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Sample records for colloid-stable nanosized selective

  1. Colloid stable sorbents for cesium removal: preparation and application of latex particles functionalized with transition metals ferrocyanides.

    PubMed

    Avramenko, Valentin; Bratskaya, Svetlana; Zheleznov, Veniamin; Sheveleva, Irina; Voitenko, Oleg; Sergienko, Valentin

    2011-02-28

    In this paper we suggest a principally new approach to preparation of colloid stable selective sorbents for cesium uptake using immobilization of transition metals (cobalt, nickel, and copper) ferrocyanides in nanosized carboxylic latex emulsions. The effects of ferrocyanide composition, pH, and media salinity on the sorption properties of the colloid stable sorbents toward cesium ions were studied in solutions containing up to 200 g/L of sodium nitrate or potassium chloride. The sorption capacities of the colloid sorbents based on mixed potassium/transition metals ferrocyanides were in the range 1.3-1.5 mol Cs/mol ferrocyanide with the highest value found for the copper ferrocyanide. It was shown that the obtained colloid-stable sorbents were capable to penetrate through bulk materials without filtration that made them applicable for decontamination of solids, e.g. soils, zeolites, spent ion-exchange resins contaminated with cesium radionuclides. After decontamination of liquid or solid radioactive wastes the colloid-stable sorbents can be easily separated from solutions by precipitation with cationic flocculants providing localization of radionuclides in a small volume of the precipitates formed.

  2. Nanosized Pd-Au bimetallic phases on carbon nanotubes for selective phenylacetylene hydrogenation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shenghua; Xin, Zhiling; Huang, Xing; Yu, Weizhen; Niu, Shuo; Shao, Lidong

    2017-02-22

    Palladium (Pd)-catalyzed selective hydrogenation of alkynes has been one of the most studied hydrogenation reactions in the last century. However, kinetic studies conducted to reveal the catalyst's active centers have been hindered because of dynamic surface changes on Pd during the reaction. In the present study, bimetallic Pd-Au nanoparticles supported on carbon nanotubes have been synthesized at room temperature as catalysts for selective hydrogenation of phenylacetylene, which show effectively enhanced selectivity compared to their monometallic counterparts. Structural and surface analyses of fresh and reacted catalysts reveal that selective hydrogenation of phenylacetylene is favored over nanosized Pd-Au bimetallic phases due to modifications in the Pd surface in terms of neighboring site isolation and electron density reduction.

  3. Nanosized tamoxifen-porphyrin-glucose [TPG] conjugate: novel selective anti-breast-cancer agent, synthesis and in vitro evaluations.

    PubMed

    Amanlou, Massoud; Heidari, Zahra; Siadat, Seyed Davar; Aghasadeghi, Mohammad Reza; Ghorbani, Masoud; Ebrahimi, Seyed Esmaeil Sadat; Sadat, Seyed Mehdi; Hajmohammadi, Mehdi; Arabzadeh, Ali Jabbari; Hekmat, Soheila; Alaei-Beirami, Mahmood; Saraji, Alireza Azizi; Moghaddam, Hadi Fathi; Alavidjeh, Mohammad Shafiee; Delbaz, Seyed Ali; Dashtbani-Roozbehani, Abolfazl; Ardestani, Mehdi Shafiee

    2013-06-01

    Tumor and especially breast cancer is among the most common causes of death worldwide. Finding novel nanosized therapeutic compounds have important role to decrease the chance of death and increase the survival. Cancer cells are highly attractive to glucose [with a nanosize bimolecular structure 1nm] as an energy source more than normal cell and nanosized therapeutics due to possessing different pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic have advantageous over classical dosage forms in cancer therapy. The aim of the study was to synthesize Glucosamin-Porphyrin-Tamoxifen [TPG] nanosized complex as a novel selective biocompatible anti breast cancer agent. After the synthesis procedure, this complex was purified and then tested In Vitro on breast cancer cells [MCF-7] in the absence or presence of the red light and found totally successful. The results showed a good anti breast cancer activity mediated by the activation of TNF-α and necrosis/apoptosis pathways for the nanosized complex with no alteration effects on blood PT/APTT and glucose or hexokinase levels/ activity. TPG nanoconjugate seems to be very good opponents to current anti breast cancer drugs and needs to be further investigated in near future.

  4. Colloidally Stable and Surfactant-Free Protein-Coated Gold Nanorods in Biological Media

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we investigate the ligand exchange of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) with bovine serum albumin for gold nanorods. We demonstrate by surface-enhanced Raman scattering measurements that CTAB, which is used as a shape-directing agent in the particle synthesis, is completely removed from solution and particle surface. Thus, the protein-coated nanorods are suitable for bioapplications, where cationic surfactants must be avoided. At the same time, the colloidal stability of the system is significantly increased, as evidenced by spectroscopic investigation of the particle longitudinal surface plasmon resonance, which is sensitive to aggregation. Particles are stable at very high concentrations (cAu 20 mg/mL) in biological media such as phosphate buffer saline or Dulbecco’s Modified Eagle’s Medium and over a large pH range (2–12). Particles can even be freeze-dried (lyophilized) and redispersed. The protocol was applied to gold nanoparticles with a large range of aspect ratios and sizes with main absorption frequencies covering the visible and the near-IR spectral range from 600 to 1100 nm. Thus, these colloidally stable and surfactant-free protein-coated nanoparticles are of great interest for various plasmonic and biomedical applications. PMID:25706195

  5. Small silicon, big opportunities: the development and future of colloidally-stable monodisperse silicon nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Mastronardi, Melanie L; Henderson, Eric J; Puzzo, Daniel P; Ozin, Geoffrey A

    2012-11-14

    Nanomaterials are becoming increasingly widespread in consumer technologies, but there is global concern about the toxicity of nanomaterials to humans and the environment as they move rapidly from the research laboratory to the market place. With this in mind, it makes sense to intensify the nanochemistry community's global research effort on the synthesis and study of nanoparticles that are purportedly "green". One potentially green nanoparticle that seems to be a most promising candidate in this context is silicon, whose appealing optical, optoelectronic, photonic, and biomedical attributes are recently gaining much attention. In this paper, we outline some of our recent contributions to the development of the growing field of silicon nanocrystals (ncSi) in order to stress the importance of continued study of ncSi as a green alternative to the archetypal semiconductor nanocrystals like CdSe, InAs, and PbS. While a variety of developments in synthetic methods, characterization techniques, and applications have been reported in recent years, the ability to prepare colloidally-stable monodisperse ncSi samples may prove to have the largest impact on the field, as it opens the door to study and access the tunable size-dependent properties of ncSi. Here, we summarize our recent contributions in size-separation methods to achieve monodisperse samples, the characterization of size-dependant property trends, the development of ncSi applications, and their potential impact on the promising future of ncSi.

  6. Synthesis and Size-Separation of Colloidally-Stable Silicon Nanocrystals for the Investigation of their Size-Dependent Optical Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mastronardi, Melanie

    Silicon nanocrystals (ncSi) possess unique optical properties that vary predictably with crystal size, which means they can be tailored to suit specific requirements for use in optoelectronic devices and biological applications. The work presented in this thesis outlines contributions made in developing size-separation methods to obtain uniform-sized samples of colloidally-stable ncSi from non-uniform ensembles, which result from most common syntheses that produce colloidally-stable particles. Non-uniform samples of ncSi were prepared using the straightforward thermal processing of sol-gel glasses, followed by HF etching to liberate hydride-capped ncSi from an encapsulating matrix. Thermal hydrosilylation was employed to passivate the ncSi surface with both allylbenzene and 1-decene. Density gradient ultracentrifugation and size-selective precipitation methods were used to isolate size-separated ncSi, which enabled definitive characterization of size-dependent optical properties including photoluminescence (PL), PL absolute quantum yields, and PL lifetimes. A detailed investigation of the chemical reactivity of allylbenzene-capped ncSi with different gaseous atmospheres as probed by in situ luminescence spectroscopy, conducted under both continuous and intermittent illumination, helped elucidate the roles of O2, H2O and mixtures of O2/H 2O, with respect to oxidation of ncSi as a function of size. The results presented in this thesis have played a crucial role towards obtaining a complete understanding of ncSi, a most promising material, and providing vital information that will aid in developing and tailoring perceived applications in advanced materials and biomedical devices.

  7. Nanoparticle films and photonic crystal multilayers from colloidally stable, size-controllable zinc and iron oxide nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Redel, Engelbert; Mirtchev, Peter; Huai, Chen; Petrov, Srebri; Ozin, Geoffrey A

    2011-04-26

    We report a facile sol-gel synthesis of colloidally stable Fe(2)O(3) and ZnO nanoparticles in alcoholic solvents, ROH, where R = methyl, ethyl, n-propyl, isopropyl, and tert-butyl. We show that nanoparticles of ZnO (4-42) nm and Fe(2)O(3) (4-38 nm) monotonically increase in size upon increasing the alkyl chain length and branching of the alcohol solvent. These colloidally stable and size-controllable metal oxide nanoparticles enable the formation of high optical quality films and photonic crystal multilayers whose component layer thickness, refractive index, porosity, and surface area are found to scale with the nature of the alcohol. Utility of these colloidally stable nanoparticles is demonstrated by preparation of one-dimensional porous photonic crystals comprising ncZnO/ncWO(3) and ncFe(2)O(3)/ncWO(3) multilayers whose photonic stop band can be tuned by tailoring nanoparticle size. Myriad applications can be envisaged for these nanoparticle films in, for example, heterogeneous catalysis, photocatalysis, electrocatalysis, chemical sensors, and solar cells.

  8. Synthesis of nanosized sodium titanates

    DOEpatents

    Hobbs, David T.; Taylor-Pashow, Kathryn M. L.; Elvington, Mark C.

    2015-09-29

    Methods directed to the synthesis and peroxide-modification of nanosized monosodium titanate are described. Methods include combination of reactants at a low concentration to a solution including a nonionic surfactant. The nanosized monosodium titanate can exhibit high selectivity for sorbing various metallic ions.

  9. A facile one-pot synthesis of colloidal stable, monodisperse, highly PEGylated CuS@mSiO2 nanocomposites for the combination of photothermal therapy and chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Lu, Feng; Wang, Jinfeng; Yang, Lin; Zhu, Jun-Jie

    2015-06-11

    A facile one-pot approach was developed for the synthesis of colloidal stable, monodisperse, highly PEGylated mesoporous silica coated copper sulfide nanocomposites for the combination of photothermal therapy and chemotherapy. The proposed method can also be extended to the synthesis of other metal sulfide nanocomposites.

  10. Mechanisms of Size and Shape Selection and Control in Self-Assembly of Colloid Particles Synthesized from Nanosize Crystalline Precursors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Privman, Vladimir

    2007-03-01

    The importance of well-defined dispersions of particles of different shapes, ranging in sizes from nanometer to colloidal, has been widely recognized in applications and in basic studies of advanced materials. Our program endeavors to advance understanding of formation of uniform particles of simple and composite structure, with focus on synthesis involving self-assembly of nanosize particles and their new unique properties for dimensions smaller than the typical submicron-size colloid scales. Presently, there is convincing experimental evidence that many monodispersed colloids of various shapes, obtained by precipitation in solutions, are formed by aggregation of such nanocrystalline subunits. Our group's theoretical explanation of this process expands the classical model of formation of uniform particles, by LaMer, and offers an interesting link between nanosize and micrometer size particles.

  11. Nano-sized molecularly imprinted polymer for selective ultrasound-assisted microextraction of pesticide Carbaryl from water samples: Spectrophotometric determination.

    PubMed

    Bazrafshan, A A; Ghaedi, M; Rafiee, Z; Hajati, S; Ostovan, A

    2017-07-15

    Ultrasound-assisted dispersive solid phase microextraction followed by UV-Vis spectrophotometry (UA-DSPME UV-Vis) was designed for the extraction and preconcentration of Carbaryl using nano-sized molecularly-imprinted polymer (MIP-NP). Nano-sized Carbaryl-imprinted polymer was characterized by scanning electron microscopy. A preliminary Plackett-Burman design was applied for screening. Subsequently, central composite design under response surface methodology was used to investigate and model the Carbaryl adsorption as response as well as to optimize this response versus variables such as Carbaryl MIP-NP mass, sonication time, temperature, eluent volume, pH and vortex time. At optimum experimental conditions, UAMSPE-UV-Vis exhibited a linear range of 0.1-1.2mgL(-1). The enhancement and preconcentration factors were obtained to be 30.6 and 25.0, respectively, for the extraction of Carbaryl by MIP-NP. In addition, the values of 0.033 and 0.11mgL(-1) were obtained for limit of detection and limit of quantification, respectively. The value of 4.3% determined for relative standard deviation for the separation and preconcentration of Carbaryl after 5 repetitions shows the acceptable repeatability of the process. Finally, the developed method was successfully applied for the determination of Carbaryl in water samples.

  12. Synthesis of nano-sized arsenic-imprinted polymer and its use as As(3+) selective ionophore in a potentiometric membrane electrode: part 1.

    PubMed

    Alizadeh, Taher; Rashedi, Mariyam

    2014-09-16

    In this study, a new strategy was proposed for the preparation of As (III)-imprinted polymer by using arsenic (methacrylate)3 as template. Precipitation polymerization was utilized to synthesize nano-sized As (III)-imprinted polymer. Methacrylic acid and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate were used as the functional monomer and cross-linking agent, respectively. In order to assembly functional monomers around As (III) ion, sodium arsenite and methacrylic acid were heated in the presence of hydroquinone, leading to arsenic (methacrylate)3. The nano-sized As (III) selective polymer was characterized by FT-IR and scanning electron microscopy techniques (SEM). It was demonstrated that arsenic was recognized as As(3+) by the selective cavities of the synthesized IIP. Based on the prepared polymer, the first arsenic cation selective membrane electrode was introduced. Membrane electrode was constructed by dispersion of As (III)-imprinted polymer nanoparticles in poly(vinyl chloride), plasticized with di-nonylphthalate. The IIP-modified electrode exhibited a Nernstian response (20.4±0.5 mV decade(-1)) to arsenic ion over a wide concentration range (7.0×10(-7) to 1.0×10(-1) mol L(-1)) with a lower detection limit of 5.0×10(-7) mol L(-1). Unlike this, the non-imprinted polymer (NIP)-based membrane electrode was not sensitive to arsenic in aqueous solution. The selectivity of the developed sensor to As (III) was shown to be satisfactory. The sensor was used for arsenic determination in some real samples.

  13. Nanosized As2O3/Fe2O3 complexes combined with magnetic fluid hyperthermia selectively target liver cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zi-Yu; Song, Jian; Zhang, Dong-Sheng

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To study the methods of preparing the magnetic nano-microspheres of Fe2O3 and As2O3/Fe2O3 complexes and their therapeutic effects with magnetic fluid hyperthermia (MFH). METHODS: Nanospheres were prepared by chemical co-precipitation and their shape and diameter were observed. Hemolysis, micronucleus, cell viability, and LD50 along with other in vivo tests were performed to evaluate the Fe2O3 microsphere biocompatibility. The inhibition ratio of tumors after Fe2O3 and As2O3/Fe2O3 injections combined with induced hyperthermia in xenograft human hepatocarcinoma was calculated. RESULTS: Fe2O3 and As2O3/Fe2O3 particles were round with an average diameter of 20 nm and 100 nm as observed under transmission electron microscope. Upon exposure to an alternating magnetic field (AMF), the temperature of the suspension of magnetic particles increased to 41-51°C, depending on different particle concentrations, and remained stable thereafter. Nanosized Fe2O3 microspheres are a new kind of biomaterial without cytotoxic effects. The LD50 of both Fe2O3 and As2O3/Fe2O3 in mice was higher than 5 g/kg. One to four weeks after Fe2O3 and As2O3/Fe2O3 complex injections into healthy pig livers, no significant differences were found in serum AST, ALT, BUN and Cr levels among the pigs of all groups (P > 0.05), and no obvious pathological alterations were observed. After exposure to alternating magnetic fields, the inhibition ratio of the tumors was significantly different from controls in the Fe2O3 and As2O3/Fe2O3 groups (68.74% and 82.79%, respectively; P < 0.01). Tumors of mice in treatment groups showed obvious necrosis, while normal tissues adjoining the tumor and internal organs did not. CONCLUSION: Fe2O3 and As2O3/Fe2O3 complexes exerted radiofrequency-induced hyperthermia and drug toxicity on tumors without any liver or kidney damage. Therefore, nanospheres are ideal carriers for tumor-targeted therapy. PMID:19554652

  14. Hybrid catalyst containing nano-sized LaMnO{sub 3} and carbon black for high yield and selective ketonization of n-butanol

    SciTech Connect

    Cyganiuk, Aleksandra; Klimkiewicz, Roman; Lukaszewicz, Jerzy P.

    2011-03-15

    Graphical abstract: The performed investigations demonstrated a very high catalytic activity of the synthesized hybrid (LaMnO{sub 3}/carbon black) catalyst towards ketonization of n-butanol. Both selectivity (ca. 60%) and yield (ca. 40%) towards heptanone-4 seem to be very promising especially for conversion run at temperatures close to 480 {sup o}C. These parameters were achieved for the hybrid catalyst containing only 10 weight percents of LaMnO{sub 3}. Research highlights: {yields} A novel biotechnological way of a hybrid carbon-based catalyst fabrication {yields} Effective (high yield and selectivity) n-butanol conversion to heptanone-4. {yields} Nano-sized LaMnO{sub 3} crystallites uniformly distributed in carbon matrix. {yields} Exploitation of Salix viminalis tolerance to heavy metal ions. -- Abstract: An attempt has been made to synthesize a two-component hybrid material for highly selective catalytic ketonization of n-butanol. The perovskite-type oxide nano-crystallites were synthesized in the presence of carbon black particles by thermal transformation of equimolar mixture of lanthanum and manganese hydroxides into the perovskite-type oxide. The two-component material was tested as a catalyst for unconventional conversion of n-butanol to heptanone-4. The catalyst exhibited very high selectivity and yield towards the products, despite low content of LaMnO{sub 3} in the two-component material (less than 10% by weight). The low oxide content led to the reduction of the cost of catalyst fabrication and is compensated by its high dispersion (grains ca. 20-30 nm in diameter) providing high conversion and yield comparable to pure-oxide catalysts. Catalyst fabrication is simple and environment friendly since it does not require organic solvents and excess amount of heavy metals (La and Mn).

  15. Nanosized microporous crystals: emerging applications.

    PubMed

    Mintova, Svetlana; Jaber, Maguy; Valtchev, Valentin

    2015-10-21

    This review highlights recent developments in the synthesis and unconventional applications of nanosized microporous crystals including framework (zeolites) and layered (clays) type materials. Owing to their microporous nature nanosized zeolites and clays exhibit novel properties, different from those of bulk materials. The factors controlling the formation of nanosized microporous crystals are first revised. The most promising approaches from the viewpoint of large-scale production of nanosized zeolites and clays are discussed in depth. The preparation and advanced applications of nanosized zeolites and clays in free (suspension and powder forms) and fixed (films) forms are summarized. Further the review emphasises the non-conventional applications of new porous materials. A comprehensive analysis of the emerging applications of microporous nanosized crystals in the field of semiconductor industry, optical materials, chemical sensors, medicine, cosmetics, and food industry is presented. Finally, the future needs and perspectives of nanosized microporous materials (zeolites and clays) are addressed.

  16. Colloidally stable selenium@copper selenide core@shell nanoparticles as selenium source for manufacturing of copper-indium-selenide solar cells.

    PubMed

    Dong, Hailong; Quintilla, Aina; Cemernjak, Marco; Popescu, Radian; Gerthsen, Dagmar; Ahlswede, Erik; Feldmann, Claus

    2014-02-01

    Selenium nanoparticles with diameters of 100-400nm are prepared via hydrazine-driven reduction of selenious acid. The as-prepared amorphous, red selenium (a-Se) particles were neither a stable phase nor were they colloidally stable. Due to phase transition to crystalline (trigonal), grey selenium (t-Se) at or even below room temperature, the particles merged rapidly and recrystallized as micronsized crystal needles. As a consequence, such Se particles were not suited for layer deposition and as a precursor to manufacture thin-film CIS (copper indium selenide/CuInSe2) solar cells. To overcome this restriction, Se@CuSe core@shell particles are presented here. For these Se@CuSe core@shell nanoparticles, the phase transition a-Se→t-Se is shifted to temperatures higher than 100°C. Moreover, a spherical shape of the particles is retained even after phase transition. Composition and structure of the Se@CuSe core@shell nanostructure are evidenced by electron microscopy (SEM/STEM), DLS, XRD, FT-IR and line-scan EDXS. As a conceptual study, the newly formed Se@CuSe core@shell nanostructures with CuSe acting as a protecting layer to increase the phase-transition temperature and to improve the colloidal stability were used as a selenium precursor for manufacturing of thin-film CIS solar cells and already lead to conversion efficiencies up to 3%. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Nanosized Na-EMT and Li-EMT zeolites: selective sorption of water and methanol studied by a combined IR and TG approach.

    PubMed

    Ali Ahmad, Hacan; Thomas, Sébastien; Bazin, Philippe; Vicente, Aurélie; Fernandez, Christian; Awala, Hussein; Mintova, Svetlana

    2016-11-09

    Nanosized EMT-type zeolite crystals in sodium (Na-EMT) and ion-exchanged lithium (Li-EMT) forms were prepared. The sorption behavior of Li(Na)-EMT samples towards water, methanol and a mixture of both (50 : 50) was studied by combined thermogravimetric and infrared spectroscopic methods. The stability of the samples prior to and after the sorption measurements in two subsequent cycles was confirmed by X-ray diffraction, N2 sorption and NMR spectroscopy. The high sorption capacity of the Li-EMT sample towards water was demonstrated. It was found that the methanol is replaced by water faster in the Li-EMT sample in comparison to the Na-EMT sample. At low temperature, the methanol shows weak adsorption on each cationic site and no side products during desorption for both samples were obtained.

  18. Development of a selective and sensitive voltammetric sensor for propylparaben based on a nanosized molecularly imprinted polymer-carbon paste electrode.

    PubMed

    Gholivand, Mohammad Bagher; Shamsipur, Mojtaba; Dehdashtian, Sara; Rajabi, Hamid Reza

    2014-03-01

    The design and construction of a selective voltammetric sensor for propylparaben (PP) in cosmetics by using a molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) as recognition element was introduced. The MIP was synthesized by using PP as template and methacrylic acid as functional monomer and then incorporated in the carbon paste electrode as PP sensor. The molecularly imprinted polymer-carbon paste electrode (MIP-CPE) showed very high recognition ability in comparison to non-imprinted polymer-carbon paste electrode (NIP-CPE). It was shown that electrode washing after PP extraction, led to enhanced selectivity, without noticeably decreasing the sensitivity. Some parameters affecting sensor response were optimized, and a calibration curve was then plotted using differential pulse voltammetric (DPV) technique. A dynamic linear range of 1 nM to 100 nM was obtained. The detection limit of the sensor was calculated to be equal to 0.32 nM. The imprinted electrode also displayed good selectivity for PP and selectivity coefficients were 2.29 and 1.66 for methylparaben (MP) and ethylparaben (EP) respectively. Structural analogs, such as phenol and p-hydroxybenzoic acid had almost no response. This sensor was used successfully for propylparaben determination in cosmetic sample.

  19. A new route to the shape-controlled synthesis of nano-sized γ-alumina and Ag/γ-alumina for selective catalytic reduction of NO in the presence of propene.

    PubMed

    Mrabet, Driss; Vu, Manh-Hiep; Kaliaguine, Serge; Do, Trong-On

    2017-01-01

    We report a new route for the direct synthesis of γ-alumina nanocrystals with size and shape control in the presence of oleylamine as the capping agent. Their morphology can be controlled from nanospheres to nanorods by simply tuning a proper amount of concentrated nitric acid (67%) in the synthetic mixture. The as-made nanoparticle products after calcination show γ-alumina nano-size with unique porosity and high specific surface area and retained morphology. The XRD patterns of these calcined samples exhibit broad diffraction lines which are characteristic of nanocrystal size of γ-alumina. This synthesis procedure has been extended to the one-pot synthesis of nano-alumina based Ag catalysts with spherical and rod-shaped nano-alumina morphologies. Selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NO with C3H6 over these catalysts was investigated. The results were compared to those of the conventional Ag/γ-Al2O3 and γ-nanoalumina alone. These nano-alumina based Ag catalysts exhibit excellent NO reduction activity in the presence of C3H6. Even in the presence of large oxygen concentration (15%), N2 yields as high as ∼90% at quite low temperature (∼350°C) have been achieved. The significantly high catalytic activity of this new type of nanocatalysts can also be attributed to their high surface area and good dispersion of silver species in the alumina matrix as well as the synergism and new properties that arise at the silver-nanoalumina interface.

  20. Processing and application of nanosized ferrite powders

    SciTech Connect

    Drofenik, M.; Rozman, M.

    1995-09-01

    Crystalline MnZn ferrite of nanosize was prepared by the hydrothermal synthesis. The pH value of the starting suspension was found to influence substantially the ferrite composition. The nanosized ferrite powder is very sensitive to oxidation and sinters to nearly theoretical density in nitrogen. The correlation between the eddy-current loss and microstructure is given.

  1. Epigenetic effects of nano-sized materials.

    PubMed

    Stoccoro, Andrea; Karlsson, Hanna L; Coppedè, Fabio; Migliore, Lucia

    2013-11-08

    The term epigenetics includes several phenomena such as DNA methylation, histone tail modifications, and microRNA mediated mechanisms, which are able to mold the chromatin structure and/or gene expression levels, without altering the primary DNA sequence. Environmental agents can exert epigenetic properties and there is increasing evidence of epigenetic deregulation of gene expression in several human diseases, including cancer, cardiovascular diseases, autism spectrum disorders, autoimmune diseases, and neurodegeneration, among others. Given the widespread use and dispersion in the environment of nano-sized materials, this article summarizes the studies performed so far to evaluate their potential epigenetic properties. Those studies highlight the ability of certain nano-sized compounds to induce an impaired expression of genes involved in DNA methylation reactions leading to global DNA methylation changes, as well as changes of gene specific methylation of tumor suppressor genes, inflammatory genes, and DNA repair genes, all potentially involved in cancer development. Moreover, some nano-sized compounds are able to induce changes in the acetylation and methylation of histone tails, as well as microRNA deregulated expression. We also provided a detailed description of currently available methodologies to evaluate epigenetic modifications. Standard protocols are currently available to evaluate cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of nano-sized materials. By contrast, there are at present no available standard protocols to evaluate the epigenetic potential of any given compound. The currently available methodologies offer different, but often complementary information to characterize potential epigenetic changes induced by exposure to nano-sized compounds. Given the widespread use and dispersion in the environment of nano-sized materials, at present and foreseeable in the near future, and in light of the indication of potential epigenetic properties here reviewed, more

  2. Techniques to develop and characterize nanosized formulation for salbutamol sulfate.

    PubMed

    Bhavna; Ahmad, F J; Khar, R K; Sultana, S; Bhatnagar, A

    2009-12-01

    The present study relates to enhancing the dosing efficiency of pharmaceutical dry powder formulations administered by pulmonary inhalation. In particular, the study relates to the provision of dry powder inhalers (DPI) by forming nanosized particles of salbutamol sulfate (SBM) in order to augment the drug penetrability and deposition in the lungs. SBM, an antiasthmatic was selected to be developed into a nanosized formulation by different techniques like solvation, high-pressure homogenization, and spray drying, which were then compared on the basis of particle shape, particle size, and particle size distribution. In case of solvation method the nanosuspension was prepared by dispersing SBM into a nonsolvent and adding Tween-80 as a surfactant to prevent the agglomeration, the particles obtained therein were in the range of 2-10 mu. The second attempt was made by passing the suspension of SBM through high-pressure homogenizer at 10,000-15,000 psi. A treatment of six cycles of homogenization in presence of a Tween-80 as surfactant was found to give a nanosuspension within a size range 50-100 nm. The only drawback seemed with this technique was the low-product yield and high-processing time (3-4 h). In order to overcome this drawback spray-drying technique was further explored; the solution of SBM containing Tween-80 was stirred on magnetic stirrer at 1,200 rpm and finally dried by using spray dryer at an inlet and outlet temperature of 75 degrees C and 56 degrees C, respectively. The feed rate for spray dryer was kept to be 91 ml/h. The sample was collected and analyzed for particle size distribution which was found to be in the range of 50-100 nm. Keeping in view the positive outcomes in terms of higher yield and lower processing time, the spray-drying technique was taken to give the optimized formulation. Nanosized particles, thus obtained were evaluated for particle size, surface topology and particles size distribution, by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM

  3. Application of Nanosize Zeolite Molecular Sieves for Medical Oxygen Concentration

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Mingfei; Omar, Hecham M.; Rohani, Sohrab

    2017-01-01

    The development of a portable oxygen concentrator is of prime significance for patients with respiratory problems. This paper presents a portable concentrator prototype design using the pressure/vacuum swing adsorption (PVSA) cycle with a deep evacuation step (−0.82 barg) instead of desorption with purge flow to simplify the oxygen production process. The output of the oxygen concentrator is a ~90 vol % enriched oxygen stream in a continuous adsorption and desorption cycle (cycle time ~90 s). The size of the adsorption column is 3 cm in diameter and 20 cm in length. A Li+ exchanged 13X nanosize zeolite is used as the adsorbent to selectively adsorb nitrogen from air. A dynamic model of the pressure and vacuum swing adsorption units was developed to study the pressurization and depressurization process inside the microporous area of nanosized zeolites. The describing equations were solved using COMSOL Multiphysics Chemical Engineering module. The output flow rate and oxygen concentration results from the simulation model were compared with the experimental data. Velocity and concentration profiles were obtained to study the adsorption process and optimize the operational parameters. PMID:28757586

  4. Application of Nanosize Zeolite Molecular Sieves for Medical Oxygen Concentration.

    PubMed

    Pan, Mingfei; Omar, Hecham M; Rohani, Sohrab

    2017-07-25

    The development of a portable oxygen concentrator is of prime significance for patients with respiratory problems. This paper presents a portable concentrator prototype design using the pressure/vacuum swing adsorption (PVSA) cycle with a deep evacuation step (-0.82 barg) instead of desorption with purge flow to simplify the oxygen production process. The output of the oxygen concentrator is a ~90 vol % enriched oxygen stream in a continuous adsorption and desorption cycle (cycle time ~90 s). The size of the adsorption column is 3 cm in diameter and 20 cm in length. A Li⁺ exchanged 13X nanosize zeolite is used as the adsorbent to selectively adsorb nitrogen from air. A dynamic model of the pressure and vacuum swing adsorption units was developed to study the pressurization and depressurization process inside the microporous area of nanosized zeolites. The describing equations were solved using COMSOL Multiphysics Chemical Engineering module. The output flow rate and oxygen concentration results from the simulation model were compared with the experimental data. Velocity and concentration profiles were obtained to study the adsorption process and optimize the operational parameters.

  5. Evaluation of Extrusion Technique for Nanosizing Liposomes

    PubMed Central

    Ong, Sandy Gim Ming; Chitneni, Mallikarjun; Lee, Kah Seng; Ming, Long Chiau; Yuen, Kah Hay

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to study the efficiency of different techniques used for nanosizing liposomes. Further, the aim was also to evaluate the effect of process parameters of extrusion techniques used for nanosizing liposomes on the size and size distribution of the resultant liposomes. To compare the efficiency of different nanosizing techniques, the following techniques were used to nanosize the liposomes: extrusion, ultrasonication, freeze-thaw sonication (FTS), sonication and homogenization. The extrusion technique was found to be the most efficient, followed by FTS, ultrasonication, sonication and homogenization. The extruder used in the present study was fabricated using readily available and relatively inexpensive apparatus. Process parameters were varied in extrusion technique to study their effect on the size and size distribution of extruded liposomes. The results obtained indicated that increase in the flow rate of the extrusion process decreased the size of extruded liposomes however the size homogeneity was negatively impacted. Furthermore, the liposome size and distribution was found to decline with decreasing membrane pore size. It was found that by extruding through a filter with a pore size of 0.2 µm and above, the liposomes produced were smaller than the pore size, whereas, when they were extruded through a filter with a pore size of less than 0.2 µm the resultant liposomes were slightly bigger than the nominal pore size. Besides that, increment of extrusion temperature above transition temperature of the pro-liposome had no effect on the size and size distribution of the extruded liposomes. In conclusion, the extrusion technique was reproducible and effective among all the methods evaluated. Furthermore, processing parameters used in extrusion technique would affect the size and size distribution of liposomes. Therefore, the process parameters need to be optimized to obtain a desirable size range and homogeneity, reproducible for

  6. Evaluation of Extrusion Technique for Nanosizing Liposomes.

    PubMed

    Ong, Sandy Gim Ming; Chitneni, Mallikarjun; Lee, Kah Seng; Ming, Long Chiau; Yuen, Kah Hay

    2016-12-21

    The aim of the present study was to study the efficiency of different techniques used for nanosizing liposomes. Further, the aim was also to evaluate the effect of process parameters of extrusion techniques used for nanosizing liposomes on the size and size distribution of the resultant liposomes. To compare the efficiency of different nanosizing techniques, the following techniques were used to nanosize the liposomes: extrusion, ultrasonication, freeze-thaw sonication (FTS), sonication and homogenization. The extrusion technique was found to be the most efficient, followed by FTS, ultrasonication, sonication and homogenization. The extruder used in the present study was fabricated using readily available and relatively inexpensive apparatus. Process parameters were varied in extrusion technique to study their effect on the size and size distribution of extruded liposomes. The results obtained indicated that increase in the flow rate of the extrusion process decreased the size of extruded liposomes however the size homogeneity was negatively impacted. Furthermore, the liposome size and distribution was found to decline with decreasing membrane pore size. It was found that by extruding through a filter with a pore size of 0.2 µm and above, the liposomes produced were smaller than the pore size, whereas, when they were extruded through a filter with a pore size of less than 0.2 µm the resultant liposomes were slightly bigger than the nominal pore size. Besides that, increment of extrusion temperature above transition temperature of the pro-liposome had no effect on the size and size distribution of the extruded liposomes. In conclusion, the extrusion technique was reproducible and effective among all the methods evaluated. Furthermore, processing parameters used in extrusion technique would affect the size and size distribution of liposomes. Therefore, the process parameters need to be optimized to obtain a desirable size range and homogeneity, reproducible for

  7. Synthesis and testing of nanosized zeolite Y

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karami, Davood

    This work focuses on the synthesis and testing of nanosized zeolite Y. The synthesis formulations of faujasite-type structure of zeolite Y prepared in nanosized form are described. The synthetic zeolite Y is the most widely employed for the preparation of fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) catalysts. The synthesis of zeolite Y is very complicated process. The mean particle size of zeolite Y is 1800 nm. The major challenge of this work involved reducing this average particle size to less than 500 nm. The preliminary experiments were conducted to obtain the pure zeolite Y using the soluble silicates as a silica source. This was achieved by applying the experimental design approach to study the effects of many parameters. The ageing time turned out to be the most significant variable affecting product purity. Based on the preliminary results, a detailed investigation was carried out to determine the effects of silica-alumina precursor preparations on zeolite Y synthesis. Aluminosilicate precursors were prepared by gelling and precipitation of soluble silicate. The as-prepared precursors were used for the hydrothermal synthesis of zeolite Y. The procedure of the precipitation of soluble silicate yielded pure zeolite Y at the conventional synthesis conditions. The extent of purity of zeolite Y depends on the surface areas of aluminosilicate precursors. A novel approach to zeolite Y synthesis was employed for the preparation of the pure nanosized zeolite Y. This was achieved by applying the method of impregnation of precipitated silica. This novel method of impregnation for zeolite Y preparation allows eliminating the vigorous agitation step required for the preparation of a homogeneous silica solution, thereby simplifying the synthesis of zeolite Y in one single vessel. In case of the synthesis of nanosized zeolite Y, the effect of varying the organic templates on the formation of nanosized particles of zeolite Y was investigated, while all other reaction parameters were

  8. Nanosized Ultrasound Enhanced-Contrast Agent for in Vivo Tumor Imaging via Intravenous Injection.

    PubMed

    Kim, Manse; Lee, Jong Hyun; Kim, Se Eun; Kang, Seong Soo; Tae, Giyoong

    2016-04-06

    To enhance the detection limit of ultrasound (US) imaging, ultrasound enhanced-contrast agents (UECAs) that can go preferentially to the target tissue such as a tumor and amplify the US signal have been developed. However, nanosized UECAs among various UECAs developed are very limited to clearly demonstrate proper ability for selective tumor detection by US imaging upon their intravenous injection. In this study, we prepared CaCO3 nanoparticles that were formed inside a flexible and biocompatible pluronic-based nanocarrier. This nanosized UECA was stable in serum-containing media and generated CO2, more preferentially at low pH; thus, it could be detected by US imaging. After intravenous injection into tumor-bearing mice, this nanosized UECA showed a significant US contrast enhancement at the tumor site in 1 h, in contrast to no change in the liver, followed by a rapid clearance from the body in 24 h. Therefore, the present nanosized UECA could be applied as an effective diagnostic modality for in vivo tumor imaging by ultrasonography.

  9. A subchronic toxicity study of elemental Nano-Se in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Jia, X; Li, N; Chen, J

    2005-03-11

    The subchronic toxicity of Nano-Se was compared with selenite and high-selenium protein in rats. Groups of Sprague-Dawley rats (12 males and 12 females per group) were fed diets containing Nano-Se, selenite and high-selenium protein at concentrations of 0, 2, 3, 4 and 5 ppm Se, respectively, for 13 weeks. Clinical observations were made and body weight and food consumption were recorded weekly. At the end of the study, the rats were subjected to a full necropsy, blood samples were collected for hematology and clinical chemistry determination. Histopathological examination was performed on selected tissues. At the two higher doses (4 and 5 ppm Se), significant abnormal changes were found in body weight, hematology, clinical chemistry, relative organ weights and histopathology parameters. However, the toxicity was more pronounced in the selenite and high-selenium protein groups than the Nano-Se group. At the dose of 3 ppm Se, significant growth inhibition and degeneration of liver cells were found in the selenite and high-selenium protein groups. No changes attributable to administration of Nano-Se at the dose of 3 ppm Se were found. Taken together, the no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) of Nano-Se in male and female rats was considered to be 3 ppm Se, equivalent to 0.22 mg/kg bw/day for males and 0.33 mg/kg bw/day for females. On the other hand, the NOAELs of selenite and high-selenium protein in males and females were considered to be 2 ppm Se, equivalent to 0.14 mg/kg bw/day for males and 0.20 mg/kg bw/day for females. In addition, studies have shown that Nano-Se has a similar bioavailability in rat, and much less acute toxicity in mice compared with selenite. In conclusion, Nano-Se is less toxic than selenite and high-selenium protein in the 13-week rat study.

  10. Nanosizing of drugs: Effect on dissolution rate.

    PubMed

    Dizaj, S Maleki; Vazifehasl, Zh; Salatin, S; Adibkia, Kh; Javadzadeh, Y

    2015-01-01

    The solubility, bioavailability and dissolution rate of drugs are important parameters for achieving in vivo efficiency. The bioavailability of orally administered drugs depends on their ability to be absorbed via gastrointestinal tract. For drugs belonging to Class II of pharmaceutical classification, the absorption process is limited by drug dissolution rate in gastrointestinal media. Therefore, enhancement of the dissolution rate of these drugs will present improved bioavailability. So far several techniques such as physical and chemical modifications, changing in crystal habits, solid dispersion, complexation, solubilization and liquisolid method have been used to enhance the dissolution rate of poorly water soluble drugs. It seems that improvement of the solubility properties ofpoorly water soluble drugscan translate to an increase in their bioavailability. Nowadays nanotechnology offers various approaches in the area of dissolution enhancement of low aqueous soluble drugs. Nanosizing of drugs in the form of nanoparticles, nanocrystals or nanosuspensions not requiring expensive facilities and equipment or complicated processes may be applied as simple methods to increase the dissolution rate of poorly water soluble drugs. In this article, we attempted to review the effects of nanosizing on improving the dissolution rate of poorly aqueous soluble drugs. According to the reviewed literature, by reduction of drug particle size into nanometer size the total effective surface area is increased and thereby dissolution rate would be enhanced. Additionally, reduction of particle size leads to reduction of the diffusion layer thickness surrounding the drug particles resulting in the increment of the concentration gradient. Each of these process leads to improved bioavailability.

  11. Nanosizing of drugs: Effect on dissolution rate

    PubMed Central

    Dizaj, S. Maleki; Vazifehasl, Zh.; Salatin, S.; Adibkia, Kh.; Javadzadeh, Y.

    2015-01-01

    The solubility, bioavailability and dissolution rate of drugs are important parameters for achieving in vivo efficiency. The bioavailability of orally administered drugs depends on their ability to be absorbed via gastrointestinal tract. For drugs belonging to Class II of pharmaceutical classification, the absorption process is limited by drug dissolution rate in gastrointestinal media. Therefore, enhancement of the dissolution rate of these drugs will present improved bioavailability. So far several techniques such as physical and chemical modifications, changing in crystal habits, solid dispersion, complexation, solubilization and liquisolid method have been used to enhance the dissolution rate of poorly water soluble drugs. It seems that improvement of the solubility properties ofpoorly water soluble drugscan translate to an increase in their bioavailability. Nowadays nanotechnology offers various approaches in the area of dissolution enhancement of low aqueous soluble drugs. Nanosizing of drugs in the form of nanoparticles, nanocrystals or nanosuspensions not requiring expensive facilities and equipment or complicated processes may be applied as simple methods to increase the dissolution rate of poorly water soluble drugs. In this article, we attempted to review the effects of nanosizing on improving the dissolution rate of poorly aqueous soluble drugs. According to the reviewed literature, by reduction of drug particle size into nanometer size the total effective surface area is increased and thereby dissolution rate would be enhanced. Additionally, reduction of particle size leads to reduction of the diffusion layer thickness surrounding the drug particles resulting in the increment of the concentration gradient. Each of these process leads to improved bioavailability. PMID:26487886

  12. Effects of nanosized constriction on thermal transport properties of graphene

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Thermal transport properties of graphene with nanosized constrictions are investigated using nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations. The results show that the nanosized constrictions have a significant influence on the thermal transport properties of graphene. The thermal resistance of the nanosized constrictions is on the order of 107 to 109 K/W at 150 K, which reduces the thermal conductivity by 7.7% to 90.4%. It is also found that the constriction resistance is inversely proportional to the width of the constriction and independent of the heat current. Moreover, we developed an analytical model for the ballistic thermal resistance of the nanosized constrictions in two-dimensional nanosystems. The theoretical prediction agrees well with the simulation results in this paper, which suggests that the thermal transport across the nanosized constrictions in two-dimensional nanosystems is ballistic in nature. PACS 65.80.CK; 61.48.Gh; 63.20.kp; 31.15.xv PMID:25232292

  13. Nanosized iron based permeable reactive barriers for nitrate removal - Systematic review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araújo, Rui; Castro, Ana C. Meira; Santos Baptista, João; Fiúza, António

    2016-08-01

    It is unquestionable that an effective decision concerning the usage of a certain environmental clean-up technology should be conveniently supported. Significant amount of scientific work focussing on the reduction of nitrate concentration in drinking water by both metallic iron and nanomaterials and their usage in permeable reactive barriers has been worldwide published over the last two decades. This work aims to present in a systematic review of the most relevant research done on the removal of nitrate from groundwater using nanosized iron based permeable reactive barriers. The research was based on scientific papers published between 2004 and June 2014. It was performed using 16 combinations of keywords in 34 databases, according to PRISMA statement guidelines. Independent reviewers validated the selection criteria. From the 4161 records filtered, 45 met the selection criteria and were selected to be included in this review. This study's outcomes show that the permeable reactive barriers are, indeed, a suitable technology for denitrification and with good performance record but the long-term impact of the use of nanosized zero valent iron in this remediation process, in both on the environment and on the human health, is far to be conveniently known. As a consequence, further work is required on this matter, so that nanosized iron based permeable reactive barriers for the removal of nitrate from drinking water can be genuinely considered an eco-efficient technology.

  14. Anaerobic corrosion reaction kinetics of nanosized iron.

    PubMed

    Reardon, Eric J; Fagan, Randal; Vogan, John L; Przepiora, Andrzej

    2008-04-01

    Nanosized Fe0 exhibits markedly different anaerobic corrosion rates in water compared to that disseminated in moist quartz sand. In water, hydrogen production from corrosion exhibits an autocatalytic style, attaining a maximum rate of 1.9 mol kg(-1) d(-1) within 2 d of reaction. The rate then drops sharply over the next 20 d and enters a period of uniformly decreasing rate, represented equally well by first-order or diffusion-controlled kinetic expressions. In quartz sand, hydrogen production exhibits a double maximum over the first 20 d, similar to the hydration reaction of Portland cement, and the highest rate attained is less than 0.5 mol kg(-1) d(-1). We ascribe this difference in early time corrosion behavior to the ability of the released hydrogen gas to convect both water and iron particles in an iron/water system and to its inability to do so when the iron particles are disseminated in sand. By 30 d, the hydrogen production rate of iron in quartz sand exhibits a uniform decrease as in the iron/water system, which also can be described by first-order or diffusion-controlled kinetic expressions. However, the corrosion resistance of the iron in moist sand is 4 times greater than in pure water (viz. t1/2 of 365 d vs 78 d, respectively). The lower rate for iron in sand is likely due to the effect of dissolved silica sorbing onto iron reaction sites and acting as an anodic inhibitor, which reduces the iron's susceptibility to oxidation by water. This study indicates that short-term laboratory corrosion tests of nanosized Fe0/water slurries will substantially underestimate both the material's longevity as an electron source and its potential as a long-term source of hydrogen gas in groundwater remediation applications.

  15. Targeted Therapy for Acute Autoimmune Myocarditis with Nano-Sized Liposomal FK506 in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Matsuzaki, Takashi; Araki, Ryo; Tsuchida, Shota; Thanikachalam, Punniyakoti V.; Fukuta, Tatsuya; Asai, Tomohiro; Yamato, Masaki; Sanada, Shoji; Asanuma, Hiroshi; Asano, Yoshihiro; Asakura, Masanori; Hanawa, Haruo; Hao, Hiroyuki; Oku, Naoto; Takashima, Seiji; Kitakaze, Masafumi; Sakata, Yasushi; Minamino, Tetsuo

    2016-01-01

    Immunosuppressive agents are used for the treatment of immune-mediated myocarditis; however, the need to develop a more effective therapeutic approach remains. Nano-sized liposomes may accumulate in and selectively deliver drugs to an inflammatory lesion with enhanced vascular permeability. The aims of this study were to investigate the distribution of liposomal FK506, an immunosuppressive drug encapsulated within liposomes, and the drug’s effects on cardiac function in a rat experimental autoimmune myocarditis (EAM) model. We prepared polyethylene glycol-modified liposomal FK506 (mean diameter: 109.5 ± 4.4 nm). We induced EAM by immunization with porcine myosin and assessed the tissue distribution of the nano-sized beads and liposomal FK506 in this model. After liposomal or free FK506 was administered on days 14 and 17 after immunization, the cytokine expression in the rat hearts along with the histological findings and hemodynamic parameters were determined on day 21. Ex vivo fluorescent imaging revealed that intravenously administered fluorescent-labeled nano-sized beads had accumulated in myocarditic but not normal hearts on day 14 after immunization and thereafter. Compared to the administration of free FK506, FK506 levels were increased in both the plasma and hearts of EAM rats when liposomal FK506 was administered. The administration of liposomal FK506 markedly suppressed the expression of cytokines, such as interferon-γ and tumor necrosis factor-α, and reduced inflammation and fibrosis in the myocardium on day 21 compared to free FK506. The administration of liposomal FK506 also markedly ameliorated cardiac dysfunction on day 21 compared to free FK506. Nano-sized liposomes may be a promising drug delivery system for targeting myocarditic hearts with cardioprotective agents. PMID:27501378

  16. Photo-triggered release in polyamide nanosized capsules

    SciTech Connect

    Marturano, V.; Ambrogi, V.; Cerruti, P.; Giamberini, M.; Tylkowski, B.

    2014-05-15

    In this work, nanosized capsules based on a lightly cross-linked polyamide containing azobenzene moieties in the main chain were synthesized by miniemulsion interfacial polymerization. The obtained nanocapsules were loaded either with toluene or with the fluorescent probe coumarin-6 as a core. Diameters of the nanocapsules were in the 100-900 nm range, depending on the selected emulsion conditions. The morphology and shape of the samples were observed by TEM and SEM while the emulsion droplets and nanocapsules size was measured by DLS. Under continuous UV irradiation the polymer underwent E-Z photoisomerization allowing the release of the encapsulated material. Variation in diameter of the nanocapsules with the time of UV irradiation was detected through DLS analysis. 10-30% growth was observed, depending on the sample. The kinetics of release of coumarin-6 was followed by spectrofluorimetry in ethanol. In absence of irradiation, the fluorescence intensity appeared to be constant over time, while it increased when the sample was irradiated with 360 nm UV light.

  17. Toxicology of nanosized titanium dioxide: an update.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaochen; Li, Wen; Yang, Zhuo

    2015-12-01

    Nanosized titanium dioxide (nano-TiO2) has tremendous potential for a host of applications, and TiO2 nanoparticles (NP) possess different physicochemical properties compared to their fine particle analogs, which might alter their bioactivity. Their adverse effects on living cells have raised serious concerns recently for their use in health care and consumer sectors such as sunscreens, cosmetics, pharmaceutical additives and implanted biomaterials. Many researches have demonstrated that the physicochemical properties including shape, size, surface characteristics and inner structure of nano-TiO2 particles have different degrees of toxicity to different organism groups under different conditions. Some former reports have demonstrated that nano-TiO2 materials could enter into human body through different routes such as inhalation, dermal penetration and ingestion. After being taken by human body, NP might induce oxidative stress, cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, inflammation and cell apoptosis ultimately in mammal organs and systems. Here, we summarized the update about toxicity of nano-TiO2 and aimed to supply a safety usage guideline of this nanomaterial.

  18. Template-free nanosized faujasite-type zeolites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Awala, Hussein; Gilson, Jean-Pierre; Retoux, Richard; Boullay, Philippe; Goupil, Jean-Michel; Valtchev, Valentin; Mintova, Svetlana

    2015-04-01

    Nanosized faujasite (FAU) crystals have great potential as catalysts or adsorbents to more efficiently process present and forthcoming synthetic and renewable feedstocks in oil refining, petrochemistry and fine chemistry. Here, we report the rational design of template-free nanosized FAU zeolites with exceptional properties, including extremely small crystallites (10-15 nm) with a narrow particle size distribution, high crystalline yields (above 80%), micropore volumes (0.30 cm3 g-1) comparable to their conventional counterparts (micrometre-sized crystals), Si/Al ratios adjustable between 1.1 and 2.1 (zeolites X or Y) and excellent thermal stability leading to superior catalytic performance in the dealkylation of a bulky molecule, 1,3,5-triisopropylbenzene, probing sites mostly located on the external surface of the nanosized crystals. Another important feature is their excellent colloidal stability, which facilitates a uniform dispersion on supports for applications in catalysis, sorption and thin-to-thick coatings.

  19. Synthesis and characterization of nanosized lead oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laak, Sheau Tyan

    Nanosized lead oxide as well as copper-doped lead oxide are prepared using two different synthetic techniques; hydrothermal and precipitation. The precipitation method involves simply reacting lead (IV) acetate with distilled water. On the other hand, the hydrothermal process used an autoclave with the presence of Polyvinyl Pyrrolidone (PVP) to prepare lead oxide (PbO 2) hollow spheres, and lead oxide (Pb3O4) microtubes at reaction temperatures of 90°C and 180°C, respectively. Characterization of the synthesized material was carried out using X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Thermal Gravimetric Analysis (TGA), Differential Thermal Analysis (DTA), and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). X-Ray Diffraction shows that the prepared lead oxides using the hydrothermal process with a reaction a temperature of 90°C is crystalline α PbO 2. SEM shows that the prepared particles are hollow spheres. It also shows uniformity in shape and size. In contrast, X-Ray Diffraction and SEM show that the prepared lead oxide using the hydrothermal process with a reaction temperature of 180°C is nanofiber crystalline α PbO2. It also shows uniformity in shape and size. As to the precipitation method, X-Ray Diffraction shows that the sample is crystalline β PbO2. X-Ray Diffraction revealed that these lead oxides show two different transitions, from β PbO2 to Pb3O4, and Pb3O4 to PbO. These observations were supported by TGA and DTA at 400°C and 700°C, respectively. SEM analysis shows that the prepared β PbO2 sample does not show uniformity, neither in size nor in shape. Indeed, particles appear to congregate and form much larger particles. The results from our study suggest that simple precipitation can lead to the product of PbO2, it however cannot guarantee uniformity. The use of an autoclave in the presence of a polymer such as PVP allowed the precipitation of uniform nano PbO2. In addition, the temperature appeared to affect the morphology of the final product. When low temperature is

  20. Design, modeling, expression, and chemoselective PEGylation of a new nanosize cysteine analog of erythropoietin.

    PubMed

    Cohan, Reza Ahangari; Madadkar-Sobhani, Armin; Khanahmad, Hossein; Roohvand, Farzin; Aghasadeghi, Mohammad Reza; Hedayati, Mohammad Hossein; Barghi, Zahra; Ardestani, Mehdi Shafiee; Inanlou, Davoud Nouri; Norouzian, Dariush

    2011-01-01

    Recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO) is considered to be one of the most pivotal pharmaceutical drugs in the market because of its clinical application in the treatment of anemia-associated disorders worldwide. However, like other therapeutic proteins, it does not have suitable pharmacokinetic properties for it to be administrated at least two to three times per week. Chemoselective cysteine PEGylation, employing molecular dynamics and graphics in in silico studies, can be considered to overcome such a problem. A special kind of EPO analog was elicited based on a literature review, homology modeling, molecular dynamic simulation, and factors affecting the PEGylation reaction. Then, cDNA of the selected analog was generated by site-directed mutagenesis and subsequently cloned into the expression vector. The construct was transfected to Chinese hamster ovary/dhfr(-) cells, and highly expressed clones were selected via methotrexate amplification. Ion-immobilized affinity and size exclusion (SE) chromatography techniques were used to purify the expressed analog. Thereafter, chemoselective PEGylation was performed and a nanosize PEGylated EPO was obtained through dialysis. The in vitro biologic assay and in vivo pharmacokinetic parameters were studied. Finally, E31C analog Fourier transform infrared, analytical SE-high-performance liquid chromatography, zeta potential, and size before and after PEGylation were characterized. The findings indicate that a novel nanosize EPO31-PEG has a five-fold longer terminal half-life in rats with similar biologic activity compared with unmodified rhEPO in proliferation cell assay. The results also show that EPO31-PEG size and charge versus unmodified protein was increased in a nanospectrum, and this may be one criterion of EPO biologic potency enhancement. This kind of novel engineered nanosize PEGylated EPO has remarkable advantages over rhEPO.

  1. Design, modeling, expression, and chemoselective PEGylation of a new nanosize cysteine analog of erythropoietin

    PubMed Central

    Cohan, Reza Ahangari; Madadkar-Sobhani, Armin; Khanahmad, Hossein; Roohvand, Farzin; Aghasadeghi, Mohammad Reza; Hedayati, Mohammad Hossein; Barghi, Zahra; Ardestani, Mehdi Shafiee; Inanlou, Davoud Nouri; Norouzian, Dariush

    2011-01-01

    Background: Recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO) is considered to be one of the most pivotal pharmaceutical drugs in the market because of its clinical application in the treatment of anemia-associated disorders worldwide. However, like other therapeutic proteins, it does not have suitable pharmacokinetic properties for it to be administrated at least two to three times per week. Chemoselective cysteine PEGylation, employing molecular dynamics and graphics in in silico studies, can be considered to overcome such a problem. Methods: A special kind of EPO analog was elicited based on a literature review, homology modeling, molecular dynamic simulation, and factors affecting the PEGylation reaction. Then, cDNA of the selected analog was generated by site-directed mutagenesis and subsequently cloned into the expression vector. The construct was transfected to Chinese hamster ovary/dhfr− cells, and highly expressed clones were selected via methotrexate amplification. Ion-immobilized affinity and size exclusion (SE) chromatography techniques were used to purify the expressed analog. Thereafter, chemoselective PEGylation was performed and a nanosize PEGylated EPO was obtained through dialysis. The in vitro biologic assay and in vivo pharmacokinetic parameters were studied. Finally, E31C analog Fourier transform infrared, analytical SE-high-performance liquid chromatography, zeta potential, and size before and after PEGylation were characterized. Results: The findings indicate that a novel nanosize EPO31-PEG has a five-fold longer terminal half-life in rats with similar biologic activity compared with unmodified rhEPO in proliferation cell assay. The results also show that EPO31-PEG size and charge versus unmodified protein was increased in a nanospectrum, and this may be one criterion of EPO biologic potency enhancement. Discussion: This kind of novel engineered nanosize PEGylated EPO has remarkable advantages over rhEPO. PMID:21753873

  2. Processing of silicon nitride and alumina nanosize powders

    SciTech Connect

    Gonzalez, E.J.; Piermarini, G.; Hockey, B.; Malghan, S.G.

    1995-08-01

    The effects of pressure on the compaction and subsequent processing of nanosize {gamma} alumina powders were studied. A 3 mm diameter piston/cylinder die was used to compact the nanosize powders to pressures of 1 and 2.5 GPa. The green bodies were sintered at temperatures up to 1600{degrees}C. Results show that green body density can be increased by higher compaction pressures. It appears that as a result of the {gamma}-to-{alpha} transformation in alumina, higher green density does not necessarily produce a higher density sintered alumina body. The microstructures of the sintered bodies are described in terms of porosity and phase content.

