinetic/MHD simulations which show how ion-beam instabilities in the background plasma can be driven by ablating carbon ions from a polyethylene target, causing non-linear density oscillations which eventually develop into a propagating shock front. The free-streaming carbon ions can excite both the resonant right-hand instability and the non-resonant firehose mode, the latter of which has also received a lot of attention among astrophysicists as Bell's instability. We present measurements from a first trial experiment at LAPD, in which we have identified these instabilities, and discuss their respective roles for future shock formation and the basic microphysical processes which drive them.
Collisionless Plasma Astrophysics Simulation Experiments using Lasers
Woolsey, N. C.; Ash, A. D.; Courtois, C.; Gregory, C. D.; Hall, I. M.; Howe, J.; Dendy, R. O.
2006-04-07
Laboratory experiment is an attractive method of exploring the plasma physics that may occur in solar and astrophysical shocks. An experiment enables repeated and detailed measurements of a plasma as the input conditions are adjusted. To form a scaled experiment of an astrophysical shock a plasma physics model of the shock is required, and the important dimensionless parameters identified and reproduced in the laboratory. A laboratory simulation of a young supernova remnant is described. The experiment uses the interaction of two millimetre-sized counter-streaming laser-produced plasmas placed in a strong transverse magnetic field to achieve this scaling. The collision-free dynamics of the two plasmas and their interaction are studied with and without the magnetic field through spatially and temporally resolved optical measurements. Laboratory astroplasma physics experiments using high-energy, high-power laser technology enables us to reproduce in the laboratory the conditions of temperature and pressure that are met in extreme stellar environments.
Subcritical collisionless shock waves. [in earth space plasma
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mellott, M. M.
1985-01-01
The development history of theoretical accounts of low Mach number collisionless shock waves is related to recent observational advancements, with attention to weaker shocks in which shock steepening is limited by dispersion and/or anomalous resistivity and whose character is primarily determined by the dispersive properties of the ambient plasma. Attention has focused on nearly perpendicular shocks where dispersive scale lengths become small and the associated cross-field currents become strong enough to generate significant plasma wave turbulence. A number of oblique, low Mach number bow shocks have been studied on the basis of data from the ISEE dual spacecraft pair, allowing an accurate determination of shock scale lengths.
Generation of collisionless shock in laser-produced plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fiuza, Frederico
2015-08-01
Collisionless shocks are ubiquitous in astrophysical environments and are tightly connected with magnetic-field amplification and particle acceleration. The fast progress in high-power laser technology is bringing the study of high Mach number shocks into the realm of laboratory plasmas, where in situ measurements can be made helping us understand the fundamental kinetic processes behind shocks. I will discuss the recent progress in laser-driven shock experiments at state-of-the-art facilities like NIF and Omega and how these results, together with ab initio massively parallel simulations, can impact our understanding of magnetic field amplification and particle acceleration in astrophysical plasmas.
Numerical Simulations of Collisionless Shock Formation in Merging Plasma Jet Experiments
2013-06-01
the interaction. I. INTRODUCTION Collisionless shocks play an important role in energy transport and evolution of charged-particle distribution...functions in space and astrophysical environments. Although collisionless shocks in plasmas were first predicted in the 1950s [1] and discovered in...laboratory collisionless shock experiments stems from the fact that modern laboratory plasmas can satisfy key physics criteria for the shocks to
Collisionless expansion of pulsed rf plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schröder, T.; Grulke, O.; Klinger, T.; Boswell, R. W.; Charles, C.
2014-02-01
This paper presents experimental results of the quasi isothermal expansion of a pulsed rf argon plasma (Prf ≈ 300 W) into a vacuum like environment. A fast (τopen < 200 µs) gas puffing system prevents significant ionization by energetic electron in the expansion region. Thus, the expansion is dominantly determined by ion dynamics. The spatio-temporal measurement of the ion saturation current indicates a preceding ion front entangled with a strong potential drop. This is in qualitatively good agreement with the predictions by Widner et al and Crow et al. Additionally, there is evidence for a supersonic ion population formed by acceleration of the background plasma by the by-passing ion front.
Extending Magnetohydrodynamics to the Slow Dynamics of Collisionless Plasmas
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Passot, T.; Sulem, P. L.; Hunana, P.
2012-01-01
A fluid approach aimed to provide a consistent description of the slow dynamics of a collisionless plasma, is presented. In this regime, both Landau damping and finite Larmor radius effects cannot be ignored. Two models are discussed; one retains the dynamics at sub-ionic scales, while the other is restricted to scales larger than the ion gyroscale. Special attention is paid to the capability of these approaches to accurately reproduce the properties of linear waves that are known to play an important role, for example, in the small-scale dynamics of solar wind turbulence.
A mean field Ohm's law for collisionless plasmas
Biglari, H. ); Diamond, P.H. )
1993-11-01
A mean field Ohm's law valid for collisionless plasmas is derived kinetically. It is shown that contrary to conventional thinking, the resulting hyperresistivity is significantly smaller than its fluid counterpart due to the fact that the turbulent decorrelation rate is linked to the rapid electron ballistic motion rather than the slower nonlinear mixing time. Moreover, the off-diagonal contributions to the parallel electron momentum flux are shown to result in Ohm's law renormalizations that dwarf the current diffusivity and break radial parity symmetry.
Extending Magnetohydrodynamics to the Slow Dynamics of Collisionless Plasmas
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Passot, T.; Sulem, P. L.; Hunana, P.
2012-01-01
A fluid approach aimed to provide a consistent description of the slow dynamics of a collisionless plasma, is presented. In this regime, both Landau damping and finite Larmor radius effects cannot be ignored. Two models are discussed; one retains the dynamics at sub-ionic scales, while the other is restricted to scales larger than the ion gyroscale. Special attention is paid to the capability of these approaches to accurately reproduce the properties of linear waves that are known to play an important role, for example, in the small-scale dynamics of solar wind turbulence.
Available energy and ground states of collisionless plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Helander, Per
2017-08-01
The energy budget of a collisionless plasma subject to electrostatic fluctuations is considered, and the excess of thermal energy over the minimum accessible to it under various constraints that limit the possible forms of plasma motion is calculated. This excess measures how much thermal energy is `available' for conversion into plasma instabilities, and therefore constitutes a nonlinear measure of plasma stability. A distribution function with zero available energy defines a `ground state' in the sense that its energy cannot decrease by any linear or nonlinear plasma motion. In a Vlasov plasma with small density and temperature fluctuations, the available energy is proportional to the mean square of these quantities, and exceeds the corresponding energy in ideal or resistive magnetohydrodynamics. If the first or second adiabatic invariant is conserved, ground states generally have inhomogeneous density and temperature. Magnetically confined plasmas are usually not in any ground state, but certain types of stellarator plasmas are so with respect to fluctuations that conserve both these adiabatic invariants, making the plasma linearly and nonlinearly stable to such fluctuations. Similar stability properties can also be enjoyed by plasmas confined by a dipole magnetic field.
Plasma waves downstream of weak collisionless shocks
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Coroniti, F. V.; Greenstadt, E. W.; Moses, S. L.; Smith, E. J.; Tsurutani, B. T.
1993-01-01
In September 1983 the International Sun Earth Explorer 3 (ISEE 3) International Cometary Explorer (ICE) spacecraft made a long traversal of the distant dawnside flank region of the Earth's magnetosphere and had many encounters with the low Mach number bow shock. These weak shocks excite plasma wave electric field turbulence with amplitudes comparable to those detected in the much stronger bow shock near the nose region. Downstream of quasi-perpendicular (quasi-parallel) shocks, the E field spectra exhibit a strong peak (plateau) at midfrequencies (1 - 3 kHz); the plateau shape is produced by a low-frequency (100 - 300 Hz) emission which is more intense behind downstream of two quasi-perpendicular shocks show that the low frequency signals are polarized parallel to the magnetic field, whereas the midfrequency emissions are unpolarized or only weakly polarized. A new high frequency (10 - 30 kHz) emission which is above the maximum Doppler shift exhibit a distinct peak at high frequencies; this peak is often blurred by the large amplitude fluctuations of the midfrequency waves. The high-frequency component is strongly polarized along the magnetic field and varies independently of the lower-frequency waves.
Nonlinear collisionless plasma wakes of small particles
Hutchinson, I. H.
2011-03-15
The wake behind a spherical particle smaller than the Debye length ({lambda}{sub De}) in flowing plasma is calculated using a particle-in-cell code. The results with different magnitudes of charge reveal substantial nonlinear effects down to values that for a floating particle would correspond to a particle radius {approx}10{sup -2{lambda}}{sub De}. The peak potential in the oscillatory wake structure is strongly suppressed by nonlinearity, never exceeding {approx}0.4 times the unperturbed ion energy. By contrast, the density peak arising from ion focusing can be many times the ambient. Strong heating of the ions occurs in the nonlinear regime. Direct ion absorption by the particle is not important for the far wake unless the radius exceeds 10{sup -1{lambda}}{sub De}, and is therefore never significant (for the far wake) in the linear regime. Reasonable agreement with full-scale linear response calculations are obtained in the linear regime. The wake wavelength is confirmed and an explanation, in terms of the conical potential structure, is proposed for experimentally-observed oblique alignment of different-sized grains.
Plasma Model V&V of Collisionless Electrostatic Shock
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Martin, Robert; Le, Hai; Bilyeu, David; Gildea, Stephen
2014-10-01
A simple 1D electrostatic collisionless shock was selected as an initial validation and verification test case for a new plasma modeling framework under development at the Air Force Research Laboratory's In-Space Propulsion branch (AFRL/RQRS). Cross verification between PIC, Vlasov, and Fluid plasma models within the framework along with expected theoretical results will be shown. The non-equilibrium velocity distributions (VDF) captured by PIC and Vlasov will be compared to each other and the assumed VDF of the fluid model at selected points. Validation against experimental data from the University of California, Los Angeles double-plasma device will also be presented along with current work in progress at AFRL/RQRS towards reproducing the experimental results using higher fidelity diagnostics to help elucidate differences between model results and between the models and original experiment. DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; unlimited distribution; PA (Public Affairs) Clearance Number 14332.
Perpendicular diffusion of energetic particles in collisionless plasmas
Shalchi, A.
2015-01-15
A fundamental problem in plasma and astrophysics is the interaction between energetic particles and magnetized plasmas. In the current paper, we focus on particle diffusion across the guide magnetic field. It is shown that the perpendicular diffusion coefficient depends only on the parallel diffusion coefficient and the Kubo number. Therefore, one can find four asymptotic limits depending on the values of these two parameters. These regimes are the quasilinear limit, the Kadomtsev and Pogutse limit, the scaling of Rechester and Rosenbluth, and the scaling found by Zybin and Istomin. In the current article, we focus on the Rechester and Rosenbluth scenario because this was not discovered before in the context of collisionless plasmas. Examples and applications are discussed as well. We show that an energy independent ratio of perpendicular and parallel diffusion coefficients can be found and that this ratio can be very small but also close to unity. This is exactly what one observes in the solar wind.
Magnetohydrodynamics for collisionless plasmas from the gyrokinetic perspective
Lee, W. W.
2016-07-15
The effort to obtain a set of MagnetoHydroDynamic (MHD) equations for a magnetized collisionless plasma was started nearly 60 years ago by Chew et al. [Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. A 236(1204), 112–118 (1956)]. Many attempts have been made ever since. Here, we will show the derivation of a set of these equations from the gyrokinetic perspective, which we call it gyrokinetic MHD, and it is different from the conventional ideal MHD. However, this new set of equations still has conservation properties and, in the absence of fluctuations, recovers the usual MHD equilibrium. Furthermore, the resulting equations allow for the plasma pressure balance to be further modified by finite-Larmor-radius effects in regions with steep pressure gradients. The present work is an outgrowth of the paper on “Alfven Waves in Gyrokinetic Plasmas” by Lee and Qin [Phys. Plasmas 10, 3196 (2003)].
Simplex-in-cell technique for collisionless plasma simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kates-Harbeck, Julian; Totorica, Samuel; Zrake, Jonathan; Abel, Tom
2016-01-01
We extend the simplex-in-cell (SIC) technique recently introduced in the context of collisionless dark matter fluids [1,2] to the case of collisionless plasmas. The six-dimensional phase space distribution function f (x , v) is represented by an ensemble of three-dimensional manifolds, which we refer to as sheets. The electric potential field is obtained by solving the Poisson equation on a uniform mesh, where the charge density is evaluated by a spatial projection of the phase space sheets. The SIC representation of phase space density facilitates robust, high accuracy numerical evolution of the Vlasov-Poisson system using significantly fewer tracer particles than comparable particle-in-cell (PIC) approaches by reducing the numerical shot-noise associated with the latter. We introduce the SIC formulation and describe its implementation in a new code, which we validate using standard test problems including plasma oscillations, Landau damping, and two stream instabilities in one dimension. Merits of the new scheme are shown to include higher accuracy and faster convergence rates in the number of particles. We finally motivate and outline the efficient application of SIC to higher dimensional problems.
New Description of Collisionless Dynamics in Beam-Plasma Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Backhaus, E. Yu.; Wurtele, J. S.
1999-11-01
The dynamics of collisionless relaxation has been an active topic of research in plasma and astrophysical systems for over thirty years. This is studied in the context of one-dimensional beam dynamics in overdense plasmas with slab geometry. A new description is presented in which the phase space distribution function is decomposed into a set of modes and the system is modeled as an initial value problem for the amplitudes of these modes. The model can also be considered as a natural extension of the well-celebrated envelope equation formalism to include the coupling to higher order moments. The predicted dynamics of the beam rms properties and the emittance growth during the violent relaxation are in a good agreement with the results of PIC simulations over a wide range of initial conditions. Predictions for beam density and temperature evolution contain main features observed in PIC simulations. Simple analytical estimates for the beam properties after phase-mixing agree with PIC simulation within 10% over a factor of 20 change in the initial mismatch of a gaussian beam. The method offers not only a fast numerical technique to describe the dynamics of the bulk beam properties but also offers new insights into the physics of collisionless relaxation: the resonant coupling between modes is shown to cause the fast relaxation of rms beam properties.
Scaling of Magnetic Reconnection in Relativistic Collisionless Pair Plasmas
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Liu, Yi-Hsin; Guo, Fan; Daughton, William; Li, Hui; Hesse, Michael
2015-01-01
Using fully kinetic simulations, we study the scaling of the inflow speed of collisionless magnetic reconnection in electron-positron plasmas from the non-relativistic to ultra-relativistic limit. In the anti-parallel configuration, the inflow speed increases with the upstream magnetization parameter sigma and approaches the speed of light when sigma is greater than O(100), leading to an enhanced reconnection rate. In all regimes, the divergence of the pressure tensor is the dominant term responsible for breaking the frozen-in condition at the x-line. The observed scaling agrees well with a simple model that accounts for the Lorentz contraction of the plasma passing through the diffusion region. The results demonstrate that the aspect ratio of the diffusion region, modified by the compression factor of proper density, remains approximately 0.1 in both the non-relativistic and relativistic limits.
A multi-model plasma simulation of collisionless magnetic reconnection
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Datta, I. A. M.; Shumlak, U.; Ho, A.; Miller, S. T.
2016-10-01
Collisionless magnetic reconnection is a process relevant to many areas of plasma physics in which energy stored in magnetic fields within highly conductive plasmas is rapidly converted to plasma energy. A full understanding of this phenomenon, however, is currently incomplete as models developed to date have difficulty explaining the fast reconnection rates often seen in nature, such as in the case of solar flares. Therefore, this behavior represents an area of much research in which various plasma models have been tested in order to understand the proper physics explaining the reconnection process. In this research, the WARPXM code developed at the University of Washington is used to study the problem using a hybrid multi-model simulation employing Hall-MHD and two-fluid plasma models. The simulation is performed on a decomposed domain where different plasma models are solved in different regions, depending on a trade-off between each model's physical accuracy and associated computational expense in each region. The code employs a discontinuous Galerkin (DG) finite element spatial discretization coupled with a Runge-Kutta scheme for time advancement and uses boundary conditions to couple the different plasma models. This work is supported by a Grant from the United States Air Force Office of Scientific Research.
Quasi-collisional Magneto-optic Effects in Collisionless Plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Keenan, Brett; Ford, Alex; Medvedev, Mikhail
2016-03-01
High-amplitude, chaotic/turbulent electromagnetic fluctuations are ubiquitous in astrophysical plasmas, where they can be excited by various kinetic-streaming and/or anisotropy-driven instabilities, such as the Weibel instability. These fields typically exist on ``sub-Larmor scales'' -- scales smaller than the electron Larmor radius. Electrons moving through such magnetic fields undergo small-angle stochastic deflections of their pitch-angles, thus establishing diffusive transport on long time-scales. We show that this behavior, under certain conditions, is equivalent to Coulomb collisions in collisional plasmas. The magnetic pitch-angle diffusion coefficient, which acts as an effective ``collision'' frequency, may be substantial in these, otherwise, collisionless environments. We show that this effect, colloquially referred to as the plasma ``quasi-collisionality'', may radically alter the expected radiative transport properties of candidate plasmas. We argue that the modified magneto-optic effects in these plasmas provide an attractive, novel radiative diagnostic tool for the exploration and characterization of small-scale magnetic turbulence.
Collisionless Plasma Modeling in an Arbitrary Potential Energy Distribution
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Liemohn, M. W.; Khazanov, G. V.
1997-01-01
A new technique for calculating a collisionless plasma along a field line is presented. The primary feature of the new model is that it can handle an arbitrary (including nonmonotonic) potential energy distribution. This was one of the limiting constraints on the existing models in this class, and these constraints are generalized for an arbitrary potential energy composition. The formulation for relating current density to the field-aligned potential as well as formulas for density, temperature and energy flux calculations are presented for several distribution functions, ranging from a bi-Lorentzian with a loss cone to an isotropic Maxwellian. A comparison of these results with previous models shows that the formulation reduces.to the earlier models under similar assumptions.
Collisionless Plasma Modeling in an Arbitrary Potential Energy Distribution
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Liemohn, M. W.; Khazanov, G. V.
1997-01-01
A new technique for calculating a collisionless plasma along a field line is presented. The primary feature of the new model is that it can handle an arbitrary (including nonmonotonic) potential energy distribution. This was one of the limiting constraints on the existing models in this class, and these constraints are generalized for an arbitrary potential energy composition. The formulation for relating current density to the field-aligned potential as well as formulas for density, temperature and energy flux calculations are presented for several distribution functions, ranging from a bi-Lorentzian with a loss cone to an isotropic Maxwellian. A comparison of these results with previous models shows that the formulation reduces.to the earlier models under similar assumptions.
Firehose, Mirror, and Magnetorotational Instabilities in a Collisionless Shearing Plasma
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kunz, Matthew; Schekochihin, Alexander; Stone, James; Melville, Scott; Quataert, Eliot
2015-11-01
Describing the large-scale behavior of weakly collisional magnetized plasmas, such as the solar wind, black-hole accretion flows, or the intracluster medium of galaxy clusters, necessitates a detailed understanding of the kinetic-scale physics governing the dynamics of magnetic fields and the transport of momentum and heat. This physics is complicated by the fact that such plasmas are expected to exhibit particle distribution functions with unequal thermal pressures in the directions parallel and perpendicular to the local magnetic field. This pressure anisotropy can trigger fast Larmor-scale instabilities - namely, firehose and mirror - which solar-wind observations suggest to be effective at regulating the pressure anisotropy to marginally stable levels. Results from weakly nonlinear theory and hybrid-kinetic particle-in-cell simulations that address how marginal stability is achieved and maintained in a plasma whose pressure anisotropy is driven by a shearing magnetic field are presented. Fluctuation spectra and effective collisionality are highlighted. These results are placed in the context of our ongoing studies of magnetorotational turbulence in collisionless astrophysical accretion disks, in which microscale plasma instabilities regulate angular-momentum transport.
Collision-less Coupling between Explosive Debris Plasma and Magnetized Ambient Plasma
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bondarenko, Anton Sergeivich
The explosive expansion of a dense debris plasma cloud into relatively tenuous, magnetized, ambient plasma characterizes a wide variety of astrophysical and space environments, including supernova remnants, interplanetary coronal mass ejections, and ionospheric explosions. In these and other related phenomena, collision-less electro-magnetic processes rather than Coulomb collisions typically mediate the transfer of momentum and energy from the debris plasma to the ambient plasma. In an effort to better understand the detailed physics of collision-less coupling mechanisms, compliment in situ measurements, and provide validation of previous computational and theoretical work, the present research utilizes a unique experimental platform at the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) to study the interaction of explosive debris plasma with magnetized ambient plasma in a reproducible laboratory setting. Specifically, by jointly employing the Large Plasma Device (LAPD) and the Phoenix laser facility, the super-Alfvenic, quasi-perpendicular expansion of laser-produced carbon (C) and hydrogen (H) debris plasma through preformed, magnetized helium (He) ambient plasma is investigated via a variety of sophisticated diagnostics, including emission spectroscopy, wavelength-filtered imaging, a magnetic flux probe, and a Langmuir probe. The key result is the direct observation of collision-less coupling via large Doppler shifts in a He II ion spectral line, which indicate that the ambient ions accelerate in response to the explosive debris plasma. Specifically, the He II ions accelerate along a trajectory that qualitatively corresponds to the large-scale laminar electric field generated by the debris expansion. A custom computational approach is utilized to simulate the initial He II ion response to the explosive debris plasma, and a synthetic Doppler-shifted wavelength spectrum constructed from the simulated ion velocities excellently reproduces the experimental
Nonlocal collisionless and collisional electron transport in low temperature plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kaganovich, Igor
2009-10-01
The purpose of the talk is to describe recent advances in nonlocal electron kinetics in low-pressure plasmas. A distinctive property of partially ionized plasmas is that such plasmas are always in a non-equilibrium state: the electrons are not in thermal equilibrium with the neutral species and ions, and the electrons are also not in thermodynamic equilibrium within their own ensemble, which results in a significant departure of the electron velocity distribution function from a Maxwellian. These non-equilibrium conditions provide considerable freedom to choose optimal plasma parameters for applications, which make gas discharge plasmas remarkable tools for a variety of plasma applications, including plasma processing, discharge lighting, plasma propulsion, particle beam sources, and nanotechnology. Typical phenomena in such discharges include nonlocal electron kinetics, nonlocal electrodynamics with collisionless electron heating, and nonlinear processes in the sheaths and in the bounded plasmas. Significant progress in understanding the interaction of electromagnetic fields with real bounded plasma created by this field and the resulting changes in the structure of the applied electromagnetic field has been one of the major achievements of the last decade in this area of research [1-3]. We show on specific examples that this progress was made possible by synergy between full scale particle-in-cell simulations, analytical models, and experiments. In collaboration with Y. Raitses, A.V. Khrabrov, Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ, USA; V.I. Demidov, UES, Inc., 4401 Dayton-Xenia Rd., Beavercreek, OH 45322, USA and AFRL, Wright-Patterson AFB, OH 45433, USA; and D. Sydorenko, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Canada. [4pt] [1] D. Sydorenko, A. Smolyakov, I. Kaganovich, and Y. Raitses, IEEE Trans. Plasma Science 34, 895 (2006); Phys. Plasmas 13, 014501 (2006); 14 013508 (2007); 15, 053506 (2008). [0pt] [2] I. D. Kaganovich, Y. Raitses, D. Sydorenko, and
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bondarenko, A. S.; Schaeffer, D. B.; Everson, E. T.; Clark, S. E.; Lee, B. R.; Constantin, C. G.; Vincena, S.; Van Compernolle, B.; Tripathi, S. K. P.; Winske, D.; Niemann, C.
2017-08-01
The explosive expansion of a localized plasma cloud into a relatively tenuous, magnetized, ambient plasma characterizes a variety of astrophysical and space phenomena. In these rarified environments, collisionless electromagnetic processes rather than Coulomb collisions typically mediate the transfer of momentum and energy from the expanding "debris" plasma to the surrounding ambient plasma. In an effort to better understand the detailed physics of collisionless coupling mechanisms, compliment in situ measurements of space phenomena, and provide validation of previous computational and theoretical work, the present research jointly utilizes the Large Plasma Device and the Raptor laser facility at the University of California, Los Angeles to study the super-Alfvénic, quasi-perpendicular expansion of laser-produced carbon (C) and hydrogen (H) debris plasma through preformed, magnetized helium (He) ambient plasma via a variety of diagnostics, including emission spectroscopy, wavelength-filtered imaging, and a magnetic flux probe. Doppler shifts detected in a He1+ ion spectral line indicate that the ambient ions initially accelerate transverse to both the debris plasma flow and the background magnetic field. A qualitative analysis in the framework of a "hybrid" plasma model (kinetic ions and inertia-less fluid electrons) demonstrates that the ambient ion trajectories are consistent with the large-scale laminar electric field expected to develop due to the expanding debris. In particular, the transverse ambient ion motion provides direct evidence of Larmor coupling, a collisionless momentum exchange mechanism that has received extensive theoretical and numerical investigation. In order to quantitatively evaluate the observed Doppler shifts, a custom simulation utilizing a detailed model of the laser-produced debris plasma evolution calculates the laminar electric field and computes the initial response of a distribution of ambient test ions. A synthetic Doppler
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Matsuda, Y.
1974-01-01
A low-noise plasma simulation model is developed and applied to a series of linear and nonlinear problems associated with electrostatic wave propagation in a one-dimensional, collisionless, Maxwellian plasma, in the absence of magnetic field. It is demonstrated that use of the hybrid simulation model allows economical studies to be carried out in both the linear and nonlinear regimes with better quantitative results, for comparable computing time, than can be obtained by conventional particle simulation models, or direct solution of the Vlasov equation. The characteristics of the hybrid simulation model itself are first investigated, and it is shown to be capable of verifying the theoretical linear dispersion relation at wave energy levels as low as .000001 of the plasma thermal energy. Having established the validity of the hybrid simulation model, it is then used to study the nonlinear dynamics of monochromatic wave, sideband instability due to trapped particles, and satellite growth.
Diamagnetic boundary layers - A kinetic theory. [for collisionless magnetized plasmas
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lemaire, J.; Burlaga, L. F.
1976-01-01
A kinetic theory is presented for boundary layers associated with MHD tangential 'discontinuities' in a collisionless magnetized plasma, such as those observed in the solar wind. The theory consists of finding self-consistent solutions of Vlasov's equation and Maxwell's equation for stationary one-dimensional boundary layers separating two Maxwellian plasma states. Layers in which the current is carried by electrons are found to have a thickness of the order of a few electron gyroradii, but the drift speed of the current-carrying electrons is found to exceed the Alfven speed, and accordingly such layers are not stable. Several types of layers in which the current is carried by protons are discussed; in particular, cases are considered in which the magnetic-field intensity, direction, or both, changed across the layer. In every case, the thickness was of the order of a few proton gyroradii, and the field changed smoothly, although the characteristics depended somewhat on the boundary conditions. The drift speed was always less than the Alfven speed, consistent with stability of such structures. These results are consistent with observations of boundary layers in the solar wind near 1 AU.
Magnetorotational Turbulence and Dynamo in a Collisionless Plasma
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kunz, Matthew W.; Stone, James M.; Quataert, Eliot
2016-12-01
We present results from the first 3D kinetic numerical simulation of magnetorotational turbulence and dynamo, using the local shearing-box model of a collisionless accretion disk. The kinetic magnetorotational instability grows from a subthermal magnetic field having zero net flux over the computational domain to generate self-sustained turbulence and outward angular-momentum transport. Significant Maxwell and Reynolds stresses are accompanied by comparable viscous stresses produced by field-aligned ion pressure anisotropy, which is regulated primarily by the mirror and ion-cyclotron instabilities through particle trapping and pitch-angle scattering. The latter endow the plasma with an effective viscosity that is biased with respect to the magnetic-field direction and spatiotemporally variable. Energy spectra suggest an Alfvén-wave cascade at large scales and a kinetic-Alfvén-wave cascade at small scales, with strong small-scale density fluctuations and weak nonaxisymmetric density waves. Ions undergo nonthermal particle acceleration, their distribution accurately described by a κ distribution. These results have implications for the properties of low-collisionality accretion flows, such as that near the black hole at the Galactic center.
Magnetorotational Turbulence and Dynamo in a Collisionless Plasma.
Kunz, Matthew W; Stone, James M; Quataert, Eliot
2016-12-02
We present results from the first 3D kinetic numerical simulation of magnetorotational turbulence and dynamo, using the local shearing-box model of a collisionless accretion disk. The kinetic magnetorotational instability grows from a subthermal magnetic field having zero net flux over the computational domain to generate self-sustained turbulence and outward angular-momentum transport. Significant Maxwell and Reynolds stresses are accompanied by comparable viscous stresses produced by field-aligned ion pressure anisotropy, which is regulated primarily by the mirror and ion-cyclotron instabilities through particle trapping and pitch-angle scattering. The latter endow the plasma with an effective viscosity that is biased with respect to the magnetic-field direction and spatiotemporally variable. Energy spectra suggest an Alfvén-wave cascade at large scales and a kinetic-Alfvén-wave cascade at small scales, with strong small-scale density fluctuations and weak nonaxisymmetric density waves. Ions undergo nonthermal particle acceleration, their distribution accurately described by a κ distribution. These results have implications for the properties of low-collisionality accretion flows, such as that near the black hole at the Galactic center.
The interaction of collisionless shocks in astrophysical plasmas
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cargill, P. J.
1991-01-01
The interaction between collisionless shocks, such as may arise in a number of situations in space plasmas, is examined by means of hybrid numerical simulations. The production of energetic particles by shock collisions is investigated. When the shocks are quasi-perpendicular, ions with energies greater than 10E(0) are produced, where E(0) is the kinetic energy of the unshocked ions. The effect is optimized when the two colliding shocks have roughly equal strengths. As the shocks become closer to quasi-parallel, the number and energy of the accelerated ions increases. Energies in excess of 30E(0) are obtained in the quasi-parallel regime, with a small fall-off when the shocks are exactly parallel. For quasi-parallel collisions, the ion energization can be attributed to the interaction of hot ions with both strong electromagnetic waves and the motional electric field located at the shocks. These results are applied to shock collisions in the distant solar wind, at planetary bow shocks, as well as to the impulsive phase of solar flares.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bondarenko, Anton; Schaeffer, Derek; Everson, Erik; Vincena, Stephen; van Compernolle, Bart; Constantin, Carmen; Clark, Eric; Niemann, Christoph
2013-10-01
Emission spectroscopy is currently being utilized in order to assess collision-less momentum and energy coupling between explosive debris plasmas and ambient, magnetized background plasmas of astrophysical relevance. In recent campaigns on the Large Plasma Device (LAPD) (nelec =1012 -1013 cm-3, Telec ~ 5 eV, B0 = 200 - 400 G) utilizing the new Raptor laser facility (1053 nm, 100 J per pulse, 25 ns FWHM), laser-ablated carbon debris plasmas were generated within ambient, magnetized helium background plasmas and prominent spectral lines of carbon and helium ions were studied in high spectral (0 . 01 nm) and temporal (50 ns) resolution. Time-resolved velocity components extracted from Doppler shift measurements of the C+4 227 . 1 nm spectral line along two perpendicular axes reveal significant deceleration as the ions stream and gyrate within the helium background plasma, indicating collision-less momentum coupling. The He+1 320 . 3 nm and 468 . 6 nm spectral lines of the helium background plasma are observed to broaden and intensify in response to the carbon debris plasma, indicative of strong electric fields (Stark broadening) and energetic electrons. The experimental results are compared to 2D hybrid code simulations.
Collision-less Coupling between Explosive Debris Plasmas and Magnetized Background Plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bondarenko, Anton; Schaeffer, Derek; Clark, S. Eric; Everson, Erik; Lee, Bo Ram; Constantin, Carmen; Niemann, Christoph
2015-11-01
The explosive expansion of debris plasma into magnetized background plasma characterizes a variety of astrophysical and space environments, including supernova remnants, interplanetary coronal mass ejections, and ionospheric explosions. In these and other related phenomena, collision-less electro-magnetic processes rather than Coulomb collisions typically mediate the transfer of momentum and energy from the debris to the background. A unique experiment that jointly utilizes the Large Plasma Device (LAPD) and the Phoenix laser facility at UCLA has investigated the super-Alfvénic, quasi-perpendicular expansion of a laser-produced carbon (C) debris plasma through a preformed, magnetized helium (He) background plasma via a variety of diagnostics, including emission spectroscopy, wavelength-filtered imaging, and magnetic field probes. Collision-less coupling is directly observed via Doppler shifts in the He II 468.6 nm spectral line, which indicate that the He II ions are accelerated by the laminar electric field that develops due to the expanding C debris. By utilizing an early-time model of the C debris density and velocity, the laminar electric field is calculated and used in combination with the measured magnetic field to simulate He II ion trajectories and velocities. A synthetic Doppler-shifted wavelength spectrum of the He II 468.6 nm spectral line is generated from the simulated He II ion velocities and found to agree well with the measurements.
Collisionless Interaction of a Magnetized Ambient Plasma and a Field-Parallel Laser Produced Plasma
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Heuer, P. V.; Bondarenko, A. S.; Schaeffer, D. B.; Constantin, C. G.; Vincena, S.; Tripathi, S.; Gekelman, W.; Weidl, M.; Winske, D.; Niemann, C.
2016-10-01
We present measurements of the collisionless coupling between an exploding laser-produced plasma (LPP) and a large, magnetized ambient plasma. The LPP was created by focusing the Raptor laser (400 J, 40 ns) on a planar plastic target embedded in the ambient Large Plasma Device (LAPD) plasma at the University of California, Los Angeles. The resulting ablated material moved parallel to the background magnetic field, interacting with the ambient plasma along the full 17m length of the LAPD. The amplitude and polarization of waves driven by the interaction were measured by an array of 3-axis magnetic flux probes. Emissive doppler spectroscopy and a high temporal resolution monochrometer were used to observe the velocity and charge state distributions of both ambient and debris ions. Measurements are compared to hybrid simulations of quasi-parallel shocks.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Prokopov, P. A.; Zakharov, Yu P.; Tishchenko, V. N.; Shaikhislamov, I. F.; Boyarintsev, E. L.; Melekhov, A. V.; Ponomarenko, A. G.; Posukh, V. G.; Terekhin, V. A.
2016-11-01
Generation of Alfven waves propagating along external magnetic field B0 and Collisionless Shock Waves propagating across B0 are studied in experiments with laser- produced plasma and magnetized background plasma. The collisionless interaction of interpenetrating plasma flows takes place through a so-called Magnetic Laminar Mechanism (MLM) or Larmor Coupling. At the edge of diamagnetic cavity LP-ions produce induction electric field Eφ which accelerates BP-ions while LP-ions rotate in opposite direction. The ions movement generates sheared azimuthal magnetic field Bφ which could launches torsional Alfven wave. In previous experiments at KI-1 large scale facility a generation of strong perturbations propagating across B0 with magnetosonic speed has been studied at a moderate value of interaction parameter δ∼0.3. In the present work we report on experiments at conditions of 5∼R2 and large Alfven-Mach number MA∼10 in which strong transverse perturbations traveling at a scale of ∼1 m in background plasma at a density of ∼3*1013 cm-3 is observed. At the same conditions but smaller MA ∼ 2 a generation, the structure and dynamic of Alfven wave with wavelength ∼0.5 m propagating along fields B0∼100÷500 G for a distance of ∼2.5 m is studied.
Electron collisionless damping of the geodesic acoustic mode in rotating tokamak plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xie, Baoyi; Guo, Wenfeng; Gong, Xueyu; Yu, Jun; Chen, You; Cao, Jinjia
2016-12-01
Collisionless damping of the geodesic acoustic mode due to electron dynamics in rotating tokamak plasmas is investigated. A dispersion relation of the geodesic acoustic mode with a non-adiabatic electron response in a rotating tokamak is derived and solved both analytically and numerically. It is found that the collisionless damping of the geodesic acoustic mode, due to electron dynamics, significantly increases with the increasing toroidal rotation, especially in the large safety factor regime. The rotation-induced frequency up-shift of the geodesic acoustic mode increases the resonant velocity, which enables a larger number of electrons to resonate with the geodesic acoustic mode. The significant increase of the number of the resonant electrons significantly enhances the collisionless damping of the geodesic acoustic mode. The result indicates that in rotating tokamak plasmas a more complete picture of the geodesic acoustic mode should include the electron dynamics.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grosskopf, Michael; Drake, R.; Kuranz, C.; Park, H.; Kugland, N.; Pollaine, S.; Ross, J.; Remington, B.; Spitkovsky, A.; Gargate, L.; Gregori, G.; Bell, A.; Murphy, C.; Meinecke, J.; Reville, B.; Sakawa, Y.; Kuramitsu, Y.; Takabe, H.; Froula, D.; Fiksel, G.; Miniati, F.; Koenig, M.; Ravasio, A.; Liang, E.; Woolsey, N.
2012-05-01
Collisionless shocks, shocks generated by plasma wave interactions in regions where the collisional mean-free-path for ions is long compared to the length scale for instabilities that generate magnetic fields, are found in many astrophysical systems such as supernova remnants and planetary bow shocks. Generating conditions to investigate collisionless shock physics is difficult to achieve in a laboratory setting; however, high-energy-density physics facilities have made this a possibility. Experiments whose goal is to investigate the production and growth of magnetic fields in collisionless shocks in laboratory-scale systems are being carried out on intense lasers, several of which are measuring the plasma properties and magnetic field strength in counter-streaming, collisionless flows generated by laser ablation. This poster reports radiation-hydrodynamic simulations using the CRASH code to model the ablative flow of plasma generated in order to assess potential designs, as well as infer properties of collected data from previous experiments. This work is funded by the Predictive Sciences Academic Alliances Program in NNSA-ASC via grant DEFC52- 08NA28616, by the NNSA-DS and SC-OFES Joint Program in High-Energy-Density Laboratory Plasmas, grant number DE-FG52-09NA29548, and by the National Laser User Facility Program, grant number DE-NA0000850.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, M.; Weng, S. M.; Li, Y. T.; Yuan, D. W.; Chen, M.; Mulser, P.; Sheng, Z. M.; Murakami, M.; Yu, L. L.; Zheng, X. L.; Zhang, J.
2016-11-01
Laser-driven collisionless electrostatic shock formation and the subsequent ion acceleration have been studied in near critical density plasmas. Particle-in-cell simulations show that both the speed of laser-driven collisionless electrostatic shock and the energies of shock-accelerated ions can be greatly enhanced due to fast laser propagation in near critical density plasmas. However, a response time longer than tens of laser wave cycles is required before the shock formation in a near critical density plasma, in contrast to the quick shock formation in a highly overdense target. More important, we find that some ions can be reflected by the collisionless shock even if the electrostatic potential jump across the shock is smaller than the ion kinetic energy in the shock frame, which seems against the conventional ion-reflection condition. These anomalous ion reflections are attributed to the strong time-oscillating electric field accompanying the laser-driven collisionless shock in a near critical density plasma.
Erratum: A Simple, Analytical Model of Collisionless Magnetic Reconnection in a Pair Plasma
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hesse, Michael; Zenitani, Seiji; Kuznetsova, Masha; Klimas, Alex
2011-01-01
The following describes a list of errata in our paper, "A simple, analytical model of collisionless magnetic reconnection in a pair plasma." It supersedes an earlier erratum. We recently discovered an error in the derivation of the outflow-to-inflow density ratio.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hapgood, Mike; Perry, Chris; Davies, Jackie; Denton, Mick
2011-05-01
The CrossScale mission will advance our understanding of fundamental plasma processes in collisionless plasmas. It will exploit the excellent natural plasma laboratory provided by the Earth's magnetosphere and the near-Earth solar wind and, in particular, carry out multi-scale studies that will strongly complement plasma studies in ground-based laboratories. Previous studies of collisionless plasmas in space environments across the solar system have shown the ubiquitous nature of suprathermal particles and that these particles exhibit a power-law energy spectrum. In this paper we discuss the great significance of these suprathermal particles for CrossScale studies. We show that the presence of these particles is a natural consequence of the collisionless regime as they can propagate across the heliosphere with little spectral change and are not thermalised by collisions. They are a key indicator of the non-equilibrium nature of collisionless plasmas and an important source of free energy that can drive plasma processes. We discuss how these suprathermal particles influence the overall properties of the plasma. In particular, the energy distribution of particles follows a Kappa, rather than Maxwellian, distribution and thus the plasma does not have a single thermodynamic temperature. We also discuss the importance of the suprathermal tail as a tool to diagnose the processes responsible for particle energisation in collisionless plasmas. Such energisation is a common feature in collisionless plasmas, especially in terms of the primary science targets for CrossScale: reconnection, shocks and turbulence. Finally we also touch on the value of using CrossScale studies to provide ground truth measurements for a number of astrophysical techniques that exploit the effects of energetic electrons in the distant universe. Throughout the paper, we stress that suprathermal (30 keV-1 MeV) measurements are essential to fully characterise particle distributions. We show that such
Reconnection properties in collisionless plasma with open boundary conditions
Sun, H. E.; Ma, Z. W.; Huang, J.
2014-07-15
Collisionless magnetic reconnection in a Harris current sheet with different initial thicknesses is investigated using a 21/2 -D Darwin particle-in-cell simulation with the magnetosonic open boundary condition. It is found that the thicknesses of the ion dissipation region and the reconnection current sheet, when the reconnection rate E{sub r} reaches its first peak, are independent of the initial thickness of the current sheet; while the peak reconnection rate depends on it. The peak reconnection rate increases with decrease of the current sheet thickness as E{sub r}∼a{sup −1/2}, where a is the initial current sheet half-thickness.
The expansion of a collisionless plasma into a plasma of lower density
Perego, M.; Gunzburger, M. D.; Howell, P. D.; Ockendon, J. R.; Allen, J. E.
2013-05-15
This paper considers the asymptotic and numerical solution of a simple model for the expansion of a collisionless plasma into a plasma of lower density. The dependence on the density ratio of qualitative and quantitative features of solutions of the well-known cold-ion model is explored. In the cold-ion limit, we find that a singularity develops in the ion density in finite time unless the density ratio is zero or close to unity. The classical cold-ion model may cease to be valid when such a singularity occurs and we then regularize the model by the finite ion-temperature Vlasov-Poisson system. Numerical evidence suggests the emergence of a multi-modal velocity distribution.
Studying astrophysical collisionless shocks with counterstreaming plasmas from high power lasers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Park, Hye-Sook; Ryutov, D. D.; Ross, J. S.; Kugland, N. L.; Glenzer, S. H.; Plechaty, C.; Pollaine, S. M.; Remington, B. A.; Spitkovsky, A.; Gargate, L.; Gregori, G.; Bell, A.; Murphy, C.; Sakawa, Y.; Kuramitsu, Y.; Morita, T.; Takabe, H.; Froula, D. H.; Fiksel, G.; Miniati, F.; Koenig, M.; Ravasio, A.; Pelka, A.; Liang, E.; Woolsey, N.; Kuranz, C. C.; Drake, R. P.; Grosskopf, M. J.
2012-03-01
Collisions of high Mach number flows occur frequently in astrophysics, and the resulting shock waves are responsible for the properties of many astrophysical phenomena, such as supernova remnants, Gamma Ray Bursts and jets from Active Galactic Nuclei. Because of the low density of astrophysical plasmas, the mean free path due to Coulomb collisions is typically very large. Therefore, most shock waves in astrophysics are "collisionless", since they form due to plasma instabilities and self-generated magnetic fields. Laboratory experiments at the laser facilities can achieve the conditions necessary for the formation of collisionless shocks, and will provide a unique avenue for studying the nonlinear physics of collisionless shock waves. We are performing a series of experiments at the Omega and Omega-EP lasers, in Rochester, NY, with the goal of generating collisionless shock conditions by the collision of two high-speed plasma flows resulting from laser ablation of solid targets using ˜1016 W/cm2 laser irradiation. The experiments will aim to answer several questions of relevance to collisionless shock physics: the importance of the electromagnetic filamentation (Weibel) instabilities in shock formation, the self-generation of magnetic fields in shocks, the influence of external magnetic fields on shock formation, and the signatures of particle acceleration in shocks. Our first experiments using Thomson scattering diagnostics studied the plasma state from a single foil and from double foils whose flows collide "head-on". Our data showed that the flow velocity and electron density were 108 cm/s and 1019 cm-3, respectively, where the Coulomb mean free path is much larger than the size of the interaction region. Simulations of our experimental conditions show that weak Weibel mediated current filamentation and magnetic field generation were likely starting to occur. This paper presents the results from these first Omega experiments.
Yoo, Jongsoo; Yamada, Masaaki; Ji, Hantao; Myers, Clayton E.
2012-12-10
The ion dynamics in a collisionless magnetic reconnection layer are studied in a laboratory plasma. The measured in-plane plasma potential profile, which is established by electrons accelerated around the electron diffusion region, shows a saddle-shaped structure that is wider and deeper towards the outflow direction. This potential structure ballistically accelerates ions near the separatrices toward the outflow direction. Ions are heated as they travel into the high pressure downstream region.
Collisionless damping of geodesic acoustic mode in plasma with nonextensive distribution
Qiu, Hui-Bin; Song, Hai-Ying; Liu, Shi-Bing
2014-06-15
Geodesic acoustic mode (GAM) in collisionless toroidal plasmas with a constant electrostatic potential around a magnetic surface is investigated based on the linear gyrokinetic theory in context of nonextensive statistics mechanics. The damping rate of GAM is shown to be dependent on the nonextensive parameters of ions, and in the extensive limit, the result in Maxwellian distribution plasma is recovered. The damping rate is found to be enhanced as the nonextensive parameter of ion decreases.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ross, J. S.; Higginson, D. P.; Ryutov, D.; Fiuza, F.; Hatarik, R.; Huntington, C. M.; Kalantar, D. H.; Link, A.; Pollock, B. B.; Remington, B. A.; Rinderknecht, H. G.; Swadling, G. F.; Turnbull, D. P.; Weber, S.; Wilks, S.; Froula, D. H.; Rosenberg, M. J.; Morita, T.; Sakawa, Y.; Takabe, H.; Drake, R. P.; Kuranz, C.; Gregori, G.; Meinecke, J.; Levy, M. C.; Koenig, M.; Spitkovsky, A.; Petrasso, R. D.; Li, C. K.; Sio, H.; Lahmann, B.; Zylstra, A. B.; Park, H.-S.
2017-05-01
A study of the transition from collisional to collisionless plasma flows has been carried out at the National Ignition Facility using high Mach number (M >4 ) counterstreaming plasmas. In these experiments, CD-CD and CD-CH planar foils separated by 6-10 mm are irradiated with laser energies of 250 kJ per foil, generating ˜1000 km /s plasma flows. Varying the foil separation distance scales the ion density and average bulk velocity and, therefore, the ion-ion Coulomb mean free path, at the interaction region at the midplane. The characteristics of the flow interaction have been inferred from the neutrons and protons generated by deuteron-deuteron interactions and by x-ray emission from the hot, interpenetrating, and interacting plasmas. A localized burst of neutrons and bright x-ray emission near the midpoint of the counterstreaming flows was observed, suggesting strong heating and the initial stages of shock formation. As the separation of the CD-CH foils increases we observe enhanced neutron production compared to particle-in-cell simulations that include Coulomb collisions, but do not include collective collisionless plasma instabilities. The observed plasma heating and enhanced neutron production is consistent with the initial stages of collisionless shock formation, mediated by the Weibel filamentation instability.
Diagnosing collisionless energy transfer using field-particle correlations: Vlasov-Poisson plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Howes, Gregory G.; Klein, Kristopher G.; Li, Tak Chu
2017-02-01
Turbulence plays a key role in the conversion of the energy of large-scale fields and flows to plasma heat, impacting the macroscopic evolution of the heliosphere and other astrophysical plasma systems. Although we have long been able to make direct spacecraft measurements of all aspects of the electromagnetic field and plasma fluctuations in near-Earth space, our understanding of the physical mechanisms responsible for the damping of the turbulent fluctuations in heliospheric plasmas remains incomplete. Here we propose an innovative field-particle correlation technique that can be used to measure directly the secular energy transfer from fields to particles associated with collisionless damping of the turbulent fluctuations. Furthermore, this novel procedure yields information about the collisionless energy transfer as a function of particle velocity, providing vital new information that can help to identify the dominant collisionless mechanism governing the damping of the turbulent fluctuations. Kinetic plasma theory is used to devise the appropriate correlation to diagnose Landau damping, and the field-particle correlation technique is thoroughly illustrated using the simplified case of the Landau damping of Langmuir waves in a 1D-1V (one dimension in physical space and one dimension in velocity space) Vlasov-Poisson plasma. Generalizations necessary to apply the field-particle correlation technique to diagnose the collisionless damping of turbulent fluctuations in the solar wind are discussed, highlighting several caveats. This novel field-particle correlation technique is intended to be used as a primary analysis tool for measurements from current, upcoming and proposed spacecraft missions that are focused on the kinetic microphysics of weakly collisional heliospheric plasmas, including the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS), Solar Probe Plus, Solar Orbiter and Turbulence Heating ObserveR (THOR) missions.
Laser-driven, magnetized quasi-perpendicular collisionless shocks on the Large Plasma Devicea)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schaeffer, D. B.; Everson, E. T.; Bondarenko, A. S.; Clark, S. E.; Constantin, C. G.; Vincena, S.; Van Compernolle, B.; Tripathi, S. K. P.; Winske, D.; Gekelman, W.; Niemann, C.
2014-05-01
The interaction of a laser-driven super-Alfvénic magnetic piston with a large, preformed magnetized ambient plasma has been studied by utilizing a unique experimental platform that couples the Raptor kJ-class laser system [Niemann et al., J. Instrum. 7, P03010 (2012)] to the Large Plasma Device [Gekelman et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 62, 2875 (1991)] at the University of California, Los Angeles. This platform provides experimental conditions of relevance to space and astrophysical magnetic collisionless shocks and, in particular, allows a detailed study of the microphysics of shock formation, including piston-ambient ion collisionless coupling. An overview of the platform and its capabilities is given, and recent experimental results on the coupling of energy between piston and ambient ions and the formation of collisionless shocks are presented and compared to theoretical and computational work. In particular, a magnetosonic pulse consistent with a low-Mach number collisionless shock is observed in a quasi-perpendicular geometry in both experiments and simulations.
Laser-driven, magnetized quasi-perpendicular collisionless shocks on the Large Plasma Device
Schaeffer, D. B. Everson, E. T.; Bondarenko, A. S.; Clark, S. E.; Constantin, C. G.; Vincena, S.; Van Compernolle, B.; Tripathi, S. K. P.; Gekelman, W.; Niemann, C.; Winske, D.
2014-05-15
The interaction of a laser-driven super-Alfvénic magnetic piston with a large, preformed magnetized ambient plasma has been studied by utilizing a unique experimental platform that couples the Raptor kJ-class laser system [Niemann et al., J. Instrum. 7, P03010 (2012)] to the Large Plasma Device [Gekelman et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 62, 2875 (1991)] at the University of California, Los Angeles. This platform provides experimental conditions of relevance to space and astrophysical magnetic collisionless shocks and, in particular, allows a detailed study of the microphysics of shock formation, including piston-ambient ion collisionless coupling. An overview of the platform and its capabilities is given, and recent experimental results on the coupling of energy between piston and ambient ions and the formation of collisionless shocks are presented and compared to theoretical and computational work. In particular, a magnetosonic pulse consistent with a low-Mach number collisionless shock is observed in a quasi-perpendicular geometry in both experiments and simulations.
Ultra-intense laser-plasma interaction toward Weibel-mediated collisionless shocks formation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grassi, Anna; Grech, M.; Amiranoff, F.; Macchi, A.; Riconda, C.
2016-10-01
The rapid developments in laser technology will soon offer the opportunity to study in the laboratory the processes driving Weibel-mediated collisionless shocks, typical of various astrophysical scenarii. The interaction of an ultra-intense laser with an overdense plasma has been identified as the preferential configuration. Yet, the experimental requirements still need to be properly investigated. High performance computing simulations are a necessary tool for this study. In this work, we present a series of kinetic simulations performed with the PIC code SMILEI, varying the laser and plasma parameters. In particular, we will study the effect of the laser polarisation and plasma density to obtain the best conditions for the creation of a collisionless shock. The role of the electrons heated at the interaction surface and of particles accelerated via the Hole Boring (laser-piston) mechanism on the generation of the current filamentation instability and the subsequent shock front formation will be highlighted.
Low-frequency instabilities of collisionless plasma and the 16-moment approximation
Dzhalilov, N. S. Kuznetsov, V. D.
2013-12-15
Using the 16-moment equations that take into account heat fluxes in anisotropic collisionless plasma, the properties of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) instabilities are investigated. For all instabilities occurring in the MHD approach (the normal incompressible firehose instability, the second compressible almost longitudinal firehose instability, and the almost transverse mirror instability of slow magnetosonic modes, as well as thermal instability caused by the heat flux directed along the magnetic field), their kinetic analogs are considered. The kinetic dispersion relation in the low-frequency range in the vicinity of the ion thermal velocity is analyzed. The flow of plasma ions along the magnetic field is taken into account. The thresholds and instability growth rates obtained in the MHD and kinetic approaches are found to be in good agreement. This indicates that the 16-moment MHD equations adequately describe the dynamics of collisionless plasma.
Collisionless damping of perpendicular magnetosonic waves in a two-ion-species plasma
Dogen, Daiju; Toida, Mieko; Ohsawa, Yukiharu
1996-08-01
Propagation of finite-amplitude magnetosonic waves in a collisionless plasma containing two ion species is studied with a one-dimensional, fully electromagnetic code based on a three-fluid model. It is found that perpendicular magnetosonic waves are damped in a two-ion-species plasma; a magnetosonic pulse accelerates heavy ions in the direction parallel to the wave front, which results in the excitation of a longer wavelength perturbation behind the pulse. The damping due to the energy transfer from the original pulse to the longer wavelength perturbation occurs even if the plasma is collisionless and the pulse amplitude is small. The theoretically obtained damping rate is in agreement with the simulation result.
Kinetic dissipation and anisotropic heating in a turbulent collisionless plasma
Parashar, T. N.; Shay, M. A.; Cassak, P. A.; Matthaeus, W. H.
2009-03-15
The kinetic evolution of the Orszag-Tang vortex is studied using collisionless hybrid simulations. In magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) this configuration leads rapidly to broadband turbulence. At large length scales, the evolution of the hybrid simulations is very similar to MHD, with magnetic power spectra displaying scaling similar to a Kolmogorov scaling of -5/3. At small scales, differences from MHD arise, as energy dissipates into heat almost exclusively through the magnetic field. The magnetic energy spectrum of the hybrid simulation shows a break where linear theory predicts that the Hall term in Ohm's law becomes significant, leading to dispersive kinetic Alfven waves. A key result is that protons are heated preferentially in the plane perpendicular to the mean magnetic field, creating a proton temperature anisotropy of the type observed in the corona and solar wind.
Collisionless bounce resonance heating in dual-frequency capacitively coupled plasmas.
Liu, Yong-Xin; Zhang, Quan-Zhi; Jiang, Wei; Hou, Lu-Jing; Jiang, Xiang-Zhan; Lu, Wen-Qi; Wang, You-Nian
2011-07-29
We present the experimental evidence of the collisionless electron bounce resonance heating (BRH) in low-pressure dual-frequency capacitively coupled plasmas. In capacitively coupled plasmas at low pressures when the discharge frequency and gap satisfy a certain resonant condition, the high energy beamlike electrons can be generated by fast sheath expansion, and heated by the two sheaths coherently, thus the BRH occurs. By using a combined measurement of a floating double probe and optical emission spectroscopy, we demonstrate the effect of BRH on plasma properties, such as plasma density and light emission, especially in dual-frequency discharges.
Studying counterstreaming high velocity plasma flows relevant to astrophysical collisionless shock
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ross, James Steven; Amendt, Peter; Divol, Laurent; Pollock, Brad; Remington, Bruce; Ryutov, Dmitri; rozmus, Wojciech; Turnbull, David; Froula, Dustin; morita, taichi; Sakawa, Youichi; Takabe, Hideke; Drake, R. Paul; Kuranz, Carolyn C.; Gregori, Gianluca; Meinecke, Jena; Koenig, Michel; Spitkovsky, Anatoly; Park, Hye-Sook
2015-08-01
In a broad range of low-density astrophysical plasmas the flow has a high Mach number, making the ion-ion collisional mean free path very large compared to the scale lengths of various observed astrophysical shocks. These shocks are believed to be “collisionless,” driven by plasma instabilities and self-generated magnetic fields. A series of experiments at the NIF and Omega laser facilities is underway to study the formation of collisionless shocks under scaled laboratory conditions, using high velocity counterstreaming and interpenetrating plasma flows. Double CH2, and CH/CD planar foils have been irradiated with a laser intensity of ~1016 W/cm2. The laser-ablated plasma between the two foils was characterized using a suite of diagnostics, including Thomson scattering and x-ray radiography. On the Omega laser facility clear interpenetration and instability growth are observed, although our experimental conditions reached only ~50 ion skin depths (c/wpi) and were insufficient to fully form a collisionless shock. Initial NIF experimental results using 50x more laser energy than the Omega experiments will be presented.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mellott, M. M.
1986-01-01
Observations of the plasma waves associated with collisionless shocks are reviewed, and the understanding of their generation mechanisms and their importance to shock physics are summarized. The emphasis is on waves generated directly at the shock, especially ion acoustic and lower-hybrid-like modes. The observations are discussed in the context of shock structure, with attention given to the distinctions between waves generated in the shock foot and ramp. The behavior of resistive, dispersive, and supercritical quasi-perpendicular shocks is contrasted. Evidence for the operation of various generation mechanisms, including interactions with cross-field currents, gyrating reflected ions, and field-aligned electron beams, are summarized. The various forms of plasma heating which are actually observed are outlined, and the role of the various wave modes in this heating is discussed. Conclusion, it is argued that, while plasma wave turbulence may play a vital role in plasma heating for some special shocks, it is of second-order importance in most cases.
An exact collisionless equilibrium for the Force-Free Harris Sheet with low plasma beta
Allanson, O. Neukirch, T. Wilson, F. Troscheit, S.
2015-10-15
We present a first discussion and analysis of the physical properties of a new exact collisionless equilibrium for a one-dimensional nonlinear force-free magnetic field, namely, the force-free Harris sheet. The solution allows any value of the plasma beta, and crucially below unity, which previous nonlinear force-free collisionless equilibria could not. The distribution function involves infinite series of Hermite polynomials in the canonical momenta, of which the important mathematical properties of convergence and non-negativity have recently been proven. Plots of the distribution function are presented for the plasma beta modestly below unity, and we compare the shape of the distribution function in two of the velocity directions to a Maxwellian distribution.
Collisionless absorption of light waves incident on overdense plasmas with steep density gradients
Yang, T.Y.B.; Kruer, W.L.; Langdon, A.B.
1995-07-31
Collisionless absorption of laser light incident on overdense plasmas with steep density gradients is studied analytically and numerically. For the normal incidence case, it is shown that both sheath inverse bremsstrahlung and the anomalous skin effect are limiting cases of the same collisionless absorption mechanism. Using particle-in-cell (PIC) plasma simulations, the effects of finite sheath-transit time and finite density gradient are investigated. The analyses are extended to oblique incident cases. For p-polarized obliquely incident light, the results are significantly different from those for the normal incidence case. Most noticeable is the absorption enhancement for the p-polarized light due to the interaction of the electrons with the normal (parallel to the density gradient) component of the laser electric field in the sheath region.
Numerical study of an electrostatic plasma sheath containing two species of charged dust particles
Foroutan, G.; Akhoundi, A.
2012-10-01
A multi-fluid model is used to study the dynamics of a dusty plasma sheath consists of electrons, ions, and two species of charged dust particles, i.e., nano-size and micron-size particles. It is found that, when the sheath is dominated by the nano-size dust grains, spatially periodic fluctuations are developed in the profiles of the sheath potential, and the number density and velocity of the plasma and dust particles. Due to inertial effects, the fluctuations in the parameters of the micron-size grains are much lower than those of the other parameters. The competition between the electric and ion drag forces plays the primary role in development of the fluctuations. The spatial period of the fluctuations is approximately a few Debye lengths and their amplitude depends on the plasma and dust parameters. The fluctuations are reduced by the increase in the radius, mass density, and Mach number of the nano-size particles, as well as the density and Mach number of the ions. But, they are enhanced by the increase in the plasma number density and the electron temperature. The sheath thickness demonstrates a non-monotonic behavior against variation of the nanoparticle parameters, i.e., it first decreases quickly, shows a minimum, and then increases. However, the sheath width always decreases with the plasma number density and ion Mach number, while grows linearly with the electron temperature.
