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Sample records for colloid-stable nanosized selective

  1. Colloid stable sorbents for cesium removal: preparation and application of latex particles functionalized with transition metals ferrocyanides.

    PubMed

    Avramenko, Valentin; Bratskaya, Svetlana; Zheleznov, Veniamin; Sheveleva, Irina; Voitenko, Oleg; Sergienko, Valentin

    2011-02-28

    In this paper we suggest a principally new approach to preparation of colloid stable selective sorbents for cesium uptake using immobilization of transition metals (cobalt, nickel, and copper) ferrocyanides in nanosized carboxylic latex emulsions. The effects of ferrocyanide composition, pH, and media salinity on the sorption properties of the colloid stable sorbents toward cesium ions were studied in solutions containing up to 200 g/L of sodium nitrate or potassium chloride. The sorption capacities of the colloid sorbents based on mixed potassium/transition metals ferrocyanides were in the range 1.3-1.5 mol Cs/mol ferrocyanide with the highest value found for the copper ferrocyanide. It was shown that the obtained colloid-stable sorbents were capable to penetrate through bulk materials without filtration that made them applicable for decontamination of solids, e.g. soils, zeolites, spent ion-exchange resins contaminated with cesium radionuclides. After decontamination of liquid or solid radioactive wastes the colloid-stable sorbents can be easily separated from solutions by precipitation with cationic flocculants providing localization of radionuclides in a small volume of the precipitates formed.

  2. Nanosized Pd-Au bimetallic phases on carbon nanotubes for selective phenylacetylene hydrogenation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shenghua; Xin, Zhiling; Huang, Xing; Yu, Weizhen; Niu, Shuo; Shao, Lidong

    2017-02-22

    Palladium (Pd)-catalyzed selective hydrogenation of alkynes has been one of the most studied hydrogenation reactions in the last century. However, kinetic studies conducted to reveal the catalyst's active centers have been hindered because of dynamic surface changes on Pd during the reaction. In the present study, bimetallic Pd-Au nanoparticles supported on carbon nanotubes have been synthesized at room temperature as catalysts for selective hydrogenation of phenylacetylene, which show effectively enhanced selectivity compared to their monometallic counterparts. Structural and surface analyses of fresh and reacted catalysts reveal that selective hydrogenation of phenylacetylene is favored over nanosized Pd-Au bimetallic phases due to modifications in the Pd surface in terms of neighboring site isolation and electron density reduction.

  3. Small silicon, big opportunities: the development and future of colloidally-stable monodisperse silicon nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Mastronardi, Melanie L; Henderson, Eric J; Puzzo, Daniel P; Ozin, Geoffrey A

    2012-11-14

    Nanomaterials are becoming increasingly widespread in consumer technologies, but there is global concern about the toxicity of nanomaterials to humans and the environment as they move rapidly from the research laboratory to the market place. With this in mind, it makes sense to intensify the nanochemistry community's global research effort on the synthesis and study of nanoparticles that are purportedly "green". One potentially green nanoparticle that seems to be a most promising candidate in this context is silicon, whose appealing optical, optoelectronic, photonic, and biomedical attributes are recently gaining much attention. In this paper, we outline some of our recent contributions to the development of the growing field of silicon nanocrystals (ncSi) in order to stress the importance of continued study of ncSi as a green alternative to the archetypal semiconductor nanocrystals like CdSe, InAs, and PbS. While a variety of developments in synthetic methods, characterization techniques, and applications have been reported in recent years, the ability to prepare colloidally-stable monodisperse ncSi samples may prove to have the largest impact on the field, as it opens the door to study and access the tunable size-dependent properties of ncSi. Here, we summarize our recent contributions in size-separation methods to achieve monodisperse samples, the characterization of size-dependant property trends, the development of ncSi applications, and their potential impact on the promising future of ncSi.

  4. Synthesis and Size-Separation of Colloidally-Stable Silicon Nanocrystals for the Investigation of their Size-Dependent Optical Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mastronardi, Melanie

    Silicon nanocrystals (ncSi) possess unique optical properties that vary predictably with crystal size, which means they can be tailored to suit specific requirements for use in optoelectronic devices and biological applications. The work presented in this thesis outlines contributions made in developing size-separation methods to obtain uniform-sized samples of colloidally-stable ncSi from non-uniform ensembles, which result from most common syntheses that produce colloidally-stable particles. Non-uniform samples of ncSi were prepared using the straightforward thermal processing of sol-gel glasses, followed by HF etching to liberate hydride-capped ncSi from an encapsulating matrix. Thermal hydrosilylation was employed to passivate the ncSi surface with both allylbenzene and 1-decene. Density gradient ultracentrifugation and size-selective precipitation methods were used to isolate size-separated ncSi, which enabled definitive characterization of size-dependent optical properties including photoluminescence (PL), PL absolute quantum yields, and PL lifetimes. A detailed investigation of the chemical reactivity of allylbenzene-capped ncSi with different gaseous atmospheres as probed by in situ luminescence spectroscopy, conducted under both continuous and intermittent illumination, helped elucidate the roles of O2, H2O and mixtures of O2/H 2O, with respect to oxidation of ncSi as a function of size. The results presented in this thesis have played a crucial role towards obtaining a complete understanding of ncSi, a most promising material, and providing vital information that will aid in developing and tailoring perceived applications in advanced materials and biomedical devices.

  5. Synthesis of nanosized sodium titanates

    DOEpatents

    Hobbs, David T.; Taylor-Pashow, Kathryn M. L.; Elvington, Mark C.

    2015-09-29

    Methods directed to the synthesis and peroxide-modification of nanosized monosodium titanate are described. Methods include combination of reactants at a low concentration to a solution including a nonionic surfactant. The nanosized monosodium titanate can exhibit high selectivity for sorbing various metallic ions.

  6. Mechanisms of Size and Shape Selection and Control in Self-Assembly of Colloid Particles Synthesized from Nanosize Crystalline Precursors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Privman, Vladimir

    2007-03-01

    The importance of well-defined dispersions of particles of different shapes, ranging in sizes from nanometer to colloidal, has been widely recognized in applications and in basic studies of advanced materials. Our program endeavors to advance understanding of formation of uniform particles of simple and composite structure, with focus on synthesis involving self-assembly of nanosize particles and their new unique properties for dimensions smaller than the typical submicron-size colloid scales. Presently, there is convincing experimental evidence that many monodispersed colloids of various shapes, obtained by precipitation in solutions, are formed by aggregation of such nanocrystalline subunits. Our group's theoretical explanation of this process expands the classical model of formation of uniform particles, by LaMer, and offers an interesting link between nanosize and micrometer size particles.

  7. Nano-sized molecularly imprinted polymer for selective ultrasound-assisted microextraction of pesticide Carbaryl from water samples: Spectrophotometric determination.

    PubMed

    Bazrafshan, A A; Ghaedi, M; Rafiee, Z; Hajati, S; Ostovan, A

    2017-07-15

    Ultrasound-assisted dispersive solid phase microextraction followed by UV-Vis spectrophotometry (UA-DSPME UV-Vis) was designed for the extraction and preconcentration of Carbaryl using nano-sized molecularly-imprinted polymer (MIP-NP). Nano-sized Carbaryl-imprinted polymer was characterized by scanning electron microscopy. A preliminary Plackett-Burman design was applied for screening. Subsequently, central composite design under response surface methodology was used to investigate and model the Carbaryl adsorption as response as well as to optimize this response versus variables such as Carbaryl MIP-NP mass, sonication time, temperature, eluent volume, pH and vortex time. At optimum experimental conditions, UAMSPE-UV-Vis exhibited a linear range of 0.1-1.2mgL(-1). The enhancement and preconcentration factors were obtained to be 30.6 and 25.0, respectively, for the extraction of Carbaryl by MIP-NP. In addition, the values of 0.033 and 0.11mgL(-1) were obtained for limit of detection and limit of quantification, respectively. The value of 4.3% determined for relative standard deviation for the separation and preconcentration of Carbaryl after 5 repetitions shows the acceptable repeatability of the process. Finally, the developed method was successfully applied for the determination of Carbaryl in water samples.

  8. Synthesis of nano-sized arsenic-imprinted polymer and its use as As(3+) selective ionophore in a potentiometric membrane electrode: part 1.

    PubMed

    Alizadeh, Taher; Rashedi, Mariyam

    2014-09-16

    In this study, a new strategy was proposed for the preparation of As (III)-imprinted polymer by using arsenic (methacrylate)3 as template. Precipitation polymerization was utilized to synthesize nano-sized As (III)-imprinted polymer. Methacrylic acid and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate were used as the functional monomer and cross-linking agent, respectively. In order to assembly functional monomers around As (III) ion, sodium arsenite and methacrylic acid were heated in the presence of hydroquinone, leading to arsenic (methacrylate)3. The nano-sized As (III) selective polymer was characterized by FT-IR and scanning electron microscopy techniques (SEM). It was demonstrated that arsenic was recognized as As(3+) by the selective cavities of the synthesized IIP. Based on the prepared polymer, the first arsenic cation selective membrane electrode was introduced. Membrane electrode was constructed by dispersion of As (III)-imprinted polymer nanoparticles in poly(vinyl chloride), plasticized with di-nonylphthalate. The IIP-modified electrode exhibited a Nernstian response (20.4±0.5 mV decade(-1)) to arsenic ion over a wide concentration range (7.0×10(-7) to 1.0×10(-1) mol L(-1)) with a lower detection limit of 5.0×10(-7) mol L(-1). Unlike this, the non-imprinted polymer (NIP)-based membrane electrode was not sensitive to arsenic in aqueous solution. The selectivity of the developed sensor to As (III) was shown to be satisfactory. The sensor was used for arsenic determination in some real samples.

  9. Nanosized As2O3/Fe2O3 complexes combined with magnetic fluid hyperthermia selectively target liver cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zi-Yu; Song, Jian; Zhang, Dong-Sheng

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To study the methods of preparing the magnetic nano-microspheres of Fe2O3 and As2O3/Fe2O3 complexes and their therapeutic effects with magnetic fluid hyperthermia (MFH). METHODS: Nanospheres were prepared by chemical co-precipitation and their shape and diameter were observed. Hemolysis, micronucleus, cell viability, and LD50 along with other in vivo tests were performed to evaluate the Fe2O3 microsphere biocompatibility. The inhibition ratio of tumors after Fe2O3 and As2O3/Fe2O3 injections combined with induced hyperthermia in xenograft human hepatocarcinoma was calculated. RESULTS: Fe2O3 and As2O3/Fe2O3 particles were round with an average diameter of 20 nm and 100 nm as observed under transmission electron microscope. Upon exposure to an alternating magnetic field (AMF), the temperature of the suspension of magnetic particles increased to 41-51°C, depending on different particle concentrations, and remained stable thereafter. Nanosized Fe2O3 microspheres are a new kind of biomaterial without cytotoxic effects. The LD50 of both Fe2O3 and As2O3/Fe2O3 in mice was higher than 5 g/kg. One to four weeks after Fe2O3 and As2O3/Fe2O3 complex injections into healthy pig livers, no significant differences were found in serum AST, ALT, BUN and Cr levels among the pigs of all groups (P > 0.05), and no obvious pathological alterations were observed. After exposure to alternating magnetic fields, the inhibition ratio of the tumors was significantly different from controls in the Fe2O3 and As2O3/Fe2O3 groups (68.74% and 82.79%, respectively; P < 0.01). Tumors of mice in treatment groups showed obvious necrosis, while normal tissues adjoining the tumor and internal organs did not. CONCLUSION: Fe2O3 and As2O3/Fe2O3 complexes exerted radiofrequency-induced hyperthermia and drug toxicity on tumors without any liver or kidney damage. Therefore, nanospheres are ideal carriers for tumor-targeted therapy. PMID:19554652

  10. Hybrid catalyst containing nano-sized LaMnO{sub 3} and carbon black for high yield and selective ketonization of n-butanol

    SciTech Connect

    Cyganiuk, Aleksandra; Klimkiewicz, Roman; Lukaszewicz, Jerzy P.

    2011-03-15

    Graphical abstract: The performed investigations demonstrated a very high catalytic activity of the synthesized hybrid (LaMnO{sub 3}/carbon black) catalyst towards ketonization of n-butanol. Both selectivity (ca. 60%) and yield (ca. 40%) towards heptanone-4 seem to be very promising especially for conversion run at temperatures close to 480 {sup o}C. These parameters were achieved for the hybrid catalyst containing only 10 weight percents of LaMnO{sub 3}. Research highlights: {yields} A novel biotechnological way of a hybrid carbon-based catalyst fabrication {yields} Effective (high yield and selectivity) n-butanol conversion to heptanone-4. {yields} Nano-sized LaMnO{sub 3} crystallites uniformly distributed in carbon matrix. {yields} Exploitation of Salix viminalis tolerance to heavy metal ions. -- Abstract: An attempt has been made to synthesize a two-component hybrid material for highly selective catalytic ketonization of n-butanol. The perovskite-type oxide nano-crystallites were synthesized in the presence of carbon black particles by thermal transformation of equimolar mixture of lanthanum and manganese hydroxides into the perovskite-type oxide. The two-component material was tested as a catalyst for unconventional conversion of n-butanol to heptanone-4. The catalyst exhibited very high selectivity and yield towards the products, despite low content of LaMnO{sub 3} in the two-component material (less than 10% by weight). The low oxide content led to the reduction of the cost of catalyst fabrication and is compensated by its high dispersion (grains ca. 20-30 nm in diameter) providing high conversion and yield comparable to pure-oxide catalysts. Catalyst fabrication is simple and environment friendly since it does not require organic solvents and excess amount of heavy metals (La and Mn).

  11. Colloidally stable selenium@copper selenide core@shell nanoparticles as selenium source for manufacturing of copper-indium-selenide solar cells.

    PubMed

    Dong, Hailong; Quintilla, Aina; Cemernjak, Marco; Popescu, Radian; Gerthsen, Dagmar; Ahlswede, Erik; Feldmann, Claus

    2014-02-01

    Selenium nanoparticles with diameters of 100-400nm are prepared via hydrazine-driven reduction of selenious acid. The as-prepared amorphous, red selenium (a-Se) particles were neither a stable phase nor were they colloidally stable. Due to phase transition to crystalline (trigonal), grey selenium (t-Se) at or even below room temperature, the particles merged rapidly and recrystallized as micronsized crystal needles. As a consequence, such Se particles were not suited for layer deposition and as a precursor to manufacture thin-film CIS (copper indium selenide/CuInSe2) solar cells. To overcome this restriction, Se@CuSe core@shell particles are presented here. For these Se@CuSe core@shell nanoparticles, the phase transition a-Se→t-Se is shifted to temperatures higher than 100°C. Moreover, a spherical shape of the particles is retained even after phase transition. Composition and structure of the Se@CuSe core@shell nanostructure are evidenced by electron microscopy (SEM/STEM), DLS, XRD, FT-IR and line-scan EDXS. As a conceptual study, the newly formed Se@CuSe core@shell nanostructures with CuSe acting as a protecting layer to increase the phase-transition temperature and to improve the colloidal stability were used as a selenium precursor for manufacturing of thin-film CIS solar cells and already lead to conversion efficiencies up to 3%.

  12. Nanosized microporous crystals: emerging applications.

    PubMed

    Mintova, Svetlana; Jaber, Maguy; Valtchev, Valentin

    2015-10-21

    This review highlights recent developments in the synthesis and unconventional applications of nanosized microporous crystals including framework (zeolites) and layered (clays) type materials. Owing to their microporous nature nanosized zeolites and clays exhibit novel properties, different from those of bulk materials. The factors controlling the formation of nanosized microporous crystals are first revised. The most promising approaches from the viewpoint of large-scale production of nanosized zeolites and clays are discussed in depth. The preparation and advanced applications of nanosized zeolites and clays in free (suspension and powder forms) and fixed (films) forms are summarized. Further the review emphasises the non-conventional applications of new porous materials. A comprehensive analysis of the emerging applications of microporous nanosized crystals in the field of semiconductor industry, optical materials, chemical sensors, medicine, cosmetics, and food industry is presented. Finally, the future needs and perspectives of nanosized microporous materials (zeolites and clays) are addressed.

  13. Development of a selective and sensitive voltammetric sensor for propylparaben based on a nanosized molecularly imprinted polymer-carbon paste electrode.

    PubMed

    Gholivand, Mohammad Bagher; Shamsipur, Mojtaba; Dehdashtian, Sara; Rajabi, Hamid Reza

    2014-03-01

    The design and construction of a selective voltammetric sensor for propylparaben (PP) in cosmetics by using a molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) as recognition element was introduced. The MIP was synthesized by using PP as template and methacrylic acid as functional monomer and then incorporated in the carbon paste electrode as PP sensor. The molecularly imprinted polymer-carbon paste electrode (MIP-CPE) showed very high recognition ability in comparison to non-imprinted polymer-carbon paste electrode (NIP-CPE). It was shown that electrode washing after PP extraction, led to enhanced selectivity, without noticeably decreasing the sensitivity. Some parameters affecting sensor response were optimized, and a calibration curve was then plotted using differential pulse voltammetric (DPV) technique. A dynamic linear range of 1 nM to 100 nM was obtained. The detection limit of the sensor was calculated to be equal to 0.32 nM. The imprinted electrode also displayed good selectivity for PP and selectivity coefficients were 2.29 and 1.66 for methylparaben (MP) and ethylparaben (EP) respectively. Structural analogs, such as phenol and p-hydroxybenzoic acid had almost no response. This sensor was used successfully for propylparaben determination in cosmetic sample.

  14. A new route to the shape-controlled synthesis of nano-sized γ-alumina and Ag/γ-alumina for selective catalytic reduction of NO in the presence of propene.

    PubMed

    Mrabet, Driss; Vu, Manh-Hiep; Kaliaguine, Serge; Do, Trong-On

    2017-01-01

    We report a new route for the direct synthesis of γ-alumina nanocrystals with size and shape control in the presence of oleylamine as the capping agent. Their morphology can be controlled from nanospheres to nanorods by simply tuning a proper amount of concentrated nitric acid (67%) in the synthetic mixture. The as-made nanoparticle products after calcination show γ-alumina nano-size with unique porosity and high specific surface area and retained morphology. The XRD patterns of these calcined samples exhibit broad diffraction lines which are characteristic of nanocrystal size of γ-alumina. This synthesis procedure has been extended to the one-pot synthesis of nano-alumina based Ag catalysts with spherical and rod-shaped nano-alumina morphologies. Selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NO with C3H6 over these catalysts was investigated. The results were compared to those of the conventional Ag/γ-Al2O3 and γ-nanoalumina alone. These nano-alumina based Ag catalysts exhibit excellent NO reduction activity in the presence of C3H6. Even in the presence of large oxygen concentration (15%), N2 yields as high as ∼90% at quite low temperature (∼350°C) have been achieved. The significantly high catalytic activity of this new type of nanocatalysts can also be attributed to their high surface area and good dispersion of silver species in the alumina matrix as well as the synergism and new properties that arise at the silver-nanoalumina interface.

  15. Epigenetic effects of nano-sized materials.

    PubMed

    Stoccoro, Andrea; Karlsson, Hanna L; Coppedè, Fabio; Migliore, Lucia

    2013-11-08

    The term epigenetics includes several phenomena such as DNA methylation, histone tail modifications, and microRNA mediated mechanisms, which are able to mold the chromatin structure and/or gene expression levels, without altering the primary DNA sequence. Environmental agents can exert epigenetic properties and there is increasing evidence of epigenetic deregulation of gene expression in several human diseases, including cancer, cardiovascular diseases, autism spectrum disorders, autoimmune diseases, and neurodegeneration, among others. Given the widespread use and dispersion in the environment of nano-sized materials, this article summarizes the studies performed so far to evaluate their potential epigenetic properties. Those studies highlight the ability of certain nano-sized compounds to induce an impaired expression of genes involved in DNA methylation reactions leading to global DNA methylation changes, as well as changes of gene specific methylation of tumor suppressor genes, inflammatory genes, and DNA repair genes, all potentially involved in cancer development. Moreover, some nano-sized compounds are able to induce changes in the acetylation and methylation of histone tails, as well as microRNA deregulated expression. We also provided a detailed description of currently available methodologies to evaluate epigenetic modifications. Standard protocols are currently available to evaluate cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of nano-sized materials. By contrast, there are at present no available standard protocols to evaluate the epigenetic potential of any given compound. The currently available methodologies offer different, but often complementary information to characterize potential epigenetic changes induced by exposure to nano-sized compounds. Given the widespread use and dispersion in the environment of nano-sized materials, at present and foreseeable in the near future, and in light of the indication of potential epigenetic properties here reviewed, more

  16. Evaluation of Extrusion Technique for Nanosizing Liposomes.

    PubMed

    Ong, Sandy Gim Ming; Chitneni, Mallikarjun; Lee, Kah Seng; Ming, Long Chiau; Yuen, Kah Hay

    2016-12-21

    The aim of the present study was to study the efficiency of different techniques used for nanosizing liposomes. Further, the aim was also to evaluate the effect of process parameters of extrusion techniques used for nanosizing liposomes on the size and size distribution of the resultant liposomes. To compare the efficiency of different nanosizing techniques, the following techniques were used to nanosize the liposomes: extrusion, ultrasonication, freeze-thaw sonication (FTS), sonication and homogenization. The extrusion technique was found to be the most efficient, followed by FTS, ultrasonication, sonication and homogenization. The extruder used in the present study was fabricated using readily available and relatively inexpensive apparatus. Process parameters were varied in extrusion technique to study their effect on the size and size distribution of extruded liposomes. The results obtained indicated that increase in the flow rate of the extrusion process decreased the size of extruded liposomes however the size homogeneity was negatively impacted. Furthermore, the liposome size and distribution was found to decline with decreasing membrane pore size. It was found that by extruding through a filter with a pore size of 0.2 µm and above, the liposomes produced were smaller than the pore size, whereas, when they were extruded through a filter with a pore size of less than 0.2 µm the resultant liposomes were slightly bigger than the nominal pore size. Besides that, increment of extrusion temperature above transition temperature of the pro-liposome had no effect on the size and size distribution of the extruded liposomes. In conclusion, the extrusion technique was reproducible and effective among all the methods evaluated. Furthermore, processing parameters used in extrusion technique would affect the size and size distribution of liposomes. Therefore, the process parameters need to be optimized to obtain a desirable size range and homogeneity, reproducible for

  17. Evaluation of Extrusion Technique for Nanosizing Liposomes

    PubMed Central

    Ong, Sandy Gim Ming; Chitneni, Mallikarjun; Lee, Kah Seng; Ming, Long Chiau; Yuen, Kah Hay

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to study the efficiency of different techniques used for nanosizing liposomes. Further, the aim was also to evaluate the effect of process parameters of extrusion techniques used for nanosizing liposomes on the size and size distribution of the resultant liposomes. To compare the efficiency of different nanosizing techniques, the following techniques were used to nanosize the liposomes: extrusion, ultrasonication, freeze-thaw sonication (FTS), sonication and homogenization. The extrusion technique was found to be the most efficient, followed by FTS, ultrasonication, sonication and homogenization. The extruder used in the present study was fabricated using readily available and relatively inexpensive apparatus. Process parameters were varied in extrusion technique to study their effect on the size and size distribution of extruded liposomes. The results obtained indicated that increase in the flow rate of the extrusion process decreased the size of extruded liposomes however the size homogeneity was negatively impacted. Furthermore, the liposome size and distribution was found to decline with decreasing membrane pore size. It was found that by extruding through a filter with a pore size of 0.2 µm and above, the liposomes produced were smaller than the pore size, whereas, when they were extruded through a filter with a pore size of less than 0.2 µm the resultant liposomes were slightly bigger than the nominal pore size. Besides that, increment of extrusion temperature above transition temperature of the pro-liposome had no effect on the size and size distribution of the extruded liposomes. In conclusion, the extrusion technique was reproducible and effective among all the methods evaluated. Furthermore, processing parameters used in extrusion technique would affect the size and size distribution of liposomes. Therefore, the process parameters need to be optimized to obtain a desirable size range and homogeneity, reproducible for

  18. Synthesis and testing of nanosized zeolite Y

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karami, Davood

    This work focuses on the synthesis and testing of nanosized zeolite Y. The synthesis formulations of faujasite-type structure of zeolite Y prepared in nanosized form are described. The synthetic zeolite Y is the most widely employed for the preparation of fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) catalysts. The synthesis of zeolite Y is very complicated process. The mean particle size of zeolite Y is 1800 nm. The major challenge of this work involved reducing this average particle size to less than 500 nm. The preliminary experiments were conducted to obtain the pure zeolite Y using the soluble silicates as a silica source. This was achieved by applying the experimental design approach to study the effects of many parameters. The ageing time turned out to be the most significant variable affecting product purity. Based on the preliminary results, a detailed investigation was carried out to determine the effects of silica-alumina precursor preparations on zeolite Y synthesis. Aluminosilicate precursors were prepared by gelling and precipitation of soluble silicate. The as-prepared precursors were used for the hydrothermal synthesis of zeolite Y. The procedure of the precipitation of soluble silicate yielded pure zeolite Y at the conventional synthesis conditions. The extent of purity of zeolite Y depends on the surface areas of aluminosilicate precursors. A novel approach to zeolite Y synthesis was employed for the preparation of the pure nanosized zeolite Y. This was achieved by applying the method of impregnation of precipitated silica. This novel method of impregnation for zeolite Y preparation allows eliminating the vigorous agitation step required for the preparation of a homogeneous silica solution, thereby simplifying the synthesis of zeolite Y in one single vessel. In case of the synthesis of nanosized zeolite Y, the effect of varying the organic templates on the formation of nanosized particles of zeolite Y was investigated, while all other reaction parameters were

  19. A subchronic toxicity study of elemental Nano-Se in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Jia, X; Li, N; Chen, J

    2005-03-11

    The subchronic toxicity of Nano-Se was compared with selenite and high-selenium protein in rats. Groups of Sprague-Dawley rats (12 males and 12 females per group) were fed diets containing Nano-Se, selenite and high-selenium protein at concentrations of 0, 2, 3, 4 and 5 ppm Se, respectively, for 13 weeks. Clinical observations were made and body weight and food consumption were recorded weekly. At the end of the study, the rats were subjected to a full necropsy, blood samples were collected for hematology and clinical chemistry determination. Histopathological examination was performed on selected tissues. At the two higher doses (4 and 5 ppm Se), significant abnormal changes were found in body weight, hematology, clinical chemistry, relative organ weights and histopathology parameters. However, the toxicity was more pronounced in the selenite and high-selenium protein groups than the Nano-Se group. At the dose of 3 ppm Se, significant growth inhibition and degeneration of liver cells were found in the selenite and high-selenium protein groups. No changes attributable to administration of Nano-Se at the dose of 3 ppm Se were found. Taken together, the no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) of Nano-Se in male and female rats was considered to be 3 ppm Se, equivalent to 0.22 mg/kg bw/day for males and 0.33 mg/kg bw/day for females. On the other hand, the NOAELs of selenite and high-selenium protein in males and females were considered to be 2 ppm Se, equivalent to 0.14 mg/kg bw/day for males and 0.20 mg/kg bw/day for females. In addition, studies have shown that Nano-Se has a similar bioavailability in rat, and much less acute toxicity in mice compared with selenite. In conclusion, Nano-Se is less toxic than selenite and high-selenium protein in the 13-week rat study.

  20. Nanosizing of drugs: Effect on dissolution rate.

    PubMed

    Dizaj, S Maleki; Vazifehasl, Zh; Salatin, S; Adibkia, Kh; Javadzadeh, Y

    2015-01-01

    The solubility, bioavailability and dissolution rate of drugs are important parameters for achieving in vivo efficiency. The bioavailability of orally administered drugs depends on their ability to be absorbed via gastrointestinal tract. For drugs belonging to Class II of pharmaceutical classification, the absorption process is limited by drug dissolution rate in gastrointestinal media. Therefore, enhancement of the dissolution rate of these drugs will present improved bioavailability. So far several techniques such as physical and chemical modifications, changing in crystal habits, solid dispersion, complexation, solubilization and liquisolid method have been used to enhance the dissolution rate of poorly water soluble drugs. It seems that improvement of the solubility properties ofpoorly water soluble drugscan translate to an increase in their bioavailability. Nowadays nanotechnology offers various approaches in the area of dissolution enhancement of low aqueous soluble drugs. Nanosizing of drugs in the form of nanoparticles, nanocrystals or nanosuspensions not requiring expensive facilities and equipment or complicated processes may be applied as simple methods to increase the dissolution rate of poorly water soluble drugs. In this article, we attempted to review the effects of nanosizing on improving the dissolution rate of poorly aqueous soluble drugs. According to the reviewed literature, by reduction of drug particle size into nanometer size the total effective surface area is increased and thereby dissolution rate would be enhanced. Additionally, reduction of particle size leads to reduction of the diffusion layer thickness surrounding the drug particles resulting in the increment of the concentration gradient. Each of these process leads to improved bioavailability.

  1. Nanosizing of drugs: Effect on dissolution rate

    PubMed Central

    Dizaj, S. Maleki; Vazifehasl, Zh.; Salatin, S.; Adibkia, Kh.; Javadzadeh, Y.

    2015-01-01

    The solubility, bioavailability and dissolution rate of drugs are important parameters for achieving in vivo efficiency. The bioavailability of orally administered drugs depends on their ability to be absorbed via gastrointestinal tract. For drugs belonging to Class II of pharmaceutical classification, the absorption process is limited by drug dissolution rate in gastrointestinal media. Therefore, enhancement of the dissolution rate of these drugs will present improved bioavailability. So far several techniques such as physical and chemical modifications, changing in crystal habits, solid dispersion, complexation, solubilization and liquisolid method have been used to enhance the dissolution rate of poorly water soluble drugs. It seems that improvement of the solubility properties ofpoorly water soluble drugscan translate to an increase in their bioavailability. Nowadays nanotechnology offers various approaches in the area of dissolution enhancement of low aqueous soluble drugs. Nanosizing of drugs in the form of nanoparticles, nanocrystals or nanosuspensions not requiring expensive facilities and equipment or complicated processes may be applied as simple methods to increase the dissolution rate of poorly water soluble drugs. In this article, we attempted to review the effects of nanosizing on improving the dissolution rate of poorly aqueous soluble drugs. According to the reviewed literature, by reduction of drug particle size into nanometer size the total effective surface area is increased and thereby dissolution rate would be enhanced. Additionally, reduction of particle size leads to reduction of the diffusion layer thickness surrounding the drug particles resulting in the increment of the concentration gradient. Each of these process leads to improved bioavailability. PMID:26487886

  2. Nanosized iron based permeable reactive barriers for nitrate removal - Systematic review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araújo, Rui; Castro, Ana C. Meira; Santos Baptista, João; Fiúza, António

    2016-08-01

    It is unquestionable that an effective decision concerning the usage of a certain environmental clean-up technology should be conveniently supported. Significant amount of scientific work focussing on the reduction of nitrate concentration in drinking water by both metallic iron and nanomaterials and their usage in permeable reactive barriers has been worldwide published over the last two decades. This work aims to present in a systematic review of the most relevant research done on the removal of nitrate from groundwater using nanosized iron based permeable reactive barriers. The research was based on scientific papers published between 2004 and June 2014. It was performed using 16 combinations of keywords in 34 databases, according to PRISMA statement guidelines. Independent reviewers validated the selection criteria. From the 4161 records filtered, 45 met the selection criteria and were selected to be included in this review. This study's outcomes show that the permeable reactive barriers are, indeed, a suitable technology for denitrification and with good performance record but the long-term impact of the use of nanosized zero valent iron in this remediation process, in both on the environment and on the human health, is far to be conveniently known. As a consequence, further work is required on this matter, so that nanosized iron based permeable reactive barriers for the removal of nitrate from drinking water can be genuinely considered an eco-efficient technology.

  3. Anaerobic corrosion reaction kinetics of nanosized iron.

    PubMed

    Reardon, Eric J; Fagan, Randal; Vogan, John L; Przepiora, Andrzej

    2008-04-01

    Nanosized Fe0 exhibits markedly different anaerobic corrosion rates in water compared to that disseminated in moist quartz sand. In water, hydrogen production from corrosion exhibits an autocatalytic style, attaining a maximum rate of 1.9 mol kg(-1) d(-1) within 2 d of reaction. The rate then drops sharply over the next 20 d and enters a period of uniformly decreasing rate, represented equally well by first-order or diffusion-controlled kinetic expressions. In quartz sand, hydrogen production exhibits a double maximum over the first 20 d, similar to the hydration reaction of Portland cement, and the highest rate attained is less than 0.5 mol kg(-1) d(-1). We ascribe this difference in early time corrosion behavior to the ability of the released hydrogen gas to convect both water and iron particles in an iron/water system and to its inability to do so when the iron particles are disseminated in sand. By 30 d, the hydrogen production rate of iron in quartz sand exhibits a uniform decrease as in the iron/water system, which also can be described by first-order or diffusion-controlled kinetic expressions. However, the corrosion resistance of the iron in moist sand is 4 times greater than in pure water (viz. t1/2 of 365 d vs 78 d, respectively). The lower rate for iron in sand is likely due to the effect of dissolved silica sorbing onto iron reaction sites and acting as an anodic inhibitor, which reduces the iron's susceptibility to oxidation by water. This study indicates that short-term laboratory corrosion tests of nanosized Fe0/water slurries will substantially underestimate both the material's longevity as an electron source and its potential as a long-term source of hydrogen gas in groundwater remediation applications.

  4. Targeted Therapy for Acute Autoimmune Myocarditis with Nano-Sized Liposomal FK506 in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Matsuzaki, Takashi; Araki, Ryo; Tsuchida, Shota; Thanikachalam, Punniyakoti V.; Fukuta, Tatsuya; Asai, Tomohiro; Yamato, Masaki; Sanada, Shoji; Asanuma, Hiroshi; Asano, Yoshihiro; Asakura, Masanori; Hanawa, Haruo; Hao, Hiroyuki; Oku, Naoto; Takashima, Seiji; Kitakaze, Masafumi; Sakata, Yasushi; Minamino, Tetsuo

    2016-01-01

    Immunosuppressive agents are used for the treatment of immune-mediated myocarditis; however, the need to develop a more effective therapeutic approach remains. Nano-sized liposomes may accumulate in and selectively deliver drugs to an inflammatory lesion with enhanced vascular permeability. The aims of this study were to investigate the distribution of liposomal FK506, an immunosuppressive drug encapsulated within liposomes, and the drug’s effects on cardiac function in a rat experimental autoimmune myocarditis (EAM) model. We prepared polyethylene glycol-modified liposomal FK506 (mean diameter: 109.5 ± 4.4 nm). We induced EAM by immunization with porcine myosin and assessed the tissue distribution of the nano-sized beads and liposomal FK506 in this model. After liposomal or free FK506 was administered on days 14 and 17 after immunization, the cytokine expression in the rat hearts along with the histological findings and hemodynamic parameters were determined on day 21. Ex vivo fluorescent imaging revealed that intravenously administered fluorescent-labeled nano-sized beads had accumulated in myocarditic but not normal hearts on day 14 after immunization and thereafter. Compared to the administration of free FK506, FK506 levels were increased in both the plasma and hearts of EAM rats when liposomal FK506 was administered. The administration of liposomal FK506 markedly suppressed the expression of cytokines, such as interferon-γ and tumor necrosis factor-α, and reduced inflammation and fibrosis in the myocardium on day 21 compared to free FK506. The administration of liposomal FK506 also markedly ameliorated cardiac dysfunction on day 21 compared to free FK506. Nano-sized liposomes may be a promising drug delivery system for targeting myocarditic hearts with cardioprotective agents. PMID:27501378

  5. Photo-triggered release in polyamide nanosized capsules

    SciTech Connect

    Marturano, V.; Ambrogi, V.; Cerruti, P.; Giamberini, M.; Tylkowski, B.

    2014-05-15

    In this work, nanosized capsules based on a lightly cross-linked polyamide containing azobenzene moieties in the main chain were synthesized by miniemulsion interfacial polymerization. The obtained nanocapsules were loaded either with toluene or with the fluorescent probe coumarin-6 as a core. Diameters of the nanocapsules were in the 100-900 nm range, depending on the selected emulsion conditions. The morphology and shape of the samples were observed by TEM and SEM while the emulsion droplets and nanocapsules size was measured by DLS. Under continuous UV irradiation the polymer underwent E-Z photoisomerization allowing the release of the encapsulated material. Variation in diameter of the nanocapsules with the time of UV irradiation was detected through DLS analysis. 10-30% growth was observed, depending on the sample. The kinetics of release of coumarin-6 was followed by spectrofluorimetry in ethanol. In absence of irradiation, the fluorescence intensity appeared to be constant over time, while it increased when the sample was irradiated with 360 nm UV light.

  6. Toxicology of nanosized titanium dioxide: an update.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaochen; Li, Wen; Yang, Zhuo

    2015-12-01

    Nanosized titanium dioxide (nano-TiO2) has tremendous potential for a host of applications, and TiO2 nanoparticles (NP) possess different physicochemical properties compared to their fine particle analogs, which might alter their bioactivity. Their adverse effects on living cells have raised serious concerns recently for their use in health care and consumer sectors such as sunscreens, cosmetics, pharmaceutical additives and implanted biomaterials. Many researches have demonstrated that the physicochemical properties including shape, size, surface characteristics and inner structure of nano-TiO2 particles have different degrees of toxicity to different organism groups under different conditions. Some former reports have demonstrated that nano-TiO2 materials could enter into human body through different routes such as inhalation, dermal penetration and ingestion. After being taken by human body, NP might induce oxidative stress, cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, inflammation and cell apoptosis ultimately in mammal organs and systems. Here, we summarized the update about toxicity of nano-TiO2 and aimed to supply a safety usage guideline of this nanomaterial.

  7. Silver coated aluminium microrods as highly colloidal stable SERS platforms.

    PubMed

    Pazos-Perez, Nicolas; Borke, Tina; Andreeva, Daria V; Alvarez-Puebla, Ramon A

    2011-08-01

    We report on the fabrication of a novel material with the ability to remain in solution even under the very demanding conditions required for structural and dynamic characterization of biomacromolecule assays. This stability is provided by the increase in surface area of a low density material (aluminium) natively coated with a very hydrophilic surface composed of aluminium oxide (Al(2)O(3)) and metallic silver nanoparticles. Additionally, due to the dense collection of active hot spots on their surface, this material offers higher levels of SERS intensity as compared with the same free and aggregated silver nanoparticles.

  8. Template-free nanosized faujasite-type zeolites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Awala, Hussein; Gilson, Jean-Pierre; Retoux, Richard; Boullay, Philippe; Goupil, Jean-Michel; Valtchev, Valentin; Mintova, Svetlana

    2015-04-01

    Nanosized faujasite (FAU) crystals have great potential as catalysts or adsorbents to more efficiently process present and forthcoming synthetic and renewable feedstocks in oil refining, petrochemistry and fine chemistry. Here, we report the rational design of template-free nanosized FAU zeolites with exceptional properties, including extremely small crystallites (10-15 nm) with a narrow particle size distribution, high crystalline yields (above 80%), micropore volumes (0.30 cm3 g-1) comparable to their conventional counterparts (micrometre-sized crystals), Si/Al ratios adjustable between 1.1 and 2.1 (zeolites X or Y) and excellent thermal stability leading to superior catalytic performance in the dealkylation of a bulky molecule, 1,3,5-triisopropylbenzene, probing sites mostly located on the external surface of the nanosized crystals. Another important feature is their excellent colloidal stability, which facilitates a uniform dispersion on supports for applications in catalysis, sorption and thin-to-thick coatings.

  9. Synthesis and characterization of nanosized lead oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laak, Sheau Tyan

    Nanosized lead oxide as well as copper-doped lead oxide are prepared using two different synthetic techniques; hydrothermal and precipitation. The precipitation method involves simply reacting lead (IV) acetate with distilled water. On the other hand, the hydrothermal process used an autoclave with the presence of Polyvinyl Pyrrolidone (PVP) to prepare lead oxide (PbO 2) hollow spheres, and lead oxide (Pb3O4) microtubes at reaction temperatures of 90°C and 180°C, respectively. Characterization of the synthesized material was carried out using X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Thermal Gravimetric Analysis (TGA), Differential Thermal Analysis (DTA), and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). X-Ray Diffraction shows that the prepared lead oxides using the hydrothermal process with a reaction a temperature of 90°C is crystalline α PbO 2. SEM shows that the prepared particles are hollow spheres. It also shows uniformity in shape and size. In contrast, X-Ray Diffraction and SEM show that the prepared lead oxide using the hydrothermal process with a reaction temperature of 180°C is nanofiber crystalline α PbO2. It also shows uniformity in shape and size. As to the precipitation method, X-Ray Diffraction shows that the sample is crystalline β PbO2. X-Ray Diffraction revealed that these lead oxides show two different transitions, from β PbO2 to Pb3O4, and Pb3O4 to PbO. These observations were supported by TGA and DTA at 400°C and 700°C, respectively. SEM analysis shows that the prepared β PbO2 sample does not show uniformity, neither in size nor in shape. Indeed, particles appear to congregate and form much larger particles. The results from our study suggest that simple precipitation can lead to the product of PbO2, it however cannot guarantee uniformity. The use of an autoclave in the presence of a polymer such as PVP allowed the precipitation of uniform nano PbO2. In addition, the temperature appeared to affect the morphology of the final product. When low temperature is

  10. Processing of silicon nitride and alumina nanosize powders

    SciTech Connect

    Gonzalez, E.J.; Piermarini, G.; Hockey, B.; Malghan, S.G.

    1995-08-01

    The effects of pressure on the compaction and subsequent processing of nanosize {gamma} alumina powders were studied. A 3 mm diameter piston/cylinder die was used to compact the nanosize powders to pressures of 1 and 2.5 GPa. The green bodies were sintered at temperatures up to 1600{degrees}C. Results show that green body density can be increased by higher compaction pressures. It appears that as a result of the {gamma}-to-{alpha} transformation in alumina, higher green density does not necessarily produce a higher density sintered alumina body. The microstructures of the sintered bodies are described in terms of porosity and phase content.

  11. Method of measuring charge distribution of nanosized aerosols.

    PubMed

    Kim, S H; Woo, K S; Liu, B Y H; Zachariah, M R

    2005-02-01

    In this paper, we present the development of a method to accurately measure the positive and negative charge distribution of nanosized aerosols using a tandem differential mobility analyzer (TDMA) system. From the series of TDMA measurements, the charge fraction of nanosized aerosol particles was obtained as a function of equivalent mobility particle diameter ranging from 50 to 200 nm. The capability of this new approach was implemented by sampling from a laminar diffusion flame which provides a source of highly charged particles due to naturally occurring flame ionization process. The results from the TDMA measurement provide the charge distribution of nanosized aerosols which we found to be in reasonable agreement with Boltzmann equilibrium charge distribution theory and a theory based upon charge population balance equation (PBE) combined with Fuchs theory (N.A. Fuchs, Geofis. Pura Appl. 56 (1963) 185). The theoretically estimated charge distribution of aerosol particles based on the PBE provides insight into the charging processes of nanosized aerosols surrounded by bipolar ions and electrons, and agree well with the TDMA results.

  12. Functionally charged nanosize particles differentially activate BV2 microglia.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effect of particle surface charge on the biological activation of immortalized mouse microglia (BV2) was examined. Nanosize (860-950 nm) spherical polystyrene microparticles (SPM) were coated with carboxyl (COOH-) or dimethyl amino (CH3)2-N- groups to give a net negative or p...

  13. Electrodeposition of nano-sized bismuth on copper foil as electrocatalyst for reduction of CO2 to formate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lv, Weixin; Zhou, Jing; Bei, Jingjing; Zhang, Rui; Wang, Lei; Xu, Qi; Wang, Wei

    2017-01-01

    Electrochemical reduction of carbon dioxide (CO2) to formate is energetically inefficient because high overpotential is required for reduction of CO2 to formate on most traditional catalysts. In this paper, a novel nano-sized Bi-based electrocatalyst deposited on a Cu foil has been synthesized, which can be used as a cathode for electrochemical reduction of CO2 to formate with a low overpotential (0.69 V) and a high selectivity (91.3%). The electrocatalyst can show excellent catalytic performance toward reduction of CO2 which can probably be attributed to the nano-sized structure and the surface oxide layer. The energy efficiency for reduction of CO2 to formate can reach to 50% when an IrxSnyRuzO2/Ti electrode is used as anode, it is one of the highest values found in the literatures and very practicable for sustainable fuel synthesis.

  14. One-step ethanolysis of lignin into small-molecular aromatic hydrocarbons over nano-SiC catalyst.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yigang; Wang, Fang; Jia, Yingjie; Yang, Nan; Zhang, Xianming

    2017-02-01

    Catalytic depolymerization of lignin for preparation of aromatic hydrocarbons without external hydrogen was first carried out over nano-SiC catalyst in supercritical ethanol. Mixture of the catalyst and lignin was innovatively suspended in a closed reactor and small-molecular aromatic hydrocarbons were successfully achieved at 500°C. Results revealed that not only did conversion of lignin increase sharply under the nano-SiC catalyst, but also phenols were not detected. The increase of residence time under the Fe-SiC catalyst did not change distribution of the liquid products besides the yield improvement, suggesting that the catalyst was suitable and selective towards formation of small-molecular benzenes, especially C6-C8 benzenes. Preliminary studies found that lignin depolymerization and deoxygenation were successfully fulfilled during the reactions, which provided a very effective route to conversion of lignin into high added-value molecules as transportation fuel additives.

  15. Low temperature fabrication from nano-size ceramic powders

    SciTech Connect

    Gonzalez, E.J.; Piermarini, G.J.; Hockey, B.

    1995-06-01

    The objective of the compaction process is to produce a dense green-state compact from a nanosize powder that subsequently can be sintered at high temperatures to form a dense ceramic piece. High density in the green-state after pressing is of primary importance for achieving high densities after sintering. Investigation of the compaction behavior of ceramic powders, therefore, is an important part of characterization of raw ceramic powders and evaluation of their compaction behavior, analysis of interaction between particles, and the study of microstructure of green body (unsintered) during pressure-forming processes. The compaction of nanosize ceramic particles into high density green bodies is very difficult. For the nanosize materials used in this study (amorphous Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} and {gamma} Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}), there is no evidence by TEM of partial sintering after synthesis. Nevertheless, strong aggregation forces, such as the van der Waals surface forces of attraction, exist and result in moderate precursor particle agglomeration. More importantly, these attractive surface forces, which increase in magnitude with decreasing particle size, inhibit interparticle sliding necessary for particle rearrangement to denser bodies during subsequent compaction. Attempts to produce high density green body compacts of nanosize particles, therefore, generally have been focused on overcoming these surface forces of attraction by using either dispersive fluids or high pressures with or without lubricating liquids. In the present work, the use of high pressure has been employed as a means of compacting nanosize powders to relatively high green densities.

  16. Effect of nano-sized bioactive glass particles on the angiogenic properties of collagen based composites.

    PubMed

    Vargas, Gabriela E; Haro Durand, Luis A; Cadena, Vanesa; Romero, Marcela; Mesones, Rosa Vera; Mačković, Mirza; Spallek, Stefanie; Spiecker, Erdmann; Boccaccini, Aldo R; Gorustovich, Alejandro A

    2013-05-01

    Angiogenesis is essential for tissue regeneration and repair. A growing body of evidence shows that the use of bioactive glasses (BG) in biomaterial-based tissue engineering (TE) strategies may improve angiogenesis and induce increased vascularization in TE constructs. This work investigated the effect of adding nano-sized BG particles (n-BG) on the angiogenic properties of bovine type I collagen/n-BG composites. Nano-sized (20-30 nm) BG particles of nominally 45S5 Bioglass® composition were used to prepare composite films, which were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The in vivo angiogenic response was evaluated using the quail chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) as an model of angiogenesis. At 24 h post-implantation, 10 wt% n-BG containing collagen films stimulated angiogenesis by increasing by 41 % the number of blood vessels branch points. In contrast, composite films containing 20 wt% n-BG were found to inhibit angiogenesis. This experimental study provides the first evidence that addition of a limited concentration of n-BG (10 wt%) to collagen films induces an early angiogenic response making selected collagen/n-BG composites attractive matrices for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine.

  17. Adsorption of Dyes on Nanosize Modified Silica Particles

    PubMed

    Wu; Koliadima; Her; Matijević

    1997-11-01

    The adsorption of several anionic dyes on nanosize alumina-modified silica particles of different compositions and modal sizes has been studied. These silica cores have the same surface properties as alumina dispersed in aqueous solutions. The negatively charged dyes are electrostatically attracted to positively charged cores and chemisorbed by forming a surface Al lake. The application of so obtained pigments in the preparation of color films and their optical characteristics are described. Copyright 1997 Academic Press. Copyright 1997Academic Press

  18. Storage of hydrogen in powders with nanosized crystalline domains

    SciTech Connect

    Schwarz, R.B.

    1997-09-01

    The term nanostructured materials is being used in the literature to denote different materials prepared by different techniques: (a) by the gas condensation of vapors in a partial vacuum and (b) by mechanical alloying, a high energy ball milling technique. The authors discuss the origin of this confusion and propose a differentiating nomenclature. They then discuss the use of particles with nanosized structures for the storage of hydrogen.

  19. Effects of heteroatoms and nanosize on tin-based electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alcántara, Ricardo; Ortiz, Gregorio; Rodríguez, Inés; Tirado, José L.

    Tin-based intermetallic compounds of different compositions and with micro and nano-sized particles are studied as electrodes for lithium ion batteries. Crystalline microsized particles of CoSn x are obtained at high temperatures, while crystalline nano-sized particles are obtained at low-temperature following a one-pot method which is based on TEG solvent and reduction with NaBH 4. The observed capacities of CoSn x compounds in lithium test cells depend on the tin content, electrochemical cycling conditions and crystallite size. The change of the 119Sn Mössbauer isomer shift upon the electrochemical reaction with lithium is more limited for the intermetallic compounds CoSn x than for pure Sn. Nano-sized CoSn x materials show superior specific capacity than microsized CoSn x powders. The maximum observed reversible capacity of nano-Co 3Sn 2 is equal to 544 m Ah g -1 in the first cycle, while 413 m Ah g -1 were observed for nano-CoSn.

  20. Synthesis of nanosize BPO{sub 4} under microwave irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Rui; Jiang, Heng; Gong, Hong; Zhang, Jun

    2012-08-15

    Highlights: ► Nanosize BPO{sub 4} are prepared under microwave-irradiation conditions. ► This reaction is only performed at less than 640 W power for 2.5–5 min. ► The particles of sample irradiated at 400 W are 40–90 nm in size and well dispersed. ► A simple, fast and green procedure for synthesis of nanosize BPO{sub 4} is developed. -- Abstract: Nanosize BPO{sub 4} was synthesized using H{sub 3}BO{sub 3} and H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} (85%) as raw materials under microwave irradiation. This reaction was performed at powers lower than 640 W and irradiation time ranging from 2.5 min to 5 min, which were only a fraction of the time required for conventional synthetic procedures. The structure of the as-prepared BPO{sub 4} is analogous to that of a high cristobalite. The particle sizes of the samples irradiated at 640 and 400 W range from 40 nm to 90 nm and 30 nm to 60 nm, respectively. The effects of different conditions on the experimental outcome are also discussed.

  1. Pitfalls in the characterization of nanoporous and nanosized materials.

    PubMed

    Weidenthaler, Claudia

    2011-03-01

    With the advent of highly sophisticated analytical tools, numerous physical methods are nowadays available for comprehensive characterization of inorganic matter and, as special cases, of porous and nanosized materials. Intelligent experimental setup and correct evaluation of the experimental data can provide helpful insights into the chemical and physical properties of such materials. However, scanning of literature reports shows that in many cases evaluation and interpretation of experimental data are erroneous. As a result, the description of a new material can be useless or even worse, misleading. Wrong evaluation is even more critical if mechanistic theories are based on such data. Characterization of porous and/or nanosized materials is mainly performed by gas adsorption, X-ray powder diffraction, electron microscopy and surface spectroscopy. For correct interpretation of experimental data one should be aware of certain pitfalls. The present paper summarizes prominent faults and may show how they can be avoided. It is supposed to provide some hand-on knowledge on correct analysis of materials. Addressed are primarily non-experts and researchers being new to the field of characterization of inorganic nanosized or nanoporous materials.

  2. Nanosized Selenium: A Novel Platform Technology to Prevent Bacterial Infections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qi

    As an important category of bacterial infections, healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) are considered an increasing threat to the safety and health of patients worldwide. HAIs lead to extended hospital stays, contribute to increased medical costs, and are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. In the United States, infections encountered in the hospital or a health care facility affect more than 1.7 million patients, cost 35.7 billion to 45 billion, and contribute to 88,000 deaths in hospitals annually. The most conventional and widely accepted method to fight against bacterial infections is using antibiotics. However, because of the widespread and sometimes inappropriate use of antibiotics, many strains of bacteria have rapidly developed antibiotic resistance. Those new, stronger bacteria pose serious, worldwide threats to public health and welfare. In 2014, the World Health Organization (WHO) reported antibiotic resistance as a global serious threat that is no longer a prediction for the future but is now reality. It has the potential to affect anyone, of any age, in any country. The most effective strategy to prevent antibiotic resistance is minimizing the use of antibiotics. In recent years, nanomaterials have been investigated as one of the potential substitutes of antibiotics. As a result of their vastly increased ratio of surface area to volume, nanomaterials will likely exert a stronger interaction with bacteria which may affect bacterial growth and propagation. A major concern of most existing antibacterial nanomaterials, like silver nanoparticles, is their potential toxicity. But selenium is a non-metallic material and a required nutrition for the human body, which is recommended by the FDA at a 53 to 60 μg daily intake. Nanosized selenium is considered to be healthier and less toxic compared with many metal-based nanomaterials due to the generation of reactive oxygen species from metals, especially heavy metals. Therefore, the objectives of

  3. Tailoring properties of porous Poly (vinylidene fluoride) scaffold through nano-sized 58s bioactive glass.

    PubMed

    Shuai, Cijun; Huang, Wei; Feng, Pei; Gao, Chengde; Shuai, Xiong; Xiao, Tao; Deng, Youwen; Peng, Shuping; Wu, Ping

    2016-01-01

    The biological properties of porous poly (vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) scaffolds fabricated by selective laser sintering were tailored through nano-sized 58s bioactive glass. The results showed that 58s bioactive glass distributed evenly in the PVDF matrix. There were some exposed particles on the surface which provided attachment sites for biological response. It was confirmed that the scaffolds had highly bioactivity by the formation of bone-like apatite in simulated body fluid. And the bone-like apatite became dense with the increase in 58s bioactive glass and culture time. Moreover, the scaffolds were suitable for cell adhesion and proliferation compared with the PVDF scaffolds without 58s bioactive glass. The research showed that the PVDF/58s bioactive glass scaffolds had latent application in bone tissue engineering.

  4. Preclinical safety assessments of nano-sized constructs on cardiovascular system toxicity: A case for telemetry.

    PubMed

    Cheah, Hoay Yan; Kiew, Lik Voon; Lee, Hong Boon; Japundžić-Žigon, Nina; Vicent, Marίa J; Hoe, See Ziau; Chung, Lip Yong

    2017-02-06

    While nano-sized construct (NSC) use in medicine has grown significantly in recent years, reported unwanted side effects have raised safety concerns. However, the toxicity of NSCs to the cardiovascular system (CVS) and the relative merits of the associated evaluation methods have not been thoroughly studied. This review discusses the toxicological profiles of selected NSCs and provides an overview of the assessment methods, including in silico, in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo models and how they are related to CVS toxicity. We conclude the review by outlining the merits of telemetry coupled with spectral analysis, baroreceptor reflex sensitivity analysis and echocardiography as an appropriate integrated strategy for the assessment of the acute and chronic impact of NSCs on the CVS. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Comparison of short-term toxicity between Nano-Se and selenite in mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jinsong; Wang, Huali; Yan, Xiangxue; Zhang, Lide

    2005-01-21

    We previously reported that, as compared with selenite, nano red elemental selenium (Nano-Se) had lower acute toxicity in mice and similar bioavailability in terms of up-regulating seleno-enzymes. The short-term toxicity of both selenite and Nano-Se in mice was further compared in this study. At an oral dose of 6 mg/kg bw per day administered for consecutive 12 days, selenite and Nano-Se completely and partially suppressed mice growth respectively. Abnormal liver function was more pronounced with selenite treatment than Nano-Se as indicated by the increase of both alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase in serum. Selenite inhibited liver catalase and superoxide dismutase activities, whereas, Nano-Se did not affect these two antioxidant enzymes. Selenite increased the malondialdehyde content of liver, but Nano-Se decreased it. Both Se forms had similar effects on depletion of reduced glutathione and up-regulated glutathione peroxidase. Nano-Se was more potent than selenite in the induction of glutathione S-transferase. At oral doses of 2 or 4 mg/kg bw per day for consecutive 15 days, selenite was more active than Nano-Se in supressing growth, deleting reduced glutathione, and inhibiting superoxide dismutase activities. Taken together, these results indicate that over a short-term, a high-dose of selenite caused more pronounced oxidative stress, greater liver injury, and prominent retardation of growth as compared to Nano-Se.

  6. Electrical and magnetic properties of nano-sized magnesium ferrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    T, Smitha; X, Sheena; J, Binu P.; Mohammed, E. M.

    2015-02-01

    Nano-sized magnesium ferrite was synthesized using sol-gel techniques. Structural characterization was done using X-ray diffractometer and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer. Vibration Sample Magnetometer was used to record the magnetic measurements. XRD analysis reveals the prepared sample is single phasic without any impurity. Particle size calculation shows the average crystallite size of the sample is 19nm. FTIR analysis confirmed spinel structure of the prepared samples. Magnetic measurement study shows that the sample is ferromagnetic with high degree of isotropy. Hysterisis loop was traced at temperatures 100K and 300K. DC electrical resistivity measurements show semiconducting nature of the sample.

  7. Ductility and work hardening in nano-sized metallic glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, D. Z.; Gu, X. W.; An, Q.; Goddard, W. A.; Greer, J. R.

    2015-02-09

    In-situ nano-tensile experiments on 70 nm-diameter free-standing electroplated NiP metallic glass nanostructures reveal tensile true strains of ∼18%, an amount comparable to compositionally identical 100 nm-diameter focused ion beam samples and ∼3 times greater than 100 nm-diameter electroplated samples. Simultaneous in-situ observations and stress-strain data during post-elastic deformation reveal necking and work hardening, features uncharacteristic for metallic glasses. The evolution of free volume within molecular dynamics-simulated samples suggests a free surface-mediated relaxation mechanism in nano-sized metallic glasses.

  8. Solution combustion synthesis and characterization of nanosized bismuth ferrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sai Kumar, V. Sesha; Rao, K. Venkateswara; Krishnaveni, T.; Kishore Goud, A. Shiva; Reddy, P. Ranjith

    2012-06-01

    The present paper describes a simple method of nanosized BiFeO3 by the solution combustion synthesis using bismuth and iron nitrates as oxidizers and the combination fuel of citric acid and ammonium hydroxide, with fuel to oxidizer ratio (Ψ = 1) one. The X-ray Diffraction results indicated rhombohedral phase (R3m) with JCPDS data card no: 72-2035. The ferroelectric transition of the sample at 8310C was detected by differential thermal analysis. Thermal analysis was done by Thermal gravimetric-Differential thermal analyzer and obtained results were presented in this paper.

  9. Direct conversion of bio-ethanol to isobutene on nanosized Zn(x)Zr(y)O(z) mixed oxides with balanced acid-base sites.

    PubMed

    Sun, Junming; Zhu, Kake; Gao, Feng; Wang, Chongmin; Liu, Jun; Peden, Charles H F; Wang, Yong

    2011-07-27

    We report the design and synthesis of nanosized Zn(x)Zr(y)O(z) mixed oxides for direct and high-yield conversion of bio-ethanol to isobutene (~83%). ZnO is addded to ZrO(2) to selectively passivate zirconia's strong Lewis acidic sites and weaken Brönsted acidic sites, while simultaneously introducing basicity. As a result, the undesired reactions of bio-ethanol dehydration and acetone polymerization/coking are suppressed. Instead, a surface basic site-catalyzed ethanol dehydrogenation to acetaldehyde, acetaldehyde to acetone conversion via a complex pathway including aldol-condensation/dehydrogenation, and a Brönsted acidic site-catalyzed acetone-to-isobutene reaction pathway dominates on the nanosized Zn(x)Zr(y)O(z) mixed oxide catalyst, leading to a highly selective process for direct conversion of bio-ethanol to isobutene.

  10. Nanosizing and nanoconfinement: new strategies towards meeting hydrogen storage goals.

    PubMed

    de Jongh, Petra E; Adelhelm, Philipp

    2010-12-17

    Hydrogen is expected to play an important role as an energy carrier in a future, more sustainable society. However, its compact, efficient, and safe storage is an unresolved issue. One of the main options is solid-state storage in hydrides. Unfortunately, no binary metal hydride satisfies all requirements regarding storage density and hydrogen release and uptake. Increasingly complex hydride systems are investigated, but high thermodynamic stabilities as well as slow kinetics and poor reversibility are important barriers for practical application. Nanostructuring by ball-milling is an established method to reduce crystallite sizes and increase reaction rates. Since five years attention has also turned to alternative preparation techniques that enable particle sizes below 10 nanometers and are often used in conjunction with porous supports or scaffolds. In this Review we discuss the large impact of nanosizing and -confinement on the hydrogen sorption properties of metal hydrides. We illustrate possible preparation strategies, provide insight into the reasons for changes in kinetics, reversibility and thermodynamics, and highlight important progress in this field. All in all we provide the reader with a clear view of how nanosizing and -confinement can beneficially affect the hydrogen sorption properties of the most prominent materials that are currently considered for solid-state hydrogen storage.

  11. Micro- and Nanosized Particles in Nasal Mucosa: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this prospective study is to evaluate presence and quantity of micro- and nanosized particles (NPs) and interindividual differences in their distribution and composition in nasal mucosa. Methods. Six samples of nasal mucosa obtained by mucotomy from patients with chronic hypertrophic rhinosinusitis were examined. Samples divided into 4 parts according to the distance from the nostrils were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy and Raman microspectroscopy to detect solid particles and characterize their morphology and composition. A novel method of quantification of the particles was designed and used to evaluate interindividual differences in distribution of the particles. The findings were compared with patients' employment history. Results. In all the samples, NPs of different elemental composition were found (iron, barium, copper, titanium, etc.), predominantly in the parts most distant from nostrils, in various depths from the surface of the mucosa and interindividual differences in their quantity and composition were found, possibly in relation to professional exposition. Conclusions. This study has proven the possibility of quantification of distribution of micro- and nanosized particles in tissue samples and that the NPs may deposit in deeper layers of mucosa and their elemental composition may be related to professional exposition to the sources of NPs. PMID:26125023

  12. Nanosized graphene crystallite induced strong magnetism in pure carbon films.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chao; Zhang, Xi; Diao, Dongfeng

    2015-03-14

    We report strong magnetism in pure carbon films grown by electron irradiation assisted physical vapor deposition in electron cyclotron resonance plasma. The development of graphene nanocrystallites in the amorphous film matrix, and the dependence of the magnetic behavior on amorphous, nanocrystallite and graphite-like structures were investigated. Results were that the amorphous structure shows weak paramagnetism, graphene nanocrystallites lead to strong magnetization, and graphite-like structures corresponded with a lower magnetization. At a room temperature of 300 K, the highest saturation magnetization of 0.37 emu g(-1) was found in the nanosized graphene nanocrystallite structure. The origin of strong magnetism in nanocrystallites was ascribed to the spin magnetic moment at the graphene layer edges.

  13. Magnetization anomalies of nanosize zinc ferrite particles prepared using electrodeposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, M. K.; Verma, H. C.

    2006-11-01

    Nanosize zinc ferrite particles have been prepared for the first time using electrodeposition. Zinc and iron are deposited on the cathode from a common bath containing the salts of zinc and iron. The deposited materials were forced to undergo electrochemical oxidation in a strong alkaline solution (1 M KOH) to convert them into oxides. Crystallization in ZnFe 2O 4 structure was obtained by heating the deposited material at appropriate temperature. X-ray diffraction pattern confirmed that the procedure leads to the formation of pure phase of ZnFe 2O 4. The magnetization value for the smallest size ZnFe 2O 4 is much smaller than that for the ZnFe 2O 4 made by most of the other methods although it shows a nice hysteresis shape. The magnetization shows very little variation with size in the range studied.

  14. Toxicological Concerns of Engineered Nanosize Drug Delivery Systems.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Biswajit; Maji, Ruma; Roychowdhury, Samrat; Ghosh, Saikat

    2016-01-01

    Matters when converted into nanosize provide some unique surface properties, which are different from those of the bulk materials. Nanomaterials show some extraordinary behavioral patterns because of those properties, such as supermagnetism, quantum confinement, etc. A great deal of implication of nanomaterials in nanomedicine has already been realized. Utility of nanomaterials as drug nanocarrier projects many potential advantages of them in drug delivery. Despite many such advantages, the potential risk of health and environmental hazards related to them cannot be ignored. Here various physicochemical factors, such as chemical nature, degradability, surface properties, surface charge, particle size, and shape, have been shown to play a crucial role in toxicity related to drug nanocarriers. Evidence-based findings of some drug nanocarriers have been incorporated to provide distinct knowledge to the readers in the field. A glimpse of current regulatory controls and measures required to combat the challenges of toxicological aspects of drug nanocarriers have been described.

  15. Metastable nanosized aluminum powder as a reactant in energetic formulations

    SciTech Connect

    Katz, J.; Tepper, F.; Ivanov, G.V.; Lerner, M.I.; Davidovich, V.

    1998-12-01

    Aluminum powder is an important ingredient in many propellant, explosives and pyrotechnic applications. The production of nanosized aluminum powder by the electroexplosion of metal wire has been practices in the former USSR since the mid 1970`s. Differential scanning calorimetry, differential thermal analysis and x-ray phase analysis was performed on aluminum powder both before and after air passivation, as well as aluminum that was protected under kerosene, pentane, toluene and hexane. Earlier Soviet reports of unexplained thermal releases and metastable behavior have been investigated. Anomalous behavior previously reported included phase transformations at temperatures far below melting with the release of heat and chemoluminescence and self sintering of particles with a heat release large enough to melt the powders.

  16. Hydrophobic polymers in nano-sized water droplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tilakaratne, Buddhi; Masood, Samina; Cheung, Margaret

    2008-03-01

    As simulations of biopolymers take place in confined and tight spaces, such as protein folding in the interior of bacteria chaperones or the exit tunnels of ribosomes, quantitative analyses of the confinement effects on both biopolymers and solvent molecules become the center of attention as the solvent-mediated interactions are too profound to solve analytically. We are in the progress to investigate the solvation of hexane molecules in various nano-sized water droplets. Free energy profiles for a single hexane molecule in droplets show that the droplet surfaces are favored. Averaged configurations of hexane molecules at the interior and the surface are computed using the umbrella sampling methods. The implications of our results for protein stability in confined spaces will be discussed.

  17. Increased bioavailability of a transdermal application of a nano-sized emulsion preparation.

    PubMed

    Kotyla, T; Kuo, F; Moolchandani, V; Wilson, T; Nicolosi, R

    2008-01-22

    The aim of this study was to compare the transdermal application of a nano-sized emulsion versus a micron-sized emulsion preparation of delta tocopherol as it relates to particle size and bioavailability. Two separate experiments were performed using seven F1B Syrian Golden hamsters, 1 week apart. Each emulsion preparation consisted of canola oil, polysorbate 80, deionized water and delta tocopherol; the only difference between the two preparations was processing the nano-sized emulsion with the Microfluidizer Processor. Both were formulated into a cream and applied to the shaven dorsal area. The particle size of the micron-sized emulsion preparation was 2788 nm compared to 65 nm for the nano-sized emulsion formulation. Two hours post-application, hamsters that were applied the nano-sized emulsion had a 36-fold significant increase of plasma delta tocopherol, where as hamsters that were applied the micron-sized emulsion only had a 9-fold significant increase, compared to baseline, respectively. At 3h post-application, plasma delta tocopherol had significantly increased 68-fold for hamsters applied the nano-sized emulsion, whereas only an 11-fold significant increase was observed in hamsters applied the micron-sized emulsion, compared to baseline, respectively. Significant differences were also observed between the nano-sized and micron-sized emulsion at 2 and 3h post-application. This study suggests that nano-sized emulsions significantly increase the bioavailability of transdermally applied delta tocopherol.

  18. Recent advances in nanosized Mn-Zn ferrite magnetic fluid hyperthermia for cancer treatment.

    PubMed

    Lin, Mei; Huang, Junxing; Sha, Min

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews the recent research and development of nanosized manganese zinc (Mn-Zn) ferrite magnetic fluid hyperthermia (MFH) for cancer treatment. Mn-Zn ferrite MFH, which has a targeted positioning function that only the temperature of tumor tissue with magnetic nanoparticles can rise, while normal tissue without magnetic nanoparticles is not subject to thermal damage, is a promising therapy for cancer. We introduce briefly the composition and properties of magnetic fluid, the concept of MFH, and features of Mn-Zn ferrite magnetic nanoparticles for MFH such as thermal bystander effect, universality, high specific absorption rate, the targeting effect of small size, uniformity of hyperthermia temperature, and automatic temperature control and constant temperature effect. Next, preparation methods of Mn-Zn ferrite magnetic fluid are discussed, and biocompatibility and biosecurity of Mn-Zn ferrite magnetic fluid are analyzed. Then the applications of nanosized Mn-Zn ferrite MFH in cancer are highlighted, including nanosized Mn-Zn ferrite MFH alone, nanosized Mn-Zn ferrite MFH combined with As2O3 chemotherapy, and nanosized Mn-Zn ferrite MFH combined with radiotherapy. Finally, the combination application of nanosized Mn-Zn ferrite MFH and gene-therapy is conceived, and the challenges and perspectives for the future of nanosized Mn-Zn ferrite MFH for oncotherapy are discussed.

  19. Cluster Study of Anion Specificity in Solutions: From Molecular-Like Species to Nano-Sized Droplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xue-Bin

    2015-03-01

    In this talk, I will present our cluster approach using size-selected, low-temperature photoelectron spectroscopy and ab initio calculations to study a variety of complex anion solvation across the Hofmeister series. Pronounced anion specific effects and rich solute-solvent, solvent-solvent interactions have been discovered en-route to solvation evolution from molecular-like species to nano-sized droplets. We found significant solute anisotropy effects in preferably selecting solvent network to align solute permanent dipole with the solvent electric field in hydrated neutral clusters. Thermodynamic advantage of organic acids in facilitating formation of bisulfate ion clusters, an important issue related to atmospheric chemistry and aerosol particle formation will also be discussed. This work was supported by the US Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences & Biosciences.

  20. Degradation of simazine from aqueous solutions by diatomite-supported nanosized zero-valent iron composite materials.

    PubMed

    Sun, Zhiming; Zheng, Shuilin; Ayoko, Godwin A; Frost, Ray L; Xi, Yunfei

    2013-12-15

    A novel composite material based on deposition of nanosized zero-valent iron (nZVI) particles on acid-leached diatomite was synthesised for the removal of a chlorinated contaminant in water. The nZVI/diatomite composites were characterised by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, elemental analysis, transmission electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Compared with the pure nZVI particles, better dispersion of nZVI particles on the surface or inside the pores of diatom shells was observed. The herbicide simazine was selected as the model chlorinated contaminant and the removal efficiency by nZVI/diatomite composite was compared with that of the pristine nZVI and commercial iron powder. It was found that the diatomite supported nZVI composite material prepared by centrifugation exhibits relatively better efficient activity in decomposition of simazine than commercial Fe, lab synthesised nZVI and composite material prepared via rotary evaporation, and the optimum experimental conditions were obtained based on a series of batch experiments. This study on immobilising nZVI particles onto diatomite opens a new avenue for the practical application of nZVI and the diatomite-supported nanosized zero-valent iron composite materials have potential applications in environmental remediation.

  1. Nepheline from K2CO3/nanosized sodalite as a prospective candidate for diesel soot combustion.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Riichiro; Wakabayashi, Junji; Elangovan, S P; Ogura, Masaru; Okubo, Tatsuya

    2008-10-01

    Nepheline group materials obtained by a thermal treatment of K2CO3-supported nanosized sodalite are identified as cost-effective materials which show promising activity and durability toward diesel soot combustion.

  2. Aqueous synthesis and processing of nanosized yttria tetragonally stabilized zirconia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimel, Robert Allen

    The goal of this study is the production of bulk ceramics from well-dispersed nanosized aqueous ceramic suspensions via wet processing routes. In order to obtain this goal, yttria tetragonally stabilized zirconia (Y-TZP) was used as a model system to develop an understanding of and ability to manipulate the solution chemistry parameters of solution pH, solid loading, zeta potential and complexation chemistry in order to accomplish synthesis and processing of nanosized doped metal oxide powders in an aqueous environment. The objective of the aqueous degradation study was to establish the mechanism(s) controlling degradation of 3Y-TZP powder in aqueous suspensions at room temperature and determine the effect of this degradation on the aqueous physical chemistry of 3Y-TZP. This objective was accomplished by performing experiments on commercially available 3Y-TZP powder placed in aqueous suspensions at 25°C. It was determined that the mechanism of aqueous degradation of 3Y-TZP at room temperature was yttrium leaching. Furthermore, it was determined that the addition of oxalic acid to the aqueous suspension of 3Y-TZP impeded the aqueous degradation by interaction with the 3Y-TZP powder surface. The objective of the synthesis study was to produce well-dispersed nanosized yttria tetragonally stabilized zirconia (Y-TZP) powder in aqueous suspension. Once the nominally 7 to 8 nanometer hydrothermally prepared 1.7 Y-TZP powder was produced, experiments were begun to disperse, recover and concentrate by washing the powder via centrifugation. Centrifugation without irreversible aggregate formation was possible by taking advantage of a protective colloid formation. Protection was provided after synthesis by bicine, the synthesis complexation agent. The change in the surface chemistry of the 1.7Y-TZP powder as a function of washing was monitored by diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transformed spectroscopy (DRIFTS) and solution chemistry analysis for metal ions in solution

  3. A relation between a metallic film covering on diamond formed during growth and nanosized inclusions in HPHT as-grown diamond single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, L.-W.; Li, M.-S.; Gong, Z.-G.; Bai, Y.-J.; Li, F.-Z.; Hao, Z.-Y.

    One of the most important characteristics and basic phenomena during diamond growth from liquid metal catalyst solutions saturated with carbon at high temperature-high pressure (HPHT) is that there exists a thin metallic film covering on the growing diamond, through which carbon-atom clusters are delivered to the surface of the growing diamond by diffusion. A study of microstructures of such a metallic film and a relation between the thin metallic film and the inclusions trapped in HPHT as-grown diamond single crystals may be helpful to obtain high-purity diamond single crystals. It was found that both the metallic film and the HPHT as-grown diamond single crystals contain some nanostructured regions. Examination by transmission electron microscopy suggests that the microstructure of the thin metallic film is in accordance with nanosized particles contained in HPHT as-grown diamond single crystals. The nanosized particles with several to several tens of nanometers in dimension distribute homogeneously in the metallic film and in the diamond matrix. Generally, the size of the particles in the thin metallic film is relatively larger than that within the diamond matrix. Selected area electron diffraction patterns suggest that the nanosized particles in the metallic film and nanometer inclusions within the diamond are mainly composed of f.c.c. (FeNi)23C6, hexagonal graphite and cubic γ-(FeNi). The formation of the nanosized inclusions within the diamond single crystals is thought not only to relate to the growth process and rapid quenching from high temperature after diamond synthesis, but also to be associated with large amounts of defects in the diamond, because the free energy in these defect areas is very high. The critical size of carbide, γ-(FeNi)and graphite particles within the diamond matrix should decrease and not increase according to thermodynamic theory during quenching from HPHT to room temperature and ambient pressure.

  4. Comprehensive understanding of nano-sized particle separation processes using nanoparticle tracking analysis.

    PubMed

    Lawler, Desmond F; Youn, Sungmin; Zhu, Tongren; Kim, Ijung; Lau, Boris L T

    2015-01-01

    The understanding of nano-sized particle separation processes has been limited by difficulties of nanoparticle characterization. In this study, nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA) was deployed to evaluate the absolute particle size distributions in laboratory scale flocculation and filtration experiments with silver nanoparticles. The results from NTA were consistent with standard theories of particle destabilization and transport. Direct observations of changes in absolute particle size distributions from NTA enhance both qualitative and quantitative understanding of particle separation processes of nano-sized particles.

  5. Nanosized Borides and Carbides for Electroplating. Metal-Matrix Coatings: Specifications, Performance Evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galevskiy, G. V.; Rudneva, V. V.; Galevskiy, S. G.; Il'yashchenko, D. P.; Kartsev, D. S.

    2016-04-01

    This paper summarizes experience of application of nano-sized carbides and borides of titanium and chromium, silicon carbide as components of electro-depositable coating compositions based on nickel, zinc, and chromium. Basic physical and mechanical properties of the coatings are determined. Technological and economic evaluation is completed; practicability of high-cost nano-diamonds substitution for nano-sized borides and carbides is justified.