  3. Silver coated aluminium microrods as highly colloidal stable SERS platforms.

    PubMed

    Pazos-Perez, Nicolas; Borke, Tina; Andreeva, Daria V; Alvarez-Puebla, Ramon A

    2011-08-01

    We report on the fabrication of a novel material with the ability to remain in solution even under the very demanding conditions required for structural and dynamic characterization of biomacromolecule assays. This stability is provided by the increase in surface area of a low density material (aluminium) natively coated with a very hydrophilic surface composed of aluminium oxide (Al(2)O(3)) and metallic silver nanoparticles. Additionally, due to the dense collection of active hot spots on their surface, this material offers higher levels of SERS intensity as compared with the same free and aggregated silver nanoparticles.

  4. Functionally charged nanosize particles differentially activate BV2 microglia.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effect of particle surface charge on the biological activation of immortalized mouse microglia (BV2) was examined. Nanosize (860-950 nm) spherical polystyrene microparticles (SPM) were coated with carboxyl (COOH-) or dimethyl amino (CH3)2-N- groups to give a net negative or p...

  5. Functionally charged nanosize particles differentially activate BV2 microglia.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effect of particle surface charge on the biological activation of immortalized mouse microglia (BV2) was examined. Nanosize (860-950 nm) spherical polystyrene microparticles (SPM) were coated with carboxyl (COOH-) or dimethyl amino (CH3)2-N- groups to give a net negative or p...

  6. Method of measuring charge distribution of nanosized aerosols.

    PubMed

    Kim, S H; Woo, K S; Liu, B Y H; Zachariah, M R

    2005-02-01

    In this paper, we present the development of a method to accurately measure the positive and negative charge distribution of nanosized aerosols using a tandem differential mobility analyzer (TDMA) system. From the series of TDMA measurements, the charge fraction of nanosized aerosol particles was obtained as a function of equivalent mobility particle diameter ranging from 50 to 200 nm. The capability of this new approach was implemented by sampling from a laminar diffusion flame which provides a source of highly charged particles due to naturally occurring flame ionization process. The results from the TDMA measurement provide the charge distribution of nanosized aerosols which we found to be in reasonable agreement with Boltzmann equilibrium charge distribution theory and a theory based upon charge population balance equation (PBE) combined with Fuchs theory (N.A. Fuchs, Geofis. Pura Appl. 56 (1963) 185). The theoretically estimated charge distribution of aerosol particles based on the PBE provides insight into the charging processes of nanosized aerosols surrounded by bipolar ions and electrons, and agree well with the TDMA results.

  7. One-step ethanolysis of lignin into small-molecular aromatic hydrocarbons over nano-SiC catalyst.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yigang; Wang, Fang; Jia, Yingjie; Yang, Nan; Zhang, Xianming

    2017-02-01

    Catalytic depolymerization of lignin for preparation of aromatic hydrocarbons without external hydrogen was first carried out over nano-SiC catalyst in supercritical ethanol. Mixture of the catalyst and lignin was innovatively suspended in a closed reactor and small-molecular aromatic hydrocarbons were successfully achieved at 500°C. Results revealed that not only did conversion of lignin increase sharply under the nano-SiC catalyst, but also phenols were not detected. The increase of residence time under the Fe-SiC catalyst did not change distribution of the liquid products besides the yield improvement, suggesting that the catalyst was suitable and selective towards formation of small-molecular benzenes, especially C6-C8 benzenes. Preliminary studies found that lignin depolymerization and deoxygenation were successfully fulfilled during the reactions, which provided a very effective route to conversion of lignin into high added-value molecules as transportation fuel additives.

  8. Electrodeposition of nano-sized bismuth on copper foil as electrocatalyst for reduction of CO2 to formate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lv, Weixin; Zhou, Jing; Bei, Jingjing; Zhang, Rui; Wang, Lei; Xu, Qi; Wang, Wei

    2017-01-01

    Electrochemical reduction of carbon dioxide (CO2) to formate is energetically inefficient because high overpotential is required for reduction of CO2 to formate on most traditional catalysts. In this paper, a novel nano-sized Bi-based electrocatalyst deposited on a Cu foil has been synthesized, which can be used as a cathode for electrochemical reduction of CO2 to formate with a low overpotential (0.69 V) and a high selectivity (91.3%). The electrocatalyst can show excellent catalytic performance toward reduction of CO2 which can probably be attributed to the nano-sized structure and the surface oxide layer. The energy efficiency for reduction of CO2 to formate can reach to 50% when an IrxSnyRuzO2/Ti electrode is used as anode, it is one of the highest values found in the literatures and very practicable for sustainable fuel synthesis.

  9. Low temperature fabrication from nano-size ceramic powders

    SciTech Connect

    Gonzalez, E.J.; Piermarini, G.J.; Hockey, B.

    1995-06-01

    The objective of the compaction process is to produce a dense green-state compact from a nanosize powder that subsequently can be sintered at high temperatures to form a dense ceramic piece. High density in the green-state after pressing is of primary importance for achieving high densities after sintering. Investigation of the compaction behavior of ceramic powders, therefore, is an important part of characterization of raw ceramic powders and evaluation of their compaction behavior, analysis of interaction between particles, and the study of microstructure of green body (unsintered) during pressure-forming processes. The compaction of nanosize ceramic particles into high density green bodies is very difficult. For the nanosize materials used in this study (amorphous Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} and {gamma} Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}), there is no evidence by TEM of partial sintering after synthesis. Nevertheless, strong aggregation forces, such as the van der Waals surface forces of attraction, exist and result in moderate precursor particle agglomeration. More importantly, these attractive surface forces, which increase in magnitude with decreasing particle size, inhibit interparticle sliding necessary for particle rearrangement to denser bodies during subsequent compaction. Attempts to produce high density green body compacts of nanosize particles, therefore, generally have been focused on overcoming these surface forces of attraction by using either dispersive fluids or high pressures with or without lubricating liquids. In the present work, the use of high pressure has been employed as a means of compacting nanosize powders to relatively high green densities.

  10. Nano-sized, quaternary titanium(IV) metal-organic frameworks with multidentate ligands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baranwal, Balram Prasad; Singh, Alok Kumar

    2010-12-01

    Some mononuclear nano-sized, quaternary titanium(IV) complexes having the general formula [Ti(acac)(OOCR) 2(SB)] (where Hacac = acetylacetone, R = C 15H 31 or C 17H 35, HSB = Schiff bases) have been synthesized using different multidentate ligands. These were characterized by elemental analyses, molecular weight determinations and spectral (FTIR, 1H NMR and powder XRD) studies. Conductance measurement indicated their non-conducting nature which may behave like insulators. Structural parameters like the values of limiting indices h, k, l, cell constants a, b, c, angles α, β, γ and particle size are calculated from powder XRD data for complex 1 which indicated nano-sized triclinic system in them. Bidentate chelating nature of acetylacetone, carboxylate and Schiff base anions in the complexes was established by their infrared spectra. Molecular weight determinations confirmed mononuclear nature of the complexes. On the basis of physico-chemical studies, coordination number 8 was assigned for titanium(IV) in the complexes. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and the selected area electron diffraction (SAED) studies indicated spherical particles with poor crystallinity.

  11. Effect of nano-sized bioactive glass particles on the angiogenic properties of collagen based composites.

    PubMed

    Vargas, Gabriela E; Haro Durand, Luis A; Cadena, Vanesa; Romero, Marcela; Mesones, Rosa Vera; Mačković, Mirza; Spallek, Stefanie; Spiecker, Erdmann; Boccaccini, Aldo R; Gorustovich, Alejandro A

    2013-05-01

    Angiogenesis is essential for tissue regeneration and repair. A growing body of evidence shows that the use of bioactive glasses (BG) in biomaterial-based tissue engineering (TE) strategies may improve angiogenesis and induce increased vascularization in TE constructs. This work investigated the effect of adding nano-sized BG particles (n-BG) on the angiogenic properties of bovine type I collagen/n-BG composites. Nano-sized (20-30 nm) BG particles of nominally 45S5 Bioglass® composition were used to prepare composite films, which were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The in vivo angiogenic response was evaluated using the quail chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) as an model of angiogenesis. At 24 h post-implantation, 10 wt% n-BG containing collagen films stimulated angiogenesis by increasing by 41 % the number of blood vessels branch points. In contrast, composite films containing 20 wt% n-BG were found to inhibit angiogenesis. This experimental study provides the first evidence that addition of a limited concentration of n-BG (10 wt%) to collagen films induces an early angiogenic response making selected collagen/n-BG composites attractive matrices for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine.

  12. Development of a benzaldehyde sensor utilizing chemiluminescence on nanosized Y2O3.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yayan; Zhang, Sichun; Wang, Xin; Na, Na; Zhang, Zhenxi

    2008-01-01

    A chemiluminescence sensor has been proposed for sensitive determination of benzaldehyde, with nanosized Y(2)O(3) as the sensing material. Under optimized conditions, the linear range of the CL intensity vs. the concentration of benzaldehyde vapour is 1.8 ng/mL-10.8 microg/mL (r(2) = 0.9996), with a detection limit of 0.90 ng/mL (signal:noise ratio = 3:1). The sensor also exhibits high selectivity to benzaldehyde because no or weak CL signals have been detected when foreign substances are introduced into the sensor. In addition, the sensor also shows good stability and longer lifetime within 100 h. The results indicate that the proposed sensor, which has high sensitivity and selectivity, shows great potential for the detection of benzaldehyde. (c) 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Nanosized hydroxyapatite powder synthesized from eggshell and phosphoric acid.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang-Jin; Yoon, Young-Soo; Lee, Myung-Hyun; Oh, Nam-Sik

    2007-11-01

    The present research describes synthesis of highly sinterable, nano-sized hydroxyapatite (HAp) powders using a wet chemical route with recycled eggshell and phosphoric acid as calcium and phosphorous sources. The raw eggshell was easily turned to CaO by the calcining process, and phosphoric acid was mixed with the calcined eggshell by the wet, ball-milling method. The crystalline development and microstructures of the synthesized powders and sintered samples were examined by X-ray diffractometry and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. The observed phases on the powder synthesis process were dependent on the mixing ratio (wt%) of the calcined eggshell to phosphoric acid and the heating temperature. The ball-milled, nano-sized HAp powder, which has an average particle size of 70 nm, was fully densified at 1300 degrees C for 1h. The Ca/P ratio for stoichiometric composition of HAp was controlled by adjustment of the mixing ratio.

  14. Nano-sized Adsorbate Structure Formation in Anisotropic Multilayer System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kharchenko, Vasyl O.; Kharchenko, Dmitrii O.; Yanovsky, Vladimir V.

    2017-05-01

    In this article, we study dynamics of adsorbate island formation in a model plasma-condensate system numerically. We derive the generalized reaction-diffusion model for adsorptive multilayer system by taking into account anisotropy in transfer of adatoms between neighbor layers induced by electric field. It will be found that with an increase in the electric field strength, a structural transformation from nano-holes inside adsorbate matrix toward separated nano-sized adsorbate islands on a substrate is realized. Dynamics of adsorbate island sizes and corresponding distributions are analyzed in detail. This study provides an insight into details of self-organization of adatoms into nano-sized adsorbate islands in anisotropic multilayer plasma-condensate systems.

  15. Storage of hydrogen in powders with nanosized crystalline domains

    SciTech Connect

    Schwarz, R.B.

    1997-09-01

    The term nanostructured materials is being used in the literature to denote different materials prepared by different techniques: (a) by the gas condensation of vapors in a partial vacuum and (b) by mechanical alloying, a high energy ball milling technique. The authors discuss the origin of this confusion and propose a differentiating nomenclature. They then discuss the use of particles with nanosized structures for the storage of hydrogen.

  16. Adsorption of Dyes on Nanosize Modified Silica Particles

    PubMed

    Wu; Koliadima; Her; Matijević

    1997-11-01

    The adsorption of several anionic dyes on nanosize alumina-modified silica particles of different compositions and modal sizes has been studied. These silica cores have the same surface properties as alumina dispersed in aqueous solutions. The negatively charged dyes are electrostatically attracted to positively charged cores and chemisorbed by forming a surface Al lake. The application of so obtained pigments in the preparation of color films and their optical characteristics are described. Copyright 1997 Academic Press. Copyright 1997Academic Press

  17. Nanosized Iron Oxide Colloids Strongly Enhance Microbial Iron Reduction▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Bosch, Julian; Heister, Katja; Hofmann, Thilo; Meckenstock, Rainer U.

    2010-01-01

    Microbial iron reduction is considered to be a significant subsurface process. The rate-limiting bioavailability of the insoluble iron oxyhydroxides, however, is a topic for debate. Surface area and mineral structure are recognized as crucial parameters for microbial reduction rates of bulk, macroaggregate iron minerals. However, a significant fraction of iron oxide minerals in the subsurface is supposed to be present as nanosized colloids. We therefore studied the role of colloidal iron oxides in microbial iron reduction. In batch growth experiments with Geobacter sulfurreducens, colloids of ferrihydrite (hydrodynamic diameter, 336 nm), hematite (123 nm), goethite (157 nm), and akaganeite (64 nm) were added as electron acceptors. The colloidal iron oxides were reduced up to 2 orders of magnitude more rapidly (up to 1,255 pmol h−1 cell−1) than bulk macroaggregates of the same iron phases (6 to 70 pmol h−1 cell−1). The increased reactivity was not only due to the large surface areas of the colloidal aggregates but also was due to a higher reactivity per unit surface. We hypothesize that this can be attributed to the high bioavailability of the nanosized aggregates and their colloidal suspension. Furthermore, a strong enhancement of reduction rates of bulk ferrihydrite was observed when nanosized ferrihydrite aggregates were added. PMID:19915036

  18. Pitfalls in the characterization of nanoporous and nanosized materials.

    PubMed

    Weidenthaler, Claudia

    2011-03-01

    With the advent of highly sophisticated analytical tools, numerous physical methods are nowadays available for comprehensive characterization of inorganic matter and, as special cases, of porous and nanosized materials. Intelligent experimental setup and correct evaluation of the experimental data can provide helpful insights into the chemical and physical properties of such materials. However, scanning of literature reports shows that in many cases evaluation and interpretation of experimental data are erroneous. As a result, the description of a new material can be useless or even worse, misleading. Wrong evaluation is even more critical if mechanistic theories are based on such data. Characterization of porous and/or nanosized materials is mainly performed by gas adsorption, X-ray powder diffraction, electron microscopy and surface spectroscopy. For correct interpretation of experimental data one should be aware of certain pitfalls. The present paper summarizes prominent faults and may show how they can be avoided. It is supposed to provide some hand-on knowledge on correct analysis of materials. Addressed are primarily non-experts and researchers being new to the field of characterization of inorganic nanosized or nanoporous materials.

  19. Synthesis of nanosize BPO{sub 4} under microwave irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Rui; Jiang, Heng; Gong, Hong; Zhang, Jun

    2012-08-15

    Highlights: ► Nanosize BPO{sub 4} are prepared under microwave-irradiation conditions. ► This reaction is only performed at less than 640 W power for 2.5–5 min. ► The particles of sample irradiated at 400 W are 40–90 nm in size and well dispersed. ► A simple, fast and green procedure for synthesis of nanosize BPO{sub 4} is developed. -- Abstract: Nanosize BPO{sub 4} was synthesized using H{sub 3}BO{sub 3} and H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} (85%) as raw materials under microwave irradiation. This reaction was performed at powers lower than 640 W and irradiation time ranging from 2.5 min to 5 min, which were only a fraction of the time required for conventional synthetic procedures. The structure of the as-prepared BPO{sub 4} is analogous to that of a high cristobalite. The particle sizes of the samples irradiated at 640 and 400 W range from 40 nm to 90 nm and 30 nm to 60 nm, respectively. The effects of different conditions on the experimental outcome are also discussed.

  20. Effects of heteroatoms and nanosize on tin-based electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alcántara, Ricardo; Ortiz, Gregorio; Rodríguez, Inés; Tirado, José L.

    Tin-based intermetallic compounds of different compositions and with micro and nano-sized particles are studied as electrodes for lithium ion batteries. Crystalline microsized particles of CoSn x are obtained at high temperatures, while crystalline nano-sized particles are obtained at low-temperature following a one-pot method which is based on TEG solvent and reduction with NaBH 4. The observed capacities of CoSn x compounds in lithium test cells depend on the tin content, electrochemical cycling conditions and crystallite size. The change of the 119Sn Mössbauer isomer shift upon the electrochemical reaction with lithium is more limited for the intermetallic compounds CoSn x than for pure Sn. Nano-sized CoSn x materials show superior specific capacity than microsized CoSn x powders. The maximum observed reversible capacity of nano-Co 3Sn 2 is equal to 544 m Ah g -1 in the first cycle, while 413 m Ah g -1 were observed for nano-CoSn.

  1. Nanosized Selenium: A Novel Platform Technology to Prevent Bacterial Infections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qi

    As an important category of bacterial infections, healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) are considered an increasing threat to the safety and health of patients worldwide. HAIs lead to extended hospital stays, contribute to increased medical costs, and are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality. In the United States, infections encountered in the hospital or a health care facility affect more than 1.7 million patients, cost 35.7 billion to 45 billion, and contribute to 88,000 deaths in hospitals annually. The most conventional and widely accepted method to fight against bacterial infections is using antibiotics. However, because of the widespread and sometimes inappropriate use of antibiotics, many strains of bacteria have rapidly developed antibiotic resistance. Those new, stronger bacteria pose serious, worldwide threats to public health and welfare. In 2014, the World Health Organization (WHO) reported antibiotic resistance as a global serious threat that is no longer a prediction for the future but is now reality. It has the potential to affect anyone, of any age, in any country. The most effective strategy to prevent antibiotic resistance is minimizing the use of antibiotics. In recent years, nanomaterials have been investigated as one of the potential substitutes of antibiotics. As a result of their vastly increased ratio of surface area to volume, nanomaterials will likely exert a stronger interaction with bacteria which may affect bacterial growth and propagation. A major concern of most existing antibacterial nanomaterials, like silver nanoparticles, is their potential toxicity. But selenium is a non-metallic material and a required nutrition for the human body, which is recommended by the FDA at a 53 to 60 μg daily intake. Nanosized selenium is considered to be healthier and less toxic compared with many metal-based nanomaterials due to the generation of reactive oxygen species from metals, especially heavy metals. Therefore, the objectives of

  2. Preclinical safety assessments of nano-sized constructs on cardiovascular system toxicity: A case for telemetry.

    PubMed

    Cheah, Hoay Yan; Kiew, Lik Voon; Lee, Hong Boon; Japundžić-Žigon, Nina; Vicent, Marίa J; Hoe, See Ziau; Chung, Lip Yong

    2017-02-06

    While nano-sized construct (NSC) use in medicine has grown significantly in recent years, reported unwanted side effects have raised safety concerns. However, the toxicity of NSCs to the cardiovascular system (CVS) and the relative merits of the associated evaluation methods have not been thoroughly studied. This review discusses the toxicological profiles of selected NSCs and provides an overview of the assessment methods, including in silico, in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo models and how they are related to CVS toxicity. We conclude the review by outlining the merits of telemetry coupled with spectral analysis, baroreceptor reflex sensitivity analysis and echocardiography as an appropriate integrated strategy for the assessment of the acute and chronic impact of NSCs on the CVS. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Tailoring properties of porous Poly (vinylidene fluoride) scaffold through nano-sized 58s bioactive glass.

    PubMed

    Shuai, Cijun; Huang, Wei; Feng, Pei; Gao, Chengde; Shuai, Xiong; Xiao, Tao; Deng, Youwen; Peng, Shuping; Wu, Ping

    2016-01-01

    The biological properties of porous poly (vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) scaffolds fabricated by selective laser sintering were tailored through nano-sized 58s bioactive glass. The results showed that 58s bioactive glass distributed evenly in the PVDF matrix. There were some exposed particles on the surface which provided attachment sites for biological response. It was confirmed that the scaffolds had highly bioactivity by the formation of bone-like apatite in simulated body fluid. And the bone-like apatite became dense with the increase in 58s bioactive glass and culture time. Moreover, the scaffolds were suitable for cell adhesion and proliferation compared with the PVDF scaffolds without 58s bioactive glass. The research showed that the PVDF/58s bioactive glass scaffolds had latent application in bone tissue engineering.

  4. Comparison of short-term toxicity between Nano-Se and selenite in mice.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jinsong; Wang, Huali; Yan, Xiangxue; Zhang, Lide

    2005-01-21

    We previously reported that, as compared with selenite, nano red elemental selenium (Nano-Se) had lower acute toxicity in mice and similar bioavailability in terms of up-regulating seleno-enzymes. The short-term toxicity of both selenite and Nano-Se in mice was further compared in this study. At an oral dose of 6 mg/kg bw per day administered for consecutive 12 days, selenite and Nano-Se completely and partially suppressed mice growth respectively. Abnormal liver function was more pronounced with selenite treatment than Nano-Se as indicated by the increase of both alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase in serum. Selenite inhibited liver catalase and superoxide dismutase activities, whereas, Nano-Se did not affect these two antioxidant enzymes. Selenite increased the malondialdehyde content of liver, but Nano-Se decreased it. Both Se forms had similar effects on depletion of reduced glutathione and up-regulated glutathione peroxidase. Nano-Se was more potent than selenite in the induction of glutathione S-transferase. At oral doses of 2 or 4 mg/kg bw per day for consecutive 15 days, selenite was more active than Nano-Se in supressing growth, deleting reduced glutathione, and inhibiting superoxide dismutase activities. Taken together, these results indicate that over a short-term, a high-dose of selenite caused more pronounced oxidative stress, greater liver injury, and prominent retardation of growth as compared to Nano-Se.

  5. Ductility and work hardening in nano-sized metallic glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, D. Z.; Gu, X. W.; An, Q.; Goddard, W. A.; Greer, J. R.

    2015-02-09

    In-situ nano-tensile experiments on 70 nm-diameter free-standing electroplated NiP metallic glass nanostructures reveal tensile true strains of ∼18%, an amount comparable to compositionally identical 100 nm-diameter focused ion beam samples and ∼3 times greater than 100 nm-diameter electroplated samples. Simultaneous in-situ observations and stress-strain data during post-elastic deformation reveal necking and work hardening, features uncharacteristic for metallic glasses. The evolution of free volume within molecular dynamics-simulated samples suggests a free surface-mediated relaxation mechanism in nano-sized metallic glasses.

  6. Electrical and magnetic properties of nano-sized magnesium ferrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    T, Smitha; X, Sheena; J, Binu P.; Mohammed, E. M.

    2015-02-01

    Nano-sized magnesium ferrite was synthesized using sol-gel techniques. Structural characterization was done using X-ray diffractometer and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer. Vibration Sample Magnetometer was used to record the magnetic measurements. XRD analysis reveals the prepared sample is single phasic without any impurity. Particle size calculation shows the average crystallite size of the sample is 19nm. FTIR analysis confirmed spinel structure of the prepared samples. Magnetic measurement study shows that the sample is ferromagnetic with high degree of isotropy. Hysterisis loop was traced at temperatures 100K and 300K. DC electrical resistivity measurements show semiconducting nature of the sample.

  7. Solution combustion synthesis and characterization of nanosized bismuth ferrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sai Kumar, V. Sesha; Rao, K. Venkateswara; Krishnaveni, T.; Kishore Goud, A. Shiva; Reddy, P. Ranjith

    2012-06-01

    The present paper describes a simple method of nanosized BiFeO3 by the solution combustion synthesis using bismuth and iron nitrates as oxidizers and the combination fuel of citric acid and ammonium hydroxide, with fuel to oxidizer ratio (Ψ = 1) one. The X-ray Diffraction results indicated rhombohedral phase (R3m) with JCPDS data card no: 72-2035. The ferroelectric transition of the sample at 8310C was detected by differential thermal analysis. Thermal analysis was done by Thermal gravimetric-Differential thermal analyzer and obtained results were presented in this paper.

  8. Direct conversion of bio-ethanol to isobutene on nanosized Zn(x)Zr(y)O(z) mixed oxides with balanced acid-base sites.

    PubMed

    Sun, Junming; Zhu, Kake; Gao, Feng; Wang, Chongmin; Liu, Jun; Peden, Charles H F; Wang, Yong

    2011-07-27

    We report the design and synthesis of nanosized Zn(x)Zr(y)O(z) mixed oxides for direct and high-yield conversion of bio-ethanol to isobutene (~83%). ZnO is addded to ZrO(2) to selectively passivate zirconia's strong Lewis acidic sites and weaken Brönsted acidic sites, while simultaneously introducing basicity. As a result, the undesired reactions of bio-ethanol dehydration and acetone polymerization/coking are suppressed. Instead, a surface basic site-catalyzed ethanol dehydrogenation to acetaldehyde, acetaldehyde to acetone conversion via a complex pathway including aldol-condensation/dehydrogenation, and a Brönsted acidic site-catalyzed acetone-to-isobutene reaction pathway dominates on the nanosized Zn(x)Zr(y)O(z) mixed oxide catalyst, leading to a highly selective process for direct conversion of bio-ethanol to isobutene.

  9. Micro- and Nanosized Particles in Nasal Mucosa: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this prospective study is to evaluate presence and quantity of micro- and nanosized particles (NPs) and interindividual differences in their distribution and composition in nasal mucosa. Methods. Six samples of nasal mucosa obtained by mucotomy from patients with chronic hypertrophic rhinosinusitis were examined. Samples divided into 4 parts according to the distance from the nostrils were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy and Raman microspectroscopy to detect solid particles and characterize their morphology and composition. A novel method of quantification of the particles was designed and used to evaluate interindividual differences in distribution of the particles. The findings were compared with patients' employment history. Results. In all the samples, NPs of different elemental composition were found (iron, barium, copper, titanium, etc.), predominantly in the parts most distant from nostrils, in various depths from the surface of the mucosa and interindividual differences in their quantity and composition were found, possibly in relation to professional exposition. Conclusions. This study has proven the possibility of quantification of distribution of micro- and nanosized particles in tissue samples and that the NPs may deposit in deeper layers of mucosa and their elemental composition may be related to professional exposition to the sources of NPs. PMID:26125023

  10. Formulation and Stability Aspects of Nanosized Solid Drug Delivery Systems.

    PubMed

    Szabo, Peter; Zelko, Romana

    2015-01-01

    Nano drug delivery systems are considered as useful means to remedy the problems of drugs of poor solubility, permeability and bioavailability, which became one of the most troublesome questions of the pharmaceutical industry. Different types of nanosized drug delivery systems have been developed and investigated for oral administration, providing auspicious solutions for drug development. In this paper nanosized drug delivery systems intended for oral administration are discussed based on the chemical nature of the carrier of drug molecules. Lipid nanoparticles comprising solid lipid nanoparticles, improved nanostructured lipid carriers and nanostructured silica- lipid hybrid particles have become popular in the formulation of lipophilic drugs of poor oral bioavailability. Polymeric nanoparticles including nanospheres and nanocapsules and polymeric fibrous systems have also emerged as potential drug delivery systems owing to their unique structure. The feasibility of surface functionalization of mesoporous materials and gold nanoparticles enables high level of control over particle characteristics making inorganic nanoparticles an exceptional formulation approach. The authors paid particular attention to the functionality-related stability of the reviewed delivery systems.

  11. Nanosizing and nanoconfinement: new strategies towards meeting hydrogen storage goals.

    PubMed

    de Jongh, Petra E; Adelhelm, Philipp

    2010-12-17

    Hydrogen is expected to play an important role as an energy carrier in a future, more sustainable society. However, its compact, efficient, and safe storage is an unresolved issue. One of the main options is solid-state storage in hydrides. Unfortunately, no binary metal hydride satisfies all requirements regarding storage density and hydrogen release and uptake. Increasingly complex hydride systems are investigated, but high thermodynamic stabilities as well as slow kinetics and poor reversibility are important barriers for practical application. Nanostructuring by ball-milling is an established method to reduce crystallite sizes and increase reaction rates. Since five years attention has also turned to alternative preparation techniques that enable particle sizes below 10 nanometers and are often used in conjunction with porous supports or scaffolds. In this Review we discuss the large impact of nanosizing and -confinement on the hydrogen sorption properties of metal hydrides. We illustrate possible preparation strategies, provide insight into the reasons for changes in kinetics, reversibility and thermodynamics, and highlight important progress in this field. All in all we provide the reader with a clear view of how nanosizing and -confinement can beneficially affect the hydrogen sorption properties of the most prominent materials that are currently considered for solid-state hydrogen storage.

  12. Magnetization anomalies of nanosize zinc ferrite particles prepared using electrodeposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, M. K.; Verma, H. C.

    2006-11-01

    Nanosize zinc ferrite particles have been prepared for the first time using electrodeposition. Zinc and iron are deposited on the cathode from a common bath containing the salts of zinc and iron. The deposited materials were forced to undergo electrochemical oxidation in a strong alkaline solution (1 M KOH) to convert them into oxides. Crystallization in ZnFe 2O 4 structure was obtained by heating the deposited material at appropriate temperature. X-ray diffraction pattern confirmed that the procedure leads to the formation of pure phase of ZnFe 2O 4. The magnetization value for the smallest size ZnFe 2O 4 is much smaller than that for the ZnFe 2O 4 made by most of the other methods although it shows a nice hysteresis shape. The magnetization shows very little variation with size in the range studied.

  13. Toxicological Concerns of Engineered Nanosize Drug Delivery Systems.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Biswajit; Maji, Ruma; Roychowdhury, Samrat; Ghosh, Saikat

    2016-01-01

    Matters when converted into nanosize provide some unique surface properties, which are different from those of the bulk materials. Nanomaterials show some extraordinary behavioral patterns because of those properties, such as supermagnetism, quantum confinement, etc. A great deal of implication of nanomaterials in nanomedicine has already been realized. Utility of nanomaterials as drug nanocarrier projects many potential advantages of them in drug delivery. Despite many such advantages, the potential risk of health and environmental hazards related to them cannot be ignored. Here various physicochemical factors, such as chemical nature, degradability, surface properties, surface charge, particle size, and shape, have been shown to play a crucial role in toxicity related to drug nanocarriers. Evidence-based findings of some drug nanocarriers have been incorporated to provide distinct knowledge to the readers in the field. A glimpse of current regulatory controls and measures required to combat the challenges of toxicological aspects of drug nanocarriers have been described.

  14. Nanosized graphene crystallite induced strong magnetism in pure carbon films.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chao; Zhang, Xi; Diao, Dongfeng

    2015-03-14

    We report strong magnetism in pure carbon films grown by electron irradiation assisted physical vapor deposition in electron cyclotron resonance plasma. The development of graphene nanocrystallites in the amorphous film matrix, and the dependence of the magnetic behavior on amorphous, nanocrystallite and graphite-like structures were investigated. Results were that the amorphous structure shows weak paramagnetism, graphene nanocrystallites lead to strong magnetization, and graphite-like structures corresponded with a lower magnetization. At a room temperature of 300 K, the highest saturation magnetization of 0.37 emu g(-1) was found in the nanosized graphene nanocrystallite structure. The origin of strong magnetism in nanocrystallites was ascribed to the spin magnetic moment at the graphene layer edges.

  15. Hydrophobic polymers in nano-sized water droplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tilakaratne, Buddhi; Masood, Samina; Cheung, Margaret

    2008-03-01

    As simulations of biopolymers take place in confined and tight spaces, such as protein folding in the interior of bacteria chaperones or the exit tunnels of ribosomes, quantitative analyses of the confinement effects on both biopolymers and solvent molecules become the center of attention as the solvent-mediated interactions are too profound to solve analytically. We are in the progress to investigate the solvation of hexane molecules in various nano-sized water droplets. Free energy profiles for a single hexane molecule in droplets show that the droplet surfaces are favored. Averaged configurations of hexane molecules at the interior and the surface are computed using the umbrella sampling methods. The implications of our results for protein stability in confined spaces will be discussed.

  16. Metastable nanosized aluminum powder as a reactant in energetic formulations

    SciTech Connect

    Katz, J.; Tepper, F.; Ivanov, G.V.; Lerner, M.I.; Davidovich, V.

    1998-12-01

    Aluminum powder is an important ingredient in many propellant, explosives and pyrotechnic applications. The production of nanosized aluminum powder by the electroexplosion of metal wire has been practices in the former USSR since the mid 1970`s. Differential scanning calorimetry, differential thermal analysis and x-ray phase analysis was performed on aluminum powder both before and after air passivation, as well as aluminum that was protected under kerosene, pentane, toluene and hexane. Earlier Soviet reports of unexplained thermal releases and metastable behavior have been investigated. Anomalous behavior previously reported included phase transformations at temperatures far below melting with the release of heat and chemoluminescence and self sintering of particles with a heat release large enough to melt the powders.

  17. Increased bioavailability of a transdermal application of a nano-sized emulsion preparation.

    PubMed

    Kotyla, T; Kuo, F; Moolchandani, V; Wilson, T; Nicolosi, R

    2008-01-22

    The aim of this study was to compare the transdermal application of a nano-sized emulsion versus a micron-sized emulsion preparation of delta tocopherol as it relates to particle size and bioavailability. Two separate experiments were performed using seven F1B Syrian Golden hamsters, 1 week apart. Each emulsion preparation consisted of canola oil, polysorbate 80, deionized water and delta tocopherol; the only difference between the two preparations was processing the nano-sized emulsion with the Microfluidizer Processor. Both were formulated into a cream and applied to the shaven dorsal area. The particle size of the micron-sized emulsion preparation was 2788 nm compared to 65 nm for the nano-sized emulsion formulation. Two hours post-application, hamsters that were applied the nano-sized emulsion had a 36-fold significant increase of plasma delta tocopherol, where as hamsters that were applied the micron-sized emulsion only had a 9-fold significant increase, compared to baseline, respectively. At 3h post-application, plasma delta tocopherol had significantly increased 68-fold for hamsters applied the nano-sized emulsion, whereas only an 11-fold significant increase was observed in hamsters applied the micron-sized emulsion, compared to baseline, respectively. Significant differences were also observed between the nano-sized and micron-sized emulsion at 2 and 3h post-application. This study suggests that nano-sized emulsions significantly increase the bioavailability of transdermally applied delta tocopherol.

  18. Recent advances in nanosized Mn-Zn ferrite magnetic fluid hyperthermia for cancer treatment.

    PubMed

    Lin, Mei; Huang, Junxing; Sha, Min

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews the recent research and development of nanosized manganese zinc (Mn-Zn) ferrite magnetic fluid hyperthermia (MFH) for cancer treatment. Mn-Zn ferrite MFH, which has a targeted positioning function that only the temperature of tumor tissue with magnetic nanoparticles can rise, while normal tissue without magnetic nanoparticles is not subject to thermal damage, is a promising therapy for cancer. We introduce briefly the composition and properties of magnetic fluid, the concept of MFH, and features of Mn-Zn ferrite magnetic nanoparticles for MFH such as thermal bystander effect, universality, high specific absorption rate, the targeting effect of small size, uniformity of hyperthermia temperature, and automatic temperature control and constant temperature effect. Next, preparation methods of Mn-Zn ferrite magnetic fluid are discussed, and biocompatibility and biosecurity of Mn-Zn ferrite magnetic fluid are analyzed. Then the applications of nanosized Mn-Zn ferrite MFH in cancer are highlighted, including nanosized Mn-Zn ferrite MFH alone, nanosized Mn-Zn ferrite MFH combined with As2O3 chemotherapy, and nanosized Mn-Zn ferrite MFH combined with radiotherapy. Finally, the combination application of nanosized Mn-Zn ferrite MFH and gene-therapy is conceived, and the challenges and perspectives for the future of nanosized Mn-Zn ferrite MFH for oncotherapy are discussed.

  19. Precipitation of Nanosized MX at Coherent Cu-Rich Phases in Super304H Austenitic Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ou, Ping; Xing, Hui; Sun, Jian

    2015-01-01

    The present investigation of transmission electron microscopy reports the precipitation of nanosized and cubical-shaped incoherent Nb-rich MX at the coherent Cu-rich phases in the austenitic matrix of the Super304H steel. In addition, the nanosized Nb-rich MX phases were often observed to precipitate on dislocations during creep. It is concluded that the dense incoherent Nb-rich MX and coherent Cu-rich precipitates with a nanosized diameter contribute excellent creep resistance in the steel.

  20. Electron microscopy of rat liver after intravenous injection of nanosized magnetite suspension.

    PubMed

    Mil'to, I V; Sukhodolo, I V; Miller, A A

    2012-08-01

    Rat liver was examined by transmission electron microscopy after a single intravenous injection of nanosized magnetite suspension (0.1 g (Fe(3)O(4))/kg body weight). Magnetite particles were found in Kupffer's cells and hepatocytes. Accumulation of the particles by these two cell types was different. Morphometry of magnetite-containing granules in Kupffer's cells and nanoparticle agglomerations in hepatocytes was carried out. The ultrastructure of Kupffer's cell granules was described and the mechanism of penetration of nanosized magnetite particles into the cells was suggested. Nanosized magnetite particles were not completely eliminated over 40 days after a single injection.

  1. Degradation of simazine from aqueous solutions by diatomite-supported nanosized zero-valent iron composite materials.

    PubMed

    Sun, Zhiming; Zheng, Shuilin; Ayoko, Godwin A; Frost, Ray L; Xi, Yunfei

    2013-12-15

    A novel composite material based on deposition of nanosized zero-valent iron (nZVI) particles on acid-leached diatomite was synthesised for the removal of a chlorinated contaminant in water. The nZVI/diatomite composites were characterised by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, elemental analysis, transmission electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Compared with the pure nZVI particles, better dispersion of nZVI particles on the surface or inside the pores of diatom shells was observed. The herbicide simazine was selected as the model chlorinated contaminant and the removal efficiency by nZVI/diatomite composite was compared with that of the pristine nZVI and commercial iron powder. It was found that the diatomite supported nZVI composite material prepared by centrifugation exhibits relatively better efficient activity in decomposition of simazine than commercial Fe, lab synthesised nZVI and composite material prepared via rotary evaporation, and the optimum experimental conditions were obtained based on a series of batch experiments. This study on immobilising nZVI particles onto diatomite opens a new avenue for the practical application of nZVI and the diatomite-supported nanosized zero-valent iron composite materials have potential applications in environmental remediation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Cluster Study of Anion Specificity in Solutions: From Molecular-Like Species to Nano-Sized Droplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xue-Bin

    2015-03-01

    In this talk, I will present our cluster approach using size-selected, low-temperature photoelectron spectroscopy and ab initio calculations to study a variety of complex anion solvation across the Hofmeister series. Pronounced anion specific effects and rich solute-solvent, solvent-solvent interactions have been discovered en-route to solvation evolution from molecular-like species to nano-sized droplets. We found significant solute anisotropy effects in preferably selecting solvent network to align solute permanent dipole with the solvent electric field in hydrated neutral clusters. Thermodynamic advantage of organic acids in facilitating formation of bisulfate ion clusters, an important issue related to atmospheric chemistry and aerosol particle formation will also be discussed. This work was supported by the US Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences & Biosciences.

  3. Recent advances in telecommunication avalanche photodiodes with nano-sized multiplication region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yanli; Zhang, Shibo; He, Suxiang

    2015-11-01

    This paper reviews the recent advances in telecommunication avalanche photodiodes with nano-sized multiplication region. A new low noise avalanche photodiode based on InP traditional material has been proposed for high speed optical communication.

  4. Nanosized Structural Anti-Reflection Layer for Thin Film Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Kang-Soo; Shin, Ju-Hyeon; Kim, Kang-In; Lee, Heon

    2011-02-01

    A nanosized pattern layer was formed on the front surface (glass side) of the thin film solar cell using nanoimprint lithography with a Ni based moth-eye imprint mold in order to increase the total conversion efficiency of the amorphous silicon based thin film solar cell. The imprinted pattern layer had nanosized protrusions, which suppressed the reflection of light on the glass surfaces. The nanopatterns were formed using a methacryloxypropyl terminated poly(dimethylsiloxane) (MPDMS) based hard polymeric resin. The reflectance of the thin film solar cell significantly decreased because of the nanosized structural anti-reflection layer, and the total conversion efficiency of the cell increased about 3% compared to the identical solar cell without the nanosized pattern layer. Moreover, the surface exhibited a hydrophobic nature because of the surface nanopatterns and the self-assembled monolayer coating, and this hydrophobicity provided the solar cell with a self-cleaning functionality.

  5. Nepheline from K2CO3/nanosized sodalite as a prospective candidate for diesel soot combustion.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Riichiro; Wakabayashi, Junji; Elangovan, S P; Ogura, Masaru; Okubo, Tatsuya

    2008-10-01

    Nepheline group materials obtained by a thermal treatment of K2CO3-supported nanosized sodalite are identified as cost-effective materials which show promising activity and durability toward diesel soot combustion.

  6. Phase transformations of nano-sized cubic boron nitride to white graphene and white graphite

    SciTech Connect

    Dang, Hongli; Liu, Yingdi; Xue, Wenhua; Anderson, Ryan S.; Sewell, Cody R.; Xue, Sha; Crunkleton, Daniel W.; Shen, Yaogen; Wang, Sanwu

    2014-03-03

    We report quantum-mechanical investigations that predict the formation of white graphene and nano-sized white graphite from the first-order phase transformations of nano-sized boron nitride thin-films. The phase transformations from the nano-sized diamond-like structure, when the thickness d > 1.4 nm, to the energetically more stable nano-sized white graphite involve low activation energies of less than 1.0 eV. On the other hand, the diamond-like structure transforms spontaneously to white graphite when d ≤ 1.4 nm. In particular, the two-dimensional structure with single-layer boron nitride, the so-called white graphene, could be formed as a result of such transformation.

  7. Aqueous synthesis and processing of nanosized yttria tetragonally stabilized zirconia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimel, Robert Allen

    The goal of this study is the production of bulk ceramics from well-dispersed nanosized aqueous ceramic suspensions via wet processing routes. In order to obtain this goal, yttria tetragonally stabilized zirconia (Y-TZP) was used as a model system to develop an understanding of and ability to manipulate the solution chemistry parameters of solution pH, solid loading, zeta potential and complexation chemistry in order to accomplish synthesis and processing of nanosized doped metal oxide powders in an aqueous environment. The objective of the aqueous degradation study was to establish the mechanism(s) controlling degradation of 3Y-TZP powder in aqueous suspensions at room temperature and determine the effect of this degradation on the aqueous physical chemistry of 3Y-TZP. This objective was accomplished by performing experiments on commercially available 3Y-TZP powder placed in aqueous suspensions at 25°C. It was determined that the mechanism of aqueous degradation of 3Y-TZP at room temperature was yttrium leaching. Furthermore, it was determined that the addition of oxalic acid to the aqueous suspension of 3Y-TZP impeded the aqueous degradation by interaction with the 3Y-TZP powder surface. The objective of the synthesis study was to produce well-dispersed nanosized yttria tetragonally stabilized zirconia (Y-TZP) powder in aqueous suspension. Once the nominally 7 to 8 nanometer hydrothermally prepared 1.7 Y-TZP powder was produced, experiments were begun to disperse, recover and concentrate by washing the powder via centrifugation. Centrifugation without irreversible aggregate formation was possible by taking advantage of a protective colloid formation. Protection was provided after synthesis by bicine, the synthesis complexation agent. The change in the surface chemistry of the 1.7Y-TZP powder as a function of washing was monitored by diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transformed spectroscopy (DRIFTS) and solution chemistry analysis for metal ions in solution

  8. Comprehensive understanding of nano-sized particle separation processes using nanoparticle tracking analysis.

    PubMed

    Lawler, Desmond F; Youn, Sungmin; Zhu, Tongren; Kim, Ijung; Lau, Boris L T

    2015-01-01

    The understanding of nano-sized particle separation processes has been limited by difficulties of nanoparticle characterization. In this study, nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA) was deployed to evaluate the absolute particle size distributions in laboratory scale flocculation and filtration experiments with silver nanoparticles. The results from NTA were consistent with standard theories of particle destabilization and transport. Direct observations of changes in absolute particle size distributions from NTA enhance both qualitative and quantitative understanding of particle separation processes of nano-sized particles.

  9. Nanosized Borides and Carbides for Electroplating. Metal-Matrix Coatings: Specifications, Performance Evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galevskiy, G. V.; Rudneva, V. V.; Galevskiy, S. G.; Il'yashchenko, D. P.; Kartsev, D. S.

    2016-04-01

    This paper summarizes experience of application of nano-sized carbides and borides of titanium and chromium, silicon carbide as components of electro-depositable coating compositions based on nickel, zinc, and chromium. Basic physical and mechanical properties of the coatings are determined. Technological and economic evaluation is completed; practicability of high-cost nano-diamonds substitution for nano-sized borides and carbides is justified.

  10. Electrical explosion of a conductor in energy accumulating phase change materials with nanosized semiconducting additions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savenkov, G. G.; Morozov, V. A.; Lukin, A. A.

    2016-11-01

    The results of experiments on the explosion of a copper conductor in paraffin and wax both without additions and with nanosized copper oxide additions are presented. The experiments provided the size of the channel formed in wax samples upon the conductor explosion and subsequent expansion of the electric discharge plasma. The obtained results testify to the influence of nanosized additions on the character of electric discharge plasma expansion in the formed channel, the strength of composite materials, and the sample fragmentation (destruction).

  11. A relation between a metallic film covering on diamond formed during growth and nanosized inclusions in HPHT as-grown diamond single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, L.-W.; Li, M.-S.; Gong, Z.-G.; Bai, Y.-J.; Li, F.-Z.; Hao, Z.-Y.

    One of the most important characteristics and basic phenomena during diamond growth from liquid metal catalyst solutions saturated with carbon at high temperature-high pressure (HPHT) is that there exists a thin metallic film covering on the growing diamond, through which carbon-atom clusters are delivered to the surface of the growing diamond by diffusion. A study of microstructures of such a metallic film and a relation between the thin metallic film and the inclusions trapped in HPHT as-grown diamond single crystals may be helpful to obtain high-purity diamond single crystals. It was found that both the metallic film and the HPHT as-grown diamond single crystals contain some nanostructured regions. Examination by transmission electron microscopy suggests that the microstructure of the thin metallic film is in accordance with nanosized particles contained in HPHT as-grown diamond single crystals. The nanosized particles with several to several tens of nanometers in dimension distribute homogeneously in the metallic film and in the diamond matrix. Generally, the size of the particles in the thin metallic film is relatively larger than that within the diamond matrix. Selected area electron diffraction patterns suggest that the nanosized particles in the metallic film and nanometer inclusions within the diamond are mainly composed of f.c.c. (FeNi)23C6, hexagonal graphite and cubic γ-(FeNi). The formation of the nanosized inclusions within the diamond single crystals is thought not only to relate to the growth process and rapid quenching from high temperature after diamond synthesis, but also to be associated with large amounts of defects in the diamond, because the free energy in these defect areas is very high. The critical size of carbide, γ-(FeNi)and graphite particles within the diamond matrix should decrease and not increase according to thermodynamic theory during quenching from HPHT to room temperature and ambient pressure.

  12. Electro-physical properties of composites with nano-sized oxides.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang Heon; Choi, Yong

    2013-11-01

    Polymer matrix nano-sized oxide composites were fabricated by using a modified injection molding in which nano-sized silicon oxide and nano-sized magnesium oxide were contained. Thermal decomposition and evaporation of organic resin depended on the composition of the composites. Nano-sized oxides were uniformly distributed in the composites produced by a modified injection molding combining vacuum degassing and curing at a moderate temperature. 0.2 wt.% of silicon oxide addition to epoxy resin showed the maximum electric field of 3.6, whereas, 2.0 wt.% of magnesium oxide addition was required to reach the same value of electrical field. Both of thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity of the nano-sized silicon oxide-epoxy composites tended to be increased with silicon oxide content. The relative permittivity of the nano-sized silicon oxide-epoxy composites increased from 5.16 to 5.31 by adding 0.6 wt.% silicon oxide, whereas, magnesium oxide addition up to 2.0 wt.% little influenced to the permittivity. Epoxy matrix-nano-sized silicon oxide composites were more suitable than magnesium oxide for the high performance capacitance.

  13. Nanosized MX Precipitates in Ultra-Low-Carbon Ferritic/Martensitic Heat-Resistant Steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Feng-Shi; Jung, Woo-Sang

    2009-02-01

    Nanosized MX precipitates in ultra-low-carbon ferritic/martensitic heat-resistant 9Cr-W-Mo-VNbTiN steels were characterized by transmission electron microscope (TEM) using carbon film replicas. The steels were prepared by vacuum induction melting followed by hot forging and rolling into plates. The plates were normalized at 1100 °C for 1 hour, cooled in air, and tempered at 700 °C for 1 hour. The results show that bimodal nanosized MX precipitates distribute densely and homogeneously in the matrix within martensitic lath after normalizing-and-tempering heat treatment. The larger nanosized MX precipitates with the size of 30 to 50 nm are rich in Nb, while the smaller ones with the size of about 10 nm contain less Nb but more V. Small addition of Ti causes an increase in the number of the larger nanosized MX precipitates. The total number density of the nanosized MX precipitates in the ultra-low-carbon ferritic/martensitic steels is measured to be over 300/ μm2, much higher than that in conventional ferritic/martensitic steels. Short-term creep test results show that the ultra-low-carbon ferritic/martensitic steels with high dense nanosized MX precipitates have much higher creep rupture strength than conventional ASME-P92 steel. The strength degradation of the ultra-low-carbon ferritic/martensitic heat-resistant steels during creep is also discussed in this article.

  14. Structure-related frustrated magnetism of nanosized polyoxometalates: aesthetics and properties in harmony.

    PubMed

    Kögerler, Paul; Tsukerblat, Boris; Müller, Achim

    2010-01-07

    The structural versatility characterizing polyoxometalate chemistry, in combination with the option to deliberately use well-defined building blocks, serves as the foundation for the generation of a large family of magnetic clusters, frequently comprising highly symmetric spin arrays. If the spin centers are coupled by antiferromagnetic exchange, some of these systems exhibit spin frustration, which can result in novel magnetic properties of purely molecular origins. We discuss here the magnetic properties of selected nanosized polyoxometalate clusters featuring spin triangles as their magnetic 'building blocks' or fragments. This includes unique porous Keplerate clusters of the type {(Mo)Mo(5)}(12)M(30) (M = Fe(III), Cr(III), V(IV)) with the spin centers defining a regular icosidodecahedron and the {V(15)As(6)}-type cluster sphere containing a single equilateral spin triangle; these species are widely discussed and studied in the literature for their role in materials science as molecular representations of Kagomé lattices and in relation to quantum computing, respectively. Exhibiting fascinating and unique structural features, these magnetic molecules allow the study of the implications of frustrated spin ordering. Furthermore, this perspective covers the impact of spin frustration on the degeneracy of the ground state and related problems, namely strong magnetic anisotropy and the interplay of antisymmetric exchange and structural Jahn-Teller effects.

  15. Effects of nano-sized silicon dioxide on the structures and activities of three functional proteins.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhen; Wang, Shi-Long; Gao, Hong-Wen

    2010-08-15

    Nanomaterials are finding increasing use in industrial production and daily life. However, human exposure to them may cause health risks. Nano-SiO(2) was selected as a representative nanomaterial and its potential effects were investigated in terms of its interactions with cytochrome c (cyt c), deoxyribonuclease (DNase II) and hemoglobin (Hb). The interactions accorded with Langmuir isothermal adsorption; the saturation binding numbers for cyt c, DNase II and Hb were 42+/-5, 24+/-2 and 1.1+/-0.1 micromol/g nano-SiO(2) particle at pH 7.4, respectively, and the corresponding stability constants were 6.15 x 105, 1.79 x 106 and 2.6 x 107 M(-1). On the basis of the binding constants and of zeta-potential fluorescence and circular dichroism (CD) measurements and scanning electronic microscopy (SEM), it was found that the three functional proteins can bridge nano-SiO(2) particles via charge attraction and hydrogen bonding and aggregate them into coralloid forms. The interactions also changed the secondary structures of the proteins and inhibited their static and dynamic activities. It may reasonably be deduced that exposure to nano-size silicon dioxide particles e.g. as drug carriers may have an unfavorable effect on human health by inactivating functional proteins. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Tribological properties of nanosized calcium carbonate filled polyamide 66 nanocomposites

    SciTech Connect

    Itagaki, Kaito; Nishitani, Yosuke; Kitano, Takeshi; Eguchi, Kenichiro

    2016-03-09

    For the purpose of developing high performance tribomaterials for mechanical sliding parts such as gears, bearings and so on, nanosized calcium carbonate (nano-CaCO{sub 3}) filled polyamide 66 (PA66) nanocomposites were investigated. The nano-CaCO{sub 3} was a kind of precipitated (colloid typed) CaCO{sub 3}, and its average particle size was 40, 80 and 150 nm. Surface treatment was performed by fatty acid on the nano-CaCO{sub 3} and its volume fraction in the nanocomposite was varied from 1 to 20vol.%. These nanocomposites were melt-mixed by a twin screw extruder and injection-molded. Tribological properties were measured by two types of sliding wear testers such as ring-on-plate type and ball-on-plate type one under dry condition. The counterface, worn surface and wear debris were observed by digital microscope and scanning electron microscope. It was found that the nano-CaCO{sub 3} has a good effect on the tribological properties, although the effect on the frictional coefficient and specific wear rate is differed by the volume fraction and the type of sliding wear modes. This is attributed to the change of wear mechanisms, which is the change of form of the transfer films on the counterface and the size of wear debris. It follows from these results that PA66/nano-CaCO{sub 3} nanocomposites may be possible to be the high performance tribomaterials.

  17. Electrochemical reaction of lithium with nanosized vanadium antimonate

    SciTech Connect

    Morales, Julian; Sanchez, Luis . E-mail: luis-sanchez@uco.es; Martin, Francisco; Berry, Frank

    2006-08-15

    Nanometric vanadium antimonate, VSbO{sub 4}, was prepared by mechanical milling from Sb{sub 2}O{sub 3} and V{sub 2}O{sub 5} and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Mossbaueer spectroscopy (MS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) techniques. Its reactivity towards lithium was examined by testing Li/VSbO{sub 4} cells under galvanostatic and potentiostatic regimes. The amount of Li inserted was found to be consistent with a two-step process involving the reactions (i) VSbO{sub 4}+8 Li{sup {yields}}Sb+V+4 Li{sub 2}O and (ii) Sb+3 Li{sup {yields}}Li{sub 3}Sb, the former being virtually irreversible and the latter reversible as suggested by the shape of the anodic and cathodic curves. Ex situ XPS measurements of the discharged and charged electrode provided direct evidence of the formation of alloyed Sb and confirmed the results of the potentiostatic curves regarding the irreversible or reversible character of the previous reactions. The Li/VSbO{sub 4} cell exhibited acceptable electrochemical performance, which surpassed that of other Sb-based compounds as the likely result of the formation of V and its associated enhanced electrode conductivity. - Graphical abstract: TEM image of nanosized VSbO{sub 4} sample.

  18. Nanosized Drug Delivery Systems in Gastrointestinal Targeting: Interactions with Microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Karavolos, Michail; Holban, Alina

    2016-01-01

    The new age of nanotechnology has signaled a stream of entrepreneurial possibilities in various areas, form industry to medicine. Drug delivery has benefited the most by introducing nanostructured systems in the transport and controlled release of therapeutic molecules at targeted sites associated with a particular disease. As many nanosized particles reach the gastrointestinal tract by various means, their interactions with the molecular components of this highly active niche are intensively investigated. The well-characterized antimicrobial activities of numerous nanoparticles are currently being considered as a reliable and efficient alternative to the eminent world crisis in antimicrobial drug discovery. The interactions of nanosystems present in the gastrointestinal route with host microbiota is unavoidable; hence, a major research initiative is needed to explore the mechanisms and effects of these nanomaterials on microbiota and the impact that microbiota may have in the outcome of therapies entailing drug delivery nanosystems through the gastrointestinal route. These coordinated studies will provide novel techniques to replace or act synergistically with current technologies and help develop new treatments for major diseases via the discovery of unique antimicrobial molecules. PMID:27690060

  19. Nanotip analysis for dielectrophoretic concentration of nanosized viral particles.

    PubMed

    Yeo, Woon-Hong; Lee, Hyun-Boo; Kim, Jong-Hoon; Lee, Kyong-Hoon; Chung, Jae-Hyun

    2013-05-10

    Rapid and sensitive detection of low-abundance viral particles is strongly demanded in health care, environmental control, military defense, and homeland security. Current detection methods, however, lack either assay speed or sensitivity, mainly due to the nanosized viral particles. In this paper, we compare a dendritic, multi-terminal nanotip ('dendritic nanotip') with a single terminal nanotip ('single nanotip') for dielectrophoretic (DEP) concentration of viral particles. The numerical computation studies the concentration efficiency of viral particles ranging from 25 to 100 nm in radius for both nanotips. With DEP and Brownian motion considered, when the particle radius decreases by two times, the concentration time for both nanotips increases by 4-5 times. In the computational study, a dendritic nanotip shows about 1.5 times faster concentration than a single nanotip for the viral particles because the dendritic structure increases the DEP-effective area to overcome the Brownian motion. For the qualitative support of the numerical results, the comparison experiment of a dendritic nanotip and a single nanotip is conducted. Under 1 min of concentration time, a dendritic nanotip shows a higher sensitivity than a single nanotip. When the concentration time is 5 min, the sensitivity of a dendritic nanotip for T7 phage is 10(4) particles ml(-1). The dendritic nanotip-based concentrator has the potential for rapid identification of viral particles.

  20. Radiolytic preparation of nanosized Pt particles in sodium zeolite A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vijayalakshmi, R.; Kapoor, S.; Kulshreshtha, S. K.