Gyrokinetic simulations of collisionless reconnection in turbulent non-uniform plasmas
Kobayashi, Sumire; Rogers, Barrett N.; Numata, Ryusuke
2014-04-15
We present nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations of collisionless magnetic reconnection with non-uniformities in the plasma density, the electron temperature, and the ion temperature. The density gradient can stabilize reconnection due to diamagnetic effects but destabilize driftwave modes that produce turbulence. The electron temperature gradient triggers microtearing modes that drive rapid small-scale reconnection and strong electron heat transport. The ion temperature gradient destabilizes ion temperature gradient modes that, like the driftwaves, may enhance reconnection in some cases.
2010-12-27
Confer- ence Center Drive , Chantilly, VA **NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD ***Space Science Laboratory, University of Califor- nia...Center Drive , Chantilly, VA 1 2 1. Introduction Current sheets occur over a wide range of regimes in solar-system and astrophysical plasmas including...determined by the collisionless motion of ions, and fluid approximations such as magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) are not applicable. The particle motion in and
Collisionless electron heating in periodic arrays of inductively coupled plasmas
Czarnetzki, U.; Tarnev, Kh.
2014-12-15
A novel mechanism of collisionless heating in large planar arrays of small inductive coils operated at radio frequencies is presented. In contrast to the well-known case of non-local heating related to the transversal conductivity, when the electrons move perpendicular to the planar coil, we investigate the problem of electrons moving in a plane parallel to the coils. Two types of periodic structures are studied. Resonance velocities where heating is efficient are calculated analytically by solving the Vlasov equation. Certain scaling parameters are identified. The concept is further investigated by a single particle simulation based on the ergodic principle and combined with a Monte Carlo code allowing for collisions with Argon atoms. Resonances, energy exchange, and distribution functions are obtained. The analytical results are confirmed by the numerical simulation. Pressure and electric field dependences are studied. Stochastic heating is found to be most efficient when the electron mean free path exceeds the size of a single coil cell. Then the mean energy increases approximately exponentially with the electric field amplitude.
On the generation of magnetized collisionless shocks in the large plasma device
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schaeffer, D. B.; Winske, D.; Larson, D. J.; Cowee, M. M.; Constantin, C. G.; Bondarenko, A. S.; Clark, S. E.; Niemann, C.
2017-04-01
Collisionless shocks are common phenomena in space and astrophysical systems, and in many cases, the shocks can be modeled as the result of the expansion of a magnetic piston though a magnetized ambient plasma. Only recently, however, have laser facilities and diagnostic capabilities evolved sufficiently to allow the detailed study in the laboratory of the microphysics of piston-driven shocks. We review experiments on collisionless shocks driven by a laser-produced magnetic piston undertaken with the Phoenix laser laboratory and the Large Plasma Device at the University of California, Los Angeles. The experiments span a large parameter space in laser energy, background magnetic field, and ambient plasma properties that allow us to probe the physics of piston-ambient energy coupling, the launching of magnetosonic solitons, and the formation of subcritical shocks. The results indicate that piston-driven magnetized collisionless shocks in the laboratory can be characterized with a small set of dimensionless formation parameters that place the formation process in an organized and predictive framework.
Weibel instability mediated collisionless shocks using intense laser-driven plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Palaniyappan, Sasi; Huang, Chengkun; Gautier, Donald; Fernandez, Juan; Ma, Wenjun; Schreiber, Jorg; LANL Collaboration; LMU Team
2016-10-01
The origin of cosmic rays remains a long-standing challenge in astrophysics and continues to fascinate physicists. It is believed that ``collisionless shocks'' - where the particle Coulomb mean free path is much larger that the shock transition - are a dominant source of energetic cosmic rays. These shocks are ubiquitous in astrophysical environments such as gamma-ray bursts, supernova remnants, pulsar wind nebula and coronal mass ejections from the sun. Several spacecraft observations have revealed acceleration of charged particles, mostly electrons, to very high energies with in the shock front. There is now also clear observational evidence that supernova remnant shocks accelerate both protons and electrons. The understanding of the microphysics behind collisionless shocks and their particle acceleration is tightly related with nonlinear basic plasma processes and remains a grand challenge. In this poster, we will present results from recent experiments at the LANL Trident laser facility studying collisionless shocks using intense ps laser (80J, 650 fs - peak intensity of 1020 W/cm2) driven near-critical plasmas using carbon nanotube foam targets. A second short pulse laser driven protons from few microns thick aluminum foil is used to image the laser-driven plasma.
Emergence of MHD structures in a collisionless PIC simulation plasma
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dieckmann, M. E.; Folini, D.; Walder, R.; Romagnani, L.; d'Humieres, E.; Bret, A.; Karlsson, T.; Ynnerman, A.
2017-09-01
The expansion of a dense plasma into a dilute plasma across an initially uniform perpendicular magnetic field is followed with a one-dimensional particle-in-cell simulation over magnetohydrodynamics time scales. The dense plasma expands in the form of a fast rarefaction wave. The accelerated dilute plasma becomes separated from the dense plasma by a tangential discontinuity at its back. A fast magnetosonic shock with the Mach number 1.5 forms at its front. Our simulation demonstrates how wave dispersion widens the shock transition layer into a train of nonlinear fast magnetosonic waves.
Collisionless expansion of pulsed radio frequency plasmas. II. Parameter study
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schröder, T.; Grulke, O.; Klinger, T.; Boswell, R. W.; Charles, C.
2016-01-01
The plasma parameter dependencies of the dynamics during the expansion of plasma are studied with the use of a versatile particle-in-cell simulation tailored to a plasma expansion experiment [Schröder et al., J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 47, 055207 (2014); Schröder et al., Phys. Plasmas 23, 013511 (2016)]. The plasma expansion into a low-density ambient plasma features a propagating ion front that is preceding a density plateau. It has been shown that the front formation is entangled with a wave-breaking mechanism, i.e., an ion collapse [Sack and Schamel, Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 27, 717 (1985); Sack and Schamel, Phys. Lett. A 110, 206 (1985)], and the launch of an ion burst [Schröder et al., Phys. Plasmas 23, 013511 (2016)]. The systematic parameter study presented in this paper focuses on the influence on this mechanism its effect on the maximum velocity of the ion front and burst. It is shown that, apart from the well known dependency of the front propagation on the ion sound velocity, it also depends sensitively on the density ratio between main and ambient plasma density. The maximum ion velocity depends further on the initial potential gradient, being mostly influenced by the plasma density ratio in the source and expansion regions. The results of the study are compared with independent numerical studies.
Liu, Dongjian; Bao, Jian; Han, Tao; Wang, Jiaqi; Lin, Zhihong
2016-02-15
A finite-mass electron fluid model for low frequency electromagnetic fluctuations, particularly the collisionless tearing mode, has been implemented in the gyrokinetic toroidal code. Using this fluid model, linear properties of the collisionless tearing mode have been verified. Simulations verify that the linear growth rate of the single collisionless tearing mode is proportional to D{sub e}{sup 2}, where D{sub e} is the electron skin depth. On the other hand, the growth rate of a double tearing mode is proportional to D{sub e} in the parameter regime of fusion plasmas.
Properties and evolution of anisotropic structures in collisionless plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Karimov, A. R.; Yu, M. Y.; Stenflo, L.
2016-10-01
A new class of exact electrostatic solutions of the Vlasov-Maxwell equations based on the Jeans's theorem is proposed for studying the evolution and properties of two-dimensional anisotropic plasmas that are far from thermodynamic equilibrium. In particular, the free expansion of a slab of electron-ion plasma into vacuum is investigated.
Measuring Collisionless Damping in Heliospheric Plasmas using Field-Particle Correlations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Klein, K. G.; Howes, G. G.
2016-08-01
An innovative field-particle correlation technique is proposed that uses single-point measurements of the electromagnetic fields and particle velocity distribution functions to investigate the net transfer of energy from fields to particles associated with the collisionless damping of turbulent fluctuations in weakly collisional plasmas, such as the solar wind. In addition to providing a direct estimate of the local rate of energy transfer between fields and particles, it provides vital new information about the distribution of that energy transfer in velocity space. This velocity-space signature can potentially be used to identify the dominant collisionless mechanism responsible for the damping of turbulent fluctuations in the solar wind. The application of this novel field-particle correlation technique is illustrated using the simplified case of the Landau damping of Langmuir waves in an electrostatic 1D-1V Vlasov-Poisson plasma, showing that the procedure both estimates the local rate of energy transfer from the electrostatic field to the electrons and indicates the resonant nature of this interaction. Modifications of the technique to enable single-point spacecraft measurements of fields and particles to diagnose the collisionless damping of turbulent fluctuations in the solar wind are discussed, yielding a method with the potential to transform our ability to maximize the scientific return from current and upcoming spacecraft missions, such as the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) and Solar Probe Plus missions.
Quasi-Separatrix Layers and Line-tied Reconnection in Collisionless Plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Billey, Zachary; Zweibel, Ellen; Finn, John; Daughton, William
2015-11-01
Many plasmas undergoing magnetic reconnection have boundaries that have constant magnetic flux on the dynamical timescales of the system, such as coronal loops and planetary magnetospheres. Systems where the boundary magnetic flux is constant are called line-tied systems. We conduct collisionless fully 3D particle-in-cell simulations in slab geometry to study how line-tying changes the dynamics relative non-tied systems. We confirm Quasi-Separatrix Layers (QSLs) as a model for predicting potential reconnection sites in 3D systems. Based on this theory, we use line-integrated diagnostics to investigate the collisionless physics relating to the parallel electric field. Here we find non-gyrotopic terms in the pressure tensor are important at the center of the reconnection layer. We investigate the effect of varying the length of the line-tied plasma on the growth rate and reconnection process and compare oblique modes with equivalent periodic systems. We discuss the extension into collisionless regimes of the geometric width vs tearing width theory, developed to explain line-tied suppression of tearing in MHD reconnection. Work supported by the NSF and U.S. DoE through CMSO.
Nonlinear evolution of an ion acoustic wave in two-species, moderately collisional plasma.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Valeo, E. J.; Berger, R. L.
2004-11-01
The dispersion properties of ion acoustic waves (IAW) in two-species plasma with disparate ion charges and masses has shown a sensitivity to inter-species collisions in the moderate-collisionality regime where the heavy, highly-charged ions are strongly collisional (fluid-like), but where light-ion Landau damping is competitive with light-heavy collisions.(R. Berger, E. Valeo and S. Brunner, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc., 47), QP1.98 (2002). The nonlinear evolution of a driven IAW is simulated using a low-noise hybrid simulation technique in which the electrons are a massless fluid, the heavy ions are a cold fluid, and the light ions are evolved using the δ f method with an evolving background distribution. The relative importance of several nonlinear effects in determining the mode amplitude, including (collisionally interrupted) trapping and nonlinear frequency shifts, is assessed.
Collisionless damping of dust-acoustic waves in a charge varying dusty plasma with nonextensive ions
Amour, Rabia; Tribeche, Mouloud
2014-12-15
The charge variation induced nonlinear dust-acoustic wave damping in a charge varying dusty plasma with nonextensive ions is considered. It is shown that the collisionless damping due to dust charge fluctuation causes the nonlinear dust acoustic wave propagation to be described by a damped Korteweg-de Vries (dK-dV) equation the coefficients of which depend sensitively on the nonextensive parameter q. The damping term, solely due to the dust charge variation, is affected by the ion nonextensivity. For the sake of completeness, the possible effects of nonextensivity and collisionless damping on weakly nonlinear wave packets described by the dK-dV equation are succinctly outlined by deriving a nonlinear Schrödinger-like equation with a complex nonlinear coefficient.
Kolesnikov, R.A.; Krommes, J.A.
2005-09-22
The collisionless limit of the transition to ion-temperature-gradient-driven plasma turbulence is considered with a dynamical-systems approach. The importance of systematic analysis for understanding the differences in the bifurcations and dynamics of linearly damped and undamped systems is emphasized. A model with ten degrees of freedom is studied as a concrete example. A four-dimensional center manifold (CM) is analyzed, and fixed points of its dynamics are identified and used to predict a ''Dimits shift'' of the threshold for turbulence due to the excitation of zonal flows. The exact value of that shift in terms of physical parameters is established for the model; the effects of higher-order truncations on the dynamics are noted. Multiple-scale analysis of the CM equations is used to discuss possible effects of modulational instability on scenarios for the transition to turbulence in both collisional and collisionless cases.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Park, Jaehong; Spitkovksy, Anatoly; Fox, Will; Bhattacharjee, Amitava
2016-10-01
We perform particle-in-cell simulations of collisionless shocks and magnetic reconnection generated by ablated plasma expanding into a magnetized background plasma. We find: (1) The simulated proton radiography produces different morphology of the shock structure depending on the orientation of the magnetic field and can be used to identify a shock in the experiment. Electrons are accelerated by the whistler waves generated at oblique sites of the shock. (2) Forced collisionless magnetic reconnection is induced when the expanding plumes carry opposite magnetic polarities and interact with a background plasma. Electrons are accelerated at the reconnection X line and reveal a power-law distribution as the plasma beta is lowered, β = 0.08 . As the plasma beta is increased, β = 0.32 , the 1st order Fermi mechanism against the two plasma plumes contributes to the electron acceleration as well as the X line acceleration. Using 3-D simulations, we also explore the effect of 3-D instabilities (Weibel instability or drift-kink) on particle acceleration and magnetic field annihilation between the colliding magnetized plumes
Using Field-Particle Correlations to Diagnose the Collisionless Damping of Plasma Turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Howes, Gregory; Klein, Kristropher
2016-10-01
Plasma turbulence occurs ubiquitously throughout the heliosphere, yet our understanding of how turbulence governs energy transport and plasma heating remains incomplete, constituting a grand challenge problem in heliophysics. In weakly collisional heliospheric plasmas, such as the solar corona and solar wind, damping of the turbulent fluctuations occurs due to collisionless interactions between the electromagnetic fields and the individual plasma particles. A particular challenge in diagnosing this energy transfer is that spacecraft measurements are typically limited to a single point in space. Here we present an innovative field-particle correlation technique that can be used with single-point measurements to estimate the energization of the plasma particles due to the damping of the electromagnetic fields, providing vital new information about this how energy transfer is distributed as a function of particle velocity. This technique has the promise to transform our ability to diagnose the kinetic plasma physical mechanisms responsible for not only the damping of turbulence, but also the energy conversion in both collisionless magnetic reconnection and particle acceleration. The work has been supported by NSF CAREER Award AGS-1054061, NSF AGS-1331355, and DOE DE-SC0014599.
TEMPEST Simulations of Collisionless Damping of Geodesic-Acoustic Mode in Edge Plasma Pedestal
Xu, X; Xiong, Z; Nevins, W; McKee, G
2007-05-31
The fully nonlinear 4D TEMPEST gyrokinetic continuum code produces frequency, collisionless damping of geodesic-acoustic mode (GAM) and zonal flow with fully nonlinear Boltzmann electrons for the inverse aspect ratio {epsilon}-scan and the tokamak safety factor q-scan in homogeneous plasmas. The TEMPEST simulation shows that GAM exists in edge plasma pedestal for steep density and temperature gradients, and an initial GAM relaxes to the standard neoclassical residual, rather than Rosenbluth-Hinton residual due to the presence of ion-ion collisions. The enhanced GAM damping explains experimental BES measurements on the edge q scaling of the GAM amplitude.
The role of electron equation of state in heating partition of protons in a collisionless plasma
Parashar, Tulasi N.; Vasquez, Bernard J.; Markovskii, Sergei A.
2014-02-15
One of the outstanding questions related to the solar wind is the heating of solar wind plasma. Addressing this question requires a self consistent treatment of the kinetic physics of a collisionless plasma. A hybrid code (with particle ions and fluid electrons) is one of the most convenient computational tools, which allows us to explore self consistent ion kinetics, while saving us computational time as compared to the full particle in cell codes. A common assumption used in hybrid codes is that of isothermal electrons. In this paper, we discuss the role that the equation of state for electrons could potentially play in determining the ion kinetics.
TEMPEST Simulations of Collisionless Damping of Geodesic-Acoustic Mode in Edge Plasma Pedestal
Xu, X Q; Xiong, Z; Nevins, W M; McKee, G R
2007-05-30
The fully nonlinear (full-f) 4D TEMPEST gyrokinetic continuum code produces frequency, collisionless damping of GAM and zonal flow with fully nonlinear Boltzmann electrons for the inverse aspect ratio {epsilon}-scan and the tokamak safety factor q-scan in homogeneous plasmas. The TEMPEST simulation shows that GAM exists in edge plasma pedestal for steep density and temperature gradients, and an initial GAM relaxes to the standard neoclassical residual, rather than Rosenbluth-Hinton residual due to the presence of ion-ion collisions. The enhanced GAM damping explains experimental BES measurements on the edge q scaling of the GAM amplitude.
Kelvin-Helmholtz turbulence associated with collisionless shocks in laser produced plasmas.
Kuramitsu, Y; Sakawa, Y; Dono, S; Gregory, C D; Pikuz, S A; Loupias, B; Koenig, M; Waugh, J N; Woolsey, N; Morita, T; Moritaka, T; Sano, T; Matsumoto, Y; Mizuta, A; Ohnishi, N; Takabe, H
2012-05-11
We report the experimental results of a turbulent electric field driven by Kelvin-Helmholtz instability associated with laser produced collisionless shock waves. By irradiating an aluminum double plane target with a high-power laser, counterstreaming plasma flows are generated. As the consequence of the two plasma interactions, two shock waves and the contact surface are excited. The shock electric field and transverse modulation of the contact surface are observed by proton radiography. Performing hydrodynamic simulations, we reproduce the time evolutions of the reverse shocks and the transverse modulation driven by Kelvin-Helmholtz instability.
Evolutionary sheath structure in magnetized collisionless plasma with electron inertia
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gohain, M.; Karmakar, P. K.
2017-06-01
A classical hydrodynamic model is methodologically formulated to see the equilibrium properties of a planar plasma sheath in two-component magnetized bounded plasma. It incorporates the weak but finite electron inertia instead of asymptotically inertialess electrons. The effects of the externally applied oblique (relative to the bulk plasma flow) magnetic field are judiciously accented. It is, for the sake of simplicity, assumed that the relevant physical parameters (plasma density, electrostatic potential, and flow velocity) vary only in a direction normal to the confining wall boundary. It is noticed for the first time that the derived Bohm condition for sheath formation is modified conjointly by the electron inertia, magnetic field, and field orientation. It is manifested that the electron inertia in the presence of plasma gyrokinetic effects slightly enhances the ion Mach threshold value (typically, M i0 ≥ 1.139) toward the sheath entrance. This flow super-criticality is in contrast with the heuristic formalism ( M i0 ≥ 1) for the zero-inertia electrons. A numerical illustrative scheme on the parametric sheath features on diverse nontrivial apposite arguments is constructed alongside ameliorative scope.
Theoretical models of non-Maxwellian equilibria for one-dimensional collisionless plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Allanson, O.; Neukirch, T.; Wilson, F.; Troscheit, S.
2016-12-01
It is ideal to use exact equilibrium solutions of the steady state Vlasov-Maxwell system to intialise collsionless simulations. However, exact equilibrium distribution functions (DFs) for a given macroscopic configuration are typically unknown, and it is common to resort to using `flow-shifted' Maxwellian DFs in their stead. These DFs may be consistent with a macrosopic system with the target number density and current density, but could well have inaccurate higher order moments. We present recent theoretical work on the `inverse problem in Vlasov-Maxwell equilibria', namely calculating an exact solution of the Vlasov equation for a specific given magnetic field. In particular, we focus on one-dimensional geometries in Cartesian (current sheets) coordinates.1. From 1D fields to Vlasov equilibria: Theory and application of Hermite Polynomials: (O. Allanson, T. Neukirch, S. Troscheit and F. Wilson, Journal of Plasma Physics, 82, 905820306 (2016) [28 pages, Open Access] )2. An exact collisionless equilibrium for the Force-Free Harris Sheet with low plasma beta: (O. Allanson, T. Neukirch, F. Wilson and S. Troscheit, Physics of Plasmas, 22, 102116 (2015) [11 pages, Open Access])3. Neutral and non-neutral collisionless plasma equilibria for twisted flux tubes: The Gold-Hoyle model in a background field (O. Allanson, F. Wilson and T. Neukirch, (2016)) (accepted, Physics of Plasmas)
Formation of collisionless shocks in magnetized plasma interaction with kinetic-scale obstacles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cruz, F.; Alves, E. P.; Bamford, R. A.; Bingham, R.; Fonseca, R. A.; Silva, L. O.
2017-02-01
We investigate the formation of collisionless magnetized shocks triggered by the interaction between magnetized plasma flows and miniature-sized (order of plasma kinetic-scales) magnetic obstacles resorting to massively parallel, full particle-in-cell simulations, including the electron kinetics. The critical obstacle size to generate a compressed plasma region ahead of these objects is determined by independently varying the magnitude of the dipolar magnetic moment and the plasma magnetization. We find that the effective size of the obstacle depends on the relative orientation between the dipolar and plasma internal magnetic fields, and we show that this may be critical to form a shock in small-scale structures. We study the microphysics of the magnetopause in different magnetic field configurations in 2D and compare the results with full 3D simulations. Finally, we evaluate the parameter range where such miniature magnetized shocks can be explored in laboratory experiments.
Formation of collisionless shocks in magnetized plasma interaction with kinetic-scale obstacles
Cruz, F.; Alves, E. P.; Bamford, R. A.; ...
2017-02-06
We investigate the formation of collisionless magnetized shocks triggered by the interaction between magnetized plasma flows and miniature-sized (order of plasma kinetic-scales) magnetic obstacles resorting to massively parallel, full particle-in-cell simulations, including the electron kinetics. The critical obstacle size to generate a compressed plasma region ahead of these objects is determined by independently varying the magnitude of the dipolar magnetic moment and the plasma magnetization. Here we find that the effective size of the obstacle depends on the relative orientation between the dipolar and plasma internal magnetic fields, and we show that this may be critical to form a shockmore » in small-scale structures. We also study the microphysics of the magnetopause in different magnetic field configurations in 2D and compare the results with full 3D simulations. Finally, we evaluate the parameter range where such miniature magnetized shocks can be explored in laboratory experiments.« less
Collisional relaxation of a strongly magnetized two-species pure ion plasma
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chim, Chi Yung; O'Neil, Thomas M.; Dubin, Daniel H.
2014-04-01
The collisional relaxation of a strongly magnetized pure ion plasma that is composed of two species with slightly different masses is discussed. We have in mind two isotopes of the same singly ionized atom. Parameters are assumed to be ordered as Ω1,Ω2≫|Ω1-Ω2|≫v¯ij/b ¯ and v¯⊥j/Ωj≪b ¯, where Ω1 and Ω2 are two cyclotron frequencies, v¯ij=√T∥/μij is the relative parallel thermal velocity characterizing collisions between particles of species i and j, and b ¯=2 e2/T∥ is the classical distance of closest approach for such collisions, and v ¯⊥j/Ωj=√2T⊥j/mj /Ωj is the characteristic cyclotron radius for particles of species j. Here, μij is the reduced mass for the two particles, and T∥ and T⊥j are temperatures that characterize velocity components parallel and perpendicular to the magnetic field. For this ordering, the total cyclotron action for the two species, I1=∑i ∈1m1v⊥i2/(2Ω1) and I2=∑i∈2m2v⊥i2/(2Ω2) are adiabatic invariants that constrain the collisional dynamics. On the timescale of a few collisions, entropy is maximized subject to the constancy of the total Hamiltonian H and the two actions I1 and I2, yielding a modified Gibbs distribution of the form exp[-H /T∥-α1I1-α2I2]. Here, the αj's are related to T∥ and T⊥j through T⊥j=(1/T∥+αj/Ωj)-1. Collisional relaxation to the usual Gibbs distribution, exp[-H /T∥], takes place on two timescales. On a timescale longer than the collisional timescale by a factor of (b ¯2Ω12/v¯112)exp{5[3π(b¯|Ω1-Ω2|/v ¯12)]2/5/6}, the two species share action so that α1 and α2 relax to a common value α. On an even longer timescale, longer than the collisional timescale by a factor of the order exp {5[3π(v¯11)]2/5/6}, the total action ceases to be a good constant of the motion and α relaxes to zero.
Collisionless expansion of pulsed radio frequency plasmas. I. Front formation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schröder, T.; Grulke, O.; Klinger, T.; Boswell, R. W.; Charles, C.
2016-01-01
The dynamics during plasma expansion are studied with the use of a versatile particle-in-cell simulation with a variable neutral gas density profile. The simulation is tailored to a radio frequency plasma expansion experiment [Schröder et al., J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 47(5), 055207 (2014)]. The experiment has shown the existence of a propagating ion front. The ion front features a strong electric field and features a sharp plasma potential drop similar to a double layer. However, the presented results of a first principle simulation show that, in general, the ion front does not have to be entangled with an electric field. The propagating electric field reflects the downstream ions, which stream with velocities up to twice as high as that of the ion front propagation. The observed ion density peak forms due to the accumulation of the reflected ions. The simulation shows that the ion front formation strongly depends on the initial ion density profile and is subject to a wave-breaking phenomenon. Virtual diagnostics in the code allow for a direct comparison with experimental results. Using this technique, the plateau forming in the wake of the plasma front could be indirectly verified in the expansion experiment. Although the simulation considers profiles only in one spatial dimensional, its results are qualitatively in a very good agreement with the laboratory experiment. It can successfully reproduce findings obtained by independent numerical models and simulations. This indicates that the effects of magnetic field structures and tangential inhomogeneities are not essential for the general expansion dynamic. The presented simulation will be used for a detailed parameter study dealt with in Paper II [Schröder et al., Phys. Plasma 23, 013512 (2016)] of this series.
Hassanein, A.; Konkashbaev, I.
1999-03-15
The structure of a collisionless scrape-off-layer (SOL) plasma in tokamak reactors is being studied to define the electron distribution function and the corresponding sheath potential between the divertor plate and the edge plasma. The collisionless model is shown to be valid during the thermal phase of a plasma disruption, as well as during the newly desired low-recycling normal phase of operation with low-density, high-temperature, edge plasma conditions. An analytical solution is developed by solving the Fokker-Planck equation for electron distribution and balance in the SOL. The solution is in good agreement with numerical studies using Monte-Carlo methods. The analytical solutions provide an insight to the role of different physical and geometrical processes in a collisionless SOL during disruptions and during the enhanced phase of normal operation over a wide range of parameters.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grosskopf, M. J.; Drake, R. P.; Kuranz, C. C.; Rutter, E. M.; Ross, J. S.; Kugland, N. L.; Plechaty, C.; Remington, B. A.; Spitkovsky, A.; Gargate, L.; Gregori, G.; Bell, A.; Murphy, C. D.; Meinecke, J.; Reville, B.; Sakawa, Y.; Kuramitsu, Y.; Takabe, H.; Froula, D. H.; Fiksel, G.; Miniati, F.; Koenig, M.; Ravasio, A.; Liang, E.; Fu, W.; Woolsey, N.; Park, H.-S.
2013-03-01
Experiments investigating the physics of interpenetrating, collisionless, ablated plasma flows have become an important area of research in the high-energy-density field. In order to evaluate the feasibility of designing experiments that will generate a collisionless shock mediated by the Weibel instability on the National Ignition Facility (NIF) laser, computer simulations using the Center for Radiative Shock Hydrodynamics (CRASH) radiation-hydrodynamics model have been carried out. This paper reports assessment of whether the experiment can reach the required scale size while maintaining the low interflow collisionality necessary for the collisionless shock to form. Comparison of simulation results with data from Omega experiments shows the ability of the CRASH code to model these ablated systems. The combined results indicate that experiments on the NIF are capable of reaching the regimes necessary for the formation of a collisionless shock in a laboratory experiment.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ross, J. S.; Glenzer, S. H.; Amendt, P.; Berger, R.; Divol, L.; Kugland, N. L.; Landen, O. L.; Plechaty, C.; Remington, B.; Ryutov, D.; Rozmus, W.; Froula, D. H.; Fiksel, G.; Sorce, C.; Kuramitsu, Y.; Morita, T.; Sakawa, Y.; Takabe, H.; Drake, R. P.; Grosskopf, M.; Kuranz, C.; Gregori, G.; Meinecke, J.; Murphy, C. D.; Koenig, M.; Pelka, A.; Ravasio, A.; Vinci, T.; Liang, E.; Presura, R.; Spitkovsky, A.; Miniati, F.; Park, H.-S.
2012-05-01
A series of Omega experiments have produced and characterized high velocity counter-streaming plasma flows relevant for the creation of collisionless shocks. Single and double CH2 foils have been irradiated with a laser intensity of ~ 1016 W/cm2. The laser ablated plasma was characterized 4 mm from the foil surface using Thomson scattering. A peak plasma flow velocity of 2000 km/s, an electron temperature of ~ 110 eV, an ion temperature of ~ 30 eV, and a density of ~ 1018 cm-3 were measured in the single foil configuration. Significant increases in electron and ion temperatures were seen in the double foil geometry. The measured single foil plasma conditions were used to calculate the ion skin depth, c/ωpi~0.16 mm, the interaction length, lint, of ~ 8 mm, and the Coulomb mean free path, λmfp~27mm. With c/ωpi<
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kugland, Nathan
2012-10-01
In astrophysical settings, large and stable structures often emerge from turbulent supersonic plasma flows. Examples include the cosmic magnetic field and the collisionless shocks [1] in supernova remnants. In a scaled environment created with the high power lasers at OMEGA EP, proton imaging shows that large, stable electromagnetic field structures arise within counterstreaming supersonic plasmas [2]. These field structures are large compared to the fundamental turbulence scale lengths of the plasma (e.g. the Debye length and the ion skin-depth), indicating a high degree of self-organization. These features remain in place from 4 to 7 ns, indicating a high degree of stability. At early times out to at least 8 ns, intra-jet ion collisions are strong (due to relatively low thermal velocities) but inter-jet ion collisions are rare (due to relatively high flow velocities), permitting the evolution of both hydrodynamic and collisionless plasma instabilities [3, 4]. This paper will present detailed results from our laboratory astrophysics experiments. Prepared by LLNL for US DOE under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.[4pt] [1] H. S. Park et al, HEDP, 8, 38 (2011).[0pt] [2] N.L. Kugland et al, submitted to Nature Physics (2012).[0pt] [3] J.S. Ross et al, Phys. Plas., 19, 056501 (2012).[0pt] [3] D.D. Ryutov et al, Phys. Plas., 19, 076532 (2012).
Sixteen-moment approximation for a collisionless space plasma: Waves and instabilities
Kuznetsov, V. D.; Dzhalilov, N. S.
2009-11-15
A study is carried out of waves and instabilities in an anisotropic collisionless plasma. In a strongly magnetized plasma, the velocity distributions along and across the magnetic field lines are different, which results in anisotropy of the total pressure and gives rise to an anisotropic heat flux. The fluid description of the plasma is based on the 16-moment integral transport equations, which are integral equations obtained from the Boltzmann-Vlasov kinetic equation. For small incompressible perturbations in a homogeneous plasma, the general dispersion relation implies that there are not only firehose modes, but also three additional modes, and that all four wave modes interact with each other if a heat flux is present. Heat fluxes do not change the properties of conventional firehose modes. The conditions for the onset of instabilities are investigated as functions of the parameters of the problems. Qualitative estimates for conditions typical of the solar corona are presented.
Sheath energy transmission in a collisional plasma with collisionless sheath
Tang, Xian-Zhu Guo, Zehua
2015-10-15
Sheath energy transmission governs the plasma energy exhaust onto a material surface. The ion channel is dominated by convection, but the electron channel has a significant thermal conduction component, which is dominated by the Knudsen layer effect in the presence of an absorbing wall. First-principle kinetic simulations reveal a robustly supersonic sheath entry flow. The ion sheath energy transmission and the sheath potential are accurately predicted by a sheath model of truncated bi-Maxwellian electron distribution. The electron energy transmission is further enhanced by a parallel heat flux of the perpendicular degrees of freedom.
Werner, G. R.; Uzdensky, D. A.; Cerutti, B.; ...
2015-12-30
Using two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations, we characterize the energy spectra of particles accelerated by relativistic magnetic reconnection (without guide field) in collisionless electron–positron plasmas, for a wide range of upstream magnetizations σ and system sizes L. The particle spectra are well-represented by a power lawmore » $${\\gamma }^{-\\alpha }$$, with a combination of exponential and super-exponential high-energy cutoffs, proportional to σ and L, respectively. As a result, for large L and σ, the power-law index α approaches about 1.2.« less
Werner, G. R.; Uzdensky, D. A.; Cerutti, B.; Nalewajko, K.; Begelman, M. C.
2015-12-30
Using two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations, we characterize the energy spectra of particles accelerated by relativistic magnetic reconnection (without guide field) in collisionless electron–positron plasmas, for a wide range of upstream magnetizations σ and system sizes L. The particle spectra are well-represented by a power law ${\\gamma }^{-\\alpha }$, with a combination of exponential and super-exponential high-energy cutoffs, proportional to σ and L, respectively. As a result, for large L and σ, the power-law index α approaches about 1.2.
Liang, Edison; Smith, Ian; Boettcher, Markus E-mail: iansmith@rice.edu
2013-04-01
Using particle-in-cell simulations, we study the kinetic physics of relativistic shear flow in collisionless electron-positron (e+e-) plasmas. We find efficient magnetic field generation and particle energization at the shear boundary, driven by streaming instabilities across the shear interface and sustained by the shear flow. Nonthermal, anisotropic high-energy particles are accelerated across field lines to produce a power-law tail turning over just below the shear Lorentz factor. These results have important implications for the dissipation and radiation of jets in blazars and gamma-ray bursts.
Anomalous ion mixing within a Kelvin-Helmholtz vortex in a collisionless plasma
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Terasawa, T.; Fujimoto, M.; Karimabadi, H.; Omidi, N.
1992-01-01
Anomalously fast ion mixing is observed in a hybrid code simulation (particle ions and a massless electron fluid) of the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability in a collisionless plasma. While the traditional view predicts that the ion mixing occurs on a time scale longer than the roll-up time T(v) of the Kelvin-Helmholtz vortex by a factor of (velocity shear scale length)/(ion Larmor radius), the simulation results show that the mixing occurs within a time scale comparable to T(v). It is shown that this fast mixing is due to the scattering of ions by unsteady electromagnetic fields.
A dynamic analysis of the magnetized plasma sheath in a collisionless scenario with ion sources
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Adhikari, S.; Moulick, R.; Goswami, K. S.
2017-08-01
The influence of the forces that control the ion dynamics inside a magnetized plasma sheath under collisionless conditions is analyzed. Considering the ionization, the effects of the variation of field strength and the inclination angle on the force fields inside the sheath are studied. The pitch length and pitch angle for the particle velocity fields are also calculated and have been found to vary widely with the inclination angle and the strength of the magnetic field. The role of the Lorentz force and energy acquired by the ions while moving towards the wall is highlighted. A comparison between two different ion sources has also been foregrounded.
Formation of collisional sheath in electronegative plasma with two species of positive ions
Moulick, R. Goswami, K. S.
2015-03-15
Sheath formation is investigated for electronegative plasma in presence of two species of positive ions in collisional environment. The gas under consideration is a mixture of oxygen and argon. Argon is the considered as having fixed volume and impact of collision is studied with increasing pressure of oxygen. Fluid equations are solved for three species namely, the two positive ions and a negative ion. Electrons are considered to follow Boltzmann distribution. Collision is modeled by constant mean free path model and has been used as a parameter. It has been found that collision enhances the sheath formation. The negative ion core is nearly unaffected by the presence of collision and is governed by the electric potential. The negative flux field is, however, affected by the presence of collision and shows a steady behavior in front of the wall. The two positive ions are heavily affected by the presence of collision and the modeling is such that their equilibrium densities can be estimated by solving simultaneous cubic equations.
Electric and magnetic contributions to spatial diffusion in collisionless plasmas
Smets, R.; Belmont, G.; Aunai, N.
2012-10-15
We investigate the role played by the different self-consistent fluctuations for particle diffusion in a magnetized plasma. We focus especially on the contribution of the electric fluctuations and how it combines with the (already investigated) magnetic fluctuations and with the velocity fluctuations. For that issue, we compute with a hybrid code the value of the diffusion coefficient perpendicular to the mean magnetic field and its dependence on the particle velocity. This study is restricted to small to intermediate level of electromagnetic fluctuations and focuses on particle velocities on the order of few times the Alfven speed. We briefly discuss the consequences for cosmic ray modulation and for the penetration of thermal solar wind particles in the Earth magnetosphere.
TRANSITION FROM KINETIC TO MHD BEHAVIOR IN A COLLISIONLESS PLASMA
Parashar, Tulasi N.; Matthaeus, William H.; Shay, Michael A.; Wan, Minping
2015-10-01
The study of kinetic effects in heliospheric plasmas requires representation of dynamics at sub-proton scales, but in most cases the system is driven by magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) activity at larger scales. The latter requirement challenges available computational resources, which raises the question of how large such a system must be to exhibit MHD traits at large scales while kinetic behavior is accurately represented at small scales. Here we study this implied transition from kinetic to MHD-like behavior using particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations, initialized using an Orszag–Tang Vortex. The PIC code treats protons, as well as electrons, kinetically, and we address the question of interest by examining several different indicators of MHD-like behavior.
Transition from Kinetic to MHD Behavior in a Collisionless Plasma
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Parashar, Tulasi N.; Matthaeus, William H.; Shay, Michael A.; Wan, Minping
2015-10-01
The study of kinetic effects in heliospheric plasmas requires representation of dynamics at sub-proton scales, but in most cases the system is driven by magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) activity at larger scales. The latter requirement challenges available computational resources, which raises the question of how large such a system must be to exhibit MHD traits at large scales while kinetic behavior is accurately represented at small scales. Here we study this implied transition from kinetic to MHD-like behavior using particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations, initialized using an Orszag-Tang Vortex. The PIC code treats protons, as well as electrons, kinetically, and we address the question of interest by examining several different indicators of MHD-like behavior.
Field-Particle Correlations as a Measure of Turbulent Damping in Collisionless Plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Klein, K. G.
2016-12-01
Determination of the mechanisms that damp turbulent fluctuations in collisionless plasmas such as the solar wind is a fundamental physics question, one which is a focus of a number of forthcoming and proposed spacecraft missions, including Solar Probe Plus, Solar Orbiter, and THOR. We present a novel theoretically motivated technique to identify the dominant dissipation mechanisms from single point, in situ spacecraft observations of the type these spacecraft will make. As the transfer of energy in a collisionless plasma is governed by the field-particle interaction term in the Vlasov equation, a correlation of the factors in that term, functions of the electromagnetic fields and perturbed distributions, can be constructed to measure the secular transfer of energy from fields to particles as a function of particle velocity. The velocity space structure of this energy transfer differs depending on the mechanism responsible, allowing field-particle correlations calculated as function of velocity to distinguish between proposed dissipation mechanisms. Following a discussion of the underlying plasma theory, we calculate correlations using single-point data from a range of nonlinear kinetic simulations of increasing complexity, including electrostatic, gyrokinetic, and hybrid Vlasov-Maxwell codes. Correlations extracted from these simulations are shown to distinguish between the accessible dissipation mechanisms. We comment on the application of this technique to spacecraft data, with particular attention to the usefulness for the proposed THOR mission, which should allow us to identify the physical mechanisms that damp the turbulence in the solar wind.
Collisionless and collisional effects on plasma waves from a partition squeeze
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ashourvan, Arash; Dubin, Daniel H. E.
2015-04-01
A simple 1D model is presented for the heating caused by cylindrically-symmetric plasma waves in a non-neutral plasma column due to the addition of a symmetric squeeze potential applied to the center of the column. We study this model by using analytical techniques and by using a numerical grids method solution, and we compare the results of this model to previous work (Ashourvan and Dubin (2014)). squeeze divides the plasma into passing and trapped particles; the latter cannot pass over the squeeze potential. In collisionless theory, enhanced heating is caused by additional bounce harmonics induced by the squeeze in the particle distribution, leading to Landau resonances at energies En for which the bounce frequency ωb(E) and wave frequency ωm satisfy ωm = nωb(En). As a result, heating is substantially higher than the case with no squeeze, even when ωm is much greater than the thermal bounce frequency ωb(T). Adding collisions to the theory creates a boundary layer at the separatrix between trapped and passing particles that further enhances the heating at small ωm/kmvs , where km is the axial wavenumber and vs is the velocity at the separatrix. However, at large ωm/vs , the heating from the separatrix boundary layer is only a small correction to the heating from collisionless resonances in the trapped particle distribution function.
New Class of Self-Consistent Current Sheets and Filaments in Collisionless Plasma
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Derishev, E. V.; Kocharovsky, V. V.; Kocharovsky, Vl. V.; Martyanov, V. Yu.
2006-08-01
A continuous set of stationary current sheets and filaments in collisionless multi-component plasma is found analytically using integrals of two-dimensional motion of particles in the self-consistent magnetic field. In our solutions, which are relativistic in general, the magnetic energy density can be comparable to that of particles, and the spatial scale can be arbitrary compared to typical gyroradius of the particles. We consider the properties of newly found stationary solutions and their possible applications to analysis of magnetic field configurations emerging in various astrophysical plasmas, including coronal structures, shocks and jets. The results are used for interpretation of recent observations and numerical simulations. By choosing particular dependence of particle distribution function on the integrals of motion we are able to obtain various profiles of magnetic field and self-consistent current, including non-monotone. The obtained solutions describe much more general class of equilibrium configurations as compared to known generalizations of Harris current sheets. On this basis, we suggest a way to describe slow dynamics and filamentation of collisionless current configurations in coronal plasma and in Active Galactic Nuclei, Gamma-Ray Bursts, and microquasars.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ross, James; Park, H.-S.; Huntington, C.; Ryutov, D.; Drake, R. P.; Froula, D.; Gregori, G.; Levy, M.; Lamb, D.; Fiuza, F.; Petrasso, R.; Li, C.; Zylastra, A.; Rinderknecht, H.; Sakawa, Y.; Spitkovsky, A.
2015-11-01
Shock formation from high-Mach number plasma flows is observed in many astrophysical objects such as supernova remnants and gamma ray bursts. These are collisionless shocks as the ion-ion collision mean free path is much larger than the system size. It is believed that seed magnetic fields can be generated on a cosmologically fast timescale via the Weibel instability when such environments are initially unmagnetized. Here we present laboratory experiments using high-power lasers whose ultimate goal is to investigate the dynamics of collisionless shock formation in two interpenetrating plasma streams. Particle-in-cell numerical simulations have confirmed that the strength and structure of the generated magnetic field are consistent with the Weibel mediated electromagnetic nature and that the inferred magnetization level could be as high as ~ 1%. This paper will review recent experimental results from various laser facilities as well as the simulation results and the theoretical understanding of these observations. Taken together, these results imply that electromagnetic instabilities can be significant in both inertial fusion and astrophysical conditions. We will present results from initial NIF experiments, where we observe the neutrons and x-rays generated from the hot plasmas at the center of weakly collisional, counterstreaming flows. Prepared by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.
Collisional relaxation of a strongly magnetized two-species pure ion plasma
Chim, Chi Yung; O’Neil, Thomas M.; Dubin, Daniel H.
2014-04-15
The collisional relaxation of a strongly magnetized pure ion plasma that is composed of two species with slightly different masses is discussed. We have in mind two isotopes of the same singly ionized atom. Parameters are assumed to be ordered as Ω{sub 1},Ω{sub 2}≫|Ω{sub 1}−Ω{sub 2}|≫v{sup ¯}{sub ij}/b{sup ¯} and v{sup ¯}{sub ⊥j}/Ω{sub j}≪b{sup ¯}, where Ω{sub 1} and Ω{sub 2} are two cyclotron frequencies, v{sup ¯}{sub ij}=√(T{sub ∥}/μ{sub ij}) is the relative parallel thermal velocity characterizing collisions between particles of species i and j, and b{sup ¯}=2e{sup 2}/T{sub ∥} is the classical distance of closest approach for such collisions, and v{sup ¯}{sub ⊥j}/Ω{sub j}=√(2T{sub ⊥j}/m{sub j})/Ω{sub j} is the characteristic cyclotron radius for particles of species j. Here, μ{sub ij} is the reduced mass for the two particles, and T{sub ∥} and T{sub ⊥j} are temperatures that characterize velocity components parallel and perpendicular to the magnetic field. For this ordering, the total cyclotron action for the two species, I{sub 1}=∑{sub i∈1}m{sub 1}v{sub ⊥i}{sup 2}/(2Ω{sub 1}) and I{sub 2}=∑{sub i∈2}m{sub 2}v{sub ⊥i}{sup 2}/(2Ω{sub 2}) are adiabatic invariants that constrain the collisional dynamics. On the timescale of a few collisions, entropy is maximized subject to the constancy of the total Hamiltonian H and the two actions I{sub 1} and I{sub 2}, yielding a modified Gibbs distribution of the form exp[−H/T{sub ∥}−α{sub 1}I{sub 1}−α{sub 2}I{sub 2}]. Here, the α{sub j}’s are related to T{sub ∥} and T{sub ⊥j} through T{sub ⊥j}=(1/T{sub ∥}+α{sub j}/Ω{sub j}){sup −1}. Collisional relaxation to the usual Gibbs distribution, exp[−H/T{sub ∥}], takes place on two timescales. On a timescale longer than the collisional timescale by a factor of (b{sup ¯2}Ω{sub 1}{sup 2}/v{sup ¯}{sub 11}{sup 2})exp(5[3π(b{sup ¯}|Ω{sub 1}−Ω{sub 2}|/v{sup ¯}{sub 12})]{sup 2/5}/6), the two
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Heuer, P. V.; Schaeffer, D. B.; Knall, E. N.; Constantin, C. G.; Hofer, L. R.; Vincena, S.; Tripathi, S.; Niemann, C.
2017-03-01
The collisionless interaction between a laser-produced carbon plasma (LPP) and an ambient hydrogen plasma in a background magnetic field was studied in a high shot rate experiment which allowed large planar data sets to be collected. Plasma fluorescence was imaged with a fast-gated camera with and without carbon line filters. The resulting images were compared to high-resolution two dimensional (2D) data planes of measured magnetic field and electric potential. Several features in the fluorescence images coincide with features in the field data. Relative intensity was used to determine the initial angular velocity distribution of the LPP and the growth rate of instabilities. These observations may be applied to understand fluorescence images from similar experiments where 2D planes of field data are not available.
Analytical theory of self-consistent current structures in a collisionless plasma
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kocharovsky, V. V.; Kocharovsky, V. V.; Martyanov, V. Yu; Tarasov, S. V.
2016-12-01
The most-studied classes of exact solutions to Vlasov – Maxwell equations for stationary neutral current structures in a collisionless relativistic plasma, which allow the particle distribution functions (PDFs) to be chosen at will, are reviewed. A general classification is presented of the current sheets and filaments described by the method of invariants of motion of particles whose PDF is symmetric in a certain way in coordinate and momentum spaces. The possibility is discussed of using these explicit solutions to model the observed and/or expected features of current structures in cosmic and laboratory plasmas. Also addressed are how the magnetic field forms and the analytical description of the so-called Weibel instability in a plasma with an arbitrary PDF.
Analytical theory of self-consistent current structures in a collisionless plasma
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kocharovsky, V. V.; Kocharovsky, Vl V.; Martyanov, V. Yu; Tarasov, S. V.
2017-03-01
The most-studied classes of exact solutions to Vlasov–Maxwell equations for stationary neutral current structures in a collisionless relativistic plasma, which allow the particle distribution functions (PDFs) to be chosen at will, are reviewed. A general classification is presented of the current sheets and filaments described by the method of invariants of motion of particles whose PDF is symmetric in a certain way in coordinate and momentum spaces. The possibility is discussed of using these explicit solutions to model the observed and/or expected features of current structures in cosmic and laboratory plasmas. Also addressed are how the magnetic field forms and the analytical description of the so-called Weibel instability in a plasma with an arbitrary PDF.
Thoma, C.; Welch, D. R.; Hsu, S. C.
2013-08-15
We describe numerical simulations, using the particle-in-cell (PIC) and hybrid-PIC code lsp[T. P. Hughes et al., Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 2, 110401 (1999)], of the head-on merging of two laboratory supersonic plasma jets. The goals of these experiments are to form and study astrophysically relevant collisionless shocks in the laboratory. Using the plasma jet initial conditions (density ∼10{sup 14}–10{sup 16} cm{sup −3}, temperature ∼ few eV, and propagation speed ∼20–150 km/s), large-scale simulations of jet propagation demonstrate that interactions between the two jets are essentially collisionless at the merge region. In highly resolved one- and two-dimensional simulations, we show that collisionless shocks are generated by the merging jets when immersed in applied magnetic fields (B∼0.1–1 T). At expected plasma jet speeds of up to 150 km/s, our simulations do not give rise to unmagnetized collisionless shocks, which require much higher velocities. The orientation of the magnetic field and the axial and transverse density gradients of the jets have a strong effect on the nature of the interaction. We compare some of our simulation results with those of previously published PIC simulation studies of collisionless shock formation.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Barnes, A.
1983-01-01
An exact nonlinear solution is found to the relativistic kinetic and electrodynamic equations (in their hydromagnetic limit) that describes the large-amplitude fast-mode magnetoacoustic wave propagating normal to the magnetic field in a collisionless, previously uniform plasma. It is pointed out that a wave of this kind will be generated by transverse compression of any collisionless plasma. The solution is in essence independent of the detailed form of the particle momentum distribution functions. The solution is obtained, in part, through the method of characteristics; the wave exhibits the familiar properties of steepening and shock formation. A detailed analysis is given of the ultrarelativistic limit of this wave.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hu, Yuan; Wang, Joseph
2017-03-01
This paper presents a fully kinetic particle particle-in-cell simulation study on the emission of a collisionless plasma plume consisting of cold beam ions and thermal electrons. Results are presented for both the two-dimensional macroscopic plume structure and the microscopic electron kinetic characteristics. We find that the macroscopic plume structure exhibits several distinctive regions, including an undisturbed core region, an electron cooling expansion region, and an electron isothermal expansion region. The properties of each region are determined by microscopic electron kinetic characteristics. The division between the undisturbed region and the cooling expansion region approximately matches the Mach line generated at the edge of the emission surface, and that between the cooling expansion region and the isothermal expansion region approximately matches the potential well established in the beam. The interactions between electrons and the potential well lead to a new, near-equilibrium state different from the initial distribution for the electrons in the isothermal expansion region. The electron kinetic characteristics in the plume are also very anisotropic. As the electron expansion process is mostly non-equilibrium and anisotropic, the commonly used assumption that the electrons in a collisionless, mesothermal plasma plume may be treated as a single equilibrium fluid in general is not valid.
Foroutan, G.
2010-12-15
One-dimensional fluid simulations are used to study the dynamics of an electrostatic plasma sheath containing nanosized dust grains and two species of positive ions, i.e., He{sup +} and Ar{sup +}. The impacts of the concentration of each species, the velocity at the sheath edge of the ions, and the bias voltage of the substrate, on the spatial distribution of the velocity and number density of the plasma particles, and the incident fluxes of the ions on the substrate, are investigated. The numerical results show that the sheath thickness increases with increasing {sigma}, the density ratio of He{sup +} ions to Ar{sup +} ions at the sheath edge. For nanosized dust particles considered in this work, the dominant forces are the ion drag and the electric force and the effects of the neutral drag and gravity are negligible. Due to enhancement of the ion drag force and the electric force, the dust velocity increases and, consequently, the dust number density decreases as the concentration at the sheath edge of Ar{sup +} ions is increased. For the same velocity and number density at the sheath edge, the number density of Ar{sup +} ions near the wall is larger than that of He{sup +} ions, but their incident fluxes are the same. The maximum in the dust number density increases with the velocity of Ar{sup +} ions at the sheath edge, but it weakly changes with the Mach number of He{sup +} ions, except for large values of {sigma}. The position of the maximum dust number density initially decreases very quickly with increasing the velocity at the sheath edge of the ions from small values, but then at larger values it changes quite slowly. The differences in the sheath parameters for different values of {sigma} disappear at some values of the velocity at the sheath edge of the ions and dust particles. The incident flux of the ions are independent of the bias voltage of the substrate, but their kinetic energy is equal to the bias potential.
Falceta-Gonçalves, D.; Kowal, G.
2015-07-20
In this work we report on a numerical study of the cosmic magnetic field amplification due to collisionless plasma instabilities. The collisionless magnetohydrodynamic equations derived account for the pressure anisotropy that leads, in specific conditions, to the firehose and mirror instabilities. We study the time evolution of seed fields in turbulence under the influence of such instabilities. An approximate analytical time evolution of the magnetic field is provided. The numerical simulations and the analytical predictions are compared. We found that (i) amplification of the magnetic field was efficient in firehose-unstable turbulent regimes, but not in the mirror-unstable models; (ii) the growth rate of the magnetic energy density is much faster than the turbulent dynamo; and (iii) the efficient amplification occurs at small scales. The analytical prediction for the correlation between the growth timescales and pressure anisotropy is confirmed by the numerical simulations. These results reinforce the idea that pressure anisotropies—driven naturally in a turbulent collisionless medium, e.g., the intergalactic medium, could efficiently amplify the magnetic field in the early universe (post-recombination era), previous to the collapse of the first large-scale gravitational structures. This mechanism, though fast for the small-scale fields (∼kpc scales), is unable to provide relatively strong magnetic fields at large scales. Other mechanisms that were not accounted for here (e.g., collisional turbulence once instabilities are quenched, velocity shear, or gravitationally induced inflows of gas into galaxies and clusters) could operate afterward to build up large-scale coherent field structures in the long time evolution.
Optical pyrometer system for collisionless shock experiments in high-power laser-produced plasmas
Morita, T.; Sakawa, Y.; Kuramitsu, Y.; Sano, T.; Takabe, H.; Dono, S.; Ide, T.; Tanji, H.; Shiroshita, A.; Shibata, S.; Aoki, H.; Waugh, J. N.; Woolsey, N. C.; Gregory, C. D.
2012-10-15
A temporally and spatially resolved optical pyrometer system has been fielded on Gekko XII experiments. The system is based on the self-emission measurements with a gated optical imager (GOI) and a streaked optical pyrometer (SOP). Both detectors measure the intensity of the self-emission from laser-produced plasmas at the wavelength of 450 nm with a bandpass filter with a width of {approx}10 nm in FWHM. The measurements were calibrated with different methods, and both results agreed with each other within 30% as previously reported [T. Morita et al., Astrophys. Space Sci. 336, 283 (2011)]. As a tool for measuring the properties of low-density plasmas, the system is applicable for the measurements of the electron temperature and density in collisionless shock experiments [Y. Kuramitsu et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 175002 (2011)].
Hybrid simulations of a parallel collisionless shock in the large plasma device
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Weidl, Martin S.; Winske, Dan; Jenko, Frank; Niemann, Chris
2016-12-01
We present two-dimensional hybrid kinetic/magnetohydrodynamic simulations of planned laser-ablation experiments in the Large Plasma Device. Our results, based on parameters that have been validated in previous experiments, show that a parallel collisionless shock can begin forming within the available space. Carbon-debris ions that stream along the magnetic-field direction with a blow-off speed of four times the Alfvén velocity excite strong magnetic fluctuations, eventually transferring part of their kinetic energy to the surrounding hydrogen ions. This acceleration and compression of the background plasma creates a shock front, which satisfies the Rankine-Hugoniot conditions and can therefore propagate on its own. Furthermore, we analyze the upstream turbulence and show that it is dominated by the right-hand resonant instability.
Plasma heating at collisionless shocks due to the kinetic cross-field streaming instability
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Winske, D.; Quest, K. B.; Tanaka, M.; Wu, C. S.
1985-01-01
Heating at collisionless shocks due to the kinetic cross-field streaming instability, which is the finite beta (ratio of plasma to magnetic pressure) extension of the modified two stream instability, is studied. Heating rates are derived from quasi-linear theory and compared with results from particle simulations to show that electron heating relative to ion heating and heating parallel to the magnetic field relative to perpendicular heating for both the electrons and ions increase with beta. The simulations suggest that electron dynamics determine the saturation level of the instability, which is manifested by the formation of a flattop electron distribution parallel to the magnetic field. As a result, both the saturation levels of the fluctuations and the heating rates decrease sharply with beta. Applications of these results to plasma heating in simulations of shocks and the earth's bow shock are described.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hairapetian, G.; Stenzel, R. L.
1991-01-01
The expansion of a two-electron-population, collisionless plasma into vacuum has been examined in detail. Plasma density, plasma potential, electric field, and particle disribution functions have been measured in situ. It is demonstrated that the presence of a low-pressure (P not less than 2 x 10 to the -5th torr) background neutral gas modifies the expansion of the plasma. A new plasma source creating dense, pulsed discharge plasma with a low background pressure (P not greater than 2 x 10 to the -6th torr) has been developed to perform in situ measurements of the temporal and spatial plasma evolution during its expansion into vacuum.
Liu, Chang; Dodin, Ilya Y.
2015-08-15
The nonlinear frequency shift is derived in a transparent asymptotic form for intense Langmuir waves in general collisionless plasma. The formula describes both fluid and kinetic effects simultaneously. The fluid nonlinearity is expressed, for the first time, through the plasma dielectric function, and the kinetic nonlinearity accounts for both smooth distributions and trapped-particle beams. Various known limiting scalings are reproduced as special cases. The calculation avoids differential equations and can be extended straightforwardly to other nonlinear plasma waves.
A Field-Particle Correlation Technique to Explore the Collisionless Damping of Plasma Turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Klein, Kristopher
2016-10-01
The nature of the dominant mechanisms which damp turbulent electromagnetic fluctuations remains an unanswered question in the study of a variety of collisionless plasma systems. Proposed damping mechanisms can be generally, but not exclusively, classified as resonant, e.g. Landau and cyclotron damping, non-resonant, e.g. stochastic ion heating, and intermittent, e.g. energization via current sheets or magnetic reconnection. To determine the role these mechanisms play in turbulent plasmas, we propose the application of field-particle correlations to time series of single spatial point observations of the type typically measured in the solar wind. This correlation, motivated by the form of the collisionless Vlasov equation, is the time averaged product of the factors comprising the nonlinear field-particle interaction term. The correlation both captures the secular transfer of energy between fields and perturbed plasma distributions by averaging out the conservative oscillatory energy transfer, and retains the velocity space structure of the secular transfer, allowing for observational characterization of the damping mechanism. Field-particle correlations are applied to a set of nonlinear kinetic numerical simulations of increasing complexity, including electrostatic, gyrokinetic, and hybrid Vlasov-Maxwell systems. These correlations are shown to capture the secular energy transfer between fields and particles and distinguish between the mechanisms accessible to the chosen system. We conclude with a discussion of the application of this general technique to data from current and upcoming spacecraft missions, including MMS, DSCOVR, Solar Probe Plus and THOR, which should help in determining which damping mechanisms operate in a variety of heliospheric plasmas. This work was performed in collaboration with Gregory Howes, Jason TenBarge, Nuno Loureiro, Ryusuke Numata, Francesco Valetini, Oreste Pezzi, Matt Kunz, Justin Kasper, and Chris Chen, with support from Grants
The Link Between Shocks, Turbulence, and Magnetic Reconnection in Collisionless Plasmas
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Karimabadi, H.; Roytershteyn, V.; Vu, H. X.; Omelchenko, Y. A.; Scudder, J.; Daughton, W.; Dimmock, A.; Nykyri, K.; Wan, M.; Sibeck, D.; Tatineni, M.; Majumdar, A.; Loring, B.; Geveci, B.
2014-01-01
Global hybrid (electron fluid, kinetic ions) and fully kinetic simulations of the magnetosphere have been used to show surprising interconnection between shocks, turbulence and magnetic reconnection. In particular collisionless shocks with their reflected ions that can get upstream before retransmission can generate previously unforeseen phenomena in the post shocked flows: (i) formation of reconnecting current sheets and magnetic islands with sizes up to tens of ion inertial length. (ii) Generation of large scale low frequency electromagnetic waves that are compressed and amplified as they cross the shock. These 'wavefronts' maintain their integrity for tens of ion cyclotron times but eventually disrupt and dissipate their energy. (iii) Rippling of the shock front, which can in turn lead to formation of fast collimated jets extending to hundreds of ion inertial lengths downstream of the shock. The jets, which have high dynamical pressure, 'stir' the downstream region, creating large scale disturbances such as vortices, sunward flows, and can trigger flux ropes along the magnetopause. This phenomenology closes the loop between shocks, turbulence and magnetic reconnection in ways previously unrealized. These interconnections appear generic for the collisionless plasmas typical of space, and are expected even at planar shocks, although they will also occur at curved shocks as occur at planets or around ejecta.