  6. Electro-physical properties of composites with nano-sized oxides.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang Heon; Choi, Yong

    2013-11-01

    Polymer matrix nano-sized oxide composites were fabricated by using a modified injection molding in which nano-sized silicon oxide and nano-sized magnesium oxide were contained. Thermal decomposition and evaporation of organic resin depended on the composition of the composites. Nano-sized oxides were uniformly distributed in the composites produced by a modified injection molding combining vacuum degassing and curing at a moderate temperature. 0.2 wt.% of silicon oxide addition to epoxy resin showed the maximum electric field of 3.6, whereas, 2.0 wt.% of magnesium oxide addition was required to reach the same value of electrical field. Both of thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity of the nano-sized silicon oxide-epoxy composites tended to be increased with silicon oxide content. The relative permittivity of the nano-sized silicon oxide-epoxy composites increased from 5.16 to 5.31 by adding 0.6 wt.% silicon oxide, whereas, magnesium oxide addition up to 2.0 wt.% little influenced to the permittivity. Epoxy matrix-nano-sized silicon oxide composites were more suitable than magnesium oxide for the high performance capacitance.

  7. Effects of nano-sized silicon dioxide on the structures and activities of three functional proteins.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhen; Wang, Shi-Long; Gao, Hong-Wen

    2010-08-15

    Nanomaterials are finding increasing use in industrial production and daily life. However, human exposure to them may cause health risks. Nano-SiO(2) was selected as a representative nanomaterial and its potential effects were investigated in terms of its interactions with cytochrome c (cyt c), deoxyribonuclease (DNase II) and hemoglobin (Hb). The interactions accorded with Langmuir isothermal adsorption; the saturation binding numbers for cyt c, DNase II and Hb were 42+/-5, 24+/-2 and 1.1+/-0.1 micromol/g nano-SiO(2) particle at pH 7.4, respectively, and the corresponding stability constants were 6.15 x 105, 1.79 x 106 and 2.6 x 107 M(-1). On the basis of the binding constants and of zeta-potential fluorescence and circular dichroism (CD) measurements and scanning electronic microscopy (SEM), it was found that the three functional proteins can bridge nano-SiO(2) particles via charge attraction and hydrogen bonding and aggregate them into coralloid forms. The interactions also changed the secondary structures of the proteins and inhibited their static and dynamic activities. It may reasonably be deduced that exposure to nano-size silicon dioxide particles e.g. as drug carriers may have an unfavorable effect on human health by inactivating functional proteins.

  8. Structure-related frustrated magnetism of nanosized polyoxometalates: aesthetics and properties in harmony.

    PubMed

    Kögerler, Paul; Tsukerblat, Boris; Müller, Achim

    2010-01-07

    The structural versatility characterizing polyoxometalate chemistry, in combination with the option to deliberately use well-defined building blocks, serves as the foundation for the generation of a large family of magnetic clusters, frequently comprising highly symmetric spin arrays. If the spin centers are coupled by antiferromagnetic exchange, some of these systems exhibit spin frustration, which can result in novel magnetic properties of purely molecular origins. We discuss here the magnetic properties of selected nanosized polyoxometalate clusters featuring spin triangles as their magnetic 'building blocks' or fragments. This includes unique porous Keplerate clusters of the type {(Mo)Mo(5)}(12)M(30) (M = Fe(III), Cr(III), V(IV)) with the spin centers defining a regular icosidodecahedron and the {V(15)As(6)}-type cluster sphere containing a single equilateral spin triangle; these species are widely discussed and studied in the literature for their role in materials science as molecular representations of Kagomé lattices and in relation to quantum computing, respectively. Exhibiting fascinating and unique structural features, these magnetic molecules allow the study of the implications of frustrated spin ordering. Furthermore, this perspective covers the impact of spin frustration on the degeneracy of the ground state and related problems, namely strong magnetic anisotropy and the interplay of antisymmetric exchange and structural Jahn-Teller effects.

  9. Radiolytic preparation of nanosized Pt particles in sodium zeolite A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vijayalakshmi, R.; Kapoor, S.; Kulshreshtha, S. K.

    2002-04-01

    Nanosized platinum metal particles in zeolite NaA have been prepared by four different methods, namely, (I) γ-radiolysis of zeolite A sample exchanged with [Pt(NH 3) 4] 2+, (II) γ-radiolysis of precursor gel containing Pt 2+ ions followed by hydrothermal crystallisation to form zeolite A, (III) hydrogen reduction of Pt 2+ ions containing precursor gel followed by hydrothermal crystallisation and (IV) impregnation of zeolite A with H 2PtCl 6 solution followed by reduction at 200 °C in hydrogen flow. The size of Pt metal particles has been evaluated from X-ray line broadening and TEM and is found to be in the range of 5-15 nm for samples II, III and IV. Based on catalytic activity of these samples for hydrogenation of ethylene and cyclohexene, it is inferred that for sample I, Pt metal particles are confined to the pores of zeolite A. Unlike this, the Pt metal particles are randomly distributed in the zeolite matrix for samples II and III. For sample IV, the Pt metal particles are present over the surface of zeolite A.

  10. Nanosized Drug Delivery Systems in Gastrointestinal Targeting: Interactions with Microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Karavolos, Michail; Holban, Alina

    2016-01-01

    The new age of nanotechnology has signaled a stream of entrepreneurial possibilities in various areas, form industry to medicine. Drug delivery has benefited the most by introducing nanostructured systems in the transport and controlled release of therapeutic molecules at targeted sites associated with a particular disease. As many nanosized particles reach the gastrointestinal tract by various means, their interactions with the molecular components of this highly active niche are intensively investigated. The well-characterized antimicrobial activities of numerous nanoparticles are currently being considered as a reliable and efficient alternative to the eminent world crisis in antimicrobial drug discovery. The interactions of nanosystems present in the gastrointestinal route with host microbiota is unavoidable; hence, a major research initiative is needed to explore the mechanisms and effects of these nanomaterials on microbiota and the impact that microbiota may have in the outcome of therapies entailing drug delivery nanosystems through the gastrointestinal route. These coordinated studies will provide novel techniques to replace or act synergistically with current technologies and help develop new treatments for major diseases via the discovery of unique antimicrobial molecules. PMID:27690060

  11. Nano-sized platforms for vaginal drug delivery.

    PubMed

    El-Hammadi, Mazen M; Arias, Jose L

    2015-01-01

    Nano-sized systems have shown promise for efficient vaginal drug delivery providing sustained drug release and enhanced permeation. In parallel with advancements in drug discovery of new vaginal therapeutic agents, such as peptides, proteins, nucleic material, antigens, hormones, and microbicides, nanoplatforms are gaining momentum as prospective vectors for these agents. Thus far, extensive research in this arena has been focused on local delivery to the mucus vagina. However, an improved understanding of vaginal route, advantages offered by the vaginal route including being non-invasive and bypassing hepatic first-effect metabolism, and recent success achieved by vaginal drug nanocarriers may open the door for extensive nanotechnology- based research to explore the viability of systemic administration via this route. The review analyzes the possibilities given by nanoplatform-based delivery systems in the vaginal delivery of active agents. Special insight is given to the most important aspects to be considered during nanomedicine development and preclinical evaluation, i.e., the anatomy and physiology of the vagina, advantages of vaginal route of drug administration, and barriers to vaginal drug delivery. Finally, an updated analysis of the recent advancements of nanomedicine technologies and their potential progress into the clinic is compiled in this work.

  12. Electrochemical reaction of lithium with nanosized vanadium antimonate

    SciTech Connect

    Morales, Julian; Sanchez, Luis . E-mail: luis-sanchez@uco.es; Martin, Francisco; Berry, Frank

    2006-08-15

    Nanometric vanadium antimonate, VSbO{sub 4}, was prepared by mechanical milling from Sb{sub 2}O{sub 3} and V{sub 2}O{sub 5} and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Mossbaueer spectroscopy (MS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) techniques. Its reactivity towards lithium was examined by testing Li/VSbO{sub 4} cells under galvanostatic and potentiostatic regimes. The amount of Li inserted was found to be consistent with a two-step process involving the reactions (i) VSbO{sub 4}+8 Li{sup {yields}}Sb+V+4 Li{sub 2}O and (ii) Sb+3 Li{sup {yields}}Li{sub 3}Sb, the former being virtually irreversible and the latter reversible as suggested by the shape of the anodic and cathodic curves. Ex situ XPS measurements of the discharged and charged electrode provided direct evidence of the formation of alloyed Sb and confirmed the results of the potentiostatic curves regarding the irreversible or reversible character of the previous reactions. The Li/VSbO{sub 4} cell exhibited acceptable electrochemical performance, which surpassed that of other Sb-based compounds as the likely result of the formation of V and its associated enhanced electrode conductivity. - Graphical abstract: TEM image of nanosized VSbO{sub 4} sample.

  13. Nanotip analysis for dielectrophoretic concentration of nanosized viral particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeo, Woon-Hong; Lee, Hyun-Boo; Kim, Jong-Hoon; Lee, Kyong-Hoon; Chung, Jae-Hyun

    2013-05-01

    Rapid and sensitive detection of low-abundance viral particles is strongly demanded in health care, environmental control, military defense, and homeland security. Current detection methods, however, lack either assay speed or sensitivity, mainly due to the nanosized viral particles. In this paper, we compare a dendritic, multi-terminal nanotip (‘dendritic nanotip’) with a single terminal nanotip (‘single nanotip’) for dielectrophoretic (DEP) concentration of viral particles. The numerical computation studies the concentration efficiency of viral particles ranging from 25 to 100 nm in radius for both nanotips. With DEP and Brownian motion considered, when the particle radius decreases by two times, the concentration time for both nanotips increases by 4-5 times. In the computational study, a dendritic nanotip shows about 1.5 times faster concentration than a single nanotip for the viral particles because the dendritic structure increases the DEP-effective area to overcome the Brownian motion. For the qualitative support of the numerical results, the comparison experiment of a dendritic nanotip and a single nanotip is conducted. Under 1 min of concentration time, a dendritic nanotip shows a higher sensitivity than a single nanotip. When the concentration time is 5 min, the sensitivity of a dendritic nanotip for T7 phage is 104 particles ml-1. The dendritic nanotip-based concentrator has the potential for rapid identification of viral particles.

  14. Nanotip analysis for dielectrophoretic concentration of nanosized viral particles.

    PubMed

    Yeo, Woon-Hong; Lee, Hyun-Boo; Kim, Jong-Hoon; Lee, Kyong-Hoon; Chung, Jae-Hyun

    2013-05-10

    Rapid and sensitive detection of low-abundance viral particles is strongly demanded in health care, environmental control, military defense, and homeland security. Current detection methods, however, lack either assay speed or sensitivity, mainly due to the nanosized viral particles. In this paper, we compare a dendritic, multi-terminal nanotip ('dendritic nanotip') with a single terminal nanotip ('single nanotip') for dielectrophoretic (DEP) concentration of viral particles. The numerical computation studies the concentration efficiency of viral particles ranging from 25 to 100 nm in radius for both nanotips. With DEP and Brownian motion considered, when the particle radius decreases by two times, the concentration time for both nanotips increases by 4-5 times. In the computational study, a dendritic nanotip shows about 1.5 times faster concentration than a single nanotip for the viral particles because the dendritic structure increases the DEP-effective area to overcome the Brownian motion. For the qualitative support of the numerical results, the comparison experiment of a dendritic nanotip and a single nanotip is conducted. Under 1 min of concentration time, a dendritic nanotip shows a higher sensitivity than a single nanotip. When the concentration time is 5 min, the sensitivity of a dendritic nanotip for T7 phage is 10(4) particles ml(-1). The dendritic nanotip-based concentrator has the potential for rapid identification of viral particles.

  15. Aloe vera Induced Biomimetic Assemblage of Nucleobase into Nanosized Particles

    PubMed Central

    Chauhan, Arun; Zubair, Swaleha; Sherwani, Asif; Owais, Mohammad

    2012-01-01

    Aim Biomimetic nano-assembly formation offers a convenient and bio friendly approach to fabricate complex structures from simple components with sub-nanometer precision. Recently, biomimetic (employing microorganism/plants) synthesis of metal and inorganic materials nano-particles has emerged as a simple and viable strategy. In the present study, we have extended biological synthesis of nano-particles to organic molecules, namely the anticancer agent 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), using Aloe vera leaf extract. Methodology The 5-FU nano- particles synthesized by using Aloe vera leaf extract were characterized by UV, FT-IR and fluorescence spectroscopic techniques. The size and shape of the synthesized nanoparticles were determined by TEM, while crystalline nature of 5-FU particles was established by X-ray diffraction study. The cytotoxic effects of 5-FU nanoparticles were assessed against HT-29 and Caco-2 (human adenocarcinoma colorectal) cell lines. Results Transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopic techniques confirmed nano-size of the synthesized particles. Importantly, the nano-assembled 5-FU retained its anticancer action against various cancerous cell lines. Conclusion In the present study, we have explored the potential of biomimetic synthesis of nanoparticles employing organic molecules with the hope that such developments will be helpful to introduce novel nano-particle formulations that will not only be more effective but would also be devoid of nano-particle associated putative toxicity constraints. PMID:22403622

  16. Properties and promises of nanosized insertion materials for Li-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Wagemaker, Marnix; Mulder, Fokko M

    2013-05-21

    The substantial influence of crystallite size on the properties of Li-ion storage materials has spurred intensive research in the emerging area of nanoionics. The development of nanoscale storage materials offers a promising strategy to increase the energy storage capabilities of Li-ion batteries, potentially making them suitable for electric vehicles. Nanosizing, which increases surface area, enhances the importance of interfaces and surfaces on directly observable materials properties such as the voltage profile and the phase diagram. As a result, nanosized materials can show improved storage properties, and materials inactive at the micro size can become excellent storage materials. We suggest novel surface storage mechanisms to explain these phenomena. First-order phase transitions, which are responsible for the batteries' constant voltage output, are partially suppressed at the nanoscale. So far the morphological changes during the phase transition remain unclear. A complete understanding of the equilibrium and non-equilibrium properties of a collection of nanosized electrode particles within an actual electrode remains a formidable challenge. In this Account, we describe the efforts toward understanding the effects of nanosizing and its applications in representative insertion materials. We are particularly interested in the mechanisms and properties that will help to increase the energy storage of Li-ion batteries. We review and discuss the nanosize properties of lithium insertion materials, olivine LiFePO4, and titanium oxides. Although nanosizing intrinsically destabilizes materials, which is potentially detrimental for battery performance, the relative stability of oxide and phosphate insertion compounds makes it possible to exploit the advantages of nanosizing in these materials. The larger capacities and typical voltage profiles in nanosized materials appear to be related to the surface and interface properties that become pronounced at the nanosize

  17. Elemental selenium particles at nano-size (Nano-Se) are more toxic to Medaka (Oryzias latipes) as a consequence of hyper-accumulation of selenium: a comparison with sodium selenite.

    PubMed

    Li, Hongcheng; Zhang, Jinsong; Wang, Thanh; Luo, Wenru; Zhou, Qunfang; Jiang, Guibin

    2008-09-29

    Recent studies have shown that elemental selenium particles at nano-size (Nano-Se) exhibited comparable bioavailability and less toxicity in mice and rats when compared to sodium selenite, selenomethinine and methylselenocysteine. However, little is known about the toxicity profile of Nano-Se in aquatic animals. In the present study, toxicities of Nano-Se and selenite in selenium-sufficient Medaka fish were compared. Selenium bioaccumulation and subsequent clearance in fish livers, gills, muscles and whole bodies were examined after 10 days of exposure to Nano-Se and selenite (100 microg Se/L) and again after 7 days of depuration. Both forms of selenium exposure effectively increased selenium concentrations in the investigated tissues. Surprisingly, Nano-Se was found to be more hyper-accumulated in the liver compared to selenite with differences as high as sixfold. Selenium clearance of both Nano-Se and selenite occurred at similar ratios in whole bodies and muscles but was not rapidly cleared from livers and gills. Nano-Se exhibited strong toxicity for Medaka with an approximately fivefold difference in terms of LC(50) compared to selenite. Nano-Se also caused larger effects on oxidative stress, most likely due to more hyper-accumulation of selenium in liver. The present study suggests that toxicity of nanoparticles can largely vary between different species and concludes that the evaluation of nanotoxicology should be carried out on a case-by-case basis.

  18. Size control and vacuum-ultraviolet fluorescence of nanosized KMgF3 single crystals prepared using femtosecond laser pulses

    PubMed Central

    Muramatsu, Sotaro; Yanagihara, Masahiro; Asaka, Toru; Ono, Shingo; Nagami, Tomohito; Fukuda, Kentaro; Suyama, Toshihisa; Yokota, Yuui; Yanagida, Takayuki; Yoshikawa, Akira

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We fabricated nanosized KMgF3 single crystals via a dry pulsed laser ablation process using femtosecond laser pulses. The sizes, shapes, and crystallographic properties of the crystals were evaluated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Almost all of the particles were spherical with diameters of less than 100 nm, and they were not highly agglomerated. Selected-area electron diffraction and high-resolution TEM analyses showed that the particles were single crystals. Particle diameter was controlled within a wide range by adjusting the Ar ambient gas pressure. Under low gas pressures (1 and 10 Pa), relatively small particles (primarily 10 nm or less) were observed with a high number density. With increasing pressure, the mean diameter increased and the number density drastically decreased. Vacuum-ultraviolet cathodoluminescence was observed at 140–230 nm with blue shift and broadening of spectrum. PMID:27877915

  19. Size control and vacuum-ultraviolet fluorescence of nanosized KMgF3 single crystals prepared using femtosecond laser pulses.

    PubMed

    Muramatsu, Sotaro; Yanagihara, Masahiro; Asaka, Toru; Ono, Shingo; Nagami, Tomohito; Fukuda, Kentaro; Suyama, Toshihisa; Yokota, Yuui; Yanagida, Takayuki; Yoshikawa, Akira

    2016-01-01

    We fabricated nanosized KMgF3 single crystals via a dry pulsed laser ablation process using femtosecond laser pulses. The sizes, shapes, and crystallographic properties of the crystals were evaluated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Almost all of the particles were spherical with diameters of less than 100 nm, and they were not highly agglomerated. Selected-area electron diffraction and high-resolution TEM analyses showed that the particles were single crystals. Particle diameter was controlled within a wide range by adjusting the Ar ambient gas pressure. Under low gas pressures (1 and 10 Pa), relatively small particles (primarily 10 nm or less) were observed with a high number density. With increasing pressure, the mean diameter increased and the number density drastically decreased. Vacuum-ultraviolet cathodoluminescence was observed at 140-230 nm with blue shift and broadening of spectrum.

  20. Local Electronic And Dielectric Properties at Nanosized Interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Bonnell, Dawn A.

    2015-02-23

    Final Report to the Department of Energy for period 6/1/2000 to 11/30/2014 for Grant # DE-FG02-00ER45813-A000 to the University of Pennsylvania Local Electronic And Dielectric Properties at Nanosized Interfaces PI: Dawn Bonnell The behavior of grain boundaries and interfaces has been a focus of fundamental research for decades because variations of structure and composition at interfaces dictate mechanical, electrical, optical and dielectric properties in solids. Similarly, the consequence of atomic and electronic structures of surfaces to chemical and physical interactions are critical due to their implications to catalysis and device fabrication. Increasing fundamental understanding of surfaces and interfaces has materially advanced technologies that directly bear on energy considerations. Currently, exciting developments in materials processing are enabling creative new electrical, optical and chemical device configurations. Controlled synthesis of nanoparticles, semiconducting nanowires and nanorods, optical quantum dots, etc. along with a range of strategies for assembling and patterning nanostructures portend the viability of new devices that have the potential to significantly impact the energy landscape. As devices become smaller the impact of interfaces and surfaces grows geometrically. As with other nanoscale phenomena, small interfaces do not exhibit the same properties as do large interfaces. The size dependence of interface properties had not been explored and understanding at the most fundamental level is necessary to the advancement of nanostructured devices. An equally important factor in the behavior of interfaces in devices is the ability to examine the interfaces under realistic conditions. For example, interfaces and boundaries dictate the behavior of oxide fuel cells which operate at extremely high temperatures in dynamic high pressure chemical environments. These conditions preclude the characterization of local properties during fuel cell

  1. Synthesis and photochromic property of nanosized amino acid polyoxometalate compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Dehui; Zhang, Jilin; Ren, Huijuan; Cui, Zhenfeng

    2009-07-01

    A series of novel nanosized amino acid-polyoxometalate compounds were successfully synthesized using a low temperature solid-state chemical reaction method. Their compositions, structures, morphologies, photochromic properties were characterized by ICP-AES/MS, TG/DTA, FTIR, XRD, SEM and UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectra (DRS), respectively. The elemental analysis results showed that the compounds ((HThr)7PMo12O42•4H2O, (HTyr)7PMo12O42Â.5H2O, (HSer)7PMo12O42•5H2O and (HGlu)7PMo12O42•4H2O) were obtained. The analyses of the TG/DTA, XRD and FTIR confirmed that the four compounds are new phases different from the corresponding reactants and they are composed of the polyoxometalate anions and the corresponding protonated amino acids, respectively. Observation of the SEM revealed that the particle shape (e.g. (HThr)7PMo12O42Â.4H2O nanoplates, (HTyr)7PMo12O42•5H2O nanorods, (HSer)7PMo12O42•5H2O and (HGlu)7PMo12O42•4H2O nanoparticles) depended strongly on the structures of amino acids. This implied that the amino acids can play a structural template agent role in synthesis of the Silverton-type polyoxometalate compounds. After irradiated with ultraviolet light, these samples all exhibited photochromism. Their photochromic mechanism may be explained based on Yamase's photochromic model. These photochromic compounds could be applied to the field of photosensitive materials.

  2. Electrochemical synthesis of nanosized hydroxyapatite by pulsed direct current method

    SciTech Connect

    Nur, Adrian; Rahmawati, Alifah; Ilmi, Noor Izzati; Affandi, Samsudin; Widjaja, Arief

    2014-02-24

    Synthesis of nanosized of hydroxyapatite (HA) by electrochemical pulsed direct current (PDC) method has been studied. The aim of this work is to study the influence of various PDC parameters (pH initial, electrode distance, duty cycle, frequency, and amplitude) on particle surface area of HA powders. The electrochemical synthesis was prepared in solution Ca{sup 2+}/EDTA{sup 4−}/PO{sub 4}{sup 3+} at concentration 0.25/0.25/0.15 M for 24 h. The electrochemical cell was consisted of two carbon rectangular electrodes connected to a function generator to produce PDC. There were two treatments for particles after electrosynthesized, namely without aging and aged for 2 days at 40 °C. For both cases, the particles were filtered and washed by demineralized water to eliminate the impurities and unreacted reactants. Then, the particles were dried at 100 °C for 2 days. The dried particles were characterized by X-ray diffraction, surface area analyzer, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectra and thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis. HA particles can be produced when the initial pH > 6. The aging process has significant effect on the produced HA particles. SEM images of HA particles showed that the powders consisted of agglomerates composed of fine crystallites and have morphology plate-like and sphere. The surface area of HA particles is in the range of 25 – 91 m{sup 2}/g. The largest particle surface area of HA was produced at 4 cm electrode distance, 80% cycle duty, frequency 0.1 Hz, amplitude 9 V and with aging process.

  3. Phytotoxicity and stimulatory impacts of nanosized and bulk titanium dioxide on fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill).

    PubMed

    Feizi, Hassan; Kamali, Maryam; Jafari, Leila; Rezvani Moghaddam, Parviz

    2013-04-01

    The objective of the this study was to compare concentrations of nanosized TiO2 at 0, 5, 20, 40, 60 and 80 mg L(-1) with bulk TiO2 for phytotoxic and stimulatory effects on fennel seed germination and early growth stage. After 14 d of seed incubation, germination percentage highly improved following exposure to 60 ppm nanosized TiO2. Similar positive effects occurred in terms of shoot dry weight and germination rate. Application of bulk TiO2 particles in 40 ppm concentration greatly decreased shoot biomass up to 50% compared to the control. Application of 40 ppm nanosized TiO2 treatment improved mean germination time by 31.8% in comparison to the untreated control. In addition, low and intermediate concentrations of nanosized TiO2 enhanced indices such as germination value, vigor index and mean daily germination. In general, there was a considerable response by fennel seed to nanosized TiO2 presenting the possibility of a new approach to overcome problems with seed germination in some plant species, particularly medicinal plants.

  4. Synthesis of nanosized platinum based catalyst using sol-gel process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ingale, S. V.; Wagh, P. B.; Bandyopadhyay, D.; Singh, I. K.; Tewari, R.; Gupta, S. C.

    2015-02-01

    The nano-sized platinum based catalysts using high surface area silica support have been prepared by sol-gel method. Tetramethoxysilane (TMOS) diluted in methanol was hydrolyzed to form a porous silica gel. Platinum (2%) was loaded at sol state using platinum chloride solution. After gelation, the solvent from the gel pores was extracted at ambient temperature which resulted in porous silica matrix incorporated with nanosized platinum. X-ray diffraction studies indicated the presence of elemental platinum in the silica-platinum composites. Transmission electron microscopy of the platinum -silica composites revealed that nanosized platinum particles of about 5-10 nm are homogeneously dispersed in silica matrix. Chemisorptions studies showed high dispersion (more than 50%) of platinum on silica support with specific surface area of 400 m2/g which puts them as promising candidates as catalyst in heterogeneous reactions.

  5. A general strategy for self-assembly of nanosized building blocks on liquid/liquid interfaces.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jian-Wei; Zhang, Shao-Yi; Qi, Hao; Wen, Wu-Cheng; Yu, Shu-Hong

    2012-08-06

    A family of water/oil interfaces is introduced to provide effective platforms for rapid fabrication of large-area self-assembled nanofilms composed of various nanosized building blocks, including nanoparticles (NPs), nanocubes (NC), nanowires (NWs), and nanosheets, at room temperature. As a general interfacial assembly method, NWs and NPs are co-assembled at the liquid/liquid interface. The as-prepared co-assembled Ag NW and Ag NC films show high surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) intensity, the SERS performance being strongly dependent on the number ratio of the two kinds of nanosized building blocks. The results demonstrate that this interfacial system provides a general method for the assembly of various nanosized building blocks with different shapes and dimensionalities, and thus paves an alternative pathway for further applications of macroscopic assemblies with different functionalities.

  6. A simple route for renewable nano-sized arjunolic and asiatic acids and self-assembly of arjuna-bromolactone.

    PubMed

    Bag, Braja G; Dey, Partha P; Dinda, Shaishab K; Sheldrick, William S; Oppel, Iris M

    2008-01-01

    While separating two natural nano-sized triterpenic acids via bromolactonization, we serendipitously discovered that arjuna-bromolactone is an excellent gelator of various organic solvents. A simple and efficient method for the separation of two triterpenic acids and the gelation ability and solid state 1D-helical self-assembly of nano-sized arjuna-bromolactone are reported.

  7. Significantly improving trace thallium removal from surface waters during coagulation enhanced by nanosized manganese dioxide.

    PubMed

    Huangfu, Xiaoliu; Ma, Chengxue; Ma, Jun; He, Qiang; Yang, Chun; Jiang, Jin; Wang, Yaan; Wu, Zhengsong

    2017-02-01

    Thallium (Tl) is an element of high toxicity and significant accumulation in human body. There is an urgent need for the development of appropriate strategies for trace Tl removal in drinking water treatment plants. In this study, the efficiency and mechanism of trace Tl (0.5 μg/L) removal by conventional coagulation enhanced by nanosized manganese dioxide (nMnO2) were explored in simulated water and two representative surface waters (a river water and a reservoir water obtained from Northeast China). Experimental results showed that nMnO2 significantly improve Tl(I) removal from selected waters. The removal efficiency was dramatically higher in the simulated water, demonstrating by less than 0.1 μg/L Tl residual. The enhancement of trace Tl removal in the surface waters decreased to a certain extent. Both adjusting water pH to alkaline condition and preoxidation of Tl(I) to Tl(III) benefit trace Tl removal from surface waters. Data also indicated that competitive cation of Ca(2+) decreased the efficiency of trace Tl removal, resulting from the reduction of Tl adsorption on nMnO2. Humic acid could largely low Tl removal efficiency during nMnO2 enhanced coagulation processes. Trace elemental Tl firstly adsorbed on nMnO2 and then removed accompanying with nMnO2 settling. The information obtained in the present study may provide a potential strategy for drinking water treatment plants threatened by trace Tl.

  8. Improved Thermoelectric Performances of SrTiO3 Ceramic Doped with Nb by Surface Modification of Nanosized Titania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Enzhu; Wang, Ning; He, Hongcai; Chen, Haijun

    2016-04-01

    Nb-doped SrTiO3 ceramics doped with the surface modification of nanosized titania was prepared via liquid phase deposition approach and subsequent sintered in an Ar atmosphere. The surface modification of nanosized titania significantly improved the ratio of the electrical conductivity to thermal conductivity of SrTiO3 ceramic doped with Nb, and has little impact on the Seebeck coefficient, thus obviously improving the dimensionless thermoelectric figure of merit ( ZT value). The surface modification of nanosized titania is a much better method to lower the thermal conductivity and to enhance the electrical conductivity than the mechanical mixing process of nanosized titania. The highest ZT value of 0.33 at 900 K was obtained. The reason for the improved thermoelectric performances by the surface modification of nano-sized titania was preliminary investigated.

  9. Improved Thermoelectric Performances of SrTiO3 Ceramic Doped with Nb by Surface Modification of Nanosized Titania.

    PubMed

    Li, Enzhu; Wang, Ning; He, Hongcai; Chen, Haijun

    2016-12-01

    Nb-doped SrTiO3 ceramics doped with the surface modification of nanosized titania was prepared via liquid phase deposition approach and subsequent sintered in an Ar atmosphere. The surface modification of nanosized titania significantly improved the ratio of the electrical conductivity to thermal conductivity of SrTiO3 ceramic doped with Nb, and has little impact on the Seebeck coefficient, thus obviously improving the dimensionless thermoelectric figure of merit (ZT value). The surface modification of nanosized titania is a much better method to lower the thermal conductivity and to enhance the electrical conductivity than the mechanical mixing process of nanosized titania. The highest ZT value of 0.33 at 900 K was obtained. The reason for the improved thermoelectric performances by the surface modification of nano-sized titania was preliminary investigated.

  10. The effect of nanosize ZnO on the properties of the selected polymer blend composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigalovica, A.; Bochkov, I.; Merijs Meri, R.; Zicans, J.; Grabis, J.; Kotsilkova, R.; Borovanska, I.

    2012-08-01

    In the current research the effect of ZnO nanoparticles on the structure and properties of common thermoplastic polymers (polyoxymethylene (POM), polypropylene (PP), ethylene-α-octene copolymers (EOC)) and their binary blends is investigated. EOC content in the composites varies from 0 to 50 wt. %. The amount of nanostructured ZnO filler in the composites is changed in the interval from 0 to 5 wt. %. Tensile and frictional properties of ZnO modified nanocomposites are investigated. Results of the investigation show that ZnO additions cause increment in stiffness and strength as well as coefficient of friction of the investigated nanocomposites. The effect of ZnO modifier is the highest at low EOC content. The effect of ZnO is strongly dependent on the compatibility and crystallinity of the investigated nanocomposites.

  11. Effect of nano-sized, elemental selenium supplement on the proteome of chicken liver.

    PubMed

    Gulyas, G; Csosz, E; Prokisch, J; Javor, A; Mezes, M; Erdelyi, M; Balogh, K; Janaky, T; Szabo, Z; Simon, A; Czegledi, L

    2016-02-22

    The nano-sized (100-500 nm) selenium has higher bioavailability and relatively lower toxicity compared to other selenium forms. The objective of the present study was to compare liver proteome profiles of broiler chicken fed with control diet without Se supplementation and diet supplemented with nano-Se with 4.25 mg/kg DM. Differential proteome analyses were performed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE) followed by tryptic digestion and protein identification by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Seven hundred and eight spots were detected, and 18 protein spots showed significant difference in their intensity (p < 0.05) between the two groups. In response to nano-Se supplementation, the expression of 8 proteins was higher, and 5 proteins were lower in nano-Se supplemented group compared to control group. The functions of the differentially expressed proteins indicate that the high dose of selenium supplementation induced a dietary stress. Selenium supplementation may influence the metabolism of fatty acids and carbohydrates and antioxidant system, and increase the quantity of cytoskeletal actin and the expression of actin regulatory protein as well.

  12. TRANSPORT AND DEPOSITION OF NANO-SIZE PARTICLES IN THE UPPER HUMAN RESPIRATORY AIRWAYS

    EPA Science Inventory

    TRANSPORT AND DEPOSITION OF NANO-SIZE PARTICLES IN THE UPPER HUMAN RESPIRATORY AIRWAYS. Zhe Zhang*, Huawei Shi, Clement Kleinstreuer, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695-7910; Chong S. Kim, National Health and En...

  13. Contractile reactions of guinea pig airway smooth muscles in the presence of stannum oxide nanosized particles.

    PubMed

    Kapilevich, L V; Zaytseva, T N; Nosarev, A V; Agev, B G; Dyakova, E Yu; Ogorodova, L M; Magaeva, A A; Terecova, O G; Itin, V I

    2012-05-01

    Contractile reactions of the guinea pig airway smooth muscles in the presence of stannum dioxide nanosized particles were studied. Contractile reactions to cholinergic and histaminergic stimulation were potentiated by inhalations of nanoparticle aerosol and by exposure of isolated smooth muscle segments to nanoparticle suspension.

  14. A top-down methodology for ultrafast tuning of nanosized zeolites.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhendong; Nomura, Naoki; Nishioka, Daisuke; Hotta, Yuusuke; Matsuo, Takeshi; Oshima, Kazunori; Yanaba, Yutaka; Yoshikawa, Takeshi; Ohara, Koji; Kohara, Shinji; Takewaki, Takahiko; Okubo, Tatsuya; Wakihara, Toru

    2015-08-14

    We herein present a top-down methodology to prepare nanosized zeolites with tunable size by combining post-synthesis milling and fast recrystallization of several minutes (10 min for SSZ-13 and 5 min for AlPO4-5). A continuous-flow recrystallization process is demonstrated to further enhance the overall product efficiency.

  15. Creation of deep blue light emitting nitrogen-vacancy center in nanosized diamond

    SciTech Connect

    Himics, L. Tóth, S.; Veres, M.; Koós, M.; Balogh, Z.

    2014-03-03

    This paper reports on the formation of complex defect centers related to the N3 center in nanosized diamond by employing plasma immersion and focused ion beam implantation methods. He{sup +} ion implantation into nanosized diamond “layer” was performed with the aim of creating carbon atom vacancies in the diamond structure, followed by the introduction of molecular N{sub 2}{sup +} ion and heat treatment in vacuum at 750 °C to initiate vacancy diffusion. To decrease the sp{sup 2} carbon content of nanosized diamond formed during the implantation processes, a further heat treatment at 450 °C in flowing air atmosphere was used. The modification of the bonding properties after each step of defect creation was monitored by Raman scattering measurements. The fluorescence measurements of implanted and annealed nanosized diamond showed the appearance of an intensive and narrow emission band with fine structures at 2.98 eV, 2.83 eV, and 2.71 eV photon energies.

  16. Local Structural Distortion Induced Uniaxial Negative Thermal Expansion in Nanosized Semimetal Bismuth.

    PubMed

    Li, Qiang; Zhu, He; Zheng, Lirong; Fan, Longlong; Ren, Yang; Chen, Jun; Deng, Jinxia; Xing, Xianran

    2016-11-01

    The corrugated layer structure bismuth has been successfully tailored into negative thermal expansion along c axis by size effect. Pair distribution function and extended X-ray absorption fine structure are combined to reveal the local structural distortion for nanosized bismuth. The comprehensive method to identify the local structure of nanomaterials can benefit the regulating and controlling of thermal expansion in nanodivices.

  17. Nanosized aerosols from consumer sprays: experimental analysis and exposure modeling for four commercial products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenz, Christiane; Hagendorfer, Harald; von Goetz, Natalie; Kaegi, Ralf; Gehrig, Robert; Ulrich, Andrea; Scheringer, Martin; Hungerbühler, Konrad

    2011-08-01

    Consumer spray products are already on the market in the cosmetics and household sector, which suggest by their label that they contain engineered nanoparticles (ENP). Sprays are considered critical for human health, because the lungs represent a major route for the uptake of ENP into the human body. To contribute to the exposure assessment of ENP in consumer spray products, we analyzed ENP in four commercially available sprays: one antiperspirant, two shoe impregnation sprays, and one plant-strengthening agent. The spray dispersions were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS) and (scanning-) transmission electron microscopy ((S)TEM). Aerosols were generated by using the original vessels, and analyzed by scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) and (S)TEM. On the basis of SMPS results, the nanosized aerosol depositing in the respiratory tract was modeled for female and male consumers. The derived exposure levels reflect a single spray application. We identified ENP in the dispersions of two products (shoe impregnation and plant spray). Nanosized aerosols were observed in three products that contained propellant gas. The aerosol number concentration increased linearly with the sprayed amount, with the highest concentration resulting from the antiperspirant. Modeled aerosol exposure levels were in the range of 1010 nanosized aerosol components per person and application event for the antiperspirant and the impregnation sprays, with the largest fraction of nanosized aerosol depositing in the alveolar region. Negligible exposure from the application of the plant spray (pump spray) was observed.

  18. NANOSIZE TITANIA STIMULATES REACTIVE OXYGEN SPECIES IN BRAIN MICROGLIA AND DAMAGES NEURONS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Research that addresses the environmental impact and biological consequences of widely distributed, commonly used nanoparticles is needed. Nanosize titanium dioxide (i.e., titania, TiO2) is used in air and water remediation and in numerous products designed for direct human us...

  19. Nano-sized aerosol classification, collection and analysis--method development using dental composite materials.

    PubMed

    Bogdan, Axel; Buckett, Mary I; Japuntich, Daniel A

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a methodical approach for generating, collecting, and analyzing nano-size (1-100 nm) aerosol from abraded dental composite materials. Existing aerosol sampling instruments were combined with a custom-made sampling chamber to create and sample a fresh, steady-state aerosol size distribution before significant Brownian coagulation. Morphological, size, and compositional information was obtained by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). To create samples sizes suitable for TEM analysis, aerosol concentrations in the test chamber had to be much higher than one would typically expect in a dental office, and therefore, these results do not represent patient or dental personnel exposures. Results show that nano-size aerosol was produced by the dental drill alone, with and without cooling water drip, prior to abrasion of dental composite. During abrasion, aerosol generation seemed independent of the percent filler load of the restorative material and the operator who generated the test aerosol. TEM investigation showed that "chunks" of filler and resin were generated in the nano-size range; however, free nano-size filler particles were not observed. The majority of observed particles consisted of oil droplets, ash, and graphitic structures.

  20. Evaluation of nanoselenium (Nano-Se) effect on hematological and serum biochemical parameters of rat in experimentally lead poisoning.

    PubMed

    Jafari Dehkordi, A; Mohebbi, A N; Aslani, M R; Ghoreyshi, S M

    2016-06-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of nanoselenium (Nano-Se) on hematological and biochemical parameters of rats experimentally intoxicated with lead (Pb). Thirty male rats were randomly divided into six groups as follows: the control, selenite, Nano-Se, Pb group, Pb + selenite, and Pb + Nano-Se groups. After 35 days, blood was collected from rats and hematology and serum biochemical parameters of oxidative stress were measured. The thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) level of Pb group was significantly higher than other groups. Also, TBARS level was significantly lower in the Pb + Nano-Se group than Pb + selenite group. The serum superoxide dismutase activities were significantly lower in Pb group than the control, Pb + selenite, and Pb + Nano-Se groups. The catalase activities in the Pb group showed no significant change when compared to other groups. In the Pb group, packed cell volume was lower than the control group. A significant difference was observed between the control group and the Pb, Pb + selenite, and Pb + Nano-Se groups. In the Pb group, the numbers of white blood cell (WBC) decreased in comparison with the control group. Also, there was significant increase in WBC counts in the Pb + Nano-Se and Pb + selenite groups in comparison with Pb group. The number of lymphocytes in the Pb group decreased in comparison with the control group. By comparing the means of the Pb + Nano-Se and Pb + selenite groups together, it was determined that there were significant differences in the lymphocytes and neutrophil counts. In conclusion, usage of selenium compounds particularly Nano-Se particles inhibits the adverse effects of Pb on antioxidant activity and immune system function in the Pb poisoning.

  1. Nano-sized structured layered positive electrode materials to enable high energy density and high rate capability lithium batteries

    DOEpatents

    Deng, Haixia; Belharouak, Ilias; Amine, Khalil

    2012-10-02

    Nano-sized structured dense and spherical layered positive active materials provide high energy density and high rate capability electrodes in lithium-ion batteries. Such materials are spherical second particles made from agglomerated primary particles that are Li.sub.1+.alpha.(Ni.sub.xCo.sub.yMn.sub.z).sub.1-tM.sub.tO.sub.2-dR.sub.d- , where M is selected from can be Al, Mg, Fe, Cu, Zn, Cr, Ag, Ca, Na, K, In, Ga, Ge, V, Mo, Nb, Si, Ti, Zr, or a mixture of any two or more thereof, R is selected from F, Cl, Br, I, H, S, N, or a mixture of any two or more thereof, and 0.ltoreq..alpha..ltoreq.0.50; 0

  2. Highly colloidally stable hyperbranched polyglycerol grafted red fluorescent silicon nanoparticle as bioimaging probe.

    PubMed

    Das, Pradip; Jana, Nikhil R

    2014-03-26

    Here we report a surface modification approach for fluorescent silicon nanoparticle that transforms hydrophobic nanoparticle into water-soluble nanoparticle of high colloidal stability. The approach involves ring-opening polymerization of glycidol at the hydroxyl-terminated nanoparticle surface that results in a hyperbranched polyglycerol grafted silicon nanoparticle (Si-HPG). The resultant Si-HPG has 25 nm hydrodynamic diameter, low surface charge, and broad emission in the range of 450-700 nm with a fluorescence quantum yield of 6-9%. The Si-HPG has been transformed into cyclic RGD peptide functionalized nanoprobe using the conventional bioconjugation chemistry and used for specific targeting to αvβ3 integrin overexpressed cervical cancer cells and glioblastoma cells. Result shows that a silicon nanoparticle-based red fluorescent nanoprobe can be developed for in vitro/in vivo bioimaging applications.

  3. Colloidally stable surface-modified iron oxide nanoparticles: Preparation, characterization and anti-tumor activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macková, Hana; Horák, Daniel; Donchenko, Georgiy Viktorovich; Andriyaka, Vadim Ivanovich; Palyvoda, Olga Mikhailovna; Chernishov, Vladimir Ivanovich; Chekhun, Vasyl Fedorovich; Todor, Igor Nikolaevich; Kuzmenko, Oleksandr Ivanovich

    2015-04-01

    Maghemite (γ-Fe2O3) nanoparticles were obtained by co-precipitation of Fe(II) and Fe(III) chlorides and subsequent oxidation with sodium hypochlorite and coated with poly(N,N-dimethylacrylamide-co-acrylic acid) [P(DMAAm-AA)]. They were characterized by a range of methods including transmission electron microscopy (TEM), elemental analysis, dynamic light scattering (DLS) and zeta potential measurements. The effect of superparamagnetic P(DMAAm-AA)-γ-Fe2O3 nanoparticles on oxidation of blood lipids, glutathione and proteins in blood serum was detected using 2-thiobarbituric acid and the ThioGlo fluorophore. Finally, mice received magnetic nanoparticles administered per os and the antitumor activity of the particles was tested on Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) in male mice line C57BL/6 as an experimental in vivo metastatic tumor model; the tumor size was measured and the number of metastases in lungs was determined. Surface-modified γ-Fe2O3 nanoparticles showed higher antitumor and antimetastatic activities than commercial CuFe2O4 particles and the conventional antitumor agent cisplatin.

  4. Hierarchically micro-patterned nanofibrous scaffolds with a nanosized bio-glass surface for accelerating wound healing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, He; Lv, Fang; Zhang, Yali; Yi, Zhengfang; Ke, Qinfei; Wu, Chengtie; Liu, Mingyao; Chang, Jiang

    2015-11-01

    A composite scaffold with a controlled micro-pattern, nano-sized fiber matrix and surface-modified nanobioglass component was successfully prepared for skin wound healing by combining the patterning electrospinning with pulsed laser deposition strategies, and the hierarchical micro/nano structures and nano-sized bioglass in the scaffolds could synergistically improve the efficiency and re-epithelialization of wound healing.A composite scaffold with a controlled micro-pattern, nano-sized fiber matrix and surface-modified nanobioglass component was successfully prepared for skin wound healing by combining the patterning electrospinning with pulsed laser deposition strategies, and the hierarchical micro/nano structures and nano-sized bioglass in the scaffolds could synergistically improve the efficiency and re-epithelialization of wound healing. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr04802h

  5. Chemoprotective and chemosensitizing properties of selenium nanoparticle (Nano-Se) during adjuvant therapy with cyclophosphamide in tumor-bearing mice.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharjee, Arin; Basu, Abhishek; Biswas, Jaydip; Sen, Tuhinadri; Bhattacharya, Sudin

    2017-01-01

    Cyclophosphamide (CP) is one of the widely used anticancer agents; however, it has serious deleterious effects on normal host cells due to its nonspecific action. The essential trace element Selenium (Se) is suggested to have chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic efficacy and currently used in pharmaceutical formulations. Previous report had shown Nano-Se could protect CP-induced hepatotoxicity and genotoxicity in normal Swiss albino mice; however, its role in cancer management is still not clear. The aim of present study is to investigate the chemoprotective efficacy of Nano-Se against CP-induced toxicity as well as its chemoenhancing capability when used along with CP in Swiss albino mice against Ehrlich's ascites carcinoma (EAC) cells. CP was administered (25 mg/kg b.w., i.p.) and Nano-Se was given (2 mg Se/kg b.w., p.o.) in concomitant and pretreatment schedule. Increase levels of serum hepatic marker, hepatic lipid peroxidation, DNA damage, and chromosomal aberration in CP-treated mice were significantly (P < 0.05) reversed by Nano-Se. The lowered status of various antioxidant enzymes in tumor-bearing mice after CP treatment was also effectively increased by Nano-Se. Administration of Nano-Se along with CP caused a significant reduction in tumor volume, packed cell volume, viable tumor cell count, and increased the survivability of the tumor-bearing hosts. The results suggest that Nano-Se exhibits significant antitumor and antioxidant effects in EAC-bearing mice. The potential for Nano-Se to ameliorate the CP-evoked toxicity as well as to improve the chemotherapeutic effect could have beneficial implications for patients undergoing chemotherapy with CP.

  6. Current inversions induced by resonant coupling to surface waves in a nanosized water pump.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiaoyan; Wu, Fengmin; Liu, Yang; Kou, Jianlong; Lu, Hui; Lu, Hangjun

    2015-11-01

    We conducted a molecular dynamics simulation to investigate current inversions in a nanosized water pump based on a single-walled carbon nanotube powered by mechanical vibration. It was found that the water current depended sensitively on the frequency of mechanical vibration. Especially in the resonance region, the nanoscale pump underwent reversals of the water current. This phenomenon was attributed to the dynamics competition of the water molecules in the two sections (the left and right parts) divided by the vibrating atom and the differences in phase and decay between the two mechanical waves generated by mechanical vibration and propagating in opposite directions toward the two ends of the carbon nanotube. Our findings provide an insight into water transportation through nanosized pumps and have potential in the design of high-flux nanofluidic systems and nanoscale energy converters.

  7. Heavy metal removal from water/wastewater by nanosized metal oxides: a review.

    PubMed

    Hua, Ming; Zhang, Shujuan; Pan, Bingcai; Zhang, Weiming; Lv, Lu; Zhang, Quanxing

    2012-04-15

    Nanosized metal oxides (NMOs), including nanosized ferric oxides, manganese oxides, aluminum oxides, titanium oxides, magnesium oxides and cerium oxides, provide high surface area and specific affinity for heavy metal adsorption from aqueous systems. To date, it has become a hot topic to develop new technologies to synthesize NMOs, to evaluate their removal of heavy metals under varying experimental conditions, to reveal the underlying mechanism responsible for metal removal based on modern analytical techniques (XAS, ATR-FT-IR, NMR, etc.) or mathematical models, and to develop metal oxide-based materials of better applicability for practical use (such as granular oxides or composite materials). The present review mainly focuses on NMOs' preparation, their physicochemical properties, adsorption characteristics and mechanism, as well as their application in heavy metal removal. In addition, porous host supported NMOs are particularly concerned because of their great advantages for practical application as compared to the original NMOs. Also, some magnetic NMOs were included due to their unique separation performance.

  8. Current inversions induced by resonant coupling to surface waves in a nanosized water pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Xiaoyan; Wu, Fengmin; Liu, Yang; Kou, Jianlong; Lu, Hui; Lu, Hangjun

    2015-11-01

    We conducted a molecular dynamics simulation to investigate current inversions in a nanosized water pump based on a single-walled carbon nanotube powered by mechanical vibration. It was found that the water current depended sensitively on the frequency of mechanical vibration. Especially in the resonance region, the nanoscale pump underwent reversals of the water current. This phenomenon was attributed to the dynamics competition of the water molecules in the two sections (the left and right parts) divided by the vibrating atom and the differences in phase and decay between the two mechanical waves generated by mechanical vibration and propagating in opposite directions toward the two ends of the carbon nanotube. Our findings provide an insight into water transportation through nanosized pumps and have potential in the design of high-flux nanofluidic systems and nanoscale energy converters.

  9. Synthesis, Characterization, and Catalytic Properties of Novel Single-Site and Nanosized Platinum Catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Bonati, Matteo L.M.; Douglas, Thomas M.; Gaemers, Sander; Guo, Neng

    2013-01-10

    Novel single-site platinum catalysts have been synthesized by reacting platinum(II) organometallics with partially dehydroxylated silica. The resulting materials have been characterized by various methods such as IR, MAS NMR, and EXAFS. Further, the single-site platinum catalysts were calcined in air to remove the ligand and produce nanosized platinum particles, that were characterized by TEM and H{sub 2} chemisorption. All catalysts were tested for the hydrogenation of toluene. The single-site platinum catalysts were less active than a commercial Pt/SiO{sub 2} catalyst with comparable platinum loading, and this has been ascribed to ligand effects. Conversely, the nanosized platinum catalysts were more active than the commercial Pt/SiO{sub 2} catalyst due to their high dispersion and small particle sizes.

  10. Novel detection system for biomolecules using nano-sized bacterial magnetic particles and magnetic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Amemiya, Yosuke; Tanaka, Tsuyoshi; Yoza, Brandon; Matsunaga, Tadashi

    2005-11-21

    A system for streptavidin detection using biotin conjugated to nano-sized bacterial magnetic particles (BMPs) has been developed. BMPs, isolated from magnetic bacteria, were used as magnetic markers for magnetic force microscopy (MFM) imaging. The magnetic signal was obtained from a single particle using MFM without application of an external magnetic field. The number of biotin conjugated BMPs (biotin-BMPs) bound to streptavidin immobilized on the glass slides increased with streptavidin concentrations up to 100 pg/ml. The minimum streptavidin detection limit using this technique is 1 pg/ml, which is 100 times more sensitive than a conventional fluorescent detection system. This is the first report using single domain nano-sized magnetic particles as magnetic markers for biosensing. This assay system can be used for immunoassay and DNA detection with high sensitivities.

  11. Preparation of nanosized beta-tricalcium phosphate particles with Zn substitution.

    PubMed

    Zou, Chao; Weng, Wenjian; Cheng, Kui; Du, Piyi; Shen, Ge; Han, Gaorong

    2008-03-01

    Nanosized beta-ZnTCP powders with different Zn contents were prepared through coprecipitation of ACP out of the CaCl2-ZnCl2-Na3PO4-PEG system, and calcination of the ACP precursor at 800 degrees C for 3 h. The characterizations of the products showed that the products belong to beta-TCP phase, and the particles sizes of them are about 300 nm, smaller than that of beta-TCP (500 nm). Both the Zn2p binding energy and lattice parameter variations of beta-TCP evidenced that Zn had substituted for Ca in the lattice. Such nanosized beta-ZnTCP powders could be used as bone repair materials with desired and sustained release of Zn.

  12. Penetration, photo-reactivity and photoprotective properties of nanosized ZnO.

    PubMed

    Detoni, C B; Coradini, K; Back, P; Oliveira, C M; Andrade, D F; Beck, R C R; Pohlmann, A R; Guterres, S S

    2014-09-01

    The oxidizing capacity and skin penetration of a commercial nanosized ZnO, Nanosun™ (Micronisers-Australia), were evaluated in vitro using porcine skin. Nanosun™ was initially characterized regarding its photo-reactivity and size distribution. An assay using methylene blue was performed to confirm the Nanosun™ photo-reactivity by exposing the labile molecule to UVA irradiation in the presence and absence of the nanosized ZnO. The nanosized ZnO was photo-reactive, reducing the methylene blue concentration to 7% while its concentration remained constant in the control formulation (without ZnO). The product label states that the average particle size is 30 nm. X-ray diffraction, nitrogen sorption and UV-spectrophotometry confirmed the presence of nanometric particles of approximately 30 nm. On the other hand, laser diffractometry showed micrometric particles in the size distribution profile. These analyses indicated that the nanoparticles are arranged as agglomerates and aggregates of micrometric proportions ranging from 0.6 to 60 μm. The skin lipid peroxidation was determined by the formation of thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS) and quantified by UV-spectrophotometry. When exposed to UVA radiation the nanosized ZnO applied porcine skin showed a lower production of TBARS (7.2 ± 1.5 nmol g(-1)) than the controls, the MCT applied porcine skin (18.4 ± 2.8 nmol g(-1)) and the blank porcine skin (14.0 ± 2.0 nmol g(-1)). The penetration of ZnO nanoparticles was studied by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The tested ZnO particles did not penetrate into viable layers of the intact porcine skin. The particles tend to accumulate on the skin folds and in these regions they may penetrate into the horny layer.

  13. Preparation of nanosized drug particles by the coating of inorganic cores: naproxen and ketoprofen on alumina.

    PubMed

    Joguet, Laurent; Sondi, Ivan; Matijević, Egon

    2002-07-15

    Nanosized alumina particles with modal diameters of 8 and 13 nm, respectively, were successfully coated by the adsorption of naproxen [(+)-6-methoxy-alpha-methyl-2-naphthalene acetic acid] and ketoprofen [alpha-methyl-3-(4-methylbenzoil) benzene acetic acid] in aqueous and ethanol solutions. The presence of the drugs at the alumina surface was confirmed by attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy and electrokinetic measurements, while their bound amounts were assessed by thermogravimetric analysis.

  14. Nano-sized polystyrene affects feeding, behavior and physiology of brine shrimp Artemia franciscana larvae.

    PubMed

    Bergami, Elisa; Bocci, Elena; Vannuccini, Maria Luisa; Monopoli, Marco; Salvati, Anna; Dawson, Kenneth A; Corsi, Ilaria

    2016-01-01

    Nano-sized polymers as polystyrene (PS) constitute one of the main challenges for marine ecosystems, since they can distribute along the whole water column affecting planktonic species and consequently disrupting the energy flow of marine ecosystems. Nowadays very little knowledge is available on the impact of nano-sized plastics on marine organisms. Therefore, the present study aims to evaluate the effects of 40nm anionic carboxylated (PS-COOH) and 50nm cationic amino (PS-NH2) polystyrene nanoparticles (PS NPs) on brine shrimp Artemia franciscana larvae. No signs of mortality were observed at 48h of exposure for both PS NPs at naplius stage but several sub-lethal effects were evident. PS-COOH (5-100μg/ml) resulted massively sequestered inside the gut lumen of larvae (48h) probably limiting food intake. Some of them were lately excreted as fecal pellets but not a full release was observed. Likewise, PS-NH2 (5-100µg/ml) accumulated in larvae (48h) but also adsorbed at the surface of sensorial antennules and appendages probably hampering larvae motility. In addition, larvae exposed to PS-NH2 undergo multiple molting events during 48h of exposure compared to controls. The activation of a defense mechanism based on a physiological process able to release toxic cationic NPs (PS-NH2) from the body can be hypothesized. The general observed accumulation of PS NPs within the gut during the 48h of exposure indicates a continuous bioavailability of nano-sized PS for planktonic species as well as a potential transfer along the trophic web. Therefore, nano-sized PS might be able to impair food uptake (feeding), behavior (motility) and physiology (multiple molting) of brine shrimp larvae with consequences not only at organism and population level but on the overall ecosystem based on the key role of zooplankton on marine food webs.

  15. Fabrication of Discrete Nanosized Cobalt Particles Encapsulated Inside Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes

    SciTech Connect

    Zoican Loebick, C.; Majewska, M; Ren, F; Haller, G; Pfefferle, L

    2010-01-01

    Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT) with encapsulated nanosized cobalt particles have been synthesized by a facile and scalable method. In this approach, SWNT were filled with a cobalt acetylacetonate solution in dichloromethane by ultrasonication. In a second step, exposure to hydrogen at different temperatures released discrete cobalt particles of controllable size inside the SWNT cavity. The SWNT-Co particles systems were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, X-ray absorption spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and thermal gravimetric analysis.

  16. Design and Evaluation of Multi-functional Nanocarriers for Selective Delivery of Coenzyme Q10 to Mitochondria

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Anjali; Soliman, Ghareb M.; Al-Hajaj, Noura; Sharma, Rishi; Maysinger, Dusica; Kakkar, Ashok

    2016-01-01

    Impairments of mitochondrial functions have been associated with failure of cellular functions in different tissues leading to various pathologies. We report here a mitochondria–targeted nanodelivery system for coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) which can reach mitochondria, and deliver CoQ10 in adequate quantities. Multifunctional nanocarriers based on ABC miktoarm polymers (A= PEG, B = polycaprolactone (PCL) and C = triphenylphosphonium bromide (TPPBr)) were synthesized using a combination of click chemistry with ring opening polymerization, self-assembled into nano-sized micelles, and were employed for CoQ10-loading. Drug loading capacity (60 weight%), micelle size (25–60 nm) and stability were determined using a variety of techniques. The micelles had a small critical association concentration, and were colloidally stable in solution for more than 3 months. The extraordinarily high CoQ10 loading capacity in the micelles is attributed to good compatibility between CoQ10 and PCL, as indicated by low Flory-Huggins interaction parameter. Confocal microscopy studies of fluorescently labeled polymer analog together with the mitochondria-specific vital dye label, indicated that the carrier did indeed reach mitochondria. The high CoQ10 loading efficiency allowed testing of micelles within a broad concentration range, and provided evidence for CoQ10 effectiveness in two different experimental paradigms: oxidative stress and inflammation. Combined results from chemical, analytical and biological experiments suggest that the new miktoarm-based carrier provides a suitable means of CoQ10 delivery to mitochondria without loss of drug effectiveness. The versatility of the click chemistry used to prepare this new mitochondria-targeting nanocarrier offers a widely applicable, simple and easily reproducible procedure to deliver drugs to mitochondria or other intracellular organelles. PMID:22148549

  17. Nanosize Mn{sub 3}O{sub 4} (Hausmannite) by microwave irradiation method

    SciTech Connect

    Apte, S.K.; Naik, S.D.; Sonawane, R.S.; Kale, B.B. . E-mail: kbbb1@yahoo.com; Pavaskar, Neela; Mandale, A.B.; Das, B.K.

    2006-03-09

    The present investigation reports, the novel synthesis of nanosize Mn{sub 3}O{sub 4} powder with nanorods using microwaves and its physicochemical characterization. The nanosize Mn{sub 3}O{sub 4} powder has been prepared using manganese nitrate as a precursor and effect of ethanolamine and ethylenediamine on particle morphology has been studied. The microwave irradiation has been carried out in the range 50-500 W and it was observed that formation of Mn{sub 3}O{sub 4} takes place at 50 W. TEM analysis demonstrated nanosize Mn{sub 3}O{sub 4} powder and nanorods with an average diameter of about 10 nm. The structural study by XRD indicates that these nano-powders have pure tetragonal phase. The phase pure samples were characterized using X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) for both Mn 2p and Mn 3s levels. The values of binding energies are consistent with the relative values reported in the literature. The metallic impurity levels have been characterized using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectrophotometer (ICP-OES)

  18. Fabrication of nanosized alumina powders by a simple polymer solution route.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang-Jin; Chun, Sung-Yong; Lee, Choong-Hyo; Yoon, Young-Soo

    2006-11-01

    Nanosized alumina (Al2O3) powders had been successfully fabricated by a simple polymer solution route employing polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) as an organic carrier. The fabricated alumina powders had an average particle size of 6.1 nm with a high specific surface area of 99.5 m2/g. As well, the alumina powders were fully crystallized to alpha phase at a relatively low temperature of 1000 degrees C. The PVA polymer contributed to a soft and porous microstructure of the calcined alumina powders, and ball-milling process with the porous powders was effective in making nanosized alumina powders. In addition, the content and degree of polymerization of the PVA affected the development of crystallization and powder properties. In this study, the simple polymer technique and milling process for the fabrication of nanosized alumina powders are introduced, and the effects of PVA on the property of the synthesized alumina powders are observed. For the study, the characterizations of the synthesized powders are conducted by using XRD, TEM, particle size analyzer, and nitrogen gas adsorption.

  19. Nano-sized manganese oxides as biomimetic catalysts for water oxidation in artificial photosynthesis: a review.

    PubMed

    Najafpour, Mohammad Mahdi; Rahimi, Fahimeh; Aro, Eva-Mari; Lee, Choon-Hwan; Allakhverdiev, Suleyman I

    2012-10-07

    There has been a tremendous surge in research on the synthesis of various metal compounds aimed at simulating the water-oxidizing complex (WOC) of photosystem II (PSII). This is crucial because the water oxidation half reaction is overwhelmingly rate-limiting and needs high over-voltage (approx. 1 V), which results in low conversion efficiencies when working at current densities required for hydrogen production via water splitting. Particular attention has been given to the manganese compounds not only because manganese has been used by nature to oxidize water but also because manganese is cheap and environmentally friendly. The manganese-calcium cluster in PSII has a dimension of about approximately 0.5 nm. Thus, nano-sized manganese compounds might be good structural and functional models for the cluster. As in the nanometre-size of the synthetic models, most of the active sites are at the surface, these compounds could be more efficient catalysts than micrometre (or bigger) particles. In this paper, we focus on nano-sized manganese oxides as functional and structural models of the WOC of PSII for hydrogen production via water splitting and review nano-sized manganese oxides used in water oxidation by some research groups.

  20. Effect of nano-sized oxide particles on thermal and electrical properties of epoxy silica composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sang Heon; Choi, Yong

    2014-12-01

    Polymer matrix composites were fabricated using a modified injection molding technique in which nano-sized silicon oxides, titanium oxides, and aluminium oxides were contained. Nano-sized oxides were uniformly distributed in the composites produced by modified injection molding combining vacuum degassing and curing at a moderate temperature. The thermal decomposition and evaporation of the epoxy resin matrix depended on the composition of the composites. The relative permittivity of the nano-sized silicon carbide-epoxy composites increased from 5.16 to 5.37 by adding 2.0 wt % titanium oxide. The addition of titanium oxide of up to 2.0 wt % had little influence on the permittivity. The addition of 2.0 wt % of titanium oxide to epoxy resin showed the maximum thermal properties. Both the thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity of the silicon oxide-epoxy composites tended to increase with titanium oxide content. The maximum thermal conductivity was observed in the composites with 2.0 wt % titanium oxide.

  1. Characterization of nanosized Al{sub 2}(WO{sub 4}){sub 3}

    SciTech Connect

    Nihtianova, D.; Velichkova, N.; Nikolova, R.; Koseva, I.; Yordanova, A.; Nikolov, V.

    2011-11-15

    Graphical abstract: TEM method allows to detect small quantities of impurities not detectable by other methods. In our case impurities of W{sub 5}O{sub 14} are detected in Al{sub 2}(WO{sub 4}){sub 3} nanopowder. Highlights: {yields} Nanosized Al{sub 2}(WO{sub 4}){sub 3} by simple co-precipitation method. {yields} Spherical particles with mean size of 22 nm distributed between 10 and 40 nm at 630 {sup o}C. {yields} XRD, DTA and TEM confirm well defined products with perfect structure. {yields} TEM locality allows detection of impurities not detectable by XRD and DTA. -- Abstract: Nanosized aluminum tungstate Al{sub 2}(WO{sub 4}){sub 3} was prepared by co-precipitation reaction between Na{sub 2}WO{sub 4} and Al(NO{sub 3}){sub 3} aqueous solutions. The powder size and shape, as well as size distribution are estimated after different conditions of powder preparation. The purity of the final product was investigated by XRD and DTA analyses, using the single crystal powder as reference. Between the specimen and the reference no difference was detected. The crystal structure of Al{sub 2}(WO{sub 4}){sub 3} nanosized powder was confirmed by TEM (SAED, HRTEM). In additional, TEM locality allows to detect some W{sub 5}O{sub 14} impurities, which are not visible by conventional X-ray powder diffraction and thermal analyses.

  2. Nano-sized manganese oxides as biomimetic catalysts for water oxidation in artificial photosynthesis: a review

    PubMed Central

    Najafpour, Mohammad Mahdi; Rahimi, Fahimeh; Aro, Eva-Mari; Lee, Choon-Hwan; Allakhverdiev, Suleyman I.

    2012-01-01

    There has been a tremendous surge in research on the synthesis of various metal compounds aimed at simulating the water-oxidizing complex (WOC) of photosystem II (PSII). This is crucial because the water oxidation half reaction is overwhelmingly rate-limiting and needs high over-voltage (approx. 1 V), which results in low conversion efficiencies when working at current densities required for hydrogen production via water splitting. Particular attention has been given to the manganese compounds not only because manganese has been used by nature to oxidize water but also because manganese is cheap and environmentally friendly. The manganese–calcium cluster in PSII has a dimension of about approximately 0.5 nm. Thus, nano-sized manganese compounds might be good structural and functional models for the cluster. As in the nanometre-size of the synthetic models, most of the active sites are at the surface, these compounds could be more efficient catalysts than micrometre (or bigger) particles. In this paper, we focus on nano-sized manganese oxides as functional and structural models of the WOC of PSII for hydrogen production via water splitting and review nano-sized manganese oxides used in water oxidation by some research groups. PMID:22809849

  3. Accelerated methanogenesis from effluents of hydrogen-producing stage in anaerobic digestion by mixed cultures enriched with acetate and nano-sized magnetite particles.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhiman; Xu, Xiaohui; Guo, Rongbo; Fan, Xiaolei; Zhao, Xiaoxian

    2015-08-01

    Potential for paddy soil enrichments obtained in the presence of nano-sized magnetite particles (named as PSEM) to promote methane production from effluents of hydrogen-producing stage in two-stage anaerobic digestion was investigated. The results showed that the addition of magnetite significantly accelerated methane production from acetate in a dose-independent manner. The results from high-throughput sequencing analysis revealed that Rhodocyclaceae-related species were selectively enriched, which were likely the key players for conversion of acetate to methane in PSEM. Compared to the paddy soil enrichments obtained in the absence of magnetite (named as PSEC), the maximum methane production rate in PSEM was significantly higher (1.5-5.5times higher for the artificial medium and 0.2-1.7times higher for the effluents). The accelerated methane production from the effluents indicated remarkably application potential of PSEM for improving performance of anaerobic digestion.

  4. In vitro spectroscopic study of piperine-encapsulated nanosize liposomes.

    PubMed

    Pentak, Danuta

    2016-03-01

    Black pepper is a source of effective antioxidants. It contains several powerful antioxidants and is thus one of the most important spices for preventing and curtailing oxidative stress. There is considerable interest in the development of a drug-delivery systems that would result in the selective delivery of antioxidants to tissues in sufficient concentrations to ameliorate oxidant-induced tissue injuries. Liposomes are biocompatible, biodegradable and nontoxic artificial phospholipid vesicles that offer the possibility of carrying hydrophilic, hydrophobic and amphiphilic molecules. This article focuses on the use of liposomes for the delivery of antioxidants in the prevention or treatment of pathological conditions related to oxidative stress. Liposome formulations of piperine were analyzed with various spectroscopic methods. The formulation with the highest entrapment efficiency (90.5%) was formulated with an L-α-phosphatidylcholine dipalmitoyl (DPPC):piperine, 30:1 molar ratio, and total lipid count of 19.47 mg/ml in the final liposomal preparation. The liposome formulation was found to be stable after storage at 4 °C, protected from light, for a minimum of 3 weeks. The incremental process of piperine penetration through the phospholipid membrane was analyzed using the FT-IR, UV-Vis and NMR methods. Temperature stability studies carried out at 37 °C showed the highest percentage of piperine release in the first 3 h of incubation.

  5. Comparing the calcium bioavailability from two types of nano-sized enriched milk using in-vivo assay.

    PubMed

    Erfanian, Arezoo; Rasti, Babak; Manap, Yazid

    2017-01-01

    Calcium bioavailability from two types of enriched (calcium citrate and calcium carbonate) milks homogenized to a nano-sized particle distribution has been studied among 48 female Sprauge-dawley rats. Skim milk powder was enriched with some essential nutrients (Inulin, DHA & EPA, vitamins B6, K1, and D3) as enhancers of calcium bioavailability according to recommended dietary allowances of the West European and North American. Ovariectomized and ovariectomized-osteoporosis rats were used as a menopause and menopause-osteoporosis model, respectively. Although, nano-sized enriched milk powders had the greatest calcium bioavailability among the groups, but bioavailability of nano-sized calcium carbonate-enriched-milk was significantly (P<0.05) better than nano-sized calcium citrate-enriched-milk. Moreover, the trends were similar for bone calcium, strength and morphology. Therefore, based on the current results the calcium carbonate nano-sized enriched milk could be an effective enriched milk powder in ovariectomized-osteoporosis and ovariectomized rats as a model of menopause-osteoporosis and menopause women.

  6. Modifications in Glass Ionomer Cements: Nano-Sized Fillers and Bioactive Nanoceramics

    PubMed Central

    Najeeb, Shariq; Khurshid, Zohaib; Zafar, Muhammad Sohail; Khan, Abdul Samad; Zohaib, Sana; Martí, Juan Manuel Nuñez; Sauro, Salvatore; Matinlinna, Jukka Pekka; Rehman, Ihtesham Ur

    2016-01-01

    Glass ionomer cements (GICs) are being used for a wide range of applications in dentistry. In order to overcome the poor mechanical properties of glass ionomers, several modifications have been introduced to the conventional GICs. Nanotechnology involves the use of systems, modifications or materials the size of which is in the range of 1–100 nm. Nano-modification of conventional GICs and resin modified GICs (RMGICs) can be achieved by incorporation of nano-sized fillers to RMGICs, reducing the size of the glass particles, and introducing nano-sized bioceramics to the glass powder. Studies suggest that the commercially available nano-filled RMGIC does not hold any significant advantage over conventional RMGICs as far as the mechanical and bonding properties are concerned. Conversely, incorporation of nano-sized apatite crystals not only increases the mechanical properties of conventional GICs, but also can enhance fluoride release and bioactivity. By increasing the crystallinity of the set matrix, apatites can make the set cement chemically more stable, insoluble, and improve the bond strength with tooth structure. Increased fluoride release can also reduce and arrest secondary caries. However, due to a lack of long-term clinical studies, the use of nano-modified glass ionomers is still limited in daily clinical dentistry. In addition to the in vitro and in vivo studies, more randomized clinical trials are required to justify the use of these promising materials. The aim of this paper is to review the modification performed in GIC-based materials to improve their physicochemical properties. PMID:27428956

  7. Comparison of radiation shielding ratios of nano-sized bismuth trioxide and molybdenum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, J. H.; Kim, M. S.; Rhim, J. D.

    2015-07-01

    In this study, radiation shielding fibers using non-hazardous nano-sized bismuth trioxide and molybdenum instead of lead were developed and evaluated. Among the elements with high densities and atomic numbers, non-hazardous elements such as bismuth trioxide and molybdenum were chosen as a shielding element. Then, bismuth trioxide (Bi2O3) with average particle size 1-500 µm was ball milled for 10 min to produce a powdered form of nanoparticles with average particle size of 10-100 nm. Bismuth trioxide nanoparticles were dispersed to make a colloidal suspension, followed by spreading and hardening onto one or two sides of fabric, to create the radiation shielding fabric. The thicknesses of the shielding sheets using nano-sized bismuth and molybdenum were 0.4 and 0.7 mm. According to the lead equivalent test of X-ray shielding products suggested by KS, the equivalent dose was measured, followed by calculation of the shielding rate. The shielding rate of bismuth with 0.4 mm thickness and at 50 kVp was 90.5%, which is comparable to lead of 0.082 mm thickness. The shielding rate of molybdenum was 51.89%%, which is comparable to lead of 0.034 mm. At a thickness of 0.7 mm, the shielding rate of bismuth was 98.73%, equivalent to 0.101 mm Pb, whereas the shielding rate of molybdenum was 74.68%, equivalent to 0.045 mm Pb. In conclusion, the radiation shielding fibers using nano-sized bismuth developed in this study are capable of reducing radiation exposure by X-ray and its low-dose scatter ray.

  8. Pilot scale application of nanosized iron oxides as electron acceptors for bioremediation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosch, Julian; Fritzsche, Andreas; Frank-Fahle, Beatrice; Lüders, Tilmann; Höss, Sebastian; Eisenmann, Heinrich; Held, Thomas; Totsche, Kai U.; Meckenstock, Rainer U.

    2014-05-01

    Microbial reduction of ferric iron is a major biogeochemical process in groundwater aquifer ecosystems and often associated with the degradation of organic contaminants, as bacteria couple iron reduction to the oxidation reduced carbon like e.g. BTEX. Yet in general the low bioavailability of natural iron oxides limits microbial reduction rates. However, nanosized iron oxides have an unequally enhanced bioavailability and reactivity compared to their respective bulk, macro-sized, and more crystalline materials. At the same time, nanosized iron oxides can be produced in stable colloidal suspensions, permitting efficient injections into contaminated aquifers. We examined the reactivity of nanosized synthetic colloidal iron oxides in microbial iron reduction. Application of colloidal nanoparticles led to a strong and sustainable enhancement of microbial reaction rates in batch experiments and sediment columns. Toluene oxidation was increased five-fold as compared to bulk, non-colloidal ferrihydrite as electron acceptor. Furthermore, we developed a unique approach for custom-tailoring the subsurface mobility of these particles after being injected into a contaminant plume. In a field pilot application, we injected 18 m3 of an iron oxide nanoparticle solution into a BTEX contaminated aquifer with a maximum excess pressure as low as 0.2 bar. The applied suspension showed a superior subsurface mobility, creating a reactive zone of 4 m height (corresponding to the height of the confined aquifer) and 6 m in diameter. Subsequent monitoring of BTEX, microbial BTEX degradation metabolites, ferrous iron generation, stable isotopes fractionation, microbial populations, and methanogenesis demonstrated the strong impact of our approach. Mathematic processed X-ray diffractograms and FTIR spectra provided a semi-quantitatively estimate of the long-term fate of the iron oxide colloids in the aquifer. Potential environmental risks of the injection itself were monitored with

  9. Nano-sized cosmetic formulations or solid nanoparticles in sunscreens: a risk to human health?

    PubMed

    Nohynek, Gerhard J; Dufour, Eric K

    2012-07-01

    Personal care products (PCP) often contain micron- or nano-sized formulation components, such as nanoemulsions or microscopic vesicles. A large number of studies suggest that such vesicles do not penetrate human skin beyond the superficial layers of the stratum corneum. Nano-sized PCP formulations may enhance or reduce skin absorption of ingredients, albeit at a limited scale. Modern sunscreens contain insoluble titanium dioxide (TiO₂) or zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles (NP), which are efficient filters of UV light. A large number of studies suggest that insoluble NP do not penetrate into or through human skin. A number of in vivo toxicity tests, including in vivo intravenous studies, showed that TiO₂ and ZnO NP are non-toxic and have an excellent skin tolerance. Cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, photo-genotoxicity, general toxicity and carcinogenicity studies on TiO₂ and ZnO NP found no difference in the safety profile of micro- or nano-sized materials, all of which were found to be non-toxic. Although some published in vitro studies on insoluble nano- or micron-sized particles suggested cell uptake, oxidative cell damage or genotoxicity, these data are consistent with those from micron-sized particles and should be interpreted with caution. Data on insoluble NP, such as surgical implant-derived wear debris particles or intravenously administered magnetic resonance contrast agents suggest that toxicity of small particles is generally related to their chemistry rather than their particle size. Overall, the weight of scientific evidence suggests that insoluble NP used in sunscreens pose no or negligible risk to human health, but offer large health benefits, such as the protection of human skin against UV-induced skin ageing and cancer.

  10. Plasma-arc reactor for production possibility of powdered nano-size materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadzhiyski, V.; Mihovsky, M.; Gavrilova, R.

    2011-01-01

    Nano-size materials of various chemical compositions find increasing application in life nowadays due to some of their unique properties. Plasma technologies are widely used in the production of a range of powdered nano-size materials (metals, alloys, oxides, nitrides, carbides, borides, carbonitrides, etc.), that have relatively high melting temperatures. Until recently, the so-called RF-plasma generated in induction plasma torches was most frequently applied [1-3]. The subject of this paper is the developments of a new type of plasma-arc reactor, operated with transferred arc system for production of disperse nano-size materials. The new characteristics of the PLASMALAB reactor are the method of feeding the charge, plasma arc control and anode design. The disperse charge is fed by a charge feeding system operating on gravity principle through a hollow cathode of an arc plasma torch situated along the axis of a water-cooled wall vertical tubular reactor. The powdered material is brought into the zone of a plasma space generated by the DC rotating transferred plasma arc. The arc is subjected to Auto-Electro-Magnetic Rotation (AEMR) by an inductor serially connected to the anode circuit. The anode is in the form of a water-cooled copper ring. It is mounted concentrically within the cylindrical reactor, with its lower part electrically insulated from it. The electric parameters of the arc in the reactor and the quantity of processed charge are maintained at a level permitting generation of a volumetric plasma discharge. This mode enables one to attain high mean mass temperature while the processed disperse material flows along the reactor axis through the plasma zone where the main physico-chemical processes take place. The product obtained leaves the reactor through the annular anode, from where it enters a cooling chamber for fixing the produced nano-structure. Experiments for AlN synthesis from aluminium power and nitrogen were carried out using the plasma reactor

  11. Plasma Processed Nanosized-Powders of Refractory Compounds for Obtaining Fine-Grained Advanced Ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    I, Zalite; J, Grabis; E, Palcevskis; M, Herrmann

    2011-10-01

    One of the ways for the production of ceramic materials with a fine-grained structure is the use of nanopowders. Different methods are used for the production of nanopowders. One of them is the method of plasmachemical synthesis. Different nanopowders of refractory materials can be obtained by this method. The preparation of nanosized powders of nitrides and oxides and their composites by the method of plasmachemical synthesis, the possibilities to receive nanopowders with different particle size and the potential advantages of nanopowders were investigated.