    2002-04-01

    Nanosized platinum metal particles in zeolite NaA have been prepared by four different methods, namely, (I) γ-radiolysis of zeolite A sample exchanged with [Pt(NH 3) 4] 2+, (II) γ-radiolysis of precursor gel containing Pt 2+ ions followed by hydrothermal crystallisation to form zeolite A, (III) hydrogen reduction of Pt 2+ ions containing precursor gel followed by hydrothermal crystallisation and (IV) impregnation of zeolite A with H 2PtCl 6 solution followed by reduction at 200 °C in hydrogen flow. The size of Pt metal particles has been evaluated from X-ray line broadening and TEM and is found to be in the range of 5-15 nm for samples II, III and IV. Based on catalytic activity of these samples for hydrogenation of ethylene and cyclohexene, it is inferred that for sample I, Pt metal particles are confined to the pores of zeolite A. Unlike this, the Pt metal particles are randomly distributed in the zeolite matrix for samples II and III. For sample IV, the Pt metal particles are present over the surface of zeolite A.

  1. Nano-sized platforms for vaginal drug delivery.

    PubMed

    El-Hammadi, Mazen M; Arias, Jose L

    2015-01-01

    Nano-sized systems have shown promise for efficient vaginal drug delivery providing sustained drug release and enhanced permeation. In parallel with advancements in drug discovery of new vaginal therapeutic agents, such as peptides, proteins, nucleic material, antigens, hormones, and microbicides, nanoplatforms are gaining momentum as prospective vectors for these agents. Thus far, extensive research in this arena has been focused on local delivery to the mucus vagina. However, an improved understanding of vaginal route, advantages offered by the vaginal route including being non-invasive and bypassing hepatic first-effect metabolism, and recent success achieved by vaginal drug nanocarriers may open the door for extensive nanotechnology- based research to explore the viability of systemic administration via this route. The review analyzes the possibilities given by nanoplatform-based delivery systems in the vaginal delivery of active agents. Special insight is given to the most important aspects to be considered during nanomedicine development and preclinical evaluation, i.e., the anatomy and physiology of the vagina, advantages of vaginal route of drug administration, and barriers to vaginal drug delivery. Finally, an updated analysis of the recent advancements of nanomedicine technologies and their potential progress into the clinic is compiled in this work.

  2. Structure and catalytic behavior of myoglobin adsorbed onto nanosized hydrotalcites.

    PubMed

    Bellezza, Francesca; Cipiciani, Antonio; Latterini, Loredana; Posati, Tamara; Sassi, Paola

    2009-09-15

    The adsorption of myoglobin (Mb) onto nanosized nickel aluminum hydrotalcite (NiAl-HTlc) surface was studied, and the structural properties of the resulting protein layer were analyzed by using FT-IR, Raman, and fluorescence spectroscopies. Upon adsorption onto the nanoparticle surface, the protein molecules maintained their secondary structure, while the tertiary structure was altered. The fluorescence spectra and anisotropy values of adsorbed Mb revealed that the emitting amino acid residues are affected by different microenvironments when compared to the native protein behavior. Moreover, the decrease of fluorescence decay times of tryptophan indicated the occurrence of interactions among the fluorophores and the constituents of the nanoparticles, such as the metal cations, which can take place when conformational changes of Mb occur. Raman spectra indicated that the interaction of Mb molecules with NiAl-HTlc nanoparticles modified the porphyrin core, changing the spin state of the heme iron from high spin (HS) to low spin (LS). The enzymatic activity of the nanostructured biocomposite was evaluated in the oxidation of 2-methoxyphenol by hydrogen peroxide and discussed on the basis of structural properties of adsorbed myoglobin.

  3. Superfocusing the light through the nanosize slit via photonic tornado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Seong Soo; Jha, Vinaya; Suwal, Om; Park, Myoung Jin; Park, Nam Kyu; Kim, Daisik

    2010-03-01

    The macro size pyramidal horn probe such as klystron horn antenna has been used to provide the excellent focusing capabilities in microwave region. In the similar way, the pyramidal probe with the micron size mirror (pyramidal horn probe) has been fabricated with a nano-size aperture with diameter ranging from ˜1 nm to ˜30 nm. Light transmission through the micro-fabricated pyramidal horn probe has been measured to enhance the light transmission due to resonant effects between the cavity mode and the slit modes in the probe, along with improved directionality of the transmitted beam. The resonant tunneling between two standing waves in the input groove and in the output groove can provide the transmission enhancements. With decreasing slit width, the transmission is found to increasing tremendously.[1] The transmission is measured to be inversely proportional to the area.[2,3] References:[1] R. Gordon, Phys. Rev. B 73, 153405 (2006).[2] R. Harrington, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagat. Ap-30, 205(1982).[3] Y Leviatan, R. Harrington, J. Maut, IEEE Trans. Antennas Propagat. Ap-30, 1533(1982)

  4. Nanotip analysis for dielectrophoretic concentration of nanosized viral particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeo, Woon-Hong; Lee, Hyun-Boo; Kim, Jong-Hoon; Lee, Kyong-Hoon; Chung, Jae-Hyun

    2013-05-01

    Rapid and sensitive detection of low-abundance viral particles is strongly demanded in health care, environmental control, military defense, and homeland security. Current detection methods, however, lack either assay speed or sensitivity, mainly due to the nanosized viral particles. In this paper, we compare a dendritic, multi-terminal nanotip (‘dendritic nanotip’) with a single terminal nanotip (‘single nanotip’) for dielectrophoretic (DEP) concentration of viral particles. The numerical computation studies the concentration efficiency of viral particles ranging from 25 to 100 nm in radius for both nanotips. With DEP and Brownian motion considered, when the particle radius decreases by two times, the concentration time for both nanotips increases by 4-5 times. In the computational study, a dendritic nanotip shows about 1.5 times faster concentration than a single nanotip for the viral particles because the dendritic structure increases the DEP-effective area to overcome the Brownian motion. For the qualitative support of the numerical results, the comparison experiment of a dendritic nanotip and a single nanotip is conducted. Under 1 min of concentration time, a dendritic nanotip shows a higher sensitivity than a single nanotip. When the concentration time is 5 min, the sensitivity of a dendritic nanotip for T7 phage is 104 particles ml-1. The dendritic nanotip-based concentrator has the potential for rapid identification of viral particles.

  5. Aloe vera Induced Biomimetic Assemblage of Nucleobase into Nanosized Particles

    PubMed Central

    Chauhan, Arun; Zubair, Swaleha; Sherwani, Asif; Owais, Mohammad

    2012-01-01

    Aim Biomimetic nano-assembly formation offers a convenient and bio friendly approach to fabricate complex structures from simple components with sub-nanometer precision. Recently, biomimetic (employing microorganism/plants) synthesis of metal and inorganic materials nano-particles has emerged as a simple and viable strategy. In the present study, we have extended biological synthesis of nano-particles to organic molecules, namely the anticancer agent 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), using Aloe vera leaf extract. Methodology The 5-FU nano- particles synthesized by using Aloe vera leaf extract were characterized by UV, FT-IR and fluorescence spectroscopic techniques. The size and shape of the synthesized nanoparticles were determined by TEM, while crystalline nature of 5-FU particles was established by X-ray diffraction study. The cytotoxic effects of 5-FU nanoparticles were assessed against HT-29 and Caco-2 (human adenocarcinoma colorectal) cell lines. Results Transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopic techniques confirmed nano-size of the synthesized particles. Importantly, the nano-assembled 5-FU retained its anticancer action against various cancerous cell lines. Conclusion In the present study, we have explored the potential of biomimetic synthesis of nanoparticles employing organic molecules with the hope that such developments will be helpful to introduce novel nano-particle formulations that will not only be more effective but would also be devoid of nano-particle associated putative toxicity constraints. PMID:22403622

  6. Properties and promises of nanosized insertion materials for Li-ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Wagemaker, Marnix; Mulder, Fokko M

    2013-05-21

    The substantial influence of crystallite size on the properties of Li-ion storage materials has spurred intensive research in the emerging area of nanoionics. The development of nanoscale storage materials offers a promising strategy to increase the energy storage capabilities of Li-ion batteries, potentially making them suitable for electric vehicles. Nanosizing, which increases surface area, enhances the importance of interfaces and surfaces on directly observable materials properties such as the voltage profile and the phase diagram. As a result, nanosized materials can show improved storage properties, and materials inactive at the micro size can become excellent storage materials. We suggest novel surface storage mechanisms to explain these phenomena. First-order phase transitions, which are responsible for the batteries' constant voltage output, are partially suppressed at the nanoscale. So far the morphological changes during the phase transition remain unclear. A complete understanding of the equilibrium and non-equilibrium properties of a collection of nanosized electrode particles within an actual electrode remains a formidable challenge. In this Account, we describe the efforts toward understanding the effects of nanosizing and its applications in representative insertion materials. We are particularly interested in the mechanisms and properties that will help to increase the energy storage of Li-ion batteries. We review and discuss the nanosize properties of lithium insertion materials, olivine LiFePO4, and titanium oxides. Although nanosizing intrinsically destabilizes materials, which is potentially detrimental for battery performance, the relative stability of oxide and phosphate insertion compounds makes it possible to exploit the advantages of nanosizing in these materials. The larger capacities and typical voltage profiles in nanosized materials appear to be related to the surface and interface properties that become pronounced at the nanosize

  7. Elemental selenium particles at nano-size (Nano-Se) are more toxic to Medaka (Oryzias latipes) as a consequence of hyper-accumulation of selenium: a comparison with sodium selenite.

    PubMed

    Li, Hongcheng; Zhang, Jinsong; Wang, Thanh; Luo, Wenru; Zhou, Qunfang; Jiang, Guibin

    2008-09-29

    Recent studies have shown that elemental selenium particles at nano-size (Nano-Se) exhibited comparable bioavailability and less toxicity in mice and rats when compared to sodium selenite, selenomethinine and methylselenocysteine. However, little is known about the toxicity profile of Nano-Se in aquatic animals. In the present study, toxicities of Nano-Se and selenite in selenium-sufficient Medaka fish were compared. Selenium bioaccumulation and subsequent clearance in fish livers, gills, muscles and whole bodies were examined after 10 days of exposure to Nano-Se and selenite (100 microg Se/L) and again after 7 days of depuration. Both forms of selenium exposure effectively increased selenium concentrations in the investigated tissues. Surprisingly, Nano-Se was found to be more hyper-accumulated in the liver compared to selenite with differences as high as sixfold. Selenium clearance of both Nano-Se and selenite occurred at similar ratios in whole bodies and muscles but was not rapidly cleared from livers and gills. Nano-Se exhibited strong toxicity for Medaka with an approximately fivefold difference in terms of LC(50) compared to selenite. Nano-Se also caused larger effects on oxidative stress, most likely due to more hyper-accumulation of selenium in liver. The present study suggests that toxicity of nanoparticles can largely vary between different species and concludes that the evaluation of nanotoxicology should be carried out on a case-by-case basis.

  8. Size control and vacuum-ultraviolet fluorescence of nanosized KMgF3 single crystals prepared using femtosecond laser pulses.

    PubMed

    Muramatsu, Sotaro; Yanagihara, Masahiro; Asaka, Toru; Ono, Shingo; Nagami, Tomohito; Fukuda, Kentaro; Suyama, Toshihisa; Yokota, Yuui; Yanagida, Takayuki; Yoshikawa, Akira

    2016-01-01

    We fabricated nanosized KMgF3 single crystals via a dry pulsed laser ablation process using femtosecond laser pulses. The sizes, shapes, and crystallographic properties of the crystals were evaluated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Almost all of the particles were spherical with diameters of less than 100 nm, and they were not highly agglomerated. Selected-area electron diffraction and high-resolution TEM analyses showed that the particles were single crystals. Particle diameter was controlled within a wide range by adjusting the Ar ambient gas pressure. Under low gas pressures (1 and 10 Pa), relatively small particles (primarily 10 nm or less) were observed with a high number density. With increasing pressure, the mean diameter increased and the number density drastically decreased. Vacuum-ultraviolet cathodoluminescence was observed at 140-230 nm with blue shift and broadening of spectrum.

  9. Size control and vacuum-ultraviolet fluorescence of nanosized KMgF3 single crystals prepared using femtosecond laser pulses

    PubMed Central

    Muramatsu, Sotaro; Yanagihara, Masahiro; Asaka, Toru; Ono, Shingo; Nagami, Tomohito; Fukuda, Kentaro; Suyama, Toshihisa; Yokota, Yuui; Yanagida, Takayuki; Yoshikawa, Akira

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We fabricated nanosized KMgF3 single crystals via a dry pulsed laser ablation process using femtosecond laser pulses. The sizes, shapes, and crystallographic properties of the crystals were evaluated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Almost all of the particles were spherical with diameters of less than 100 nm, and they were not highly agglomerated. Selected-area electron diffraction and high-resolution TEM analyses showed that the particles were single crystals. Particle diameter was controlled within a wide range by adjusting the Ar ambient gas pressure. Under low gas pressures (1 and 10 Pa), relatively small particles (primarily 10 nm or less) were observed with a high number density. With increasing pressure, the mean diameter increased and the number density drastically decreased. Vacuum-ultraviolet cathodoluminescence was observed at 140–230 nm with blue shift and broadening of spectrum. PMID:27877915

  10. [Comparative study of nanosized and microsized silicon dioxide on spermatogenesis function of male rats].

    PubMed

    Fan, Yi-Ou; Zhang, Ying-Hua; Zhang, Xiao-Peng; Liu, Bing; Ma, Yi-xin; Jin, Yi-he

    2006-09-01

    To compare the effects of nanosized and microsized silicon dioxide on spermatogenesis function of male rats exposed by inhalation. 45 male rats were randomly divided into control group and four experimental groups which were exposed by 100 mg/m3 or 300 mg/m3 nanosized and microsized silicon dioxide in inhalation chambers 2 hours every other day. Age-matched rats were exposed to room air with the same condition and served as controls. 65 days later, the testicular and epididymal viscera coefficients, the quantity and quality of sperm were examined and the histopathological assessment was done. The changes in biochemical parameters in serum and testes were also measured. Nanosized silicon dioxide could induce histopathological changes of testes in rats, and the effect was higher than that of microsized particles at the same concentration. Nanosized silicon dioxide could reduce the sperm counts of rats and the testicular LDH-C4 activities, increase MDA levels in the testes and the effect was higher than that of microsized particles at the same concentration. Nanosized silicon dioxide could lead to the reduction of sperm motility, testicular LDH-C4 activities and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) concentration in serum elevation in particles-exposed rats compared with the control animals, but there are no significant difference compared with that of microsized particles at the same concentration. The present findings suggest a different effect of impairment of sperm production and maturation induced by inhalation of nanosized and microsized silicon dioxide, and nanosized silicon dioxide exerted more severe reaction.

  11. Local Electronic And Dielectric Properties at Nanosized Interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Bonnell, Dawn A.

    2015-02-23

    Final Report to the Department of Energy for period 6/1/2000 to 11/30/2014 for Grant # DE-FG02-00ER45813-A000 to the University of Pennsylvania Local Electronic And Dielectric Properties at Nanosized Interfaces PI: Dawn Bonnell The behavior of grain boundaries and interfaces has been a focus of fundamental research for decades because variations of structure and composition at interfaces dictate mechanical, electrical, optical and dielectric properties in solids. Similarly, the consequence of atomic and electronic structures of surfaces to chemical and physical interactions are critical due to their implications to catalysis and device fabrication. Increasing fundamental understanding of surfaces and interfaces has materially advanced technologies that directly bear on energy considerations. Currently, exciting developments in materials processing are enabling creative new electrical, optical and chemical device configurations. Controlled synthesis of nanoparticles, semiconducting nanowires and nanorods, optical quantum dots, etc. along with a range of strategies for assembling and patterning nanostructures portend the viability of new devices that have the potential to significantly impact the energy landscape. As devices become smaller the impact of interfaces and surfaces grows geometrically. As with other nanoscale phenomena, small interfaces do not exhibit the same properties as do large interfaces. The size dependence of interface properties had not been explored and understanding at the most fundamental level is necessary to the advancement of nanostructured devices. An equally important factor in the behavior of interfaces in devices is the ability to examine the interfaces under realistic conditions. For example, interfaces and boundaries dictate the behavior of oxide fuel cells which operate at extremely high temperatures in dynamic high pressure chemical environments. These conditions preclude the characterization of local properties during fuel cell

  12. Synthesis and photochromic property of nanosized amino acid polyoxometalate compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Dehui; Zhang, Jilin; Ren, Huijuan; Cui, Zhenfeng

    2009-07-01

    A series of novel nanosized amino acid-polyoxometalate compounds were successfully synthesized using a low temperature solid-state chemical reaction method. Their compositions, structures, morphologies, photochromic properties were characterized by ICP-AES/MS, TG/DTA, FTIR, XRD, SEM and UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectra (DRS), respectively. The elemental analysis results showed that the compounds ((HThr)7PMo12O42•4H2O, (HTyr)7PMo12O42Â.5H2O, (HSer)7PMo12O42•5H2O and (HGlu)7PMo12O42•4H2O) were obtained. The analyses of the TG/DTA, XRD and FTIR confirmed that the four compounds are new phases different from the corresponding reactants and they are composed of the polyoxometalate anions and the corresponding protonated amino acids, respectively. Observation of the SEM revealed that the particle shape (e.g. (HThr)7PMo12O42Â.4H2O nanoplates, (HTyr)7PMo12O42•5H2O nanorods, (HSer)7PMo12O42•5H2O and (HGlu)7PMo12O42•4H2O nanoparticles) depended strongly on the structures of amino acids. This implied that the amino acids can play a structural template agent role in synthesis of the Silverton-type polyoxometalate compounds. After irradiated with ultraviolet light, these samples all exhibited photochromism. Their photochromic mechanism may be explained based on Yamase's photochromic model. These photochromic compounds could be applied to the field of photosensitive materials.

  13. Electrochemical synthesis of nanosized hydroxyapatite by pulsed direct current method

    SciTech Connect

    Nur, Adrian; Rahmawati, Alifah; Ilmi, Noor Izzati; Affandi, Samsudin; Widjaja, Arief

    2014-02-24

    Synthesis of nanosized of hydroxyapatite (HA) by electrochemical pulsed direct current (PDC) method has been studied. The aim of this work is to study the influence of various PDC parameters (pH initial, electrode distance, duty cycle, frequency, and amplitude) on particle surface area of HA powders. The electrochemical synthesis was prepared in solution Ca{sup 2+}/EDTA{sup 4−}/PO{sub 4}{sup 3+} at concentration 0.25/0.25/0.15 M for 24 h. The electrochemical cell was consisted of two carbon rectangular electrodes connected to a function generator to produce PDC. There were two treatments for particles after electrosynthesized, namely without aging and aged for 2 days at 40 °C. For both cases, the particles were filtered and washed by demineralized water to eliminate the impurities and unreacted reactants. Then, the particles were dried at 100 °C for 2 days. The dried particles were characterized by X-ray diffraction, surface area analyzer, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectra and thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis. HA particles can be produced when the initial pH > 6. The aging process has significant effect on the produced HA particles. SEM images of HA particles showed that the powders consisted of agglomerates composed of fine crystallites and have morphology plate-like and sphere. The surface area of HA particles is in the range of 25 – 91 m{sup 2}/g. The largest particle surface area of HA was produced at 4 cm electrode distance, 80% cycle duty, frequency 0.1 Hz, amplitude 9 V and with aging process.

  14. Nanosizing of a drug/carrageenan complex to increase solubility and dissolution rate.

    PubMed

    Dai, Wei-Guo; Dong, Liang C; Song, Yan-Qiu

    2007-09-05

    In this study, we present a novel approach of nanosizing a drug/polymeric complex to increase both solubility and dissolution rate of poorly water-soluble compounds. A hydrophilic polymer, lambda-carrageenan, was first complexed with a model poorly water-soluble compound to increase the compound's aqueous solubility. The compound/carrageenan complex was further nanosized by wet-milling to enhance the dissolution rate. By complexing with carrageenan, the compound became amorphous in the complex. Using additional carrageenan as a stabilizer for nanosizing, a nanosuspension of a compound/carrageenan complex with a median particle size of about 0.3 microm was successfully developed. The particle size of the nanosuspension did not increase significantly during the lyophilization process and was stable for at least 39 days at room temperature after lyophilization. This approach of nanosizing a drug/carrageenan complex increased the aqueous solubility of the compound from less than 1 microg/mL to 39 microg/mL. In addition to increasing aqueous solubility, a nanosized compound/carrageenan complex had a faster dissolution rate than the complex, the free compound, and the nanosuspension of the free compound.

  15. Phytotoxicity and stimulatory impacts of nanosized and bulk titanium dioxide on fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill).

    PubMed

    Feizi, Hassan; Kamali, Maryam; Jafari, Leila; Rezvani Moghaddam, Parviz

    2013-04-01

    The objective of the this study was to compare concentrations of nanosized TiO2 at 0, 5, 20, 40, 60 and 80 mg L(-1) with bulk TiO2 for phytotoxic and stimulatory effects on fennel seed germination and early growth stage. After 14 d of seed incubation, germination percentage highly improved following exposure to 60 ppm nanosized TiO2. Similar positive effects occurred in terms of shoot dry weight and germination rate. Application of bulk TiO2 particles in 40 ppm concentration greatly decreased shoot biomass up to 50% compared to the control. Application of 40 ppm nanosized TiO2 treatment improved mean germination time by 31.8% in comparison to the untreated control. In addition, low and intermediate concentrations of nanosized TiO2 enhanced indices such as germination value, vigor index and mean daily germination. In general, there was a considerable response by fennel seed to nanosized TiO2 presenting the possibility of a new approach to overcome problems with seed germination in some plant species, particularly medicinal plants. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Synthesis of nanosized platinum based catalyst using sol-gel process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ingale, S. V.; Wagh, P. B.; Bandyopadhyay, D.; Singh, I. K.; Tewari, R.; Gupta, S. C.

    2015-02-01

    The nano-sized platinum based catalysts using high surface area silica support have been prepared by sol-gel method. Tetramethoxysilane (TMOS) diluted in methanol was hydrolyzed to form a porous silica gel. Platinum (2%) was loaded at sol state using platinum chloride solution. After gelation, the solvent from the gel pores was extracted at ambient temperature which resulted in porous silica matrix incorporated with nanosized platinum. X-ray diffraction studies indicated the presence of elemental platinum in the silica-platinum composites. Transmission electron microscopy of the platinum -silica composites revealed that nanosized platinum particles of about 5-10 nm are homogeneously dispersed in silica matrix. Chemisorptions studies showed high dispersion (more than 50%) of platinum on silica support with specific surface area of 400 m2/g which puts them as promising candidates as catalyst in heterogeneous reactions.

  17. Recent advances in the engineering of nanosized active pharmaceutical ingredients: Promises and challenges.

    PubMed

    Kaialy, Waseem; Al Shafiee, Maen

    2016-02-01

    The advances in the field of nanotechnology have revolutionized the field of delivery of poorly soluble active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs). Nanosized formulations have been extensively investigated to achieve a rapid dissolution and therefore pharmacokinetic properties similar to those observed in solutions. The present review outlines the recent advances, promises and challenges of the engineering nanosized APIs. The principles, merits, demerits and applications of the current 'bottom-up' and 'top-down' technologies by which the state of the art nanosized APIs can be produced were described. Although the number of research reports on the nanoparticle engineering topic has been growing in the last decade, the challenge is to take numerous research outcomes and convert them into strategies for the development of marketable products.

  18. A general strategy for self-assembly of nanosized building blocks on liquid/liquid interfaces.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jian-Wei; Zhang, Shao-Yi; Qi, Hao; Wen, Wu-Cheng; Yu, Shu-Hong

    2012-08-06

    A family of water/oil interfaces is introduced to provide effective platforms for rapid fabrication of large-area self-assembled nanofilms composed of various nanosized building blocks, including nanoparticles (NPs), nanocubes (NC), nanowires (NWs), and nanosheets, at room temperature. As a general interfacial assembly method, NWs and NPs are co-assembled at the liquid/liquid interface. The as-prepared co-assembled Ag NW and Ag NC films show high surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) intensity, the SERS performance being strongly dependent on the number ratio of the two kinds of nanosized building blocks. The results demonstrate that this interfacial system provides a general method for the assembly of various nanosized building blocks with different shapes and dimensionalities, and thus paves an alternative pathway for further applications of macroscopic assemblies with different functionalities.

  19. Nanosized aluminum nitride hollow spheres formed through a self-templating solid-gas interface reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng Jie Song Xubo; Zhang Yaohua; Li Yan; Li Xingguo; Pu Yikang

    2007-01-15

    Nanosized aluminum nitride hollow spheres were synthesized by simply heating aluminum nanoparticles in ammonia at 1000 deg. C. The as-synthesized sphere shells are polycrystalline with cavity diameters ranging from 15 to 100 nm and shell thickness from 5 to 15 nm. The formation mechanism can be explained by the nanoscale Kirkendall effect, which results from the difference in diffusion rates between aluminum and nitrogen. The Al nanoparticles served as both reactant and templates for the hollow sphere formation. The effects of precursor particle size and temperature were also investigated in terms of product morphology. Room temperature cathode luminescence spectrum of the nanosized hollow spheres showed a broad emission band centered at 415 nm, which is originated from oxygen related luminescence centers. The hollow structure survived a 4-h heat treatment at 1200 deg. C, exhibiting excellent thermal stability. - Graphical abstract: Nanosized aluminum nitride hollow spheres were synthesized by nitridation of aluminum nanoparticles at 1000 deg. C using ammonia.

  20. Coordination polymer-derived nano-sized zinc ferrite with excellent performance in nitro-explosive detection.

    PubMed

    Singha, Debal Kanti; Mahata, Partha

    2017-08-29

    Herein, a mixed metal coordination polymer, {(H2pip)[Zn1/3Fe2/3(pydc-2,5)2(H2O)]·2H2O} 1 {where H2pip = piperazinediium and pydc-2,5 = pyridine-2,5-dicarboxylate}, was successfully synthesized using a hydrothermal technique. To confirm the structure and phase purity of 1, single crystals of an isomorphous pure Fe compound, {(H2pip)[Fe(pydc-2,5)2(H2O)]·2H2O} 1a, were synthesized based on similar synthetic conditions. Single crystal X-ray data of 1a confirmed the one-dimensional anionic metal-organic coordination polymer hydrogen bonded with protonated piprazine (piperazinediium) and lattice water molecules. The phase purity of 1 and 1a were confirmed via powder X-ray diffraction. Compound 1 was systematically characterized using IR, TGA, SEM, and EDX elemental mapping analysis. Compound 1 was used as a single source precursor for the preparation of nano-sized ZnFe2O4via thermal decomposition. The as-obtained ZnFe2O4 was fully characterized using PXRD, SEM, TEM, and EDX elemental mapping analysis. It was found that ZnFe2O4 was formed in its pure form with particle size in the nano-dimension. The aqueous dispersion of nano-sized ZnFe2O4 exhibits a strong emission at 402 nm upon excitation at 310 nm. This emissive property was employed for luminescence-based detection of nitroaromatic explosives in an aqueous medium through luminescence quenching for the first time. Importantly, selective detections have been observed for phenolic nitroaromatics based on differential luminescence quenching behaviour along with a detection limit of 57 ppb for 2,4,6-trinitrophenol (TNP) in water.

  1. A simple route for renewable nano-sized arjunolic and asiatic acids and self-assembly of arjuna-bromolactone.

    PubMed

    Bag, Braja G; Dey, Partha P; Dinda, Shaishab K; Sheldrick, William S; Oppel, Iris M

    2008-01-01

    While separating two natural nano-sized triterpenic acids via bromolactonization, we serendipitously discovered that arjuna-bromolactone is an excellent gelator of various organic solvents. A simple and efficient method for the separation of two triterpenic acids and the gelation ability and solid state 1D-helical self-assembly of nano-sized arjuna-bromolactone are reported.

  2. [Influence of nanosize particles of cobalt ferrite on contractile responses of smooth muscle segment of airways].

    PubMed

    Kapilevich, L V; Zaĭtseva, T N; Nosarev, A V; D'iakova, E Iu; Petlina, Z R; Ogorodova, L M; Ageev, B G; Magaeva, A A; Itin, V I; Terekhova, O G; Medvedev, M A

    2012-02-01

    Contractile responses of airways segments of porpoises inhaling nanopowder CoFe2O4 were stidued by means of a mechanographic method. Inhalation of the nanosize particles of CoFe2O4 in vivo and in vitro testing the nanomaterial on isolated smooth muscles led to potentiation histaminergic, cholinergic contractile activity in airways of porpoises and to strengthening of adrenergic relaxing answers. Nanosize particles vary amplitude of hyperpotassium reductions in smooth muscle segments of airways similarly to the effect of depolymerizing drug colchicine.

  3. Significantly improving trace thallium removal from surface waters during coagulation enhanced by nanosized manganese dioxide.

    PubMed

    Huangfu, Xiaoliu; Ma, Chengxue; Ma, Jun; He, Qiang; Yang, Chun; Jiang, Jin; Wang, Yaan; Wu, Zhengsong

    2017-02-01

    Thallium (Tl) is an element of high toxicity and significant accumulation in human body. There is an urgent need for the development of appropriate strategies for trace Tl removal in drinking water treatment plants. In this study, the efficiency and mechanism of trace Tl (0.5 μg/L) removal by conventional coagulation enhanced by nanosized manganese dioxide (nMnO2) were explored in simulated water and two representative surface waters (a river water and a reservoir water obtained from Northeast China). Experimental results showed that nMnO2 significantly improve Tl(I) removal from selected waters. The removal efficiency was dramatically higher in the simulated water, demonstrating by less than 0.1 μg/L Tl residual. The enhancement of trace Tl removal in the surface waters decreased to a certain extent. Both adjusting water pH to alkaline condition and preoxidation of Tl(I) to Tl(III) benefit trace Tl removal from surface waters. Data also indicated that competitive cation of Ca(2+) decreased the efficiency of trace Tl removal, resulting from the reduction of Tl adsorption on nMnO2. Humic acid could largely low Tl removal efficiency during nMnO2 enhanced coagulation processes. Trace elemental Tl firstly adsorbed on nMnO2 and then removed accompanying with nMnO2 settling. The information obtained in the present study may provide a potential strategy for drinking water treatment plants threatened by trace Tl.

  4. Improved Thermoelectric Performances of SrTiO3 Ceramic Doped with Nb by Surface Modification of Nanosized Titania.

    PubMed

    Li, Enzhu; Wang, Ning; He, Hongcai; Chen, Haijun

    2016-12-01

    Nb-doped SrTiO3 ceramics doped with the surface modification of nanosized titania was prepared via liquid phase deposition approach and subsequent sintered in an Ar atmosphere. The surface modification of nanosized titania significantly improved the ratio of the electrical conductivity to thermal conductivity of SrTiO3 ceramic doped with Nb, and has little impact on the Seebeck coefficient, thus obviously improving the dimensionless thermoelectric figure of merit (ZT value). The surface modification of nanosized titania is a much better method to lower the thermal conductivity and to enhance the electrical conductivity than the mechanical mixing process of nanosized titania. The highest ZT value of 0.33 at 900 K was obtained. The reason for the improved thermoelectric performances by the surface modification of nano-sized titania was preliminary investigated.

  5. Improved Thermoelectric Performances of SrTiO3 Ceramic Doped with Nb by Surface Modification of Nanosized Titania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Enzhu; Wang, Ning; He, Hongcai; Chen, Haijun

    2016-04-01

    Nb-doped SrTiO3 ceramics doped with the surface modification of nanosized titania was prepared via liquid phase deposition approach and subsequent sintered in an Ar atmosphere. The surface modification of nanosized titania significantly improved the ratio of the electrical conductivity to thermal conductivity of SrTiO3 ceramic doped with Nb, and has little impact on the Seebeck coefficient, thus obviously improving the dimensionless thermoelectric figure of merit ( ZT value). The surface modification of nanosized titania is a much better method to lower the thermal conductivity and to enhance the electrical conductivity than the mechanical mixing process of nanosized titania. The highest ZT value of 0.33 at 900 K was obtained. The reason for the improved thermoelectric performances by the surface modification of nano-sized titania was preliminary investigated.

  6. The adsorption interaction of a rutin-biopolymer complex with nanosized silica particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedyanina, T. V.; Barvinchenko, V. N.; Lipkovskaya, N. A.; Pogorelyi, V. K.

    2008-10-01

    The influence of complex formation with biopolymers on the optical and acid properties of natural flavonoid rutin was studied. The adsorption interaction of biologically active flavonoids from officinal plants with the surface of nanosized silica particles was found to depend on the chemical nature of the biopolymer and adsorbate and solution properties.

  7. TRANSPORT AND DEPOSITION OF NANO-SIZE PARTICLES IN THE UPPER HUMAN RESPIRATORY AIRWAYS

    EPA Science Inventory

    TRANSPORT AND DEPOSITION OF NANO-SIZE PARTICLES IN THE UPPER HUMAN RESPIRATORY AIRWAYS. Zhe Zhang*, Huawei Shi, Clement Kleinstreuer, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695-7910; Chong S. Kim, National Health and En...

  8. Synthesis and characterization of nano-sized CaCO3 in purified diet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulyaningsih, N. N.; Tresnasari, D. R.; Ramahwati, M. R.; Juwono, A. L.; Soejoko, D. S.; Astuti, D. A.

    2017-07-01

    The growth and development of animals depend strongly on the balanced nutrition in the diet. This research aims is to characterize the weight variations of nano-sized calcium carbonate (CaCO3) in purified diet that to be fed to animal model of rat. The nano-sized CaCO3 was prepared by milling the calcium carbonate particles for 20 hours at a rotation speed of 1000 rpm and resulting particle size in a range of 2-50 nm. Nano-sized CaCO3 added to purified diet to the four formulas that were identified as normal diet (N), deficiency calcium (DC), rich in calcium (RC), and poor calcium (PC) with containing in nano-sized CaCO3 much as 0.50 %, 0.00 %, 0.75 % and 0.25 % respectively. The nutritional content of the purified diet was proximate analyzed, it resulted as followed moisture, ash, fat, protein, crude fiber. The quantities of chemical element were analyzed by atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS), it resulted iron, magnesium, potassium and calcium. The results showed that N diet (Ca: 16,914.29 ppm) were suggested for healthy rats and RC diet (Ca: 33,696.13 ppm) for conditioned osteoporosis rats. The crystalline phases of the samples that were examined by X-ray diffraction showed that crystalline phase increased with the increasing concentration of CaCO3.

  9. Local Structural Distortion Induced Uniaxial Negative Thermal Expansion in Nanosized Semimetal Bismuth.

    PubMed

    Li, Qiang; Zhu, He; Zheng, Lirong; Fan, Longlong; Ren, Yang; Chen, Jun; Deng, Jinxia; Xing, Xianran

    2016-11-01

    The corrugated layer structure bismuth has been successfully tailored into negative thermal expansion along c axis by size effect. Pair distribution function and extended X-ray absorption fine structure are combined to reveal the local structural distortion for nanosized bismuth. The comprehensive method to identify the local structure of nanomaterials can benefit the regulating and controlling of thermal expansion in nanodivices.

  10. Development of nanosized silver-substituted apatite for biomedical applications: A review.

    PubMed

    Lim, Poon Nian; Chang, Lei; Thian, Eng San

    2015-08-01

    The favorable biocompatibility of hydroxyapatite (HA) makes it a popular bone graft material as well as a coating layer on metallic implant. To reduce implant-related infections, silver ions were either incorporated into the apatite during co-precipitation process (AgHA-CP) or underwent ion-exchange with the calcium ions in the apatite (AgHA-IE). However, the distribution of silver ions in AgHA-CP and AgHA-IE was different, thus affecting the antibacterial action. Several studies reported that nanosized AgHA-CP containing 0.5 wt.% of silver provided an optimal trade-off between antibacterial properties and cytotoxicity. Nevertheless, nanosized AgHA and AgHA nanocoatings could not function ideally due to the compromise in the bone differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells, as evidenced in the reduced alkaline phosphatase, type I collagen and osteocalcin. Preliminary studies showed that biological responses of nanosized AgHA and AgHA nanocoatings could be improved with the addition of silicon. This review will discuss on nanosized AgHA and AgHA nanocoatings. In many patients needing bone graft material, hydroxyapatite (HA) has proven to be a popular choice. Nonetheless, implant-related infections remain a major concern. Hence, effective preventive measures are needed. In this review article, the authors discussed the application of incorporating silver nanoparticles in HA and its use as bone graft biomaterials together with the addition of silica. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Creation of deep blue light emitting nitrogen-vacancy center in nanosized diamond

    SciTech Connect

    Himics, L. Tóth, S.; Veres, M.; Koós, M.; Balogh, Z.

    2014-03-03

    This paper reports on the formation of complex defect centers related to the N3 center in nanosized diamond by employing plasma immersion and focused ion beam implantation methods. He{sup +} ion implantation into nanosized diamond “layer” was performed with the aim of creating carbon atom vacancies in the diamond structure, followed by the introduction of molecular N{sub 2}{sup +} ion and heat treatment in vacuum at 750 °C to initiate vacancy diffusion. To decrease the sp{sup 2} carbon content of nanosized diamond formed during the implantation processes, a further heat treatment at 450 °C in flowing air atmosphere was used. The modification of the bonding properties after each step of defect creation was monitored by Raman scattering measurements. The fluorescence measurements of implanted and annealed nanosized diamond showed the appearance of an intensive and narrow emission band with fine structures at 2.98 eV, 2.83 eV, and 2.71 eV photon energies.

  12. NANOSIZE TITANIA STIMULATES REACTIVE OXYGEN SPECIES IN BRAIN MICROGLIA AND DAMAGES NEURONS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Research that addresses the environmental impact and biological consequences of widely distributed, commonly used nanoparticles is needed. Nanosize titanium dioxide (i.e., titania, TiO2) is used in air and water remediation and in numerous products designed for direct human us...

  13. A top-down methodology for ultrafast tuning of nanosized zeolites.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhendong; Nomura, Naoki; Nishioka, Daisuke; Hotta, Yuusuke; Matsuo, Takeshi; Oshima, Kazunori; Yanaba, Yutaka; Yoshikawa, Takeshi; Ohara, Koji; Kohara, Shinji; Takewaki, Takahiko; Okubo, Tatsuya; Wakihara, Toru

    2015-08-14

    We herein present a top-down methodology to prepare nanosized zeolites with tunable size by combining post-synthesis milling and fast recrystallization of several minutes (10 min for SSZ-13 and 5 min for AlPO4-5). A continuous-flow recrystallization process is demonstrated to further enhance the overall product efficiency.

  14. NANOSIZE TITANIA STIMULATES REACTIVE OXYGEN SPECIES IN BRAIN MICROGLIA AND DAMAGES NEURONS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Research that addresses the environmental impact and biological consequences of widely distributed, commonly used nanoparticles is needed. Nanosize titanium dioxide (i.e., titania, TiO2) is used in air and water remediation and in numerous products designed for direct human us...

  15. TRANSPORT AND DEPOSITION OF NANO-SIZE PARTICLES IN THE UPPER HUMAN RESPIRATORY AIRWAYS

    EPA Science Inventory

    TRANSPORT AND DEPOSITION OF NANO-SIZE PARTICLES IN THE UPPER HUMAN RESPIRATORY AIRWAYS. Zhe Zhang*, Huawei Shi, Clement Kleinstreuer, Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27695-7910; Chong S. Kim, National Health and En...

  16. Effect of nano-sized, elemental selenium supplement on the proteome of chicken liver.

    PubMed

    Gulyas, G; Csosz, E; Prokisch, J; Javor, A; Mezes, M; Erdelyi, M; Balogh, K; Janaky, T; Szabo, Z; Simon, A; Czegledi, L

    2016-02-22

    The nano-sized (100-500 nm) selenium has higher bioavailability and relatively lower toxicity compared to other selenium forms. The objective of the present study was to compare liver proteome profiles of broiler chicken fed with control diet without Se supplementation and diet supplemented with nano-Se with 4.25 mg/kg DM. Differential proteome analyses were performed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE) followed by tryptic digestion and protein identification by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Seven hundred and eight spots were detected, and 18 protein spots showed significant difference in their intensity (p < 0.05) between the two groups. In response to nano-Se supplementation, the expression of 8 proteins was higher, and 5 proteins were lower in nano-Se supplemented group compared to control group. The functions of the differentially expressed proteins indicate that the high dose of selenium supplementation induced a dietary stress. Selenium supplementation may influence the metabolism of fatty acids and carbohydrates and antioxidant system, and increase the quantity of cytoskeletal actin and the expression of actin regulatory protein as well.

  17. Nanosized aerosols from consumer sprays: experimental analysis and exposure modeling for four commercial products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenz, Christiane; Hagendorfer, Harald; von Goetz, Natalie; Kaegi, Ralf; Gehrig, Robert; Ulrich, Andrea; Scheringer, Martin; Hungerbühler, Konrad

    2011-08-01

    Consumer spray products are already on the market in the cosmetics and household sector, which suggest by their label that they contain engineered nanoparticles (ENP). Sprays are considered critical for human health, because the lungs represent a major route for the uptake of ENP into the human body. To contribute to the exposure assessment of ENP in consumer spray products, we analyzed ENP in four commercially available sprays: one antiperspirant, two shoe impregnation sprays, and one plant-strengthening agent. The spray dispersions were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS) and (scanning-) transmission electron microscopy ((S)TEM). Aerosols were generated by using the original vessels, and analyzed by scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) and (S)TEM. On the basis of SMPS results, the nanosized aerosol depositing in the respiratory tract was modeled for female and male consumers. The derived exposure levels reflect a single spray application. We identified ENP in the dispersions of two products (shoe impregnation and plant spray). Nanosized aerosols were observed in three products that contained propellant gas. The aerosol number concentration increased linearly with the sprayed amount, with the highest concentration resulting from the antiperspirant. Modeled aerosol exposure levels were in the range of 1010 nanosized aerosol components per person and application event for the antiperspirant and the impregnation sprays, with the largest fraction of nanosized aerosol depositing in the alveolar region. Negligible exposure from the application of the plant spray (pump spray) was observed.

  18. Contractile reactions of guinea pig airway smooth muscles in the presence of stannum oxide nanosized particles.

    PubMed

    Kapilevich, L V; Zaytseva, T N; Nosarev, A V; Agev, B G; Dyakova, E Yu; Ogorodova, L M; Magaeva, A A; Terecova, O G; Itin, V I

    2012-05-01

    Contractile reactions of the guinea pig airway smooth muscles in the presence of stannum dioxide nanosized particles were studied. Contractile reactions to cholinergic and histaminergic stimulation were potentiated by inhalations of nanoparticle aerosol and by exposure of isolated smooth muscle segments to nanoparticle suspension.

  19. Nano-sized aerosol classification, collection and analysis--method development using dental composite materials.

    PubMed

    Bogdan, Axel; Buckett, Mary I; Japuntich, Daniel A

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a methodical approach for generating, collecting, and analyzing nano-size (1-100 nm) aerosol from abraded dental composite materials. Existing aerosol sampling instruments were combined with a custom-made sampling chamber to create and sample a fresh, steady-state aerosol size distribution before significant Brownian coagulation. Morphological, size, and compositional information was obtained by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). To create samples sizes suitable for TEM analysis, aerosol concentrations in the test chamber had to be much higher than one would typically expect in a dental office, and therefore, these results do not represent patient or dental personnel exposures. Results show that nano-size aerosol was produced by the dental drill alone, with and without cooling water drip, prior to abrasion of dental composite. During abrasion, aerosol generation seemed independent of the percent filler load of the restorative material and the operator who generated the test aerosol. TEM investigation showed that "chunks" of filler and resin were generated in the nano-size range; however, free nano-size filler particles were not observed. The majority of observed particles consisted of oil droplets, ash, and graphitic structures.

  20. The effect of nanosize ZnO on the properties of the selected polymer blend composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigalovica, A.; Bochkov, I.; Merijs Meri, R.; Zicans, J.; Grabis, J.; Kotsilkova, R.; Borovanska, I.

    2012-08-01

    In the current research the effect of ZnO nanoparticles on the structure and properties of common thermoplastic polymers (polyoxymethylene (POM), polypropylene (PP), ethylene-α-octene copolymers (EOC)) and their binary blends is investigated. EOC content in the composites varies from 0 to 50 wt. %. The amount of nanostructured ZnO filler in the composites is changed in the interval from 0 to 5 wt. %. Tensile and frictional properties of ZnO modified nanocomposites are investigated. Results of the investigation show that ZnO additions cause increment in stiffness and strength as well as coefficient of friction of the investigated nanocomposites. The effect of ZnO modifier is the highest at low EOC content. The effect of ZnO is strongly dependent on the compatibility and crystallinity of the investigated nanocomposites.

  1. Evaluation of nanoselenium (Nano-Se) effect on hematological and serum biochemical parameters of rat in experimentally lead poisoning.

    PubMed

    Jafari Dehkordi, A; Mohebbi, A N; Aslani, M R; Ghoreyshi, S M

    2016-06-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of nanoselenium (Nano-Se) on hematological and biochemical parameters of rats experimentally intoxicated with lead (Pb). Thirty male rats were randomly divided into six groups as follows: the control, selenite, Nano-Se, Pb group, Pb + selenite, and Pb + Nano-Se groups. After 35 days, blood was collected from rats and hematology and serum biochemical parameters of oxidative stress were measured. The thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) level of Pb group was significantly higher than other groups. Also, TBARS level was significantly lower in the Pb + Nano-Se group than Pb + selenite group. The serum superoxide dismutase activities were significantly lower in Pb group than the control, Pb + selenite, and Pb + Nano-Se groups. The catalase activities in the Pb group showed no significant change when compared to other groups. In the Pb group, packed cell volume was lower than the control group. A significant difference was observed between the control group and the Pb, Pb + selenite, and Pb + Nano-Se groups. In the Pb group, the numbers of white blood cell (WBC) decreased in comparison with the control group. Also, there was significant increase in WBC counts in the Pb + Nano-Se and Pb + selenite groups in comparison with Pb group. The number of lymphocytes in the Pb group decreased in comparison with the control group. By comparing the means of the Pb + Nano-Se and Pb + selenite groups together, it was determined that there were significant differences in the lymphocytes and neutrophil counts. In conclusion, usage of selenium compounds particularly Nano-Se particles inhibits the adverse effects of Pb on antioxidant activity and immune system function in the Pb poisoning.

  2. Grain Refinement and Mechanical Properties of Cu–Cr–Zr Alloys with Different Nano-Sized TiCp Addition

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Dongdong; Bai, Fang; Wang, Yong; Wang, Jinguo; Wang, Wenquan

    2017-01-01

    The TiCp/Cu master alloy was prepared via thermal explosion reaction. Afterwards, the nano-sized TiCp/Cu master alloy was dispersed by electromagnetic stirring casting into the melting Cu–Cr–Zr alloys to fabricate the nano-sized TiCp-reinforced Cu–Cr–Zr composites. Results show that nano-sized TiCp can effectively refine the grain size of Cu–Cr–Zr alloys. The morphologies of grain in Cu–Cr–Zr composites changed from dendritic grain to equiaxed crystal because of the addition and dispersion of nano-sized TiCp. The grain size decreased from 82 to 28 μm with the nano-sized TiCp content. Compared with Cu–Cr–Zr alloys, the ultimate compressive strength (σUCS) and yield strength (σ0.2) of 4 wt% TiCp-reinforced Cu–Cr–Zr composites increased by 6.7% and 9.4%, respectively. The wear resistance of the nano-sized TiCp-reinforced Cu–Cr–Zr composites increased with the increasing nano-sized TiCp content. The wear loss of the nano-sized TiCp-reinforced Cu–Cr–Zr composites decreased with the increasing TiCp content under abrasive particles. The eletrical conductivity of Cu–Cr–Zr alloys, 2% and 4% nano-sized TiCp-reinforced Cu–Cr–Zr composites are 64.71% IACS, 56.77% IACS and 52.93% IACS, respectively. PMID:28786937

  3. Grain Refinement and Mechanical Properties of Cu-Cr-Zr Alloys with Different Nano-Sized TiCp Addition.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dongdong; Bai, Fang; Wang, Yong; Wang, Jinguo; Wang, Wenquan

    2017-08-08

    The TiCp/Cu master alloy was prepared via thermal explosion reaction. Afterwards, the nano-sized TiCp/Cu master alloy was dispersed by electromagnetic stirring casting into the melting Cu-Cr-Zr alloys to fabricate the nano-sized TiCp-reinforced Cu-Cr-Zr composites. Results show that nano-sized TiCp can effectively refine the grain size of Cu-Cr-Zr alloys. The morphologies of grain in Cu-Cr-Zr composites changed from dendritic grain to equiaxed crystal because of the addition and dispersion of nano-sized TiCp. The grain size decreased from 82 to 28 μm with the nano-sized TiCp content. Compared with Cu-Cr-Zr alloys, the ultimate compressive strength (σUCS) and yield strength (σ0.2) of 4 wt% TiCp-reinforced Cu-Cr-Zr composites increased by 6.7% and 9.4%, respectively. The wear resistance of the nano-sized TiCp-reinforced Cu-Cr-Zr composites increased with the increasing nano-sized TiCp content. The wear loss of the nano-sized TiCp-reinforced Cu-Cr-Zr composites decreased with the increasing TiCp content under abrasive particles. The eletrical conductivity of Cu-Cr-Zr alloys, 2% and 4% nano-sized TiCp-reinforced Cu-Cr-Zr composites are 64.71% IACS, 56.77% IACS and 52.93% IACS, respectively.

  4. Nano-sized structured layered positive electrode materials to enable high energy density and high rate capability lithium batteries

    DOEpatents

    Deng, Haixia; Belharouak, Ilias; Amine, Khalil

    2012-10-02

    Nano-sized structured dense and spherical layered positive active materials provide high energy density and high rate capability electrodes in lithium-ion batteries. Such materials are spherical second particles made from agglomerated primary particles that are Li.sub.1+.alpha.(Ni.sub.xCo.sub.yMn.sub.z).sub.1-tM.sub.tO.sub.2-dR.sub.d- , where M is selected from can be Al, Mg, Fe, Cu, Zn, Cr, Ag, Ca, Na, K, In, Ga, Ge, V, Mo, Nb, Si, Ti, Zr, or a mixture of any two or more thereof, R is selected from F, Cl, Br, I, H, S, N, or a mixture of any two or more thereof, and 0.ltoreq..alpha..ltoreq.0.50; 0

  5. Hierarchically micro-patterned nanofibrous scaffolds with a nanosized bio-glass surface for accelerating wound healing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, He; Lv, Fang; Zhang, Yali; Yi, Zhengfang; Ke, Qinfei; Wu, Chengtie; Liu, Mingyao; Chang, Jiang

    2015-11-01

    A composite scaffold with a controlled micro-pattern, nano-sized fiber matrix and surface-modified nanobioglass component was successfully prepared for skin wound healing by combining the patterning electrospinning with pulsed laser deposition strategies, and the hierarchical micro/nano structures and nano-sized bioglass in the scaffolds could synergistically improve the efficiency and re-epithelialization of wound healing.A composite scaffold with a controlled micro-pattern, nano-sized fiber matrix and surface-modified nanobioglass component was successfully prepared for skin wound healing by combining the patterning electrospinning with pulsed laser deposition strategies, and the hierarchical micro/nano structures and nano-sized bioglass in the scaffolds could synergistically improve the efficiency and re-epithelialization of wound healing. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr04802h

  6. Chemoprotective and chemosensitizing properties of selenium nanoparticle (Nano-Se) during adjuvant therapy with cyclophosphamide in tumor-bearing mice.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharjee, Arin; Basu, Abhishek; Biswas, Jaydip; Sen, Tuhinadri; Bhattacharya, Sudin

    2017-01-01

    Cyclophosphamide (CP) is one of the widely used anticancer agents; however, it has serious deleterious effects on normal host cells due to its nonspecific action. The essential trace element Selenium (Se) is suggested to have chemopreventive and chemotherapeutic efficacy and currently used in pharmaceutical formulations. Previous report had shown Nano-Se could protect CP-induced hepatotoxicity and genotoxicity in normal Swiss albino mice; however, its role in cancer management is still not clear. The aim of present study is to investigate the chemoprotective efficacy of Nano-Se against CP-induced toxicity as well as its chemoenhancing capability when used along with CP in Swiss albino mice against Ehrlich's ascites carcinoma (EAC) cells. CP was administered (25 mg/kg b.w., i.p.) and Nano-Se was given (2 mg Se/kg b.w., p.o.) in concomitant and pretreatment schedule. Increase levels of serum hepatic marker, hepatic lipid peroxidation, DNA damage, and chromosomal aberration in CP-treated mice were significantly (P < 0.05) reversed by Nano-Se. The lowered status of various antioxidant enzymes in tumor-bearing mice after CP treatment was also effectively increased by Nano-Se. Administration of Nano-Se along with CP caused a significant reduction in tumor volume, packed cell volume, viable tumor cell count, and increased the survivability of the tumor-bearing hosts. The results suggest that Nano-Se exhibits significant antitumor and antioxidant effects in EAC-bearing mice. The potential for Nano-Se to ameliorate the CP-evoked toxicity as well as to improve the chemotherapeutic effect could have beneficial implications for patients undergoing chemotherapy with CP.

  7. Current inversions induced by resonant coupling to surface waves in a nanosized water pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Xiaoyan; Wu, Fengmin; Liu, Yang; Kou, Jianlong; Lu, Hui; Lu, Hangjun

    2015-11-01

    We conducted a molecular dynamics simulation to investigate current inversions in a nanosized water pump based on a single-walled carbon nanotube powered by mechanical vibration. It was found that the water current depended sensitively on the frequency of mechanical vibration. Especially in the resonance region, the nanoscale pump underwent reversals of the water current. This phenomenon was attributed to the dynamics competition of the water molecules in the two sections (the left and right parts) divided by the vibrating atom and the differences in phase and decay between the two mechanical waves generated by mechanical vibration and propagating in opposite directions toward the two ends of the carbon nanotube. Our findings provide an insight into water transportation through nanosized pumps and have potential in the design of high-flux nanofluidic systems and nanoscale energy converters.

  8. Preparation of nanosized beta-tricalcium phosphate particles with Zn substitution.

    PubMed

    Zou, Chao; Weng, Wenjian; Cheng, Kui; Du, Piyi; Shen, Ge; Han, Gaorong

    2008-03-01

    Nanosized beta-ZnTCP powders with different Zn contents were prepared through coprecipitation of ACP out of the CaCl2-ZnCl2-Na3PO4-PEG system, and calcination of the ACP precursor at 800 degrees C for 3 h. The characterizations of the products showed that the products belong to beta-TCP phase, and the particles sizes of them are about 300 nm, smaller than that of beta-TCP (500 nm). Both the Zn2p binding energy and lattice parameter variations of beta-TCP evidenced that Zn had substituted for Ca in the lattice. Such nanosized beta-ZnTCP powders could be used as bone repair materials with desired and sustained release of Zn.

  9. Fabrication of nanosized cobalt powder from Cobalt(II) hydroxide of spent lithium ion battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yun, Jung-Yeul; Park, Dahee; Jung, Sung-Sik; Wang, Jei-Pil

    2017-09-01

    This study was investigated to fabricate nanosized cobalt (Co) powder from cobalt hydroxide Co(OH)2 recovered from spent lithium ion battery. Direct process newly proposed was attempted to transform phases as follow: Co(OH)2 → Co3O4 → Co. The variation of weight with time of the sample was measured using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and it was found that weight loss was observed over 500 °C. Thermal treatment was conducted to determine proper operating time for phase transformation of Co3O4 at 500 °C. Subsequently, hydrogen reduction was carried out on the effect of temperature, reaction time and flowrate. In the long run, nanosized cobalt powder was successfully fabricated with a mean particle size of 100-500 nm as well as purity of 99.21 wt.%.

  10. Synthesis, Characterization, and Catalytic Properties of Novel Single-Site and Nanosized Platinum Catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Bonati, Matteo L.M.; Douglas, Thomas M.; Gaemers, Sander; Guo, Neng

    2013-01-10

    Novel single-site platinum catalysts have been synthesized by reacting platinum(II) organometallics with partially dehydroxylated silica. The resulting materials have been characterized by various methods such as IR, MAS NMR, and EXAFS. Further, the single-site platinum catalysts were calcined in air to remove the ligand and produce nanosized platinum particles, that were characterized by TEM and H{sub 2} chemisorption. All catalysts were tested for the hydrogenation of toluene. The single-site platinum catalysts were less active than a commercial Pt/SiO{sub 2} catalyst with comparable platinum loading, and this has been ascribed to ligand effects. Conversely, the nanosized platinum catalysts were more active than the commercial Pt/SiO{sub 2} catalyst due to their high dispersion and small particle sizes.

  11. Current inversions induced by resonant coupling to surface waves in a nanosized water pump.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiaoyan; Wu, Fengmin; Liu, Yang; Kou, Jianlong; Lu, Hui; Lu, Hangjun

    2015-11-01

    We conducted a molecular dynamics simulation to investigate current inversions in a nanosized water pump based on a single-walled carbon nanotube powered by mechanical vibration. It was found that the water current depended sensitively on the frequency of mechanical vibration. Especially in the resonance region, the nanoscale pump underwent reversals of the water current. This phenomenon was attributed to the dynamics competition of the water molecules in the two sections (the left and right parts) divided by the vibrating atom and the differences in phase and decay between the two mechanical waves generated by mechanical vibration and propagating in opposite directions toward the two ends of the carbon nanotube. Our findings provide an insight into water transportation through nanosized pumps and have potential in the design of high-flux nanofluidic systems and nanoscale energy converters.