Collisionless coupling of a high- β expansion to an ambient plasma
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bonde, Jeffrey
2016-10-01
We report on an experimental study of collisionless coupling between a high- β ( 106) expansion and a quiescent, magnetized plasma via laminar electric fields. The dynamic, 3D structure of the electrostatic field, - ∇ϕ , and the induced electric field, - ∂t A-> , of a laser-produced plasma (LPP) were measured in situ within the uniform plasma provided by the Large Plasma Device at UCLA. The LPP was generated using a graphite target and oriented to provide Alfvénic expansion speeds along the initially uniform magnetic field, B->0 . The strongest measured electric field was an inward, radial electrostatic field established by charge separation of the ions and electrons across B->0 . The imbalance between the charge layers also resulted in a radially outward electrostatic field that appeared to be responsible for the observed magnetic compression. Global neutralization of this charge distribution is connected with previously observed energetic electrons and subsequent whistler wave radiation. The cumulative effect of the total electric field is to pull ambient ions inward against the expansion. This is in contrast to models that neglect - ∇ϕ in favor of - ∂t A-> due to the large-scale motion of the magnetic field lines. Planar laser-induced fluorescence imaging in an argon background plasma confirmed this effect by measuring directly the velocity of the ambient ions. A simple model is presented of these results and other high- β expansions that is similar to Lord Rayleigh's work on gaseous bubble cavitation. It predicts relative magnitudes of - ∇ϕ and - ∂t A-> as well as an approximate description of their ability to couple energy and momentum to the ambient plasma. This model also provides scaling quantities appropriate for similar collisionless plasma expansions including explosions near young stellar objects, magnetospheric chemical releases, and high-altitude nuclear explosions. This experiment was conducted in the Large Plasma Device at the
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Keenan, Brett D.; Ford, Alexander L.; Medvedev, Mikhail V.
2015-11-01
High-amplitude, chaotic or turbulent electromagnetic fluctuations are ubiquitous in high-energy-density laboratory and astrophysical plasmas, where they can be excited by various kinetic-streaming and/or anisotropy-driven instabilities, such as the Weibel instability. These fields typically exist on "sub-Larmor scales"—scales smaller than the electron Larmor radius. Electrons moving through such magnetic fields undergo small-angle stochastic deflections of their pitch angles, thus establishing diffusive transport on long time scales. We show that this behavior, under certain conditions, is equivalent to Coulomb collisions in collisional plasmas. The magnetic pitch-angle diffusion coefficient, which acts as an effective "collision" frequency, may be substantial in these, otherwise, collisionless environments. We show that this effect, colloquially referred to as the plasma "quasicollisionality," may radically alter the expected radiative transport properties of candidate plasmas. We argue that the modified magneto-optic effects in these plasmas provide an attractive, radiative diagnostic tool for the exploration and characterization of small-scale magnetic turbulence, as well as affect inertial confinement fusion and other laser-plasma experiments.
Theory of spatially non-symmetric kinetic equilibria for collisionless plasmas
Cremaschini, Claudio; Tessarotto, Massimo
2013-01-15
The problem posed by the possible existence/non-existence of spatially non-symmetric kinetic equilibria has remained unsolved in plasma theory. For collisionless magnetized plasmas, this involves the construction of stationary solutions of the Vlasov-Maxwell equations. In this paper, the issue is addressed for non-relativistic plasmas both in astrophysical and laboratory contexts. The treatment is based on a Lagrangian variational description of single-particle dynamics. Starting point is a non-perturbative formulation of gyrokinetic theory, which allows one to construct 'a posteriori' with prescribed order of accuracy an asymptotic representation for the magnetic moment. In terms of the relevant particle adiabatic invariants generalized bi-Maxwellian equilibria are proved to exist. These are shown to recover, under suitable assumptions, a Chapman-Enskog form which permits an analytical treatment of the corresponding fluid moments. In particular, the constrained posed by the Poisson and the Ampere equations are analyzed, both for quasi-neutral and non-neutral plasmas. The conditions of existence of the corresponding non-symmetric kinetic equilibria are investigated. As a notable feature, both astrophysical and laboratory plasmas are shown to exhibit, under suitable conditions, a kinetic dynamo, whereby the equilibrium magnetic field can be self-generated by the equilibrium plasma currents.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kowal, G.; Falceta-Gonçalves, D. A.; Lazarian, A.
2011-05-01
In recent years, we have experienced increasing interest in the understanding of the physical properties of collisionless plasmas, mostly because of the large number of astrophysical environments (e.g. the intracluster medium (ICM)) containing magnetic fields that are strong enough to be coupled with the ionized gas and characterized by densities sufficiently low to prevent the pressure isotropization with respect to the magnetic line direction. Under these conditions, a new class of kinetic instabilities arises, such as firehose and mirror instabilities, which have been studied extensively in the literature. Their role in the turbulence evolution and cascade process in the presence of pressure anisotropy, however, is still unclear. In this work, we present the first statistical analysis of turbulence in collisionless plasmas using three-dimensional numerical simulations and solving double-isothermal magnetohydrodynamic equations with the Chew-Goldberger-Low laws closure (CGL-MHD). We study models with different initial conditions to account for the firehose and mirror instabilities and to obtain different turbulent regimes. We found that the CGL-MHD subsonic and supersonic turbulences show small differences compared to the MHD models in most cases. However, in the regimes of strong kinetic instabilities, the statistics, i.e. the probability distribution functions (PDFs) of density and velocity, are very different. In subsonic models, the instabilities cause an increase in the dispersion of density, while the dispersion of velocity is increased by a large factor in some cases. Moreover, the spectra of density and velocity show increased power at small scales explained by the high growth rate of the instabilities. Finally, we calculated the structure functions of velocity and density fluctuations in the local reference frame defined by the direction of magnetic lines. The results indicate that in some cases the instabilities significantly increase the anisotropy of
Fully Kinetic versus Reduced-kinetic Modeling of Collisionless Plasma Turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grošelj, Daniel; Cerri, Silvio S.; Bañón Navarro, Alejandro; Willmott, Christopher; Told, Daniel; Loureiro, Nuno F.; Califano, Francesco; Jenko, Frank
2017-09-01
We report the results of a direct comparison between different kinetic models of collisionless plasma turbulence in two spatial dimensions. The models considered include a first-principles fully kinetic (FK) description, two widely used reduced models (gyrokinetic (GK) and hybrid-kinetic (HK) with fluid electrons), and a novel reduced gyrokinetic approach (KREHM). Two different ion beta ({β }i) regimes are considered: 0.1 and 0.5. For {β }i=0.5, good agreement between the GK and FK models is found at scales ranging from the ion to the electron gyroradius, thus providing firm evidence for a kinetic Alfvén cascade scenario. In the same range, the HK model produces shallower spectral slopes, presumably due to the lack of electron Landau damping. For {β }i=0.1, a detailed analysis of spectral ratios reveals a slight disagreement between the GK and FK descriptions at kinetic scales, even though kinetic Alfvén fluctuations likely still play a significant role. The discrepancy can be traced back to scales above the ion gyroradius, where the FK and HK results seem to suggest the presence of fast magnetosonic and ion Bernstein modes in both plasma beta regimes, but with a more notable deviation from GK in the low-beta case. The identified practical limits and strengths of reduced-kinetic approximations, compared here against the FK model on a case-by-case basis, may provide valuable insight into the main kinetic effects at play in turbulent collisionless plasmas, such as the solar wind.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schamel, Hans; Mandal, Debraj; Sharma, Devendra
2017-03-01
An outstanding notion for collisionless plasmas is the essential nonlinear character of their coherent structures, which in the stationary, weak amplitude limit are described by a continuum of cnoidal electron and ion hole modes governed by a multiparametric nonlinear dispersion relation. The well-known discrete structure of undamped linear plasma modes is seamlessly embedded in this nonlinear continuum as the microscopic texture of plasma begins to reveal itself in the high temperature collisionless plasma limit. This transforms the linear-threshold-based operating mechanism of plasma turbulence into a fundamental nonlinear, multifaceted one. Based on a comprehensive three-level description of increasing profundity, a proof of this novel dictum is presented, which makes use of the joint properties of such structures, their coherency and stationarity, and uses in succession a fluid, linear Vlasov and a full Vlasov description. It unifies discrete and continuum limits by resolving the inevitable resonant region and shows that coherent electrostatic equilibria are generally controlled by kinetic particle trapping and are hence fundamentally nonlinear. By forging a link between damped and growing wave solutions, these modes render plasma stability complex and difficult to evaluate due to the entangled pattern of the stability boundary in function and parameter space, respectively. A direct consequence is the existence of negative energy modes of arbitrarily small amplitudes in the subcritical region of the two-stream instability as well as the failure of linear Landau (Vlasov, van Kampen) theory, whenever resonant particles are involved, in addressing the onset of instability in a current-carrying plasma. Responsible for this subtle phase space behavior is hence the thresholdless omnipresence of the trapping nonlinearity originating from coherency. A high resolution, exact-mass-ratio, multispecies, and collisionless plasma simulation is employed to illustrate
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kiselyov, Alexander; Dolgonosov, Maxim; Krasovsky, Victor
It is very important to determine the form of trapped particle distribution function in the problem of plasma disturbance by a spherical absorbing body. There are two ways of solving this problem: stability analysis of the physical system or examination of initial value problem. In this work the second method has been chosen. The physical system under consideration can be described by Poisson-Vlasov equations. In the initial moment of time the absorbing sphere appears in collisionless plasma. Distribution functions for electrons and ions are assumed to be monoenergetic at the start. The aim of the study is to observe plasma dynamics at long times and to determine the steady state of the plasma. Numerical simulation is based on PIC ("particles-in-cell") method. Spherical symmetry of the problem is widely employed to simplify model and reduce calculation count. It allows to treat charged particle dynamics as a motion with one degree of freedom, while the problem as a whole remains three-dimensional. This gives an opportunity to use moderate computational resources. A massively parallel code using GPGPU and OpenCL technologies has been developed, as well as auxiliary utilities for testing, result processing and representation. As a result, spatial and temporal plasma characteristics near absorbing sphere have been obtained. Formation of trapped ion bunch in the vicinity of the sphere has been observed on the phase plane while approaching equilibrium state.
Purohit, Gunjan Rawat, Priyanka; Gauniyal, Rakhi
2016-01-15
The effect of self focused hollow Gaussian laser beam (HGLB) (carrying null intensity in center) on the excitation of electron plasma wave (EPW) and second harmonic generation (SHG) has been investigated in collisionless plasma, where relativistic-ponderomotive and only relativistic nonlinearities are operative. The relativistic change of electron mass and the modification of the background electron density due to ponderomotive nonlinearity lead to self-focusing of HGLB in plasma. Paraxial ray theory has been used to derive coupled equations for the self focusing of HGLB in plasma, generation of EPW, and second harmonic. These coupled equations are solved analytically and numerically to study the laser intensity in the plasma, electric field associated with the excited EPW, and the power of SHG. Second harmonic emission is generated due to nonlinear coupling between incident HGLB and EPW satisfying the proper phase matching conditions. The results show that the effect of including the ponderomotive nonlinearity is significant on the generation of EPW and second harmonic. The electric field associated with EPW and the power of SHG are found to be highly sensitive to the order of the hollow Gaussian beam.
Nonlinear dispersive evolution of coherent trapped particle structures in collisionless plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mandal, Debraj; Sharma, Devendra
2016-10-01
The nonlinear limit of the collective perturbations in plasma is characterized by the onset of amplitude dependence in the wave dispersion. In a special class of nonlinear effects having origin in plasma kinetic theory, this amplitude dependence is removed only by collisions such that perturbations have no linear counterpart in collisionless limit and must follow a nonlinear dispersion relation (NDR). Exploring whether these fundamentally nonlinear perturbations can be driven unstable without entropy production might transform the character of the linear threshold based operating mechanism of the plasma turbulence that relies on well defined discrete spectrum prescribed by the linear plasma dispersion. In our multiscale, exact mass ratio, kinetic simulations the evolution of fundamentally nonlinear trapped particle structures is explored on both fast and slow ion and electron acoustic branches of the associated Nonlinear dispersion relation, respectively. The propagating structures that mutually interact exhibit a near continuum of the phase velocities and show microscopic evolution of the separatrix between streaming and trapped particle regions in the phase space, describing the subtle continuity between discrete and continuum bases of the plasma turbulence.
Chen Min; Sheng Zhengming; Dong Quanli; He Minqing; Li Yutong; Bari, Muhammad Abbas; Zhang Jie
2007-05-15
Collisionless electrostatic shock (CES) generation and subsequent ion acceleration in laser plasma interaction are studied numerically by particle-in-cell simulations. Usually a CES is composed of a high ion density spike surrounded by a bipolar electric field. Ions in front of it can be either submerged or reflected by the shock front. The submerged ions experience few oscillations before becoming part of the shock itself, while the reflected ions are accelerated to twice the shock speed. The effects of the target thickness, density, ion mass, preplasma conditions, as well as the laser intensity on the shock generation are examined. Simulations show that such shocks can be formed in a wide range of laser and target conditions. The characteristic of the shock propagation through a plane interface between two targets with different properties is also investigated. These results are useful for future experimental studies of shock generation and acceleration.
Intense laser driven collision-less shock and ion acceleration in magnetized plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mima, K.; Jia, Q.; Cai, H. B.; Taguchi, T.; Nagatomo, H.; Sanz, J. R.; Honrubia, J.
2016-05-01
The generation of strong magnetic field with a laser driven coil has been demonstrated by many experiments. It is applicable to the magnetized fast ignition (MFI), the collision-less shock in the astrophysics and the ion shock acceleration. In this paper, the longitudinal magnetic field effect on the shock wave driven by the radiation pressure of an intense short pulse laser is investigated by theory and simulations. The transition of a laminar shock (electro static shock) to the turbulent shock (electromagnetic shock) occurs, when the external magnetic field is applied in near relativistic cut-off density plasmas. This transition leads to the enhancement of conversion of the laser energy into high energy ions. The enhancement of the conversion efficiency is important for the ion driven fast ignition and the laser driven neutron source. It is found that the total number of ions reflected by the shock increases by six time when the magnetic field is applied.
Three Dimensional Dynamics of Collisionless Magnetic Reconnection in Large-Scale Pair Plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yin, L.; Daughton, W.; Karimabadi, H.; Albright, B. J.; Bowers, K. J.; Margulies, J.
2008-12-01
Using the largest three dimensional particle-in-cell simulations to date, collisionless magnetic reconnection in large-scale electron-positron plasmas without a guide field is shown to involve complex interaction of tearing and kink modes. The reconnection onset is patchy and occurs at multiple sites which self-organize to form a single, large diffusion region. There is a basic tendency for the diffusion region to further elongate in the outflow direction and become unstable to secondary kinking and formation of "plasmoid-rope" structures with finite extent in the current direction. The secondary kink leads to folding of the reconnection current layer, while plasmoid ropes at times follow the folding of the current layer. The interplay among these secondary instabilities plays a key role in controlling the time dependent reconnection rate in large-scale systems.
Theory of a thin one-dimensional current sheet in collisionless space plasma
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kropotkin, A. P.; Domrin, V. I.
1996-09-01
It is widely believed that evolution of a current sheet in collisionless space plasma often results in fast magnetic field merging, for example, during substorm onsets. The current sheet structure on the merging sites should exhibit a considerable change, in order for the field energy transformation into the energy of particles to become possible. The specific current sheet structure is the quasi-one-dimensional kinetic forced current sheet. A full analytical theory of such a sheet has been constructed for the typical case when the plasma parameter in the background plasma is small, β<<1, and bulk motions of the plasma are sub-alfvénic, MA<<1. Theoretical consideration of that equilibrium state is based on the existence of a specific adiabatic invariant, corresponding to ion oscillations about the sheet central plane in their ``Speiser'' orbits. The theory describes the sheet structure self-consistently, identifying its dependence on the features of the ion distribution function. Detailed structure of the emerging equilibrium sheet has been numerically studied. For a certain current sheet profile, while outside the sheet the calculated ion distribution function is close to a pair of interpenetrating shifted Maxwellians, inside the sheet it is also highly anisotropic but quite different, involving all velocities from 0 up to 2vA. Dependence of the structure scale length on the parameters of the problem corresponds to estimates obtained earlier. This scale length also agrees with observational estimates of the current sheet thickness in the magnetotail during its extreme thinning near substorm onset.
Cremaschini, Claudio Stuchlík, Zdeněk; Tessarotto, Massimo
2014-03-15
The kinetic description of relativistic plasmas in the presence of time-varying and spatially non-uniform electromagnetic (EM) fields is a fundamental theoretical issue both in astrophysics and plasma physics. This refers, in particular, to the treatment of collisionless and strongly-magnetized plasmas in the presence of intense radiation sources. In this paper, the problem is investigated in the framework of a covariant gyrokinetic treatment for Vlasov–Maxwell equilibria. The existence of a new class of kinetic equilibria is pointed out, which occur for spatially-symmetric systems. These equilibria are shown to exist in the presence of non-uniform background EM fields and curved space-time. In the non-relativistic limit, this feature permits the determination of kinetic equilibria even for plasmas in which particle energy is not conserved due to the occurrence of explicitly time-dependent EM fields. Finally, absolute stability criteria are established which apply in the case of infinitesimal symmetric perturbations that can be either externally or internally produced.
Ou, Jing; Wu, Guojiang; Li, Xinxia
2014-07-15
Distribution of the intrinsic rotation due to collisionless ion orbit loss near the tokamak edge region is studied by using an analytical model based on ion guiding center orbit approximation. A peak of the averaged ion orbit loss momentum fraction is found very near inside the separatrix region in a double null divertor configuration but is not found inside the last closed flux surface region in an outer limiter configuration. For the double null divertor configuration, the intrinsic rotation due to ion orbit loss depends on the plasma shape. With the increase in elongation and triangularity, the peak of the averaged ion orbit loss momentum fraction increases and it moves inward for the lower plasma current.
Measurements of collisionless heating effects in the H-mode of an inductively coupled plasma system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zaka-Ul-Islam, Mujahid; Graham, Bill; Gans, Timo; Niemi, Kari; O'Connell, Deborah
2013-09-01
Inductively coupled plasma systems (ICPs) for processing applications are often operated at low pressures, in the near-collisionless regime. In this regime, the electron mean free path is comparable or larger than the plasma dimensions. The electron dynamics in such ICPs has been investigated here, using phase and space resolved optical emission spectroscopy (PROES) and Langmuir probe measurements. The PROES measurements are also used to calculate the Fourier harmonics components of the 2D excitation (in the radial axial plane). The experimental system is a standard GEC cell with the axial gap of ~4 cm, powered by 13.56 MHz RF power supply. The gas pressure was varied between 0.5 - 2 Pa. The PROES measurements and Fourier harmonics components confirm many of the previous simulation results in comparable operational regimes. The results show that in the 2D (radial-axial) plane, the plasma power is deposited in a spatially non-uniform and non-linear manner, with axial layers of positive and negative power absorption. The contribution of these nonlinear effects decreases with an increase in the pressure, as observed in previous experimental and simulation results.
Magnetic mirror effects on a collisionless plasma in a convergent geometry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Martínez-Sánchez, Manuel; Ahedo, Eduardo
2011-03-01
Several plasma thruster concepts, as well as ion engine chambers, use magnetic cusps to protect walls and to throttle electron flow to anodes. We present a kinetic model of the plasma in the vicinity of one cusp. Electrons, strongly confined by the electrostatic presheath and sheath, are assumed isotropic. Collisionless ions are either magnetically guided or completely nonmagnetized, thus bracketing conditions of interest. For magnetized ions, electrostatic and magnetic mirror forces compete, and the resulting self-consistent potential is found by imposing quasineutrality. A similar competition occurs for nonmagnetized ions, this time as a result of the convergence of equipotential lines. Analytical solutions are found for monoenergetic ions, and these are generalized to the case of an initially Maxwellian population, for which some numerical iteration is required. The presheath potential drop is in all cases of the order of 0.6-0.75 times the electron temperature, and ions enter the sheath at a sonic velocity, according to Bohm's criterion. Contrary to intuition, the cusp does not reduce the ion flux (per unit area) to the wall, only the size of the wall area section that carries this flux by virtue of its connection to the distant plasma. These kinetic results are verified by checking the conservation of relevant moments of the ion distribution, including two new quantities that generalize the average magnetic moment and the total ion enthalpy by accounting for the nonzero ion heat fluxes.
Nonlinear heavy-ion-acoustic waves in an adiabatic collisionless bi-ion plasma
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hossen, M. A.; Rahman, M. M.; Hossen, M. R.; Mamun, A. A.
2017-03-01
The basic properties of heavy-ion-acoustic (HIA) waves have been investigated in a collisionless plasma system which is supposed to be composed of nonthermal electrons, Boltzmann distributed light ions, and adiabatic positively charged inertial heavy ions. The Kortewg-de Vries and Burgers equations are derived in nonplanar (cylindrical and spherical) geometry by employing the standard reductive perturbation method for studying the basic features (viz. amplitude, phase speed, etc.) of HIA solitary and shock waves, which are associated with either positive or negative potential. It is found that the effects of nonplanar geometry, adiabaticity of positively charged inertial heavy ions, the presence of nonthermal (Cairns distributed) electrons, and number densities of the plasma components significantly modify the basic features of nonplanar HIA waves. It has been observed that the properties of solitary and shock waves associated with HIA waves in a nonplanar geometry differ from those in a planar geometry. The implications of our results may be helpful in understanding the electrostatic perturbations in various laboratory and astrophysical plasma environments.
Collisionless shocks and particle acceleration in laser-driven laboratory plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fiuza, Frederico
2012-10-01
Collisionless shocks are pervasive in space and astrophysical plasmas, from the Earth's bow shock to Gamma Ray Bursters; however, the microphysics underlying shock formation and particle acceleration in these distant sites is not yet fully understood. Mimicking these extreme conditions in laboratory is a grand challenge that would allow for a better understanding of the physical processes involved. Using ab initio multi-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations, shock formation and particle acceleration are investigated for realistic laboratory conditions associated with the interaction of intense lasers with high-energy-density plasmas. Weibel-instability-mediated shocks are shown to be driven by the interaction of an ultraintense laser with overcritical plasmas. In this piston regime, the laser generates a relativistic flow that is Weibel unstable. The strong Weibel magnetic fields deflect the incoming flow, compressing it, and forming a shock. The resulting shock structure is consistent with previous simulations of relativistic astrophysical shocks, demonstrating for the first time the possibility of recreating these structures in laboratory. As the laser intensity is decreased and near-critical density plasmas are used, electron heating dominates over radiation pressure and electrostatic shocks can be formed. The electric field associated with the shock front can reflect ions from the background accelerating them to high energies. It is shown that high quality 200 MeV proton beams, required for tumor therapy, can be generated by using an exponentially decaying plasma profile to control competing accelerating fields. These results pave the way for the experimental exploration of space and astrophysical relevant shocks and particle acceleration with current laser systems.
Magnetic loop generation by collisionless gravitationally bound plasmas in axisymmetric tori.
Cremaschini, Claudio; Stuchlík, Zdeněk
2013-04-01
Current-carrying string loops are adopted in astrophysics to model the dynamics of isolated flux tubes of magnetized plasma expected to arise in the gravitational field of compact objects, such as black holes. Recent studies suggest that they could provide a framework for the acceleration and collimation of jets of plasma observed in these systems. However, the problem remains of the search of physical mechanisms which can consistently explain the occurrence of such plasma toroidal structures characterized by nonvanishing charge currents and are able to self-generate magnetic loops. In this paper, the problem is addressed in the context of Vlasov-Maxwell theory for nonrelativistic collisionless plasmas subject to both gravitational and electromagnetic fields. A kinetic treatment of quasistationary axisymmetric configurations of charged particles exhibiting epicyclic motion is obtained. Explicit solutions for the species equilibrium phase-space distribution function are provided. These are shown to have generally a non-Maxwellian character and to be characterized by nonuniform fluid fields and temperature anisotropy. Calculation of the relevant fluid fields and analysis of the Ampere equation then show the existence of nonvanishing current densities. As a consequence, the occurrence of a kinetic dynamo is proved, which can explain the self-generation of both azimuthal and poloidal magnetic fields by the plasma itself. This mechanism can operate in the absence of instabilities, turbulence, or accretion phenomena and is intrinsically kinetic in character. In particular, several kinetic effects contribute to it, identified here with finite Larmor radius, diamagnetic and energy-correction effects together with temperature anisotropy, and non-Maxwellian features of the equilibrium distribution function.
Cremaschini, Claudio; Kovář, Jiří; Slaný, Petr; Stuchlík, Zdeněk; Karas, Vladimír
2013-11-01
The possible occurrence of equilibrium off-equatorial tori in the gravitational and electromagnetic fields of astrophysical compact objects has been recently proved based on non-ideal magnetohydrodynamic theory. These stationary structures can represent plausible candidates for the modeling of coronal plasmas expected to arise in association with accretion disks. However, accretion disk coronae are formed by a highly diluted environment, and so the fluid description may be inappropriate. The question is posed of whether similar off-equatorial solutions can also be determined in the case of collisionless plasmas for which treatment based on kinetic theory, rather than a fluid one, is demanded. In this paper the issue is addressed in the framework of the Vlasov-Maxwell description for non-relativistic, multi-species axisymmetric plasmas subject to an external dominant spherical gravitational and dipolar magnetic field. Equilibrium configurations are investigated and explicit solutions for the species kinetic distribution function are constructed, which are expressed in terms of generalized Maxwellian functions characterized by isotropic temperature and non-uniform fluid fields. The conditions for the existence of off-equatorial tori are investigated. It is proved that these levitating systems are admitted under general conditions when both gravitational and magnetic fields contribute to shaping the spatial profiles of equilibrium plasma fluid fields. Then, specifically, kinetic effects carried by the equilibrium solution are explicitly provided and identified here with diamagnetic energy-correction and electrostatic contributions. It is shown that these kinetic terms characterize the plasma equation of state by introducing non-vanishing deviations from the assumption of thermal pressure.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cremaschini, Claudio; Kovář, Jiří; Slaný, Petr; Stuchlík, Zdeněk; Karas, Vladimír
2013-11-01
The possible occurrence of equilibrium off-equatorial tori in the gravitational and electromagnetic fields of astrophysical compact objects has been recently proved based on non-ideal magnetohydrodynamic theory. These stationary structures can represent plausible candidates for the modeling of coronal plasmas expected to arise in association with accretion disks. However, accretion disk coronae are formed by a highly diluted environment, and so the fluid description may be inappropriate. The question is posed of whether similar off-equatorial solutions can also be determined in the case of collisionless plasmas for which treatment based on kinetic theory, rather than a fluid one, is demanded. In this paper the issue is addressed in the framework of the Vlasov-Maxwell description for non-relativistic, multi-species axisymmetric plasmas subject to an external dominant spherical gravitational and dipolar magnetic field. Equilibrium configurations are investigated and explicit solutions for the species kinetic distribution function are constructed, which are expressed in terms of generalized Maxwellian functions characterized by isotropic temperature and non-uniform fluid fields. The conditions for the existence of off-equatorial tori are investigated. It is proved that these levitating systems are admitted under general conditions when both gravitational and magnetic fields contribute to shaping the spatial profiles of equilibrium plasma fluid fields. Then, specifically, kinetic effects carried by the equilibrium solution are explicitly provided and identified here with diamagnetic energy-correction and electrostatic contributions. It is shown that these kinetic terms characterize the plasma equation of state by introducing non-vanishing deviations from the assumption of thermal pressure.
Cremaschini, Claudio; Stuchlík, Zdeněk; Tessarotto, Massimo
2013-05-15
The problem of formulating a kinetic treatment for quasi-stationary collisionless plasmas in axisymmetric systems subject to the possibly independent presence of local strong velocity-shear and supersonic rotation velocities is posed. The theory is developed in the framework of the Vlasov-Maxwell description for multi-species non-relativistic plasmas. Applications to astrophysical accretion discs arising around compact objects and to plasmas in laboratory devices are considered. Explicit solutions for the equilibrium kinetic distribution function (KDF) are constructed based on the identification of the relevant particle adiabatic invariants. These are shown to be expressed in terms of generalized non-isotropic Gaussian distributions. A suitable perturbative theory is then developed which allows for the treatment of non-uniform strong velocity-shear/supersonic plasmas. This yields a series representation for the equilibrium KDF in which the leading-order term depends on both a finite set of fluid fields as well as on the gradients of an appropriate rotational frequency. Constitutive equations for the fluid number density, flow velocity, and pressure tensor are explicitly calculated. As a notable outcome, the discovery of a new mechanism for generating temperature and pressure anisotropies is pointed out, which represents a characteristic feature of plasmas considered here. This is shown to arise as a consequence of the canonical momentum conservation and to contribute to the occurrence of temperature anisotropy in combination with the adiabatic conservation of the particle magnetic moment. The physical relevance of the result and the implications of the kinetic solution for the self-generation of quasi-stationary electrostatic and magnetic fields through a kinetic dynamo are discussed.
Experimental test of the Baalrud's model for ion loss from a two-species plasma
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hershkowitz, Noah; Yip, Chi-Shung
2009-10-01
Recent experiments have shown that ions in plasmas containing two ion species reach a common velocity at the sheath-presheath boundary [1]. A new theory [2] suggest that collisional friction between the two ion species enhanced by two stream instability dominates the drift velocity of each ion species near the sheath edge but also suggest that there are differences in ion the velocity at the sheath-presheath boundary given by √12α(vth1^2 +αvth2^2 ) . This suggests that significant differences in velocity will occur as the relative concentration varies. We report the first experimental test of this model. We measure ion velocity distribution functions (ivdfs) near sheath edge in an Argon/Xenon plasma as a function of the concentration ratios. The relative concentration of the two ion species is determined by the Ion Acoustic Wave phrase velocity measurements, the ivdfs are determined by Laser Induced Florescence, the electron temperature is measured by Langmuir probe and the plasma potential is measured by emissive probe. [4pt] [1] Lee, D; Hershkowitz, N; Severn, GD. Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 041505 (2007)[0pt] [2] S.D. Baalrud, J.D. Callen, and C.C. Hegna, GEC 2009
Gyrokinetic Electron and Fully Kinetic Ion Particle Simulation of Collisionless Plasma Dynamics
Yu Lin; Xueyi Wang; Liu Chen; Zhihong Lin
2009-08-11
Fully kinetic-particle simulations and hybrid simulations have been utilized for decades to investigate various fundamental plasma processes, such as magnetic reconnection, fast compressional waves, and wave-particle interaction. Nevertheless, due to disparate temporal and spatial scales between electrons and ions, existing fully kinetic-particle codes have to employ either unrealistically high electron-to-ion mass ratio, me/mi, or simulation domain limited to a few or a few ten's of the ion Larmor radii, or/and time much less than the global Alfven time scale in order to accommodate available computing resources. On the other hand, in the hybrid simulation, the ions are treated as fully kinetic particles but the electrons are treated as a massless fluid. The electron kinetic effects, e.g., wave-particle resonances and finite electron Larmor radius effects, are completely missing. Important physics, such as the electron transit time damping of fast compressional waves or the triggering mechanism of magnetic reconnection in collisionless plasmas is absent in the hybrid codes. Motivated by these considerations and noting that dynamics of interest to us has frequencies lower than the electron gyrofrequency, we planned to develop an innovative particle simulation model, gyrokinetic (GK) electrons and fully kinetic (FK) ions. In the GK-electron and FK-ion (GKe/FKi) particle simulation model, the rapid electron cyclotron motion is removed, while keeping finite electron Larmor radii, realistic me/mi ratio, wave-particle interactions, and off-diagonal components of electron pressure tensor. The computation power can thus be significantly improved over that of the full-particle codes. As planned in the project DE-FG02-05ER54826, we have finished the development of the new GK-electron and FK-ion scheme, finished its benchmark for a uniform plasma in 1-D, 2-D, and 3-D systems against linear waves obtained from analytical theories, and carried out a further convergence test
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zare, S.; Yazdani, E.; Rezaee, S.; Anvari, A.; Sadighi-Bonabi, R.
2015-04-01
Propagation of a Gaussian x-ray laser beam has been analyzed in collisionless thermal quantum plasma with considering a ramped density profile. In this density profile due to the increase in the plasma density, an earlier and stronger self-focusing effect is noticed where the beam width oscillates with higher frequency and less amplitude. Moreover, the effect of the density profile slope and the initial plasma density on the laser propagation has been studied. It is found that, by increasing the initial density and the ramp slope, the laser beam focuses faster with less oscillation amplitude, smaller laser spot size and more oscillations. Furthermore, a comparison is made among the laser self-focusing in thermal quantum plasma, cold quantum plasma and classical plasma. It is realized that the laser self-focusing in the quantum plasma becomes stronger in comparison with the classical regime.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mahmoodi-Darian, Masoomeh; Ettehadi-Abari, Mehdi; Sedaghat, Mahsa
2016-03-01
Laser absorption in the interaction between ultra-intense femtosecond laser and solid density plasma is studied theoretically here in the intensity range I{λ^2} ˜eq 10^{14}{-}10^{16}{{W}}{{{cm}}^{-2}} \\upmu{{{m}}2} . The collisionless effect is found to be significant when the incident laser intensity is less than 10^{16}{{W}}{{{cm}}^{-2}}\\upmu{{{m}}2} . In the current work, the propagation of a high-frequency electromagnetic wave, for underdense collisionless plasma in the presence of an external magnetic field is investigated. When a constant magnetic field parallel to the laser pulse propagation direction is applied, the electrons rotate along the magnetic field lines and generate the electromagnetic part in the wake with a nonzero group velocity. Here, by considering the ponderomotive force in attendance of the external magnetic field and assuming the isothermal collisionless plasma, the nonlinear permittivity of the plasma medium is obtained and the equation of electromagnetic wave propagation in plasma is solved. Here, by considering the effect of the ponderomotive force in isothermal collisionless magnetized plasma, it is shown that by increasing the laser pulse intensity, the electrons density profile leads to steepening and the electron bunches of plasma become narrower. Moreover, it is found that the wavelength of electric and magnetic field oscillations increases by increasing the external magnetic field and the density distribution of electrons also grows in comparison to the unmagnetized collisionless plasma.
Collisionless and Kinetic Phenomena of Interpenetrating Plasma Streams via Neutron Self-Emission
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ross, J. S.; Higginson, D. P.; Hatarik, R.; Link, A.; Park, H.-S.; Ryutov, D. D.; Weber, S. V.; Wilks, S. C.; Fiuza, F.; Li, C. K.; Sio, H.; Zylstra, A. B.
2016-10-01
Recent NIF experiments focus on the generation and diagnosis of collisionless shocks relevant to astrophysical phenomena such as supernova remnants and gamma ray bursts. In the experiments, two opposing CD laser-generated plasmas flow into each other at high velocity ( 1000 km/s). As the ion-ion collisional mean-free-path is near to or greater than the system size, the flows interpenetrate and neutrons are generated via beam-beam deuteron interactions. We model this system using the hybrid particle-in-cell code LSP with electric and magnetic fields suppressed to capture the full temporal and spatial size of the experiment. These simulations show good agreement with the yield, spectrum and spatial/temporal profiles of the neutrons observed in the experiment. When one CD foil is replaced with CH an asymmetry develops in the neutron spectrum that is caused by the Doppler shift related to the flow velocity. Additionally, in this case the neutron yield is found to be lower in the simulations than is observed experimentally, which indicates that the deuterons thermalize more efficiently in the experiment. This suggests that another mechanism is responsible for this yield enhancement other than small angle scattering since it is included in the simulations. Possible mechanisms such as scattering across Weibel-mediated magnetic filaments and large-angle Coulomb scattering will be evaluated and discussed. Prepared by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.
Particle heating and acceleration during collisionless reconnection in a laboratory plasma
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yoo, Jongsoo
2013-10-01
Particle heating and acceleration during magnetic reconnection is studied in the collisionless plasma of the Magnetic Reconnection Experiment (MRX). For ion heating and acceleration, the role of the in-plane (Hall) electric field is emphasized. An in-plane electrostatic potential profile is established by electron acceleration near the X-point. The potential profile shows a well structure along the direction normal to the reconnection current sheet that becomes deeper and wider downstream as its boundary expands along the separatrices where the in-plane electric field is strongest. The Hall electric field ballistically accelerates ions near the separatrices toward the outflow direction. After ions are accelerated, they are heated as they travel into the high-pressure downstream region due to an effect called re-magnetization. Electrons are also significantly heated during reconnection. The electron temperature sharply increases across the separatrices and peaks just outside of the electron diffusion region. Classical Ohmic dissipation based on the perpendicular Spitzer resistivity is too small to compensate for the energy loss by parallel heat conduction, indicating the presence of anomalous electron heating. Finally, a total energy inventory is calculated based on analysis of the Poynting, enthalpy, flow energy, and heat flux in the measured diffusion layer. More than half of the incoming magnetic energy is converted to particle energy during reconnection. The author thanks contributions from M. Yamada, H. Ji, J. Jara-Almonte, and C. E. Myers. This work is supported by DOE and NSF.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Verscharen, Daniel; Chandran, Benjamin D. G.; Klein, Kristopher G.; Quataert, Eliot
2016-11-01
Compressive fluctuations are a minor yet significant component of astrophysical plasma turbulence. In the solar wind, long-wavelength compressive slow-mode fluctuations lead to changes in {β }\\parallel {{p}}\\equiv 8π {n}{{p}}{k}{{B}}{T}\\parallel {{p}}/{B}2 and in {R}{{p}}\\equiv {T}\\perp {{p}}/{T}\\parallel {{p}}, where {T}\\perp {{p}} and {T}\\parallel {{p}} are the perpendicular and parallel temperatures of the protons, B is the magnetic field strength, and {n}{{p}} is the proton density. If the amplitude of the compressive fluctuations is large enough, {R}{{p}} crosses one or more instability thresholds for anisotropy-driven microinstabilities. The enhanced field fluctuations from these microinstabilities scatter the protons so as to reduce the anisotropy of the pressure tensor. We propose that this scattering drives the average value of {R}{{p}} away from the marginal stability boundary until the fluctuating value of {R}{{p}} stops crossing the boundary. We model this “fluctuating-anisotropy effect” using linear Vlasov-Maxwell theory to describe the large-scale compressive fluctuations. We argue that this effect can explain why, in the nearly collisionless solar wind, the average value of {R}{{p}} is close to unity.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Verscharen, D.; Chandran, B. D. G.; Klein, K. G.; Quataert, E.
2016-12-01
Compressive fluctuations are a minor yet significant component of astrophysical plasma turbulence. In the solar wind, long-wavelength compressive slow-mode fluctuations lead to changes in β∥p ≡ 8πnpkBT∥p/B2 and in Rp ≡ T⊥p/T∥p, where T⊥p and T∥p are the perpendicular and parallel temperatures of the protons, B is the magnetic field strength, and np is the proton density. If the amplitude of the compressive fluctuations is large enough, Rp crosses one or more instability thresholds for anisotropy-driven micro-instabilities. The enhanced field fluctuations from these micro-instabilities scatter the protons so as to reduce the anisotropy of the pressure tensor, driving the average value of Rp away from the marginal stability boundary until the fluctuating value of Rp stops crossing the boundary. We model this "fluctuating-anisotropy effect" using linear Vlasov-Maxwell theory to describe the large-scale compressive fluctuations. We show that this effect can explain why, in the nearly collisionless solar wind, the average value of Rp is close to unity.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Richardson, Andrew; Swanekamp, Stephen; Ottinger, Paul; Angus, Justin; Rittersdorf, Ian; Schumer, Joseph
2014-10-01
Understanding the interaction of a strong magnetic field with a plasma is a key problem in plasma physics. In this poster we report on a new systematic study using two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations designed to explore the interplay between magnetic pushing and Hall-driven magnetic field penetration. In plasma where the ions are infinitely massive and ∇n × B > 0 , the magnetic field penetrates into the plasma at a specific fraction of the Hall speed, vb. When the ions have finite mass, the penetrating magnetic field gives an impulse to the ions, accelerating them to speed vi. In a two-species plasma, simulations show simultaneous pushing of the light-ion species and magnetic field penetration through the heavy-ion species when vheavy
Moser, Auna L. Hsu, Scott C.
2015-05-15
We present results from experiments on the head-on merging of two supersonic plasma jets in an initially collisionless regime for the counter-streaming ions. The plasma jets are of either an argon/impurity or hydrogen/impurity mixture and are produced by pulsed-power-driven railguns. Based on time- and space-resolved fast-imaging, multi-chord interferometry, and survey-spectroscopy measurements of the overlapping region between the merging jets, we observe that the jets initially interpenetrate, consistent with calculated inter-jet ion collision lengths, which are long. As the jets interpenetrate, a rising mean-charge state causes a rapid decrease in the inter-jet ion collision length. Finally, the interaction becomes collisional and the jets stagnate, eventually producing structures consistent with collisional shocks. These experimental observations can aid in the validation of plasma collisionality and ionization models for plasmas with complex equations of state.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bondarenko, Anton; Everson, E.; Schaeffer, D.; Constantin, C.; Vincena, S.; Van Compernolle, B.; Clark, S.; Niemann, C.
2013-06-01
Emission spectroscopy is currently being utilized in order to assess collision-less momentum and energy coupling between super-Alfvénic debris plasmas and magnetized, ambient plasmas of astrophysical relevance. In a recent campaign on the Large Plasma Device (LAPD) utilizing the Phoenix laboratory Raptor laser (130 J, 25 ns FWHM), laser-ablated carbon debris plasmas were generated within magnetized, ambient helium plasmas (nelec ≈ 3×1012 cm-3, Telec ≈ 5.5 eV, B0 = 200 G), and prominent spectral lines of carbon and helium ions were studied in high resolution (˜ 0.01 nm). Time-resolved Doppler shift and width measurements of a C V ion spectral line reveal significant deceleration as the ions stream through the background plasma, which may indirectly indicate momentum coupling. Spectral lines of He II ions are observed to intensify by orders of magnitude and broaden, indicating energy transfer from the debris plasma to the background plasma.
The role of plasma wave turbulence in the formation of shock waves in collisionless plasmas
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mellott, M. M.
1987-01-01
A data set containing measurements for approximately 100 shock crossings was compiled, and plasma wave profiles were plotted in conjunction with magnetic field data. Three emissions analyzed include upstream electron plasma oscillations, ion acoustic noise, and low frequency electromagnetic noise. The data demonstrate that the observed waves are consistent with generation by the kinetic cross-field streaming instability. Reanalysis of shock overshoots prompted by the presence of plasma feet upstream of nominally subcritical shocks leads to the conclusion that no firm evidence exists for a sharp subcritical supercritical transition. Electron plasma oscillations persist up to the ramps of subcritical shocks and begin decaying at the front edge of the feet of supercritical shocks. Their intensity is anticorrelated with the amplitude of the foot ion acoustic noise. Wave measurements support the predicted predominance of lower hybrid-like modes over ion acoustic noise in the production of resistive (plasma) heating. Evidence for variable shock normal angles is seen upstream from nominally quasiparallel shocks. The first cases of very strong electron heating observed at the terrestrial bow shock were discovered.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Takabe, H.; Kato, T. N.; Sakawa, Y.; Kuramitsu, Y.; Morita, T.; Kadono, T.; Shigemori, K.; Otani, K.; Nagatomo, H.; Norimatsu, T.; Dono, S.; Endo, T.; Miyanishi, K.; Kimura, T.; Shiroshita, A.; Ozaki, N.; Kodama, R.; Fujioka, S.; Nishimura, H.; Salzman, D.; Loupias, B.; Gregory, C.; Koenig, M.; Waugh, J. N.; Woolsey, N. C.; Kato, D.; Li, Y.-T.; Dong, Q.-L.; Wang, S.-J.; Zhang, Y.; Zhao, J.; Wang, F.-L.; Wei, H.-G.; Shi, J.-R.; Zhao, G.; Zhang, J.-Y.; Wen, T.-S.; Zhang, W.-H.; Hu, X.; Liu, S.-Y.; Ding, Y. K.; Zhang, L.; Tang, Y.-J.; Zhang, B.-H.; Zheng, Z.-J.; Sheng, Z.-M.; Zhang, J.
2008-12-01
We propose that most of the collisionless shocks in the Universe, for example, supernova remnant shocks, are produced because of the magnetic field generated by Weibel instability and its nonlinear process. In order to verify and validate the computational result confirming this theory, we are carrying out model experiments with intense lasers. We are going to make a collisionless counter-streaming plasma with intense laser ablation based on the scaling law to laser plasma with the particle-in-cell simulation resulting in Weibel-mediated shock formation. Preliminary experimental data are shown. The photo-ionization and resultant non-LTE plasma physics are also very important subjects in astrophysics related to mainly compact objects, for example, black hole, neutron star and white dwarf. Planckian radiation with its temperature 80 100 eV has been produced in gold cavity with irradiation of intense lasers inside the cavity. The sample materials are irradiated by the radiation inside the cavity and absorption and self-emission spectra are observed and analyzed theoretically. It is demonstrated how the effect of non-LTE is essential to reproduce the experimental spectra with the use of a precision computational code.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Ying; Yuan, Chengxun; Jia, Jieshu; Gao, Ruilin; Hong, Yunhai; Yao, Jingfeng; Li, Hui; Zhou, Zhongxiang; Wu, Jian
2017-06-01
The multiple coherent identical Gaussian beams with symmetry distribution are abbreviated as multi-Gaussian beam, of which the propagation characters in collisionless plasma are studied with the WKB method and higher order paraxial theory. The initial beam profile presents the flat top like or hollow like distribution when the eccentric displacement is large enough. Based on the derived nonlinear propagation equations, the initial condition analyses are performed, and the impact of eccentric displacement on the free propagation effect and ponderomotive nonlinearity is thoroughly discussed. The propagation characters of dimensionless beam width parameter, spot intensity, and spatial distribution of plasma electron density are presented. Results show that the initial spot intensity is expanding outwards along the propagation and the ring structure of electron evacuation in plasmas is generated.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fox, William
2015-08-01
Colliding plasmas are ubiquitous in astrophysical environments and allow conversion of kinetic energy into heat and, most importantly, the acceleration of particles to extremely high energies to form the cosmic ray spectrum. In collisionless astrophysical plasmas, kinetic plasma processes govern the interaction and particle acceleration processes, including shock formation, self-generation of magnetic fields by kinetic plasma instabilities, and magnetic field compression and reconnection. How each of these contribute to the observed spectra of cosmic rays is not fully understood, in particular both shock acceleration processes and magnetic reconnection have been proposed. We will review recent results of laboratory astrophysics experiments conducted at high-power, inertial-fusion-class laser facilities, which have uncovered significant results relevant to these processes. Recent experiments have now observed the long-sought Weibel instability between two interpenetrating high temperature plasma plumes, which has been proposed to generate the magnetic field necessary for shock formation in unmagnetized regimes. A second set of experiments has demonstrated magnetized shock formation in pre-magnetized plasmas. Finally, magnetic reconnection has been studied in systems of colliding plasmas using either self-generated magnetic fields or externally applied magnetic fields, and show extremely fast reconnection rates, indicating fast destruction of magnetic energy and further possibilities to accelerate particles. Finally, we highlight kinetic plasma simulations, which have proven to be essential tools in the design and interpretation of these experiments.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zakharov, Yu P.; Ponomarenko, A. G.; Tishchenko, V. N.; Antonov, V. M.; Melekhov, A. V.; Posukh, V. G.; Prokopov, P. A.; Terekhin, V. A.
2016-05-01
We present the results of first experiments on the formation of collisionless shock waves (CSWs) in background plasma by injecting laser plasma bunches transverse to the magnetic field (as a piston) with a maximum energy up to 100 J per unit of solid angle and with a high enough degree of ion magnetisation. With this aim in view, on a unique KI-1 facility at the Institute of Laser Physics, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences (ILP), a plastic (polyethylene) target irradiated by a CO2 laser in the most energy-efficient regime (near the plasma formation threshold) and a highly ionised hydrogen plasma with a high concentration in a large volume (not less than 1 m3) have been employed. As a result of model experiments performed on the basis of a model of collisionless interaction of plasma flows, developed at the VNIIEF and being adequate to the problem under consideration, not only an intensive, background-induced, deceleration of a super-Alfven laser plasma flow, but also the formation in that flow of a strong perturbation having the properties of a subcritical CSW and propagating transverse to the magnetic field, have been first registered in the laboratory conditions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vencels, Juris; Delzanno, Gian Luca; Manzini, Gianmarco; Markidis, Stefano; Peng, Ivy Bo; Roytershteyn, Vadim
2016-05-01
We present the design and implementation of a spectral code, called SpectralPlasmaSolver (SPS), for the solution of the multi-dimensional Vlasov-Maxwell equations. The method is based on a Hermite-Fourier decomposition of the particle distribution function. The code is written in Fortran and uses the PETSc library for solving the non-linear equations and preconditioning and the FFTW library for the convolutions. SPS is parallelized for shared- memory machines using OpenMP. As a verification example, we discuss simulations of the two-dimensional Orszag-Tang vortex problem and successfully compare them against a fully kinetic Particle-In-Cell simulation. An assessment of the performance of the code is presented, showing a significant improvement in the code running-time achieved by preconditioning, while strong scaling tests show a factor of 10 speed-up using 16 threads.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fox, W.; Bhattacharjee, A.; Fiksel, G.
2016-10-01
Colliding plasmas are ubiquitous in astrophysical environments and allow conversion of kinetic energy into heat and, most importantly, the acceleration of particles to extremely high energies to form the cosmic ray spectrum. In collisionless astrophysical plasmas, kinetic plasma processes govern the interaction and particle acceleration processes, including shock formation, self-generation of magnetic fields by kinetic plasma instabilities, and magnetic field compression and reconnection. How each of these contribute to the observed spectra of cosmic rays is not fully understood, in particular both shock acceleration processes and magnetic reconnection have been proposed. We will review recent results of laboratory astrophysics experiments conducted at high-power, inertial-fusion-class laser facilities, which have uncovered significant results relevant to these processes. Recent experiments have now observed the long-sought Weibel instability between two interpenetrating high temperature plasma plumes, which has been proposed to generate the magnetic field necessary for shock formation in unmagnetized regimes. Secondly, magnetic reconnection has been studied in systems of colliding plasmas using either self-generated magnetic fields or externally applied magnetic fields, and show extremely fast reconnection rates, indicating fast destruction of magnetic energy and further possibilities to accelerate particles. Finally, we highlight kinetic plasma simulations, which have proven to be essential tools in the design and interpretation of these experiments.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ji, H.; Yamada, M.; Prager, S.; Daughton, W.; Roytershteyn, V.
2009-11-01
Magnetic reconnection, a topological change in magnetic field in plasmas, often occurs explosively leading to rapid conversion of magnetic energy to plasma particle energy in space, astrophysical and laboratory fusion plasmas. The Magnetic Reconnection Experiment (MRX, http://mrx.pppl.gov) is a primary dedicated experiment to study reconnection in a controlled environment. However, further critical understanding and contributions to space and astrophysical plasmas are limited by the parameters achievable in MRX and other dedicated experiments. The MRX plasmas are relatively collisional (Lundquist numbers S ˜10^3) and effectively small (plasma size normalized by ion skin depth or ion sound radius ˜10). In this paper, we discuss plans for a next-generation reconnection experiment based on MRX. By a combination of larger physical size, stronger magnetic field, and higher heating power, we aim to increase S by a factor of 100 and effective size by a factor of 10, representing a very large jump in the laboratory capabilities. Kinetic simulations in realistic boundaries will be used to guide the experimental design. Research topics include: (1) transition of collisional to collisionless reconnection and its scaling with collisionality and size, (2) interacting multiple reconnections as a possible cause of explosive phenomena, (3) particle energization by reconnection, (4) relation between local reconnection and global magnetic self-organization in 3D realistic geometry and boundary.
Moser, Auna L.; Hsu, Scott C.
2015-05-01
We present results from experiments on the head-on merging of two supersonic plasma jets in an initially collisionless regime for the counter-streaming ions [A. L. Moser & S. C. Hsu, Phys. Plasmas, submitted (2014)]. The plasma jets are of either an argon/impurity or hydrogen/impurity mixture and are produced by pulsed-power-driven railguns. Based on time- and space-resolved fast-imaging, multi-chord interferometry, and survey-spectroscopy measurements of the overlapping region between the merging jets, we observe that the jets initially interpenetrate, consistent with calculated inter-jet ion collision lengths, which are long. As the jets interpenetrate, a rising mean-charge state causes a rapid decrease inmore » the inter-jet ion collision length. Finally, the interaction becomes collisional and the jets stagnate, eventually producing structures consistent with collisional shocks. These experimental observations can aid in the validation of plasma collisionality and ionization models for plasmas with complex equations of state.« less
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Benzekka, Moufida; Tribeche, Mouloud
2016-07-01
The aim of the present communication is to investigate the charge variation induced nonlinear dust acoustic wave damping in a charge varying electronegative dusty plasma with nonthermal ions. It is shown that the collisionless damping due to dust charge fluctuation causes the nonlinear dust acoustic wave propagation to be described by a damped Korteweg-de Vries equation (dK-dV). The latter is significantly modified by the nonthermal negative ions effects. It may be useful to note that we consider nonthermal negative ions because of the role of their distribution into the formation and dynamics of nonlinear dust acoustic structures. Moreover, the observation of nonthermal ion distributions made by Phobos and Nozomi motivated us to consider non- Maxwellian ions.
Egedal, Jan; Le, Ari; Daughton, William
2013-06-15
From spacecraft data, it is evident that electron pressure anisotropy develops in collisionless plasmas. This is in contrast to the results of theoretical investigations, which suggest this anisotropy should be limited. Common for such theoretical studies is that the effects of electron trapping are not included; simply speaking, electron trapping is a non-linear effect and is, therefore, eliminated when utilizing the standard methods for linearizing the underlying kinetic equations. Here, we review our recent work on the anisotropy that develops when retaining the effects of electron trapping. A general analytic model is derived for the electron guiding center distribution f(v{sub ∥},v{sub ⊥}) of an expanding flux tube. The model is consistent with anisotropic distributions observed by spacecraft, and is applied as a fluid closure yielding anisotropic equations of state for the parallel and perpendicular components (relative to the local magnetic field direction) of the electron pressure. In the context of reconnection, the new closure accounts for the strong pressure anisotropy that develops in the reconnection regions. It is shown that for generic reconnection in a collisionless plasma nearly all thermal electrons are trapped, and dominate the properties of the electron fluid. A new numerical code is developed implementing the anisotropic closure within the standard two-fluid framework. The code accurately reproduces the detailed structure of the reconnection region observed in fully kinetic simulations. These results emphasize the important role of pressure anisotropy for the reconnection process. In particular, for reconnection geometries characterized by small values of the normalized upstream electron pressure, β{sub e∞}, the pressure anisotropy becomes large with p{sub ∥}≫p{sub ⊥} and strong parallel electric fields develop in conjunction with this anisotropy. The parallel electric fields can be sustained over large spatial scales and
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Egedal, Jan; Le, Ari; Daughton, William
2013-06-01
From spacecraft data, it is evident that electron pressure anisotropy develops in collisionless plasmas. This is in contrast to the results of theoretical investigations, which suggest this anisotropy should be limited. Common for such theoretical studies is that the effects of electron trapping are not included; simply speaking, electron trapping is a non-linear effect and is, therefore, eliminated when utilizing the standard methods for linearizing the underlying kinetic equations. Here, we review our recent work on the anisotropy that develops when retaining the effects of electron trapping. A general analytic model is derived for the electron guiding center distribution f¯(v∥,v⊥) of an expanding flux tube. The model is consistent with anisotropic distributions observed by spacecraft, and is applied as a fluid closure yielding anisotropic equations of state for the parallel and perpendicular components (relative to the local magnetic field direction) of the electron pressure. In the context of reconnection, the new closure accounts for the strong pressure anisotropy that develops in the reconnection regions. It is shown that for generic reconnection in a collisionless plasma nearly all thermal electrons are trapped, and dominate the properties of the electron fluid. A new numerical code is developed implementing the anisotropic closure within the standard two-fluid framework. The code accurately reproduces the detailed structure of the reconnection region observed in fully kinetic simulations. These results emphasize the important role of pressure anisotropy for the reconnection process. In particular, for reconnection geometries characterized by small values of the normalized upstream electron pressure, βe∞, the pressure anisotropy becomes large with p∥≫p⊥ and strong parallel electric fields develop in conjunction with this anisotropy. The parallel electric fields can be sustained over large spatial scales and, therefore, become important for
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nariyuki, Y.; Hada, T.; Tsubouchi, K.
2014-10-01
The damping process of field-aligned, low-frequency right-handed polarized nonlinear Alfvén waves (NAWs) in solar wind plasmas with and without proton beams is studied by using a two-dimensional ion hybrid code. The numerical results show that the obliquely propagating kinetic Alfvén waves (KAWs) excited by beam protons affect the damping of the low-frequency NAW in low beta plasmas, while the nonlinear wave-wave interaction between parallel propagating waves and nonlinear Landau damping due to the envelope modulation are the dominant damping process in high beta plasmas. The nonlinear interaction between the NAWs and KAWs does not cause effective energy transfer to the perpendicular direction. Numerical results suggest that while the collisionless damping due to the compressibility of the envelope-modulated NAW plays an important role in the damping of the field-aligned NAW, the effect of the beam instabilities may not be negligible in low beta solar wind plasmas.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pantellini, F.; Landi, S.; Zaslavsky, A.; Meyer-Vernet, N.
2012-04-01
Nano and micrometre sized dust particles travelling through the heliosphere at several hundreds of km s-1 have been repeatedly detected by interplanetary spacecraft. When such fast moving dust particles hit a solid target in space, an expanding plasma cloud is formed through the vaporization and ionization of the dust particles itself and part of the target material at and near the impact point. Immediately after the impact the small and dense cloud is dominated by collisions and the expansion can be described by fluid equations. However, once the cloud has reached μm dimensions, the plasma may turn collisionless and a kinetic description is required to describe the subsequent expansion. In this paper we explore the late and possibly collisionless spherically symmetric unconstrained expansion of a single ionized ion-electron plasma using N-body simulations. Given the strong uncertainties concerning the early hydrodynamic expansion, we assume that at the time of the transition to the collisionless regime the cloud density and temperature are spatially uniform. We also neglect the role of the ambient plasma. This is a reasonable assumption as long as the cloud density is substantially higher than the ambient plasma density. In the case of clouds generated by fast interplanetary dust grains hitting a solid target, some 107 electrons and ions are liberated and the in vacuum approximation is acceptable up to meter order cloud dimensions. As such a cloud can be estimated to become collisionless when its radius has reached μm order dimensions, both the collisionless approximation and the in vacuum approximation are expected to hold during a long lasting phase as the cloud grows by a factor 106. With these assumptions, we find that the transition from the collisional to the collisionless regime could occur when the electron Debye length λD within the cloud is much smaller than the cloud radius R0, i.e. Λ ≡ λD/R0 ≪ 1. This implies a quasi-neutral expansion regime
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bonde, J.; Vincena, S. T.; Gekelman, W. N.
2015-12-01
The collisionless coupling of an expanding diamagnetic cavity to a magnetized, ambient plasma is studied in a laboratory environment using a laser-produced plasma (LPP). The seed LPP rapidly expands with velocities up to the background Alfvén speed, vexp ≤ vA. The boundary layer of the expansion is characterized with in situ diagnostics as a cylindrical version of the Ferraro-Rosenbluth current sheath. Maintenance of quasi-neutrality in this sheath forms an electric field opposing the cross-field expansion which simultaneously drives the electron current that forms the diamagnetic cavity, decelerates the LPP ions to stagnation, and accelerates ambient ions inward. The field topology across the background magnetic field is identical to that described by Bernhardt, et al. [1] for the AMPTE magnetotail barium releases. The boundary along the magnetic field, however, is shown to contain an electric field with E·B ≠ 0, which is absent in simple fluid models of diamagnetic cavities. The electric fields at this boundary help explain previous observations in the experiment of the ejection of suprathermal electrons and return currents that generated whistler- and Alfvén-wave radiation in the ambient plasma. Magnetic loops and an emissive probe measure the magnetic field and electrostatic potential along 3 dimensions while a laser-induced fluorescence scheme measures the cross-field flow of the ambient argon ions as they penetrate the diamagnetic cavity. Particle orbit solvers employing the measured fields corroborate the flow diagnostic and predict strong outflows of ambient ions with higher charge to mass ratios after diamagnetic cavity collapse. This experiment was conducted in the Large Plasma Device at the Basic Plasma Science Facility and funded by grants from the US Department of Energy and the National Science Foundation. [1] P.A. Bernhardt, R.A. Roussel-Dupre, M.B. Pongratz, J. Geophys. Res. 92, 57777 (1987).
Sardar, Sankirtan; Bandyopadhyay, Anup; Das, K. P.
2016-07-15
A three-dimensional KP (Kadomtsev Petviashvili) equation is derived here describing the propagation of weakly nonlinear and weakly dispersive dust ion acoustic wave in a collisionless unmagnetized plasma consisting of warm adiabatic ions, static negatively charged dust grains, nonthermal electrons, and isothermal positrons. When the coefficient of the nonlinear term of the KP-equation vanishes an appropriate modified KP (MKP) equation describing the propagation of dust ion acoustic wave is derived. Again when the coefficient of the nonlinear term of this MKP equation vanishes, a further modified KP equation is derived. Finally, the stability of the solitary wave solutions of the KP and the different modified KP equations are investigated by the small-k perturbation expansion method of Rowlands and Infeld [J. Plasma Phys. 3, 567 (1969); 8, 105 (1972); 10, 293 (1973); 33, 171 (1985); 41, 139 (1989); Sov. Phys. - JETP 38, 494 (1974)] at the lowest order of k, where k is the wave number of a long-wavelength plane-wave perturbation. The solitary wave solutions of the different evolution equations are found to be stable at this order.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mottez, F.; Génot, V.; Louarn, P.