  12. Ferromagnetic effects for nanofluid venture through composite permeable stenosed arteries with different nanosize particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akbar, Noreen Sher; Mustafa, M. T.

    2015-07-01

    In the present article ferromagnetic field effects for copper nanoparticles for blood flow through composite permeable stenosed arteries is discussed. The copper nanoparticles for the blood flow with water as base fluid with different nanosize particles is not explored upto yet. The equations for the Cu-water nanofluid are developed first time in literature and simplified using long wavelength and low Reynolds number assumptions. Exact solutions have been evaluated for velocity, pressure gradient, the solid volume fraction of the nanoparticles and temperature profile. Effect of various flow parameters on the flow and heat transfer characteristics are utilized.

  13. Structure and Optical Features of Micro/Nanosized Carbon Forms Prepared by Electrochemical Exfoliation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nedilko, Sergii G.; Revo, Sergiy; Chornii, Vitalii; Scherbatskyi, Vasyl; Ivanenko, Kateryna; Nedielko, Maksym; Sementsov, Yurii; Skoryk, Mykola; Nikolenko, Andrii; Strelchuk, Victor

    2017-01-01

    Micro/nanosized carbon materials were prepared by electrochemical exfoliation method in the forms of the colloids and thin films. Scanning electronic microscopy, optical and luminescent microscopy, and Raman scattering and luminescent spectroscopy were applied for characterization of materials. The wide photoluminescence band in the visible spectral region was observed for each of the samples. The shape of the photoluminescence band depends on excitation wavelength and on the size of the particles. At least two components with maxima at 580 and 710 nm can be distinguished in the photoluminescence spectra. The relations between the photoluminescence properties and morphology of the samples have been described and discussed.

  14. Phase-Slip Avalanches in the Superflow of {sup 4}He through Arrays of Nanosize Apertures

    SciTech Connect

    Pekker, David; Barankov, Roman; Goldbart, Paul M.

    2007-04-27

    In response to recent experiments by the Berkeley group, we construct a model of superflow through an array of nanosize apertures that incorporates two basic ingredients: (1) disorder associated with each aperture having its own random critical velocity, and (2) effective interaperture coupling, mediated through the bulk superfluid. As the disorder becomes weak there is a transition from a regime where phase slips are largely independent to a regime where interactions lead to system-wide avalanches of phase slips. We explore the flow dynamics in both regimes, and make connections to the experiments.

  15. Coadsorption of lithium and oxygen on W(1 1 2): nanosized facets versus single crystals.

    PubMed

    Suchorski, Y; Hupalo, M S

    2011-05-01

    Coadsorption of lithium and oxygen on a nanosized W-tip is studied using field ion appearance energy spectroscopy (FIAES). Binding energies of coadsorbed Li-adatoms are derived locally for chosen atomic sites on (1 1 2) facets for different oxygen and Li-coverages. Independently, the binding energies of Li-adatoms in coadsorbed Li/oxygen layers are determined for macroscopic W(1 1 2) single crystal samples from the adsorption isobars in adsorption-desorption equilibrium experiments and compared with the local nm-scale measurements. The comparison reveals a very good agreement of results obtained by two different methods on differing length scales.

  16. Hydrodeoxygenation of fatty acid esters catalyzed by Ni on nano-sized MFI type zeolites

    SciTech Connect

    Schreiber, Moritz W.; Rodriguez-Niño, Daniella; Gutiérrez, Oliver Y.; Lercher, Johannes A.

    2016-01-01

    The impact of support morphology and composition on the intrinsic activity of Ni supported on MFI-type zeolite was explored in the hydrodeoxygenation of methyl stearate, tristearate, and algae oil (mixture of triglycerides). The nano-sized structure of the support (self-pillared nanosheets) is beneficial for the activity of the catalysts. Higher Ni dispersion and concomitant higher reaction rates were obtained on nano-structured supports than on zeolite with conventional morphology. Rates normalized to accessible Ni atoms (TOF), however, varied little with support morphology. Acidity of the support increases the rate of Ni-catalyzed C-O hydrogenolysis per surface metal site.

  17. Synthesis of nanosize MCM-41 loaded with TiO 2 and study of its photocatalytic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadjadi, M. S.; Farhadyar, N.; Zare, K.

    2009-07-01

    In recent years, nanosized mesoporous materials have received significant attention due to their impact in different processes. Several diverse applications of these materials, e.g. high density magnetic recording, magnetic fluids, magnetic refrigeration as well as in photocatalysis, solar cells, photosensors, have triggered considerable research activities in the area of nanotechnology. In this work, nanosize MCM-41 was synthesized and loaded then with TiO 2 using tetra butoxy titanium (TBT). As prepared TiO 2 loaded materials was investigated by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The photocatalytic activity of the prepared TiO 2 loaded MCM-41 was finally evaluated by the degradation of methyl orange under irradiation of UV light. The result showed that TiO 2 loaded on nanosize MCM-41 has higher photocatalytic activity than that of TiO 2.

  18. [Preconcentration of Trace Cu(II) in Water Samples with Nano-Sized ZnO and Determination by GFAAS].

    PubMed

    Huang, Si-si; Zhang, Xu; Qian, Sha-hua

    2015-09-01

    The content of copper in natural water is very low, and direct determination is difficult. Therefore, it is very meaningful for the combination of efficient separation-enrichment technology and highly sensitive detection. Based on the high adsorption capacity of Cu(II) onto nano-sized ZnO, a novel method by using nano-sized ZnO as adsorbent and graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry as determination means was in this work. The adsorption behaviors of Cu(II) on nano-sized ZnO was studied. Effects of acidity, adsorption equilibrium time, adsorbent dosage and coexisting ions on adsorption rates were investigated. The results showed that the adsorption efficiency was above 95% in a pH range from 3.0 to 7.0. Compared with other adsorbents for trace element enrichment such as activated carbon, nano-sized TiO2 powder, the most prominent advantage is nano-sized ZnO precipitate with the concentrated element can directly dissolved in HCl solution without any filtration and desorption process can directly analyzed by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry or inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry. Compared with colloid nano materials, nano-sized ZnO is the true solution after dissolving have small matrix effect and viscosity more suitable for graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry or inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry detection. The proposed method possesses low detection limit (0.13 μg · L(-1)) and good precision (RSD=2.2%). The recoveries for the analysis of environmental samples were in a rang of 91.6%~92.6% and the analysis results of certified materials were compellent by using the proposed method.

  19. Presence of nano-sized silica during in vitro digestion of foods containing silica as a food additive.

    PubMed

    Peters, Ruud; Kramer, Evelien; Oomen, Agnes G; Rivera, Zahira E Herrera; Oegema, Gerlof; Tromp, Peter C; Fokkink, Remco; Rietveld, Anton; Marvin, Hans J P; Weigel, Stefan; Peijnenburg, Ad A C M; Bouwmeester, Hans

    2012-03-27

    The presence, dissolution, agglomeration state, and release of materials in the nano-size range from food containing engineered nanoparticles during human digestion is a key question for the safety assessment of these materials. We used an in vitro model to mimic the human digestion. Food products subjected to in vitro digestion included (i) hot water, (ii) coffee with powdered creamer, (iii) instant soup, and (iv) pancake which either contained silica as the food additive E551, or to which a form of synthetic amorphous silica or 32 nm SiO(2) particles were added. The results showed that, in the mouth stage of the digestion, nano-sized silica particles with a size range of 5-50 and 50-500 nm were present in food products containing E551 or added synthetic amorphous silica. However, during the successive gastric digestion stage, this nano-sized silica was no longer present for the food matrices coffee and instant soup, while low amounts were found for pancakes. Additional experiments showed that the absence of nano-sized silica in the gastric stage can be contributed to an effect of low pH combined with high electrolyte concentrations in the gastric digestion stage. Large silica agglomerates are formed under these conditions as determined by DLS and SEM experiments and explained theoretically by the extended DLVO theory. Importantly, in the subsequent intestinal digestion stage, the nano-sized silica particles reappeared again, even in amounts higher than in the saliva (mouth) digestion stage. These findings suggest that, upon consumption of foods containing E551, the gut epithelium is most likely exposed to nano-sized silica.

  20. Spongelike Nanosized Mn3O4 as a High-Capacity Anode Material for Rechargeable Lithium Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Jie; Lowe, Michael A.; Abruna, Hector D.

    2011-07-12

    Mn₃O₄ has been investigated as a high-capacity anode material for rechargeable lithium ion batteries. Spongelike nanosized Mn₃O₄ was synthesized by a simple precipitation method and characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, Raman scattering and scanning electron microscopy. Its electrochemical performance, as an anode material, was evaluated by galvanostatic discharge–charge tests. The results indicate that this novel type of nanosized Mn₃O₄ exhibits a high initial reversible capacity (869 mA h/g) and significantly enhanced first Coulomb efficiency with a stabilized reversible capacity of around 800 mA h/g after over 40 charge/discharge cycles.

  1. Hydrogen gas sensing properties of PdO thin films with nano-sized cracks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tack Lee, Young; Lee, Jun Min; Kim, Yeon Ju; Hyoun Joe, Jin; Lee, Wooyoung

    2010-04-01

    We report on a novel method for the fabrication of highly sensitive hydrogen gas sensors based on palladium oxide thin films and have investigated their hydrogen sensing properties and nanostructures. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the use of palladium oxide and reduced palladium thin films as hydrogen sensors. The palladium oxide thin films were deposited on thermally oxidized Si substrates using a reactive direct current (DC) magnetron sputtering system. Considerable changes in the resistance of the palladium oxide thin films were observed when they were initially exposed to hydrogen gas, as a result of the reduction process. After the initial exposure to hydrogen gas of PdO30%, its sensitivity increased up to ~ 4.5 × 103%. The morphology of the PdO surface was analyzed using a scanning electron microscope (SEM), in order to investigate the interactions between palladium oxide and hydrogen. The SEM images showed a large number of nano-sized cracks on the surface of the palladium oxide during the reduction process, which acted to increase the effective surface-to-volume ratio. The response behaviors of the reduced Pd films to hydrogen gas were reversible and had an enhanced sensing property when compared with those of the pure Pd films. In addition, their sensitivities and response times were improved due to the nano-sized cracks on the surfaces. The results demonstrate that palladium oxide and reduced palladium thin films can be applied for use in highly sensitive hydrogen sensors.

  2. [Degradation of trace nitrobenzene by nanosized TiO2 catalyzed ozonation].

    PubMed

    Yang, Yi-xin; Ma, Jun; Qin, Qing-dong; Zhao, Lei; Wang, Sheng-jun; Zhang, Jing

    2006-10-01

    Nanosized TiO2 catalyzed ozonation of trace nitrobenzene in water was carried out in an agitated slurry semi-batch. It demonstrated that removal rate of nitrobenzene with catalytic ozonation increased by 44% than ozonation alone. Effect of heat treatments of TiO2, catalyst mass, the initial concentration of ozone and nitrobenzene, and pH were investigated respectively. TiO2 calcined at 550 degrees C showed the best catalytic activity. In the presence of TiO2 calcined at 550 degrees C, about 56.57% of nitrobenzene in the solution could be ozonated. Both ozone dosage and initial concentration of nitrobenzene exerted a positive influence on the catalytic ozonation. But the increase of the catalyst mass did not yield any significant increase of the nitrobenzene removal. The efficiency of catalytic ozonation was special lower at acid pH than basic pH. It was also observed that both ozonation and catalytic ozonation were significantly influenced by tert-butyl alcohol, which testified that nanosized TiO2 catalyzed ozonation of nitrobenzene follows a radicaltype mechanism.

  3. Early growth of nano-sized calcium phosphate on phosphorylated bacterial cellulose nanofibers.

    PubMed

    Wan, Y Z; Gao, C; Luo, H L; He, F; Liang, H; Li, X L; Wang, Y L

    2009-11-01

    It is believed that studies on the early hydroxyapatite (HAp) deposition on nano-sized substrates may possibly allow us to understand the formation mechanisms of biominerals at the molecular level. In this study, bacterial cellulose (BC) nanofibers were phosphorylated and used as nano-sized templates for early mineralization of calcium phosphate (Ca-P). To initiate mineralization the BC nanofibers were immersed in 1.5 times simulated body fluids (1.5 SBF) at 37 degreees C for varying periods of time. The deposited minerals on the nanofiber surfaces were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). SEM observations confirmed that early growth (at 4 h) of the Ca-P minerals was heterogeneous, which was followed by extensive spread of the minerals on the entire surfaces of the nanofibers. XRD and FTIR analyses indicated that octacalcium phosphate (OCP) was the precursor of HAp formed on BC nanofibers. Furthermore, HAp deposited on BC nanofibers elongated along the c axis. Nucleation and growth of the Ca-P minerals were analyzed in this paper.

  4. Annealing Simulations of Nano-Sized Amorphous Structures in SiC

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Fei; Devanathan, Ram; Zhang, Yanwen; Weber, William J.

    2005-01-01

    A two-dimensional model of a nano-sized amorphous layer embedded in a perfect crystal has been developed, and the amorphous-to-crystalline (a-c) transition in 3C-SiC at 2000 K has been studied using molecular dynamics methods, with simulation times of up to 88 ns. Analysis of the a-c interfaces reveals that the recovery of the bond defects existing at the a-c interfaces plays an important role in recrystallization. During the recrystallization process, a second ordered phase, crystalline 2H-SiC, can be nucleated and grow, and is stable for long simulation times. The crystallization mechanism is a two-step process that is separated by a longer period of second-phase stability. The kink sites formed at the interfaces between 2H- and 3C-SiC provide a low energy path for 2H-SiC atoms to transfer to 3C-SiC atoms, which can be defined as a solid-phase epitaxial transformation (SPET). It is observed that the nano-sized amorphous structure can be fully recrystallized at 2000 K in SiC, which is in agreement with experimental observations.

  5. Substitution reactions of thorium(IV) acetate to synthesize nano-sized carboxylate complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baranwal, Balram P.; Fatma, Talat; Varma, Anand; Singh, Alok K.

    2010-04-01

    Some mixed-ligand thorium(IV) complexes with the general formula [Th(OOCCH 3) 4- nL n] (L = anions of myristic, palmitic or stearic acid and n = 1-4) have been synthesized by the stepwise substitution of acetate ions of thorium(IV) acetate with straight chain carboxylic acids in toluene under reflux. The complexes were characterized by elemental analyses, spectral (electronic, infrared, NMR and powder XRD) studies, electrical conductance and magnetic susceptibility measurements. Doubly and triply bridged coordination modes of the ligands were established by their infrared spectra and nano-size of the complexes by powder XRD. Room temperature magnetic susceptibility measurements revealed diamagnetic nature of the complexes. Electronic absorption spectra of the complexes showed π → π*, n → π* and charge transfer transitions. Molar conductance values indicated the complex to be non-electrolytes. These are a new type of mixed-ligand thorium(IV) complexes for which a nano-sized, oxygen bridged polymeric structure has been established on the basis of physico-chemical studies.

  6. Phonon properties of nanosized MnWO{sub 4} with different size and morphology

    SciTech Connect

    Maczka, MirosLaw; Ptak, Maciej; Kurnatowska, Michalina; Kepinski, Leszek; Tomaszewski, PaweL; Hanuza, Jerzy

    2011-09-15

    Highly hierarchical barlike and flowerlike MnWO{sub 4} microcrystals have been synthesized for the first time by a hydrothermal method, where ethanolamine (EA) and cetyltrimethylamonnium bromide (CTAB) play important roles in directing growth and self-assembly of these structures. The possible formation process has been proposed. In addition, platelike nanosized MnWO{sub 4} was also synthesized by annealing of a precursor obtained by coprecipitation method. The obtained samples were characterized by XRD, SEM, TEM, Raman and IR methods. Raman spectra showed relatively weak dependence on particle size and morphology of the particles. In contrast to this behavior, IR-active bands showed pronounced shifts and changes in relative intensities on particle size and the morphology. Origin of this behavior is discussed. - Graphical Abstract: SEM images of MnWO{sub 4} particles prepared by hydrothermal process at 150 deg. C (left panel) and 200 deg. C (right panel). Highlights: > Hydrothermal synthesis with ethanolamine enables growth of hierarchical nanosized MnWO{sub 4} particles. > Annealing of a precursor obtained by coprecipitation method enables growth of platelike MnWO{sub 4} nanoparticles. > Raman and IR spectra of MnWO{sub 4} nanoparticles depend on both size and morphology of the nanoparticles. > We discuss origin of this behavior.

  7. Nano-sized Mn oxide/agglomerated silsesquioxane composite as a good catalyst for water oxidation.

    PubMed

    Najafpour, Mohammad Mahdi; Madadkhani, Sepideh

    2016-12-01

    Water splitting to hydrogen and oxygen is an important reaction to store sustainable energies, and water oxidation is identified as the bottleneck for water splitting because it requires the high activation energy to perform. Herein a nano-sized Mn oxide/agglomerated silsesquioxane composite was used to synthesize an efficient catalyst for water oxidation. The composite was synthesized by a straightforward and simple procedure and characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering, X-ray diffraction spectrometry, and electrochemical methods. Silsesquioxane causes good dispersion of Mn in the composite. The water-oxidizing activity of this composite was studied in the presence of cerium(IV) ammonium nitrate. The composite at the best calcination temperature (300 °C) shows a turnover frequency 0.3 (mmol O2/mol Mn.s). Regarding the low-cost, environmentally friendly precursors, simple synthesis, and efficiency for water oxidation, the composite is a promising catalyst that can be used in artificial photosynthetic systems for water splitting. We used Agglomerated silsesquioxane as a support for nano-sized Mn oxide to synthesize a good water-oxidizing catalyst.

  8. Snow-borne nanosized particles: Abundance, distribution, composition, and significance in ice nucleation processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rangel-Alvarado, Rodrigo Benjamin; Nazarenko, Yevgen; Ariya, Parisa A.

    2015-11-01

    Physicochemical processes of nucleation constitute a major uncertainty in understanding aerosol-cloud interactions. To improve the knowledge of the ice nucleation process, we characterized physical, chemical, and biological properties of fresh snow using a suite of state-of-the-art techniques based on mass spectrometry, electron microscopy, chromatography, and optical particle sizing. Samples were collected at two North American Arctic sites, as part of international campaigns (2006 and 2009), and in the city of Montreal, Canada, over the last decade. Particle size distribution analyses, in the range of 3 nm to 10 µm, showed that nanosized particles are the most numerous (38-71%) in fresh snow, with a significant portion (11 to 19%) less than 100 nm in size. Particles with diameters less than 200 nm consistently exhibited relatively high ice-nucleating properties (on average ranged from -19.6 ± 2.4 to -8.1 ± 2.6°C). Chemical analysis of the nanosized fraction suggests that they contain bioorganic materials, such as amino acids, as well as inorganic compounds with similar characteristics to mineral dust. The implication of nanoparticle ubiquity and abundance in diverse snow ecosystems are discussed in the context of their importance in understanding atmospheric nucleation processes.

  9. Surface Formation of Single Silicon Wafer Polished with Nano-sized Al2O3 Powders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yu-li; Zuo, Dun-wen; Zhu, Yong-wei; Wang, Min

    2007-12-01

    Ice polishing single silicon wafers with nano-sized Al2O3 abrasives can be known as ice fixed abrasives chemical mechanical polishing (IFA-CMP). TAn abrasive slurry was made of nano-sized Al2O3 particles dispersed in de-ionized water with a surfactant and the slurry was frozen to form an ice polishing pad. Then polishing tests of blanket silicon wafers with the above ice polishing pad were carried out. The morphologies and surface roughness of the polished silicon wafers were observed and examined on an atomic force microscope. The subsurface damage was assessed by means of cross-section transmission electron microscopy. The surface chemical constituents of the polished silicon wafers were characterized using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy in order to gain insight into the chemical mechanisms in the process. Scratch resistance of the single silicon wafer was measured by nanoscratching using a nanoindenter to explore the mechanical removal mechanism. The results show that a super smooth surface with an average roughness of 0.367 nm is obtained within 1000 nm × 1000 nm and there is a perfect silicon diamond structure without any microcracks in the subsurface. The removal of material is dominated by the coactions of ductile regime machining and chemical corrosion. In the end, a model of material removal of IFA-CMP is built.

  10. Enhancement of oral bioavailability of an HIV-attachment inhibitor by nanosizing and amorphous formulation approaches.

    PubMed

    Fakes, Michael G; Vakkalagadda, Blisse J; Qian, Feng; Desikan, Sridhar; Gandhi, Rajesh B; Lai, Chiajen; Hsieh, Alice; Franchini, Miriam K; Toale, Helen; Brown, Jonathan

    2009-03-31

    BMS-488043 is an HIV-attachment inhibitor that exhibited suboptimal oral bioavailability upon using conventional dosage forms prepared utilizing micronized crystalline drug substance. BMS-488043 is classified as a Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS) Class-II compound with a poor aqueous solubility of 0.04mg/mL and an acceptable permeability of 178nm/s in the Caco2 cell-line model. Two strategies were evaluated to potentially enhance the oral bioavailability of BMS-488043. The first strategy targeted particle size reduction through nanosizing the crystalline drug substance. The second strategy aimed at altering the drug's physical form by producing an amorphous drug. Both strategies provided an enhancement in oral bioavailability in dogs as compared to a conventional formulation containing the micronized crystalline drug substance. BMS-488043 oral bioavailability enhancement was approximately 5- and 9-folds for nanosizing and amorphous formulation approaches, respectively. The stability of the amorphous coprecipitated drug prepared at different compositions of BMS-488043/polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) was evaluated upon exposure to stressed stability conditions of temperature and humidity. The drastic effect of exposure to humidity on conversion of the amorphous drug to crystalline form was observed. Additionally, the dissolution behavior of coprecipitated drug was evaluated under discriminatory conditions of different pH values to optimize the BMS-488043/PVP composition and produce a stabilized, amorphous BMS-488043/PVP (40/60, w/w) spray-dried intermediate (SDI), which was formulated into an oral dosage form for further development and evaluation.

  11. Production of nanosized carbon black from hydrocarbon by a thermal plasma.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hye-Min; Nam, Won-Ki; Park, Dong-Wha

    2007-11-01

    Thermal plasma conditions (optimal heat and radical sources for the thermal decomposition) can be used to accelerate thermodynamically favorable chemical reactions or provide the energy required for endothermic reforming processes. Direct thermal decomposition of hydrocarbon (methane, acetylene, and propane) was carried out using a thermal plasma system which is an environmentally favorable process. In case of thermal decomposition, high purity of the hydrogen and solidified nano-sized carbon can be achieved without any contaminant. The main product carbon produced by thermal decomposition can be either sequestered or used as a raw material and it can be applied for the varieties of industry fields. The morphology of the carbon was characterized by SEM and the particle size was determined by a particle size analyzer. It was observed that the carbon black particles were sphere particles with mainly several tens of nano-sized diameters, those are about 10-80 nm. It can be expected to be used as a raw material of laser printer toner which requires small sized carbon black particles; An average primary particle size of PRINTEX L (Degussa Fillers & Pigment) used in a part of printing inks is 23 nm. In case of the XRD pattern of the produced carbon black from acetylene is of higher crystalline than the commercialized carbon black used for fuel cells. Also carbon species produced were characterized by EA and TGA.

  12. Phytotoxicity of ionic, micro- and nano-sized iron in three plant species.

    PubMed

    Libralato, G; Costa Devoti, A; Zanella, M; Sabbioni, E; Mičetić, I; Manodori, L; Pigozzo, A; Manenti, S; Groppi, F; Volpi Ghirardini, A

    2016-01-01

    Potential environmental impacts of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) can be understood taking into consideration phytotoxicity. We reported on the effects of ionic (FeCl3), micro- and nano-sized zerovalent iron (nZVI) about the development of three macrophytes: Lepidium sativum, Sinapis alba and Sorghum saccharatum. Four toxicity indicators (seed germination, seedling elongation, germination index and biomass) were assessed following exposure to each iron concentration interval: 1.29-1570mg/L (FeCl3), 1.71-10.78mg/L (micro-sized iron) and 4.81-33,560mg/L (nano-iron). Exposure effects were also observed by optical and transmission electron microscopy. Results showed that no significant phytotoxicity effects could be detected for both micro- and nano-sized zerovalent irons, including field nanoremediation concentrations. Biostimulation effects such as an increased seedling length and biomass production were detected at the highest exposure concentrations. Ionic iron showed slight toxicity effects only at 1570mg/L and, therefore, no median effect concentrations were determined. By microscopy, ENPs were not found in palisade cells or xylem. Apparently, aggregates of nZVI were found inside S. alba and S. saccharatum, although false positives during sample preparation cannot be excluded. Macroscopically, black spots and coatings were detected on roots of all species especially at the most concentrated treatments.

  13. Gehlenite:Eu3+ phosphors from a silicone resin and nano-sized fillers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernardo, E.; Fiocco, L.; Prnová, A.; Klement, R.; Galusek, D.

    2014-05-01

    Gehlenite (Ca2Al2SiO7) ceramics have been successfully prepared by a novel approach, consisting of the heat treatment of a silicone resin embedding CaO and Al2O3 precursors, in the form of nano-sized particles that act as reactive fillers. Luminescence was due to the use of nano-sized Eu2O3 as secondary additive, particularly adopting a charge compensation formulation, i.e. Ca2-2xEu2xAl(Al1+2xSi1-2xO7), with x = 0.07. The phase development and the emission characteristics could be adjusted by simply changing the thermal treatment applied to powders of silicone/fillers mixtures. While conventional firing at 1300 °C (for 1 h) led to practically phase-pure crystalline Eu-doped gehlenite, exhibiting a strong red luminescence, flame synthesis yielded amorphous powders, exhibiting an emission in a much broader range. When excited at 394 nm both gehlenite glass and polycrystalline gehlenite emitted light, which CIE chromaticity coordinates were found to be (x = 0.65, y = 0.35), indicating that both systems are good candidates for red light emitting phosphors.

  14. Linking two distinct layered networks of nanosized {Ln18} and {Cu24} wheels through isonicotinate ligands.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jian-Wen; Zhang, Jie; Zheng, Shou-Tian; Yang, Guo-Yu

    2008-01-01

    A new series of heterolanthanide(III)-copper(I) wheel-cluster complexes [Ln6(micro3-O)2](IN)18-[Cu8(micro4-I)2(micro2-I)3].H3O (IN=isonicotinate; Ln=Y 1, Nd 2, Dy 3, Gd 4, Sm 5, Eu 6, Tb 7) were prepared by hydrothermal reaction at low pH. X-ray crystallographic studies reveal that two unusual trinuclear [Ln3(micro3-O)] and tetranuclear [Cu4(micro4-I)] cores are successfully used as secondary building units to make two different nanosized wheels [Ln18(micro3-O)6(CO2)48](6-), {Ln18}, and [Cu24(micro4-I)6(micro2-I)12]6+, {Cu24}, with 12-rings and a diameter of 26.7 and 26.4 A, respectively. The wheels are further assembled into two-dimensional (2D) {Ln18} and {Cu24} networks, the linkages between two distinct layered networks of {Ln18} and {Cu24} wheels by IN pillars along the c axis giving a series of unprecedented three-dimensional (3D) sandwich frameworks. To our knowledge, compounds 1-7 are the first examples containing two different layered networks of nanosized Ln and transition metal (TM) wheels in wheel-cluster chemistry. The IR, UV/Vis, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), luminescent, and magnetic properties of these complexes were also studied.

  15. Study of sodium hyaluronate-based intranasal formulations containing micro- or nanosized meloxicam particles.

    PubMed

    Bartos, Csilla; Ambrus, Rita; Sipos, Péter; Budai-Szűcs, Mária; Csányi, Erzsébet; Gáspár, Róbert; Márki, Árpád; Seres, Adrienn B; Sztojkov-Ivanov, Anita; Horváth, Tamás; Szabó-Révész, Piroska

    2015-08-01

    This article reports on the micro- and nanonization of meloxicam (MEL) with the aim of developing pre-dispersions as intermediates for the design of intranasal formulations. As a new approach, combined wet milling technology was developed in order to reduce the particle size of the MEL. Different milling times resulted in micro- or nanosized MEL in the pre-dispersions with polyvinyl alcohol as stabilizer agent, which were directly used for preparing intranasal liquid formulations with the addition of sodium hyaluronate as mucoadhesive agent. Reduction of the MEL particle size into the nano range led to increased saturation solubility and dissolution velocities, and increased adhesiveness to surfaces as compared with microsized MEL particles. A linear correlation was demonstrated between the specific surface area of MEL and the AUC. The in vitro and in vivo studies indicated that the longer residence time and the uniform distribution of nano MEL spray throughout an artificial membrane and the nasal mucosa resulted in better diffusion and a higher AUC. Nanosized MEL may be suggested for the development of an innovative dosage form with a different dose of the drug, as a possible administration route for pain management.

  16. [Studies on Ag-TiO2/KIT-6 composite nanosized photocatalyst].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Feng-Li; Zheng, Yuan-Hui; Zhan, Ying-Ying; Lin, Xing-Yi; Zhang, Han-Hui; Zheng, Qi

    2009-08-01

    In the present paper, ordered mesoporous silica (KIT-6) as support, nanosized TiO2 into KIT-6 was synthesized by titanium tetraisopropoxide hydrolysis. Then silver was loaded by deposition-precipitation method. Ag-TiO2/KIT-6 composite nanosized photocatalyst was firstly synthesized and a series of correlated catalysts were synthesized by the same preparation method. Methyl orange is presently adopted as a representative organic pollutant to evaluate the photocatalytic performance of the as-synthesized catalysts. The order of photocatalytic activity of the as-synthesized samples was found as Ag-TiO2/KIT-6 > Ag/TiO2 > TiO2/KIT-6 > TiO2 > Ag/KIT-6. Detailed characterizations were conducted by techniques including XRD, N2 physical adsorption, XPS, UV-Vis DRS and TEM. It was found that the Ag-TiO2 /KIT-6 sample shows the highest photocatalytic activity, which should be attributed to the Ag-TiO2 heterojunction structure and higher BET surface area of the Ag-TiO2/KIT-6 sample. Ag-TiO2 heterojunction improves the separation of photogenerated electron-hole pairs, thus enhancing the photocatalytic activity; Ag-TiO2/KIT-6 sample possesses high BET surface area, which facilitates adsorption and transportation of dye molecules, also leading to higher photocatalytic activity.

  17. Nano-sized Superlattice Clusters Created by Oxygen Ordering in Mechanically Alloyed Fe Alloys

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Yong-Jie; Li, Jing; Darling, Kristopher A.; Wang, William Y.; VanLeeuwen, Brian K.; Liu, Xuan L.; Kecskes, Laszlo J.; Dickey, Elizabeth C.; Liu, Zi-Kui

    2015-01-01

    Creating and maintaining precipitates coherent with the host matrix, under service conditions is one of the most effective approaches for successful development of alloys for high temperature applications; prominent examples include Ni- and Co-based superalloys and Al alloys. While ferritic alloys are among the most important structural engineering alloys in our society, no reliable coherent precipitates stable at high temperatures have been found for these alloys. Here we report discovery of a new, nano-sized superlattice (NSS) phase in ball-milled Fe alloys, which maintains coherency with the BCC matrix up to at least 913 °C. Different from other precipitates in ferritic alloys, this NSS phase is created by oxygen-ordering in the BCC Fe matrix. It is proposed that this phase has a chemistry of Fe3O and a D03 crystal structure and becomes more stable with the addition of Zr. These nano-sized coherent precipitates effectively double the strength of the BCC matrix above that provided by grain size reduction alone. This discovery provides a new opportunity for developing high-strength ferritic alloys for high temperature applications. PMID:26134420

  18. Bimetallic oxamato complexes synthesized into mesoporous matrix as precursor to tunable nanosized oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Kalinke, Lucas H.G.; Stumpf, Humberto O.; Mazali, Italo O.; Cangussu, Danielle

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • The bimetallic oxamato complexes as single-source precursor. • We prepared into a porous silica glass tunable nanosized oxide powders. • X-ray diffraction shows the formation of CeO{sub 2}/CuO and spinel cobaltite. • The different number of IDC allows control of the nanoparticle size. - Abstract: The bimetallic complexes were employed to prepare into a porous silica glass tunable nanosized oxide powders through the single source precursor (SSP) method. These materials were prepared by first anchoring of [Cu(opba)]{sup 2−} [opba = ortho-phenylenebis(oxamato)], second by reaction in situ with second metal [Co(II) or Ce(III)] and followed by a thermal treatment. The different number of impregnation–decomposition cycles (IDC) allows control of the nanoparticle size. X-ray diffraction shows the formation of mixture CeO{sub 2}–CuO and spinel copper cobaltite. Raman spectroscopy confirmed the formation of such phases. Transmission electron microscopy images revealed that spinel cobaltite particles (8 IDC) present a mean size of about 9 nm, whereas for the CeO{sub 2}–CuO phase the particle diameters are 4 nm (2 IDC) and 8 nm (6 IDC). For CeO{sub 2}–CuO the diffuse reflectance spectroscopy indicates a consistent red shift in band gap from 3.41 to 2.87 eV with increasing of particle size due to quantum confinement effect.

  19. Substitution reactions of thorium(IV) acetate to synthesize nano-sized carboxylate complexes.

    PubMed

    Baranwal, Balram P; Fatma, Talat; Varma, Anand; Singh, Alok K

    2010-04-01

    Some mixed-ligand thorium(IV) complexes with the general formula [Th(OOCCH(3))(4-n)L(n)] (L=anions of myristic, palmitic or stearic acid and n=1-4) have been synthesized by the stepwise substitution of acetate ions of thorium(IV) acetate with straight chain carboxylic acids in toluene under reflux. The complexes were characterized by elemental analyses, spectral (electronic, infrared, NMR and powder XRD) studies, electrical conductance and magnetic susceptibility measurements. Doubly and triply bridged coordination modes of the ligands were established by their infrared spectra and nano-size of the complexes by powder XRD. Room temperature magnetic susceptibility measurements revealed diamagnetic nature of the complexes. Electronic absorption spectra of the complexes showed pi-->pi*, n-->pi* and charge transfer transitions. Molar conductance values indicated the complex to be non-electrolytes. These are a new type of mixed-ligand thorium(IV) complexes for which a nano-sized, oxygen bridged polymeric structure has been established on the basis of physico-chemical studies.

  20. Size-dependent oxygen storage ability of nano-sized ceria.

    PubMed

    Sun, Congting; Xue, Dongfeng

    2013-09-14

    We thermodynamically studied the size-dependent oxygen storage ability of nano-sized ceria by tracing the surface Ce/O ratio of octahedral particles with different diameters, from the viewpoint of lattice Ce and O in a CeO2 crystallographic structure. The high surface Ce/O ratio with small scale particle size has more excess surface Ce(4+) ions, which allows ceria to have an increasing oxygen storage ability in a crystalline lattice. For the perfect octahedron growth shape of ceria, the nonstoichiometric surfaces can produce excess Ce(4+) ions, Ce(4+) ions can be stabilized by bonding with lattice oxygen, leading to an enhanced oxygen storage ability of ceria. With the increasing particle size, the surface Ce/O ratio approaches to 0.5 owing to the decreased contributions of atoms located at the edges and corners. When the octahedron diameter D = 0.55 nm, the surface Ce/O ratio can reach 0.75. When D = 7.58 nm, the surface Ce/O ratio decreases down to 0.51. If D≥ 14.61 nm, the surface Ce/O ratios are equal to 0.5. The present study deepens the insight of the size-dependent oxygen storage ability of nano-sized ceria, focusing on the size-dependent excess Ce(4+) on nonstoichiometric surfaces of ceria in thermodynamics.

  1. Nano-sized ceramic inks for drop-on-demand ink-jet printing in quadrichromy.

    PubMed

    Gardini, Davide; Dondi, Michele; Costa, Anna Luisa; Matteucci, Francesco; Blosi, Magda; Galassi, Carmen; Baldi, Giovanni; Cinotti, Elenia

    2008-04-01

    Nano-sized ceramic inks suitable for ink-jet printing have been developed for the four-colours CMYK (cyan, magenta, yellow, black) process. Nano-inks of different pigment composition (Co(1-x)O, Au(0), Ti(1-x-y)Sb(x)Cr(y)O2, CoFe2O4) have been prepared with various solid loadings and their chemicophysical properties (particle size, viscosity, surface tension, zeta-potential) were tailored for the ink-jet application. The pigment particle size is in the 20-80 nm range. All these nano-suspensions are stable for long time (i.e., several months) due to either electrostatic (high zeta-potential values) or steric stabilization mechanisms. Both nanometric size and high stability avoid problems of nozzle clogging from particles agglomeration and settling. Nano-inks have a Newtonian behaviour with relatively low viscosities at room temperature. More concentrated inks fulfil the viscosity requirement of ink-jet applications (i.e., < 35 mPa x s) for printing temperatures in between 30 and 70 degrees C. Surface tension constraints for ink-jet printing are fulfilled by nano-inks, being in the 35-45 mN x m(-1) range. The nano-sized inks investigated behave satisfactorily in preliminary printing tests on several unfired industrial ceramic tiles, developing saturated colours in a wide range of firing temperatures (1000-1200 degrees C).

  2. Development of High Performance Magnesium Matrix Nanocomposites Using Nano-SiC Particulates as Reinforcement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, M. J.; Ying, W. F.; Wang, X. J.; Zhang, M. F.; Wu, K.

    2015-10-01

    In the present study, magnesium-based composites with three different volume percentages of nano-sized SiC particulates (SiCp) reinforcement were fabricated using a simple and inexpensive technique followed by hot extrusion. Microstructural characterization of the materials revealed uniform distribution of nano-size SiCp and obvious grain refinement. The tensile test result indicates a remarkable improvement on the strength for the as-extruded SiCp/AZ31B nanocomposite, while the elongation to fracture was decreased by comparing with the AZ31B alloy. Although, compared with the as-extruded AZ31B alloy, the ductility of the SiCp-reinforced AZ31B nanocomposite is decreased, but the ductility of the present SiCp-reinforced AZ31B nanocomposite is far higher than that of the conventional micron or submicron SiCp-reinforced magnesium matrix composites. It is concluded that, compared with the larger sized (micron or submicron) particles, the addition of nano SiCp in the AZ31B alloy resulted in the best combination of the strength and ductility. An attempt is made in the present study to correlate the effect of presence of nano-SiCp as reinforcement and its increasing amount with the microstructural and mechanical properties of magnesium.

  3. Structure of Nano-sized CeO2 Materials: Combined Scattering and Spectroscopic Investigations.

    PubMed

    Marchbank, Huw R; Clark, Adam H; Hyde, Timothy I; Playford, Helen Y; Tucker, Matthew G; Thompsett, David; Fisher, Janet M; Chapman, Karena W; Beyer, Kevin A; Monte, Manuel; Longo, Alessandro; Sankar, Gopinathan

    2016-11-04

    The structure of several nano-sized ceria, CeO2 , systems was investigated using neutron and X-ray diffraction and X-ray absorption spectroscopy. Whilst both diffraction and total pair distribution functions (PDFs) revealed that in all of the samples the occupancy of both Ce(4+) and O(2-) are very close to the ideal stoichiometry, the analysis using Reverse Monte Carlo technique revealed significant disorder around oxygen atoms in the nano-sized ceria samples in comparison to the highly crystalline NIST standard. In addition, the analysis revealed that the main differences observed in the pair correlations from various X-ray and neutron diffraction techniques were attributable to the particle size of the CeO2 prepared by the reported three methods. Furthermore, detailed analysis of the Ce L3 - and K-edge EXAFS data support this finding; in particular the decrease in higher shell coordination numbers with respect to the NIST standard, is attributed to differences in particle size.

  4. Development and characterization of dilutable self-microemulsifying premicroemulsion systems (SMEPMS) as templates for preparation of nanosized particulates

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Shen-Fu; Chen, Ying-Chen; Ho, Hsiu-O; Huang, Wei-Yu; Sheu, Ming-Thau; Liu, Der-Zen

    2013-01-01

    The utilization of self-microemulsifying premicroemulsion systems (SMEPMS) as templates for preparing poorly water-soluble compounds in the nanosized range represents a promising strategy. Fenofibrate was formulated with n-butyl L-lactate, Tween 80, and a number of cosurfactants (ethanol, 1-propanol, and PEG 600), diluted with the water phase (either water or saccharide solution) and then subjected to a freeze-drying (FD) process to obtain SMEPMS nanosized particulates. Results demonstrated that the particle size after resuspension of these FD SMEPMS nanosized particulates in water was too large, so the addition of saccharide solutions (lactose, mannitol, glucose, sucrose, and trehalose) as the solid carrier to prevent particles from aggregating seemed to be necessary and workable due to steric hindrance and repulsion. However, instability of these resuspended FD nanosized particulates after 30–90 minutes still occurred, and the addition of 0.5% sodium lauryl sulfate in the resuspending medium was able to retard the aggregation and maintain the particle size within the nano-range. Evaluation by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray powder diffraction also confirmed the results. It was concluded that using an SMEPMS formulation with PEG 600 as the cosurfactant, and in the presence of a suitable saccharide as an anticaking agent and FD process were able to produce fenofibrate nanoparticles. PMID:24049445

  5. Changing the dehydrogenation pathway of LiBH4-MgH2via nanosized lithiated TiO2.

    PubMed

    Puszkiel, J A; Castro Riglos, M V; Karimi, F; Santoru, A; Pistidda, C; Klassen, T; Bellosta von Colbe, J M; Dornheim, M

    2017-03-15

    Nanosized lithiated titanium oxide (LixTiO2) noticeably improves the kinetic behaviour of 2LiBH4 + MgH2. The presence of LixTiO2 reduces the time required for the first dehydrogenation by suppressing the intermediate reaction to Li2B12H12, leading to direct MgB2 formation.

  6. Partial oxidation (“aging”) and surface modification decrease the toxicity of nano-sized zero valent iron.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nanosize zero-valent iron (nZVI) is used as a redox-active catalyst for in situ remediation of contaminated ground waters. In aqueous environments, nZVI oxidizes over time (i.e., “ages”) to magnetite and other oxides. For remediation, hi...

  7. Synthesis of a new electrically conducting nanosized Ag-polyaniline-silica complex using γ-radiolysis and its biosensing application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hwa-Jung; Park, Sang Hyun; Park, Hae-Jun

    2010-08-01

    In this study, a new electrically conducting nanosized Ag-PANI-silica complex, in which nano-silver is bound to silica and polyaniline (PANI), has been synthesized by using γ-irradiation at room temperature and not by using polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) as a colloidal stabilizer. The conductivity of nanosized Ag-PANI-silica complex was determined by using the Van der PauW method, and the complex turned out to have a high semi-conductivity (200 S/cm). The optical property and morphology were characterized by using a UV-vis spectrophotometer, field emission-scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The optical absorption bands of UV-vis analysis revealed a peak at 262, 368, and a slowly decreasing band at 600-800 nm originating from the a nanosized Ag-PANI-silica complex. FE-SEM and TEM showed that the nanosized Ag-PANI-silica complex has a particle size ranging from 10 to 30 nm and high stability. The nano-complex prepared by γ-irradiation can be applicable to be used as biosensor materials.

  8. Formation of nano-size oxide particles and δ-ferrite at elevated temperature in 9Cr-ODS steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sawoong; Ohtsuka, Satoshi; Kaito, Takeji; Yamashita, Shinichiro; Inoue, Masaki; Asayama, Tai; Shobu, Takahisa

    2011-10-01

    Excellent high-temperature strength and resistance to radiation damage of 9Cr Oxide Dispersion Strengthened (9Cr-ODS) martensitic steel have been realized by nano-size Y-Ti-O complex oxide particles dispersed in the matrix and a dual phase structure consisting of α'-martensite and δ-ferrite. These are produced by mechanically alloying Fe-Cr-Ti powders with Y 2O 3 followed by a hot-consolidation process. Therefore, the hot-consolidation process is the issue to be clarified for the formation of nano-size oxide particle and δ-ferrite. The temperature dependence of the formation and development of nano-size oxide particles and δ-ferrite using mechanically alloyed 9Cr-ODS raw powder were investigated applying X-ray Diffraction and Small Angle X-ray Scattering measurement at SPring-8 and by Electron Probe Micro Analysis. In situ heating measurement techniques with XRD and SAXS enabled real-time observation of phase transformations and allowed correlation between formation of nano-size oxide particle and δ-ferrite.

  9. [Forming the nanosized molecular assemblies (nanoassociates) is a key to understand the properties of highly diluted aqueous solutions].

    PubMed

    Konovalov, A I; Ryzhkina, I S; Murtazina, L I; Kiseleva, Iu V

    2014-01-01

    In the present study it was shown that biological effects of highly diluted aqueous solutions were due to the formation of nano-sized (up to 400 nm) molecular assemblies, called nanoassociates mainly consisting of aqueous molecules (up to 500 million) under the influence of two effectors: solute and external electromagnetic fields.

  10. NANOSIZED MAGNESIUM OXIDE AS CATALYST FOR THE RAPID AND GREEN SYNTHESIS OF SUBSTITUTED 2-AMINO-2-CHROMENES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A nanosized magnesium oxide catalyzed three-component condensation reaction of aldehyde, malononitrile and ¿-naphthol proceeded rapidly in water/PEG to afford corresponding 2-amino-2-chromenes in high yields at room temperature. The greener protocol was found to be fairly general...

  11. Nanosized TiO[subscript 2] for Photocatalytic Water Splitting Studied by Oxygen Sensor and Data Logger

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Ruinan; Liu, Song; Yuan, Hongyan; Xiao, Dan; Choi, Martin M. F.

    2012-01-01

    Photocatalytic water splitting by semiconductor photocatalysts has attracted considerable attention in the past few decades. In this experiment, nanosized titanium dioxide (nano-TiO[subscript 2]) particles are used to photocatalytically split water, which is then monitored by an oxygen sensor. Sacrificial reagents such as organics (EDTA) and metal…

  12. Investigation of the effects of pressure on the compaction and subsequent sintering of nanosize powders. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Gonzalez, E.J.; Piermarini, G.J.; Hockey, B.; Malghan, S.G.

    1996-02-26

    With current technology and available raw materials, one knows that it is very difficult, if not impossible, to produce a monolithic ceramic material with an average grain size of less than 100 nm. The grains of ceramic materials cannot be refined by cold working as is typically done in metals. Hence, the starting ceramic powder must be of a smaller or similar particle size as the desired grain size for the final product. The availability of nanosize (<100 nm) ceramic powders, however, is limited. In many cases, the powders consist of polymorphic mixtures, precursors, or amorphous phases of the desired material. Phase transformation during sintering is difficult to control, and when it does occur it usually is accompanied by significant microstructural changes and grain growth. An example of such a powder is Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. To the best of the authors` knowledge, high purity nanosize {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} powder is unavailable commercially. However, a variety of nanosize transitional forms of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, including the {gamma} and {delta} polymorphs, are commercially available in large quantities as mixtures. Results on the compaction and sintering of nanosize {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} powder are reported here.

  13. Selective total encapsulation of the sulfate anion by neutral nano-jars.

    PubMed

    Fernando, Isurika R; Surmann, Stuart A; Urech, Alexander A; Poulsen, Alexander M; Mezei, Gellert

    2012-07-11

    Nano-sized toroidal copper(II)-hydroxide/pyrazolate assemblies, lined by H-bond donors on the inside and hydrophobic on the outside, selectively extract sulfate from mixtures with nitrate or perchlorate. Tetrabutylammonium "lids" seal the "nano-jars" and render the encapsulated sulfate anion completely buried and inaccessible, so that it is not precipitated by Ba(2+) ions.

  14. Synthesis of nano-sized amorphous boron powders through active dilution self-propagating high-temperature synthesis method

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Jilin; Gu, Yunle; Li, Zili; Wang, Weimin; Fu, Zhengyi

    2013-06-01

    Graphical abstract: Nano-sized amorphous boron powders were synthesized by active dilution self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS) method. The effects of endothermic reaction rate, the possible chemical reaction mechanism and active dilution model for synthesis of the product were also discussed. Highlights: ► Nano-sized amorphous boron powders were synthesized by active dilution self-propagating high-temperature synthesis method. ► The morphology, particle size and purity of the samples could be effectively controlled via changing the endothermic rate. ► The diluter KBH{sub 4} played an important role in active dilution synthesis of amorphous nano-sized boron powders. ► The active dilution method could be further popularized and become a common approach to prepare various inorganic materials. - Abstract: Nano-sized amorphous boron powders were synthesized by active dilution self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS) method at temperatures ranging from 700 °C to 850 °C in a SHS furnace using Mg, B{sub 2}O{sub 3} and KBH{sub 4} as raw materials. Samples were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Laser particle size analyzer, Fourier transform infrared spectra (FTIR), X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDX), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and high-resolution transmission TEM (HRTEM). The boron powders demonstrated an average particle size of 50 nm with a purity of 95.64 wt.%. The diluter KBH{sub 4} played an important role in the active dilution synthesis of amorphous nano-sized boron powders. The effects of endothermic reaction rate, the possible chemical reaction mechanism and active dilution model for synthesis of the product were also discussed.

  15. Fabrication of Nanosized Lanthanum Zirconate Powder and Deposition of Thermal Barrier Coating by Plasma Spray Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, S. K.; Jagdeesh, N.; Pathak, L. C.

    2016-07-01

    The present manuscript discusses our findings on fabrication of nanosized lanthanum zirconate powder for thermal barrier coating application and its coating by plasma spray on nickel-based superalloy substrate. Single-phase La2Zr2O7 coating of thickness of the order of 45 µm on the Ni-Cr-Al bond coat coated Ni-based superalloy substrate was deposited by plasma spray process. The layers at the interface did not show spallation and inter diffusion was very less. The microstructure, interface, porosity, and mechanical properties of different layers are investigated. The lanthanum zirconate hardness and modulus were 10.5 and 277 GPa, respectively. The load depth curve for lanthanum zirconate showed good elastic recovery around 74%.

  16. Large-scale and Rapid Synthesis of Disk-Shaped and Nano-Sized Graphene

    PubMed Central

    He, Chunyong; Jiang, San Ping; Shen, Pei Kang

    2013-01-01

    We synthesized disk-shaped and nano-sized graphene (DSNG) though a novel ion-exchange methodology. This new methodology is achieved by constructing metal ion/ion-exchange resin framework. The morphology and size of the graphene can be modulated by changing the mass ratio of the carbon-containing resin to the cobalt-containing precursor. This is the first time to show that the DSNG formed on the granular transition metal substrate. The DSNG gives a high intensity of photoluminescence at near-UV wavelength of 311 nm which may provide a new type of fluorescence for applications in laser devices, ultraviolet detector UV-shielding agent and energy technology. The emission intensity of the DSNG is thirty times higher than that of the commercial large graphene. Our approach for graphene growth is conveniently controllable, easy to scale-up and the DSNG shows superior luminescent properties as compared to conventional large graphene. PMID:23828273

  17. Synthesis and photocatalytic applications of nano-sized zinc-doped mesoporous titanium oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Sánchez-Muñoz, Sergio; Pérez-Quintanilla, Damián

    2013-02-15

    Graphical abstract: Nano-sized mesoporous titanium oxide (T0) and zinc-doped nano-sized mesoporous titanium oxides (TA–TD) were synthesized by a simple method and characterized by different techniques. All materials have been studied in the photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue under UV light, observing that the decrease in the band gap of the materials seems to have a positive influence in the photocatalytic activity. Display Omitted Highlights: ► Nano-sized mesoporous TiO{sub 2} and Zn-doped TiO{sub 2} have been synthesized and characterized. ► Band gap of the Zn-doped TiO{sub 2} decreases when the Zn amount increases. ► Materials consist of porous particles (10–20 nm). ► The photocatalytic degradation of MB has been studied for these materials. ► A decrease in the band gap of the materials enhances the photocatalytic activity. -- Abstract: The synthesis of nano-sized mesoporous titanium oxide (T0) is described by an easy synthetic method which consists of the reaction of titanium tetraisopropoxide and a solution of HNO{sub 3} in water (pH 2.0) and the subsequent elimination of the volatiles by simple distillation. On the other hand, zinc-doped mesoporous titanium oxides (TA–TD) were synthesized using the same method but adding increasing amounts of Zn(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} to give materials which contain between 0.12 and 6.17 wt.% Zn. Upon the calcinations of all the obtained materials, characterization has been carried out by using N{sub 2} adsorption–desorption isotherms, powder X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluorescence, UV–vis spectrometry, solid state {sup 47,49}Ti NMR spectroscopy and transmission electronic microscopy (TEM). The results show that all these materials are mesoporous, with BET surfaces between 54 and 121 m{sup 2}/g and similar pore diameters between 6.4 and 9.1 nm. XRD studies show that these materials mainly consist of anatase and very small amounts of brookite. TEM technique shows the small particle sizes of the

  18. Stimulated Brillouin scattering of laser in semiconductor plasma embedded with nano-sized grains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Giriraj; Dad, R. C.; Ghosh, S.

    2015-07-01

    A high power laser propagating through semiconductor plasma undergoes Stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) from the electrostrictively generated acoustic perturbations. We have considered that nano-sized grains (NSGs) ions are embedded in semiconductor plasma by means of ion implantation. The NSGs are bombarded by the surrounding plasma particles and collect electrons. By considering a negative charge on the NSGs, we present an analytically study on the effects of NSGs on threshold field for the onset of SBS and Brillouin gain of generated Brillouin scattered mode. It is found that as the charge on the NSGs builds up, the Brillouin gain is significantly raised and the threshold pump field for the onset of SBS process is lowered.

  19. Thermal treatment of solution-processed nano-sized thin films of molybdenum oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganchev, M.; Sendova-Vassileva, M.; Popkirov, G.; Vitanov, P.

    2016-10-01

    A solution based deposition method to form nano-sized thin films of molybdenum oxide suitable for photovoltaic device applications is presented. The samples were deposited by spin-coating from molybdenum metal organic precursor solution on soda lime glass substrates. The influence of the process parameters such as spinning regime and concentration of the precursor solutions on the thickness and morphology of the films were investigated. The thermal decomposition of the molybdenum precursor and oxide formation were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry and characteristic patterns showed transitions up to 300oC followed by a zone of stability. Optical spectroscopy measurements in the wavelength range from 300 to 1800 nm presented an increase in transparency when temperature of annealing was raised up to 400oC. Raman scattering analysis revealed the presence of mixed molybdenum oxides. Measurements of the electrical conductivity were performed by the 4-point method.

  20. Facile synthetic route to nanosized ferrites by using mesoporous silica as a hard template

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valdés-Solís, T.; Tartaj, P.; Marbán, G.; Fuertes, A. B.

    2007-04-01

    Spinel ferrite nanoparticles (AFe2O4; A = Mn, Ni, Cu, Co) of around 10-20 nm have been successfully synthesized via a simple nanocasting route using metal nitrates as precursors and mesoporous silica gel as a hard template. Spinel nanoparticles were formed under a nitrogen atmosphere by the high-temperature decomposition of a mixture of metal nitrates that fill the silica pores. The decomposition reactions occurred in the confined space provided by the mesopores of the silica template. Under these conditions, the silica walls restricted the growth of the oxide particles formed and so nanosized particles were obtained. The incorporation of different cations into the spinel ferrite enabled us to easily modulate the magnetic properties of the nanomaterials prepared by the template method. Depending on the chemical composition and temperature, we were able to obtain samples that display reversible magnetic behaviour (zero coercivity field) and samples with coercivity values as high as 1.3 T (13 000 Oe).

  1. High temperature electrochemical performance of nanosized LiFePO 4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mestre-Aizpurua, F.; Hamelet, S.; Masquelier, C.; Palacín, M. R.

    The electrochemical performance of LiFePO 4 was tested at temperatures up to 150 °C for micrometric and nanometric size samples. Among the latter, both highly defective samples obtained by direct precipitation and annealed samples were tested. The comparison of voltage composition profiles for these samples coupled to GITT experiments allowed to conclude that defects seem to be the major factor in inducing the solid solution behaviour at room temperature. Good capacity retention is exhibited upon prolonged cycling at 100 °C in EC LiBOB electrolyte, also for nanosized samples that still maintain 75% of the initial capacity after 170 cycles. These results prove that the enhanced thermal stability of such electrolytes can be extended to temperatures much higher than those usually tested.

  2. Nano-size solidification microconstituents in electro-spark deposited Ni-base superalloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vishwakarma, K. R.; Ojo, O. A.; Richards, N. L.

    2015-01-01

    The microstructure of electro-spark deposited IN 718 was investigated by analytical transmission electron microscopy. The analysis shows in contrast to general assumption, extreme rapid cooling rates involved in electro-spark deposition (ESD) did not produce partitionless solidification, devoid of second phase microconstituents in the material. Nanosized Laves and MC carbide particles were formed in the interdendritic regions of IN 718 electro-spark weld deposit, which indicate the occurrence of segregation-induced phase formation during solidification of the weld. The formation of Laves phase particles, which is known to be deleterious to the mechanical properties of IN 718, requires adequate consideration in the application of IN 718, and possibly other Nb-bearing nickel-base superalloys, processed by ESD.

  3. Degradation of dimethylformamide on the surface of the nanosized WO3 films studied by infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavrilyuk, A. I.

    2016-07-01

    Here I report on the degradation of dimethylformamide on the surface of the nanosized WO3 films under the action of light. Dimethylformamide, a substance that has a series of interesting properties, was adsorbed on the surface of the WO3 films and its adsorption mechanism and transformations under the action of light have been investigated with the help of the IR spectroscopy. The spirit of the research is that both DMF modifications have been used i.e., conventional and that with the substitution of hydrogen atoms by deuterium. Formation of two weak bonds (donor-acceptor bond and hydrogen bond) provides a great catalytic effect for photo-initiated proton-coupled electron transfer from the adsorbed molecules to the WO3 film surface. The mechanism of the detachment of hydrogen atoms and subsequent transformation of the adsorbed molecules has been investigated and discussed.

  4. Asymmetric Bioconversion of Acetophenone in Nano-Sized Emulsion Using Rhizopus oryzae.

    PubMed

    Li, Qingzhi; Shi, Yang; He, Le; Zhao, Hui

    2016-01-01

    The fungal morphologies and pellet sizes were controlled in acetophenone reduction by Rhizopus oryzae. The acetophenone conversion and (S)-phenylethanol enantiomeric excesses (e.e.) reached the peak after 72 h of incubation when using pellets with 0.54 mm diameter, which showed an excellent performance compared with suspended mycelia, clumps, and pellets with 0.65 or 0.75 mm diameter. Furthermore, nano-sized acetophenone was used as a substrate to improve the performances of biotransformation work. The results showed that the conversion of nanometric acetophenone and (S)-phenylethanol e.e. reached the maximum (both >99%) after 32 h of incubation when using 0.54 mm diameter pellets, at least 24 h in advance of the control group. On the other hand, Tween 80 and 1, 2-propylene glycol showed low or no toxicity to cells. In conclusion, pellets and acetophenone nanoemulsions synergistically result in superior performances of acetophenone reduction.

  5. Hydrophilic and hydrophobic nano-sized Mn{sub 3}O{sub 4} particles

    SciTech Connect

    Gibot, Pierre Laffont, Lydia

    2007-02-15

    Mn{sub 3}O{sub 4} Hausmanite nanoparticles were prepared in aqueous solution by using metallic salt and hydrazine as precursor and reducing agent, respectively. The crystallite sizes ranged from 10 to 20 nm and the particle diameter distribution was very narrow and estimated between 20 and 30 nm. Influence of some parameters such as temperature, time of reaction, surfactant nature was studied for a synthesis in an aqueous medium. The as-made manganese oxides particles could be dispersed in an organic solvent containing stabilizing agents, according to perform the synthesis in an H{sub 2}O/n-hexan two-phase medium. These nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, scanning and transmission electron microscopies and nitrogen absorption measurements. - Graphical abstract: Hydrophobic nano-sized Mn{sub 3}O{sub 4} particles.

  6. Nanoscaffold matrices for size-controlled, pulsatile transdermal testosterone delivery: nanosize effects on the time dimension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malik, Ritu; Tondwal, Shailesh; Venkatesh, K. S.; Misra, Amit

    2008-10-01

    Pulsatile transdermal testosterone (T) has applications in hormone supplementation and male contraception. Pulsatile T delivery was achieved by assembling crystalline and nanoparticulate T in nucleation-inhibiting polymer matrices of controlled porosity. Different interference patterns observed from various polymeric films containing T were due to the various particle sizes of T present in the polymer matrices. Scanning electron microscopy was used to determine the size and shape of T crystals. Skin-adherent films containing T nanoparticles of any size between 10-500 nm could be prepared using pharmaceutically acceptable vinylic polymers. Drug release and skin permeation profiles were studied. The dissolution-diffusion behavior of nanoparticles differed from crystalline and molecular states. Nanosize may thus be used to engineer chronopharmacologically relevant drug delivery.

  7. Probing the spinor nature of electronic states in nanosize non-collinear magnets

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Jeison A.; Sandratskii, Leonid M.; Phark, Soo-Hyon; Ouazi, Safia; Pasa, André A.; Sander, Dirk; Parkin, Stuart S. P.

    2016-01-01

    Non-collinear magnetization textures provide a route to novel device concepts in spintronics. These applications require laterally confined non-collinear magnets (NCM). A crucial aspect for potential applications is how the spatial proximity between the NCM and vacuum or another material impacts the magnetization texture on the nanoscale. We focus on a prototypical exchange-driven NCM given by the helical spin order of bilayer Fe on Cu(111). Spin-polarized scanning tunnelling spectroscopy and density functional theory reveal a nanosize- and proximity-driven modification of the electronic and magnetic structure of the NCM in interfacial contact with a ferromagnet or with vacuum. An intriguing non-collinearity between the local magnetization in the sample and the electronic magnetization probed above its surface results. It is a direct consequence of the spinor nature of electronic states in NCM. Our findings provide a possible route for advanced control of nanoscale spin textures by confinement. PMID:27721384

  8. TiO2 nanosized powders controlling by ultrasound sol-gel reaction.

    PubMed

    Latt, Kyaing Kyaing; Kobayashi, Takaomi

    2008-04-01

    We studied that anatase-TiO2 powders prepared from sol-gel process of titanium tetra-isopropoxide (TTIP) were developed under ultrasonic irradiation with different frequency of 28, 45 and 100 kHz. The irradiated ultrasound (US) was controlled by using semi-cylindrical reflection plate that was placed onto the vicinity of reaction vessel. The focused US influenced the reduction of particles size and increased the surface area of resultant nanosized TiO2 powders. We also examined photodegradation of rhodamine 640 dye (Rh-640) solution by the resultant TiO2 under UV light exposure. It was observed that low frequency for TiO2 photocatalyst preparation and low calcination temperature were more affected onto the photodegradation of the dye.

  9. An engineered polypeptide around nano-sized manganese-calcium oxide: copying plants for water oxidation.

    PubMed

    Najafpour, Mohammad Mahdi; Ghobadi, Mohadeseh Zarei; Sarvi, Bahram; Haghighi, Behzad

    2015-09-14

    Synthesis of new efficient catalysts inspired by Nature is a key goal in the production of clean fuel. Different compounds based on manganese oxide have been investigated in order to find their water-oxidation activity. Herein, we introduce a novel engineered polypeptide containing tyrosine around nano-sized manganese-calcium oxide, which was shown to be a highly active catalyst toward water oxidation at low overpotential (240 mV), with high turnover frequency of 1.5 × 10(-2) s(-1) at pH = 6.3 in the Mn(III)/Mn(IV) oxidation range. The compound is a novel structural and efficient functional model for the water-oxidizing complex in Photosystem II. A new proposed clever strategy used by Nature in water oxidation is also discussed. The new model of the water-oxidizing complex opens a new perspective for synthesis of efficient water-oxidation catalysts.

  10. Nanosized controlled surface pretreatment of biometallic alloy 316L stainless steel.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Fattah, Tarek M; Loftis, Derek; Mahapatro, Anil

    2011-12-01

    Stainless steel (AISI 316L) is a medical grade stainless steel alloy used extensively in medical devices and in the biomedical field. 316L stainless steel was successfully electropolished via an ecologically friendly and biocompatible ionic liquid (IL) medium based on Vitamin B4 (NB4) and resulting in nanosized surface roughness and topography. Voltammetry and chronoamperometry tests determined optimum polishing conditions for the stainless steel alloy while atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) provided surface morphology comparisons to benchmark success of each electropolishing condition. Energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX) combined with SEM revealed significantly smoother surfaces for each alloy surface while indicating that the constituent metals comprising each alloy effectively electropolished at uniform rates.

  11. Stimulated Brillouin scattering of laser in semiconductor plasma embedded with nano-sized grains

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, Giriraj; Dad, R. C.; Ghosh, S.

    2015-07-31

    A high power laser propagating through semiconductor plasma undergoes Stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) from the electrostrictively generated acoustic perturbations. We have considered that nano-sized grains (NSGs) ions are embedded in semiconductor plasma by means of ion implantation. The NSGs are bombarded by the surrounding plasma particles and collect electrons. By considering a negative charge on the NSGs, we present an analytically study on the effects of NSGs on threshold field for the onset of SBS and Brillouin gain of generated Brillouin scattered mode. It is found that as the charge on the NSGs builds up, the Brillouin gain is significantly raised and the threshold pump field for the onset of SBS process is lowered.

  12. Pulsed laser-induced micro-and nanosized morphology and composition of titanium dental implants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joób-Fancsaly, Á.; Divinyi, T.; Fazekas, Á.; Daroczi, Cs; Karacs, A.; Petõ, G.

    2002-10-01

    The surface morphology of machined screw-shaped titanium dental implants was modified by pulsed irradiation with an Nd glass laser. This method supplied very different surface elements in nanometer and micrometer ranges identified with scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy as well. The surface composition was unchanged during these treatments. A rabbit experiment was carried out to investigate the direct bone contact (osseointegration) which was characterized by the removal torque of the implants. The 50 nm and 10-50 µm sized droplike elements were formed from the machined flat surface by the laser irradiation depending on the laser intensity. The osseointegration was enhanced by the increase of the density of nanosized elements and by the size of the microsized elements, showing the importance of this surface morphology in the direct bone-implant contact.

  13. Characterization of nano-sized SiC@Ni composite fabricated by electroless plating method.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhan; Chen, Yigang

    2013-02-01

    A nano-sized SiC@Ni composite was prepared by simple electroless plating method. Nickel can be reduced by Na2H2PO2 under the catalysis of Pd to despite onto the surface of SiC nanoparticles. The composite structure was characterized by means of TEM images, XRD and the components were analyzed using EDS. The coating layer on the SiC particles was several nanometers thick and mainly in a form of fine Ni crystalline grain and amorphous Ni-P alloy. By increasing the concentration of Na2H2PO2 in the plating bath, the uniformity of the coating layer can be improved obviously. Both of the magnetism and crystallinity of Ni coatings depends on the P content in the coating which can be decreased by increasing the pH values of plating solutions. The SiC@Ni particles exhibited soft magnetic characteristics.

  14. Structural and corrosion protection properties of electrochemically deposited nano-sized Zn-Ni alloy coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tozar, A.; Karahan, İ. H.

    2014-11-01

    Zn-Ni alloy coatings were fabricated galvanostatically by applying varied current densities from 10 to 30 mA cm-2. Surface morphology of the coatings was examined with SEM. Crystal structure of the coatings was studied with X-ray diffraction spectroscopy (XRD). Compositions of the coatings were determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). Corrosion protection properties studied using open circuit potential (OCP) measurements, potentiodynamic polarization measurements (Tafel), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Deposited alloy coatings were compact and nano-sized. Crystallite sizes of the coatings were varying from 26 nm to 36 nm. Nickel content of the samples were increased by increasing current densities and varied from 6.7 to 18.9 wt.%. Best corrosion protection performance was seen on the sample obtained at 30 mA cm-2. Our results are considerably encouraging for protection of mild steel against corrosion by obtained Zn-Ni alloys.

  15. Spectral tuning of a locally bent microfiber taper interferometer with a nanosized liquid crystal overlay.

    PubMed

    Luo, Haimei; Wang, Changjing; Ji, Yinghua; Yuan, Wen; Zhang, Guoping; Wang, Yifan; Hong, Zehua; Wang, Xianping

    2016-09-10

    In this paper, the tuning characteristics of locally bent microfiber taper covered with a nanosized high-refractive-index liquid crystal (LC) layer under different temperatures and electric field intensities have been theoretically analyzed and experimentally investigated. A locally bent microfiber taper interferometer with a waist diameter of ∼3.72  μm is fabricated by using the flame brushing technique, followed by bending the transition region of the taper to form a modal interferometer and later by placing a ∼200  nm LC layer over the uniform taper waist region. Experimental results indicate that a high-efficiency thermal or electric tuning of an LC-coated locally bent microfiber taper interferometer could be achieved. This suggests a potential application of this device as tunable all-fiber photonic devices, such as filters, modulators, and sensing elements.

  16. Nature of Nano-Sized Plutonium Particles in Soils at the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Buck, Edgar C.; Moore, Dean A.; Czerwinski, Kenneth R.; Conradson, Steven D.; Batuk, Olga; Felmy, Andrew R.

    2014-08-06

    The occurrence of plutonium dioxide (PuO2) either from direct deposition or from the precipitation of plutonium-bearing solutions in contaminated soils and sediments has been well described, particularly for the Hanford site in Washington State. However, past research has suggested that plutonium may exist in environmental samples at the Hanford site in chemical forms in addition to large size PuO2 particles and that these previously unidentified nano-sized particles maybe more reactive and thus more likely to influence the environmental mobility of Pu. Here we present evidence for the formation of nano-sized plutonium iron phosphate hydroxide structurally related to the rhabdophane group nanoparticles in 216-Z9 crib sediments from Hanford using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The distribution and nature of these nanoparticles varied depending on the adjacent phases present. Fine electron probes were used to obtain electron diffraction and electron energy-loss spectra from specific phase regions of the 216-Z9 cribs specimens from fine-grained plutonium oxide and phosphate phases. Energy-loss spectra were used to evaluate the plutonium N4,5 (4d → 5f ) and iron L2,3 absorption edges. The iron plutonium phosphate formation may depend on the local micro-environment in the sediments, availability of phosphate, and hence the distribution of these minerals may control long-term migration of Pu in the soil. This study also points to the utility of using electron beam methods for determining the identity of actinide phases and their association with other sediment phases.

  17. Toughening of epoxies based on self-assembly of nano-sized amphiphilic block copolymer micelles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jia

    As a part of a larger effort towards the fundamental understanding of mechanical behaviors of polymers toughened by nanoparticles, this dissertation focuses on the structure-property relationship of epoxies modified with nano-sized poly(ethylene-alt-propylene)-b-poly(ethylene oxide) (PEP-PEO) block copolymer (BCP) micelle particles. The amphiphilic BCP toughener was incorporated into a liquid epoxy resin and self-assembled into well-dispersed 15 nm spherical micelle particles. The nano-sized BCP, at 5 wt% loading, can significantly improve the fracture toughness of epoxy (ca. 180% improvement) without reducing modulus at room temperature and exhibits only a slight drop (ca. 5°C) in glass transition temperature (Tg). The toughening mechanisms were found to be BCP micelle nanoparticle cavitation, followed by matrix shear banding, which mainly accounted for the observed remarkable toughening effect. The unexpected "nano-cavitation" phenomenon cannot be predicted by existing physical models. The plausible causes for the observed nano-scale cavitation and other mechanical behaviors may include the unique structural characteristics of BCP micelles and the influence from the surrounding epoxy network, which is significantly modified by the epoxy-miscible PEO block. Other mechanisms, such as crack tip blunting, may also play a role in the toughening. Structure-property relationships of this nano-domain modified polymer are discussed. In addition, other important factors, such as strain rate dependence and matrix crosslink density effect on toughening, have been investigated. This BCP toughening approach and conventional rubber toughening techniques are compared. Insights on the decoupling of modulus, toughness, and Tg for designing high performance thermosetting materials with desirable physical and mechanical properties are discussed.

  18. Nanosized carbon black combined with Ni2O3 as "universal" catalysts for synergistically catalyzing carbonization of polyolefin wastes to synthesize carbon nanotubes and application for supercapacitors.

    PubMed

    Wen, Xin; Chen, Xuecheng; Tian, Nana; Gong, Jiang; Liu, Jie; Rümmeli, Mark H; Chu, Paul K; Mijiwska, Ewa; Tang, Tao

    2014-04-01

    The catalytic carbonization of polyolefin materials to synthesize carbon nanotubes (CNTs) is a promising strategy for the processing and recycling of plastic wastes, but this approach is generally limited due to the selectivity of catalysts and the difficulties in separating the polyolefin mixture. In this study, the influence of nanosized carbon black (CB) and Ni2O3 as a novel combined catalyst system on catalyzing carbonization of polypropylene (PP), polyethylene (PE), polystyrene (PS) and their blends was investigated. We showed that this combination was efficient to promote the carbonization of these polymers to produce CNTs with high yields and of good quality. Catalytic pyrolysis and model carbonization experiments indicated that the carbonization mechanism was attributed to the synergistic effect of the combined catalysts rendered by CB and Ni2O3: CB catalyzed the degradation of PP, PE, and PS to selectively produce more aromatic compounds, which were subsequently dehydrogenated and reassembled into CNTs via the catalytic action of CB together with Ni particles. Moreover, the performance of the synthesized CNTs as the electrode of supercapacitor was investigated. The supercapacitor displayed a high specific capacitance as compared to supercapacitors using commercial CNTs and CB. This difference was attributed to the relatively larger specific surface areas of our synthetic CNTs and their more oxygen-containing groups.

  19. QSAR analysis for nano-sized layered manganese-calcium oxide in water oxidation: An application of chemometric methods in artificial photosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Shahbazy, Mohammad; Kompany-Zareh, Mohsen; Najafpour, Mohammad Mahdi

    2015-11-01

    Water oxidation is among the most important reactions in artificial photosynthesis, and nano-sized layered manganese-calcium oxides are efficient catalysts toward this reaction. Herein, a quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) model was constructed to predict the catalytic activities of twenty manganese-calcium oxides toward water oxidation using multiple linear regression (MLR) and genetic algorithm (GA) for multivariate calibration and feature selection, respectively. Although there are eight controlled parameters during synthesizing of the desired catalysts including ripening time, temperature, manganese content, calcium content, potassium content, the ratio of calcium:manganese, the average manganese oxidation state and the surface of catalyst, by using GA only three of them (potassium content, the ratio of calcium:manganese and the average manganese oxidation state) were selected as the most effective parameters on catalytic activities of these compounds. The model's accuracy criteria such as R(2)test and Q(2)test in order to predict catalytic rate for external test set experiments; were equal to 0.941 and 0.906, respectively. Therefore, model reveals acceptable capability to anticipate the catalytic activity.

  20. Selective capture of water using microporous adsorbents to increase the lifetime of lubricants.

    PubMed

    Ng, Eng-Poh; Delmotte, Luc; Mintova, Svetlana

    2009-01-01

    Long live lubricants: The selective capture of water from lubricants using nanosized microporous aluminophosphate (AEI) and aluminosilicate materials was studied. Nearly 98 % of the moisture was removed from the lubricating oil under ambient conditions, resulting in a significant improvement in the lubricating service lifetime. Moreover, both the lubricant and the microporous sorbents can be recovered and reused.The selective capture of water from lubricants using nanosized microporous aluminophosphate and aluminosilicate materials was studied with an aim to increase the lifetime of the lubricating mineral oil. The amount of water present in oxidized lubricating oil before and after treatment with microporous materials was studied by FTIR spectroscopy and determined quantitatively using the Karl Fischer titration method. Nanosized aluminophosphate revealed a high selectivity for water without adsorbing other additives, in contrast to nanosized aluminosilicates which also adsorb polar oxidation products and ionic additives. About 98 % of the initial moisture could be removed from the lubricating oil under ambient conditions, resulting in a significant improvement in the lubricating service lifetime. Moreover, no by-products are formed during the process and both the lubricant and the sorbents can be recovered and reused, thus the method is environmentally friendly.