  12. Heavy metal removal from water/wastewater by nanosized metal oxides: a review.

    PubMed

    Hua, Ming; Zhang, Shujuan; Pan, Bingcai; Zhang, Weiming; Lv, Lu; Zhang, Quanxing

    2012-04-15

    Nanosized metal oxides (NMOs), including nanosized ferric oxides, manganese oxides, aluminum oxides, titanium oxides, magnesium oxides and cerium oxides, provide high surface area and specific affinity for heavy metal adsorption from aqueous systems. To date, it has become a hot topic to develop new technologies to synthesize NMOs, to evaluate their removal of heavy metals under varying experimental conditions, to reveal the underlying mechanism responsible for metal removal based on modern analytical techniques (XAS, ATR-FT-IR, NMR, etc.) or mathematical models, and to develop metal oxide-based materials of better applicability for practical use (such as granular oxides or composite materials). The present review mainly focuses on NMOs' preparation, their physicochemical properties, adsorption characteristics and mechanism, as well as their application in heavy metal removal. In addition, porous host supported NMOs are particularly concerned because of their great advantages for practical application as compared to the original NMOs. Also, some magnetic NMOs were included due to their unique separation performance.

  13. Nano-sized Contrast Agents to Non-Invasively Detect Renal Inflammation by Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Thurman, Joshua M.; Serkova, Natalie J.

    2013-01-01

    Several molecular imaging methods have been developed that employ nano-sized contrast agents to detect markers of inflammation within tissues. Renal inflammation contributes to disease progression in a wide range of autoimmune and inflammatory diseases, and a biopsy is currently the only method of definitively diagnosing active renal inflammation. However, the development of new molecular imaging methods that employ contrast agents capable of detecting particular immune cells or protein biomarkers will allow clinicians to evaluate inflammation throughout the kidneys, and to assess a patient's response to immunomodulatory drugs. These imaging tools will improve our ability to validate new therapies and to optimize the treatment of individual patients with existing therapies. This review describes the clinical need for new methods of monitoring renal inflammation, and recent advances in the development of nano-sized contrast agents for detection of inflammatory markers of renal disease. PMID:24206601

  14. Novel detection system for biomolecules using nano-sized bacterial magnetic particles and magnetic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Amemiya, Yosuke; Tanaka, Tsuyoshi; Yoza, Brandon; Matsunaga, Tadashi

    2005-11-21

    A system for streptavidin detection using biotin conjugated to nano-sized bacterial magnetic particles (BMPs) has been developed. BMPs, isolated from magnetic bacteria, were used as magnetic markers for magnetic force microscopy (MFM) imaging. The magnetic signal was obtained from a single particle using MFM without application of an external magnetic field. The number of biotin conjugated BMPs (biotin-BMPs) bound to streptavidin immobilized on the glass slides increased with streptavidin concentrations up to 100 pg/ml. The minimum streptavidin detection limit using this technique is 1 pg/ml, which is 100 times more sensitive than a conventional fluorescent detection system. This is the first report using single domain nano-sized magnetic particles as magnetic markers for biosensing. This assay system can be used for immunoassay and DNA detection with high sensitivities.

  15. Effect of ultrasonic frequency on size distributions of nanosized mist generated by ultrasonic atomization.

    PubMed

    Kudo, Takahisa; Sekiguchi, Kazuhiko; Sankoda, Kenshi; Namiki, Norikazu; Nii, Susumu

    2017-07-01

    Ultrasonic atomization is used to produce fine liquid mists with diameter ranges below 100nm. We investigated the effect of the frequency on the size distribution of ultrasonic mist. A bimodal distribution was obtained for the mist generated by ultrasonic atomization with a wide-range particle spectrometer. The peak diameter decreased with increasing frequency, and the number concentration of the mist increased in the smaller range. We determined the relation between the size distribution of the mist and the ultrasonic frequency, and we proposed a generation mechanism for the ultrasonic nanosized mist based on the amount of water vapor around the liquid column. Increasing the power intensity and density by changing the surface diameter of the ultrasonic oscillator affected the number concentration and size distribution of the nanosized mist. Using this technique, the diameter of the mist can be controlled by changing the frequency of the ultrasonic transducer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Nano-sized polystyrene affects feeding, behavior and physiology of brine shrimp Artemia franciscana larvae.

    PubMed

    Bergami, Elisa; Bocci, Elena; Vannuccini, Maria Luisa; Monopoli, Marco; Salvati, Anna; Dawson, Kenneth A; Corsi, Ilaria

    2016-01-01

    Nano-sized polymers as polystyrene (PS) constitute one of the main challenges for marine ecosystems, since they can distribute along the whole water column affecting planktonic species and consequently disrupting the energy flow of marine ecosystems. Nowadays very little knowledge is available on the impact of nano-sized plastics on marine organisms. Therefore, the present study aims to evaluate the effects of 40nm anionic carboxylated (PS-COOH) and 50nm cationic amino (PS-NH2) polystyrene nanoparticles (PS NPs) on brine shrimp Artemia franciscana larvae. No signs of mortality were observed at 48h of exposure for both PS NPs at naplius stage but several sub-lethal effects were evident. PS-COOH (5-100μg/ml) resulted massively sequestered inside the gut lumen of larvae (48h) probably limiting food intake. Some of them were lately excreted as fecal pellets but not a full release was observed. Likewise, PS-NH2 (5-100µg/ml) accumulated in larvae (48h) but also adsorbed at the surface of sensorial antennules and appendages probably hampering larvae motility. In addition, larvae exposed to PS-NH2 undergo multiple molting events during 48h of exposure compared to controls. The activation of a defense mechanism based on a physiological process able to release toxic cationic NPs (PS-NH2) from the body can be hypothesized. The general observed accumulation of PS NPs within the gut during the 48h of exposure indicates a continuous bioavailability of nano-sized PS for planktonic species as well as a potential transfer along the trophic web. Therefore, nano-sized PS might be able to impair food uptake (feeding), behavior (motility) and physiology (multiple molting) of brine shrimp larvae with consequences not only at organism and population level but on the overall ecosystem based on the key role of zooplankton on marine food webs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Anti-friction properties of thin layered nanosized protective films “Epilam”: synergy effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vokhidov, A. S.

    2017-05-01

    In the general concept of temperature-resistant antifriction coatings, greate attention is paid to the growing use of multifunctional films. Epilams are polymer compositions, studying organic chemistry, namely to compositions (liquids), which, when applied to a solid surface, form on it nanosize multifunctional molecular film of a certain way of oriented molecules of surface-active agents (surfactants, SAA), which significantly changes the surface energy of the base (substrate).

  18. Penetration, photo-reactivity and photoprotective properties of nanosized ZnO.

    PubMed

    Detoni, C B; Coradini, K; Back, P; Oliveira, C M; Andrade, D F; Beck, R C R; Pohlmann, A R; Guterres, S S

    2014-09-01

    The oxidizing capacity and skin penetration of a commercial nanosized ZnO, Nanosun™ (Micronisers-Australia), were evaluated in vitro using porcine skin. Nanosun™ was initially characterized regarding its photo-reactivity and size distribution. An assay using methylene blue was performed to confirm the Nanosun™ photo-reactivity by exposing the labile molecule to UVA irradiation in the presence and absence of the nanosized ZnO. The nanosized ZnO was photo-reactive, reducing the methylene blue concentration to 7% while its concentration remained constant in the control formulation (without ZnO). The product label states that the average particle size is 30 nm. X-ray diffraction, nitrogen sorption and UV-spectrophotometry confirmed the presence of nanometric particles of approximately 30 nm. On the other hand, laser diffractometry showed micrometric particles in the size distribution profile. These analyses indicated that the nanoparticles are arranged as agglomerates and aggregates of micrometric proportions ranging from 0.6 to 60 μm. The skin lipid peroxidation was determined by the formation of thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS) and quantified by UV-spectrophotometry. When exposed to UVA radiation the nanosized ZnO applied porcine skin showed a lower production of TBARS (7.2 ± 1.5 nmol g(-1)) than the controls, the MCT applied porcine skin (18.4 ± 2.8 nmol g(-1)) and the blank porcine skin (14.0 ± 2.0 nmol g(-1)). The penetration of ZnO nanoparticles was studied by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The tested ZnO particles did not penetrate into viable layers of the intact porcine skin. The particles tend to accumulate on the skin folds and in these regions they may penetrate into the horny layer.

  19. Fabrication of Discrete Nanosized Cobalt Particles Encapsulated Inside Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes

    SciTech Connect

    Zoican Loebick, C.; Majewska, M; Ren, F; Haller, G; Pfefferle, L

    2010-01-01

    Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT) with encapsulated nanosized cobalt particles have been synthesized by a facile and scalable method. In this approach, SWNT were filled with a cobalt acetylacetonate solution in dichloromethane by ultrasonication. In a second step, exposure to hydrogen at different temperatures released discrete cobalt particles of controllable size inside the SWNT cavity. The SWNT-Co particles systems were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, X-ray absorption spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and thermal gravimetric analysis.

  20. Preparation of nanosized drug particles by the coating of inorganic cores: naproxen and ketoprofen on alumina.

    PubMed

    Joguet, Laurent; Sondi, Ivan; Matijević, Egon

    2002-07-15

    Nanosized alumina particles with modal diameters of 8 and 13 nm, respectively, were successfully coated by the adsorption of naproxen [(+)-6-methoxy-alpha-methyl-2-naphthalene acetic acid] and ketoprofen [alpha-methyl-3-(4-methylbenzoil) benzene acetic acid] in aqueous and ethanol solutions. The presence of the drugs at the alumina surface was confirmed by attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy and electrokinetic measurements, while their bound amounts were assessed by thermogravimetric analysis.

  1. Nano-sized manganese oxides as biomimetic catalysts for water oxidation in artificial photosynthesis: a review

    PubMed Central

    Najafpour, Mohammad Mahdi; Rahimi, Fahimeh; Aro, Eva-Mari; Lee, Choon-Hwan; Allakhverdiev, Suleyman I.

    2012-01-01

    There has been a tremendous surge in research on the synthesis of various metal compounds aimed at simulating the water-oxidizing complex (WOC) of photosystem II (PSII). This is crucial because the water oxidation half reaction is overwhelmingly rate-limiting and needs high over-voltage (approx. 1 V), which results in low conversion efficiencies when working at current densities required for hydrogen production via water splitting. Particular attention has been given to the manganese compounds not only because manganese has been used by nature to oxidize water but also because manganese is cheap and environmentally friendly. The manganese–calcium cluster in PSII has a dimension of about approximately 0.5 nm. Thus, nano-sized manganese compounds might be good structural and functional models for the cluster. As in the nanometre-size of the synthetic models, most of the active sites are at the surface, these compounds could be more efficient catalysts than micrometre (or bigger) particles. In this paper, we focus on nano-sized manganese oxides as functional and structural models of the WOC of PSII for hydrogen production via water splitting and review nano-sized manganese oxides used in water oxidation by some research groups. PMID:22809849

  2. One-pot synthesis of silanol-free nanosized MFI zeolite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grand, Julien; Talapaneni, Siddulu Naidu; Vicente, Aurélie; Fernandez, Christian; Dib, Eddy; Aleksandrov, Hristiyan A.; Vayssilov, Georgi N.; Retoux, Richard; Boullay, Philippe; Gilson, Jean-Pierre; Valtchev, Valentin; Mintova, Svetlana

    2017-10-01

    The synthesis of nanostructured zeolites enables modification of catalytically relevant properties such as effective surface area and diffusion path length. Nanostructured zeolites may be synthesized either in alkaline media, and so contain significant numbers of hydrophilic silanol groups, or in expensive and harmful fluoride-containing media. Here, we report and characterize, using a combination of experimental and theoretical techniques, the one-pot synthesis of silanol-free nanosized MFI-type zeolites by introducing atomically dispersed tungsten; this prevents silanol group occurrence by forming flexible W-O-Si bridges. These W-O-Si bonds are more stable than Si-O-Si in the all-silica MFI zeolite. Tungsten incorporation in nanosized MFI crystals also modifies other properties such as structural features, hydrophobicity and Lewis acidity. The effect of these is illustrated on the catalytic epoxidation of styrene and separation of CO2 and NO2. Silanol-free nanosized W-MFI zeolites open new perspectives for catalytic and separation applications.

  3. Nano-sized manganese oxides as biomimetic catalysts for water oxidation in artificial photosynthesis: a review.

    PubMed

    Najafpour, Mohammad Mahdi; Rahimi, Fahimeh; Aro, Eva-Mari; Lee, Choon-Hwan; Allakhverdiev, Suleyman I

    2012-10-07

    There has been a tremendous surge in research on the synthesis of various metal compounds aimed at simulating the water-oxidizing complex (WOC) of photosystem II (PSII). This is crucial because the water oxidation half reaction is overwhelmingly rate-limiting and needs high over-voltage (approx. 1 V), which results in low conversion efficiencies when working at current densities required for hydrogen production via water splitting. Particular attention has been given to the manganese compounds not only because manganese has been used by nature to oxidize water but also because manganese is cheap and environmentally friendly. The manganese-calcium cluster in PSII has a dimension of about approximately 0.5 nm. Thus, nano-sized manganese compounds might be good structural and functional models for the cluster. As in the nanometre-size of the synthetic models, most of the active sites are at the surface, these compounds could be more efficient catalysts than micrometre (or bigger) particles. In this paper, we focus on nano-sized manganese oxides as functional and structural models of the WOC of PSII for hydrogen production via water splitting and review nano-sized manganese oxides used in water oxidation by some research groups.

  4. Characterization of nanosized Al{sub 2}(WO{sub 4}){sub 3}

    SciTech Connect

    Nihtianova, D.; Velichkova, N.; Nikolova, R.; Koseva, I.; Yordanova, A.; Nikolov, V.

    2011-11-15

    Graphical abstract: TEM method allows to detect small quantities of impurities not detectable by other methods. In our case impurities of W{sub 5}O{sub 14} are detected in Al{sub 2}(WO{sub 4}){sub 3} nanopowder. Highlights: {yields} Nanosized Al{sub 2}(WO{sub 4}){sub 3} by simple co-precipitation method. {yields} Spherical particles with mean size of 22 nm distributed between 10 and 40 nm at 630 {sup o}C. {yields} XRD, DTA and TEM confirm well defined products with perfect structure. {yields} TEM locality allows detection of impurities not detectable by XRD and DTA. -- Abstract: Nanosized aluminum tungstate Al{sub 2}(WO{sub 4}){sub 3} was prepared by co-precipitation reaction between Na{sub 2}WO{sub 4} and Al(NO{sub 3}){sub 3} aqueous solutions. The powder size and shape, as well as size distribution are estimated after different conditions of powder preparation. The purity of the final product was investigated by XRD and DTA analyses, using the single crystal powder as reference. Between the specimen and the reference no difference was detected. The crystal structure of Al{sub 2}(WO{sub 4}){sub 3} nanosized powder was confirmed by TEM (SAED, HRTEM). In additional, TEM locality allows to detect some W{sub 5}O{sub 14} impurities, which are not visible by conventional X-ray powder diffraction and thermal analyses.

  5. Nanosize Mn{sub 3}O{sub 4} (Hausmannite) by microwave irradiation method

    SciTech Connect

    Apte, S.K.; Naik, S.D.; Sonawane, R.S.; Kale, B.B. . E-mail: kbbb1@yahoo.com; Pavaskar, Neela; Mandale, A.B.; Das, B.K.

    2006-03-09

    The present investigation reports, the novel synthesis of nanosize Mn{sub 3}O{sub 4} powder with nanorods using microwaves and its physicochemical characterization. The nanosize Mn{sub 3}O{sub 4} powder has been prepared using manganese nitrate as a precursor and effect of ethanolamine and ethylenediamine on particle morphology has been studied. The microwave irradiation has been carried out in the range 50-500 W and it was observed that formation of Mn{sub 3}O{sub 4} takes place at 50 W. TEM analysis demonstrated nanosize Mn{sub 3}O{sub 4} powder and nanorods with an average diameter of about 10 nm. The structural study by XRD indicates that these nano-powders have pure tetragonal phase. The phase pure samples were characterized using X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) for both Mn 2p and Mn 3s levels. The values of binding energies are consistent with the relative values reported in the literature. The metallic impurity levels have been characterized using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectrophotometer (ICP-OES)

  6. Effect of nano-sized oxide particles on thermal and electrical properties of epoxy silica composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sang Heon; Choi, Yong

    2014-12-01

    Polymer matrix composites were fabricated using a modified injection molding technique in which nano-sized silicon oxides, titanium oxides, and aluminium oxides were contained. Nano-sized oxides were uniformly distributed in the composites produced by modified injection molding combining vacuum degassing and curing at a moderate temperature. The thermal decomposition and evaporation of the epoxy resin matrix depended on the composition of the composites. The relative permittivity of the nano-sized silicon carbide-epoxy composites increased from 5.16 to 5.37 by adding 2.0 wt % titanium oxide. The addition of titanium oxide of up to 2.0 wt % had little influence on the permittivity. The addition of 2.0 wt % of titanium oxide to epoxy resin showed the maximum thermal properties. Both the thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity of the silicon oxide-epoxy composites tended to increase with titanium oxide content. The maximum thermal conductivity was observed in the composites with 2.0 wt % titanium oxide.

  7. Magnetic glass-film based on single-nanosize 𝜺 -Fe2O3 nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshikiyo, Marie; Namai, Asuka; Nakagawa, Kosuke; Ohkoshi, Shin-ichi

    2017-05-01

    We report a magnetic thin film of single-nanosize ɛ-Fe2O3 in SiO2 matrix. The glass-film was prepared by sintering a silica coated iron oxide hydroxide on a quartz substrate in air. The glass-film consists of ɛ-Fe2O3 of 8.8 nm size, and its thickness was 570 nm (0.57 μm) with a roughness of 10 nm (0.01 μm). UV-vis spectrum showed that the glass-film has small absorbance of 0.043 at 500 nm. The magneto-optical effect was investigated, and Faraday ellipticity showed a magnetic hysteresis loop with a coercive field of 3.0 ± 0.2 kOe. Furthermore, single-nanosize ɛ-Fe2O3 without silica was prepared as a reference sample, and ferroelectricity was observed. Therefore, the present thin glass-film consists of single-nanosize ferroelectric-ferromagnetic nanoparticles.

  8. Fabrication of nanosized alumina powders by a simple polymer solution route.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang-Jin; Chun, Sung-Yong; Lee, Choong-Hyo; Yoon, Young-Soo

    2006-11-01

    Nanosized alumina (Al2O3) powders had been successfully fabricated by a simple polymer solution route employing polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) as an organic carrier. The fabricated alumina powders had an average particle size of 6.1 nm with a high specific surface area of 99.5 m2/g. As well, the alumina powders were fully crystallized to alpha phase at a relatively low temperature of 1000 degrees C. The PVA polymer contributed to a soft and porous microstructure of the calcined alumina powders, and ball-milling process with the porous powders was effective in making nanosized alumina powders. In addition, the content and degree of polymerization of the PVA affected the development of crystallization and powder properties. In this study, the simple polymer technique and milling process for the fabrication of nanosized alumina powders are introduced, and the effects of PVA on the property of the synthesized alumina powders are observed. For the study, the characterizations of the synthesized powders are conducted by using XRD, TEM, particle size analyzer, and nitrogen gas adsorption.

  9. Colloidally stable surface-modified iron oxide nanoparticles: Preparation, characterization and anti-tumor activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macková, Hana; Horák, Daniel; Donchenko, Georgiy Viktorovich; Andriyaka, Vadim Ivanovich; Palyvoda, Olga Mikhailovna; Chernishov, Vladimir Ivanovich; Chekhun, Vasyl Fedorovich; Todor, Igor Nikolaevich; Kuzmenko, Oleksandr Ivanovich

    2015-04-01

    Maghemite (γ-Fe2O3) nanoparticles were obtained by co-precipitation of Fe(II) and Fe(III) chlorides and subsequent oxidation with sodium hypochlorite and coated with poly(N,N-dimethylacrylamide-co-acrylic acid) [P(DMAAm-AA)]. They were characterized by a range of methods including transmission electron microscopy (TEM), elemental analysis, dynamic light scattering (DLS) and zeta potential measurements. The effect of superparamagnetic P(DMAAm-AA)-γ-Fe2O3 nanoparticles on oxidation of blood lipids, glutathione and proteins in blood serum was detected using 2-thiobarbituric acid and the ThioGlo fluorophore. Finally, mice received magnetic nanoparticles administered per os and the antitumor activity of the particles was tested on Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) in male mice line C57BL/6 as an experimental in vivo metastatic tumor model; the tumor size was measured and the number of metastases in lungs was determined. Surface-modified γ-Fe2O3 nanoparticles showed higher antitumor and antimetastatic activities than commercial CuFe2O4 particles and the conventional antitumor agent cisplatin.

  10. Highly colloidally stable hyperbranched polyglycerol grafted red fluorescent silicon nanoparticle as bioimaging probe.

    PubMed

    Das, Pradip; Jana, Nikhil R

    2014-03-26

    Here we report a surface modification approach for fluorescent silicon nanoparticle that transforms hydrophobic nanoparticle into water-soluble nanoparticle of high colloidal stability. The approach involves ring-opening polymerization of glycidol at the hydroxyl-terminated nanoparticle surface that results in a hyperbranched polyglycerol grafted silicon nanoparticle (Si-HPG). The resultant Si-HPG has 25 nm hydrodynamic diameter, low surface charge, and broad emission in the range of 450-700 nm with a fluorescence quantum yield of 6-9%. The Si-HPG has been transformed into cyclic RGD peptide functionalized nanoprobe using the conventional bioconjugation chemistry and used for specific targeting to αvβ3 integrin overexpressed cervical cancer cells and glioblastoma cells. Result shows that a silicon nanoparticle-based red fluorescent nanoprobe can be developed for in vitro/in vivo bioimaging applications.

  11. Design and Evaluation of Multi-functional Nanocarriers for Selective Delivery of Coenzyme Q10 to Mitochondria

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Anjali; Soliman, Ghareb M.; Al-Hajaj, Noura; Sharma, Rishi; Maysinger, Dusica; Kakkar, Ashok

    2016-01-01

    Impairments of mitochondrial functions have been associated with failure of cellular functions in different tissues leading to various pathologies. We report here a mitochondria–targeted nanodelivery system for coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) which can reach mitochondria, and deliver CoQ10 in adequate quantities. Multifunctional nanocarriers based on ABC miktoarm polymers (A= PEG, B = polycaprolactone (PCL) and C = triphenylphosphonium bromide (TPPBr)) were synthesized using a combination of click chemistry with ring opening polymerization, self-assembled into nano-sized micelles, and were employed for CoQ10-loading. Drug loading capacity (60 weight%), micelle size (25–60 nm) and stability were determined using a variety of techniques. The micelles had a small critical association concentration, and were colloidally stable in solution for more than 3 months. The extraordinarily high CoQ10 loading capacity in the micelles is attributed to good compatibility between CoQ10 and PCL, as indicated by low Flory-Huggins interaction parameter. Confocal microscopy studies of fluorescently labeled polymer analog together with the mitochondria-specific vital dye label, indicated that the carrier did indeed reach mitochondria. The high CoQ10 loading efficiency allowed testing of micelles within a broad concentration range, and provided evidence for CoQ10 effectiveness in two different experimental paradigms: oxidative stress and inflammation. Combined results from chemical, analytical and biological experiments suggest that the new miktoarm-based carrier provides a suitable means of CoQ10 delivery to mitochondria without loss of drug effectiveness. The versatility of the click chemistry used to prepare this new mitochondria-targeting nanocarrier offers a widely applicable, simple and easily reproducible procedure to deliver drugs to mitochondria or other intracellular organelles. PMID:22148549

  12. Accelerated methanogenesis from effluents of hydrogen-producing stage in anaerobic digestion by mixed cultures enriched with acetate and nano-sized magnetite particles.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhiman; Xu, Xiaohui; Guo, Rongbo; Fan, Xiaolei; Zhao, Xiaoxian

    2015-08-01

    Potential for paddy soil enrichments obtained in the presence of nano-sized magnetite particles (named as PSEM) to promote methane production from effluents of hydrogen-producing stage in two-stage anaerobic digestion was investigated. The results showed that the addition of magnetite significantly accelerated methane production from acetate in a dose-independent manner. The results from high-throughput sequencing analysis revealed that Rhodocyclaceae-related species were selectively enriched, which were likely the key players for conversion of acetate to methane in PSEM. Compared to the paddy soil enrichments obtained in the absence of magnetite (named as PSEC), the maximum methane production rate in PSEM was significantly higher (1.5-5.5times higher for the artificial medium and 0.2-1.7times higher for the effluents). The accelerated methane production from the effluents indicated remarkably application potential of PSEM for improving performance of anaerobic digestion.

  13. Nanosized CuO and ZnO Catalyst Supported on Honeycomb-Typed Monolith for Hydrogenation of Carbon Dioxide to Methyl Alcohol.

    PubMed

    Park, Chul-Min; Ahn, Won-Ju; Jo, Woong-Kyu; Song, Jin-Hun; Oh, Chang-Yeop; Jeong, Young-Shin; Chung, Min-Chul; Park, Kwon-Pil; Kim, Ki-Joong; Jeong, Woon-Jo; Sohn, Bo-Kyun; Jung, Sang-Chul; Lee, Do-Jin; Ahn, Byeong-Kwon; Ahn, Ho-Geun

    2015-01-01

    The greenhouse effect of carbon dioxide (CO2) has been recognized as one of the most serious problems in the world. Conversion of CO2 to methyl alcohol (CH3OH) was studied using catalytic chemical methods. Honeycomb-typed monolith used as catalyst support was 400 cell/inch2. Pretreatment of the monolith surface was carried out by thermal treatment and acid treatment. Monolith-supported nanosized CuO-ZnO catalysts were prepared by wash-coat method. The prepared catalysts were characterized by using SEM, TEM, and XRD. The catalytic activity for CO2 hydrogenation to CH3OH was investigated using a flow-type reactor with varying reaction temperature, reaction pressure and contact time. Conversion of CO2 was increased with increasing reaction temperature, but selectivity to CH3OH was decreased. Optimum reaction temperature was about 250 degrees C under 20 atm. Because of the reverse water gas shift reaction.

  14. In vitro spectroscopic study of piperine-encapsulated nanosize liposomes.

    PubMed

    Pentak, Danuta

    2016-03-01

    Black pepper is a source of effective antioxidants. It contains several powerful antioxidants and is thus one of the most important spices for preventing and curtailing oxidative stress. There is considerable interest in the development of a drug-delivery systems that would result in the selective delivery of antioxidants to tissues in sufficient concentrations to ameliorate oxidant-induced tissue injuries. Liposomes are biocompatible, biodegradable and nontoxic artificial phospholipid vesicles that offer the possibility of carrying hydrophilic, hydrophobic and amphiphilic molecules. This article focuses on the use of liposomes for the delivery of antioxidants in the prevention or treatment of pathological conditions related to oxidative stress. Liposome formulations of piperine were analyzed with various spectroscopic methods. The formulation with the highest entrapment efficiency (90.5%) was formulated with an L-α-phosphatidylcholine dipalmitoyl (DPPC):piperine, 30:1 molar ratio, and total lipid count of 19.47 mg/ml in the final liposomal preparation. The liposome formulation was found to be stable after storage at 4 °C, protected from light, for a minimum of 3 weeks. The incremental process of piperine penetration through the phospholipid membrane was analyzed using the FT-IR, UV-Vis and NMR methods. Temperature stability studies carried out at 37 °C showed the highest percentage of piperine release in the first 3 h of incubation.

  15. Hyalugel-integrated liposomes as a novel ocular nanosized delivery system of fluconazole with promising prolonged effect.

    PubMed

    Moustafa, Mona A; Elnaggar, Yosra S R; El-Refaie, Wessam M; Abdallah, Ossama Y

    2017-10-04

    Fungal infections need long-term therapy with the proper antifungal agent. Despite effectiveness, Fluconazole (FLZ) ocular delivery is constrained by limited penetration, short residence time, in addition to the common barriers of the eye. Hyalugel-integrated liposomes were designed as novel ocular delivery systems integrating hyaluronic acid (HA) inside and surrounding vesicles by a simple preparation technique. The impact of combining HA hydrogel and liposomes was investigated in a series of different formulations. Full in-vitro optimization was performed regarding; HA and FLZ concentration, entrapment efficiency, particle size and stability to select the formula with the best characteristics. Structure elucidation of gel integration was done using polarizing and transmission electron microscopes before and after Triton-X100 addition. Corneal deposition and permeation were examined ex-vivo and in-vivo on male albino rabbits. Selected formulation (HYS7) showed gel-integrated structure, nanosize (218.50±4.50nm) and % EE 42.81%±1.66. Ex-vivo cumulative corneal permeation of FLZ after 6h from HYS7, was 2.99 and 4.18 folds higher than conventional liposomes and FLZ suspension, respectively. In-vivo corneal permeation of HYS7 showed unprecedented sustained effect of FLZ reaching 24h. In conclusion, novel hyalugel-integrated liposomes significantly enhanced corneal permeability compared to conventional liposomes and FLZ suspension. They would be promising alternates for eye drops; decreasing frequency of administration and increasing patients' compliance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Comparing the calcium bioavailability from two types of nano-sized enriched milk using in-vivo assay.

    PubMed

    Erfanian, Arezoo; Rasti, Babak; Manap, Yazid

    2017-01-01

    Calcium bioavailability from two types of enriched (calcium citrate and calcium carbonate) milks homogenized to a nano-sized particle distribution has been studied among 48 female Sprauge-dawley rats. Skim milk powder was enriched with some essential nutrients (Inulin, DHA & EPA, vitamins B6, K1, and D3) as enhancers of calcium bioavailability according to recommended dietary allowances of the West European and North American. Ovariectomized and ovariectomized-osteoporosis rats were used as a menopause and menopause-osteoporosis model, respectively. Although, nano-sized enriched milk powders had the greatest calcium bioavailability among the groups, but bioavailability of nano-sized calcium carbonate-enriched-milk was significantly (P<0.05) better than nano-sized calcium citrate-enriched-milk. Moreover, the trends were similar for bone calcium, strength and morphology. Therefore, based on the current results the calcium carbonate nano-sized enriched milk could be an effective enriched milk powder in ovariectomized-osteoporosis and ovariectomized rats as a model of menopause-osteoporosis and menopause women.

  17. Constrained Geometry Organotitanium Catalysts Supported on Nanosized Silica for Ethylene (co)Polymerization.

    PubMed

    Li, Kuo-Tseng; Wu, Ling-Huey

    2017-05-05

    Supported olefin polymerization catalysts can prevent reactor-fouling problems and produce uniform polymer particles. Constrained geometry complexes (CGCs) have less sterically hindered active sites than bis-cyclopentadienyl metallocene catalysts. In the literature, micrometer-sized silica particles were used for supporting CGC catalysts, which might have strong mass transfer limitations. This study aims to improve the activity of supported CGC catalysts by using nanometer-sized silica. Ti[(C₅Me₄)SiMe₂(N(t)Bu)]Cl₂, a "constrained-geometry" titanium catalyst, was supported on MAO-treated silicas (nano-sized and micro-sized) by an impregnation method. Ethylene homo-polymerization and co-polymerization with 1-octene were carried out in a temperature range of 80-120 °C using toluene as the solvent. Catalysts prepared and polymers produced were characterized. For both catalysts and for both reactions, the maximum activities occurred at 100 °C, which is significantly higher than that (60 °C) reported before for supported bis-cyclopentadienyl metallocene catalysts containing zirconium, and is lower than that (≥140 °C) used for unsupported Ti[(C₅Me₄)SiMe₂(N(t)Bu)]Me₂ catalyst. Activities of nano-sized catalyst were 2.6 and 1.6 times those of micro-sized catalyst for homopolymerization and copolymerization, respectively. The former produced polymers with higher crystallinity and melting point than the latter. In addition, copolymer produced with nanosized catalyst contained more 1-octene than that produced with microsized catalyst.

  18. Plasma-arc reactor for production possibility of powdered nano-size materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadzhiyski, V.; Mihovsky, M.; Gavrilova, R.

    2011-01-01

    Nano-size materials of various chemical compositions find increasing application in life nowadays due to some of their unique properties. Plasma technologies are widely used in the production of a range of powdered nano-size materials (metals, alloys, oxides, nitrides, carbides, borides, carbonitrides, etc.), that have relatively high melting temperatures. Until recently, the so-called RF-plasma generated in induction plasma torches was most frequently applied [1-3]. The subject of this paper is the developments of a new type of plasma-arc reactor, operated with transferred arc system for production of disperse nano-size materials. The new characteristics of the PLASMALAB reactor are the method of feeding the charge, plasma arc control and anode design. The disperse charge is fed by a charge feeding system operating on gravity principle through a hollow cathode of an arc plasma torch situated along the axis of a water-cooled wall vertical tubular reactor. The powdered material is brought into the zone of a plasma space generated by the DC rotating transferred plasma arc. The arc is subjected to Auto-Electro-Magnetic Rotation (AEMR) by an inductor serially connected to the anode circuit. The anode is in the form of a water-cooled copper ring. It is mounted concentrically within the cylindrical reactor, with its lower part electrically insulated from it. The electric parameters of the arc in the reactor and the quantity of processed charge are maintained at a level permitting generation of a volumetric plasma discharge. This mode enables one to attain high mean mass temperature while the processed disperse material flows along the reactor axis through the plasma zone where the main physico-chemical processes take place. The product obtained leaves the reactor through the annular anode, from where it enters a cooling chamber for fixing the produced nano-structure. Experiments for AlN synthesis from aluminium power and nitrogen were carried out using the plasma reactor

  19. Nano-sized cosmetic formulations or solid nanoparticles in sunscreens: a risk to human health?

    PubMed

    Nohynek, Gerhard J; Dufour, Eric K

    2012-07-01

    Personal care products (PCP) often contain micron- or nano-sized formulation components, such as nanoemulsions or microscopic vesicles. A large number of studies suggest that such vesicles do not penetrate human skin beyond the superficial layers of the stratum corneum. Nano-sized PCP formulations may enhance or reduce skin absorption of ingredients, albeit at a limited scale. Modern sunscreens contain insoluble titanium dioxide (TiO₂) or zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles (NP), which are efficient filters of UV light. A large number of studies suggest that insoluble NP do not penetrate into or through human skin. A number of in vivo toxicity tests, including in vivo intravenous studies, showed that TiO₂ and ZnO NP are non-toxic and have an excellent skin tolerance. Cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, photo-genotoxicity, general toxicity and carcinogenicity studies on TiO₂ and ZnO NP found no difference in the safety profile of micro- or nano-sized materials, all of which were found to be non-toxic. Although some published in vitro studies on insoluble nano- or micron-sized particles suggested cell uptake, oxidative cell damage or genotoxicity, these data are consistent with those from micron-sized particles and should be interpreted with caution. Data on insoluble NP, such as surgical implant-derived wear debris particles or intravenously administered magnetic resonance contrast agents suggest that toxicity of small particles is generally related to their chemistry rather than their particle size. Overall, the weight of scientific evidence suggests that insoluble NP used in sunscreens pose no or negligible risk to human health, but offer large health benefits, such as the protection of human skin against UV-induced skin ageing and cancer.

  20. Pilot scale application of nanosized iron oxides as electron acceptors for bioremediation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosch, Julian; Fritzsche, Andreas; Frank-Fahle, Beatrice; Lüders, Tilmann; Höss, Sebastian; Eisenmann, Heinrich; Held, Thomas; Totsche, Kai U.; Meckenstock, Rainer U.

    2014-05-01

    Microbial reduction of ferric iron is a major biogeochemical process in groundwater aquifer ecosystems and often associated with the degradation of organic contaminants, as bacteria couple iron reduction to the oxidation reduced carbon like e.g. BTEX. Yet in general the low bioavailability of natural iron oxides limits microbial reduction rates. However, nanosized iron oxides have an unequally enhanced bioavailability and reactivity compared to their respective bulk, macro-sized, and more crystalline materials. At the same time, nanosized iron oxides can be produced in stable colloidal suspensions, permitting efficient injections into contaminated aquifers. We examined the reactivity of nanosized synthetic colloidal iron oxides in microbial iron reduction. Application of colloidal nanoparticles led to a strong and sustainable enhancement of microbial reaction rates in batch experiments and sediment columns. Toluene oxidation was increased five-fold as compared to bulk, non-colloidal ferrihydrite as electron acceptor. Furthermore, we developed a unique approach for custom-tailoring the subsurface mobility of these particles after being injected into a contaminant plume. In a field pilot application, we injected 18 m3 of an iron oxide nanoparticle solution into a BTEX contaminated aquifer with a maximum excess pressure as low as 0.2 bar. The applied suspension showed a superior subsurface mobility, creating a reactive zone of 4 m height (corresponding to the height of the confined aquifer) and 6 m in diameter. Subsequent monitoring of BTEX, microbial BTEX degradation metabolites, ferrous iron generation, stable isotopes fractionation, microbial populations, and methanogenesis demonstrated the strong impact of our approach. Mathematic processed X-ray diffractograms and FTIR spectra provided a semi-quantitatively estimate of the long-term fate of the iron oxide colloids in the aquifer. Potential environmental risks of the injection itself were monitored with

  1. Modifications in Glass Ionomer Cements: Nano-Sized Fillers and Bioactive Nanoceramics

    PubMed Central

    Najeeb, Shariq; Khurshid, Zohaib; Zafar, Muhammad Sohail; Khan, Abdul Samad; Zohaib, Sana; Martí, Juan Manuel Nuñez; Sauro, Salvatore; Matinlinna, Jukka Pekka; Rehman, Ihtesham Ur

    2016-01-01

    Glass ionomer cements (GICs) are being used for a wide range of applications in dentistry. In order to overcome the poor mechanical properties of glass ionomers, several modifications have been introduced to the conventional GICs. Nanotechnology involves the use of systems, modifications or materials the size of which is in the range of 1–100 nm. Nano-modification of conventional GICs and resin modified GICs (RMGICs) can be achieved by incorporation of nano-sized fillers to RMGICs, reducing the size of the glass particles, and introducing nano-sized bioceramics to the glass powder. Studies suggest that the commercially available nano-filled RMGIC does not hold any significant advantage over conventional RMGICs as far as the mechanical and bonding properties are concerned. Conversely, incorporation of nano-sized apatite crystals not only increases the mechanical properties of conventional GICs, but also can enhance fluoride release and bioactivity. By increasing the crystallinity of the set matrix, apatites can make the set cement chemically more stable, insoluble, and improve the bond strength with tooth structure. Increased fluoride release can also reduce and arrest secondary caries. However, due to a lack of long-term clinical studies, the use of nano-modified glass ionomers is still limited in daily clinical dentistry. In addition to the in vitro and in vivo studies, more randomized clinical trials are required to justify the use of these promising materials. The aim of this paper is to review the modification performed in GIC-based materials to improve their physicochemical properties. PMID:27428956

  2. Comparison of radiation shielding ratios of nano-sized bismuth trioxide and molybdenum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, J. H.; Kim, M. S.; Rhim, J. D.

    2015-07-01

    In this study, radiation shielding fibers using non-hazardous nano-sized bismuth trioxide and molybdenum instead of lead were developed and evaluated. Among the elements with high densities and atomic numbers, non-hazardous elements such as bismuth trioxide and molybdenum were chosen as a shielding element. Then, bismuth trioxide (Bi2O3) with average particle size 1-500 µm was ball milled for 10 min to produce a powdered form of nanoparticles with average particle size of 10-100 nm. Bismuth trioxide nanoparticles were dispersed to make a colloidal suspension, followed by spreading and hardening onto one or two sides of fabric, to create the radiation shielding fabric. The thicknesses of the shielding sheets using nano-sized bismuth and molybdenum were 0.4 and 0.7 mm. According to the lead equivalent test of X-ray shielding products suggested by KS, the equivalent dose was measured, followed by calculation of the shielding rate. The shielding rate of bismuth with 0.4 mm thickness and at 50 kVp was 90.5%, which is comparable to lead of 0.082 mm thickness. The shielding rate of molybdenum was 51.89%%, which is comparable to lead of 0.034 mm. At a thickness of 0.7 mm, the shielding rate of bismuth was 98.73%, equivalent to 0.101 mm Pb, whereas the shielding rate of molybdenum was 74.68%, equivalent to 0.045 mm Pb. In conclusion, the radiation shielding fibers using nano-sized bismuth developed in this study are capable of reducing radiation exposure by X-ray and its low-dose scatter ray.

  3. Coadsorption of lithium and oxygen on W(1 1 2): nanosized facets versus single crystals.

    PubMed

    Suchorski, Y; Hupalo, M S

    2011-05-01

    Coadsorption of lithium and oxygen on a nanosized W-tip is studied using field ion appearance energy spectroscopy (FIAES). Binding energies of coadsorbed Li-adatoms are derived locally for chosen atomic sites on (1 1 2) facets for different oxygen and Li-coverages. Independently, the binding energies of Li-adatoms in coadsorbed Li/oxygen layers are determined for macroscopic W(1 1 2) single crystal samples from the adsorption isobars in adsorption-desorption equilibrium experiments and compared with the local nm-scale measurements. The comparison reveals a very good agreement of results obtained by two different methods on differing length scales.

  4. Nano-sized layered aluminium or zinc-manganese oxides as efficient water oxidizing catalysts.

    PubMed

    Najafpour, Mohammad Mahdi; Pashaei, Babak; Nayeri, Sara

    2012-06-21

    Nano-sized layered aluminium or zinc-manganese oxides were synthesized and characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction spectrometry, dynamic light scattering and atomic absorption spectroscopy. These oxides showed efficient water oxidizing activity in the presence of cerium(IV) ammonium nitrate as a non-oxo transfer oxidant. Amounts of dissolved manganese, zinc or aluminium, and water oxidation activities of these oxides were reported and compared with other manganese oxides. A mechanism for oxygen evolution and possible roles for zinc or aluminium ions are also proposed.

  5. Phase-Slip Avalanches in the Superflow of {sup 4}He through Arrays of Nanosize Apertures

    SciTech Connect

    Pekker, David; Barankov, Roman; Goldbart, Paul M.

    2007-04-27

    In response to recent experiments by the Berkeley group, we construct a model of superflow through an array of nanosize apertures that incorporates two basic ingredients: (1) disorder associated with each aperture having its own random critical velocity, and (2) effective interaperture coupling, mediated through the bulk superfluid. As the disorder becomes weak there is a transition from a regime where phase slips are largely independent to a regime where interactions lead to system-wide avalanches of phase slips. We explore the flow dynamics in both regimes, and make connections to the experiments.

  6. Enhancement of hybrid rocket combustion performance using nano-sized energetic particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Risha, Grant Alexander

    Until now, the regression rate of classical hybrid rocket engines have typically been an order of magnitude lower than solid propellant motors; thus, hybrids require a relatively large fuel surface area for a given thrust level. In addition to low linear regression rates, relatively low combustion efficiency (87 to 92%), low mass burning rates, varying oxidizer-to-fuel ratio during operation, and lack of scaling laws have been reported. These disadvantages can be ameliorated by introducing nano-sized energetic powder additives into the solid fuel. The addition of nano-sized energetic particles into the solid fuel enhances performance as measured by parameters such as: density specific impulse, mass and linear burning rates, and thrust. Thermophysical properties of the solid fuel such as density, heat of combustion, thermal diffusivity, and thermal conductivity are also enhanced. The types of nano-sized energetic particles used in this study include aluminum, boron, boron carbide, and some Viton-A coated particles. Since the combustion process of solid fuels in a hybrid rocket engine is governed by the mass flux of the oxidizer entering the combustion chamber, the rate-limiting process is the mixing and reacting of the pyrolysis products of the fuel grain with the incoming oxidizer. The overall goal of this research was to determine the relative propulsive and combustion behavior for a family of newly-developed HTPB-based solid-fuel formulations containing various nano-sized energetic particles. Seventeen formulations contained 13% additive by weight, one formulation (SF4) contained 6.5% additive by weight, and one formulation (SF19) contained 5.65% boron by weight. The two hybrid rocket engines which were used in this investigation were the Long Grain Center-Perforated (LGCP) rocket engine and the X-Ray Transparent Casing (XTC) rocket engine. The smaller scale LGCP rocket engine was used to evaluate all of the formulations because conducting experiments using the

  7. Structure and Optical Features of Micro/Nanosized Carbon Forms Prepared by Electrochemical Exfoliation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nedilko, Sergii G.; Revo, Sergiy; Chornii, Vitalii; Scherbatskyi, Vasyl; Ivanenko, Kateryna; Nedielko, Maksym; Sementsov, Yurii; Skoryk, Mykola; Nikolenko, Andrii; Strelchuk, Victor

    2017-01-01

    Micro/nanosized carbon materials were prepared by electrochemical exfoliation method in the forms of the colloids and thin films. Scanning electronic microscopy, optical and luminescent microscopy, and Raman scattering and luminescent spectroscopy were applied for characterization of materials. The wide photoluminescence band in the visible spectral region was observed for each of the samples. The shape of the photoluminescence band depends on excitation wavelength and on the size of the particles. At least two components with maxima at 580 and 710 nm can be distinguished in the photoluminescence spectra. The relations between the photoluminescence properties and morphology of the samples have been described and discussed.

  8. Initiation of detonation by a high-voltage discharge in powdered explosives with nanosize inert admixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rashkovskii, S. A.; Savenkov, G. G.

    2013-04-01

    It is shown that admixtures of a copper nanopowder in a high-disperse low-sensitivity explosive of the FOX-7 type sharply increase the sensitivity of the mixture to the action of a high-voltage electric discharge and facilitate detonation. The percolation model of propagation of the electric breakdown over a powdered mixture with nanosize admixtures and the model of initiation of detonation by a high-voltage discharge in the mixture of a brisant explosive with an inert admixture are developed. These models are in qualitative and quantitative agreement with experimental data.

  9. Plasma Processed Nanosized-Powders of Refractory Compounds for Obtaining Fine-Grained Advanced Ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    I, Zalite; J, Grabis; E, Palcevskis; M, Herrmann

    2011-10-01

    One of the ways for the production of ceramic materials with a fine-grained structure is the use of nanopowders. Different methods are used for the production of nanopowders. One of them is the method of plasmachemical synthesis. Different nanopowders of refractory materials can be obtained by this method. The preparation of nanosized powders of nitrides and oxides and their composites by the method of plasmachemical synthesis, the possibilities to receive nanopowders with different particle size and the potential advantages of nanopowders were investigated.

  10. Hydrothermal synthesis of nanosize phases based on non-ferrous and noble metals

    SciTech Connect

    Tupikova, E. N. Platonov, I. A. Lykova, T. N.

    2016-04-13

    Research is devoted to reactions of binary complexes containing noble (platinum, palladium) and non-ferrous (cobalt, chrome) metals. Reactions proceed under hydrothermal conditions by the autoclave technique. Initials complexes and products of autoclave thermolysis were characterized by the FT-IR spectroscopy, the transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and the energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). Comparative catalytic experiments in the test reaction were conducted. The obtained results can form the basis of new methods of nanosize multicomponent phases synthesis under hydrothermal conditions.

  11. Hydrothermal synthesis of nanosize phases based on non-ferrous and noble metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tupikova, E. N.; Platonov, I. A.; Lykova, T. N.

    2016-04-01

    Research is devoted to reactions of binary complexes containing noble (platinum, palladium) and non-ferrous (cobalt, chrome) metals. Reactions proceed under hydrothermal conditions by the autoclave technique. Initials complexes and products of autoclave thermolysis were characterized by the FT-IR spectroscopy, the transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and the energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). Comparative catalytic experiments in the test reaction were conducted. The obtained results can form the basis of new methods of nanosize multicomponent phases synthesis under hydrothermal conditions.

  12. Ferromagnetic effects for nanofluid venture through composite permeable stenosed arteries with different nanosize particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akbar, Noreen Sher; Mustafa, M. T.

    2015-07-01

    In the present article ferromagnetic field effects for copper nanoparticles for blood flow through composite permeable stenosed arteries is discussed. The copper nanoparticles for the blood flow with water as base fluid with different nanosize particles is not explored upto yet. The equations for the Cu-water nanofluid are developed first time in literature and simplified using long wavelength and low Reynolds number assumptions. Exact solutions have been evaluated for velocity, pressure gradient, the solid volume fraction of the nanoparticles and temperature profile. Effect of various flow parameters on the flow and heat transfer characteristics are utilized.

  13. Hydrodeoxygenation of fatty acid esters catalyzed by Ni on nano-sized MFI type zeolites

    SciTech Connect

    Schreiber, Moritz W.; Rodriguez-Niño, Daniella; Gutiérrez, Oliver Y.; Lercher, Johannes A.

    2016-01-01

    The impact of support morphology and composition on the intrinsic activity of Ni supported on MFI-type zeolite was explored in the hydrodeoxygenation of methyl stearate, tristearate, and algae oil (mixture of triglycerides). The nano-sized structure of the support (self-pillared nanosheets) is beneficial for the activity of the catalysts. Higher Ni dispersion and concomitant higher reaction rates were obtained on nano-structured supports than on zeolite with conventional morphology. Rates normalized to accessible Ni atoms (TOF), however, varied little with support morphology. Acidity of the support increases the rate of Ni-catalyzed C-O hydrogenolysis per surface metal site.

  14. Superior high creep resistance of in situ nano-sized TiCx/Al-Cu-Mg composite.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Qiu, Feng; Zhao, Qinglong; Zha, Min; Jiang, Qichuan

    2017-07-03

    The tensile creep behavior of Al-Cu-Mg alloy and its composite containing in situ nano-sized TiCx were explored at temperatures of 493 K, 533 K and 573 K with the applied stresses in the range of 40 to 100 MPa. The composite reinforced by nano-sized TiCx particles exhibited excellent creep resistance ability, which was about 4-15 times higher than those of the unreinforced matrix alloy. The stress exponent of 5 was noticed for both Al-Cu-Mg alloy and its composite, which suggested that their creep behavior was related to dislocation climb mechanism. During deformation at elevated temperatures, the enhanced creep resistance of the composite was mainly attributed to two aspects: (a) Orowan strengthening and grain boundary (GB) strengthening induced by nano-sized TiCx particles, (b) θ' and S' precipitates strengthening.

  15. Synthesis of nanosize MCM-41 loaded with TiO 2 and study of its photocatalytic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadjadi, M. S.; Farhadyar, N.; Zare, K.

    2009-07-01

    In recent years, nanosized mesoporous materials have received significant attention due to their impact in different processes. Several diverse applications of these materials, e.g. high density magnetic recording, magnetic fluids, magnetic refrigeration as well as in photocatalysis, solar cells, photosensors, have triggered considerable research activities in the area of nanotechnology. In this work, nanosize MCM-41 was synthesized and loaded then with TiO 2 using tetra butoxy titanium (TBT). As prepared TiO 2 loaded materials was investigated by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The photocatalytic activity of the prepared TiO 2 loaded MCM-41 was finally evaluated by the degradation of methyl orange under irradiation of UV light. The result showed that TiO 2 loaded on nanosize MCM-41 has higher photocatalytic activity than that of TiO 2.

  16. Presence of nano-sized silica during in vitro digestion of foods containing silica as a food additive.

    PubMed

    Peters, Ruud; Kramer, Evelien; Oomen, Agnes G; Rivera, Zahira E Herrera; Oegema, Gerlof; Tromp, Peter C; Fokkink, Remco; Rietveld, Anton; Marvin, Hans J P; Weigel, Stefan; Peijnenburg, Ad A C M; Bouwmeester, Hans

    2012-03-27

    The presence, dissolution, agglomeration state, and release of materials in the nano-size range from food containing engineered nanoparticles during human digestion is a key question for the safety assessment of these materials. We used an in vitro model to mimic the human digestion. Food products subjected to in vitro digestion included (i) hot water, (ii) coffee with powdered creamer, (iii) instant soup, and (iv) pancake which either contained silica as the food additive E551, or to which a form of synthetic amorphous silica or 32 nm SiO(2) particles were added. The results showed that, in the mouth stage of the digestion, nano-sized silica particles with a size range of 5-50 and 50-500 nm were present in food products containing E551 or added synthetic amorphous silica. However, during the successive gastric digestion stage, this nano-sized silica was no longer present for the food matrices coffee and instant soup, while low amounts were found for pancakes. Additional experiments showed that the absence of nano-sized silica in the gastric stage can be contributed to an effect of low pH combined with high electrolyte concentrations in the gastric digestion stage. Large silica agglomerates are formed under these conditions as determined by DLS and SEM experiments and explained theoretically by the extended DLVO theory. Importantly, in the subsequent intestinal digestion stage, the nano-sized silica particles reappeared again, even in amounts higher than in the saliva (mouth) digestion stage. These findings suggest that, upon consumption of foods containing E551, the gut epithelium is most likely exposed to nano-sized silica.

  17. [Preconcentration of Trace Cu(II) in Water Samples with Nano-Sized ZnO and Determination by GFAAS].

    PubMed

    Huang, Si-si; Zhang, Xu; Qian, Sha-hua

    2015-09-01

    The content of copper in natural water is very low, and direct determination is difficult. Therefore, it is very meaningful for the combination of efficient separation-enrichment technology and highly sensitive detection. Based on the high adsorption capacity of Cu(II) onto nano-sized ZnO, a novel method by using nano-sized ZnO as adsorbent and graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry as determination means was in this work. The adsorption behaviors of Cu(II) on nano-sized ZnO was studied. Effects of acidity, adsorption equilibrium time, adsorbent dosage and coexisting ions on adsorption rates were investigated. The results showed that the adsorption efficiency was above 95% in a pH range from 3.0 to 7.0. Compared with other adsorbents for trace element enrichment such as activated carbon, nano-sized TiO2 powder, the most prominent advantage is nano-sized ZnO precipitate with the concentrated element can directly dissolved in HCl solution without any filtration and desorption process can directly analyzed by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry or inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry. Compared with colloid nano materials, nano-sized ZnO is the true solution after dissolving have small matrix effect and viscosity more suitable for graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry or inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry detection. The proposed method possesses low detection limit (0.13 μg · L(-1)) and good precision (RSD=2.2%). The recoveries for the analysis of environmental samples were in a rang of 91.6%~92.6% and the analysis results of certified materials were compellent by using the proposed method.

  18. Spongelike Nanosized Mn3O4 as a High-Capacity Anode Material for Rechargeable Lithium Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Jie; Lowe, Michael A.; Abruna, Hector D.

    2011-07-12

    Mn₃O₄ has been investigated as a high-capacity anode material for rechargeable lithium ion batteries. Spongelike nanosized Mn₃O₄ was synthesized by a simple precipitation method and characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, Raman scattering and scanning electron microscopy. Its electrochemical performance, as an anode material, was evaluated by galvanostatic discharge–charge tests. The results indicate that this novel type of nanosized Mn₃O₄ exhibits a high initial reversible capacity (869 mA h/g) and significantly enhanced first Coulomb efficiency with a stabilized reversible capacity of around 800 mA h/g after over 40 charge/discharge cycles.

  19. Enhancement of oral bioavailability of an HIV-attachment inhibitor by nanosizing and amorphous formulation approaches.

    PubMed

    Fakes, Michael G; Vakkalagadda, Blisse J; Qian, Feng; Desikan, Sridhar; Gandhi, Rajesh B; Lai, Chiajen; Hsieh, Alice; Franchini, Miriam K; Toale, Helen; Brown, Jonathan

    2009-03-31

    BMS-488043 is an HIV-attachment inhibitor that exhibited suboptimal oral bioavailability upon using conventional dosage forms prepared utilizing micronized crystalline drug substance. BMS-488043 is classified as a Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS) Class-II compound with a poor aqueous solubility of 0.04mg/mL and an acceptable permeability of 178nm/s in the Caco2 cell-line model. Two strategies were evaluated to potentially enhance the oral bioavailability of BMS-488043. The first strategy targeted particle size reduction through nanosizing the crystalline drug substance. The second strategy aimed at altering the drug's physical form by producing an amorphous drug. Both strategies provided an enhancement in oral bioavailability in dogs as compared to a conventional formulation containing the micronized crystalline drug substance. BMS-488043 oral bioavailability enhancement was approximately 5- and 9-folds for nanosizing and amorphous formulation approaches, respectively. The stability of the amorphous coprecipitated drug prepared at different compositions of BMS-488043/polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) was evaluated upon exposure to stressed stability conditions of temperature and humidity. The drastic effect of exposure to humidity on conversion of the amorphous drug to crystalline form was observed. Additionally, the dissolution behavior of coprecipitated drug was evaluated under discriminatory conditions of different pH values to optimize the BMS-488043/PVP composition and produce a stabilized, amorphous BMS-488043/PVP (40/60, w/w) spray-dried intermediate (SDI), which was formulated into an oral dosage form for further development and evaluation.

  20. Snow-borne nanosized particles: Abundance, distribution, composition, and significance in ice nucleation processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rangel-Alvarado, Rodrigo Benjamin; Nazarenko, Yevgen; Ariya, Parisa A.

    2015-11-01

    Physicochemical processes of nucleation constitute a major uncertainty in understanding aerosol-cloud interactions. To improve the knowledge of the ice nucleation process, we characterized physical, chemical, and biological properties of fresh snow using a suite of state-of-the-art techniques based on mass spectrometry, electron microscopy, chromatography, and optical particle sizing. Samples were collected at two North American Arctic sites, as part of international campaigns (2006 and 2009), and in the city of Montreal, Canada, over the last decade. Particle size distribution analyses, in the range of 3 nm to 10 µm, showed that nanosized particles are the most numerous (38-71%) in fresh snow, with a significant portion (11 to 19%) less than 100 nm in size. Particles with diameters less than 200 nm consistently exhibited relatively high ice-nucleating properties (on average ranged from -19.6 ± 2.4 to -8.1 ± 2.6°C). Chemical analysis of the nanosized fraction suggests that they contain bioorganic materials, such as amino acids, as well as inorganic compounds with similar characteristics to mineral dust. The implication of nanoparticle ubiquity and abundance in diverse snow ecosystems are discussed in the context of their importance in understanding atmospheric nucleation processes.