2006-04-01
Tsiklauri et al. recently published a theoretical model of electron acceleration by Alfvén waves in a nonuniform collisionless plasmas. We compare their work with a series of results published earlier by an another team, of which Tsiklauri et al. were probably unaware. We show that these two series of works, apparently conducted independently, lead to the same conclusions. This reinforces the theoretical consistency of the model.
HYBRID AND HALL-MHD SIMULATIONS OF COLLISIONLESS RECONNECTION: EFFECTS OF PLASMA PRESSURE TENSOR
L. YIN; D. WINSKE; ET AL
2001-05-01
In this study we performed two-dimensional hybrid (particle ions, massless fluid electrons) and Hall-MHD simulations of collisionless reconnection in a thin current sheet. Both calculations include the full electron pressure tensor (instead of a localized resistivity) in the generalized Ohm's law to initiate reconnection, and in both an initial perturbation to the Harris equilibrium is applied. First, electron dynamics from the two calculations are compared, and we find overall agreement between the two calculations in both the reconnection rate and the global configuration. To address the issue of how kinetic treatment for the ions affects the reconnection dynamics, we compared the fluid-ion dynamics from the Hall-MHD calculation to the particle-ion dynamics obtained from the hybrid simulation. The comparison demonstrates that off-diagonal elements of the ion pressure tensor are important in correctly modeling the ion out-of-plane momentum transport from the X point. It is that these effects can be modeled efficiently using a particle Hall-MHD simulation method in which particle ions used in a predictor/corrector to implement the ion gyro-radius corrections. We also investigate the micro- macro-scale coupling in the magnetotail dynamics by using a new integrated approach in which particle Hall-MHD calculations are embedded inside a MHD simulation. Initial results of the simulation concerning current sheet thinning and reconnection dynamics are discussed.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Barnes, A.
1979-01-01
An exact solution of the kinetic and electromagnetic equations for a large-amplitude plane magnetoacoustic wave propagating transverse to the magnetic field in a hot collisionless plasma is presented. The solution gives simple relations among the magnetic-field strength, density, stress tensor, and plasma velocity, all of which are measurable in the interplanetary plasma. These relations are independent of the electron and ion velocity distributions, subject to certain restrictions on 'high-velocity tails.' The magnetic field of the wave is linearly polarized. The wave steepens to form a shock much as the analogous waves of MHD theory do.
Rahmani, Z. Safari, S.; Heidari-Semiromi, E.
2016-06-15
The dispersion relation of electromagnetic waves propagating in an elliptical plasma waveguide with a cold collisionless unmagnetized plasma column and a dielectric rod is studied analytically. The frequency spectrum of the hybrid waves and the growth rate for excitation of the waves by a thin annular relativistic elliptical electron beam (TAREEB) is obtained. The effects of relative permittivity constant of dielectric rod, geometrical dimensions, plasma frequency, accelerating voltage, and current density of TAREEB on the growth rate and frequency spectra of the waveguide will be investigated.
Singh, S.; Dahiya, R.P. )
1990-05-01
The effect of ion temperature and plasma density on the behavior of an ion-acoustic soliton in a collisionless relativistic plasma is studied. Based on an appropriate set of coordinate transformations, a reductive perturbation analysis is carried out to obtain the Korteweg--de Vries (KdV) equation for the one-dimensional soliton motion. By solving this equation for a single soliton, simple expressions for the soliton phase velocity, soliton amplitude, soliton width, peak soliton ion density, and peak soliton potential are derived. These results are applied to the plasma parameters of the radiation belts. The soliton phase velocity {lambda}{sub 0} increases with an increase in the relativistic effect. The effect of the ion temperature on {lambda}{sub 0} is, however, negligible. It is shown that for the constant ion temperature and plasma density, the soliton amplitude, soliton phase velocity, peak soliton ion density, and peak soliton potential increase, and the soliton width decreases as the relativistic effect increases. With the increasing ion temperature, however, the soliton behaves in an entirely different way. It is further shown that for a constant value of the ion temperature, the amplitude and peak ion density increase and the width decreases, whereas the peak potential remains unchanged as the plasma density increases.
Propinquity of Current and Vortex Structures: Effects on Collisionless Plasma Heating
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Parashar, Tulasi N.; Matthaeus, William H.
2016-11-01
Intermittency of heating in weakly collisional plasma turbulence is an active subject of research, with significant potential impact on understanding of the solar wind, solar corona, and astrophysical plasmas. Recent studies suggest a role of vorticity in plasma heating. In magnetohydrodynamics small-scale vorticity is generated near current sheets and this effect persists in kinetic plasma, as demonstrated here with hybrid and fully kinetic particle-in-cell simulations. Furthermore, vorticity enhances local kinetic effects, with a generalized resonance condition selecting sign-dependent enhancements or reductions of proton heating and thermal anisotropy. In such plasmas heating is correlated with vorticity and current density, but more strongly with vorticity. These results help explain several prior results that find kinetic effects and energization near to, but not centered on, current sheets. Evidently intermittency in kinetic plasma involves multiple physical quantities, and the associated coherent structures and nonthermal effects are closely related.
Ilgisonis, V. I.; Sorokina, E. A.; Yurchenko, E. I.
2010-01-15
The density of the noninductive current generated due to collisionless motion of {alpha}-particles in the tokamak magnetic field is calculated. The analysis is based on fully three-dimensional calculations of charged particle trajectories without simplifying assumptions typical for drift and neoclassical approaches. The current is calculated over the entire cross section of the plasma column, including the magnetic axis. It is shown that the current density is not a function of a magnetic surface and is strongly polarized over the poloidal angle. The current density distribution in the tokamak poloidal cross section is obtained, and the current density as a function of the safety factor, the tokamak aspect ratio, and the ratio of the particle Larmor radius on the axis to the tokamak minor radius is determined. It is shown that, when the source of {alpha}-particles is spatially nonuniform, the current density in the center of the tokamak is nonzero due to asymmetry of the phase-space boundary between trapped and passing particles. The current density scaling in the tokamak center differs from the known approximations for the bootstrap current and is sensitive to the spatial distribution of {alpha}-particles.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Scudder, J. D.; Mozer, F. S.
2005-05-01
sites where the electron pressure tensor could become deformed from cylindrical symmetry by electric field enhancement in layers with scale sizes up to the local thermal electron's gyroradius. Such a deformation is critical for a viable mechanism that supports collisionless reconnection. After selecting events as demagnetizing based on the size of the relevant forces and work done, the geophysical locale of their detection has been investigated. Previously, all E spikes in this survey were found near the invariant latitudes Λ of the earth's magnetic cusps but at all magnetic local times. The demagnetizing events identified here via E* are strongly organized at magnetic local noon (with a secondary, much shallower maximum at local magnetic midnight), occur preferentially at orbit apogee, and without significant preference for the magnetic latitude of the spacecraft. These geophysical organizations are consistent with the demagnetizing E spikes as indices of ongoing, collisionless reconnection in low βe regimes at the earth's subsolar magnetopause. The identification of this sub-class of electric spikes at low βe with E>E* widens the observed venues in the E and B fields where topology changing departures from ideal MHD should be anticipated in collisionless astrophysical plasmas.
Self-consistent solution for a collisionless plasma slab in motion across a magnetic field
Echim, Marius M.; Lemaire, Joseph F.; Roth, Michel
2005-07-15
The problem of the dynamics of a plasma slab moving across a magnetic field is treated in the framework of the kinetic theory. A velocity distribution function (VDF) is found for each plasma species, electrons and protons, in terms of the constants of motion defined by the geometry of the problem. The zero- and first-order moments of the VDF are introduced into the right-hand side term of Maxwell's equations to compute the electric and magnetic vector potentials and corresponding fields. The solutions are found numerically. We obtain a region of plasma convection--the slab proper--where the plasma moves with a uniform velocity, V{sub x}=V{sub 0}=(ExB/B{sup 2}){sub x}. At the core margins two plasma 'wings' are formed, each being the result of a pair of interpenetrated boundary layers with different transition lengths. Inside these wings, the plasma velocity is not uniform, V{sub x}{ne}(ExB/B{sup 2}){sub x}. It decreases from the maximum value obtained in the core to a minimum value in the central region of the wings where a flow reversal is found with the plasma convecting in the opposite direction to the core motion. There is also an asymmetry of the velocity gradient at the borders of the core, which results in a corresponding asymmetry in the thickness of the wings. Furthermore, it is found that the reversed plasma flow in the thinner wing is larger than that in the broader wing. For a fixed direction of the magnetic field the two plasma wings interchange position with respect to the center of the slab when the plasma bulk velocity reverses sign.
Experimental Observation of Thin-shell Instability in a Collisionless Plasma
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ahmed, H.; Doria, D.; Dieckmann, M. E.; Sarri, G.; Romagnani, L.; Bret, A.; Cerchez, M.; Giesecke, A. L.; Ianni, E.; Kar, S.; Notley, M.; Prasad, R.; Quinn, K.; Willi, O.; Borghesi, M.
2017-01-01
We report on the experimental observation of the instability of a plasma shell, which formed during the expansion of a laser-ablated plasma into a rarefied ambient medium. By means of a proton radiography technique, the evolution of the instability is temporally and spatially resolved on a timescale much shorter than the hydrodynamic one. The density of the thin shell exceeds that of the surrounding plasma, which lets electrons diffuse outward. An ambipolar electric field grows on both sides of the thin shell that is antiparallel to the density gradient. Ripples in the thin shell result in a spatially varying balance between the thermal pressure force mediated by this field and the ram pressure force that is exerted on it by the inflowing plasma. This mismatch amplifies the ripples by the same mechanism that drives the hydrodynamic nonlinear thin-shell instability (NTSI). Our results thus constitute the first experimental verification that the NTSI can develop in colliding flows.
SPECTRAL BREAKS OF ALFVÉNIC TURBULENCE IN A COLLISIONLESS PLASMA
Boldyrev, Stanislav; Xia, Qian; Zhdankin, Vladimir; Chen, Christopher H. K.
2015-06-20
Recent observations reveal that magnetic turbulence in the nearly colisionless solar wind plasma extends to scales smaller than the plasma microscales, such as ion gyroradius and ion inertial length. Measured breaks in the spectra of magnetic and density fluctuations at high frequencies are thought to be related to the transition from large-scale hydromagnetic to small-scale kinetic turbulence. The scales of such transitions and the responsible physical mechanisms are not well understood however. In the present work we emphasize the crucial role of the plasma parameters in the transition to kinetic turbulence, such as the ion and electron plasma beta, the electron to ion temperature ratio, the degree of obliquity of turbulent fluctuations. We then propose an explanation for the spectral breaks reported in recent observations.
A simple, analytical model of collisionless magnetic reconnection in a pair plasma
Hesse, Michael; Zenitani, Seiji; Kuznetsova, Masha; Klimas, Alex
2009-10-15
A set of conservation equations is utilized to derive balance equations in the reconnection diffusion region of a symmetric pair plasma. The reconnection electric field is assumed to have the function to maintain the current density in the diffusion region and to impart thermal energy to the plasma by means of quasiviscous dissipation. Using these assumptions it is possible to derive a simple set of equations for diffusion region parameters in dependence on inflow conditions and on plasma compressibility. These equations are solved by means of a simple, iterative procedure. The solutions show expected features such as dominance of enthalpy flux in the reconnection outflow, as well as combination of adiabatic and quasiviscous heating. Furthermore, the model predicts a maximum reconnection electric field of E{sup *}=0.4, normalized to the parameters at the inflow edge of the diffusion region.
A Simple, Analytical Model of Collisionless Magnetic Reconnection in a Pair Plasma
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hesse, Michael; Zenitani, Seiji; Kuznetova, Masha; Klimas, Alex
2011-01-01
A set of conservation equations is utilized to derive balance equations in the reconnection diffusion region of a symmetric pair plasma. The reconnection electric field is assumed to have the function to maintain the current density in the diffusion region, and to impart thermal energy to the plasma by means of quasi-viscous dissipation. Using these assumptions it is possible to derive a simple set of equations for diffusion region parameters in dependence on inflow conditions and on plasma compressibility. These equations are solved by means of a simple, iterative, procedure. The solutions show expected features such as dominance of enthalpy flux in the reconnection outflow, as well as combination of adiabatic and quasi-viscous heating. Furthermore, the model predicts a maximum reconnection electric field of E(sup *)=0.4, normalized to the parameters at the inflow edge of the diffusion region.
Simulation of perturbation produced by an absorbing spherical body in collisionless plasma
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Krasovsky, V. L.; Kiselyov, A. A.; Dolgonosov, M. S.
2017-01-01
A steady plasma state reached in the course of charging of an absorbing spherical body is found using computational methods. Numerical simulations provide complete information on this process, thereby allowing one to find the spatiotemporal dependences of the physical quantities and observe the kinetic phenomena accompanying the formation of stable electron and ion distributions in phase space. The distribution function of trapped ions is obtained, and their contribution to the screening of the charged sphere is determined. The sphere charge and the charge of the trapped-ion cloud are determined as functions of the unperturbed plasma parameters.
Kichigin, G. N.
2016-01-15
Solutions describing solitary fast magnetosonic (FMS) waves (FMS solitons) in cold magnetized plasma are obtained by numerically solving two-fluid hydrodynamic equations. The parameter domain within which steady-state solitary waves can propagate is determined. It is established that the Mach number for rarefaction FMS solitons is always less than unity. The restriction on the propagation velocity leads to the limitation on the amplitudes of the magnetic field components of rarefaction solitons. It is shown that, as the soliton propagates in plasma, the transverse component of its magnetic field rotates and makes a complete turn around the axis along which the soliton propagates.
A PIC Simulation Study of Electron Viscosity and Thermal Conduction in Collisionless Plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Riquelme, Mario; Quataert, Eliot; Verscharen, Daniel
2016-10-01
We use particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations to study the interplay between electron- and ion-scale velocity-space instabilities and their effect on electron pressure anisotropy, viscous heating, and thermal conduction. The adiabatic invariance of the magnetic moment in low-collisionality plasmas gives rise to pressure anisotropy, with p⊥ , j -p∥ , j > 0 (< 0) if the magnetic field magnitude | B-> | grows (decreases), where p⊥ , j and p∥ , j denote the pressure of species j [electron or ion] perpendicular and parallel to B-> . If the resulting anisotropy is large enough, it can trigger small-scale plasma instabilities. By imposing a shear in the plasma we either amplify or decrease the magnetic field | B-> | . When | B-> | is amplified, we explored the nonlinear regime of the mirror, ion-cyclotron, and electron whistler instabilities. When | B-> | is decreased, we studied the nonlinear regime of the ion- and electron-firehose instabilities. We discuss the implications of our results for electron heating and thermal conduction in low-collisionality accretion flows onto black holes, like Sgr A*. We also discuss the possible implications for the thermal conductivity of plasma in the outer parts of massive, hot, galaxy clusters.
Interspecies Momentum transport in Collisionless Plasmas due to the two stream instability
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Trejo, D. M.; Reyes-Ruiz, M.
2011-10-01
We study the linear development of the two-stream plasma instability in a system taken to represent the interaction of the solar wind and the ionosphere of non-magnetic solar system bodies. We consider the role of the instability in the interspecies momentum transfer in such systems.
Reversible collisionless magnetic reconnection
Ishizawa, A.; Watanabe, T.-H.
2013-10-15
Reversible magnetic reconnection is demonstrated for the first time by means of gyrokinetic numerical simulations of a collisionless magnetized plasma. Growth of a current-driven instability in a sheared magnetic field is accompanied by magnetic reconnection due to electron inertia effects. Following the instability growth, the collisionless reconnection is accelerated with development of a cross-shaped structure of current density, and then all field lines are reconnected. The fully reconnected state is followed by the secondary reconnection resulting in a weakly turbulent state. A time-reversed simulation starting from the turbulent state manifests that the collisionless reconnection process proceeds inversely leading to the initial state. During the reversed reconnection, the kinetic energy is reconverted into the original magnetic field energy. In order to understand the stability of reversed process, an external perturbation is added to the fully reconnected state, and it is found that the accelerated reconnection is reversible when the deviation of the E × B streamlines due to the perturbation is comparable with or smaller than a current layer width.
On the ions acceleration via collisionless magnetic reconnection in laboratory plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cazzola, E.; Curreli, D.; Markidis, S.; Lapenta, G.
2016-11-01
This work presents an analysis of the ion outflow from magnetic reconnection throughout fully kinetic simulations with typical laboratory plasma values. A symmetric initial configuration for the density and magnetic field is considered across the current sheet. After analyzing the behavior of a set of nine simulations with a reduced mass ratio and with a permuted value of three initial electron temperatures and magnetic field intensity, the best ion acceleration scenario is further studied with a realistic mass ratio in terms of the ion dynamics and energy budget. Interestingly, a series of shock wave structures are observed in the outflow, resembling the shock discontinuities found in recent magnetohydrodynamic simulations. An analysis of the ion outflow at several distances from the reconnection point is presented, in light of possible laboratory applications. The analysis suggests that magnetic reconnection could be used as a tool for plasma acceleration, with applications ranging from electric propulsion to production of ion thermal beams.
Plasma Boundary Collisionless Absorption Effects in the Loading of RF Conductors,
1979-10-01
high frequency waveguide grills , exposed couplers for ion cyclotron resonance heating), or in an approximate sense to the surface plasmas which for a... thermodynamic equilibrium is brought about by the stochastic collisions with the walls. The dynamical effect which prevents the unbounded growth in KE (i.e...a quasi- thermodynamic equilibrium between the charged particles and the applied RF potential. It is clear that the effect of external magnetic fields
On the field anomaly of near wakes in a collisionless plasma.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Liu, V. C.; Jew, H.
1973-01-01
A variational approach is presented for determining the electric field induced by charge separation in the near wake of a large negatively charged body moving at mesothermal speeds in a tenuous plasma. It is shown that the presence of a potential well in the wake is due to the charge separation resulting from the unequal mass motions with which the ambient electrons and ions move into the wake.
The effects of plasma shape control on the edge collisionless ion orbit loss
Wu, G. J.; Zhang, X. D.; Li, Y. D.; Sun, P. J.; Cao, G. M.
2013-10-15
Double null magnetic configurations with different elongation κ and triangularity δ are constructed by using an analytical solution of the Grad–Shafranov equation. The ion orbit losses in plasma edge region are calculated by solving the ion guiding center orbit equation for different values of κ and δ. It is found that the ion orbit loss is larger for a smaller value of κ or δ. The variation of the ion orbit loss fraction on the magnetic surface is also studied.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schindler, K.; Birn, J.; Hesse, M.
2012-01-01
Localized plasma structures, such as thin current sheets, generally are associated with localized magnetic and electric fields. In space plasmas localized electric fields not only play an important role for particle dynamics and acceleration but may also have significant consequences on larger scales, e.g., through magnetic reconnection. Also, it has been suggested that localized electric fields generated in the magnetosphere are directly connected with quasi-steady auroral arcs. In this context, we present a two-dimensional model based on Vlasov theory that provides the electric potential for a large class of given magnetic field profiles. The model uses an expansion for small deviation from gyrotropy and besides quasineutrality it assumes that electrons and ions have the same number of particles with their generalized gyrocenter on any given magnetic field line. Specializing to one dimension, a detailed discussion concentrates on the electric potential shapes (such as "U" or "S" shapes) associated with magnetic dips, bumps, and steps. Then, it is investigated how the model responds to quasi-steady evolution of the plasma. Finally, the model proves useful in the interpretation of the electric potentials taken from two existing particle simulations.
Approximants to the Tonks-Langmuir theory for a collisionless annular plasma.
Zhang, Yunchao; Charles, Christine; Boswell, Rod
2015-12-01
Maclaurin series approximant and Padé rational approximant are used to solve the Tonks-Langmuir theory for an annular plasma and investigate the radial transport behavior of charged particles. Coefficients of the well-known Maclaurin approximant are given in a novel form of recurrence relations which are convenient for computation and present a lower limit for the annular ratio of inner radius to outer radius (i.e., this approximant is not applicable to annular geometries with small inner radii). The newly introduced Padé approximant extrapolates the annular ratio limit determined by the Maclaurin approximant to a lower value and hence is applicable to most annular geometries. General radial profiles of the normalized plasma density and mean drift velocity of ions are given across the annulus and they are independent of the gas type and the Paschen number of the discharge. The annular modeling is applied to an argon plasma and obtains the electron temperature as a function of the Paschen number for different annular geometries.
Schindler, K.; Birn, J.; Hesse, M.
2012-08-15
Localized plasma structures, such as thin current sheets, generally are associated with localized magnetic and electric fields. In space plasmas localized electric fields not only play an important role for particle dynamics and acceleration but may also have significant consequences on larger scales, e.g., through magnetic reconnection. Also, it has been suggested that localized electric fields generated in the magnetosphere are directly connected with quasi-steady auroral arcs. In this context, we present a two-dimensional model based on Vlasov theory that provides the electric potential for a large class of given magnetic field profiles. The model uses an expansion for small deviation from gyrotropy and besides quasineutrality it assumes that electrons and ions have the same number of particles with their generalized gyrocenter on any given magnetic field line. Specializing to one dimension, a detailed discussion concentrates on the electric potential shapes (such as 'U' or 'S' shapes) associated with magnetic dips, bumps, and steps. Then, it is investigated how the model responds to quasi-steady evolution of the plasma. Finally, the model proves useful in the interpretation of the electric potentials taken from two existing particle simulations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sharma, S.; Mishra, S. K.; Kaw, P. K.; Turner, M. M.
2017-01-01
The Capacitively Coupled Plasma discharge featuring operation in current driven triple frequency configuration has analytically been investigated, and the outcome is verified by utilising the 1D3V particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation code. In this analysis, the role of middle frequency component of the applied signal has precisely been explored. The discharge parameters are seen to be sensitive to the ratio of the chosen middle frequency to lower and higher frequencies for fixed amplitudes of the three frequency components. On the basis of analysis and PIC simulation results, the middle frequency component is demonstrated to act as additional control over sheath potential, electron sheath heating, and ion energy distribution function (iedf) of the plasma discharge. For the electron sheath heating, effect of the middle frequency is seen to be pronounced as it approaches to the lower frequency component. On the other hand, for the iedf, the control is more sensitive as the middle frequency approaches towards the higher frequency. The PIC estimate for the electron sheath heating is found to be in reasonably good agreement with the analytical prediction based on the Kaganovich formulation.
Collisionless Magnetic Reconnection as an Ion Acceleration Mechanism of Low- β Laboratory Plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cazzola, Emanuele; Curreli, Davide; Lapenta, Giovanni
2016-10-01
In this work we present the results from a series of fully-kinetic simulations of magnetic reconnection under typical laboratory plasma conditions. The highly-efficient energy conversion obtained from this process is of great interest for applications such as future electric propulsion systems and ion beam accelerators. We analysed initial configurations in low-beta conditions with reduced mass ratio of mi = 512me at magnetic fields between 200G and 5000G and electron temperatures between 0.5 and 10eV. The initial ion density and temperature are kept uniform and equal to 1019 m-3 and 0.0215eV (room temperature) respectively. The analysis has shown that the reconnection process under these conditions can accelerate ions up to velocities as high as a significant fraction of the inflow Alfven speed. The configuration showing the best scenario is further studied with a realistic mass ratio in terms of energetics and outflow ion momentum, with the latter featured by the traditionally used specific impulse. Finally, a more detailed analysis of the reconnection outflow has revealed the formation of different interesting set of shock structures, also recently seen from MHD simulations of relativistic plasmas and certainly subject of future more careful attention. The present work has been possible thanks to the Illinois-KULeuven Faculty/PhD Candidate Exchange Program. Computational resources provided by the PRACE Tier-0 machines.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sánchez-Arriaga, G.
2013-10-01
The existence of discontinuities within the double-adiabatic Hall-magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) model is discussed. These solutions are transitional layers where some of the plasma properties change from one equilibrium state to another. Under the assumption of traveling wave solutions with velocity C and propagation angle θ with respect to the ambient magnetic field, the Hall-MHD model reduces to a dynamical system and the waves are heteroclinic orbits joining two different fixed points. The analysis of the fixed points rules out the existence of rotational discontinuities. Simple considerations about the Hamiltonian nature of the system show that, unlike dissipative models, the intermediate shock waves are organized in branches in parameter space, i.e., they occur if a given relationship between θ and C is satisfied. Electron-polarized (ion-polarized) shock waves exhibit, in addition to a reversal of the magnetic field component tangential to the shock front, a maximum (minimum) of the magnetic field amplitude. The jumps of the magnetic field and the relative specific volume between the downstream and the upstream states as a function of the plasma properties are presented. The organization in parameter space of localized structures including in the model the influence of finite Larmor radius is discussed.
Ibrahim, R. S.; El-Kalaawy, O. H.
2006-10-15
The relativistic nonlinear self-consistent equations for a collisionless cold plasma with stationary ions [R. S. Ibrahim, IMA J. Appl. Math. 68, 523 (2003)] are extended to 3 and 3+1 dimensions. The resulting system of equations is reduced to the sine-Poisson equation. The truncated Painleve expansion and reduction of the partial differential equation to a quadrature problem (RQ method) are described and applied to obtain the traveling wave solutions of the sine-Poisson equation for stationary and nonstationary equations in 3 and 3+1 dimensions describing the charge-density equilibrium configuration model.
Low-frequency waves in a high-beta collisionless plasma Polarization, compressibility and helicity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gary, S. P.
1986-01-01
This paper considers the linear theory of waves near and below the ion cyclotron frequency in an isothermal electron-ion Vlasov plasma which is isotropic, homogeneous and magnetized. Numerical solutions of the full dispersion equation for the magnetosonic/whistler and Alfven/ion cyclotron modes at beta(i) = 1.0 are presented, and the polarizations, compressibilities, helicities, ion Alfven ratios and ion cross-helicities are exhibited and compared. At sufficiently large beta(i) and theta, the angle of propagation with respect to the magnetic field, the real part of the polarization of the Alfven/ion cyclotron wave changes sign, so that, for such parameters, this mode is no longer left-hand polarized. The Alfven/ion cyclotron mode becomes more compressive as the wavenumber increases, whereas the magnetosonic/whistler becomes more compressive with increasing theta.
Linear collisionless Landau damping in Hilbert space
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zocco, Alessandro
2015-08-01
The equivalence between the Laplace transform (Landau, J. Phys. USSR 10 (1946), 25) and Hermite transform (Zocco and Schekochihin, Phys. Plasmas 18, 102309 (2011)) solutions of the linear collisionless Landau damping problem is proven.
A robust method for handling low density regions in hybrid simulations for collisionless plasmas
Amano, Takanobu Higashimori, Katsuaki; Shirakawa, Keisuke
2014-10-15
A robust method to handle vacuum and near vacuum regions in hybrid simulations for space and astrophysical plasmas is presented. The conventional hybrid simulation model dealing with kinetic ions and a massless charge-neutralizing electron fluid is known to be susceptible to numerical instability due to divergence of the whistler-mode wave dispersion, as well as division-by-density operation in regions of low density. Consequently, a pure vacuum region is not allowed to exist in the simulation domain unless some ad hoc technique is used. To resolve this difficulty, an alternative way to introduce finite electron inertia effect is proposed. Contrary to the conventional method, the proposed one introduces a correction to the electric field rather than the magnetic field. It is shown that the generalized Ohm's law correctly reduces to Laplace's equation in a vacuum which therefore does not involve any numerical problems. In addition, a variable ion-to-electron mass ratio is introduced to reduce the phase velocity of high frequency whistler waves at low density regions so that the stability condition is always satisfied. It is demonstrated that the proposed model is able to handle near vacuum regions generated as a result of nonlinear self-consistent development of the system, as well as pure vacuum regions set up at the initial condition, without losing the advantages of the standard hybrid code.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zelenyi, Lev M.; Artemyev, Anton V.
2016-02-01
In this paper we revisit the paradigm of space science turbulent dissipation traditionally considered as myth (Coroniti, Space Sci. Rev., vol. 42, 1985, pp. 399-410). We demonstrate that due to approach introduced by Pitaevskii (Sov. J. Expl Theor. Phys., vol. 44, 1963, pp. 969-979 (in Russian)) (the effect of a finite Larmor radius on a classical collision integral) dissipation induced by effective interaction with microturbulence produces a significant effect on plasma dynamics, especially in the vicinity of the reconnection region. We estimate the multiplication factor of collision frequency in the collision integral for short wavelength perturbations. For waves propagating transverse to the background magnetic field, this factor is approximately ρekx)2 an electron gyroradius and where kx a transverse wavenumber. We consider recent spacecraft observations in the Earth's magnetotail reconnection region to the estimate possible impact of this multiplication factor. For small-scale reconnection regions this factor can significantly increase the effective collision frequency produced both by lower-hybrid drift turbulence and by kinetic Alfvén waves. We discuss the possibility that the Pitaevskii's effect may be responsible for the excitation of a resistive electron tearing mode in thin current sheets formed in the outflow region of the primary X-line.
Computation on collisionless steady-state plasma flow past a charged disk
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Parker, L. W.
1976-01-01
A computer method is presented using the 'inside-out' approach, for predicting the structure of the disturbed zone near a moving body in space. The approach uses fewer simplifying assumptions than other available methods, and is applicable to large ranges of the values of body and plasma parameters. Two major advances concerning 3-dimensional bodies are that thermal motions of ions as well as of electrons are treated realistically by following their trajectories in the electric field, and the technique for achieving self-consistency is promising for very large bodies. Three sample solutions were obtained for a disk-shaped body, charged negatively to a potential 4kT/e. With ion Mach number 4, and equal ion and electron temperatures, the wakes of a relatively small body (radius 5 Debye lengths) and a relatively large body (radius 100 Debye lengths) both begin to fill up between 2 and 3 body radii downstream. For the large body there is in addition a potential well (about 6kT/e deep) behind the body. Increasing the ion Mach number to 8 for the large body causes the potential well to become wider and longer but not deeper. For the large body, the quasineutrality assumption is validated outside of a cone-shaped region in the very near wake. For the large as well as the small body, the disturbed zone behind the body extends transversely no more than 2 or 3 body radii, a result of significance for the design of spacecraft boom instrumentation.
Nanda, Vikas; Kant, Niti
2014-07-15
The effect of plasma density ramp on self-focusing of cosh-Gaussian laser beam considering ponderomotive nonlinearity is analyzed using WKB and paraxial approximation. It is noticed that cosh-Gaussian laser beam focused earlier than Gaussian beam. The focusing and de-focusing nature of the cosh-Gaussian laser beam with decentered parameter, intensity parameter, magnetic field, and relative density parameter has been studied and strong self-focusing is reported. It is investigated that decentered parameter “b” plays a significant role for the self-focusing of the laser beam as for b=2.12, strong self-focusing is seen. Further, it is observed that extraordinary mode is more prominent toward self-focusing rather than ordinary mode of propagation. For b=2.12, with the increase in the value of magnetic field self-focusing effect, in case of extraordinary mode, becomes very strong under plasma density ramp. Present study may be very useful in the applications like the generation of inertial fusion energy driven by lasers, laser driven accelerators, and x-ray lasers. Moreover, plasma density ramp plays a vital role to enhance the self-focusing effect.
Collisionless Shocks and Particle Acceleration.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Malkov, M.
2016-12-01
Collisionless shocks emerged in the 50s and 60s of the last century as an important branch of plasma physics and have remained ever since. New applications pose new challenges to our understanding of collisionless shock mechanisms. Particle acceleration in astrophysical settings, primarily studied concerning the putative origin of cosmic rays (CR) in supernova remnant (SNR) shocks, stands out with the collisionless shock mechanism being the key. Among recent laboratory applications, a laser-based tabletop proton accelerator is an affordable compact alternative to big synchrotron accelerators. The much-anticipated proof of cosmic ray (CR) acceleration in supernova remnants is hindered by our limited understanding of collisionless shock mechanisms. Over the last decade, dramatically improved observations were puzzling the theorists with unexpected discoveries. The difference between the helium/carbon and proton CR rigidity (momentum to charge ratio) spectra, seemingly inconsistent with the acceleration and propagation theories, and the perplexing positron excess in the 10-300 GeV range are just two recent examples. The latter is now also actively discussed in the particle physics and CR communities as a possible signature of decay or annihilation of hypothetical dark matter particles. By considering an initial (injection) phase of a diffusive shock acceleration mechanism, including particle reflection off the shock front - where an elemental similarity of particle dynamics does not apply - I will discuss recent suggestions of how to address the new data from the collisionless shock perspective. The backreaction of accelerated particles on the shock structure, its environment, and visibility across the electromagnetic spectrum from radio to gamma rays is another key aspect of collisionless shock that will be discussed.
Moser, Auna L.; Hsu, Scott C.
2015-05-01
We present results from experiments on the head-on merging of two supersonic plasma jets in an initially collisionless regime for the counter-streaming ions [A. L. Moser & S. C. Hsu, Phys. Plasmas, submitted (2014)]. The plasma jets are of either an argon/impurity or hydrogen/impurity mixture and are produced by pulsed-power-driven railguns. Based on time- and space-resolved fast-imaging, multi-chord interferometry, and survey-spectroscopy measurements of the overlapping region between the merging jets, we observe that the jets initially interpenetrate, consistent with calculated inter-jet ion collision lengths, which are long. As the jets interpenetrate, a rising mean-charge state causes a rapid decrease in the inter-jet ion collision length. Finally, the interaction becomes collisional and the jets stagnate, eventually producing structures consistent with collisional shocks. These experimental observations can aid in the validation of plasma collisionality and ionization models for plasmas with complex equations of state.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ruyer, C.; Gremillet, L.; Bonnaud, G.
2015-08-01
We present a particle-in-cell simulation of the generation of a collisionless strong shock in a dense plasma driven by an ultra-intense, plane-wave laser pulse. A linear theory analysis, based on a multi-waterbag model of the particle distributions, highlights the role of the laser-heated electrons in triggering the Weibel-like instability causing shock formation. It is demonstrated that the return-current electrons play a major role in the instability development as well as in the determination of the saturated magnetic field. By contrast, the ions are found of minor importance in driving the instability and the magnetic field fluctuations responsible for their isotropization. Finally, we show that a Weibel-mediated shock can also be generated by a focused laser pulse of large enough spot size.
Ruyer, C. Gremillet, L.; Bonnaud, G.
2015-08-15
We present a particle-in-cell simulation of the generation of a collisionless strong shock in a dense plasma driven by an ultra-intense, plane-wave laser pulse. A linear theory analysis, based on a multi-waterbag model of the particle distributions, highlights the role of the laser-heated electrons in triggering the Weibel-like instability causing shock formation. It is demonstrated that the return-current electrons play a major role in the instability development as well as in the determination of the saturated magnetic field. By contrast, the ions are found of minor importance in driving the instability and the magnetic field fluctuations responsible for their isotropization. Finally, we show that a Weibel-mediated shock can also be generated by a focused laser pulse of large enough spot size.
Porkolab, Miklos; Egedal, Jan
2007-11-30
The Grant DE-FG-02-00ER54712, ?Experimental Studies of Collisionless Reconnection Processes in Plasmas?, financed within the DoE/NSF, spanned a period from September , 2003 to August, 2007. It partly supported an MIT Research scientist, two graduate students and material expenses. The grant enabled the operation of a basic plasma physics experiment (on magnetic reconnection) at the MIT Plasma Science and Fusion Center and the MIT Physics Department. A strong educational component characterized this work throughout, with the participation of a large number of graduate and undergraduate students and interns to the experimental activities. The study of the collisionless magnetic reconnection constituted the primary work carried out under this grant. The investigations utilized two magnetic configurations with distinct boundary conditions. Both configurations were based upon the Versatile Toroidal Facility (VTF). The first configuration is characterized by open boundary conditions where the magnetic field lines interface directly with the vacuum vessel walls. The reconnection dynamics for this configuration has been methodically characterized and it has been shown that kinetic effects related to trapped electron trajectories are responsible for the high rates of reconnection observed [7]. This type of reconnection has not been investigated before. Nevertheless, the results are directly relevant to observations by the Wind spacecraft of fast reconnection deep in the Earth magnetotail [9]. The second configuration was developed to be specifically relevant to numerical simulations of magnetic reconnection, allowing the magnetic field-lines to be contained inside the device. The configuration is compatible with the presence of large current sheets in the reconnection region and reconnection is observed in fast powerful bursts. These reconnection events facilitate the first experimental investigations of the physics governing the spontaneous onset of fast reconnection [12
Explosive magnetic reconnection caused by an X-shaped current-vortex layer in a collisionless plasma
Hirota, M.; Hattori, Y.; Morrison, P. J.
2015-05-15
A mechanism for explosive magnetic reconnection is investigated by analyzing the nonlinear evolution of a collisionless tearing mode in a two-fluid model that includes the effects of electron inertia and temperature. These effects cooperatively enable a fast reconnection by forming an X-shaped current-vortex layer centered at the reconnection point. A high-resolution simulation of this model for an unprecedentedly small electron skin depth d{sub e} and ion-sound gyroradius ρ{sub s}, satisfying d{sub e}=ρ{sub s}, shows an explosive tendency for nonlinear growth of the tearing mode, where it is newly found that the explosive widening of the X-shaped layer occurs locally around the reconnection point with the length of the X shape being shorter than the domain length and the wavelength of the linear tearing mode. The reason for the onset of this locally enhanced reconnection is explained theoretically by developing a novel nonlinear and nonequilibrium inner solution that models the local X-shaped layer, and then matching it to an outer solution that is approximated by a linear tearing eigenmode with a shorter wavelength than the domain length. This theoretical model proves that the local reconnection can release the magnetic energy more efficiently than the global one and the estimated scaling of the explosive growth rate agrees well with the simulation results.
Niemann, Christoph; Gekelman, W.; Winske, D.; Larsen, D.
2012-12-14
We have performed several thousand high-energy laser shots in the LAPD to investigate the dynamics of an exploding laser-produced plasma in a large ambient magneto-plasma. Debris-ions expanding at super-Alfvenic velocity (up to MA=1.5) expel the ambient magnetic field, creating a large (> 20 cm) diamagnetic cavity. We observed field compressions of up to B/B{sub 0} = 1.5 at the edge of the bubble, consistent with the MHD jump conditions, as well as localized electron heating at the edge of the bubble. Two-dimensional hybrid simulations reproduce these measurements well and show that the majority of the ambient ions are energized by the magnetic piston to super-Alfvenic speeds and swept outside the bubble volume. Nonlinear shear-Alfven waves ({delta}B/B{sub 0} > 25%) are radiated from the cavity with a coupling efficiency of 70% from magnetic energy in the bubble to the wave. While the data is consistent with a weak magneto-sonic shock, the experiments were severely limited by the low ambient plasma densities (10{sup 12} cm{sup -3}). 2D hybrid simulations indicate that future experiments with the new LAPD plasma source and densities in excess of 10{sup 13} cm{sup -3} will drive full-blown collisionless shocks with MA>10 over several c/wpi and shocked Larmor radii. In a separate experiment at the LANL Trident laser facility we have performed a proof-of-principle experiment at higher densities to demonstrate key elements of collisionless shocks in laser-produced magnetized plasmas with important implications to NIF. Simultaneously we have upgraded the UCLA glass-laser system by adding two large amplitude disk amplifiers from the NOVA laser and boost the on-target energy from 30 J to up to 1 kJ, making this one of the world’s largest university-scale laser systems. We now have the infrastructure in place to perform novel and unique high-impact experiments on collision-less shocks at the LAPD.
Laser-Driven Magnetized Collisionless Shocks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schaeffer, Derek
2016-10-01
Collisionless shocks - supersonic plasma flows in which the interaction length scale is much shorter than the collisional mean free path - are common phenomena in space and astrophysical systems, including the solar wind, coronal mass ejections, supernovae remnants, and the jets of active galactic nuclei. These systems have been studied for decades, and in many the shocks are believed to efficiently accelerate particles to some of the highest observed energies. Only recently, however, have laser and diagnostic capabilities evolved sufficiently to allow the detailed study in the laboratory of the microphysics of collisionless shocks over a large parameter regime. We present experiments that demonstrate the formation of collisionless shocks utilizing the Phoenix laser laboratory and the LArge Plasma Device (LAPD) at UCLA. We also show recent observations of magnetized collisionless shocks on the Omega EP laser facility that extend the LAPD results to higher laser energy, background magnetic field, and ambient plasma density, and that may be relevant to recent experiments on strongly driven magnetic reconnection. Lastly, we discuss a new experimental regime for shocks with results from high-repetition (1 Hz), volumetric laser-driven measurements on the LAPD. These large parameter scales allow us to probe the formation physics of collisionless shocks over several Alfvénic Mach numbers (MA), from shock precursors (magnetosonic solitons with MA < 1) to subcritical (MA < 3) and supercritical (MA > 3) shocks. The results show that collisionless shocks can be generated using a laser-driven magnetic piston, and agree well with both 2D and 3D hybrid and PIC simulations. Additionally, using radiation-hydrodynamic modeling and measurements from multiple diagnostics, the different shock regimes are characterized with dimensionless formation parameters, allowing us to place disparate experiments in a common and predictive framework.
Khabibrakhmanov, I.K. ); Galeev, A.A.; Galinsky, V.L. )
1993-02-01
A collisionless parallel shock model is presented which is based on solitary-type solutions of the modified derivative nonlinear Schrodinger equation (MDNLS) for parallel Alfven waves. We generalize the standard derivative nonlinear Schrodinger equation in order to include the possible anisotropy of the plasma distribution function and higher-order Korteweg-de Vies type dispersion. Stationary solutions of MDNLS are discussed. The new mechanism, which can be called [open quote]adiabatic[close quote] of ion reflection from the magnetic mirror of the parallel shock structure is the natural and essential feature of the parallel shock that introduces the irreversible properties into the nonlinear wave structure and may significantly contribute to the plasma heating upstream as well as downstream of the shock. The anisotropic nature of [open quotes]adiabatic[close quotes] reflections leads to the asymmetric particle distribution in the upstream as well in the downstream regions of the shock. As a result, nonzero heat flux appears near the front of the shock. It is shown that this causes the stochastic behavior of the nonlinear waves which can significantly contribute to the shock thermalization. The number of adiabaticaly reflected ions define the threshold conditions of the fire-hose and mirror type instabilities in the downstream and upstream regions and thus determine a parameter region in which the described laminar parallel shock structure can exist. The threshold conditions for the fire hose and mirror-type instabilities in the downstream and upstream regions of the shock are defined by the number of reflected particles and thus determine a parameter region in which the described laminar parallel shock structure can exist. 29 refs., 4 figs.
Phukan, Ananya Goswami, K. S.; Bhuyan, P. J.
2014-08-15
The electric potential near a wall for a multi-species plasma with volume produced negative ions in presence of axially varying magnetic field is studied following an analytical-numerical approach. A constant negative ion source is assumed throughout the plasma volume, along with finite temperature positive ions and Boltzmann electrons. The particles are assumed to be guided by an open magnetic field that has its maximum at the centre, and field strength decreasing towards the walls. The one dimensional (1D) Poisson equation is derived using an analytical approach, and then solved numerically to study the potential profiles. Effect of (a) negative ion production rate, (b) magnetic field profile, and (c) negative ion temperature on the potential profile has been investigated. A potential peak appears near the wall when the negative ion temperature and density are sufficiently high. Also, the presence of negative ions further decreases the potential in the plasma region for a finite Debye Length (λ{sub D})
Study of astrophysical collisionless shocks at NIF
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Park, Hye-Sook; Higginson, D. P.; Huntington, C. M.; Pollock, B. B.; Remington, B. A.; Rinderknecht, H.; Ross, J. S.; Ryutov, D. D.; Swadling, G. F.; Wilks, S. C.; Sakawa, Y.; Spitkovsky, A.; Petrasso, R.; Li, C. K.; Zylstra, A. B.; Lamb, D.; Tzeferacos, P.; Gregori, G.; Meinecke, J.; Manuel, M.; Froula, D.; Fiuza, F.
2016-10-01
High Mach number astrophysical plasmas can create collisionless shocks via plasma instabilities and turbulence that are responsible for magnetic field generations and cosmic ray acceleration. Recently, many laboratory experiments were successful to observe the Weibel instabilities and self-generated magnetic fields using high-power lasers that generated interpenetrating plasma flows. In order to create a fully formed shock, a series of NIF experiments have begun. The characteristics of flow interaction have been diagnosed by the neutrons and protons generated via beam-beam deuteron interactions, the x-ray emission from the hot plasmas and proton probe generated by imploding DHe3 capsules. This paper will present the latest results from the NIF collisionless shock experiments. Prepared by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rowland, H. L.; Palmadesso, P. J.
1983-01-01
Large amplitude ion cyclotron waves have been observed on auroral field lines. In the presence of an electric field parallel to the ambient magnetic field these waves prevent the acceleration of the bulk of the plasma electrons leading to the formation of a runaway tail. It is shown that low-frequency turbulence can also limit the acceleration of high-velocity runaway electrons via pitch angle scattering at the anomalous Doppler resonance.
Transition from Collisionless to Collisional MRI
Prateek Sharma; Gregory W. Hammett; Eliot Quataert
2003-07-24
Recent calculations by Quataert et al. (2002) found that the growth rates of the magnetorotational instability (MRI) in a collisionless plasma can differ significantly from those calculated using MHD. This can be important in hot accretion flows around compact objects. In this paper, we study the transition from the collisionless kinetic regime to the collisional MHD regime, mapping out the dependence of the MRI growth rate on collisionality. A kinetic closure scheme for a magnetized plasma is used that includes the effect of collisions via a BGK operator. The transition to MHD occurs as the mean free path becomes short compared to the parallel wavelength 2*/k(sub)||. In the weak magnetic field regime where the Alfven and MRI frequencies w are small compared to the sound wave frequency k(sub)||c(sub)0, the dynamics are still effectively collisionless even if omega << v, so long as the collision frequency v << k(sub)||c(sub)0; for an accretion flow this requires n less than or approximately equal to *(square root of b). The low collisionality regime not only modifies the MRI growth rate, but also introduces collisionless Landau or Barnes damping of long wavelength modes, which may be important for the nonlinear saturation of the MRI.
Chen, Guangye; Chacon, Luis; Knoll, Dana Alan; Barnes, Daniel C
2015-07-31
A multi-rate PIC formulation was developed that employs large timesteps for slow field evolution, and small (adaptive) timesteps for particle orbit integrations. Implementation is based on a JFNK solver with nonlinear elimination and moment preconditioning. The approach is free of numerical instabilities (ω_{pe}Δt >>1, and Δx >> λ_{D}), and requires many fewer dofs (vs. explicit PIC) for comparable accuracy in challenging problems. Significant gains (vs. conventional explicit PIC) may be possible for large scale simulations. The paper is organized as follows: Vlasov-Maxwell Particle-in-cell (PIC) methods for plasmas; Explicit, semi-implicit, and implicit time integrations; Implicit PIC formulation (Jacobian-Free Newton-Krylov (JFNK) with nonlinear elimination allows different treatments of disparate scales, discrete conservation properties (energy, charge, canonical momentum, etc.)); Some numerical examples; and Summary.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dorelli, J.; Gershman, D. J.; Avanov, L. A.; Pollock, C. J.; Giles, B. L.; Nakamura, R.; Chen, L. J.; Torbert, R. B.; Gliese, U.; Barrie, A. C.; Holland, M. P.; Chandler, M. O.; Coffey, V. N.; MacDonald, E.; Salo, C.; Dickson, C.; Saito, Y.; Russell, C. T.; Baumjohann, W.; Burch, J. L.
2015-12-01
The relationship between magnetic reconnection and the Plasma Sheet Boundary Layer (PSBL) is still an open problem in magnetospheric physics. While one can understand observed PSBL velocity distributions on the basis of a simple steady state drift-kinetic model with prescribed electric and magnetic fields (e.g., Onsager et al. [1990,1991]), such models do not incorporate the kinetic scale dynamics at the reconnection site. For example, Shay et al. [2011] have argued that the out-of-plane quadrupole magnetic field pattern at the reconnection site can be viewed as an obliquely propagating kinetic Alfvén wave with very large parallel group velocity, the implication being that the field-aligned current structure should quickly become global, though still confined to field lines connected to the ion diffusion region at the reconnection site. This raises the very interesting question: How would such a global wave structure appear in the PSBL on the kinetic scale? Here, we present some first observations of the PSBL by NASA's Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission where Fast Plasma Investigation (FPI) Burst Data (30 ms and 150 ms resolution for 3D electron and ion velocity distributions, respectively) is available during intervals where lower resolution (4.5 s) Fast Survey distributions showed evidence of connection to a remote reconnection site. This allows us to test for the first time whether the quadrupole magnetic field structure near the reconnection site -- a local structure already observed by previous spacecraft -- does indeed support a global field-aligned current pattern around the magnetic separatrix. We will also probe for the first time the electron kinetic scale sub-structure of the PSBL and compare with electron-scale features observed near the magnetic separatrix at the dayside magnetopause.
Physics of collisionless phase mixing
Tsiklauri, D.; Haruki, T.
2008-11-15
Previous studies of phase mixing of ion cyclotron (IC), Alfvenic, waves in the collisionless regime have established the generation of parallel electric field and hence acceleration of electrons in the regions of transverse density inhomogeneity. However, outstanding issues were left open. Here we use the 2.5 D, relativistic, fully electromagnetic particle-in-cell code and an analytic magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) formulation, to establish the following points: (i) Using the generalized Ohm's law we find that the parallel electric field is supported mostly by the electron pressure tensor, with a smaller contribution from the electron inertia term. (ii) The generated parallel electric field and the fraction of accelerated electrons are independent of the IC wave frequency remaining at a level of six orders of magnitude larger than the Dreicer value and approximately 20%, respectively. The generated parallel electric field and the fraction of accelerated electrons increase with the increase of IC wave amplitude. The generated parallel electric field seems to be independent of plasma beta, while the fraction of accelerated electrons strongly increases with the decrease of plasma beta (for plasma beta of 0.0001 the fraction of accelerated electrons can be as large as 47%). (iii) In the collisionless regime IC wave dissipation length (that is defined as the distance over which the wave damps) variation with the driving frequency shows a deviation from the analytical MHD result, which we attribute to a possible frequency dependence of the effective resistivity. (iv) Effective anomalous resistivity, inferred from our numerical simulations, is at least four orders of magnitude larger than the classical Spitzer value.
Finite-dimensional collisionless kinetic theory
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Burby, J. W.
2017-03-01
A collisionless kinetic plasma model may often be cast as an infinite-dimensional noncanonical Hamiltonian system. I show that, when this is the case, the model can be discretized in space and particles while preserving its Hamiltonian structure, thereby producing a finite-dimensional Hamiltonian system that approximates the original kinetic model. I apply the general theory to two example systems: the relativistic Vlasov-Maxwell system with spin and a gyrokinetic Vlasov-Maxwell system.
Towards a parallel collisionless shock in LAPD
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Weidl, M. S.; Heuer, P.; Schaeffer, D.; Dorst, R.; Winske, D.; Constantin, C.; Niemann, C.
2017-09-01
Using a high-energy laser to produce a super-Alfvénic carbon-ion beam in a strongly magnetized helium plasma, we expect to be able to observe the formation of a collisionless parallel shock inside the Large Plasma Device. We compare early magnetic-field measurements of the resonant right-hand instability with analytical predictions and find excellent agreement. Hybrid simulations show that the carbon ions couple to the background plasma and compress it, although so far the background ions are mainly accelerated perpendicular to the mean-field direction.
Collisionless Weibel shocks: Full formation mechanism and timing
Bret, A.; Stockem, A.; Narayan, R.; Silva, L. O.
2014-07-15
Collisionless shocks in plasmas play an important role in space physics (Earth's bow shock) and astrophysics (supernova remnants, relativistic jets, gamma-ray bursts, high energy cosmic rays). While the formation of a fluid shock through the steepening of a large amplitude sound wave has been understood for long, there is currently no detailed picture of the mechanism responsible for the formation of a collisionless shock. We unravel the physical mechanism at work and show that an electromagnetic Weibel shock always forms when two relativistic collisionless, initially unmagnetized, plasma shells encounter. The predicted shock formation time is in good agreement with 2D and 3D particle-in-cell simulations of counterstreaming pair plasmas. By predicting the shock formation time, experimental setups aiming at producing such shocks can be optimised to favourable conditions.
High-power laser experiments to study collisionless shock generation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sakawa, Y.; Kuramitsu, Y.; Morita, T.; Kato, T.; Tanji, H.; Ide, T.; Nishio, K.; Kuwada, M.; Tsubouchi, T.; Ide, H.; Norimatsu, T.; Gregory, C.; Woolsey, N.; Schaar, K.; Murphy, C.; Gregori, G.; Diziere, A.; Pelka, A.; Koenig, M.; Wang, S.; Dong, Q.; Li, Y.; Park, H.-S.; Ross, S.; Kugland, N.; Ryutov, D.; Remington, B.; Spitkovsky, A.; Froula, D.; Takabe, H.
2013-11-01
A collisionless Weibel-instability mediated shock in a self-generated magnetic field is studied using two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulation [Kato and Takabe, Astophys. J. Lett. 681, L93 (2008)]. It is predicted that the generation of the Weibel shock requires to use NIF-class high-power laser system. Collisionless electrostatic shocks are produced in counter-streaming plasmas using Gekko XII laser system [Kuramitsu et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 175002 (2011)]. A NIF facility time proposal is approved to study the formation of the collisionless Weibel shock. OMEGA and OMEGA EP experiments have been started to study the plasma conditions of counter-streaming plasmas required for the NIF experiment using Thomson scattering and to develop proton radiography diagnostics.
Collisionless electron heating by radio frequency bias in low gas pressure inductive discharge
Lee, Hyo-Chang; Chung, Chin-Wook
2012-12-10
We show experimental observations of collisionless electron heating by the combinations of the capacitive radio frequency (RF) bias power and the inductive power in low argon gas pressure RF biased inductively coupled plasma (ICP). With small RF bias powers in the ICP, the electron energy distribution (EED) evolved from bi-Maxwellian distribution to Maxwellian distribution by enhanced plasma bulk heating and the collisionless sheath heating was weak. In the capacitive RF bias dominant regime, however, high energy electrons by the RF bias were heated on the EEDs in the presence of the ICP. The collisionless heating mechanism of the high energy electrons transited from collisionless inductive heating to capacitive coupled collisionless heating by the electron bounce resonance in the RF biased ICP.
Collisionless Reconnection and Electron Demagnetization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Scudder, J. D.
Observable, dimensionless properties of the electron diffusion region of collisionless magnetic reconnection are motivated and benchmarked in two and three dimensional Particle In Cell (PIC) simulations as appropriate for measurements with present state of the art spacecraft. The dimensionless quantities of this paper invariably trace their origin to breaking the magnetization of the thermal electrons. Several observable proxies are also motivated for the rate of frozen flux violation and a parameter \\varLambda _{\\varPhi } that when greater than unity is associated with close proximity to the analogue of the saddle point region of 2D reconnection usually called the electron diffusion region. Analogous regions to the electron diffusion region of 2D reconnection with \\varLambda _{\\varPhi } > 1 have been identified in 3D simulations. 10-20 disjoint diffusion regions are identified and the geometrical patterns of their locations illustrated. First examples of associations between local observables based on electron demagnetization and global diagnostics (like squashing) are also presented. A by product of these studies is the development of a single spacecraft determinations of gradient scales in the plasma.
Reformation and Microinstabilities at Perpendicular Collisionless Shocks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Umeda, T.; Kidani, Y.; Matsukiyo, S.; Yamazaki, R.
2014-12-01
Large-scale two-dimensional (2D) full particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations are carried out for studying the relationship between the dynamics of a perpendicular shock and microinstabilities generated at the shock foot. The structure and dynamics of collisionless shocks are generally determined by Alfven Mach number and plasma beta, while microinstabilities at the shock foot are controlled by the ratio of the upstream bulk velocity to the electron thermal velocity and the ratio of the plasma-to-cyclotron frequency. With a fixed Alfven Mach number and plasma beta, the ratio of the upstream bulk velocity to the electron thermal velocity is given as a function of the ion-to-electron mass ratio. The present 2D full PIC simulations with a relatively low Alfven Mach number (MA ˜ 6) show that the modified two-stream instability is dominant with higher ion-to-electron mass ratios. It is also confirmed that waves propagating downstream are more enhanced at the shock foot near the shock ramp as the mass ratio becomes higher. The result suggests that these waves play a role in the modification of the dynamics of collisionless shocks through the interaction with shock front ripples.
PARTICLE ACCELERATION DURING MAGNETOROTATIONAL INSTABILITY IN A COLLISIONLESS ACCRETION DISK
Hoshino, Masahiro
2013-08-20
Particle acceleration during the magnetorotational instability (MRI) in a collisionless accretion disk was investigated by using a particle-in-cell simulation. We discuss the important role that magnetic reconnection plays not only on the saturation of MRI but also on the relativistic particle generation. The plasma pressure anisotropy of p > p{sub ||} induced by the action of MRI dynamo leads to rapid growth in magnetic reconnection, resulting in the fast generation of nonthermal particles with a hard power-law spectrum. This efficient particle acceleration mechanism involved in a collisionless accretion disk may be a possible model to explain the origin of high-energy particles observed around massive black holes.
An Introduction to the Physics of Collisionless Shocks
Russell, C.T.
2005-08-01
Collisionless shocks are important in astrophysical, heliospheric and magnetospheric settings. They deflect flows around obstacles; they heat the plasma, and they alter the properties of the flow as it intersects those obstacles. The physical processes occurring at collisionless shocks depend on the Mach number (strength) and beta (magnetic to thermal pressure) of the shocks and the direction of the magnetic field relative to the shock normal. Herein we review how the shock has been modeled in numerical simulations, the basic physical processes at work, including dissipation and thermalization, the electric potential drop at the shock, and the formation of the electron and ion foreshocks.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Goodrich, C. C.; Scudder, J. D.
1984-01-01
The adiabatic energy gain of electrons in the stationary electric and magnetic field structure of collisionless shock waves was examined analytically in reference to conditions of the earth's bow shock. The study was performed to characterize the behavior of electrons interacting with the cross-shock potential. A normal incidence frame (NIF) was adopted in order to calculate the reversible energy change across a time stationary shock, and comparisons were made with predictions made by the de Hoffman-Teller (HT) model (1950). The electron energy gain, about 20-50 eV, is demonstrated to be consistent with a 200-500 eV potential jump in the bow shock quasi-perpendicular geometry. The electrons lose energy working against the solar wind motional electric field. The reversible energy process is close to that modeled by HT, which predicts that the motional electric field vanishes and the electron energy gain from the electric potential is equated to the ion energy loss to the potential.
Collisionless shock waves mediated by Weibel Instability
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Naseri, Neda; Ruan, Panpan; Zhang, Xi; Khudik, Vladimir; Shvets, Gennady
2015-11-01
Relativistic collisionless shocks are common events in astrophysical environments. They are thought to be responsible for generating ultra-high energy particles via the Fermi acceleration mechanism. It has been conjectured that the formation of collisionless shocks is mediated by the Weibel instability that takes place when two initially cold, unmagnetized plasma shells counter-propagate into each other with relativistic drift velocities. Using a PIC code, VLPL, which is modified to suppress numerical Cherenkov instabilities, we study the shock formation and evolution for asymmetric colliding shells with different densities in their own proper reference frame. Plasma instabilities in the region between the shock and the precursor are also investigated using a moving-window simulation that advances the computational domain at the shock's speed. This method helps both to save computation time and avoid severe numerical Cherenkov instabilities, and it allows us to study the shock evolution in a longer time period. Project is supported by US DOE grants DE-FG02-04ER41321 and DE-FG02-07ER54945.
Collisionless momentum transfer in space and astrophysical explosions
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bondarenko, A. S.; Schaeffer, D. B.; Everson, E. T.; Clark, S. E.; Lee, B. R.; Constantin, C. G.; Vincena, S.; van Compernolle, B.; Tripathi, S. K. P.; Winske, D.; Niemann, C.