  1. Stabilization of nanosized titanium dioxide by cyclodextrin polymers and its photocatalytic effect on the degradation of wastewater pollutants

    PubMed Central

    Agócs, Tamás Zoltán; Puskás, István; Varga, Erzsébet; Molnár, Mónika

    2016-01-01

    Advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) are considered highly competitive water treatment technologies for the removal of organic pollutants. Among AOP techniques, photocatalysis has recently been the most widely studied. Our aims were to investigate how the dispersion of nanosized titanium dioxide (nanoTiO2) applied in photodegradation-based procedures can be stabilized with cyclodextrins in order to obtain a new, more efficient photocatalyst for the purification of waters polluted by xenobiotics applying UV irradiation. During our work, on the one hand, we studied the behavior and stability of nanoTiO2 in cyclodextrin solutions. On the other hand, we used various monomer and polymer cyclodextrin derivatives, and assessed the options for nanoTiO2 stabilization in the presence of various salts and tap water on the basis of turbidity tests. The physical stability of nanoTiO2 dispersions is diminished in the presence of the salts found in tap water (and occurring also in surface waters and ground water) and they are precipitated immediately. This colloidal instability can be improved by cyclodextrin derivatives. Based on the results of our studies we have selected carboxymethyl β-cyclodextrin polymer (CMBCD-P) for stabilization of nanoTiO2 dispersions. The photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue and ibuprofen as model organic pollutants in various media (distilled water, NaCl solution and tap water) has been studied using nanoTiO2 as catalyst stabilized by CMBCD-P. CMBCD-P itself showed a catalytic effect on the UV degradation of methylene blue. In addition to enhancing the colloid stability of nanoTiO2 CMBCD-P showed also synergistic effects in catalyzing the photodecomposition process of the dye. On the other hand, ibuprofen as a model pharmaceutical, a pollutant of emerging concern (EP), was protected by CMBCD-P against the photocatalytic degradation showing that inclusion complex formation can result in opposite effects depending on the structure of the host

  2. Microemulsion synthesis of nanosized TiO(2) particles doping with rare-earth and their photocatalytic activity.

    PubMed

    Jian, Zicong; Pu, Yuying; Fang, Jianzhang; Ye, Zhiping

    2010-01-01

    Microemulsion is the easiest and cleanest of the popular methods of synthesizing nanomaterial. This work synthesized the nanosized La-TiO(2) and Ce-TiO(2) particles through the hydrolyzation of tetrabutyl titanate in a Triton X-100/n-hexanol/cyclohexane/water reverse microemulsion. The particles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and thermogravimetry (TG). The photocatalytic activity was evaluated by photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange (MO) under ultraviolet light and visible light irradiation. The results showed that reverse microemulsion produced the nanosized and well-separated particles, which are obviously in degrading MO. Comparing the pure TiO(2) with doping TiO(2) , the doping ones are smaller and have better photocatalytic activity, which was best at the molar content of 0.1% for La, whereas for Ce it was 0.5%.

  3. Synthesis and characterization of carbon-coated nano-sized Na0.9FePO4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Su-Bin; Son, Jong-tae

    2016-08-01

    The electrochemical properties of the nano-sized maricite structure of Na0.9FePO4 coated with carbon (C-NFP) have not been well characterized. To analyze the properties of nano-sized fibers, C-NFP cathode material synthesized by using electrospinning methods with nanostructured fiber with diameter of 200 nm which had a 20 nm uniform carbon coating. Field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) measurements were conducted to assess the structure properties of the C-NFP material. To observe the electrochemical properties of C-NFP, we observed initial charge-discharge curves and the rate-capabilities. During the charge process, to the best of our knowledge, C-NFP shows a new phase transformation, which was indexed to the Alluaudite phase, at about 3.3 V due to the migration of Na ions.

  4. Catalytic transformation of persistent contaminants using a new composite material based on nanosized zero-valent metal - field experiment results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dror, I.; Merom Jacov, O.; Berkowitz, B.

    2010-12-01

    A new composite material based on deposition of nanosized zero valent iron (ZVI) particles and cyanocobalamine (vitamin B12) on a diatomite matrix is presented. Cyanocobalamine is known to be an effective electron mediator, having strong synergistic effects with ZVI for reductive dehalogenation reactions. This composite material also improves the reducing capacity of nanosized ZVI by preventing agglomeration of iron particles, thus increasing their active surface area. The porous structure of the diatomite matrix allows high hydraulic conductivity, which favors channeling of contaminated water to the reactive surface of the composite material and in turn faster rates of remediation. The ability of the material to degrade or transform rapidly and completely a large spectrum of water pollutants will be demonstrated, based on results from two field site experiments where polluted groundwater containing a mixture of industrial and agricultural persistent pollutants was treated. In addition a set of laboratory experiments using individual contaminant solutions to analyze chemical transformations under controlled conditions will be presented.

  5. Recent advances and future perspectives of nanosized zero- valent iron for extraction of heavy elements from metallurgical sludges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikhailov, I. Yu; Levina, V. V.; Kolesnikov, E. A.; Chuprunov, K. O.; Gusev, A. A.; Godymchuk, A. Yu; Kuznetsov, D. V.

    2016-01-01

    Advanced oxidation processes with nanosized zero-valent iron have presented great potential in wastewater treatment technology and now experience both increasing popularity and reliable technical improvements. Besides wastewater treatment, there is another promising application for an emerging technology of iron nanoparticles - as Fenton-like catalyst for extraction of valuable elements from poor and secondary raw materials such as metallurgical sludges. In present research, we carried out a set of experiments with emphasis on the physicochemical mechanisms and their relationship to the performance. In particular, we examined complex acidic - hydrogen peroxide leaching of zinc from blast furnace sludge with nanosized zero-valent iron as Fenton-like catalyst. Results of the experiments showed promising potential for subsequent application in extraction of heavy and rare-earth elements.

  6. Photodegradation of surfactants on the nanosized TiO2 prepared by hydrolysis of the alkoxide titanium.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Rubing; Gao, Lian; Zhang, Qinghong

    2004-01-01

    Nanosized TiO(2) was synthesized by hydrolysis of titanium tetraisopropoxide in the nanodroplets of microemulsions. The microemulsion provided by functionalized surfactants derived from the mixture of the commercially available sodium dodecylbenzensulfonate (DBS) and sodium dodecyl sulfate (DS). The resulting TiO(2) nanoparticles were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and differential thermal analysis. Nanosized TiO(2) of anatase was found to show good photocatalytic properties in the photodegradation of DBS and DS surfactants. The cleavage of the aromatic moiety, the intermediate products and ultimate mineralization to CO(2) were examined in the process of photodegradation. A mechanism is also proposed on the basis of these experimental results.

  7. Analytical application of nano-sized titanium dioxide for the determination of trace inorganic antimony in natural waters.

    PubMed

    Hagarová, Ingrid; Matúš, Peter; Bujdoš, Marek; Kubová, Jana

    2012-03-01

    In this work, solid phase extraction (SPE) using nano-sized TiO2 as a solid sorbent was used for separation/preconcentration of total inorganic antimony (iSb) before its determination by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS). After adsorption of iSb onto nano-sized TiO2, direct TiO2-slurry sampling was used for sample injection into a graphite tube. The conditions for the reliable slurry sampling together with careful control of the temperature program for the slurry solutions were worked out. Extraction conditions for both inorganic antimony species (Sb(III) and Sb(V)) and interference studies of coexisting ions were studied in detail. The accuracy of the optimized method was checked by the certified reference material (CRM) for trace elements in lake water TMDA-61. Finally, the optimized method was used for the determination of trace inorganic antimony in synthetic and natural waters.

  8. Terahertz time-domain spectra of aromatic carboxylic acids incorporated in nano-sized pores of mesoporous silicate.

    PubMed

    Ueno, Yuko; Ajito, Katsuhiro

    2007-07-01

    Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) is used to study the intra- and intermolecular vibrational modes of aromatic carboxylic acids, for example, o-phthalic acid, benzoic acid, and salicylic acid, which form either intra- or intermolecular hydrogen bond(s) in different ways. Incorporating the target molecules in nano-sized spaces in mesoporous silicate (SBA-16) is found to be effective for the separate detection of intramolecular hydrogen bonding modes and intermolecular modes. The results are supported by an analysis of the differences in the peak shifts, which depend on temperature, caused by the different nature of the THz absorption. Raman spectra revealed that incorporating the molecules in the nano-sized pores of SBA-16 slightly changes the molecular structures. In the future, THz-TDS using nanoporous materials will be used to analyze the intra- and intermolecular vibrational modes of molecules with larger hydrogen bonding networks such as proteins or DNA.

  9. Phase constitution and interface structure of nano-sized Ag-Cu/AlN multilayers: Experiment and ab initio modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Pigozzi, Giancarlo; Janczak-Rusch, Jolanta; Passerone, Daniele; Antonio Pignedoli, Carlo; Patscheider, Joerg; Jeurgens, Lars P. H.; Antusek, Andrej; Parlinska-Wojtan, Magdalena; Bissig, Vinzenz

    2012-10-29

    Nano-sized Ag-Cu{sub 8nm}/AlN{sub 10nm} multilayers were deposited by reactive DC sputtering on {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}(0001) substrates. Investigation of the phase constitution and interface structure of the multilayers evidences a phase separation of the alloy sublayers into nanosized grains of Ag and Cu. The interfaces between the Ag grains and the quasi-single-crystalline AlN sublayers are semi-coherent, whereas the corresponding Cu/AlN interfaces are incoherent. The orientation relationship between Ag and AlN is constant throughout the entire multilayer stack. These observations are consistent with atomistic models of the interfaces as obtained by ab initio calculations.

  10. Siderophores, the answer for micro to nanosized asbestos fibre related health hazard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, Shabori; Ledwani, Lalita; John, P. J.

    2016-04-01

    Recent studies on the potential toxicity of High Aspect Ratio Nanoparticles (HARN) has yet once again reinforced the health hazard imposed by asbestos fibres ranging from nano to micro size. Asbestos a naturally occurring fibrous mineral declared a Group I definite carcinogen by IARC (International Agency for Research on Cancer), a unit of WHO in the year 1987, has been extensively used since World War II to the near past for various commercial products. According to the most recent World Health Organization (WHO) estimates, asbestos-related diseases, resulting from exposure at workplace claims more than 107000 lives every year worldwide. The various types of toxic effects induced by asbestos in humans include - i) inflammation and fibrogenesis of lung, ii) mesothelioma iii) asbestosis and iv) bronchogenic carcinoma. The stability of asbestos in natural environment and its biological aggressiveness is related to their fibrous structure and dimensions. The actual risk associated with the exposure to nanosized asbestos, which is still unknown and escapes most regulations worldwide, has been shown in various toxicity assessment studies conducted on various animal models.In an effort to reduce the size of asbestos and therby its toxicity by limiting its biopersistence, oxalic acid treatment of asbestos coupled to power ultrasound treatment was carried out. The nanosized particles formed were still found to retain their hazardous effect. Similar were the results obtained on strong acid treatment of asbestos as well. A probable solution to the asbestos toxicity problem therefore envisaged was bioremediation. This involved the secretion of iron chelating molecules termed siderophores by microbes, which are of significance due to their ability to form very stable and soluble complexes with iron. Iron in asbestos composition is a major factor responsible for its carcinogenicity, removal or extraction of which would prove to be an effective answer to the worldwide problem

  11. Ductility Enhancement of Molybdenum Phase by Nano-sized Oxide Dispersions

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Bruce

    2008-07-18

    The objective of this research is to understand and to remedy the impurity effects for room-temperature ductility enhancement of molybdenum (Mo) based alloys by the inclusion of nano-sized metal oxide dispersions. This research combines theoretical, computational, and experimental efforts. The results will help to formulate systematic strategies in searching for better composed Mo-based alloys with optimal mechanical properties. For this project, majority of the research effort was directed to atomistic modeling to identify the mechanisms responsible for the oxygen embrittling and ductility enhancement based on fundamental electronic structure analysis. Through first principles molecular dynamics simulations, it was found that the embrittling impurity species were attracted to the metal oxide interface, consistent with previous experiments. Further investigation on the electronic structures reveals that the presence of embrittling species degrades the quality of the metallic chemical bonds in the hosting matrix in a number of ways, the latter providing the source of ductility. For example, the spatial flexibility of the bonds is reduced, and localization of the impurity states occurs to pin the dislocation flow. Rice’s criterion has been invoked to explain the connections of electronic structure and mechanical properties. It was also found that when impurity species become attracted to the metal oxide interface, some of the detrimental effects are alleviated, thus explaining the observed ductility enhancement effects. These understandings help to develop predictive capabilities to facilitate the design and optimization of Mo and other high temperature alloys (e.g. ODS alloys) for fossil energy materials applications. Based on the theoretical and computational studies, the experimental work includes the preparation of Mo powders mixed with candidate nano-sized metal oxides, which were then vacuum hot-pressed to make the Mo alloys. Several powder mixing methods

  12. Ecotoxicological studies of micro- and nanosized barium titanate on aquatic photosynthetic microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Polonini, Hudson C; Brandão, Humberto M; Raposo, Nádia R B; Mouton, Ludovic; Yéprémian, Claude; Couté, Alain; Brayner, Roberta

    2014-09-01

    The interaction between live organisms and micro- or nanosized materials has become a current focus in toxicology. As nanosized barium titanate has gained momentum lately in the medical field, the aims of the present work are: (i) to assess BT toxicity and its mechanisms on the aquatic environment, using two photosynthetic organisms (Anabaena flos-aquae, a colonial cyanobacteria, and Euglena gracilis, a flagellated euglenoid); (ii) to study and correlate the physicochemical properties of BT with its toxic profile; (iii) to compare the BT behavior (and Ba(2+) released ions) and the toxic profile in synthetic (Bold's Basal, BB, or Mineral Medium, MM) and natural culture media (Seine River Water, SRW); and (iv) to address whether size (micro, BT MP, or nano, BT NP) is an issue in BT particles toxicity. Responses such as growth inhibition, cell viability, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, adenosine-5-triphosphate (ATP) content and photosynthetic efficiency were evaluated. The main conclusions are: (i) BT have statistically significant toxic effects on E. gracilis growth and viability even in small concentrations (1μgmL(-1)), for both media and since the first 24 h; on the contrary of on A. flos-aquae, to whom the effects were noticeable only for the higher concentrations (after 96 h: ≥75 μg mL(-1) for BT NP and =100 μg mL(-1) for BT MP, in BB; and ≥75 μg mL(-1) for both materials in SRW), in spite of the viability being affected in all concentrations; (ii) the BT behaviors in synthetic and natural culture media were slightly different, being the toxic effects more pronounced when grown in SRW - in this case, a worse physiological state of the organisms in SRW can occur and account for the lower resistance, probably linked to a paucity of nutrients or even a synergistic effect with a contaminant from the river; and (iii) the effects seem to be mediated by induced stress without a direct contact in A. flos-aquae and by direct endocytosis in E. gracilis, but in

  13. Nanosized AlPO{sub 4}-5 molecular sieves and ultrathin films prepared by microwave synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Mintova, S.; Mo, S.; Bein, T.

    1998-12-01

    Nanosized AlPO{sub 4}-5 molecular sieves and submicron AlPO{sub 4}-5 films were synthesized by microwave treatment of aluminophosphate precursors. The effects of the chemical composition of the initial solution and the conditions of microwave treatment of aluminophosphate precursors on the synthesis of nanosized AlPO{sub 4}-5 molecular sieves were investigated. The syntheses were performed under hydrothermal conditions in a microwave oven at temperatures ranging from 90 to 160 C, using various concentrations of H{sub 2}O and organic template and varying aging times. The resulting bulk products were analyzed using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, thermogravimetry, dynamic light scattering, and nitrogen sorption. Optimal conditions for the preparation of nanosized molecular sieve crystals were found. Thin films of AlPO{sub 4}-5 on acoustic wave devices were also prepared, composed of a molecular coupling layer, AlPO{sub 4}-5 seed crystals, and a homogeneous porous film formed by microwave treatment of an aluminophosphate precursor. The initial mixture composition and microwave conditions affect the thickness and the orientation of the zeolite crystals in the films. Sorption isotherms for n-hexane and cyclohexane in these AlPO{sub 4}5 films are reported.

  14. Ultrasound-assisted synthesis of nanosized zero-valent iron for metal cations extraction and wastewater treatment applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikhailov, I. Yu; Lysov, D. V.; Levina, V. V.; Mazov, I. N.; Gusev, A. A.; Yudintseva, T. I.; Kuznetsov, D. V.

    2016-01-01

    Nanosized zero-valent iron has shown good results in wastewater treatment and activation of physicochemical processes. Its applications in modern industry are complicated by high production costs of nanomaterials produced via existing synthesis routes. Therefore there is a need of cheap and high-productive methods of nanosized zero-valent iron with advanced functional properties. Improvement of oxidative conditions with additions may find its place in extraction of rare-earth metals, where high cost of nanomaterials could be viable. In this paper we studied an effect of ultrasonic irradiation on specific surface area and particle size of nanosized zero-valent iron synthesized by methods of chemical precipitation with high- temperature reduction in hydrogen flow and sodium borohydride reduction. Obtained results showed significant decrease of particle size and differences in particles morphology depending on presence of ultrasonication during synthesis and on chosen method. For ultrasonic-assisted synthesis with 100% amplitude, particle size calculated from specific surface area was 70 nm for sample synthesized by chemical precipitation with high-temperature reduction and 35 nm for borohydide reduction method compared to 63 nm for reference sample without ultrasonication.

  15. Inhibited crystallization and its effect on conductivity in a nano-sized Fe oxide composite PEO solid electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, M. Jaipal; Chu, Peter P.; Kumar, J. Siva; Rao, U. V. Subba

    Crystallinity and conductivity results for a new nanocomposite PEO:LiClO 4 with nano-sized Fe 3O 4 particles are presented in this paper. The DSC measurements have shown a decrease in the degree of crystallinity of PEO by the inclusion of LiClO 4 salt and further decrease with the addition of Fe 3O 4 nanoparticles. The nano-sized Fe 3O 4 surface has a Lewis acidic group capable of interaction with Lewis base centers of the polymer PEO chain in the nanocomposite electrolyte, resulting in decrease in PEO crystallinity and enhancement of miscibility in the presence of LiClO 4 salt. Annealed at 125 °C of the PEO:LiClO 4 electrolyte shows melting endotherm at 175 °C, but this endotherm is absent with the incorporation of nano-sized Fe oxide particles. This electrolyte system has a one and a half order of magnitude higher ionic conductivity compared to a standard PEO:LiClO 4 electrolyte. Optimized conductivity is found at a 10 wt.% Fe 3O 4 composition while above this concentration, the conductivity is decreased due to aggregation of a Fe 3O 4:Li rich phase.

  16. A facile preparation method of a PFC-containing nano-sized emulsion for theranostics of solid tumors.

    PubMed

    Shiraishi, Kouichi; Endoh, Reiko; Furuhata, Hiroshi; Nishihara, Masamichi; Suzuki, Ryo; Maruyama, Kazuo; Oda, Yusuke; Jo, Jun-ichiro; Tabata, Yasuhiko; Yamamoto, Jun; Yokoyama, Masayuki

    2011-12-15

    Theranostics means a therapy conducted in a diagnosis-guided manner. For theranostics of solid tumors by means of ultrasound, we designed a nano-sized emulsion containing perfluoropentane (PFC5). This emulsion can be delivered into tumor tissues through the tumor vasculatures owing to its nano-size, and the emulsion is transformed into a micron-sized bubble upon sonication through phase transition of PFC5. The micron-sized bubbles can more efficiently absorb ultrasonic energy for better diagnostic images and can exhibit more efficient ultrasound-driven therapeutic effects than nano-sized bubbles. For more efficient tumor delivery, smaller size is preferable, yet the preparation of a smaller emulsion is technically more difficult. In this paper, we used a bath-type sonicator to successfully obtain small PFC5-containing emulsions in a diameter of ca. 200nm. Additionally, we prepared these small emulsions at 40°C, which is above the boiling temperature of PFC5. Accordingly, we succeeded in obtaining very small nano-emulsions for theranostics through a very facile method.

  17. Synthesis of nanosized ZSM-5 zeolite using extracted silica from rice husk without adding any alumina source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sari, Zahra Ghasemi Laleh Vajheh; Younesi, Habibollah; Kazemian, Hossein

    2015-08-01

    The synthesis of analcime and nanosized ZSM-5 zeolites was carried out by a hydrothermal method with silica extracted from rice husk, available as an inexpensive local biowaste, and without the use of an extra alumina source. Amorphous silica (with 88 wt% of SiO2) was extracted from rice husk ash by a suitable alkali solution. The effects of crystallization temperature, time and SiO2/Al2O3 ratio of the initial system on the properties of final products were investigated. For the characterization of the synthesized product, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope, energy dispersive X-ray techniques, Fourier transform infrared and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller method were applied. Crystallinity percentages of analcime and nanosized ZSM-5 were 95.86 and 89.56, respectively, with specific surface area of 353.5 m2 g-1 for ZSM-5. The experimental results revealed that the synthesis of analcime and nanosized ZSM-5 zeolites was more practical with using silica extracted from inexpensive raw materials, while the whole crystallization process was accomplished without adding any alumina source during.

  18. Nano-sized magnetic iron oxides as catalysts for heterogeneous Fenton-like reactions-Influence of Fe(II)/Fe(III) ratio on catalytic performance.

    PubMed

    Rusevova, Klara; Kopinke, Frank-Dieter; Georgi, Anett

    2012-11-30

    Nano-sized Fe(II, III) oxides with various Fe(II)/Fe(III) ratios were characterized and tested as catalysts for the oxidative degradation of phenol via Fenton-like reactions at neutral pH. Under conditions typically applied for wet peroxide oxidation, Fe(II) in magnetite is oxidized to Fe(III), successively converting the mineral into maghemite. The residual Fe(II) content in the catalyst core is of only minor benefit for the catalytic activity in phenol oxidation, i.e. magnetite is not superior to maghemite. Achievable reaction rates for phenol degradation appeared to be rather low, e.g. phenol half-life of about 12 h when 3 g L(-1) magnetite and 5 g L(-1) H(2)O(2) were applied. Preceding surface-reduction of maghemite by NaBH(4), leading to an over-stoichiometric Fe(II) content compared to magnetite, only enhanced the non-productive decomposition of H(2)O(2) rather than the rate of phenol degradation. Reaction rates were shown to be relatively insensitive to catalyst concentration in the range of 1-10 g L(-1), probably resulting from a scavenging of reactive species by the catalyst surface, whereby particle agglomeration seems to play a key role. Degradation experiments with various structurally distinct compounds were carried out, indicating a similar selectivity of the heterogeneous Fenton-like system to that known for oxidation with ·OH.

  19. Photocatalytic self-cleaning poly(L-lactide) materials based on a hybrid between nanosized zinc oxide and expanded graphite or fullerene.

    PubMed

    Virovska, Daniela; Paneva, Dilyana; Manolova, Nevena; Rashkov, Iliya; Karashanova, Daniela

    2016-03-01

    New self-cleaning materials of polymer fibers decorated with a hybrid between nanosized zinc oxide and expanded graphite (EG) or fullerene (C60) were obtained. The new materials were prepared by applying electrospinning in conjunction with electrospraying. Poly(l-lactide) (PLA) was selected as a biocompatible and (bio)degradable polymer carrier. PLA solution was electrospun in combination with electrospraying of a suspension that contained the ZnO/EG or ZnO/C60 hybrid. Mats with different content of EG or C60 were obtained. The new materials were characterized by scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM and TEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD). The photocatalytic activity of the materials was evaluated by using model dyes. The formation of a hybrid between ZnO and EG led to enhancement of the photocatalytic activity of the mats at ZnO/EG weight ratios of 90/10 and 85/15. Increase in the photocatalytic activity of the ZnO-containing mats was also achieved by the formation of a hybrid between ZnO and C60 at a fullerene content of 0.5 and 1.0 wt.% in respect to ZnO weight. The new materials exhibited antibacterial activity as evidenced by the performed studies against Staphylococcus aureus.

  20. Stroke Damage Is Exacerbated by Nano-Size Particulate Matter in a Mouse Model.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qinghai; Babadjouni, Robin; Radwanski, Ryan; Cheng, Hank; Patel, Arati; Hodis, Drew M; He, Shuhan; Baumbacher, Peter; Russin, Jonathan J; Morgan, Todd E; Sioutas, Constantinos; Finch, Caleb E; Mack, William J

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the effects of nano-size particulate matter (nPM) exposure in the setting of murine reperfused stroke. Particulate matter is a potent source of inflammation and oxidative stress. These processes are known to influence stroke progression through recruitment of marginally viable penumbral tissue into the ischemic core. nPM was collected in an urban area in central Los Angeles, impacted primarily by traffic emissions. Re-aerosolized nPM or filtered air was then administered to mice through whole body exposure chambers for forty-five cumulative hours. Exposed mice then underwent middle cerebral artery occlusion/ reperfusion. Following cerebral ischemia/ reperfusion, mice exposed to nPM exhibited significantly larger infarct volumes and less favorable neurological deficit scores when compared to mice exposed to filtered air. Mice exposed to nPM also demonstrated increases in markers of inflammation and oxidative stress in the region of the ischemic core. The findings suggest a detrimental effect of urban airborne particulate matter exposure in the setting of acute ischemic stroke.

  1. Stroke Damage Is Exacerbated by Nano-Size Particulate Matter in a Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Qinghai; Babadjouni, Robin; Radwanski, Ryan; Cheng, Hank; Patel, Arati; Hodis, Drew M.; He, Shuhan; Baumbacher, Peter; Russin, Jonathan J.; Morgan, Todd E.; Sioutas, Constantinos; Finch, Caleb E.; Mack, William J.

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the effects of nano-size particulate matter (nPM) exposure in the setting of murine reperfused stroke. Particulate matter is a potent source of inflammation and oxidative stress. These processes are known to influence stroke progression through recruitment of marginally viable penumbral tissue into the ischemic core. nPM was collected in an urban area in central Los Angeles, impacted primarily by traffic emissions. Re-aerosolized nPM or filtered air was then administered to mice through whole body exposure chambers for forty-five cumulative hours. Exposed mice then underwent middle cerebral artery occlusion/ reperfusion. Following cerebral ischemia/ reperfusion, mice exposed to nPM exhibited significantly larger infarct volumes and less favorable neurological deficit scores when compared to mice exposed to filtered air. Mice exposed to nPM also demonstrated increases in markers of inflammation and oxidative stress in the region of the ischemic core. The findings suggest a detrimental effect of urban airborne particulate matter exposure in the setting of acute ischemic stroke. PMID:27071057

  2. Structure and dynamics of nano-sized raft-like domains on the plasma membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrera, Fernando E.; Pantano, Sergio

    2012-01-01

    Cell membranes are constitutively composed of thousands of different lipidic species, whose specific organization leads to functional heterogeneities. In particular, sphingolipids, cholesterol and some proteins associate among them to form stable nanoscale domains involved in recognition, signaling, membrane trafficking, etc. Atomic-detail information in the nanometer/second scale is still elusive to experimental techniques. In this context, molecular simulations on membrane systems have provided useful insights contributing to bridge this gap. Here we present the results of a series of simulations of biomembranes representing non-raft and raft-like nano-sized domains in order to analyze the particular structural and dynamical properties of these domains. Our results indicate that the smallest (5 nm) raft domains are able to preserve their distinctive structural and dynamical features, such as an increased thickness, higher ordering, lower lateral diffusion, and specific lipid-ion interactions. The insertion of a transmembrane protein helix into non-raft, extended raft-like, and raft-like nanodomain environments result in markedly different protein orientations, highlighting the interplay between the lipid-lipid and lipid-protein interactions.

  3. Microwave absorption behavior of ZnO whisker modified by nanosized Fe3O4 particles.

    PubMed

    Hu, Shuchun; Wu, Guofeng; Huang, Zhenhao; Chen, Xiaolang

    2010-11-01

    Tetra-needle-like ZnO whisker was magnetic modified through in situ synthesis of nanosized Fe3O4 particles on the surface of the whisker, and the microwave absorption behavior of the as-prepared product was investigated in detail. The result of the comparative microwave absorbing experiment showed that the magnetic modified ZnO whisker appeared more superior property of microwave absorption than that of the original ZnO whisker in 2-18 GHz. Further investigation indicated that the microwave absorption behavior of the product was influenced by ferrite content and Fe3O4 particles' distribution in the product. When the ferrite content of the product changed from 2 wt% to 9 wt%, the microwave absorbing ability of the product was increased; then, the microwave absorbing ability of the product decreased with the further increasing of ferrite content from 9 wt% to 16 wt%. The product with uniform distribution of Fe3O4 particles showed better microwave absorption property than that with irregular distribution of Fe3O4 particles, and this result inferred that the biphase interface between ZnO and Fe3O4 contributed to microwave absorption through interface polarization.

  4. High reactivity of nanosized niobium oxide cluster cations in methane activation: A comparison with vanadium oxides

    SciTech Connect

    Ding, Xun-Lei E-mail: chemzyx@iccas.ac.cn; Wang, Dan; Wu, Xiao-Nan; Li, Zi-Yu; Zhao, Yan-Xia E-mail: chemzyx@iccas.ac.cn; He, Sheng-Gui

    2015-09-28

    The reactions between methane and niobium oxide cluster cations were studied and compared to those employing vanadium oxides. Hydrogen atom abstraction (HAA) reactions were identified over stoichiometric (Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}){sub N}{sup +} clusters for N as large as 14 with a time-of-flight mass spectrometer. The reactivity of (Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}){sub N}{sup +} clusters decreases as the N increases, and it is higher than that of (V {sub 2}O{sub 5}){sub N}{sup +} for N ≥ 4. Theoretical studies were conducted on (Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}){sub N}{sup +} (N = 2–6) by density functional calculations. HAA reactions on these clusters are all favorable thermodynamically and kinetically. The difference of the reactivity with respect to the cluster size and metal type (Nb vs V) was attributed to thermodynamics, kinetics, the electron capture ability, and the distribution of the unpaired spin density. Nanosized Nb oxide clusters show higher HAA reactivity than V oxides, indicating that niobia may serve as promising catalysts for practical methane conversion.

  5. Influence of crystal structure of nanosized ZrO2 on photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basahel, Sulaiman N.; Ali, Tarek T.; Mokhtar, Mohamed; Narasimharao, Katabathini

    2015-02-01

    Nanosized ZrO2 powders with near pure monoclinic, tetragonal, and cubic structures synthesized by various methods were used as catalysts for photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange. The structural and textural properties of the samples were analyzed by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, TEM, UV-vis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and N2 adsorption measurements. The performance of synthesized ZrO2 nanoparticles in the photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange under UV light irradiation was evaluated. The photocatalytic activity of the pure monoclinic ZrO2 sample is higher than that of the tetragonal and cubic ZrO2 samples under optimum identical conditions. The characterization results revealed that monoclinic ZrO2 nanoparticles possessed high crystallinity and mesopores with diameter of 100 Å. The higher activity of the monoclinic ZrO2 sample for the photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange can be attributed to the combining effects of factors including the presence of small amount of oxygen-deficient zirconium oxide phase, high crystallinity, large pores, and high density of surface hydroxyl groups.

  6. Influence of crystal structure of nanosized ZrO2 on photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange.

    PubMed

    Basahel, Sulaiman N; Ali, Tarek T; Mokhtar, Mohamed; Narasimharao, Katabathini

    2015-01-01

    Nanosized ZrO2 powders with near pure monoclinic, tetragonal, and cubic structures synthesized by various methods were used as catalysts for photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange. The structural and textural properties of the samples were analyzed by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, TEM, UV-vis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and N2 adsorption measurements. The performance of synthesized ZrO2 nanoparticles in the photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange under UV light irradiation was evaluated. The photocatalytic activity of the pure monoclinic ZrO2 sample is higher than that of the tetragonal and cubic ZrO2 samples under optimum identical conditions. The characterization results revealed that monoclinic ZrO2 nanoparticles possessed high crystallinity and mesopores with diameter of 100 Å. The higher activity of the monoclinic ZrO2 sample for the photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange can be attributed to the combining effects of factors including the presence of small amount of oxygen-deficient zirconium oxide phase, high crystallinity, large pores, and high density of surface hydroxyl groups.

  7. Chances and limitations of nanosized titanium dioxide practical application in view of its physicochemical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogdan, Janusz; Jackowska-Tracz, Agnieszka; Zarzyńska, Joanna; Pławińska-Czarnak, Joanna

    2015-02-01

    Nanotechnology is a field of science that is nowadays developing in a dynamic way. It seems to offer almost endless opportunities of contribution to many areas of economy and human activity, in general. Thanks to nanotechnology, the so-called nanomaterials can be designed. They present structurally altered materials, with their physical, chemical and biological properties entirely differing from properties of the same materials manufactured in microtechnology. Nanotechnology creates a unique opportunity to modify the matter at the level of atoms and particles. Therefore, it has become possible to obtain items displaying new, useful properties, i.e. self-disinfecting and self-cleaning surfaces. Those surfaces are usually covered by a thin layer of a photocatalyst. The role of the photocatalyst is most of the time performed by the nanosized titanium dioxide (nano-TiO2). Excitation of nano-TiO2 by ultraviolet radiation initiates advanced oxidation processes and reactions leading to the creation of oxygen vacancies that bind water particles. As a result, photocatalytic surfaces are given new properties. Those properties can then be applied in a variety of disciplines, such as medicine, food hygiene, environmental protection or building industry. Practically, the applications include inactivation of microorganisms, degradation of toxins, removing pollutants from buildings and manufacturing of fog-free windows or mirrors.

  8. Development of mesophase pitch derived mesoporous carbons through a commercially nanosized template.

    PubMed

    Qiao, W M; Song, Y; Hong, S H; Lim, S Y; Yoon, S-H; Korai, Y; Mochida, I

    2006-04-11

    Mesoporous carbons (MCs) with a high surface area (up to 900 m2/g), large pore volume (up to 2.1 cm3/g), high mesopore ratio (94%), and high yield (70%) were successfully prepared from an AR mesophase pitch, using a commercially nanosized silica template. The removal of the template provided some larger mesopores of 25-50 nm (pore I) with a surface area of ca. 300 m2/g, while the successive carbonization opened the closed pores within the carbon body to give smaller mesopores of 2-10 nm (pore II) with a similar surface area. During the carbonization of pitch precursor, the evaporation of volatile components swells the carbon to introduce the second mesopores among the domains and even microdomain units because of their rearrangements and overlappings in the process. The addition of iron salt with the silica template resulted in a remarkable increase of the surface area (ca. 300 m2/g) by introducing mesopores of 3-5 nm. The resultant MCs maintained some graphitizable natures derived from the anisotropic precursor. Their graphitization at 2400 degrees C provided the graphitic structure with large surface areas (270-460 m2/g) and mesoporosity.

  9. YAG:Ce nano-sized phosphor particles prepared by a solvothermal method

    SciTech Connect

    Li Xia; Liu Hong; Wang Jiyang; Cui Hongmei; Han Feng

    2004-10-04

    Nano-sized Ce-doped YAG phosphor particles were synthesized by a mixed solvothermal method using the stoichiometric amounts of inorganic aluminum and yttrium salts. The formation of YAG:Ce was investigated by means of XRD and TG-DTA. The purified YAG crystalline phases was obtained under moderate synthesis condition (300 deg. C and 10 MPa), this indicated that ethanol replaced part of water as solvent favoring the formation of YAG. TEM images showed that YAG:Ce phosphor particles were basically spherical in shape, well dispersed and a mean grain size about 60 nm. The particle absorbed excitation energy in the range 403-510 nm, and the maximum excitation wavelength was near 470 nm. The crystalline YAG:Ce showed broad emission peaks in the range 480-650 nm and had maximum intensity at 528 nm. The excitation and emission intensity increased with increasing the synthesis temperature from 280 to 300 deg. C, and get the maximum brightness at 300 deg. C.

  10. Synthesis, performance, and modeling of immobilized nano-sized magnetite layer for phosphate removal.

    PubMed

    Zach-Maor, Adva; Semiat, Raphael; Shemer, Hilla

    2011-05-15

    A homogeneous layer of nano-sized magnetite particles (<4 nm) was synthesized by impregnation of modified granular activated carbon (GAC) with ferric chloride, for effective removal of phosphate. A proposed mechanism for the modification and formation of magnetite onto the GAC is specified. BET results showed a significant increase in the surface area of the matrix following iron loading, implying that a porous nanomagnetite layer was formed. Batch adsorption experiments revealed high efficiency of phosphate removal, by the newly developed adsorbent, attaining maximum adsorption capacity of 435 mg PO(4)/g Fe (corresponding to 1.1 mol PO(4)/mol Fe(3)O(4)). It was concluded that initially phosphate was adsorbed by the active sites on the magnetite surface, and then it diffused into the interior pores of the nanomagnetite layer. It was demonstrated that the latter is the rate-determining step for the process. Innovative correlation of the diffusion mechanism with the unique adsorption properties of the synthesized adsorbent is presented.

  11. Impacts of a nanosized ceria additive on diesel engine emissions of particulate and gaseous pollutants.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Junfeng; Nazarenko, Yevgen; Zhang, Lin; Calderon, Leonardo; Lee, Ki-Bum; Garfunkel, Eric; Schwander, Stephan; Tetley, Teresa D; Chung, Kian Fan; Porter, Alexandra E; Ryan, Mary; Kipen, Howard; Lioy, Paul J; Mainelis, Gediminas

    2013-11-19

    Fuel additives incorporating nanosized ceria have been increasingly used in diesel engines as combustion promoters. However, few studies have assessed the impact of these nanotechnology-based additives on pollutant emissions. Here, we systematically compare emission rates of particulate and gaseous pollutants from a single-cylinder, four-cycle diesel engine using fuel mixes containing nanoceria of varying concentrations. The test fuels were made by adding different amounts of a commercial fuel additive Envirox into an ultralow-sulfur diesel fuel at 0 (base fuel), 0.1-, 1-, and 10-fold the manufacturer-recommended concentration of 0.5 mL Envirox per liter of fuel. The addition of Envirox resulted in ceria-concentration-dependent emission reductions of CO2, CO, total particulate mass, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein, and several polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. These reductions at the manufacturer-recommended doping concentration, however, were accompanied by a substantial increase of certain other air pollutants, specifically the number of ultrafine particles (+32%), NO(x) (+9.3%), and the particle-phase benzo[a]pyrene toxic equivalence quotient (+35%). Increasing fuel ceria concentrations also led to decreases in the size of emitted particles. Given health concerns related to ultrafine particles and NO(x), our findings call for additional studies to further evaluate health risks associated with the use of nanoceria additives in various engines under various operating conditions.

  12. Near infrared planar tumor imaging and quantification using nanosized Alexa 750-labeled phospholipid micelles.

    PubMed

    Papagiannaros, Aristarchos; Kale, Amit; Levchenko, Tatyana S; Mongayt, Dmitry; Hartner, William C; Torchilin, Vladimir P

    2009-01-01

    A novel highly biocompatible near infrared nanosized contrast agent was developed and used for rapid tumor detection and quantification using planar optical imaging and analysis. With this in mind, the near infrared fluorescent dye Alexa 750 was covalently attached to polyethylene glycol-phosphatidylethanolamine (PEG-PE) conjugate, and double labeled (with Alexa and rhodamine) PEG-PE micelles were injected into mice and observed using planar optical imaging. Pixel intensity data from the tumor site were normalized versus the autofluorescence of the animal at the same time point and normalized as signal to noise over the scattered light from the various tissues of the mice. The detected signal from the tumor was higher than the background noise allowing for rapid detection of the tumor. The tumor was clearly visible within one hour. Some signal was also detected from the abdomen of the mice. As determined by microscopy analysis, other organs of accumulation were the liver and kidney, which corresponded well to the data from the whole body imaging animal studies.

  13. Effect of solvents on the synthesis of nano-size zinc oxide and its properties

    SciTech Connect

    Kanade, K.G.; Kale, B.B. . E-mail: kbbb1@yahoo.com; Aiyer, R.C.; Das, B.K.

    2006-03-09

    The effect of the solvents on particle size and morphology of ZnO is investigated. The optical properties of nano ZnO were studied extensively. During this study, zinc oxalate was prepared in aqueous and organic solvents using zinc acetate and oxalic acid as precursors. The thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA/DTA) showed formation of ZnO at 400 deg. C. Nano-size zinc oxide was obtained by thermal decomposition of aqueous and organic mediated zinc oxalate at 450 deg. C. The phase purity was confirmed by XRD and crystal size determined from transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was found to be 22-25 nm for the aqueous and 14 -17 nm in organic mediated ZnO. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) also revealed different nature of surfaces and microstructures for zinc oxide obtained in aqueous and organic solvents. The UV absorption spectra showed sharp absorption peaks with a blue shift for organic mediated ZnO, due to monodispersity and lower particle size. Sharp peaks and absence of any impurity peaks in photoluminescence spectra (PLS) complement the above observations.

  14. Molecular dynamics simulation of nanosized water droplet spreading in an electric field.

    PubMed

    Song, F H; Li, B Q; Liu, C

    2013-04-02

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are performed for the spreading of a nanosized water droplet on a solid substrate subject to a parallel electric field. A combined electrostatic and Lennard-Jones potential is employed to represent the intermolecular interactions. Results show that in response to the applied field, polar water molecules realign themselves and this microscopic reorientation of molecular dipoles combines with the intermolecular forces to produce a macroscopic deformation of a free spherical water droplet into an ellipsoid. The applied field has a strong effect on the spreading of the water droplet on a solid substrate. For a weaker parallel field, the droplet spreading is asymmetric with the leading contact angle being greater than the trailing contact angle. With an increase in field strength, this asymmetry continues to increase, culminates, and then decreases until it disappears. The symmetric spreading remains with a further increase in the field strength until the saturation point is reached. This transition from the asymmetric to symmetric spreading is a manifestation of the interaction of the electric field with polar water molecules and the intermolecular forces within the droplet and between the water and solid; the interaction also leads to a change in hydrogen bonds along the droplet surface. The dynamics of the droplet spreading is entailed by the electrically induced motion of molecules along the liquid surface toward the solid substrate and is controlled by a competing mechanism among the electric, water-water, and water-solid intermolecular forces.

  15. Three-dimensional analysis of the swimming behavior of Daphnia magna exposed to nanosized titanium dioxide.

    PubMed

    Noss, Christian; Dabrunz, André; Rosenfeldt, Ricki R; Lorke, Andreas; Schulz, Ralf

    2013-01-01

    Due to their surface characteristics, nanosized titanium dioxide particles (nTiO2) tend to adhere to biological surfaces and we thus hypothesize that they may alter the swimming performance and behavior of motile aquatic organisms. However, no suitable approaches to address these impairments in swimming behavior as a result of nanoparticle exposure are available. Water fleas Daphnia magna exposed to 5 and 20 mg/L nTiO2 (61 nm; polydispersity index: 0.157 in 17.46 mg/L stock suspension) for 96 h showed a significantly (p<0.05) reduced growth rate compared to a 1-mg/L treatment and the control. Using three-dimensional video observations of swimming trajectories, we observed a treatment-dependent swarming of D. magna in the center of the test vessels during the initial phase of the exposure period. Ensemble mean swimming velocities increased with increasing body length of D. magna, but were significantly reduced in comparison to the control in all treatments after 96 h of exposure. Spectral analysis of swimming velocities revealed that high-frequency variance, which we consider as a measure of swimming activity, was significantly reduced in the 5- and 20-mg/L treatments. The results highlight the potential of detailed swimming analysis of D. magna for the evaluation of sub-lethal mechanical stress mechanisms resulting from biological surface coating and thus for evaluating the effects of nanoparticles in the aquatic environment.

  16. Cellulose fibers modified with nano-sized antimicrobial polymer latex for pathogen deactivation.

    PubMed

    Pan, Yuanfeng; Xiao, Huining; Cai, Pingxiong; Colpitts, Meaghan

    2016-01-01

    Antimicrobial cellulose fibers and paper products are of great importance for various applications. In this work, novel core-shell antimicrobial latexes based on hydrophobic acrylate monomers and antimicrobial macromonomer (GPHGH) were successfully prepared via a seeded semi-continuous emulsion copolymerization in the presence of a cationic surfactant. The surface properties as well as size of latex were tailored by varying the amount of GPHGH incorporated during the copolymerization. The resulting cationic nano-sized latexes showed the strong adsorption and formed monolayer on the surfaces of bleached sulfite fibers, thus rendering the cellulose fibers antimicrobial. An excellent antimicrobial activity (>99.99% inhibition) of modified fiber toward Escherichia coli was achieved at 0.3wt% of latex dosage (on dry fibers). Results of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observation confirmed that the particles obtained indeed possessed a desired core-shell structure. The latexes themselves exhibited high antimicrobial activities against E. coli with the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) as low as 6.25ppm (similar to that of pure guanidine-based polymer). Moreover, the mechanical strength of the hand-sheets made from latex-modified cellulose fibers was also improved due to the filming of the latex on fiber surfaces.

  17. Computational Study of Nanosized Drug Delivery from Cyclodextrins, Crown Ethers and Hyaluronan in Pharmaceutical Formulations.

    PubMed

    Torrens, Francisco; Castellano, Gloria

    2015-01-01

    The problem in this work is the computational characterization of cyclodextrins, crown ethers and hyaluronan (HA) as hosts of inclusion complexes for nanosized drug delivery vehicles in pharmaceutical formulations. The difficulty is addressed through a computational study of some thermodynamic, geometric and topological properties of the hosts. The calculated properties of oligosaccharides of D-glucopyranoses allow these to act as co-solvents of polyanions in water. In crown ethers, the central channel is computed. Mucoadhesive polymer HA in formulations releases drugs in mucosas. Geometric, topological and fractal analyses are carried out with code TOPO. Reference calculations are performed with code GEPOL. From HA to HA·3Ca and hydrate, the hydrophilic solvent-accessible surface varies with the count of H-bonds. The fractal dimension rises. The dimension of external atoms rises resulting 1.725 for HA. It rises going to HA·3Ca and hydrate. Nonburied minus molecular dimension rises and decays. Hydrate globularity is lower than O(water), Ca(2+) and O(HA). Ca(2+) rugosity is smaller than for hydrate, O(HA) and O(water). Ca(2+) and O(water) accessibilities are greater than hydrate. Conclusions are drawn on: (1) the relative stability of linear/cyclic and shorter/larger polymers; (2) the atomic analysis of properties allows determining the atoms with maximum reactivity.

  18. Kinetic tendencies of thermal transformations in nanosized Ni-MoO3 systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surovoi, E. P.; Bin, S. V.

    2017-02-01

    The transformations in nanosized Ni-MoO3 systems were studied by optical spectroscopy, microscopy, and gravimetry depending on the thickness of the Ni ( d = 1-40 nm) and MoO3 ( d = 3-50 nm) films, temperature (473-773 K), and thermal treatment time. The contact potential difference was measured for Ni and MoO3 films; photovoltage, for Ni-MoO3 systems. An energy band diagram of the Ni-MoO3 systems was constructed. A model of the thermal transformation of MoO3 films in Ni-MoO3 systems was suggested, which involves a redistribution of equilibrium charge carriers at the contact, formation of a [(Va)++e] center during the preparation of the MoO3 film, the transformation of this center into an [e(Va)++e] center during the formation of Ni-MoO3 systems, and the thermal transition of an electron to the level of the [(Va)++e] center to form an [e(Va)++e] center.

  19. Crystallinity in apatites: how can a truly disordered fraction be distinguished from nanosize crystalline domains?

    PubMed

    Celotti, Giancarlo; Tampieri, Anna; Sprio, Simone; Landi, Elena; Bertinetti, Luca; Martra, Gianmario; Ducati, Caterina

    2006-11-01

    In the last decade synthetic apatites mimicking the human natural one have been widely prepared and characterized from the physico-chemical point of view; however a shading zone is still remaining related to the evaluation and distinction of the less crystalline part, almost amorphous, and the crystallographically well ordered, nano-sized part, inside the apatite itself. Actually natural apatite forming bone tissue can include both types of crystals whose prevalence is dependent from the specific bone evolution stage and the specialized tissue performance. The quantitative description of such a combination usually represents a puzzling problem, but the result can also clarify the definition of "crystallinity in apatite" that appears still controversial. Many different synthetic apatites, including those nucleated on organic templates, were analyzed with different techniques (X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and so on) to clarify the true nature of the disordered part. The results, manipulated by the classical methodologies devised for substances with highly perturbed structural order, led to establish that only specifically prepared amorphous calcium phosphate is really a glass, while the distorted portion coexisting with more or less crystalline regions is simply nanocrystalline. Moreover, at the conceptual limit of crystallinity tending to zero, the two models surprisingly cease to be conflicting.

  20. Sensing behaviour of nanosized zinc-tin composite oxide towards liquefied petroleum gas and ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Ravi Chand; Singh, Onkar; Singh, Manmeet Pal; Chandi, Paramdeep Singh; Thangaraj, R.

    2010-09-15

    A chemical route has been used to synthesize composite oxides of zinc and tin. An ammonia solution was added to equal amounts of zinc and tin chloride solutions of same molarities to obtain precipitates. Three portions of these precipitates were annealed at 400, 600 and 800 {sup o}C, respectively. Results of X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy clearly depicted coexistence of phases of nano-sized SnO{sub 2}, ZnO, Zn{sub 2}SnO{sub 4} and ZnSnO{sub 3}. The effect of annealing on structure, morphology and sensing has been observed as well. It has been observed that annealing promoted growth of Zn{sub 2}SnO{sub 4} and ZnSnO{sub 3} at the expense of zinc. The sensing response of fabricated sensors from these materials to 250 ppm LPG and ethanol has been investigated. The sensor fabricated from powder annealed at 400 {sup o}C responded better to LPG than ethanol.

  1. Vibrational contribution to the thermodynamics of nanosized precipitates: vacancy-copper clusters in bcc-Fe.

    PubMed

    Talati, Mina; Posselt, Matthias; Bonny, Giovanni; Al-Motasem, Ahmed; Bergner, Frank

    2012-06-06

    The effects of lattice vibration on the thermodynamics of nanosized coherent clusters in bcc-Fe consisting of vacancies and/or copper are investigated within the harmonic approximation. A combination of on-lattice simulated annealing based on Metropolis Monte Carlo simulations and off-lattice relaxation by molecular dynamics is applied to obtain the most stable cluster configurations at T = 0 K. The most recent interatomic potential built within the framework of the embedded-atom method for the Fe-Cu system is used. The total free energy of pure bcc-Fe and fcc-Cu as well as the total formation free energy and the total binding free energy of the vacancy-copper clusters are determined for finite temperatures. Our results are compared with the available data from previous investigations performed using many-body interatomic potentials and first-principles methods. For further applications in rate theory and object kinetic Monte Carlo simulations, the vibrational effects evaluated in the present study are included in the previously developed analytical fitting formulae.

  2. Low-Temperature Oxidation of Fine UO2 Powders: A Process of Nanosized Domain Development.

    PubMed

    Leinders, Gregory; Pakarinen, Janne; Delville, Rémi; Cardinaels, Thomas; Binnemans, Koen; Verwerft, Marc

    2016-04-18

    The nanostructure and phase evolution in low-temperature oxidized (40-250 °C), fine UO2 powders (<200 nm) have been investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM). The extent of oxidation was also measured via in situ thermogravimetric analysis. The oxidation of fine powders was found to proceed differently as compared to oxidation of coarse-grained UO2. No discrete surface oxide layer was observed and no U3O8 was formed, despite the high degree of oxidation (up to O/U = 2.45). Instead, nanosized (5-15 nm) amorphous nuclei (interpreted as amorphous UO3), unmodulated and modulated U4O9, and a continuous range of U3O7-z phases with varying tetragonal distortion (c/a > 1) were observed. Oxidation involves formation of higher uranium oxides in nanodomains near the grain surface which, initially, have a disordered defect structure ("disordered U4O9"). As oxidation progresses, domain growth increases and the long-period modulated structure of U4O9 develops ("ordered U4O9"). A similar mechanism is understood to happen also in U3O7-z.

  3. Nanosize effects in the magnetic properties of the two layered hydroxides of nickel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rall, James D.

    Investigations of properties of materials with lower lattice dimensionality (one and two dimensions) often provides good opportunity to advance physics since solutions to corresponding theoretical models are more easily obtained. In this work, results on magnetic properties of two quasi two-dimensional (2D) systems viz. the layered hydroxides of nickel, beta-Ni(OH)2 and alpha-Ni(OH)2, are reported. For beta-Ni(OH)2, there have been conflicting reports in the literature whether the magnetic ordering is ferromagnetic or antiferromagnetic. For the less stable alpha-Ni(OH) 2 with the larger spacing between the layers, the nature of magnetism is largely unexplained. Therefore, the results and their interpretation present here contribute significantly to the understanding of the magnetic properties of these quasi 2D systems. Synthesis of the two hydroxides were done by the sol-gel and hydrothermal techniques followed by structural characterizations by x-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM)/scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and FTIR spectroscopy. Magnetic properties were investigated using an in-house SQUID magnetometer for the temperature range of 2 K to 350 K in magnetic fields up to +/- 65 kOe. Additional magnetic studies on beta-Ni(OH)2 for H up to 180 kOe were carried out at the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory (NHMFL) in Tallahassee, Fl. For the beta-phase with the formula Ni(OH)2 · 0.144 H2O, the lattice constants of the hexagonal lattice are a = 3.12 A and c = 4.67 A. Temperature dependence of the magnetization showed a two step transition: ferromagnetic (FM) ordering of the (001) layers with exchange coupling J1/kB = 3.25 K at 25 K followed by 3D antiferromagnetic (AFM) ordering at TN = 23 K triggered by the interplane AFM exchange constant J2/kB = -0.32 K. Both bulk-like and nanosize beta-Ni(OH)2 show a magnetic field induced metamagnetic transition to ferromagnetism at HC2 ≃ 55 kOe. In the

  4. Growth and properties of silicon heterostructures with buried nanosize Mg2Si clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galkin, N. G.; Galkin, K. N.

    2005-06-01

    The technology of solid-phase growth of nanosize islands of magnesium suicide on Si (111) 7x7 with narrow distributions of lateral size and height (60 - 80 and 5 - 7 nanometers, respectively) and density of up to 2x 109 sm-2 is proposed. A 20-50 nm thick Si layer has been grown upon these islands. Basing on the data of AES, EELS, AFM and JR spectroscopy, a conclusion is made that the Mg2Si islands remain in depth of the Si layer. The suggestion is made that sizes, density and crystal structure of the buried magnesium suicide clusters preserves. It is shown, that the system of three as-grown layers of buried clusters has smoother surface than the one layer system. The contribution of the Mg2Si clusters into the dielectric function is observed at the energy 0.8-1.2 eV, it is maximal if the clusters are localized on the silicon surface. It is shown, that with increase of the number of Mg2Si cluster layers their contribution increases into the effective number of electrons per a unit cell and effective dielectric function of the sample.

  5. Impact of nanosizing on solubility and dissolution rate of poorly soluble pharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Murdande, Sharad B; Shah, Dhaval A; Dave, Rutesh H

    2015-06-01

    The quantitative determination of solubility and the initial dissolution rate enhancement of crystalline nanoparticles were critically investigated using a separation-based approach (ultracentrifugation and filtration). Four poorly soluble model compounds (griseofulvin, celecoxib, compound-X, and fenofibrate) were used in this investigation. The effect of the stabilizer concentration on the solubility of the unmilled compound was determined first to quantify its impact on the solubility and used for comparing solubility enhancement upon nanosizing. Methodologies were established for ultracentrifugation, ensuring satisfactory separation of crystalline nanoparticles. The data obtained using separation-based methodologies proved to be accurate, reproducible, and were in fair agreement with what would be predicted from the Ostwald-Freundlich equation. The dissolution studies under sink conditions were proved to be less efficient in quantifying the initial dissolution rate of crystalline nanoparticles. Nonsink dissolution experiments were able to reduce the high-dissolution velocity of nanoparticles and generated the best discriminative dissolution profile. The enhancement in initial dissolution rate was significantly less than that expected from the Noyes-Whitney equation based on surface area change. This discriminatory dissolution method can potentially be used further in the modeling of crystalline nanoparticles during drug development.

  6. Nanosized barium hexaferrite in novolac phenolic resin as microwave absorber for X-band application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozah, S.; Bhattacharyya, N. S.

    2013-09-01

    Nanosized barium ferrite (BaFe12O19) with Novolac phenolic resin (NPR) is developed as a magnetic absorber for application in the frequency range 8.2-12.4 GHz. The absorption is studied by modifying the microstructural properties of the ferrite inclusion with annealing temperature and its content in the composite. Transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction pattern confirms the formation of hexagonal structure of barium ferrite. The crystallite size of the barium ferrite particles is in nano-range and increases with annealing temperature. The BaFe12O19/NPR composite is prepared with different weight percentage of ferrite inclusions. The complex permittivity and complex permeability is measured at X-band and found to increase with annealing temperature and contents of ferrite inclusion. Theoretical study of reflection loss gives that 2 mm absorber samples are showing the best results for X-band application. Reflection loss measurement of the samples shows absorption peak of -24.61 dB at 10.26 GHz for 30 wt%, -28.39 dB at 9.98 GHz for 40 wt% and -37.06 dB at 9.5 GHz for 50 wt% of BaFe12O19 in NPR matrix.

  7. Molecular Mechanisms of Nanosized Titanium Dioxide–Induced Pulmonary Injury in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Sang, Xuezi; Cui, Yaling; Wang, Xiaochun; Gui, Suxin; Tan, Danlin; Zhu, Min; Zhao, Xiaoyang; Sheng, Lei; Wang, Ling; Hong, Fashui; Tang, Meng

    2013-01-01

    The pulmonary damage induced by nanosized titanium dioxide (nano-TiO2) is of great concern, but the mechanism of how this damage may be incurred has yet to be elucidated. Here, we examined how multiple genes may be affected by nano-TiO2 exposure to contribute to the observed damage. The results suggest that long-term exposure to nano-TiO2 led to significant increases in inflammatory cells, and levels of lactate dehydrogenase, alkaline phosphate, and total protein, and promoted production of reactive oxygen species and peroxidation of lipid, protein and DNA in mouse lung tissue. We also observed nano-TiO2 deposition in lung tissue via light and confocal Raman microscopy, which in turn led to severe pulmonary inflammation and pneumonocytic apoptosis in mice. Specifically, microarray analysis showed significant alterations in the expression of 847 genes in the nano-TiO2-exposed lung tissues. Of 521 genes with known functions, 361 were up-regulated and 160 down-regulated, which were associated with the immune/inflammatory responses, apoptosis, oxidative stress, the cell cycle, stress responses, cell proliferation, the cytoskeleton, signal transduction, and metabolic processes. Therefore, the application of nano-TiO2 should be carried out cautiously, especially in humans. PMID:23409001

  8. Fabrication of transparent [gamma]-Al[sub 2]O[sub 3] from nanosize particles

    SciTech Connect

    Gallas, M.R.; Hockey, B.; Pechenik, A.; Piermarini, G.J. . Materials Science and Engineering Lab.)

    1994-08-01

    The compaction and heat-treatment behavior of nanosize [gamma]-Al[sub 2]O[sub 3] powder (average diameter = 20 nm) was studied. A diamond anvil high-pressure cell was used to compact the powder at pressures up to 3 GPa, both in air at room temperature and under liquid nitrogen, followed by pressureless heat treatment at 800 C. For all conditions studied, the fabricated compacts were optically transparent. X-ray diffraction confirmed retention of the [gamma]-phase. The compacts were also characterized before and after heat treatment by microhardness measurements and by transmission electron microscopy. For both ambient and cryogenic compaction, sample hardness increased with pressure, and heat treatment resulted in about a 50% increase in hardness independent of the initial green-state value. Samples compacted in LN[sub 2] were significantly harder (up to 9.6 GPa) than those compacted in air. TEM examination revealed a random-dense-packed particle structure and interconnected porosity; interstitial void dimensions, however, were always less than the average particle diameter (20 nm). Observed effects on the increase in hardness could not be explained by microstructural changes normally attributed to increased compaction pressure or heat treatment, most notably densification. Alternative explanations are proposed.

  9. Low temperature fabrication from nano-size ceramic powders. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Gonzalez, E.J.; Piermarini, G.J.; Hockey, B.; Malghan, S.G.; Danforth, S.C.; Pechenik, A.

    1995-04-28

    Understanding of compaction and rheology of ceramic powders is needed for production of defect-free greenware. High pressure and lubricating media (liq. N{sub 2}, pentane) were used for increased green body density. High green densities could be achieved with nanosize Si nitride and {gamma} alumina. A pressure/temperature system was built which uses an Instron screw-driven press and a piston/cylinder die. Max random packing density of 57 {plus_minus} 2% theoretical was achieved for dry compaction of Si nitride at 2.5 GPa and RT; compaction under liq. N{sub 2} gave 64 {plus_minus} 2%. Dry compaction of alumina was 64% theoretical at 2.5 GPa. Pressureless sintering of Si nitride green compacts did not result in further densification. Hot pressing increased the hardness. In alumina, increased compaction pressure enhances the {gamma}-{alpha} transition and increases the densification upon heat treatment. It is difficult to obtain dense material without coarsened pore/grain microstructure. SANS showed alumina results similar to those found for materials made by inert-gas-condensation. Theoretical studies were also made to model the compaction process. Future studies are outlined.

  10. Characterization of Al and Fe nanosized powders synthesized by high energy mechanical milling

    SciTech Connect

    Mhadhbi, Mohsen; Khitouni, Mohamed Azabou, Myriam; Kolsi, Abdelwaheb

    2008-07-15

    The process of nanocrystalline structure formation during mechanical milling was studied in Al and Fe powders. A detailed microstructural study of powder samples was carried out by X-ray diffraction experiments as a function of milling time. As a result, nanosized powders have been synthesized with microstructures showing a significant decrease of the coherent diffraction domains and the creation of a large number of linear defects, which induce microstrains. SEM results show that welding of very small particles to the surfaces of larger particles occurred and that the powder particles tended to form a matrix of randomly welded thin layers of highly deformed particles. Calorimetric measurements, as a function of milling time, indicated the decrease of the melting point of Al powder and at early stages it can be seen that initially endothermic peak was divided to two endothermic melting peaks. This is probably due to the oxide layer around the Al grains. In the case of Fe powder, the DSC measurements show a broad exothermal peak occurring over quite a large temperature interval, corresponding to the strain release and grain growth.

  11. Compound Method to Disperse CaCO3 Nanoparticles to Nano-Size in Water.

    PubMed

    Gu, Sui; Cai, Jihua; Wang, Jijun; Yuan, Ye; Chang, Dewu; Chikhotkin, Viktor F

    2015-12-01

    The invalidation of CaCO3 nanoparticles (nCaCO3) is often caused by the fact of agglomeration and inhomogeneous dispersion which limits its application into water-based drilling muds for low permeability reservoirs such as coalbed methane reservoir and shale gas/oil reservoir. Effective methods to disperse nCaCO3 to nano-size (≤ 100 nm) in water have seldom been reported. Here we developed a compound method containing mechanical stirring, ultrasonic treatment, the use of surfactant and stabilizer to disperse nCaCO3 in water. It comprises the steps adding 2% nCaCO3, 1% sodium dodecyl sulfonate (SDS), 2% cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB), 2% OP-10, 3% to 4% biopolymer (XC) in water successively, stirring it at a shear rate of 6000 to 8000 r/min for 15 minutes and treating it with ultrasonic at a frequency of 28 KHz for 30 to 40 minutes. The dispersed nCaCO3 was characterized with scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and particle size distribution (PSD) tests. We found that nCaCO3 could be dispersed to below 100 nm in water and the medium value of nCaCO3 was below 50 nm. This method paved the way for the utilization of nCaCO3 in drilling fluid and completion fluid for low permeability reservoirs such as coal seams and shale gas/oil formations.

  12. Nanosized powders of NiZn ferrite: Synthesis, structure, and magnetism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albuquerque, Adriana S.; Ardisson, José D.; Macedo, Waldemar A. A.; Alves, Maria C. M.

    2000-05-01

    The structure and magnetic behavior of nanostructured powders of stoichiometric NiZn ferrite, Ni0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4, synthesized by coprecipitation, are investigated by extended x-ray-absorption fine structure spectroscopy (EXAFS), x-ray diffraction, Mössbauer spectroscopy, and vibrating sample magnetometry. Samples of high purity and high homogeneity were obtained by annealing at relatively low temperatures (300-800 °C) resulting in nanoparticles with average diameter between 9 and 90 nm, as determined by x-ray diffraction. EXAFS was applied to follow Ni, Zn, and Fe cations distribution and the evolution of the short range order of the samples with increasing annealing temperature. Our results show ferrimagnetic NiZn ferrite nanosized powders with high purity, 1:1 Ni to Zn stoichiometric ratio and superparamagnetic behavior. Moreover, the samples exhibit good structural ordering already after heat treatment at 400 °C. Analysis by vibrating sample magnetometry indicated a critical particle diameter for the transition from monodomain to multidomain behavior close to 40 nm.

  13. The role of dislocations in the growth of nanosized voids in ductile failure of metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyers, Marc A.; Traiviratana, Sirirat; Lubarda, V. A.; Benson, David J.; Bringa, Eduardo M.

    2009-02-01

    Dislocations are the most important element in our understanding of the mechanical response of metals. Their postulation in 1934 led to revolutionary advances in our ability to predict the mechanical behavior of materials. The authors recently advanced a dislocation mechanism for void growth in ductile metals. This paper reviews the analytical and atomistic calculations carried out in support of this model. The emission of shear dislocation loops, nucleated at the surface of nanosized voids, is responsible for the outward flux of matter, promoting void growth. This is a new paradigm in the initiation of void growth, which was attributed to convergent vacancy diffusion or to prismatic loops by others. The analytical treatment is based on the emission of a dislocation from a void in the plane along which the shear stresses are maximum. Molecular dynamics calculations performed for different orientations of the tensile axis show how the loops generate and expand outward. These loops involve the emission of partial dislocations and are the counterpart for voids of the Ashby geometrically necessary shear loops postulated for rigid particles. This process is demonstrated for bicrystalline and nanocrystalline copper.

  14. Influence of acid precursors on physicochemical properties of nanosized titania synthesized by thermal-hydrolysis method

    SciTech Connect

    Rajesh, B.; Sasirekha, N.R.; Chen, Y.-W.

    2008-03-04

    The influence of nature and concentration of acid species on surface morphology and physicochemical properties of titania particles synthesized by direct thermal hydrolysis of titanium tetrachloride was investigated. The acids used were hydrochloric acid, nitric acid, sulfuric acid, and perchloric acid with a concentration of 3 M. Thermal hydrolysis of titanium tetrachloride in hydrochloric acid and perchloric acid with molar ratios of [H{sup +}]/[Ti{sup 4+}] = 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0, respectively, was used to study the effect of acid concentration. The synthesized materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, and thermogravimetric analysis. Characterization of the samples by X-ray diffraction studies revealed the influence of acid species on the phase transformation of titania. Samples prepared by hydrochloric acid, nitric acid, and perchloric acid formed rutile phase with rhombus primary particles, while sulfuric acid resulted in anatase phase with flake-shaped primary particles. Transmission electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering results confirmed the nanosized titania particles and the agglomeration of primary particles to form secondary particles in spherical shape. The particle size of titania prepared using perchloric acid was smaller than those prepared with other acid sources. A direct correlation between [H{sup +}]/[Ti{sup 4+}] ratio and particle size of titania was observed.

  15. Impacts of a Nanosized Ceria Additive on Diesel Engine Emissions of Particulate and Gaseous Pollutants

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Junfeng; Nazarenko, Yevgen; Zhang, Lin; Calderon, Leonardo; Lee, Ki-Bum; Garfunkel, Eric; Schwander, Stephan; Tetley, Teresa D.; Chung, Kian Fan; Porter, Alexandra E.; Ryan, Mary; Kipen, Howard; Lioy, Paul J.; Mainelis, Gediminas

    2014-01-01

    Fuel additives incorporating nanosized ceria have been increasingly used in diesel engines as combustion promoters. However, few studies have assessed the impact of these nanotechnology-based additives on pollutant emissions. Here, we systematically compare emission rates of particulate and gaseous pollutants from a single-cylinder, four-cycle diesel engine using fuel mixes containing nanoceria of varying concentrations. The test fuels were made by adding different amounts of a commercial fuel additive Envirox into an ultralow-sulfur diesel fuel at 0 (base fuel), 0.1-, 1-, and 10-fold the manufacturer-recommended concentration of 0.5 mL Envirox per liter of fuel. The addition of Envirox resulted in ceria-concentration-dependent emission reductions of CO2, CO, total particulate mass, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein, and several polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. These reductions at the manufacturer-recommended doping concentration, however, were accompanied by a substantial increase of certain other air pollutants, specifically the number of ultrafine particles (+32%), NOx (+9.3%), and the particle-phase benzo[a]pyrene toxic equivalence quotient (+35%). Increasing fuel ceria concentrations also led to decreases in the size of emitted particles. Given health concerns related to ultrafine particles and NOx, our findings call for additional studies to further evaluate health risks associated with the use of nanoceria additives in various engines under various operating conditions. PMID:24144266

  16. Phase, thermal and impedance studies of nanosize LiWO via mechanical milling and sintering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Tan Kim; Ahmad, Roslina; Johan, Mohd Rafie

    2011-01-01

    Nanosize Li 2WO 4 is successfully synthesized using a mechanical milling method. The mean particle size of milled Li 2WO 4 is 37 nm and 31 nm as measured by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, respectively. The calculated lattice parameter of as-received and milled powder are 0.8326 and 0.8321 nm, respectively. Both powders have been hydrated at room temperature and are highly crystalline with the presence of different types of phases at varying sintering temperatures. There is no Li 2W 2O 7 (JCPDS 28-0598) phase present in the milled powder during the whole sintering process. Meanwhile, the thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) of both powders is in accordance with their phase changes as presented in the XRD spectra. The impedance measurements show that the milled powder has a lower conductivity than that of the as-received powder in overall. The conductivity of the as-received powder increases with sintering temperature but this phenomenon is vice versa for the milled powder. All these trends can be correlated with the Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM) micrographs on both powders.

  17. Statistical properties of nanosized clusters on a surface in overdamped stochastic reaction-Cattaneo systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kharchenko, Vasyl O.; Kharchenko, Dmitrii O.; Dvornichenko, Alina V.

    2014-12-01

    In this work we study an overdamped stochastic reaction-Cattaneo model describing nanosized pattern formation on a surface at monolayer deposition. We study and compare an influence of both primary and secondary mechanisms onto pattern formation processes. The primary mechanisms relate to the rates of chemical reactions and interaction strength of adsorbate; the secondary mechanisms are related to finite atomic disturbance propagation speed and stochastic contribution satisfying fluctuation-dissipation relation. Considering statistical properties of surface structures we discuss transitions between homogeneous phases related to low and high density states. We illustrate that these transitions are accompanied by a formation of adsorbate or vacancy islands. It was found that spherical adsorbate and vacancy islands are characterized by different distribution functions over their sizes for different symmetry of substrate lattice. We have shown that depending on system control parameters island size distributions can change their modality. The size of localized nano-clusters can be controlled by both primary and secondary mechanisms of pattern formation.

  18. Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of nanosized and microsized titanium dioxide and iron oxide particles in Syrian hamster embryo cells.

    PubMed

    Guichard, Yves; Schmit, Julien; Darne, Christian; Gaté, Laurent; Goutet, Michèle; Rousset, Davy; Rastoix, Olivier; Wrobel, Richard; Witschger, Olivier; Martin, Aurélie; Fierro, Vanessa; Binet, Stéphane

    2012-07-01

    Potential differences in the toxicological properties of nanosized and non-nanosized particles have been notably pointed out for titanium dioxide (TiO(2)) particles, which are currently widely produced and used in many industrial areas. Nanoparticles of the iron oxides magnetite (Fe(3)O(4)) and hematite (Fe(2)O(3)) also have many industrial applications but their toxicological properties are less documented than those of TiO(2). In the present study, the in vitro cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of commercially available nanosized and microsized anatase TiO(2), rutile TiO(2), Fe(3)O(4), and Fe(2)O(3) particles were compared in Syrian hamster embryo (SHE) cells. Samples were characterized for chemical composition, primary particle size, crystal phase, shape, and specific surface area. In acellular assays, TiO(2) and iron oxide particles were able to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS). At the same mass dose, all nanoparticles produced higher levels of ROS than their microsized counterparts. Measurement of particle size in the SHE culture medium showed that primary nanoparticles and microparticles are present in the form of micrometric agglomerates of highly poly-dispersed size. Uptake of primary particles and agglomerates by SHE exposed for 24 h was observed for all samples. TiO(2) samples were found to be more cytotoxic than iron oxide samples. Concerning primary size effects, anatase TiO(2), rutile TiO(2), and Fe(2)O(3) nanoparticles induced higher cytotoxicity than their microsized counterparts after 72 h of exposure. Over this treatment time, anatase TiO(2) and Fe(2)O(3) nanoparticles also produced more intracellular ROS compared to the microsized particles. However, similar levels of DNA damage were observed in the comet assay after 24 h of exposure to anatase nanoparticles and microparticles. Rutile microparticles were found to induce more DNA damage than the nanosized particles. However, no significant increase in DNA damage was detected from nanosized and

  19. Size effect of elemental selenium nanoparticles (Nano-Se) at supranutritional levels on selenium accumulation and glutathione S-transferase activity.

    PubMed

    Peng, Dungeng; Zhang, Jinsong; Liu, Qingliang; Taylor, Ethan Will

    2007-10-01

    It has been shown that 36 nm Nano-Se has lower toxicity than selenite or selenomethionine, but these forms of selenium (Se) all possess similar ability to increase selenoenzyme levels. The size of nanoparticles plays an important role in their biological activity: as expected, 5-200 nm Nano-Se can directly scavenge free radicals in vitro in a size-dependent fashion. However, in Se-deficient cells and Se-deficient mice, the size effect of Nano-Se on increasing selenoenzymes and liver Se disappears unexpectedly. We hypothesize that under conditions of Se deficiency, the avidity of Se uptake mechanisms may be increased to maintain the biosynthesis of selenoenzymes, which are fundamental for redox homeostasis. This increased avidity may override the potential advantage of small size Nano-Se seen under Se-replete conditions, thereby eliminating the size effect. Once selenoenzymes have been saturated, Se uptake mechanisms may downregulate; accordingly, the size effect of Nano-Se can then reappear. To test this hypothesis, Se-deficient mice were administered either 36 or 90 nm Nano-Se at supranutritional doses, in both a short-term model and a single-dose model. Under these conditions, Nano-Se showed a size effect on Se accumulation and glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity. A size effect of Nano-Se was found in 15 out of 18 total comparisons between sizes at the same dose and time in the two models. Furthermore, the magnitude of the size effect was more prominent on Se accumulation than on GST activity. GST is strictly regulated by transcriptional and translational mechanisms, so its increase in activity normally does not exceed 3-fold. In contrast, the homeostasis of Se accumulation is not as tightly controlled. In the present experiments, GST activity had reached or was approaching saturation, but liver Se was far below saturation. Therefore, our results strongly suggest that the saturation profile of the tested biomarker has an impact on the size effect of Nano-Se

  20. Poly(acrylic acid)-directed synthesis of colloidally stable single domain magnetite nanoparticles via partial oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altan, Cem L.; Gurten, Berna; Sadza, Roel; Yenigul, Elcin; Sommerdijk, Nico A. J. M.; Bucak, Seyda

    2016-10-01

    Octahedral, single domain magnetite nanoparticles with average size of ~55 nm were synthesized through oxidative aging of a ferrous hydroxide (Fe(OH)2) precursor at high pH in water. The synthesis was also carried out in the presence of the hydrophilic polymer poly(acrylic acid). Presence of the polymer changed the particle morphology from octahedral to spherical while average size decreased to 40-50 nm. Although these particles have a tendency to precipitate due to their high magnetic moment, dispersions of these particles were obtained in the presence of this particular polymer which made the particles stable in water for several days making them suitable for various biotechnological applications such as cell separation owing to their low toxicity.

  1. Tunable and noncytotoxic PET/SPECT-MRI multimodality imaging probes using colloidally stable ligand-free superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Pham, TH Nguyen; Lengkeek, Nigel A; Greguric, Ivan; Kim, Byung J; Pellegrini, Paul A; Bickley, Stephanie A; Tanudji, Marcel R; Jones, Stephen K; Hawkett, Brian S; Pham, Binh TT

    2017-01-01

    Physiologically stable multimodality imaging probes for positron emission tomography/single-photon emission computed tomography (PET/SPECT)-magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were synthesized using the superparamagnetic maghemite iron oxide (γ-Fe2O3) nanoparticles (SPIONs). The SPIONs were sterically stabilized with a finely tuned mixture of diblock copolymers with either methoxypolyethylene glycol (MPEG) or primary amine NH2 end groups. The radioisotope for PET or SPECT imaging was incorporated with the SPIONs at high temperature. 57Co2+ ions with a long half-life of 270.9 days were used as a model for the radiotracer to study the kinetics of radiolabeling, characterization, and the stability of the radiolabeled SPIONs. Radioactive 67Ga3+ and Cu2+-labeled SPIONs were also produced successfully using the optimized conditions from the 57Co2+-labeling process. No free radioisotopes were detected in the aqueous phase for the radiolabeled SPIONs 1 week after dispersion in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). All labeled SPIONs were not only well dispersed and stable under physiological conditions but also noncytotoxic in vitro. The ability to design and produce physiologically stable radiolabeled magnetic nanoparticles with a finely controlled number of functionalizable end groups on the SPIONs enables the generation of a desirable and biologically compatible multimodality PET/SPECT-MRI agent on a single T2 contrast MRI probe. PMID:28184160

  2. Superior model for fault tolerance computation in designing nano-sized circuit systems

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, N. S. S. Muthuvalu, M. S.; Asirvadam, V. S.