  1. Gehlenite:Eu3+ phosphors from a silicone resin and nano-sized fillers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernardo, E.; Fiocco, L.; Prnová, A.; Klement, R.; Galusek, D.

    2014-05-01

    Gehlenite (Ca2Al2SiO7) ceramics have been successfully prepared by a novel approach, consisting of the heat treatment of a silicone resin embedding CaO and Al2O3 precursors, in the form of nano-sized particles that act as reactive fillers. Luminescence was due to the use of nano-sized Eu2O3 as secondary additive, particularly adopting a charge compensation formulation, i.e. Ca2-2xEu2xAl(Al1+2xSi1-2xO7), with x = 0.07. The phase development and the emission characteristics could be adjusted by simply changing the thermal treatment applied to powders of silicone/fillers mixtures. While conventional firing at 1300 °C (for 1 h) led to practically phase-pure crystalline Eu-doped gehlenite, exhibiting a strong red luminescence, flame synthesis yielded amorphous powders, exhibiting an emission in a much broader range. When excited at 394 nm both gehlenite glass and polycrystalline gehlenite emitted light, which CIE chromaticity coordinates were found to be (x = 0.65, y = 0.35), indicating that both systems are good candidates for red light emitting phosphors.

  2. Linking two distinct layered networks of nanosized {Ln18} and {Cu24} wheels through isonicotinate ligands.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jian-Wen; Zhang, Jie; Zheng, Shou-Tian; Yang, Guo-Yu

    2008-01-01

    A new series of heterolanthanide(III)-copper(I) wheel-cluster complexes [Ln6(micro3-O)2](IN)18-[Cu8(micro4-I)2(micro2-I)3].H3O (IN=isonicotinate; Ln=Y 1, Nd 2, Dy 3, Gd 4, Sm 5, Eu 6, Tb 7) were prepared by hydrothermal reaction at low pH. X-ray crystallographic studies reveal that two unusual trinuclear [Ln3(micro3-O)] and tetranuclear [Cu4(micro4-I)] cores are successfully used as secondary building units to make two different nanosized wheels [Ln18(micro3-O)6(CO2)48](6-), {Ln18}, and [Cu24(micro4-I)6(micro2-I)12]6+, {Cu24}, with 12-rings and a diameter of 26.7 and 26.4 A, respectively. The wheels are further assembled into two-dimensional (2D) {Ln18} and {Cu24} networks, the linkages between two distinct layered networks of {Ln18} and {Cu24} wheels by IN pillars along the c axis giving a series of unprecedented three-dimensional (3D) sandwich frameworks. To our knowledge, compounds 1-7 are the first examples containing two different layered networks of nanosized Ln and transition metal (TM) wheels in wheel-cluster chemistry. The IR, UV/Vis, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), luminescent, and magnetic properties of these complexes were also studied.

  3. Phytotoxicity of ionic, micro- and nano-sized iron in three plant species.

    PubMed

    Libralato, G; Costa Devoti, A; Zanella, M; Sabbioni, E; Mičetić, I; Manodori, L; Pigozzo, A; Manenti, S; Groppi, F; Volpi Ghirardini, A

    2016-01-01

    Potential environmental impacts of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) can be understood taking into consideration phytotoxicity. We reported on the effects of ionic (FeCl3), micro- and nano-sized zerovalent iron (nZVI) about the development of three macrophytes: Lepidium sativum, Sinapis alba and Sorghum saccharatum. Four toxicity indicators (seed germination, seedling elongation, germination index and biomass) were assessed following exposure to each iron concentration interval: 1.29-1570mg/L (FeCl3), 1.71-10.78mg/L (micro-sized iron) and 4.81-33,560mg/L (nano-iron). Exposure effects were also observed by optical and transmission electron microscopy. Results showed that no significant phytotoxicity effects could be detected for both micro- and nano-sized zerovalent irons, including field nanoremediation concentrations. Biostimulation effects such as an increased seedling length and biomass production were detected at the highest exposure concentrations. Ionic iron showed slight toxicity effects only at 1570mg/L and, therefore, no median effect concentrations were determined. By microscopy, ENPs were not found in palisade cells or xylem. Apparently, aggregates of nZVI were found inside S. alba and S. saccharatum, although false positives during sample preparation cannot be excluded. Macroscopically, black spots and coatings were detected on roots of all species especially at the most concentrated treatments. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. [Studies on Ag-TiO2/KIT-6 composite nanosized photocatalyst].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Feng-Li; Zheng, Yuan-Hui; Zhan, Ying-Ying; Lin, Xing-Yi; Zhang, Han-Hui; Zheng, Qi

    2009-08-01

    In the present paper, ordered mesoporous silica (KIT-6) as support, nanosized TiO2 into KIT-6 was synthesized by titanium tetraisopropoxide hydrolysis. Then silver was loaded by deposition-precipitation method. Ag-TiO2/KIT-6 composite nanosized photocatalyst was firstly synthesized and a series of correlated catalysts were synthesized by the same preparation method. Methyl orange is presently adopted as a representative organic pollutant to evaluate the photocatalytic performance of the as-synthesized catalysts. The order of photocatalytic activity of the as-synthesized samples was found as Ag-TiO2/KIT-6 > Ag/TiO2 > TiO2/KIT-6 > TiO2 > Ag/KIT-6. Detailed characterizations were conducted by techniques including XRD, N2 physical adsorption, XPS, UV-Vis DRS and TEM. It was found that the Ag-TiO2 /KIT-6 sample shows the highest photocatalytic activity, which should be attributed to the Ag-TiO2 heterojunction structure and higher BET surface area of the Ag-TiO2/KIT-6 sample. Ag-TiO2 heterojunction improves the separation of photogenerated electron-hole pairs, thus enhancing the photocatalytic activity; Ag-TiO2/KIT-6 sample possesses high BET surface area, which facilitates adsorption and transportation of dye molecules, also leading to higher photocatalytic activity.

  5. Nano-sized Mn oxide/agglomerated silsesquioxane composite as a good catalyst for water oxidation.

    PubMed

    Najafpour, Mohammad Mahdi; Madadkhani, Sepideh

    2016-12-01

    Water splitting to hydrogen and oxygen is an important reaction to store sustainable energies, and water oxidation is identified as the bottleneck for water splitting because it requires the high activation energy to perform. Herein a nano-sized Mn oxide/agglomerated silsesquioxane composite was used to synthesize an efficient catalyst for water oxidation. The composite was synthesized by a straightforward and simple procedure and characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering, X-ray diffraction spectrometry, and electrochemical methods. Silsesquioxane causes good dispersion of Mn in the composite. The water-oxidizing activity of this composite was studied in the presence of cerium(IV) ammonium nitrate. The composite at the best calcination temperature (300 °C) shows a turnover frequency 0.3 (mmol O2/mol Mn.s). Regarding the low-cost, environmentally friendly precursors, simple synthesis, and efficiency for water oxidation, the composite is a promising catalyst that can be used in artificial photosynthetic systems for water splitting. We used Agglomerated silsesquioxane as a support for nano-sized Mn oxide to synthesize a good water-oxidizing catalyst.

  6. Surface Formation of Single Silicon Wafer Polished with Nano-sized Al2O3 Powders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yu-li; Zuo, Dun-wen; Zhu, Yong-wei; Wang, Min

    2007-12-01

    Ice polishing single silicon wafers with nano-sized Al2O3 abrasives can be known as ice fixed abrasives chemical mechanical polishing (IFA-CMP). TAn abrasive slurry was made of nano-sized Al2O3 particles dispersed in de-ionized water with a surfactant and the slurry was frozen to form an ice polishing pad. Then polishing tests of blanket silicon wafers with the above ice polishing pad were carried out. The morphologies and surface roughness of the polished silicon wafers were observed and examined on an atomic force microscope. The subsurface damage was assessed by means of cross-section transmission electron microscopy. The surface chemical constituents of the polished silicon wafers were characterized using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy in order to gain insight into the chemical mechanisms in the process. Scratch resistance of the single silicon wafer was measured by nanoscratching using a nanoindenter to explore the mechanical removal mechanism. The results show that a super smooth surface with an average roughness of 0.367 nm is obtained within 1000 nm × 1000 nm and there is a perfect silicon diamond structure without any microcracks in the subsurface. The removal of material is dominated by the coactions of ductile regime machining and chemical corrosion. In the end, a model of material removal of IFA-CMP is built.

  7. Production of nanosized carbon black from hydrocarbon by a thermal plasma.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hye-Min; Nam, Won-Ki; Park, Dong-Wha

    2007-11-01

    Thermal plasma conditions (optimal heat and radical sources for the thermal decomposition) can be used to accelerate thermodynamically favorable chemical reactions or provide the energy required for endothermic reforming processes. Direct thermal decomposition of hydrocarbon (methane, acetylene, and propane) was carried out using a thermal plasma system which is an environmentally favorable process. In case of thermal decomposition, high purity of the hydrogen and solidified nano-sized carbon can be achieved without any contaminant. The main product carbon produced by thermal decomposition can be either sequestered or used as a raw material and it can be applied for the varieties of industry fields. The morphology of the carbon was characterized by SEM and the particle size was determined by a particle size analyzer. It was observed that the carbon black particles were sphere particles with mainly several tens of nano-sized diameters, those are about 10-80 nm. It can be expected to be used as a raw material of laser printer toner which requires small sized carbon black particles; An average primary particle size of PRINTEX L (Degussa Fillers & Pigment) used in a part of printing inks is 23 nm. In case of the XRD pattern of the produced carbon black from acetylene is of higher crystalline than the commercialized carbon black used for fuel cells. Also carbon species produced were characterized by EA and TGA.

  8. Substitution reactions of thorium(IV) acetate to synthesize nano-sized carboxylate complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baranwal, Balram P.; Fatma, Talat; Varma, Anand; Singh, Alok K.

    2010-04-01

    Some mixed-ligand thorium(IV) complexes with the general formula [Th(OOCCH 3) 4- nL n] (L = anions of myristic, palmitic or stearic acid and n = 1-4) have been synthesized by the stepwise substitution of acetate ions of thorium(IV) acetate with straight chain carboxylic acids in toluene under reflux. The complexes were characterized by elemental analyses, spectral (electronic, infrared, NMR and powder XRD) studies, electrical conductance and magnetic susceptibility measurements. Doubly and triply bridged coordination modes of the ligands were established by their infrared spectra and nano-size of the complexes by powder XRD. Room temperature magnetic susceptibility measurements revealed diamagnetic nature of the complexes. Electronic absorption spectra of the complexes showed π → π*, n → π* and charge transfer transitions. Molar conductance values indicated the complex to be non-electrolytes. These are a new type of mixed-ligand thorium(IV) complexes for which a nano-sized, oxygen bridged polymeric structure has been established on the basis of physico-chemical studies.

  9. Fe–Ni solid solutions in nano-size dimensions: Effect of hydrogen annealing

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Asheesh; Meena, S.S.; Banerjee, S.; Sudarsan, V.; Yusuf, S.M.

    2016-02-15

    Highlights: • Fe–Ni solid solution with nano-size dimensions were prepared and characterized. • Both as prepared and hydrogenated solid solutions have FCC structure of Ni. • Paramagnetic and ferromagnetic domains coexist in these samples. - Abstract: Nanoparticles of Ni{sub 0.50}Fe{sub 0.50} and Ni{sub 0.75}Fe{sub 0.25} alloys were prepared by chemical reduction in ethylene glycol medium. XRD and {sup 57}Fe Mössbauer studies have confirmed the formation of Fe–Ni solid solution in nano-size dimensions with FCC structure. These samples consist of both ferromagnetic and paramagnetic domains which have been attributed to the coexistence of large and small particles as confirmed by atomic force microscopic (AFM) and {sup 57}Fe Mössbauer spectroscopic studies. Improved extent of Fe–Fe exchange interaction existing in Ni{sub 0.50}Fe{sub 0.50} alloy compared to Ni{sub 0.75}Fe{sub 0.25} alloy explains the observed increase in the relative extent of ferromagnetic domains compared to paramagnetic domains in the former sample. Increase in the relative extent of ferromagnetic domains for hydrogenated alloys is due to increase in particle size brought about by the high temperature activation prior to hydrogenation.

  10. Study of sodium hyaluronate-based intranasal formulations containing micro- or nanosized meloxicam particles.

    PubMed

    Bartos, Csilla; Ambrus, Rita; Sipos, Péter; Budai-Szűcs, Mária; Csányi, Erzsébet; Gáspár, Róbert; Márki, Árpád; Seres, Adrienn B; Sztojkov-Ivanov, Anita; Horváth, Tamás; Szabó-Révész, Piroska

    2015-08-01

    This article reports on the micro- and nanonization of meloxicam (MEL) with the aim of developing pre-dispersions as intermediates for the design of intranasal formulations. As a new approach, combined wet milling technology was developed in order to reduce the particle size of the MEL. Different milling times resulted in micro- or nanosized MEL in the pre-dispersions with polyvinyl alcohol as stabilizer agent, which were directly used for preparing intranasal liquid formulations with the addition of sodium hyaluronate as mucoadhesive agent. Reduction of the MEL particle size into the nano range led to increased saturation solubility and dissolution velocities, and increased adhesiveness to surfaces as compared with microsized MEL particles. A linear correlation was demonstrated between the specific surface area of MEL and the AUC. The in vitro and in vivo studies indicated that the longer residence time and the uniform distribution of nano MEL spray throughout an artificial membrane and the nasal mucosa resulted in better diffusion and a higher AUC. Nanosized MEL may be suggested for the development of an innovative dosage form with a different dose of the drug, as a possible administration route for pain management.

  11. Nanosized rods agglomerates as a new approach for formulation of a dry powder inhaler

    PubMed Central

    Salem, HF; Abdelrahim, ME; Eid, K Abo; Sharaf, MA

    2011-01-01

    Background: Nanosized dry powder inhalers provide higher stability for poorly water-soluble drugs as compared with liquid formulations. However, the respirable particles must have a diameter of 1–5 μm in order to deposit in the lungs. Controlled agglomeration of the nanoparticles increases their geometric particle size so they can deposit easily in the lungs. In the lungs, they fall apart to reform nanoparticles, thus enhancing the dissolution rate of the drugs. Theophylline is a bronchodilator with poor solubility in water. Methods: Nanosized theophylline colloids were formed using an amphiphilic surfactant and destabilized using dilute sodium chloride solutions to form the agglomerates. Results: The theophylline nanoparticles thus obtained had an average particle size of 290 nm and a zeta potential of −39.5 mV, whereas the agglomerates were 2.47 μm in size with a zeta potential of −28.9 mV. The release profile was found to follow first-order kinetics (r2 > 0.96). The aerodynamic characteristics of the agglomerated nanoparticles were determined using a cascade impactor. The behavior of the agglomerate was significantly better than unprocessed raw theophylline powder. In addition, the nanoparticles and agglomerates resulted in a significant improvement in the dissolution of theophylline. Conclusion: The results obtained lend support to the hypothesis that controlled agglomeration strategies provide an efficient approach for the delivery of poorly water-soluble drugs into the lungs. PMID:21383856

  12. [Degradation of trace nitrobenzene by nanosized TiO2 catalyzed ozonation].

    PubMed

    Yang, Yi-xin; Ma, Jun; Qin, Qing-dong; Zhao, Lei; Wang, Sheng-jun; Zhang, Jing

    2006-10-01

    Nanosized TiO2 catalyzed ozonation of trace nitrobenzene in water was carried out in an agitated slurry semi-batch. It demonstrated that removal rate of nitrobenzene with catalytic ozonation increased by 44% than ozonation alone. Effect of heat treatments of TiO2, catalyst mass, the initial concentration of ozone and nitrobenzene, and pH were investigated respectively. TiO2 calcined at 550 degrees C showed the best catalytic activity. In the presence of TiO2 calcined at 550 degrees C, about 56.57% of nitrobenzene in the solution could be ozonated. Both ozone dosage and initial concentration of nitrobenzene exerted a positive influence on the catalytic ozonation. But the increase of the catalyst mass did not yield any significant increase of the nitrobenzene removal. The efficiency of catalytic ozonation was special lower at acid pH than basic pH. It was also observed that both ozonation and catalytic ozonation were significantly influenced by tert-butyl alcohol, which testified that nanosized TiO2 catalyzed ozonation of nitrobenzene follows a radicaltype mechanism.

  13. Hydrogen gas sensing properties of PdO thin films with nano-sized cracks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tack Lee, Young; Lee, Jun Min; Kim, Yeon Ju; Hyoun Joe, Jin; Lee, Wooyoung

    2010-04-01

    We report on a novel method for the fabrication of highly sensitive hydrogen gas sensors based on palladium oxide thin films and have investigated their hydrogen sensing properties and nanostructures. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the use of palladium oxide and reduced palladium thin films as hydrogen sensors. The palladium oxide thin films were deposited on thermally oxidized Si substrates using a reactive direct current (DC) magnetron sputtering system. Considerable changes in the resistance of the palladium oxide thin films were observed when they were initially exposed to hydrogen gas, as a result of the reduction process. After the initial exposure to hydrogen gas of PdO30%, its sensitivity increased up to ~ 4.5 × 103%. The morphology of the PdO surface was analyzed using a scanning electron microscope (SEM), in order to investigate the interactions between palladium oxide and hydrogen. The SEM images showed a large number of nano-sized cracks on the surface of the palladium oxide during the reduction process, which acted to increase the effective surface-to-volume ratio. The response behaviors of the reduced Pd films to hydrogen gas were reversible and had an enhanced sensing property when compared with those of the pure Pd films. In addition, their sensitivities and response times were improved due to the nano-sized cracks on the surfaces. The results demonstrate that palladium oxide and reduced palladium thin films can be applied for use in highly sensitive hydrogen sensors.

  14. Early growth of nano-sized calcium phosphate on phosphorylated bacterial cellulose nanofibers.

    PubMed

    Wan, Y Z; Gao, C; Luo, H L; He, F; Liang, H; Li, X L; Wang, Y L

    2009-11-01

    It is believed that studies on the early hydroxyapatite (HAp) deposition on nano-sized substrates may possibly allow us to understand the formation mechanisms of biominerals at the molecular level. In this study, bacterial cellulose (BC) nanofibers were phosphorylated and used as nano-sized templates for early mineralization of calcium phosphate (Ca-P). To initiate mineralization the BC nanofibers were immersed in 1.5 times simulated body fluids (1.5 SBF) at 37 degreees C for varying periods of time. The deposited minerals on the nanofiber surfaces were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). SEM observations confirmed that early growth (at 4 h) of the Ca-P minerals was heterogeneous, which was followed by extensive spread of the minerals on the entire surfaces of the nanofibers. XRD and FTIR analyses indicated that octacalcium phosphate (OCP) was the precursor of HAp formed on BC nanofibers. Furthermore, HAp deposited on BC nanofibers elongated along the c axis. Nucleation and growth of the Ca-P minerals were analyzed in this paper.

  15. Annealing Simulations of Nano-Sized Amorphous Structures in SiC

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Fei; Devanathan, Ram; Zhang, Yanwen; Weber, William J.

    2005-01-01

    A two-dimensional model of a nano-sized amorphous layer embedded in a perfect crystal has been developed, and the amorphous-to-crystalline (a-c) transition in 3C-SiC at 2000 K has been studied using molecular dynamics methods, with simulation times of up to 88 ns. Analysis of the a-c interfaces reveals that the recovery of the bond defects existing at the a-c interfaces plays an important role in recrystallization. During the recrystallization process, a second ordered phase, crystalline 2H-SiC, can be nucleated and grow, and is stable for long simulation times. The crystallization mechanism is a two-step process that is separated by a longer period of second-phase stability. The kink sites formed at the interfaces between 2H- and 3C-SiC provide a low energy path for 2H-SiC atoms to transfer to 3C-SiC atoms, which can be defined as a solid-phase epitaxial transformation (SPET). It is observed that the nano-sized amorphous structure can be fully recrystallized at 2000 K in SiC, which is in agreement with experimental observations.

  16. Hydrogen gas sensing properties of PdO thin films with nano-sized cracks.

    PubMed

    Lee, Young Tack; Lee, Jun Min; Kim, Yeon Ju; Joe, Jin Hyoun; Lee, Wooyoung

    2010-04-23

    We report on a novel method for the fabrication of highly sensitive hydrogen gas sensors based on palladium oxide thin films and have investigated their hydrogen sensing properties and nanostructures. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the use of palladium oxide and reduced palladium thin films as hydrogen sensors. The palladium oxide thin films were deposited on thermally oxidized Si substrates using a reactive direct current (DC) magnetron sputtering system. Considerable changes in the resistance of the palladium oxide thin films were observed when they were initially exposed to hydrogen gas, as a result of the reduction process. After the initial exposure to hydrogen gas of PdO(30%), its sensitivity increased up to approximately 4.5 x 10(3)%. The morphology of the PdO surface was analyzed using a scanning electron microscope (SEM), in order to investigate the interactions between palladium oxide and hydrogen. The SEM images showed a large number of nano-sized cracks on the surface of the palladium oxide during the reduction process, which acted to increase the effective surface-to-volume ratio. The response behaviors of the reduced Pd films to hydrogen gas were reversible and had an enhanced sensing property when compared with those of the pure Pd films. In addition, their sensitivities and response times were improved due to the nano-sized cracks on the surfaces. The results demonstrate that palladium oxide and reduced palladium thin films can be applied for use in highly sensitive hydrogen sensors.

  17. Microbial surfactants: fundamentals and applicability in the formulation of nano-sized drug delivery vectors.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Ligia R

    2015-07-01

    Microbial surfactants, so-called biosurfactants, comprise a wide variety of structurally distinct amphipathic molecules produced by several microorganisms. Besides exhibiting surface activity at the interfaces, these molecules present powerful characteristics including high biodegradability, low toxicity and special biological activities (e.g. antimicrobial, antiviral, anticancer, among others), that make them an alternative to their chemical counterparts. Several medical-related applications have been suggested for these molecules, including some reports on their potential use in the formulation of nano-sized drug delivery vectors. However, despite their promises, due to the generalized lack of knowledge on microbial surfactants phase behavior and stability under diverse physicochemical conditions, these applications remain largely unexplored, thus representing an exciting field of research. These nano-sized vectors are a powerful approach towards the current medical challenges regarding the development of efficient and targeted treatments for several diseases. In this review, a special emphasis will be given to nanoparticles and microemulsions. Nanoparticles are very auspicious as their size, shape and stability can be manipulated by changing the environmental conditions. On the other hand, the easiness of formulation, as well as the broad possibilities of administration justifies the recent popularity of the microemulsions. Notwithstanding, both vector types still require further developments to overcome some critical limitations related with toxicity and costs, among others. Such developments may include the search for other system components, as the microbial surfactants, that can display improved features. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Phonon properties of nanosized MnWO{sub 4} with different size and morphology

    SciTech Connect

    Maczka, MirosLaw; Ptak, Maciej; Kurnatowska, Michalina; Kepinski, Leszek; Tomaszewski, PaweL; Hanuza, Jerzy

    2011-09-15

    Highly hierarchical barlike and flowerlike MnWO{sub 4} microcrystals have been synthesized for the first time by a hydrothermal method, where ethanolamine (EA) and cetyltrimethylamonnium bromide (CTAB) play important roles in directing growth and self-assembly of these structures. The possible formation process has been proposed. In addition, platelike nanosized MnWO{sub 4} was also synthesized by annealing of a precursor obtained by coprecipitation method. The obtained samples were characterized by XRD, SEM, TEM, Raman and IR methods. Raman spectra showed relatively weak dependence on particle size and morphology of the particles. In contrast to this behavior, IR-active bands showed pronounced shifts and changes in relative intensities on particle size and the morphology. Origin of this behavior is discussed. - Graphical Abstract: SEM images of MnWO{sub 4} particles prepared by hydrothermal process at 150 deg. C (left panel) and 200 deg. C (right panel). Highlights: > Hydrothermal synthesis with ethanolamine enables growth of hierarchical nanosized MnWO{sub 4} particles. > Annealing of a precursor obtained by coprecipitation method enables growth of platelike MnWO{sub 4} nanoparticles. > Raman and IR spectra of MnWO{sub 4} nanoparticles depend on both size and morphology of the nanoparticles. > We discuss origin of this behavior.

  19. Nano-sized ceramic inks for drop-on-demand ink-jet printing in quadrichromy.

    PubMed

    Gardini, Davide; Dondi, Michele; Costa, Anna Luisa; Matteucci, Francesco; Blosi, Magda; Galassi, Carmen; Baldi, Giovanni; Cinotti, Elenia

    2008-04-01

    Nano-sized ceramic inks suitable for ink-jet printing have been developed for the four-colours CMYK (cyan, magenta, yellow, black) process. Nano-inks of different pigment composition (Co(1-x)O, Au(0), Ti(1-x-y)Sb(x)Cr(y)O2, CoFe2O4) have been prepared with various solid loadings and their chemicophysical properties (particle size, viscosity, surface tension, zeta-potential) were tailored for the ink-jet application. The pigment particle size is in the 20-80 nm range. All these nano-suspensions are stable for long time (i.e., several months) due to either electrostatic (high zeta-potential values) or steric stabilization mechanisms. Both nanometric size and high stability avoid problems of nozzle clogging from particles agglomeration and settling. Nano-inks have a Newtonian behaviour with relatively low viscosities at room temperature. More concentrated inks fulfil the viscosity requirement of ink-jet applications (i.e., < 35 mPa x s) for printing temperatures in between 30 and 70 degrees C. Surface tension constraints for ink-jet printing are fulfilled by nano-inks, being in the 35-45 mN x m(-1) range. The nano-sized inks investigated behave satisfactorily in preliminary printing tests on several unfired industrial ceramic tiles, developing saturated colours in a wide range of firing temperatures (1000-1200 degrees C).

  20. Development of High Performance Magnesium Matrix Nanocomposites Using Nano-SiC Particulates as Reinforcement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, M. J.; Ying, W. F.; Wang, X. J.; Zhang, M. F.; Wu, K.

    2015-10-01

    In the present study, magnesium-based composites with three different volume percentages of nano-sized SiC particulates (SiCp) reinforcement were fabricated using a simple and inexpensive technique followed by hot extrusion. Microstructural characterization of the materials revealed uniform distribution of nano-size SiCp and obvious grain refinement. The tensile test result indicates a remarkable improvement on the strength for the as-extruded SiCp/AZ31B nanocomposite, while the elongation to fracture was decreased by comparing with the AZ31B alloy. Although, compared with the as-extruded AZ31B alloy, the ductility of the SiCp-reinforced AZ31B nanocomposite is decreased, but the ductility of the present SiCp-reinforced AZ31B nanocomposite is far higher than that of the conventional micron or submicron SiCp-reinforced magnesium matrix composites. It is concluded that, compared with the larger sized (micron or submicron) particles, the addition of nano SiCp in the AZ31B alloy resulted in the best combination of the strength and ductility. An attempt is made in the present study to correlate the effect of presence of nano-SiCp as reinforcement and its increasing amount with the microstructural and mechanical properties of magnesium.

  1. Nano-sized Superlattice Clusters Created by Oxygen Ordering in Mechanically Alloyed Fe Alloys

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Yong-Jie; Li, Jing; Darling, Kristopher A.; Wang, William Y.; VanLeeuwen, Brian K.; Liu, Xuan L.; Kecskes, Laszlo J.; Dickey, Elizabeth C.; Liu, Zi-Kui

    2015-01-01

    Creating and maintaining precipitates coherent with the host matrix, under service conditions is one of the most effective approaches for successful development of alloys for high temperature applications; prominent examples include Ni- and Co-based superalloys and Al alloys. While ferritic alloys are among the most important structural engineering alloys in our society, no reliable coherent precipitates stable at high temperatures have been found for these alloys. Here we report discovery of a new, nano-sized superlattice (NSS) phase in ball-milled Fe alloys, which maintains coherency with the BCC matrix up to at least 913 °C. Different from other precipitates in ferritic alloys, this NSS phase is created by oxygen-ordering in the BCC Fe matrix. It is proposed that this phase has a chemistry of Fe3O and a D03 crystal structure and becomes more stable with the addition of Zr. These nano-sized coherent precipitates effectively double the strength of the BCC matrix above that provided by grain size reduction alone. This discovery provides a new opportunity for developing high-strength ferritic alloys for high temperature applications. PMID:26134420

  2. Bimetallic oxamato complexes synthesized into mesoporous matrix as precursor to tunable nanosized oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Kalinke, Lucas H.G.; Stumpf, Humberto O.; Mazali, Italo O.; Cangussu, Danielle

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • The bimetallic oxamato complexes as single-source precursor. • We prepared into a porous silica glass tunable nanosized oxide powders. • X-ray diffraction shows the formation of CeO{sub 2}/CuO and spinel cobaltite. • The different number of IDC allows control of the nanoparticle size. - Abstract: The bimetallic complexes were employed to prepare into a porous silica glass tunable nanosized oxide powders through the single source precursor (SSP) method. These materials were prepared by first anchoring of [Cu(opba)]{sup 2−} [opba = ortho-phenylenebis(oxamato)], second by reaction in situ with second metal [Co(II) or Ce(III)] and followed by a thermal treatment. The different number of impregnation–decomposition cycles (IDC) allows control of the nanoparticle size. X-ray diffraction shows the formation of mixture CeO{sub 2}–CuO and spinel copper cobaltite. Raman spectroscopy confirmed the formation of such phases. Transmission electron microscopy images revealed that spinel cobaltite particles (8 IDC) present a mean size of about 9 nm, whereas for the CeO{sub 2}–CuO phase the particle diameters are 4 nm (2 IDC) and 8 nm (6 IDC). For CeO{sub 2}–CuO the diffuse reflectance spectroscopy indicates a consistent red shift in band gap from 3.41 to 2.87 eV with increasing of particle size due to quantum confinement effect.

  3. Size-dependent oxygen storage ability of nano-sized ceria.

    PubMed

    Sun, Congting; Xue, Dongfeng

    2013-09-14

    We thermodynamically studied the size-dependent oxygen storage ability of nano-sized ceria by tracing the surface Ce/O ratio of octahedral particles with different diameters, from the viewpoint of lattice Ce and O in a CeO2 crystallographic structure. The high surface Ce/O ratio with small scale particle size has more excess surface Ce(4+) ions, which allows ceria to have an increasing oxygen storage ability in a crystalline lattice. For the perfect octahedron growth shape of ceria, the nonstoichiometric surfaces can produce excess Ce(4+) ions, Ce(4+) ions can be stabilized by bonding with lattice oxygen, leading to an enhanced oxygen storage ability of ceria. With the increasing particle size, the surface Ce/O ratio approaches to 0.5 owing to the decreased contributions of atoms located at the edges and corners. When the octahedron diameter D = 0.55 nm, the surface Ce/O ratio can reach 0.75. When D = 7.58 nm, the surface Ce/O ratio decreases down to 0.51. If D≥ 14.61 nm, the surface Ce/O ratios are equal to 0.5. The present study deepens the insight of the size-dependent oxygen storage ability of nano-sized ceria, focusing on the size-dependent excess Ce(4+) on nonstoichiometric surfaces of ceria in thermodynamics.

  4. Structure of Nano-sized CeO2 Materials: Combined Scattering and Spectroscopic Investigations.

    PubMed

    Marchbank, Huw R; Clark, Adam H; Hyde, Timothy I; Playford, Helen Y; Tucker, Matthew G; Thompsett, David; Fisher, Janet M; Chapman, Karena W; Beyer, Kevin A; Monte, Manuel; Longo, Alessandro; Sankar, Gopinathan

    2016-11-04

    The structure of several nano-sized ceria, CeO2 , systems was investigated using neutron and X-ray diffraction and X-ray absorption spectroscopy. Whilst both diffraction and total pair distribution functions (PDFs) revealed that in all of the samples the occupancy of both Ce(4+) and O(2-) are very close to the ideal stoichiometry, the analysis using Reverse Monte Carlo technique revealed significant disorder around oxygen atoms in the nano-sized ceria samples in comparison to the highly crystalline NIST standard. In addition, the analysis revealed that the main differences observed in the pair correlations from various X-ray and neutron diffraction techniques were attributable to the particle size of the CeO2 prepared by the reported three methods. Furthermore, detailed analysis of the Ce L3 - and K-edge EXAFS data support this finding; in particular the decrease in higher shell coordination numbers with respect to the NIST standard, is attributed to differences in particle size.

  5. Substitution reactions of thorium(IV) acetate to synthesize nano-sized carboxylate complexes.

    PubMed

    Baranwal, Balram P; Fatma, Talat; Varma, Anand; Singh, Alok K

    2010-04-01

    Some mixed-ligand thorium(IV) complexes with the general formula [Th(OOCCH(3))(4-n)L(n)] (L=anions of myristic, palmitic or stearic acid and n=1-4) have been synthesized by the stepwise substitution of acetate ions of thorium(IV) acetate with straight chain carboxylic acids in toluene under reflux. The complexes were characterized by elemental analyses, spectral (electronic, infrared, NMR and powder XRD) studies, electrical conductance and magnetic susceptibility measurements. Doubly and triply bridged coordination modes of the ligands were established by their infrared spectra and nano-size of the complexes by powder XRD. Room temperature magnetic susceptibility measurements revealed diamagnetic nature of the complexes. Electronic absorption spectra of the complexes showed pi-->pi*, n-->pi* and charge transfer transitions. Molar conductance values indicated the complex to be non-electrolytes. These are a new type of mixed-ligand thorium(IV) complexes for which a nano-sized, oxygen bridged polymeric structure has been established on the basis of physico-chemical studies.

  6. [Protein display onto nano-sized bacterial magnetic particles for receptor analysis].

    PubMed

    Yoshino, Tomoko; Matsunaga, Tadashi

    2009-11-01

    Magnetic particles offer vast potential in ushering new techniques, especially in biomedical applications, as they can be easily manipulated by magnetic force. Magnetotactic bacteria synthesize nano-sized biomagnetites, otherwise known as bacterial magnetic particles (BacMPs) that are individually enveloped by a lipid bilayer membrane. BacMPs are ultrafine magnetite crystals (50-100 nm diameters) with uniform morphology produced by Magnetospirillum magneticum AMB-1. Based on our elucidations on the molecular mechanism of BacMP formation in M. magneticum AMB-1, functional nanomaterials have been designed. Through genetic engineering, functional proteins such as enzymes, antibodies, and receptors were successfully displayed onto BacMPs. Here, display techniques of functional proteins onto nano-sized BacMPs and its applications to ligand binding assays were described. Dopamine receptor, which is a member of G protein-coupled receptors, was successfully displayed onto BacMPs. This system makes possible the convenient acquisition of the native conformation of membrane proteins without the need for detergent solubilization, purification and reconstitution after cell disruption. Furthermore, estrogen receptor, which is one of nuclear receptors, was also displayed onto BacMPs. The assay using BacMPs displaying estrogen receptor could discriminate full agonists, partial agonists, or antagonists. The elucidation of the mechanism of BacMP synthesis has provided a roadmap for the design of novel nano-biomaterials that would play a useful role in multidisciplinary fields.

  7. Influence of acetazolamide loading on the (in vitro) performances of non-phospholipid-based cationic nanosized emulsion in comparison with phospholipid-based anionic and neutral-charged nanosized emulsions.

    PubMed

    Tamilvanan, Shunmugaperumal; Kumar, Balakrishnan Ajith

    2011-09-01

    Acetazolamide (ACZM)-loaded anionic, cationic, and neutral-charged oil-in-water nanosized emulsions were prepared and compared with their mean droplet diameter, surface charge, entrapment efficiency, freeze-thaw cycling stability, in vitro drug release, and transcorneal permeation. The present study aims to determine the influence of ACZM loading on the performances of non-phospholipid-based cationic nanosized emulsion in comparison with phospholipid-based anionic and neutral-charged nanosized emulsions. Regardless of charges, all of these emulsions exhibited a nanometer range mean particle diameter (240-443 nm) following autoclave sterilization. While the anionic and cationic emulsions did show high negative (-36.9 mV) and positive zeta potential (+41.4 mV) values, the neutral-charged emulsion did not. Presence of cryoprotectants (5% w/w sucrose + 5% w/w sorbitol) improved the stability of cationic emulsion to droplet aggregation during freeze-thaw cycling. The in vitro release kinetic behavior of drug exchange with physiological anions present in the simulated tear solution appears to be complex and difficult to characterize using mathematical fitting model equations. Augmentation in drug permeation through goat cornea, in vitro, was noticed for cationic emulsion. ACZM-loaded cationic nanosized emulsion could be suitable for topical application into eye to elicit better therapeutic effect in comparison with its anionic and neutral-charged emulsions.

  8. Nanosized TiO[subscript 2] for Photocatalytic Water Splitting Studied by Oxygen Sensor and Data Logger

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Ruinan; Liu, Song; Yuan, Hongyan; Xiao, Dan; Choi, Martin M. F.

    2012-01-01

    Photocatalytic water splitting by semiconductor photocatalysts has attracted considerable attention in the past few decades. In this experiment, nanosized titanium dioxide (nano-TiO[subscript 2]) particles are used to photocatalytically split water, which is then monitored by an oxygen sensor. Sacrificial reagents such as organics (EDTA) and metal…

  9. Investigation of the effects of pressure on the compaction and subsequent sintering of nanosize powders. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Gonzalez, E.J.; Piermarini, G.J.; Hockey, B.; Malghan, S.G.

    1996-02-26

    With current technology and available raw materials, one knows that it is very difficult, if not impossible, to produce a monolithic ceramic material with an average grain size of less than 100 nm. The grains of ceramic materials cannot be refined by cold working as is typically done in metals. Hence, the starting ceramic powder must be of a smaller or similar particle size as the desired grain size for the final product. The availability of nanosize (<100 nm) ceramic powders, however, is limited. In many cases, the powders consist of polymorphic mixtures, precursors, or amorphous phases of the desired material. Phase transformation during sintering is difficult to control, and when it does occur it usually is accompanied by significant microstructural changes and grain growth. An example of such a powder is Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. To the best of the authors` knowledge, high purity nanosize {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} powder is unavailable commercially. However, a variety of nanosize transitional forms of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, including the {gamma} and {delta} polymorphs, are commercially available in large quantities as mixtures. Results on the compaction and sintering of nanosize {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} powder are reported here.

  10. The Dry Sliding Wear Properties of Nano-Sized TiCp/Al-Cu Composites at Elevated Temperatures.

    PubMed

    Tian, Wei-Si; Zhao, Qing-Long; Zhao, Chuan-Jiang; Qiu, Feng; Jiang, Qi-Chuan

    2017-08-11

    Nano-sized ceramic particle reinforced aluminum composites exhibit excellent room-temperature mechanical properties. However, there is limited research on the dry sliding wear behavior of those composites at elevated temperatures, which should be one of the major concerns on elevated temperature applications. Here the Al-Cu composites reinforced with nano-sized TiCp were fabricated. The dry sliding wear behaviors of the nano-sized TiCp/Al-Cu composites at various temperatures (140-220 °C) and loads (10-40 N) with different TiCp contents were studied, and the results showed that the nanocomposites exhibited superior wear resistance. For instance, the relative wear resistance of the 0.5 wt.% nano-sized TiCp/Al-Cu composite was 83.5% higher than that of the Al-Cu matrix alloy at 180 °C under 20 N, and was also 16.5% higher than that of the 5 wt.% micro-sized TiCp/Al-Cu composite, attributed to the pronounced Orowan strengthening effect of nanoparticles. The wear rates of the nanocomposites were always lower than those of the Al-Cu matrix alloy under the same test condition, which increased with the increase in temperature and load and with the decrease in TiCp content.

  11. Synthesis of a new electrically conducting nanosized Ag-polyaniline-silica complex using γ-radiolysis and its biosensing application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hwa-Jung; Park, Sang Hyun; Park, Hae-Jun

    2010-08-01

    In this study, a new electrically conducting nanosized Ag-PANI-silica complex, in which nano-silver is bound to silica and polyaniline (PANI), has been synthesized by using γ-irradiation at room temperature and not by using polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) as a colloidal stabilizer. The conductivity of nanosized Ag-PANI-silica complex was determined by using the Van der PauW method, and the complex turned out to have a high semi-conductivity (200 S/cm). The optical property and morphology were characterized by using a UV-vis spectrophotometer, field emission-scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The optical absorption bands of UV-vis analysis revealed a peak at 262, 368, and a slowly decreasing band at 600-800 nm originating from the a nanosized Ag-PANI-silica complex. FE-SEM and TEM showed that the nanosized Ag-PANI-silica complex has a particle size ranging from 10 to 30 nm and high stability. The nano-complex prepared by γ-irradiation can be applicable to be used as biosensor materials.

  12. Partial oxidation (“aging”) and surface modification decrease the toxicity of nano-sized zero valent iron.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nanosize zero-valent iron (nZVI) is used as a redox-active catalyst for in situ remediation of contaminated ground waters. In aqueous environments, nZVI oxidizes over time (i.e., “ages”) to magnetite and other oxides. For remediation, hi...

  13. Nanosized TiO[subscript 2] for Photocatalytic Water Splitting Studied by Oxygen Sensor and Data Logger

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Ruinan; Liu, Song; Yuan, Hongyan; Xiao, Dan; Choi, Martin M. F.

    2012-01-01

    Photocatalytic water splitting by semiconductor photocatalysts has attracted considerable attention in the past few decades. In this experiment, nanosized titanium dioxide (nano-TiO[subscript 2]) particles are used to photocatalytically split water, which is then monitored by an oxygen sensor. Sacrificial reagents such as organics (EDTA) and metal…

  14. Changing the dehydrogenation pathway of LiBH4-MgH2via nanosized lithiated TiO2.

    PubMed

    Puszkiel, J A; Castro Riglos, M V; Karimi, F; Santoru, A; Pistidda, C; Klassen, T; Bellosta von Colbe, J M; Dornheim, M

    2017-03-15

    Nanosized lithiated titanium oxide (LixTiO2) noticeably improves the kinetic behaviour of 2LiBH4 + MgH2. The presence of LixTiO2 reduces the time required for the first dehydrogenation by suppressing the intermediate reaction to Li2B12H12, leading to direct MgB2 formation.

  15. NANOSIZED MAGNESIUM OXIDE AS CATALYST FOR THE RAPID AND GREEN SYNTHESIS OF SUBSTITUTED 2-AMINO-2-CHROMENES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A nanosized magnesium oxide catalyzed three-component condensation reaction of aldehyde, malononitrile and ¿-naphthol proceeded rapidly in water/PEG to afford corresponding 2-amino-2-chromenes in high yields at room temperature. The greener protocol was found to be fairly general...

  16. Formation of nano-size oxide particles and δ-ferrite at elevated temperature in 9Cr-ODS steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sawoong; Ohtsuka, Satoshi; Kaito, Takeji; Yamashita, Shinichiro; Inoue, Masaki; Asayama, Tai; Shobu, Takahisa

    2011-10-01

    Excellent high-temperature strength and resistance to radiation damage of 9Cr Oxide Dispersion Strengthened (9Cr-ODS) martensitic steel have been realized by nano-size Y-Ti-O complex oxide particles dispersed in the matrix and a dual phase structure consisting of α'-martensite and δ-ferrite. These are produced by mechanically alloying Fe-Cr-Ti powders with Y 2O 3 followed by a hot-consolidation process. Therefore, the hot-consolidation process is the issue to be clarified for the formation of nano-size oxide particle and δ-ferrite. The temperature dependence of the formation and development of nano-size oxide particles and δ-ferrite using mechanically alloyed 9Cr-ODS raw powder were investigated applying X-ray Diffraction and Small Angle X-ray Scattering measurement at SPring-8 and by Electron Probe Micro Analysis. In situ heating measurement techniques with XRD and SAXS enabled real-time observation of phase transformations and allowed correlation between formation of nano-size oxide particle and δ-ferrite.

  17. The Dry Sliding Wear Properties of Nano-Sized TiCp/Al-Cu Composites at Elevated Temperatures

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Wei-Si; Zhao, Chuan-Jiang; Jiang, Qi-Chuan

    2017-01-01

    Nano-sized ceramic particle reinforced aluminum composites exhibit excellent room-temperature mechanical properties. However, there is limited research on the dry sliding wear behavior of those composites at elevated temperatures, which should be one of the major concerns on elevated temperature applications. Here the Al-Cu composites reinforced with nano-sized TiCp were fabricated. The dry sliding wear behaviors of the nano-sized TiCp/Al-Cu composites at various temperatures (140–220 °C) and loads (10–40 N) with different TiCp contents were studied, and the results showed that the nanocomposites exhibited superior wear resistance. For instance, the relative wear resistance of the 0.5 wt.% nano-sized TiCp/Al-Cu composite was 83.5% higher than that of the Al-Cu matrix alloy at 180 °C under 20 N, and was also 16.5% higher than that of the 5 wt.% micro-sized TiCp/Al-Cu composite, attributed to the pronounced Orowan strengthening effect of nanoparticles. The wear rates of the nanocomposites were always lower than those of the Al-Cu matrix alloy under the same test condition, which increased with the increase in temperature and load and with the decrease in TiCp content. PMID:28800084

  18. Partial oxidation (“aging”) and surface modification decrease the toxicity of nano-sized zero valent iron.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nanosize zero-valent iron (nZVI) is used as a redox-active catalyst for in situ remediation of contaminated ground waters. In aqueous environments, nZVI oxidizes over time (i.e., “ages”) to magnetite and other oxides. For remediation, hi...

  19. NANOSIZED MAGNESIUM OXIDE AS CATALYST FOR THE RAPID AND GREEN SYNTHESIS OF SUBSTITUTED 2-AMINO-2-CHROMENES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A nanosized magnesium oxide catalyzed three-component condensation reaction of aldehyde, malononitrile and ¿-naphthol proceeded rapidly in water/PEG to afford corresponding 2-amino-2-chromenes in high yields at room temperature. The greener protocol was found to be fairly general...

  20. Development and characterization of dilutable self-microemulsifying premicroemulsion systems (SMEPMS) as templates for preparation of nanosized particulates

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Shen-Fu; Chen, Ying-Chen; Ho, Hsiu-O; Huang, Wei-Yu; Sheu, Ming-Thau; Liu, Der-Zen

    2013-01-01

    The utilization of self-microemulsifying premicroemulsion systems (SMEPMS) as templates for preparing poorly water-soluble compounds in the nanosized range represents a promising strategy. Fenofibrate was formulated with n-butyl L-lactate, Tween 80, and a number of cosurfactants (ethanol, 1-propanol, and PEG 600), diluted with the water phase (either water or saccharide solution) and then subjected to a freeze-drying (FD) process to obtain SMEPMS nanosized particulates. Results demonstrated that the particle size after resuspension of these FD SMEPMS nanosized particulates in water was too large, so the addition of saccharide solutions (lactose, mannitol, glucose, sucrose, and trehalose) as the solid carrier to prevent particles from aggregating seemed to be necessary and workable due to steric hindrance and repulsion. However, instability of these resuspended FD nanosized particulates after 30–90 minutes still occurred, and the addition of 0.5% sodium lauryl sulfate in the resuspending medium was able to retard the aggregation and maintain the particle size within the nano-range. Evaluation by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray powder diffraction also confirmed the results. It was concluded that using an SMEPMS formulation with PEG 600 as the cosurfactant, and in the presence of a suitable saccharide as an anticaking agent and FD process were able to produce fenofibrate nanoparticles. PMID:24049445

  1. [Forming the nanosized molecular assemblies (nanoassociates) is a key to understand the properties of highly diluted aqueous solutions].

    PubMed

    Konovalov, A I; Ryzhkina, I S; Murtazina, L I; Kiseleva, Iu V

    2014-01-01

    In the present study it was shown that biological effects of highly diluted aqueous solutions were due to the formation of nano-sized (up to 400 nm) molecular assemblies, called nanoassociates mainly consisting of aqueous molecules (up to 500 million) under the influence of two effectors: solute and external electromagnetic fields.

  2. Biorelevant in vitro dissolution testing of products containing micronized or nanosized fenofibrate with a view to predicting plasma profiles.

    PubMed

    Juenemann, Daniel; Jantratid, Ekarat; Wagner, Christian; Reppas, Christos; Vertzoni, Maria; Dressman, Jennifer B

    2011-02-01

    The ability of in vitro biorelevant dissolution tests to predict the in vivo performance of nanosized fenofibrate (Lipidil 145 ONE®) and microsized fenofibrate (Lipidil - Ter®) was evaluated in this study. In vitro dissolution was carried out using USP apparatus 2 (paddle method) with updated biorelevant media to simulate the pre- and postprandial states. Membrane filters with different pore sizes were evaluated for their ability to hold back undissolved, nanosized drug particles. It was shown that filters with pore sizes of 0.1 μm and 0.02 μm were able to separate molecularly dissolved drug from colloidal and undissolved particles. In vitro results obtained with a suitable filter were used to generate simulated plasma profiles in combination with two different models using STELLA® software: (a) under the assumption of no permeability restrictions to absorption and (b) under the assumption of a permeability restriction. The simulated plasma profiles were compared to in vivo data for the nanosized and the microsized formulation in the fasted and fed states. The first model approach resulted in good correlation for the microsized fenofibrate formulation, but the plasma profile of the formulation containing nanosized fenofibrate was overpredicted in the fasted state. The second model successfully correlated with in vivo data for both formulations, regardless of prandial state. Comparison of simulations with the two models indicates that in the fasted state, absorption of fenofibrate from the nanosized formulation is at least partly permeability-limited, while for the microsized formulation the dissolution of fenofibrate appears to be rate-determining. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Synthesis of nano-sized amorphous boron powders through active dilution self-propagating high-temperature synthesis method

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Jilin; Gu, Yunle; Li, Zili; Wang, Weimin; Fu, Zhengyi

    2013-06-01

    Graphical abstract: Nano-sized amorphous boron powders were synthesized by active dilution self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS) method. The effects of endothermic reaction rate, the possible chemical reaction mechanism and active dilution model for synthesis of the product were also discussed. Highlights: ► Nano-sized amorphous boron powders were synthesized by active dilution self-propagating high-temperature synthesis method. ► The morphology, particle size and purity of the samples could be effectively controlled via changing the endothermic rate. ► The diluter KBH{sub 4} played an important role in active dilution synthesis of amorphous nano-sized boron powders. ► The active dilution method could be further popularized and become a common approach to prepare various inorganic materials. - Abstract: Nano-sized amorphous boron powders were synthesized by active dilution self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS) method at temperatures ranging from 700 °C to 850 °C in a SHS furnace using Mg, B{sub 2}O{sub 3} and KBH{sub 4} as raw materials. Samples were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Laser particle size analyzer, Fourier transform infrared spectra (FTIR), X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDX), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and high-resolution transmission TEM (HRTEM). The boron powders demonstrated an average particle size of 50 nm with a purity of 95.64 wt.%. The diluter KBH{sub 4} played an important role in the active dilution synthesis of amorphous nano-sized boron powders. The effects of endothermic reaction rate, the possible chemical reaction mechanism and active dilution model for synthesis of the product were also discussed.

  4. Nanoscaffold matrices for size-controlled, pulsatile transdermal testosterone delivery: nanosize effects on the time dimension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malik, Ritu; Tondwal, Shailesh; Venkatesh, K. S.; Misra, Amit

    2008-10-01

    Pulsatile transdermal testosterone (T) has applications in hormone supplementation and male contraception. Pulsatile T delivery was achieved by assembling crystalline and nanoparticulate T in nucleation-inhibiting polymer matrices of controlled porosity. Different interference patterns observed from various polymeric films containing T were due to the various particle sizes of T present in the polymer matrices. Scanning electron microscopy was used to determine the size and shape of T crystals. Skin-adherent films containing T nanoparticles of any size between 10-500 nm could be prepared using pharmaceutically acceptable vinylic polymers. Drug release and skin permeation profiles were studied. The dissolution-diffusion behavior of nanoparticles differed from crystalline and molecular states. Nanosize may thus be used to engineer chronopharmacologically relevant drug delivery.

  5. Structural and corrosion protection properties of electrochemically deposited nano-sized Zn-Ni alloy coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tozar, A.; Karahan, İ. H.

    2014-11-01

    Zn-Ni alloy coatings were fabricated galvanostatically by applying varied current densities from 10 to 30 mA cm-2. Surface morphology of the coatings was examined with SEM. Crystal structure of the coatings was studied with X-ray diffraction spectroscopy (XRD). Compositions of the coatings were determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). Corrosion protection properties studied using open circuit potential (OCP) measurements, potentiodynamic polarization measurements (Tafel), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Deposited alloy coatings were compact and nano-sized. Crystallite sizes of the coatings were varying from 26 nm to 36 nm. Nickel content of the samples were increased by increasing current densities and varied from 6.7 to 18.9 wt.%. Best corrosion protection performance was seen on the sample obtained at 30 mA cm-2. Our results are considerably encouraging for protection of mild steel against corrosion by obtained Zn-Ni alloys.

  6. Preparation of multiparticulate systems for oral delivery of a micronized or nanosized poorly soluble drug.

    PubMed

    Cerea, Matteo; Pattarino, Franco; Foglio Bonda, Andrea; Palugan, Luca; Segale, Lorena; Vecchio, Carlo

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of the present work was to prepare multiparticulate drug delivery systems for oral administration of a poorly soluble drug such as itraconazole. Multiparticulate systems were prepared by extrusion/spheronization technique using a mix of crospovidone, low viscosity hypromellose, microcrystalline cellulose, micronized drug and water. In order to improve the release performance of the multiparticulate systems, the micronized drug was suspended in water with polysorbate 20 and nanonized by a high-pressure homogenization. The suspension of drug nanoparticles was then spray-dried for enabling an easy handling of the drug and for preventing the over-wetting of the powders during extrusion/spheronization processing. Both multiparticulate units prepared with micronized or nanonized drug showed acceptable disintegrating properties. The nanosizing of micronized drug powder provided a significant improvement of drug dissolution rates of the multiparticulates.

  7. Pulsed laser-induced micro-and nanosized morphology and composition of titanium dental implants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joób-Fancsaly, Á.; Divinyi, T.; Fazekas, Á.; Daroczi, Cs; Karacs, A.; Petõ, G.

    2002-10-01

    The surface morphology of machined screw-shaped titanium dental implants was modified by pulsed irradiation with an Nd glass laser. This method supplied very different surface elements in nanometer and micrometer ranges identified with scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy as well. The surface composition was unchanged during these treatments. A rabbit experiment was carried out to investigate the direct bone contact (osseointegration) which was characterized by the removal torque of the implants. The 50 nm and 10-50 µm sized droplike elements were formed from the machined flat surface by the laser irradiation depending on the laser intensity. The osseointegration was enhanced by the increase of the density of nanosized elements and by the size of the microsized elements, showing the importance of this surface morphology in the direct bone-implant contact.

  8. Effect of Nanosized NbC Precipitates on Hydrogen Diffusion in X80 Pipeline Steel

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Junsheng; Xie, Donghan; Wu, Xiaoguang; Huang, Yunhua; Li, Xiaogang

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, the effects of dispersed 3~10 nm NbC precipitates on hydrogen diffusion in X80 pipeline steel were investigated by means of high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), electrochemical hydrogen permeation, and thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS). The relationship between hydrogen diffusion and temperature was determined for Nb-free X80 and 0.055 wt% Nb X80 steel. The temperature dividing reversible and irreversible traps was measured, and the quantity of hydrogen captured by different traps was calculated. Three types of hydrogen trap were designed and applied in the test, and the results revealed that irreversible hydrogen traps formed by nanosized and coherent NbC precipitates markedly hindered hydrogen diffusion, and prolonged breakthrough time in Nb-bearing X80 steel. PMID:28773079

  9. An engineered polypeptide around nano-sized manganese-calcium oxide: copying plants for water oxidation.

    PubMed

    Najafpour, Mohammad Mahdi; Ghobadi, Mohadeseh Zarei; Sarvi, Bahram; Haghighi, Behzad

    2015-09-14

    Synthesis of new efficient catalysts inspired by Nature is a key goal in the production of clean fuel. Different compounds based on manganese oxide have been investigated in order to find their water-oxidation activity. Herein, we introduce a novel engineered polypeptide containing tyrosine around nano-sized manganese-calcium oxide, which was shown to be a highly active catalyst toward water oxidation at low overpotential (240 mV), with high turnover frequency of 1.5 × 10(-2) s(-1) at pH = 6.3 in the Mn(III)/Mn(IV) oxidation range. The compound is a novel structural and efficient functional model for the water-oxidizing complex in Photosystem II. A new proposed clever strategy used by Nature in water oxidation is also discussed. The new model of the water-oxidizing complex opens a new perspective for synthesis of efficient water-oxidation catalysts.

  10. Characterization of nano-sized SiC@Ni composite fabricated by electroless plating method.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhan; Chen, Yigang

    2013-02-01

    A nano-sized SiC@Ni composite was prepared by simple electroless plating method. Nickel can be reduced by Na2H2PO2 under the catalysis of Pd to despite onto the surface of SiC nanoparticles. The composite structure was characterized by means of TEM images, XRD and the components were analyzed using EDS. The coating layer on the SiC particles was several nanometers thick and mainly in a form of fine Ni crystalline grain and amorphous Ni-P alloy. By increasing the concentration of Na2H2PO2 in the plating bath, the uniformity of the coating layer can be improved obviously. Both of the magnetism and crystallinity of Ni coatings depends on the P content in the coating which can be decreased by increasing the pH values of plating solutions. The SiC@Ni particles exhibited soft magnetic characteristics.

  11. Designing of the Nanosized Centers for Adsorption of Mercury (II) on a Silica Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belyakova, L. A.; Lyashenko, D. Yu.; Shvets, O. M.