2017-06-01
The AMPTE (Active Magnetospheric Particle Tracer Explorers) mission provided in situ measurements of collisionless momentum and energy exchange between an artificial, photo-ionized barium plasma cloud and the streaming, magnetized hydrogen plasma of the solar wind . One of its most significant findings was the unanticipated displacement of the barium ion `comet head’ (and an oppositely directed deflection of the streaming hydrogen ions) transverse to both the solar wind flow and the interplanetary magnetic field, defying the conventional expectation that the barium ions would simply move downwind. While subsequent theoretical and computational efforts to understand the cause of the transverse motion reached differing conclusions, several authors attributed the observations to Larmor coupling, a collisionless momentum exchange mechanism believed to occur in various astrophysical and space-plasma environments and to participate in cosmic magnetized collisionless shock formation. Here we present the detection of Larmor coupling in a reproducible laboratory experiment that combines an explosive laser-produced plasma cloud with preformed, magnetized ambient plasma in a parameter regime relevant to the AMPTE barium releases. In our experiment, time-resolved Doppler spectroscopy reveals ambient ion acceleration transverse to both the laser-produced plasma flow and the background magnetic field. Utilizing a detailed numerical simulation, we demonstrate that the ambient ion velocity distribution corresponding to the measured Doppler-shifted spectrum is qualitatively and quantitatively consistent with Larmor coupling.
The merging of quasiperpendicular collisionless shocks
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cargill, P. J.
1990-01-01
The overtaking of one collisionless shock by another is studied by means of hybrid numerical simulations. The two shocks merge into a stronger shock and trailing nonshock discontinuities. The strong shock continues to propagate in the same direction as the two weaker shocks. The merging is shown to occur by a self-consistent process involving the interaction of ions reflected at the overtaking shock with the plasma upstream of the leading shock. The characteristic time scale for the merging is typically 1/Omega(i), where Omega(i) is the ion gyrofrequency. For exactly perpendicular shocks, the trailing discontinuity is a tangential discontinuity. It has a width of 2-3 ion Larmor radii. For oblique shocks, a contact discontinuity is present in the downstream plasma state. These results are of relevance to shock interactions in the very distant solar wind as well as in other energetic astrophysical situations such as solar flares.
Haque, Q.
2015-08-15
The plasma density non-uniformity gives rise to the coupling of transverse magnetic electron drift vortex (MEDV) mode with the longitudinal perturbations in dissipative and non-dissipative electron plasmas. This coupling produces partially transverse and partially longitudinal low frequency instabilities in classical un-magnetized laser plasmas. The MEDV mode couples with the ion acoustic wave, when the ion dynamics is also included. Both the modes have frequencies of the same order of magnitude and couple to give rise to electromagnetic instabilities in un-magnetized plasmas.
Collisionless shock experiments with lasers and observation of Weibel instabilitiesa)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Park, H.-S.; Huntington, C. M.; Fiuza, F.; Drake, R. P.; Froula, D. H.; Gregori, G.; Koenig, M.; Kugland, N. L.; Kuranz, C. C.; Lamb, D. Q.; Levy, M. C.; Li, C. K.; Meinecke, J.; Morita, T.; Petrasso, R. D.; Pollock, B. B.; Remington, B. A.; Rinderknecht, H. G.; Rosenberg, M.; Ross, J. S.; Ryutov, D. D.; Sakawa, Y.; Spitkovsky, A.; Takabe, H.; Turnbull, D. P.; Tzeferacos, P.; Weber, S. V.; Zylstra, A. B.
2015-05-01
Astrophysical collisionless shocks are common in the universe, occurring in supernova remnants, gamma ray bursts, and protostellar jets. They appear in colliding plasma flows when the mean free path for ion-ion collisions is much larger than the system size. It is believed that such shocks could be mediated via the electromagnetic Weibel instability in astrophysical environments without pre-existing magnetic fields. Here, we present laboratory experiments using high-power lasers and investigate the dynamics of high-Mach-number collisionless shock formation in two interpenetrating plasma streams. Our recent proton-probe experiments on Omega show the characteristic filamentary structures of the Weibel instability that are electromagnetic in nature with an inferred magnetization level as high as ˜1% [C. M. Huntington et al., "Observation of magnetic field generation via the weibel instability in interpenetrating plasma flows," Nat. Phys. 11, 173-176 (2015)]. These results imply that electromagnetic instabilities are significant in the interaction of astrophysical conditions.
Relativistic soliton-like collisionless ionization wave
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arefiev, Alexey; McCormick, Matthew; Quevedo, Hernan; Bengtson, Roger; Ditmire, Todd
2014-10-01
It has been observed in recent experiments with laser-irradiated gas jets that a plasma filament produced by the laser and containing energetic electrons can launch a relativistic ionization wave into ambient gas. Here we present a self-consistent theory that explains how a collisionless ionization wave can propagate in a self-sustaining regime. A population of hot electrons necessarily generates a sheath electric field at the plasma boundary. This field penetrates the ambient gas, ionizing the gas atoms and thus causing the plasma boundary to expand. We show that the motion of the newly generated electrons can form a potential well adjacent to the plasma boundary. The outwards motion of the well causes a bunch of energetic electrons to become trapped, while allowing the newly generated electrons to escape into the plasma without retaining much energy. The resulting soliton-like ionizing field structure propagates outwards with a bunch of hot electrons that maintain a strong sheath field despite significant plasma expansion. We also present 1D and 2D particle-in-cell simulations that illustrate the described mechanism. The simulations were performed using HPC resources provided by the Texas Advanced Computing Center. This work was supported by NNSA Contract No. DE-FC52-08NA28512 and U.S. DOE Contract No. DE-FG02-04ER54742.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Korneev, Ph.; D'Humières, E.; Tikhonchuk, V.; Higginson, D. P.; Fuchs, J.
2015-12-01
Plasma collisions in magnetic fields play an important role in the acceleration of particles and radiation generation in astrophysical objects and in the high intensity laser plasma interaction. In laser-target interaction the expanding plasmas can be created with the Target Normal Sheath Acceleration mechanism, TNSA. The possibility to observe the Weibel filamentation in two inter-penetrating TNSA plasmas in an ambient magnetic field is studied theoretically and numerically in the present work. Relying on 2D3V Particle-In-Cell simulations and analytical estimates, the effect of the decreasing density profile coupled to the increasing flow velocity on the external magnetic field accumulation and the development of the magnetic vortexes is analyzed. It is demonstrated that with realistic TNSA profiles the plasma collision can lead to magnetic field accumulation and to the development of magnetic vortexes. These results are of interest for interpretation of the experiments which may be carried out in this regime on high intensity laser facilities.
Collisionless shock experiments with lasers and observation of Weibel instabilities
Park, H. -S.; Huntington, C. M.; Fiuza, F.; ...
2015-05-13
Astrophysical collisionless shocks are common in the universe, occurring in supernova remnants, gamma ray bursts, and protostellar jets. They appear in colliding plasma flows when the mean free path for ion-ion collisions is much larger than the system size. It is believed that such shocks could be mediated via the electromagnetic Weibel instability in astrophysical environments without preexisting magnetic fields. Here, we present laboratory experiments using high-power lasers and investigate the dynamics of high-Mach-number collisionless shock formation in two interpenetrating plasma streams. Our recent proton-probe experiments on Omega show the characteristic filamentary structures of the Weibel instability that are electromagneticmore » in nature with an inferred magnetization level as high as ~1% These results imply that electromagnetic instabilities are significant in the interaction of astrophysical conditions.« less
Collisionless shock formation, spontaneous electromagnetic fluctuations, and streaming instabilities
Bret, A.; Stockem, A.; Fiuza, F.; Silva, L. O.; Narayan, R.
2013-04-15
Collisionless shocks are ubiquitous in astrophysics and in the lab. Recent numerical simulations and experiments have shown how they can arise from the encounter of two collisionless plasma shells. When the shells interpenetrate, the overlapping region turns unstable, triggering the shock formation. As a first step towards a microscopic understanding of the process, we analyze here in detail the initial instability phase. On the one hand, 2D relativistic Particle-In-Cell simulations are performed where two symmetric initially cold pair plasmas collide. On the other hand, the instabilities at work are analyzed, as well as the field at saturation and the seed field which gets amplified. For mildly relativistic motions and onward, Weibel modes govern the linear phase. We derive an expression for the duration of the linear phase in good agreement with the simulations. This saturation time constitutes indeed a lower-bound for the shock formation time.
Exploring the nature of collisionless shocks under laboratory conditions
Stockem, A.; Fiuza, F.; Bret, A.; Fonseca, R. A.; Silva, L. O.
2014-01-01
Collisionless shocks are pervasive in astrophysics and they are critical to understand cosmic ray acceleration. Laboratory experiments with intense lasers are now opening the way to explore and characterise the underlying microphysics, which determine the acceleration process of collisionless shocks. We determine the shock character – electrostatic or electromagnetic – based on the stability of electrostatic shocks to transverse electromagnetic fluctuations as a function of the electron temperature and flow velocity of the plasma components, and we compare the analytical model with particle-in-cell simulations. By making the connection with the laser parameters driving the plasma flows, we demonstrate that shocks with different and distinct underlying microphysics can be explored in the laboratory with state-of-the-art laser systems. PMID:24488212
Radiation-pressure-driven ion Weibel instability and collisionless shocks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grassi, A.; Grech, M.; Amiranoff, F.; Macchi, A.; Riconda, C.
2017-09-01
The Weibel instability from counterstreaming plasma flows is a basic process highly relevant for collisionless shock formation in astrophysics. In this paper we investigate, via two- and three-dimensional simulations, suitable configurations for laboratory investigations of the ion Weibel instability (IWI) driven by a fast quasineutral plasma flow launched into the target via the radiation pressure of an ultra-high-intensity laser pulse ("hole-boring" process). The use of S-polarized light at oblique incidence is found to be an optimal configuration for driving IWI, as it prevents the development of surface rippling observed at normal incidence that would lead to strong electron heating and would favor competing instabilities. Conditions for the evolution of IWI into a collisionless shock are also investigated.
Collisionless shock experiments with lasers and observation of Weibel instabilities
Park, H. -S.; Huntington, C. M.; Fiuza, F.; Drake, R. P.; Froula, D. H.; Gregori, G.; Koenig, M.; Kugland, N. L.; Kuranz, C. C.; Lamb, D. Q.; Levy, M. C.; Li, C. K.; Meinecke, J.; Morita, T.; Petrasso, R. D.; Pollock, B. B.; Remington, B. A.; Rinderknecht, H. G.; Rosenberg, M.; Ross, J. S.; Ryutov, D. D.; Sakawa, Y.; Spitkovsky, A.; Takabe, H.; Turnbull, D. P.; Tzeferacos, P.; Weber, S. V.; Zylstra, A. B.
2015-05-13
Astrophysical collisionless shocks are common in the universe, occurring in supernova remnants, gamma ray bursts, and protostellar jets. They appear in colliding plasma flows when the mean free path for ion-ion collisions is much larger than the system size. It is believed that such shocks could be mediated via the electromagnetic Weibel instability in astrophysical environments without preexisting magnetic fields. Here, we present laboratory experiments using high-power lasers and investigate the dynamics of high-Mach-number collisionless shock formation in two interpenetrating plasma streams. Our recent proton-probe experiments on Omega show the characteristic filamentary structures of the Weibel instability that are electromagnetic in nature with an inferred magnetization level as high as ~1% These results imply that electromagnetic instabilities are significant in the interaction of astrophysical conditions.
Evolution of magnetization in relativistic collisionless shocks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Keshet, Uri; Katz, Boaz; Spitkovsky, Anatoly; Waxman, Eli
Magnetic field generation and particle acceleration in relativistic collisionless shocks are believed to be essential to the emission of radiation in various astronomical sources. These processes are tightly connected but no self-consistent model simultaneously accounts for both. We have used unprecedentedly large ab-initio particle-in-cell simulations to evolve shocks to late times where particle acceleration has a strong effect on the shock structure. The energetic particles accelerated by the shock are found to drive magnetic field evolution on a time scale 104 plasma times. Progressively stronger magnetic fields are generated on larger scales in a growing region around the shock, in which magnetic fields and accelerated particles carry 1% and 10% of the downstream energy flux, respectively. These results suggest limits on acceleration and magnetization in astronomical flows. A possible self-similar steady-state configuration which naturally reproduces the flat particle spectra observed will be discussed.
Nanoflare heating model for collisionless solar corona
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Visakh Kumar, U. L.; Varghese, Bilin Susan; Kurian, P. J.
2017-02-01
The problem of coronal heating remains one of the greatest unresolved problems in space science. Magnetic reconnection plays a significant role in heating the solar corona. When two oppositely directed magnetic fields come closer to form a current sheet, the current density of the plasma increases due to which magnetic reconnection and conversion of magnetic energy into thermal energy takes place. The present paper deals with a model for reconnection occurring in the solar corona under steady state in collisionless regime. The model predicts that reconnection time in the solar corona varies inversely with the cube of magnetic field and varies directly with the Lindquist number. Our analysis shows that reconnections are occurring within a time interval of 600 s in the solar corona, producing nanoflares in the energy range 10 21-10 23 erg /s which matches with Yohkoh X-ray observations.
Simulations of collisionless shocks - Some implications for particle acceleration
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Burgess, D.
1992-08-01
The role of self-consistent plasma simulations is discussed with reference to collisionless shock structure and the extraction of thermal particles to supra-thermal energies. Examples are given from quasi-perpendicular and parallel shock geometries. The cyclic reformation behavior of the quasi-parallel shock, as revealed by simulations, is detailed, and some implications given. Finally, some recent advances are described in the techniques of simulation of strong particle acceleration.
The microphysics of collisionless shock waves.
Marcowith, A; Bret, A; Bykov, A; Dieckman, M E; Drury, L O'C; Lembège, B; Lemoine, M; Morlino, G; Murphy, G; Pelletier, G; Plotnikov, I; Reville, B; Riquelme, M; Sironi, L; Novo, A Stockem
2016-04-01
Collisionless shocks, that is shocks mediated by electromagnetic processes, are customary in space physics and in astrophysics. They are to be found in a great variety of objects and environments: magnetospheric and heliospheric shocks, supernova remnants, pulsar winds and their nebulæ, active galactic nuclei, gamma-ray bursts and clusters of galaxies shock waves. Collisionless shock microphysics enters at different stages of shock formation, shock dynamics and particle energization and/or acceleration. It turns out that the shock phenomenon is a multi-scale non-linear problem in time and space. It is complexified by the impact due to high-energy cosmic rays in astrophysical environments. This review adresses the physics of shock formation, shock dynamics and particle acceleration based on a close examination of available multi-wavelength or in situ observations, analytical and numerical developments. A particular emphasis is made on the different instabilities triggered during the shock formation and in association with particle acceleration processes with regards to the properties of the background upstream medium. It appears that among the most important parameters the background magnetic field through the magnetization and its obliquity is the dominant one. The shock velocity that can reach relativistic speeds has also a strong impact over the development of the micro-instabilities and the fate of particle acceleration. Recent developments of laboratory shock experiments has started to bring some new insights in the physics of space plasma and astrophysical shock waves. A special section is dedicated to new laser plasma experiments probing shock physics.
Neoclassical Transport Caused by Collisionless Scattering across an Asymmetric Separatrix
Dubin, Daniel H. E.; Driscoll, C. F.; Tsidulko, Yu. A.
2010-10-29
Plasma loss due to apparatus asymmetries is a ubiquitous phenomenon in magnetic plasma confinement. When the plasma equilibrium has locally trapped particle populations partitioned by a separatrix from one another and from passing particles, the asymmetry transport is enhanced. The trapped and passing particle populations react differently to the asymmetries, leading to the standard 1/{nu} and {radical}({nu}) transport regimes of superbanana orbit theory as particles collisionally scatter from one orbit type to another. However, when the separatrix is itself asymmetric, particles can collisionlessly transit from trapped to passing and back, leading to enhanced transport.
Interaction of two collisionless shocks
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cargill, P. J.; Goodrich, C. C.; Papadopoulos, K.
1986-01-01
Kinetic simulations of the interaction between two collisionless shocks are presented. During the collision of two perpendicular shocks, the shock electromagnetic field structures pass through each other, while the previously shocked ions are kept separate by the electric field arising in the collision. When two supercritical shocks collide, a fraction of ions are accelerated up to an order of magnitude in energy by first being reflected at one shock, then interacting with the electric fields of the other shock.
Parallel collisionless shocks forming in simulations of the LAPD experiment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Weidl, Martin S.; Jenko, Frank; Niemann, Chris; Winske, Dan
2016-10-01
Research on parallel collisionless shocks, most prominently occurring in the Earth's bow shock region, has so far been limited to satellite measurements and simulations. However, the formation of collisionless shocks depends on a wide range of parameters and scales, which can be accessed more easily in a laboratory experiment. Using a kJ-class laser, an ongoing experimental campaign at the Large Plasma Device (LAPD) at UCLA is expected to produce the first laboratory measurements of the formation of a parallel collisionless shock. We present hybrid kinetic/MHD simulations that show how beam instabilities in the background plasma can be driven by ablating carbon ions from a target, causing non-linear density oscillations which develop into a propagating shock front. The free-streaming carbon ions can excite both the resonant right-hand instability and the non-resonant firehose mode. We analyze their respective roles and discuss optimizing their growth rates to speed up the process of shock formation.
The physical mechanisms of subcritical collisionless shock-wave formation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mellott, M. M.
1984-01-01
The key process in shock wave formation is related to energy dissipation, and the nature of the operative dissipation mechanism determines the basic character of the resulting shock. In the case of collisionless plasmas, the primary problem consists in the identification of the processes which can provide the necessary dissipation in relatively short spatial scale lengths. The present investigation is concerned with the various collisionless dissipation mechanisms which can operate in weak shocks, taking into account the effects of different mechanisms on shock structure. Particular attention is given to a restricted class of quasi-perpendicular low beta low Mach number shocks. Such shocks are traditionally called 'laminar shocks'. Resistive shocks are considered along with subcritical shocks observed with the aid of the ISEE spacecraft.
Time-dependent closure relations for relativistic collisionless fluid equations.
Bendib-Kalache, K; Bendib, A; El Hadj, K Mohammed
2010-11-01
Linear fluid equations for relativistic and collisionless plasmas are derived. Closure relations for the fluid equations are analytically computed from the relativistic Vlasov equation in the Fourier space (ω,k), where ω and k are the conjugate variables of time t and space x variables, respectively. The mathematical method used is based on the projection operator techniques and the continued fraction mathematical tools. The generalized heat flux and stress tensor are calculated for arbitrary parameter ω/kc where c is the speed of light, and for arbitrary relativistic parameter z=mc²/T , where m is the particle rest mass and T, the plasma temperature in energy units.
Time-dependent closure relations for relativistic collisionless fluid equations
Bendib-Kalache, K.; Bendib, A.; El Hadj, K. Mohammed
2010-11-15
Linear fluid equations for relativistic and collisionless plasmas are derived. Closure relations for the fluid equations are analytically computed from the relativistic Vlasov equation in the Fourier space ({omega},k), where {omega} and k are the conjugate variables of time t and space x variables, respectively. The mathematical method used is based on the projection operator techniques and the continued fraction mathematical tools. The generalized heat flux and stress tensor are calculated for arbitrary parameter {omega}/kc where c is the speed of light, and for arbitrary relativistic parameter z=mc{sup 2}/T, where m is the particle rest mass and T, the plasma temperature in energy units.
Collisionless Spectral Kinetic Simulation of Ideal Multipole Resonance Probe
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gong, Junbo; Wilczek, Sebastian; Szeremley, Daniel; Oberrath, Jens; Eremin, Denis; Dobrygin, Wladislaw; Schilling, Christian; Friedrichs, Michael; Brinkmann, Ralf Peter
2016-09-01
Active Plasma Resonance Spectroscopy denotes a class of industry-compatible plasma diagnostic methods which utilize the natural ability of plasmas to resonate on or near the electron plasma frequency ωpe. One particular realization of APRS with a high degree of geometric and electric symmetry is the Multipole Resonance Probe (MRP). The Ideal MRP(IMRP) is an even more symmetric idealization which is suited for theoretical investigations. In this work, a spectral kinetic scheme is presented to investigate the behavior of the IMRP in the low pressure regime. However, due to the velocity difference, electrons are treated as particles whereas ions are only considered as stationary background. In the scheme, the particle pusher integrates the equations of motion for the studied particles, the Poisson solver determines the electric field at each particle position. The proposed method overcomes the limitation of the cold plasma model and covers kinetic effects like collisionless damping.
a Study of One-Dimensional Nonlinear Hydromagnetic Waves and Collisionless Shocks.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lyu, Ling-Hsiao
A variety of nonlinear hydromagnetic waves have been observed in the collisionless solar wind plasma. A comprehensive theoretical study of nonlinear hydromagnetic waves, including rotational discontinuities and collisionless shocks, is carried out in this thesis by means of both analytical solutions and numerical simulations. Nonlinear hydromagnetic waves are governed by the interplay of the dispersion process, the collisionless dissipation process and the nonlinear steepening process. The purpose of this thesis is to understand the nonlinear behavior of hydromagnetic waves in terms of these fundamental processes. It is shown that the rotational discontinuity structures observed in the solar wind and at the magnetopause are nonlinear Alfven wave solutions of the collisionless two-fluid plasma equations. In these nonlinear wave solutions, nonlinear steepening is self-consistently balanced by dispersion. Collisionless viscous dissipation is the dominant dissipation in high Mach number shocks, which converts the flow energy into thermal energy. Hybrid simulations show that the collisionless viscous dissipation can result from the reflection and pitch-angle scattering of incoming ions flowing through the magnetic structures in the shock transition region. Collisionless dissipations in hydromagnetic shocks is governed by the magnetic structures in the shock transition region. The dissipation in turn can modify the wave structures and balance the nonlinear steepening. However, such delicate balance of the dispersion, dissipation, and nonlinear steepening has been observed to break down momentarily in high Mach number quasi-parallel shocks. This leads to the so-called cyclic shock front reformation seen in the hybrid simulations. The shock front reformation can be explained in terms of momentary off-balance between the dispersion-dissipation on the one hand and the nonlinear steepening on the other hand. The off-balance occurs after a significant fraction of incoming ions
Vlasov simulations of collisionless magnetic reconnection without background density
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schmitz, H.; Grauer, R.
2008-02-01
A standard starting point for the simulation of collisionless reconnection is the Harris equilibrium which is made up of a current sheet that separates two regions of opposing magnetic field. Magnetohydrodynamic simulations of collisionless reconnection usually include a homogeneous background density for reasons of numerical stability. While, in some cases, this is a realistic assumption, the background density may introduce new effects both due to the more involved structure of the distribution function or due to the fact that the Alfvèn speed remains finite far away from the current sheet. We present a fully kinetic Vlasov simulation of the perturbed Harris equilibrium using a Vlasov code. Parameters are chosen to match the Geospace Environment Modeling (GEM) Magnetic Reconnection Challenge but excluding the background density. This allows to compare with earlier simulations [Schmitz H, Grauer R. Kinetic Vlasov simulations of collisionless magnetic reconnection. Phys Plasmas 2006;13:092309] which include the background density. It is found that the absence of a background density causes the reconnection rate to be higher. On the other hand, the time until the onset of reconnection is hardly affected. Again the off diagonal elements of the pressure tensor are found to be important on the X-line but with modified importance for the individual terms.
Divin, A.; Markidis, S.; Lapenta, G.; Semenov, V. S.; Erkaev, N. V.; Biernat, H. K.
2010-12-15
A new model of the electron pressure anisotropy in the electron diffusion region in collisionless magnetic reconnection is presented for the case of antiparallel configuration of magnetic fields. The plasma anisotropy is investigated as source of collisionless dissipation. By separating electrons in the vicinity of the neutral line into two broad classes of inflowing and accelerating populations, it is possible to derive a simple closure for the off-diagonal electron pressure component. The appearance of these two electron populations near the neutral line is responsible for the anisotropy and collisionless dissipation in the magnetic reconnection. Particle-in-cell simulations verify the proposed model, confirming first the presence of two particle populations and second the analytical results for the off-diagonal electron pressure component. Furthermore, test-particle calculations are performed to compare our approach with the model of electron pressure anisotropy in the inner electron diffusion region by Fujimoto and Sydora [Phys. Plasmas 16, 112309 (2009)].
Generation of magnetized collisionless shocks by a novel, laser-driven magnetic piston
Schaeffer, D. B.; Everson, E. T.; Constantin, C. G.; Bondarenko, A. S.; Morton, L. A.; Niemann, C.; Winske, D.; Flippo, K. A.; Montgomery, D. S.; Gaillard, S. A.
2012-07-15
We present experiments on the Trident laser facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory which demonstrate key elements in the production of laser-driven, magnetized, laboratory-scaled astrophysical collisionless shocks. These include the creation of a novel magnetic piston to couple laser energy to a background plasma and the generation of a collisionless shock precursor. We also observe evidence of decoupling between a laser-driven fast ion population and a background plasma, in contrast to the coupling of laser-ablated slow ions with background ions through the magnetic piston. 2D hybrid simulations further support these developments and show the coupling of the slow to ambient ions, the formation of a magnetic and density compression pulses consistent with a collisionless shock, and the decoupling of the fast ions.
Cross-scale coupling at a perpendicular collisionless shock
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Umeda, T.; Yamao, M.; Yamazaki, R.
2009-12-01
A full particle simulation study is carried out on a perpendicular collisionless shock with a relatively low Alfven Mach number (MA = 5). Recent self-consistent hybrid and full particle simulations have demonstrated ion kinetics are essential for the non-stationarity of perpendicular collisionless shocks, which means that physical processes due to ion kinetics modify the shock jump condition for fluid plasmas. This is a cross-scale coupling between fluid dynamics and ion kinetics. On the other hand, it is not easy to study cross-scale coupling of electron kinetics with ion kinetics or fluid dynamics, because it is a heavy task to conduct large-scale full particle simulations of collisionless shocks. In the present study, we have performed a twodimensional (2D) electromagnetic full particle simulation with a "shock-rest-frame model". The simulation domain is taken to be larger than the ion inertial length in order to include full kinetics of both electrons and ions. The present simulation result has confirmed the transition of shock structures from the cyclic self-reformation to the quasi-stationary shock front. During the transition, electrons and ions are thermalized in the direction parallel to the shock magnetic field. Ions are thermalized by low-frequency electromagnetic waves (or rippled structures) excited by strong ion temperature anisotropy at the shock foot, while electrons are thermalized by highfrequency electromagnetic waves (or whistler mode waves) excited by electron temperature anisotropy at the shock overshoot. Ion acoustic waves are also excited at the shock overshoot where the electron parallel temperature becomes higher than the ion parallel temperature. We expect that ion acoustic waves are responsible for parallel diffusion of both electrons and ions, and that a cross-scale coupling between an ion-scale mesoscopic instability and an electron-scale microscopic instability is important for structures and dynamics of a collisionless perpendicular
Cross-scale coupling at a perpendicular collisionless shock
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Umeda, Takayuki; Yamao, Masahiro; Kidani, Yoshitaka; Yamazaki, Ryo
A full particle simulation study is carried out on a perpendicular collisionless shock with a relatively low Alfven Mach number (MA = 5). Recent self-consistent hybrid and full particle simulations have demonstrated ion kinetics are essential for the non-stationarity of perpendicu-lar collisionless shocks, which means that physical processes due to ion kinetics modify the shock jump condition for fluid plasmas. This is a cross-scale coupling between fluid dynamics and ion kinetics. On the other hand, it is not easy to study cross-scale coupling of electron kinetics with ion kinetics or fluid dynamics, because it is a heavy task to conduct large-scale full particle simulations of collisionless shocks. In the present study, we have performed a two-dimensional (2D) electromagnetic full particle simulation with a "shock-rest-frame model". The simulation domain is taken to be larger than the ion inertial length in order to include full kinetics of both electrons and ions. The present simulation result has confirmed the transition of shock structures from the cyclic self-reformation to a turbulent shock front. During the transition, electrons and ions are thermalized in the direction parallel to the shock magnetic field. Ions are thermalized by low-frequency electromagnetic waves (or rippled structures) excited by strong ion temperature anisotropy at the shock foot, while electrons are thermalized by high-frequency electromagnetic waves (or whistler mode waves) excited by electron temperature anisotropy at the shock overshoot. Ion acoustic waves are also excited at the shock overshoot where the electron parallel temperature becomes higher than the ion parallel temperature. We expect that ion acoustic waves are responsible for paralleldiffusion of both electrons and ions, and that a cross-scale coupling between an ion-scale mesoscopic instability and an electron-scale microscopic instability is important for structures and dynamics of a collisionless perpendicular shock.
Cross-scale coupling at a perpendicular collisionless shock
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Umeda, Takayuki; Yamao, Masahiro; Yamazaki, Ryo
2011-05-01
A full particle simulation study is carried out on a perpendicular collisionless shock with a relatively low Alfven Mach number ( M A = 5). Recent self-consistent hybrid and full particle simulations have demonstrated ion kinetics are essential for the non-stationarity of perpendicular collisionless shocks, which means that physical processes due to ion kinetics modify the shock jump condition for fluid plasmas. This is a cross-scale coupling between fluid dynamics and ion kinetics. On the other hand, it is not easy to study cross-scale coupling of electron kinetics with ion kinetics or fluid dynamics, because it is a heavy task to conduct large-scale full particle simulations of collisionless shocks. In the present study, we have performed a two-dimensional (2D) electromagnetic full particle simulation with a "shock-rest-frame model". The simulation domain is taken to be larger than the ion inertial length in order to include full kinetics of both electrons and ions. The present simulation result has confirmed the transition of shock structures from the cyclic self-reformation to the quasi-stationary shock front. During the transition, electrons and ions are thermalized in the direction parallel to the shock magnetic field. Ions are thermalized by low-frequency electromagnetic waves (or rippled structures) excited by strong ion temperature anisotropy at the shock foot, while electrons are thermalized by high-frequency electromagnetic waves (or whistler mode waves) excited by electron temperature anisotropy at the shock overshoot. Ion acoustic waves are also excited at the shock overshoot where the electron parallel temperature becomes higher than the ion parallel temperature. We expect that ion acoustic waves are responsible for parallel diffusion of both electrons and ions, and that a cross-scale coupling between an ion-scale mesoscopic instability and an electron-scale microscopic instability is important for structures and dynamics of a collisionless
Global gyrokinetic stability of collisionless microtearing modes in large aspect ratio tokamaks
Swamy, Aditya K.; Ganesh, R.; Chowdhury, J.; Brunner, S.; Vaclavik, J.; Villard, L.
2014-08-15
Linear full radius gyrokinetic calculations show the existence of unstable microtearing modes (MTMs) in purely collisionless, high temperature, large aspect ratio tokamak plasmas. The present study takes into account fully gyrokinetic highly passing ions and electrons. The global 2-D structures of the collisionless mode with full radius coupling of the poloidal modes is obtained and compared with another electromagnetic mode, namely, the Alfvén Ion Temperature Gradient (AITG) mode (or Kinetic Ballooning Mode, KBM) for the same equilibrium profile. Several important characteristics of the modes are brought out and compared, such as a clear signature in the symmetry properties of the two modes, the plasma–β dependence, and radial and poloidal length scales of the electrostatic and magnetic vector potential fluctuations. Extensive parameter scans for this collisionless microtearing mode reveal the scaling of the growth rate with β and the electron temperature gradient η{sub e}. Scans at different β values show an inverse relationship between the η{sub e} threshold and β, leading to a stability diagram, and implying that the mode might exist at moderate to strong temperature gradients for finite β plasmas in large aspect ratio tokamaks. In contrast to small aspect ratio tokamaks where the trapped electron magnetic drift resonance is found to be important, in large aspect ratio tokamaks, a strong destabilization due to the magnetic drift resonance of passing electrons is observed and is identified as a possible collisionless drive mechanism for the collisionless MTM.
Gamma-Ray Bursts, Collisionless Shocks and Synthetic Spectra
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hededal, Christian
2005-06-01
The radiation from afterglows of gamma-ray bursts (GRB) is generated in collisionless plasma shocks. The two main ingredients behind the radiation are high-energy, non-thermal electrons and a strong magnetic field. I argue that in order to make the right conclusions about gamma-ray burst and afterglow parameters from observations, it is crucial to have a firm understanding of the microphysics of collisionless shock. I present the results of self-consistent, three-dimensional particle-in-cell computational simulations of the collision of weakly magnetized plasma shells: The experiments show how a plasma instability generates a magnetic field in the shock. The field has strength up to percents of the equipartition value. The experiments also reveal a new, non-thermal electron acceleration mechanism that differs substantially from Fermi acceleration. Finally, I present the results from a new numerical tool that enables us to extract synthetic radiation spectra directly from the experiments. The preliminary results differ from synchrotron radiation but are consistent with GRB afterglow observations. I conclude that strong magnetic field generation, non-thermal particle acceleration and the emission of radiation that is consistent with GRB afterglow observations, are all unavoidable consequences of the collision between two relativistic plasma shells.
Laboratory astrophysical collisionless shock experiments on Omega and NIF
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Park, Hye-Sook; Ross, J. S.; Huntington, C. M.; Fiuza, F.; Ryutov, D.; Casey, D.; Drake, R. P.; Fiksel, G.; Froula, D.; Gregori, G.; Kugland, N. L.; Kuranz, C.; Levy, M. C.; Li, C. K.; Meinecke, J.; Morita, T.; Petrasso, R.; Plechaty, C.; Remington, B.; Sakawa, Y.; Spitkovsky, A.; Takabe, H.; Zylstra, A. B.
2016-03-01
We are performing scaled astrophysics experiments on Omega and on NIF. Laser driven counter-streaming interpenetrating supersonic plasma flows can be studied to understand astrophysical electromagnetic plasma phenomena in a controlled laboratory setting. In our Omega experiments, the counter-streaming flow plasma state is measured using Thomson scattering diagnostics, demonstrating the plasma flows are indeed super-sonic and in the collisionless regime. We observe a surprising additional electron and ion heating from ion drag force in the double flow experiments that are attributed to the ion drag force and electrostatic instabilities. [1] A proton probe is used to image the electric and magnetic fields. We observe unexpected large, stable and reproducible electromagnetic field structures that arise in the counter-streaming flows [2]. The Biermann battery magnetic field generated near the target plane, advected along the flows, and recompressed near the midplane explains the cause of such self-organizing field structures [3]. A D3He implosion proton probe image showed very clear filamentary structures; three-dimensional Particle-In-Cell simulations and simulated proton radiography images indicate that these filamentary structures are generated by Weibel instabilities and that the magnetization level (ratio of magnetic energy over kinetic energy in the system) is ∼0.01 [4]. These findings have very high astrophysical relevance and significant implications. We expect to observe true collisionless shock formation when we use >100 kJ laser energy on NIF.
Collisionless absorption in sharp-edged plasmas
Gibbon, P. ); Bell, A.R. )
1992-03-09
The absorption of subpicosecond, obliquely incident laser light is studied using a 11/2D particle-in-cell code. Density scale lengths from {ital L}/{lambda}=0.01 to 2 and laser irradiances between {ital I}{lambda}{sup 2}=10{sup 14} and 10{sup 18} W cm{sup {minus}2} {mu}m{sup 2} are considered. Vacuum heating'' (F. Brunel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 52 (1987)) dominates over resonance absorption for scale lengths {ital L}/{lambda}{lt}0.1, and is most efficient when {ital v}{sub osc}/{ital c}{congruent}3.1({ital L}/{lambda}){sup 2}. Absorbed energy is carried mainly by a superhot'' electron population with {ital U}{sub hot}{similar to}({ital I}{lambda}{sup 2}){sup 1/3--1/2}.
Nonlinear gyrofluid simulations of collisionless reconnection
Grasso, D.; Tassi, E.; Waelbroeck, F. L.
2010-08-15
The Hamiltonian gyrofluid model recently derived by Waelbroeck et al. [Phys. Plasmas 16, 032109 (2009)] is used to investigate nonlinear collisionless reconnection with a strong guide field by means of numerical simulations. Finite ion Larmor radius gives rise to a cascade of the electrostatic potential to scales below both the ion gyroradius and the electron skin depth. This cascade is similar to that observed previously for the density and current in models with cold ions. In addition to density cavities, the cascades create electron beams at scales below the ion gyroradius. The presence of finite ion temperature is seen to modify, inside the magnetic island, the distribution of the velocity fields that advect two Lagrangian invariants of the system. As a consequence, the fine structure in the electron density is confined to a layer surrounding the separatrix. Finite ion Larmor radius effects produce also a different partition between the electron thermal, potential, and kinetic energy, with respect to the cold-ion case. Other aspects of the dynamics such as the reconnection rate and the stability against Kelvin-Helmholtz modes are similar to simulations with finite electron compressibility but cold ions.
New Measure of the Dissipation Region in Collisionless Magnetic Reconnection
Zenitani, Seiji; Hesse, Michael; Klimas, Alex; Kuznetsova, Masha
2011-05-13
A new measure to identify a small-scale dissipation region in collisionless magnetic reconnection is proposed. The energy transfer from the electromagnetic field to plasmas in the electron's rest frame is formulated as a Lorentz-invariant scalar quantity. The measure is tested by two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations in typical configurations: symmetric and asymmetric reconnection, with and without the guide field. The innermost region surrounding the reconnection site is accurately located in all cases. We further discuss implications for nonideal MHD dissipation.
New Measure of the Dissipation Region in Collisionless Magnetic Reconnection
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zenitani, Seiji; Hesse, Michael; Klimas, Alex; Kuznetsova, Masha
2012-01-01
A new measure to identify a small-scale dissipation region in collisionless magnetic reconnection is proposed. The energy transfer from the electromagnetic field to plasmas in the electron s rest frame is formulated as a Lorentz-invariant scalar quantity. The measure is tested by two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations in typical configurations: symmetric and asymmetric reconnection, with and without the guide field. The innermost region surrounding the reconnection site is accurately located in all cases. We further discuss implications for nonideal MHD dissipation.
New Measure of the Dissipation Region in Collisionless Magnetic Reconnection
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zenitani, Seiji; Hesse, Michael; Klimas, Alex; Kuznetsova, Masha
2012-01-01
A new measure to identify a small-scale dissipation region in collisionless magnetic reconnection is proposed. The energy transfer from the electromagnetic field to plasmas in the electron s rest frame is formulated as a Lorentz-invariant scalar quantity. The measure is tested by two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations in typical configurations: symmetric and asymmetric reconnection, with and without the guide field. The innermost region surrounding the reconnection site is accurately located in all cases. We further discuss implications for nonideal MHD dissipation.
Collisionless shock experiments with lasers and observation of Weibel instabilities
Park, H.-S. Huntington, C. M.; Fiuza, F.; Levy, M. C.; Pollock, B. B.; Remington, B. A.; Ross, J. S.; Ryutov, D. D.; Turnbull, D. P.; Weber, S. V.; Drake, R. P.; Kuranz, C. C.; Froula, D. H.; Rosenberg, M.; Gregori, G.; Meinecke, J.; Koenig, M.; Kugland, N. L.; Lamb, D. Q.; Tzeferacos, P.; and others
2015-05-15
Astrophysical collisionless shocks are common in the universe, occurring in supernova remnants, gamma ray bursts, and protostellar jets. They appear in colliding plasma flows when the mean free path for ion-ion collisions is much larger than the system size. It is believed that such shocks could be mediated via the electromagnetic Weibel instability in astrophysical environments without pre-existing magnetic fields. Here, we present laboratory experiments using high-power lasers and investigate the dynamics of high-Mach-number collisionless shock formation in two interpenetrating plasma streams. Our recent proton-probe experiments on Omega show the characteristic filamentary structures of the Weibel instability that are electromagnetic in nature with an inferred magnetization level as high as ∼1% [C. M. Huntington et al., “Observation of magnetic field generation via the weibel instability in interpenetrating plasma flows,” Nat. Phys. 11, 173–176 (2015)]. These results imply that electromagnetic instabilities are significant in the interaction of astrophysical conditions.
Neutron Generation Simulations of Collisionless Shock Experiments on NIF
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wilks, S. C.; Higginson, D. P.; Weber, S. V.; Ryutov, D. D.; Ross, J. S.; Park, H.-S.; Fiuza, F.
2015-11-01
A series of simulations that model recent collisionless shock experiments at the NIF will be presented. In these experiments, two opposing CD plasmas flow into each other, both plasmas arising from lasers hitting planar CD targets separated by 6, 8, and 10mm. Where the plasma flows overlap, a symmetric peak of neutron generation was observed about the mid-plane. When one of the CD foils was replaced by CH, neutron generation was still observed, but with an asymmetry about the mid-plane. The hybrid PIC code LSP is used to model this interaction. Neutron yields, temporal profiles and burn widths obtained from simulation compare favorably with experimental measurements from NTOF and PTOF diagnostics. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. LLNL-ABS-675193.
Electron Weibel Instability Mediated Laser Driven Electromagnetic Collisionless Shock
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jia, Qing; Mima, Kunioki; Cai, Hong-Bo; Taguchi, Toshihiro; Nagatomo, Hideo; He, X. T.
2015-11-01
As a fundamental nonlinear structure, collisionless shock is widely studied in astrophysics. Recently, the rapidly-developing laser technology provides a good test-bed to study such shock physics in laboratory. In addition, the laser driven shock ion acceleration is also interested due to its potential applications. We explore the effect of external parallel magnetic field on the collisionless shock formation and resultant particle acceleration by using the 2D3V PIC simulations. We show that unlike the electrostatic shock generated in the unmagnetized plasma, the shock generated in the weakly-magnetized laser-driven plasma is mostly electromagnetic (EM)-like with higher Mach number. The generation mechanism is due to the stronger transverse magnetic field self-generated at the nonlinear stage of the electron Weibel instability which drastically scatters particles and leads to higher energy dissipation. Simulation results also suggest more ions are reflected by this EM shock and results in larger energy transfer rate from the laser to ions, which is of advantage for applications such as neutron production and ion fast ignition.
Respiration rates of two species of Gnathostomulids.
Schiemer, Fritz
1973-12-01
Respiration rates for two species of Gnathostomulida from poorly oxygenated subtidal sands of Bermuda were measured using Cartesian diver respirometers.ForHaplognathia cf.ruberrima a respiration-body weight regression gaveR=0.790·W (0,649) (in μl·10(-3)O2/h and μg wet weight). Respiration rates for adult animals ofGnathostomula sp. of a mean weight of 1.3 μg ranged between 0.25 and 0.63 μl·10(-3) O2/h. These rates are low when compared with literature data on meiobenthic species from a wider habitat range but similar to respiration rates of marine and limnic nematodes living in sediments with strongly reducing capacity.
Collisionless Reconnection with Weak Slow Shocks Under Anisotropic MHD Approximation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hirabayashi, K.; Hoshino, M.
2014-12-01
Magnetic reconnection accompanied by a pair of slow-mode shock waves, known as Petschek's theory, has been widely studied as an efficient mechanism to convert magnetically stored energy to thermal and/or kinetic energy in plasmas. Satellite observations in the Earth's magnetotail, on the other hand, report that the detection of slow shocks is rare compared with the theory. As an important step to bridge the gap between the observational fact and the Petschek-type reconnection, we performed one- and two- dimensional collisionless magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations of magnetic reconnection paying special attention to the effect of temperature anisotropy. In high-beta plasmas such as a plasma sheet in the magnetotail, it is expected that even weak temperature anisotropy can greatly modify the dynamics. We demonstrate that the slow shocks do exist in the reconnection layer even under the anisotropic temperature. The resultant shocks, however, are weaker than those in isotropic MHD in terms of plasma compression. In addition, the amount of magnetic energy released across the shock is extremely small, that is, the shock is no longer switch-off type. In spite of the weakness of the shocks, the reconnection rates measured by the inflow velocities are kept at the same level as the isotropic cases. Once the slow shock forms, the downstream plasma is heated in highly anisotropic manner, and the firehose-sense anisotropy affects the wave structure in the system. In particular, it is remarkable that the sequential order of propagation of slow shocks and rotational discontinuities reverses depending upon the magnitude of a superposed guide field. Our result is consistent with the rareness of the slow shock detection in the magnetotail, and implies that shocks do not necessarily play an important role. Furthermore, a variety of wave structure of a reconnection layer shown here will help interpretation of observational data in collisionless reconnection.
Nongyrotropic electron orbits in collisionless magnetic reconnection
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zenitani, S.
2016-12-01
In order to study inner workings of magnetic reconnection, NASA has recently launched Magnetospheric MultiScale (MMS) spacecraft. It is expected to observe electron velocity distribution functions (VDFs) at high resolution in magnetotail reconnection sites in 2017. Since VDFs are outcomes of many particle orbits, it is important to understand the relation between electron orbits and VDFs. In this work, we study electron orbits and associated VDFs in the electron current layer in magnetic reconnection, by using a two-dimensional particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation. By analyzing millions of electron orbits, we discover several new orbits: (1) Figure-eight-shaped regular orbits inside the super-Alfvenic electron jet, (2) noncrossing Speiser orbits that do not cross the midplane, (3) noncrossing regular orbits on the jet flanks, and (4) nongyrotropic electrons in the downstream of the jet termination region. Properties of these orbits are organized by a theory on particle orbits (Buchner & Zelenyi 1989 JGR). The noncrossing orbits are mediated by the polarization electric field (Hall electric field E_z) near the midplane. These orbits can be understood as electrostatic extensions of the conventional theory. Properties of the super-Alfvenic electron jet are attributed to the traditional Speiser-orbit electrons. On the other hand, the noncrossing electrons are the majority in number density in the jet flanks. This raise a serious question to our present understanding of physics of collisionless magnetic reconnection, which only assumes crossing populations. We will also discuss spatial distribution of energetic electrons and observational signatures of noncrossing electrons. Reference: Zenitani & Nagai (2016), submitted to Phys. Plasmas.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Treumann, R. A.; Baumjohann, W.
2015-10-01
The present review concerns the relevance of collisionless reconnection in the astrophysical context. Emphasis is put on recent developments in theory obtained from collisionless numerical simulations in two and three dimensions. It is stressed that magnetic reconnection is a universal process of particular importance under collisionless conditions, when both collisional and anomalous dissipation are irrelevant. While collisional (resistive) reconnection is a slow, diffusive process, collisionless reconnection is spontaneous. On any astrophysical time scale, it is explosive. It sets on when electric current widths become comparable to the leptonic inertial length in the so-called lepton (electron/positron) "diffusion region", where leptons de-magnetise. Here, the magnetic field contacts its oppositely directed partner and annihilates. Spontaneous reconnection breaks the original magnetic symmetry, violently releases the stored free energy of the electric current, and causes plasma heating and particle acceleration. Ultimately, the released energy is provided by mechanical motion of either the two colliding magnetised plasmas that generate the current sheet or the internal turbulence cascading down to lepton-scale current filaments. Spontaneous reconnection in such extended current sheets that separate two colliding plasmas results in the generation of many reconnection sites (tearing modes) distributed over the current surface, each consisting of lepton exhausts and jets which are separated by plasmoids. Volume-filling factors of reconnection sites are estimated to be as large as {<}10^{-5} per current sheet. Lepton currents inside exhausts may be strong enough to excite Buneman and, for large thermal pressure anisotropy, also Weibel instabilities. They bifurcate and break off into many small-scale current filaments and magnetic flux ropes exhibiting turbulent magnetic power spectra of very flat power-law shape W_b∝ k^{-α } in wavenumber k with power becoming as
Symbiotic two-species contact process
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
de Oliveira, Marcelo Martins; Dos Santos, Renato Vieira; Dickman, Ronald
2012-07-01
We study a contact process (CP) with two species that interact in a symbiotic manner. In our model, each site of a lattice may be vacant or host individuals of species A and/or B; multiple occupancy by the same species is prohibited. Symbiosis is represented by a reduced death rate μ<1 for individuals at sites with both species present. Otherwise, the dynamics is that of the basic CP, with creation (at vacant neighbor sites) at rate λ and death of (isolated) individuals at a rate of unity. Mean-field theory and Monte Carlo simulation show that the critical creation rate λc(μ) is a decreasing function of μ, even though a single-species population must go extinct for λ<λc(1), the critical point of the basic CP. Extensive simulations yield results for critical behavior that are compatible with the directed percolation (DP) universality class, but with unusually strong corrections to scaling. A field-theoretic argument supports the conclusion of DP critical behavior. We obtain similar results for a CP with creation at second-neighbor sites and enhanced survival at first neighbors in the form of an annihilation rate that decreases with the number of occupied first neighbors.
Steroidal saponins from two species of Dracaena.
Kougan, Guy Beddos; Miyamoto, Tomofumi; Tanaka, Chiaki; Paululat, Thomas; Mirjolet, Jean-François; Duchamp, Olivier; Sondengam, Beibam Lucas; Lacaille-Dubois, Marie-Aleth
2010-07-23
Four new steroidal saponins (1-4) were isolated from the stem and bark of two species of Dracaena: deistelianosides A and B (1 and 2) from D. deisteliana and arboreasaponins A and B (3 and 4) from D. arborea. Six known saponins and one known sapogenin were also isolated. The structures of 1-4 were established as diosgenin 3-O-[3-O-sulfate-alpha-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->4)]-beta-d-glucopyranoside (1), 1-O-beta-d-xylopyranosyl-(1-->2)-[alpha-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->3)]-beta-d-fucopyranosyl(23S,24S)-spirosta-5,25(27)-diene-1beta,3beta,23alpha,24alpha-tetrol 24-O-alpha-l-arabinopyranoside (2), pennogenin-3-O-alpha-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->2)-[alpha-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->3)]-[6-O-acetyl]-beta-d-glucopyranoside (3), and 24alpha-hydroxypennogenin 3-O-alpha-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->2)-[alpha-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->3)]-beta-d-glucopyranoside (4) using extensive 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic analyses and mass spectrometry. Cytotoxic activity of several of these compounds was evaluated against the HT-29 and HCT 116 human colon cancer cell lines.
Substratum preference of two species of Xanthoparmelia.
Deduke, Chris; Piercey-Normore, Michele D
2015-09-01
The distribution of established saxicolous lichens has been previously studied but substratum preference and elemental composition has been relatively unexplored. The objectives of this study were to compare ascospore germination and growth for two species of Xanthoparmelia using media supplemented with pulverized rock and to explore photobiont selectivity relative to ecological guilds. Mature apothecia from X. cumberlandia and X. viriduloumbrina were subjected to five treatments, which include water agar supplemented with crushed granodiorite, basalt, mica schist, dolostone, and malt yeast agar as the control. The algal actin gene was sequenced and the closest algal matches were retrieved from GenBank and analysed to produce a haplotype network. X. cumberlandia exhibited substratum preference for the mica schist treatment, while X. viriduloumbrina grew better on granodiorite and malt yeast agar relative to dolostone. Ascospore germination for both species failed to progress beyond the initial swelling and protrusion stage on the dolostone treatment. The actin gene sequences for the algae were most similar to those of Trebouxia jamesii. The rock substrates did not correspond with the photobiont haplotypes, which does not support the ecological guild hypothesis. This study provided insights into substratum preference and the suitability of the substratum for algal selection.
Kinetic simulaitons of astrophysical collisionless shocks (Invited)
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Spitkovsky, A.
2009-12-01
Nonthermal emission from a variety of astrophysical sources, including relativistic jets and supernova remnants, is often attributed to collisionless shocks. These shocks are inferred to accelerate particles and in some cases strongly amplify magnetic fields. How this happens remains to be clarified through both theory and observations. In this talk, I will present a summary of recent progress in kinetic modeling of collisionless shocks using particle-in-cell simulations. I will discuss the internal structure of relativistic and non-relativistic shocks, concentrating on the conditions necessary for particle acceleration. Large-scale shock simulations show ab-initio Fermi acceleration of particles from the thermal pool to power-law distributions and can set constraints on the shock acceleration efficiency and geometry. Other results that will be discussed include the amplification of magnetic fields by accelerated particles through streaming instabilities, and the electron-ion temperature equilibration in collisionless shocks.
Collisionless “thermalization” in the sheath of an argon discharge
Coulette, David Manfredi, Giovanni
2015-04-15
We performed kinetic Vlasov simulations of the plasma-wall transition for a low-pressure argon discharge without external magnetic fields, using the same plasma parameters as in the experiments of Claire et al. [Phys. Plasmas 13, 062103 (2006)]. Experimentally, it was found that the ion velocity distribution function is highly asymmetric in the presheath, but, surprisingly, becomes again close to Maxwellian inside the sheath. Here, we show that this “thermalization” can be explained by purely collisionless effects that are akin to the velocity bunching phenomenon observed in charged particles beams. Such collisionless thermalization is also observed in the presheath region close to the sheath entrance, although it is much weaker there and in practice probably swamped by collisional processes (standard or enhanced by instabilities)
Self-regulation of solar coronal heating process via the collisionless reconnection condition.
Uzdensky, Dmitri A
2007-12-31
I propose a new paradigm for solar coronal heating viewed as a self-regulating process keeping the plasma marginally collisionless. The mechanism is based on the coupling between two effects. First, coronal density controls the plasma collisionality and hence the transition between the slow collisional Sweet-Parker and the fast collisionless reconnection regimes. In turn, coronal energy release leads to chromospheric evaporation, increasing the density and thus inhibiting subsequent reconnection of the newly reconnected loops. As a result, statistically, the density fluctuates around some critical level, comparable to that observed in the corona. In the long run, coronal heating can be represented by repeating cycles of fast reconnection events (nanoflares), evaporation episodes, and long periods of slow magnetic stress buildup and radiative cooling of the coronal plasma.
A new fast reconnection model in a collisionless regime
Tsiklauri, David
2008-11-15
Based on the first principles [i.e., (i) by balancing the magnetic field advection with the term containing electron pressure tensor nongyrotropic components in the generalized Ohm's law; (ii) using the conservation of mass; and (iii) assuming that the weak magnetic field region width, where electron meandering motion supports electron pressure tensor off-diagonal (nongyrotropic) components, is of the order of electron Larmor radius] a simple model of magnetic reconnection in a collisionless regime is formulated. The model is general, resembling its collisional Sweet-Parker analog in that it is not specific to any initial configuration, e.g., Harris-type tearing unstable current sheet, X-point collapse or otherwise. In addition to its importance from the fundamental point of view, the collisionless reconnection model offers a much faster reconnection rate [M{sub c{sup '}}{sub less}=(c/{omega}{sub pe}){sup 2}/(r{sub L,e}L)] than Sweet-Parker's classical one (M{sub sp}=S{sup -1/2}). The width of the diffusion region (current sheet) in the collisionless regime is found to be {delta}{sub c{sup '}}{sub less}=(c/{omega}{sub pe}){sup 2}/r{sub L,e}, which is independent of the global reconnection scale L and is only prescribed by microphysics (electron inertial length, c/{omega}{sub pe}, and electron Larmor radius, r{sub L,e}). Amongst other issues, the fastness of the reconnection rate alleviates, e.g., the problem of interpretation of solar flares by means of reconnection, as for the typical solar coronal parameters the obtained collisionless reconnection time can be a few minutes, as opposed to Sweet-Parker's equivalent value of less than a day. The new theoretical reconnection rate is compared to the Magnetic Reconnection Experiment device experimental data by Yamada et al. [Phys. Plasmas 13, 052119 (2006)] and Ji et al. [Geophys. Res. Lett. 35, 13106 (2008)], and a good agreement is obtained.
Physics of collisionless shocks: theory and simulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stockem Novo, A.; Bret, A.; Fonseca, R. A.; Silva, L. O.
2016-01-01
Collisionless shocks occur in various fields of physics. In the context of space and astrophysics they have been investigated for many decades. However, a thorough understanding of shock formation and particle acceleration is still missing. Collisionless shocks can be distinguished into electromagnetic and electrostatic shocks. Electromagnetic shocks are of importance mainly in astrophysical environments and they are mediated by the Weibel or filamentation instability. In such shocks, charged particles gain energy by diffusive shock acceleration. Electrostatic shocks are characterized by a strong electrostatic field, which leads to electron trapping. Ions are accelerated by reflection from the electrostatic potential. Shock formation and particle acceleration will be discussed in theory and simulations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pelletier, Guy; Bykov, Andrei; Ellison, Don; Lemoine, Martin
2017-07-01
Relativistic astrophysical collisionless shocks represent outstanding dissipation agents of the huge power of relativistic outflows produced by accreting black holes, core collapsed supernovae and other objects into multi-messenger radiation (cosmic rays, neutrinos, electromagnetic radiation). This article provides a theoretical discussion of the fundamental physical ingredients of these extreme phenomena. In the context of weakly magnetized shocks, in particular, it is shown how the filamentation type instabilities, which develop in the precursor of pair dominated or electron-ion shocks, provide the seeds for the scattering of high energy particles as well as the agent which preheats and slows down the incoming precursor plasma. This analytical discussion is completed with a mesoscopic, non-linear model of particle acceleration in relativistic shocks based on Monte Carlo techniques. This Monte Carlo model uses a semi-phenomenological description of particle scattering which allows it to calculate the back-reaction of accelerated particles on the shock structure on length and momentum scales which are currently beyond the range of microscopic particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations.
Laboratory Observation of High-Mach Number, Laser-Driven Magnetized Collisionless Shocks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schaeffer, Derek; Fox, Will; Haberberger, Dan; Fiksel, Gennady; Bhattacharjee, Amitava; Barnak, Daniel; Hu, Suxing; Germaschewski, Kai
2017-06-01
Collisionless shocks are common phenomena in space and astrophysical systems, including solar and planetary winds, coronal mass ejections, supernovae remnants, and the jets of active galactic nuclei, and in many the shocks are believed to efficiently accelerate particles to some of the highest observed energies. Only recently, however, have laser and diagnostic capabilities evolved sufficiently to allow the detailed study in the laboratory of the microphysics of collisionless shocks over a large parameter regime. We present the first laboratory generation of high-Mach number magnetized collisionless shocks created through the interaction of an expanding laser-driven plasma with a magnetized ambient plasma. Time-resolved, two-dimensional imaging of plasma density and magnetic fields shows the formation and evolution of a supercritical shock propagating at magnetosonic Mach number Mms≈12. Particle-in-cell simulations constrained by experimental data further detail the shock formation and separate dynamics of the multi-ion-species ambient plasma. The results show that the shocks form on timescales as fast as one gyroperiod, aided by the efficient coupling of energy, and the generation of a magnetic barrier, between the piston and ambient ions. The development of this experimental platform complements present remote sensing and spacecraft observations, and opens the way for controlled laboratory investigations of high-Mach number collisionless shocks, including the mechanisms and efficiency of particle acceleration. The platform is also flexible, allowing us to study shocks in different magnetic field geometries, in different ambient plasma conditions, and in relation to other effects in magnetized, high-Mach number plasmas such as magnetic reconnection or the Weibel instability.
High Mach-number collisionless shock driven by a laser with an external magnetic field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Morita, T.; Sakawa, Y.; Kuramitsu, Y.; Ide, T.; Nishio, K.; Kuwada, M.; Ide, H.; Tsubouchi, K.; Yoneda, H.; Nishida, A.; Namiki, T.; Norimatsu, T.; Tomita, K.; Nakayama, K.; Inoue, K.; Uchino, K.; Nakatsutsumi, M.; Pelka, A.; Koenig, M.; Dong, Q.; Yuan, D.; Gregori, G.; Takabe, H.
2013-11-01
Collisionless shocks are produced in counter-streaming plasmas with an external magnetic field. The shocks are generated due to an electrostatic field generated in counter-streaming laser-irradiated plasmas, as reported previously in a series of experiments without an external magnetic field [T. Morita et al., Phys. Plasmas, 17, 122702 (2010), Kuramitsu et al., Phys. Rev. Lett., 106, 175002 (2011)] via laser-irradiation of a double-CH-foil target. A magnetic field is applied to the region between two foils by putting an electro-magnet (˜10 T) perpendicular to the direction of plasma expansion. The generated shocks show different characteristics later in time (t > 20ns).
Diagnosing collisionless energy transfer using field-particle correlations: gyrokinetic turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Klein, Kristopher G.; Howes, Gregory G.; Tenbarge, Jason M.
2017-08-01
Determining the physical mechanisms that extract energy from turbulent fluctuations in weakly collisional magnetized plasmas is necessary for a more complete characterization of the behaviour of a variety of space and astrophysical plasmas. Such a determination is complicated by the complex nature of the turbulence as well as observational constraints, chiefly that in situ measurements of such plasmas are typically only available at a single point in space. Recent work has shown that correlations between electric fields and particle velocity distributions constructed from single-point measurements produce a velocity-dependent signature of the collisionless damping mechanism. We extend this work by constructing field-particle correlations using data sets drawn from single points in strongly driven, turbulent, electromagnetic gyrokinetic simulations to demonstrate that this technique can identify the collisionless mechanisms operating in such systems. The velocity-space structure of the correlation between proton distributions and parallel electric fields agrees with expectations of resonant mechanisms transferring energy collisionlessly in turbulent systems. This work motivates the eventual application of field-particle correlations to spacecraft measurements in the solar wind, with the ultimate goal to determine the physical mechanisms that dissipate magnetized plasma turbulence.
Simulation of Experiments Generating Collisionless Shocks With Intense Lasers Using the CRASH Code
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Grosskopf, M. J.; Drake, R. P.; Kuranz, C. C.; Rutter, E. M.; Park, H. S.; Kugland, N. L.; Pollaine, S.; Ross, J. S.; Remington, B. A.; Ryutov, D.; Spitkovsky, A.; Gargate, L.; Gregori, G.; Bell, A.; Murphy, C.; Sakawa, Y.; Kuramitsu, Y.; Takabe, H.; Froula, D. H.; Fiksel, G.; Miniati, F.; Koenig, M.; Ravasio, A.; Liang, E.; Woosley, N.