    2014-10-24

    As CMOS technology scales nano-metrically, reliability turns out to be a decisive subject in the design methodology of nano-sized circuit systems. As a result, several computational approaches have been developed to compute and evaluate reliability of desired nano-electronic circuits. The process of computing reliability becomes very troublesome and time consuming as the computational complexity build ups with the desired circuit size. Therefore, being able to measure reliability instantly and superiorly is fast becoming necessary in designing modern logic integrated circuits. For this purpose, the paper firstly looks into the development of an automated reliability evaluation tool based on the generalization of Probabilistic Gate Model (PGM) and Boolean Difference-based Error Calculator (BDEC) models. The Matlab-based tool allows users to significantly speed-up the task of reliability analysis for very large number of nano-electronic circuits. Secondly, by using the developed automated tool, the paper explores into a comparative study involving reliability computation and evaluation by PGM and, BDEC models for different implementations of same functionality circuits. Based on the reliability analysis, BDEC gives exact and transparent reliability measures, but as the complexity of the same functionality circuits with respect to gate error increases, reliability measure by BDEC tends to be lower than the reliability measure by PGM. The lesser reliability measure by BDEC is well explained in this paper using distribution of different signal input patterns overtime for same functionality circuits. Simulation results conclude that the reliability measure by BDEC depends not only on faulty gates but it also depends on circuit topology, probability of input signals being one or zero and also probability of error on signal lines.

  3. Microwave properties of polymer composites containing combinations of micro- and nano-sized magnetic fillers.

    PubMed

    Kolev, Svetoslav; Koutzarova, Tatyana; Yanev, Andrey; Ghelev, Chavdar; Nedkov, Ivan

    2008-02-01

    We investigated the microwave absorbing properties of composite bulk samples with nanostructured and micron-sized fillers. As magnetic fillers we used magnetite powder (Fe3O4 with low magnetocrystalline anisotropy) and strontium hexaferrite (SrFe12O9 with high magnetocrystalline anisotropy). The dielectric matrix consisted of silicone rubber. The average particle size was 30 nm for the magnetite powder and 6 micro/m for the strontium hexaferrite powder. The micron-sized SrFe12O19 powder was prepared using a solid-state reaction. We investigated the influence of the filler concentration and the filler ratio (Fe3O4/SrFe12O19) in the polymer matrix on the microwave absorption in a large frequency range (1 / 18 GHz). The results obtained showed that the highly anisotropic particles become centers of clusterification and the small magnetite particles form magnetic balls with different diameter depending on the concentration. The effect of adding micron-sized SrFe12O19 to the nanosized Fe3O4 filler in composites absorbing structures has to do with the ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) shifting to the higher frequencies due to the changes in the ferrite filler's properties induced by the presence of a magnetic material with high magnetocrystalline anisotropy. The two-component filler possesses new values of the saturation magnetization and of the anisotropy constant, differing from those of both SrFe12O1919 and Fe3O4, which leads to a rise in the effective anisotropy field. The results demonstrate the possibility to vary the composite's absorption characteristics in a controlled manner by way of introducing a second magnetic material.

  4. Toxicological mechanisms of nanosized titanium dioxide-induced spleen injury in mice after repeated peroral application.

    PubMed

    Sang, Xuezi; Li, Bing; Ze, Yuguan; Hong, Jie; Ze, Xiao; Gui, Suxin; Sun, Qingqing; Liu, Huiting; Zhao, Xiaoyang; Sheng, Lei; Liu, Dong; Yu, Xiaohong; Wang, Ling; Hong, Fashui

    2013-06-12

    Due to an increase in surface area per particle weight, nanosized titanium dioxide (nano-TiO2) has greatly increased its function as a catalyst and is used for whitening and brightening foods. However, concerns over the safety of nano-TiO2 have been raised. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the protein kinase MAPKs/PI3-K/Akt signaling pathways and transcription factors are activated prior to or concurrent with COX-2 up-regulation in mouse spleen following exposure to 10 mg/kg BW of pure anatase nano-TiO2 by the intragastric route for 15-90 days. The study clearly showed that nano-TiO2 was deposited in the spleen and resulted in reactive oxygen species production, time-dependent splenic inflammation, and necrosis, coupled with a 12.64-64.06% increase in COX-2 and prostaglandin E2 expression, respectively. Furthermore, nano-TiO2 elevated the expressions of ERK, AP-1, CRE, Akt, JNK2, MAPKs, PI3-K, c-Jun, and c-Fos in the spleen by 1.08-6-fold with increased exposure duration, respectively. These findings suggested that nano-TiO2-induced COX-2 expression may be mediated predominantly through the induction of AP-1 and CRE and that AP-1/CRE induction occurred via the MAPKs/PI3-K/Akt signaling pathways in the spleen. Therefore, the findings suggest the need for caution when using nanomaterials as food additives.

  5. Systemic antibody response to nano-size calcium phospate biocompatible adjuvant adsorbed HEV-71 killed vaccine

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Since 1980s, human enterovirus-71 virus (HEV-71) is one of the common infectious disease in Asian Pacific region since late 1970s without effective commercial antiviral or protective vaccine is unavailable yet. The work examines the role of vaccine adjuvant particle size and the route of administration on postvaccination antibody response towards HEV-71 vaccine adsorbed to calcium phosphate (CaP) adjuvant. Materials and Methods First, CaP nano-particles were compared to a commercial micro-size and vaccine alone. Secondly, intradermal reduced dosage was compared to the conventional intramuscular immunization. Killed HEV-71 vaccines adsorbed to CaP nano-size (73 nm) and commercial one of micro-size (1.7 µm) were administered through intradermal, intramuscular, rabbits received vaccine alone and unvaccinated animals. Results CaP nano-particles adsorbed HEV-71 vaccine displayed higher antibody than the micro-size or unadsorbed vaccine alone, through both parenteral immunization routes. Moreover, the intradermal route (0.5 µg/mL) of 0.1-mL volume per vaccine dose induced equal IgG antibody level to 1.0-mL intramuscular route (0.5 µg/mL). Conclusion The intradermal vaccine adsorbed CaP nano-adjuvant showed safer and significant antibody response after one-tenth reduced dose quantity (0.5 µg/mL) of only 0.1-mL volume as the most suitable protective, cost effective and affordable formulation not only for HEV-71; but also for developing further effective vaccines toward other human pathogens. PMID:25649429

  6. Biological synthesis of nanosized sulfide semiconductors: current status and future prospects.

    PubMed

    da Costa, João Pinto; Girão, Ana Violeta; Trindade, Tito; Costa, Maria Clara; Duarte, Armando; Rocha-Santos, Teresa

    2016-10-01

    There have been extensive and comprehensive reviews in the field of metal sulfide precipitation in the context of environmental remediation. However, these works have focused mainly on the removal of metals from aqueous solutions-usually, metal-contaminated effluents-with less emphasis on the precipitation process and on the end-products, frequently centering on metal removal efficiencies. Recently, there has been an increasing interest not only in the possible beneficial effects of these bioremediation strategies for metal-rich effluents but also on the formed precipitates. These metal sulfide materials are of special relevance in industry, due to their optical, electronic, and mechanical properties. Hence, identifying new routes for synthesizing these materials, as well as developing methodologies allowing for the control of the shape and size of particulates, is of environmental, economic, and practical importance. Multiple studies have shown proof-of-concept for the biological synthesis of inorganic metallic sulfide nanoparticles (NPs), resorting to varied organisms or cell components, though this information has scarcely been structured and compiled in a systematic manner. In this review, we overview the biological synthesis methodologies of nanosized metal sulfides and the advantages of these strategies when compared to more conventional chemical routes. Furthermore, we highlight the possibility of the use of numerous organisms for the synthesis of different metal sulfide NPs, with emphasis on sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). Finally, we put in perspective the potential of these methodologies in the emerging research areas of biohydrometallurgy and nanobiotechnology for the uptake of metals in the form of metal sulfide nanoparticles. A more complete understanding of the principles underlying the (bio)chemistry of formation of solids in these conditions may lead to the large-scale production of such metal sulfides, while simultaneously allowing an enhanced

  7. Magnetic and structural properties of nanosize Ni Zn Cr ferrite particles synthesized by combustion reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gama, L.; Hernandez, E. P.; Cornejo, D. R.; Costa, A. A.; Rezende, S. M.; Kiminami, R. H. G. A.; Costa, A. C. F. M.

    2007-10-01

    This paper reports on Cr 3+-doped and undoped Ni-Zn nanosize ferrite obtained by reaction combustion synthesis. The powders resulting from this synthesis were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and their magnetic properties examined with an alternative gradient magnetometer (AGM) and by ferromagnetic resonance (FMR). The XRD results confirmed the formation of Ni 0.5Zn 0.5Fe 2O 4 bulk spinel and small quantities of second phase hematite (αFe 2O 4) to the powders without chromium. However, the powders containing 0.1 mol of chromium showed only a Ni-Zn ferrite cubic phase. The Ni 0.5Zn 0.5Fe 2O 4 and Ni 0.5Zn 0.5Fe 1.9Cr 0.1O 4 showed average crystallite sizes of 20.7 and 22.7 nm, respectively. The SEM micrographs of the powders to the sample without chromium reveals nanoparticles with a regular morphology without pre-sintering and with the presence of soft agglomerations. The powder with 0.1 mol of chromium displays homogeneous and finer nanoparticles, which are more reactive and hence more agglomerated. Saturation magnetization of the phase without Cr 3+ was 61.97 emu/g, while that of the powder with chromium was 40.56 emu/g. The inclusion of chromium caused the magnetization index to drop by 34% and decreased the coercive field, Hc, by 77%. It is known that the inclusion of chromium is advantageous for high-frequency transformer applications.

  8. Improved cytotoxicity of paclitaxel loaded in nanosized lipid carriers by intracellular delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miao, Jing; Du, Yongzhong; Yuan, Hong; Zhang, Xingguo; Li, Qian; Rao, Yuefeng; Zhao, Mengdan; Hu, Fuqiang

    2015-01-01

    Nanosized lipid carriers (NLC) can improve the limited drug-loading (DL) capacity and drug expulsion during storage, and adjust the drug release profile of solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN). In this study, Paclitaxel (PTX)-loaded NLC were prepared by solvent diffusion method using monostearin as solid lipid and oleic acid (OA) as liquid lipid matrix. The blank NLC with different OA content (the size range was from 89.5 ± 7.4 to 160.2 ± 34.6 nm) showed smaller size than the blank SLN (the size was 272.7 ± 43.6 nm), while the PTX-loaded NLC (the size range was from 481.3 ± 29.8 to 561.7 ± 38.3 nm) showed little bigger size, higher DL capacity, and faster drug in vitro release rate comparing with SLN (the size was 437.3 ± 68.2 nm). The 50 % cellular growth inhibitions (IC50) of PTX-loaded NLC with 0, 5, 10, and 20 wt % OA were 0.92 ± 0.06, 0.69 ± 0.04, 0.25 ± 0.02, and 0.12 ± 0.02 µg mL-1, respectively, while the IC50 of TaxolTM was 1.72 ± 0.09 µg mL-1. For analyzing cellular drug effect, cellular uptakes of fluorescent NLC and intracellular drug concentration were investigated. As the incorporation of OA into solid lipid matrix could accelerate both the cellular uptake and the PTX delivery, loaded by NLC, the cytotoxicity of PTX could be enhanced, and further enhanced by increasing OA content in NLC.

  9. Novel processing of bioglass ceramics from silicone resins containing micro- and nano-sized oxide particle fillers.

    PubMed

    Fiocco, L; Bernardo, E; Colombo, P; Cacciotti, I; Bianco, A; Bellucci, D; Sola, A; Cannillo, V

    2014-08-01

    Highly porous scaffolds with composition similar to those of 45S5 and 58S bioglasses were successfully produced by an innovative processing method based on preceramic polymers containing micro- and nano-sized fillers. Silica from the decomposition of the silicone resins reacted with the oxides deriving from the fillers, yielding glass ceramic components after heating at 1000°C. Despite the limited mechanical strength, the obtained samples possessed suitable porous architecture and promising biocompatibility and bioactivity characteristics, as testified by preliminary in vitro tests.

  10. Aging of the nanosized photochromic WO3 films and the role of adsorbed water in the photochromism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavrilyuk, A. I.

    2016-02-01

    Here it has been reported on aging of the nanosized WO3 film, which is revealed is continuous reduction of the photochromic sensitivity over time. Water molecules physically adsorbed on the film surface from ambient air form donor-acceptor and hydrogen bonds, changing gradually the adsorption state to chemisorption which prevents an access of organic molecules that serve as hydrogen donors by the photochromism. The mechanism of the process has been investigated and discussed. The role of water in the photochromism has been highlighted. The difference in the efficiency for being of a hydrogen donor in the photochromic process between water and organic molecules is discussed.

  11. Effect of interface atomic structure on the electronic properties of nano-sized metal-oxide interfaces.

    PubMed

    Qin, Wei; Hou, Jiechang; Bonnell, Dawn A

    2015-01-14

    We report that the size dependence of electronic properties at nanosized metal-semiconducting oxide interfaces is significantly affected by the interface atomic structure. The properties of interfaces with two orientations are compared over size range of 20-200 nm. The difference in interface atomic structure leads to electronic structure differences that alter electron transfer paths. Specifically, interfaces with a higher concentration of undercoordinated Ti result in enhanced tunneling due to the presence of defect states or locally reduced tunnel barrier widths. This effect is superimposed on the mechanisms of size dependent properties at such small scales.

  12. Influence of the preparation methods on the structure and magnetic properties of nanosized Al-substituted barium hexaferrite powders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peneva, P.; Koutzarova, T.; Kolev, S.; Ghelev, Ch.; Vertruyen, B.; Henrist, C.; Closet, R.; Cloots, R.; Zaleski, A.

    2016-03-01

    We report studies on the correlation between the method of preparation, microstructure and magnetic properties of nanosized monodomain Al-substituted barium hexaferrite (BaAlFe11O19) powders. The powders were obtained by the co-precipitation and single microemulsion methods. The particles in the samples had a size between 80 nm and 135 nm depending on the synthesis conditions. The value of the saturation magnetization Ms measured was very high, namely, 66.12 emu/g. The hysteresis loop was very narrow, with the coercivity Hc being 163 Oe, which indicated that the particles were in a near-superparamagnetic state.

  13. Self-assembled Ag nanoparticle network passivated by a nano-sized ZnO layer for transparent and flexible film heaters

    SciTech Connect

    Seo, Ki-Won; Kim, Han-Ki; Kim, Min-Yi; Chang, Hyo-Sik

    2015-12-15

    We investigated a self-assembled Ag nanoparticle network electrode passivated by a nano-sized ZnO layer for use in high-performance transparent and flexible film heaters (TFFHs). The low temperature atomic layer deposition of a nano-sized ZnO layer effectively filled the uncovered area of Ag network and improved the current spreading in the self-assembled Ag network without a change in the sheet resistance and optical transmittance as well as mechanical flexibility. The time-temperature profiles and heat distribution analysis demonstrate that the performance of the TFTH with the ZnO/Ag network is superior to that of a TFFH with Ag nanowire electrodes. In addition, the TFTHs with ZnO/Ag network exhibited better stability than the TFFH with a bare Ag network due to the effective current spreading through the nano-sized ZnO layer.

  14. Biological consequences from interaction of nanosized titanium(iv) oxides with defined human blood components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stella, Aaron

    The utility of engineered nanomaterials is growing, particularly the titanium(iv) oxide (titanium dioxide, TiO2) nanoparticles. TiO 2 is very useful for brightening paints, and coloring foods. Nano-sized TiO2 is also useful for sunscreens, cosmetics, and can be utilized as a photocatalyst. However, the nanometer size of the TiO2 nanoparticle is a characteristic that may contribute oxidative stress to red blood cells (RBCs) in humans. This study utilized screening methods to evaluate different forms of TiO2 nanoparticles which differ by primary particle size, specific surface area, crystalline phase, and surface polarity. RBCs are rich in the intracellular antioxidant glutathione (GSH). HPLC analysis revealed that some TiO2 nanoparticles caused oxidation of GSH to glutathione disulfide (GSSG). Vitamin E is a major membrane-bound antioxidant. Vitamin E levels were then determined by HPLC in the RBC membrane after exposure to TiO2 nanoparticles. The HPLC results showed that each nanoparticle oxidized RBC glutathione and membrane vitamin E at different rates. When hemoglobin was mixed with each TiO2 nanoparticle, hemoglobin was adsorbed at varying rates to the surface of the nanoparticles. Similarly, the aminothiol homocysteine was also adsorbed at different rates by the TiO2 nanoparticles. Using light microscopy, some TiO2 nanoparticles caused the formation of RBC aggregates which significantly changed the RBC morphology. The aggregation data was quantified using a hemacytometer. The TiO2 nanoparticles also caused hemolysis of RBCs. Hemolysis is considered to be a toxic endpoint for RBCs. Changes in the nucleated lymphocyte gene expression of certain oxidative stress genes were also observed using real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). The data indicates that RBCs can ultimately be hemolyzed by biological oxidative damage resulting from a combination of oxidative mechanisms. Additionally, the TiO2 nanoparticles demonstrated the ability to adsorb biomolecules to

  15. Effects of Incorporating Nanosized Calcium Phosphate Particles on Properties of Whisker-Reinforced Dental Composites

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Hockin H. K.; Sun, Limin; Weir, Mike D.; Takagi, Shozo; Chow, Laurence C.; Hockey, Bernard

    2009-01-01

    Clinical data indicate that secondary caries and restoration fracture are the most common problems facing tooth restorations. Our ultimate goal was to develop mechanically-strong and caries-inhibiting dental composites. The specific goal of this pilot study was to understand the relationships between composite properties and the ratio of reinforcement filler/releasing filler. Nanoparticles of monocalcium phosphate monohydrate (MCPM) were synthesized and incorporated into a dental resin for the first time. Silicon carbide whiskers were fused with silica nanoparticles and mixed with the MCPM particles at MCPM/whisker mass ratios of 1:0, 2:1, 1:1, 1:2, and 0:1. The composites were immersed for 1–56 days to measure Ca and PO4 release. When the MCPM/whisker ratio was changed from 0:1 to 1:2, the composite flexural strength (mean ± SD; n = 5) decreased from 174 ± 26 MPa to 138 ± 9 MPa (p < 0.05). A commercial nonreleasing composite had a strength of 112 ± 14 MPa. When the MCPM/whisker ratio was changed from 1:2 to 1:1, the Ca concentration at 56 days increased from 0.77 ± 0.04 mmol/L to 1.74 ± 0.06 mmol/L (p < 0.05). The corresponding PO4 concentration increased from 3.88 ± 0.21 mmol/L to 9.95 ± 0.69 mmol/L (p < 0.05). Relationships were established between the amount of release and the MCPM volume fraction vMCPM in the resin: [Ca]= 42.9 vMCPM2.7, and [PO4] = 48.7 vMCPM1.4. In summary, the method of combining nanosized releasing fillers with reinforcing fillers yielded Ca- and PO4-releasing composites with mechanical properties matching or exceeding a commercial stress-bearing, nonreleasing composite. This method may be applicable to the use of other Ca–PO4 fillers in developing composites with high stress-bearing and caries-preventing capabilities, a combination not yet available in any dental materials. PMID:16924611

  16. Cr(VI) Sorption by Nanosized FeS-Coated Sand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, M.; Jeong, H. Y.; Lee, S.; Kang, N.; Kim, K. H.; Choi, H. J.

    2015-12-01

    Cr(VI) sorption experiments were conducted as a function of pH (4.7, 7.0 and 9.7) using nanosized FeS-coated sand under anoxic environments. Under the experimental conditions, the sand used, with the FeS content of 0.068 mmol per 1 g sand, completely reduced the initially added Cr(VI) to Cr(III) over the pH range examined. The sorption of the once-reduced Cr(III) varied greatly with the solution pH. By the solution-phase analysis, significant amounts of Cr(III) remained as dissolved species at pH 4.7. On the other hands, dissolved Cr was below the detection limit (0.2 μM) at pH 7.0 and 9.7, indicating the greater sorption of Cr(III) at neutral to basic pH than acidic pH. From Cr-K edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) analysis of the solid products, the sorbed Cr was shown to be present predominantly as trivalent state in all samples. Regardless of pH, the second coordination shell around Cr (i.e., the Cr-Cr(Fe) shell) was shown to be located at ~2.6 Å, which was far shorter than those in Cr(III)-bearing model compounds such as Cr(OH)3(s) and [Cr, Fe](OH)3(s). Furthermore, the coordination numbers of the second and third shells in the sorption samples (N = 0.7-1.8) were much lower than those in Cr(OH)3(s) and [Cr, Fe](OH)3(s). Taken together, the sorption of the once-reduced Cr(III) was likely to occur via surface-mediated processes (e.g., surface complexation and/or surface precipitation) rather than the bulk-phase precipitation. Financial support was provided by the "R&D Project on Environmental Management of Geologic CO2 Storage" from the KEITI (Project Number: 2014001810003).

  17. [Investigation on damage of bovine serum albumin (BSA) catalyzed by nano-sized silicon dioxide (SiO2) under ultrasonic irradiation using spectral methods].

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun; Ding, Na; Zhang, Zhao-hong; Guo, Ying; Wang, Shi-xian; Xu, Rui; Zhang, Xiang-dong

    2009-04-01

    The damage of bovine serum albumin (BSA) molecules under ultrasonic irradiation in the presence of nano-sized silicon dioxide (SiO2) particles was studied by UV-Vis and fluorescence spectra. In addition, the influences of ultrasonic irradiation time, nano-sized SiO2 addition amount, solution acidity (pH) and ultrasonic irradiation power on the damage of BSA molecules in aqueous solution were also detected. For BSA solution of 1.0 x 10(-5) mol x L(-1) at (37.0+/-0.2) degrees C, the UV-Vis spectra of BSA solutions showed that the absorption peaks of BSA displayed obvious hyperchromic effect with the increase in some influence factors such as ultrasonic irradiation time, nano-sized SiO2 addition amount, pH value and ultrasonic irradiation power. However, the fluorescence spectra of BSA solutions showed the phenomenon of fluorescence quenching with the increase in ultrasonic irradiation time, nano-sized SiO2 addition amount, pH value and ultrasonic irradiation power. Moreover, the possible mechanism behind the damage of BSA molecule in the presence of nano-sized SiO2 powders under ultrasonic irradiation was discussed. It was considered that the damage of BSA molecules was attributed to the formation of *OH radicals resulting from the sonoluminescence and high-heat excitation of ultrasonic cavitation. The research results could be of great significance to using sonocatalytic method to treat tumour in clinic application and for developing nano-sized drug in the future.

  18. Porous carbon nanotubes decorated with nanosized cobalt ferrite as anode materials for high-performance lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lingyan; Zhuo, Linhai; Cheng, Haiyang; Zhang, Chao; Zhao, Fengyu

    2015-06-01

    Generally, the fast ion/electron transport and structural stability dominate the superiority in lithium-storage applications. In this work, porous carbon nanotubes decorated with nanosized CoFe2O4 particles (p-CNTs@CFO) have been rationally designed and synthesized by the assistance of supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2). When tested as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries, the p-CNTs@CFO composite exhibits outstanding electrochemical behavior with high lithium-storage capacity (1077 mAh g-1 after 100 cycles) and rate capability (694 mAh g-1 at 3 A g-1). These outstanding electrochemical performances are attributed to the synergistic effect of porous p-CNTs and nanosized CFO. Compared to pristine CNTs, the p-CNTs with substantial pores in the tubes possess largely increased specific surface area and rich oxygen-containing functional groups. The porous structure can not only accommodate the volume change during lithiation/delithiation processes, but also provide bicontinuous electron/ion pathways and large electrode/electrolyte interface, which facilitate the ion diffusion kinetics, improving the rate performance. Moreover, the CFO particles are bonded strongly to the p-CNTs through metal-oxygen bridges, which facilitate the electron fast capture from p-CNTs to CFO, and thus resulting in a high reversible capacity and excellent rate performance. Overall, the porous p-CNTs provide an efficient way for ion diffusion and continuous electron transport as anode materials.

  19. Nano-sized ZnO powders prepared by co-precipitation method with various pH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purwaningsih, S. Y.; Pratapa, S.; Triwikantoro, Darminto

    2016-04-01

    In this work, nano-sized ZnO powders have been synthesized by the co-precipitation method with Zn(CH3COOH)2.2H2O, HCl, and NH3.H2O as raw materials in various pH ranging from 8 to 10. The purity, microstructure, chemical group analysis, morphology of the prepared ZnO powders were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR), energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX), and scanning electron microscope (SEM), respectively. Rietveld refinement of XRD data showed that ZnO crystallizes in the wurtzite structure with high purity. The obtained powders were nano-sized particles with the average crystallite size about 17.9 ± 2.1 nm synthesized with pH of 9.5, at 85°C, and stirring time of 6 h. The SEM results have visualied the morphology of ZnO nanoparticles with spherical-like shape. The effect of processing conditions on morphology of ZnO was also discussed.

  20. Development of high-energy amorphous solid dispersion of nanosized nobiletin, a citrus polymethoxylated flavone, with improved oral bioavailability.

    PubMed

    Onoue, Satomi; Uchida, Atsushi; Takahashi, Haruki; Seto, Yoshiki; Kawabata, Yohei; Ogawa, Kazunori; Yuminoki, Kayo; Hashimoto, Naofumi; Yamada, Shizuo

    2011-09-01

    Nobiletin (NOB), a citrus polymethoxylated flavone, attracts attention because of a wide range of pharmacological activities such as anti-inflammation, anticancer, and most notably ameliorative actions on memory impairment and β-amyloid pathology. However, clinical use of NOB could be partly limited due to its poor solubility and bioavailability, which might necessitate high doses in order to reach therapeutic plasma concentrations in the central nervous system (CNS) after oral administration. In the present study, amorphous solid dispersion (SD) of nanosized NOB (NOB/SD) was prepared by wet-milling technique with the aim of improving dissolution behavior and pharmacokinetic properties of NOB. Physicochemical properties of the NOB/SD were characterized with focus on surface morphology, particle size distribution, dissolution, and crystallinity assessment. Wet-milled NOB particles in NOB/SD appeared to be amorphous with a diameter of approximately 270 nm, and there was marked improvement in the dissolution behavior compared with that of crystalline NOB. After oral administration of NOB/SD, higher exposure of NOB was observed with increases of bioavailability and CNS distribution by 13- and sevenfold, respectively, compared with those of crystalline NOB. These findings suggest that an amorphous, nanosized SD could be a viable option for enhancing the bioavailability and CNS delivery of NOB.

  1. Highly Water-Stable Novel Lanthanide Wheel Cluster Organic Frameworks Featuring Coexistence of Hydrophilic Cagelike Chambers and Hydrophobic Nanosized Channels.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yuan-Yuan; Shi, Yang; Geng, Bing; Bo, Qi-Bing

    2017-02-15

    In attempts to investigate the potential luminescent sensing materials for sensitive detection of environmental pollutants, a new family of lanthanide wheel cluster organic frameworks (Ln-WCOFs) UJN-Ln4 has been constructed by employing one of the cycloalkane dicarboxylic acid derivatives. Adopting different conformations, the ligand links Ln4 second building units (SBUs) and Ln24 tertiary building units (TBUs) to form a unique wheel cluster layer-pillared 3D framework featuring the coexistence of hydrophobic nanosized channels and trigonal antiprism arrays with hydrophilic cagelike chambers. Apart from charming structures, isostructural UJN-Ln4 displays interesting porous, water-stable features. Systematic luminescence studies demonstrate that solvent water molecules can enhance the emission intensity of solid-state UJN-Eu4. Acting as a recyclable luminescent probe, water-stable luminescent UJN-Eu4 exhibits superior "turn-off" detection for Fe(3+) and Cu(2+) ions in aqueous solutions. Due to the nanosized hydrophobic channels, UJN-Eu4 also shows highly sensitive sensing of sodium dodecyl benzenesulfonate (SDBS) via luminescence "turn-on" respondence, representing the first example of quantitatively detecting SDBS in aqueous solutions by employing luminescent lanthanide frameworks as fluorescent sensors. The results also open up the exploration of novel luminescent Ln-WCOFs exhibiting unique applications in sensitive detecting of harmful pollutants in aquatic environments.

  2. Effect of nano-size ZrO2 addition on the flux pinning properties of (Bi, Pb)-2223 superconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zouaoui, M.; Ghattas, A.; Annabi, M.; Ben Azzouz, F.; Ben Salem, M.

    2008-12-01

    We investigated the microstructure and flux pinning capability of the bulk (Bi,Pb)2Sr2Ca2Cu3Oy system (denoted as (Bi, Pb)-2223) with 0.0-0.3 wt% nano-size ZrO2 particles (10-20 nm) addition synthesized by solid state reaction. Phase analysis by x-ray diffraction (XRD), granular structure examination by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), microstructure investigation by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) equipped with energy dispersive x-ray spectrometer (EDS), critical current density dependence on the applied magnetic field Jc(H) and electrical resistivity ρ(T,H) were carried out. The results show that activation energies of vortex flux motion U(H), critical current density Jc(H) behavior in applied magnetic field and volume pinning force density Fp are enhanced by the addition of 0.1 wt% ZrO2. The pinning force analysis and microstructure observations indicated that the improvement of flux pinning is suggested to originate from the introduction of extrinsic pinning centers due to the formation of normal nano-sized Zr-rich phase.

  3. A reversible adsorption-desorption interface of DNA based on nano-sized zirconia and its application.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shou-Qing; Xu, Jing-Juan; Chen, Hong-Yuan

    2004-08-01

    It is essential for the information storage in DNA-based bio-chips to construct a reversible exchange interface of DNA. Here, a highly reproducible and reversible adsorption-desorption interface of DNA based on the nano-sized zirconia in different pH solution was successfully fabricated. The results showed that DNA can be adsorbed onto the nano-sized zirconia from its solution, and can desorb from the nanoparticles in 0.10 M KOH solution. When the matrix with nanoparticles returns to the DNA solution again, DNA can be re-adsorbed onto them as initial state. Moreover, the interaction of DNA with non-electroactive molecules, 2,2'-bipyridine, has been studied by electrochemistry method in the aid of probe Co(phen)(3)(3+). The experiments showed that when 2,2'-bipyridine was added into the test solution, the voltammetric peak currents of Co(phen)(3)(3+) decreased; and the decrease value of peak current against the concentration of 2,2'-bipyridine has a good Langmuir relationship, by which the equilibrium constant of interaction between 2,2'-bipyridine and DNA was estimated to be 1.57 x 10(4)M(-1).

  4. Microencapsulated Multicellular Tumor Spheroids as a Tool to Test Novel Anticancer Nanosized Drug Delivery Systems In Vitro.

    PubMed

    Privalova, Anna M; Uglanova, Svetlana V; Kuznetsova, Natalia R; Klyachko, Natalia L; Golovin, Yury I; Korenkov, Viktor V; Vodovozova, Elena L; Markvicheva, Elena A

    2015-07-01

    In the study, MCF-7 human breast adenocarcinoma cells were used to study cytotoxicity of novel anticancer nanosized formulations, such as docetaxel-loaded nanoemulsion and liposomal formulation of a lipophilic methotrexate (MTX) prodrug. In vitro study of cytotoxicity was carried out in 2 models, namely using 3D in vitro model based on multicellular tumor spheroids (MTS) and 2D monolayer culture. MTS were generated by tumor cell cultivation within alginate-oligochitosan microcapsules. In the case of the monolayer culture, cell viability was found to be 25, 18 and 12% for the samples containing nanoemulsion at concentrations 20, 300 and 1000 nM of docetaxel, respectively, after 48 hs incubation. For MTS these values were higher, namely 33, 23 and 18%, respectively. Cytotoxicity of liposomal MTX prodrug-based formulation with final concentration of 1, 2, 10, 50, 100 and 1000 nM in both models was also studied. MTX liposomal formulation demonstrated lower cytotoxicity on MTS compared to intact MTX. Moreover, MTS were also more resistant to both liposomal formulation and intact MTX than the monolayer culture. Thus, at 1000 nM MTX in the liposomal form, cell viability in MTS was 1.4-fold higher than that in the monolayer culture. MTS could be proposed as a promising tool to test novel anticancer nanosized formulations in vitro.

  5. New nanosized catalytic membrane reactors for hydrogenation with stored hydrogen: Prerequisites and the experimental basis for their creation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soldatov, A. P.; Tsodikov, M. V.; Parenago, O. P.; Teplyakov, V. V.

    2010-12-01

    The prerequisites and prospects for creating a new generation of nanosized membrane reactors are considered. For the first time, hydrogenation reactions take place in ceramic membrane pores with hydrogen adsorbed beforehand in mono- and multilayered oriented carbon nanotubes with graphene walls (OCNTGs) formed on the internal pore surface. It is shown for Trumem microfiltration membranes with D avg ˜130 nm that oxidation reactions of CO on a Cu0.03Ti0.97O2 ± δ catalyst and the oxidative conversion of methane into synthesis gas and light hydrocarbons on La + Ce/MgO are considerably enhanced when they occur in membranes. Regularities of hydrogen adsorption, storage, and desorption in nanosized membrane reactors are investigated through OCNTG formation in Trumem ultrafiltration membrane pores with D avg = 50 and 90 nm and their saturation with hydrogen at a pressure of 10-13 MPa. It is shown that the amount of adsorbed hydrogen reaches 14.0% of OCNTG mass. Using thermogravimetric analysis in combination with mass-spectrometric analysis, hydrogen adsorption in OCNTG is first determined and its desorption is found to proceed at atmospheric pressure at a temperature of ˜175°C. It is shown that adsorbed hydrogen affects the transport properties of the membranes, reducing their efficiency with respect to liquids by 4-26 times. This is indirect confirmation of its high activity, due apparently the dissociative mechanism of adsorption.

  6. Synthesis of nano-sized ZnO particles by co-precipitation method with variation of heating time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purwaningsih, S. Y.; Pratapa, S.; Triwikantoro, Darminto

    2016-02-01

    Zinc oxide powders have been synthesized by a co-precipitation method at low temperature (85 °C), using zinc acetate dihydrate, ammonia, hydrochloric acid solutions as the reactants. A number of process parameters such as reaction temperature, solution basicity or pH and heating time are the main factors affecting the morphology and physical properties of the ZnO nanostructures. In this work the effect of heating time on the morphology and particles size were studied. The as-synthesized ZnO powders were characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. The samples were also analyzed using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR). Rietveld refinement of XRD data confirms that ZnO crystallizes in the hexagonal wurtzite structure with high degree of purity and the (101) plane predominant. The XRD results show that the average crystallite sizes were about 66, 27 and 12 nm for 3, 4 and 5 h of heating times, respectively. The XRD analysis indicated that a fraction of nano-sized ZnO powders were in the form of aggregates, which was also verified by TEM image. The TEM photograph demonstrated that the nano-sized ZnO particles were a pseudo-spherical shape.

  7. Turning Waste into Value: Nanosized Natural Plant Materials of Solanum incanum L. and Pterocarpus erinaceus Poir with Promising Antimicrobial Activities

    PubMed Central

    Griffin, Sharoon; Tittikpina, Nassifatou Koko; Al-marby, Adel; Alkhayer, Reem; Denezhkin, Polina; Witek, Karolina; Gbogbo, Koffi Apeti; Batawila, Komlan; Duval, Raphaël Emmanuel; Nasim, Muhammad Jawad; Awadh-Ali, Nasser A.; Kirsch, Gilbert; Chaimbault, Patrick; Schäfer, Karl-Herbert; Keck, Cornelia M.; Handzlik, Jadwiga; Jacob, Claus

    2016-01-01

    Numerous plants are known to exhibit considerable biological activities in the fields of medicine and agriculture, yet access to their active ingredients is often complicated, cumbersome and expensive. As a consequence, many plants harbouring potential drugs or green phyto-protectants go largely unnoticed, especially in poorer countries which, at the same time, are in desperate need of antimicrobial agents. As in the case of plants such as the Jericho tomato, Solanum incanum, and the common African tree Pterocarpus erinaceus, nanosizing of original plant materials may provide an interesting alternative to extensive extraction and isolation procedures. Indeed, it is straightforward to obtain considerable amounts of such common, often weed-like plants, and to mill the dried material to more or less uniform particles of microscopic and nanoscopic size. These particles exhibit activity against Steinernema feltiae or Escherichia coli, which is comparable to the ones seen for processed extracts of the same, respective plants. As S. feltiae is used as a model nematode indicative of possible phyto-protective uses in the agricultural arena, these findings also showcase the potential of nanosizing of crude “waste” plant materials for specific practical applications, especially—but not exclusively—in developing countries lacking a more sophisticated industrial infrastructure. PMID:27104554

  8. An efficient and low toxic human serum albumin conjugated polyethylenimine nano-sized complex for gene delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jiin-Long; Peng, Ssu-Wei; Ko, Wei-Hsu; Wu, Ching-Jan; Li, Teung-Wang; Yeh, Ming-Kung; Chiang, Chiao-Hsi

    2014-09-01

    A novel low cytotoxicity and high efficiency transfection reagent, human serum albumin (HSA)-conjugated polyethylenimine (PEI) was prepared to improve the effect of PEI on gene transfection in this study. Transfecting a cell with DNA is a crucial step for DNA vaccination or gene therapy. PEI, a non-viral vector, is one of the popularly used cationic polymers because of its intensive positive charge that condenses DNA as a nano-sized complex, and attaches on the negative-charged cell membrane, triggering cell endocytosis. In this study, we used a zero-length cross-linkage EDC system to chemically conjugate HSA and PEI, and the size of final synthesized product HSA-conjugated PEI (HSA-PEI) was 14 nm with a positive zeta potential 20.8 mV. We also evaluated the characteristics of HSA-PEI in cells. We chose the A549 cell line as our evaluation model because of its GP-60 receptor. Our results showed that HSA-conjugated PEI was easily applied to form a nano-sized complex with plasmid DNA (pDNA) by simply mixing. The functional ligand, HSA, has a large size, much free PEI (or equivalent free PEI effect) and increases the protection of pDNA by stereo-barring, good condensation effect. HSA-PEI also showed good pDNA transfection enhancement in A549 cell lines, and low toxic characteristics.

  9. Synthesis and electrochemical performance of surface-modified nano-sized core/shell tin particles for lithium ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Schmuelling, Guido; Oehl, Nikolas; Knipper, Martin; Kolny-Olesiak, Joanna; Plaggenborg, Thorsten; Meyer, Hinrich-Wilhelm; Placke, Tobias; Parisi, Jürgen; Winter, Martin

    2014-09-05

    Tin is able to lithiate and delithiate reversibly with a high theoretical specific capacity, which makes it a promising candidate to supersede graphite as the state-of-the-art negative electrode material in lithium ion battery technology. Nevertheless, it still suffers from poor cycling stability and high irreversible capacities. In this contribution, we show the synthesis of three different nano-sized core/shell-type particles with crystalline tin cores and different amorphous surface shells consisting of SnOx and organic polymers. The spherical size and the surface shell can be tailored by adjusting the synthesis temperature and the polymer reagents in the synthesis, respectively. We determine the influence of the surface modifications with respect to the electrochemical performance and characterize the morphology, structure, and thermal properties of the nano-sized tin particles by means of high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, and thermogravimetric analysis. The electrochemical performance is investigated by constant current charge/discharge cycling as well as cyclic voltammetry.

  10. Synthesis of nano-sized ZnO particles by co-precipitation method with variation of heating time

    SciTech Connect

    Purwaningsih, S. Y. Pratapa, S.; Triwikantoro; Darminto

    2016-02-08

    Zinc oxide powders have been synthesized by a co-precipitation method at low temperature (85 °C), using zinc acetate dihydrate, ammonia, hydrochloric acid solutions as the reactants. A number of process parameters such as reaction temperature, solution basicity or pH and heating time are the main factors affecting the morphology and physical properties of the ZnO nanostructures. In this work the effect of heating time on the morphology and particles size were studied. The as-synthesized ZnO powders were characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. The samples were also analyzed using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR). Rietveld refinement of XRD data confirms that ZnO crystallizes in the hexagonal wurtzite structure with high degree of purity and the (101) plane predominant. The XRD results show that the average crystallite sizes were about 66, 27 and 12 nm for 3, 4 and 5 h of heating times, respectively. The XRD analysis indicated that a fraction of nano-sized ZnO powders were in the form of aggregates, which was also verified by TEM image. The TEM photograph demonstrated that the nano-sized ZnO particles were a pseudo-spherical shape.

  11. Noncatalytic hydrogenation of decene-1 with hydrogen accumulated in a hybrid carbon nanostructure in nanosized membrane reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soldatov, A. P.

    2014-08-01

    Studies on the creation of nanosized membrane reactors (NMRs) of a new generation with accumulated hydrogen and a regulated volume of reaction zone were continued at the next stage. Hydrogenation was performed in the pores of ceramic membranes with hydrogen preliminarily adsorbed in mono- and multilayered orientated carbon nanotubes with graphene walls (OCNTGs)—a new hybrid carbon nanostructure formed on the inner pore surface. Quantitative determination of hydrogen adsorption in OCNTGs was performed using TRUMEM ultrafiltration membranes with D av = 50 and 90 nm and showed that hydrogen adsorption was up to ˜1.5% of the mass of OCNTG. The instrumentation and procedure for noncatalytic hydrogenation of decene-1 at 250-350°C using hydrogen accumulated and stored in OCNTG were developed. The conversion of decene-1 into decane was ˜0.2-1.8% at hydrogenation temperatures of 250 and 350°C, respectively. The rate constants and activation energy of hydrogenation were determined. The latter was found to be 94.5 kJ/mol, which is much smaller than the values typical for noncatalytic hydrogenations and very close to the values characteristic for catalytic reactions. The quantitative distribution of the reacting compounds in each pore regarded as a nanosized membrane reactor was determined. The activity of hydrogen adsorbed in a 2D carbon nanostructure was evaluated. Possible mechanisms of noncatalytic hydrogenation were discussed.

  12. Fabrication of nano-sized magnetic tunnel junctions using lift-off process assisted by atomic force probe tip.

    PubMed

    Jung, Ku Youl; Min, Byoung-Chul; Ahn, Chiyui; Choi, Gyung-Min; Shin, Il-Jae; Park, Seung-Young; Rhie, Kungwon; Shin, Kyung-Ho

    2013-09-01

    We present a fabrication method for nano-scale magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs), employing e-beam lithography and lift-off process assisted by the probe tip of atomic force microscope (AFM). It is challenging to fabricate nano-sized MTJs on small substrates because it is difficult to use chemical mechanical planarization (CMP) process. The AFM-assisted lift-off process enables us to fabricate nano-sized MTJs on small substrates (12.5 mm x 12.5 mm) without CMP process. The e-beam patterning has been done using bi-layer resist, the poly methyl methacrylate (PMMA)/ hydrogen silsesquioxane (HSQ). The PMMA/HSQ resist patterns are used for both the etch mask for ion milling and the self-aligned mask for top contact formation after passivation. The self-aligned mask buried inside a passivation oxide layer, is readily lifted-off by the force exerted by the probe tip. The nano-MTJs (160 nm x 90 nm) fabricated by this method show clear current-induced magnetization switching with a reasonable TMR and critical switching current density.

  13. Sonochemical synthesis, characterization, antimicrobial activity and textile dyeing behavior of nano-sized cobalt(III) complexes.

    PubMed

    Bala, Ritu; Behal, Jagriti; Kaur, Varinder; Jain, Subheet Kumar; Rani, Riveka; Manhas, Rajesh Kumari; Prakash, Vinit

    2017-03-01

    Using ultrasonic irradiations, nano-sized cobalt(III) coordination complexes, [Co(NH3)6]Cl3·2H2O (A), [Co(en)3]Cl3·3H2O (B) (en-ethylenediamine) and [Co(dien)2]Cl3·3.5H2O (C) (dien-diethylenetriamine) were synthesized. These complexes were characterized by spectroscopic studies like IR, UV/Visible and NMR. Morphology of these complexes was determined by SEM and particle size with the help of TEM & Zeta-sizer. The comparative thermal stability along with phase difference between nano structures and their respective bulk complexes has been studied by thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) study respectively. The dyeing behavior of nano-sized Co(III) complexes and their respective bulks has also been studied (using both exhaust and pad dyeing methods) on cotton and wool fabrics and results shown rationalized dyeing behavior. All these complexes were further tested for antimicrobial activity (against B. subtilis, E. coli, K. pneumoniae, F. oxysporum and A. alternate) and it was observed that nano sized complexes enhanced the activity further.

  14. Evaluating structure selection in the hydrothermal growth of FeS2 pyrite and marcasite

    PubMed Central

    Kitchaev, Daniil A.; Ceder, Gerbrand

    2016-01-01

    While the ab initio prediction of the properties of solids and their optimization towards new proposed materials is becoming established, little predictive theory exists as to which metastable materials can be made and how, impeding their experimental realization. Here we propose a quasi-thermodynamic framework for predicting the hydrothermal synthetic accessibility of metastable materials and apply this model to understanding the phase selection between the pyrite and marcasite polymorphs of FeS2. We demonstrate that phase selection in this system can be explained by the surface stability of the two phases as a function of ambient pH within nano-size regimes relevant to nucleation. This result suggests that a first-principles understanding of nano-size phase stability in realistic synthesis environments can serve to explain or predict the synthetic accessibility of structural polymorphs, providing a guideline to experimental synthesis via efficient computational materials design. PMID:27966547

  15. Evaluating structure selection in the hydrothermal growth of FeS2 pyrite and marcasite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitchaev, Daniil A.; Ceder, Gerbrand

    2016-12-01

    While the ab initio prediction of the properties of solids and their optimization towards new proposed materials is becoming established, little predictive theory exists as to which metastable materials can be made and how, impeding their experimental realization. Here we propose a quasi-thermodynamic framework for predicting the hydrothermal synthetic accessibility of metastable materials and apply this model to understanding the phase selection between the pyrite and marcasite polymorphs of FeS2. We demonstrate that phase selection in this system can be explained by the surface stability of the two phases as a function of ambient pH within nano-size regimes relevant to nucleation. This result suggests that a first-principles understanding of nano-size phase stability in realistic synthesis environments can serve to explain or predict the synthetic accessibility of structural polymorphs, providing a guideline to experimental synthesis via efficient computational materials design.

  16. Thermally driven metastable solid-solution Li0.5FePO4 in nanosized particles and its phase separation behaviors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoo, Sunyoung; Kang, Byoungwoo

    2013-10-01

    Nanosized LiFePO4 particles easily show a fast electrochemical response that can be achieved via a non-equilibrium pathway. To understand this intriguing phase transition behavior in nanosized LiFePO4 particles, the metastable solid-solution phase was prepared by thermal treatment with a chemically delithiated nanosized Li0.5FePO4 sample. Thermal treatment makes all the nanosized particles transform easily to the metastable solid-solution phase because of the large thermal energy while an electrochemical reaction does not. The phase separation behavior of the metastable solid-solution sample (Li0.5FePO4) was investigated under various kinetic conditions to understand critical factors affecting the phase separation behavior of nanosized LiFePO4 particles. The main findings in this study are as follows. The first finding is that the depressed phase separation behavior of the metastable phase may originate from the nanoparticle effect, in which the formation of a second phase inside a nanosized particle is not energetically favored because of the large interfacial energy. Therefore, phase separation in nanosized particles occurs between particles rather than inside a particle. If there was no over-potential, such as in the relaxed pellet experiment or in the relaxed electrode experiment in the electrolyte, the metastable phase was quite stable showing no phase separation behavior even though efficient pathways for lithium ions and electrons were well developed. The second finding is that the phase separation behavior of the metastable phase actually depends on the over-potential. Under open circuit voltage (OCV) conditions, the metastable phase started to exhibit a slight structural change during a long relaxation time, about ten days. The slow change of the metastable phase may be due to the low driving force, less than 10 mV, which comes from the energetic difference between the two-phase state and the metastable phase. This indicates that the phase separation

  17. Thermally driven metastable solid-solution Li(0.5)FePO4 in nanosized particles and its phase separation behaviors.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Sunyoung; Kang, Byoungwoo

    2013-10-25

    Nanosized LiFePO4 particles easily show a fast electrochemical response that can be achieved via a non-equilibrium pathway. To understand this intriguing phase transition behavior in nanosized LiFePO4 particles, the metastable solid-solution phase was prepared by thermal treatment with a chemically delithiated nanosized Li0.5FePO4 sample. Thermal treatment makes all the nanosized particles transform easily to the metastable solid-solution phase because of the large thermal energy while an electrochemical reaction does not. The phase separation behavior of the metastable solid-solution sample (Li0.5FePO4) was investigated under various kinetic conditions to understand critical factors affecting the phase separation behavior of nanosized LiFePO4 particles. The main findings in this study are as follows. The first finding is that the depressed phase separation behavior of the metastable phase may originate from the nanoparticle effect, in which the formation of a second phase inside a nanosized particle is not energetically favored because of the large interfacial energy. Therefore, phase separation in nanosized particles occurs between particles rather than inside a particle. If there was no over-potential, such as in the relaxed pellet experiment or in the relaxed electrode experiment in the electrolyte, the metastable phase was quite stable showing no phase separation behavior even though efficient pathways for lithium ions and electrons were well developed. The second finding is that the phase separation behavior of the metastable phase actually depends on the over-potential. Under open circuit voltage (OCV) conditions, the metastable phase started to exhibit a slight structural change during a long relaxation time, about ten days. The slow change of the metastable phase may be due to the low driving force, less than 10 mV, which comes from the energetic difference between the two-phase state and the metastable phase. This indicates that the phase separation

  18. A novel copper (II) complex containing a tetradentate Schiff base: Synthesis, spectroscopy, crystal structure, DFT study, biological activity and preparation of its nano-sized metal oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tohidiyan, Zeinab; Sheikhshoaie, Iran; Khaleghi, Mouj; Mague, Joel T.

    2017-04-01

    A new nano-sized copper (II) complex, [Cu(L)] with a tetra dentate Schiff base ligand, 2-((E)-(2-(E-5- bromo-2-hydroxybezenylideneamino) methyl)-4-bromophenol [H2L] was prepared by the reaction between of Cu (CH3COO)2·2H2O and (H2L) ligand with the ratio of 1:1, at the present of triethylamine by sonochemical method. The structure of [Cu (L)] complex was determined by FT-IR, UV-Vis, FESEM and molar conductivity. The structure of [Cu (L)] complex was characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction. The geometry of [Cu (L)] complex was optimized using density functional theory (DFT) method with the B3LYP/6-31(d) level of theory. The calculated bond lengths and bond angles are in good agreement with the X-ray data. This complex was used as a novel precursor for preparing of CuO nano particles by the thermal decomposition method. The antibacterial activities of [H2L] ligand, nano-sized [Cu (L)] complex and nano-sized CuO have been screened against various strains of bacteria. According to the results, nano-sized CuO can be considered as an appropriate antibiotic agent.

  19. Improvement of the tool life of a micro-end mill using nano-sized SiC/Ni electroplating method.

    PubMed

    Park, Shinyoung; Kim, Kwang-Su; Roh, Ji Young; Jang, Gyu-Beom; Ahn, Sung-Hoon; Lee, Caroline Sunyong

    2012-04-01

    High mechanical properties of a tungsten carbide micro-end-mill tool was achieved by extending its tool life by electroplating nano-sized SiC particles (< 100 nm) that had a hardness similar to diamond in a nickel-based material. The co-electroplating method on the surface of the micro-end-mill tool was applied using SiC particles and Ni particles. Organic additives (saccharin and ammonium chloride) were added in a Watts bath to improve the nickel matrix density in the electroplating bath and to smooth the surface of the co-electroplating. The morphology of the coated nano-sized SiC particles and the composition were measured using Scanning Electron Microscope and Energy Dispersive Spectrometer. As the Ni/SiC co-electroplating layer was applied, the hardness and friction coefficient improved by 50%. Nano-sized SiC particles with 7 wt% were deposited on the surface of the micro-end mill while the Ni matrix was smoothed by adding organic additives. The tool life of the Ni/SiC co-electroplating coating on the micro-end mill was at least 25% longer than that of the existing micro-end mills without Ni/SiC co-electroplating. Thus, nano-sized SiC/Ni coating by electroplating significantly improves the mechanical properties of tungsten carbide micro-end mills.

  20. [Degradation of trace nitrobenzene in aqueous solution by ozone with catalysis of nanosized TiO2 supported on haydite].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jing; Ma, Jun; Yang, Yi-xin; Wang, Sheng-jun; Qin, Qing-dong

    2007-10-01

    This paper presented the results of catalytic degradation of nitrobenzene by ozone in the presence of nanosized TiO2 supported on haydite, and evaluated influencing factors and the pathway of degradation. Catalysts were prepared by sol-sel method, and sintered in electrical resistance furnace. The optimum sinter temperature was found for preparing the catalyst. The SEM was also used to characterize the catalyst. When the catalyst was sintered at 700 degrees C, it had the best property of catalysis. The catalytic ozonation of nitrobenzene was first order reaction with respect to the concentration of nitrobenzene, and OH* was the dominating species in the oxidation process. As the dose of catalyst increased, the removing rate of nitrobenzene also increased. The highest ozonation rate of this compound, which is 46.5%, was found when pH value was approximately 10. Besides, the catalyst showed good ability after 3 times repeated uses.

  1. Absorption and Bioavailability of Nano-Size Reduced Calcium Citrate Fortified Milk Powder in Ovariectomized and Ovariectomized-Osteoporosis Rats.

    PubMed

    Erfanian, Arezoo; Mirhosseini, Hamed; Rasti, Babak; Hair-Bejo, Mohd; Bin Mustafa, Shuhaimi; Abd Manap, Mohd Yazid

    2015-06-24

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of fortification and nano-size reduction on calcium absorption and bioavailability of milk powder formula in sham, ovariectomized, and ovariectomized-osteoporosis rats as a menopause and menopause-osteoporosis model. Skim milk powder and skim milk powder fortified with calcium citrate and the suitable doses of inulin, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and vitamins D3, K1, and B6 were formulated based on the North American and Western European recommended dietary allowances. Optimization on cycle and pressure of high-pressure homogenizer was done to produce nano-fortified milk powder. In vivo study demonstrated that fortification and calcium citrate nano-fortified milk powder increased absorption and bioavailability of calcium, as well as bone stiffness and bone strength in sham, ovariectomized, and ovariectomized-osteoporosis rats. This study successfully developed an effective fortified milk powder for food application.

  2. Inactivation of Avian Influenza Virus, Newcastle Disease Virus and Goose Parvovirus Using Solution of Nano-Sized Scallop Shell Powder

    PubMed Central

    THAMMAKARN, Chanathip; SATOH, Keisuke; SUGURO, Atsushi; HAKIM, Hakimullah; RUENPHET, Sakchai; TAKEHARA, Kazuaki

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Scallop shell powder produced by calcination process − the average diameter of the powder particles being 20 µm (SSP) − was further ground into nano-sized particles, with average diameter of 500 nm, here designated CaO-Nano. Solution of CaO-Nano could inactivate avian influenza virus within 5 sec, whereas the solution of SSP could not even after 1 hr incubation. CaO-Nano solution could also inactivate Newcastle disease virus and goose parvovirus within 5 sec and 30 sec, respectively. The virus-inactivating capacity (neutralizing index: NI>3) of the solution was not reduced by the presence of 20% fetal bovine serum. CaO-Nano solution seems to be a good candidate of materials for enhancement of biosecurity in farms. PMID:24871643

  3. Inactivation of avian influenza virus, newcastle disease virus and goose parvovirus using solution of nano-sized scallop shell powder.

    PubMed

    Thammakarn, Chanathip; Satoh, Keisuke; Suguro, Atsushi; Hakim, Hakimullah; Ruenphet, Sakchai; Takehara, Kazuaki

    2014-09-01

    Scallop shell powder produced by calcination process - the average diameter of the powder particles being 20 µm (SSP) - was further ground into nano-sized particles, with average diameter of 500 nm, here designated CaO-Nano. Solution of CaO-Nano could inactivate avian influenza virus within 5 sec, whereas the solution of SSP could not even after 1 hr incubation. CaO-Nano solution could also inactivate Newcastle disease virus and goose parvovirus within 5 sec and 30 sec, respectively. The virus-inactivating capacity (neutralizing index: NI>3) of the solution was not reduced by the presence of 20% fetal bovine serum. CaO-Nano solution seems to be a good candidate of materials for enhancement of biosecurity in farms.

  4. Comparison of nano-sized Mn oxides with the Mn cluster of photosystem II as catalysts for water oxidation.

    PubMed

    Najafpour, Mohammad Mahdi; Ghobadi, Mohadeseh Zarei; Haghighi, Behzad; Tomo, Tatsuya; Shen, Jian-Ren; Allakhverdiev, Suleyman I

    2015-02-01

    "Back to Nature" is a promising way to solve the problems that we face today, such as air pollution and shortage of energy supply based on conventional fossil fuels. A Mn cluster inside photosystem II catalyzes light-induced water-splitting leading to the generation of protons, electrons and oxygen in photosynthetic organisms, and has been considered as a good model for the synthesis of new artificial water-oxidizing catalysts. Herein, we surveyed the structural and functional details of this cluster and its surrounding environment. Then, we review the mechanistic findings concerning the cluster and compare this biological catalyst with nano-sized Mn oxides, which are among the best artificial Mn-based water-oxidizing catalysts.

  5. Changes in the magnetic and mechanical properties of thermally aged Fe-Cu alloys due to nano-sized precipitates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yi; Li, Yuanfei; Deng, Shanquan; Xu, Ben; Li, Qiulin; Shu, Guogang; Liu, Wei

    2016-01-01

    The changes in the magnetic properties, mechanical properties, and microstructural parameters of Fe-Cu alloys due to thermal aging have been investigated to improve the fundamental understanding of using magnetic technology for the nondestructive evaluation (NDE) of irradiation embrittlement in the reactor pressure vessel (RPV). Nano-sized Cu particles precipitated from a Fe matrix after thermal aging at 500 °C for various times, and the microstructure parameters were determined. The coercivity, Barkhausen noise (BN), Vickers hardness, and yield stress were also measured for these samples. These properties show the same hardening-softening trend with increasing aging time, which can be interpreted in terms of the microstructure parameters evolution based on the model of the pinning of precipitates on domain walls and dislocations. These results suggest the practicability of using magnetic technology for the NDE of the irradiation embrittlement of the RPV.

  6. Surfactant-modified montmorillonite as a nanosized adsorbent for removal of an insecticide: kinetic and isotherm studies.

    PubMed

    Hassani, Aydin; Khataee, Alireza; Karaca, Semra; Shirzad-Siboni, Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    Surfactant-modified montmorillonites (MMT) were prepared using trimethyloctylammonium bromide (TMOAB) and employed as a nanosized adsorbent to remove diazinon from aqueous solutions. The prepared adsorbent was characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX). The dependence of removal efficiency on initial diazinon concentration, amount of adsorbent, pH of the solution and ionic strength was investigated. The affinity sequence for ion adsorption on TMOAB/MMT was in the order: without anion> sodium carbonate> sodium bicarbonate> sodium sulphate> sodium chloride. The adsorption kinetic and isotherm were best fit by a pseudo-second-order kinetic and Langmuir isotherm models, respectively.

  7. Dependence on cation distribution of particle size, lattice parameter, and magnetic properties in nanosize Mn-Zn ferrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rath, Chandana; Anand, S.; Das, R. P.; Sahu, K. K.; Kulkarni, S. D.; Date, S. K.; Mishra, N. C.

    2002-02-01

    In Mn1-xZnxFe2O4 (x=0 to 1) nanosize particles prepared through hydrothermal precipitation we observe a decrease in particle size from 13 to 4 nm with increasing Zn concentration from 0 to 1. The lattice constant, a, for all Mn/Zn concentrations is found to be less than that for the corresponding bulk values. At specific compositions within x=0.35 and 0.5, the temperature dependence of the magnetization exhibits a cusp-like behavior below the temperature at which the nanoparticles undergo a ferri- to para-magnetic transition (Tc). The Curie temperatures, Tc, of the nanoparticles are in the range of 175-500 °C, which are much higher than their corresponding bulk values. To explain these unusual features, the strong preferential occupancy of cations in chemically inequivalent A and B sites and the metastable cation distribution in nanoparticles are invoked.

  8. Propagation of electro-kinetic waves in magnetized GaN semiconductor with nano-sized ion colloids

    SciTech Connect

    Saxena, Ajay; Sharma, Giriraj; Jat, K. L.; Rishi, M. P.

    2015-07-31

    Based on hydrodynamic model of multi-component plasma, an analytical study on propagation of longitudinal electro-kinetic (LEK) waves in wurtzite and zincblende structures of GaN is carried out. Nano-sized ion colloids (NICs) are embedded in the sample by the technique of ion-implantation. The implanted NICs are considered massive by an order as compared to the host lattice points and do not participate in Based LEK perturbations. Though, the NICs are continuously bombarded by the electrons as well as the holes yet, the former acquires a net negative charge owing to relatively higher mobility of electrons and consequently results into depletion of electron density in the medium. It i s found that the presence of charged NICs significantly modifies the dispersion and amplification characteristics of LEK waves in magnetized GaN semiconductor plasma and their role becomes increasingly effective as the fraction of charge on them increases.

  9. Magnetic nanosized rare earth iron garnets R3Fe5O12: Sol-gel fabrication, characterization and reinspection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Opuchovic, Olga; Kareiva, Aivaras; Mazeika, Kestutis; Baltrunas, Dalis

    2017-01-01

    The magnetic nanosized rare earth iron garnets (R3Fe5O12, where R=Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu) were prepared by an aqueous sol-gel method. Herein we present, that all these garnets can be obtained by this effective synthesis method simply by changing the temperature of the final annealing. It was also demonstrated, that a different annealing temperature leads to a different particle size distribution of the final product. The SEM analysis results revealed that the smallest particles were formed in the range of 75-130 nm. The phase purity and structure of the rare earth iron garnets were estimated using XRD analysis and Mössbauer spectroscopy. Magnetic properties were determined by magnetization measurements. The relation between the particle size, composition and magnetic properties of the sol-gel derived garnets were also discussed in this study.

  10. Biodegradable HA-PLA 3-D porous scaffolds: effect of nano-sized filler content on scaffold properties.

    PubMed

    Kothapalli, Chandrasekhar R; Shaw, Montgomery T; Wei, Mei

    2005-11-01

    Scaffolds comprising poly(lactic acid) and nano-hydroxyapatite (HA) were prepared using the solvent-casting/salt-leaching technique. NaCl was used as the leaching agent. Nano-sized HA was synthesized by a hydrothermal method at 170 degrees C and autogenous pressure. High-resolution TEM imaging revealed that the HA particles were ellipsoidal-shaped with needle-like morphologies. The particles had an average size of approximately 25 nm in width and 150 nm in length with aspect ratios ranging from 6 to 8. As the HA content increased in the scaffold from 0 to 50 wt%, the compression modulus of the scaffolds increased from 4.72+/-1.2 to 9.87+/-1.8 MPa, while the yield strength from 0.29+/-0.03 to 0.44+/-0.01 MPa. Such polymeric scaffolds should be suitable materials for non-load sharing tissue-engineering applications.

  11. High-yield nanosized (Si)AlPO-41 using ethanol polarity equalization and co-templating synthesis approach.

    PubMed

    Majano, Gerardo; Raltchev, Kolio; Vicente, Aurelie; Mintova, Svetlana

    2015-03-19

    Control of the crystallite dimensions of the microporous aluminophosphate AlPO-41 (AFO-type framework structure), and the Si-containing analogue SAPO-41, was attained down to the nanometer scale under stable hydrothermal conditions. The combined application of a tetraalkylammonium co-template (tetrapentylammonium hydroxide) along with an amine structure directing agent (n-dipropylamine) stabilized through the use of ethanol in the initial suspension enables a crystallization medium, which remains homogeneous throughout the entire synthesis. As a direct consequence of the optimized homogeneity of the suspension, the AFO-type microporous nanocrystals (AlPO-41 and SAPO-41) with a size in the range of 30-500 nm with yields surpassing 50% are obtained. The feasibility to obtain nanosized AlPO-41 and SAPO-41 crystals using ethanol as a polarity equalizing agent, resulting in a scalable hydrothermal synthesis from non-colloidal starting mixtures without the use of other assisting methods, is presented.

  12. [Study on anti-coagulant property of radio frequency sputtering nano-sized TiO2 thin films].

    PubMed

    Tang, Xiaoshan; Li, Da

    2010-12-01

    Nano-TiO2 thin films were prepared by Radio frequency (RF) sputtering on pyrolytic carbon substrates. The influences of sputtering power on the structure and the surface morphology of TiO2 thin films were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), and by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results show that the TiO2 films change to anatase through the optimum of sputtering power. The mean diameter of nano-particle is about 30 nm. The anti-coagulant property of TiO2 thin films was observed through platelet adhesion in vitro. The result of experiment reveals the amount of thrombus on the TiO2 thin films being much less than that on the pyrolytic carbon. It also indicates that the RF sputtering Nano-sized TiO2 thin films will be a new kind of promising materials applied to artificial heart valve and endovascular stent.

  13. Crystallized nano-sized alpha-tricalcium phosphate from amorphous calcium phosphate: microstructure, cementation and cell response.

    PubMed

    Vecbiskena, Linda; Gross, Karlis Agris; Riekstina, Una; Yang, Thomas Chung-Kuang

    2015-04-17

    New insight on the conversion of amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) to nano-sized alpha tricalcium phosphate (α-TCP) provides a faster pathway to calcium phosphate bone cements. In this work, synthesized ACP powders were treated with either water or ethanol, dried, crystallized between 700 and 800 °C, and then cooled at different cooling rates. Particle size was measured in a scanning electron microscope, but crystallite size calculated by Rietveld analysis. Phase composition and bonding in the crystallized powder was assessed by x-ray diffraction and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. Results showed that 50 nm sized α-TCP formed after crystallization of lyophilized powders. Water treated ACP retained an unstable state that may allow ordering to nanoapatite, and further transition to β-TCP after crystallization and subsequent decomposition. Powders treated with ethanol, favoured the formation of pure α-TCP. Faster cooling limited the growth of β-TCP. Both the initial contact with water and the cooling rate after crystallization dictated β-TCP formation. Nano-sized α-TCP reacted faster with water to an apatite bone cement than conventionally prepared α-TCP. Water treated and freeze-dried powders showed faster apatite cement formation compared to ethanol treated powders. Good biocompatibility was found in pure α-TCP nanoparticles made from ethanol treatment and with a larger crystallite size. This is the first report of pure α-TCP nanoparticles with a reactivity that has not required additional milling to cause cementation.

  14. Development of a website and biobank database for the Nanosized Cancer Polymarker Biochip Project: a Multicenter Italian Experience.

    PubMed

    Leon, Antonette E; Fabricio, Aline S C; Benvegnù, Fabio; Michilin, Silvia; Secco, Annamaria; Spangaro, Omar; Meo, Sabrina; Gion, Massimo

    2011-01-01

    The Nanosized Cancer Polymarker Biochip Project (RBLA03S4SP) funded by an Italian MIUR-FIRB grant (Italian Ministry of University and Research - Investment Funds for Basic Research) has led to the creation of a free-access dynamic website, available at the web address https://serviziweb.ulss12.ve.it/firbabo, and of a centralized database with password-restricted access. The project network is composed of 9 research units (RUs) and has been active since 2005. The aim of the FIRB project was the design, production and validation of optoelectronic and chemoelectronic biosensors for the simultaneous detection of a novel class of cancer biomarkers associated with immunoglobulins of the M class (IgM) for early diagnosis of cancer. Biomarker immune complexes (BM-ICs) were assessed on samples of clinical cases and matched controls for breast, colorectal, liver, ovarian and prostate malignancies. This article describes in detail the architecture of the project website, the central database application, and the biobank developed for the FIRB Nanosized Cancer Polymarker Biochip Project. The article also illustrates many unique aspects that should be considered when developing a database within a multidisciplinary scenario. The main deliverables of the project were numerous, including the development of an online database which archived 1400 case report forms (700 cases and 700 matched controls) and more than 2700 experimental results relative to the BM-ICs assayed. The database also allowed for the traceability and retrieval of 21,000 aliquots archived in the centralized bank and stored as backup in the RUs, and for the development of a centralized biological bank in the coordinating unit with 6300 aliquots of serum. The constitution of the website and biobank database enabled optimal coordination of the RUs involved, highlighting the importance of sharing samples and scientific data in a multicenter setting for the achievement of the project goals.

  15. Strategy for chemotherapeutic delivery using a nanosized porous metal-organic framework with a central composite design

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yingpeng; Li, Xiuyan; Guan, Qingxia; Zhang, Chunjing; Xu, Ting; Dong, Yujing; Bai, Xinyu; Zhang, Weiping

    2017-01-01

    Background Enhancing drug delivery is an ongoing endeavor in pharmaceutics, especially when the efficacy of chemotherapy for cancer is concerned. In this study, we prepared and evaluated nanosized HKUST-1 (nanoHKUST-1), nanosized metal-organic drug delivery framework, loaded with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) for potential use in cancer treatment. Materials and methods NanoHKUST-1 was prepared by reacting copper (II) acetate [Cu(OAc)2] and benzene-1,3,5-tricarboxylic acid (H3BTC) with benzoic acid (C6H5COOH) at room temperature (23.7°C±2.4°C). A central composite design was used to optimize 5-FU-loaded nanoHKUST-1. Contact time, ethanol concentration, and 5-FU:material ratios were the independent variables, and the entrapment efficiency of 5-FU was the response parameter measured. Powder X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and nitrogen adsorption were used to determine the morphology of nanoHKUST-1. In addition, 5-FU release studies were conducted, and the in vitro cytotoxicity was evaluated. Results Entrapment efficiency and drug loading were 9.96% and 40.22%, respectively, while the small-angle X-ray diffraction patterns confirmed a regular porous structure. The SEM and TEM images of the nanoHKUST-1 confirmed the presence of round particles (diameter: approximately 100 nm) and regular polygon arrays of mesoporous channels of approximately 2–5 nm. The half-maximal lethal concentration (LC50) of the 5-FU-loaded nanoHKUST-1 was approximately 10 µg/mL. Conclusion The results indicated that nanoHKUST-1 is a potential vector worth developing as a cancer chemotherapeutic drug delivery system. PMID:28260892

  16. Effect of heat treatment on the efficient adsorption of Cd2+ ions by nanosized SiO2, TiO2 and their composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waseem, M.; Muntha, S. T.; Nawaz, M.; Rehman, W.; Rehman, M. A.; Shah, K. H.

    2017-01-01

    In this study nanosized SiO2, TiO2 and their composite were synthesized via the oil in water (o/w) microemulsion method and their thermal treatment was performed at 378, 573, 973 and 1273 K. The physicochemical properties of the samples were studied by surface area measurements, scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction analysis. The Brunauer, Emmett and Teller surface area of all the adsorbents increases from 378 to 573 K, while it decreases upon further heat treatment. The average crystallite size decreases by heating the samples from 378 to 573 K while it increases when the adsorbents were thermally heat treated at 973 and 1273 K. The intensity of a few IR bands was reduced along with the disappearance of most of the bands at higher temperatures. The appearance of the beta-cristobalite phase in SiO2 and the rutile phase in TiO2 was confirmed from the diffraction data. The heat treated samples were subjected to preliminary adsorption of Cd2+ ions from aqueous solution at 293 K. Based on the preliminary adsorption experiments, SiO2, TiO2 and their composite heat treated at 573 K were selected for further adsorption studies. The Langmuir model was found to be fitted to the sorption data of TiO2 and the nanocomposite while the adsorption of Cd2+ ions by the SiO2 nanoparticles was explained well based on the Freundlich model. In the present study, the maximum Cd2+ adsorption capacity of SiO2, TiO2 and their composite was found to be 79.72, 98.55 and 107.17 mg g‑1, respectively. The q m and K f values obtained in the present study were found to be far better than those reported in the literature. The negative values of ΔG confirm the feasibility of an adsorption process at higher temperatures. The positive values of ΔH and ΔS represent the endothermic and physical nature of the adsorption process with the increased randomness of Cd2+ ions at the solid/solution interface.

  17. The normal state properties of nano-sized CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} added Bi-based superconductors in bipolaron model

    SciTech Connect

    Ben Salem, M. K.; Slimani, Y.; Hannachi, E.; Hamrita, A.; Ben Azzouz, F.; Ben Salem, M.

    2013-12-16

    The effect of nano-sized CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} particles (10 nm in diameter) addition on the structure and the normal state transport properties of polycrystalline Bi-based superconductors were systematically studied. The additional amount, x wt.%, of CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} in this case varied from 0.0 to 1 wt.% of the total mass of the sample. Phase analysis by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Electrical resistance as a function of temperature, ρ(T) were carried out. Nano-sized particles addition modifies the electrical behavior of the normal state with increasing the CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} concentration. The bipolaron model can explain properly the normal state resistivity of the samples.

  18. Flow-induced voltage generation by moving a nano-sized ionic liquids droplet over a graphene sheet: Molecular dynamics simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Qunfeng; Jia, Jingjing; Guan, Yongji; He, Xiaodong; Zhang, Xiaoping

    2016-03-01

    In this work, the phenomenon of the voltage generation is explored by using the molecular dynamics simulations, which is performed by driving a nano-sized droplet of room temperature ionic liquids moving along the monolayer graphene sheet for the first time. The studies show that the cations and anions of the droplet will move with velocity nonlinearly increasing to saturation arising by the force balance. The traditional equation for calculating the induced voltage is developed by taking the charge density into consideration, and larger induced voltages in μV-scale are obtained from the nano-size simulation systems based on the ionic liquids (ILs) for its enhanced ionic drifting velocities. It is also derived that the viscosity acts as a reduction for the induced voltage by comparing systems composed of two types of ILs with different viscosity and temperature.

  19. Low-temperature synthesis and growth of superparamagnetic Zn 0.5Ni 0.5Fe 2O 4 nanosized particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xia; Wang, Guisu

    2009-05-01

    Mono-disperse spinel Ni 0.5Zn 0.5Fe 2O 4 nanosized particles have been synthesized via a hydrothermal method at low temperature. X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM) analysis indicated that the synthesized nanocrystals were of pure cubic spinel structure with the size about 6-20 nm. The activation energy of grain growth is 35.06 kJ/mol experimented by the Arrhenius equation. A primary experimental model was put forward to shed light on the growth mechanism of crystallined spinel Ni-Zn ferrite nanosized particles under hydrothermal conditions. The magnetic measurements shows that the prepared Ni 0.5Zn 0.5Fe 2O 4 nanoparticle possess good superparamagnetic behavior.

  20. Flow-induced voltage generation by moving a nano-sized ionic liquids droplet over a graphene sheet: Molecular dynamics simulation.

    PubMed

    Shao, Qunfeng; Jia, Jingjing; Guan, Yongji; He, Xiaodong; Zhang, Xiaoping

    2016-03-28

    In this work, the phenomenon of the voltage generation is explored by using the molecular dynamics simulations, which is performed by driving a nano-sized droplet of room temperature ionic liquids moving along the monolayer graphene sheet for the first time. The studies show that the cations and anions of the droplet will move with velocity nonlinearly increasing to saturation arising by the force balance. The traditional equation for calculating the induced voltage is developed by taking the charge density into consideration, and larger induced voltages in μV-scale are obtained from the nano-size simulation systems based on the ionic liquids (ILs) for its enhanced ionic drifting velocities. It is also derived that the viscosity acts as a reduction for the induced voltage by comparing systems composed of two types of ILs with different viscosity and temperature.

  1. Catalytic damage of bovine serum albumin by metronidazole under ultrasonic irradiation in the presence of nano-sized TiO2 powder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J.; Wang, Z. G.; Jin, X. D.; Guo, Y. W.; Gao, J. Q.; Li, K.; Wang, B. X.; Li, Y.

    2012-05-01

    In previous work, it was found that the bovine serum albumin (BSA) could obviously be damaged by nano-sized TiO2 powder as a sonocatalyst under ultrasonic irradiation. In this work, metronidazole (MTZ) was adopted as a sensitizer to intensify the damage of BSA molecules. It was found that the damage degree of BSA molecules in the presence of MTZ was more serious than in the absence of MTZ. That is, under ultrasonic irradiation combined with nano-sized TiO2 powder, the addition of MTZ could remarkably aggravate the damage to BSA molecules. Meanwhile, the damage degree was also affected by some influence factors, such as ultrasonic irradiation time, ultrasonic irradiation power, MTZ concentration, solution acidity, ionic strength and solution temperature. In addition, the damage site of BSA molecules was also estimated by synchronous fluorescence spectra. It was found that the damage site of BSA molecules was mainly at tyrosine (Tyr) residue.

  2. Nanosized Spinel Li4Ti5O12 Anode Material Prepared by Gel-polymer Method using Furfuryl Alcohol as Polymerizable Solvent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Chu-xiong; Bai, Yao-cai; Wei, Cong; Chen, Chun-hua

    2012-08-01

    Nanosized Li4Ti5O12 powders are synthesized by a polymerization-based method using titanium butoxide and lithium nitrate as precursors and furfuryl alcohol as a polymerizable solvent. The prepared samples are characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and Braunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) analysis. The electrochemical performances of these Li4Ti5O12 powders are also studied. The effect of different surfactants including citric acid, polyvinylpyrrolidone, and cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide on the structure and properties is also investigated. It is found that pure spinel phase of Li4Ti5O12 is obtained at an annealing temperature of 700 °C or higher. The use of surfactants can improve the powder morphology of nanosized particles with less agglomeration. With suitable annealing temperature and the addition of surfactant, Li4Ti5O12 powders with high BET surface area and favorable electrochemical performance can be obtained.

  3. Dependence of optical properties of composite materials with nanosize oxide coatings on the properties of film-forming sols: II. Effect of the sol component concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shemanin, V. G.; Atkarskaya, A. B.