    The chemical design of nanosized centers for mercury (II)adsorption on a silica surface has been carried out. Chemically bonded molecules of β-cyclodextrin are the centers of adsorption. The kinetics of Hg (II) adsorption is analyzed within the framework of Lagergren model for processes of pseudo-first and pseudo-second orders. It was shown that the adsorption isotherm for β-cyclodextrin-containing silica is well described by Langmuir equation. The formation of inclusion complexes "β-cyclodextrin-nitrate-ion" with ratio 1:1 and supramolecules with composition C42H70O34·4Hg(NO3)2 on a surface of β-cyclodextrin-containing silica has been proved using IR and 1H NMR spectroscopy, spectrophotometry, elemental analysis, X-ray diffraction, and chemical analysis of surface compounds.

  12. Designing of the Nanosized Centers for Adsorption of Mercury (II) on a Silica Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belyakova, L. A.; Lyashenko, D. Yu.; Shvets, O. M.

    The chemical design of nanosized centers for mercury (II)adsorption on a silica surface has been carried out. Chemically bonded molecules of β-cyclodextrin are the centers of adsorption. The kinetics of Hg (II) adsorption is analyzed within the framework of Lagergren model for processes of pseudo-first and pseudo-second orders. It was shown that the adsorption isotherm for β-cyclodextrin-containing silica is well described by Langmuir equation. The formation of inclusion complexes “β-cyclodextrin-nitrate-ion” with ratio 1:1 and supramolecules with composition C42H70O34·4Hg(NO3)2 on a surface of β-cyclodextrin-containing silica has been proved using IR and 1H NMR spectroscopy, spectrophotometry, elemental analysis, X-ray diffraction, and chemical analysis of surface compounds.

  13. Asymmetric Bioconversion of Acetophenone in Nano-Sized Emulsion Using Rhizopus oryzae.

    PubMed

    Li, Qingzhi; Shi, Yang; He, Le; Zhao, Hui

    2016-01-01

    The fungal morphologies and pellet sizes were controlled in acetophenone reduction by Rhizopus oryzae. The acetophenone conversion and (S)-phenylethanol enantiomeric excesses (e.e.) reached the peak after 72 h of incubation when using pellets with 0.54 mm diameter, which showed an excellent performance compared with suspended mycelia, clumps, and pellets with 0.65 or 0.75 mm diameter. Furthermore, nano-sized acetophenone was used as a substrate to improve the performances of biotransformation work. The results showed that the conversion of nanometric acetophenone and (S)-phenylethanol e.e. reached the maximum (both >99%) after 32 h of incubation when using 0.54 mm diameter pellets, at least 24 h in advance of the control group. On the other hand, Tween 80 and 1, 2-propylene glycol showed low or no toxicity to cells. In conclusion, pellets and acetophenone nanoemulsions synergistically result in superior performances of acetophenone reduction.

  14. Degradation of dimethylformamide on the surface of the nanosized WO3 films studied by infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavrilyuk, A. I.

    2016-07-01

    Here I report on the degradation of dimethylformamide on the surface of the nanosized WO3 films under the action of light. Dimethylformamide, a substance that has a series of interesting properties, was adsorbed on the surface of the WO3 films and its adsorption mechanism and transformations under the action of light have been investigated with the help of the IR spectroscopy. The spirit of the research is that both DMF modifications have been used i.e., conventional and that with the substitution of hydrogen atoms by deuterium. Formation of two weak bonds (donor-acceptor bond and hydrogen bond) provides a great catalytic effect for photo-initiated proton-coupled electron transfer from the adsorbed molecules to the WO3 film surface. The mechanism of the detachment of hydrogen atoms and subsequent transformation of the adsorbed molecules has been investigated and discussed.

  15. HRTEM and FTIR investigation of nanosized zinc ferrite irradiated with 100 MeV oxygen ions.

    PubMed

    Singh, Jitendra Pal; Dixit, Gagan; Srivastava, R C; Negi, Puneet; Agrawal, H M; Kumar, Ravi

    2013-04-15

    Present work aims to investigate effect of 100 MeV oxygen ion irradiation on the vibrational modes of zinc ferrite nanoparticles. Nanosize zinc ferrite systems of different crystallite size ranging from 12-62 nm were irradiated at the fluence of 1×10(13) and 5×10(13) ions/cm(2). High resolution transmission electron micrograph study indicates the structural disorder induced by ion irradiation. Bands corresponding to various vibrational modes in Fourier transform infrared spectra exhibit changes and are affected by the crystallite size/microstructure of pristine samples. The irradiation induced changes are dominated for sample ZF1000. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Thermal treatment of solution-processed nano-sized thin films of molybdenum oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganchev, M.; Sendova-Vassileva, M.; Popkirov, G.; Vitanov, P.

    2016-10-01

    A solution based deposition method to form nano-sized thin films of molybdenum oxide suitable for photovoltaic device applications is presented. The samples were deposited by spin-coating from molybdenum metal organic precursor solution on soda lime glass substrates. The influence of the process parameters such as spinning regime and concentration of the precursor solutions on the thickness and morphology of the films were investigated. The thermal decomposition of the molybdenum precursor and oxide formation were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry and characteristic patterns showed transitions up to 300oC followed by a zone of stability. Optical spectroscopy measurements in the wavelength range from 300 to 1800 nm presented an increase in transparency when temperature of annealing was raised up to 400oC. Raman scattering analysis revealed the presence of mixed molybdenum oxides. Measurements of the electrical conductivity were performed by the 4-point method.

  17. Synthesis and improved explosion behaviors of aluminum powders coated with nano-sized nickel film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kyung Tae; Kim, Dong Won; Kim, Soo Hyung; Kim, Chang Kee; Choi, Yoon Jeong

    2017-09-01

    Nickel (Ni) materials with a thickness of a few hundred nm were homogeneously coated on the surfaces of aluminum (Al) powders by an electroless plating process. The Ni-coated Al powders show characteristic interfacial structures mixed of Ni, Al and O instead of densely packed Al oxide at the surface. The explosion test of the Ni-coated Al powders utilizing flame ignition showed that the powders had a 3.6 times enhanced pressurization rate of 405 kPa/ms compared to 111 kPa/ms of uncoated Al powders. It was found that this is due to a feasible diffusion of oxygen atoms into the Al powders through the thin and rough interfacial layers present at the Ni/Al interface. These results clearly indicate that nano-sized Ni film introduced instead of surface oxide acts as a very profitable layer to achieve efficient combustion behaviors by a rapid oxidation of Al powders.

  18. Probing the spinor nature of electronic states in nanosize non-collinear magnets

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Jeison A.; Sandratskii, Leonid M.; Phark, Soo-Hyon; Ouazi, Safia; Pasa, André A.; Sander, Dirk; Parkin, Stuart S. P.

    2016-01-01

    Non-collinear magnetization textures provide a route to novel device concepts in spintronics. These applications require laterally confined non-collinear magnets (NCM). A crucial aspect for potential applications is how the spatial proximity between the NCM and vacuum or another material impacts the magnetization texture on the nanoscale. We focus on a prototypical exchange-driven NCM given by the helical spin order of bilayer Fe on Cu(111). Spin-polarized scanning tunnelling spectroscopy and density functional theory reveal a nanosize- and proximity-driven modification of the electronic and magnetic structure of the NCM in interfacial contact with a ferromagnet or with vacuum. An intriguing non-collinearity between the local magnetization in the sample and the electronic magnetization probed above its surface results. It is a direct consequence of the spinor nature of electronic states in NCM. Our findings provide a possible route for advanced control of nanoscale spin textures by confinement. PMID:27721384

  19. Nanosized controlled surface pretreatment of biometallic alloy 316L stainless steel.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Fattah, Tarek M; Loftis, Derek; Mahapatro, Anil

    2011-12-01

    Stainless steel (AISI 316L) is a medical grade stainless steel alloy used extensively in medical devices and in the biomedical field. 316L stainless steel was successfully electropolished via an ecologically friendly and biocompatible ionic liquid (IL) medium based on Vitamin B4 (NB4) and resulting in nanosized surface roughness and topography. Voltammetry and chronoamperometry tests determined optimum polishing conditions for the stainless steel alloy while atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) provided surface morphology comparisons to benchmark success of each electropolishing condition. Energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX) combined with SEM revealed significantly smoother surfaces for each alloy surface while indicating that the constituent metals comprising each alloy effectively electropolished at uniform rates.

  20. TiO2 nanosized powders controlling by ultrasound sol-gel reaction.

    PubMed

    Latt, Kyaing Kyaing; Kobayashi, Takaomi

    2008-04-01

    We studied that anatase-TiO2 powders prepared from sol-gel process of titanium tetra-isopropoxide (TTIP) were developed under ultrasonic irradiation with different frequency of 28, 45 and 100 kHz. The irradiated ultrasound (US) was controlled by using semi-cylindrical reflection plate that was placed onto the vicinity of reaction vessel. The focused US influenced the reduction of particles size and increased the surface area of resultant nanosized TiO2 powders. We also examined photodegradation of rhodamine 640 dye (Rh-640) solution by the resultant TiO2 under UV light exposure. It was observed that low frequency for TiO2 photocatalyst preparation and low calcination temperature were more affected onto the photodegradation of the dye.

  1. Stimulated Brillouin scattering of laser in semiconductor plasma embedded with nano-sized grains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Giriraj; Dad, R. C.; Ghosh, S.

    2015-07-01

    A high power laser propagating through semiconductor plasma undergoes Stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) from the electrostrictively generated acoustic perturbations. We have considered that nano-sized grains (NSGs) ions are embedded in semiconductor plasma by means of ion implantation. The NSGs are bombarded by the surrounding plasma particles and collect electrons. By considering a negative charge on the NSGs, we present an analytically study on the effects of NSGs on threshold field for the onset of SBS and Brillouin gain of generated Brillouin scattered mode. It is found that as the charge on the NSGs builds up, the Brillouin gain is significantly raised and the threshold pump field for the onset of SBS process is lowered.

  2. Synthesis and characterization of nanosized MnZn ferrites via a modified hydrothermal method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Mingling; Liu, Xiansong; Xu, Taotao; Nie, Yu; Li, Honglin; Zhang, Cong

    2017-10-01

    Nanosized MnZn ferrite particles, with narrow size distribution, regular morphology and high saturation magnetization have been synthesized via a modified hydrothermal method. This modified hydrothermal method involves a chemical co-precipitation of hydroxides under a vacuum condition using potassium hydroxide as precipitating agent, followed by a separate hydrothermal process. The microstructure and magnetic properties of the synthesized nanoparticles were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The effects of different synthesis conditions (excess ratio of precipitating agent and hydrothermal reaction time) on the microstructure and magnetic properties of the as-synthesized nanoparticles were discussed. The magnetic measurements indicated that the obtained samples were superparamagnetic in nature at room temperature. Moreover, the MnZn ferrite nanoparticles with excellent magnetic performance could be synthesized at 180 °C for a short reaction time (3 h).

  3. Synthesis and photocatalytic applications of nano-sized zinc-doped mesoporous titanium oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Sánchez-Muñoz, Sergio; Pérez-Quintanilla, Damián

    2013-02-15

    Graphical abstract: Nano-sized mesoporous titanium oxide (T0) and zinc-doped nano-sized mesoporous titanium oxides (TA–TD) were synthesized by a simple method and characterized by different techniques. All materials have been studied in the photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue under UV light, observing that the decrease in the band gap of the materials seems to have a positive influence in the photocatalytic activity. Display Omitted Highlights: ► Nano-sized mesoporous TiO{sub 2} and Zn-doped TiO{sub 2} have been synthesized and characterized. ► Band gap of the Zn-doped TiO{sub 2} decreases when the Zn amount increases. ► Materials consist of porous particles (10–20 nm). ► The photocatalytic degradation of MB has been studied for these materials. ► A decrease in the band gap of the materials enhances the photocatalytic activity. -- Abstract: The synthesis of nano-sized mesoporous titanium oxide (T0) is described by an easy synthetic method which consists of the reaction of titanium tetraisopropoxide and a solution of HNO{sub 3} in water (pH 2.0) and the subsequent elimination of the volatiles by simple distillation. On the other hand, zinc-doped mesoporous titanium oxides (TA–TD) were synthesized using the same method but adding increasing amounts of Zn(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} to give materials which contain between 0.12 and 6.17 wt.% Zn. Upon the calcinations of all the obtained materials, characterization has been carried out by using N{sub 2} adsorption–desorption isotherms, powder X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluorescence, UV–vis spectrometry, solid state {sup 47,49}Ti NMR spectroscopy and transmission electronic microscopy (TEM). The results show that all these materials are mesoporous, with BET surfaces between 54 and 121 m{sup 2}/g and similar pore diameters between 6.4 and 9.1 nm. XRD studies show that these materials mainly consist of anatase and very small amounts of brookite. TEM technique shows the small particle sizes of the

  4. Nanosized graphene sheets enhanced photoelectric behavior of carbon film on p-silicon substrate

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Lei; Hu, Gaijuan; Zhang, Dongqing; Diao, Dongfeng

    2016-07-18

    We found that nanosized graphene sheets enhanced the photoelectric behavior of graphene sheets embedded carbon (GSEC) film on p-silicon substrate, which was deposited under low energy electron irradiation in electron cyclotron resonance plasma. The GSEC/p-Si photodiode exhibited good photoelectric performance with photoresponsivity of 206 mA/W, rise and fall time of 2.2, and 4.3 μs for near-infrared (850 nm) light. The origin of the strong photoelectric behavior of GSEC film was ascribed to the appearance of graphene nanosheets, which led to higher barrier height and photoexcited electron-collection efficiency. This finding indicates that GSEC film has the potential for photoelectric applications.

  5. Nano-size solidification microconstituents in electro-spark deposited Ni-base superalloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vishwakarma, K. R.; Ojo, O. A.; Richards, N. L.

    2015-01-01

    The microstructure of electro-spark deposited IN 718 was investigated by analytical transmission electron microscopy. The analysis shows in contrast to general assumption, extreme rapid cooling rates involved in electro-spark deposition (ESD) did not produce partitionless solidification, devoid of second phase microconstituents in the material. Nanosized Laves and MC carbide particles were formed in the interdendritic regions of IN 718 electro-spark weld deposit, which indicate the occurrence of segregation-induced phase formation during solidification of the weld. The formation of Laves phase particles, which is known to be deleterious to the mechanical properties of IN 718, requires adequate consideration in the application of IN 718, and possibly other Nb-bearing nickel-base superalloys, processed by ESD.

  6. Effect of Nanosized NbC Precipitates on Hydrogen Diffusion in X80 Pipeline Steel.

    PubMed

    Cui, Qiaoqi; Wu, Junsheng; Xie, Donghan; Wu, Xiaoguang; Huang, Yunhua; Li, Xiaogang

    2017-06-28

    In this paper, the effects of dispersed 3~10 nm NbC precipitates on hydrogen diffusion in X80 pipeline steel were investigated by means of high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), electrochemical hydrogen permeation, and thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS). The relationship between hydrogen diffusion and temperature was determined for Nb-free X80 and 0.055 wt% Nb X80 steel. The temperature dividing reversible and irreversible traps was measured, and the quantity of hydrogen captured by different traps was calculated. Three types of hydrogen trap were designed and applied in the test, and the results revealed that irreversible hydrogen traps formed by nanosized and coherent NbC precipitates markedly hindered hydrogen diffusion, and prolonged breakthrough time in Nb-bearing X80 steel.

  7. Fabrication of Nanosized Lanthanum Zirconate Powder and Deposition of Thermal Barrier Coating by Plasma Spray Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, S. K.; Jagdeesh, N.; Pathak, L. C.

    2016-07-01

    The present manuscript discusses our findings on fabrication of nanosized lanthanum zirconate powder for thermal barrier coating application and its coating by plasma spray on nickel-based superalloy substrate. Single-phase La2Zr2O7 coating of thickness of the order of 45 µm on the Ni-Cr-Al bond coat coated Ni-based superalloy substrate was deposited by plasma spray process. The layers at the interface did not show spallation and inter diffusion was very less. The microstructure, interface, porosity, and mechanical properties of different layers are investigated. The lanthanum zirconate hardness and modulus were 10.5 and 277 GPa, respectively. The load depth curve for lanthanum zirconate showed good elastic recovery around 74%.

  8. Facile synthetic route to nanosized ferrites by using mesoporous silica as a hard template

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valdés-Solís, T.; Tartaj, P.; Marbán, G.; Fuertes, A. B.

    2007-04-01

    Spinel ferrite nanoparticles (AFe2O4; A = Mn, Ni, Cu, Co) of around 10-20 nm have been successfully synthesized via a simple nanocasting route using metal nitrates as precursors and mesoporous silica gel as a hard template. Spinel nanoparticles were formed under a nitrogen atmosphere by the high-temperature decomposition of a mixture of metal nitrates that fill the silica pores. The decomposition reactions occurred in the confined space provided by the mesopores of the silica template. Under these conditions, the silica walls restricted the growth of the oxide particles formed and so nanosized particles were obtained. The incorporation of different cations into the spinel ferrite enabled us to easily modulate the magnetic properties of the nanomaterials prepared by the template method. Depending on the chemical composition and temperature, we were able to obtain samples that display reversible magnetic behaviour (zero coercivity field) and samples with coercivity values as high as 1.3 T (13 000 Oe).

  9. Large-scale and Rapid Synthesis of Disk-Shaped and Nano-Sized Graphene

    PubMed Central

    He, Chunyong; Jiang, San Ping; Shen, Pei Kang

    2013-01-01

    We synthesized disk-shaped and nano-sized graphene (DSNG) though a novel ion-exchange methodology. This new methodology is achieved by constructing metal ion/ion-exchange resin framework. The morphology and size of the graphene can be modulated by changing the mass ratio of the carbon-containing resin to the cobalt-containing precursor. This is the first time to show that the DSNG formed on the granular transition metal substrate. The DSNG gives a high intensity of photoluminescence at near-UV wavelength of 311 nm which may provide a new type of fluorescence for applications in laser devices, ultraviolet detector UV-shielding agent and energy technology. The emission intensity of the DSNG is thirty times higher than that of the commercial large graphene. Our approach for graphene growth is conveniently controllable, easy to scale-up and the DSNG shows superior luminescent properties as compared to conventional large graphene. PMID:23828273

  10. High temperature electrochemical performance of nanosized LiFePO 4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mestre-Aizpurua, F.; Hamelet, S.; Masquelier, C.; Palacín, M. R.

    The electrochemical performance of LiFePO 4 was tested at temperatures up to 150 °C for micrometric and nanometric size samples. Among the latter, both highly defective samples obtained by direct precipitation and annealed samples were tested. The comparison of voltage composition profiles for these samples coupled to GITT experiments allowed to conclude that defects seem to be the major factor in inducing the solid solution behaviour at room temperature. Good capacity retention is exhibited upon prolonged cycling at 100 °C in EC LiBOB electrolyte, also for nanosized samples that still maintain 75% of the initial capacity after 170 cycles. These results prove that the enhanced thermal stability of such electrolytes can be extended to temperatures much higher than those usually tested.

  11. Spectral tuning of a locally bent microfiber taper interferometer with a nanosized liquid crystal overlay.

    PubMed

    Luo, Haimei; Wang, Changjing; Ji, Yinghua; Yuan, Wen; Zhang, Guoping; Wang, Yifan; Hong, Zehua; Wang, Xianping

    2016-09-10

    In this paper, the tuning characteristics of locally bent microfiber taper covered with a nanosized high-refractive-index liquid crystal (LC) layer under different temperatures and electric field intensities have been theoretically analyzed and experimentally investigated. A locally bent microfiber taper interferometer with a waist diameter of ∼3.72  μm is fabricated by using the flame brushing technique, followed by bending the transition region of the taper to form a modal interferometer and later by placing a ∼200  nm LC layer over the uniform taper waist region. Experimental results indicate that a high-efficiency thermal or electric tuning of an LC-coated locally bent microfiber taper interferometer could be achieved. This suggests a potential application of this device as tunable all-fiber photonic devices, such as filters, modulators, and sensing elements.

  12. Stimulated Brillouin scattering of laser in semiconductor plasma embedded with nano-sized grains

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, Giriraj; Dad, R. C.; Ghosh, S.

    2015-07-31

    A high power laser propagating through semiconductor plasma undergoes Stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) from the electrostrictively generated acoustic perturbations. We have considered that nano-sized grains (NSGs) ions are embedded in semiconductor plasma by means of ion implantation. The NSGs are bombarded by the surrounding plasma particles and collect electrons. By considering a negative charge on the NSGs, we present an analytically study on the effects of NSGs on threshold field for the onset of SBS and Brillouin gain of generated Brillouin scattered mode. It is found that as the charge on the NSGs builds up, the Brillouin gain is significantly raised and the threshold pump field for the onset of SBS process is lowered.

  13. Hydrophilic and hydrophobic nano-sized Mn{sub 3}O{sub 4} particles

    SciTech Connect

    Gibot, Pierre Laffont, Lydia

    2007-02-15

    Mn{sub 3}O{sub 4} Hausmanite nanoparticles were prepared in aqueous solution by using metallic salt and hydrazine as precursor and reducing agent, respectively. The crystallite sizes ranged from 10 to 20 nm and the particle diameter distribution was very narrow and estimated between 20 and 30 nm. Influence of some parameters such as temperature, time of reaction, surfactant nature was studied for a synthesis in an aqueous medium. The as-made manganese oxides particles could be dispersed in an organic solvent containing stabilizing agents, according to perform the synthesis in an H{sub 2}O/n-hexan two-phase medium. These nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, scanning and transmission electron microscopies and nitrogen absorption measurements. - Graphical abstract: Hydrophobic nano-sized Mn{sub 3}O{sub 4} particles.

  14. Electronic and plasmonic properties of nano-sized gold/strontium titanate interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Jiechang

    In this thesis, nano-sized metal/oxide interfaces are fabricated to determine the size dependence of electronic and resistive switching properties, effect of atomic structure on the orientation dependence of electronic properties, and mechanisms of plasmon-induced current enhancement. A combination of drop-casting and high temperature annealing enables orientation control over nano-sized metal/oxide interfaces. To examine the electronic properties, individual Au nanoparticle/SrTiO3 interfaces with sizes ranging from 20 to 150 nm are characterized via conductive atomic force microscopy, for two distinct interface orientations. Current-voltage characterization enables the determination of dominant electron transport mechanisms. The development of a depletion region results in the transition of electron transport mechanism from edge-effect-induced tunneling to inhomogeneity-induced statistical variations, as the interface decreases below a critical size. The resultant size-dependent Schottky properties dictate the size dependence of interface-controlled resistive switching behaviors, in addition to geometrical scaling of resistance. The effect of atomic structure on electronic properties is also investigated, via correlation of atomic structure characterized by high resolution transmission electron microscopy, electronic structure probed by electron energy loss spectroscopy, and measured electronic properties. The observed orientation dependence of reverse tunneling is attributed to interface defects induced by different atomic structures. Nanofabrication procedures are optimized to develop Au nano-antenna arrays on SrTiO3 substrate, to determine the photocurrent dependence on illumination condition and mechanisms of hot electron effect. Device design is assisted by finite-difference time-domain simulation of optical properties, targeted at near-infrared working range. Plasmon resonance frequency and intensity are demonstrated to be systematically tunable by varying

  15. Toughening of epoxies based on self-assembly of nano-sized amphiphilic block copolymer micelles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jia

    As a part of a larger effort towards the fundamental understanding of mechanical behaviors of polymers toughened by nanoparticles, this dissertation focuses on the structure-property relationship of epoxies modified with nano-sized poly(ethylene-alt-propylene)-b-poly(ethylene oxide) (PEP-PEO) block copolymer (BCP) micelle particles. The amphiphilic BCP toughener was incorporated into a liquid epoxy resin and self-assembled into well-dispersed 15 nm spherical micelle particles. The nano-sized BCP, at 5 wt% loading, can significantly improve the fracture toughness of epoxy (ca. 180% improvement) without reducing modulus at room temperature and exhibits only a slight drop (ca. 5°C) in glass transition temperature (Tg). The toughening mechanisms were found to be BCP micelle nanoparticle cavitation, followed by matrix shear banding, which mainly accounted for the observed remarkable toughening effect. The unexpected "nano-cavitation" phenomenon cannot be predicted by existing physical models. The plausible causes for the observed nano-scale cavitation and other mechanical behaviors may include the unique structural characteristics of BCP micelles and the influence from the surrounding epoxy network, which is significantly modified by the epoxy-miscible PEO block. Other mechanisms, such as crack tip blunting, may also play a role in the toughening. Structure-property relationships of this nano-domain modified polymer are discussed. In addition, other important factors, such as strain rate dependence and matrix crosslink density effect on toughening, have been investigated. This BCP toughening approach and conventional rubber toughening techniques are compared. Insights on the decoupling of modulus, toughness, and Tg for designing high performance thermosetting materials with desirable physical and mechanical properties are discussed.

  16. A New Nano-sized Iron Oxide Particle with High Sensitivity for Cellular Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chih-Lung; Zhang, Haosen; Ye, Qing; Hsieh, Wen-Yuan; Hitchens, T. Kevin; Shen, Hsin-Hsin; Liu, Li; Wu, Yi-Jen; Foley, Lesley M.; Wang, Shian-Jy; Ho, Chien

    2011-01-01

    Purpose In this study, we investigated the labeling efficiency and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) signal sensitivity of a newly synthesized, nano-sized iron oxide particle (IOP) coated with polyethylene glycol (PEG), designed by Industrial Technology Research Institute (ITRI). Procedures Macrophages, bone-marrow-derived dendritic cells, and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were isolated from rats and labeled by incubating with ITRI-IOP, along with three other iron oxide particles in different sizes and coatings as reference. These labeled cells were characterized with transmission electron microscopy (TEM), light and fluorescence microscopy, phantom MRI, and finally in vivo MRI and ex vivo magnetic resonance microscopy (MRM) of transplanted hearts in rats infused with labeled macrophages. Results The longitudinal (r1) and transverse (r2) relaxivities of ITRI-IOP are 22.71 and 319.2 s−1 mM−1, respectively. TEM and microscopic images indicate the uptake of multiple ITRI-IOP particles per cell for all cell types. ITRI-IOP provides sensitivity comparable or higher than the other three particles shown in phantom MRI. In vivo MRI and ex vivo MRM detect punctate spots of hypointensity in rejecting hearts, most likely caused by the accumulation of macrophages labeled by ITRI-IOP. Conclusion ITRI-IOP, the nano-sized iron oxide particle, shows high efficiency in cell labeling, including both phagocytic and non-phagocytic cells. Furthermore, it provides excellent sensitivity in T2*-weighted MRI, and thus can serve as a promising contrast agent for in vivo cellular MRI. PMID:20862612

  17. Nature of Nano-Sized Plutonium Particles in Soils at the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Buck, Edgar C.; Moore, Dean A.; Czerwinski, Kenneth R.; Conradson, Steven D.; Batuk, Olga; Felmy, Andrew R.

    2014-08-06

    The occurrence of plutonium dioxide (PuO2) either from direct deposition or from the precipitation of plutonium-bearing solutions in contaminated soils and sediments has been well described, particularly for the Hanford site in Washington State. However, past research has suggested that plutonium may exist in environmental samples at the Hanford site in chemical forms in addition to large size PuO2 particles and that these previously unidentified nano-sized particles maybe more reactive and thus more likely to influence the environmental mobility of Pu. Here we present evidence for the formation of nano-sized plutonium iron phosphate hydroxide structurally related to the rhabdophane group nanoparticles in 216-Z9 crib sediments from Hanford using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The distribution and nature of these nanoparticles varied depending on the adjacent phases present. Fine electron probes were used to obtain electron diffraction and electron energy-loss spectra from specific phase regions of the 216-Z9 cribs specimens from fine-grained plutonium oxide and phosphate phases. Energy-loss spectra were used to evaluate the plutonium N4,5 (4d → 5f ) and iron L2,3 absorption edges. The iron plutonium phosphate formation may depend on the local micro-environment in the sediments, availability of phosphate, and hence the distribution of these minerals may control long-term migration of Pu in the soil. This study also points to the utility of using electron beam methods for determining the identity of actinide phases and their association with other sediment phases.

  18. Selective total encapsulation of the sulfate anion by neutral nano-jars.

    PubMed

    Fernando, Isurika R; Surmann, Stuart A; Urech, Alexander A; Poulsen, Alexander M; Mezei, Gellert

    2012-07-11

    Nano-sized toroidal copper(II)-hydroxide/pyrazolate assemblies, lined by H-bond donors on the inside and hydrophobic on the outside, selectively extract sulfate from mixtures with nitrate or perchlorate. Tetrabutylammonium "lids" seal the "nano-jars" and render the encapsulated sulfate anion completely buried and inaccessible, so that it is not precipitated by Ba(2+) ions.

  19. [Comparative study of the effect on oxidative damage in rats inhaled by nano-sized and micro-sized silicon dioxide].

    PubMed

    Jin, Cuihong; Jin, Yihe; Wang, Jing; Zhao, Cuixia

    2008-01-01

    To compare the changes of oxidative damage in rats inhaled by nano-sized and micro-sized silicon dioxide. 36 male rats were randomly divided into two control groups and four experimental groups which was inhaled by nano-sized and micro-sized silicon dioxide respectively at the concentration of 300 mg/m3 for 2 hours and the activities of SOD, CAT and GSH-Px and the contents of H2O2, GSH and MDA of the liver, kidney, brain were determinated 24h and 48h after inhalation. The contents of H2O2 in all organs in nano-sized groups increased significantly while increased in micro-size groups only in liver and kidney at 24h and in brain at 48h. On the contrary, the activities of CAT in nano-sized group were lower than those in micro-sized group. Superoxide anion contents increased only in the brain of nano-sized group. The activities of SOD decreased significantly in nano-sized groups in kidney at 24h and brain but not in micro-sized groups. The content of GSH decreased only in liver at 24h. The activities of GSH-PX decreased significantly in nano-sized compared with control group and were lower significantly in brain than those in micro-sized group. The contents of MDA increased in all nano-sized groups but only in liver and brain in micro-sized group. The total anti-oxygen activities decreased in all nano-sized groups, but only in kidney at 24h and brain in micro-sized group, especially more significantly in brain at 48h in nano-sized than micro-sized group. While the activity in kidney in nano-sized group increased at 48h comparing to at 24h. Nano-sized silicon dioxide could induce oxidative damage more easily than micro-sized silicon dioxide. Through comparing different interval, it was found that the degree of oxidative damage at 48h after inhalation inferior to that at 24h after inhalation, which could be associated with the repair of the body against the oxidative damage.

  20. QSAR analysis for nano-sized layered manganese-calcium oxide in water oxidation: An application of chemometric methods in artificial photosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Shahbazy, Mohammad; Kompany-Zareh, Mohsen; Najafpour, Mohammad Mahdi

    2015-11-01

    Water oxidation is among the most important reactions in artificial photosynthesis, and nano-sized layered manganese-calcium oxides are efficient catalysts toward this reaction. Herein, a quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) model was constructed to predict the catalytic activities of twenty manganese-calcium oxides toward water oxidation using multiple linear regression (MLR) and genetic algorithm (GA) for multivariate calibration and feature selection, respectively. Although there are eight controlled parameters during synthesizing of the desired catalysts including ripening time, temperature, manganese content, calcium content, potassium content, the ratio of calcium:manganese, the average manganese oxidation state and the surface of catalyst, by using GA only three of them (potassium content, the ratio of calcium:manganese and the average manganese oxidation state) were selected as the most effective parameters on catalytic activities of these compounds. The model's accuracy criteria such as R(2)test and Q(2)test in order to predict catalytic rate for external test set experiments; were equal to 0.941 and 0.906, respectively. Therefore, model reveals acceptable capability to anticipate the catalytic activity.

  1. Catalytic Activity of Nanosized CuO-ZnO Supported on Titanium Chips in Hydrogenation of Carbon Dioxide to Methyl Alcohol.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Ho-Geun; Lee, Hwan-Gyu; Chung, Min-Chul; Park, Kwon-Pil; Kim, Ki-Joong; Kang, Byeong-Mo; Jeong, Woon-Jo; Jung, Sang-Chul; Lee, Do-Jin

    2016-02-01

    In this study, titanium chips (TC) generated from industrial facilities was utilized as TiO2 support for hydrogenation of carbon dioxide (CO2) to methyl alcohol (CH3OH) over Cu-based catalysts. Nano-sized CuO and ZnO catalysts were deposited on TiO2 support using a co-precipitation (CP) method (CuO-ZnO/TiO2), where the thermal treatment of TC and the particle size of TiC2 are optimized on CO2 conversion under different reaction temperature and contact time. Direct hydrogenation of CO2 to CH3OH over CuO-ZnO/TiO2 catalysts was achieved and the maximum selectivity (22%) and yield (18.2%) of CH3OH were obtained in the range of reaction temperature 210-240 degrees C under the 30 bar. The selectivity was readily increased by increasing the flow rate, which does not affect much to the CO2 conversion and CH3OH yield.

  2. Stabilization of nanosized titanium dioxide by cyclodextrin polymers and its photocatalytic effect on the degradation of wastewater pollutants

    PubMed Central

    Agócs, Tamás Zoltán; Puskás, István; Varga, Erzsébet; Molnár, Mónika

    2016-01-01

    Advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) are considered highly competitive water treatment technologies for the removal of organic pollutants. Among AOP techniques, photocatalysis has recently been the most widely studied. Our aims were to investigate how the dispersion of nanosized titanium dioxide (nanoTiO2) applied in photodegradation-based procedures can be stabilized with cyclodextrins in order to obtain a new, more efficient photocatalyst for the purification of waters polluted by xenobiotics applying UV irradiation. During our work, on the one hand, we studied the behavior and stability of nanoTiO2 in cyclodextrin solutions. On the other hand, we used various monomer and polymer cyclodextrin derivatives, and assessed the options for nanoTiO2 stabilization in the presence of various salts and tap water on the basis of turbidity tests. The physical stability of nanoTiO2 dispersions is diminished in the presence of the salts found in tap water (and occurring also in surface waters and ground water) and they are precipitated immediately. This colloidal instability can be improved by cyclodextrin derivatives. Based on the results of our studies we have selected carboxymethyl β-cyclodextrin polymer (CMBCD-P) for stabilization of nanoTiO2 dispersions. The photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue and ibuprofen as model organic pollutants in various media (distilled water, NaCl solution and tap water) has been studied using nanoTiO2 as catalyst stabilized by CMBCD-P. CMBCD-P itself showed a catalytic effect on the UV degradation of methylene blue. In addition to enhancing the colloid stability of nanoTiO2 CMBCD-P showed also synergistic effects in catalyzing the photodecomposition process of the dye. On the other hand, ibuprofen as a model pharmaceutical, a pollutant of emerging concern (EP), was protected by CMBCD-P against the photocatalytic degradation showing that inclusion complex formation can result in opposite effects depending on the structure of the host

  3. Effect of the addition of nano-sized sodium hexametaphosphate to fluoride toothpastes on tooth demineralization: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Dalpasquale, Giovanna; Delbem, Alberto Carlos Botazzo; Pessan, Juliano Pelim; Nunes, Gabriel Pereira; Gorup, Luiz Fernando; Neto, Francisco Nunes Souza; de Camargo, Emerson Rodrigues; Danelon, Marcelle

    2017-06-01

    This study evaluated the effect of toothpastes containing 1100 ppm F associated with nano-sized sodium hexametaphosphate (HMPnano) on enamel demineralization in vitro using a pH-cycling model. Bovine enamel blocks (4 mm × 4 mm, n = 72) selected by initial surface hardness (SHi) were randomly allocated into six groups (n = 12), according to the test toothpastes: without fluoride or HMPnano (Placebo), 550 ppm F (550F), 1100 ppm F (1100F), 1100F plus HMPnano at concentrations of 0.25% (1100F/0.25%HMPnano), 0.5% (1100F/0.5%HMPnano), and 1.0% (1100F/1.0%HMPnano). Blocks were treated 2×/day with slurries of toothpastes and submitted to five pH cycles (demineralizing/remineralizing solutions) at 37 °C. Next, final surface hardness (SHf), integrated loss subsurface hardness (ΔKHN), integrated mineral loss (gHAp × cm(-3)), and enamel fluoride (F) concentrations were determined. Data were analyzed by ANOVA and Student-Newman-Keuls test (p < 0.001). Toothpaste with 1100F/0.5%HMPnano led to the lowest mineral loss and the highest mineral concentration among all groups, which were 26% (SHf) and 21% (ΔKHN) lower and ~58% higher (gHAp × cm(-3)) when compared to 1100F (p < 0.001). Similar values of enamel F were observed for all fluoridated toothpastes (p > 0.001). The addition of 0.5%HMPnano to a 1100 F toothpaste significantly enhances its effects against enamel demineralization when compared to its counterpart without HMPnano in vitro. Toothpaste containing 1100 ppm F associated with HMPnano has a higher potential to reduce the demineralization compared to 1100 ppm F. This toothpaste could be a viable alternative to patients at high risk of caries.

  4. Selective capture of water using microporous adsorbents to increase the lifetime of lubricants.

    PubMed

    Ng, Eng-Poh; Delmotte, Luc; Mintova, Svetlana

    2009-01-01

    Long live lubricants: The selective capture of water from lubricants using nanosized microporous aluminophosphate (AEI) and aluminosilicate materials was studied. Nearly 98 % of the moisture was removed from the lubricating oil under ambient conditions, resulting in a significant improvement in the lubricating service lifetime. Moreover, both the lubricant and the microporous sorbents can be recovered and reused.The selective capture of water from lubricants using nanosized microporous aluminophosphate and aluminosilicate materials was studied with an aim to increase the lifetime of the lubricating mineral oil. The amount of water present in oxidized lubricating oil before and after treatment with microporous materials was studied by FTIR spectroscopy and determined quantitatively using the Karl Fischer titration method. Nanosized aluminophosphate revealed a high selectivity for water without adsorbing other additives, in contrast to nanosized aluminosilicates which also adsorb polar oxidation products and ionic additives. About 98 % of the initial moisture could be removed from the lubricating oil under ambient conditions, resulting in a significant improvement in the lubricating service lifetime. Moreover, no by-products are formed during the process and both the lubricant and the sorbents can be recovered and reused, thus the method is environmentally friendly.

  5. Sonogashira reaction of aryl and heteroaryl halides with terminal alkynes catalyzed by a highly efficient and recyclable nanosized MCM-41 anchored palladium bipyridyl complex.

    PubMed

    Lin, Bo-Nan; Huang, Shao-Hsien; Wu, Wei-Yi; Mou, Chung-Yuan; Tsai, Fu-Yu

    2010-12-10

    A heterogeneous catalyst, nanosized MCM-41-Pd, was used to catalyze the Sonogashira coupling of aryl and heteroaryl halides with terminal alkynes in the presence of CuI and triphenylphosphine. The coupling products were obtained in high yields using low Pd loadings to 0.01 mol%, and the nanosized MCM-41-Pd catalyst was recovered by centrifugation of the reaction solution and re-used in further runs without significant loss of reactivity.

  6. Synthesis and characterization of carbon-coated nano-sized Na0.9FePO4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Su-Bin; Son, Jong-tae

    2016-08-01

    The electrochemical properties of the nano-sized maricite structure of Na0.9FePO4 coated with carbon (C-NFP) have not been well characterized. To analyze the properties of nano-sized fibers, C-NFP cathode material synthesized by using electrospinning methods with nanostructured fiber with diameter of 200 nm which had a 20 nm uniform carbon coating. Field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) measurements were conducted to assess the structure properties of the C-NFP material. To observe the electrochemical properties of C-NFP, we observed initial charge-discharge curves and the rate-capabilities. During the charge process, to the best of our knowledge, C-NFP shows a new phase transformation, which was indexed to the Alluaudite phase, at about 3.3 V due to the migration of Na ions.

  7. Recent advances and future perspectives of nanosized zero- valent iron for extraction of heavy elements from metallurgical sludges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikhailov, I. Yu; Levina, V. V.; Kolesnikov, E. A.; Chuprunov, K. O.; Gusev, A. A.; Godymchuk, A. Yu; Kuznetsov, D. V.

    2016-01-01

    Advanced oxidation processes with nanosized zero-valent iron have presented great potential in wastewater treatment technology and now experience both increasing popularity and reliable technical improvements. Besides wastewater treatment, there is another promising application for an emerging technology of iron nanoparticles - as Fenton-like catalyst for extraction of valuable elements from poor and secondary raw materials such as metallurgical sludges. In present research, we carried out a set of experiments with emphasis on the physicochemical mechanisms and their relationship to the performance. In particular, we examined complex acidic - hydrogen peroxide leaching of zinc from blast furnace sludge with nanosized zero-valent iron as Fenton-like catalyst. Results of the experiments showed promising potential for subsequent application in extraction of heavy and rare-earth elements.

  8. Analytical application of nano-sized titanium dioxide for the determination of trace inorganic antimony in natural waters.

    PubMed

    Hagarová, Ingrid; Matúš, Peter; Bujdoš, Marek; Kubová, Jana

    2012-03-01

    In this work, solid phase extraction (SPE) using nano-sized TiO2 as a solid sorbent was used for separation/preconcentration of total inorganic antimony (iSb) before its determination by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS). After adsorption of iSb onto nano-sized TiO2, direct TiO2-slurry sampling was used for sample injection into a graphite tube. The conditions for the reliable slurry sampling together with careful control of the temperature program for the slurry solutions were worked out. Extraction conditions for both inorganic antimony species (Sb(III) and Sb(V)) and interference studies of coexisting ions were studied in detail. The accuracy of the optimized method was checked by the certified reference material (CRM) for trace elements in lake water TMDA-61. Finally, the optimized method was used for the determination of trace inorganic antimony in synthetic and natural waters.

  9. Terahertz time-domain spectra of aromatic carboxylic acids incorporated in nano-sized pores of mesoporous silicate.

    PubMed

    Ueno, Yuko; Ajito, Katsuhiro

    2007-07-01

    Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) is used to study the intra- and intermolecular vibrational modes of aromatic carboxylic acids, for example, o-phthalic acid, benzoic acid, and salicylic acid, which form either intra- or intermolecular hydrogen bond(s) in different ways. Incorporating the target molecules in nano-sized spaces in mesoporous silicate (SBA-16) is found to be effective for the separate detection of intramolecular hydrogen bonding modes and intermolecular modes. The results are supported by an analysis of the differences in the peak shifts, which depend on temperature, caused by the different nature of the THz absorption. Raman spectra revealed that incorporating the molecules in the nano-sized pores of SBA-16 slightly changes the molecular structures. In the future, THz-TDS using nanoporous materials will be used to analyze the intra- and intermolecular vibrational modes of molecules with larger hydrogen bonding networks such as proteins or DNA.

  10. Catalytic transformation of persistent contaminants using a new composite material based on nanosized zero-valent metal - field experiment results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dror, I.; Merom Jacov, O.; Berkowitz, B.

    2010-12-01

    A new composite material based on deposition of nanosized zero valent iron (ZVI) particles and cyanocobalamine (vitamin B12) on a diatomite matrix is presented. Cyanocobalamine is known to be an effective electron mediator, having strong synergistic effects with ZVI for reductive dehalogenation reactions. This composite material also improves the reducing capacity of nanosized ZVI by preventing agglomeration of iron particles, thus increasing their active surface area. The porous structure of the diatomite matrix allows high hydraulic conductivity, which favors channeling of contaminated water to the reactive surface of the composite material and in turn faster rates of remediation. The ability of the material to degrade or transform rapidly and completely a large spectrum of water pollutants will be demonstrated, based on results from two field site experiments where polluted groundwater containing a mixture of industrial and agricultural persistent pollutants was treated. In addition a set of laboratory experiments using individual contaminant solutions to analyze chemical transformations under controlled conditions will be presented.

  11. Photodegradation of surfactants on the nanosized TiO2 prepared by hydrolysis of the alkoxide titanium.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Rubing; Gao, Lian; Zhang, Qinghong

    2004-01-01

    Nanosized TiO(2) was synthesized by hydrolysis of titanium tetraisopropoxide in the nanodroplets of microemulsions. The microemulsion provided by functionalized surfactants derived from the mixture of the commercially available sodium dodecylbenzensulfonate (DBS) and sodium dodecyl sulfate (DS). The resulting TiO(2) nanoparticles were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and differential thermal analysis. Nanosized TiO(2) of anatase was found to show good photocatalytic properties in the photodegradation of DBS and DS surfactants. The cleavage of the aromatic moiety, the intermediate products and ultimate mineralization to CO(2) were examined in the process of photodegradation. A mechanism is also proposed on the basis of these experimental results.

  12. Microemulsion synthesis of nanosized TiO(2) particles doping with rare-earth and their photocatalytic activity.

    PubMed

    Jian, Zicong; Pu, Yuying; Fang, Jianzhang; Ye, Zhiping

    2010-01-01

    Microemulsion is the easiest and cleanest of the popular methods of synthesizing nanomaterial. This work synthesized the nanosized La-TiO(2) and Ce-TiO(2) particles through the hydrolyzation of tetrabutyl titanate in a Triton X-100/n-hexanol/cyclohexane/water reverse microemulsion. The particles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and thermogravimetry (TG). The photocatalytic activity was evaluated by photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange (MO) under ultraviolet light and visible light irradiation. The results showed that reverse microemulsion produced the nanosized and well-separated particles, which are obviously in degrading MO. Comparing the pure TiO(2) with doping TiO(2) , the doping ones are smaller and have better photocatalytic activity, which was best at the molar content of 0.1% for La, whereas for Ce it was 0.5%.

  13. Optical properties of polysiloxane hybrid thin films containing nano-sized Ag-As-Se chalcogenide clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zha, Congji; Osvath, Peter; Wilson, Gerry; Launikonis, Anton

    2009-02-01

    Chalcogenide glasses are attractive for all-optical signal processing due to their outstanding optical properties, including large optical nonlinearity, a high refractive index and high photosensitivity. In device fabrication, a challenge lies in the difficulty of obtaining thin films with a high stability and good uniformity. In this paper, optical thin films containing nano-sized chalcogenide clusters in polysiloxane matrices are fabricated by a modified plasma deposition process. The optical absorption and luminescence emission properties of the hybrid thin films were characterized by UV-Vis-NIR and fluorescence spectroscopy. Luminescent emission from Ag-As-Se nano-sized clusters was observed for the first time in these nano-hybrid thin films, and the mechanism was discussed.

  14. Phase constitution and interface structure of nano-sized Ag-Cu/AlN multilayers: Experiment and ab initio modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Pigozzi, Giancarlo; Janczak-Rusch, Jolanta; Passerone, Daniele; Antonio Pignedoli, Carlo; Patscheider, Joerg; Jeurgens, Lars P. H.; Antusek, Andrej; Parlinska-Wojtan, Magdalena; Bissig, Vinzenz

    2012-10-29

    Nano-sized Ag-Cu{sub 8nm}/AlN{sub 10nm} multilayers were deposited by reactive DC sputtering on {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}(0001) substrates. Investigation of the phase constitution and interface structure of the multilayers evidences a phase separation of the alloy sublayers into nanosized grains of Ag and Cu. The interfaces between the Ag grains and the quasi-single-crystalline AlN sublayers are semi-coherent, whereas the corresponding Cu/AlN interfaces are incoherent. The orientation relationship between Ag and AlN is constant throughout the entire multilayer stack. These observations are consistent with atomistic models of the interfaces as obtained by ab initio calculations.

  15. Incorporation and measurement of synthetic nanosized iron oxides into soil profile for innovative agricultural applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzmán, G.; Cañasveras, J. C.; Barrón, V.; Gómez, J. A.

    2012-04-01

    Iron oxides are natural constituents of soils providing them different characteristics. That differentiation has been used as in fingerprinting studies to determine sources of sediment, especially at large scales. However, there is a lack of studies that use this approach at smaller scales using iron oxides differences because these differences, among zones, are difficult to establish. The incorporation to soil profile of synthetic nanosized iron oxides could increase and improve the detection of differences in iron oxide properties among zones at plot or hillslope scales, solving problems that arise when that objective have been pursued with magnetic tracers of millimeter scale (Ventura et al. 2002). Magnetite (Fe3O4), hematite (α-Fe2O3) and goethite (FeOOH) can be commercially available as Bayferrox® 318M, 110 and 920 respectively, and traditionally used as pigments. Because of their properties, these iron oxides could fulfill all the requirements, defined by Zhang et al. 2001, for being sediment tracers. This communication describes the whole process of incorporation into the soil profile and the determination of the concentration of these iron oxides into the soil and in the transported sediment in water erosion experiments, and their use to estimate soil losses, identifying erosion and deposition areas, and quantifying the contribution to exported sediment of different zones. Their characteristics allowed a relatively easy detection by measuring the magnetic susceptibility, in the case of magnetite, and spectral properties by diffuse reflectance spectroscopy for hematite and goethite. Laboratory and field magnetic measurement techniques were set up considering bulk density variations at the soil samplings. Hematite and goethite measurements were also calibrated for the study-site soil and for different magnetite, hematite and goethite concentrations. A comparison of the measured iron oxide concentrations and a multivariate mixing model (Rhoton et al. 2008

  16. Siderophores, the answer for micro to nanosized asbestos fibre related health hazard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, Shabori; Ledwani, Lalita; John, P. J.

    2016-04-01

    Recent studies on the potential toxicity of High Aspect Ratio Nanoparticles (HARN) has yet once again reinforced the health hazard imposed by asbestos fibres ranging from nano to micro size. Asbestos a naturally occurring fibrous mineral declared a Group I definite carcinogen by IARC (International Agency for Research on Cancer), a unit of WHO in the year 1987, has been extensively used since World War II to the near past for various commercial products. According to the most recent World Health Organization (WHO) estimates, asbestos-related diseases, resulting from exposure at workplace claims more than 107000 lives every year worldwide. The various types of toxic effects induced by asbestos in humans include - i) inflammation and fibrogenesis of lung, ii) mesothelioma iii) asbestosis and iv) bronchogenic carcinoma. The stability of asbestos in natural environment and its biological aggressiveness is related to their fibrous structure and dimensions. The actual risk associated with the exposure to nanosized asbestos, which is still unknown and escapes most regulations worldwide, has been shown in various toxicity assessment studies conducted on various animal models.In an effort to reduce the size of asbestos and therby its toxicity by limiting its biopersistence, oxalic acid treatment of asbestos coupled to power ultrasound treatment was carried out. The nanosized particles formed were still found to retain their hazardous effect. Similar were the results obtained on strong acid treatment of asbestos as well. A probable solution to the asbestos toxicity problem therefore envisaged was bioremediation. This involved the secretion of iron chelating molecules termed siderophores by microbes, which are of significance due to their ability to form very stable and soluble complexes with iron. Iron in asbestos composition is a major factor responsible for its carcinogenicity, removal or extraction of which would prove to be an effective answer to the worldwide problem

  17. Anion-Templated Nanosized Silver Alkynyl Clusters: Cluster Engineering and Solution Behavior.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shan-Shan; Su, Hai-Feng; Wang, Zhi; Wang, Lina; Zhao, Quan-Qin; Tung, Chen-Ho; Sun, Di; Zheng, Lan-Sun

    2017-03-08

    Assembly of nanosized polynuclear metal clusters from simple building blocks usually involves complicated self-organization processes and thus is a long-standing challenge. Here, we demonstrate the controllable assembly, single-crystal structures and solution behaviors of four molecular assemblies based on nanosized silver alkynyl clusters, formulated as {[(CrO4 )2 Cl@Ag42 (PhC≡C)34 (CF3 COO)2 ]⋅CF3 COO} (1), {(NH4 )[(CrO4 )2 Cl@Ag42 (PhC≡C)34 (CrO4 )(H2 O)2 ]⋅2BF4 ⋅CH3 OH}n (2), [(CrO4 )@Ag22 (PhC≡C)16 (CF3 SO3 )4 ]n (3), and {[(CrO4 )2 @Ag31 (PhC≡C)22 (CF3 SO3 )4 ]⋅CF3 SO3 ⋅2CH3 OH⋅H2 O}n (4). In the presence of concomitant CrO4(2-) and Cl(-) templates, we could isolate a discrete cluster 1 and a polymeric chain-like compound 2 by using different silver salts. Both 1 and 2 have a similar 42-metallic cage, which traps two CrO4(2-) and one Cl(-) as anion templates. Using sole CrO4(2-) template, 3 and 4 were simultaneously isolated in a one-pot reaction. Both of them are 1D chain structures based on single CrO4(2-) templated Ag18 and double CrO4(2-) templated Ag30 clusters, respectively. HR-ESI-MS was used to study the solution behaviors of 1-4. This work has the following purposes: i) it presents the cluster engineering concept used in the assembly of polynuclear silver alkynyl clusters; ii) it exemplifies template effects from hetero and homo anions; and iii) it provides a controllable way to achieve assembly of silver alkynyl clusters. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Ecotoxicological studies of micro- and nanosized barium titanate on aquatic photosynthetic microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Polonini, Hudson C; Brandão, Humberto M; Raposo, Nádia R B; Mouton, Ludovic; Yéprémian, Claude; Couté, Alain; Brayner, Roberta

    2014-09-01

    The interaction between live organisms and micro- or nanosized materials has become a current focus in toxicology. As nanosized barium titanate has gained momentum lately in the medical field, the aims of the present work are: (i) to assess BT toxicity and its mechanisms on the aquatic environment, using two photosynthetic organisms (Anabaena flos-aquae, a colonial cyanobacteria, and Euglena gracilis, a flagellated euglenoid); (ii) to study and correlate the physicochemical properties of BT with its toxic profile; (iii) to compare the BT behavior (and Ba(2+) released ions) and the toxic profile in synthetic (Bold's Basal, BB, or Mineral Medium, MM) and natural culture media (Seine River Water, SRW); and (iv) to address whether size (micro, BT MP, or nano, BT NP) is an issue in BT particles toxicity. Responses such as growth inhibition, cell viability, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, adenosine-5-triphosphate (ATP) content and photosynthetic efficiency were evaluated. The main conclusions are: (i) BT have statistically significant toxic effects on E. gracilis growth and viability even in small concentrations (1μgmL(-1)), for both media and since the first 24 h; on the contrary of on A. flos-aquae, to whom the effects were noticeable only for the higher concentrations (after 96 h: ≥75 μg mL(-1) for BT NP and =100 μg mL(-1) for BT MP, in BB; and ≥75 μg mL(-1) for both materials in SRW), in spite of the viability being affected in all concentrations; (ii) the BT behaviors in synthetic and natural culture media were slightly different, being the toxic effects more pronounced when grown in SRW - in this case, a worse physiological state of the organisms in SRW can occur and account for the lower resistance, probably linked to a paucity of nutrients or even a synergistic effect with a contaminant from the river; and (iii) the effects seem to be mediated by induced stress without a direct contact in A. flos-aquae and by direct endocytosis in E. gracilis, but in

  19. Ductility Enhancement of Molybdenum Phase by Nano-sized Oxide Dispersions

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Bruce

    2008-07-18

    The objective of this research is to understand and to remedy the impurity effects for room-temperature ductility enhancement of molybdenum (Mo) based alloys by the inclusion of nano-sized metal oxide dispersions. This research combines theoretical, computational, and experimental efforts. The results will help to formulate systematic strategies in searching for better composed Mo-based alloys with optimal mechanical properties. For this project, majority of the research effort was directed to atomistic modeling to identify the mechanisms responsible for the oxygen embrittling and ductility enhancement based on fundamental electronic structure analysis. Through first principles molecular dynamics simulations, it was found that the embrittling impurity species were attracted to the metal oxide interface, consistent with previous experiments. Further investigation on the electronic structures reveals that the presence of embrittling species degrades the quality of the metallic chemical bonds in the hosting matrix in a number of ways, the latter providing the source of ductility. For example, the spatial flexibility of the bonds is reduced, and localization of the impurity states occurs to pin the dislocation flow. Rice’s criterion has been invoked to explain the connections of electronic structure and mechanical properties. It was also found that when impurity species become attracted to the metal oxide interface, some of the detrimental effects are alleviated, thus explaining the observed ductility enhancement effects. These understandings help to develop predictive capabilities to facilitate the design and optimization of Mo and other high temperature alloys (e.g. ODS alloys) for fossil energy materials applications. Based on the theoretical and computational studies, the experimental work includes the preparation of Mo powders mixed with candidate nano-sized metal oxides, which were then vacuum hot-pressed to make the Mo alloys. Several powder mixing methods

  20. Inhibited crystallization and its effect on conductivity in a nano-sized Fe oxide composite PEO solid electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, M. Jaipal; Chu, Peter P.; Kumar, J. Siva; Rao, U. V. Subba

    Crystallinity and conductivity results for a new nanocomposite PEO:LiClO 4 with nano-sized Fe 3O 4 particles are presented in this paper. The DSC measurements have shown a decrease in the degree of crystallinity of PEO by the inclusion of LiClO 4 salt and further decrease with the addition of Fe 3O 4 nanoparticles. The nano-sized Fe 3O 4 surface has a Lewis acidic group capable of interaction with Lewis base centers of the polymer PEO chain in the nanocomposite electrolyte, resulting in decrease in PEO crystallinity and enhancement of miscibility in the presence of LiClO 4 salt. Annealed at 125 °C of the PEO:LiClO 4 electrolyte shows melting endotherm at 175 °C, but this endotherm is absent with the incorporation of nano-sized Fe oxide particles. This electrolyte system has a one and a half order of magnitude higher ionic conductivity compared to a standard PEO:LiClO 4 electrolyte. Optimized conductivity is found at a 10 wt.% Fe 3O 4 composition while above this concentration, the conductivity is decreased due to aggregation of a Fe 3O 4:Li rich phase.