2011-10-01
Collisionless shocks, shocks generated by plasma wave interactions in regions where the collisional mean-free-path for particles is long compared to the length scale for shock interaction, are found ubiquitously in astrophysics. Experiments to investigate collisionless shocks in a laboratory-scale system are being carried out on intense lasers; measuring the density, temperature, magnetic field, and velocity of counter-streaming flows generated by laser ablation. This poster reports hydrodynamic simulations modeling the ablative flow of plasma generated in order to assess potential designs and infer properties of collected data from previous single foil experiments. This work is funded by the Predictive Sciences Academic Alliances Program in NNSA-ASC via grant DEFC52-08NA28616.
Hewett, D.W.; Francis, G.E.; Max, C.E.
1990-06-29
Evidence from magnetospheric and solar flare research supports the belief that collisionless magnetic reconnection can proceed on the Alfven-wave crossing timescale. Reconnection behavior that occurs this rapidly in collisionless plasmas is not well understood because underlying mechanisms depend on the details of the ion and electron distributions in the vicinity of the emerging X-points. We use the direct implicit Particle-In-Cell (PIC) code AVANTI to study the details of these distributions as they evolve in the self-consistent E and B fields of magnetic reconnection. We first consider a simple neutral sheet model. We observe rapid movement of the current-carrying electrons away from the emerging X-point. Later in time an oscillation of the trapped magnetic flux is found, superimposed upon continued linear growth due to plasma inflow at the ion sound speed. The addition of a current-aligned and a normal B field widen the scope of our studies.
Model and particle-in-cell simulation of ion energy distribution in collisionless sheath
Zhou, Zhuwen; Kong, Bo; Luo, Yuee; Chen, Deliang; Wang, Yuansheng
2015-06-15
In this paper, we propose a self-consistent theoretical model, which is described by the ion energy distributions (IEDs) in collisionless sheaths, and the analytical results for different combined dc/radio frequency (rf) capacitive coupled plasma discharge cases, including sheath voltage errors analysis, are compared with the results of numerical simulations using a one-dimensional plane-parallel particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation. The IEDs in collisionless sheaths are performed on combination of dc/rf voltage sources electrodes discharge using argon as the process gas. The incident ions on the grounded electrode are separated, according to their different radio frequencies, and dc voltages on a separated electrode, the IEDs, and widths of energy in sheath and the plasma sheath thickness are discussed. The IEDs, the IED widths, and sheath voltages by the theoretical model are investigated and show good agreement with PIC simulations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Everson, E. T.; Schaeffer, D. B.; Bondarenko, A. S.; Vincena, S.; Compernolle, B. Van; Clark, S. E.; Constantin, C. G.; Niemann, C.
2013-10-01
The dynamics of energetic plasma explosions through a tenuous, magnetized plasma is of relevance to many astrophysical, ionospheric, and magnetospheric phenomena, such as the formation of collisionless shocks. Recent experiments at the University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA) utilized the LArge Plasma Device (LAPD) and the Raptor laser system to drive super-Alfvénic laser-plasma explosions through the uniform, magnetized background plasma of the LAPD. The 100 J, 25 ns FWHM Raptor laser ablated a graphite target directing the exploding debris-plasma quasi-perpendicularly to the background magnetic field (300 G). The debris-plasma interacted with the low-density (2 - 5 ×1012 cm-3), He plasma of the LAPD for 60 cm across the field lines and about 8 m along the field lines. Magnetic flux probes were used to measure wave behavior both perpendicular and parallel to the background field. Across field behavior shows signs of collisionless coupling between the debris and ambient plasma, leading to a field compression on the order of the Alfvénic Mach number (~ 1 . 4). The debris-explosion also produced strong parallel wave behavior resulting in large amplitude whistler (ΔB /Bo ~ 4 %) and Alfvén (ΔB /Bo ~ 10 %) waves.
Effects of electron inertia in collisionless magnetic reconnection
Andrés, Nahuel Gómez, Daniel; Martin, Luis; Dmitruk, Pablo
2014-07-15
We present a study of collisionless magnetic reconnection within the framework of full two-fluid MHD for a completely ionized hydrogen plasma, retaining the effects of the Hall current, electron pressure and electron inertia. We performed 2.5D simulations using a pseudo-spectral code with no dissipative effects. We check that the ideal invariants of the problem are conserved down to round-off errors. Our numerical results confirm that the change in the topology of the magnetic field lines is exclusively due to the presence of electron inertia. The computed reconnection rates remain a fair fraction of the Alfvén velocity, which therefore qualifies as fast reconnection.
Hydromagnetic waves, turbulence, and collisionless processes in the interplanetary medium
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Barnes, A.
1983-01-01
An extended discussion is conducted concerning the origin and evolution of interplanetary hydromagnetic waves and turbulence, and their influence on the large scale dynamics of the solar wind. The solar wind is at present the preeminent medium for the study of hydromagnetic waves and turbulence, providing an opportunity for advancement of understanding of the most fundamental processes of the astrophysical plasmas. All interplanetary fluctuations whose time scale is observed to be greater than 1 sec can be regarded as hydromagnetic fluctuations. It has been found to be simplest, and generally very satisfactory, to model interplanetary variations as fluctuations in an MHD fluid. Attention is given to the classification of wave modes, geometrical hydromagnetics, Alfven wave pressure, rugged invariants, and the kinetic theory of collisionless processes.
Collisionless microtearing modes in hot tokamaks: Effect of trapped electrons
Swamy, Aditya K.; Ganesh, R.; Brunner, S.; Vaclavik, J.; Villard, L.
2015-07-15
Collisionless microtearing modes have recently been found linearly unstable in sharp temperature gradient regions of large aspect ratio tokamaks. The magnetic drift resonance of passing electrons has been found to be sufficient to destabilise these modes above a threshold plasma β. A global gyrokinetic study, including both passing electrons as well as trapped electrons, shows that the non-adiabatic contribution of the trapped electrons provides a resonant destabilization, especially at large toroidal mode numbers, for a given aspect ratio. The global 2D mode structures show important changes to the destabilising electrostatic potential. The β threshold for the onset of the instability is found to be generally downshifted by the inclusion of trapped electrons. A scan in the aspect ratio of the tokamak configuration, from medium to large but finite values, clearly indicates a significant destabilizing contribution from trapped electrons at small aspect ratio, with a diminishing role at larger aspect ratios.
Effects of electron inertia in collisionless magnetic reconnection
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Andrés, Nahuel; Martin, Luis; Dmitruk, Pablo; Gómez, Daniel
2014-07-01
We present a study of collisionless magnetic reconnection within the framework of full two-fluid MHD for a completely ionized hydrogen plasma, retaining the effects of the Hall current, electron pressure and electron inertia. We performed 2.5D simulations using a pseudo-spectral code with no dissipative effects. We check that the ideal invariants of the problem are conserved down to round-off errors. Our numerical results confirm that the change in the topology of the magnetic field lines is exclusively due to the presence of electron inertia. The computed reconnection rates remain a fair fraction of the Alfvén velocity, which therefore qualifies as fast reconnection.
Structures of diffusion regions in collisionless magnetic reconnection
Umeda, Takayuki; Togano, Kentaro; Ogino, Tatsuki
2010-05-15
Detailed structures of diffusion regions in two-dimensional collisionless magnetic reconnection are studied by using an electromagnetic Vlasov simulation. It has been well known that plasma number density decreases near the X-point of the reconnection. However, numerical thermal fluctuations exist in particle-in-cell simulations, and there is a possibility that detailed structures near the X-point diffuse numerically when the number of particles per cell is not enough. In the present study, a high-resolution two-dimensional Vlasov simulation is performed. It is found that electron number density in the electron diffusion region decreases to a hundredth of the initial value. Structures of electron diffusion region are determined by the local electron inertial length.
Sub-adiabatic perpendicular electron heating across high-Mach number collisionless shocks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sundkvist, D. J.; Mozer, F.
2012-12-01
Spacecraft observations of a high Mach number quasi-perpendicular bow shock with high plasma beta have revealed electrons that were sub-adiabatic through the shock ramp because they were less heated than expected from conservation of the first adiabatic invariant. This stands out in contrast to existing theories of electron heating at collisionless shocks in which the electrons are adiabatically heated through compression or more-than-adiabatically heated due to additional effects such as anomalous resistivity induced by microinstabilites.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schaeffer, Derek
2013-10-01
Collisionless shocks occur ubiquitously in space plasmas and have been extensively studied insitu by spacecraft, though they are inherently limited in their flexibility. We present laboratory experiments utilizing a highly flexible laser geometry at UCLA to study the generation of magnetized, perpendicular collisionless shocks by a super-Alfvénic laser-ablated piston. Experiments were carried out on the LArge Plasma Device (LAPD), which can create a highly reproducible 20 m long by Ø1 m H or He magnetized (<= 2 kG) ambient plasma. The 100 J Raptor laser was used to ablate perpendicular to the background magnetic field a carbon target embedded in the LAPD plasma. Emission spectroscopy revealed a significant spread between laser debris charge states, consistent with 2D hybrid simulations that show fast-moving, highly ionized debris slipping through the ambient plasma, while slower, lower charge states drive a diamagnetic cavity. The cavity grew to several ion gyroradii and lasted around one gyroperiod, large and long enough to act like a piston by allowing laminar fields at the cavity edge to transfer energy from the debris to the background plasma. This is confirmed by spectroscopy, which shows a reduction in debris velocities relative to a non-magnetic case, and Thomson scattering, which shows an increase in electron densities and temperatures in the ambient plasma. An increase in the intensity of the ambient plasma seen by gated imaging also indicates an energetic population of electrons coincident with the cavity edge, while Stark-broadened ambient lines may indicate strong local electric fields. Magnetic flux probes reveal that the cavity launches whistler waves parallel to the background field, as well as a super-Alfvénic magnetosonic wave along the blowoff axis that has a magnetic field compression comparable to the Alfvenic Mach number, consistent with simulations that suggest a weak collisionless shock was formed. Supported by DOE and DTRA.
Momentum transport near a magnetic X line in collisionless reconnection
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cai, H. J.; Ding, D. Q.; Lee, L. C.
1994-01-01
Plasma dynamics and momentum transport near an X line during time-dependent magnetic reconnection in a collisionless plasma are investigated based on two-dimensional particle simulations. We find that a weakly skewed velocity distribution is formed near the magnetic X line, leading to the presence of off-diagonal elements of the plasma pressure tensor. Let the reconnection electric field be in the y direction. The gradients of the off-diagonal elements of the pressure tensor can provide a transport of the y momentum. During the normal magnetic reconnection, the momentum transport associated with the off-diagonal terms of the pressure tensor mediates a transfer of the y momentum from the region near the X line to regions outside the X line. A period of 'reverse magnetic reconnection,' during which the plasma kinetic energy is converted into magnetic energy, is also observed in the simulation. When reverse reconnection occurs, the gradients of the off-diagonal pressure tensor elements can mediate a transfer of y momentum into the X line. It is found that the inertial term also plays a significant role in the force balance near the magnetic X line. An explanation for the origin of the off-diagonal pressure terms is also given in this paper.
Collisional and collisionless expansion of Yukawa balls.
Piel, Alexander; Goree, John A
2013-12-01
The expansion of Yukawa balls is studied by means of molecular dynamics simulations of collisionless and collisional situations. High computation speed was achieved by using the parallel computing power of graphics processing units. When the radius of the Yukawa ball is large compared to the shielding length, the expansion process starts with the blow-off of the outermost layer. A rarefactive wave subsequently propagates radially inward at the speed of longitudinal phonons. This mechanism is fundamentally different from Coulomb explosions, which employ a self-similar expansion of the entire system. In the collisionless limit, the outer layers carry away most of the available energy. The simulations are compared with analytical estimates. In the collisional case, the expansion process can be described by a nonlinear diffusion equation that is a special case of the porous medium equation.
Stratified Simulations of Collisionless Accretion Disks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hirabayashi, Kota; Hoshino, Masahiro
2017-06-01
This paper presents a series of stratified-shearing-box simulations of collisionless accretion disks in the recently developed framework of kinetic magnetohydrodynamics (MHD), which can handle finite non-gyrotropy of a pressure tensor. Although a fully kinetic simulation predicted a more efficient angular-momentum transport in collisionless disks than in the standard MHD regime, the enhanced transport has not been observed in past kinetic-MHD approaches to gyrotropic pressure anisotropy. For the purpose of investigating this missing link between the fully kinetic and MHD treatments, this paper explores the role of non-gyrotropic pressure and makes the first attempt to incorporate certain collisionless effects into disk-scale, stratified disk simulations. When the timescale of gyrotropization was longer than, or comparable to, the disk-rotation frequency of the orbit, we found that the finite non-gyrotropy selectively remaining in the vicinity of current sheets contributes to suppressing magnetic reconnection in the shearing-box system. This leads to increases both in the saturated amplitude of the MHD turbulence driven by magnetorotational instabilities and in the resultant efficiency of angular-momentum transport. Our results seem to favor the fast advection of magnetic fields toward the rotation axis of a central object, which is required to launch an ultra-relativistic jet from a black hole accretion system in, for example, a magnetically arrested disk state.
Ion acoustic waves in a multi-ion plasma.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fried, B. D.; White, R. B.; Samec, T. K.
1971-01-01
An exact treatment of the multispecies ion acoustic dispersion relation is given for an argon/helium plasma. Phase velocity and damping are obtained as a function of ion-electron temperature ratio and relative densities of the two species. There are two important modes in the plasma, with quite different phase velocities, which are referred to as principal heavy ion mode and principal light ion mode. Which of these is dominant depends on the relative densities of the two components, but, in general, the light ion mode becomes important for surprisingly small light ion contamination. Approximate analytic expressions are derived from damping rates and phase velocities and their domains of validity are investigated. Relevance of the results for the investigation of collisionless shocks is discussed.
Igor D. Kaganovich; Oleg V. Polomarov; Constantine E. Theodosiou
2004-01-30
In low-pressure discharges, where the electron mean free path is larger or comparable with the discharge length, the electron dynamics is essentially nonlocal. Moreover, the electron energy distribution function (EEDF) deviates considerably from a Maxwellian. Therefore, an accurate kinetic description of the low-pressure discharges requires knowledge of the nonlocal conductivity operator and calculation of the non-Maxwellian EEDF. The previous treatments made use of simplifying assumptions: a uniform density profile and a Maxwellian EEDF. In the present study a self-consistent system of equations for the kinetic description of nonlocal, nonuniform, nearly collisionless plasmas of low-pressure discharges is reported. It consists of the nonlocal conductivity operator and the averaged kinetic equation for calculation of the non-Maxwellian EEDF. This system was applied to the calculation of collisionless heating in capacitively and inductively coupled plasmas. In particular, the importance of accounting for the nonuniform plasma density profile for computing the current density profile and the EEDF is demonstrated. The enhancement of collisionless heating due to the bounce resonance between the electron motion in the potential well and the external radio-frequency electric field is investigated. It is shown that a nonlinear and self-consistent treatment is necessary for the correct description of collisionless heating.
Schaeffer, D B; Fox, W; Haberberger, D; Fiksel, G; Bhattacharjee, A; Barnak, D H; Hu, S X; Germaschewski, K
2017-07-14
We present the first laboratory generation of high-Mach-number magnetized collisionless shocks created through the interaction of an expanding laser-driven plasma with a magnetized ambient plasma. Time-resolved, two-dimensional imaging of plasma density and magnetic fields shows the formation and evolution of a supercritical shock propagating at magnetosonic Mach number M_{ms}≈12. Particle-in-cell simulations constrained by experimental data further detail the shock formation and separate dynamics of the multi-ion-species ambient plasma. The results show that the shocks form on time scales as fast as one gyroperiod, aided by the efficient coupling of energy, and the generation of a magnetic barrier between the piston and ambient ions. The development of this experimental platform complements present remote sensing and spacecraft observations, and opens the way for controlled laboratory investigations of high-Mach number collisionless shocks, including the mechanisms and efficiency of particle acceleration.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schaeffer, D. B.; Fox, W.; Haberberger, D.; Fiksel, G.; Bhattacharjee, A.; Barnak, D. H.; Hu, S. X.; Germaschewski, K.
2017-07-01
We present the first laboratory generation of high-Mach-number magnetized collisionless shocks created through the interaction of an expanding laser-driven plasma with a magnetized ambient plasma. Time-resolved, two-dimensional imaging of plasma density and magnetic fields shows the formation and evolution of a supercritical shock propagating at magnetosonic Mach number Mms≈12 . Particle-in-cell simulations constrained by experimental data further detail the shock formation and separate dynamics of the multi-ion-species ambient plasma. The results show that the shocks form on time scales as fast as one gyroperiod, aided by the efficient coupling of energy, and the generation of a magnetic barrier between the piston and ambient ions. The development of this experimental platform complements present remote sensing and spacecraft observations, and opens the way for controlled laboratory investigations of high-Mach number collisionless shocks, including the mechanisms and efficiency of particle acceleration.
The various manifestations of collisionless dissipation in wave propagation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Benisti, Didier; Morice, Olivier; Gremillet, Laurent
2012-10-01
In this talk, we provide a theoretical description of collisionless dissipation [1], for an electrostatic wave propagating in a three-dimensional plasma, from the linear regime when it simply amounts to Landau damping, to the strongly nonlinear one when it significantly affects the wave group velocity, both, along and across the local wave number. We, moreover, discuss the impact of dissipation on the longitudinal and transverse extent of the wave packet, which allows us to reinterpret previously published kinetic simulations [2-4]. Finally, we illustrate our results on a two-dimensional simulation of stimulated Raman scattering.[4pt] [1] D. B'enisti, O. Morice, and L. Gremillet, Phys. Plasmas 16, 063110 (2012). [2] J. E. Fahlen, B. J. Winjum, T. Grismayer, and W. B. Mori, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 245002 (2009). [3] J. W. Banks, R. L. Berger, S. Brunner, B. I. Cohen, and J. A. F. Hittinger, Phys. Plasmas 18, 052102 (2011). [4] J. E. Fahlen, B. J. Winjum, T. Grismayer, and W. B. Mori, Phys. Rev. E 83, 045501(R) (2011).
Collisionless spectral-kinetic Simulation of the Multipole Resonance Probe
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dobrygin, Wladislaw; Szeremley, Daniel; Schilling, Christian; Oberrath, Jens; Eremin, Denis; Mussenbrock, Thomas; Brinkmann, Ralf Peter
2012-10-01
Plasma resonance spectroscopy is a well established plasma diagnostic method realized in several designs. One of these designs is the multipole resonance probe (MRP). In its idealized - geometrically simplified - version it consists of two dielectrically shielded, hemispherical electrodes to which an RF signal is applied. A numerical tool is under development, which is capable of simulating the dynamics of the plasma surrounding the MRP in electrostatic approximation. In the simulation the potential is separeted in an inner and a vacuum potential. The inner potential is influenced by the charged partilces and is calculated by a specialized Poisson solver. The vacuum potential fulfills Laplace's equetion and consists of the applied voltage of the probe as boundary condition. Both potentials are expanded in spherical harmonics. For a practical particle pusher implementation, the expansion must be appropriately truncated. Compared to a PIC simulation a grid is unnecessary to calculate the force on the particles. This work purpose is a collisionless kinetic simulation, which can be used to investigate kinetic effects on the resonance behavior of the MRP.[4pt] [1] M. Lapke et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 2008, 051502.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Scudder, Jack; Daughton, William
2008-06-01
Agyrotropy is a scalar measure of the departure of the pressure tensor from cylindrical symmetry about the local magnetic field direction. Ordinarily electrons are well modeled as gyrotropic with very small agyrotropy. Intensified layers of electron agyrotropy are demonstrated to highlight the thin electron gyroradius scale boundary regions adjoining separatrices, X and O lines of full particle simulations of collisionless magnetic reconnection. Examples are presented to show these effects in antiparallel and guide field geometries, pair plasmas, and simulations at a variety of mass ratios, including a hydrogen plasma. Agyrotropy has been determined from the PIC pressure tensor using a new, fast algorithm developed to correct discreteness contributions to the apparent agyrotropy. As a local scalar diagnostic, agyrotropy is shown to be potentially useful with single spacecraft data to identify the crossing or proximity of electron scale current layers, thus providing a kinetic level diagnosis of a given layer's ability to be a possible site of the collisionless reconnection process. Such kinetic tools are certainly complimentary to the other macroscopic signatures of reconnection. Because of the extreme circumstances required for electron agyrotropy, detection of these signatures with framing macroscopic signatures might prove useful for the discovery of new reconnection sites in nature and 3-D codes of collisionless reconnection. The agyrotropy in the 2-D PIC codes reflect long-lived bulges on the distribution function that appear to be organized by the direction and size of slowly evolving perpendicular electric fields in these layers and are not consistent with gyrophase bunching.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Balikhin, M. A.; Malkov, M.; Sagdeev, R.; Dudnikova, G.
2015-12-01
The structure of subcritical (laminar) collisionless shocks has been understood long time ago. When the Mach number exceeds a critical value, some of the incident ions are reflected. This needs to be included into the description of the shock structure and entropy production at the shock front. We present an analytical model of ion reflection from a quasi-perpendicular collisionless shock and the formation of the foot region associated with this reflection. Reflected ions perturb the electrostatic and magnetic fields in the foot region which we self-consistently include in determining the fraction of reflected ions, depending on the Mach number of the shock. The subsequent motion of the shock reflected ions downstream and formation of the downstream field structure is analyzed. Models for thermalization of the downstream plasma and approaches to Rankine-Hugoniot relations will also be discussed. The obtained overall shock structure is compared with the Cluster observations.
Two Species of Myxomycetes Causing Slime Mold of Sweet Potato
Lee, Sang Yeob; Cho, Weon Dae
2007-01-01
Specimens collected from sweet potato plants with slime mold symptoms in fields in Daejeon, Korea were examined. Two species of Myxomycetes, Fuligo septica and Stemonitis herbatica were identified based on their morphological characteristics. This is the first report that the two species of Myxomycetes cause slime mold of sweet potato in Korea. PMID:24015079
Two species of myxomycetes causing slime mold of sweet potato.
Kim, Wan Gyu; Lee, Sang Yeob; Cho, Weon Dae
2007-06-01
Specimens collected from sweet potato plants with slime mold symptoms in fields in Daejeon, Korea were examined. Two species of Myxomycetes, Fuligo septica and Stemonitis herbatica were identified based on their morphological characteristics. This is the first report that the two species of Myxomycetes cause slime mold of sweet potato in Korea.
Collisionless shocks in the heliosphere: A tutorial review
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stone, Robert G. (Editor); Tsurutani, Bruce T. (Editor)
1985-01-01
An update is presented on current knowledge of collisionless shocks in the heliosphere. The individual papers address: a quarter century of collisionless shock research, some macroscopic properties of shock waves in the heliosphere, microinstabilities and anomalous transport, and acceleration of energetic particles.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Horiuchi, R.; Pei, W.; Sato, T.
Dynamical behavior and physical mechanism of collisionless reconnection in the presence of an external driving source are investigated by means of two-dimensional and three-dimensional full particle simulations. A long time scale simulation for a two-dimensional open system discloses that there are two evolving regimes in the temporal behavior of collisionless reconnection, i.e. a steady regime and an intermittent regime. The relationship between an anomalous resistivity and collisionless driven reconnection is also discussed based on three-dimensional particle simulation. 1 Open boundary model Magnetic reconnection is often discussed with steady models. On the other hand, long time scale MHD simulation (Amo et al., 1995) has demonstrated that magnetic reconnection takes place intermittently when there exists a constant energy supply from the exterior region. Which situation is realized in collisionless reconnection in the presence of an external driving source? In order to investigate long time scale evolution of collisionless driven reconnection we develop a full particle simulation model for a two-dimensional open system (Horiuchi et al., 2001; Pei et al., 2001). The plasma inflow is driven by an external driving field imposed at the upstream boundary (y = ±yb), while plasmas can freely flow in and out across the downstream boundary (x = ±xb). The amplitude of driving field is set for zero at t = 0, and increases with time while keeping a bell-shaped profile near the center and a flat profile in the periphery for an initial short moment. After then a constant profile is kept with maximum flux input rate E0. Thus, the plasma inflow at the upstream boundary is mainly controlled by two key parameters, i.e. the strength E0 (flux input rate) and the early non-uniformity scale xd (input window size). At the downstream boundary field quantities are assumed that Ex, Ey and ∂Ez/∂x are continuous at x = ±xb. The
Cascaded proton acceleration by collisionless electrostatic shock
Xu, T. J.; Shen, B. F. E-mail: zhxm@siom.ac.cn; Zhang, X. M. E-mail: zhxm@siom.ac.cn; Yi, L. Q.; Wang, W. P.; Zhang, L. G.; Xu, J. C.; Zhao, X. Y.; Shi, Y.; Liu, C.; Pei, Z. K.
2015-07-15
A new scheme for proton acceleration by cascaded collisionless electrostatic shock (CES) is proposed. By irradiating a foil target with a moderate high-intensity laser beam, a stable CES field can be induced, which is employed as the accelerating field for the booster stage of proton acceleration. The mechanism is studied through simulations and theoretical analysis, showing that a 55 MeV seed proton beam can be further accelerated to 265 MeV while keeping a good energy spread. This scheme offers a feasible approach to produce proton beams with energy of hundreds of MeV by existing available high-intensity laser facilities.
New Expression for Collisionless Magnetic Reconnection Rate
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Klimas, Alexander J.
2014-01-01
For 2D, symmetric, anti-parallel, collisionless magnetic reconnection, a new expression for the reconnection rate in the electron diffusion region is introduced. It is shown that this expression can be derived in just a few simple steps from a physically intuitive starting point; the derivation is given in its entirety and the validity of each step is confirmed. The predictions of this expression are compared to the results of several long-duration, open-boundary PIC reconnection simulations to demonstrate excellent agreement.
New expression for collisionless magnetic reconnection rate
Klimas, Alex
2015-04-15
For 2D, symmetric, anti-parallel, collisionless magnetic reconnection, new expressions for the reconnection rate in the electron diffusion region are introduced. It is shown that these expressions can be derived in just a few simple steps from a physically intuitive starting point; the derivations are given in their entirety, and the validity of each step is confirmed. The predictions of these expressions are compared to the results of several long-duration, open-boundary particle-in-cell reconnection simulations to demonstrate excellent agreement.
Laser-Driven Magnetic Pistons Relevant to the Formation of Magnetized Collisionless Shocks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Everson, Erik; Bondarenko, A.; Schaeffer, D.; Constantin, C.; Vincena, S.; Van Compernolle, B.; Clark, S.; Winske, D.; Niemann, C.
2013-06-01
To study the dynamics that lead to magnetized collisionless shock formation, laboratory experiments were performed at the University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA) that utilize the Large Plasma Device (LAPD) and the Phoenix Laboratory Raptor laser to drive sub- and super-Alfvénic laser-plasma explosions through the uniform, magnetized ambient-plasma of the LAPD. The 130 J, 25 ns FWHM, 1053 nm Raptor laser pulse ablates a graphite target that produces a debris-plasma capable of driving diamagnetic cavities ≤55 cm (≤3 c/ωpi) for ≤6 gyro-periods in the low-density (2-5×1012 cm-3), magnetized (200-275 G) Hydrogen (or Helium) plasma of the LAPD. With the deployment of magnetic flux probes, the evolution and growth of the magnetic piston can be measured across the experimental volume, as well as the wave dynamics parallel to the background magnetic field.
The collisionless magnetoviscous-thermal instability
Islam, Tanim
2014-05-20
It is likely that nearly all central galactic massive and supermassive black holes are nonradiative: their accretion luminosities are orders of magnitude below what can be explained by efficient black hole accretion within their ambient environments. These objects, of which Sagittarius A* is the best-known example, are also dilute (mildly collisional to highly collisionless) and optically thin. In order for accretion to occur, magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) instabilities must develop that not only transport angular momentum, but also gravitational energy generated through matter infall, outward. A class of new magnetohydrodynamical fluid instabilities—the magnetoviscous-thermal instability (MVTI)—was found to transport angular momentum and energy along magnetic field lines through large (fluid) viscosities and thermal conductivities. This paper describes the analog to the MVTI, the collisionless MVTI (CMVTI), that similarly transports energy and angular momentum outward, expected to be important in describing the flow properties of hot, dilute, and radiatively inefficient accretion flows around black holes. We construct a local equilibrium for MHD stability analysis in this differentially rotating disk. We then find and characterize specific instabilities expected to be important in describing their flow properties, and show their qualitative similarities to instabilities derived using the fluid formalism. We conclude with further work needed in modeling this class of accretion flow.
High-energy Nd:glass laser facility for collisionless laboratory astrophysics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Niemann, C.; Constantin, C. G.; Schaeffer, D. B.; Tauschwitz, A.; Weiland, T.; Lucky, Z.; Gekelman, W.; Everson, E. T.; Winske, D.
2012-03-01
A kilojoule-class laser (Raptor) has recently been activated at the Phoenix-laser-facility at the University of California Los Angeles (UCLA) for an experimental program on laboratory astrophysics in conjunction with the Large Plasma Device (LAPD). The unique combination of a high-energy laser system and the 18 meter long, highly-magnetized but current-free plasma will support a new class of plasma physics experiments, including the first laboratory simulations of quasi-parallel collisionless shocks, experiments on magnetic reconnection, or advanced laser-based diagnostics of basic plasmas. Here we present the parameter space accessible with this new instrument, results from a laser-driven magnetic piston experiment at reduced power, and a detailed description of the laser system and its performance.
Collisionless shock structures of Earth and other planets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Greenstadt, Eugene W.; Moses, Stewart L.
1993-11-01
This report summarizes the closing segment of our multi-spacecraft, multi-instrument study of collisionless shock structure. In this last year of our study, we have necessarily concentrated on subjects that limited time and remaining resources could be expected to bring to reasonable stopping points, if not full conclusions. Our attention has been focused therefore on matters that were either well underway when the year began or that could be expected to yield rapidly completed reports publishable quickly in abbreviated versions. Contemporary publication delays prevent any new initiatives from reaching the literature within the year in the best of circumstances. The topics that fell into these categories were detailed plasma wave (pw) phenomenology in slow shocks in the Earth's distant geomagnetic tail, instantaneous orientations of thetaBn in quasiparallel (Qparallel) shock structure, and a comprehensive overview of the relationship between structural ULF waves in the Qll shock environment and waves in the magnetosphere, i.e. geomagnetic ULF pulsations. The remainder of this report describes our freshly completed results, discusses two related investigations of pw waves in the foreshock and magnetosheath, and appends the abstracts of published papers and the texts of papers in press.
Collisionless shock structures of Earth and other planets
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Greenstadt, Eugene W.; Moses, Stewart L.
1993-01-01
This report summarizes the closing segment of our multi-spacecraft, multi-instrument study of collisionless shock structure. In this last year of our study, we have necessarily concentrated on subjects that limited time and remaining resources could be expected to bring to reasonable stopping points, if not full conclusions. Our attention has been focused therefore on matters that were either well underway when the year began or that could be expected to yield rapidly completed reports publishable quickly in abbreviated versions. Contemporary publication delays prevent any new initiatives from reaching the literature within the year in the best of circumstances. The topics that fell into these categories were detailed plasma wave (pw) phenomenology in slow shocks in the Earth's distant geomagnetic tail, instantaneous orientations of theta(sub Bn) in quasiparallel (Q(sub parallel)) shock structure, and a comprehensive overview of the relationship between structural ULF waves in the Qll shock environment and waves in the magnetosphere, i.e. geomagnetic ULF pulsations. The remainder of this report describes our freshly completed results, discusses two related investigations of pw waves in the foreshock and magnetosheath, and appends the abstracts of published papers and the texts of papers in press.
Electron nongyrotropy in the context of collisionless magnetic reconnection
Aunai, Nicolas; Hesse, Michael; Kuznetsova, Maria
2013-09-15
Collisionless magnetized plasmas have the tendency to isotropize their velocity distribution function around the local magnetic field direction, i.e., to be gyrotropic, unless some spatial and/or temporal fluctuations develop at the particle gyroscales. Electron gyroscale inhomogeneities are well known to develop during the magnetic reconnection process. Nongyrotropic electron velocity distribution functions have been observed to play a key role in the dissipative process breaking the field line connectivity. In this paper, we present a new method to quantify the deviation of a particle population from gyrotropy. The method accounts for the full 3D shape of the distribution and its analytical formulation allows fast numerical computation. Regions associated with a significant degree of nongyrotropy are shown, as well as the kinetic origin of the nongyrotropy and the fluid signature it is associated with. Using the result of 2.5D Particle-In-Cell simulations of magnetic reconnection in symmetric and asymmetric configurations, it is found that neither the reconnection site nor the topological boundaries are generally associated with a maximized degree of nongyrotropy. Nongyrotropic regions do not correspond to a specific fluid behavior as equivalent nongyrotropy is found to extend over the electron dissipation region as well as in non-dissipative diamagnetic drift layers. The localization of highly nongyrotropic regions in numerical models and their correlation with other observable quantities can, however, improve the characterization of spatial structures explored by spacecraft missions.
COSMIC-RAY-INDUCED FILAMENTATION INSTABILITY IN COLLISIONLESS SHOCKS
Caprioli, D.; Spitkovsky, A.
2013-03-01
We used unprecedentedly large two-dimensional and three-dimensional hybrid (kinetic ions-fluid electrons) simulations of non-relativistic collisionless strong shocks in order to investigate the effects of self-consistently accelerated ions on the overall shock dynamics. The current driven by suprathermal particles streaming ahead of the shock excites modes transverse to the background magnetic field. The Lorentz force induced by these self-amplified fields tends to excavate tubular, underdense, magnetic-field-depleted cavities that are advected with the fluid and perturb the shock surface, triggering downstream turbulent motions. These motions further amplify the magnetic field, up to factors of 50-100 in knot-like structures. Once downstream, the cavities tend to be filled by hot plasma plumes that compress and stretch the magnetic fields in elongated filaments; this effect is particularly evident if the shock propagates parallel to the background field. Highly magnetized knots and filaments may provide explanations for the rapid X-ray variability observed in RX J1713.7-3946 and for the regular pattern of X-ray bright stripes detected in Tycho's supernova remnant.
Very High Mach Number Quasi-Perpendicular Collisionless Shocks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Scholer, M.; Comisel, H.
2011-12-01
A high Mach number quasi-perpendicular collisionless shock is studied with one-dimensional (1-D) full particle simulations. The Alfven Mach number is M_A=22, the shock normal-magnetic field angle is Θ=85 and the ion and electron beta (particle to magnetic pressure) is 0.5. We have used in the simulations a large value for the ratio of the electron plasma frequency to the gyrofrequency of ω_pe/Ω_ce=20, and a high value of the ion to electron mass ratio, (m_i/m_e=1500). The shock is highly non-stationary but does not exhibit the reformation pattern seen in previous simulations of lower Mach number perpendicular or quasi-perpendicular shocks. The magnetic field profiles flattens and steepens with a time period of 1.4-1.5 inverse ion gyrofrequencies while the ions are specular reflected from the steepened ramp and finally return downstream just at the subsequent steepening of the ramp. The scale of the ramp varies between ~ 10 to ~ 20 electron inertial lengths corresponding to the changes from a steep to a flat profile. By tracing all trajectories of the reflected ions in the simulation box we have determined the absolute reflection rate as well as an average energy gain related to the non-stationarity of the shock ramp. The reflection rate varies between almost zero percent during flat profiles and ~ 100 percent during steep profiles.
Theory of a cylindrical probe in a collisionless magnetoplasma
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Laframboise, J. G.; Rubinstein, J.
1976-01-01
A theory is presented for a cylindrical electrostatic probe in a collisionless plasma in the case where the probe axis is inclined at an angle to a uniform magnetic field. The theory is applicable to electron collection, and under more restrictive conditions, to ion collection. For a probe at space potential, the theory is exact in the limit where probe radius is much less than Debye length. At attracting probe potentials, the theory yields an upper bound and an adiabatic limit for current collection. At repelling probe potentials, it provides a lower bound. The theory is valid if the ratios of probe radius to Debye length and probe radius to mean gyroradius are not simultaneously large enough to produce extrema in the probe sheath potential. The numerical current calculations are based on the approximation that particle orbits are helices near the probe, together with the use of kinetic theory to relate velocity distributions near the probe to those far from it. Probe characteristics are presented for inclination angles from 0 to 90 deg and for probe-radius mean-gyroradius ratios from 0.1 to infinity. For an angle of 0 deg, the end-effect current is calculated separately.
The Impact of Geometrical Constraints on Collisionless Magnetic Reconnection
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hesse, Michael; Aunai, Nico; Kuznetsova, Masha; Frolov, Rebekah; Black, Carrrie
2012-01-01
One of the most often cited features associated with collisionless magnetic reconnection is a Hall-type magnetic field, which leads, in antiparallel geometries, to a quadrupolar magnetic field signature. The combination of this out of plane magnetic field with the reconnection in-plane magnetic field leads to angling of magnetic flux tubes out of the plane defined by the incoming magnetic flux. Because it is propagated by Whistler waves, the quadrupolar field can extend over large distances in relatively short amounts of time - in fact, it will extend to the boundary of any modeling domain. In reality, however, the surrounding plasma and magnetic field geometry, defined, for example, by the overall solar wind flow, will in practice limit the extend over which a flux tube can be angled out of the main plain. This poses the question to what extent geometric constraints limit or control the reconnection process and this is the question investigated in this presentation. The investigation will involve a comparison of calculations, where open boundary conditions are set up to mimic either free or constrained geometries. We will compare momentum transport, the geometry of the reconnection regions, and the acceleration if ions and electrons to provide the current sheet in the outflow jet.
The stability of a collisionless cosmological shell
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
White, Simon D. M.; Ostriker, J. P.
1990-01-01
The P3 M technique is used here to simulate the evolution of collisionless shells in an Omega = 1 universe. Starting from the spherical similarity solution, a bootstrap technique is used to follow the evolution over very large expansion factors. It is found that the overall structure follows the similarity solution for a long period during which bound clumps grow within the shell. At late times the growth of structure depends on induced velocity perturbations in material outside the shell. If such perturbations are suppressed, structure on the shell becomes self-similar. When induced motions in the background medium are included, the evolution at late times is dominated by large-scale modes as predicted by linear stability analysis. The stable final state appears to consist of one or two massive clumps on the edge of a spherical void. The possible application of these results to the origin of galaxies and large-scale structure is discussed.
Collisionless Dynamics and the Cosmic Web
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hahn, Oliver
2016-10-01
I review the nature of three-dimensional collapse in the Zeldovich approximation, how it relates to the underlying nature of the three-dimensional Lagrangian manifold and naturally gives rise to a hierarchical structure formation scenario that progresses through collapse from voids to pancakes, filaments and then halos. I then discuss how variations of the Zeldovich approximation (based on the gravitational or the velocity potential) have been used to define classifications of the cosmic large-scale structure into dynamically distinct parts. Finally, I turn to recent efforts to devise new approaches relying on tessellations of the Lagrangian manifold to follow the fine-grained dynamics of the dark matter fluid into the highly non-linear regime and both extract the maximum amount of information from existing simulations as well as devise new simulation techniques for cold collisionless dynamics.
Entropy production and collisionless fluid closure
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sarazin, Y.; Dif-Pradalier, G.; Zarzoso, D.; Garbet, X.; Ghendrih, Ph; Grandgirard, V.
2009-11-01
A novel method is proposed to construct collisionless fluid closures accounting for some kinetic properties. The idea consists in optimizing the agreement between the fluid and kinetic quasi-linear entropy production rates, so as to constrain the closure coefficients. This procedure is applied to the slab branch of the ion temperature gradient driven instability. Focusing on the kinetic regime characterized by slow waves, the closure proposed by Hammett and Perkins (Hammett and Perkins 1990 Phys. Rev. Lett. 64 3019) naturally emerges from the systematic identification of the kinetic and fluid entropy production rates. This closure is revealed to be extremely powerful well beyond the kinetic regime. Besides, it reconciles the fluid and kinetic linear stability diagrams in the two-dimensional space of the density and temperature gradient lengths. Such a method is systematic and generic. As such, it is applicable to other models and classes of instabilities.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moritaka, Toseo; Sakawa, Youichi; Kuramitsu, Yasuhiro; Morita, Taichi; Yamaura, Yuta; Ishikawa, Taishi; Takabe, Hideaki
2016-03-01
Collisionless shocks mediated by Weibel instability are attracting attention for their relevance to experimental demonstrations of astrophysical shocks in high-intensity laser facilities. The three dimensional structure of Weibel-mediated shocks is investigated through a fully kinetic particle-in-cell simulation. The structures obtained are characterized by the following features: (i) helical magnetic field lines elongated in the direction upstream of the shock region, (ii) high and low density filaments inside the helical field lines. These structures originate from the interaction between counter-streaming plasma flow and magnetic vortexes caused by Weibel instability, and potentially affect the shock formation mechanism.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aunai, N.; Hesse, M.; Kuznetsova, M. M.; Lavraud, B.
2014-12-01
The mechanisms controlling collisionless magnetic reconnection at electron scales are still poorly understood and the canonical symmetric 2D antiparallel reconnection configuration is quite limited in front of the great diversity of upstream plasma and field configurations reconnection can encounter. Therefore, efficient comparison between numerical simulations and in situ observations requires to look at features as generic as possible and to understand what can limit their generality. In this context, we will discuss the signatures of electron nongyrotropy, the impact of non kinetic equilibrium as an initial condition of asymmetric reconnection models, and of the orientation of the reconnection plane with respect to the upstream field in 2D models.
Charging-delay induced dust acoustic collisionless shock wave: Roles of negative ions
Ghosh, Samiran; Bharuthram, R.; Khan, Manoranjan; Gupta, M. R.
2006-11-15
The effects of charging-delay and negative ions on nonlinear dust acoustic waves are investigated. It has been found that the charging-delay induced anomalous dissipation causes generation of dust acoustic collisionless shock waves in an electronegative dusty plasma. The small but finite amplitude wave is governed by a Korteweg-de Vries Burger equation in which the Burger term arises due to the charging-delay. Numerical investigations reveal that the charging-delay induced dissipation and shock strength decreases (increases) with the increase of negative ion concentration (temperature)
Collisionless resistivity in a bifurcated current sheet
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Andriyas, T.; Spencer, E.
2014-06-01
The collisionless resistivity due to charged particle chaos in spatially inhomogeneous magnetic fields is calculated for two frequently observed magnetotail current sheets, the X line, and a bifurcated current sheet (BCS) over varying strengths of cross-tail electric field. The calculation is done for two charged species, protons and O+ ions, found in the magnetotail specially during active times. Chaotic behavior of the particles is studied for the chaos parameter κ≈1defined by Buchner and Zelenyi (1989) as the square root of minimum radius of curvature to the maximum particle gyroradius. The surface of section plot and maximal Lyapunov exponents are analyzed to compare the particle behavior in the two magnetic field topologies. It is found that the particle behavior in a BCS is chaotic around the two humps located at ±z0 and that the configuration is more chaotic than the X line (maximum Lyapunov exponent for X line is around 0.25 compared to 0.34 for BCS). The collisionless resistivity is calculated using the technique developed by Numata and Yoshida (2003). The method relies on a phenomenological equivalence between the particle loss rate from the chaos region and rate of change of momentum in the chaos region under steady state conditions. Rapid decay of the particles from the chaos region is modeled with exponential fits, and it is found that a double exponent is needed for O+ ions in an X line and for both species in the BCS. The resistivity thus calculated is found to be 9-10 orders of magnitude higher than the Spitzer resistivity.
Exploring Numerical (Naked) Singularity Formation with Collisionless Matter
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Okounkova, Maria; Hemberger, Daniel; Scheel, Mark
2017-01-01
A proposed channel for the formation of naked singularities (singularities without event horizons) is the collapse of collisionless matter. In 1991, Shapiro and Teukolsky numerically investigated the collapse of prolate spheroids of collisionless matter in axisymmetry, and found that for certain initial configurations, a singularity formed on the domain without the appearance of an apparent horizon. While this may be a candidate for naked singularity formation, the role of the axisymmetry of the configuration and the termination of the simulation at singularity formation leave the question of generically forming an event horizon open. We have implemented (fully backreacting, fully 3-dimensional) collisionless matter evolution in SpEC, the Spectral Einstein Code, and present our results for the collapse of various configurations of collisionless matter. We expand on previous results by excising singularities, giving more time for the appearance of an apparent horizon, and by considering a variety of initial configurations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dieckmann, M. E.; Folini, D.; Walder, R.
2017-03-01
The non-linear thin-shell instability (NTSI) may explain some of the turbulent hydrodynamic structures that are observed close to the collision boundary of energetic astrophysical outflows. It develops in non-planar shells that are bounded on either side by a hydrodynamic shock, provided that the amplitude of the seed oscillations is sufficiently large. The hydrodynamic NTSI has a microscopic counterpart in collisionless plasma. A sinusoidal displacement of a thin shell, which is formed by the collision of two clouds of unmagnetized electrons and protons, grows and saturates on time-scales of the order of the inverse proton plasma frequency. Here we increase the wavelength of the seed perturbation by a factor of 4 compared to that in a previous study. Like in the case of the hydrodynamic NTSI, the increase in the wavelength reduces the growth rate of the microscopic NTSI. The prolonged growth time of the microscopic NTSI allows the waves, which are driven by the competing ion acoustic instability, to grow to a large amplitude before the NTSI saturates and they disrupt the latter. The ion acoustic instability thus imposes a limit on the largest wavelength that can be destabilized by the NTSI in collisionless plasma. The limit can be overcome by binary collisions. We bring forward evidence for an overstability of the collisionless NTSI.
Generation of Quasi-Perpendicular Collisionless Shocks by a Laser-Driven Magnetic Piston
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schaeffer, Derek
Collisionless shocks are ubiquitous in many space and astrophysical plasmas. However, since space shocks are largely steady-state, spacecraft are not well suited to studying shock formation in situ. This work is concerned with the generation and study in a laboratory setting of magnetized, quasi-perpendicular collisionless shocks relevant to space shocks. Experiments performed at the Large Plasma Device (LAPD) at UCLA and the Trident Laser Facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) combined a magnetic piston driven by a high-energy laser (Raptor at UCLA or Trident at LANL) incident on a carbon target with a preformed, magnetized background plasma. Magnetic flux measurements and 2D hybrid simulations indicate that a magnetosonic pulse consistent with a low-Mach number collisionless shock was formed in the ambient plasma. The characteristics of the shock are analyzed and compared to other experiments in which no shock or a shock precursor formed. The results and simulations reveal that the various experimental conditions can be organized into weak and moderate coupling regimes, in which no shock forms, and a strong coupling regime, in which a full shock forms. A framework for studying these regimes and designing future shock experiments is devised. Early-time laser-plasma parameters necessary to characterize the different shock coupling regimes are studied through experiments performed at the LAPD and Phoenix laboratory at UCLA. In addition to spectroscopic and fast-gate filtered photography, the experiments utilize a custom Thomson scattering diagnostic, optimized for a novel electron density and temperature regime where the transition from collective to non-collective scattering could be spatially resolved. Data from the experiments and 3D analytic modeling indicate that the laser-plasma is best fit at early times with an isentropic, adiabatic fluid model and is consistent with a recombination-dominated plasma for which the electron temperature Te∝ t -1
The Saturnian Environment as a Unique Laboratory for Collisionless Shock Waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sulaiman, Ali; Masters, Adam; Dougherty, Michele; Burgess, David; Fujimoto, Masaki; Hospodarsky, George
2016-04-01
Collisionless shock waves are ubiquitous in the universe and fundamental to understanding the nature of collisionless plasmas. The interplay between particles (ions and electrons) and fields (electromagnetic) introduces a variety of both physical and geometrical parameters such as Mach numbers (e.g. MA, Mf), β, and θBn. These vary drastically from terrestrial to astrophysical regimes resulting in radically different characteristics of shocks. This poses two complexities. Firstly, separating the influences of these parameters on physical mechanisms such as energy dissipation. Secondly, correlating observations of shock waves over a wide range of each parameter, enough to span across different regimes. Investigating the latter has been restricted since the majority of studies on shocks at exotic regimes (such as supernova remnants) have been achieved either remotely or via simulations, but rarely by means of in-situ observations. It is not clear what happens in the higher MA regime. Here we show the parameter space of MA for all bow shock crossings from 2004-2012 as measured by the Cassini spacecraft. We found that the Saturnian bow shock exhibits characteristics akin to both terrestrial and astrophysical regimes (MA of order 100), which is principally controlled by the upstream magnetic field strength. Moreover, we estimated the θbn of each crossing and were able to further constrain the sample into categories of similar features. Our results demonstrate how MA plays a central role in controlling the onset of physical mechanisms in collisionless shocks, particularly reformation. While ongoing studies have investigated this process extensively both theoretically and via simulations, their observations remain few and far between. We show conclusive evidence for cyclic reformation controlled by specular ion reflection occurring at the predicted timescale of ˜0.3 τc, where τc is the ion gyroperiod. In addition, we experimentally underpin the relationship between
Phorid Flies in Alabama: A tale of two species
USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database
Two species of phorid fly have been released at 11 sites in Alabama and have been recovered from 9 sites. Pseudacteon tricuspis Borgmeier (Diptera: Phoridae) was released in South Alabama in populations of the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta Buren (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), and Pseudacteon...
Effects of electron drifts on collisionless damping of kinetic Alfvén waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tong, Yuguang; Bale, Stuart; Chen, Christopher; Salem, Chadi; Verscharen, Daniel
2015-04-01
Collisionless dissipation of obliquely propogating Alfvén waves has been a promising candidate to solve the solar wind heating problem. Extensive studies have examined kinetic properties of Alfvén waves in simple Maxwellian or Bi-Maxwellian plasmas. However, the solar wind electron velocity distribution function is more complex. A study of Alfvén waves in a plasma, whose electrons consist of two drifting populations in the proton bulk frame, is reported here. We numerically solve the linearized Maxwell-Vlasov equations and find that the damping rate and the proton-electron energy partition for Alfven waves have been significantly modified in such plasmas, comparing to their counterparts without electron drifts. We suggest that electron drift is an important factor to take into account when considering the dissipation of Alfvénic turbulence in the solar wind.
Effects of electron drifts on collisionless damping of Alfvén waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tong, Y.; Bale, S. D.; Chen, C. H. K.
2014-12-01
Collisionless dissipation of obliquely propogating Alfvén waves has been a promising candidate to solve the coronal and the solar wind heating problem. Extensive studies have examined kinetic properties of Alfvén waves in simple Maxwellian or Bi-Maxwellian plasmas. However, the solar wind electron velocity distribution function is more complex. A study of Alfvén waves in a plasma, whose electrons consist of two drifting populations in the proton bulk frame, is reported here. By numerically solving the linearized Maxwell-Vlasov equations, we find that the damping rate and the proton-electron energy partition for Alfven waves have been significantly modified in such plasmas, comparing to their counterparts without electron drifts. We suggest that electron drift is an important factor to take into account when considering the dissipation of Alfvénic turbulence in the solar wind.
Particle-in-Cell Simulations of Collisionless Magnetic Reconnection with a Non-Uniform Guide Field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wilson, Fiona; Neukirch, Thomas; Hesse, Michael
2016-04-01
Results are presented of a first study of collisionless magnetic reconnection starting from a recently found exact nonlinear force-free Vlasov-Maxwell equilibrium. The initial state has a Harris sheet magnetic field profile in one direction and a non-uniform guide field in a second direction, resulting in a spatially constant magnetic field strength as well as a constant initial plasma density and plasma pressure. It is found that the reconnection process initially resembles guide field reconnection, but that a gradual transition to anti-parallel reconnection happens as the system evolves. The time evolution of a number of plasma parameters is investigated, and the results are compared with simulations starting from a Harris sheet equilibrium and a Harris sheet plus constant guide field equilibrium.
Particle-in-cell simulations of collisionless magnetic reconnection with a non-uniform guide field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wilson, F.; Neukirch, T.; Hesse, M.; Harrison, M. G.; Stark, C. R.
2016-03-01
Results are presented of a first study of collisionless magnetic reconnection starting from a recently found exact nonlinear force-free Vlasov-Maxwell equilibrium. The initial state has a Harris sheet magnetic field profile in one direction and a non-uniform guide field in a second direction, resulting in a spatially constant magnetic field strength as well as a constant initial plasma density and plasma pressure. It is found that the reconnection process initially resembles guide field reconnection, but that a gradual transition to anti-parallel reconnection happens as the system evolves. The time evolution of a number of plasma parameters is investigated, and the results are compared with simulations starting from a Harris sheet equilibrium and a Harris sheet plus constant guide field equilibrium.
Particle-in-cell simulations of collisionless magnetic reconnection with a non-uniform guide field
Wilson, F. Neukirch, T. Harrison, M. G.; Hesse, M.; Stark, C. R.
2016-03-15
Results are presented of a first study of collisionless magnetic reconnection starting from a recently found exact nonlinear force-free Vlasov–Maxwell equilibrium. The initial state has a Harris sheet magnetic field profile in one direction and a non-uniform guide field in a second direction, resulting in a spatially constant magnetic field strength as well as a constant initial plasma density and plasma pressure. It is found that the reconnection process initially resembles guide field reconnection, but that a gradual transition to anti-parallel reconnection happens as the system evolves. The time evolution of a number of plasma parameters is investigated, and the results are compared with simulations starting from a Harris sheet equilibrium and a Harris sheet plus constant guide field equilibrium.
Fundamentals of collisionless shocks for astrophysical application, 1. Non-relativistic shocks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Treumann, R. A.
2009-12-01
A comprehensive review is given of the theory and properties of nonrelativistic shocks in hot collisionless plasmas—in view of their possible application in astrophysics. Understanding non-relativistic collisionless shocks is an indispensable step towards a general account of collisionless astrophysical shocks of high Mach number and of their effects in dissipating flow-energy, in heating matter, in accelerating particles to high—presumably cosmic-ray—energies, and in generating detectable radiation from radio to X-rays. Non-relativistic shocks have Alfvénic Mach numbers {{fancyscript{M}}_A≪ sqrt{m_i/m_e}(ω_{pe}/ω_{ce})}, where m i / m e is the ion-to-electron mass ratio, and ω pe , ω ce are the electron plasma and cyclotron frequencies, respectively. Though high, the temperatures of such shocks are limited (in energy units) to T < m e c 2. This means that particle creation is inhibited, classical theory is applicable, and reaction of radiation on the dynamics of the shock can be neglected. The majority of such shocks are supercritical, meaning that non-relativistic shocks are unable to self-consistently produce sufficient dissipation and, thus, to sustain a stationary shock transition. As a consequence, supercritical shocks act as efficient particle reflectors. All these shocks are microscopically thin, with shock-transition width of the order of the ion inertial length λ i = c/ ω pi (with ω pi the ion plasma frequency). The full theory of such shocks is developed, and the different possible types of shocks are defined. Since all collisionless shocks are magnetised, the most important distinction is between quasi-perpendicular and quasi-parallel shocks. The former propagate about perpendicularly, the latter roughly parallel to the upstream magnetic field. Their manifestly different behaviours are described in detail. In particular, although both types of shocks are non-stationary, they have completely different reformation cycles. From numerical
Analytical model of Weibel-mediated electron-ion collisionless shock formation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ruyer, C.; Gremillet, L.; Bonnaud, G.; Riconda, C.
2015-11-01
We address the formation of ion-electron collisionless shocks in the non-relativistic regime. The shocks formed by the non-linear evolution of the Weibel-type instabilities, arise during plasma collisions in numerous high-energy astrophysical scenario such as pulsar wind nebulae or supernova remnants. For the first time, a predictive fully analytical model of the ion Weibel saturation based on the coalescence of filaments is presented and allows to describe the evolution of the plasma and its characteristics until shock-formation. It is compared successfully to Weibel-mediated shock simulations until quasi-isotropisation of the ions, and close to shock formation. Our model compares well with two different recent experiments and allows us to pinpoint the role of the electron screening on the ion-Weibel dynamics. Our theoretical results, supported by both experiments and simulations, proves for the first time the effect of an artificially low ion to electron mass ratio on the formation of collisionless shocks commonly used in many numerical works.
Global impact of collisionless magnetic reconnection on the structure of planetary magnetospheres
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dorelli, J.; Glocer, A.; Collinson, G.; Toth, G.
2014-12-01
While the local physics of collisionless magnetic reconnection has been well studied, the consequences for global magnetospheric structure remain largely unexplored. It is well known, for example, that Hall electric fields generate a new system of field-aligned currents propagating from the reconnection site along the magnetic separatrices; but it is not known how these currents contribute to the global region 1 and region 2 current systems or to auroral substorm features. In this presentation, we show that collisionless reconnection has a significant impact on the large scale structure of planetary magnetospheres. Using global Hall MHD simulations, we demonstrate that field-aligned currents generated at the reconnection sites (and carried by whistler or kinetic Alfven waves) extend all the way down to the surface of the magnetized body and must therefore be included in the magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling physics (e.g., Harang-like discontinuities in the ionospheric convection pattern -- absent in MHD -- are introduced, and the current densities are large enough to produce auroral emission). More surprisingly, ions and electrons pick up magnetic drifts (due to JxB forces in the ion diffusion regions) that significantly alter the global magnetospheric convection pattern. Ions in the plasma sheet drift duskward while electrons drift dawnward, producing large asymmetries in the plasma sheet structure even in the absense of solar wind asymmetry, asymmetric ionospheric conductance or co-rotation. We discuss the implications of these effects for the reconnection-driven magnetospheres of Ganymede, Mercury and Earth.
Collisionless shock formation and the prompt acceleration of solar flare ions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cargill, P. J.; Goodrich, C. C.; Vlahos, L.
1988-01-01
The formation mechanisms of collisionless shocks in solar flare plasmas are investigated. The priamry flare energy release is assumed to arise in the coronal portion of a flare loop as many small regions or 'hot spots' where the plasma beta locally exceeds unity. One dimensional hybrid numerical simulations show that the expansion of these 'hot spots' in a direction either perpendicular or oblique to the ambient magnetic field gives rise to collisionless shocks in a few Omega(i), where Omega(i) is the local ion cyclotron frequency. For solar parameters, this is less than 1 second. The local shocks are then subsequently able to accelerate particles to 10 MeV in less than 1 second by a combined drift-diffusive process. The formation mechanism may also give rise to energetic ions of 100 keV in the shock vicinity. The presence of these energetic ions is due either to ion heating or ion beam instabilities and they may act as a seed population for further acceleration. The prompt acceleration of ions inferred from the Gamma Ray Spectrometer on the Solar Maximum Mission can thus be explained by this mechanism.
Double adiabatic theory of driven collisionless geodesic acoustic modes (GAMs) in toroids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hassam, Adil; Kleva, Robert
2011-10-01
The GAM is an axisymmetric oscillation of a toroidal magnetically confined plasma, resulting from an interplay between poloidal plasma rotation and perpendicular flux tube compression from the B field gradient. The frequency is super-parallel-sonic, ie, omega ~ (ion thermal speed)/R, greater than the parallel acoustic mode which is lower by a factor of q. Consequently, collisionless geodesic acoustic modes in tokamaks can be described by the Chew-Goldberger-Low double-adiabatic fluid closures. This allows a simpler nonlinear formulation. We use these equations to study driven, collisionless GAMs in tokamaks. The motivation for this study is a proposal by Hallatschek and McKee to drive GAMs on the D3D tokamak at resonance. The drivers in the CGL theory include external magnetic forces to effect flux surface displacements as well as sources to provide modulated non-axisymmetric ion heating. We show that the linear mode frequency from CGL theory agrees with previous kinetic results. Comparisons will be made between different approaches to resonate the mode. Nonlinear effects will be evaluated. A 2D toroidal numerical simulation of driven GAMs is in progress. Work supported by US-DOE.
Double adiabatic theory of driven collisionless geodesic acoustic modes (GAMs) in toroids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hassam, Adil; Kleva, Robert; Sengupta, Wrick
2012-03-01
The GAM is an axisymmetric oscillation of a toroidal magnetically confined plasma, resulting from an interplay between poloidal plasma rotation and perpendicular flux tube compression from the B field gradient. The frequency is super-parallel-sonic, ie, φ ˜ (ion thermal speed)/R, greater than the parallel acoustic mode which is lower by a factor of q. Consequently, collisionless geodesic acoustic modes in tokamaks can be described by the Chew-Goldberger-Low double-adiabatic fluid closures. This allows a simpler nonlinear formulation. We use these equations to study driven, collisionless GAMs in tokamaks. The motivation for this study is a proposal by Hallatschek and McKee to drive GAMs on the D3D tokamak at resonance. The drivers in the CGL theory include external magnetic forces to effect flux surface displacements as well as sources to provide modulated non-axisymmetric ion heating. We show that the linear mode frequency from CGL theory agrees with previous kinetic results. Comparisons will be made between different approaches to resonate the mode. Nonlinear effects will be evaluated. Results of a 2D toroidal numerical simulation of driven GAMs are described
Collisionless microinstabilities in stellarators. II. Numerical simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Proll, J. H. E.; Xanthopoulos, P.; Helander, P.