    2015-07-01

    We consider the effect of the component structure of a sol on optical characteristics (microscopic structure, refractive index and thickness of coating, reflectance, transmittance, and optical loss in composites of the type of a glass substrate + a nanosize oxide coating of the CuO-TiO2 system) of composite materials with nanosize coatings, which are obtained in accordance with the sol-gel technology. It is shown that the chemical composition of precursors considerably affects the maturing of alcosols, the structure of coatings, and optical characteristics of composites. It is proposed that the dispersed phase represented by nanotubes facilitates a closer packing of particles into a layer as compared to the pseudospherical phase.

  4. Origin of high oxygen reduction reaction activity of Pt12 and strategy to obtain better catalyst using sub-nanosized Pt-alloy clusters

    PubMed Central

    Miyazaki, Kasumi; Mori, Hirotoshi

    2017-01-01

    In the present study, methods to enhance the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) activity of sub-nanosized Pt clusters were investigated in a theoretical manner. Using ab initio molecular dynamics and Monte Carlo simulations based on density functional theory, we have succeeded in determining the origin of the superior ORR activity of Pt12 compared to that of Pt13. That is, it was clarified that the electronic structure of Pt12 fluctuates to a greater extent compared to that of Pt13, which leads to stronger resistance against catalyst poisoning by O/OH. Based on this conclusion, a set of sub-nanosized Pt-alloy clusters was also explored to find catalysts with better ORR activities and lower financial costs. It was suggested that Ga4Pt8, Ge4Pt8, and Sn4Pt8 would be good candidates for ORR catalysts. PMID:28349985

  5. Ground-based simulation of the Earth's upper atmosphere oxygen impact on polymer composites with nanosized fillers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novikov, Lev; Chernik, Vladimir; Voronina, Ekaterina; Chechenin, Nikolay; Samokhina, Maria S.; Bondarenko, Gennady G.; Gaidar, Anna I.; Vorobyeva, Ekaterina A.; Petrov, Dmitrii V.; Chirskaya, Natalia P.

    The improvement of durability of polymer composites to the space environment impact is a very important task because these materials are considered currently as very promising type of materials for aerospace engineering. By embedding various nanosized fillers into a polymer matrix it is possible to obtain composites with required mechanical, thermal, electrical and optic properties. However, while developing such materials for operation in low Earth orbits (LEO), it is necessary to study thoroughly their durability to the impact of atomic oxygen (AO) of the Earth’s upper atmosphere, because AO is the main factor that causes erosion and damage of spacecraft surface materials in LEO. Ground-based simulation of AO impact on polymer composites was performed on a magnetoplasmadynamic accelerator developed at Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, Lomonosov Moscow State University. Polymer composite samples which were prepared as films of 30-50 mum thickness with different amount (3-20 wt%) of various inorganic and organic nanofillers including nanoparticles of metal oxides and carbides as well as polyethoxysiloxanes and carbon nanotubes (CNTs), were exposed to hyperthermal AO flow, and mass losses of samples were estimated. Changes in the structure of composite surface and in material optical properties were studied. The experiments demonstrated that embedding nanosized fillers into a polymer matrix can significantly reduced mass losses, and the good dispersion of fillers improves AO durability in comparison with initial polymers [1]. The computer simulation within the developed 2D Monte-Carlo model demonstrated a good agreement with the experimental data [2]. Special attention was given to the study of AO impact on aligned multiwalled CNTs and CNT-based composites [3]. Some results of computer simulation of hyperthermal oxygen atom interaction with CNT and graphene as well as with polymers are presented to discuss elementary processes which occur in nanostructures

  6. High-yield nanosized (Si)AlPO-41 using ethanol polarity equalization and co-templating synthesis approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majano, Gerardo; Raltchev, Kolio; Vicente, Aurelie; Mintova, Svetlana

    2015-03-01

    Control of the crystallite dimensions of the microporous aluminophosphate AlPO-41 (AFO-type framework structure), and the Si-containing analogue SAPO-41, was attained down to the nanometer scale under stable hydrothermal conditions. The combined application of a tetraalkylammonium co-template (tetrapentylammonium hydroxide) along with an amine structure directing agent (n-dipropylamine) stabilized through the use of ethanol in the initial suspension enables a crystallization medium, which remains homogeneous throughout the entire synthesis. As a direct consequence of the optimized homogeneity of the suspension, the AFO-type microporous nanocrystals (AlPO-41 and SAPO-41) with a size in the range of 30-500 nm with yields surpassing 50% are obtained. The feasibility to obtain nanosized AlPO-41 and SAPO-41 crystals using ethanol as a polarity equalizing agent, resulting in a scalable hydrothermal synthesis from non-colloidal starting mixtures without the use of other assisting methods, is presented.Control of the crystallite dimensions of the microporous aluminophosphate AlPO-41 (AFO-type framework structure), and the Si-containing analogue SAPO-41, was attained down to the nanometer scale under stable hydrothermal conditions. The combined application of a tetraalkylammonium co-template (tetrapentylammonium hydroxide) along with an amine structure directing agent (n-dipropylamine) stabilized through the use of ethanol in the initial suspension enables a crystallization medium, which remains homogeneous throughout the entire synthesis. As a direct consequence of the optimized homogeneity of the suspension, the AFO-type microporous nanocrystals (AlPO-41 and SAPO-41) with a size in the range of 30-500 nm with yields surpassing 50% are obtained. The feasibility to obtain nanosized AlPO-41 and SAPO-41 crystals using ethanol as a polarity equalizing agent, resulting in a scalable hydrothermal synthesis from non-colloidal starting mixtures without the use of other assisting

  7. Degradation of surfactant wastewater under microwave irradiation in the presence of activated carbon assisted with nano-sized TiO2 or nano-sized ZnO.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Z; Xu, D; Shen, M; Wu, D; Chen, Z; Ji, X; Li, F; Xu, Y

    2011-01-01

    An improved method treating surfactant wastewater by the addition of semiconductor material such as nano-sized TiO2 or ZnO to activated carbon (AC) with microwave (MW) irradiation was proposed so as to assist efficient degradation of organic pollutants. A series of degradation experiments of sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS) were carried out under MW irradiation in the presence of AC/TiO2 or AC/ZnO. The influences of catalyst dose, irradiation time, initial SDBS concentration and solution acidity on the degradation were assessed in detail. The results showed that the addition of TiO2 or ZnO obviously promoted the degradation and AC/TiO2 system displayed higher catalytic activity under MW irradiation. Thus the method of MW irradiation with AC/TiO2 or AC/ZnO revealed many advantages of rapid degradation rate, short irradiation time, low cost, no residual intermediates and no secondary pollution in applications.

  8. Nano-Se attenuates cyclophosphamide-induced pulmonary injury through modulation of oxidative stress and DNA damage in Swiss albino mice.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharjee, Arin; Basu, Abhishek; Biswas, Jaydip; Bhattacharya, Sudin

    2015-07-01

    Chemotherapy is an integral part of modern day treatment regimen but anticancer drugs fail to demarcate between cancerous and normal cells thereby causing severe form of systemic toxicity. Among which pulmonary toxicity is a dreadful complication developed in cancer patients upon cyclophosphamide (CP) therapy. Oxidative stress, fibrosis, and apoptosis are the major patho-mechanisms involved in CP-induced pulmonary toxicity. In the present study, we have synthesized Nano-Se, nanotechnology-based new form of elemental selenium which has significantly lower toxicity and acceptable bioavailability. In order to meet the need of effective drugs against CP-induced adverse effects, nano selenium (Nano-Se) was tested for its possible protective efficacy on CP-induced pulmonary toxicity and bone marrow toxicity. CP intoxication resulted in structural and functional lung impairment which was revealed by massive histopathological changes. Lung injury was associated with oxidative stress/lipid peroxidation as evident by increased in reactive oxygen species, nitric oxide level, and malondialdehyde (MDA) formation with decreased in level of antioxidants such as reduced glutathione, glutathione-S-transferase, glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, and catalase. Furthermore, CP at a dose of 25 mg/kg b.w. increased pulmonary DNA damage ('comet tail') and triggered DNA fragmentation and apoptosis in mouse bone marrow cells. On the other hand, Nano-Se at a dose of 2 mg Se/kg b.w., significantly inhibited CP-induced DNA damage in bronchoalveolar lavage cells, and decreased the apoptosis and percentage of DNA fragmentation in bone marrow cells and also antagonized the reduction of the activities of antioxidant enzymes and the increase level of MDA. Thus, our results suggest that Nano-Se in pre- and co-administration may serve as a promising preventive strategy against CP-induced pulmonary toxicity.

  9. Sample Preparation of Nano-sized Inorganic Materials for Scanning Electron Microscopy or Transmission Electron Microscopy: Scientific Operating Procedure SOP-P-2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-07-01

    preparation of samples for electron microscopy. .............................................. 5 Figure A1. FEI Co. Nova NanoSEM...microscopy (TEM) with an emphasis on determination of the size of the materials. The imaging of nano-sized particles by SEM (e.g., the Nova NanoSEM...ERDC/GSL SR-15-1 21 Figure A1. FEI Co. Nova NanoSEM. REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE Form Approved OMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for

  10. Differential effects of sodium selenite and nano-Se on growth performance, tissue se distribution, and glutathione peroxidase activity of avian broiler.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanbo

    2009-05-01

    The present research evaluated differential effects of sodium selenite and nano-Se on growth performance, tissue Se distribution, and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity of avian broiler. Broilers were randomly segregated into 12 groups so that three replicates were available for each of the three treatments (T-1, T-2, and T-3) and control groups. The control groups were fed basal diets without Se addition. T-1, T-2, and T-3 were fed with diets containing 0.2 mg kg(-1) sodium selenite, 0.2 mg kg(-1) nano-Se, and 0.5 mg kg(-1) nano-Se, respectively. Compared with the control, Se supplementation remarkably improved daily weight gain and survival rate and decreased feed conversion ratio (P < 0.05). However, no significant difference was observed between T-1, T-2, and T-3. The tissue Se content was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in Se-supplemented groups than the control, and T-3 showed the highest. Furthermore, higher Se content was observed in liver, and there was a significant difference (P < 0.05) compared with that in muscle. As for serum and hepatic GSH-Px activities, Se supplementation remarkably improved GSH-Px activity (P < 0.05), and there was no significant difference (P > 0.05) between treatments (T-1, T-2, and T-3).

  11. Support for the initial attachment, growth and differentiation of MG-63 cells: a comparison between nano-size hydroxyapatite and micro-size hydroxyapatite in composites.

    PubMed

    Filová, Elena; Suchý, Tomáš; Sucharda, Zbyněk; Supová, Monika; Zaloudková, Margit; Balík, Karel; Lisá, Věra; Slouf, Miroslav; Bačáková, Lucie

    2014-01-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) is considered to be a bioactive material that favorably influences the adhesion, growth, and osteogenic differentiation of osteoblasts. To optimize the cell response on the hydroxyapatite composite, it is desirable to assess the optimum concentration and also the optimum particle size. The aim of our study was to prepare composite materials made of polydimethylsiloxane, polyamide, and nano-sized (N) or micro-sized (M) HA, with an HA content of 0%, 2%, 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25% (v/v) (referred to as N0-N25 or M0-M25), and to evaluate them in vitro in cultures with human osteoblast-like MG-63 cells. For clinical applications, fast osseointegration of the implant into the bone is essential. We observed the greatest initial cell adhesion on composites M10 and N5. Nano-sized HA supported cell growth, especially during the first 3 days of culture. On composites with micro-size HA (2%-15%), MG-63 cells reached the highest densities on day 7. Samples M20 and M25, however, were toxic for MG-63 cells, although these composites supported the production of osteocalcin in these cells. On N2, a higher concentration of osteopontin was found in MG-63 cells. For biomedical applications, the concentration range of 5%-15% (v/v) nano-size or micro-size HA seems to be optimum.

  12. Support for the initial attachment, growth and differentiation of MG-63 cells: a comparison between nano-size hydroxyapatite and micro-size hydroxyapatite in composites

    PubMed Central

    Filová, Elena; Suchý, Tomáš; Sucharda, Zbyněk; Šupová, Monika; Žaloudková, Margit; Balík, Karel; Lisá, Věra; Šlouf, Miroslav; Bačáková, Lucie

    2014-01-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) is considered to be a bioactive material that favorably influences the adhesion, growth, and osteogenic differentiation of osteoblasts. To optimize the cell response on the hydroxyapatite composite, it is desirable to assess the optimum concentration and also the optimum particle size. The aim of our study was to prepare composite materials made of polydimethylsiloxane, polyamide, and nano-sized (N) or micro-sized (M) HA, with an HA content of 0%, 2%, 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25% (v/v) (referred to as N0–N25 or M0–M25), and to evaluate them in vitro in cultures with human osteoblast-like MG-63 cells. For clinical applications, fast osseointegration of the implant into the bone is essential. We observed the greatest initial cell adhesion on composites M10 and N5. Nano-sized HA supported cell growth, especially during the first 3 days of culture. On composites with micro-size HA (2%–15%), MG-63 cells reached the highest densities on day 7. Samples M20 and M25, however, were toxic for MG-63 cells, although these composites supported the production of osteocalcin in these cells. On N2, a higher concentration of osteopontin was found in MG-63 cells. For biomedical applications, the concentration range of 5%–15% (v/v) nano-size or micro-size HA seems to be optimum. PMID:25125978

  13. Facile synthesis of nano-sized agarose based amino acid-Its pH-dependent protein-like behavior and interactions with bovine serum albumin.

    PubMed

    Chudasama, Nishith A; Siddhanta, A K

    2015-11-19

    In a facile synthesis agarose was amphoterically functionalized to afford nano-sized agarose amino acids, aminoagarose succinate half-esters (AAE) containing one pendant carboxyl group. Nano-sized AAEs (<10 nm; DLS) were characterized and they had three various degrees of substitution [overall DSs 0.88, 0.89 and 0.96], both the amino and half-ester groups were placed on C-6 positions of the 1,3 beta-d-galactopyranose moieties of agarose backbone ((13)C NMR). AAEs performed like large protein molecules exhibiting pH-responsive structural variations (optical rotatory dispersion), presenting a mixed solubility pattern like random coil (soluble) and aggregate (precipitation) formations. Circular dichroism studies showed their pH-dependent associative interactions with bovine serum albumin, which indicated complexation at acidic and basic pHs, and decomplexation at pH 6.8 with AAE (DS 0.96). Thus, these nano-sized AAE based systems may be of potential utility in the domains demanding the merits of preferential protein bindings e.g. pH-responsive cationic/anionic drug carrier, separations or chiral sensing applications.

  14. Synthesis of nano-sized stereoselective imprinted polymer by copolymerization of (S)-2-(acrylamido) propanoic acid and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate in the presence of racemic propranolol and copper ion.

    PubMed

    Alizadeh, Taher; Bagherzadeh, Azam; Shamkhali, Amir Nasser

    2016-06-01

    A new chiral functional monomer of (S)-2-(acrylamido) propanoic acid was obtained by reaction of (l)-alanine with acryloyl chloride. The resulting monomer was characterized by FT-IR and HNMR and then utilized for the preparation of chiral imprinted polymer (CIP). This was carried out by copolymerization of (l)-alanine-derived chiral monomer and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate, in the presence of racemic propranolol and copper nitrate, via precipitation polymerization technique, resulting in nano-sized networked polymer particles. The polymer obtained was characterized by scanning electron microscopy and FT-IR. The non-imprinted polymer was also synthesized and used as blank polymer. Density functional theory (DFT) was also employed to optimize the structures of two diasterometric ternary complexes, suspected to be created in the pre-polymerization step, by reaction of optically active isomers of propranolol, copper ion and (S)-2-(acrylamido) propanoic acid. Relative energies and other characteristics of the described complexes, calculated by the DFT, predicted the higher stability of (S)-propranolol involved complex, compared to (R)-propranolol participated complex. Practical batch extraction test which employed CIP as solid phase adsorbent, indicated that the CIP recognized selectively (S)-propranolol in the racemic mixture of propranolol; whereas, the non-imprinted polymer (NIP) showed no differentiation capability between two optically active isomers of propranolol.

  15. Adaptation of the quality by design concept in early pharmaceutical development of an intranasal nanosized formulation.

    PubMed

    Pallagi, Edina; Ambrus, Rita; Szabó-Révész, Piroska; Csóka, Ildikó

    2015-08-01

    Regulatory science based pharmaceutical development and product manufacturing is highly recommended by the authorities nowadays. The aim of this study was to adapt regulatory science even in the nano-pharmaceutical early development. Authors applied the quality by design (QbD) concept in the early development phase of nano-systems, where the illustration material was meloxicam. The meloxicam nanoparticles produced by co-grinding method for nasal administration were studied according to the QbD policy and the QbD based risk assessment (RA) was performed. The steps were implemented according to the relevant regulatory guidelines (quality target product profile (QTPP) determination, selection of critical quality attributes (CQAs) and critical process parameters (CPPs)) and a special software (Lean QbD Software(®)) was used for the RA, which represents a novelty in this field. The RA was able to predict and identify theoretically the factors (e.g. sample composition, production method parameters, etc.) which have the highest impact on the desired meloxicam-product quality. The results of the practical research justified the theoretical prediction. This method can improve pharmaceutical nano-developments by achieving shorter development time, lower cost, saving human resource efforts and more effective target-orientation. It makes possible focusing the resources on the selected parameters and area during the practical product development.

  16. Flexible single-layer ionic organic–inorganic frameworks towards precise nano-size separation

    PubMed Central

    Yue, Liang; Wang, Shan; Zhou, Ding; Zhang, Hao; Li, Bao; Wu, Lixin

    2016-01-01

    Consecutive two-dimensional frameworks comprised of molecular or cluster building blocks in large area represent ideal candidates for membranes sieving molecules and nano-objects, but challenges still remain in methodology and practical preparation. Here we exploit a new strategy to build soft single-layer ionic organic–inorganic frameworks via electrostatic interaction without preferential binding direction in water. Upon consideration of steric effect and additional interaction, polyanionic clusters as connection nodes and cationic pseudorotaxanes acting as bridging monomers connect with each other to form a single-layer ionic self-assembled framework with 1.4 nm layer thickness. Such soft supramolecular polymer frameworks possess uniform and adjustable ortho-tetragonal nanoporous structure in pore size of 3.4–4.1 nm and exhibit greatly convenient solution processability. The stable membranes maintaining uniform porous structure demonstrate precisely size-selective separation of semiconductor quantum dots within 0.1 nm of accuracy and may hold promise for practical applications in selective transport, molecular separation and dialysis systems. PMID:26923611

  17. Size Resolved High Temperature Oxidation Kinetics of Nano-Sized Titanium and Zirconium Particles.

    PubMed

    Zong, Yichen; Jacob, Rohit J; Li, Shuiqing; Zachariah, Michael R

    2015-06-18

    While ultrafine metal particles offer the possibility of very high energy density fuels, there is considerable uncertainty in the mechanism by which metal nanoparticles burn, and few studies that have examined the size dependence to their kinetics at the nanoscale. In this work we quantify the size dependence to the burning rate of titanium and zirconium nanoparticles. Nanoparticles in the range of 20-150 nm were produced via pulsed laser ablation, and then in-flight size-selected using differential electrical mobility. The size-selected oxide free metal particles were directly injected into the post flame region of a laminar flame to create a high temperature (1700-2500 K) oxidizing environment. The reaction was monitored using high-speed videography by tracking the emission from individual nanoparticles. We find that sintering occurs prior to significant reaction, and that once sintering is accounted for, the rate of combustion follows a near nearly (diameter)(1) power-law dependence. Additionally, Arrhenius parameters for the combustion of these nanoparticles were evaluated by measuring the burn times at different ambient temperatures. The optical emission from combustion was also used to model the oxidation process, which we find can be reasonably described with a kinetically controlled shrinking core model.

  18. Flexible single-layer ionic organic-inorganic frameworks towards precise nano-size separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, Liang; Wang, Shan; Zhou, Ding; Zhang, Hao; Li, Bao; Wu, Lixin

    2016-02-01

    Consecutive two-dimensional frameworks comprised of molecular or cluster building blocks in large area represent ideal candidates for membranes sieving molecules and nano-objects, but challenges still remain in methodology and practical preparation. Here we exploit a new strategy to build soft single-layer ionic organic-inorganic frameworks via electrostatic interaction without preferential binding direction in water. Upon consideration of steric effect and additional interaction, polyanionic clusters as connection nodes and cationic pseudorotaxanes acting as bridging monomers connect with each other to form a single-layer ionic self-assembled framework with 1.4 nm layer thickness. Such soft supramolecular polymer frameworks possess uniform and adjustable ortho-tetragonal nanoporous structure in pore size of 3.4-4.1 nm and exhibit greatly convenient solution processability. The stable membranes maintaining uniform porous structure demonstrate precisely size-selective separation of semiconductor quantum dots within 0.1 nm of accuracy and may hold promise for practical applications in selective transport, molecular separation and dialysis systems.

  19. Comparison of Infectious Agents Susceptibility to Photocatalytic Effects of Nanosized Titanium and Zinc Oxides: A Practical Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogdan, Janusz; Zarzyńska, Joanna; Pławińska-Czarnak, Joanna

    2015-08-01

    Nanotechnology contributes towards a more effective eradication of pathogens that have emerged in hospitals, veterinary clinics, and food processing plants and that are resistant to traditional drugs or disinfectants. Since new methods of pathogens eradication must be invented and implemented, nanotechnology seems to have become the response to that acute need. A remarkable achievement in this field of science was the creation of self-disinfecting surfaces that base on advanced oxidation processes (AOPs). Thus, the phenomenon of photocatalysis was practically applied. Among the AOPs that have been most studied in respect of their ability to eradicate viruses, prions, bacteria, yeasts, and molds, there are the processes of TiO2/UV and ZnO/UV. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) and zinc oxide (ZnO) act as photocatalysts, after they have been powdered to nanoparticles. Ultraviolet (UV) radiation is an agent that determines their excitation. Methods using photocatalytic properties of nanosized TiO2 and ZnO prove to be highly efficient in inactivation of infectious agents. Therefore, they are being applied on a growing scale. AOP-based disinfection is regarded as a very promising tool that might help overcome problems in food hygiene and public health protection. The susceptibility of infectious agents to photocatalylic processes can be generally arranged in the following order: viruses > prions > Gram-negative bacteria > Gram-positive bacteria > yeasts > molds.

  20. Design and formulation of nano-sized spray dried efavirenz-part I: influence of formulation parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katata, Lebogang; Tshweu, Lesego; Naidoo, Saloshnee; Kalombo, Lonji; Swai, Hulda

    2012-11-01

    Efavirenz (EFV) is one of the first-line antiretroviral drugs recommended by the World Health Organisation for treating HIV. It is a hydrophobic drug that suffers from low aqueous solubility (4 μg/mL), which leads to a limited oral absorption and low bioavailability. In order to improve its oral bioavailability, nano-sized polymeric delivery systems are suggested. Spray dried polycaprolactone-efavirenz (PCL-EFV) nanoparticles were prepared by the double emulsion method. The Taguchi method, a statistical design with an L8 orthogonal array, was implemented to optimise the formulation parameters of PCL-EFV nanoparticles. The types of sugar (lactose or trehalose), surfactant concentration and solvent (dichloromethane and ethyl acetate) were chosen as significant parameters affecting the particle size and polydispersity index (PDI). Small nanoparticles with an average particle size of less than 254 ± 0.95 nm in the case of ethyl acetate as organic solvent were obtained as compared to more than 360 ± 19.96 nm for dichloromethane. In this study, the type of solvent and sugar were the most influencing parameters of the particle size and PDI. Taguchi method proved to be a quick, valuable tool in optimising the particle size and PDI of PCL-EFV nanoparticles. The optimised experimental values for the nanoparticle size and PDI were 217 ± 2.48 nm and 0.093 ± 0.02.

  1. The way to cover prediction for cytotoxicity for all existing nano-sized metal oxides by using neural network method.

    PubMed

    Fjodorova, Natalja; Novic, Marjana; Gajewicz, Agnieszka; Rasulev, Bakhtiyor

    2017-04-12

    The regulatory agencies should fulfil the data gap in toxicity for new chemicals including nano-sized compounds, like metal oxides nanoparticles (MeOx NPs) according to the registration, evaluation, authorisation and restriction of chemicals (REACH) legislation policy. This study demonstrates the perspective capability of neural network models for prediction of cytotoxicity of MeOx NPs to bacteria Escherichia coli (E. coli) for the widest range of metal oxides extracted from Periodic table. The counter propagation artificial neural network (CP ANN) models for prediction of cytotoxicity of MeOx NPs for data sets of 17, 36 and 72 metal oxides were employed in the study. The cytotoxicity of studied metal oxide NPs was correlated with (i) χ-metal electronegativity (EN) by Pauling scale and composition of metal oxides characterised by (ii) number of metal atoms in oxide, (iii) number of oxygen atoms in oxide and (iv) charge of metal cation in oxide. The paper describes the models in context of five OECD principles of validation models accepted for regulatory use. The recommendations were done for the minimal number of cytotoxicity tests needs for evaluation of the large set of MeOx with different oxidation states. The methodology is expected to be useful for potential hazard assessment of MeOx NPs and prioritisation for further testing and risk assessment.

  2. Effect of calcination temperature on the catalytic activity of nanosized TiO(2) for ozonation of trace 4-chloronitrobenzene.

    PubMed

    Ye, Miaomiao; Chen, Zhonglin; Zhang, Tuqiao; Shao, Weiyun

    2012-01-01

    Nanosized titanium dioxides were synthesized by hydrolysis of TiCl(4) followed by calcination at different temperatures ranging from 300 to 1,000 °C. The as-prepared samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, N(2) adsorption-desorption, and zeta potential analysis. The catalytic activities of the TiO(2) nanoparticles were tested by catalytic ozonation of trace 4-chloronitrobenzene (4-CNB) in water. Moreover, the catalytic ozonation activity of a sample calcined at 400 °C (denoted as T400) was tested in aqueous solution using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spin trapping technique with 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline N-oxide (DMPO) spin trap. It was found that with increasing calcination temperatures, the average crystallite size and average pore size increased, in contrast the BET surface areas decreased. However, the isoelectric point (IEP) first increased, and then decreased. The ozone adsorption on the catalyst surface played an important role in determining their catalytic activity. Sample T400 with the IEP of 7.0, farthest away from the 4-CNB solution pH value (pH = 5.3), showed the best catalytic activity. The EPR experiments further confirmed that the hydroxyl radicals TiO(2)-catalyzed ozonation followed a radical-type mechanism.

  3. Genotoxicity evaluation of nanosized titanium dioxide, synthetic amorphous silica and multi-walled carbon nanotubes in human lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Tavares, Ana M; Louro, Henriqueta; Antunes, Susana; Quarré, Stephanie; Simar, Sophie; De Temmerman, Pieter-Jan; Verleysen, Eveline; Mast, Jan; Jensen, Keld A; Norppa, Hannu; Nesslany, Fabrice; Silva, Maria João

    2014-02-01

    Toxicological characterization of manufactured nanomaterials (NMs) is essential for safety assessment, while keeping pace with innovation from their development and application in consumer products. The specific physicochemical properties of NMs, including size and morphology, might influence their toxicity and have impact on human health. The present work aimed to evaluate the genotoxicity of nanosized titanium dioxide (TiO2), synthetic amorphous silica (SAS) and multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), in human lymphocytes. The morphology and size of those NMs were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, while the hydrodynamic particle size-distributions were determined by dynamic light scattering. Using a standardized procedure to ensure the dispersion of the NMs and the cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay (without metabolic activation), we observed significant increases in the frequencies of micronucleated binucleated cells (MNBCs) for some TiO2 NMs and for two MWCNTs, although no clear dose-response relationships could be disclosed. In contrast, all forms of SAS analyzed in this study were unable to induce micronuclei. The present findings increase the weight of evidence towards a genotoxic effect of some forms of TiO2 and some MWCNTs. Regarding safety assessment, the differential genotoxicity observed for closely related NMs highlights the importance of investigating the toxic potential of each NM individually, instead of assuming a common mechanism and equal genotoxic effects for a set of similar NMs.

  4. Amino-functionalized nano-size composite materials for dispersive solid-phase extraction of phosphate in water samples.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yun; Pan, Shengdong; Shen, Haoyu; Hu, Meiqin

    2012-01-01

    An efficient analytical method for the preconcentration and determination of phosphate in water samples at trace levels was proposed. The method was based on sample enrichment using dispersive solid-phase extraction (dSPE) with tetraethylenepentamine (TEPA)-functionalized nano-size composite materials (TEPA-NCMs) as sorbents, which were fully characterized. Various parameters affecting the extraction efficiency were systematically investigated. After extraction, the post-adsorbed TEPA-NCMs were eluted by a NaOH solution for desorption of the phosphate. The resulting eluate containing phosphate was determined by a spectrophotometric method. The limit of detection (LOD) and the limit of quantification (LOQ) were 0.29 and 0.96 μg L(-1), respectively. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) were lower than 8.0% with average recoveries ranging from 91 to 118%. The present method was successfully applied to the determination of phosphate at trace levels in real water samples, and it was confirmed that the TEPA-NCMs are highly effective dSPE materials.

  5. Development of an ultrasensitive dual-channel flow cytometer for the individual analysis of nanosized particles and biomolecules.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lingling; Zhu, Shaobin; Hang, Wei; Wu, Lina; Yan, Xiaomei

    2009-04-01

    A compact, high-sensitivity, dual-channel flow cytometer (HSDCFCM) was developed for the individual analysis of nanosized particles and biomolecules. A hydrodynamic focusing technique was applied to confine the sample stream and enable small probe volume. Fluorescence bursts from single R-phycoerythrin (R-PE) molecules passing through the laser beam were well resolved from the background with signal-to-noise ratio of 17. Excellent size discrimination was demonstrated with a mixture of three sizes of polystyrene nanoparticles. Simultaneous measurement of fluorescence and light scattering signals from individual nanoparticles was demonstrated with the 100 nm fluorescent latex beads. Doxorubicin-loaded ZrO(2) nanoparticles and fluorescently stained Escherichia coli ER2738 cells were analyzed successfully with dual-channel detection. Particle counting is demonstrated with the 210 nm fluorescent latex beads, and excellent correlation (R(2) > 0.998) between the manufacturer-reported concentrations and those measured by HSDCFCM enumeration was obtained. The measured sample detection efficiency was approximately 90% on average for particle concentrations ranging from 1.62 x 10(5) to 3.93 x 10(7) particles/mL. Sample mixtures with varying proportions of fluorescently labeled and unlabeled nanoparticles were also analyzed with good ratio correspondence. By providing rapid, quantitative, and multiparameter characterization of nanoparticles, it is believed that the HSDCFCM will find many applications in the fields of bionanotechnology, bioanalytical chemistry, and biomedicine.

  6. Certain aspects of the formation and identification of nanosized oxide components in heterogeneous catalysts prepared by different methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellert, Ol'ga G.; Tsodikov, Mark V.; Novotortsev, Vladimir M.

    2010-10-01

    The results of studies into the relationship 'methods and synthesis conditions of a catalyst→catalyst structure→catalytic properties' in highly efficient crystallo-graphically amorphous copper- and iron-containing heterogeneous systems obtained by different chemical methods are generalized. Polymorphism of active phases and catalytic properties of nanostructured copper-containing zinc, zirconium, manganese and cerium oxides are discussed. Unusual transformations of nanosized Pt- and Pd-containing components on the γ-Al2O3 surface in nanostructured catalysts of ethanol steam reforming into synthesis gas and reductive dehydration of ethanol to alkanes are considered. The results of comparative studies on the crystallographically amorphous mixed iron oxide catalysts synthesized by either the alkoxy method or the deposition on various supports obtained by the Mössbauer and XAFS spectroscopy and magnetic susceptibility measurements are presented. These materials are shown to be efficient catalysts of important processes such as liquid-phase oxidation of hydrocarbons, synthesis of alkenes and alkylaromatic hydrocarbons from CO and H2, hydrogenative transformation of brown coal organic mass to hydrocarbons.

  7. Fabricating high performance tungsten alloys through zirconium micro-alloying and nano-sized yttria dispersion strengthening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, R.; Xie, Z. M.; Hao, T.; Zhou, Y.; Wang, X. P.; Fang, Q. F.; Liu, C. S.

    2014-08-01

    Pure W, W-0.2wt%Zr (WZ), and W-0.2wt%Zr-1.0wt%Y2O3 (WZY) with a relative density of above 97% were fabricated by spark-plasma-sintering method. The tensile tests indicated that the WZ and WZY alloys exhibited a DBTT between 400 and 500 °C, about 200 °C lower than pure W. The ultimate tensile strength of WZY alloy at 700 °C is 534 MPa, which is 81% and 58% higher than those of WZ alloy (295 MPa) and pure W (337 MPa), respectively. The grain size of WZY alloy is about 3.2 μm, smaller than that of WZ alloy and pure W. Besides, at room temperature the fracture strength and hardness of the WZY alloy is higher than that of pure W. The improved mechanical property of the WZY alloy was suggested to be originated from the enhanced grain boundaries cohesion by Zr micro-alloying and nano-sized yttria dispersion strengthening.

  8. Radiative heat transfer exceeding the blackbody limit between macroscale planar surfaces separated by a nanosize vacuum gap

    PubMed Central

    Bernardi, Michael P.; Milovich, Daniel; Francoeur, Mathieu

    2016-01-01

    Using Rytov's fluctuational electrodynamics framework, Polder and Van Hove predicted that radiative heat transfer between planar surfaces separated by a vacuum gap smaller than the thermal wavelength exceeds the blackbody limit due to tunnelling of evanescent modes. This finding has led to the conceptualization of systems capitalizing on evanescent modes such as thermophotovoltaic converters and thermal rectifiers. Their development is, however, limited by the lack of devices enabling radiative transfer between macroscale planar surfaces separated by a nanosize vacuum gap. Here we measure radiative heat transfer for large temperature differences (∼120 K) using a custom-fabricated device in which the gap separating two 5 × 5 mm2 intrinsic silicon planar surfaces is modulated from 3,500 to 150 nm. A substantial enhancement over the blackbody limit by a factor of 8.4 is reported for a 150-nm-thick gap. Our device paves the way for the establishment of novel evanescent wave-based systems. PMID:27682992

  9. Adsorption-desorption mechanism of phosphate by immobilized nano-sized magnetite layer: interface and bulk interactions.

    PubMed

    Zach-Maor, Adva; Semiat, Raphael; Shemer, Hilla

    2011-11-15

    Phosphate adsorption mechanism by a homogenous porous layer of nano-sized magnetite particles immobilized onto granular activated carbon (nFe-GAC) was studied for both interface and bulk structures. X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) analysis revealed phosphate bonding to the nFe-GAC predominantly through bidentate surface complexes. It was established that phosphate was adsorbed to the magnetite surface mainly via ligand exchange mechanism. Initially, phosphate was adsorbed by the active sites on the magnetite surface, after which it diffused into the interior of the nano-magnetite layer, as indicated by intraparticle diffusion model. This diffusion process continues regardless of interface interactions, revealing some of the outer magnetite binding sites for further phosphate uptake. Desorption, using NaOH solution, was found to be predominantly a surface reaction, at which hydroxyl ions replace the adsorbed phosphate ions only at the surface outer biding sites. Five successive fix-bed adsorption/regeneration cycles were successfully applied, without significant reduction in the nFe-GAC adsorption capacity and at high regeneration efficiency.

  10. Gene expression modulation in A549 human lung cells in response to combustion-generated nano-sized particles.

    PubMed

    Arenz, Andrea; Hellweg, Christine E; Stojicic, Nevena; Baumstark-Khan, Christa; Grotheer, Horst-Henning

    2006-12-01

    High levels of ambient air pollution are associated in humans with aggravation of asthma and of respiratory and cardiopulmonary morbidity; long-term exposures to particulate matter (PM) have been linked to possible increases in lung cancer risk, chronic respiratory disease, and increased death rates. The Biodiagnostics Group of the DLR Institute of Aerospace Medicine develops cellular test systems capable of monitoring the biological consequences of environmental conditions on humans already on cellular and molecular level. Such bioassays rely on the receptor-reporter principle, where cell lines are transfected with plasmids carrying a reporter gene under control of environment-dependent promoters (receptor), which play a key role in regulating gene expressions in response to extracellular signals. We developed the recombinant human lung epithelial cell line A549-NF-kappaB-EGFP/Neo carrying a genetically encoded fluorescent indicator for monitoring activation of the NF-kappaB signaling pathway in living cells in response to genotoxic and cytotoxic environmental influences. With this cell line we screened several candidate human radiation-responsive genes (GADD45beta, CDKN1A) and NF-kappaB-dependent genes (IL-6, NFkappaBIA, and pNF-kappaB-EGFP) for gene expression changes by quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) assay, using cDNA obtained from total RNA isolated at various time points after exposure to combustion generated nano-sized particle samples.

  11. Mobility of nanosized cerium dioxide and polymeric capsules in quartz and loamy sands saturated with model and natural groundwaters.

    PubMed

    Petosa, Adamo Riccardo; Ohl, Carolin; Rajput, Faraz; Tufenkji, Nathalie

    2013-10-01

    The environmental and health risks posed by emerging engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) released into aquatic environments are largely dependent on their aggregation, transport, and deposition behavior. Herein, laboratory-scale columns were used to examine the mobility of polyacrylic acid (PAA)-coated cerium dioxide nanoparticles (nCeO2) and an analogous nanosized polymeric capsule (nCAP) in water saturated quartz sand or loamy sand. The influence of solution ionic strength (IS) and cation type (Na(+), Ca(2+), or Mg(2+)) on the transport potential of these ENPs was examined in both granular matrices and results were also compared to measurements obtained using a natural groundwater. ENP suspensions were characterized using dynamic light scattering and nanoparticle tracking analysis to establish aggregate size, and laser Doppler electrophoresis to determine ENP electrophoretic mobility. Regardless of IS, virtually all nCeO2 particles suspended in NaNO3 eluted from the quartz sand-packed columns. In contrast, heightened nCeO2 and nCAP particle retention and dynamic (time-dependent) transport behavior was observed with increasing concentrations of the divalent salts and in the presence of natural groundwater. Enhanced particle retention was also observed in loamy sand in comparison to the quartz sand, emphasizing the need to consider the nature of the aqueous matrix and granular medium in evaluating contamination risks associated with the release of ENPs in natural and engineered aquatic environments.

  12. Reactivity of nano-size zinc powder in the aqueous solution of [Fe(III)(edta)(H2O)]().

    PubMed

    Augustyniak, Adam W; Suchecki, Tomasz T; Kumazawa, Hidehiro

    2017-01-01

    Nitrogen mono-oxide and sulfur dioxide can be removed by simultaneous absorption into aqueous mixed solutions of sulfite and [Fe(II)(edta)]H2O)](2-), ferrous ion coordinated to an anion of ethylene-diaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA or edta). In the industrial system with coexisting oxygen in the gas phase, [Fe(II)(edta)](H2O)](2-) complex is oxidized to [Fe(III)(edta)](H2O)](-) by molecular oxygen. Because the ferric complex has no capability for reaction with NO, the suppression of this undesired oxidation process is a very important technological problem to be overcome. In our preceding work, we discussed the reduction kinetics of ferric ion by metal powder on the basis of the kinetic data regarding the ferric ion reduction in aqueous solutions of [Fe(III)(edta)](H2O)](-) containing aluminum, tin or zinc powders. Zinc powder of normal size was recognized as an effective reducing agent. In the present work, augmentation of reducing capability of zinc powder was examined more. The rate of reduction of nano-size zinc powder was found to be about 11 times higher than that of normal-size zinc one.

  13. Nano-sized precipitate stability and its controlling factors in a NiAl-strengthened ferritic alloy

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Zhiqian; Song, Gian; Ilavsky, Jan; Ghosh, Gautam; Liaw, Peter K.

    2015-01-01

    Coherent B2-ordered NiAl-type precipitates have been used to reinforce solid-solution body-centered-cubic iron for high-temperature application in fossil-energy power plants. In this study, we investigate the stability of nano-sized precipitates in a NiAl-strengthened ferritic alloy at 700–950 °C using ultra-small angle X-ray scattering and electron microscopies. Here we show that the coarsening kinetics of NiAl-type precipitates is in excellent agreement with the ripening model in multicomponent alloys. We further demonstrate that the interfacial energy between the matrix and NiAl-type precipitates is strongly dependent on differences in the matrix/precipitate compositions. Our results profile the ripening process in multicomponent alloys by illustrating controlling factors of interfacial energy, diffusivities, and element partitioning. The study provides guidelines to design and develop high-temperature alloys with stable microstructures for long-term service. PMID:26537060

  14. Nano-sized precipitate stability and its controlling factors in a NiAl-strengthened ferritic alloy.

    PubMed

    Sun, Zhiqian; Song, Gian; Ilavsky, Jan; Ghosh, Gautam; Liaw, Peter K

    2015-11-05

    Coherent B2-ordered NiAl-type precipitates have been used to reinforce solid-solution body-centered-cubic iron for high-temperature application in fossil-energy power plants. In this study, we investigate the stability of nano-sized precipitates in a NiAl-strengthened ferritic alloy at 700-950 °C using ultra-small angle X-ray scattering and electron microscopies. Here we show that the coarsening kinetics of NiAl-type precipitates is in excellent agreement with the ripening model in multicomponent alloys. We further demonstrate that the interfacial energy between the matrix and NiAl-type precipitates is strongly dependent on differences in the matrix/precipitate compositions. Our results profile the ripening process in multicomponent alloys by illustrating controlling factors of interfacial energy, diffusivities, and element partitioning. The study provides guidelines to design and develop high-temperature alloys with stable microstructures for long-term service.

  15. Wear and Corrosion Behavior of Functionally Graded Nano-SiC/2014Al Composites Produced by Powder Metallurgy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhi-Guo; Li, Chuan-Peng; Wang, Hui-Yuan; Zhu, Jia-Ning; Wang, Cheng; Jiang, Qi-Chuan

    2017-02-01

    Functionally graded 2014Al/SiC composites (FGMs) with varying volume fractions (1-7%) of nano-SiC particulates (n-SiCp) were fabricated by powder metallurgy. The effect of n-SiCp content on corrosion and wear behaviors was studied. The microstructures of composites were characterized by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The corrosion behavior of the composites was evaluated by potentiodynamic polarization scans in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution. Corrosion results show that corrosion current of composite layer with 3 vol.% n-SiC was much lower than that of 2014Al matrix. Mechanical properties of the composites were assessed by microhardness tests and ball-on-disk wear tests. As the applied load changed from 15 to 30 N, wear rates of the composites increased significantly and the wear mechanism transformed from mild to severe wear regime. It also shows that 3 vol.% n-SiCp/2014Al composite layer observed the lowest wear rate where adhesive and abrasive wear mechanisms played a major role. These results suggest that the n-SiCp are effective candidates for fabricating FGMs for the applications demanding a tough core and a hard, wear or corrosion resisting surface.

  16. Effect of resin infiltration on the thermal and mechanical properties of nano-sized silica-based thermal insulation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae Chun; Kim, Yun-Il; Lee, Dong-Hun; Kim, Won-Jun; Park, Sung; Lee, Dong Bok

    2011-08-01

    Several kinds of nano-sized silica-based thermal insulation were prepared by dry processing of mixtures consisting of fumed silica, ceramic fiber, and a SiC opacifier. Infiltration of phenolic resin solution into the insulation, followed by hot-pressing, was attempted to improve the mechanical strength of the insulation. More than 22% resin content was necessary to increase the strength of the insulation by a factor of two or more. The structural integrity of the resin-infiltrated samples could be maintained, even after resin burn-out, presumably due to reinforcement from ceramic fibers. For all temperature ranges and similar sample bulk density values, the thermal conductivities of the samples after resin burn-out were consistently higher than those of the samples obtained from the dry process. Mercury intrusion curves indicated that the median size of the nanopores formed by primary silica aggregates in the samples after resin burn-out is consistently larger than that of the sample without resin infiltration.

  17. Accelerated Removal of Fe-Antisite Defects while Nanosizing Hydrothermal LiFePO4 with Ca(2).

    PubMed

    Paolella, Andrea; Turner, Stuart; Bertoni, Giovanni; Hovington, Pierre; Flacau, Roxana; Boyer, Chad; Feng, Zimin; Colombo, Massimo; Marras, Sergio; Prato, Mirko; Manna, Liberato; Guerfi, Abdelbast; Demopoulos, George P; Armand, Michel; Zaghib, Karim

    2016-04-13

    Based on neutron powder diffraction (NPD) and high angle annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy (HAADF-STEM), we show that calcium ions help eliminate the Fe-antisite defects by controlling the nucleation and evolution of the LiFePO4 particles during their hydrothermal synthesis. This Ca-regulated formation of LiFePO4 particles has an overwhelming impact on the removal of their iron antisite defects during the subsequent carbon-coating step since (i) almost all the Fe-antisite defects aggregate at the surface of the LiFePO4 crystal when the crystals are small enough and (ii) the concomitant increase of the surface area, which further exposes the Fe-antisite defects. Our results not only justify a low-cost, efficient and reliable hydrothermal synthesis method for LiFePO4 but also provide a promising alternative viewpoint on the mechanism controlling the nanosizing of LiFePO4, which leads to improved electrochemical performances.

  18. Nanosized LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} from mechanically activated solid-state synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Massarotti, V. . E-mail: vincenzo.massarotti@unipv.it; Capsoni, D.; Bini, M.

    2006-02-15

    The synthesis of pure and Cr-doped nanosized LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} particles has been carried out by solid-state process on high-energy ground mixtures. In situ X-ray analysis demonstrates the spinel forms as single phase at 623 K passing through the Mn{sub 3}O{sub 4} precursor at temperatures as low as 573 K. In the doped high-energy ground mixture Li-rich spinel phase forms at 623 K and Cr ions insert in the spinel octahedral site only at 723 K. A mean particle size value of 60 A, quite independent of the reaction time, is obtained for T<673 K. For higher temperature the growing of the particles as a function of time is observed, independent of doping. The mechanical grinding seems to be the most suitable way to obtain impurity-free spinel phases at lower temperature and with smaller particle size with respect to manually ground mixtures by solid-state reaction and via sol-gel synthesis.

  19. Huge Inverse Magnetization Generated by Faraday Induction in Nano-Sized Au@Ni Core@Shell Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Chen-Chen; Li, Chi-Yen; Lee, Chi-Hung; Li, Hsiao-Chi; Li, Wen-Hsien

    2015-08-25

    We report on the design and observation of huge inverse magnetizations pointing in the direction opposite to the applied magnetic field, induced in nano-sized amorphous Ni shells deposited on crystalline Au nanoparticles by turning the applied magnetic field off. The magnitude of the induced inverse magnetization is very sensitive to the field reduction rate as well as to the thermal and field processes before turning the magnetic field off, and can be as high as 54% of the magnetization prior to cutting off the applied magnetic field. Memory effect of the induced inverse magnetization is clearly revealed in the relaxation measurements. The relaxation of the inverse magnetization can be described by an exponential decay profile, with a critical exponent that can be effectively tuned by the wait time right after reaching the designated temperature and before the applied magnetic field is turned off. The key to these effects is to have the induced eddy current running beneath the amorphous Ni shells through Faraday induction.

  20. Generation of nano-sized core-shell particles using a coaxial tri-capillary electrospray-template removal method.

    PubMed

    Cao, Lihua; Luo, Jun; Tu, Kehua; Wang, Li-Qun; Jiang, Hongliang

    2014-03-01

    This study proposed a new strategy based on a coaxial tri-capillary electrospray-template removal process for producing nanosized polylactide-b-polyethylene glycol (PLA-PEG) particles with a core-shell structure. Microparticles with core-shell-corona structures were first fabricated by coaxial tri-capillary electrospray, and core-shell nanoparticles less than 200 nm in size were subsequently obtained by removing the PEG template from the core-shell-corona microparticles. The nanoparticle size could be modulated by adjusting the flow rate of corona fluid, and nanoparticles with an average diameter of 106±5 nm were obtained. The nanoparticles displayed excellent dispersion stability in aqueous media and very low cytotoxicity. Paclitaxel was used as a model drug to be incorporated into the core section of the nanoparticles. A drug loading content in the nanoparticles as high as 50.7±1.5 wt% with an encapsulation efficiency of greater than 70% could be achieved by simply increasing the feed rate of the drug solution. Paclitaxel exhibited sustained release from the nanoparticles for more than 40 days. The location of the paclitaxel in the nanoparticles, i.e., in the core or shell layer, did not have a significant effect on its release.

  1. Comparison of Infectious Agents Susceptibility to Photocatalytic Effects of Nanosized Titanium and Zinc Oxides: A Practical Approach.

    PubMed

    Bogdan, Janusz; Zarzyńska, Joanna; Pławińska-Czarnak, Joanna

    2015-12-01

    Nanotechnology contributes towards a more effective eradication of pathogens that have emerged in hospitals, veterinary clinics, and food processing plants and that are resistant to traditional drugs or disinfectants. Since new methods of pathogens eradication must be invented and implemented, nanotechnology seems to have become the response to that acute need. A remarkable achievement in this field of science was the creation of self-disinfecting surfaces that base on advanced oxidation processes (AOPs). Thus, the phenomenon of photocatalysis was practically applied. Among the AOPs that have been most studied in respect of their ability to eradicate viruses, prions, bacteria, yeasts, and molds, there are the processes of TiO2/UV and ZnO/UV. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) and zinc oxide (ZnO) act as photocatalysts, after they have been powdered to nanoparticles. Ultraviolet (UV) radiation is an agent that determines their excitation. Methods using photocatalytic properties of nanosized TiO2 and ZnO prove to be highly efficient in inactivation of infectious agents. Therefore, they are being applied on a growing scale. AOP-based disinfection is regarded as a very promising tool that might help overcome problems in food hygiene and public health protection. The susceptibility of infectious agents to photocatalylic processes can be generally arranged in the following order: viruses > prions > Gram-negative bacteria > Gram-positive bacteria > yeasts > molds.

  2. Catalytic transformation of persistent contaminants using a new composite material based on nanosized zero-valent iron.

    PubMed

    Dror, Ishai; Jacov, Osnat Merom; Cortis, Andrea; Berkowitz, Brian

    2012-07-25

    A new composite material based on deposition of nanosized zerovalent iron (nZVI) particles and cyanocobalamine (vitamin B12) on a diatomite matrix is presented, for catalytic transformation of organic contaminants in water. Cyanocobalamine is known to be an effective electron mediator, having strong synergistic effects with nZVI for reductive dehalogenation reactions. This composite material also improves the reducing capacity of nZVI by preventing agglomeration of iron nanoparticles, thus increasing their active surface area. The porous structure of the diatomite matrix allows high hydraulic conductivity, which favors channeling of contaminated water to the reactive surface of the composite material resulting in faster rates of remediation. The composite material rapidly degrades or transforms completely a large spectrum of water contaminants, including halogenated solvents like TCE, PCE, and cis-DCE, pesticides like alachlor, atrazine and bromacyl, and common ions like nitrate, within minutes to hours. A field experiment where contaminated groundwater containing a mixture of industrial and agricultural persistent pollutants was conducted together with a set of laboratory experiments using individual contaminant solutions to analyze chemical transformations under controlled conditions.

  3. Magnetic, specific heat and electrical transport properties of oxygen-deficient nanosized rutile TiO2‑δ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, Vinh Hung; Thi Quynh Hoa, Nguyen

    2017-03-01

    An oxygen-deficient nanosized {{TiO}}2-δ , δ ∼ 0.7 sample was synthesized by a solvothermal method, and was characterized to have both ∼3 nm amorphous solid and ∼36–46 nm diameter rutile nanowires. Physical properties of the sample were investigated by measuring magnetic, specific heat, electrical resistance and magnetoresitance properties. DC magnetization M(H) data confirm ferromagnetic behavior previously reported for undoped TiO2. Furthermore, M(T) dependence follows the power-law relation M{(T)\\propto (1-T/{T}C)}β in the near-critical regime, yielding Curie temperature {T}C ∼ 415 K and critical exponent β = 0.2. Moreover, our results of AC magnetic susceptibility measurements suggest an additional phase transition at {T}* ∼ 310 K, presumably due to spin orientation. The metallic-like electrical resistance exhibits a distinct drop below {T}* with a strong thermal hysteresis in the temperature range 225–275 K. Specific heat in the temperature range 20–300 K is well described by the sum of contributions from acoustic phonons with Debye temperature 605 K and optical phonons with Einstein temperature 113 K. Below 10 K the specific heat divulges a large excess, which can be interpreted as an additional contribution originating from soft potentials.

  4. Synthesis and characterization of WC-Co nanosized composite powders with in situ carbon and gas carbon sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Qiumin; Yang, Jiangao; Yang, Hailin; Su, Wei; Ruan, Jianming

    2016-07-01

    This study presented nanosized WC-Co composite powders synthesized using a one-step reduction-carbonization process with a combination of CH4/H2 as a gas carbon source and soluble starch as an in situ carbon source. The results of carbon analysis and X-ray diffraction revealed that WC-Co nanocomposite powders with a pure WC and Co phase could be obtained at 1100 °C after 0.5 h. A higher gas flow ratio of CH4/H2 during the reduction-carbonization process led to a higher total carbon content of the sample. A field emission scanning electron microscope confirmed that the particles in the WC-6 wt% Co composite powders had the lowest average size of 43 nm with equiaxed shapes. A sintering neck was observed in the WC-3 wt% Co composite powders whereas faceted particles were found in the WC-12 wt% Co composite powders. Moreover, this method has advantages of simple processing, rapid synthesis and good applicability in potential industry application.

  5. Wear and Corrosion Behavior of Functionally Graded Nano-SiC/2014Al Composites Produced by Powder Metallurgy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhi-Guo; Li, Chuan-Peng; Wang, Hui-Yuan; Zhu, Jia-Ning; Wang, Cheng; Jiang, Qi-Chuan

    2016-12-01

    Functionally graded 2014Al/SiC composites (FGMs) with varying volume fractions (1-7%) of nano-SiC particulates (n-SiCp) were fabricated by powder metallurgy. The effect of n-SiCp content on corrosion and wear behaviors was studied. The microstructures of composites were characterized by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The corrosion behavior of the composites was evaluated by potentiodynamic polarization scans in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution. Corrosion results show that corrosion current of composite layer with 3 vol.% n-SiC was much lower than that of 2014Al matrix. Mechanical properties of the composites were assessed by microhardness tests and ball-on-disk wear tests. As the applied load changed from 15 to 30 N, wear rates of the composites increased significantly and the wear mechanism transformed from mild to severe wear regime. It also shows that 3 vol.% n-SiCp/2014Al composite layer observed the lowest wear rate where adhesive and abrasive wear mechanisms played a major role. These results suggest that the n-SiCp are effective candidates for fabricating FGMs for the applications demanding a tough core and a hard, wear or corrosion resisting surface.

  6. Optical study of a polymeric LED with a nano-sized electrode realized by a modified SNOM setup

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Micheletto, Ruggero; Yoshimatsu, Nobuki; Yokokawa, Masatoshi; An, Taekyung; Lee, Haiwon; Okazaki, Satoshi

    2001-09-01

    Semiconductive polythiophene derivate polymers show electroluminescence (EL) properties if excited under opportune conditions and can be used as active element in novel efficient light-emitting diodes (LEDs) or in photovoltaic applications as detectors or solar cells. These intriguing and innovative materials are so far studied in bulk condition, under the excitation of two macroscopic electrodes, averaging the optical phenomena over a large region. To realize a better understanding of the spatial distribution of the EL on the films and its optical properties, we modified a scanning near-field optical microscope (SNOM) setup in order to measure the EL signal of poly-3-(2-(5-chlorobenzotriazolo)ethyl)thiophene. The film were deposited over a macroscopic electrode substrate (a transparent indium tin oxide (ITO) treated glass), while a sharp aluminum coated glass probe worked as a nano-sized Al electrode, realizing an Al/polymer/ITO light emitting device in a highly confined region. We describe in detail the methodology we used for the novel EL measurements and we will show the first resulting high-resolution EL emission mapping, as well as other spectroscopic and morphological characterization of the film used.

  7. Preparation and characterization of nano-sized hydroxyapatite/alginate/chitosan composite scaffolds for bone tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hye-Lee; Jung, Gil-Yong; Yoon, Jun-Ho; Han, Jung-Suk; Park, Yoon-Jeong; Kim, Do-Gyoon; Zhang, Miqin; Kim, Dae-Joon

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to develop chitosan composite scaffolds with high strength and controlled pore structures by homogenously dispersed nano-sized hydroxyapatite (nano-HAp) powders. In the fabrication of composite scaffolds, nano-HAp powders distributed in an alginate (AG) solution with a pH higher than 10 were mixed with a chitosan (CS) solution and then freeze dried. While the HAp content increased up to 70 wt.%, the compressive strength and the elastic modulus of the composite scaffolds significantly increased from 0.27 MPa and 4.42 MPa to 0.68 MPa and 13.35 MPa, respectively. Higher content of the HAp also helped develop more differentiation and mineralization of the MC3T3-E1 cells on the composite scaffolds. The uniform pore structure and the excellent mechanical properties of the HAp/CS composite scaffolds likely resulted from the use of the AG solution at pH 10 as a dispersant for the nano-HAp powders.

  8. Synthesis of Nano-Size AlN Powders by Carbothermal Reduction from Plasma-Assisted Ball Milling Precursor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhijie; Wang, Wenchun; Yang, Dezheng; Wang, Sen; Dai, Leyang

    2016-07-01

    Nano-size aluminum nitride (AlN) powders have been successfully synthesized with a high efficiency method through annealing from milling assisted by discharge plasma (p-milling) alumina (Al2O3) precursors. The characterization of the p-milling Al2O3 powders and the synthesized AlN are investigated. Compared to conventional ball milling (c-milling), it can be found that the precursors by p-milling have a finer grain size with a higher specific surface area, which lead to a faster reaction efficiency and higher conversion to AlN at lower temperatures. The activation energy of p-milling Al2O3 is found to be 371.5 kJ/mol, a value that is much less than the reported value of the unmilled and the conventional milled Al2O3. Meanwhile, the synthesized AlN powders have unique features, such as an irregular lamp-like morphology with uniform particle distribution and fine average particle size. The results are attributed to the unique synergistic effect of p-milling, which is the effect of deformation, fracture, and cold welding of Al2O3 powders resulting from ball milling, that will be enhanced due to the introduction of discharge plasma. supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 51177008)

  9. Nano-sized precipitate stability and its controlling factors in a NiAl-strengthened ferritic alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Zhiqian; Song, Gian; Ilavsky, Jan; Ghosh, Gautam; Liaw, Peter K.

    2015-11-05

    Coherent B2-ordered NiAl-type precipitates have been used to reinforce solid-solution bodycentered- cubic iron for high-temperature application in fossil-energy power plants. In this study, the stability of nano-sized precipitates in a NiAl-strengthened ferritic alloy was investigated at 700 - 950°C using ultra-small angle X-ray scattering and electron microscopies. Here we show that the coarsening kinetics of NiAl-type precipitates is in excellent agreement with the ripening model in multicomponent alloys. We further demonstrate that the interfacial energy between the matrix and NiAl-type precipitates is strongly dependent to differences in the matrix/precipitate compositions. The results profile the ripening process in multicomponent alloys by illustrating controlling factors (i.e., interfacial energy, diffusivities, and element partitioning). As a result, the study provides guidelines to design and develop high-temperature alloys with stable microstructures for long-term service.

  10. Nano-sized precipitate stability and its controlling factors in a NiAl-strengthened ferritic alloy

    DOE PAGES

    Sun, Zhiqian; Song, Gian; Ilavsky, Jan; ...

    2015-11-05

    Coherent B2-ordered NiAl-type precipitates have been used to reinforce solid-solution bodycentered- cubic iron for high-temperature application in fossil-energy power plants. In this study, the stability of nano-sized precipitates in a NiAl-strengthened ferritic alloy was investigated at 700 - 950°C using ultra-small angle X-ray scattering and electron microscopies. Here we show that the coarsening kinetics of NiAl-type precipitates is in excellent agreement with the ripening model in multicomponent alloys. We further demonstrate that the interfacial energy between the matrix and NiAl-type precipitates is strongly dependent to differences in the matrix/precipitate compositions. The results profile the ripening process in multicomponent alloys bymore » illustrating controlling factors (i.e., interfacial energy, diffusivities, and element partitioning). As a result, the study provides guidelines to design and develop high-temperature alloys with stable microstructures for long-term service.« less

  11. Micro and nano-size pores of clay minerals in shale reservoirs: Implication for the accumulation of shale gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Shangbin; Han, Yufu; Fu, Changqin; Zhang, han; Zhu, Yanming; Zuo, Zhaoxi

    2016-08-01

    A pore is an essential component of shale gas reservoirs. Clay minerals are the adsorption carrier second only to organic matter. This paper uses the organic maturity test, Field-Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM), and X-ray Diffraction (XRD) to study the structure and effect of clay minerals on storing gas in shales. Results show the depositional environment and organic maturity influence the content and types of clay minerals as well as their structure in the three types of sedimentary facies in China. Clay minerals develop multi-size pores which shrink to micro- and nano-size by close compaction during diagenesis. Micro- and nano-pores can be divided into six types: 1) interlayer, 2) intergranular, 3) pore and fracture in contact with organic matter, 4) pore and fracture in contact with other types of minerals, 5) dissolved and, 6) micro-cracks. The contribution of clay minerals to the presence of pores in shale is evident and the clay plane porosity can even reach 16%, close to the contribution of organic matter. The amount of clay minerals and pores displays a positive correlation. Clay minerals possess a strong adsorption which is affected by moisture and reservoir maturity. Different pore levels of clay minerals are mutually arranged, thus essentially producing distinct reservoir adsorption effects. Understanding the structural characteristics of micro- and nano-pores in clay minerals can provide a tool for the exploration and development of shale gas reservoirs.

  12. Nano-sized particles, processes of making, compositions and uses thereof

    DOEpatents

    O'Brien, Stephen [New York, NY; Yin, Ming [Los Alamos, NM

    2012-05-22

    The present invention describes methods for preparing high quality nanoparticles, i.e., metal oxide based nanoparticles of uniform size and monodispersity. The nanoparticles advantageously comprise organic alkyl chain capping groups and are stable in air and in nonpolar solvents. The methods of the invention provide a simple and reproducible procedure for forming transition metal oxide nanocrystals, with yields over 80%. The highly crystalline and monodisperse nanocrystals are obtained directly without further size selection; particle size can be easily and fractionally increased by the methods. The resulting nanoparticles can exhibit magnetic and/or optical properties. These properties result from the methods used to prepare them. Also advantageously, the nanoparticles of this invention are well suited for use in a variety of industrial applications, including cosmetic and pharmaceutical formulations and compositions.

  13. Enrichment specificity of micro and nano-sized titanium and zirconium dioxides particles in phosphopeptide mapping.

    PubMed

    Vilasi, Annalisa; Fiume, Immacolata; Pace, Paolo; Rossi, Mosè; Pocsfalvi, Gabriella

    2013-11-01

    Owning to their anion-exchange properties, titanium and zirconium dioxides are widely used in phosphopeptide enrichment and purification protocols. The physical and chemical characteristics of the particles can significantly influence the loading capacity, the capture efficiency and phosphopeptide specificity and thus the outcome of the analyses. Although there are a number of protocols and commercial kits available for phosphopeptide purification, little data are found in the literature on the choice of the enrichment media. Here, we studied the influence of particle size on the affinity capture of phosphopeptides by TiO2 and ZrO2. Bovine milk casein derived phosphopeptides were enriched by micro and nanoparticles using a single-tube in-solution protocol at different peptide-to-beads ratio ranging from 1 : 1 to 1 : 200. Unsupervised hierarchical cluster analysis based on the whole set of Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization time-of-flight mass spectra of the phosphopeptide enriched samples revealed 62 clustered peptide peaks and shows that nanoparticles have considerably higher enrichment capacity than bulk microparticles. Moreover, ZrO2 particles have higher enrichment capacity than TiO2. The selectivity and specificity of the enrichment was studied by monitoring the ion abundances of monophosphorylated, multiphosphorylated and non-phosphorylated casein-derived peptide peaks at different peptide-to-beads ratios. Comparison of the resulting plots enabled the determination of the optimal peptide-to-beads ratios for the different beads studied and showed that nano-TiO2 have higher selectivity for phosphopeptides than nano-ZrO2 particles.

  14. Nanosizing of poorly water soluble compounds using rotation/revolution mixer.

    PubMed

    Takatsuka, Takayuki; Endo, Tomoko; Jianguo, Yao; Yuminoki, Kayo; Hashimoto, Naofumi

    2009-10-01

    In this study, nanoparticles of various poorly water soluble compounds were prepared by wet milling that was carried out using a rotation/revolution mixer and zirconia balls. To be compared with Beads mill, rotation/revolution mixer has superior in very quick process (5 min) and needs very few amounts of zirconia balls (2.4 g) for pulverizing drugs to nanometer range. Phenytoin, indomethacin, nifedipine, danazol, and naproxen were selected as the standard poorly water soluble compounds. Various parameters of the rotation/revolution mixer were studied to decide the optimal pulverization conditions for the production of nanoparticles of the abovementioned compounds. The rotation/revolution speed, shape of the mixing vessel, amount of zirconia balls, and volume of the vehicle (methylcellulose solution) mainly affected the pulverization of the compounds. Using the mixer, phenytoin could be pulverized to nanoparticles within a few minutes. The particle size was confirmed by using a scanning electron microscope and a particle size analyzer. The crystallinity of the pulverized phenytoin particles was confirmed by X-ray diffractometry (XRD) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). It was observed that the pulverized phenytoin particles retained their crystallinity, and amorphous phenytoin was not detected. Particles of other poorly water soluble compounds were also reduced to the nanometer range by using this method.

  15. Selective mutism

    MedlinePlus

    ... in selective mutism. Treatment Treating selective mutism involves behavior changes. The child's family and school should be involved. Certain medicines that treat anxiety and social phobia have been used safely and successfully. Support ...

  16. Enhanced antitumor activity of realgar mediated by milling it to nanosize.

    PubMed

    Tian, Ye; Wang, Xiaobo; Xi, Ronggang; Pan, Weisan; Jiang, Shuang; Li, Zhao; Zhao, Yu; Gao, Guanghui; Liu, Dan

    2014-01-01

    Realgar is a poorly water-soluble compound that exhibits poor bioavailability. To improve this, the authors reduced the particle size of realgar to nanoscale by high-energy ball milling and optimized the preparation process under which (realgar weight 40 g, milling time 9 hours, milling speed 38 Hz, milling temperature -20°C) realgar nanoparticles (NPs) with an average size of 78 ± 8.3 nm were prepared. The average particle size of realgar was characterized by laser scattering, and its apparent shape was observed by transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The solubility of realgar was enhanced after milling until the particles were in the nanoscale region without altering its properties, as confirmed by a scanning electron microscopy energy-dispersive spectrometer. Realgar NPs had higher cytotoxicity on the selected cell lines, namely human breast cancer (MCF7), human hepatoma (HepG2), and human lung cancer (A549) cell lines, than coarse realgar. In addition, a pharmacokinetics study performed in rats indicated that the relative bioavailability of realgar NPs was 216.9% compared with coarse realgar; a biodistribution study performed in mice showed that after intragastric administration of realgar NPs, higher arsenic concentration was reached in the tumor, heart, liver, spleen, lung, and kidney compared with the administration of coarse realgar, as confirmed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry to determine the concentration of arsenic. This study indicated that high-energy ball milling is an effective way to reduce the average particle size of realgar, and compared with coarse realgar, the cytotoxicity and bioavailability of realgar NPs were significantly improved.

  17. Titanium dioxide food additive (E171) induces ROS formation and genotoxicity: contribution of micro and nano-sized fractions.

    PubMed

    Proquin, Héloïse; Rodríguez-Ibarra, Carolina; Moonen, Carolyn G J; Urrutia Ortega, Ismael M; Briedé, Jacob J; de Kok, Theo M; van Loveren, Henk; Chirino, Yolanda I

    2017-01-01

    Since 1969, the European Union approves food-grade titanium dioxide (TiO2), also known as E171 colouring food additive. E171 is a mixture of micro-sized particles (MPs) and nano-sized particles (NPs). Previous studies have indicated adverse effects of oral exposure to E171, i.e. facilitation of colon tumour growth. This could potentially be partially mediated by the capacity to induce reactive oxygen species (ROS). The aim of the present study is to determine whether E171 exposure induces ROS formation and DNA damage in an in vitro model using human Caco-2 and HCT116 cells and to investigate the contribution of the separate MPs and NPs TiO2 fractions to these effects. After suspension of the particles in Hanks' balanced salt solution buffer and cell culture medium with either bovine serum albumin (BSA) or foetal bovine serum, characterization of the particles was performed by dynamic light scattering, ROS formation was determined by electron spin/paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy and DNA damage was determined by the comet and micronucleus assays. The results showed that E171, MPs and NPs are stable in cell culture medium with 0.05% BSA. The capacity for ROS generation in a cell-free environment was highest for E171, followed by NPs and MPs. Only MPs were capable to induce ROS formation in exposed Caco-2 cells. E171, MPs and NPs all induced single-strand DNA breaks. Chromosome damage was shown to be induced by E171, as tested with the micronucleus assay in HCT116 cells. In conclusion, E171 has the capability to induce ROS formation in a cell-free environment and E171, MPs and NPs have genotoxic potential. The capacity of E171 to induce ROS formation and DNA damage raises concerns about potential adverse effects associated with E171 (TiO2) in food.

  18. Role of subcolloidal (nanosized) precursor species in the early stage of the crystallization of zeolites in heterogeneous systems.

    PubMed

    Ren, Nan; Bosnar, Sanja; Bronić, Josip; Dutour Sikirić, Maja; Mišić, Tea; Svetličić, Vesna; Mao, Jian-Jiang; Antonić Jelić, Tatjana; Hadžija, Mirko; Subotić, Boris

    2014-07-22

    A critical analysis was carried out for the purpose of understanding the role of subcolloidal (nanosized) (alumino)silicate precursor species in the early stage of crystallization of zeolites in heterogeneous systems (hydrogels). The formation and evolution of these subcolloidal species in both the solid and the liquid phases were investigated by various experimental methods such a scanning electron microscopy (SEM, FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, particle size analysis, pH measurement, atomic absorption spectroscopy, and dynamic light scattering, after careful separation of intermediates from reaction mixture by two-step centrifugation treatment. The results revealed that a chain of processes (i) the formation of low-molecular-weight (LMW) silicate species, by dissolution of Al-enriched amorphous silica, and their aggregation into about 3 nm sized primary precursor species (PPSs), (ii) the formation of larger (∼3 to ∼15 nm sized) silicate precursor species (LSPSs) by a rapid aggregation/coalescence of PPSs, (iii) the formation of "gel" (primary amorphous precursor) by a random aggregation of LSPSs at room temperature, and (iv) the formation of the worm-like particles (secondary amorphous precursor) occurred in the solid phase during heating of the reaction mixture (hydrogel) from room temperature to 170 °C. It is interesting that almost the same processes occur in the liquid phase but with decreased rate according to the relative low concentration of LMW silicate species. With the above described findings, it is highly expected that the manipulation of crystallization pathway through controlling the formation/evolution of precursor species in the initial stage of the process can be achieved.

  19. Synthesis of Polyhydroxybutyrate Particles with Micro-to-Nanosized Structures and Application as Protective Coating for Packaging Papers

    PubMed Central

    Rastogi, Vibhore Kumar; Samyn, Pieter

    2016-01-01

    This study reports on the development of bio-based hydrophobic coatings for packaging papers through deposition of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) particles in combination with nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) and plant wax. In the first approach, PHB particles in the micrometer range (PHB-MP) were prepared through a phase-separation technique providing internally-nanosized structures. The particles were transferred as a coating by dip-coating filter papers in the particle suspension, followed by sizing with a carnauba wax solution. This approach allowed partial to almost full surface coverage of PHB-MP over the paper surface, resulting in static water contact angles of 105°–122° and 129°–144° after additional wax coating. In the second approach, PHB particles with submicron sizes (PHB-SP) were synthesized by an oil-in-water emulsion (o/w) solvent evaporation method and mixed in aqueous suspensions with 0–7 wt % NFC. After dip-coating filter papers in PHB-SP/NFC suspensions and sizing with a carnauba wax solution, static water contact angles of 112°–152° were obtained. The intrinsic properties of the particles were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy, thermal analysis and infrared spectroscopy, indicating higher crystallinity for PHB-SP than PHB-MP. The chemical interactions between the more amorphous PHB-MP particles and paper fibers were identified as an esterification reaction, while the morphology of the NFC fibrillar network was playing a key role as the binding agent in the retention of more crystalline PHB-SP at the paper surface, hence contributing to higher hydrophobicity. PMID:28336839

  20. Brief exposure to nanosized and bulk titanium dioxide forms induces subtle changes in human D384 astrocytes.

    PubMed

    De Simone, Uliana; Lonati, Davide; Ronchi, Anna; Coccini, Teresa

    2016-07-08

    Although nanosized-titanium dioxide particles (TiO2NPs)-containing products are constantly placed on the market, little is known about their possible impact on human health, even regarding to CNS effects. In this study, mechanistic pathways, by which TiO2NPs induce cellular damage and death, have been investigated in human (astrocytes-like) D384 cells and comparatively weighed against the effects produced by the bulk counterpart. Cellular signals evaluated by multiple set of in vitro tests after 24h exposure to TiO2NP concentrations (0.5-125μg/ml) were: ROS production, p-p53, p53, p21, Bax, Bcl-2 and caspase 3. TiO2 cellular uptake was also estimated by both light microscopy and ICP-MS. ROS were generated starting at 1.5μg/ml and further increased at the highest concentrations (≥31μg/ml). At the same low concentration, an increased expression of p-p53, p53, p21, Bax, and activated caspase3 were also observed. Parallely, Bcl-2 decreased along with TiO2NP concentration increase. Similar alterations were observed when testing TiO2 bulk: cellular checkpoint perturbations were associated with rising intracellular Ti. The present data demonstrated that low TiO2NP concentrations were capable, after 24h, to induce subtle cellular perturbation in D384 cells after a single cell treatment, supporting the evidence that both oxidative stress and apoptotic mechanisms may occur in this type of CNS cells.

  1. Photodegradation of organic matter in fresh garbage leachate using immobilized nano-sized TiO2 as catalysts.

    PubMed

    Chen, C; Xie, Q; Hu, B Q; Zhao, X L

    2014-01-01

    Two immobilized nano-sized TiO2 catalysts, TiO2/activated carbon (TiO2/AC) and TiO2/silica gel (SG) (TiO2/SG), were prepared by the sol-gel method, and their use in the photocatalytic degradation of organic matter in fresh garbage leachate under UV irradiation was investigated. The influences of the catalyst dosage, the initial solution pH, H2O2 addition and the reuse of the catalysts were evaluated. The degradation of organic matter was assessed based on the decrease of the chemical oxygen demand (COD) in the leachate. The results indicated that the degradation of the COD obeyed first-order kinetics in the presence of both photocatalysts. The degradation rate of COD was found to increase with increasing catalyst dosage up to 9 g/L for TiO2/AC and 6 g/L for TiO2/SG, above which the degradation began to attenuate. Furthermore, the degradation rate first increased and then decreased as the solution pH increased from 2 to 14, and the degradation rate increased as the amount of H2O2 increased to 2.93 mM, after which it remained constant. No obvious decrease in the rate of COD degradation was observed during the first four repeated uses of the photocatalysts, indicating that the catalysts could be recovered and reused. Compared with TiO2/AC, TiO2/SG exhibited higher efficiency in photocatalyzing the degradation of COD in garbage leachate.

  2. Urban runoff treatment using nano-sized iron oxide coated sand with and without magnetic field applying

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Increase of impervious surfaces in urban area followed with increases in runoff volume and peak flow, leads to increase in urban storm water pollution. The polluted runoff has many adverse impacts on human life and environment. For that reason, the aim of this study was to investigate the efficiency of nano iron oxide coated sand with and without magnetic field in treatment of urban runoff. In present work, synthetic urban runoff was treated in continuous separate columns system which was filled with nano iron oxide coated sand with and without magnetic field. Several experimental parameters such as heavy metals, turbidity, pH, nitrate and phosphate were controlled for investigate of system efficiency. The prepared column materials were characterized with Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive X-ray analysis (EDXA) instruments. SEM and EDXA analyses proved that the sand has been coated with nano iron oxide (Fe3O4) successfully. The results of SEM and EDXA instruments well demonstrate the formation of nano iron oxide (Fe3O4) on sand particle. Removal efficiency without magnetic field for turbidity; Pb, Zn, Cd and PO4 were observed to be 90.8%, 73.3%, 75.8%, 85.6% and 67.5%, respectively. When magnetic field was applied, the removal efficiency for turbidity, Pb, Zn, Cd and PO4 was increased to 95.7%, 89.5%, 79.9%, 91.5% and 75.6% respectively. In addition, it was observed that coated sand and magnetic field was not able to remove NO3 ions. Statistical analyses of data indicated that there was a significant difference between removals of pollutants in two tested columns. Results of this study well demonstrate the efficiency of nanosized iron oxide-coated sand in treatment of urban runoff quality; upon 75% of pollutants could be removed. In addition, in the case of magnetic field system efficiency can be improved significantly. PMID:24360061

  3. Effects of prenatal exposure to surface-coated nanosized titanium dioxide (UV-Titan). A study in mice

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Engineered nanoparticles are smaller than 100 nm and designed to improve or achieve new physico-chemical properties. Consequently, also toxicological properties may change compared to the parent compound. We examined developmental and neurobehavioral effects following maternal exposure to a nanoparticulate UV-filter (UV-titan L181). Methods Time-mated mice (C57BL/6BomTac) were exposed by inhalation 1h/day to 42 mg/m3 aerosolized powder (1.7·106 n/cm3; peak-size: 97 nm) on gestation days 8-18. Endpoints included: maternal lung inflammation; gestational and litter parameters; offspring neurofunction and fertility. Physicochemical particle properties were determined to provide information on specific exposure and deposition. Results Particles consisted of mainly elongated rutile titanium dioxide (TiO2) with an average crystallite size of 21 nm, modified with Al, Si and Zr, and coated with polyalcohols. In exposed adult mice, 38 mg Ti/kg was detected in the lungs on day 5 and differential cell counts of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid revealed lung inflammation 5 and 26-27 days following exposure termination, relative to control mice. As young adults, prenatally exposed offspring tended to avoid the central zone of the open field and exposed female offspring displayed enhanced prepulse inhibition. Cognitive function was unaffected (Morris water maze test). Conclusion Inhalation exposure to nano-sized UV Titan dusts induced long term lung inflammation in time-mated adult female mice. Gestationally exposed offspring displayed moderate neurobehavioral alterations. The results are discussed in the light of the observed particle size distribution in the exposure atmosphere and the potential pathways by which nanoparticles may impart changes in fetal development. PMID:20546558

  4. [Toxicological evaluation of colloidal nano-sized silver stabilized polyvinylpyrrolidone. III. Enzymological, biochemical markers, state of antioxidant defense system].