  1. A facile preparation method of a PFC-containing nano-sized emulsion for theranostics of solid tumors.

    PubMed

    Shiraishi, Kouichi; Endoh, Reiko; Furuhata, Hiroshi; Nishihara, Masamichi; Suzuki, Ryo; Maruyama, Kazuo; Oda, Yusuke; Jo, Jun-ichiro; Tabata, Yasuhiko; Yamamoto, Jun; Yokoyama, Masayuki

    2011-12-15

    Theranostics means a therapy conducted in a diagnosis-guided manner. For theranostics of solid tumors by means of ultrasound, we designed a nano-sized emulsion containing perfluoropentane (PFC5). This emulsion can be delivered into tumor tissues through the tumor vasculatures owing to its nano-size, and the emulsion is transformed into a micron-sized bubble upon sonication through phase transition of PFC5. The micron-sized bubbles can more efficiently absorb ultrasonic energy for better diagnostic images and can exhibit more efficient ultrasound-driven therapeutic effects than nano-sized bubbles. For more efficient tumor delivery, smaller size is preferable, yet the preparation of a smaller emulsion is technically more difficult. In this paper, we used a bath-type sonicator to successfully obtain small PFC5-containing emulsions in a diameter of ca. 200nm. Additionally, we prepared these small emulsions at 40°C, which is above the boiling temperature of PFC5. Accordingly, we succeeded in obtaining very small nano-emulsions for theranostics through a very facile method.

  2. Dispersion-precipitation synthesis of highly active nanosized Co3O4 for catalytic oxidation of carbon monoxide and propane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Weidong; Wu, Feng; Li, Jinjun; You, Zhixiong

    2017-07-01

    Nanosized Co3O4 catalyst was prepared through a dispersion-precipitation method involving a reaction between wet cobalt hydroxide and acetic acid, which forms a colloidal dispersion, and subsequent dilution, which destabilizes and precipitates the colloidal particles. The catalyst had a particle size of 5-15 nm and a specific surface area of 82 m2/g. Compared with the analogue prepared by conventional alkali-induced precipitation method, the nanosized catalyst was more reducible and contained a larger amount of active surface oxygen species, as revealed by experiments using temperature-programmed reduction in hydrogen and temperature-programmed desorption of oxygen. The oxygen species could contribute to the observed higher activity in the catalytic oxidation of carbon monoxide and propane. In addition, a kinetics study revealed that the apparent activation energies for carbon monoxide and propane oxidation over the catalyst were 34.0 and 49.5 kJ/mol, respectively, much lower than those over the analogue (54.7 and 71.1 kJ/mol, respectively). Furthermore, a long-term test (76 h) showed that the nanosized catalyst is highly stable.

  3. Gold catalysts supported on nanosized iron oxide for low-temperature oxidation of carbon monoxide and formaldehyde

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Zheng; Zhang, Weidong; Li, Yi; Huang, Zuming; Guo, Huishan; Wu, Feng; Li, Jinjun

    2016-02-01

    This study aimed to optimize synthesis of gold catalyst supported on nanosized iron oxide and to evaluate the activity in oxidation of carbon monoxide and formaldehyde. Nanosized iron oxide was prepared from a colloidal dispersion of hydrous iron oxide through a dispersion-precipitation method. Gold was adsorbed onto nanosized iron oxide under self-generated basic conditions. Characterization results indicate that the iron oxide consisted of hematite/maghemite composite with primary particle sizes of 6-8 nm. Gold was highly dispersed on the surface of the support. The catalysts showed good activity in the oxidation of airborne carbon monoxide and formaldehyde. The optimal pH for their synthesis was ∼7. The catalytic performance could be enhanced by extending the adsorption time of gold species on the support within 21 h. The optimized catalyst was capable of achieving complete oxidation of 1% carbon monoxide at -20 °C and 33% conversion of 450 ppm formaldehyde at ambient temperature. The catalyst may be applicable to indoor air purification.

  4. Nanosized AlPO{sub 4}-5 molecular sieves and ultrathin films prepared by microwave synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Mintova, S.; Mo, S.; Bein, T.

    1998-12-01

    Nanosized AlPO{sub 4}-5 molecular sieves and submicron AlPO{sub 4}-5 films were synthesized by microwave treatment of aluminophosphate precursors. The effects of the chemical composition of the initial solution and the conditions of microwave treatment of aluminophosphate precursors on the synthesis of nanosized AlPO{sub 4}-5 molecular sieves were investigated. The syntheses were performed under hydrothermal conditions in a microwave oven at temperatures ranging from 90 to 160 C, using various concentrations of H{sub 2}O and organic template and varying aging times. The resulting bulk products were analyzed using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, thermogravimetry, dynamic light scattering, and nitrogen sorption. Optimal conditions for the preparation of nanosized molecular sieve crystals were found. Thin films of AlPO{sub 4}-5 on acoustic wave devices were also prepared, composed of a molecular coupling layer, AlPO{sub 4}-5 seed crystals, and a homogeneous porous film formed by microwave treatment of an aluminophosphate precursor. The initial mixture composition and microwave conditions affect the thickness and the orientation of the zeolite crystals in the films. Sorption isotherms for n-hexane and cyclohexane in these AlPO{sub 4}5 films are reported.

  5. The Effect of Crystallinity of Carbon Source on Mechanically Activated Carbothermic Synthesis of Nano-Sized SiC Powders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moshtaghioun, B. M.; Monshi, A.; Abbasi, M. H.; Karimzadeh, F.

    2013-02-01

    The relevance of the structure of carbon materials and milling on the carbothermic reduction of silica to produce nano-sized silicon carbide (SiC) was studied. Graphite (crystalline) and metallurgical coke (mainly amorphous) were chosen as carbon precursors that were mixed with amorphous pure nano-sized SiO2 and milled for different times. The SiC yield at 1450 °C for l h was influenced by the degree of milling. Extending the milling time increased SiC formation in both cases. Although some extensive milling converted both sources of carbon into amorphous phase, the amount of synthesized SiC from graphite was about 4.5-3 times higher than coke with increased extent of milling. Graphite is converted from stable crystalline state into the amorphous phase, so it absorbs more activation energy of milling and fresher active centers are created, while the already amorphous coke absorbs less energy and thus less fresh active centers are created. This energy difference acts as a driving force, resulting in higher yield of nano-sized SiC when graphite is used as carbon source.

  6. Nano-sized metabolic precursors for heterogeneous tumor-targeting strategy using bioorthogonal click chemistry in vivo.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sangmin; Jung, Seulhee; Koo, Heebeom; Na, Jin Hee; Yoon, Hong Yeol; Shim, Man Kyu; Park, Jooho; Kim, Jong-Ho; Lee, Seulki; Pomper, Martin G; Kwon, Ick Chan; Ahn, Cheol-Hee; Kim, Kwangmeyung

    2017-09-18

    Herein, we developed nano-sized metabolic precursors (Nano-MPs) for new tumor-targeting strategy to overcome the intrinsic limitations of biological ligands such as the limited number of biological receptors and the heterogeneity in tumor tissues. We conjugated the azide group-containing metabolic precursors, triacetylated N-azidoacetyl-d-mannosamine to generation 4 poly(amidoamine) dendrimer backbone. The nano-sized dendrimer of Nano-MPs could generate azide groups on the surface of tumor cells homogeneously regardless of cell types via metabolic glycoengineering. Importantly, these exogenously generated 'artificial chemical receptors' containing azide groups could be used for bioorthogonal click chemistry, regardless of phenotypes of different tumor cells. Furthermore, in tumor-bearing mice models, Nano-MPs could be mainly localized at the target tumor tissues by the enhanced permeation and retention (EPR) effect, and they successfully generated azide groups on tumor cells in vivo after an intravenous injection. Finally, we showed that these azide groups on tumor tissues could be used as 'artificial chemical receptors' that were conjugated to bioorthogonal chemical group-containing liposomes via in vivo click chemistry in heterogeneous tumor-bearing mice. Therefore, overall results demonstrated that our nano-sized metabolic precursors could be extensively applied to new alternative tumor-targeting technique for molecular imaging and drug delivery system, regardless of the phenotype of heterogeneous tumor cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Ultrasound-assisted synthesis of nanosized zero-valent iron for metal cations extraction and wastewater treatment applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikhailov, I. Yu; Lysov, D. V.; Levina, V. V.; Mazov, I. N.; Gusev, A. A.; Yudintseva, T. I.; Kuznetsov, D. V.

    2016-01-01

    Nanosized zero-valent iron has shown good results in wastewater treatment and activation of physicochemical processes. Its applications in modern industry are complicated by high production costs of nanomaterials produced via existing synthesis routes. Therefore there is a need of cheap and high-productive methods of nanosized zero-valent iron with advanced functional properties. Improvement of oxidative conditions with additions may find its place in extraction of rare-earth metals, where high cost of nanomaterials could be viable. In this paper we studied an effect of ultrasonic irradiation on specific surface area and particle size of nanosized zero-valent iron synthesized by methods of chemical precipitation with high- temperature reduction in hydrogen flow and sodium borohydride reduction. Obtained results showed significant decrease of particle size and differences in particles morphology depending on presence of ultrasonication during synthesis and on chosen method. For ultrasonic-assisted synthesis with 100% amplitude, particle size calculated from specific surface area was 70 nm for sample synthesized by chemical precipitation with high-temperature reduction and 35 nm for borohydide reduction method compared to 63 nm for reference sample without ultrasonication.

  8. Synthesis of nanosized ZSM-5 zeolite using extracted silica from rice husk without adding any alumina source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sari, Zahra Ghasemi Laleh Vajheh; Younesi, Habibollah; Kazemian, Hossein

    2015-08-01

    The synthesis of analcime and nanosized ZSM-5 zeolites was carried out by a hydrothermal method with silica extracted from rice husk, available as an inexpensive local biowaste, and without the use of an extra alumina source. Amorphous silica (with 88 wt% of SiO2) was extracted from rice husk ash by a suitable alkali solution. The effects of crystallization temperature, time and SiO2/Al2O3 ratio of the initial system on the properties of final products were investigated. For the characterization of the synthesized product, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope, energy dispersive X-ray techniques, Fourier transform infrared and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller method were applied. Crystallinity percentages of analcime and nanosized ZSM-5 were 95.86 and 89.56, respectively, with specific surface area of 353.5 m2 g-1 for ZSM-5. The experimental results revealed that the synthesis of analcime and nanosized ZSM-5 zeolites was more practical with using silica extracted from inexpensive raw materials, while the whole crystallization process was accomplished without adding any alumina source during.

  9. Development of Linker-Conjugated Nanosize Lipid Vesicles: A Strategy for Cell Selective Treatment in Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Dey, Niladri Shekhar; Mukherjee, Biswajit; Maji, Ruma; Satapathy, Bhabani Sankar

    2016-01-01

    Among the various drug delivery devices, nanoliposome is an emerging formulation in the treatment of cancer. Here we have developed tamoxifen citrate (TC) loaded nanoliposome conjugated with phosphoethanolamine (PE) by thin film hydration method. Various physicochemical and biopharmaceutical characterization studies such as drug-excipients interaction, surface morphology, energy dispersive X-ray analysis, zeta potential, in vitro drug release, cellular uptake, in vitro cytotoxicity assay and in vivo pharmacokinetic profiles were conducted. TC-loaded nanoliposome (TNL1) and PE-conjugated TC-loaded nanoliposome (TNL-PE) showed 3.23±0.26% and 3.07±0.05% drug loading values, respectively. Average diameters (z-average) of the nanoliposomes were within 100 nm, with negative zeta potentials and cumulative percentages of drug release were 75.77±12.21% and 61.04±10.53% at 30 h for TNL1 and TNL-PE respectively. Predominant uptake of both the types of nanoliposomes was visualized in MCF-7 breast cancer cells. TNL1 and TNL-PE decreased the cell viability from 95.95±0.37 to 12.22±0.64% and from 96.51±0.24 to 13.49±0.08% respectively. In vivo pharmacokinetic study showed that AUC 0-∞, AUMC0-∞, MRT, and t1/2 value of TNL-PE increased (22%, 100%, 2.66 fold and 60% respectively) as compared to the free drug. Administration of TNL-PE decreased the renal clearance value (about 38%) as compared to the free drug. TNL1 and TNL-PE released the drug in a sustained manner. Further, TNL-PE may be used for active targeting for breast cancer cells when it is tagged with specific antibodies to PE, a linker molecule.

  10. A capacitive biosensor for ultra-trace level urea determination based on nano-sized urea-imprinted polymer receptors coated on graphite electrode surface.

    PubMed

    Alizadeh, Taher; Akbari, Aezam

    2013-05-15

    A novel urea biosensor based on capacitive detection was developed using nano-sized molecularly imprinted polymers (nano-MIP). The sensitive layer was created by casting a thin layer of poly (vinyl chloride) (PVC)/nano-MIP composite on a graphite electrode surface. Cyclic voltammetry and impedance spectroscopy were used to monitor the electrode surface modification. The insulating properties of the layer were studied in the presence of K3Fe(CN)6/K4Fe(CN)6 redox couple by AC impedance measurements. The proposed capacitive sensor exhibited good selectivity for urea, compared to the chemicals with high resemblance to urea. The repeatability of the senor was found to be satisfactory. Very wide dynamic linear range (1×10(-11)-1×10(-4)M) as well as an ultra-trace detection limit equal to 5 picomolar was obtained for the sensor. The relevant experiments indicated satisfactory repeatability and reproducibility for the developed sensor. The results from sample analysis confirmed the applicability of the MIP-based sensor to quantitative analysis of urea in real samples.

  11. Photocatalytic self-cleaning poly(L-lactide) materials based on a hybrid between nanosized zinc oxide and expanded graphite or fullerene.

    PubMed

    Virovska, Daniela; Paneva, Dilyana; Manolova, Nevena; Rashkov, Iliya; Karashanova, Daniela

    2016-03-01

    New self-cleaning materials of polymer fibers decorated with a hybrid between nanosized zinc oxide and expanded graphite (EG) or fullerene (C60) were obtained. The new materials were prepared by applying electrospinning in conjunction with electrospraying. Poly(l-lactide) (PLA) was selected as a biocompatible and (bio)degradable polymer carrier. PLA solution was electrospun in combination with electrospraying of a suspension that contained the ZnO/EG or ZnO/C60 hybrid. Mats with different content of EG or C60 were obtained. The new materials were characterized by scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM and TEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD). The photocatalytic activity of the materials was evaluated by using model dyes. The formation of a hybrid between ZnO and EG led to enhancement of the photocatalytic activity of the mats at ZnO/EG weight ratios of 90/10 and 85/15. Increase in the photocatalytic activity of the ZnO-containing mats was also achieved by the formation of a hybrid between ZnO and C60 at a fullerene content of 0.5 and 1.0 wt.% in respect to ZnO weight. The new materials exhibited antibacterial activity as evidenced by the performed studies against Staphylococcus aureus.

  12. Exploring the aneugenic and clastogenic potential in the nanosize range: A549 human lung carcinoma cells and amorphous monodisperse silica nanoparticles as models.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Laetitia; Thomassen, Leen C J; Plas, Gina; Rabolli, Virginie; Napierska, Dorota; Decordier, Ilse; Roelants, Mathieu; Hoet, Peter H; Kirschhock, Christine E A; Martens, Johan A; Lison, Dominique; Kirsch-Volders, Micheline

    2010-12-01

    We explored how to assess the genotoxic potential of nanosize particles with a well validated assay, the in vitro cytochalasin-B micronucleus assay, detecting both clastogens and aneugens. Monodisperse Stöber amorphous silica nanoparticles (SNPs) of three different sizes (16, 60 and 104 nm) and A549 lung carcinoma cells were selected as models. Cellular uptake of silica was monitored by ICP-MS. At non-cytotoxic doses the smallest particles showed a slightly higher fold induction of micronuclei (MNBN). When considering the three SNPs together, particle number and total surface area appeared to account for MNBN induction as they both correlated significantly with the amplitude of the effect. Using nominal or cellular dose did not show statistically significant differences. Likewise, alkaline comet assay and FISH-centromeric probing of MNBN indicated a weak and not statistically significant induction of oxidative DNA damage, chromosome breakage and chromosome loss. This line of investigation will contribute to adequately design and interpret nanogenotoxicity assays.

  13. Computational Study of Nanosized Drug Delivery from Cyclodextrins, Crown Ethers and Hyaluronan in Pharmaceutical Formulations.

    PubMed

    Torrens, Francisco; Castellano, Gloria

    2015-01-01

    The problem in this work is the computational characterization of cyclodextrins, crown ethers and hyaluronan (HA) as hosts of inclusion complexes for nanosized drug delivery vehicles in pharmaceutical formulations. The difficulty is addressed through a computational study of some thermodynamic, geometric and topological properties of the hosts. The calculated properties of oligosaccharides of D-glucopyranoses allow these to act as co-solvents of polyanions in water. In crown ethers, the central channel is computed. Mucoadhesive polymer HA in formulations releases drugs in mucosas. Geometric, topological and fractal analyses are carried out with code TOPO. Reference calculations are performed with code GEPOL. From HA to HA·3Ca and hydrate, the hydrophilic solvent-accessible surface varies with the count of H-bonds. The fractal dimension rises. The dimension of external atoms rises resulting 1.725 for HA. It rises going to HA·3Ca and hydrate. Nonburied minus molecular dimension rises and decays. Hydrate globularity is lower than O(water), Ca(2+) and O(HA). Ca(2+) rugosity is smaller than for hydrate, O(HA) and O(water). Ca(2+) and O(water) accessibilities are greater than hydrate. Conclusions are drawn on: (1) the relative stability of linear/cyclic and shorter/larger polymers; (2) the atomic analysis of properties allows determining the atoms with maximum reactivity.

  14. Impact of nanosizing on solubility and dissolution rate of poorly soluble pharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Murdande, Sharad B; Shah, Dhaval A; Dave, Rutesh H

    2015-06-01

    The quantitative determination of solubility and the initial dissolution rate enhancement of crystalline nanoparticles were critically investigated using a separation-based approach (ultracentrifugation and filtration). Four poorly soluble model compounds (griseofulvin, celecoxib, compound-X, and fenofibrate) were used in this investigation. The effect of the stabilizer concentration on the solubility of the unmilled compound was determined first to quantify its impact on the solubility and used for comparing solubility enhancement upon nanosizing. Methodologies were established for ultracentrifugation, ensuring satisfactory separation of crystalline nanoparticles. The data obtained using separation-based methodologies proved to be accurate, reproducible, and were in fair agreement with what would be predicted from the Ostwald-Freundlich equation. The dissolution studies under sink conditions were proved to be less efficient in quantifying the initial dissolution rate of crystalline nanoparticles. Nonsink dissolution experiments were able to reduce the high-dissolution velocity of nanoparticles and generated the best discriminative dissolution profile. The enhancement in initial dissolution rate was significantly less than that expected from the Noyes-Whitney equation based on surface area change. This discriminatory dissolution method can potentially be used further in the modeling of crystalline nanoparticles during drug development.

  15. Stroke Damage Is Exacerbated by Nano-Size Particulate Matter in a Mouse Model.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qinghai; Babadjouni, Robin; Radwanski, Ryan; Cheng, Hank; Patel, Arati; Hodis, Drew M; He, Shuhan; Baumbacher, Peter; Russin, Jonathan J; Morgan, Todd E; Sioutas, Constantinos; Finch, Caleb E; Mack, William J

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the effects of nano-size particulate matter (nPM) exposure in the setting of murine reperfused stroke. Particulate matter is a potent source of inflammation and oxidative stress. These processes are known to influence stroke progression through recruitment of marginally viable penumbral tissue into the ischemic core. nPM was collected in an urban area in central Los Angeles, impacted primarily by traffic emissions. Re-aerosolized nPM or filtered air was then administered to mice through whole body exposure chambers for forty-five cumulative hours. Exposed mice then underwent middle cerebral artery occlusion/ reperfusion. Following cerebral ischemia/ reperfusion, mice exposed to nPM exhibited significantly larger infarct volumes and less favorable neurological deficit scores when compared to mice exposed to filtered air. Mice exposed to nPM also demonstrated increases in markers of inflammation and oxidative stress in the region of the ischemic core. The findings suggest a detrimental effect of urban airborne particulate matter exposure in the setting of acute ischemic stroke.

  16. Thermodynamic stability of nanosized multicomponent bubbles/droplets: The square gradient theory and the capillary approach

    SciTech Connect

    Wilhelmsen, Øivind Bedeaux, Dick; Kjelstrup, Signe; Reguera, David

    2014-01-14

    Formation of nanosized droplets/bubbles from a metastable bulk phase is connected to many unresolved scientific questions. We analyze the properties and stability of multicomponent droplets and bubbles in the canonical ensemble, and compare with single-component systems. The bubbles/droplets are described on the mesoscopic level by square gradient theory. Furthermore, we compare the results to a capillary model which gives a macroscopic description. Remarkably, the solutions of the square gradient model, representing bubbles and droplets, are accurately reproduced by the capillary model except in the vicinity of the spinodals. The solutions of the square gradient model form closed loops, which shows the inherent symmetry and connected nature of bubbles and droplets. A thermodynamic stability analysis is carried out, where the second variation of the square gradient description is compared to the eigenvalues of the Hessian matrix in the capillary description. The analysis shows that it is impossible to stabilize arbitrarily small bubbles or droplets in closed systems and gives insight into metastable regions close to the minimum bubble/droplet radii. Despite the large difference in complexity, the square gradient and the capillary model predict the same finite threshold sizes and very similar stability limits for bubbles and droplets, both for single-component and two-component systems.

  17. Film Formation from Nanosized Copolymeric Latex Particles: A Photon Transmission Study.

    PubMed

    Arda; Özer; Pişkin; Pekcan

    2001-01-15

    The photon transmission technique was used to monitor the evolution of transparency during film formation from nanosized copolymeric latex particles. The latex films were prepared from poly(methyl methacrylate-co-butyl methacrylate) (P(MMA-co-BMA)) particles which were produced by microemulsion polymerization. These films were annealed at elevated temperatures in various time intervals above the glass transition temperature (T(g)) of P(MMA-co-BMA). It is observed that the transmitted photon intensity (I(tr)) from these films increased as the annealing temperature increased. There are three different film formation stages. These stages are explained by the void closure, healing, and interdiffusion processes, respectively. The activation energies for viscous flow (DeltaH approximately 16 kcal/mol), minor chains (DeltaE(H) approximately 27 kcal/mol), and backbone motion (Delta E(b) approximately 132 kcal/mol) were obtained using various models. Void closure (tau(v), T(v)) and healing points (tau(H), T(H)) were determined. Using the time-temperature pairs, void closure and healing activation energies were measured and found to be 21 and 30 kcal/mol, respectively. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  18. Compound Method to Disperse CaCO3 Nanoparticles to Nano-Size in Water.

    PubMed

    Gu, Sui; Cai, Jihua; Wang, Jijun; Yuan, Ye; Chang, Dewu; Chikhotkin, Viktor F

    2015-12-01

    The invalidation of CaCO3 nanoparticles (nCaCO3) is often caused by the fact of agglomeration and inhomogeneous dispersion which limits its application into water-based drilling muds for low permeability reservoirs such as coalbed methane reservoir and shale gas/oil reservoir. Effective methods to disperse nCaCO3 to nano-size (≤ 100 nm) in water have seldom been reported. Here we developed a compound method containing mechanical stirring, ultrasonic treatment, the use of surfactant and stabilizer to disperse nCaCO3 in water. It comprises the steps adding 2% nCaCO3, 1% sodium dodecyl sulfonate (SDS), 2% cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB), 2% OP-10, 3% to 4% biopolymer (XC) in water successively, stirring it at a shear rate of 6000 to 8000 r/min for 15 minutes and treating it with ultrasonic at a frequency of 28 KHz for 30 to 40 minutes. The dispersed nCaCO3 was characterized with scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and particle size distribution (PSD) tests. We found that nCaCO3 could be dispersed to below 100 nm in water and the medium value of nCaCO3 was below 50 nm. This method paved the way for the utilization of nCaCO3 in drilling fluid and completion fluid for low permeability reservoirs such as coal seams and shale gas/oil formations.

  19. Molecular Mechanisms of Nanosized Titanium Dioxide–Induced Pulmonary Injury in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Sang, Xuezi; Cui, Yaling; Wang, Xiaochun; Gui, Suxin; Tan, Danlin; Zhu, Min; Zhao, Xiaoyang; Sheng, Lei; Wang, Ling; Hong, Fashui; Tang, Meng

    2013-01-01

    The pulmonary damage induced by nanosized titanium dioxide (nano-TiO2) is of great concern, but the mechanism of how this damage may be incurred has yet to be elucidated. Here, we examined how multiple genes may be affected by nano-TiO2 exposure to contribute to the observed damage. The results suggest that long-term exposure to nano-TiO2 led to significant increases in inflammatory cells, and levels of lactate dehydrogenase, alkaline phosphate, and total protein, and promoted production of reactive oxygen species and peroxidation of lipid, protein and DNA in mouse lung tissue. We also observed nano-TiO2 deposition in lung tissue via light and confocal Raman microscopy, which in turn led to severe pulmonary inflammation and pneumonocytic apoptosis in mice. Specifically, microarray analysis showed significant alterations in the expression of 847 genes in the nano-TiO2-exposed lung tissues. Of 521 genes with known functions, 361 were up-regulated and 160 down-regulated, which were associated with the immune/inflammatory responses, apoptosis, oxidative stress, the cell cycle, stress responses, cell proliferation, the cytoskeleton, signal transduction, and metabolic processes. Therefore, the application of nano-TiO2 should be carried out cautiously, especially in humans. PMID:23409001

  20. Encapsulation of DNA in macroscopic and nanosized calcium alginate gel particles.

    PubMed

    Machado, Alexandra H E; Lundberg, Dan; Ribeiro, António J; Veiga, Francisco J; Miguel, Maria G; Lindman, Björn; Olsson, Ulf

    2013-12-23

    Calcium alginate beads, which are biodegradable and biocompatible, have been widely employed as delivery matrices for biomacromolecules. In the present work, the feasibility of encapsulation of DNA (which is used as a model biomacromolecule) in calcium alginate nanobeads (sub-200 nm size), prepared using a recently developed protocol based on the phase inversion temperature (PIT) emulsification method [Machado et al. Langmuir 2012, 28, 4131-4141], was assessed. The properties of the nanobeads were compared to those of the corresponding macroscopic (millimeter sized) calcium alginate beads. It was found that DNA, representing a relatively stiff and highly charged polyanion (thus like-charged to alginate), could be efficiently encapsulated in both nanosized and macroscopic beads, with encapsulation yields in the range of 77-99%. Complete release of DNA from the beads could be accomplished on dissolution of the gel by addition of a calcium-chelating agent. Importantly, the DNA was not denatured or fragmented during the preparation and collection of the nanobeads, which are good indicators of the mildness of the preparation protocol used. The calcium alginate nanobeads prepared by the herein utilized protocol thus show good potential to be used as carriers of sensitive biomacromolecules.

  1. Prevention of dental erosion of a sports drink by nano-sized hydroxyapatite in situ study.

    PubMed

    Min, Ji Hyun; Kwon, Ho Keun; Kim, Baek Il

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the inhibitory effects of the sports drink containing nano-sized hydroxyapatite (nano-HA) on dental erosion in situ. The study had a single-blind, two-treatment crossover design. The two treatment groups were a control group (CG; Powerade only) and an experimental group (EG; 0.25% wt/vol nano-HA was added to Powerade). Ten subjects wore removable palatal appliances containing bovine enamel specimens. The appliances were immersed in each drink for 10 mins, 4 times a day for 10 days. The tooth surface microhardness (SMH) was tested, and the erosion depth and the morphology of the tooth surface were observed. The data were analysed by repeated measures anova and t-test. Between the baseline and the 10th day, SMH was decreased by 80% in the specimens of the CG (P < 0.001), whereas there was only a 6% decrease in the SMH of the specimens in the EG. An erosion depth of 12.70 ± 4.66 μm and an irregular tooth surface were observed on the 10th day in the specimens of the CG. No dental erosions, however, was observed in the specimens of the EG. The sports drink containing 0.25% nano-HA was effective in preventing dental erosion in situ. © 2014 BSPD, IAPD and John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Bioinspired Design of an Immobilization Interface for Highly Stable, Recyclable Nanosized Catalysts.

    PubMed

    Kim, Insu; Son, Ho Yeon; Yang, Moon Young; Nam, Yoon Sung

    2015-07-08

    Immobilization of nanometer-sized metal catalysts into porous substrates can stabilize the catalysts and allow their recycled uses, while immobilization often sacrifices the active surface of catalysts and degenerates the local microenvironments, resulting in the reduction of the catalytic activity. To maintain a high activity of immobilized nanocatalysts, it is critically important to design an interface that minimizes the contact area and favors reaction chemistry. Here we report on the application of mussel-inspired adhesion chemistry to the formation of catalytic metal nanocrystal-polydopamine hybrid materials that exhibit a high catalytic efficiency during recycled uses. Electrospun polymer nanofibers are used as a template for in situ formation and immobilization of gold nanoparticles via polydopamine-induced reduction of ionic precursors. The prepared hybrid nanostructures exhibit a recyclable catalytic activity for the reduction of 4-nitrophenol with a turnover frequency of 3.2-5.1 μmol g(-1) min(-1). Repeated uses of the hybrid nanostructures do not significantly alter their morphology, indicating the excellent structural stability of the hybrid nanostructures. We expect that the polydopamine chemistry combined with the on-surface synthesis of catalytic nanocrystals is a promising route to the immobilization of various colloidal nanosized catalysts on supporting substrates for long-term catalysis without the physical instability problem.

  3. Preparation and study of poly(vinyl acetate) and poly(styrene) nanosized latex with indometacin.

    PubMed

    Andonova, V; Georgiev, G; Toncheva, V; Kassarova, M

    2012-07-01

    During the last decade the number of investigations on the preparation and application of more effective drug release systems on the basis of nanocarriers from biocompatible and biodegradable polymers are considerably increasing. This is notably in force for practically water insoluble drugs to be applied in liquid forms (eye solutions for an example). The aim of the work presented was the preparation of model poly(vinyl acetate) and poly(styrene) nanosupports for indometacin and their potential inclusion in eye drops. The polymers are synthesized as nanosized latex by a radical polymerization of the monomers in the presence of indometacin. It is proved that the low polymerization temperature and initiator used do not influence indometacin structure and properties. The nanoparticles were characterized by attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic analyses, atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The size of the latex particles was around 200 nm, determined by the scan electron microscopy. The indometacin delivery rate from the supports discussed in aqueous solutions was determined at pH 7.4. The change of this rate, in comparison with that for a pure drug substance, was established also as well as its dependence on the nature of the carrier.

  4. Three-Dimensional Analysis of the Swimming Behavior of Daphnia magna Exposed to Nanosized Titanium Dioxide

    PubMed Central

    Noss, Christian; Dabrunz, André; Rosenfeldt, Ricki R.; Lorke, Andreas; Schulz, Ralf

    2013-01-01

    Due to their surface characteristics, nanosized titanium dioxide particles (nTiO2) tend to adhere to biological surfaces and we thus hypothesize that they may alter the swimming performance and behavior of motile aquatic organisms. However, no suitable approaches to address these impairments in swimming behavior as a result of nanoparticle exposure are available. Water fleas Daphnia magna exposed to 5 and 20 mg/L nTiO2 (61 nm; polydispersity index: 0.157 in 17.46 mg/L stock suspension) for 96 h showed a significantly (p<0.05) reduced growth rate compared to a 1-mg/L treatment and the control. Using three-dimensional video observations of swimming trajectories, we observed a treatment-dependent swarming of D. magna in the center of the test vessels during the initial phase of the exposure period. Ensemble mean swimming velocities increased with increasing body length of D. magna, but were significantly reduced in comparison to the control in all treatments after 96 h of exposure. Spectral analysis of swimming velocities revealed that high-frequency variance, which we consider as a measure of swimming activity, was significantly reduced in the 5- and 20-mg/L treatments. The results highlight the potential of detailed swimming analysis of D. magna for the evaluation of sub-lethal mechanical stress mechanisms resulting from biological surface coating and thus for evaluating the effects of nanoparticles in the aquatic environment. PMID:24260519

  5. Influence of acid precursors on physicochemical properties of nanosized titania synthesized by thermal-hydrolysis method

    SciTech Connect

    Rajesh, B.; Sasirekha, N.R.; Chen, Y.-W.

    2008-03-04

    The influence of nature and concentration of acid species on surface morphology and physicochemical properties of titania particles synthesized by direct thermal hydrolysis of titanium tetrachloride was investigated. The acids used were hydrochloric acid, nitric acid, sulfuric acid, and perchloric acid with a concentration of 3 M. Thermal hydrolysis of titanium tetrachloride in hydrochloric acid and perchloric acid with molar ratios of [H{sup +}]/[Ti{sup 4+}] = 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0, respectively, was used to study the effect of acid concentration. The synthesized materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, and thermogravimetric analysis. Characterization of the samples by X-ray diffraction studies revealed the influence of acid species on the phase transformation of titania. Samples prepared by hydrochloric acid, nitric acid, and perchloric acid formed rutile phase with rhombus primary particles, while sulfuric acid resulted in anatase phase with flake-shaped primary particles. Transmission electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering results confirmed the nanosized titania particles and the agglomeration of primary particles to form secondary particles in spherical shape. The particle size of titania prepared using perchloric acid was smaller than those prepared with other acid sources. A direct correlation between [H{sup +}]/[Ti{sup 4+}] ratio and particle size of titania was observed.

  6. Production of drug nanosuspensions: effect of drug physical properties on nanosizing efficiency.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tao; Müller, Rainer H; Möschwitzer, Jan P

    2017-09-28

    Objective Drug nanosuspension is one of the established methods to improve the bioavailability of poorly soluble drugs. Drug physical properties aspect (morphology, solid state, starting size et al) is a critical parameter determining the production efficiency. Some drug modification approaches such as spray-drying were proved to improve the millability of drug powders. However, the mechanism behind those improved performances is unclear. This study is to systematically investigate the influence of those physical properties. Methods Five different APIs (active pharmaceutical ingredients) with different millabilities, i.e. resveratrol, hesperetin, glibenclamide, rutin and quercetin, were processed by standard high pressure homogenization (HPH), wet bead milling (WBM) and a combinative method of spray-drying and HPH. Results Smaller starting sizes of certain APIs could accelerate the particle size reduction velocity during both HPH and WBM processes. Spherical particles were observed for almost all spray-dried powders (except spray-dried hesperetin) after spray-drying. The crystallinity of some spray-dried samples such as rutin and glibenclamide became much lower than their corresponding unmodified powders. Almost all spray-dried drug powders after HPH processes could lead to smaller nanocrystal particle size than unmodified APIs. Conclusions The modified microstructure instead of solid state after spray-drying explained the potential reason for improved nanosizing efficiency. In addition, the contribution of starting size on the production efficiency was also critical according to both HPH and WBM results.

  7. Characterization of Al and Fe nanosized powders synthesized by high energy mechanical milling

    SciTech Connect

    Mhadhbi, Mohsen; Khitouni, Mohamed Azabou, Myriam; Kolsi, Abdelwaheb

    2008-07-15

    The process of nanocrystalline structure formation during mechanical milling was studied in Al and Fe powders. A detailed microstructural study of powder samples was carried out by X-ray diffraction experiments as a function of milling time. As a result, nanosized powders have been synthesized with microstructures showing a significant decrease of the coherent diffraction domains and the creation of a large number of linear defects, which induce microstrains. SEM results show that welding of very small particles to the surfaces of larger particles occurred and that the powder particles tended to form a matrix of randomly welded thin layers of highly deformed particles. Calorimetric measurements, as a function of milling time, indicated the decrease of the melting point of Al powder and at early stages it can be seen that initially endothermic peak was divided to two endothermic melting peaks. This is probably due to the oxide layer around the Al grains. In the case of Fe powder, the DSC measurements show a broad exothermal peak occurring over quite a large temperature interval, corresponding to the strain release and grain growth.

  8. Cellulose fibers modified with nano-sized antimicrobial polymer latex for pathogen deactivation.

    PubMed

    Pan, Yuanfeng; Xiao, Huining; Cai, Pingxiong; Colpitts, Meaghan

    2016-01-01

    Antimicrobial cellulose fibers and paper products are of great importance for various applications. In this work, novel core-shell antimicrobial latexes based on hydrophobic acrylate monomers and antimicrobial macromonomer (GPHGH) were successfully prepared via a seeded semi-continuous emulsion copolymerization in the presence of a cationic surfactant. The surface properties as well as size of latex were tailored by varying the amount of GPHGH incorporated during the copolymerization. The resulting cationic nano-sized latexes showed the strong adsorption and formed monolayer on the surfaces of bleached sulfite fibers, thus rendering the cellulose fibers antimicrobial. An excellent antimicrobial activity (>99.99% inhibition) of modified fiber toward Escherichia coli was achieved at 0.3wt% of latex dosage (on dry fibers). Results of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observation confirmed that the particles obtained indeed possessed a desired core-shell structure. The latexes themselves exhibited high antimicrobial activities against E. coli with the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) as low as 6.25ppm (similar to that of pure guanidine-based polymer). Moreover, the mechanical strength of the hand-sheets made from latex-modified cellulose fibers was also improved due to the filming of the latex on fiber surfaces.

  9. Nanosized barium hexaferrite in novolac phenolic resin as microwave absorber for X-band application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozah, S.; Bhattacharyya, N. S.

    2013-09-01

    Nanosized barium ferrite (BaFe12O19) with Novolac phenolic resin (NPR) is developed as a magnetic absorber for application in the frequency range 8.2-12.4 GHz. The absorption is studied by modifying the microstructural properties of the ferrite inclusion with annealing temperature and its content in the composite. Transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction pattern confirms the formation of hexagonal structure of barium ferrite. The crystallite size of the barium ferrite particles is in nano-range and increases with annealing temperature. The BaFe12O19/NPR composite is prepared with different weight percentage of ferrite inclusions. The complex permittivity and complex permeability is measured at X-band and found to increase with annealing temperature and contents of ferrite inclusion. Theoretical study of reflection loss gives that 2 mm absorber samples are showing the best results for X-band application. Reflection loss measurement of the samples shows absorption peak of -24.61 dB at 10.26 GHz for 30 wt%, -28.39 dB at 9.98 GHz for 40 wt% and -37.06 dB at 9.5 GHz for 50 wt% of BaFe12O19 in NPR matrix.

  10. Low-Temperature Oxidation of Fine UO2 Powders: A Process of Nanosized Domain Development.

    PubMed

    Leinders, Gregory; Pakarinen, Janne; Delville, Rémi; Cardinaels, Thomas; Binnemans, Koen; Verwerft, Marc

    2016-04-18

    The nanostructure and phase evolution in low-temperature oxidized (40-250 °C), fine UO2 powders (<200 nm) have been investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM). The extent of oxidation was also measured via in situ thermogravimetric analysis. The oxidation of fine powders was found to proceed differently as compared to oxidation of coarse-grained UO2. No discrete surface oxide layer was observed and no U3O8 was formed, despite the high degree of oxidation (up to O/U = 2.45). Instead, nanosized (5-15 nm) amorphous nuclei (interpreted as amorphous UO3), unmodulated and modulated U4O9, and a continuous range of U3O7-z phases with varying tetragonal distortion (c/a > 1) were observed. Oxidation involves formation of higher uranium oxides in nanodomains near the grain surface which, initially, have a disordered defect structure ("disordered U4O9"). As oxidation progresses, domain growth increases and the long-period modulated structure of U4O9 develops ("ordered U4O9"). A similar mechanism is understood to happen also in U3O7-z.

  11. Dispersion-precipitation synthesis of nanosized magnetic iron oxide for efficient removal of arsenite in water.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Wei; Xu, Jing; Wang, Yajie; Wu, Feng; Xu, Xiuyan; Li, Jinjun

    2015-05-01

    Nanosized magnetic iron oxide was facilely synthesized by a dispersion-precipitation method, which involved acetone-promoted precipitation of colloidal hydrous iron oxide nanoparticles and subsequent calcination of the precipitate at 250°C. Characterization by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, nitrogen sorption, and vibrating-sample magnetometry revealed that the material was a composite of α-Fe2O3 and γ-Fe2O3 with primary particle size of 15-25 nm and specific surface area of 121 m(2)/g, as well as superparamagnetic property. The material was used as adsorbent for the removal of arsenite in water. Batch experiments showed that the adsorption isotherms at pH 3.0-11.0 fit the Langmuir equation and the adsorption obeys pseudo-second-order kinetics. Its maximum sorption capability for arsenite is 46.5 mg/g at pH 7.0. Coexisting nitrate, carbonate, sulfate, chloride, and fluoride have no significant effect on the removal efficiency of arsenite, while phosphate and silicate reduce the removal efficiency to some extent. The As(III) removal mechanism is chemisorption through forming inner-sphere surface complexes. The efficiency of arsenic removal is still maintained after five cycles of regeneration-reuse. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Structure of Nano-sized CeO2 Materials: Combined Scattering and Spectroscopic Investigations

    DOE PAGES

    Marchbank, Huw R.; Clark, Adam H.; Hyde, Timothy I.; ...

    2016-08-29

    Here, the nature of nano-sized ceria, CeO2, systems were investigated using neutron and X-ray diffraction and X-ray absorption spectroscopy. Whilst both diffraction andtotal pair distribution functions (PDFs) revealed that in all the samples the occupancy of both Ce4+ and O2- are very close to the ideal stoichiometry, the analysis using reverse Monte Carlo technique revealedsignificant disorder around oxygen atoms in the nano sized ceria samples in comparison to the highly crystalline NIST standard.In addition, the analysis reveal that the main differences observed in the pair correlations from various X-ray and neutron diffraction techniques were attributed to the particle size ofmore » the CeO2 prepared by the reported three methods. Furthermore, detailed analysis of the Ce L3– and K-edge EXAFS data support this finding; in particular the decrease in higher shell coordination numbers with respect to the NIST standard, are attributed to differences in particle size.« less

  13. Development and evaluation of injectable nanosized drug delivery systems for apigenin.

    PubMed

    Karim, Reatul; Palazzo, Claudio; Laloy, Julie; Delvigne, Anne-Sophie; Vanslambrouck, Stéphanie; Jerome, Christine; Lepeltier, Elise; Orange, Francois; Dogne, Jean-Michel; Evrard, Brigitte; Passirani, Catherine; Piel, Géraldine

    2017-04-27

    The purpose of this study was to develop different injectable nanosized drug delivery systems (NDDSs) i.e. liposome, lipid nanocapsule (LNC) and polymeric nanocapsule (PNC) encapsulating apigenin (AG) and compare their characteristics to identify the nanovector(s) that can deliver the largest quantity of AG while being biocompatible. Two liposomes with different surface characteristics (cationic and anionic), a LNC and a PNC were prepared. A novel tocopherol modified poly(ethylene glycol)-b-polyphosphate block-copolymer was used for the first time for the PNC preparation. The NDDSs were compared by their physicochemical characteristics, AG release, storage stability, stability in serum, complement consumption and toxicity against a human macrovascular endothelial cell line (EAhy926). The diameter and surface charge of the NDDSs were comparable with previously reported injectable nanocarriers. The NDDSs showed good encapsulation efficiency and drug loading. Moreover, the NDDSs were stable during storage and in fetal bovine serum for extended periods, showed low complement consumption and were non-toxic to EAhy926 cells up to high concentrations. Therefore, they can be considered as potential injectable nanocarriers of AG. Due to less pronounced burst effect and extended release characteristics, the nanocapsules could be favorable approaches for achieving prolonged pharmacological activity of AG using injectable NDDS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Molecular dynamics simulation of nanosized water droplet spreading in an electric field.

    PubMed

    Song, F H; Li, B Q; Liu, C

    2013-04-02

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are performed for the spreading of a nanosized water droplet on a solid substrate subject to a parallel electric field. A combined electrostatic and Lennard-Jones potential is employed to represent the intermolecular interactions. Results show that in response to the applied field, polar water molecules realign themselves and this microscopic reorientation of molecular dipoles combines with the intermolecular forces to produce a macroscopic deformation of a free spherical water droplet into an ellipsoid. The applied field has a strong effect on the spreading of the water droplet on a solid substrate. For a weaker parallel field, the droplet spreading is asymmetric with the leading contact angle being greater than the trailing contact angle. With an increase in field strength, this asymmetry continues to increase, culminates, and then decreases until it disappears. The symmetric spreading remains with a further increase in the field strength until the saturation point is reached. This transition from the asymmetric to symmetric spreading is a manifestation of the interaction of the electric field with polar water molecules and the intermolecular forces within the droplet and between the water and solid; the interaction also leads to a change in hydrogen bonds along the droplet surface. The dynamics of the droplet spreading is entailed by the electrically induced motion of molecules along the liquid surface toward the solid substrate and is controlled by a competing mechanism among the electric, water-water, and water-solid intermolecular forces.

  15. Development of mesophase pitch derived mesoporous carbons through a commercially nanosized template.

    PubMed

    Qiao, W M; Song, Y; Hong, S H; Lim, S Y; Yoon, S-H; Korai, Y; Mochida, I

    2006-04-11

    Mesoporous carbons (MCs) with a high surface area (up to 900 m2/g), large pore volume (up to 2.1 cm3/g), high mesopore ratio (94%), and high yield (70%) were successfully prepared from an AR mesophase pitch, using a commercially nanosized silica template. The removal of the template provided some larger mesopores of 25-50 nm (pore I) with a surface area of ca. 300 m2/g, while the successive carbonization opened the closed pores within the carbon body to give smaller mesopores of 2-10 nm (pore II) with a similar surface area. During the carbonization of pitch precursor, the evaporation of volatile components swells the carbon to introduce the second mesopores among the domains and even microdomain units because of their rearrangements and overlappings in the process. The addition of iron salt with the silica template resulted in a remarkable increase of the surface area (ca. 300 m2/g) by introducing mesopores of 3-5 nm. The resultant MCs maintained some graphitizable natures derived from the anisotropic precursor. Their graphitization at 2400 degrees C provided the graphitic structure with large surface areas (270-460 m2/g) and mesoporosity.

  16. [Removal of tetracycline by a kind of nano-sized amorphous carbon].

    PubMed

    Wu, Yi-xiao; Li, Ai-min; Wang, Di-hua; Zhang, Wei-hao

    2015-01-01

    The experiments were conducted to investigate the adsorption behavior of tetracycline on a kind of nano-sized amorphous carbon, which was synthetized in a molten salt electrochemical system, comprising a eutectic mixture of Li-Na-K carbonates. The results showed that, the carbon powder had a good adsorption performance. At 298K, the maximum adsorption capacity of tetracycline was 127.76 mg x g(-1). The adsorption data could be well fitted by the pseudo-second-order model and the Freundlich isotherm. Also, the thermodynamic tests for the adsorption were conducted. The adsorption was endothermic and spontaneous reaction with chemical bond as the dominant. The adsorption was pH dependent. The adsorption capacity reached the maximum when solution pH was 4 in the range from 2 to 11. The existence of cations had little effects on the adsorption. The adsorption capacity increased with the concentration of cations to a certain extent. Ion exchange may be one of the adsorption mechanisms, as well as, electric attraction and hydrogen bond. Moreover, desorption experiments were carried out in 0.25 mol x L(-1) CaCl2 or NaCl solution respectively. Desorption efficiency ranged from 7.42% to 25%, which was at a relatively low level. The result indicated that the chemical adsorption process was strong.

  17. Preparation, characterization, and in vitro release study of albendazole-encapsulated nanosize liposomes

    PubMed Central

    Panwar, Preety; Pandey, Bhumika; Lakhera, P C; Singh, K P

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to formulate effective and controlled release albendazole liposomal formulations. Albendazole, a hydrophobic drug used for the treatment of hydatid cysts, was encapsulated in nanosize liposomes. Rapid evaporation method was used for the preparation of albendazole-encapsulated conventional and PEGylated liposomes consisting of egg phosphatidylcholine (PC) and cholesterol (CH) in the molar ratios of (6:4) and PC:CH: polyethylene glycol (PEG) (5:4:1), respectively. In this study, PEGylated and conventional liposomes containing albendazole were prepared and their characteristics, such as particle size, encapsulation efficiency, and in vitro drug release were investigated. The drug encapsulation efficiency of PEGylated and conventional liposomes was 81% and 72%, respectively. The biophysical characterization of both conventional and PEG-coated liposomes were done by transmission electron microscopy and UV-vis spectrophotometry. Efforts were made to study in vitro release of albendazole. The drug release rate showed decrease in albendazole release in descending order: free albendazole, albendazole-loaded conventional liposomes, and least with albendazole-loaded PEG-liposomes. Biologically relevant vesicles were prepared and in vitro release of liposome-entrapped albendazole was determined. PMID:20309396

  18. High reactivity of nanosized niobium oxide cluster cations in methane activation: A comparison with vanadium oxides

    SciTech Connect

    Ding, Xun-Lei E-mail: chemzyx@iccas.ac.cn; Wang, Dan; Wu, Xiao-Nan; Li, Zi-Yu; Zhao, Yan-Xia E-mail: chemzyx@iccas.ac.cn; He, Sheng-Gui

    2015-09-28

    The reactions between methane and niobium oxide cluster cations were studied and compared to those employing vanadium oxides. Hydrogen atom abstraction (HAA) reactions were identified over stoichiometric (Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}){sub N}{sup +} clusters for N as large as 14 with a time-of-flight mass spectrometer. The reactivity of (Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}){sub N}{sup +} clusters decreases as the N increases, and it is higher than that of (V {sub 2}O{sub 5}){sub N}{sup +} for N ≥ 4. Theoretical studies were conducted on (Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}){sub N}{sup +} (N = 2–6) by density functional calculations. HAA reactions on these clusters are all favorable thermodynamically and kinetically. The difference of the reactivity with respect to the cluster size and metal type (Nb vs V) was attributed to thermodynamics, kinetics, the electron capture ability, and the distribution of the unpaired spin density. Nanosized Nb oxide clusters show higher HAA reactivity than V oxides, indicating that niobia may serve as promising catalysts for practical methane conversion.

  19. Chances and limitations of nanosized titanium dioxide practical application in view of its physicochemical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogdan, Janusz; Jackowska-Tracz, Agnieszka; Zarzyńska, Joanna; Pławińska-Czarnak, Joanna

    2015-02-01

    Nanotechnology is a field of science that is nowadays developing in a dynamic way. It seems to offer almost endless opportunities of contribution to many areas of economy and human activity, in general. Thanks to nanotechnology, the so-called nanomaterials can be designed. They present structurally altered materials, with their physical, chemical and biological properties entirely differing from properties of the same materials manufactured in microtechnology. Nanotechnology creates a unique opportunity to modify the matter at the level of atoms and particles. Therefore, it has become possible to obtain items displaying new, useful properties, i.e. self-disinfecting and self-cleaning surfaces. Those surfaces are usually covered by a thin layer of a photocatalyst. The role of the photocatalyst is most of the time performed by the nanosized titanium dioxide (nano-TiO2). Excitation of nano-TiO2 by ultraviolet radiation initiates advanced oxidation processes and reactions leading to the creation of oxygen vacancies that bind water particles. As a result, photocatalytic surfaces are given new properties. Those properties can then be applied in a variety of disciplines, such as medicine, food hygiene, environmental protection or building industry. Practically, the applications include inactivation of microorganisms, degradation of toxins, removing pollutants from buildings and manufacturing of fog-free windows or mirrors.

  20. Influence of crystal structure of nanosized ZrO2 on photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basahel, Sulaiman N.; Ali, Tarek T.; Mokhtar, Mohamed; Narasimharao, Katabathini

    2015-02-01

    Nanosized ZrO2 powders with near pure monoclinic, tetragonal, and cubic structures synthesized by various methods were used as catalysts for photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange. The structural and textural properties of the samples were analyzed by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, TEM, UV-vis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and N2 adsorption measurements. The performance of synthesized ZrO2 nanoparticles in the photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange under UV light irradiation was evaluated. The photocatalytic activity of the pure monoclinic ZrO2 sample is higher than that of the tetragonal and cubic ZrO2 samples under optimum identical conditions. The characterization results revealed that monoclinic ZrO2 nanoparticles possessed high crystallinity and mesopores with diameter of 100 Å. The higher activity of the monoclinic ZrO2 sample for the photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange can be attributed to the combining effects of factors including the presence of small amount of oxygen-deficient zirconium oxide phase, high crystallinity, large pores, and high density of surface hydroxyl groups.

  1. Influence of crystal structure of nanosized ZrO2 on photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange.

    PubMed

    Basahel, Sulaiman N; Ali, Tarek T; Mokhtar, Mohamed; Narasimharao, Katabathini

    2015-01-01

    Nanosized ZrO2 powders with near pure monoclinic, tetragonal, and cubic structures synthesized by various methods were used as catalysts for photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange. The structural and textural properties of the samples were analyzed by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, TEM, UV-vis, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and N2 adsorption measurements. The performance of synthesized ZrO2 nanoparticles in the photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange under UV light irradiation was evaluated. The photocatalytic activity of the pure monoclinic ZrO2 sample is higher than that of the tetragonal and cubic ZrO2 samples under optimum identical conditions. The characterization results revealed that monoclinic ZrO2 nanoparticles possessed high crystallinity and mesopores with diameter of 100 Å. The higher activity of the monoclinic ZrO2 sample for the photocatalytic degradation of methyl orange can be attributed to the combining effects of factors including the presence of small amount of oxygen-deficient zirconium oxide phase, high crystallinity, large pores, and high density of surface hydroxyl groups.

  2. Effect of solvents on the synthesis of nano-size zinc oxide and its properties

    SciTech Connect

    Kanade, K.G.; Kale, B.B. . E-mail: kbbb1@yahoo.com; Aiyer, R.C.; Das, B.K.

    2006-03-09

    The effect of the solvents on particle size and morphology of ZnO is investigated. The optical properties of nano ZnO were studied extensively. During this study, zinc oxalate was prepared in aqueous and organic solvents using zinc acetate and oxalic acid as precursors. The thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA/DTA) showed formation of ZnO at 400 deg. C. Nano-size zinc oxide was obtained by thermal decomposition of aqueous and organic mediated zinc oxalate at 450 deg. C. The phase purity was confirmed by XRD and crystal size determined from transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was found to be 22-25 nm for the aqueous and 14 -17 nm in organic mediated ZnO. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) also revealed different nature of surfaces and microstructures for zinc oxide obtained in aqueous and organic solvents. The UV absorption spectra showed sharp absorption peaks with a blue shift for organic mediated ZnO, due to monodispersity and lower particle size. Sharp peaks and absence of any impurity peaks in photoluminescence spectra (PLS) complement the above observations.

  3. Nanosize effects in the magnetic properties of the two layered hydroxides of nickel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rall, James D.

    Investigations of properties of materials with lower lattice dimensionality (one and two dimensions) often provides good opportunity to advance physics since solutions to corresponding theoretical models are more easily obtained. In this work, results on magnetic properties of two quasi two-dimensional (2D) systems viz. the layered hydroxides of nickel, beta-Ni(OH)2 and alpha-Ni(OH)2, are reported. For beta-Ni(OH)2, there have been conflicting reports in the literature whether the magnetic ordering is ferromagnetic or antiferromagnetic. For the less stable alpha-Ni(OH) 2 with the larger spacing between the layers, the nature of magnetism is largely unexplained. Therefore, the results and their interpretation present here contribute significantly to the understanding of the magnetic properties of these quasi 2D systems. Synthesis of the two hydroxides were done by the sol-gel and hydrothermal techniques followed by structural characterizations by x-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM)/scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and FTIR spectroscopy. Magnetic properties were investigated using an in-house SQUID magnetometer for the temperature range of 2 K to 350 K in magnetic fields up to +/- 65 kOe. Additional magnetic studies on beta-Ni(OH)2 for H up to 180 kOe were carried out at the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory (NHMFL) in Tallahassee, Fl. For the beta-phase with the formula Ni(OH)2 · 0.144 H2O, the lattice constants of the hexagonal lattice are a = 3.12 A and c = 4.67 A. Temperature dependence of the magnetization showed a two step transition: ferromagnetic (FM) ordering of the (001) layers with exchange coupling J1/kB = 3.25 K at 25 K followed by 3D antiferromagnetic (AFM) ordering at TN = 23 K triggered by the interplane AFM exchange constant J2/kB = -0.32 K. Both bulk-like and nanosize beta-Ni(OH)2 show a magnetic field induced metamagnetic transition to ferromagnetism at HC2 ≃ 55 kOe. In the

  4. Growth and properties of silicon heterostructures with buried nanosize Mg2Si clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galkin, N. G.; Galkin, K. N.

    2005-06-01

    The technology of solid-phase growth of nanosize islands of magnesium suicide on Si (111) 7x7 with narrow distributions of lateral size and height (60 - 80 and 5 - 7 nanometers, respectively) and density of up to 2x 109 sm-2 is proposed. A 20-50 nm thick Si layer has been grown upon these islands. Basing on the data of AES, EELS, AFM and JR spectroscopy, a conclusion is made that the Mg2Si islands remain in depth of the Si layer. The suggestion is made that sizes, density and crystal structure of the buried magnesium suicide clusters preserves. It is shown, that the system of three as-grown layers of buried clusters has smoother surface than the one layer system. The contribution of the Mg2Si clusters into the dielectric function is observed at the energy 0.8-1.2 eV, it is maximal if the clusters are localized on the silicon surface. It is shown, that with increase of the number of Mg2Si cluster layers their contribution increases into the effective number of electrons per a unit cell and effective dielectric function of the sample.

  5. Stroke Damage Is Exacerbated by Nano-Size Particulate Matter in a Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Qinghai; Babadjouni, Robin; Radwanski, Ryan; Cheng, Hank; Patel, Arati; Hodis, Drew M.; He, Shuhan; Baumbacher, Peter; Russin, Jonathan J.; Morgan, Todd E.; Sioutas, Constantinos; Finch, Caleb E.; Mack, William J.