2013-12-01
Microinstabilities exhibit a rich variety of behavior in stellarators due to the many degrees of freedom in the magnetic geometry. It has recently been found that certain stellarators (quasi-isodynamic ones with maximum-J geometry) are partly resilient to trapped-particle instabilities, because fast-bouncing particles tend to extract energy from these modes near marginal stability. In reality, stellarators are never perfectly quasi-isodynamic, and the question thus arises whether they still benefit from enhanced stability. Here, the stability properties of Wendelstein 7-X and a more quasi-isodynamic configuration, QIPC, are investigated numerically and compared with the National Compact Stellarator Experiment and the DIII-D tokamak. In gyrokinetic simulations, performed with the gyrokinetic code GENE in the electrostatic and collisionless approximation, ion-temperature-gradient modes, trapped-electron modes, and mixed-type instabilities are studied. Wendelstein 7-X and QIPC exhibit significantly reduced growth rates for all simulations that include kinetic electrons, and the latter are indeed found to be stabilizing in the energy budget. These results suggest that imperfectly optimized stellarators can retain most of the stabilizing properties predicted for perfect maximum-J configurations.
On Relaxation Processes in Collisionless Mergers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Valluri, Monica; Vass, Ileana M.; Kazantzidis, Stelios; Kravtsov, Andrey V.; Bohn, Courtlandt L.
2007-04-01
We analyze N-body simulations of halo mergers to investigate the mechanisms responsible for driving mixing in phase space and the evolution to dynamical equilibrium. We focus on mixing in energy and angular momentum and show that mixing occurs in a steplike fashion following pericenter passages of the halos. This makes mixing during a merger unlike other well-known mixing processes such as phase mixing and chaotic mixing, whose rates scale with local dynamical time. We conclude that the mixing process that drives the system to equilibrium is primarily a response to energy and angular momentum redistribution that occurs due to impulsive tidal shocking and dynamical friction rather than a result of chaotic mixing in a changing potential. We also analyze the merger remnants to determine the degree of mixing at various radii by monitoring changes in radius, energy, and angular momentum of particles. We confirm previous findings that show that the majority of particles retain strong memory of their original kinetic energies and angular momenta, but do experience changes in their potential energies owing to the tidal shocks they experience during pericenter passages. Finally, we show that a significant fraction of mass (~40%) in the merger remnant lies outside its formal virial radius, and that this matter is ejected roughly uniformly from all radii outside the inner regions. This highlights the fact that mass, in its standard virial definition, is not additive in mergers. We discuss the implications of these results for our understanding of relaxation in collisionless dynamical systems.
Expansion techniques for collisionless stellar dynamical simulations
Meiron, Yohai; Li, Baile; Holley-Bockelmann, Kelly; Spurzem, Rainer
2014-09-10
We present graphics processing unit (GPU) implementations of two fast force calculation methods based on series expansions of the Poisson equation. One method is the self-consistent field (SCF) method, which is a Fourier-like expansion of the density field in some basis set; the other method is the multipole expansion (MEX) method, which is a Taylor-like expansion of the Green's function. MEX, which has been advocated in the past, has not gained as much popularity as SCF. Both are particle-field methods and optimized for collisionless galactic dynamics, but while SCF is a 'pure' expansion, MEX is an expansion in just the angular part; thus, MEX is capable of capturing radial structure easily, while SCF needs a large number of radial terms. We show that despite the expansion bias, these methods are more accurate than direct techniques for the same number of particles. The performance of our GPU code, which we call ETICS, is profiled and compared to a CPU implementation. On the tested GPU hardware, a full force calculation for one million particles took ∼0.1 s (depending on expansion cutoff), making simulations with as many as 10{sup 8} particles fast for a comparatively small number of nodes.
Collisionless microinstabilities in stellarators. II. Numerical simulations
Proll, J. H. E.; Xanthopoulos, P.; Helander, P.
2013-12-15
Microinstabilities exhibit a rich variety of behavior in stellarators due to the many degrees of freedom in the magnetic geometry. It has recently been found that certain stellarators (quasi-isodynamic ones with maximum-J geometry) are partly resilient to trapped-particle instabilities, because fast-bouncing particles tend to extract energy from these modes near marginal stability. In reality, stellarators are never perfectly quasi-isodynamic, and the question thus arises whether they still benefit from enhanced stability. Here, the stability properties of Wendelstein 7-X and a more quasi-isodynamic configuration, QIPC, are investigated numerically and compared with the National Compact Stellarator Experiment and the DIII-D tokamak. In gyrokinetic simulations, performed with the gyrokinetic code GENE in the electrostatic and collisionless approximation, ion-temperature-gradient modes, trapped-electron modes, and mixed-type instabilities are studied. Wendelstein 7-X and QIPC exhibit significantly reduced growth rates for all simulations that include kinetic electrons, and the latter are indeed found to be stabilizing in the energy budget. These results suggest that imperfectly optimized stellarators can retain most of the stabilizing properties predicted for perfect maximum-J configurations.
Steady-State Electrostatic Layers From Weibel Instability in Relativistic Collisionless Shocks
Milosavljevic, Milos; Nakar, Ehud; Spitkovsky, Anatoly; /KIPAC, Menlo Park
2005-08-04
It is generally accepted that magnetic fields generated in the nonlinear development of the transverse Weibel instability provide effective collisionality in unmagnetized collisionless shocks. Recently, extensive two and three dimensional simulations improved our understanding of the growth and saturation of the instability in colliding plasma shells. However, the steady-state structure of the shock wave transition layers remains poorly understood. We use basic physical considerations and order-of-magnitude arguments to study the steady state structure in relativistic unmagnetized collisionless shocks in pair plasmas. The shock contains an electrostatic layer resulting from the formation of stationary, magnetically-focused current filaments. The filaments form where the cold upstream plasma and the counterstreaming thermal plasma interpenetrate. The filaments are not entirely neutral and strong electrostatic fields are present. Most of the downstream particles cannot cross this layer into the upstream because they are trapped by the electrostatic field. We identify the critical location in the shock transition layer where the electromagnetic field ceases to be static. At this location, the degree of charge separation in the filaments reaches a maximum value, the current inside the filaments comes close to the Alfven limit, and the phase space distribution function starts to isotropize. We argue that the radius of the current filaments upstream of the critical location is about twice the upstream plasma skin depth. Finally, we show that some downstream particles cross the electrostatic layer and run ahead of the shock into the preshock medium without causing instability. These particles may play an important role in particle acceleration.
Formation and stability of self-consistent double layer structures in plasma
Sanduloviciu, M.
1995-12-31
The presence of critical values in the current versus voltage characteristic of an electrode immersed in a plasma is used as an argument for the existence of self-consistent (autoorganized) double layers in collisional and collisionless presumed plasmas.
Turbulent transport in 2D collisionless guide field reconnection
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Muñoz, P. A.; Büchner, J.; Kilian, P.
2017-02-01
Transport in hot and dilute, i.e., collisionless, astrophysical and space, plasmas is called "anomalous." This transport is due to the interaction between the particles and the self-generated turbulence by their collective interactions. The anomalous transport has very different and not well known properties compared to the transport due to binary collisions, dominant in colder and denser plasmas. Because of its relevance for astrophysical and space plasmas, we explore the excitation of turbulence in current sheets prone to component- or guide-field reconnection, a process not well understood yet. This configuration is typical for stellar coronae, and it is created in the laboratory for which a 2.5D geometry applies. In our analysis, in addition to the immediate vicinity of the X-line, we also include regions outside and near the separatrices. We analyze the anomalous transport properties by using 2.5D Particle-in-Cell code simulations. We split off the mean slow variation (in contrast to the fast turbulent fluctuations) of the macroscopic observables and determine the main transport terms of the generalized Ohm's law. We verify our findings by comparing with the independently determined slowing-down rate of the macroscopic currents (due to a net momentum transfer from particles to waves) and with the transport terms obtained by the first order correlations of the turbulent fluctuations. We find that the turbulence is most intense in the "low density" separatrix region of guide-field reconnection. It is excited by streaming instabilities, is mainly electrostatic and "patchy" in space, and so is the associated anomalous transport. Parts of the energy exchange between turbulence and particles are reversible and quasi-periodic. The remaining irreversible anomalous resistivity can be parametrized by an effective collision rate ranging from the local ion-cyclotron to the lower-hybrid frequency. The contributions to the parallel and the perpendicular (to the magnetic
The model of a collisionless current sheet in a homogeneous gravity field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Veselovsky, Igor S.; Kislov, Roman A.; Malova, Helmi V.; Khabarova, Olga V.
2016-10-01
The self-consistent 1D kinetic Harris-like model of a collisionless current sheet is developed for the case of the current sheet experiencing the impact of an external uniform gravity field. The ambipolar Pannekoek-Rosseland electric field appears in the system as a result of the additional drift motion of ions and electrons. This produces separation of charges, which is responsible for corresponding changes of the current sheet form. The presence of gravitation leads to formation of asymmetric distributions of the magnetic field as well as the plasma and the current density changes. Our estimations show that gravity-forced disruptions of the current sheet profile may occur in the Mercurial magnetosphere and, most probable, in the Io plasma torus near the Jupiter. Also, the model can be applied to magnetospheres of exoplanets.
Instability, Turbulence, and Enhanced Transport in Collisionless Black-Hole Accretion Flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kunz, Matthew
Many astrophysical plasmas are so hot and diffuse that the collisional mean free path is larger than the system size. Perhaps the best examples of such systems are lowluminosity accretion flows onto black holes such as Sgr A* at the center of our own Galaxy, or M87 in the Virgo cluster. To date, theoretical models of these accretion flows are based on magnetohydrodynamics (MHD), a collisional fluid theory, sometimes (but rarely) extended with non-MHD features such as anisotropic (i.e. magnetic-field-aligned) viscosity and thermal conduction. While these extensions have been recognized as crucial, they require ad hoc assumptions about the role of microscopic kinetic instabilities (namely, firehose and mirror) in regulating the transport properties. These assumptions strongly affect the outcome of the calculations, and yet they have never been tested using more fundamental (i.e. kinetic) models. This proposal outlines a comprehensive first-principles study of the plasma physics of collisionless accretion flows using both analytic and state-of-the-art numerical models. The latter will utilize a new hybrid-kinetic particle-in-cell code, Pegasus, developed by the PI and Co-I specifically to study this problem. A comprehensive kinetic study of the 3D saturation of the magnetorotational instability in a collisionless plasma will be performed, in order to understand the interplay between turbulence, transport, and Larmor-scale kinetic instabilities such as firehose and mirror. Whether such instabilities alter the macroscopic saturated state, for example by limiting the transport of angular momentum by anisotropic pressure, will be addressed. Using these results, an appropriate "fluid" closure will be developed that can capture the multi-scale effects of plasma kinetics on magnetorotational turbulence, for use by the astrophysics community in building evolutionary models of accretion disks. The PI has already successfully performed the first three-dimensional kinetic
On the noncoplanarity of the magnetic field within a fast collisionless shock
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Thomsen, M. F.; Gosling, J. T.; Bame, S. J.; Quest, K. B.; Winske, D.
1987-01-01
Within the magnetic ramp of fast collisionless plasma shocks observed with spacecraft instruments and simulated numerically, the magnetic field undergoes an excursion out of the plane of coplanarity. This rotation is consistently in the direction such that the electrostatic potential jump across the shock, as measured in the de Hoffman-Teller frame of the reference (HTF), is about 2-6 times smaller than the electrostatic potential jump measured in the normal incidence frame. The preferred direction is consistent with a basic whistler mode transition between the upstream and downstream orientations. The potential jump in the HTF is considerably smaller than the change in bulk flow energy across the shock, confirming the recent suggestion that magnetic forces contribute importantly to the slowing of the plasma in that frame. A further consequence is that suprathermal particles leaking back into the upstream region across the shock do not gain much energy from the cross-shock electric field.
On the noncoplanarity of the magnetic field within a fast collisionless shock
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Thomsen, M. F.; Gosling, J. T.; Bame, S. J.; Quest, K. B.; Winske, D.
1987-03-01
Within the magnetic ramp of fast collisionless plasma shocks observed with spacecraft instruments and simulated numerically, the magnetic field undergoes an excursion out of the plane of coplanarity. This rotation is consistently in the direction such that the electrostatic potential jump across the shock, as measured in the de Hoffman-Teller frame of the reference (HTF), is about 2-6 times smaller than the electrostatic potential jump measured in the normal incidence frame. The preferred direction is consistent with a basic whistler mode transition between the upstream and downstream orientations. The potential jump in the HTF is considerably smaller than the change in bulk flow energy across the shock, confirming the recent suggestion that magnetic forces contribute importantly to the slowing of the plasma in that frame. A further consequence is that suprathermal particles leaking back into the upstream region across the shock do not gain much energy from the cross-shock electric field.
Vlasov modelling of laser-driven collisionless shock acceleration of protons
Svedung Wettervik, B.; DuBois, T. C.; Fülöp, T.
2016-05-15
Ion acceleration due to the interaction between a short high-intensity laser pulse and a moderately overdense plasma target is studied using Eulerian Vlasov–Maxwell simulations. The effects of variations in the plasma density profile and laser pulse parameters are investigated, and the interplay of collisionless shock and target normal sheath acceleration is analyzed. It is shown that the use of a layered-target with a combination of light and heavy ions, on the front and rear side, respectively, yields a strong quasi-static sheath-field on the rear side of the heavy-ion part of the target. This sheath-field increases the energy of the shock-accelerated ions while preserving their mono-energeticity.
A Semianalytical Ion Current Model for Radio Frequency Driven Collisionless Sheaths
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bose, Deepak; Govindan, T. R.; Meyyappan, M.; Arnold, Jim (Technical Monitor)
2001-01-01
We propose a semianalytical ion dynamics model for a collisionless radio frequency biased sheath. The model uses bulk plasma conditions and electrode boundary condition to predict ion impact energy distribution and electrical properties of the sheath. The proposed model accounts for ion inertia and ion current modulation at bias frequencies that are of the same order of magnitude as the ion plasma frequency. A relaxation equation for ion current oscillations is derived which is coupled with a damped potential equation in order to model ion inertia effects. We find that inclusion of ion current modulation in the sheath model shows marked improvements in the predictions of sheath electrical properties and ion energy distribution function.
Collisionless shocks driven by 800 nm laser pulses generate high-energy carbon ions
Zhang, H.; Shen, B. F. Wang, W. P.; Xu, Y.; Liu, Y. Q.; Liang, X. Y.; Leng, Y. X.; Li, R. X. Xu, Z. Z.; Yan, X. Q.; Chen, J. E.
2015-01-15
We present experimental studies on ion acceleration from diamond-like carbon (DLC) foils irradiated by 800 nm, linearly polarized laser pulses with peak intensity of 1.7 × 10{sup 19 }W/cm{sup 2} to 3.5 × 10{sup 19 }W/cm{sup 2} at oblique incidence. Diamond-like carbon foils are heated by the prepulse of a high-contrast laser pulse and expand to form plasmas of near-critical density caused by thermal effect before the arrival of the main pulse. It is demonstrated that carbon ions are accelerated by a collisionless shock wave in slightly overdense plasma excited by forward-moving hot electrons generated by the main pulse.
Laboratory plasma probe studies
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Heikkila, W. J.
1975-01-01
Diagnostic experiments performed in a collisionless plasma using CO2 as the working gas are described. In particular, simultaneous measurements that have been performed by means of Langmuir- and RF-probes are presented. A resonance occurring above the parallel resonance in the frequency characteristic of a two electrode system is interpreted as being due to the resonant excitation of electroacoustic waves.
Magnetospheric space plasma investigations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Comfort, Richard H.; Horwitz, James L.
1993-01-01
The topics addressed are: (1) generalized semikinetic models; (2) collision-collisionless transition model; (3) observation of O+ outflows; (4) equatorial transitions; (5) inner plasmasphere-ionosphere coupling; (6) plasma wave physical processes; (7) ULF wave ray-tracing; and (8) nighttime anomalous electron heating events.
Reentrant condensation transition in a two species driven diffusive system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Daga, Bijoy
2017-07-01
We study an interacting box-particle system on a one-dimensional periodic ring involving two species of particles A and B. In this model, from a randomly chosen site, a particle of species A can hop to its right neighbor with a rate that depends on the number of particles of the species B at that site. On the other hand, particles of species B can be transferred between two neighboring sites with rates that depends on the number of particles of species B at the two adjacent sites-this process however can occur only when the two sites are devoid of particles of the species A. We study condensation transition for a specific choice of rates and find that the system shows a reentrant phase transition of species A -the species A passes successively through fluid-condensate-fluid phases as the coupling parameter between the dynamics of the two species is varied. On the other hand, the transition of species B is from condensate to fluid phase and hence does not show reentrant feature.
Effects of Electron Drifts on the Collisionless Damping of Kinetic Alfvén Waves in the Solar Wind
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tong, Yuguang; Bale, Stuart D.; Chen, Christopher H. K.; Salem, Chadi S.; Verscharen, Daniel
2015-05-01
The collisionless dissipation of anisotropic Alfvénic turbulence is a promising candidate to solve the solar wind heating problem. Extensive studies examined the kinetic properties of Alfvén waves in simple Maxwellian or bi-Maxwellian plasmas. However, the observed electron velocity distribution functions in the solar wind are more complex. In this study, we analyze the properties of kinetic Alfvén waves (KAWs) in a plasma with two drifting electron populations. We numerically solve the linearized Maxwell-Vlasov equations and find that the damping rate and the proton-electron energy partition for KAWs are significantly modified in such plasmas, compared to plasmas without electron drifts. We suggest that electron drift is an important factor to take into account when considering the dissipation of Alfvénic turbulence in the solar wind or other β ˜ 1 astrophysical plasmas.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Garasev, Mikhail; Derishev, Evgeny
2016-09-01
We present numerical simulations of the magnetic field turbulence in a collisionless electron-positron plasma with continuous injection of new pairs, which maintains the anisotropy in the particle distribution over a long time. With these simulations, we follow the evolution of a small (and, therefore, uniform) region in the fluid comoving frame to model the generation and decay of the magnetic field in shocks. The upstream is modified by two-photon pair production due to self-absorption of the shock's high-energy radiation. We find that the overall picture of the magnetic field build-up is consistent with the development of Weibel instability. However, the long-term injection of anisotropic pairs in the upstream leads to the formation of large-scale structures in the magnetic field, while small-scale structures are almost absent. We find that being amplified at the shock front, this magnetic field mostly preserves its large spatial scale and then slowly decays in the downstream on a time-scale approximately equal to the duration of the injection phase. The observed decay of the magnetic field is in exceptionally good agreement with predictions of the so-called phase mixing model. The generation of a long-lived magnetic field in relativistic collisionless shocks with an injection-modified upstream explains how they can efficiently produce the synchrotron radiation in gamma-ray bursts.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Trattner, K. J.; Scholer, M.
1993-09-01
The dissipation processes of protons and a minor ion component, alpha particles, at quasi-parallel supercritical collisionless shocks are investigated by one-dimensional hybrid simulations. For both ion components the dissipation at these shocks is due to two different mechanisms: Heating is either caused by the nonadiabatic transition of the ions through the shock ramp where ions move through the region of the sharp jump in the magnetic field magnitude and direction, or by a mechanism which involves the occurrence of specularly reflected ions and subsequent shock reformation. In the latter case, reflected ions form a counterstreaming beam and lead to re-formation of the shock at the leading edge of the reflected ion beam. The region between the re-formed and the old shock, where the initial solar wind and the reflected beam have not completely merged, exhibits a sharp increase of the total pressure. The authors have also investigated the dependence of the downstream alpha particle to proton temperature ratio as a function of the upstream density, the plasma beta and the Alfvén Mach number of the shock. Quasi-parallel collisionless shock heating of alpha particles is more efficient than heating of protons. The downstream temperature ratio is higher than the upstream solar wind temperature ratio.
Heat flux and viscosity of ions in the collisionless solar wind
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Williams, L. L.
1995-01-01
Between 1 and 2 solar radii, the Coulomb-collision mean free path for thermal ions exceeds the scale height of the solar atmosphere. The expanding solar plasma becomes collisionless and the kinetics of the solar wind are no longer dominated by thermalizing collisions. The usual Braginskii-type expressions for solar wind ion heat flux and viscosity are no longer valid. However, another microscale still exists in the solar wind, dictated by the gyro-radius of ions in the turbulent embedded solar wind magnetic field. Wave-particle interactions will act to isotropize (but not thermalize) particle distributions, and the relevant microscale for this process is the ion gyro-radius. The ion distribution can be modelled as undergoing isotropizing 'collisions,' with the relevant mean free path scaling with gyro-radius. Here, the author presents the heat flux and viscosity expected for solar wind protons which are relaxing to isotropy on a microscale that scales with gyro-radius. The collisionless viscosity and heat flux have a functional dependence different than their collisional analogs. The collisional expressions for ion viscosity and heat flux drastically overestimate the efficiency of diffusive energy and momentum transport actually operative in the solar wind.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Krishna Swamy, Aditya; Ganesh, Rajaraman; Brunner, Stephan; Vaclavik, Jan; Villard, Laurent
2015-11-01
Gyrokinetic simulations have found Collisionless Microtearing Modes (MTM) to be linearly unstable in sharp temperature gradient regions of tokamaks, typically with high magnetic shear. The collisionless MTM is driven by the magnetic drift resonance of passing electrons, aided by the closeness of Mode Rational Surfaces (MRS) arising due to the high shear. Here, the role of global safety factor profile variation on the MTM instability and global mode structure is studied, in particular in weak reverse shear (WRS) configurations in large aspect ratio tokamaks. At lower shear profiles, multiple MTM branches are found with tearing parity as well as mixed parity. The linear growth rates of MTM is found to be weakened and linearly unstable modes are found whose global mode structures of φ~ and Ã∥ exhibit Mixed Parity. For the same equilibrium profiles and parameters, AITG instability is also studied and global mode structures are compared with MTM. The growth rate spectrum is found to extend to shorter/mesoscale wavelengths in WRS. Several other characteristics of MTMs and AITG are recovered in the WRS configuration, such as the dependency on free energy source and on plasma β.
Landau damping of Gardner solitons in a dusty bi-ion plasma
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Misra, A. P.; Barman, Arnab
2015-07-01
The effects of linear Landau damping on the nonlinear propagation of dust-acoustic solitary waves (DASWs) are studied in a collisionless unmagnetized dusty plasma with two species of positive ions. The extremely massive, micron-seized, cold, and negatively charged dust particles are described by fluid equations, whereas the two species of positive ions, namely, the cold (heavy) and hot (light) ions are described by the kinetic Vlasov equations. Following Ott and Sudan [Phys. Fluids 12, 2388 (1969)], and by considering lower and higher-order perturbations, the evolution of DASWs with Landau damping is shown to be governed by Korteweg-de Vries (KdV), modified KdV (mKdV), or Gardner (KdV-mKdV)-like equations. The properties of the phase velocity and the Landau damping rate of DASWs are studied for different values of the ratios of the temperatures (σ) and the number densities (μ) of hot and cold ions as well as the cold to hot ion mass ratio m. The distinctive features of the decay rates of the amplitudes of the KdV, mKdV, and Gardner solitons with a small effect of Landau damping are also studied in different parameter regimes. It is found that the Gardner soliton points to lower wave amplitudes than the KdV and mKdV solitons. The results may be useful for understanding the localization of solitary pulses and associated wave damping (collisionless) in laboratory and space plasmas (e.g., the F-ring of Saturn), in which the number density of free electrons is much smaller than that of ions and the heavy, micron seized dust grains are highly charged.
Magnetoacoustic solitons in quantum plasma
Hussain, S.; Mahmood, S.
2011-08-15
Nonlinear magnetoacoustic waves in collisionless homogenous, magnetized quantum plasma is studied. Two fluid quantum magneto-hydrodynamic model (QMHD) is employed and reductive perturbation method is used to derive Korteweg de Vries (KdV) equation for magnetoacoustic waves. The effects of plasma density and magnetic field intensity are investigated on magnetoacoustic solitary structures in quantum plasma. The numerical results are also presented, which are applicable to explain some aspects of the propagation of nonlinear magnetoacosutic wave in dense astrophysical plasma situations.
A preliminary pachytene analysis of two species of Arachis L.
Jahnavi, M R; Murty, U R
1985-05-01
The morphology of pachytene chromosomes was studied in A. glabrata Benth. and A. pusilla Benth. belonging respectively to the sections Rhizomatosae and Triseminale. These two species can not be crossed with the cultivated groundnut A. hypogaea L. All 20 chromosomes of A. glabrata could be identified individually and further classified into 5 basic types. The features that enabled the identification of chromosomes were: total length, arm ratios, nucleolus attachment and position and extent of heterochromatin. A simple key has been proposed for classifying different chromosomes to facilitate their easy identification. The genomes of A. glabrata did not resemble those of A. hypogaea except for the presence of an 'A' chromosome, 2 euchromosomes and 2 nucleolus organisers. A. glabrata did not appear to be an amphidiploid but rather an allopolyploid hybrid. The genome of A. pusilla contained chromosomes unlike those of any other species of section Arachis. It was concluded that both these species are quite unrelated to other species of the section Arachis.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tsiklauri, D.; Haruki, T.
2008-09-01
Dungey's (1953) work on X-point collapse is the earliest analysis done on magnetic reconnection and predates the tearing mode, Sweet-Parker and Petcheck reconnection models. X-point collapse soon fell out of favour because in the collisional (MHD) regime, for the plausible space plasma parameters, it was found to be inefficient. We however show [Tsiklauri D. and T. Haruki, Phys. of Plasmas, 14, 112905, (2007)] that in the collisionless regime, which is indeed more applicable to space plasmas, the reconnection is efficient. We study magnetic reconnection during collisionless, stressed, X-point collapse using kinetic, 2.5D, fully electromagnetic, relativistic Particle-in-Cell numerical code. Two cases of weakly and strongly stressed X-point collapse were considered. Here descriptors weakly and strongly refer to 20% and 124% unidirectional spatial compression of the X-point, respectively. We found that within about one Alfven time, 2% and 20% of the initial magnetic energy is converted into heat and accelerated particle energy in the case of weak and strong stress, respectively. In the both cases, during the peak of the reconnection, the quadruple out-of-plane magnetic field is generated. These results strongly suggest the importance of the collisionless, stressed X-point collapse as an efficient mechanism of converting magnetic energy into heat and super-thermal particle energy. In the weakly stressed case, the reconnection rate, defined as the out-of-plane electric field in the X-point normalized by the product of external magnetic field and Alfven speeds, peaks at 0.11, with its average over 1.25 Alfven times being 0.04. Electron energy distribution in the current sheet, at the high-energy end of the spectrum, shows a power-law distribution with the index varying in time, attaining a maximal value of -4.1 at the final simulation time step (1.25 Alfven times). In the strongly stressed case, magnetic reconnection peak occurs 3.4 times faster and is more efficient
Santos-Lima, R.; De Gouveia Dal Pino, E. M.; Kowal, G.; Falceta-Gonçalves, D.; Lazarian, A.; Nakwacki, M. S.
2014-02-01
The amplification of magnetic fields (MFs) in the intracluster medium (ICM) is attributed to turbulent dynamo (TD) action, which is generally derived in the collisional-MHD framework. However, this assumption is poorly justified a priori, since in the ICM the ion mean free path between collisions is of the order of the dynamical scales, thus requiring a collisionless MHD description. The present study uses an anisotropic plasma pressure that brings the plasma within a parametric space where collisionless instabilities take place. In this model, a relaxation term of the pressure anisotropy simulates the feedback of the mirror and firehose instabilities, in consistency with empirical studies. Our three-dimensional numerical simulations of forced transonic turbulence, aiming the modeling of the turbulent ICM, were performed for different initial values of the MF intensity and different relaxation rates of the pressure anisotropy. We found that in the high-β plasma regime corresponding to the ICM conditions, a fast anisotropy relaxation rate gives results that are similar to the collisional-MHD model, as far as the statistical properties of the turbulence are concerned. Also, the TD amplification of seed MFs was found to be similar to the collisional-MHD model. The simulations that do not employ the anisotropy relaxation deviate significantly from the collisional-MHD results and show more power at the small-scale fluctuations of both density and velocity as a result of the action of the instabilities. For these simulations, the large-scale fluctuations in the MF are mostly suppressed and the TD fails in amplifying seed MFs.
The Energy Spectrum of Energetic Particles Downstream of Turbulent Collisionless Shocks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Giacalone, Joe; Neugebauer, Marcia
2008-01-01
Using simple analytic considerations, numerical simulations, and data analysis, we discuss the physics of charged-particle acceleration by turbulent, rippled, collisionless shocks. The standard theory of diffusive shock acceleration predicts that the energetic-particle energy spectrum, in the region of shocked plasma, is a function of the plasma density jump. But because of the interaction of the shock with plasma turbulence, the jump in plasma density varies in time and from place to place on the shock front. Here we show that for reasonable parameters, the shape of the energetic-particle energy spectra downstream of any given shock is nearly independent of location along the shock front, even though the density jump varies. This is because energetic particles are mobile and sample many turbulent fluctuations during their acceleration. This result holds for shocks having smaller scale ripples than the large-scale radius of curvature (Dc) of the shock. Thus, it applies to the interpretation of spacecraft observations of traveling interplanetary shocks provided the spacecraft separation is less than Dc. This result is confirmed with simple analytic considerations and numerical simulations that solve the combined magnetohydrodynamic equations for a plasma and energetic test particles using the well-known Parker transport equation. This conclusion is further supported by our analysis of ACE and Geotail observations of a few interplanetary shocks.
Nonlinear plasma wave in magnetized plasmas
Bulanov, Sergei V.; Esirkepov, Timur Zh.; Kando, Masaki; Koga, James K.; Hosokai, Tomonao; Zhidkov, Alexei G.; Kodama, Ryosuke
2013-08-15
Nonlinear axisymmetric cylindrical plasma oscillations in magnetized collisionless plasmas are a model for the electron fluid collapse on the axis behind an ultrashort relativisically intense laser pulse exciting a plasma wake wave. We present an analytical description of the strongly nonlinear oscillations showing that the magnetic field prevents closing of the cavity formed behind the laser pulse. This effect is demonstrated with 3D PIC simulations of the laser-plasma interaction. An analysis of the betatron oscillations of fast electrons in the presence of the magnetic field reveals a characteristic “Four-Ray Star” pattern.
Carbon Metabolism in Two Species of Pereskia (Cactaceae) 1
Rayder, Lisa; Ting, Irwin P.
1981-01-01
The Pereskia are morphologically primitive, leafed members of the Cactaceae. Gas exchange characteristics using a dual isotope porometer to monitor 14CO2 and tritiated water uptake, diurnal malic acid fluctuations, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase, and malate dehydrogenase activities were examined in two species of the genus Pereskia, Pereskia grandifolia and Pereskia aculeata. Investigations were done on well watered (control) and water-stressed plants. Nonstressed plants showed a CO2 uptake pattern indicating C3 carbon metabolism. However, diurnal fluctuations in titratable acidity were observed similar to Crassulacean acid metabolism. Plants exposed to 10 days of water stress exhibited stomatal opening only during an early morning period. Titratable acidity, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase activity, and malate dehydrogenase activity fluctuations were magnified in the stressed plants, but showed the same diurnal pattern as controls. Water stress causes these cacti to shift to an internal CO2 recycling (“idling”) that has all attributes of Crassulacean acid metabolism except nocturnal stomata opening and CO2 uptake. The consequences of this shift, which has been observed in other succulents, are unknown, and some possibilities are suggested. PMID:16661857
Male-killing Wolbachia in two species of insect
Hurst, G. D. D.; Jiggins, F. M.; Schulenburg, J. H. G. von der; Bertrand, D.; West, S. A.; Goriacheva, I. I.; Zakharov, I. A.; Werren, J. H.; Stouthamer, R.; Majerus, M. E. N.
1999-01-01
The inherited bacterium Wolbachia spreads through the manipulation of host reproduction, and has been suggested to be an important factor in arthropod evolution, from host speciation to the evolution of sex-determination systems. Past work has shown that members of this group may produce cytoplasmic incompatibility, feminize genetically male hosts, and induce host parthenogenesis. Here, we report an expansion of the range of reproductive manipulations produced by members of this clade, recording Wolbachia strains that kill male hosts during embryogenesis in two host species, the ladybird Adalia bipunctata, and the butterfly Acraea encedon. Both male-killing bacteria belong to the B group of Wolbachia. However, phylogenetic analyses were unable to resolve whether the bacteria in the two species are monophyletic, or represent independent origins of male-killing among the B-group Wolbachia. We also found significant divergence within the wsp gene of Wolbachia strains found in different A. bipunctata individuals, suggesting this host species contains two Wolbachia strains, diverged in wsp sequence but monophyletic. Our observations reinforce the notion that Wolbachia may be an important agent driving arthropod evolution, and corroborates previous suggestions that male-killing behaviour is easily evolved by invertebrate symbionts.
Schaeffer, D. B. Everson, E. T.; Bondarenko, A. S.; Clark, S. E.; Constantin, C. G.; Gekelman, W.; Niemann, C.; Winske, D.
2015-11-15
Recent experiments at the University of California, Los Angeles have successfully generated subcritical magnetized collisionless shocks, allowing new laboratory studies of shock formation relevant to space shocks. The characteristics of these shocks are compared with new data in which no shock or a pre-shock formed. The results are consistent with theory and 2D hybrid simulations and indicate that the observed shock or shock-like structures can be organized into distinct regimes by coupling strength. With additional experiments on the early time parameters of the laser plasma utilizing Thomson scattering, spectroscopy, and fast-gate filtered imaging, these regimes are found to be in good agreement with theoretical shock formation criteria.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schaeffer, D. B.; Everson, E. T.; Bondarenko, A. S.; Clark, S. E.; Constantin, C. G.; Winske, D.; Gekelman, W.; Niemann, C.
2015-11-01
Recent experiments at the University of California, Los Angeles have successfully generated subcritical magnetized collisionless shocks, allowing new laboratory studies of shock formation relevant to space shocks. The characteristics of these shocks are compared with new data in which no shock or a pre-shock formed. The results are consistent with theory and 2D hybrid simulations and indicate that the observed shock or shock-like structures can be organized into distinct regimes by coupling strength. With additional experiments on the early time parameters of the laser plasma utilizing Thomson scattering, spectroscopy, and fast-gate filtered imaging, these regimes are found to be in good agreement with theoretical shock formation criteria.
Collisionless kinetic-fluid simulation of zonal flows in non-circular tokamaks
Yamagishi, Osamu; Sugama, Hideo
2012-09-15
Fluid simulation of linear zonal flow damping is done with a closure model based on the collisionless gyrokinetics [Sugama et al., Phys. Plasmas 14, 022502 (2007)]. Simulation results of residual zonal flow for low radial wavenumbers are compared with theoretical formulas for circular and non-circular tokamaks. The effects of the elongation and the triangularity are shown to be properly treated in the closure model. Effects of initial parallel flows on zonal flow evolution are also clarified. An appropriate choice of the initial parallel flow gives a much higher residual level than the conventional result with no initial parallel flow. Besides, the zonal flow simulations are done with the E Multiplication-Sign B nonlinearity as initial sources, which is evaluated from linear gyrokinetic microinstabilities such as ion temperature gradient modes, trapped electron modes, and electron temperature gradient modes, in order to estimate efficiency of zonal flow generation by the source instabilities.
Zenitani, Seiji; Hesse, Michael; Klimas, Alex; Black, Carrie; Kuznetsova, Masha
2011-12-15
It was recently proposed that the electron-frame dissipation measure, the energy transfer from the electromagnetic field to plasmas in the electron's rest frame, identifies the dissipation region of collisionless magnetic reconnection [Zenitani et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 195003 (2011)]. The measure is further applied to the electron-scale structures of antiparallel reconnection, by using two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations. The size of the central dissipation region is controlled by the electron-ion mass ratio, suggesting that electron physics is essential. A narrow electron jet extends along the outflow direction until it reaches an electron shock. The jet region appears to be anti-dissipative. At the shock, electron heating is relevant to a magnetic cavity signature. The results are summarized to a unified picture of the single dissipation region in a Hall magnetic geometry.
Nocera, L.; Palumbo, L. J.
2013-01-15
We present new elementary, exact weak singular solutions of the steady state, two species, electrostatic, one dimensional Vlasov-Poisson equations. The distribution of the hot, finite mass, mobile ions is assumed to be log singular at the position of the electric potential's minimum. We show that the electron energy distributions on opposite sides of this minimum are not equal. This leads to a jump discontinuity of the electron distribution across its separatrix. A simple relation exists between the difference of these two electron distributions and that of the ions. The velocity Fourier transform of the electron singular distribution is smooth and appears as a simple Neumann series. Elementary, finite amplitude profiles of the electric potential result from Poisson equation, which are smoothly, but nonmonotonically and asymmetrically distributed in space. Two such profiles are given explicitly as appropriate for a nonmonotonic double layer and for a plasma bounded by a surface. The distributions of both electrons and ions supporting such potential meet smooth and kinetically stable boundary conditions at one plasma boundary. For sufficiently small potential to electron temperature ratios, the nonthermal, discontinuous electron distribution resulting at the other plasma boundary is also stable against Landau damped perturbations of the electron distribution.
Computer simulation of astrophysical plasmas
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Max, Claire E.
1991-01-01
The role of sophisticated numerical models and simulations in the field of plasma astrophysics is discussed. The need for an iteration between microphysics and macrophysics in order for astrophysical plasma physics to produce quantitative results that can be related to astronomical data is stressed. A discussion on computational requirements for simulations of astrophysical plasmas contrasts microscopic plasma simulations with macroscopic system models. An overview of particle-in-cell simulations (PICS) is given and two examples of PICS of astrophysical plasma are discussed including particle acceleration by collisionless shocks in relativistic plasmas and magnetic field reconnection in astrophysical plasmas.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yamaguchi, Hiroya; Eriksen, Kristoffer A.; Badenes, Carles; Hughes, John P.; Brickhouse, Nancy S.; Foster, Adam R.; Patnaude, Daniel J.; Petre, Robert; Slane, Patrick O.; Smith, Randall K.
2013-01-01
Although collisionless shocks are ubiquitous in astrophysics, certain key aspects of them are not well understood. In particular, the process known as collisionless electron heating, whereby electrons are rapidly energized at the shock front, is one of the main open issues in shock physics. Here, we present the first clear evidence for efficient collisionless electron heating at the reverse shock of Tycho's supernova remnant (SNR), revealed by Fe K diagnostics using high-quality X-ray data obtained by the Suzaku satellite. We detect K beta (3p yields 1s) fluorescence emission from low-ionization Fe ejecta excited by energetic thermal electrons at the reverse shock front, which peaks at a smaller radius than Fe K alpha (2p yields 1s) emission dominated by a relatively highly ionized component. Comparisons with our hydrodynamical simulations imply instantaneous electron heating to a temperature 1000 times higher than expected from Coulomb collisions alone. The unique environment of the reverse shock, which is propagating with a high Mach number into rarefied ejecta with a low magnetic field strength, puts strong constraints on the physical mechanism responsible for this heating and favors a cross-shock potential created by charge deflection at the shock front. Our sensitive observation also reveals that the reverse shock radius of this SNR is about 10% smaller than the previous measurement using the Fe K alpha morphology from the Chandra observations. Since strong Fe K beta fluorescence is expected only from low-ionization plasma where Fe ions still have many 3p electrons, this feature is key to diagnosing the plasma state and distribution of the immediate postshock ejecta in a young SNR.
Transport of parallel momentum by collisionless drift wave turbulence
Diamond, P. H.; McDevitt, C. J.; Guercan, Oe. D.; Hahm, T. S.; Naulin, V.
2008-01-15
This paper presents a novel, unified approach to the theory of turbulent transport of parallel momentum by collisionless drift waves. The physics of resonant and nonresonant off-diagonal contributions to the momentum flux is emphasized, and collisionless momentum exchange between waves and particles is accounted for. Two related momentum conservation theorems are derived. These relate the resonant particle momentum flux, the wave momentum flux, and the refractive force. A perturbative calculation, in the spirit of Chapman-Enskog theory, is used to obtain the wave momentum flux, which contributes significantly to the residual stress. A general equation for mean k{sub parallel} (
Evolution of velocity dispersion along cold collisionless flows
Banik, Nilanjan; Sikivie, Pierre
2016-05-01
We found that the infall of cold dark matter onto a galaxy produces cold collisionless flows and caustics in its halo. If a signal is found in the cavity detector of dark matter axions, the flows will be readily apparent as peaks in the energy spectrum of photons from axion conversion, allowing the densities, velocity vectors and velocity dispersions of the flows to be determined. We also discuss the evolution of velocity dispersion along cold collisionless flows in one and two dimensions. A technique is presented for obtaining the leading behaviour of the velocity dispersion near caustics. The results are used to derive an upper limit on the energy dispersion of the Big Flow from the sharpness of its nearby caustic, and a prediction for the dispersions in its velocity components.
Evolution of velocity dispersion along cold collisionless flows
Banik, Nilanjan; Sikivie, Pierre
2016-05-01
We found that the infall of cold dark matter onto a galaxy produces cold collisionless flows and caustics in its halo. If a signal is found in the cavity detector of dark matter axions, the flows will be readily apparent as peaks in the energy spectrum of photons from axion conversion, allowing the densities, velocity vectors and velocity dispersions of the flows to be determined. We also discuss the evolution of velocity dispersion along cold collisionless flows in one and two dimensions. A technique is presented for obtaining the leading behaviour of the velocity dispersion near caustics. The results aremore » used to derive an upper limit on the energy dispersion of the Big Flow from the sharpness of its nearby caustic, and a prediction for the dispersions in its velocity components.« less
Enhanced Heat Flow in the Hydrodynamic Collisionless Regime
Meppelink, R.; Rooij, R. van; Vogels, J. M.; Straten, P. van der
2009-08-28
We study the heat conduction of a cold, thermal cloud in a highly asymmetric trap. The cloud is axially hydrodynamic, but due to the asymmetric trap radially collisionless. By locally heating the cloud we excite a thermal dipole mode and measure its oscillation frequency and damping rate. We find an unexpectedly large heat conduction compared to the homogeneous case. The enhanced heat conduction in this regime is partially caused by atoms with a high angular momentum spiraling in trajectories around the core of the cloud. Since atoms in these trajectories are almost collisionless they strongly contribute to the heat transfer. We observe a second, oscillating hydrodynamic mode, which we identify as a standing wave sound mode.
Evolution of velocity dispersion along cold collisionless flows
Banik, Nilanjan; Sikivie, Pierre
2016-05-01
We found that the infall of cold dark matter onto a galaxy produces cold collisionless flows and caustics in its halo. If a signal is found in the cavity detector of dark matter axions, the flows will be readily apparent as peaks in the energy spectrum of photons from axion conversion, allowing the densities, velocity vectors and velocity dispersions of the flows to be determined. We also discuss the evolution of velocity dispersion along cold collisionless flows in one and two dimensions. A technique is presented for obtaining the leading behaviour of the velocity dispersion near caustics. The results are used to derive an upper limit on the energy dispersion of the Big Flow from the sharpness of its nearby caustic, and a prediction for the dispersions in its velocity components.
Collisionless pitch-angle scattering of runaway electrons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Jian; Wang, Yulei; Qin, Hong
2016-06-01
It is discovered that the tokamak field geometry generates a toroidicity induced broadening of the pitch-angle distribution of runaway electrons. This collisionless pitch-angle scattering is much stronger than the collisional scattering and invalidates the gyro-center model for runaway electrons. As a result, the energy limit of runaway electrons is found to be larger than the prediction of the gyro-center model and to depend heavily on the background magnetic field.
Tight Analysis of a Collisionless Robot Gathering Algorithm
2015-09-28
Collisionless Robot Gathering Algorithm We consider the fundamental problem of gath- ering a set of n robots in the Euclidean plane which have a...physical extent and hence they cannot share their positions with other robots . The objective is to determine a minimum time schedule to gather the robots ...27709-2211 Robot Visibility; Gathering REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE 11. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S REPORT NUMBER(S) 10. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S ACRONYM(S) ARO 8
Connections between comets and plasmas in space
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Scarf, F. L.
1979-01-01
The dynamical processes in the cometary system represent unusual examples of very important, widespread natural phenomena. Topics covered include: (1) the comet as an obstacle in the solar wind; (2) the nature of the plasma flow; (3) collisionless shocks; and (4) plasma processes in the comet tail.
Collisionless Zonal Flow Saturation for Weak Magnetic Shear
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lu, Zhixin; Wang, Weixing; Diamond, Patrick; Ashourvan, Arash; Tynan, George
2015-11-01
The damping of the zonal flow, either collisional or collisionless, plays an important role in regulating the drift wave-zonal flow system, and can affect the transport and confinement. The tertiary instability, e.g., a generalized Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) instability driven by flow shear, has been suggested theoretically as a possible damping mechanism [Rogers 2000 PRL, Diamond 2005 PPCF]. The sensitivity of the tertiary mode to magnetic shear has not been quantified, especially in weak magnetic shear regimes. In this work, parametric scans using gyrokinetic simulation demonstrate that the zonal electric field energy normalized by the turbulence electric field energy decreases as magnetic shear decreases. With ITG drive artificially eliminated, the time evolution of the zonal structure indicates that the zonal electric field damps more rapidly at weak shear. This suggests larger collisionless zonal flow damping or larger effective turbulent viscosity at weak magnetic shear. The effects of the zonal components of specific variables, e.g., the parallel shear flow and the radial electric field, on tertiary instability, are also studied. Quantitative studies on the magnetic shear scaling of tertiary instability excitation and the collisionless zonal flow saturation are ongoing.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Medvedev, M. V.
1998-11-01
The magnetic field fluctuations frequently observed in the Solar Wind and Interstellar Medium are likely to be nonlinear Alfvén waves, in which the ponderomotive coupling of Alfvénic magnetic energy to ion-acoustic quasi-modes has modified the phase velocity vA and caused wave-front steepening. In the warm, collisionless Solar Wind plasma the resonant particle-wave interactions result in relatively rapid (compared to the particle bounce time) formation of quasi-stationary Alfvénic Rotational Discontinuities, (M.V. Medvedev, P.H. Diamond, V.I. Shevchenko, and V.L. Galinsky, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78), 4934 (1997) and references therein. which have been the subject of intense satellite observations and theoretical investigations, and whose emergence and dynamics has not been previously understood. These discontinuities are shown to be quasi-stationary wave-form remnants of nonlinearly evolved coherent Alfvén waves. In long-time asymptotics, however, the particle distribution function (PDF) is affected by wave magnetic fields. Indeed, the resonant particles are trapped in the quasi-stationary Alfvénic discontinuities by mirroring forces giving rise to the nonlinear Landau damping and, ultimately, to a formation of a plateau on the PDF, so that the linear collisionless damping vanishes. Using Virial theorem for trapped particles, it is analytically demonstrated (M.V. Medvedev, P.H. Diamond, M.N. Rosenbluth, and V.I. Shevchenko, Submitted to Phys. Rev. Lett. (1998).) that their effect on the nonlinear dynamics of such discontinuities is highly non-trivial and forces a significant departure of the theory from the conventional paradigm. Considering the strongly compressible MHD (Alfvénic) Solar Wind turbulence as an ensemble of randomly interacting Alfvénic discontinuities and nonlinear waves, it is also shown (M.V. Medvedev and P.H. Diamond, Phys. Rev. E 56), R2371 (1997). that there exist two different phases of turbulence which are due to the collisionless (Landau
Geometry of thermal plasma oscillations
Burton, Da; Noble, A.
2009-01-22
We develop a method for investigating the relationship between the shape of a 1-particle distribution and non-linear electrostatic oscillations in a collisionless plasma, incorporating transverse thermal motion. A general expression is found for the maximum sustainable electric field, and is evaluated for a particular highly anisotropic distribution.
Electromagnetic drift waves dispersion for arbitrarily collisional plasmas
Lee, Wonjae Krasheninnikov, Sergei I.; Angus, J. R.
2015-07-15
The impacts of the electromagnetic effects on resistive and collisionless drift waves are studied. A local linear analysis on an electromagnetic drift-kinetic equation with Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook-like collision operator demonstrates that the model is valid for describing linear growth rates of drift wave instabilities in a wide range of plasma parameters showing convergence to reference models for limiting cases. The wave-particle interactions drive collisionless drift-Alfvén wave instability in low collisionality and high beta plasma regime. The Landau resonance effects not only excite collisionless drift wave modes but also suppress high frequency electron inertia modes observed from an electromagnetic fluid model in collisionless and low beta regime. Considering ion temperature effects, it is found that the impact of finite Larmor radius effects significantly reduces the growth rate of the drift-Alfvén wave instability with synergistic effects of high beta stabilization and Landau resonance.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nishikawa, K.; Hardee, P. E.; Richardson, G. A.; Preece, R. D.; Sol, H.; Fishman, G. J.
2003-01-01
Shock acceleration is an ubiquitous phenomenon in astrophysical plasmas. Plasma waves and their associated instabilities (e.g., the Buneman instability, two-streaming instability, and the Weibel instability) created in the shocks are responsible for particle (electron, positron, and ion) acceleration. Using a 3-D relativistic electromagnetic particle (REMP) code, we have investigated particle acceleration associated with a relativistic jet front propagating through an ambient plasma with and without initial magnetic fields. We find only small differences in the results between no ambient and weak ambient magnetic fields. Simulations show that the Weibel instability created in the collisionless shock front accelerates particles perpendicular and parallel to the jet propagation direction. While some Fermi acceleration may occur at the jet front, the majority of electron acceleration takes place behind the jet front and cannot be characterized as Fermi acceleration. The simulation results show that this instability is responsible for generating and amplifying highly nonuniform, small-scale magnetic fields, which contribute to the electron s transverse deflection behind the jet head. The "jitter" radiation from deflected electrons has different properties than synchrotron radiation which is calculated in a uniform magnetic field. This jitter radiation may be important to understanding the complex time evolution and/or spectral structure in gamma-ray bursts, relativistic jets, and supernova remnants.
Collisional and collision-less surface heating in intense laser matter interaction
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kemp, Andreas; Divol, Laurent
2015-11-01
We explore the interaction of high-contrast intense sub-100 fs laser pulses with solid density tar- gets, using numerically converged collisional particle-in-cell simulations in one two and three dimen- sions. We observe a competition between two mechanisms that can lead to plasma heating. Inverse bremsstrahlung at solid density on one hand, and electrons scattering off plasma waves on the other, can both heat the skin layer to keV temperatures on a femtosecond time scale, facilitating a heat wave and a source of MeV electrons that penetrate and heat the bulk target. Collision-less effects heat the surface effectively starting at the relativistic intensity threshold, independent of plasma density. Our numerical results show that a high-contrast 1J/100fs laser can drive a solid target into the warm dense matter regime. This system is suitable to ab-initio modeling and experimental probing. Work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.
Lu, San; Lu, Quanming; Huang, Can; Wang, Shui
2013-06-15
By performing two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations, we investigate the transfer between electron bulk kinetic and electron thermal energy in collisionless magnetic reconnection. In the vicinity of the X line, the electron bulk kinetic energy density is much larger than the electron thermal energy density. The evolution of the electron bulk kinetic energy is mainly determined by the work done by the electric field force and electron pressure gradient force. The work done by the electron gradient pressure force in the vicinity of the X line is changed to the electron enthalpy flux. In the magnetic island, the electron enthalpy flux is transferred to the electron thermal energy due to the compressibility of the plasma in the magnetic island. The compression of the plasma in the magnetic island is the consequence of the electromagnetic force acting on the plasma as the magnetic field lines release their tension after being reconnected. Therefore, we can observe that in the magnetic island the electron thermal energy density is much larger than the electron bulk kinetic energy density.
Linear theory for fast collisionless magnetic reconnection in the lower-hybrid frequency range
Jovanovic, D.; Shukla, P.K.
2005-05-15
A linear theory is presented for the interplay between the fast collisionless magnetic reconnection and the lower-hybrid waves that has been observed in recent computer simulations [J. F. Drake, M. Swisdak, C. Cattell et al., Science 299, 873 (2003)]. In plasma configurations with a strong guide field and anisotropic electron temperature, the electron dynamics is described within the framework of standard electron magnetohydrodynamic equations, accounting also for the effects of the electron polarization and ion motions in the presence of perpendicular electric fields. In the linear phase, we find two types of instabilities of a thin current sheet with steep edges, corresponding to its filamentation (or tearing) and bending. Using a surface-wave formalism for the perturbations whose wavelength is larger than the thickness of the current sheet, the corresponding growth rates are calculated as the contributions of singularities in the plasma dispersion function. These are governed by the electron inertia and the linear coupling of the reconnecting magnetic field with local plasma modes propagating in the perpendicular direction that are subject to the Buneman instability. The linear surface wave instability may be particularly important as a secondary instability, dissipating the thin current sheets that develop in the course of the fast reconnection in the shear-Alfven and kinetic-Alfven regimes, and providing the anomalous resistivity for the growth of magnetic islands beyond the shear-Alfven and kinetic-Alfven scales.
A four-field model for collisionless reconnection: Hamiltonian structure and numerical simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tassi, Emanuele; Grasso, Daniela; Pegoraro, Francesco
2008-11-01
A 4-field model for magnetic reconnection in collisionless plasmas is investigated both analytically and numerically. The model equations are shown to admit a non-canonical Hamiltonian formulation with four infinite families of Casimir invariants [1]. Numerical simulations show that, consistently with previously investigated models [2,3], in the absence of significant fluctuations along the toroidal direction, reconnection can lead to a macroscopic saturated state exhibiting filamentation on microsocopic scales, or to a secondary Kelvin-Helmholtz-like instability, depending on the value of a parameter measuring the compressibility of the electron fluid. The novel feature exhibited by the four-field model is the coexistence of significant filamentation with a secondary instability when magnetic and velocity perturbations along the toroidal direction are no longer negligible. An interpretation of this phenomenon in terms of Casimir invariants is given.[0pt] [1] E. Tassi et al., Plasma Phys. Contr. Fus., 50, 085014 (2008)[0pt] [2] D. Grasso et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 5051 (2001)[0pt] [3] D. Del Sarto, F. Califano and F. Pegoraro, Phys. Plasmas 12, 012317 (2005)
Comprehensive Study of Plasma-Wall Sheath Transport Phenomena
2012-09-10
plasma ionizes and accelerates across this region, a sharp potential drop near the exit plane of the thruster occurs and the ions’, within the plasma ...density plasma . This cell will enable the investigation of highly collisionless plasma - wall interactions occurring over ~10 cm distances. Fabrication ...well as a negatively biased stainless steel which is used as the plasma boundary in TAL thrusters . Operation at increased discharge current and plasma
Evolution Of Nonlinear Waves in Compressing Plasma
P.F. Schmit, I.Y. Dodin, and N.J. Fisch
2011-05-27
Through particle-in-cell simulations, the evolution of nonlinear plasma waves is examined in one-dimensional collisionless plasma undergoing mechanical compression. Unlike linear waves, whose wavelength decreases proportionally to the system length L(t), nonlinear waves, such as solitary electron holes, conserve their characteristic size {Delta} during slow compression. This leads to a substantially stronger adiabatic amplification as well as rapid collisionless damping when L approaches {Delta}. On the other hand, cessation of compression halts the wave evolution, yielding a stable mode.
The Modeling of Pickup Ion or Energetic Particle Mediated Plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zank, G. P.; Mostafavi, P.; Hunana, P.
2016-05-01
Suprathermal energetic particles, such as solar energetic particles (SEPs) in the inner heliosphere and pickup ions (PUIs) in the outer heliosphere and the very local interstellar medium, often form a thermodynamically dominant component in their various environments. In the supersonic solar wind beyond > 10 AU, in the inner heliosheath (IHS), and in the very local interstellar medium (VLISM), PUIs do not equilibrate collisionally with the background plasma. Similarly, SEPs do not equilibrate collisionally with the background solar wind in the inner heliosphere. In the absence of equilibration between plasma components, a separate coupled plasma description for the energetic particles is necessary. Using a collisionless Chapman-Enskog expansion, we derive a closed system of multi-component equations for a plasma comprised of thermal protons and electrons, and suprathermal particles (SEPs, PUIs). The energetic particles contribute an isotropic scalar pressure to leading order, a collisionless heat flux at the next order, and a collisionless stress tensor at the second-order. The collisionless heat conduction and viscosity in the multi-fluid description results from a nonisotropic energetic particle distribution. A simpler single-fluid MHD-like system of equations with distinct equations of state for both the background plasma and the suprathermal particles is derived. We note briefly potential pitfalls that can emerge in the numerical modeling of collisionless plasma flows that contain a dynamically important energetic particle component.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wang, T. N. C.; Bell, T. F.
1972-01-01
A study is made of the input impedance Z of a small strip-loop antenna with arbitrary orientation in a cold collisionless uniform multicomponent magnetoplasma. Assuming a uniform current distribution, an integral expression for Z is derived which is valid for arbitrary values of driving frequency, plasma composition and density, loop orientation angle, and static magnetic field strength. The integral expression is evaluated numerically for the VLF/ELF range in a plasma modeled upon the inner magnetosphere. Approximate closed-form expressions for Z are also developed. It is found that the loop VLF/ELF input reactance is essentially identical to its free space self inductance. Also the loop radiation resistance is found to be a strong function of the loop orientation angle for frequencies near the lower-hybrid-resonance frequency or below the proton gyrofrequency.
Magnetic Fields In Relativistic Collisionless Shocks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Santana, Rodolfo; Barniol Duran, R.; Kumar, P.
2013-01-01
We present a systematic study on magnetic fields in Gamma-Ray Burst (GRB) relativistic shocks by making use of X-ray and optical afterglow observations, mostly coming from the Swift satellite. We use two methods to constrain the afterglow parameter epsilon_B (the fraction of energy in the magnetic field in the shocked plasma): 1. For the X-ray sample, the observed flux at the end of the X-ray steep decline is larger than or equal to the flux from the external-forward shock. 2. The observed optical afterglow flux arises from the external-forward shock emission. From the method for our X-ray sample (60 GRBs), we determine an upper limit on epsilon_B and from the method for our optical sample (35 GRBs), we determine a measurement for epsilon_B. Combining our X-ray and optical results, the median value we found for epsilon_B is ~ 10^-5. The distributions of epsilon_B from our X-ray and optical samples showed a wide distribution, with epsilon_B ranging from ~ 10^-7 - 10^-3. To characterize how much magnetic field amplification is needed, beyond shock compression of the seed magnetic field, we expressed our results for epsilon_B in terms of an amplification factor, AF. For both our X-ray and optical samples, the median value we found is AF ˜ 50-70. The distributions of AF from our X-ray and optical samples also showed a wide distribution, with AF ranging from ~ 1-1000. These results for epsilon_B and AF suggest that a weak amplification, in addition to shock compression, is needed to explain the afterglow observations. Our main conclusion is that shock compression and weak amplification of the magnetic field in GRB relativistic external shocks is sufficient to explain the afterglow data.
Plasma in the Jovian magnetosphere
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Goertz, C. K.
1975-01-01
It is shown that the plasma in Jupiter's ionosphere is collisionless above a certain level. In the outer magnetosphere, where the rotational force dominates the gravitational force, the collisionless plasma has a beam-like distribution and gives rise to a two-stream instability. This leads to trapping of plasma in the centrifugally dominated region of the magnetosphere. Plasma is lost by recombination. Equilibrium-trapped particle densities are calculated by requiring a balance between trapping by wave-particle interaction and loss by recombination. The results are compared with recent observations from Pioneer 10. It is suggested that the observations require an unexplained ion-heating mechanism. Some consequences of the model are discussed.
Entropy production rate as a constraint for collisionless fluid closures
Fleurence, E.; Sarazin, Y.; Garbet, X.; Dif-Pradalier, G.; Ghendrih, Ph.; Grandgirard, V.; Ottaviani, M.
2006-11-30
A novel method is proposed to construct collisionless fluid closures accounting for some kinetic properties. The first dropped fluid moment is assumed to be a linear function of the lower order ones. Optimizing the agreement between the fluid and kinetic entropy production rates is used to constrain the coefficients of the linear development. This procedure is applied to a reduced version of the interchange instability. The closure, involving the absolute value of the wave vector, is non-local in real space. In this case, the linear instability thresholds are the same, and the linear growth rates exhibit similar characteristics. Such a method is applicable to other models and classes of instabilities.
Ion acceleration at collisionless shock interactions. [in solar wind
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cargill, Peter J.
1992-01-01
When two collisionless shocks collide, a population of high energy ions is produced. Using hybrid numerical simulations, it is shown that when the two shocks are quasi-perpendicular, ions with energies up to 15 E sub 0 (where E sub 0 is the initial kinetic energy of upstream ions in the shock frame) are produced by direct electric field acceleration. In the quasi-parallel regime, energies as high as 80 E sub 0 can be obtained. These ions are accelerated by both scattering off the approaching shocks and subsequently in the intense turbulence left behind by the shock collision.