    PubMed

    Gmoshinsky, I V; Shipelin, V A; Vorozhko, I V; Sentsova, T B; Soto, S Kh; Avren'eva, L I; Guseva, G V; Kravchenko, L V; Khotimchenko, S A; Tutelyan, V A

    2016-01-01

    Nanosized colloidal silver (NCS) with primary nanoparticles (NPs) size in the range of 10-80 nm in aqueous suspension was administered to rats with initial weight 80±10 gfor the first 30 day intragastrically and for lasting 62 days with the diet consumed in doses of 0.1; 1.0 and 10 mg/kg of body weight b.w) per day based on silver (Ag). The control animals received deionized water and carrier of NPs - aqueous solution of stabilizer polyvinylpyrrolidone. Activity (Vmax) was determined in liver of microsomal mixed function monooxygenase isoforms CYP 1A1, 1A2 and 2B1 against their specific substrates, the activity of liver conjugating enzymes (glutathione-S-transferase and UDP-glucuronosyltransferase) in the microsomal fraction and a cytosol, and the overall and non-sedimentable activities of lysosomal hydrolases. In blood plasma there were evaluated malonic dialdehyde, PUFA diene conjugates, in erythrocytes - the activity of antioxidant enzymes. A set of standard biochemical indicators of blood serum was also determined. The studies revealed changes in a number of molecular markers of toxic action. Among them - the increase in the activity of key enzymes I and II stages of detoxification of xenobiotics, indicating its functional overvoltage; reducing the activity of glutathione peroxidase (GP), the total arylsulfatase A and B, β-galactosidase (in the absence of changes in their non-sedimentable activity), levels of uric acid, increased alkaline phosphatase activity. These changes occurred mainly at the dose Ag of 10 mg/kg b.w., except for the GP to which the threshold dose was 1 mg/kg b.w. No significant changes in the studied markers in a dose Ag 0,1 mg/kg b.w. were identified. Possible mechanisms of the toxic action of silver NPs are discussed.

  5. Urban runoff treatment using nano-sized iron oxide coated sand with and without magnetic field applying.

    PubMed

    Khiadani Hajian, Mehdi; Zarrabi, Mansur; Foroughi, Maryam

    2013-12-20

    Increase of impervious surfaces in urban area followed with increases in runoff volume and peak flow, leads to increase in urban storm water pollution. The polluted runoff has many adverse impacts on human life and environment. For that reason, the aim of this study was to investigate the efficiency of nano iron oxide coated sand with and without magnetic field in treatment of urban runoff. In present work, synthetic urban runoff was treated in continuous separate columns system which was filled with nano iron oxide coated sand with and without magnetic field. Several experimental parameters such as heavy metals, turbidity, pH, nitrate and phosphate were controlled for investigate of system efficiency. The prepared column materials were characterized with Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive X-ray analysis (EDXA) instruments. SEM and EDXA analyses proved that the sand has been coated with nano iron oxide (Fe3O4) successfully. The results of SEM and EDXA instruments well demonstrate the formation of nano iron oxide (Fe3O4) on sand particle. Removal efficiency without magnetic field for turbidity; Pb, Zn, Cd and PO4 were observed to be 90.8%, 73.3%, 75.8%, 85.6% and 67.5%, respectively. When magnetic field was applied, the removal efficiency for turbidity, Pb, Zn, Cd and PO4 was increased to 95.7%, 89.5%, 79.9%, 91.5% and 75.6% respectively. In addition, it was observed that coated sand and magnetic field was not able to remove NO3 ions. Statistical analyses of data indicated that there was a significant difference between removals of pollutants in two tested columns. Results of this study well demonstrate the efficiency of nanosized iron oxide-coated sand in treatment of urban runoff quality; upon 75% of pollutants could be removed. In addition, in the case of magnetic field system efficiency can be improved significantly.

  6. Nanosized Cr2O3 as pinning center in (Bi,Pb)-Sr-Ca-Cu-O superconductor tapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, G. H.; Abd-Shukor, R.

    2013-05-01

    Nanosized Cr2O3 (6 nm) has been introduced into (Bi,Pb)-Sr-Ca-Cu-O/Ag tapes fabricated by the powderin-tube method. The starting powder with composition (Bi,Pb)2Sr2Ca2Cu3O10(Cr2O3)0.05 was prepared by the solid state reaction method. The superconductor tapes with thickness of about 0.3 mm and length about 2 cm were heated at 845°C for 96, 144, 192 and 240 h. The samples were characterized by the four point probe electrical measurements, X-ray powder diffraction method and scanning electron microscopy. The transport critical current density, Jc was measured from 30 to 65 K using the 1 μ/cm criterion. The highest Jc was obtained for the tape heated for 240 h with Jc = 1700 A/cm2 at 30 K. XRD patterns showed that the samples consisted of the 2212 and 2223 phase. SEM micrographs showed the plat-like structure. The role of nano-Cr2O3 in the superconductor system is discussed. The size of the nanoparticle (R) was larger than the coherence length, ξ but smaller than the penetration depth, λ(ξ< R <λ). The temperature dependent Jc from 30 to 65 K showed a linear relation for all except for the tapes heated at 240 h. Using the self-field approximation together with the Jc dependence on temperature, it was observed that between 30 and 65 K the characteristic length (Lc) associated with the pinning force Fp is approximately the same as the average grain size (Rg) in all samples except for the tapes heated for 240 h where Rg < Lc. This shows that a change in the flux pinning mechanism occurred in the tapes when the heating time was prolonged.

  7. Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Nano-Size Zirconium Carbide Dispersion Strengthened Tungsten Alloys Fabricated by Spark Plasma Sintering Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Zhuoming; Liu, Rui; Fang, Qianfeng; Zhang, Tao; Jiang, Yan; Wang, Xianping; Liu, Changsong

    2015-12-01

    W-(0.2, 0.5, 1.0)wt% ZrC alloys with a relative density above 97.5% were fabricated through the spark plasma sintering (SPS) method. The grain size of W-1.0wt% ZrC is about 2.7 μm, smaller than that of pure W and W-(0.2, 0.5)wt% ZrC. The results indicated that the W-ZrC alloys exhibit higher hardness at room temperature, higher tensile strength at high temperature, and a lower ductile to brittle transition temperature (DBTT) than pure W. The tensile strength and total elongation of W-0.5wt% ZrC alloy at 700 °C is 535 MPa and 24.8%, which are respectively 59% and 114% higher than those of pure W (337 MPa, 11.6%). The DBTT of W-(0.2, 0.5, 1.0)wt% ZrC materials is in the range of 500°C-600°C, which is about 100 °C lower than that of pure W. Based on microstructure analysis, the improved mechanical properties of the W-ZrC alloys were suggested to originate from the enhanced grain boundary cohesion by ZrC capturing the impurity oxygen in tungsten and nano-size ZrC dispersion strengthening. supported by the Innovation Program of Chinese Academy of Sciences (No. KJCX2-YW-N35), the National Magnetic Confinement Fusion Science Program of China (No. 2011GB108004), National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 51301164, 11075177, 11274305), and Anhui Provincial Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 1408085QE77)

  8. Single-crystal and textured polycrystalline Nd2Fe14B flakes with a submicron or nanosize thickness

    SciTech Connect

    Cui, BZ; Zheng, LY; Li, WF; Liu, JF; Hadjipanayis, GC

    2012-02-01

    This paper reports on the fabrication, structure and magnetic property optimization of Nd2Fe14B single-crystal and [0 0 1] textured poly-nanocrystalline flakes prepared by surfactant-assisted high-energy ball milling (HEBM). Single-crystal Nd2Fe14B flakes first with micron and then with submicron thicknesses were formed via continuous basal cleavage along the (1 1 0) planes of the irregularly shaped single-crystal microparticles during the early stage of HEBM. With further milling, [0 0 1] textured polycrystalline submicron Nd2Fe14B flakes were formed. Finally, crystallographically anisotropic polycrystalline Nd2Fe14B nanoflakes were formed after milling for 5-6 h. Anisotropic magnetic behavior was found in all of the flake samples. Nd2Fe14B flakes prepared with either oleic acid (OA) or oleylamine (OY) as the surfactant exhibited similar morphology, structure and magnetic properties. Both the addition of some low-melting-point eutectic Nd70Cu30 alloy and an appropriate post-annealing can increase the coercivity of the Nd2Fe14B flakes. The coercivity of Nd2Fe14B nanoflakes with an addition of 16.7 wt.% Nd70Cu30 by milling for 5 h in heptane with 20 wt.% OY increased from 3.7 to 6.8 kOe after annealing at 450 degrees C for 0.5 h. The mechanism for formation and coercivity enhancement of Nd2Fe14B single-crystal and textured poly-nanocrystalline flakes with a submicron or nanosize thickness was discussed. (C) 2011 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Radical change of Zn speciation in pig slurry amended soil: Key role of nano-sized sulfide particles.

    PubMed

    Formentini, Thiago Augusto; Legros, Samuel; Fernandes, Cristovão Vicente Scapulatempo; Pinheiro, Adilson; Le Bars, Maureen; Levard, Clément; Mallmann, Fábio Joel Kochem; da Veiga, Milton; Doelsch, Emmanuel

    2017-03-01

    Spreading livestock manure as fertilizer on farmlands is a widespread practice. It represents the major source of heavy metal(loid)s (HM) input in agricultural soils. Since zinc (Zn) is present at high concentrations in manure, it poses special environmental concerns related to phytotoxicity, groundwater contamination, and introduction in the food chain. Therefore, investigations on the fate and behavior of manure-borne Zn, when it enters the soil environment, are necessary to predict the environmental effects. Nevertheless, long-term field studies assessing Zn speciation in the organic waste matrix, as well as within the soil after manure application, are lacking. This study was designed to fill this gap. Using SEM-EDS and XAS analysis, we reported the following new results: (i) ZnS made up 100% of the Zn speciation in the pig slurry (the highest proportion of ZnS ever observed in organic waste); and (ii) ZnS aggregates were about 1-μm diameter (the smallest particle size ever reported in pig slurry). Moreover, the pig slurry containing ZnS was spread on the soil over an 11-year period, totaling 22 applications, and the resulting Zn speciation within the amended soil was analyzed. Surprisingly, ZnS, i.e. the only species responsible for a nearly 2-fold increase in the Zn concentration within the amended soil, was not detected in this soil. Based on SEM-EDS and XAS observations, we put forward the hypothesis that Zn in the pig slurry consisted of nano-sized ZnS crystallites that further aggregated. The low stability of ZnS nanoparticles within oxic and complex environments such as the studied soil was the key explanation for the radical change in pig slurry-borne Zn speciation after long-term amendments.

  10. Effect of iron oxide loading on the phase transformation and physicochemical properties of nanosized mesoporous ZrO{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Basahel, S.N.; Ali, Tarek T.; Narasimharao, K.; Bagabas, A.A.; Mokhtar, M.

    2012-11-15

    Highlights: ► Modified preparation method for nanosized iron oxide supported ZrO{sub 2} catalysts. ► Systematic study of effect of high iron oxide loading over ZrO{sub 2}. ► Influence of iron oxide on the stabilization of tetragonal ZrO{sub 2} phase. ► A mesoporous nature of zirconia changed upon changing iron oxide loading. ► Surface to bulk migration of iron oxide evidenced by XPS technique. -- Abstract: Mesoporous ZrO{sub 2}-supported iron oxide materials were prepared with nominal loadings of iron oxide of 5, 10, 15 and 20 wt.% using a modified co-precipitation method. The physicochemical properties of the catalysts were characterized by thermogravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, high resolution transmission electron microscopy, N{sub 2} adsorption, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and infrared spectroscopy methods. A delay in the ZrO{sub 2} phase transformation as a result of the incorporation of iron was determined using TG/DSC measurements. XRD, Raman spectroscopy and HRTEM results revealed that an increase of iron oxide loading from 5 to 15 wt.% enhanced the transformation of the monoclinic to tetragonal phase. Unexpectedly, 20 wt.% iron oxide loading was required for complete tetragonal structure stabilization due to the mesoporosity of the ZrO{sub 2} support. Iron oxide loadings from 5 to 15 wt.% showed an increase in the BET-surface area due to the presence of amorphous iron oxide on the surface. XPS and FTIR results indicated that increasing the iron oxide content to 20 wt.% resulted in stabilization of the tetragonal zirconia phase as a result of surface-to-bulk migration and incorporation of Fe{sup 3+} ions in the ZrO{sub 2} lattice.

  11. Synthesis of large surface area nano-sized BiVO{sub 4} by an EDTA-modified hydrothermal process and its enhanced visible photocatalytic activity

    SciTech Connect

    Sun Wanting; Xie Mingzheng; Jing Liqiang; Luan Yunbo; Fu Honggang

    2011-11-15

    In this work, monoclinic scheelite-type BiVO{sub 4} nanoparticle with large surface area has been successfully synthesized, using Bi(NO{sub 3}){sub 3} and NH{sub 4}VO{sub 3} as raw materials, through a hydrothermal process in the presence of ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA). It is demonstrated that the nanoparticle size of as-prepared BiVO{sub 4} becomes small by decreasing hydrothermal temperature, shortening hydrothermal reaction time and increasing EDTA amount used. The resulting BiVO{sub 4} nanoparticle with large surface area exhibits a good photocatalytic performance for degrading phenol solution as a model organic pollutant under visible illumination. The key of this method is the chelating role of EDTA group in the synthetic process that it can greatly control the concentration of Bi{sup 3+}, leading to the growth inhibition of BiVO{sub 4} crystallite. The work provides a route for the synthesis of Bi-containing nano-sized composite oxides with large surface area. - Graphical abstract: High visible active nano-sized BiVO{sub 4} photocatalyst with large surface area is successfully synthesized, which is attributed to the chelating role of EDTA group inhibiting the growth of BiVO{sub 4} crystallites. Highlights: > Monoclinic scheelite-type BiVO{sub 4} nanoparticle with large surface area has been synthesized by a hydrothermal process. > Key of this method is the chelating role of EDTA group inhibiting the growth of BiVO{sub 4} crystallites. > Resulting nano-sized BiVO{sub 4} exhibits a good photocatalytic activity for degrading phenol under visible illumination.

  12. Enhancement in solar hydrogen generation efficiency using InGaN photoelectrode after surface roughening treatment with nano-sized Ni mask

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Tao; Zhi, Ting; Li, Ming-Xue; Xie, Zi-Li; Zhang, Rong; Liu, Bin; Li, Yi; Zhuang, Zhe; Zhang, Guo-Gang; Jiang, Fu-Long; Chen, Peng; Zheng, You-Dou

    2014-09-01

    A significant enhancement in solar hydrogen generation efficiency has been achieved by inductive coupled etching (ICP) surface roughening treatment using nano-sized nickel mask. As much as 7 times improvement of photocurrent is demonstrated in comparison with a planar one fabricated from the same parent wafer. Under identical illumination conditions in HBr solution, the incident photon conversion efficiency (IPCE) shows an enhancement with a factor of 3, which even exceed 54% at 400 nm wavelength. We believe the enhancement is attributed to several facts including improvement in absorption, reacting area, carrier localization and carrier lifetime.

  13. Microstructure and corrosion resistance of Ni-based alloy laser coatings with nanosize CeO2 addition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shi Hong; Li, Ming Xi; Yoon, Jae Hong; Cho, Tong Yul; Zhu He, Yi; Lee, Chan Gyu

    2008-07-01

    Micron-size Ni-base alloy (NBA) powders were mixed with both 1.5 wt.% (hereinafter %) micron-size CeO2 (m-CeO2) and also 1.5% and 3.0% nano-size CeO2 (n- CeO2) powders. These mixtures were coated on low-carbon steel (Q235) by 2.0 kW CO2 laser cladding. The effects on the microstructures, phases and electrochemical corrosion of the coatings upon the addition of m- and n- CeO2 powders to NBA (m- and n- CeO2 /NBA) have been investigated. The results showed that a smooth coating was prepared under suitable processing parameters (P= 2.0 kW, V= 180 mm min- 1) by adding 1.5% n- CeO2. In addition to the primary phases of γ-Ni, Cr23 C6 and Ni3 B in the Ni-base alloy coating, CeNi3 was formed in Ni-base alloy coatings with both n- CeO2 and m-CeO2 particles, and CeNi5 appeared in the coating upon decreasing the size of CeO2 particles. Well-developed dendrites were observed in the Ni-base alloy coating; directional dendrites grew at the interface in the coating upon the addition of m-CeO2, whereas fine and multioriented dendrites grew upon decreasing the size of CeO2 particles to the nanoscale. Actinomorphic dendrites and compact equiaxed dendrites grew from the interface to near the surface upon increasing the content of n- CeO2 from 1.5 to 3.0%. In strongly acidic HNO3 solution, the severe corrosion of dendrites occurred and there were many corrosion pits in the Ni-base alloy coating; intercrystalline corrosion also has a dominant role upon the addition of m-CeO2, whereas uniform corrosion occurs in the coating as the size of CeO2 particles is decreased to nanoscale.

  14. The influence of size on the toxicity of an encapsulated pesticide: a comparison of micron- and nano-sized capsules.

    PubMed

    Meredith, Alicea N; Harper, Bryan; Harper, Stacey L

    2016-01-01

    Encapsulation technology involves entrapping a chemical active ingredient (a.i.) inside a hollow polymeric shell and has been applied to commercial pesticide manufacturing for years to produce capsule suspension (CS) formulations with average particle sizes in the micron-scale. The few literature sources that investigate the environmental fate and toxicity to non-target organisms of encapsulated commercially available pesticide products with regard to capsule size report on average sizes between 20 and 50 μm. Here, we have identified a CS formulation with an average capsule size of approximately 2 μm with some capsules extending into the nanometer scale (~200 nm). Determining how carrier size influences toxicity is important to understanding if current pesticide risk assessments are sufficient to protect against products that incorporate encapsulation technology. Here, a commercial pyrethroid CS pesticide with lambda-cyhalothrin (λ-Cy) as the a.i. was separated into two suspensions, a fraction consisting of nano-sized capsules (~250 nm) and a fraction of micron-sized capsules (~2200 nm) in order to investigate the influence of capsule size on toxicity to embryonic zebrafish, Danio rerio. Toxicity was evaluated 24h after exposure to equivalent amounts of a.i. by the presence and severity of pyrethroid-specific tremors, 14 sublethal developmental impacts and mortality. Fish exposed to greater than 20 μg a.i. L(-1) technical λ-Cy or formulated product experienced curvature of the body axis, pericardial edema, craniofacial malformations, and mortality. Exposure to the unfractionated formulation, micro fraction, nano fraction and technical a.i. resulted in no significant differences in the occurrence of sublethal impacts or mortality; however, the technical a.i. exposure resulted in significantly less fish experiencing tremors and shorter tremors compared to any of the formulated product exposures. This suggests that the capsule size does not influence the toxic

  15. [Toxicological evaluation of nanosized colloidal silver, stabilized with polyvinylpyrrolidone, in 92-day experiment on rats. II. Internal organs morphology].

    PubMed

    Zaytseva, N V; Zemlyanova, M A; Zvezdin, V N; Dovbysh, A A; Gmoshinsky, I V; Khotimchenko, S A; Akafieva, T I

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the safe doses of commercially available nanosized colloidal silver (NCS), stabilized with polyvinilpirrolidone (PVP, food additive E1201) when administered in gastrointestinal tract of rats in the 92-day experiment in terms of the morphological changes in the internals of animals. The sample studied contained non-aggregated nanoparticles (NPs) of silver belonging to size fractions with a diameter of less than 5 nm, 10-20 nm or 50-80 nm. 80% of NPs were inside the range of hydrodynamic diameters 10.6-61.8 nm. The preparation of NCS was administered to growing male Wistar rats. (initial body weight 80 ± 10 g) for 1 month by intragastric gavage and then consumed with food at doses of 0.1, 1.0 and 10 mg/kg of body weight based on silver. The control animals received water or vehicle of nanomaterial--water solution of PVP. After withdrawal of animals from the experiment by exsanguination under ether anesthesia organs (liver, spleen, kidney, ileum) were isolated and their slides were prepared by standard methods following 'by staining with hematoxylin-eosin. Analysis was performed in light optical microscope equipped with a digital camera at a magnification from 1 x 100 to 1 x 1000. It was shown that the experimental animals treated with the NCS developed series of morphological changes in the tissues of the internal organs (liver, spleen and kidney) with the elevation of the range and severity of structural changes with increasing doses of silver. The most sensitive target of NCS action was apparently liver, which has already shown at a dose of 0.1 mg of silver NP/kg of body weight marked eosinophilic infiltration of portal tracts, which was accompanied at doses of 1.0 and 10.0 mg/kg by the emergence of medium and large-drop fat vacuoles in the cytoplasm of hepatocytes, swelling and lympho-macrophage. infiltration of the portal tracts. Detectable changes can be regarded as symptoms of inflammation of hepatocytes, at least, at a

  16. Selective Mutism

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Selective mutism is a rare and multidimensional childhood disorder that typically affects children entering school age. It is characterized by the persistent failure to speak in select social settings despite possessing the ability to speak and speak comfortably in more familiar settings. Many theories attempt to explain the etiology of selective mutism. Comorbidities and treatment. Selective mutism can present a variety of comorbidities including enuresis, encopresis, obsessive-compulsive disorder, depression, premorbid speech and language abnormalities, developmental delay, and Asperger's disorders. The specific manifestations and severity of these comorbidities vary based on the individual. Given the multidimensional manifestations of selective mutism, treatment options are similarly diverse. They include individual behavioral therapy, family therapy, and psychotherapy with antidepressants and anti-anxiety medications. Future directions. While studies have helped to elucidate the phenomenology of selective mutism, limitations and gaps in knowledge still persist. In particular, the literature on selective mutism consists primarily of small sample populations and case reports. Future research aims to develop an increasingly integrated, multidimensional framework for evaluating and treating children with selective mutism. PMID:20436772

  17. Elemental selenium at nano size (Nano-Se) as a potential chemopreventive agent with reduced risk of selenium toxicity: comparison with se-methylselenocysteine in mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jinsong; Wang, Xufang; Xu, Tongwen

    2008-01-01

    Selenium (Se) is an essential trace element with a narrow margin between beneficial and toxic effects. As a promising chemopreventive agent, its use requires consumption over the long term, so the toxicity of Se is always a crucial concern. Based on clinical findings and recent studies in selenoprotein gene-modified mice, it is likely that the antioxidant function of one or more selenoproteins is responsible for the chemopreventive effect of Se. Furthermore, upregulation of phase 2 enzymes by Se has been implicated as a possible chemopreventive mechanism at supranutritional dietary levels. Se-methylselenocysteine (SeMSC), a naturally occurring organic Se product, is considered as one of the most effective chemopreventive selenocompounds. The present study revealed that, as compared with SeMSC, elemental Se at nano size (Nano-Se) possessed equal efficacy in increasing the activities of glutathione peroxidase, thioredoxin reductase, and glutathione S-transferase, but had much lower toxicity as indicated by median lethal dose, acute liver injury, survival rate, and short-term toxicity. Our results suggest that Nano-Se can serve as a potential chemopreventive agent with reduced risk of Se toxicity.

  18. Particle phase distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in stormwater--Using humic acid and iron nano-sized colloids as test particles.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Katrine; Kalmykova, Yuliya; Strömvall, Ann-Margret; Baun, Anders; Eriksson, Eva

    2015-11-01

    The distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in different particulate fractions in stormwater: Total, Particulate, Filtrated, Colloidal and Dissolved fractions, were examined and compared to synthetic suspensions of humic acid colloids and iron nano-sized particles. The distribution of low-molecular weight PAHs (LMW PAHs), middle-molecular weight PAHs (MMW PAHs) and high-molecular weight PAHs (HMW PAHs) among the fractions was also evaluated. The results from the synthetic suspensions showed that the highest concentrations of the PAHs were found in the Filtrated fractions and, surprisingly, high loads were found in the Dissolved fractions. The PAHs identified in stormwater in the Particulate fractions and Dissolved fractions follow their hydrophobic properties. In most samples >50% of the HMW PAHs were found in the Particulate fractions, while the LMW and MMW PAHs were found to a higher extent in the Filtrated fractions. The highest concentrations of PAHs were present in the stormwater with the highest total suspended solids (TSS); the relative amount of the HMW PAHs was highest in the Particulate fractions (particles>0.7 μm). The highest concentration of PAHs in the Colloidal fraction was found in the sample with occurrence of small nano-sized particles (<10nm). The results show the importance of developing technologies that both can manage particulate matter and effectively remove PAHs present in the Colloidal and Dissolved fractions in stormwater.

  19. Interaction of a screw dislocation with a nano-sized, arbitrarily shaped inhomogeneity with interface stresses under anti-plane deformations.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xu; Schiavone, Peter

    2014-10-08

    We propose an elegant and concise general method for the solution of a problem involving the interaction of a screw dislocation and a nano-sized, arbitrarily shaped, elastic inhomogeneity in which the contribution of interface/surface elasticity is incorporated using a version of the Gurtin-Murdoch model. The analytic function inside the arbitrarily shaped inhomogeneity is represented in the form of a Faber series. The real periodic function arising from the contribution of the surface mechanics is then expanded as a Fourier series. The resulting system of linear algebraic equations is solved through the use of simple matrix algebra. When the elastic inhomogeneity represents a hole, our solution method simplifies considerably. Furthermore, we undertake an analytical investigation of the challenging problem of a screw dislocation interacting with two closely spaced nano-sized holes of arbitrary shape in the presence of surface stresses. Our solutions quite clearly demonstrate that the induced elastic fields and image force acting on the dislocation are indeed size-dependent.

  20. Exceptional capability of nanosized CeO(2) materials to "dissolve" lanthanide oxides established by time-gated excitation and emission spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Tiseanu, Carmen; Parvulescu, Vasile; Avram, Daniel; Cojocaru, Bogdan; Sanchez-Dominguez, Margarita

    2014-05-28

    The atomic scale homogeneity of Ce and Zr oxygen bonds represents the main reason for enhanced total oxygen storage capability of CeO2-ZrO2 (Ce/Zr = 1) as compared to that of CeO2. Here, we demonstrate that the addition of 10% Eu(3+) by wet impregnation on preformed nanosized CeO2-ZrO2 (Ce/Zr = 1) followed by calcination induces a remarkable homogeneity of 10% Eu(3+)-CeO2-ZrO2 solid solution. By use of time-resolved emission and excitation spectroscopies, the improvement of the nanoscale chemical and structural homogeneity of 10% Eu(3+)-CeO2-ZrO2 calcined at 1000 as compared to sample calcined at 750 °C is demonstrated. Based on the comparison of luminescence properties of 10% Eu(3+) impregnated on preformed nanosized CeO2-ZrO2 and CeO2, we also show that the presence of zirconium does not only preserve the ability of cerium oxide to "dissolve" lanthanide oxide, but also determines an important stabilization of defects (oxygen vacancies) generated upon Eu(3+) doping.

  1. Enhancing As(V) adsorption and passivation using biologically formed nano-sized FeS coatings on limestone: Implications for acid mine drainage treatment and neutralization.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jing; Zhou, Lei; Dong, Faqin; Hudson-Edwards, Karen A

    2017-02-01

    The iron-reducing bacterium Acidiphilium cryputum JF-5 and a sulfate reducing bacterium (SRB) collected and purified from the mine drainage of a copper mine in the northwest of Sichuan Province, China, were used to biologically synthesize nano-sized FeS-coated limestone to remove As(V) from solution. The adsorption efficiency of As(V) is improved from 6.64 μg/g with limestone alone to 187 μg/g with the FeS coated limestone in both batch and column experiments. The hydraulic conductivity of the columns are also improved by the presence of the nano-sized FeS coatings, but the solution neutralization performance of the limestone can be reduced by passivation by gypsum and Fe(III) precipitates. Calculations for FeS-coated limestone dissolution experiments show that the process can be described as nCa.sol = At(1/2) - nCa,gyp. The results suggest that FeS-coated limestone may be an effective medium for remediating As(V)-bearing solutions such as acid mine drainage in systems such as Permeable Reactive Barriers.

  2. Stability assessment of injectable castor oil-based nano-sized emulsion containing cationic droplets stabilized by poloxamer-chitosan emulsifier films.

    PubMed

    Tamilvanan, S; Kumar, B Ajith; Senthilkumar, S R; Baskar, Raj; Sekharan, T Raja

    2010-06-01

    The objectives of the present work were to prepare castor oil-based nano-sized emulsion containing cationic droplets stabilized by poloxamer-chitosan emulgator film and to assess the kinetic stability of the prepared cationic emulsion after subjecting it to thermal processing and freeze-thaw cycling. Presence of cryoprotectants (5%, w/w, sucrose +5%, w/w, sorbitol) improved the stability of emulsions to droplet aggregation during freeze-thaw cycling. After storing the emulsion at 4 degrees C, 25 degrees C, and 37 degrees C over a period of up to 6 months, no significant change was noted in mean diameter of the dispersed oil droplets. However, the emulsion stored at the highest temperature did show a progressive decrease in the pH and zeta potential values, whereas the emulsion kept at the lowest temperatures did not. This indicates that at 37 degrees C, free fatty acids were formed from the castor oil, and consequently, the liberated free fatty acids were responsible for the reduction in the emulsion pH and zeta potential values. Thus, the injectable castor oil-based nano-sized emulsion could be useful for incorporating various active pharmaceutical ingredients that are in size from small molecular drugs to large macromolecules such as oligonucleotides.

  3. A simple and general route for the preparation of pure and high crystalline nanosized lanthanide silicates with the structure of apatite at low temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Ferdov, Stanislav; Rauwel, Protima; Lin, Zhi; Ferreira, Rute A. Sa; Lopes, Augusto

    2010-11-15

    Rare earth silicates with the structure of apatite are attracting considerable interest since they show oxygen ion conductivities higher than that of yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) at moderate temperature. Based on the hydrothermal synthesis we presented a simple one step process for the direct preparation of the pure and the high crystalline nanosized rare earth silicates with the structure of apatite under a mild condition (230 {sup o}C). Since the preparation of the high crystalline silicon based rare earth apatites is performed at high temperature previously and accompanied by subsequent process of grinding, results of this work provide a promising alternative of the existing methodology. Furthermore, due to the relatively low temperature of the preparation of these materials, high doping of monovalent cation can be done, which was not achieved before. -- Graphical abstract: A simple one step process for the preparation of the rare earth silicates with the structure of apatite under a mild condition (230 {sup o}C) is presented. The process is based on the hydrothermal synthesis and the obtained powder materials are pure, high crystalline and with nanosize. Display Omitted

  4. Experimental Study of Floating-Gate-Type Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Capacitors with Nanosize Triangular Cross-Sectional Tunnel Areas for Low Operating Voltage Flash Memory Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yongxun; Guo, Ruofeng; Kamei, Takahiro; Matsukawa, Takashi; Endo, Kazuhiko; O'uchi, Shinichi; Tsukada, Junichi; Yamauchi, Hiromi; Ishikawa, Yuki; Hayashida, Tetsuro; Sakamoto, Kunihiro; Ogura, Atsushi; Masahara, Meishoku

    2012-06-01

    The floating-gate (FG)-type metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) capacitors with planar (planar-MOS) and three-dimensional (3D) nanosize triangular cross-sectional tunnel areas (3D-MOS) have successfully been fabricated by introducing rapid thermal oxidation (RTO) and postdeposition annealing (PDA), and their electrical characteristics between the control gate (CG) and FG have been systematically compared. It was experimentally found in both planar- and 3D-MOS capacitors that the uniform and higher breakdown voltages are obtained by introducing RTO owing to the high-quality thermal oxide formation on the surface and etched edge regions of the n+ polycrystalline silicon (poly-Si) FG, and the leakage current is highly suppressed after PDA owing to the improved quality of the tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) silicon dioxide (SiO2) between CG and FG. Moreover, a lower breakdown voltage between CG and FG was obtained in the fabricated 3D-MOS capacitors as compared with that of planar-MOS capacitors thanks to the enhanced local electric field at the tips of triangular tunnel areas. The developed nanosize triangular cross-sectional tunnel area is useful for the fabrication of low operating voltage flash memories.

  5. Effects of micro-sized and nano-sized WO3 on mass attenauation coefficients of concrete by using MCNPX code.

    PubMed

    Tekin, H O; Singh, V P; Manici, T

    2017-03-01

    In the present work the effect of tungsten oxide (WO3) nanoparticles on mass attenauation coefficients of concrete has been investigated by using MCNPX (version 2.4.0). The validation of generated MCNPX simulation geometry has been provided by comparing the results with standard XCOM data for mass attenuation coefficients of concrete. A very good agreement between XCOM and MCNPX have been obtained. The validated geometry has been used for definition of nano-WO3 and micro-WO3 into concrete sample. The mass attenuation coefficients of pure concrete and WO3 added concrete with micro-sized and nano-sized have been compared. It was observed that shielding properties of concrete doped with WO3 increased. The results of mass attenauation coefficients also showed that the concrete doped with nano-WO3 significanlty improve shielding properties than micro-WO3. It can be concluded that addition of nano-sized particles can be considered as another mechanism to reduce radiation dose.

  6. Nanosized pure and Cr doped Al{sub 2−x}Sc{sub x}(WO{sub 4}){sub 3} solid solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Yordanova, A.; Koseva, I.; Velichkova, N.; Kovacheva, D.; Rabadjieva, D.; Nikolov, V.

    2012-06-15

    Highlights: ► Nanosized pure and Cr-doped Al{sub 2−x}Sc{sub x}(WO{sub 4}){sub 3} obtained for a first time. ► Material for ceramics with different application. ► Co-precipitation method for preparation. ► X-ray, DTA, TEM investigations. ► Co-precipitation method gives 10–70 nm particles. -- Abstract: Nanosized solid solutions of the formula Al{sub 2−x−y}Sc{sub x}Cr{sub y}(WO{sub 4}){sub 3}, where x varies from 0 to 2 and y from 0.02 to 0.1 are synthesized for the first time by the co-precipitation method. X-ray powder diffraction, DTA/TG and TEM analyses demonstrate that the powders are pure solid solution compounds with orthorhombic structure, space group Pnca. Particle sizes between 10 and 70 nm are obtained after thermal treatment of the precipitates at 550 °C for 1 h for all compositions except in the case of Sc{sub 1.9}Cr{sub 0.1}(WO{sub 4}){sub 3}. For the last one mean particle size of 64 nm was obtained after thermal treatment at 500 °C. The influence of the concentrations of Sc and Cr as well as of the temperature and duration of the thermal treatment on the particle size and size distribution are established and discussed.

  7. Preparation and properties of poly(vinyl alcohol)/chitosan blend bionanocomposites reinforced with cellulose nanocrystals/ZnO-Ag multifunctional nanosized filler

    PubMed Central

    Azizi, Susan; Ahmad, Mansor Bin; Hussein, Mohd Zobir; Ibrahim, Nor Azowa; Namvar, Farideh

    2014-01-01

    A series of novel bionanocomposites were cast using different contents of zinc oxide-silver nanoparticles (ZnO-AgNPs) stabilized by cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) as multifunctional nanosized fillers in poly(vinyl alcohol)/chitosan (PVA/Cs) matrices. The morphological structure, mechanical properties, ultraviolet-visible absorption, and antimicrobial properties of the prepared films were investigated as a function of their CNC/ZnO-AgNP content and compared with PVA/chitosan/CNC bionanocomposite films. X-ray diffraction and field emission scanning electron microscopic analyses showed that the CNC/ZnO-AgNPs were homogeneously dispersed in the PVA/Cs matrix and the crystallinity increased with increasing nanosized filler content. Compared with pure PVA/Cs, the tensile strength and modulus in the films increased from 0.055 to 0.205 GPa and from 0.395 to 1.20 GPa, respectively. Ultraviolet and visible light can be efficiently absorbed by incorporating ZnO-AgNPs into a PVA/Cs matrix, suggesting that these bionanocomposite films show good visibility and ultraviolet-shielding effects. The bionanocomposite films had excellent antimicrobial properties, killing both Gram-negative Salmonella choleraesuis and Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus. The enhanced physical properties achieved by incorporating CNC/ZnO-AgNPs could be beneficial in various applications. PMID:24790433

  8. Doping nano-Co3O4 surface with bigger nanosized Ag and its photocatalytic properties for visible light photodegradation of organic dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Guangliang; Si, Xiaolei; Yu, Jinsong; Bai, Huiyu; Zhang, Xianhui

    2015-03-01

    This paper reports the synthesis of nanosized Ag/Co3O4 composite catalysts using a silver-mirror reaction and the calibration of their catalytic activities towards methyl blue (MB) dye degradation with peroxymonosulfate (PMS) under visible light. The nanosized Ag/Co3O4 composites were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and UV-vis spectroscopy. The experimental evidence indicated that the hydrothermal synthesis approach lead to the exposure of the {1 1 2} facets of the Co3O4 nanoflakes. Compared to Co3O4 nanoflakes, Co3O4 doped with Ag nanoparticle (average diameters of 10-15 nm) presented lower band gap energy and photoluminescent (PL) intensity. Meanwhile, the Ag/Co3O4 exhibited high stability and excellent dispersion property in dye solution. Experimental data suggested that 3.06 wt% Ag nanoparticle-doped Ag/Co3O4 nanocomposite catalyst possessed the highest catalytic activity towards MB degradation in aqueous solution at the tested concentration level of 15 mg/L, about 2.4 times higher than that of pure Co3O4. Complete decolorization of the 15 mg/L MB solution can be achieved by 3.06 wt% Ag-doped Ag/Co3O4 nanocomposite within 20 min of visible light irradiation.

  9. Incorporation effect of nanosized perovskite LaFe₀.₇Co₀.₃O₃ on the electrochemical activity of Pt nanoparticles-multi walled carbon nanotube composite toward methanol oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Noroozifar, Meissam; Khorasani-Motlagh, Mozhgan; Khaleghian-Moghadam, Roghayeh; Ekrami-Kakhki, Mehri-Saddat; Shahraki, Mohammad

    2013-05-01

    Nanosized perovskite LaFe₀.₇Co₀.₃O₃ (LFCO) is synthesized through conventional co-precipitation method and characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) techniques. The incorporation effect of the mentioned perovskite to catalytic activity of the PtNPs-MWCNTs-nafion (or -chitosan) catalyst toward methanol oxidation has been studied by cyclic voltammetry. Based on the electrochemical studies, all MWCNTs-PtNPs-nafion (or chitosan) and MWCNTs-PtNPs-LFCO-nafion (or chitosan) catalysts show a considerable activity for methanol oxidation. However, a synergistic effect is observed when LFCO is added to the catalyst by decreasing the poisoning rate of the Pt catalyst. - Graphical abstract: Nanosized perovskite LaFe₀.₇Co₀.₃O₃ is synthesized and characterized. The incorporation effect of the mentioned perovskite to catalytic activity of the PtNPS-MWCNTs-nafion (or -chitosan) catalyst toward methanol oxidation is studied. Highlights: • Nanocrystalline LaFe₀.₇Co₀.₃O₃ (LFCO) is prepared by a new simple co-precipitation method. • Effect of LFCO to catalytic activity of PtNPS for methanol oxidation is studied. • A synergistic effect is observed when LFCO is added to the Pt catalyst. • Oxygen of LFCO could be considered as active oxygen to remove CO intermediates.

  10. Nanosized spongelike Mn3O4 as an adsorbent for preconcentration by vortex assisted solid phase extraction of copper and lead in various food and herb samples.

    PubMed

    Yavuz, Emre; Tokalıoğlu, Şerife; Şahan, Halil; Patat, Şaban

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, a nanosized spongelike Mn3O4 was synthesized and used for the first time as an effective adsorbent for vortex-assisted separation and preconcentration of lead and copper from various food samples. Copper and lead were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The characterization of the nanosized spongelike Mn3O4 was performed by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, Brunauer, Emmett and Teller surface area and zeta potential measurement. The contact times for both adsorption and elution were only 3min. Under the optimized conditions, detection limits for copper and lead were found to be 2.6μgL(-1) and 3.0μgL(-1), respectively. The relative standard deviations were found to be ⩽3.2%. The accuracy of the method was confirmed by analyzing the standard reference materials (BCR-482 Licken and SRM 1573a Tomato Leaves) and spiked real food and herb samples.

  11. Preparation and characterization of uniform nanosized cephradine by combination of reactive precipitation and liquid anti-solvent precipitation under high gravity environment.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Jie; Shen, Zhigang; Yang, Yan; Chen, Jianfeng

    2005-09-14

    In this work, a novel direct method, which was combined with reactive precipitation and liquid anti-solvent precipitation under high gravity environment, had been developed to prepare nanosized cephradine with narrow particle size distribution. Compared with commercial crude cephradine, the prepared cephradine showed a significant decrease in particle size, a significant increase in the specific surface area and shorter dissolving time when used for injection. The characteristic particle size was between 200-400 nm. The specific surface area increased from 2.95 to 10.87 m2/g after micronization. When the amount of L-arginin decreased from 0.25 to 0.18 g, the mixture of nanosized cephradine and L-arginine could still dissolve in 1 min. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) analysis indicated that the physical characteristics and molecular states remained unchanged after the recrystallization process. This method had potential application in industrial fields because of its low cost, efficient processing and the ease of scaling-up.

  12. Preparation and properties of poly(vinyl alcohol)/chitosan blend bionanocomposites reinforced with cellulose nanocrystals/ZnO-Ag multifunctional nanosized filler.

    PubMed

    Azizi, Susan; Ahmad, Mansor Bin; Hussein, Mohd Zobir; Ibrahim, Nor Azowa; Namvar, Farideh

    2014-01-01

    A series of novel bionanocomposites were cast using different contents of zinc oxide-silver nanoparticles (ZnO-AgNPs) stabilized by cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) as multifunctional nanosized fillers in poly(vinyl alcohol)/chitosan (PVA/Cs) matrices. The morphological structure, mechanical properties, ultraviolet-visible absorption, and antimicrobial properties of the prepared films were investigated as a function of their CNC/ZnO-AgNP content and compared with PVA/chitosan/CNC bionanocomposite films. X-ray diffraction and field emission scanning electron microscopic analyses showed that the CNC/ZnO-AgNPs were homogeneously dispersed in the PVA/Cs matrix and the crystallinity increased with increasing nanosized filler content. Compared with pure PVA/Cs, the tensile strength and modulus in the films increased from 0.055 to 0.205 GPa and from 0.395 to 1.20 GPa, respectively. Ultraviolet and visible light can be efficiently absorbed by incorporating ZnO-AgNPs into a PVA/Cs matrix, suggesting that these bionanocomposite films show good visibility and ultraviolet-shielding effects. The bionanocomposite films had excellent antimicrobial properties, killing both Gram-negative Salmonella choleraesuis and Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus. The enhanced physical properties achieved by incorporating CNC/ZnO-AgNPs could be beneficial in various applications.

  13. Recent attempts to design new super- and ultrahard solids leads to nano-sized and nano-structured materials and coatings.

    PubMed

    Veprek, S

    2011-01-01

    A brief overview of recent attempts to design new super- and ultrahard materials, which are based on the assumption that materials with high elastic moduli should be super- or ultrahard, is presented in order to show that meeting this condition is not sufficient. Instead, electronic and structural stability upon a finite, relatively large shear strain at atomic level is necessary to avoid structural transformations to softer phases or even a collapse of the structure. We discuss several examples where very high hardness of > 70 GPa has been obtained due to the nano-sized and nano-structured effects. Superhard nano-sized and/or nano-structured ("nanocomposites") materials can be prepared either by limited diffusion or by spinodal phase segregation during their synthesis. The advantages of the latter mentioned approach is the formation of a stable nanostructure with strong interfaces, that avoids grain boundary shear and concomitant softening when the crystallite size decreases below about 10-20 nm. In such a way, hardness enhancement by a factor of 4 to 5 has been achieved. We shall show that nc-TiN/a-Si3N4 nanocomposites can achieve hardness in excess of 100 GPa when properly designed, and prepared with low density of flaws and impurities. The paper finishes with a short overview of industrial applications of the nanocomposites as wear protection coatings on tools for machining.

  14. Nanosize electropositive fibrous adsorbent

    DOEpatents

    Tepper, Frederick; Kaledin, Leonid

    2005-01-04

    Aluminum hydroxide fibers approximately 2 nanometers in diameter and with surface areas ranging from 200 to 650 m.sup.2 /g have been fount to be highly electropositive. When dispersed in water they are able to attach to and retain electronegative particles. When combined into a composite filter with other fibers or particles they can filter bacteria and nano size particulates such as viruses and colloidal particles at high flux through the filter. Such filters can be used for purification and sterilization of water, biological, medical and pharmaceutical fluids, and as a collector/concentrator for detection and assay of mirobes and viruses. The alumina fibers are also capable of filtering sub-micron inorganic and metallic particles to produce ultra pure water. The fibers are suitable as a substrate for growth of cells. Macromolicules such as proteins may be separated from each other based on their electronegative charges.

  15. Selecting Interventions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langdon, Danny G.

    1997-01-01

    Describes a systematic approach to selecting instructional designs, discussing performance analysis, gaps, elements (inputs, conditions, process, outputs, consequences, feedback), matrices, changes in performance state (establishing, improving, maintaining, and extinguishing performance), intervention interference, and involving others in…

  16. Selected References.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Walter C.

    1987-01-01

    This extensive bibliography on library building includes 15 categories: bibliography; background; general; planning teams; building programs; alternatives to new buildings; academic libraries; public libraries; school libraries; special libraries; site selection; interior planning and equipment; maintenance; security; and moving. (MES)

  17. Spectral-optical-electrical-thermal properties of deposited thin films of nano-sized calcium(II)-8-hydroxy-5,7-dinitroquinolate complex.

    PubMed

    Farag, A A M; Haggag, Sawsan M S; Mahmoud, Mohamed E

    2011-11-01

    Spectral-optical-electrical-thermal properties of deposited thin films of nano-sized calcium(II)-8-hydroxy-5,7-dinitroquinolate complex, Ca[((NO(2))(2)-8HQ)(2)], were explored, studied and evaluated in this work. Thin films of Ca[((NO(2))(2)-8HQ)(2)] were assembled by using a direct, simple and efficient layer-by-layer (LBL) chemical deposition technique. The optical properties of thin films were investigated by using spectrophotometric measurements of transmittance and reflectance at normal incidence in the wavelength range 200-2500 nm. The refractive index, n, and the absorption index, k, of Ca[((NO(2))(2)-8HQ)(2)] films were determined from the measured transmittance and reflectance. The real and imaginary dielectric constants were also determined. The analysis of the spectral behavior of the absorption coefficient in the intrinsic absorption region reveals a direct allowed transition with band gaps of 1.1 eV and 2.4 eV for the optical and transport energy gaps, respectively. The current-voltage characteristics of Ca[((NO(2))(2)-8HQ)(2)] showed a trap-charge limited conduction in determining the current at the intermediate and high bias regimes. Graphical representation of the current-voltage characteristics yields three distinct linear parts indicating the existence of three conduction mechanisms. Structural characterization and identification were confirmed by using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was also used to image the surface morphology of the deposited nano-sized metal complex and such study revealed a high homogeneity in surface spherical particle distribution with average particles size in the range 20-40 nm. Thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) was also studied for [(NO(2))(2)-8HQ] and Ca[((NO(2))(2)-8HQ)(2)] to evaluate and confirm the thermal stability characteristics incorporated into the synthesized nano-sized Ca[((NO(2))(2)-8HQ)(2)] complex.

  18. Mössbauer study of the proximity gettering of cobalt atoms to He-induced nanosized voids in c-Si

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deweerd, W.; Barancira, T.; Bukshpan, S.; Demuynck, S.; Langouche, G.; Milants, K.; Moons, R.; Verheyden, J.; Pattyn, H.

    1996-06-01

    We observe a strong gettering of ion implanted 57Co to the internal surface of empty nanosized voids in c-Si, hampering normal silicide formation. The cavities are introduced by implanting He far above the solubility limits and subsequent desorption at 700 °C during 30 min. After 57Co implantation and thermal treatment, a previously unobserved Mössbauer spectrum was recorded that could be fitted consistently with two quadrupole doublets. They differ largely in binding strength and electric-field gradient Vzz and we preliminarily interpret them as an edge site (strong binding, smaller Vzz) and a surface site (loose binding, larger Vzz) at the internal surface of the faceted voids. The spectra are stable upon high-temperature annealing.

  19. Enthalpy Effect of Adding Cobalt to Liquid Sn-3.8Ag-0.7Cu Lead-Free Solder Alloy: Difference between Bulk and Nanosized Cobalt

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Heat effects for the addition of Co in bulk and nanosized forms into the liquid Sn-3.8Ag-0.7Cu alloy were studied using drop calorimetry at four temperatures between 673 and 1173 K. Significant differences in the heat effects between nano and bulk Co additions were observed. The considerably more exothermic values of the measured enthalpy for nano Co additions are connected with the loss of the surface enthalpy of the nanoparticles due to the elimination of the surface of the nanoparticles upon their dissolution in the liquid alloy. This effect is shown to be independent of the calorimeter temperature (it depends only on the dropping temperature through the temperature dependence of the surface energy of the nanoparticles). Integral and partial enthalpies of mixing for Co in the liquid SAC-alloy were evaluated from the experimental data. PMID:26877829

  20. Broadband electron spin resonance in a nanosized La{sub 0.25}Ca{sub 0.75}MnO{sub 3} manganite

    SciTech Connect

    Fernàndez-Martínez, Antoni; García-Santiago, Antoni Hernàndez, Joan Manel; Zhang, Tao

    2014-08-07

    The microwave response of a nanogranular La{sub 0.25}Ca{sub 0.75}MnO{sub 3} manganite has been studied by means of broadband electron spin resonance experiments performed in a commercial magnetic properties measurement system magnetometer using two purpose-built probes. The results concur with the hydrodynamic model for spin-glass systems and allow to determine the gyromagnetic ratio and the effective uniaxial magnetic anisotropy constant in a wide range of temperatures. The thermal behavior of both magnitudes provides information about structural transitions and magnetic interactions within the nanosized grains that make the sample. The experiments enable to corroborate the validity of the applied model in this kind of magnetic systems.

  1. Microstructure and Mechanical Performance of Cu-Sn-Ti-Based Active Braze Alloy Containing In Situ Formed Nano-Sized TiC Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leinenbach, Christian; Transchel, Robert; Gorgievski, Klea; Kuster, Friedrich; Elsener, Hans Rudolf; Wegener, Konrad

    2015-05-01

    A Cu-Sn-Ti-based active brazing filler alloy was in situ reinforced with nanosized TiC particles by adding different amounts of a cellulose nitride-based binder. The TiC particles emanate from a reaction of the Ti within the filler alloy with the carbon from the binder that does not decompose completely during heating. The correlation between the microstructure and mechanical performance was studied. In addition, the effect of different binder amounts on the shear strength and cutting performance of brazed diamond grains was studied in shear tests and single grain cutting tests. The results clearly show that the mechanical performance of the brazed diamond grains can be improved by the formation of TiC particles. This is attributed to particle strengthening of the filler alloy matrix as well as to the decreasing grain size and more homogeneous distribution of the (Cu,Sn)3Ti5 phase with increasing amount of binder.

  2. Enthalpy Effect of Adding Cobalt to Liquid Sn-3.8Ag-0.7Cu Lead-Free Solder Alloy: Difference between Bulk and Nanosized Cobalt.

    PubMed

    Yakymovych, Andriy; Kaptay, George; Roshanghias, Ali; Flandorfer, Hans; Ipser, Herbert

    2016-01-28

    Heat effects for the addition of Co in bulk and nanosized forms into the liquid Sn-3.8Ag-0.7Cu alloy were studied using drop calorimetry at four temperatures between 673 and 1173 K. Significant differences in the heat effects between nano and bulk Co additions were observed. The considerably more exothermic values of the measured enthalpy for nano Co additions are connected with the loss of the surface enthalpy of the nanoparticles due to the elimination of the surface of the nanoparticles upon their dissolution in the liquid alloy. This effect is shown to be independent of the calorimeter temperature (it depends only on the dropping temperature through the temperature dependence of the surface energy of the nanoparticles). Integral and partial enthalpies of mixing for Co in the liquid SAC-alloy were evaluated from the experimental data.

  3. Spectroscopic investigation on assisted sonocatalytic damage of bovine serum albumin (BSA) by metronidazole (MTZ) under ultrasonic irradiation combined with nano-sized ZnO.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jingqun; Liu, Bin; Wang, Jun; Jin, Xudong; Jiang, Renzheng; Liu, Lijun; Wang, Baoxin; Xu, Yongnan

    2010-11-01

    The previous work proved that the bovine serum albumin (BSA) could be damaged under the combined action of ultrasonic irradiation and ZnO. In this work, the assisted sonocatalytic damage of BSA using metronidazole (MTZ) as a sensitizer was further investigated by means of UV-vis and fluorescence spectra. The results indicated that the adding of MTZ could obviously promote the sonocatalytic damage of BSA under ultrasonic irradiation in the presence of nano-sized ZnO powder. Furthermore, it was found that the damage degree of BSA was aggravated by some influencing factors except ionic kind and strength. In addition, the damage site of BSA was also studied with synchronous fluorescence technology. It was found that the damage site was mainly at tryptophan (Trp) residue.

  4. Nanosized IrO(x)-Ir Catalyst with Relevant Activity for Anodes of Proton Exchange Membrane Electrolysis Produced by a Cost-Effective Procedure.

    PubMed

    Lettenmeier, Philipp; Wang, Li; Golla-Schindler, Ute; Gazdzicki, Pawel; Cañas, Natalia A; Handl, Michael; Hiesgen, Renate; Hosseiny, Seyed S; Gago, Aldo S; Friedrich, Kaspar A

    2016-01-11

    We have developed a highly active nanostructured iridium catalyst for anodes of proton exchange membrane (PEM) electrolysis. Clusters of nanosized crystallites are obtained by reducing surfactant-stabilized IrCl3 in water-free conditions. The catalyst shows a five-fold higher activity towards oxygen evolution reaction (OER) than commercial Ir-black. The improved kinetics of the catalyst are reflected in the high performance of the PEM electrolyzer (1 mg(Ir) cm(-2)), showing an unparalleled low overpotential and negligible degradation. Our results demonstrate that this enhancement cannot be only attributed to increased surface area, but rather to the ligand effect and low coordinate sites resulting in a high turnover frequency (TOF). The catalyst developed herein sets a benchmark and a strategy for the development of ultra-low loading catalyst layers for PEM electrolysis.

  5. Fabrication of nanosized Pt on rutile TiO2 using a standing wave sonochemical reactor (SWSR)--observation of an enhanced catalytic oxidation of CO.

    PubMed

    Sivakumar, Manickam; Towata, Atsuya; Yasui, Kyuichi; Tuziuti, Toru; Kozuka, Teruyuki; Tsujimoto, Masahiko; Zhong, Ziyi; Iida, Yasuo

    2010-01-01

    Fine particles of rutile TiO2 supporting nanosized particles of Pt were prepared by a simultaneous in situ sonochemical reduction and deposition method using a standing wave sonochemical reactor (SWSR). The mean diameter of sonochemically obtained Pt particles are of 2 nm. Following this sonochemical technique, rutile TiO2 was also deposited with different weight percentages of Pt. Catalytic function of the prepared composite catalysts were tested by the oxidation of CO to CO(2). From the catalytic activity results, it has been found out that the catalysts prepared by the sonochemical method exhibited higher catalytic activity for CO oxidation, probably attributed to the higher Pt particle distribution achieved under sonication. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS), and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) were employed to characterize the resulting material.

  6. Influence of nano-sized LSCF cathode and its firing temperature on electrochemical performance in oxygen-excess-type solid electrolyte (OESE)-based fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mieda, Hiroyuki; Mineshige, Atsushi; Saito, Atsushi; Yazawa, Tetsuo; Yoshioka, Hideki; Mori, Ryohei

    2014-12-01

    Dense films of an oxygen-excess-type solid electrolyte (OESE) based on Mg-doped lanthanum silicate (MDLS) were fabricated and applied to electrolyte materials for intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cells (IT-SOFCs). To obtain dense MDLS films on NiO-MDLS porous substrates, a conventional spin-coating technique using the MDLS printable paste, obtained by mixing nano-sized MDLS particles and a dispersant, was employed. The Ni-MDLS anode supported single cells were then fabricated by printing porous cathode layer onto the electrolyte film surface. By optimizing fabrication conditions of an MDLS film and cathode, the highly active cathode/OESE interface (ASR = 0.23 Ω cm2 at 873 K) were successfully obtained, which resulted in high power density of 0.166 W cm-2 at 873 K in the fuel cell test when operated with argon-diluted hydrogen and pure oxygen as the fuel and the cathode gas, respectively.

  7. Nano-sized Mn3O4 and β-MnOOH from the decomposition of β-cyclodextrin-Mn: 2. The water-oxidizing activities.

    PubMed

    Najafpour, Mohammad Mahdi; Mostafalu, Ramin; Hołyńska, Małgorzata; Ebrahimi, Foad; Kaboudin, Babak

    2015-11-01

    Nano-sized Mn oxides contain Mn3O4, β-MnOOH and Mn2O3 have been prepared by a previously reported method using thermal decomposition of β-cyclodextrin-Mn complexes. In the next step, the water-oxidizing activities of these Mn oxides using cerium(IV) ammonium nitrate as a chemical oxidant are studied. The turnover frequencies for β-MnO(OH) and Mn3O4 are 0.24 and 0.01-0.17 (mmol O2/mol Mns), respectively. Subsequently, water-oxidizing activities of these compounds are compared to the other previously reported Mn oxides. Important factors affecting water oxidation by these Mn oxides are also discussed.

  8. [Study of luminescence properties of nano-size ZnO embedded in SiO2 layer grown by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering].

    PubMed

    Shang, Hong-kai; Zhang, Xi-qing; Yao, Zhi-gang; Teng, Xiao-ying; Wang, Yong-sheng; Huang, Shi-hua

    2006-03-01

    Nano-size ZnO embedded in SiO2 layers were grown by radio-frequency magnetron sputtering. Absorption spectra and PL spectra were employed to study the optical character of the samples at room temperature. Absorption spectra blue-shifted when the size of nano-meter ZnO decreased, which indicated that quantum size effect became stronger with decreasing the size of ZnO. PL spectra show two peaks at about 387 and 441 nm, respectively. It was concluded that the UV emission originates from the radiative recombination of free-exciton, and the blue emission is due to the electron transition from donor levels of oxygen vacancies to the top of valence band. The origin of the two peaks is demonstrated by time-resolved spectra and luminescence decay curve.

  9. A dendritic nano-sized hexanuclear ruthenium(II) complex as a one- and two-photon luminescent tracking non-viral gene vector

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Kangqiang; Yu, Bole; Huang, Huaiyi; Zhang, Pingyu; Huang, Juanjuan; Zou, Shanshan; Chen, Yu; Ji, Liangnian; Chao, Hui

    2015-01-01

    Fluorescent tracking gene delivery could provide us with a better understanding of the critical steps in the transfection process. However, for in vivo tracking applications, a small diameter (<10 nm) is one of the rigorous requirements for tracking vectors. Herein, we have demonstrated a new paradigm for two-photon tracking gene delivery based on a dendritic nano-sized hexanuclear ruthenium(II) polypyridyl complex. Because this metallodendrimer has a multivalent periphery, the complex, which is 6.1 nm, showed high stability and excellent dispersibility and could stepwise condense DNA in vitro. With the outstanding photochemical properties of Ru(II) polypyridyl, this complex could track gene delivery in vivo using one- and two-photon imaging. PMID:26185052

  10. Crystal and Electronic Structure of Lithiated Nanosized RutileTiO2 by Electron Diffraction and Electron Energy-loss Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Chong M.; Yang, Zhenguo; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai; Liu, Jun; Baer, Donald R.; Choi, Daiwon; Wang, Donghai; Zhang, Jiguang; Saraf, Laxmikant V.; Nie, Zimin

    2009-06-11

    The electronic structure of the nanosized rutile TiO2 before and after mechanical lithiation were studied using TEM and EELS. EELS reveals the Li K-edge at the energy-loss position of ~ 61 eV. After lithiation, the separation of the t2g-eg crystal-field splitting on both Ti L2,3-edge and O K-edge decreases, the O K-edge shifts towards a higher energy-loss position and the separation between the pre-edge peak and main peak on the O K-edge decreases. These results suggest that the lithiation of rutile TiO2 was accompanied by the reduction of Ti ion and a charge transfer from Li to Ti.

  11. Spectroscopic investigation on assisted sonocatalytic damage of bovine serum albumin (BSA) by metronidazole (MTZ) under ultrasonic irradiation combined with nano-sized ZnO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Jingqun; Liu, Bin; Wang, Jun; Jin, Xudong; Jiang, Renzheng; Liu, Lijun; Wang, Baoxin; Xu, Yongnan

    2010-11-01

    The previous work proved that the bovine serum albumin (BSA) could be damaged under the combined action of ultrasonic irradiation and ZnO. In this work, the assisted sonocatalytic damage of BSA using metronidazole (MTZ) as a sensitizer was further investigated by means of UV-vis and fluorescence spectra. The results indicated that the adding of MTZ could obviously promote the sonocatalytic damage of BSA under ultrasonic irradiation in the presence of nano-sized ZnO powder. Furthermore, it was found that the damage degree of BSA was aggravated by some influencing factors except ionic kind and strength. In addition, the damage site of BSA was also studied with synchronous fluorescence technology. It was found that the damage site was mainly at tryptophan (Trp) residue.

  12. Stability of nano-sized titanium dioxide in an aqueous environment: effects of pH, dissolved organic matter and divalent cations.

    PubMed

    Yang, X N; Cui, F Y

    2013-01-01

    Nano-sized titanium dioxide in the aquatic environment has a potential impact on the environment and human health. In this study, the impact of pH value, dissolved organic matter (DOM) and divalent cations (Ca(2+)) on the stability of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (nano-TiO2) in an aqueous environment was investigated in batch tests. The results showed that the particle size of nano-TiO2 was not sensitive to pH value but was inversely proportional to zeta potential. The nano-TiO2 becomes more stable with surface zeta potential, accompanied by small particle size and high dispersion. In the presence of DOM, the particle size was smaller and the stability of nano-TiO2 could be enhanced. This might be a synergistic effect of the ligand exchange and electrostatic force. Particle size increased with the addition of Ca(2+) and the stability decreased.

  13. High-resolution chemical analysis by STEM-EELS of nanosized oxide particles in a mechanically-alloyed FeCrAl intermetallic

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, D.G. Muñoz-Morris, M.A.

    2015-05-15

    The chemical composition of nanosized oxides has been analysed in a mechanically-alloyed (MA) iron–chromium–aluminium intermetallic containing yttria additions using an aberration-corrected, high-resolution scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM). The oxide particles are seen to contain yttrium and oxygen only, but very little of the matrix metallic elements, while the matrix in the immediate vicinity shows a very low iron content. Possible reasons for the change of matrix composition outside the particle-matrix interface are discussed. - Highlights: • High-resolution chemical analysis of oxide particles was performed using STEM-EELS. • Oxide particles contain Y and O but essentially no elements from the Fe–Cr–Al matrix. • The matrix immediately outside the particles appears to be depleted in Fe. • Diffusion of Y during particle growth possibly transports vacancies to the interface.

  14. Coupling of Nanocrystalline Anatase TiO2 to Porous Nanosized LaFeO3 for Efficient Visible-Light Photocatalytic Degradation of Pollutants

    PubMed Central

    Humayun, Muhammad; Li, Zhijun; Sun, Liqun; Zhang, Xuliang; Raziq, Fazal; Zada, Amir; Qu, Yang; Jing, Liqiang

    2016-01-01

    In this work we have successfully fabricated nanocrystalline anatase TiO2/perovskite-type porous nanosized LaFeO3 (T/P-LFO) nanocomposites using a simple wet chemical method. It is clearly demonstrated by means of atmosphere-controlled steady-state surface photovoltage spectroscopy (SPS) responses, photoluminescence spectra, and fluorescence spectra related to the formed OH− radical amount that the photogenerated charge carriers in the resultant T/P-LFO nanocomposites with a proper mole ratio percentage of TiO2 display much higher separation in comparison to the P-LFO alone. This is highly responsible for the improved visible-light activities of T/P-LFO nanocomposites for photocatalytic degradation of gas-phase acetaldehyde and liquid-phase phenol. This work will provide a feasible route to synthesize visible-light responsive nano-photocatalysts for efficient solar energy utilization.

  15. Structural and magnetic properties of nano-sized NiCuZn ferrites synthesized by co-precipitation method with ultrasound irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harzali, Hassen; Saida, Fairouz; Marzouki, Arij; Megriche, Adel; Baillon, Fabien; Espitalier, Fabienne; Mgaidi, Arbi

    2016-12-01

    Sonochemically assisted co-precipitation has been used to prepare nano-sized Ni-Cu-Zn-ferrite powders. A suspension of constituent hydroxides was ultrasonically irradiated for various times at different temperatures with high intensity ultrasound radiation using a direct immersion titanium horn. Structural and magnetic properties were investigated using X-diffraction (XRD), FT-IR spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Nitrogen adsorption at 77 K (BET) and Vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). Preliminary experimental results relative to optimal parameters showed that reaction time t=2 h, temperature θ=90 °C and dissipated Power Pdiss=46.27 W. At these conditions, this work shows the formation of nanocrystalline single-phase structure with particle size 10-25 nm. Also, ours magnetic measurements proved that the sonochemistry method has a great influence on enhancing the magnetic properties of the ferrite.

  16. Hybrid zero valent iron (ZVI)/H2O2 oxidation process for landfill leachate treatment with novel nanosize metallic calcium/iron composite.

    PubMed

    Lee, Son Dong; Mallampati, Srinivasa Reddy; Lee, Byoung Ho

    2017-04-01

    A novel nanosize metallic calcium/iron dispersed reagent was synthesized and tested as coagulant/catalyst in a hybrid zero valent iron (ZVI)/H2O2 oxidation process to treat leachate. Two different types of leachates, one from municipal solid waste (MSW) tipping hall (MSWIL) and second from an MSW landfill site (MSWLL), were collected and characterized. The morphology, elemental composition, and mineral phases of the nano-Ca/CaO and nano-Fe/Ca/CaO were characterized by scanning electron microscopy-electron dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) and x-ray powder diffraction (XRD) analysis. The coagulation process with 2.5 g L(-1) nano-Ca/CaO attained 64.0, 56.0, and 20.7% removal of color, chemical oxygen demand (COD), and total suspended solids (TSS) in MSWLL. With only 1.0 g L(-1) of nano-Fe/Ca/CaO, relatively high color, COD and TSS removal was achieved in MSWLL at 67.5, 60.2, and 37.7%, respectively. The heavy metal removal efficiency reached 91-99% after treatment with nano-Fe/Ca/CaO in both leachate samples. The coupling process, using 1.0 g L(-1) of nano-Fe/Ca/CaO and 20 mM H2O2 doses, achieved enhancement removal of color, COD, and TSS, up to 95%, 96%, and 66%, respectively, without initial pH control. After this treatment, the color, COD, TSS, and heavy metals were significantly decreased, fitting the Korean discharge regulation limit. A hybrid coupled zero valent iron (ZVI)/H2O2 oxidation process with novel nanosized metallic calcium/iron dispersed reagent proved to be a suitable treatment for dealing with leachate samples.

  17. Characterisation of micro-sized and nano-sized tungsten oxide-epoxy composites for radiation shielding of diagnostic X-rays.

    PubMed

    Azman, N Z Noor; Siddiqui, S A; Low, I M

    2013-12-01

    Characteristics of X-ray transmissions were investigated for epoxy composites filled with 2-10 vol% WO3 loadings using synchrotron X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) at 10-40 keV. The results obtained were used to determine the equivalent X-ray energies for the operating X-ray tube voltages of mammography and radiology machines. The results confirmed the superior attenuation ability of nano-sized WO3-epoxy composites in the energy range of 10-25 keV when compared to their micro-sized counterparts. However, at higher synchrotron radiation energies (i.e., 30-40 keV), the X-ray transmission characteristics were similar with no apparent size effect for both nano-sized and micro-sized WO3-epoxy composites. The equivalent X-ray energies for the operating X-ray tube voltages of the mammography unit (25-49 kV) were in the range of 15-25 keV. Similarly, for a radiology unit operating at 40-60 kV, the equivalent energy range was 25-40 keV, and for operating voltages greater than 60 kV (i.e., 70-100 kV), the equivalent energy was in excess of 40 keV. The mechanical properties of epoxy composites increased initially with an increase in the filler loading but a further increase in the WO3 loading resulted in deterioration of flexural strength, modulus and hardness.

  18. Metal complexes of the nanosized ligand N-benzoyl-N‧-(p-amino phenyl) thiourea: Synthesis, characterization, antimicrobial activity and the metal uptake capacity of its ligating resin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elhusseiny, Amel F.; Eldissouky, Ali; Al-Hamza, Ahmed M.; Hassan, Hammed H. A. M.

    2015-11-01

    The new nanosized N-benzoyl-N‧-(p-amino phenyl) thiourea ligand H2L was synthesized by nanoprecipitation method. The [Cu (H2L)2 Cl]·2H2O, [Zn (H2L)2(OAc)2], [Cd (H2L)2Cl2] and [Hg (H2L)2Cl2] complexes were synthesized and characterized by various physicochemical methods. Results revealed that the ligand act as hypodentate and bonded to the metal ion via the sulfur atom forming mononuclear non-electrolyte diamagnetic complex. Magnetic moment results indicated a reduction of Cu (II) to Cu (I) during the coordination process. Thermal studies demonstrated variable stabilities of the complexes and [Zn (H2L)2(OAc)2] exhibited the highest thermal stability while [Hg (H2L)2Cl2] was volatile. The prepared compounds were screened against different pathogenic microorganisms. The ligand performed high antibacterial activity against certain bacterial strain compared to its complexes, and the standard bacteriocide in use. The ligand was successfully immobilized on modified Amberlite XAD-16 forming the hypodentate ligating resin PS-SO2-H2L. The new resin was characterized and the extent of metal adsorption reached maximum at pH 6.0 for Cu (II), Cd (II) and Ag (I), with an adsorption amount of 4.3, 4.0 and 3.7 mmol g-1 respectively. The nanosized H2L represents a new category of promising adsorbent that would have a practical impact on biological and water treatment applications.

  19. Normalization of nano-sized TiO2-induced clastogenicity, genotoxicity and mutagenicity by chlorophyllin administration in mice brain, liver, and bone marrow cells.

    PubMed

    El-Ghor, Akmal A; Noshy, Magda M; Galal, Ahmad; Mohamed, Hanan Ramadan H

    2014-11-01

    The intensive uses of titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles in sunscreens, toothpaste, sweats, medications, etc. making humans exposed to it daily by not little amounts and also increased its risks including genotoxicity. Thus, the present study was designed as one way to reduce nano-titanium-induced clastogenicity, genotoxicity, and mutagenicity in mice by co-administration of the free radical scavenger chlorophyllin (CHL). In addition, markers of oxidative stress were detected to shed more light on mechanism(s) underlying nano-sized TiO2 genotoxicity. Male mice were exposed to multiple injection into the abdominal cavity for five consecutive days with either CHL (40 mg/kg bw/day), or each of three dose levels of nano-sized TiO2 (500, 1000, or 2000 mg/kg bw/day) alone, or both simultaneously and sacrificed by cervical dislocation 24 h after the last treatment. After CHL co-administration, the observed dose-dependent genotoxicity of TiO2 nanoparticles indicated by the significant elevations in frequencies of both micronuclei and DNA damage induction was significantly decreased and returned to the negative control level. The observed induced mutations in p53 exons 5, 7, & 8 and 5 & 8 in the liver and brain, respectively, were declined in most cases. Moreover, CHL significantly decreased hepatic malondialdehyde level and significantly increased glutathione level and superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase activities that were significantly disrupted in animal groups treated with nano-TiO2 alone. In conclusion, the evidenced in vivo genotoxicity of nano-TiO2 in the present study was normalized after CHL co-administration which supports the previously suggested oxidative stress as the possible mechanism for titanium toxicity.

  20. Effect of zinc-borate glass addition on the thermal properties of the cordierite/Al2O3 composites containing nano-sized spinel crystal.

    PubMed

    Jo, Sinae; Kang, Seunggu

    2013-11-01

    Low-melting zinc-borate glass was added to the cordierite/Al2O3 composite in order to improve the sintering facility of Al2O3 and formation of nano-sized spinel crystal of high thermal conductivity. Increasing the ZnO/B2O3 ratio in the zinc-borate glass increased the ZnAl2O4 spinel and decreased the Al4B2O9 crystal peak intensities in X-ray diffraction pattern. The XRD peak intensities of the ZnAl2O4 spinel and Al4B2O9 crystals in the specimen containing 10 wt% zinc-borate glass (10G series) are higher than that of the specimen containing 5 wt% zinc-borate glass (5G series). The microstructures of most 10G series specimens had the flower-shaped crystal which was composed of 50 nm wide and 250 nm long needle-like crystals and identified as ZnAl2O4 spinel phase. The thermal conductivity of the 10G series specimen was higher than that of the 5G series in any ZnO/B2O3 ratio due to the formation of plenty of nano-sized ZnAl2O4 spinel of high thermal conductivity. Particularly, the thermal conductivity of the cordierite/Al2O3 composite containing 10 wt% zinc-borate glass of ZnO/B2O3 weight ratio = 1.5 was 3.8 W/Km which is much higher than that of the published value (3.0 W/Km).

  1. Selective Enumeration

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-07-01

    claims about properties of a specification by solving formulae derived the specification. Ladybug is a new tool that incorporates selective enumeration...languages. Ladybug includes implementations of three significant new algorithms to help reduce the search space: bounded generation, domain coloring, and...thesis, I have applied Ladybug to a suite of software specifications, including both artificial and "real-world" specifications, to quantify the

  2. Selective Emitters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chubb, Donald L. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    This invention relates to a small particle selective emitter for converting thermal energy into narrow band radiation with high efficiency. The small particle selective emitter is used in combination with a photovoltaic array to provide a thermal to electrical energy conversion device. An energy conversion apparatus of this type is called a thermo-photovoltaic device. In the first embodiment, small diameter particles of a rare earth oxide are suspended in an inert gas enclosed between concentric cylinders. The rare earth oxides are used because they have the desired property of large emittance in a narrow wavelength band and small emittance outside the band. However, it should be emphasized that it is the smallness of the particles that enhances the radiation property. The small particle selective emitter is surrounded by a photovoltaic array. In an alternate embodiment, the small particle gas mixture is circulated through a thermal energy source. This thermal energy source can be a nuclear reactor, solar receiver, or combustor of a fossil fuel.

  3. Selective emitters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chubb, Donald L.

    1992-01-01

    This invention relates to a small particle selective emitter for converting thermal energy into narrow band radiation with high efficiency. The small particle selective emitter is used in combination with a photovoltaic array to provide a thermal to electrical energy conversion device. An energy conversion apparatus of this type is called a thermo-photovoltaic device. In the first embodiment, small diameter particles of a rare earth oxide are suspended in an inert gas enclosed between concentric cylinders. The rare earth oxides are used because they have the desired property of large emittance in a narrow wavelength band and small emittance outside the band. However, it should be emphasized that it is the smallness of the particles that enhances the radiation property. The small particle selective emitter is surrounded by a photovoltaic array. In an alternate embodiment, the small particle gas mixture is circulated through a thermal energy source. This thermal energy source can be a nuclear reactor, solar receiver, or combustor of a fossil fuel.

  4. EDITORIAL: Nanotechnological selection Nanotechnological selection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demming, Anna

    2013-01-01

    At the nanoscale measures can move from a mass-scale analogue calibration to counters of discrete units. The shift redefines the possible levels of control that can be achieved in a system if adequate selectivity can be imposed. As an example as ionic substances pass through nanoscale pores, the quantity of ions is low enough that the pore can contain either negative or positive ions. Yet precise control over this selectivity still raises difficulties. In this issue researchers address the challenge of how to regulate the ionic selectivity of negative and positive charges with the use of an external charge. The approach may be useful for controlling the behaviour, properties and chemical composition of liquids and has possible technical applications for nanofluidic field effect transistors [1]. Selectivity is a critical advantage in the administration of drugs. Nanoparticles functionalized with targeting moieties can allow delivery of anti-cancer drugs to tumour cells, whilst avoiding healthy cells and hence reducing some of the debilitating side effects of cancer treatments [2]. Researchers in Belarus and the US developed a new theranostic approach—combining therapy and diagnosis—to support the evident benefits of cellular selectivity that can be achieved when nanoparticles are applied in medicine [3]. Their process uses nanobubbles of photothermal vapour, referred to as plasmonic nanobubbles, generated by plasmonic excitations in gold nanoparticles conjugated to diagnosis-specific antibodies. The intracellular plasmonic nanobubbles are controlled by laser fluence so that the response can be tuned in individual living cells. Lower fluence allows non-invasive high-sensitive imaging for diagnosis and higher fluence can disrupt the cellular membrane for treatments. The selective response of carbon nanotubes to different gases has leant them to be used within various different types of sensors, as summarized in a review by researchers at the University of

  5. Site selection

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, C.W.