The role of electron heating in electromagnetic collisionless shock formation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bochkarev, S. G.; d'Humières, E.; Korneev, Ph.; Bychenkov, V. Yu.; Tikhonchuk, V.
2015-12-01
The role of electron dynamics in the process of a collisionless shock formation is analyzed with particle-in-cell simulations, the test-particles method, and quasilinear theory. The model of electron stochastic heating in turbulent electromagnetic fields corresponding to the nonlinear stage of two-stream and Weibel instabilities is developed. The analysis of electron and field heating rates shows that the ion motion provides the energy supply for a significant continuous heating of electrons. Such a heating thus plays a role of a friction force for ions, leading to their deceleration and a shock formation.
Entropy production rate as a constraint for collisionless fluid closures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fleurence, E.; Sarazin, Y.; Garbet, X.; Dif-Pradalier, G.; Ghendrih, Ph.; Grandgirard, V.; Ottaviani, M.
2006-11-01
A novel method is proposed to construct collisionless fluid closures accounting for some kinetic properties. The first dropped fluid moment is assumed to be a linear function of the lower order ones. Optimizing the agreement between the fluid and kinetic entropy production rates is used to constrain the coefficients of the linear development. This procedure is applied to a reduced version of the interchange instability. The closure, involving the absolute value of the wave vector, is non-local in real space. In this case, the linear instability thresholds are the same, and the linear growth rates exhibit similar characteristics. Such a method is applicable to other models and classes of instabilities.
Conditions for Debris-Background Ion Interactions and Collisionless Shock Wave Generation
Winske, Dan; Cowee, Misa
2012-07-10
We use hybrid simulations and simple theoretical arguments to determine when debris ions streaming relative to background ions in a collisionless, magnetized plasma couple strongly enough to generate a magnetosonic shock wave. We consider three types of configurations: one-dimensional, the two-dimensional extension of the 1-D case, and a more complex 2-D geometry that contains some effects that would be found in a laser-produced, laboratory plasma. We show that the simulation results as well as previous Russian and LLNL results reduce to a simple condition (R{sub m}/{rho}{sub d} = equal mass radius/debris ion gyroradius {ge} 0.7) for the generation of a shock wave. Strong debris interaction with the background is characterized by the formation of a magnetic pulse that steepens and speeds up as it encounters the debris ions deflected by the magnetic field. The pulse further evolves into a shock. As the earlier work has indicated, the process also involves the generation of a transverse electric field perpendicular to the flow and the magnetic field that accelerates the background ions radially outward, which in turn causes the speedup of the pulse. With electric and magnetic field probes, the UCLA laser experiments should be able to detect these signatures of coupling as well as the generation of the shock wave.
The ion polytropic coefficient in a collisionless sheath containing hot ions
Lin, Binbin; Xiang, Nong Ou, Jing
2016-08-15
The fluid approach has been widely used to study plasma sheath dynamics. For a sheath containing hot ions whose temperature is greater than the electron's, how to truncate the fluid hierarchy chain equations while retaining to the fullest extent of the kinetic effects is always a difficult problem. In this paper, a one-dimensional, collisionless sheath containing hot ions is studied via particle-in-cell simulations. By analyzing the ion energy equation and taking the kinetic effects into account, we have shown that the ion polytropic coefficient in the vicinity of the sheath edge is approximately constant so that the state equation with the modified polytropic coefficient can be used to close the hierarchy chain of the ion fluid equations. The value of the polytropic coefficient strongly depends on the hot ion temperature and its concentration in the plasma. The semi-analytical model is given to interpret the simulation results. As an application, the kinetic effects on the ion saturation current density in the probe theory are discussed.
Collisionless Magnetic Reconnection and Dynamo Processes in a Spatially Rotating Magnetic Field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Choe, Gwangson; Lee, Junggi
2016-04-01
Spatially rotating magnetic fields have been observed in the solar wind and in the Earth's magnetopause as well as in reversed field pinch (RFP) devices. Such field configurations have a similarity with extended current layers having a spatially varying plasma pressure instead of the spatially varying guide field. It is thus expected that magnetic reconnection may take place in a rotating magnetic field no less than in an extended current layer. We have investigated the spontaneous evolution of a collisionless plasma system embedding a rotating magnetic field with a two-and-a-half-dimensional electromagnetic particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation. It is found that a magnetic-flux-reducing diffusion phase and a magnetic-flux-increasing dynamo phase are alternating with a certain period. The temperature of the system also varies with the same period, showing a similarity to sawtooth oscillations in tokamaks. We have shown that a modified theory of sawtooth oscillations can explain the periodic behavior observed in the simulation. A strong guide field distorts the current layer as was observed in laboratory experiments. This distortion is smoothed out as magnetic islands fade away by the O-line diffusion, but is soon strengthened by the growth of magnetic islands. These processes are all repeating with a fixed period. Our results suggest that a rotating magnetic field configuration continuously undergoes deformation and relaxation in a short time-scale although it might look rather steady in a long-term view.
Two-Species, 3D, MHD Simulation of Europa's Interaction with Jupiter's Magnetosphere
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Liu, Yifan; Nagy, Andrew F.; Kabin, Konstantin; Combi, Michael R.; DeZeeuw, Darren L.; Gombosi, Tamas I.; Powell, Kenneth G.
2000-01-01
The interaction of Europa with the Jovian a magnetosphere has been studied by using a two species in ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) numerical model. This model considers the upstream plasma in the Jovian magnetosphere and the molecular oxygen ions in the ionosphere of Europa, separately. We present results a from simulation studies, which take into account impact ionization, recombination, and the effect of a possible induced dipole magnetic field of Europa. The total mass loading of the magnetospheric flow and the ionization frequency used in the model are consistent with the estimates of Europa's ionosphere and atmosphere. The multi-species MHD equations are solved by using a finite volume, high-order, Godunov-type method on an adoptively refined unstructured grid, which allows a detailed modeling of the region near Europa's surface, while still resolving both the upstream region and the satellite's wake. We have paid special attention to the wake of Europa, in order to be able to make comparisons with the Galileo's E4 flyby observations, as well as other model calculations. The calculated escape flux of a O2+ down the tail was found to be about 5.6 x 10(exp 25) s(sup -1).
Yoshikawa, Kohji; Umemura, Masayuki; Yoshida, Naoki
2013-01-10
We present a scheme for numerical simulations of collisionless self-gravitating systems which directly integrates the Vlasov-Poisson equations in six-dimensional phase space. Using the results from a suite of large-scale numerical simulations, we demonstrate that the present scheme can simulate collisionless self-gravitating systems properly. The integration scheme is based on the positive flux conservation method recently developed in plasma physics. We test the accuracy of our code by performing several test calculations, including the stability of King spheres, the gravitational instability, and the Landau damping. We show that the mass and the energy are accurately conserved for all the test cases we study. The results are in good agreement with linear theory predictions and/or analytic solutions. The distribution function keeps the property of positivity and remains non-oscillatory. The largest simulations are run on 64{sup 6} grids. The computation speed scales well with the number of processors, and thus our code performs efficiently on massively parallel supercomputers.
Wang, Liang Germaschewski, K.; Hakim, Ammar H.; Bhattacharjee, A.
2015-01-15
We introduce an extensible multi-fluid moment model in the context of collisionless magnetic reconnection. This model evolves full Maxwell equations and simultaneously moments of the Vlasov-Maxwell equation for each species in the plasma. Effects like electron inertia and pressure gradient are self-consistently embedded in the resulting multi-fluid moment equations, without the need to explicitly solving a generalized Ohm's law. Two limits of the multi-fluid moment model are discussed, namely, the five-moment limit that evolves a scalar pressures for each species and the ten-moment limit that evolves the full anisotropic, non-gyrotropic pressure tensor for each species. We first demonstrate analytically and numerically that the five-moment model reduces to the widely used Hall magnetohydrodynamics (Hall MHD) model under the assumptions of vanishing electron inertia, infinite speed of light, and quasi-neutrality. Then, we compare ten-moment and fully kinetic particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations of a large scale Harris sheet reconnection problem, where the ten-moment equations are closed with a local linear collisionless approximation for the heat flux. The ten-moment simulation gives reasonable agreement with the PIC results regarding the structures and magnitudes of the electron flows, the polarities and magnitudes of elements of the electron pressure tensor, and the decomposition of the generalized Ohm's law. Possible ways to improve the simple local closure towards a nonlocal fully three-dimensional closure are also discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Santos-Lima, R.; de Gouveia Dal Pino, E. M.; Falceta-Gonçalves, D. A.; Nakwacki, M. S.; Kowal, G.
2017-03-01
Statistical analysis of Faraday rotation measure (RM) maps of the intracluster medium (ICM) of galaxy clusters provides a unique tool to evaluate some spatial features of the magnetic fields there. Its combination with numerical simulations of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence allows the diagnosis of the ICM turbulence. Being the ICM plasma weakly collisional, the thermal velocity distribution of the particles naturally develops anisotropies as a consequence of the large-scale motions and the conservation of the magnetic moment of the charged particles. A previous study (Paper I) analysed the impact of large-scale thermal anisotropy on the statistics of RM maps synthesized from simulations of turbulence; these simulations employed a collisionless MHD model that considered a tensor pressure with uniform anisotropy. In this work, we extend that analysis to a collisionless MHD model in which the thermal anisotropy develops according to the conservation of the magnetic moment of the thermal particles. We also consider the effect of anisotropy relaxation caused by the microscale mirror and firehose instabilities. We show that if the relaxation rate is fast enough to keep the anisotropy limited by the threshold values of the instabilities, the dispersion and power spectrum of the RM maps are indistinguishable from those obtained from collisional MHD. Otherwise, there is a reduction in the dispersion and steepening of the power spectrum of the RM maps (compared to the collisional case). Considering the first scenario, the use of collisional MHD simulations for modelling the RM statistics in the ICM becomes better justified.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Liang; Hakim, Ammar H.; Bhattacharjee, A.; Germaschewski, K.
2015-01-01
We introduce an extensible multi-fluid moment model in the context of collisionless magnetic reconnection. This model evolves full Maxwell equations and simultaneously moments of the Vlasov-Maxwell equation for each species in the plasma. Effects like electron inertia and pressure gradient are self-consistently embedded in the resulting multi-fluid moment equations, without the need to explicitly solving a generalized Ohm's law. Two limits of the multi-fluid moment model are discussed, namely, the five-moment limit that evolves a scalar pressures for each species and the ten-moment limit that evolves the full anisotropic, non-gyrotropic pressure tensor for each species. We first demonstrate analytically and numerically that the five-moment model reduces to the widely used Hall magnetohydrodynamics (Hall MHD) model under the assumptions of vanishing electron inertia, infinite speed of light, and quasi-neutrality. Then, we compare ten-moment and fully kinetic particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations of a large scale Harris sheet reconnection problem, where the ten-moment equations are closed with a local linear collisionless approximation for the heat flux. The ten-moment simulation gives reasonable agreement with the PIC results regarding the structures and magnitudes of the electron flows, the polarities and magnitudes of elements of the electron pressure tensor, and the decomposition of the generalized Ohm's law. Possible ways to improve the simple local closure towards a nonlocal fully three-dimensional closure are also discussed.
Liseykina, T.; Mulser, P.; Murakami, M.
2015-03-15
Among the various attempts to understand collisionless absorption of intense and superintense ultrashort laser pulses, a whole variety of models and hypotheses has been invented to describe the laser beam target interaction. In terms of basic physics, collisionless absorption is understood now as the interplay of the oscillating laser field with the space charge field produced by it in the plasma. A first approach to this idea is realized in Brunel's model the essence of which consists in the formation of an oscillating charge cloud in the vacuum in front of the target, therefore frequently addressed by the vague term “vacuum heating.” The investigation of statistical ensembles of orbits shows that the absorption process is localized at the ion-vacuum interface and in the skin layer: Single electrons enter into resonance with the laser field thereby undergoing a phase shift which causes orbit crossing and braking of Brunel's laminar flow. This anharmonic resonance acts like an attractor for the electrons and leads to the formation of a Maxwellian tail in the electron energy spectrum. Most remarkable results of our investigations are the Brunel like spectral hot electron distribution at the relativistic threshold, the minimum of absorption at Iλ{sup 2}≅(0.3−1.2)×10{sup 21} Wcm{sup −2}μm{sup 2} in the plasma target with the electron density of n{sub e}λ{sup 2}∼10{sup 23}cm{sup −3}μm{sup 2}, the drastic reduction of the number of hot electrons in this domain and their reappearance in the highly relativistic domain, and strong coupling, beyond expectation, of the fast electron jets with the return current through Cherenkov emission of plasmons. The hot electron energy scaling shows a strong dependence on intensity in the moderately relativistic domain Iλ{sup 2}≅(10{sup 18}−10{sup 20}) Wcm{sup −2}μm{sup 2}, a scaling in vague accordance with current published estimates in the range Iλ{sup 2}≅(0.14−3.5)×10{sup 21} Wcm{sup −2}
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liseykina, T.; Mulser, P.; Murakami, M.
2015-03-01
Among the various attempts to understand collisionless absorption of intense and superintense ultrashort laser pulses, a whole variety of models and hypotheses has been invented to describe the laser beam target interaction. In terms of basic physics, collisionless absorption is understood now as the interplay of the oscillating laser field with the space charge field produced by it in the plasma. A first approach to this idea is realized in Brunel's model the essence of which consists in the formation of an oscillating charge cloud in the vacuum in front of the target, therefore frequently addressed by the vague term "vacuum heating." The investigation of statistical ensembles of orbits shows that the absorption process is localized at the ion-vacuum interface and in the skin layer: Single electrons enter into resonance with the laser field thereby undergoing a phase shift which causes orbit crossing and braking of Brunel's laminar flow. This anharmonic resonance acts like an attractor for the electrons and leads to the formation of a Maxwellian tail in the electron energy spectrum. Most remarkable results of our investigations are the Brunel like spectral hot electron distribution at the relativistic threshold, the minimum of absorption at I λ 2 ≅ ( 0.3 - 1.2 ) × 10 21 Wcm - 2 μ m 2 in the plasma target with the electron density of n e λ 2 ˜ 10 23 cm - 3 μ m 2 , the drastic reduction of the number of hot electrons in this domain and their reappearance in the highly relativistic domain, and strong coupling, beyond expectation, of the fast electron jets with the return current through Cherenkov emission of plasmons. The hot electron energy scaling shows a strong dependence on intensity in the moderately relativistic domain I λ 2 ≅ ( 10 18 - 10 20 ) Wcm - 2 μ m 2 , a scaling in vague accordance with current published estimates in the range I λ 2 ≅ ( 0.14 - 3.5 ) × 10 21 Wcm - 2 μ m 2 , and again a distinct power increase beyond I = 3.5 × 10 21 Wcm
Nonlinear Plasma Effects in Natural and Artificial Aurora
Mishin, E. V.
2011-01-04
This report describes common features of natural ('Enhanced') aurora and 'artificial aurora'(AA) created by electron beams injected from sounding rockets. These features cannot be explained solely by col-lisional degradation of energetic electrons, thereby pointing to collisionless plasma effects. The fundamental role in electron beam-ionosphere interactions belongs to Langmuir turbulence. Its development in the (weakly-ionized) ionosphere is significantly affected by electron-neutral collisions, so that the heating and acceleration of plasma electrons proceed more efficiently than in collisionless plasmas. As a result, a narrow layer of enhanced auroral glow/ionization is formed above the standard collisional peak.
Applications of the concept of generalized vorticity to space plasmas
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Banks, P. M.; Edwards, W. F.; Rasmussen, C.; Thompson, R. C.
1981-01-01
A reformulation of the momentum equation for electrons or ions in a collisionless plasma leads to an equation which describes the behavior of the plasma in terms of a generalized vorticity. This vorticity is both divergence-free and conserved along plasma flow streamlines. When the plasma has zero vorticity, a special relation is established which appears to have application to small scale magnetic features within both conventional space plasmas and superconductors.
Stimulated Scattering of Light from Ion Acoustic Waves in Collisional Multi-species Plasma.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Berger, Richard; Valeo, Ernest
2003-10-01
The dispersion properties of ion acoustic waves (IAW) are sensitive to the strength of ion-ion collisions,especially in multi-species plasma in which the different species have differing charge-to-mass ratios(Bychenkov et al., PRE 51, 1400 (1995)). Here, we consider the modification of the frequency and damping of the fast and slow acoustic modes in a plasma composed of light (low Z) and heavy (high Z) ions. In the fluid limit, kλ_lh <<1, the friction between the two species causes the damping whereas, in the collisionless limit, Landau damping of the light ions provides the dissipation. Collisions between light and heavy ions also affect the nonlinear response(P. W. Rambo, S. C. Wilks, and W. L. Kruer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 79), 83 (1997).. We examine the effects of collisions on the linear evolution of ion waves driven by the ponderomotive force of two light waves within the context of linear parametric instability theory. The simulation of the nonlinear evolution is done with a δ f model that evolves the background(E. J. Valeo and S. Brunner, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 46), QP1.137 (2001)., and includes the effects of collisions of light on heavy ions within the Lorentz model. The calculated effect of a small number of high Z ions on SBS in low Z plasmas will be compared with recent experimental results(Suter et al.,private communication). l
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Muñoz, P. A.; Büchner, J.
2016-10-01
Non-Maxwellian electron velocity space distribution functions (EVDFs) are useful signatures of plasma conditions and non-local consequences of collisionless magnetic reconnection. In the past, EVDFs were obtained mainly for antiparallel reconnection and under the influence of weak guide-fields in the direction perpendicular to the reconnection plane. EVDFs are, however, not well known, yet, for oblique (or component-) reconnection in case and in dependence on stronger guide-magnetic fields and for the exhaust (outflow) region of reconnection away from the diffusion region. In view of the multi-spacecraft Magnetospheric Multiscale Mission (MMS), we derived the non-Maxwellian EVDFs of collisionless magnetic reconnection in dependence on the guide-field strength bg from small ( b g ≈ 0 ) to very strong (bg = 8) guide-fields, taking into account the feedback of the self-generated turbulence. For this sake, we carried out 2.5D fully kinetic Particle-in-Cell simulations using the ACRONYM code. We obtained anisotropic EVDFs and electron beams propagating along the separatrices as well as in the exhaust region of reconnection. The beams are anisotropic with a higher temperature in the direction perpendicular rather than parallel to the local magnetic field. The beams propagate in the direction opposite to the background electrons and cause instabilities. We also obtained the guide-field dependence of the relative electron-beam drift speed, threshold, and properties of the resulting streaming instabilities including the strongly non-linear saturation of the self-generated plasma turbulence. This turbulence and its non-linear feedback cause non-adiabatic parallel electron acceleration. We further obtained the resulting EVDFs due to the non-linear feedback of the saturated self-generated turbulence near the separatrices and in the exhaust region of reconnection in dependence on the guide field strength. We found that the influence of the self-generated plasma turbulence
On the electron-ion temperature ratio established by collisionless shocks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vink, Jacco; Broersen, Sjors; Bykov, Andrei; Gabici, Stefano
2015-07-01
Astrophysical shocks are often collisionless shocks, in which the changes in plasma flow and temperatures across the shock are established not through Coulomb interactions, but through electric and magnetic fields. An open question about collisionless shocks is whether electrons and ions each establish their own post-shock temperature (non-equilibration of temperatures), or whether they quickly equilibrate in the shock region. Here we provide a simple, thermodynamic, relation for the minimum electron-ion temperature ratios that should be expected as a function of Mach number. The basic assumption is that the enthalpy-flux of the electrons is conserved separately, but that all particle species should undergo the same density jump across the shock, in order for the plasma to remain charge neutral. The only form of additional electron heating that we allow for is adiabatic heating, caused by the compression of the electron gas. These assumptions result in an analytic treatment of expected electron-ion temperature ratio that agrees with observations of collisionless shocks: at low sonic Mach numbers, Ms ≲ 2, the electron-ion temperature ratio is close to unity, whereas for Mach numbers above Ms ≈ 60 the electron-ion temperature ratio asymptotically approaches a temperature ratio of Te/Ti = me/ ⟨ mi ⟩. In the intermediate Mach number range the electron-ion temperature ratio scales as Te/Ti ∝ Ms-2. In addition, we calculate the electron-ion temperature ratios under the assumption of adiabatic heating of the electrons only, which results in a higher electron-ion temperature ratio, but preserves the Te/Ti ∝ Ms-2 scaling. We also show that for magnetised shocks the electron-ion temperature ratio approaches the asymptotic value Te/Ti = me/ ⟨ mi ⟩ for lower magnetosonic Mach numbers (Mms), mainly because for a strongly magnetised shock the sonic Mach number is larger than the magnetosonic Mach number (Mms ≤ Ms). The predicted scaling of the electron
Two Species of Bryoria (Lichenized Ascomycota, Parmeliaceae) from the Sino-Himalayas
Wang, Li-song; Harada, Hiroshi; Koh, Young Jin
2005-01-01
We performed a taxonomic study on two species of the genus Bryoria from the Sino-Himalayas, SW-China. B. nadvornikiana is new to China and B. furcellata is new to Yunnan and Sichuan provinces in the Sino-Himalayas. Morphology, habitat, distributions and chemistry of the two species are discussed. PMID:24049496
MHD description of plasma: handbook of plasma physics
Kulsrud, R.M.
1980-10-01
The basic sets of MHD equations for the description of a plasma in various limits are derived and their usefulness and limits of validity are discussed. These limits are: the one fluid collisional plasma, the two fluid collisional plasma, the Chew-Goldberger Low formulation of the guiding center limit of a collisionless plasma and the double-adiabatic limit. Conservation relations are derived from these sets and the mathematics of the concept of flux freezing is given. An example is given illustrating the differences between guiding center theory and double adiabatic theory.
Collisionless relaxation in galactic dynamics and the evolution of long-range order.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kandrup, H. E.
This paper presents a critical assessment of certain aspects of collisionless galactic dynamics, focusing on the interpretation and limitations of the collisionless Boltzmann equation and the physical mechanisms associated with collisionless, or near-collisionsless, relaxation. Numerical and theoretical arguments are presented to motivate the idea that the evolution of a system far from equilibrium should be interpreted as involving nonlinear gravitational Landau damping, a picture which implies a greater overall coherence and remembrance of initial conditions than is implicit in the conventional paradigm of violent relaxation.
On the collisionless magnetic reconnection rate of order 0.1
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Yi-Hsin; Hesse, Michael; Guo, Fan; Daughton, William; Li, Hui; Cassak, Paul; Shay, Michael
2017-04-01
Magnetic reconnection is the process whereby a change in topology of the magnetic field allows for a rapid release of magnetic energy into thermal and kinetic energy of the surrounding plasma. The magnitude of the reconnection electric field parallel to the X-line (where magnetic field lines break) not only determines the rate that reconnection proceeds, but can also be crucial for efficiently accelerating highly energetic super-thermal particles. Observations and numerical simulations reveal that essentially collisionless magnetic reconnection of a Harris-type current sheet in the steady state tends to proceed with a normalized reconnection rate of order 0.1, independent of dissipation mechanism or physical model. However, the explanation of this value has remained unclear for decades. We propose a model that provides insight to this long standing problem. The prediction from this model compares favorably to particle-in-cell simulations of magnetic reconnection in both the non-relativistic and extremely relativistic limits. These results may be important for applications to solar, magnetospheric, fusion, and astrophysical settings.
On the collisionless magnetic reconnection rate of order 0.1
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Y. H.; Hesse, M.; Guo, F.; Daughton, W. S.; Li, H.; Cassak, P.; Shay, M. A.
2016-12-01
Magnetic reconnection is the process whereby a change in topology of the magnetic field allows for a rapid release of magnetic energy into thermal and kinetic energy of the surrounding plasma. The magnitude of the reconnection electric field parallel to the X-line (where magnetic field lines break) not only determines the rate that reconnection proceeds, but can also be crucial for efficiently accelerating highly energetic super-thermal particles. Observations and numerical simulations reveal that essentially collisionless magnetic reconnection of a Harris-type current sheet in the steady state tends to proceed with a normalized reconnection rate of order 0.1, independent of dissipation mechanism or physical model. However, the explanation of this value has remained unclear for decades. We propose a model that provides insight to this long standing problem. The prediction from this model compares favorably to particle-in-cell simulations of magnetic reconnection in both the non-relativistic and extremely relativistic limits. These results may be important for applications to solar, magnetospheric, fusion, and astrophysical settings.
Jain, Neeraj; Büchner, Jörg
2014-06-15
In collisionless magnetic reconnection, electron current sheets (ECS) with thickness of the order of an electron inertial length form embedded inside ion current sheets with thickness of the order of an ion inertial length. These ECS's are susceptible to a variety of instabilities which have the potential to affect the reconnection rate and/or the structure of reconnection. We carry out a three dimensional linear eigen mode stability analysis of electron shear flow driven instabilities of an electron scale current sheet using an electron-magnetohydrodynamic plasma model. The linear growth rate of the fastest unstable mode was found to drop with the thickness of the ECS. We show how the nature of the instability depends on the thickness of the ECS. As long as the half-thickness of the ECS is close to the electron inertial length, the fastest instability is that of a translational symmetric two-dimensional (no variations along flow direction) tearing mode. For an ECS half thickness sufficiently larger or smaller than the electron inertial length, the fastest mode is not a tearing mode any more and may have finite variations along the flow direction. Therefore, the generation of plasmoids in a nonlinear evolution of ECS is likely only when the half-thickness is close to an electron inertial length.
On the nonstationarity of collisionless shocks and its impact on deriving the cross-shock potential
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marghitu, Octav; Comişel, Horia; Scholer, Manfred
2017-07-01
Recently, Comişel et al. (2015) suggested an adaptation of the deHoffmann-Teller (HT) frame, to take into account the magnetic field fluctuations observed nearby and inside a quasi-perpendicular collisionless shock. Such fluctuations can be quite large, making the standard HT frame unsuitable for studies of the electric field, cross-shock potential, and electron energy gain. While the HT frame is appropriate to cancel the motional electric field for steady state shocks, a similar effect is achieved with the adaptive HT (AHT) frame under time varying conditions, albeit by a local rather than global transformation. The sliding AHT motion parallel to the shock surface changes from point to point and time to time, unlike the regular motion of the HT frame. On the other hand, in both cases the electric field at each point is normal to the 1-D shock and its integral across the shock is equal to the integral of the parallel electric field along the magnetic field line. In this paper we elaborate the concept of the AHT frame, illustrate it with a 1-D simulation, and point out the association of magnetic field fluctuations with electron phase space structures, apparently related to electron trapping by dispersive whistler waves in the foot of the shock. The AHT frame may help assessing the relative weight of nonstationarity at shocks and other MHD discontinuities, by simulated and observed data, under various plasma regimes.
Micro-instabilities and anomalous transport effects in collisionless guide field reconnection
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Munoz Sepulveda, Patricio Alejandro; Büchner, Jörg; Kilian, Patrick
2016-07-01
It is often the case that magnetic reconnection takes place in collisionless plasmas with a current aligned guide magnetic field, such as in the Solar corona. The general characteristics of this process have been exhaustively analyzed with theory and numerical simulations, under different approximations, since some time ago. However, some consequences and properties of the secondary instabilities arising spontaneously -other than tearing instability-, and their dependence on the guide field strength, have not been completely understood yet. For this sake, we use the results of fully kinetic 2D PIC numerical simulations of guide field reconnection. By using a mean field approach for the Generalized Ohm's law that explains the balance of the reconnected electric field, we find that some of the cross-streaming and gradient driven instabilities -in the guide field case- produce an additional anomalous transport term. The latter can be interpreted as a result of the enhanced correlated electromagnetic fluctuations, leading to a slow down of the current carriers and kinetic scale turbulence. We characterize these processes on dependence on the guide field strength, and explore the causal relation with the source of free energy driving the mentioned instabilities. Finally, we show the main consequences that a fully 3D approach have on all those phenomena in contrast to the reduced 2D description.
Yang, Zhongwei; Lu, Quanming; Gao, Xinliang; Huang, Can; Yang, Huigen; Hu, Hongqiao; Han, Desheng; Liu, Ying
2013-09-15
Supercritical perpendicular collisionless shocks are known to exhibit foot, ramp, and overshoot structures. The shock ramp structure is in a smaller scale in contrast to other microstructures (foot and overshoot) within the shock front. One-dimensional full particle simulations of strictly perpendicular shocks over wide ranges of ion beta β{sub i}, Alfvén Mach number M{sub A}, and ion-to-electron mass ratio m{sub i}/m{sub e} are presented to investigate the impact of plasma parameters on the shock ramp scale. Main results are (1) the ramp scale can be as small as several electron inertial length. (2) The simulations suggest that in a regime below the critical ion beta value, the shock front undergoes a periodic self-reformation and the shock ramp scale is time-varying. At higher ion beta values, the shock front self-reformation is smeared. At still higher ion beta value, the motion of reflected ions is quite diffuse so that they can lead to a quasi-steady shock ramp. Throughout the above three conditions, the shock ramp thickness increases with β{sub i}. (3) The increase (decrease) in Mach number and the decrease (increase) in the beta value have almost equivalent impact on the state (i.e., stationary or nonstationary) of the shock ramp. Both of front and ramp thicknesses are increased with M{sub A}.
ENTROPY PRODUCTION IN COLLISIONLESS SYSTEMS. III. RESULTS FROM SIMULATIONS
Barnes, Eric I.; Egerer, Colin P. E-mail: egerer.coli@uwlax.edu
2015-05-20
The equilibria formed by the self-gravitating, collisionless collapse of simple initial conditions have been investigated for decades. We present the results of our attempts to describe the equilibria formed in N-body simulations using thermodynamically motivated models. Previous work has suggested that it is possible to define distribution functions for such systems that describe maximum entropy states. These distribution functions are used to create radial density and velocity distributions for comparison to those from simulations. A wide variety of N-body code conditions are used to reduce the chance that results are biased by numerical issues. We find that a subset of initial conditions studied lead to equilibria that can be accurately described by these models, and that direct calculation of the entropy shows maximum values being achieved.
Three-dimensional outflow jets generated in collisionless magnetic reconnection
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fujimoto, Keizo
2016-10-01
The present study proposes a new theoretical model generating three-dimensional (3-D) outflow jets in collisionless magnetic reconnection by means of a large-scale particle-in-cell simulation. The key mechanism is the formation of 3-D flux ropes arising in the turbulent electron current layer formed around the magnetic x line. The scale of the flux ropes along the current density is determined by the wavelength of an electron flow shear mode which is a macroscopic scale larger than the typical kinetic scales. The 3-D flux ropes are intermittently ejected from the current layer and regulates the outflow jets into three dimensions. The gross reconnection rate is sufficiently large, since reconnection takes place almost uniformly along the x line.
Umklapp superradiance with a collisionless quantum degenerate Fermi gas.
Piazza, Francesco; Strack, Philipp
2014-04-11
The quantum dynamics of the electromagnetic light mode of an optical cavity filled with a coherently driven Fermi gas of ultracold atoms strongly depends on the geometry of the Fermi surface. Superradiant light generation and self-organization of the atoms can be achieved at low pumping threshold due to resonant atom-photon umklapp processes, where the fermions are scattered from one side of the Fermi surface to the other by exchanging photon momenta. The cavity spectrum exhibits sidebands that, despite strong atom-light coupling and cavity decay, retain narrow linewidth, due to absorptionless transparency windows outside the atomic particle-hole continuum and the suppression of broadening and thermal fluctuations in the collisionless Fermi gas.
Ion reflection and dissipation at quasi-parallel collisionless shocks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Scholer, Manfred; Terasawa, Toshio
1990-02-01
Large scale one-dimensional hybrid simulations have been performed of a quasi-parallel high Mach number collisionless shock. It is found that backstreaming reflected ions, i.e., upstream ions with velocities exceeding the shock ram velocity, originate from the outer part of the velocity space of the incident distribution. The backstreaming ions produce very low-frequency magnetosonic waves which propagate upstream with about 1.3 Alfven speed. As the wave crests convect toward the shock, they steepen up the shock reforms itself. During shock reformation a large part of the incident ions are reflected. This, in turn, slows the incident ions down. The slowed down incident particle distribution and the reflected particle distribution merge and constitute the new thermalized downstream distribution. In the interval of a relatively stationary shock low-frequency whistler waves stand at the shock front. During these time intervals, the whistler waves are probably responsible for dissipation by nonadiabatic compression of the incident ions.
Entropy Production in Collisionless Systems. III. Results from Simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barnes, Eric I.; Egerer, Colin P.
2015-05-01
The equilibria formed by the self-gravitating, collisionless collapse of simple initial conditions have been investigated for decades. We present the results of our attempts to describe the equilibria formed in N-body simulations using thermodynamically motivated models. Previous work has suggested that it is possible to define distribution functions for such systems that describe maximum entropy states. These distribution functions are used to create radial density and velocity distributions for comparison to those from simulations. A wide variety of N-body code conditions are used to reduce the chance that results are biased by numerical issues. We find that a subset of initial conditions studied lead to equilibria that can be accurately described by these models, and that direct calculation of the entropy shows maximum values being achieved.
Electron force balance in steady collisionless-driven reconnection.
Li, Bin; Horiuchi, Ritoku
2008-11-21
Steady collisionless-driven reconnection in an open system is investigated by means of full-particle simulations. A long thin electron current sheet extends towards the outflow direction when the system relaxes to a steady state. Although the pressure tensor term along the reconnection electric field contributes to the violation of the electron frozen-in condition, a new force balance in the inflow direction is realized between the Lorentz and electrostatic forces, which is quite different from that in Harris equilibrium. The strong electrostatic field is generated through the combined effect of the Hall term and a driving inflow. This new force balance is more evident in the three-dimensional case due to the growth of an instability along the reconnection electric field. It is also found that the normalized charge density is in proportion to the square of the electron Alfvén velocity averaged over the electron dissipation region.
Laminar wave train structure of collisionless magnetic slow shocks
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Coroniti, F. V.
1970-01-01
The laminar wave train structure of collisionless magnetic slow shocks is investigated using two fluid hydromagnetics with ion cyclotron radius dispersion. For shock strengths less than the maximally strong switch-off shock, in the shock leading edge dispersive steepening forms a magnetic field gradient, while in the downstream flow dispersive propagation forms a trailing wave train; dispersion scale lengths are the ion inertial length if beta is smaller than 1 and the ion cyclotron radius if beta is greater than 1. In the switch-off slow shock leading edge, dispersion only produced rotations of the magnetic field direction; the gradient of the magnetic field magnitude, and hence the shock steepening length, is determined solely by resistive diffusion. The switch-off shock structure consists of a long trailing of magnetic rotations which are gradually damped by resistivity.
Plasma separation from magnetic field lines in a magnetic nozzle
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kaufman, D. A.; Goodwin, D. G.; Sercel, J. C.
1993-01-01
This paper discusses conditions for separation of a plasma from the magnetic field of a magnetic nozzle. The analysis assumes a collisionless, quasineutral plasma, and therefore the results represent a lower bound on the amount of detachment possible for a given set of plasma conditions. We show that collisionless separation can occur because finite electron mass inhibits the flow of azimuthal currents in the nozzle. Separation conditions are governed by a parameter G which depends on plasma and nozzle conditions. Several methods of improving plasma detachment are presented, including moving the plasma generation zone downstream from the region of strongest magnetic field and using dual magnets to focus the plasma beam. Plasma detachment can be enhanced by manipulation of the nozzle configuration.
Wakefields generated by collisional neutrinos in neutral-electron-positron plasma
Tinakiche, Nouara
2013-02-15
A classical fluid description is adopted to investigate nonlinear interaction between an electron-type neutrino beam and a relativistic collisionless unmagnetized neutral-electron-positron plasma. In this work, we consider the collisions of the neutrinos with neutrals in the plasma and study their effect on the generation of wakefields in this plasma.
Micro- to macroscale perspectives on space plasmas
Eastman, T.E. )
1993-07-01
The Earth's magnetosphere is the most accessible of natural collisionless plasma environments; an astrophysical plasma laboratory.'' Magnetospheric physics has been in an exploration phase since its origin 35 years ago but new coordinated, multipoint observations, theory, modeling, and simulations are moving this highly interdisciplinary field of plasma science into a new phase of synthesis and understanding. Plasma systems are ones in which binary collisions are relatively negligible and collective behavior beyond the microscale emerges. Most readily accessible natural plasma systems are collisional and nearest-neighbor classical interactions compete with longer-range plasma effects. Except for stars, most space plasmas are collisionless, however, and the effects of electrodynamic coupling dominate. Basic physical processes in such collisionless plasmas occur at micro-, meso-, and macroscales that are not merely reducible to each other in certain crucial ways as illustrated for the global coupling of the Earth's magnetosphere and for the nonlinear dynamics of charged particle motion in the magnetotail. Such global coupling and coherence makes the geospace environment, the domain of solar-terrestrial science, the most highly coupled of all physical geospheres.
Micro- to macroscale perspectives on space plasmas
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Eastman, Timothy E.
1993-01-01
The Earth's magnetosphere is the most accessible of natural collisionless plasma environments; an astrophysical plasma 'laboratory'. Magnetospheric physics has been in an exploration phase since its origin 35 years ago but new coordinated, multipoint observations, theory, modeling, and simulations are moving this highly interdisciplinary field of plasma science into a new phase of synthesis and understanding. Plasma systems are ones in which binary collisions are relatively negligible and collective behavior beyond the microscale emerges. Most readily accessible natural plasma systems are collisional and nearest-neighbor classical interactions compete with longer-range plasma effects. Except for stars, most space plasmas are collisionless, however, and the effects of electrodynamic coupling dominate. Basic physical processes in such collisionless plasmas occur at micro-, meso-, and macroscales that are not merely reducible to each other in certain crucial ways as illustrated for the global coupling of the Earth's magnetosphere and for the nonlinear dynamics of charged particle motion in the magnetotail. Such global coupling and coherence makes the geospace environment, the domain of solar-terrestrial science, the most highly coupled of all physical geospheres.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Umeda, Takayuki; Kidani, Yoshitaka; Matsukiyo, Shuichi; Yamazaki, Ryo
2014-02-01
Large-scale two-dimensional (2D) full particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations are carried out for studying the relationship between the dynamics of a perpendicular shock and microinstabilities generated at the shock foot. The structure and dynamics of collisionless shocks are generally determined by Alfven Mach number and plasma beta, while microinstabilities at the shock foot are controlled by the ratio of the upstream bulk velocity to the electron thermal velocity and the ratio of the plasma-to-cyclotron frequency. With a fixed Alfven Mach number and plasma beta, the ratio of the upstream bulk velocity to the electron thermal velocity is given as a function of the ion-to-electron mass ratio. The present 2D full PIC simulations with a relatively low Alfven Mach number (MA ˜ 6) show that the modified two-stream instability is dominant with higher ion-to-electron mass ratios. It is also confirmed that waves propagating downstream are more enhanced at the shock foot near the shock ramp as the mass ratio becomes higher. The result suggests that these waves play a role in the modification of the dynamics of collisionless shocks through the interaction with shock front ripples.
Umeda, Takayuki Kidani, Yoshitaka; Matsukiyo, Shuichi; Yamazaki, Ryo
2014-02-15
Large-scale two-dimensional (2D) full particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations are carried out for studying the relationship between the dynamics of a perpendicular shock and microinstabilities generated at the shock foot. The structure and dynamics of collisionless shocks are generally determined by Alfven Mach number and plasma beta, while microinstabilities at the shock foot are controlled by the ratio of the upstream bulk velocity to the electron thermal velocity and the ratio of the plasma-to-cyclotron frequency. With a fixed Alfven Mach number and plasma beta, the ratio of the upstream bulk velocity to the electron thermal velocity is given as a function of the ion-to-electron mass ratio. The present 2D full PIC simulations with a relatively low Alfven Mach number (M{sub A} ∼ 6) show that the modified two-stream instability is dominant with higher ion-to-electron mass ratios. It is also confirmed that waves propagating downstream are more enhanced at the shock foot near the shock ramp as the mass ratio becomes higher. The result suggests that these waves play a role in the modification of the dynamics of collisionless shocks through the interaction with shock front ripples.
Thomson scattering measurement of a shock in laser-produced counter-streaming plasmas
Morita, T.; Kuramitsu, Y.; Moritaka, T.; Sakawa, Y.; Takabe, H.; Tomita, K.; Nakayama, K.; Inoue, K.; Uchino, K.; Ide, T.; Tsubouchi, K.; Nishio, K.; Ide, H.; Kuwada, M.
2013-09-15
We report the first direct measurement of temporally and spatially resolved plasma temperatures at a shock as well as its spatial structure and propagation in laser-produced counter-streaming plasmas. Two shocks are formed in counter-streaming collisionless plasmas early in time, and they propagate opposite directions. This indicates the existence of counter-streaming collisionless flows to keep exciting the shocks, even though the collisional effects increase later in time. The shock images are observed with optical diagnostics, and the upstream and downstream plasma parameters of one of the shocks are measured using Thomson scattering technique.
Does the Rate of Collisionless Magnetic Reconnection Depend on the Dissipation Mechanism?
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Aunai, Nicolas; Hesse, Michael; Black, Carrie; Evans, Rebekah; Kuznetsova, Maria
2012-01-01
The importance of the electron dissipation effect on the reconnection rate is investigated in the general case of asymmetric collisionless magnetic reconnection. Contrary to the standard collisionless reconnection model, it is found that the reconnection rate, and the macroscopic evolution of the reconnecting system, crucially depend on the nature of the dissipation mechanism and that the Hall effect alone is not able to sustain fast reconnection.
Does the Rate of Collisionless Reconnection Depend on the Dissipation Mechanism?
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Aunai, Nicolas; Hesse, Michael; Black, Carrie; Evans, Rebekah; Kuznetsova, maria
2012-01-01
The importance of the electron dissipation effect on the reconnection rate is investigated in the general case of asymmetric collisionless magnetic reconnection. Contrary to the standard collisionless reconnection model, it is found that the reconnection rate, and them acroscopic evolution of the reconnecting system, crucially depend on the nature of the dissipation mechanism and that the Hall effect alone is not able to sustain fast reconnection.
Bai, Xiao-Dong; Zhang, Mei; Xiong, Jun; Yang, Guo-Jian; Deng, Fu-Guo
2015-01-01
We investigate the formation of discrete breathers (DBs) and the dynamics of the mixture of two-species Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) in open boundary optical lattices using the discrete nonlinear Schrödinger equations. The results show that the coupling of intra- and interspecies interaction can lead to the existence of pure single-species DBs and symbiotic DBs (i.e., two-species DBs). Furthermore, we find that there is a selective distillation phenomenon in the dynamics of the mixture of two-species BECs. One can selectively distil one species from the mixture of two-species BECs and can even control dominant species fraction by adjusting the intra- and interspecies interaction in optical lattices. Our selective distillation mechanism may find potential application in quantum information storage and quantum information processing based on multi-species atoms. PMID:26597592
USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database
Two species of Gelechioidea (Lepidoptera), Metharmostis multilineata Adamski, n. sp. (Cosmopterigidae), and Idiophantis soreuta Meyrick, 1906 (Gelechiidae), were collected in southeastern Asia for evaluation as potential biocontrol agents against downy rose myrtle, Rhodomyrtus tomentosa (Aiton) Hass...
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bai, Xiao-Dong; Zhang, Mei; Xiong, Jun; Yang, Guo-Jian; Deng, Fu-Guo
2015-11-01
We investigate the formation of discrete breathers (DBs) and the dynamics of the mixture of two-species Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) in open boundary optical lattices using the discrete nonlinear Schrödinger equations. The results show that the coupling of intra- and interspecies interaction can lead to the existence of pure single-species DBs and symbiotic DBs (i.e., two-species DBs). Furthermore, we find that there is a selective distillation phenomenon in the dynamics of the mixture of two-species BECs. One can selectively distil one species from the mixture of two-species BECs and can even control dominant species fraction by adjusting the intra- and interspecies interaction in optical lattices. Our selective distillation mechanism may find potential application in quantum information storage and quantum information processing based on multi-species atoms.
Weak turbulence theory of collisionless trapped electron driven drift instability in tokamaks
Hahm, T.S.; Tang, W.M.
1990-10-01
The toroidal collisionless trapped electron modes are analyzed in the weak turbulence regime treating both ions and trapped electrons nonlinearly in the presence of ion and electron temperature gradients. The spectral intensity of the density fluctuations in the nonlinearly saturated state is analytically obtained from the steady state solution of the wave-kinetic equation. Distant nonlinear interactions between low-k{sub {theta}} and high-k{sub {theta}} modes of similar frequencies via trapped electron scattering (the resonance between the beat wave and the trapped electron precession drift frequencies) suppress the low-k{sub {theta}} (k{sub {theta}}{rho}{sub s} {much lt} (L{sub n}/R){sup 1/2}) modes while close interactions via ion Compton scattering (nonlinear ion Landau damping) produce a monotonically decreasing spectrum from k{sub {theta}}{rho}{sub s} {congruent} (L{sub n}/R){sup 1/2} to k{sub {theta}}{rho}{sub s} {congruent} 1 according to an approximate power law k{sub {theta}}{sup {minus}3}. Various fluctuation amplitudes at saturation and the fluctuation-induced anomalous particle and heat fluxes are found to be smaller than the mixing length estimates. The plasma confinement is predicted to improve with higher T{sub i}/T{sub e}, more peaked density profile, larger aspect ratio, and higher plasma current. Also, a significant dependence of transport on the electron temperature gradient is found which could contribute to the rigidity of the electron temperature profile often experimentally observed.
Multiflow approach to plasma kinetics
Ignatov, A. M.
2015-10-15
Instead of the commonly used Vlasov equation, one is able to treat kinetic phenomena in collisionless plasma with the help of the infinite set of hydrodynamic equations. The present paper deals with the linear approximation of multiflow hydrodynamics. It is shown that single-particle and collective excitations analogous to Van Kampen waves are explicitly separated. Expressions for the energy of all eigenmodes are obtained.
Rizzato, Felipe B.; Pakter, Renato; Levin, Yan
2009-08-15
A statistical theory is presented that allows the calculation of the stationary state achieved by a driven one-component plasma after a process of collisionless relaxation. The stationary Vlasov equation with appropriate boundary conditions is reduced to an ordinary differential equation, which is then solved numerically. The solution is then compared with the molecular-dynamics simulation. A perfect agreement is found between the theory and the simulations. The full current-voltage phase diagram is constructed.
Electromagnetic wave in a relativistic magnetized plasma
Krasovitskiy, V. B.
2009-12-15
Results are presented from a theoretical investigation of the dispersion properties of a relativistic plasma in which an electromagnetic wave propagates along an external magnetic field. The dielectric tensor in integral form is simplified by separating its imaginary and real parts. A dispersion relation for an electromagnetic wave is obtained that makes it possible to analyze the dispersion and collisionless damping of electromagnetic perturbations over a broad parameter range for both nonrelativistic and ultrarelativistic plasmas.
Plasma heating by electric field compression.
Avinash, K; Kaw, P K
2014-05-09
Plasma heating by compression of electric fields is proposed. It is shown that periodic cycles of external compression followed by the free expansion of electric fields in the plasma cause irreversible, collisionless plasma heating and corresponding entropy generation. As a demonstration of general ideas and scalings, the heating is shown in the case of a dusty plasma, where electric fields are created due to the presence of charged dust. The method is expected to work in the cases of compression of low frequency or dc electric fields created by other methods. Applications to high power laser heating of plasmas using this scheme are discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bamford, R. A.; Alves, E. P.; Cruz, F.; Kellett, B. J.; Fonseca, R. A.; Silva, L. O.; Trines, R. M. G. M.; Halekas, J. S.; Kramer, G.; Harnett, E.; Cairns, R. A.; Bingham, R.
2016-10-01
Investigation of the lunar crustal magnetic anomalies offers a comprehensive long-term data set of observations of small-scale magnetic fields and their interaction with the solar wind. In this paper a review of the observations of lunar mini-magnetospheres is compared quantifiably with theoretical kinetic-scale plasma physics and 3D particle-in-cell simulations. The aim of this paper is to provide a complete picture of all the aspects of the phenomena and to show how the observations from all the different and international missions interrelate. The analysis shows that the simulations are consistent with the formation of miniature (smaller than the ion Larmor orbit) collisionless shocks and miniature magnetospheric cavities, which has not been demonstrated previously. The simulations reproduce the finesse and form of the differential proton patterns that are believed to be responsible for the creation of both the “lunar swirls” and “dark lanes.” Using a mature plasma physics code like OSIRIS allows us, for the first time, to make a side-by-side comparison between model and space observations. This is shown for all of the key plasma parameters observed to date by spacecraft, including the spectral imaging data of the lunar swirls. The analysis of miniature magnetic structures offers insight into multi-scale mechanisms and kinetic-scale aspects of planetary magnetospheres.
ELECTRON HEAT CONDUCTION IN THE SOLAR WIND: TRANSITION FROM SPITZER-HAeRM TO THE COLLISIONLESS LIMIT
Bale, S. D.; Quataert, E.; Pulupa, M.; Salem, C.; Chen, C. H. K.
2013-06-01
We use a statistically significant set of measurements to show that the field-aligned electron heat flux q{sub Parallel-To} in the solar wind at 1 AU is consistent with the Spitzer-Haerm collisional heat flux q{sub sh} for temperature gradient scales larger than a few mean free paths L{sub T} {approx}> 3.5{lambda}{sub fp}. This represents about 65% of the measured data and corresponds primarily to high {beta}, weakly collisional plasma ({sup s}low solar wind{sup )}. In the more collisionless regime {lambda}{sub fp}/L{sub T} {approx}> 0.28, the electron heat flux is limited to q{sub Parallel-To }/q{sub 0} {approx} 0.3, independent of mean free path, where q{sub 0} is the ''free-streaming'' value; the measured q{sub Parallel-To} does not achieve the full q{sub 0}. This constraint q{sub Parallel-To }/q{sub 0} {approx} 0.3 might be attributed to wave-particle interactions, effects of an interplanetary electric potential, or inherent flux limitation. We also show a {beta}{sub e} dependence to these results that is consistent with a local radial electron temperature profile T{sub e} {approx} r {sup -{alpha}} that is a function of the thermal electron beta {alpha} = {alpha}({beta}{sub e}) and that the {beta} dependence of the collisionless regulation constraint is not obviously consistent with a whistler heat flux instability. It may be that the observed saturation of the measured heat flux is a simply a feature of collisional transport. We discuss the results in a broader astrophysical context.
Modeling the Lyα Forest in Collisionless Simulations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sorini, Daniele; Oñorbe, José; Lukić, Zarija; Hennawi, Joseph F.
2016-08-01
Cosmological hydrodynamic simulations can accurately predict the properties of the intergalactic medium (IGM), but only under the condition of retaining the high spatial resolution necessary to resolve density fluctuations in the IGM. This resolution constraint prohibits simulating large volumes, such as those probed by BOSS and future surveys, like DESI and 4MOST. To overcome this limitation, we present “Iteratively Matched Statistics” (IMS), a novel method to accurately model the Lyα forest with collisionless N-body simulations, where the relevant density fluctuations are unresolved. We use a small-box, high-resolution hydrodynamic simulation to obtain the probability distribution function (PDF) and the power spectrum of the real-space Lyα forest flux. These two statistics are iteratively mapped onto a pseudo-flux field of an N-body simulation, which we construct from the matter density. We demonstrate that our method can reproduce the PDF, line of sight and 3D power spectra of the Lyα forest with good accuracy (7%, 4%, and 7% respectively). We quantify the performance of the commonly used Gaussian smoothing technique and show that it has significantly lower accuracy (20%-80%), especially for N-body simulations with achievable mean inter-particle separations in large-volume simulations. In addition, we show that IMS produces reasonable and smooth spectra, making it a powerful tool for modeling the IGM in large cosmological volumes and for producing realistic “mock” skies for Lyα forest surveys.
The Structure of the Separatix in Collisionless Magnetic Reconnection
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Daughton, W.; Scudder, J.; Karimabadi, H.
2005-12-01
Recent kinetic simulations of magnetic reconnection indicate the formation of intense electrostatic fields that start at the x-point and form sheet-like structures that extend outward for large distances along the separatrices. In the presence of a significant guide field, the characteristic thickness of these layers is on the order of the local electron gyroradius and there are significant deviations from charge neutrality within the layer. The resulting electrostatic fields are primarily perpendicular and may exceed the reconnection electric field by a factor of 20. A serious impediment to understanding the possible role of these structures is the use of periodic boundary conditions typically employed in kinetic simulations. In particular, the strong outward electron flow generated along one leg of a separatrix is allowed to circulate back through the system along the opposite side. This recirculation may artificially enhance beam driven instabilities and/or strongly modify the structure of the separatrix. In this work, we describe initial efforts to employ open boundary conditions in 2D fully kinetic PIC simulations, with the goal of better understanding the structure and role of the separatrix in collisionless magnetic reconnection.
Intrinsic rotation drive by collisionless trapped electron mode turbulence
Wang, Lu Peng, Shuitao; Diamond, P. H.
2016-04-15
Both the parallel residual stress and parallel turbulent acceleration driven by electrostatic collisionless trapped electron mode (CTEM) turbulence are calculated analytically using gyrokinetic theory. Quasilinear results show that the parallel residual stress contributes an outward flux of co-current rotation for normal magnetic shear and turbulence intensity profile increasing outward. This may induce intrinsic counter-current rotation or flattening of the co-current rotation profile. The parallel turbulent acceleration driven by CTEM turbulence vanishes, due to the absence of a phase shift between density fluctuation and ion pressure fluctuation. This is different from the case of ion temperature gradient turbulence, for which the turbulent acceleration can provide co-current drive for normal magnetic shear and turbulence intensity profile increasing outward. Its order of magnitude is predicted to be the same as that of the divergence of the residual stress [L. Wang and P. H. Diamond, Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 265006 (2013)]. A possible connection of these theoretical results to experimental observations of electron cyclotron heating effects on toroidal rotation is discussed.
THE FINAL-PARSEC PROBLEM IN THE COLLISIONLESS LIMIT
Vasiliev, Eugene; Antonini, Fabio; Merritt, David E-mail: fabio.antonini@northwestern.edu
2015-09-01
A binary supermassive black hole loses energy via ejection of stars in a galactic nucleus, until emission of gravitational waves becomes strong enough to induce rapid coalescence. Evolution via the gravitational slingshot requires that stars be continuously supplied to the binary, and it is known that in spherical galaxies the reservoir of such stars is quickly depleted, leading to stalling of the binary at parsec-scale separations. Recent N-body simulations of galaxy mergers and isolated nonspherical galaxies suggest that this stalling may not occur in less idealized systems. However, it remains unclear to what degree these conclusions are affected by collisional relaxation, which is much stronger in the numerical simulations than in real galaxies. In this study, we present a novel Monte Carlo method that can efficiently deal with both collisional and collisionless dynamics, and with galaxy models having arbitrary shapes. We show that without relaxation, the final-parsec problem may be overcome only in triaxial galaxies. Axisymmetry is not enough, but even a moderate departure from axisymmetry is sufficient to keep the binary shrinking. We find that the binary hardening rate is always substantially lower than the maximum possible, “full-loss-cone” rate, and that it decreases with time, but that stellar-dynamical interactions are nevertheless able to drive the binary to coalescence on a timescale ≲1 Gyr in any triaxial galaxy.
A new approach to simulating collisionless dark matter fluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hahn, Oliver; Abel, Tom; Kaehler, Ralf
2013-09-01
Recently, we have shown how current cosmological N-body codes already follow the fine grained phase-space information of the dark matter fluid. Using a tetrahedral tessellation of the three-dimensional manifold that describes perfectly cold fluids in six-dimensional phase space, the phase-space distribution function can be followed throughout the simulation. This allows one to project the distribution function into configuration space to obtain highly accurate densities, velocities and velocity dispersions. Here, we exploit this technique to show first steps on how to devise an improved particle-mesh technique. At its heart, the new method thus relies on a piecewise linear approximation of the phase-space distribution function rather than the usual particle discretization. We use pseudo-particles that approximate the masses of the tetrahedral cells up to quadrupolar order as the locations for cloud-in-cell (CIC) deposit instead of the particle locations themselves as in standard CIC deposit. We demonstrate that this modification already gives much improved stability and more accurate dynamics of the collisionless dark matter fluid at high force and low mass resolution. We demonstrate the validity and advantages of this method with various test problems as well as hot/warm dark matter simulations which have been known to exhibit artificial fragmentation. This completely unphysical behaviour is much reduced in the new approach. The current limitations of our approach are discussed in detail and future improvements are outlined.
Modeling the Lyα Forest in Collisionless Simulations
Sorini, Daniele; Oñorbe, José; Lukić, Zarija; Hennawi, Joseph F.
2016-08-11
Cosmological hydrodynamic simulations can accurately predict the properties of the intergalactic medium (IGM), but only under the condition of retaining the high spatial resolution necessary to resolve density fluctuations in the IGM. This resolution constraint prohibits simulating large volumes, such as those probed by BOSS and future surveys, like DESI and 4MOST. To overcome this limitation, we present in this paper "Iteratively Matched Statistics" (IMS), a novel method to accurately model the Lyα forest with collisionless N-body simulations, where the relevant density fluctuations are unresolved. We use a small-box, high-resolution hydrodynamic simulation to obtain the probability distribution function (PDF) and the power spectrum of the real-space Lyα forest flux. These two statistics are iteratively mapped onto a pseudo-flux field of an N-body simulation, which we construct from the matter density. We demonstrate that our method can reproduce the PDF, line of sight and 3D power spectra of the Lyα forest with good accuracy (7%, 4%, and 7% respectively). We quantify the performance of the commonly used Gaussian smoothing technique and show that it has significantly lower accuracy (20%–80%), especially for N-body simulations with achievable mean inter-particle separations in large-volume simulations. Finally, in addition, we show that IMS produces reasonable and smooth spectra, making it a powerful tool for modeling the IGM in large cosmological volumes and for producing realistic "mock" skies for Lyα forest surveys.
STATISTICAL MECHANICS OF COLLISIONLESS ORBITS. II. STRUCTURE OF HALOS
Williams, Liliya L. R.; Hjorth, Jens E-mail: jens@dark-cosmology.d
2010-10-10
In this paper, we present the density, {rho}, velocity dispersion, {sigma}, and {rho}/{sigma}{sup 3} profiles of isotropic systems which have the energy distribution, N({epsilon}) {proportional_to} [exp({phi}{sub 0} - {epsilon}) - 1], derived in Paper I. This distribution, dubbed {sup D}ARKexp{sup ,} is the most probable final state of a collisionless self-gravitating system, which is relaxed in terms of particle energies, but not necessarily in terms of angular momentum. We compare the DARKexp predictions with the results obtained using the extended secondary infall model (ESIM). The ESIM numerical scheme is optimally suited for this purpose because (1) it relaxes only through energy redistribution, leaving shell/particle angular momenta unaltered and (2) being a shell code with radially increasing shell thickness, it has very good mass resolution in the inner halo, where the various theoretical treatments give different predictions. The ESIM halo properties, and especially their energy distributions, are very well fit by DARKexp, implying that the techniques of statistical mechanics can be used to explain the structure of relaxed self-gravitating systems.
Hydrodynamic Limit of Condensing Two-Species Zero Range Processes with Sub-critical Initial Profiles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dirr, Nicolas; Stamatakis, Marios G.; Zimmer, Johannes
2017-08-01
Two-species condensing zero range processes (ZRPs) are interacting particle systems with two species of particles and zero range interaction exhibiting phase separation outside a domain of sub-critical densities. We prove the hydrodynamic limit of nearest neighbour mean zero two-species condensing ZRP with bounded local jump rate for sub-critical initial profiles, i.e., for initial profiles whose image is contained in the region of sub-critical densities. The proof is based on H.T. Yau's relative entropy method, which relies on the existence of sufficiently regular solutions to the hydrodynamic equation. In the particular case of the species-blind ZRP, we prove that the solutions of the hydrodynamic equation exist globally in time and thus the hydrodynamic limit is valid for all times.
Hydrodynamic Limit of Condensing Two-Species Zero Range Processes with Sub-critical Initial Profiles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dirr, Nicolas; Stamatakis, Marios G.; Zimmer, Johannes
2017-07-01
Two-species condensing zero range processes (ZRPs) are interacting particle systems with two species of particles and zero range interaction exhibiting phase separation outside a domain of sub-critical densities. We prove the hydrodynamic limit of nearest neighbour mean zero two-species condensing ZRP with bounded local jump rate for sub-critical initial profiles, i.e., for initial profiles whose image is contained in the region of sub-critical densities. The proof is based on H.T. Yau's relative entropy method, which relies on the existence of sufficiently regular solutions to the hydrodynamic equation. In the particular case of the species-blind ZRP, we prove that the solutions of the hydrodynamic equation exist globally in time and thus the hydrodynamic limit is valid for all times.