    1983-07-01

    The conditions and criteria for selecting a site for a nuclear weapons test at the Nevada Test Site are summarized. Factors considered are: (1) scheduling of drill rigs, (2) scheduling of site preparation (dirt work, auger hole, surface casing, cementing), (3) schedule of event (when are drill hole data needed), (4) depth range of proposed W.P., (5) geologic structure (faults, Pz contact, etc.), (6) stratigraphy (alluvium, location of Grouse Canyon Tuff, etc.), (7) material properties (particularly montmorillonite and CO/sub 2/ content), (8) water table depth, (9) potential drilling problems (caving), (10) adjacent collapse craters and chimneys, (11) adjacent expended but uncollapsed sites, (12) adjacent post-shot or other small diameter holes, (13) adjacent stockpile emplacement holes, (14) adjacent planned events (including LANL), (15) projected needs of Test Program for various DOB's and operational separations, and (16) optimal use of NTS real estate.

  6. Granulator Selection

    SciTech Connect

    Gould, T H; Armantrout, G

    1999-08-02

    Following our detailed review of the granulation reports and additional conversations with process and development personnel, we have reached a consensus position regarding granulator selection. At this time, we recommend going forward with implementation of the tumbling granulator approach (GEMCO) based on our assessment of the tested granulation techniques using the established criteria. The basis for this selection is summarized in the following sections, followed by our recommendations for proceeding with implementation of the tumbling granulation approach. All five granulation technologies produced granulated products that can be made into acceptable sintered pucks. A possible exception is the product from the fluidized bed granulator. This material has been more difficult to press into uniform pucks without subsequent cracking of the puck during the sintering cycle for the pucks in this series of tests. This problem may be an artifact of the conditions of the particular granulation demonstration run involved, but earlier results have also been mixed. All granulators made acceptable granulated feed from the standpoint of transfer and press feeding, though the roller compactor and fluidized bed products were dustier than the rest. There was also differentiation among the granulators in the operational areas of (1) potential for process upset, (2) plant implementation and operational complexity, and (3) maintenance concerns. These considerations will be discussed further in the next section. Note that concerns also exist regarding the extension of the granulation processes to powders containing actinides. Only the method that involves tumbling and moisture addition has been tested with uranium, and in that instance, significant differences were found in the granulation behavior of the powders.

  7. High Temperature Oxidation of Nickel-based Cermet Coatings Composed of Al2O3 and TiO2 Nanosized Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrokhzad, M. A.; Khan, T. I.

    2014-09-01

    New technological challenges in oil production require materials that can resist high temperature oxidation. In-Situ Combustion (ISC) oil production technique is a new method that uses injection of air and ignition techniques to reduce the viscosity of bitumen in a reservoir and as a result crude bitumen can be produced and extracted from the reservoir. During the in-situ combustion process, production pipes and other mechanical components can be exposed to air-like gaseous environments at extreme temperatures as high as 700 °C. To protect or reduce the surface degradation of pipes and mechanical components used in in-situ combustion, the use of nickel-based ceramic-metallic (cermet) coating produced by co-electrodeposition of nanosized Al2O3 and TiO2 have been suggested and earlier research on these coatings have shown promising oxidation resistance against atmospheric oxygen and combustion gases at elevated temperatures. Co-electrodeposition of nickel-based cermet coatings is a low-cost method that has the benefit of allowing both internal and external surfaces of pipes and components to be coated during a single electroplating process. Research has shown that the volume fraction of dispersed nanosized Al2O3 and TiO2 particles in the nickel matrix which affects the oxidation resistance of the coating can be controlled by the concentration of these particles in the electrolyte solution, as well as the applied current density during electrodeposition. This paper investigates the high temperature oxidation behaviour of novel nanostructured cermet coatings composed of two types of dispersed nanosized ceramic particles (Al2O3 and TiO2) in a nickel matrix and produced by coelectrodeposition technique as a function of the concentration of these particles in the electrolyte solution and applied current density. For this purpose, high temperature oxidation tests were conducted in dry air for 96 hours at 700 °C to obtain mass changes (per unit of area) at specific time

  8. Hydrogenolysis of Glycerol to Propylene Glycol on Nanosized Cu-Zn-Al Catalysts Prepared Using Microwave Process.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong Won; Ha, Sang Ho; Moon, Myung Jun; Lim, Kwon Taek; Ryu, Young Bok; Lee, Sun Do; Lee, Man Sig; Hong, Seong-Soo

    2015-01-01

    Cu-Zn-Al catalysts were prepared using microwave-assisted process and co-precipitation methods. The prepared catalysts were characterized by XRD, BET, XPS and TPD of ammonia and their catalytic activity for the hydrogenolysis of glycerol to propylene glycol was also examined. The XRD patterns of Cu/Zn/Al mixed catalysts show CuO and ZnO crystalline phase regardless of preparation method. The highest glycerol hydrogenolysis conversion is obtained with the catalyst having a Cu/Zn/Al ratio of 2:2:1. Hydrogen pre-reduction of catalysts significantly enhanced both glycerol conversions and selectivity to propylene glycol. The glycerol conversion increased with an increase of reaction temperature. However, the selectivity to propylene glycol increased with an increase of temperature, and then declined to 30.5% at 523 K.

  9. Selective recognition of Glutamate based on fluorescence enhancement of graphene quantum dot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosseini, Morteza; Khabbaz, Hossein; Dezfoli, Amin Shiralizadeh; Ganjali, Mohammad Reza; Dadmehr, Mehdi

    2015-02-01

    Graphene quantum dots (GQDs) have successfully been utilized as an efficient nano-sized fluorescence chemosensor to detect selectively Glutamate (Glu) in Tris-HCl buffer solution (pH = 9). The fluorescence emission spectrum of graphene quantum dots was at about 430 nm. The study showed that fluorescence intensity of the quantum dot gradually enhanced with increase in concentration of Glutamate and any change in fluorescence intensity was directly proportional to the concentration of Glutamate. Under optimum conditions, the linear range for the detection of Glutamate was 1.6 × 10-7 M to 1.0 × 10-5 M with a detection limit of 5.2 × 10-8 M. The sensor showed high selectivity toward Glutamate in comparison with other amino acids.

  10. Nano-Sized Cyclodextrin-Based Molecularly Imprinted Polymer Adsorbents for Perfluorinated Compounds—A Mini-Review

    PubMed Central

    Karoyo, Abdalla H.; Wilson, Lee D.

    2015-01-01

    Recent efforts have been directed towards the design of efficient and contaminant selective remediation technology for the removal of perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) from soils, sediments, and aquatic environments. While there is a general consensus on adsorption-based processes as the most suitable methodology for the removal of PFCs from aquatic environments, challenges exist regarding the optimal materials design of sorbents for selective uptake of PFCs. This article reviews the sorptive uptake of PFCs using cyclodextrin (CD)-based polymer adsorbents with nano- to micron-sized structural attributes. The relationship between synthesis of adsorbent materials and their structure relate to the overall sorption properties. Hence, the adsorptive uptake properties of CD-based molecularly imprinted polymers (CD-MIPs) are reviewed and compared with conventional MIPs. Further comparison is made with non-imprinted polymers (NIPs) that are based on cross-linking of pre-polymer units such as chitosan with epichlorohydrin in the absence of a molecular template. In general, MIPs offer the advantage of selectivity, chemical tunability, high stability and mechanical strength, ease of regeneration, and overall lower cost compared to NIPs. In particular, CD-MIPs offer the added advantage of possessing multiple binding sites with unique physicochemical properties such as tunable surface properties and morphology that may vary considerably. This mini-review provides a rationale for the design of unique polymer adsorbent materials that employ an intrinsic porogen via incorporation of a macrocyclic compound in the polymer framework to afford adsorbent materials with tunable physicochemical properties and unique nanostructure properties. PMID:28347047

  11. The precession technique in electron diffraction and its application to structure determination of nano-size precipitates in alloys.

    PubMed

    Gjønnes, J; Hansen, V; Kverneland, A

    2004-02-01

    Crystal structure of nano-scale precipitates in age-hardening aluminum alloys is a challenge to crystallography. The utility of selected area electron diffraction intensities from embedded precipitates is limited by double scattering via matrix reflections. This effect can be signally reduced by the precession technique, which we have used to collect extensive intensity data from the semicoherent, metastable eta-precipitate in the Al-Zn-Mg alloy system. A structure model in the space group P-62c is proposed from high-resolution microscopy and electron diffraction intensities. The advantages of using the precession technique for quantitative electron diffraction is discussed.

  12. Highly sensitive dimethyl ether gas sensor utilizing cataluminescence on nanosized MgO/In2O3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Yixin; Zhang, Qianchun; Zhang, Wanqin; Zhang, Guoyi; Zhu, Shouli

    2014-08-01

    A gaseous sensor was developed for the determination of dimethyl ether (DME) on the basis of its cataluminescence (CTL) emission on the surface of MgO/In2O3 composite (mass ratio = 1:2). The sensor exhibited high sensitivity and selectivity to DME at a temperature of 245 °C. Under the optimized experimental conditions, the linear range of CTL intensity versus DME concentration was 50-12 000 ppm with a limit of detection of 14 ppm (signal to noise (S/N) = 3). By selecting the appropriate ratio of MgO to In2O3 and the detecting wavelength, the CTL intensities of ether and ethanol could be reduced to 7.3% and 3.9% compared with that of DME. For other compounds, including carbon tetrachloride, formaldehyde, dimethyl sulfate and methyl acetate, etc, no emissions or only very weak ones were detected. The sensor was applied to analyze samples spiked with known concentrations of DME. The concentrations of DME in all samples were well quantified with satisfactory recoveries.

  13. Evaluation of heavy metals in hazardous automobile shredder residue thermal residue and immobilization with novel nano-size calcium dispersed reagent.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chi-Hyeon; Truc, Nguyen Thi Thanh; Lee, Byeong-Kyu; Mitoma, Yoshiharu; Mallampati, Srinivasa Reddy

    2015-10-15

    This study was conducted to synthesize and apply a nano-size calcium dispersed reagent as an immobilization material for heavy metal-contaminated automobile shredder residues (ASR) dust/thermal residues in dry condition. Simple mixing with a nanometallic Ca/CaO/PO4 dispersion mixture immobilized 95-100% of heavy metals in ASR dust/thermal residues (including bottom ash, cavity ash, boiler and bag filter ash). The quantity of heavy metals leached from thermal residues after treatment by nanometallic Ca/CaO/PO4 was lower than the Korean standard regulatory limit for hazardous waste landfills. The morphology and elemental composition of the nanometallic Ca/CaO-treated ASR residue were characterized by field emission scanning election microscopy combined with electron dispersive spectroscopy (FE-SEM/EDS). The results indicated that the amounts of heavy metals detectable on the ASR thermal residue surface decreased and the Ca/PO4 mass percent increased. X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern analysis indicated that the main fraction of enclosed/bound materials on ASR residue included Ca/PO4- associated crystalline complexes, and that immobile Ca/PO4 salts remarkably inhibited the desorption of heavy metals from ASR residues. These results support the potential use of nanometallic Ca/CaO/PO4 as a simple, suitable and highly efficient material for the gentle immobilization of heavy metals in hazardous ASR thermal residue in dry condition.

  14. Effect of spark plasma sintering on plasma electrolytic oxidation coatings on gas-atomized Mg-Zn-Y alloy containing nano-sized powders.

    PubMed

    Lee, Du Hyung; Kim, Bo Sik; Song, Yo-seung; Kim, Sung Ho; Lee, Chan Bok; Chang, Si Young

    2010-01-01

    Mg-1.0wt%Zn-2.0wt%Y alloy powders were produced by gas atomization, and subsequently sintered by spark plasma sintering (SPS). The SPSed Mg-1.0wt%Zn-2.0wt%Y alloy, which showed a microstructure of well-bonded grains containing nano-sized powders of approximately 100 nm in diameter, was coated by a plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) method. Microstructure, mechanical properties and corrosion properties of PEO coatings were investigated and compared to those of normally sintered Mg-1.0wt%Zn-2.0wt%Y and cast Mg-1.0wt%Zn alloys. All coatings consisted of MgO and Mg2SiO4. The micro-hardness and friction coefficient of coatings on the SPSed Mg-1.0wt%Zn-2.0wt%Y alloy were higher than those on normally sintered Mg-1.0wt%Zn-2.0wt%Y and cast Mg-l.0wt%Zn alloys. However, the corrosion resistance in 3.5% NaCl solution for the SPSed Mg-1.0wt%Zn-2.0wt%Y alloy was between that for normally sintered Mg-1.0wt%Zn-2.0wt%Y alloy and cast Mg-1.0wt%Zn alloy.

  15. Synthesis and Consolidation of Nano-Sized Cu Coated SiC Powders by a Chemical Method and Spark Plasma Sintering.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Young-Keun; Bang, Su-Ryong; Oh, Sung-Tag

    2016-02-01

    Cu-70 vol% SIC composites with dense microstructure and sound interface between Cu and SIC grains were fabricated by solution chemistry route and spark plasma sintering. Two methods for developing powder mixtures of Cu and uncoated or pre-coated SIC were compared on the basis of the resulting microstructures. The pre-coating of Si(Al)OC onto SiC powders was prepared by curing and pyrolysis of Al-modified polycarbosilane. SiC/Cu composites were obtained by hydrogen reduction and densified using spark plasma sintering of pre-coated SIC and Cu-nitrate powder mixtures. The powder mixture showed a homogenous dispersion of nano-sized Cu particles on the surface of SIC powers. Microstructural observation revealed that the sintered composite using powder mixture with pre-coating of Al-PCS onto SiC powders showed dense microstructure and good contact between Cu and SIC grains due to the improved wettability by barrier coating. The results suggested that the SiC/Cu composite with required microstructural characteristics can be fabricated by using Al-PCS coated SIC powder mixture, more effectively.

  16. Novel Antiviral Characteristics of Nanosized Copper(I) Iodide Particles Showing Inactivation Activity against 2009 Pandemic H1N1 Influenza Virus

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Tetsuya; Hayata, Taishi; Nagao, Tomokazu; Nakayama, Mikio; Nakayama, Tsuruo; Sugamata, Ryuichi; Suzuki, Kazuo

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the antiviral activity of nanosized copper(I) iodide (CuI) particles having an average size of 160 nm. CuI particles showed aqueous stability and generated hydroxyl radicals, which were probably derived from monovalent copper (Cu+). We confirmed that CuI particles showed antiviral activity against an influenza A virus of swine origin (pandemic [H1N1] 2009) by plaque titration assay. The virus titer decreased in a dose-dependent manner upon incubation with CuI particles, with the 50% effective concentration being approximately 17 μg/ml after exposure for 60 min. SDS-PAGE analysis confirmed the inactivation of the virus due to the degradation of viral proteins such as hemagglutinin and neuraminidase by CuI. Electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy revealed that CuI generates hydroxyl radicals in aqueous solution, and radical production was found to be blocked by the radical scavenger N-acetylcysteine. Taken together, these findings indicate that CuI particles exert antiviral activity by generating hydroxyl radicals. Thus, CuI may be a useful material for protecting against viral attacks and may be suitable for applications such as filters, face masks, protective clothing, and kitchen cloths. PMID:22156433

  17. Integrating classical and molecular approaches to evaluate the impact of nanosized zero-valent iron (nZVI) on soil organisms.

    PubMed

    Saccà, Maria Ludovica; Fajardo, Carmen; Costa, Gonzalo; Lobo, Carmen; Nande, Mar; Martin, Margarita

    2014-06-01

    Nanosized zero-valent iron (nZVI) is a new option for the remediation of contaminated soil and groundwater, but the effect of nZVI on soil biota is mostly unknown. In this work, nanotoxicological studies were performed in vitro and in two different standard soils to assess the effect of nZVI on autochthonous soil organisms by integrating classical and molecular analysis. Standardised ecotoxicity testing methods using Caenorhabditis elegans were applied in vitro and in soil experiments and changes in microbial biodiversity and biomarker gene expression were used to assess the responses of the microbial community to nZVI. The classical tests conducted in soil ruled out a toxic impact of nZVI on the soil nematode C. elegans in the test soils. The molecular analysis applied to soil microorganisms, however, revealed significant changes in the expression of the proposed biomarkers of exposure. These changes were related not only to the nZVI treatment but also to the soil characteristics, highlighting the importance of considering the soil matrix on a case by case basis. Furthermore, due to the temporal shift between transcriptional responses and the development of the corresponding phenotype, the molecular approach could anticipate adverse effects on environmental biota.

  18. Fabrication of Nano-SiC Particulate Reinforced Mg-8Al-1Sn Composites by Powder Metallurgy Combined with Hot Extrusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chuan-Peng; Wang, Zhi-Guo; Wang, Hui-Yuan; Zhu, Xian; Wu, Min; Jiang, Qi-Chuan

    2016-11-01

    Nano-SiC particulates (n-SiCp) reinforced Mg-8Al-1Sn (AT81) composites with different volume fractions (0, 0.25, 0.5 and 1.0 vol.%) were fabricated by powder metallurgy process (P/M) combined with hot extrusion. The mechanical properties of the composite increased as the n-SiCp content increased until the n-SiCp content exceeded 0.5 vol.%, at which point they began to decrease. For this reason, the 0.5 vol.% n-SiCp/AT81 composite was considered optimal. The 0.2% offset yield strength (YS), ultimate tensile strength (UTS) and elongation (ɛ) of 0.5 vol.% n-SiCp/AT81 composites increased from 175, 318 MPa and 4.5% to 239, 381 MPa and 8.3%, respectively, compared to AT81. Both, the strength and plasticity of the 0.5 vol.% n-SiCp/AT81 composites were improved as well. The improvement in mechanical properties can be attributed to the progressively refined matrix grain size, relatively uniform distribution of n-SiCP and the well-bonded interfaces between n-SiCp and the matrix.

  19. Polyether ether ketone implants achieve increased bone fusion when coated with nano-sized hydroxyapatite: a histomorphometric study in rabbit bone.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Pär; Jimbo, Ryo; Naito, Yoshihito; Kjellin, Per; Currie, Fredrik; Wennerberg, Ann

    2016-01-01

    Polyether ether ketone (PEEK) possesses excellent mechanical properties similar to those of human bone and is considered the best alternative material other than titanium for orthopedic spine and trauma implants. However, the deficient osteogenic properties and the bioinertness of PEEK limit its fields of application. The aim of this study was to limit these drawbacks by coating the surface of PEEK with nano-scaled hydroxyapatite (HA) minerals. In the study, the biological response to PEEK, with and without HA coating, was investigated. Twenty-four screw-like and apically perforated implants in the rabbit femur were histologically evaluated at 3 weeks and 12 weeks after surgery. Twelve of the 24 implants were HA coated (test), and the remaining 12 served as uncoated PEEK controls. At 3 weeks and 12 weeks, the mean bone-implant contact was higher for test compared to control (P<0.05). The bone area inside the threads was comparable in the two groups, but the perforating hole showed more bone area for the HA-coated implants at both healing points (P<0.01). With these results, we conclude that nano-sized HA coating on PEEK implants significantly improved the osteogenic properties, and in a clinical situation this material composition may serve as an implant where a rapid bone fusion is essential.

  20. Comparative study of nano-sized particles CoFe2O4 effects on superconducting properties of Y-123 and Y-358

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slimani, Y.; Hannachi, E.; Ben Salem, M. K.; Hamrita, A.; Varilci, A.; Dachraoui, W.; Ben Salem, M.; Ben Azzouz, F.

    2014-10-01

    The effects of nano-sized CoFe2O4 particles (10 nm) addition on the structural and the normal state resistivity of YBa2Cu3O7 (noted Y-123) and Y3Ba5Cu8O18 (noted Y-358) polycrystalline were systematically studied. Samples were synthesized in oxygen atmosphere using a standard solid state reaction technique by adding CoFe2O4 up to 2 wt%. Phases, microstructure and superconductivity have been systematically investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and electrical measurements ρ(T). XRD results reveal that the lattice parameters change for both Y-123 and Y-358 phases. SEM observations reveal that the grain size is reduced with increasing the content of CoFe2O4. The measurements for the resistivity dependence of temperature show that the depression in superconducting temperature is more pronounced for CoFe2O4 addition in Y-358 compound than in Y-123 one. These results may be attributed to the existence of much more disorder due to a greater number of Cu sites to be substituted by Fe and Co in Y-358 compared to Y-123.

  1. Synthesis and evaluation of nano-size lanthanum strontium manganite-yttria-stablized zirconia composite powders as cathodes for solid oxide fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jungdeok; Zou, Jing; Chung, Jongshik

    Nano-sized (50 nm) lanthanum strontium manganite (La 0.8Sr 0.2MnO 3, LSM) particles are deposited on yttria-stablized zirconia (8YSZ) by synthesizing LSM particles in situ in an YSZ-dispersed solution. As the LSM content is decreased from 80 to 25 wt.%, 50 wt.% powder shows the best microstructure and phase connectivity. This composite, when used as a cathode in a button cell, also has the highest power density of 791 mW cm -2 at 800 °C and the lowest values of the cathode polarization resistance and high-frequency arc (0.315 and 0.120 Ω cm 2, respectively). Initially, the low-frequency arc shows a rapid decrease as the LSM content is reduced from 80 to 60 wt.%. After this, an abrupt drop at 50 wt.% LSM content is followed by a slow decrease in the low-frequency arc with further decrease in the LSM content. The results suggest that the high-frequency arc is related to charge transfer and the low-frequency arc to the site density of the triple-phase boundary (TPB). A new parameter, the charge-transfer efficiency of the TPB site, is defined and used to explain further the observed effect of LSM content on YSZ.

  2. Integration of nanosized zero-valent iron particles addition with UV/H2O2 process for purification of azo dye Acid Black 24 solution.

    PubMed

    Shu, Hung-Yee; Chang, Ming-Chin; Chang, Chi-Chen

    2009-08-15

    The challenging national effluent standards for color and organic concentration enforce the industrial concern most the techniques providing fast and efficient solution for the strenuous dye wastewater treatment before outflow. The best remediation technique pursuit is urgently demand for the industrial, government, academia and community. In this study, a di-azo dye, C.I. Acid Black 24, synthesized wastewater was successfully removed synchronously its total color and total organic carbon (TOC) using an integrated innovation technology by coupling the zero-valent iron (ZVI) nanoparticles with UV/H(2)O(2) oxidation process. The nanosized ZVI (NZVI) primarily reduced color successfully following coupling UV/H(2)O(2) oxidation process for the residual organic mineralization resulting reduction with oxidation process (Re-Ox) for total color removal and organic mineralization. From the experimental data, the Re-Ox process consumed shorter time than UV/H(2)O(2) oxidation process alone to obtain total color removal of dye wastewater. Moreover, the residual TOC of dye wastewater after NZVI reduction from 45 to 100% was effectively mineralized by UV/H(2)O(2) process. By using proposed processes integration with NZVI dosage of 0.3348 g l(-1) and hydrogen peroxide concentration of 23.2 mM, in only 10 min the AB24 color was complete eliminated and in 90 min the TOC was 93.9% removed. Thus, the coupling Re-Ox process was developed to provide a superior solution for dye wastewater treatment.

  3. A practical organometallic decorated nano-size SiO2-Al2O3 mixed-oxides for methyl orange removal from aqueous solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arshadi, M.; Salimi Vahid, F.; Salvacion, J. W. L.; Soleymanzadeh, M.

    2013-09-01

    In this study, the application of a functional ferrocene (ferrocenecarboxaldehyde) firmly heterogenized over a modified nano-size SiO2-Al2O3 mixed-oxides was reported as a novel adsorbent for the removal of methyl orange from aqueous solution. SiO2-Al2O3 mixed-oxides was functionalized with 3-aminopropyl-triethoxysilane (3-APTES) group and ferrocenecarboxaldehyde covalently linked on this organo-functionalized SiO2-Al2O3 mixed-oxides support. The synthesized materials were characterized by FT-IR spectroscopy, UV-vis, CHN elemental analysis, BET, TGA, ICP-MS, TEM, and XPS. The contact time to obtain equilibrium for maximum adsorption was 50 min. XPS of Fe ions evidenced that most of the active sites of the nano-adsorbent is in the form of Fe3+ ions at the surface. The heterogeneous Fe3+ ions were found to be effective adsorbent for the removal of dyes from solution. The adsorption of methyl orange ions has been studied in terms of pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order kinetics, and the Freundlich, Langmuir, and Langmuir-Freundlich isotherm models have also been applied to the equilibrium adsorption data. The adsorption process was spontaneous and endothermic in nature and followed pseudo-second-order kinetic model.

  4. Chiral resolution of salbutamol in plasma sample by a new chiral ligand-exchange chromatography method after its extraction with nano-sized imprinted polymer.

    PubMed

    Alizadeh, Taher; Shamkhali, Amir Naser

    2016-01-15

    A new chromatographic procedure, based upon chiral ligand-exchange principal, was developed for the resolution of salbutamol enantiomers. The separation was carried out on a C18 column. (l)-Alanine and Cu(2+) were applied as chiral resolving agent and complexing ion, respectively. The kind of copper salt had definitive effect on the enantioseparation. Density functional theory (DFT) was used to substantiate the effect of various anions, accompanying Cu(2+), on the formation of ternary complexes, assumed to be created during separation process. The DFT results showed that the anion kind had huge effect on the stability difference between two corresponding diastereomeric complexes and their chemical structures. It was shown that the extent of participation of the chiral selector in the ternary diastereomeric complexes formation was managed by the anion kind, affecting thus the enantioseparation efficiency of the developed method. Water/methanol (70:30) mixture containing (l)-alanine-Cu(2+) (4:1) was found to be the best mobile phase for salbutamol enantioseparation. In order to analyze sulbutamol enantiomers in plasma samples, racemic salbutamol was first extracted from the samples via nano-sized salbutamol-imprinted polymer and then enantioseparated by the developed method.

  5. Structural elucidation and magnetic behavior evaluation of rare earth (La, Nd, Gd, Tb, Dy) doped BaCoNi-X hexagonal nano-sized ferrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majeed, Abdul; Khan, Muhammad Azhar; Raheem, Faseeh ur; Hussain, Altaf; Iqbal, F.; Murtaza, Ghulam; Akhtar, Majid Niaz; Shakir, Imran; Warsi, Muhammad Farooq

    2016-06-01

    Rare-earth (RE=La3+, Nd3+, Gd3+, Tb3+, Dy3+) doped Ba2NiCoRExFe28-xO46 (x=0.25) hexagonal ferrites were synthesized for the first time via micro-emulsion route, which is a fast chemistry route for obtaining nano-sized ferrite powders. These nanomaterials were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), as well as vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The XRD analysis exhibited that all the samples crystallized into single X-type hexagonal phase. The crystalline size calculated by Scherrer's formula was found in the range 7-19 nm. The variations in lattice parameters elucidated the incorporation of rare-earth cations in these nanomaterials. FTIR absorption spectra of these X-type ferrites were investigated in the wave number range 500-2400 cm-1. Each spectrum exhibited absorption bands in the low wave number range, thereby confirming the X-type hexagonal structure. The enhancement in the coercivity was observed with the doping of rare-earth cations. The saturation magnetization was lowered owing to the redistribution of rare-earth cations on the octahedral site (3bVI). The higher values of coercivity (664-926 Oe) of these nanomaterials suggest their use in longitudinal recording media.

  6. Embedment of nano-sized Ag layer into Ag-doped In2O3 films for use as highly transparent and conductive anode in organic solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Da-Young; Na, Seok-In; Chung, Kwun-Bum; Kim, Han-Ki

    2015-08-01

    By inserting a nano-sized Ag layer between bottom Ag-doped In2O3 (AIO) and a top AIO layer, we were able to control the sheet resistance and optical transmittance of AIO films for application in organic solar cells (OSCs) as a transparent electrode. To optimize the AIO/Ag/AIO multilayer, we investigated the electrical, optical, structural and morphological properties of the AIO/Ag/AIO multilayer as a function of Ag interlayer thickness with a constant bottom and top AIO thickness of 35 nm. The optimized AIO/Ag/AIO multilayer showed a much lower resistivity of 3.988 × 10-5 Ω cm and a higher optical transmittance of 84.79% than the values (4.625 × 10-4 Ω cm and 78.36%) of the single AIO film, due to the high conductivity of the metallic Ag layer and the antireflection effect of the symmetric AIO/Ag/AIO structure. In addition, we investigated the performances of OSCs with AIO/Ag/AIO electrodes as a function of Ag interlayer thickness to determine the optimal Ag thickness to produce a high power conversion efficiency (PCE) of the OSCs. Based on the PCE of the OSCs, we correlated the performance of the OSCs with the Ag interlayer thickness in the AIO/Ag/AIO multilayer and suggested a possible mechanism to explain the dependency of PCE on Ag thickness in AIO/Ag/AIO multilayer electrodes.

  7. Chitosan membranes containing micro or nano-size bioactive glass particles: evolution of biomineralization followed by in situ dynamic mechanical analysis.

    PubMed

    Caridade, Sofia G; Merino, Esther G; Alves, Natália M; Bermudez, Verónica de Zea; Boccaccini, Aldo R; Mano, João F

    2013-04-01

    A new family of biodegradable polymer/bioactive glass (BG) composite materials has emerged based on the availability of nano-sized bioactive particles. Such novel biocomposites can have enhanced performance, in terms of mechanical properties and bioactivity, and they can be designed to be used in bone regeneration approaches. In this work, membranes of chitosan (CTS) and chitosan with bioactive glass (BG) both micron and nano sized particles (CTS/μBG, CTS/nBG, respectively) were prepared by solvent casting. Microstructural and mechanical properties were evaluated in order to compare the effects of the incorporation of micro (μBG) and nano (nBG) particles in the chitosan matrix. In vitro bioactivity tests were performed to characterize the apatite layer that is formed on the surface of the material after being immersed in simulated body fluid (SBF). The biomineralization process on the biomaterials was also followed using non-conventional dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA), both online and offline. In such DMA experiments, the change in the storage modulus, E', and the loss factor, tan δ, were measured as a function of the immersion time in SBF. The results demonstrated that CTS/nBG membranes possess enhanced mechanical properties and higher bioactivity in comparison with the CTS/μBG membranes. Such results suggest the potential of nBG for the development of bioactive composites for bone regeneration applications.

  8. Polyether ether ketone implants achieve increased bone fusion when coated with nano-sized hydroxyapatite: a histomorphometric study in rabbit bone

    PubMed Central

    Johansson, Pär; Jimbo, Ryo; Naito, Yoshihito; Kjellin, Per; Currie, Fredrik; Wennerberg, Ann

    2016-01-01

    Polyether ether ketone (PEEK) possesses excellent mechanical properties similar to those of human bone and is considered the best alternative material other than titanium for orthopedic spine and trauma implants. However, the deficient osteogenic properties and the bioinertness of PEEK limit its fields of application. The aim of this study was to limit these drawbacks by coating the surface of PEEK with nano-scaled hydroxyapatite (HA) minerals. In the study, the biological response to PEEK, with and without HA coating, was investigated. Twenty-four screw-like and apically perforated implants in the rabbit femur were histologically evaluated at 3 weeks and 12 weeks after surgery. Twelve of the 24 implants were HA coated (test), and the remaining 12 served as uncoated PEEK controls. At 3 weeks and 12 weeks, the mean bone–implant contact was higher for test compared to control (P<0.05). The bone area inside the threads was comparable in the two groups, but the perforating hole showed more bone area for the HA-coated implants at both healing points (P<0.01). With these results, we conclude that nano-sized HA coating on PEEK implants significantly improved the osteogenic properties, and in a clinical situation this material composition may serve as an implant where a rapid bone fusion is essential. PMID:27103801

  9. Preparation of onion-like Pt-terminated Pt-Cu bimetallic nano-sized electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction reaction in fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Taeho; Kim, Ok-Hee; Sung, Yung-Eun; Kim, Hyun-Jong; Lee, Ho-Nyun; Cho, Yong-Hun; Kwon, Oh Joong

    2016-06-01

    Onion-like Pt-terminated Pt-Cu bimetallic nano-sized electrocatalysts (Pt/Cu/Pt/C) were synthesized by using an electroless deposition method. The synthesized Pt/Cu/Pt/C consisted of a Pt-enriched shell, a sandwiched Pt-Cu alloy layer, and a Pt core. The Pt/Cu/Pt/C showed higher electrocatalytic activity toward oxygen reduction reaction in half-cell test than that of commercial Pt/C due to an electronic structure change in the Pt-enriched shell, resulting from the sandwiched Pt-Cu alloy layer underneath. The stability of the Pt/Cu/Pt/C was examined by using both half-cell and single-cell degradation tests. In both tests, the Pt/Cu/Pt/C exhibited stronger resistance to catalyst degradation than that of the commercial Pt/C. It is notable that cell performance with the Pt/Cu/Pt/C was fully recovered by N2 purging after single-cell degradation testing, indicating there was no permanent damage to the electrocatalyst during the test. It is suggested that thermodynamically-stable structure of the Pt/Cu/Pt/C contributed to the improved stability.

  10. Micro-/nanosized cantilever beams and mass sensors under applied axial tensile/compressive force vibrating in vacuum and viscous fluid

    SciTech Connect

    Stachiv, Ivo; Fang, Te-Hua; Chen, Tao-Hsing

    2015-11-15

    Vibrating micro-/nanosized cantilever beams under an applied axial force are the key components of various devices used in nanotechnology. In this study, we perform a complete theoretical investigation of the cantilever beams under an arbitrary value of the axial force vibrating in a specific environment such as vacuum, air or viscous fluid. Based on the results easy accessible expressions enabling one the fast and highly accurate estimations of changes in the Q-factor and resonant frequencies of beam oscillating in viscous fluid caused by the applied axial force are derived and analyzed. It has been also shown that for beam-to-string and string vibrational regimes the mode shape starts to significantly deviate from the one known for a beam without axial force. Moreover, a linear dependency of the vibrational amplitude in resonance on the dimensionless tension parameter has been found. We revealed that only a large axial force, i.e. the string vibrational regime, significantly improves the Q-factor of beams submerged in fluid, while an increase of the axial force in beam and beam-to-string transition regimes has a negligibly small impact on the Q-factor enhancement. Experiments carried out on the carbon nanotubes and nanowires are in a good agreement with present theoretical predictions.

  11. Synthesis of nanosized (Li0.5xFe0.5xZn1-x)Fe2O4 particles and magnetic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gee, S. H.; Hong, Y. K.; Park, M. H.; Erickson, D. W.; Lamb, P. J.; Sur, J. C.

    2002-05-01

    In an attempt to synthesize nanosized (Li0.5xFe0.5xZn1-x)Fe2O4 (0⩽x⩽1) particles with high magnetic saturation and low coercivity, the energetic ball milling technique was employed. LiCO3, α-Fe2O3, and ZnO powders were used as starting materials. The ball milled, partially crystallized lithium zinc ferrite starts to crystallize at about 600 °C. This is much lower than the temperature of 1000 °C, which is used in conventional methods. Particle size of lithium zinc ferrite was in the range of 20 to 50 nm. Regardless of the annealing temperature, the saturation magnetization increases with increasing x and reaches the maximum (about 80 emu/g) at x=0.7 [(Li0.35Fe0.35Zn0.3)Fe2O4], followed by a decrease to 60 emu/g for x=1 [(Li0.5Fe0.5)Fe2O4]. On the other hand, the coercivity of x=0.7 composition decreases with increasing annealing temperatures. Saturation magnetization and low coercivity for x=0.7 annealed at various temperatures are discussed in terms of site occupation.

  12. The importance of the solids loading on confirming the dielectric nanosize dependence of BaTiO₃ powders by slurry method.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Wei; Nie, Yi Mei; Li, Shu Jing; Liang, Hai Yan

    2013-01-01

    The dielectric nanosize dependence of BaTiO₃ powders was investigated by the slurry method, where two series of BaTiO₃ slurries with 10 vol% and 30 vol% solids loadings were prepared as model samples. Applying the Bruggeman-Hanai equation, the high-frequency limiting permittivity (ε(h)) of the slurries was extracted from the dielectric spectra. The ε(h) of the 10 vol% slurry showed abnormal size independence in the range from 100 nm to 700 nm, and the ε(h) of the 30 vol% slurry exhibited good agreement with the previous prediction. Through analysing quantitatively the response of ε(h) to the changing permittivity of the powders under different solids loading, it was found that the ε h of the slurry with lower solids loading is more inclined to be interfered by the systematic and random errors. Furthermore, a high permittivity value was found in the BaTiO₃ powders with 50 nm particle size.

  13. Responsiveness and Release Characteristic of Semi-IPN Hydrogels Consisting of Nano-Sized Clay Crosslinked Poly(Dimethylaminoethyl Methacrylate) and Linear Carboxymethyl Chitosan.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi; Peng, Chang; Lu, Yanbing; Liu, Wenyong; Xu, Weijian

    2015-01-01

    PH and temperature double responsive semi-IPN hydrogels consisting of poly(dimethylaminoethyl methacrylate) (PDMAEMA) network crosslinked by nano-sized inorganic clay and linear carboxymethyl chitosan (CMCS) were synthesized by in situ, free radical polymerization in aqueous solution. The effect of the mass and carboxymethyl substitution of CMCS on the responsiveness, swelling/deswelling and drug release characteristic of gels were investigated. Comparing to the gels without CMCS, the resulting gels (named as C-NC gels) showed similar LCST and temperature response behavior. However, with the increase of added CMCS, the swelling ratio of gels decreased considerably around the isoelectric point (IEP) of CMCS, while increased in both strong acidic and alkaline condition. The deswelling rate was improved significantly when the content of CMCS is high. In drug load and release test by using theophylline as target, the C-NC gels exhibited an excellent load ability and controlled-release in simulated human intestinal and stomachic condition. Additionally, all properties of gels were affected by the DS of added CMCS due to the different ratio and interaction of negative and positive ions in gels.

  14. Application of nano-sized nanoporous zinc 2-methylimidazole metal-organic framework for electrocatalytic oxidation of methanol in alkaline solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samadi-Maybodi, Abdolraouf; Ghasemi, Shahram; Ghaffari-Rad, Hamid

    2016-01-01

    In this work, a novel non-platinum group metals (non-PGM) catalyst based on modified zinc 2-methylimidazole metal-organic framework (ZIF-8) is proposed and used for electrooxidation of methanol. Nano-sized particles of nonporous ZIF-8 are synthesized at room temperature using a simple template-free method. The synthesized ZIF-8 nanoparticles are characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electronic microscopy and nitrogen adsorption-desorption techniques. In order to decrease the overvoltage of methanol oxidation on carbon paste electrode (CPE), nickel species doped ZIF-8 modified carbon paste electrode (Ni/ZIF-8CPE) is fabricated as a modified electrode. Electrochemical techniques such as cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry are used to investigate the electrocatalytic activity of Ni/ZIF-8CPE toward methanol oxidation in alkaline solution. Cyclic voltammetry results show that oxidation current is considerably increased using Ni/ZIF-8CPE in comparison with unmodified CPE. Catalytic rate constant of methanol oxidation on Ni/ZIF-8CPE is obtained using chronoamperometric studies. Besides the good catalytic activity of the modified electrode toward methanol oxidation, it has other advantages such as simple preparation, ease of operation, good stability and low cost, which can be promising in the field of preparation of non-PGM electrocatalysts for application in fuel cells.

  15. Dead Nano-Sized Lactobacillus plantarum Inhibits Azoxymethane/Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Colon Cancer in Balb/c Mice.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyun Ah; Kim, Hyunung; Lee, Kwang-Won; Park, Kun-Young

    2015-12-01

    The chemopreventive effects of dead nano-sized Lactobacillus plantarum (nLp) on colon carcinogenesis, induced by dextran sulfate sodium and azoxymethane, were evaluated using Balb/c mice and compared with the effects of pure live L. plantarum (pLp). nLp is a dead shrunken form of L. plantarum derived from kimchi and has a particle size of 0.5-1.0 μm. Animals fed nLp showed less weight loss, longer colons, lower colon weight/length ratios, and fewer colonic tumors compared with pLp. In addition, the administration of nLp significantly reduced the expression of inflammatory markers, mediated the expression of cell cycle and apoptotic markers in colon tissues, and elevated fecal IgA levels more than pLp. Accordingly, the present study shows that the anticolorectal cancer activities of nLp are greater than those of pLp and suggests this is due to the suppression of inflammation, the induction of cell cycle arrest and apoptosis, and enhanced IgA secretion.

  16. Effects of calcining temperature on structural and magnetic properties of nanosized Fe-doped NiO prepared by diol-based sol-gel process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khemprasit, Jinda; Kaen-ngam, Suriyasit; Khumpaitool, Bualan; Kamkhou, Phalakorn

    2011-10-01

    Iron-doped nickel oxide (Fe0.01Ni0.99O, abbreviated as FNO) nanoparticles were prepared by sol-gel process using 1,3-propanediol as a solvent and also as a chelating agent, and calcined at the various temperatures (400-1000 °C) for 2 h. The phase composition and the microstructure of the calcined products were investigated by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy techniques, respectively. Magnetic properties were measured at room temperature using a vibrating sample magnetometer. All calcined samples showed the single phase of FNO cubic rock-salt structure without the presence of any impurity phases. The crystallite size from XRD and particle size from SEM increased as calcining temperature increased. The FNO powders calcined at 400-600 °C revealed the uniform and dense spherical particles in nanosize. The room-temperature ferromagnetism was observed for all samples. When the calcining temperature was increased, the saturation magnetization decreased whereas the coercivity increased, corresponding to the less dense and larger particles. The calcined sample at 400 °C had the best magnetic properties with the highest Ms of 5.34 emu/g (at 10 kOe) and the lowest Hc of 372 Oe.

  17. Formulation of multifunctional oil-in-water nanosized emulsions for active and passive targeting of drugs to otherwise inaccessible internal organs of the human body.

    PubMed

    Tamilvanan, Shunmugaperumal

    2009-10-20

    Oil-in-water (o/w) type nanosized emulsions (NE) have been widely investigated as vehicles/carrier for the formulation and delivery of drugs with a broad range of applications. A comprehensive summary is presented on how to formulate the multifunctional o/w NE for active and passive targeting of drugs to otherwise inaccessible internal organs of the human body. The NE is classified into three generations based on its development over the last couple of decades to make ultimately a better colloidal carrier for a target site within the internal and external organs/parts of the body, thus allowing site-specific drug delivery and/or enhanced drug absorption. The third generation NE has tremendous application for drug absorption enhancement and for 'ferrying' compounds across cell membranes in comparison to its first and second generation counterparts. Furthermore, the third generation NE provides an interesting opportunity for use as drug delivery vehicles for numerous therapeutics that can range in size from small molecules to macromolecules.

  18. Nanosizing of a poorly soluble drug: technique optimization, factorial analysis, and pharmacokinetic study in healthy human volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Elsayed, Ibrahim; Abdelbary, Aly Ahmed; Elshafeey, Ahmed Hassen

    2014-01-01

    Context Diacerein (DCN) has low aqueous solubility (3.197 mg/L) and, consequently, low oral bioavailability (35%–56%). To increase both the solubility and dissolution rate of DCN while maintaining its crystalline nature, high pressure homogenization was used but with only a few homogenization cycles preceded by a simple bottom-up technique. Methods The nanosuspensions of DCN were prepared using a combined bottom-up/top-down technique. Different surfactants – polyvinyl alcohol, sodium deoxycholate, and sodium dodecyl sulfate – with different concentrations were used for the stabilization of the nanosuspensions. Full factorial experimental design was employed to investigate the influence of formulation variables on nanosuspension characteristics using Design-Expert® Software. Particle size (PS), zeta potential, saturation solubility, in vitro dissolution, and drug crystallinity were studied. Moreover, the in vivo performance of the optimized formula was assessed by bioavailability determination in healthy human volunteers. Results The concentration of surfactant had a significant effect on both the PS and polydispersity index values. The 1% surfactant concentration showed the lowest PS and polydispersity index values compared with other concentrations. Both type and concentration of surfactant had significant effects on the zeta potential. Formula F8 (containing 1% sodium deoxycholate) and Formula F12 (containing 1% sodium dodecyl sulfate) had the highest desirability values (0.952 and 0.927, respectively). Hence, they were selected for further characterization. The saturated solubility and mean dissolution time, in the case of F8 and F12, were significantly higher than the coarse drug powder. Techniques utilized in the nanocrystals’ preparation had no effect on DCN crystalline state. The selected formula (F12) showed a higher bioavailability compared to the reference market product with relative bioavailability of 131.4%. Conclusion The saturation

  19. Enhanced Phosphate Removal by Nanosized Hydrated La(III) Oxide Confined in Cross-linked Polystyrene Networks.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanyang; Pan, Bingcai; Shan, Chao; Gao, Xiang

    2016-02-02

    A new nanocomposite adsorbent La-201 of extremely high capacity and specific affinity toward phosphate was fabricated and well characterized, where hydrated La(III) oxide (HLO) nanoclusters were immobilized inside the networking pores of the polystyrene anion exchanger D-201. La-201 exhibited enhanced phosphate adsorption in the presence of competing anions (chloride, sulfate, nitrate, bicarbonate, and silicate) at greater levels (up to molar ratio of 20), with working capacity 2-4 times higher than a commercial Fe(III) oxide-based nanocomposite HFO-201 in batch runs. Column adsorption runs by using La-201 could effectively treat ∼6500 bed volumes (BV) of a synthetic feeding solution before breakthrough occurred (from 2.5 mg P/L in influent to <0.5 mg P/L in effluent), approximately 11 times higher magnitude than that of HFO-201. The exhausted La-201 could be regenerated with NaOH-NaCl binary solution at 60 °C for repeated use without any significant capacity loss. The underlying mechanism for the specific sorption of phosphate by La-201 was revealed with the aid of STEM-EDS, XPS, XRD, and SSNMR analysis, and the formation of LaPO4·xH2O is verified to be the dominant pathway for selective phosphate adsorption by the immobilized nano-HLO. The results indicated that La-201 was very promising in highly efficient removal of phosphate from contaminated waters.

  20. Crystallization around solid-like nanosized docks can explain the specificity, diversity, and stability of membrane microdomains

    PubMed Central

    de Almeida, Rodrigo F. M.; Joly, Etienne

    2014-01-01

    To date, it is widely accepted that microdomains do form in the biological membranes of all eukaryotic cells, and quite possibly also in prokaryotes. Those sub-micrometric domains play crucial roles in signaling, in intracellular transport, and even in inter-cellular communications. Despite their ubiquitous distribution, and the broad and lasting interest invested in those microdomains, their actual nature and composition, and even the physical rules that regiment their assembly still remain elusive and hotly debated. One of the most often considered models is the raft hypothesis, i.e., the partition of lipids between liquid disordered and ordered phases (Ld and Lo, respectively), the latter being enriched in sphingolipids and cholesterol. Although it is experimentally possible to obtain the formation of microdomains in synthetic membranes through Ld/Lo phase separation, there is an ever increasing amount of evidence, obtained with a wide array of experimental approaches, that a partition between domains in Ld and Lo phases cannot account for many of the observations collected in real cells. In particular, it is now commonly perceived that the plasma membrane of cells is mostly in Lo phase and recent data support the existence of gel or solid ordered domains in a whole variety of live cells under physiological conditions. Here, we present a model whereby seeds comprised of oligomerised proteins and/or lipids would serve as crystal nucleation centers for the formation of diverse gel/crystalline nanodomains. This could confer the selectivity necessary for the formation of multiple types of membrane domains, as well as the stability required to match the time frames of cellular events, such as intra- or inter-cellular transport or assembly of signaling platforms. Testing of this model will, however, require the development of new methods allowing the clear-cut discrimination between Lo and solid nanoscopic phases in live cells. PMID:24634670

  1. Highly efficient removal of heavy metals by polymer-supported nanosized hydrated Fe(III) oxides: behavior and XPS study.

    PubMed

    Pan, Bingjun; Qiu, Hui; Pan, Bingcai; Nie, Guangze; Xiao, Lili; Lv, Lu; Zhang, Weiming; Zhang, Quanxing; Zheng, Shourong

    2010-02-01

    The present study developed a polymer-based hybrid sorbent (HFO-001) for highly efficient removal of heavy metals [e.g., Pb(II), Cd(II), and Cu(II)] by irreversibly impregnating hydrated Fe(III) oxide (HFO) nanoparticles within a cation-exchange resin D-001 (R-SO(3)Na), and revealed the underlying mechanism based on X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) study. HFO-001 combines the excellent handling, flow characteristics, and attrition resistance of conventional cation-exchange resins with the specific affinity of HFOs toward heavy metal cations. As compared to D-001, sorption selectivity of HFO-001 toward Pb(II), Cu(II), and Cd(II) was greatly improved from the Ca(II) competition at greater concentration. Column sorption results indicated that the working capacity of HFO-001 was about 4-6 times more than D-001 with respect to removal of three heavy metals from simulated electroplating water (pH approximately 4.0). Also, HFO-001 is particularly effective in removing trace Pb(II) and Cd(II) from simulated natural waters to meet the drinking water standard, with treatment volume orders of magnitude higher than D-001. The superior performance of HFO-001 was attributed to the Donnan membrane effect exerted by the host D-001 as well as to the impregnated HFO nanoparticles of specific interaction toward heavy metal cations, as further confirmed by XPS study on lead sorption. More attractively, the exhausted HFO-001 beads can be effectively regenerated by HCl-NaCl solution (pH 3) for repeated use without any significant capacity loss.

  2. Probing defect emissions in bulk, micro- and nano-sized α-Al2O3 via X-ray excited optical luminescence.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhiqiang; Li, Chunlei; Liu, Lijia; Sham, Tsun-Kong

    2013-02-28

    The electronic structure and optical properties of bulk, micro-sized, and nano-sized α-Al2O3 (wafer, microparticles (MPs), nanowires (NWs), and nanotubes (NTs)) have been investigated using X-ray absorption near-edge structures (XANES) and X-ray excited optical luminescence (XEOL). XANES results show that the wafer, MPs, and NTs have characteristic features of α-Al2O3. The NWs have a core∕shell structure with a single crystalline α-Al2O3 core surrounded by an amorphous shell, which is consistent with transmission electron microscopy result. It is found that some Al(3+) in the shell and core∕shell interface of the NWs as well as the surface of the NTs were reduced to Al(2+) or Al(1+) during the growth process. XEOL results show that the wafer and MPs have a broad emission at 325 nm and a sharp emission at 694 nm, which are attributed to F(+) center and Cr(3+) impurities, respectively. The NWs exhibit an intense emission at 404 nm that comes from F center, while the NTs show relatively weak luminescence at 325, 433, and 694 nm, which are attributed to F(+) center, F center, and Cr(3+) impurities, respectively. The O K-edge XEOL confirms that the emissions of α-Al2O3 in the range of 250-550 nm are related to the oxygen site. Furthermore, on the basis of XEOL and photoluminescence yield, the strong luminescence of the NWs (404 nm) is related to the Al(2+) or Al(1+) in the shell and core∕shell interface, while the luminescence of the NTs at 325 and 433 nm are related to the bulk and the Al(2+) or Al(1+) on the surface, respectively.

  3. Effects of nano-sized zero-valent iron (nZVI) on DDT degradation in soil and its toxicity to collembola and ostracods.

    PubMed

    El-Temsah, Yehia S; Joner, Erik J

    2013-06-01

    Nano-sized zero valent iron (nZVI) has been studied for in situ remediation of contaminated soil and ground water. However, little is known about its effects on organisms in soil and aquatic ecosystems. In this study, the effect of nZVI on degradation of DDT and its ecotoxicological effects on collembola (Folsomia candida) and ostracods (Heterocypris incongruens) were investigated. Two soils were used in suspension incubation experiments lasting for 7 and 30 d; a spiked (20 mg DDT kg(-1)) sandy soil and an aged (>50 years) DDT-polluted soil (24 mg DDT kg(-1)). These were incubated with 1 or 10 g nZVI kg(-1), and residual toxicity in soil and the aqueous phase tested using ecotoxicological tests with collembola or ostracods. Generally, addition of either concentration of nZVI to soil led to about 50% degradation of DDT in spiked soil at the end of 7 and 30 d incubation, while the degradation of DDT was less in aged DDT-polluted soil (24%). Severe negative effects of nZVI were observed on both test organisms after 7 d incubation, but prolonged incubation led to oxidation of nZVI which reduced its toxic effects on the tested organisms. On the other hand, DDT had significant negative effects on collembolan reproduction and ostracod development. We conclude that 1 g nZVI kg(-1) was efficient for significant DDT degradation in spiked soil, while a higher concentration was necessary for treating aged pollutants in soil. The adverse effects of nZVI on tested organisms seem temporary and reduced after oxidation.

  4. Self-assembly of nanosized 0D clusters: CdS quantum dot-polyoxotungstate nanohybrids with strongly coupled electronic structures and visible-light-active photofunctions.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyo Na; Kim, Tae Woo; Choi, Kyong-Hoon; Kim, In Young; Kim, Yong-Rok; Hwang, Seong-Ju

    2011-08-22

    Nanohybrids of CdS-polyoxotungstate with strongly coupled electronic structures and visible-light-active photofunctions can be synthesized by electrostatically derived self-assembly of very small CdS quantum dots, or QDs, (particle size ≈ 2.5 nm) and polyoxotungstate nanoclusters (cluster size ≈1 nm). The formation of CdS-polyoxotungstate nanohybrids is confirmed by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, elemental mapping, and powder X-ray diffraction analysis. Due to the strong electronic coupling between two semiconductors, the CdS-polyoxotungstate nanohybrids show a narrow bandgap energy of around 1.9-2.7 eV, thus reflecting their ability to harvest visible light. Time-resolved photoluminescence experiments indicate that the self-assembly between nanosized CdS and polyoxotungstate is very effective in increasing the lifetime of holes and electrons, thus indicating an efficient electron transfer between two-component semiconductors. The hybridization results not only in a significant improvement in the photostability of CdS QD but also in the creation of visible-light-induced photochromism. Of particular importance is that the present nanohybrids show visible-light-driven photocatalytic activity to produce H(2) and O(2) , which is superior to those of the unhybridized CdS and polyoxotungstate. The self-assembly of nanometer-level semiconductor clusters can provide a powerful way of optimizing the photoinduced functionalities of each component (i.e., visible-induced photochromism and photocatalysis) by means of strong electronic coupling.

  5. Unveiling the Dynamics of Self-Assembled Layers of Thin Films of Poly(vinyl methyl ether) (PVME) by Nanosized Relaxation Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Madkour, Sherif; Szymoniak, Paulina; Heidari, Mojdeh; von Klitzing, Regine; Schönhals, Andreas

    2017-03-01

    A combination of nanosized dielectric relaxation (BDS) and thermal spectroscopy (SHS) was utilized to characterize the dynamics of thin films of poly(vinyl methyl ether) (PVME) (thicknesses: 7-160 nm). For the BDS measurements, a recently designed nanostructured electrode system is employed. A thin film is spin-coated on an ultraflat highly conductive silicon wafer serving as the bottom electrode. As top electrode, a highly conductive wafer with nonconducting nanostructured SiO2 nanospacers with heights of 35 or 70 nm is assembled on the bottom electrode. This procedure results in thin supported films with a free polymer/air interface. The BDS measurements show two relaxation processes, which are analyzed unambiguously for thicknesses smaller than 50 nm. The relaxation rates of both processes have different temperature dependencies. One process coincides in its position and temperature dependence with the glassy dynamics of bulk PVME and is ascribed to the dynamic glass transition of a bulk-like layer in the middle of the film. The relaxation rates were found to be thickness independent as confirmed by SHS. Unexpectedly, the relaxation rates of the second process obey an Arrhenius-like temperature dependence. This process was not observed by SHS and was related to the constrained fluctuations in a layer, which is irreversibly adsorbed at the substrate with a heterogeneous structure. Its molecular fluctuations undergo a confinement effect resulting in the localization of the segmental dynamics. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the molecular dynamics of an adsorbed layer in thin films.

  6. Effects of nanosized titanium dioxide on the physicochemical stability of activated sludge flocs using the thermodynamic approach and Kelvin probe force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaonan; Cui, Fuyi; Guo, Xiaochun; Li, Dapeng

    2013-08-01

    The wide application of nanosized titanium dioxide (nano-TiO2) will result in high concentrations of the molecule in the aquatic environment, especially in the influent of wastewater treatment plants. The present study focuses on the potential effect of nano-TiO2 on the physicochemical stability of activated sludge flocs after long-term exposure, on which limited information is currently available. Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) was innovatively applied to assess the surface potential of the activated sludge in situ. The physicochemical characteristics of the bioflocs with and without long-term exposure to nano-TiO2 were well elucidated by the thermodynamic approach. The results showed that the repulsive force predominated the bioflocs system as the concentration of nano-TiO2 increased, owing to the corresponding increase in the density of the negative charge. The bioflocs exposed to 100 ppm nano-TiO2 presented the strongest stability compared to the other two samples with low concentrations of nano-TiO2, which also indicated that the bioflocs with long-term exposure to nano-TiO2 had a low settlement efficiency of the corresponding activated sludge. Further, the extended Derjaugin, Landau, Verwey, and Overbeek (XDLVO) theory was used to explore the flocculation stability of the bioflocs system. As the concentration of nano-TiO2 increased, the ΔGiwi(LW)attraction (the van der Waals interaction) and the effective Hamaker constant decreased, the ΔGiwi(EL)(the electrostatic double-layers interaction) increasingly contributed to the interfacial repulsion, the ΔGiwi(AB)(the Lewis acid-base interaction) also exhibited a repulsive contribution to the total interaction energy and the ΔGiwi(TOT) (the total free energy of interaction) exhibited a repulsive contribution. These results are the keys for interpreting the adverse effects of nano-TiO2 on the activated sludge flocs of wastewater treatment plant (WWTP).

  7. Lanthanide-Connecting and Lone-Electron-Pair Active Trigonal-Pyramidal-AsO3 Inducing Nanosized Poly(polyoxotungstate) Aggregates and Their Anticancer Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Jun-Wei; Li, Hai-Lou; Ma, Xing; Xie, Zhigang; Chen, Li-Juan; Zhu, Yongsheng

    2016-05-01

    By virtue of the stereochemical effect of the lone-electron pair located on the trigonal-pyramidal-AsO3 groups and the one-pot self-assembly strategy in the conventional aqueous solution, a series of novel lanthanide-bridging and lone-electron-pair active trigonal-pyramidal-AsO3 inducing nanosized poly(polyoxotungstate) aggregates [H2N(CH3)2]6 Na24H16{[Ln10W16(H2O)30O50](B-α-AsW9O33)8}·97H2O [Ln = EuIII (1), SmIII (2), GdIII (3), TbIII (4), DyIII (5), HoIII (6), ErIII (7), TmIII (8)] were prepared and further characterized by elemental analyses, IR spectra, UV spectra, thermogravimetric (TG) analyses and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The most remarkable structural feature is that the polyanionic skeleton of {[Ln10W16(H2O)30O50](B-α-AsW9O33)8}46‑ is constructed from eight trivacant Keggin [B-α-AsW9O33]9‑ fragments through ten Ln centers and sixteen bridging W atoms in the participation of fifty extraneous oxygen atoms. Notably, 4 and 8 can be stable in the aqueous solution not only for eight days but also in the range of pH = 3.9–7.5. Moreover, the cytotoxicity tests of 4 and 8 toward human cervical cancer (HeLa) cells, human breast cancer (MCF–7) cells and mouse fibroblast (L929) cells were performed by the 3-(4,5-cimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and the cell apoptosis processes were characterized by calcein AM/PI staining experiments, annexin V-FITC/PI staining experiments and morphological changes.

  8. Synthesis and modification of nano-sized TiO{sub 2} for photo-degradation process under visible light irradiation; a Placket–Burman experimental design

    SciTech Connect

    Izadyar, Soheila; Fatemi, Shohreh; Mousavand, Tahereh

    2013-09-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Nanosized TiO{sub 2} doped with nitrogen and iron was produced by sol-gel method. • Linear models were derived to relate the phase and particle size to synthesis factors. • High photocatalytic activity was observed for acetaldehyde degradation. - Abstract: In this research, nitrogen and iron (III) co-doped nano TiO{sub 2} (N-Fe-TiO{sub 2}) was prepared by sol-gel method using ammonium chloride and iron chloride solutions as nitrogen and iron sources, respectively. The effect of synthesis parameters (weight ratios of N/TiO{sub 2} and Fe/TiO{sub 2}, synthesis temperature, calcination time and temperature) was simultaneously investigated on the quality of the N-Fe-TiO{sub 2} product by a two-level Placket–Burman experimental design. The synthesized powders were characterized by XRD, XPS and UV–Vis spectroscopy techniques. The mean crystal size and anatase content were determined and evaluated as the linear functions of so-called synthesis parameters by the statistical analysis and regression. The 2%N-1%Fe-TiO{sub 2} product by 11 nm mean crystal size and 78% anatase content, synthesized at 35 °C and calcined at 500 °C during 2 h, exhibited the most significant activity during the photo-degradation of acetaldehyde under visible light irradiation and its efficiency was obtained about four times more than photocatalytic activity of Degussa TiO{sub 2}-P25.

  9. Investigation of the cutaneous penetration behavior of dexamethasone loaded to nano-sized lipid particles by EPR spectroscopy, and confocal Raman and laser scanning microscopy.

    PubMed

    Lohan, Silke B; Saeidpour, Siavash; Solik, Agnieszka; Schanzer, Sabine; Richter, Heike; Dong, Pin; Darvin, Maxim E; Bodmeier, Roland; Patzelt, Alexa; Zoubari, Gaith; Unbehauen, Michael; Haag, Rainer; Lademann, Jürgen; Teutloff, Christian; Bittl, Robert; Meinke, Martina C

    2016-12-30

    An improvement of the penetration efficiency combined with the controlled release of actives in the skin can facilitate the medical treatment of skin diseases immensely. Dexamethasone (Dx), a synthetic glucocorticoid, is frequently used for the treatment of inflammatory skin diseases. To investigate the penetration of nano-sized lipid particles (NLP) loaded with Dx in comparison to a commercially available base cream, different techniques were applied. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy was used to monitor the penetration of Dx, which was covalently labeled with the spin probe 3-(Carboxy)-2,2,5,5-tetramethyl-1-pyrrolidinyloxy (PCA). The penetration into hair follicles was studied using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) with curcumin-loaded NLP. The penetration of the vehicle was followed by confocal Raman microscopy (CRM). Penetration studies using excised porcine skin revealed a more than twofold higher penetration efficiency for DxPCA into the stratum corneum (SC) after 24h incubation compared to 4h incubation when loaded to the NLP, whereas when applied in the base cream, almost no further penetration was observed beyond 4h. The distribution of DxPCA within the SC was investigated by consecutive tape stripping. The release of DxPCA from the base cream after 24h in deeper SC layers and the viable epidermis was shown by EPR. For NLP, no release from the carrier was observed, although DxPCA was detectable in the skin after the complete SC was removed. This phenomenon can be explained by the penetration of the NLP into the hair follicles. However, penetration profiles measured by CRM indicate that NLP did not penetrate as deeply into the SC as the base cream formulation. In conclusion, NLP can improve the accumulation of Dx in the skin and provide a reservoir within the SC and in the follicular infundibula.

  10. Lanthanide-Connecting and Lone-Electron-Pair Active Trigonal-Pyramidal-AsO3 Inducing Nanosized Poly(polyoxotungstate) Aggregates and Their Anticancer Activities

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jun-Wei; Li, Hai-Lou; Ma, Xing; Xie, Zhigang; Chen, Li-Juan; Zhu, Yongsheng

    2016-01-01

    By virtue of the stereochemical effect of the lone-electron pair located on the trigonal-pyramidal-AsO3 groups and the one-pot self-assembly strategy in the conventional aqueous solution, a series of novel lanthanide-bridging and lone-electron-pair active trigonal-pyramidal-AsO3 inducing nanosized poly(polyoxotungstate) aggregates [H2N(CH3)2]6 Na24H16{[Ln10W16(H2O)30O50](B-α-AsW9O33)8}·97H2O [Ln = EuIII (1), SmIII (2), GdIII (3), TbIII (4), DyIII (5), HoIII (6), ErIII (7), TmIII (8)] were prepared and further characterized by elemental analyses, IR spectra, UV spectra, thermogravimetric (TG) analyses and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The most remarkable structural feature is that the polyanionic skeleton of {[Ln10W16(H2O)30O50](B-α-AsW9O33)8}46− is constructed from eight trivacant Keggin [B-α-AsW9O33]9− fragments through ten Ln centers and sixteen bridging W atoms in the participation of fifty extraneous oxygen atoms. Notably, 4 and 8 can be stable in the aqueous solution not only for eight days but also in the range of pH = 3.9–7.5. Moreover, the cytotoxicity tests of 4 and 8 toward human cervical cancer (HeLa) cells, human breast cancer (MCF–7) cells and mouse fibroblast (L929) cells were performed by the 3-(4,5-cimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and the cell apoptosis processes were characterized by calcein AM/PI staining experiments, annexin V-FITC/PI staining experiments and morphological changes. PMID:27193961

  11. Nano-Sized Secondary Organic Aerosol of Diesel Engine Exhaust Origin Impairs Olfactory-Based Spatial Learning Performance in Preweaning Mice

    PubMed Central

    Win-Shwe, Tin-Tin; Kyi-Tha-Thu, Chaw; Moe, Yadanar; Maekawa, Fumihiko; Yanagisawa, Rie; Furuyama, Akiko; Tsukahara, Shinji; Fujitani, Yuji; Hirano, Seishiro

    2015-01-01

    The aims of our present study were to establish a novel olfactory-based spatial learning test and to examine the effects of exposure to nano-sized diesel exhaust-origin secondary organic aerosol (SOA), a model environmental pollutant, on the learning performance in preweaning mice. Pregnant BALB/c mice were exposed to clean air, diesel exhaust (DE), or DE-origin SOA (DE-SOA) from gestational day 14 to postnatal day (PND) 10 in exposure chambers. On PND 11, the preweaning mice were examined by the olfactory-based spatial learning test. After completion of the spatial learning test, the hippocampus from each mouse was removed and examined for the expressions of neurological and immunological markers using real-time RT-PCR. In the test phase of the study, the mice exposed to DE or DE-SOA took a longer time to reach the target as compared to the control mice. The expression levels of neurological markers such as the N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor subunits NR1 and NR2B, and of immunological markers such as TNF-α, COX2, and Iba1 were significantly increased in the hippocampi of the DE-SOA-exposed preweaning mice as compared to the control mice. Our results indicate that DE-SOA exposure in utero and in the neonatal period may affect the olfactory-based spatial learning behavior in preweaning mice by modulating the expressions of memory function–related pathway genes and inflammatory markers in the hippocampus. PMID:28347057

  12. Creation of nanosize defects in LiF crystals under 5- and 10-MeV Au ion irradiation at room temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Lushchik, A.; Lushchik, Ch.; Vasil'chenko, E.; Schwartz, K.; Neumann, R.; Trautmann, C.; Papaleo, R.; Sorokin, M.; Volkov, A. E.

    2007-08-01

    Investigation of radiation defects induced by the irradiation of LiF crystals with 5- or 10-MeV Au ions (fluences of 10{sup 11}-2x10{sup 14} ions/cm{sup 2}; flux varies by 2 orders of magnitude) at room temperature has been performed using the methods of optical absorption and high-temperature (400-750 K) thermoactivation spectroscopy. The creation efficiency of color centers (F,F{sub 2},F{sub 3},...) and colloids drastically depends on both the fluence and ion flux (beam current). Besides impurity (magnesium) colloids with the absorption band peaked at 4.4-4.6 eV, the broad absorption band at 2.3-3.3 eV related to intrinsic Li colloids is reliably distinguished. The creation efficiency of Li colloids by 5-MeV Au ions is lower than that by 10-MeV ions, which form {delta} electrons with higher energies sufficient for the creation of cation excitons ({approx}62 eV). The cation exciton decays, in turn, with the formation of a group of spatially close F centers. At a high ion flux, the next bombarding ions hit the same crystal region with a small time delay (10-100 s) and also form, after similar intermediate processes, the groups of F centers that participate in the formation of stable agglomerates of several F{sub 3} or even more complex centers, which serve as stable (up to 620 K) seeds for nanosize Li colloids. The peculiarities of the formation, enlargement, and annealing of intrinsic colloids in LiF crystals are considered, invoking a formal analog with the processes in photographic materials based on silver halides.

  13. Using Radiochromic Films to Characterize the Dispersion of ZrO{sub 2} Nano-sized Grain Clusters in Protective Polymer Composites

    SciTech Connect

    Fontainha, C.C.P.; Nolasco, A.V.

    2015-07-01

    . This result is discussed in terms of the high Z halides added to the sensitive layer of EB3 film, once the main components are C (42.3%), H (39.7%) and O (16.0%)1-2. Based on the above results, we have speculated about the abilities of XR-AQ films in the detection of the distribution of nano-sized particles that has high mass-energy attenuation coefficients for low energy x-rays, in polymer composites. In another investigation we tested the ability of XR-QA2 Gafchromic{sup R} films to evaluate the dispersion of ZrO{sub 2} nano-sized grain clusters in protective composites. The P(VDFTrFE)/ ZrO{sub 2} film was sandwiched between two XR-QA2 radiochromic films. In this setup, one radiochromic film is directly exposed to 100 mGy of the x-rays beam and another one measures the attenuated beam. After storage for 24 hours at room temperature under no light conditions, the irradiated radiochromic films were scanned under the same conditions in order to obtain a more reliable result. All films were scanned using the same size ROI in high resolution mode and saved as tagged image file format (TIFF). The untreated scanned image of the XR-AQ2 film directed exposed to the X-ray beam and the correspondent treated image with digital filters are shown. The untreated and treated image of the XR-AQ2 film that was exposed to the attenuated x-ray beam is shown. The image treated with digital filters seems to reproduce the dispersion of ZrO{sub 2} nano-sized grain clusters in the P(VDF-TrFE) copolymer matrix. This result is also discussed in terms of the high Z halides added to the sensitive layer of XR-AQ2 film and compared to the MEV images obtained from the P(VDF-TrFE)/ZrO{sub 2} composites. The results indicate a clear correlation between the 2D radiochromic image and the MEV photography.

  14. Net shaped high performance oxide ceramic parts by selective laser melting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yves-Christian, Hagedorn; Jan, Wilkes; Wilhelm, Meiners; Konrad, Wissenbach; Reinhart, Poprawe

    An additive manufacturing technique (AM) for ceramics, based on Al2O3-ZrO2 powder by means of Selective Laser Melting (SLM) is presented. Pure ceramic powder is completely melted by a laser beam yielding net-shaped specimens of almost 100% densities without any post-processing. Possible crack formation during the build-up process due to thermal stresses is prevented by a high-temperature preheating of above 1600 ∘C. Specimens with fine-grained nano-sized microstructures and flexural strengths of above 500 MPa are produced. The new technology allows for rapid freeform manufacture of complex net-shaped ceramics, thus, exploiting the outstanding mechanical and thermal properties for high-end medical and engineering disciplines.

  15. High-selectivity electrochemical non-enzymatic sensors based on graphene/Pd nanocomposites functionalized with designated ionic liquids.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chueh-Han; Yang, Cheng-Hsien; Chang, Jeng-Kuei

    2017-03-15

    Nano-sized Pd particles are uniformly dispersed on graphene nanosheets (GNSs) using a supercritical-fluid-assisted deposition technique to increase the electrochemical sensing properties. The incorporation of different kinds of ionic liquid (IL) can increase the electrode sensing current toward different analytes. Butylmethylpyrrolidinium-bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide (BMP-TFSI) IL is beneficial for glucose detection, whereas the electrode with butylmethylpyrrolidinium-dicyanamide (BMP-DCA) IL shows high sensitivity toward ascorbic acid (AA). The selective detection of glucose or AA from their mixture is for the first time demonstrated using a non-enzymatic electrode with the aid of an IL. Angle-resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses indicate that GNSs can create an aligned cation/anion orientation in the adsorbed IL film, with the anions preferentially occupying the topmost surface. As a result, the electrode sensitivity and selectivity are mainly determined by the IL constituent anions.

  16. Some new nano-sized Fe(II), Cd(II) and Zn(II) Schiff base complexes as precursor for metal oxides: Sonochemical synthesis, characterization, DNA interaction, in vitro antimicrobial and anticancer activities.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Rahman, Laila H; Abu-Dief, Ahmed M; El-Khatib, Rafat M; Abdel-Fatah, Shimaa Mahdy

    2016-12-01

    The complexes of Fe(II), Cd(II) and Zn(II) with Schiff base derived from 2-amino-3-hydroxypyridine and 3-methoxysalicylaldehyde have been prepared. Melting points, decomposition temperatures, Elemental analyses, TGA, conductance measurements, infrared (IR) and UV-Visible spectrophotometric studies were utilized in characterizing the compounds. The UV-Visible spectrophotometric analysis revealed 1:1 (metal-ligand) stoichiometry for the three complexes. In addition to, the prepared complexes have been used as precursors for preparing their corresponding metal oxides nanoparticles via thermal decomposition. The structures of the nano-sized complexes and their metal oxides were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction and transmittance electron microscopy. Moreover, the prepared Schiff base ligand, its complexes and their corresponding nano-sized metal oxides have been screened in vitro for their antibacterial activity against three bacteria, gram-positive (Microccus luteus) and gram-negative (Escherichia coli, Serratia marcescence) and three strains of fungus. The metal chelates were shown to possess more antimicrobial activity than the free Schiff-base chelate and their nano-sized metal oxides have the highest activity. The binding behaviors of the complexes to calf thymus DNA have been investigated by absorption spectra, viscosity mensuration and gel electrophoresis. The DNA binding constants reveal that all these complexes interact with DNA through intercalative binding mode. Furthermore, the cytotoxic activity of the prepared Schiff base complexes on human colon carcinoma cells, (HCT-116 cell line) and hepatic cellular carcinoma cells, (HepG-2) showed potent cytotoxicity effect against growth of carcinoma cells compared to the clinically used Vinblastine standard.

  17. Social Selection and Religiously Selective Faith Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pettinger, Paul

    2014-01-01

    This article reviews recent research looking at the socio-economic profile of pupils at faith schools and the contribution religiously selective admission arrangements make. It finds that selection by faith leads to greater social segregation and is open to manipulation. It urges that such selection should end, making the state-funded school…

  18. The group selection controversy.

    PubMed

    Leigh, E G

    2010-01-01

    Many thought Darwinian natural selection could not explain altruism. This error led Wynne-Edwards to explain sustainable exploitation in animals by selection against overexploiting groups. Williams riposted that selection among groups rarely overrides within-group selection. Hamilton showed that altruism can evolve through kin selection. How strongly does group selection influence evolution? Following Price, Hamilton showed how levels of selection interact: group selection prevails if Hamilton's rule applies. Several showed that group selection drove some major evolutionary transitions. Following Hamilton's lead, Queller extended Hamilton's rule, replacing genealogical relatedness by the regression on an actor's genotypic altruism of interacting neighbours' phenotypic altruism. Price's theorem shows the generality of Hamilton's rule. All instances of group selection can be viewed as increasing inclusive fitness of autosomal genomes. Nonetheless, to grasp fully how cooperation and altruism evolve, most biologists need more concrete concepts like kin selection, group selection and selection among individuals for their common good.

  19. Selective mutism - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - selective mutism ... The following organizations are good resources for information on selective mutism : American Speech-Language-Hearing Association -- www.asha.org/public/speech/disorders/selectivemutism.htm Selective Mutism and ...

  20. Nano-sized Mo- and Nb-doped TiO2 as Anode Materials for High Energy and High Power Hybrid Li-Ion Capacitors.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Dustin; Roberts, Alexander; Matsumi, Noriyoshi; Darr, Jawwad A

    2017-03-29

    Nano-sized Mo-doped titania (Mo0.1Ti0.9O2) and Nb-doped titania (Nb0.25Ti0.75O2) were directly synthesized via a continuous hydrothermal flow synthesis process. Materials characterization was conducted using physical techniques such as transmission electron microscopy, powder X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller specific surface area measurements and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Hybrid Li-Ion supercapacitors were made with either a Mo-doped or Nb-doped TiO2 negative electrode material and an activated carbon (AC) positive electrode. Cells were evaluated using electrochemical testing (cyclic voltammetry, constant charge discharge cycling). The hybrid Li-ion capacitors showed good energy densities at moderate power densities. When cycled in the potential window 0.5 to 3.0 V, the Mo0.1Ti0.9O2/AC hybrid supercapacitor showed the highest energy densities of 51 Wh kg-1 at a power of 180 W kg-1 with energy densities rapidly declining with increasing applied specific current. In comparison, the Nb0.25Ti0.75O2/AC hybrid supercapacitor maintained its energy density of 45 Wh kg-1 at 180 W kg-1 better, showing 36 Wh g-1 at 3200 W kg-1, which is a very promising mix of high energy and power densities. Reducing the voltage window to the range 1.0 to 3.0 V led to an increase in power density, with the Mo0.1Ti0.9O2/AC hybrid supercapacitor giving energy densities of 12 Wh kg-1 and 2.5 Wh kg-1 at power densities of 6700 W kg-1 and 14000 W kg-1, respectively.