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the effects of nano-size particulate matter (nPM) exposure in the setting of murine reperfused stroke. Particulate matter is a potent source of inflammation and oxidative stress. These processes are known to influence stroke progression through recruitment of marginally viable penumbral tissue into the ischemic core. nPM was collected in an urban area in central Los Angeles, impacted primarily by traffic emissions. Re-aerosolized nPM or filtered air was then administered to mice through whole body exposure chambers for forty-five cumulative hours. Exposed mice then underwent middle cerebral artery occlusion/ reperfusion. Following cerebral ischemia/ reperfusion, mice exposed to nPM exhibited significantly larger infarct volumes and less favorable neurological deficit scores when compared to mice exposed to filtered air. Mice exposed to nPM also demonstrated increases in markers of inflammation and oxidative stress in the region of the ischemic core. The findings suggest a detrimental effect of urban airborne particulate matter exposure in the setting of acute ischemic stroke. PMID:27071057

  6. Structural and luminescent studies on nanosized cerium doped strontium barium niobate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    John, Nuja; Nandakumar, K.

    2017-06-01

    The nanosized cerium doped Strontium Barium Niobate ceramic powder system have been synthesized by sol-gel technique. The X-ray diffraction measurement confirmed the structure of cerium doped Strontium Barium Niobate ceramic powder system. The absorption peaks were analysed by FTIR spectroscopy. Particle morphology and size of the powder were examined using SEM and TEM. Crystal quality and structure were also examined by micro raman spectra. The transmission electron microscopy image of cerium doped Strontium Barium Niobate nano powder system consist of particles with average size of 20 nm. A band gap of the system was measured by optical absorption spectra. Photoluminescence data were recorded at room temperature. The emission peaks were detected under excitation at 305 nm wavelength. The peaks are assigned to the cerium electron transition from lowest 5d level to 2F5/2 and 2F7/2 of 4f, respectively. The decay time were also measured for cerium doped Strontium Barium Niobate powder system.

  7. Dextran based nanosized carrier for the controlled and targeted delivery of curcumin to liver cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Anirudhan, Thayyath Sreenivasan; Binusreejayan

    2016-07-01

    Curcumin (Cur), a poly phenolic yellow colored compound present in Indian spice turmeric, has a wide variety of biological properties. Bioavailability of Cur is limited by its low water solubility, rapid metabolism and low stability. In the present study, we mainly focus on synthesis and characterization of dextran based nano-sized drug carrier (GHDx) for the delivery of Cur. A liver targeting moiety is incorporated in GHDx so as to improve the therapeutic efficiency and decrease adverse effects of conventional cancer therapy. The effect of different parameters on grafting variables was studied. GHDx was characterised by FTIR, (1)H NMR XRD, TG/DTG, TEM, SEM, AFM, DLS and zeta potential analyses. Adsorption experiments were carried out for drug loading. Swelling of GHDx was studied as a function of pH and temperature. Three step release of Cur from GHDx was confirmed by analyzing in vitro release data in simulated intracellular pH using different kinetic models. In vitro cytotoxicity analysis on L929 and Hep G2 cells shows that GHDx is safe carrier while Cur loaded GHDx exhibits high toxicity with slow drug release towards hepatic cells. The results show that the GHDx can be customized as a stimuli sensitive potential carrier for the delivery of drugs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Impacts of a Nanosized Ceria Additive on Diesel Engine Emissions of Particulate and Gaseous Pollutants

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Junfeng; Nazarenko, Yevgen; Zhang, Lin; Calderon, Leonardo; Lee, Ki-Bum; Garfunkel, Eric; Schwander, Stephan; Tetley, Teresa D.; Chung, Kian Fan; Porter, Alexandra E.; Ryan, Mary; Kipen, Howard; Lioy, Paul J.; Mainelis, Gediminas

    2014-01-01

    Fuel additives incorporating nanosized ceria have been increasingly used in diesel engines as combustion promoters. However, few studies have assessed the impact of these nanotechnology-based additives on pollutant emissions. Here, we systematically compare emission rates of particulate and gaseous pollutants from a single-cylinder, four-cycle diesel engine using fuel mixes containing nanoceria of varying concentrations. The test fuels were made by adding different amounts of a commercial fuel additive Envirox into an ultralow-sulfur diesel fuel at 0 (base fuel), 0.1-, 1-, and 10-fold the manufacturer-recommended concentration of 0.5 mL Envirox per liter of fuel. The addition of Envirox resulted in ceria-concentration-dependent emission reductions of CO2, CO, total particulate mass, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein, and several polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. These reductions at the manufacturer-recommended doping concentration, however, were accompanied by a substantial increase of certain other air pollutants, specifically the number of ultrafine particles (+32%), NOx (+9.3%), and the particle-phase benzo[a]pyrene toxic equivalence quotient (+35%). Increasing fuel ceria concentrations also led to decreases in the size of emitted particles. Given health concerns related to ultrafine particles and NOx, our findings call for additional studies to further evaluate health risks associated with the use of nanoceria additives in various engines under various operating conditions. PMID:24144266

  9. YAG:Ce nano-sized phosphor particles prepared by a solvothermal method

    SciTech Connect

    Li Xia; Liu Hong; Wang Jiyang; Cui Hongmei; Han Feng

    2004-10-04

    Nano-sized Ce-doped YAG phosphor particles were synthesized by a mixed solvothermal method using the stoichiometric amounts of inorganic aluminum and yttrium salts. The formation of YAG:Ce was investigated by means of XRD and TG-DTA. The purified YAG crystalline phases was obtained under moderate synthesis condition (300 deg. C and 10 MPa), this indicated that ethanol replaced part of water as solvent favoring the formation of YAG. TEM images showed that YAG:Ce phosphor particles were basically spherical in shape, well dispersed and a mean grain size about 60 nm. The particle absorbed excitation energy in the range 403-510 nm, and the maximum excitation wavelength was near 470 nm. The crystalline YAG:Ce showed broad emission peaks in the range 480-650 nm and had maximum intensity at 528 nm. The excitation and emission intensity increased with increasing the synthesis temperature from 280 to 300 deg. C, and get the maximum brightness at 300 deg. C.

  10. Structure and dynamics of nano-sized raft-like domains on the plasma membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrera, Fernando E.; Pantano, Sergio

    2012-01-01

    Cell membranes are constitutively composed of thousands of different lipidic species, whose specific organization leads to functional heterogeneities. In particular, sphingolipids, cholesterol and some proteins associate among them to form stable nanoscale domains involved in recognition, signaling, membrane trafficking, etc. Atomic-detail information in the nanometer/second scale is still elusive to experimental techniques. In this context, molecular simulations on membrane systems have provided useful insights contributing to bridge this gap. Here we present the results of a series of simulations of biomembranes representing non-raft and raft-like nano-sized domains in order to analyze the particular structural and dynamical properties of these domains. Our results indicate that the smallest (5 nm) raft domains are able to preserve their distinctive structural and dynamical features, such as an increased thickness, higher ordering, lower lateral diffusion, and specific lipid-ion interactions. The insertion of a transmembrane protein helix into non-raft, extended raft-like, and raft-like nanodomain environments result in markedly different protein orientations, highlighting the interplay between the lipid-lipid and lipid-protein interactions.

  11. Enhancement of ionic conductivity of PEO based polymer electrolyte by the addition of nanosize ceramic powders.

    PubMed

    Wang, G X; Yang, L; Wang, J Z; Liu, H K; Dou, S X

    2005-07-01

    The ionic conductivity of polyethylene oxide (PEO) based solid polymer electrolytes (SPEs) has been improved by the addition of nanosize ceramic powders (TiO2 and AL2O3). The PEO based solid polymer electrolytes were prepared by the solution-casting method. Electrochemical measurement shows that the 10 wt% TiO2 PEO-LiClO4 polymer electrolyte has the best ionic conductivity (about 10(-4) S cm(-1) at 40-60 degrees C). The lithium transference number of the 10 wt% TiO2 PEO-LiClO4 polymer electrolyte was measured to be 0.47, which is much higher than that of bare PEO polymer electrolyte. Ac impedance testing shows that the interface resistance of ceramic-added PEO polymer electrolyte is stable. Linear sweep voltammetry measurement shows that the PEO polymer electrolytes are electrochemically stable in the voltage range of 2.0-5.0 V versus a Li/Li+ reference electrode.

  12. Near infrared planar tumor imaging and quantification using nanosized Alexa 750-labeled phospholipid micelles.

    PubMed

    Papagiannaros, Aristarchos; Kale, Amit; Levchenko, Tatyana S; Mongayt, Dmitry; Hartner, William C; Torchilin, Vladimir P

    2009-01-01

    A novel highly biocompatible near infrared nanosized contrast agent was developed and used for rapid tumor detection and quantification using planar optical imaging and analysis. With this in mind, the near infrared fluorescent dye Alexa 750 was covalently attached to polyethylene glycol-phosphatidylethanolamine (PEG-PE) conjugate, and double labeled (with Alexa and rhodamine) PEG-PE micelles were injected into mice and observed using planar optical imaging. Pixel intensity data from the tumor site were normalized versus the autofluorescence of the animal at the same time point and normalized as signal to noise over the scattered light from the various tissues of the mice. The detected signal from the tumor was higher than the background noise allowing for rapid detection of the tumor. The tumor was clearly visible within one hour. Some signal was also detected from the abdomen of the mice. As determined by microscopy analysis, other organs of accumulation were the liver and kidney, which corresponded well to the data from the whole body imaging animal studies.

  13. Impacts of a nanosized ceria additive on diesel engine emissions of particulate and gaseous pollutants.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Junfeng; Nazarenko, Yevgen; Zhang, Lin; Calderon, Leonardo; Lee, Ki-Bum; Garfunkel, Eric; Schwander, Stephan; Tetley, Teresa D; Chung, Kian Fan; Porter, Alexandra E; Ryan, Mary; Kipen, Howard; Lioy, Paul J; Mainelis, Gediminas

    2013-11-19

    Fuel additives incorporating nanosized ceria have been increasingly used in diesel engines as combustion promoters. However, few studies have assessed the impact of these nanotechnology-based additives on pollutant emissions. Here, we systematically compare emission rates of particulate and gaseous pollutants from a single-cylinder, four-cycle diesel engine using fuel mixes containing nanoceria of varying concentrations. The test fuels were made by adding different amounts of a commercial fuel additive Envirox into an ultralow-sulfur diesel fuel at 0 (base fuel), 0.1-, 1-, and 10-fold the manufacturer-recommended concentration of 0.5 mL Envirox per liter of fuel. The addition of Envirox resulted in ceria-concentration-dependent emission reductions of CO2, CO, total particulate mass, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein, and several polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. These reductions at the manufacturer-recommended doping concentration, however, were accompanied by a substantial increase of certain other air pollutants, specifically the number of ultrafine particles (+32%), NO(x) (+9.3%), and the particle-phase benzo[a]pyrene toxic equivalence quotient (+35%). Increasing fuel ceria concentrations also led to decreases in the size of emitted particles. Given health concerns related to ultrafine particles and NO(x), our findings call for additional studies to further evaluate health risks associated with the use of nanoceria additives in various engines under various operating conditions.

  14. Synthesis, performance, and modeling of immobilized nano-sized magnetite layer for phosphate removal.

    PubMed

    Zach-Maor, Adva; Semiat, Raphael; Shemer, Hilla

    2011-05-15

    A homogeneous layer of nano-sized magnetite particles (<4 nm) was synthesized by impregnation of modified granular activated carbon (GAC) with ferric chloride, for effective removal of phosphate. A proposed mechanism for the modification and formation of magnetite onto the GAC is specified. BET results showed a significant increase in the surface area of the matrix following iron loading, implying that a porous nanomagnetite layer was formed. Batch adsorption experiments revealed high efficiency of phosphate removal, by the newly developed adsorbent, attaining maximum adsorption capacity of 435 mg PO(4)/g Fe (corresponding to 1.1 mol PO(4)/mol Fe(3)O(4)). It was concluded that initially phosphate was adsorbed by the active sites on the magnetite surface, and then it diffused into the interior pores of the nanomagnetite layer. It was demonstrated that the latter is the rate-determining step for the process. Innovative correlation of the diffusion mechanism with the unique adsorption properties of the synthesized adsorbent is presented.

  15. Release and detection of nanosized copper from a commercial antifouling paint.

    PubMed

    Adeleye, Adeyemi S; Oranu, Ekene A; Tao, Mengya; Keller, Arturo A

    2016-10-01

    One major concern with the use of antifouling paints is the release of its biocides (mainly copper and zinc) into natural waters, where they may exhibit toxicity to non-target organisms. While many studies have quantified the release of biocides from antifouling paints, very little is known about the physicochemical state of released copper. For proper risk assessment of antifouling paints, characterization of copper released into water is necessary because the physicochemical state determines the metal's environmental fate and effects. In this study, we monitored release of different fractions of copper (dissolved, nano, and bulk) from a commercial copper-based antifouling paint. Release from painted wood and aluminum mini-bars that were submerged in natural waters was monitored for 180 days. Leachates contained both dissolved and particulate copper species. X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy were used to determine the chemical phase of particles in the leachate. The amount of copper released was strongly dependent on water salinity, painted surface, and paint drying time. The presence of nanosized Cu2O particles was confirmed in paint and its leachate using single-particle inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry and electron microscopy. Toxicity of paint leachate to a marine phytoplankton was also evaluated. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Nanosized Drug Delivery Systems for Direct Nose to Brain Targeting: A Review.

    PubMed

    Phukan, Kunjan; Nandy, Marika; Sharma, Rupanjali B; Sharma, Hemanta K

    2016-01-01

    Drug targeting to brain has always been problematic due to Blood-Brain Barrier (BBB), which, does not allow most of the drugs to pass through it as they are hydrophilic and macromolecular drugs. So, in order to bypass the BBB, alternative modes of administration were searched and nasal to brain delivery route was tried by many workers. Such studies yielded patented nano-formulations with the ability to cross blood brain barrier. Nanoparticles being smaller in size and large surface area help in increasing the rate of drug permeation to the brain. In this review work, emphasis has been laid on discussion on various works done in the field of nasal delivery of drugs to brain over the last decade. The works that are discussed in this paper show better drug targeting of brain when given through nasal route as nanoparticles. Experiments performed in animal models have clearly exhibited that nano-sized formulations are able to facilitate the delivery of drugs to brain through nose in comparison to tantamount drug solutions. However, it is not yet confirmed whether the drug is freed from the formulation in the nasal cavity and then absorbed or the nanoparticles themselves are absorbed and then the drug is released in the CNS. Furthermore, the toxicity studies were not carried out extensively in suitably designed model, which should be considered before going for further studies and application.

  17. Spontaneous iginition of low-concentration nano-sized Al-water slurry

    SciTech Connect

    Tran, Phuoc; Chen, Ruey-Hung

    2013-01-01

    Spontaneous ignition of a nano-sized aluminum (Al) particles-water slurry using a hot plate was investigated. The aluminum weight fractions were 17% and 27%. The hot plate temperatures ranged from 303 to 343 K. For all experimental conditions used, ignition was observed to occur at about 321 K and it was followed by a rapid temperature increase to above the boiling temperature of the water. Although the thermal runaway condition did not occur until the slurry reached a temperature of 321 K, it was able to react at a temperature as low as 303 K and develops sufficient heat for the slurry to reach the ignition condition. The ignition kinetic data were determined showing that E/R = 28619.66 (K) and k = 1.2644 × 10{sup 37} K/s for the slurry containing 17% aluminum and, the value of k was about 2.398 × 10{sup 37} K/s for those having 27% aluminum by weight.

  18. Kinetic tendencies of thermal transformations in nanosized Ni-MoO3 systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surovoi, E. P.; Bin, S. V.

    2017-02-01

    The transformations in nanosized Ni-MoO3 systems were studied by optical spectroscopy, microscopy, and gravimetry depending on the thickness of the Ni ( d = 1-40 nm) and MoO3 ( d = 3-50 nm) films, temperature (473-773 K), and thermal treatment time. The contact potential difference was measured for Ni and MoO3 films; photovoltage, for Ni-MoO3 systems. An energy band diagram of the Ni-MoO3 systems was constructed. A model of the thermal transformation of MoO3 films in Ni-MoO3 systems was suggested, which involves a redistribution of equilibrium charge carriers at the contact, formation of a [(Va)++e] center during the preparation of the MoO3 film, the transformation of this center into an [e(Va)++e] center during the formation of Ni-MoO3 systems, and the thermal transition of an electron to the level of the [(Va)++e] center to form an [e(Va)++e] center.

  19. Crystallinity in apatites: how can a truly disordered fraction be distinguished from nanosize crystalline domains?

    PubMed

    Celotti, Giancarlo; Tampieri, Anna; Sprio, Simone; Landi, Elena; Bertinetti, Luca; Martra, Gianmario; Ducati, Caterina

    2006-11-01

    In the last decade synthetic apatites mimicking the human natural one have been widely prepared and characterized from the physico-chemical point of view; however a shading zone is still remaining related to the evaluation and distinction of the less crystalline part, almost amorphous, and the crystallographically well ordered, nano-sized part, inside the apatite itself. Actually natural apatite forming bone tissue can include both types of crystals whose prevalence is dependent from the specific bone evolution stage and the specialized tissue performance. The quantitative description of such a combination usually represents a puzzling problem, but the result can also clarify the definition of "crystallinity in apatite" that appears still controversial. Many different synthetic apatites, including those nucleated on organic templates, were analyzed with different techniques (X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and so on) to clarify the true nature of the disordered part. The results, manipulated by the classical methodologies devised for substances with highly perturbed structural order, led to establish that only specifically prepared amorphous calcium phosphate is really a glass, while the distorted portion coexisting with more or less crystalline regions is simply nanocrystalline. Moreover, at the conceptual limit of crystallinity tending to zero, the two models surprisingly cease to be conflicting.

  20. Thermodynamic stability of nanosized multicomponent bubbles/droplets: the square gradient theory and the capillary approach.

    PubMed

    Wilhelmsen, Øivind; Bedeaux, Dick; Kjelstrup, Signe; Reguera, David

    2014-01-14

    Formation of nanosized droplets/bubbles from a metastable bulk phase is connected to many unresolved scientific questions. We analyze the properties and stability of multicomponent droplets and bubbles in the canonical ensemble, and compare with single-component systems. The bubbles/droplets are described on the mesoscopic level by square gradient theory. Furthermore, we compare the results to a capillary model which gives a macroscopic description. Remarkably, the solutions of the square gradient model, representing bubbles and droplets, are accurately reproduced by the capillary model except in the vicinity of the spinodals. The solutions of the square gradient model form closed loops, which shows the inherent symmetry and connected nature of bubbles and droplets. A thermodynamic stability analysis is carried out, where the second variation of the square gradient description is compared to the eigenvalues of the Hessian matrix in the capillary description. The analysis shows that it is impossible to stabilize arbitrarily small bubbles or droplets in closed systems and gives insight into metastable regions close to the minimum bubble/droplet radii. Despite the large difference in complexity, the square gradient and the capillary model predict the same finite threshold sizes and very similar stability limits for bubbles and droplets, both for single-component and two-component systems.

  1. Microwave absorption behavior of ZnO whisker modified by nanosized Fe3O4 particles.

    PubMed

    Hu, Shuchun; Wu, Guofeng; Huang, Zhenhao; Chen, Xiaolang

    2010-11-01

    Tetra-needle-like ZnO whisker was magnetic modified through in situ synthesis of nanosized Fe3O4 particles on the surface of the whisker, and the microwave absorption behavior of the as-prepared product was investigated in detail. The result of the comparative microwave absorbing experiment showed that the magnetic modified ZnO whisker appeared more superior property of microwave absorption than that of the original ZnO whisker in 2-18 GHz. Further investigation indicated that the microwave absorption behavior of the product was influenced by ferrite content and Fe3O4 particles' distribution in the product. When the ferrite content of the product changed from 2 wt% to 9 wt%, the microwave absorbing ability of the product was increased; then, the microwave absorbing ability of the product decreased with the further increasing of ferrite content from 9 wt% to 16 wt%. The product with uniform distribution of Fe3O4 particles showed better microwave absorption property than that with irregular distribution of Fe3O4 particles, and this result inferred that the biphase interface between ZnO and Fe3O4 contributed to microwave absorption through interface polarization.

  2. Three-dimensional analysis of the swimming behavior of Daphnia magna exposed to nanosized titanium dioxide.

    PubMed

    Noss, Christian; Dabrunz, André; Rosenfeldt, Ricki R; Lorke, Andreas; Schulz, Ralf

    2013-01-01

    Due to their surface characteristics, nanosized titanium dioxide particles (nTiO2) tend to adhere to biological surfaces and we thus hypothesize that they may alter the swimming performance and behavior of motile aquatic organisms. However, no suitable approaches to address these impairments in swimming behavior as a result of nanoparticle exposure are available. Water fleas Daphnia magna exposed to 5 and 20 mg/L nTiO2 (61 nm; polydispersity index: 0.157 in 17.46 mg/L stock suspension) for 96 h showed a significantly (p<0.05) reduced growth rate compared to a 1-mg/L treatment and the control. Using three-dimensional video observations of swimming trajectories, we observed a treatment-dependent swarming of D. magna in the center of the test vessels during the initial phase of the exposure period. Ensemble mean swimming velocities increased with increasing body length of D. magna, but were significantly reduced in comparison to the control in all treatments after 96 h of exposure. Spectral analysis of swimming velocities revealed that high-frequency variance, which we consider as a measure of swimming activity, was significantly reduced in the 5- and 20-mg/L treatments. The results highlight the potential of detailed swimming analysis of D. magna for the evaluation of sub-lethal mechanical stress mechanisms resulting from biological surface coating and thus for evaluating the effects of nanoparticles in the aquatic environment.

  3. Statistical properties of nanosized clusters on a surface in overdamped stochastic reaction-Cattaneo systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kharchenko, Vasyl O.; Kharchenko, Dmitrii O.; Dvornichenko, Alina V.

    2014-12-01

    In this work we study an overdamped stochastic reaction-Cattaneo model describing nanosized pattern formation on a surface at monolayer deposition. We study and compare an influence of both primary and secondary mechanisms onto pattern formation processes. The primary mechanisms relate to the rates of chemical reactions and interaction strength of adsorbate; the secondary mechanisms are related to finite atomic disturbance propagation speed and stochastic contribution satisfying fluctuation-dissipation relation. Considering statistical properties of surface structures we discuss transitions between homogeneous phases related to low and high density states. We illustrate that these transitions are accompanied by a formation of adsorbate or vacancy islands. It was found that spherical adsorbate and vacancy islands are characterized by different distribution functions over their sizes for different symmetry of substrate lattice. We have shown that depending on system control parameters island size distributions can change their modality. The size of localized nano-clusters can be controlled by both primary and secondary mechanisms of pattern formation.

  4. Phase, thermal and impedance studies of nanosize LiWO via mechanical milling and sintering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Tan Kim; Ahmad, Roslina; Johan, Mohd Rafie

    2011-01-01

    Nanosize Li 2WO 4 is successfully synthesized using a mechanical milling method. The mean particle size of milled Li 2WO 4 is 37 nm and 31 nm as measured by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, respectively. The calculated lattice parameter of as-received and milled powder are 0.8326 and 0.8321 nm, respectively. Both powders have been hydrated at room temperature and are highly crystalline with the presence of different types of phases at varying sintering temperatures. There is no Li 2W 2O 7 (JCPDS 28-0598) phase present in the milled powder during the whole sintering process. Meanwhile, the thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) of both powders is in accordance with their phase changes as presented in the XRD spectra. The impedance measurements show that the milled powder has a lower conductivity than that of the as-received powder in overall. The conductivity of the as-received powder increases with sintering temperature but this phenomenon is vice versa for the milled powder. All these trends can be correlated with the Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM) micrographs on both powders.

  5. Grain size-dependent magnetic and electric properties in nanosized YMnO3 multiferroic ceramics

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Magnetic and electric properties are investigated for the nanosized YMnO3 samples with different grain sizes (25 nm to 200 nm) synthesized by a modified Pechini method. It shows that magnetic and electric properties are strongly dependent on the grain size. The magnetic characterization indicates that with increasing grain size, the antiferromagnetic (AFM) transition temperature increases from 52 to 74 K. A corresponding shift of the dielectric anomaly is observed, indicating a strong correlation between the electric polarization and the magnetic ordering. Further analysis suggests that the rising of AFM transition temperature with increasing grain size should be from the structural origin, in which the strength of AFM interaction as well as the electrical polarization is dependent on the in-plane lattice parameters. Furthermore, among all samples, the sample with grain size of 95 nm is found to have the smallest leakage current density (< 1 μA/cm2). PACS: 75.50.Tt, 75.50.Ee, 75.85.+t, 77.84.-s PMID:21711722

  6. Nano-sized cobalt based Fischer-Tropsch catalysts for gas-to-liquid process applications.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jung Shik; Awate, S V; Lee, Yun Ju; Kim, So Jung; Park, Moon Ju; Lee, Sang Deuk; Hong, Suk-In; Moon, Dong Ju

    2010-05-01

    Nano-sized cobalt supported catalysts were prepared for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis in gas-to-liquid (GTL) process. The dependence of crystallite size and reducibility of Co3O4 on the supports were investigated with FTS activity. XRD peaks revealed nano crystallites (< 5.47 nm) of Co3O4 crystallites. TEM showed round shaped particles with size less than 5 nm. Support with higher acidity decreased crystallite size of Co3O4. XRD data of used catalysts showed Co3O4 crystallites smaller than 3.5 nm which do not reduce easily to Co(0) state. The crystallite size of Co3O4 plays a role in its reduction to Co(0). TPR results showed that the reduction temperature shifts to higher temperature due to metal-support interaction. The variation in the activity of the catalysts depends on the support which in turn affects the crystallite size, dispersion, reducibility and activity of Co species in Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis (FTS). In this study, Co/Al2O3 showed higher CO conversion than the other catalysts. However, the C5+ production was in order Co/SiO2 (78.1%) > Co/Al2O3 (70.0%) > Co/R_TiO2 (61%) > Co/A_TiO2 (57.5%).

  7. Sensing behaviour of nanosized zinc-tin composite oxide towards liquefied petroleum gas and ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Ravi Chand; Singh, Onkar; Singh, Manmeet Pal; Chandi, Paramdeep Singh; Thangaraj, R.

    2010-09-15

    A chemical route has been used to synthesize composite oxides of zinc and tin. An ammonia solution was added to equal amounts of zinc and tin chloride solutions of same molarities to obtain precipitates. Three portions of these precipitates were annealed at 400, 600 and 800 {sup o}C, respectively. Results of X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy clearly depicted coexistence of phases of nano-sized SnO{sub 2}, ZnO, Zn{sub 2}SnO{sub 4} and ZnSnO{sub 3}. The effect of annealing on structure, morphology and sensing has been observed as well. It has been observed that annealing promoted growth of Zn{sub 2}SnO{sub 4} and ZnSnO{sub 3} at the expense of zinc. The sensing response of fabricated sensors from these materials to 250 ppm LPG and ethanol has been investigated. The sensor fabricated from powder annealed at 400 {sup o}C responded better to LPG than ethanol.

  8. Fabrication of transparent [gamma]-Al[sub 2]O[sub 3] from nanosize particles

    SciTech Connect

    Gallas, M.R.; Hockey, B.; Pechenik, A.; Piermarini, G.J. . Materials Science and Engineering Lab.)

    1994-08-01

    The compaction and heat-treatment behavior of nanosize [gamma]-Al[sub 2]O[sub 3] powder (average diameter = 20 nm) was studied. A diamond anvil high-pressure cell was used to compact the powder at pressures up to 3 GPa, both in air at room temperature and under liquid nitrogen, followed by pressureless heat treatment at 800 C. For all conditions studied, the fabricated compacts were optically transparent. X-ray diffraction confirmed retention of the [gamma]-phase. The compacts were also characterized before and after heat treatment by microhardness measurements and by transmission electron microscopy. For both ambient and cryogenic compaction, sample hardness increased with pressure, and heat treatment resulted in about a 50% increase in hardness independent of the initial green-state value. Samples compacted in LN[sub 2] were significantly harder (up to 9.6 GPa) than those compacted in air. TEM examination revealed a random-dense-packed particle structure and interconnected porosity; interstitial void dimensions, however, were always less than the average particle diameter (20 nm). Observed effects on the increase in hardness could not be explained by microstructural changes normally attributed to increased compaction pressure or heat treatment, most notably densification. Alternative explanations are proposed.

  9. Low temperature fabrication from nano-size ceramic powders. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Gonzalez, E.J.; Piermarini, G.J.; Hockey, B.; Malghan, S.G.; Danforth, S.C.; Pechenik, A.

    1995-04-28

    Understanding of compaction and rheology of ceramic powders is needed for production of defect-free greenware. High pressure and lubricating media (liq. N{sub 2}, pentane) were used for increased green body density. High green densities could be achieved with nanosize Si nitride and {gamma} alumina. A pressure/temperature system was built which uses an Instron screw-driven press and a piston/cylinder die. Max random packing density of 57 {plus_minus} 2% theoretical was achieved for dry compaction of Si nitride at 2.5 GPa and RT; compaction under liq. N{sub 2} gave 64 {plus_minus} 2%. Dry compaction of alumina was 64% theoretical at 2.5 GPa. Pressureless sintering of Si nitride green compacts did not result in further densification. Hot pressing increased the hardness. In alumina, increased compaction pressure enhances the {gamma}-{alpha} transition and increases the densification upon heat treatment. It is difficult to obtain dense material without coarsened pore/grain microstructure. SANS showed alumina results similar to those found for materials made by inert-gas-condensation. Theoretical studies were also made to model the compaction process. Future studies are outlined.

  10. Vibrational contribution to the thermodynamics of nanosized precipitates: vacancy-copper clusters in bcc-Fe.

    PubMed

    Talati, Mina; Posselt, Matthias; Bonny, Giovanni; Al-Motasem, Ahmed; Bergner, Frank

    2012-06-06

    The effects of lattice vibration on the thermodynamics of nanosized coherent clusters in bcc-Fe consisting of vacancies and/or copper are investigated within the harmonic approximation. A combination of on-lattice simulated annealing based on Metropolis Monte Carlo simulations and off-lattice relaxation by molecular dynamics is applied to obtain the most stable cluster configurations at T = 0 K. The most recent interatomic potential built within the framework of the embedded-atom method for the Fe-Cu system is used. The total free energy of pure bcc-Fe and fcc-Cu as well as the total formation free energy and the total binding free energy of the vacancy-copper clusters are determined for finite temperatures. Our results are compared with the available data from previous investigations performed using many-body interatomic potentials and first-principles methods. For further applications in rate theory and object kinetic Monte Carlo simulations, the vibrational effects evaluated in the present study are included in the previously developed analytical fitting formulae.

  11. Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of nanosized and microsized titanium dioxide and iron oxide particles in Syrian hamster embryo cells.

    PubMed

    Guichard, Yves; Schmit, Julien; Darne, Christian; Gaté, Laurent; Goutet, Michèle; Rousset, Davy; Rastoix, Olivier; Wrobel, Richard; Witschger, Olivier; Martin, Aurélie; Fierro, Vanessa; Binet, Stéphane

    2012-07-01

    Potential differences in the toxicological properties of nanosized and non-nanosized particles have been notably pointed out for titanium dioxide (TiO(2)) particles, which are currently widely produced and used in many industrial areas. Nanoparticles of the iron oxides magnetite (Fe(3)O(4)) and hematite (Fe(2)O(3)) also have many industrial applications but their toxicological properties are less documented than those of TiO(2). In the present study, the in vitro cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of commercially available nanosized and microsized anatase TiO(2), rutile TiO(2), Fe(3)O(4), and Fe(2)O(3) particles were compared in Syrian hamster embryo (SHE) cells. Samples were characterized for chemical composition, primary particle size, crystal phase, shape, and specific surface area. In acellular assays, TiO(2) and iron oxide particles were able to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS). At the same mass dose, all nanoparticles produced higher levels of ROS than their microsized counterparts. Measurement of particle size in the SHE culture medium showed that primary nanoparticles and microparticles are present in the form of micrometric agglomerates of highly poly-dispersed size. Uptake of primary particles and agglomerates by SHE exposed for 24 h was observed for all samples. TiO(2) samples were found to be more cytotoxic than iron oxide samples. Concerning primary size effects, anatase TiO(2), rutile TiO(2), and Fe(2)O(3) nanoparticles induced higher cytotoxicity than their microsized counterparts after 72 h of exposure. Over this treatment time, anatase TiO(2) and Fe(2)O(3) nanoparticles also produced more intracellular ROS compared to the microsized particles. However, similar levels of DNA damage were observed in the comet assay after 24 h of exposure to anatase nanoparticles and microparticles. Rutile microparticles were found to induce more DNA damage than the nanosized particles. However, no significant increase in DNA damage was detected from nanosized and

  12. Size effect of elemental selenium nanoparticles (Nano-Se) at supranutritional levels on selenium accumulation and glutathione S-transferase activity.

    PubMed

    Peng, Dungeng; Zhang, Jinsong; Liu, Qingliang; Taylor, Ethan Will

    2007-10-01

    It has been shown that 36 nm Nano-Se has lower toxicity than selenite or selenomethionine, but these forms of selenium (Se) all possess similar ability to increase selenoenzyme levels. The size of nanoparticles plays an important role in their biological activity: as expected, 5-200 nm Nano-Se can directly scavenge free radicals in vitro in a size-dependent fashion. However, in Se-deficient cells and Se-deficient mice, the size effect of Nano-Se on increasing selenoenzymes and liver Se disappears unexpectedly. We hypothesize that under conditions of Se deficiency, the avidity of Se uptake mechanisms may be increased to maintain the biosynthesis of selenoenzymes, which are fundamental for redox homeostasis. This increased avidity may override the potential advantage of small size Nano-Se seen under Se-replete conditions, thereby eliminating the size effect. Once selenoenzymes have been saturated, Se uptake mechanisms may downregulate; accordingly, the size effect of Nano-Se can then reappear. To test this hypothesis, Se-deficient mice were administered either 36 or 90 nm Nano-Se at supranutritional doses, in both a short-term model and a single-dose model. Under these conditions, Nano-Se showed a size effect on Se accumulation and glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity. A size effect of Nano-Se was found in 15 out of 18 total comparisons between sizes at the same dose and time in the two models. Furthermore, the magnitude of the size effect was more prominent on Se accumulation than on GST activity. GST is strictly regulated by transcriptional and translational mechanisms, so its increase in activity normally does not exceed 3-fold. In contrast, the homeostasis of Se accumulation is not as tightly controlled. In the present experiments, GST activity had reached or was approaching saturation, but liver Se was far below saturation. Therefore, our results strongly suggest that the saturation profile of the tested biomarker has an impact on the size effect of Nano-Se

  13. Nano-sized Fe2O3/Fe3O4 facilitate anaerobic transformation of hexavalent chromium in soil-water systems.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yaxian; Li, Hua; Gong, Libo; Dong, Guowen; Shen, Liang; Wang, Yuanpeng; Li, Qingbiao

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of nano-sized or submicro Fe2O3/Fe3O4 on the bioreduction of hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) and to evaluate the effects of nano-sized Fe2O3/Fe3O4 on the microbial communities from the anaerobic flooding soil. The results indicated that the net decreases upon Cr(VI) concentration from biotic soil samples amended with nano-sized Fe2O3 (317.1±2.1mg/L) and Fe3O4 (324.0±22.2mg/L) within 21days, which were approximately 2-fold of Cr(VI) concentration released from blank control assays (117.1±5.6mg/L). Furthermore, the results of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and high-throughput sequencing indicated a greater variety of microbes within the microbial community in amendments with nano-sized Fe2O3/Fe3O4 than the control assays. Especially, Proteobacteria occupied a predominant status on the phylum level within the indigenous microbial communities from chromium-contaminated soils. Besides, some partial decrease of soluble Cr(VI) in abiotic nano-sized Fe2O3/Fe3O4 amendments was responsible for the adsorption of nano-sized Fe2O3/Fe3O4 to soluble Cr(VI). Hence, the presence of nano-sized Fe2O3/Fe3O4 could largely facilitate the mobilization and biotransformation of Cr(VI) from flooding soils by adsorption and bio-mediated processes. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Heading toward Macromolecular and Nanosized Bioresponsive MRI Probes for Successful Functional Imaging.

    PubMed

    Angelovski, Goran

    2017-09-19

    track neurotransmitter flux have also been recently reported, allowing the study of brain function in an unprecedented manner. Nevertheless, wider SCA utilization in vivo has not yet been achieved. There are a few reasons for this disparity between their nominal potential and practical usage, with one of the major reasons being the low sensitivity of the MRI technique. Subsequently, the production of detectable signal change can be achieved using higher concentrations of the bioresponsive probe; however, the biocompatibility of these probes then starts to play an important role. An elegant solution to these practical challenges has been found with the integration of multiple small-sized SCAs into macromolecular and nanosized probes. In such case, the multivalent SCAs are able to circumvent the sensitivity issue, thus enhancing the MR signal and desired contrast changes. Moreover, they prolong the probe tissue retention time, while often reducing their toxicity. Finally, with altered size and properties, they allow for exploitation of mechanisms that induce the contrast change which is not possible with small-sized SCAs. To this end, this Account also discusses the current approaches that aim to develop macromolecular and nanosized SCAs suitable for practical MRI applications. With these, further progress of this exciting field is affirmed, with remarkable results expected in the near future on both the probe preparation and their utilization in functional molecular imaging.

  15. Superior model for fault tolerance computation in designing nano-sized circuit systems

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, N. S. S. Muthuvalu, M. S.; Asirvadam, V. S.

    2014-10-24

    As CMOS technology scales nano-metrically, reliability turns out to be a decisive subject in the design methodology of nano-sized circuit systems. As a result, several computational approaches have been developed to compute and evaluate reliability of desired nano-electronic circuits. The process of computing reliability becomes very troublesome and time consuming as the computational complexity build ups with the desired circuit size. Therefore, being able to measure reliability instantly and superiorly is fast becoming necessary in designing modern logic integrated circuits. For this purpose, the paper firstly looks into the development of an automated reliability evaluation tool based on the generalization of Probabilistic Gate Model (PGM) and Boolean Difference-based Error Calculator (BDEC) models. The Matlab-based tool allows users to significantly speed-up the task of reliability analysis for very large number of nano-electronic circuits. Secondly, by using the developed automated tool, the paper explores into a comparative study involving reliability computation and evaluation by PGM and, BDEC models for different implementations of same functionality circuits. Based on the reliability analysis, BDEC gives exact and transparent reliability measures, but as the complexity of the same functionality circuits with respect to gate error increases, reliability measure by BDEC tends to be lower than the reliability measure by PGM. The lesser reliability measure by BDEC is well explained in this paper using distribution of different signal input patterns overtime for same functionality circuits. Simulation results conclude that the reliability measure by BDEC depends not only on faulty gates but it also depends on circuit topology, probability of input signals being one or zero and also probability of error on signal lines.

  16. Improved cytotoxicity of paclitaxel loaded in nanosized lipid carriers by intracellular delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miao, Jing; Du, Yongzhong; Yuan, Hong; Zhang, Xingguo; Li, Qian; Rao, Yuefeng; Zhao, Mengdan; Hu, Fuqiang

    2015-01-01

    Nanosized lipid carriers (NLC) can improve the limited drug-loading (DL) capacity and drug expulsion during storage, and adjust the drug release profile of solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN). In this study, Paclitaxel (PTX)-loaded NLC were prepared by solvent diffusion method using monostearin as solid lipid and oleic acid (OA) as liquid lipid matrix. The blank NLC with different OA content (the size range was from 89.5 ± 7.4 to 160.2 ± 34.6 nm) showed smaller size than the blank SLN (the size was 272.7 ± 43.6 nm), while the PTX-loaded NLC (the size range was from 481.3 ± 29.8 to 561.7 ± 38.3 nm) showed little bigger size, higher DL capacity, and faster drug in vitro release rate comparing with SLN (the size was 437.3 ± 68.2 nm). The 50 % cellular growth inhibitions (IC50) of PTX-loaded NLC with 0, 5, 10, and 20 wt % OA were 0.92 ± 0.06, 0.69 ± 0.04, 0.25 ± 0.02, and 0.12 ± 0.02 µg mL-1, respectively, while the IC50 of TaxolTM was 1.72 ± 0.09 µg mL-1. For analyzing cellular drug effect, cellular uptakes of fluorescent NLC and intracellular drug concentration were investigated. As the incorporation of OA into solid lipid matrix could accelerate both the cellular uptake and the PTX delivery, loaded by NLC, the cytotoxicity of PTX could be enhanced, and further enhanced by increasing OA content in NLC.

  17. Nanosized IrO2 electrocatalysts for oxygen evolution reaction in an SPE electrolyzer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruz, J. C.; Baglio, V.; Siracusano, S.; Ornelas, R.; Ortiz-Frade, L.; Arriaga, L. G.; Antonucci, V.; Aricò, A. S.

    2011-04-01

    Nanosized IrO2 electrocatalysts ( d 7-9 nm) with specific surface area up to 100 m2 g-1 were synthesized and characterized for the oxygen evolution reaction in a solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) electrolyzer. The catalysts were prepared by a colloidal method in aqueous solution and a subsequent thermal treatment. An iridium hydroxide hydrate precursor was obtained at 100 °C, which was, successively, calcined at different temperatures from 200 to 500 °C. The physico-chemical characterization was carried out by X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetry-differential scanning calorimetry (TG-DSC) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). IrO2 catalysts were sprayed onto a Nafion 115 membrane up to a loading of 3 mg cm-2. A Pt catalyst was used at the cathode compartment with a loading of 0.6 mg cm-2. The electrochemical activity for water electrolysis of the membrane-electrode assemblies (MEAs) was investigated in a single cell SPE electrolyzer by steady-state polarization curves, impedance spectroscopy and chrono-amperometric measurements. A maximum current density of 1.3 A cm-2 was obtained at 1.8 V and 80 °C for the IrO2 catalyst calcined at 400 °C for 1 h. A stable performance was recorded in single cell for this anode catalyst at 80 °C. The suitable catalytic activity and stability of the most performing catalyst were interpreted in terms of proper combination between nanostructure and suitable morphology.

  18. Biological synthesis of nanosized sulfide semiconductors: current status and future prospects.

    PubMed

    da Costa, João Pinto; Girão, Ana Violeta; Trindade, Tito; Costa, Maria Clara; Duarte, Armando; Rocha-Santos, Teresa

    2016-10-01

    There have been extensive and comprehensive reviews in the field of metal sulfide precipitation in the context of environmental remediation. However, these works have focused mainly on the removal of metals from aqueous solutions-usually, metal-contaminated effluents-with less emphasis on the precipitation process and on the end-products, frequently centering on metal removal efficiencies. Recently, there has been an increasing interest not only in the possible beneficial effects of these bioremediation strategies for metal-rich effluents but also on the formed precipitates. These metal sulfide materials are of special relevance in industry, due to their optical, electronic, and mechanical properties. Hence, identifying new routes for synthesizing these materials, as well as developing methodologies allowing for the control of the shape and size of particulates, is of environmental, economic, and practical importance. Multiple studies have shown proof-of-concept for the biological synthesis of inorganic metallic sulfide nanoparticles (NPs), resorting to varied organisms or cell components, though this information has scarcely been structured and compiled in a systematic manner. In this review, we overview the biological synthesis methodologies of nanosized metal sulfides and the advantages of these strategies when compared to more conventional chemical routes. Furthermore, we highlight the possibility of the use of numerous organisms for the synthesis of different metal sulfide NPs, with emphasis on sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). Finally, we put in perspective the potential of these methodologies in the emerging research areas of biohydrometallurgy and nanobiotechnology for the uptake of metals in the form of metal sulfide nanoparticles. A more complete understanding of the principles underlying the (bio)chemistry of formation of solids in these conditions may lead to the large-scale production of such metal sulfides, while simultaneously allowing an enhanced

  19. Diffusion and Adsorption of Uranyl Carbonate Species in Nanosized Mineral Fractures

    SciTech Connect

    Kerisit, Sebastien N.; Liu, Chongxuan

    2012-02-07

    Atomistic simulations were performed to study the diffusion and adsorption of Ca{sub 2}UO{sub 2}(CO{sub 3}){sub 3} and of some of its constituent species, i.e., UO{sub 2}{sup 2+}, CO{sub 3}{sup 2-}, and UO{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, in feldspar nano-sized fractures. Feldspar is important to uranium remediation efforts at the U.S. Department of Energy Hanford site as it has been found in recent studies to host contaminants within its intragrain fractures. In addition, uranyl carbonate species are known to dominate U(VI) speciation in conditions relevant to the Hanford site. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations showed that the presence of the feldspar surface diminishes the diffusion coefficients of all the species considered in this work and that the diffusion coefficients do not reach their bulk aqueous solution values in the center of a 2.5 nm fracture. Moreover, the MD simulations showed that the rate of decrease in the diffusion coefficients with decreasing distance from the surface is greater for larger adsorbing species. Free energy profiles of the same species adsorbing on the feldspar surface revealed a large exothermic free energy of adsorption for UO{sub 2}{sup 2+} and UO{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, which are able to adsorb to the surface with their uranium atom directly bonded to a surface hydroxyl oxygen, whereas adsorption of CO{sub 3}{sup 2-} and Ca{sub 2}UO{sub 2}(CO{sub 3}){sub 3}, which attach to the surface via hydrogen bonding from a surface hydroxyl group to a carbonate oxygen, was calculated to be either only slightly exothermic or endothermic.

  20. Beyond Clusters: Supramolecular Networks Self-Assembled from Nanosized Silver Clusters and Inorganic Anions.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhi; Li, Xiao-Yu; Liu, Li-Wei; Yu, Si-Qi; Feng, Zhen-Yu; Tung, Chen-Ho; Sun, Di

    2016-05-10

    Assembly of small clusters into rigid bodies with precise shape and symmetry has been witnessed by the significant advances in cluster-based metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), however, nanosized silver cluster based MOFs remain largely unexplored. Herein, two anion-templated silver clusters, CO3 @Ag20 and SO4 @Ag22 , were ingeniously incorporated into a 2D sql lattice (1, [CO3 @Ag20 (iPrS)10 (NO3 )8 (DMF)2 ]n ) and an unprecedented 3D two-fold interpenetrated dia network (2, [SO4 @Ag22 (iPrS)12 (NO3 )6 ⋅2 NO3 ]n ), respectively, under mild solvothermal conditions. Their atomically precise structures were confirmed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis and further consolidated by IR spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and elemental analysis. Each drum-like CO3 @Ag20 cluster is extended by twelve NO3 (-) ions to form the 2D sql lattice of 1, whereas each ball-shaped SO4 @Ag22 cluster with a twisted truncated tetrahedral geometry is pillared by four [Ag6 (NO3 )3 ] triangular prisms to form the 3D interpenetrated dia network of 2. Notably, 2 is the first interpenetrated 3D MOF constructed from silver clusters. These results demonstrate the dual role of the anions, which not only internally act as anion templates to induce the formation of silver thiolate clusters but also externally extend the cluster units into the rigid networks. The photoluminescent and electrochemical properties of 2 are discussed in detail. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Nano-sized titanium dioxide toxicity in rat prostate and testis: Possible ameliorative effect of morin.

    PubMed

    Shahin, Nancy N; Mohamed, Maha M

    2017-11-01

    This study investigated the effect of short-term oral exposure to nano-sized titanium dioxide (nTiO2) on Wistar rat prostate and testis, and the associating reproductive-related alterations. The study also evaluated the potential ameliorative effect of the natural flavonoid, morin, on nTiO2-induced aberrations. Intragastric administration of nTiO2 (50mg/kg/day for 1, 2 and 3weeks) increased testicular gamma-glutamyltransferase (γ-GT) activity and decreased testicular steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) and c-kit gene expression, serum testosterone level and sperm count. nTiO2-treated rats also exhibited prostatic and testicular altered glutathione levels, elevated TNF-α levels, up-regulated Fas, Bax and caspase-3 gene expression, down-regulated Bcl-2 gene expression and enhanced prostatic lipid peroxidation. Sperm malformation and elevated testicular acid phosphatase (ACP) activity and malondialdehyde level, serum prostatic acid phosphatase activity, prostate specific antigen (PSA), gonadotrophin and estradiol levels occurred after the 2 and 3week regimens. Morin (30mg/kg/day administered intragastrically for 5weeks) mitigated nTiO2-induced prostatic and testicular injury as evidenced by lowering serum PSA level, testicular γ-GT and ACP activities and TNF-α level, along with hampering both intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathways. Moreover, morin alleviated prostatic lipid peroxidation, raised prostatic glutathione level, and relieved testicular reductive stress. Additionally, morin increased testicular StAR and c-kit mRNA expression, raised the sperm count, reduced sperm deformities and modified the altered hormone profile. Histopathological evaluation supported the biochemical findings. In conclusion, morin could ameliorate nTiO2-induced prostatic and testicular injury and the corresponding reproductive-related aberrations via redox regulatory, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic mechanisms, promoting steroidogenesis and spermatogenesis, and

  2. Magnetic and structural properties of nanosize Ni Zn Cr ferrite particles synthesized by combustion reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gama, L.; Hernandez, E. P.; Cornejo, D. R.; Costa, A. A.; Rezende, S. M.; Kiminami, R. H. G. A.; Costa, A. C. F. M.

    2007-10-01

    This paper reports on Cr 3+-doped and undoped Ni-Zn nanosize ferrite obtained by reaction combustion synthesis. The powders resulting from this synthesis were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and their magnetic properties examined with an alternative gradient magnetometer (AGM) and by ferromagnetic resonance (FMR). The XRD results confirmed the formation of Ni 0.5Zn 0.5Fe 2O 4 bulk spinel and small quantities of second phase hematite (αFe 2O 4) to the powders without chromium. However, the powders containing 0.1 mol of chromium showed only a Ni-Zn ferrite cubic phase. The Ni 0.5Zn 0.5Fe 2O 4 and Ni 0.5Zn 0.5Fe 1.9Cr 0.1O 4 showed average crystallite sizes of 20.7 and 22.7 nm, respectively. The SEM micrographs of the powders to the sample without chromium reveals nanoparticles with a regular morphology without pre-sintering and with the presence of soft agglomerations. The powder with 0.1 mol of chromium displays homogeneous and finer nanoparticles, which are more reactive and hence more agglomerated. Saturation magnetization of the phase without Cr 3+ was 61.97 emu/g, while that of the powder with chromium was 40.56 emu/g. The inclusion of chromium caused the magnetization index to drop by 34% and decreased the coercive field, Hc, by 77%. It is known that the inclusion of chromium is advantageous for high-frequency transformer applications.

  3. Migration of nanosized layered double hydroxide platelets from polylactide nanocomposite films.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, B; Katiyar, V; Plackett, D; Larsen, E H; Gerds, N; Koch, C Bender; Petersen, J H

    2011-01-01

    Melt-extruded L-polylactide (PLA) nanocomposite films were prepared from commercially available PLA and laurate-modified Mg-Al layered double hydroxide (LDH-C12). Three films were tested for total migration as well as specific migration of LDH, tin, laurate and low molecular weight PLA oligomers (OLLA). This is the first reported investigation on the migration properties of PLA-LDH nanocomposite films. The tests were carried out as part of an overall assessment of the suitability of such films for use as food contact materials (FCM). Total migration was determined according to a European standard method. All three films showed migration of nanosized LDH, which was quantified using acid digestion followed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometric (ICP-MS) detection of (26)Mg. Migration of LDH from the films was also confirmed by examining migrates using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and was attributed indirectly to the significant PLA molecular weight reduction observed in extruded PLA-LDH-C12 films. Migration of tin was detected in two of the film samples prepared by dispersion of LDH-C12 using a masterbatch technique and migration of the laurate organomodifier took place from all three film types. The results indicate that the material properties are in compliance with the migration limits for total migration and specific lauric acid migration as set down by the EU legislation for FCM, at least if a reduction factor for fresh meat is taken into consideration. The tin detected arises from the use of organotin catalysts in the manufacture of PLA.

  4. Nanosized sustained-release pyridostigmine bromide microcapsules: process optimization and evaluation of characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Qunyou; Jiang, Rong; Xu, Meiling; Liu, Guodong; Li, Songlin; Zhang, Jingqing

    2013-01-01

    Background Pyridostigmine bromide (3-[[(dimethylamino)-carbonyl]oxy]-1-methylpyridinium bromide), a reversible inhibitor of cholinesterase, is given orally in tablet form, and a treatment schedule of multiple daily doses is recommended for adult patients. Nanotechnology was used in this study to develop an alternative sustained-release delivery system for pyridostigmine, a synthetic drug with high solubility and poor oral bioavailability, hence a Class III drug according to the Biopharmaceutics Classification System. Novel nanosized pyridostigmine-poly(lactic acid) microcapsules (PPNMCs) were expected to have a longer duration of action than free pyridostigmine and previously reported sustained-release formulations of pyridostigmine. Methods The PPNMCs were prepared using a double emulsion-solvent evaporation method to achieve sustained-release characteristics for pyridostigmine. The preparation process for the PPNMCs was optimized by single-factor experiments. The size distribution, zeta potential, and sustained-release behavior were evaluated in different types of release medium. Results The optimal volume ratio of inner phase to external phase, poly(lactic acid) concentration, polyvinyl alcohol concentration, and amount of pyridostigmine were 1:10, 6%, 3% and 40 mg, respectively. The negatively charged PPNMCs had an average particle size of 937.9 nm. Compared with free pyridostigmine, PPNMCs showed an initial burst release and a subsequent very slow release in vitro. The release profiles for the PPNMCs in four different types of dissolution medium were fitted to the Ritger-Peppas and Weibull models. The similarity between pairs of dissolution profiles for the PPNMCs in different types of medium was statistically significant, and the difference between the release curves for PPNMCs and free pyridostigmine was also statistically significant. Conclusion PPNMCs prepared by the optimized protocol described here were in the nanometer range and had good uniformity

  5. Nanosized sustained-release pyridostigmine bromide microcapsules: process optimization and evaluation of characteristics.

    PubMed

    Tan, Qunyou; Jiang, Rong; Xu, Meiling; Liu, Guodong; Li, Songlin; Zhang, Jingqing

    2013-01-01

    Pyridostigmine bromide (3-[[(dimethylamino)-carbonyl]oxy]-1-methylpyridinium bromide), a reversible inhibitor of cholinesterase, is given orally in tablet form, and a treatment schedule of multiple daily doses is recommended for adult patients. Nanotechnology was used in this study to develop an alternative sustained-release delivery system for pyridostigmine, a synthetic drug with high solubility and poor oral bioavailability, hence a Class III drug according to the Biopharmaceutics Classification System. Novel nanosized pyridostigmine-poly(lactic acid) microcapsules (PPNMCs) were expected to have a longer duration of action than free pyridostigmine and previously reported sustained-release formulations of pyridostigmine. The PPNMCs were prepared using a double emulsion-solvent evaporation method to achieve sustained-release characteristics for pyridostigmine. The preparation process for the PPNMCs was optimized by single-factor experiments. The size distribution, zeta potential, and sustained-release behavior were evaluated in different types of release medium. The optimal volume ratio of inner phase to external phase, poly(lactic acid) concentration, polyvinyl alcohol concentration, and amount of pyridostigmine were 1:10, 6%, 3% and 40 mg, respectively. The negatively charged PPNMCs had an average particle size of 937.9 nm. Compared with free pyridostigmine, PPNMCs showed an initial burst release and a subsequent very slow release in vitro. The release profiles for the PPNMCs in four different types of dissolution medium were fitted to the Ritger-Peppas and Weibull models. The similarity between pairs of dissolution profiles for the PPNMCs in different types of medium was statistically significant, and the difference between the release curves for PPNMCs and free pyridostigmine was also statistically significant. PPNMCs prepared by the optimized protocol described here were in the nanometer range and had good uniformity, with significantly slower pyridostigmine

  6. Nano-sized zeolites as modulators of thiacloprid toxicity on Chironomus riparius

    PubMed Central

    Wicht, Anna-Jorina; Guluzada, Leyla; Crone, Barbara; Karst, Uwe; Lee, Hwa Jun; Triebskorn, Rita; Haderlein, Stefan B.; Huhn, Carolin; Köhler, Heinz-R.

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated whether zeolites of different size (Y30 (nano-sized) and H-Beta(OH)-III (forming large aggregates/agglomerates composed of 50 nm small primary particles)) exerted acute toxicity on larvae of the non-biting midge, Chironomus riparius, and whether such zeolites are able to modulate the toxicity of a common insecticide, thiacloprid, by means of adsorption of a dissolved toxicant. We conducted acute toxicity tests with fourth instar larvae of C. riparius. In these tests, larvae were exposed to zeolites or thiacloprid solely, or to mixtures of both compounds. The mixtures comprised 1.0 µg/L thiacloprid in addition to low (5.2 mg/L), medium (18.2 mg/L), and high (391.7 mg/L) zeolite concentrations, resulting in different adsorption rates of thiacloprid. As biological endpoints, changes in mortality rates and in behavior were monitored every 24 h over a total investigation period of 96 h. Furthermore, we conducted chemical analyses of thiacloprid in the medium and the larvae and located the zeolite particles within the larvae by LA-ICP-MS imaging techniques. Our results demonstrate that both types of zeolites did not exert acute toxicity when applied as single-substances, but led to reduced acute toxicity of thiacloprid when applied together with thiacloprid. These results are in line with the sorption properties of zeolites indicating reduced bioavailability of thiacloprid, although our data indicate that thiacloprid can desorb from zeolites to some extent. While freely dissolved (i.e., non-sorbed) fraction of thiacloprid was a good parameter to roughly estimate toxic effects, it did not correlate with measured internal thiacloprid concentrations. Moreover, it was shown that both zeolite types were ingested by the larvae, but no indication for cellular uptake of them was found. PMID:28729952

  7. Nanosized multifunctional liposomes for tumor diagnosis and molecular imaging by SPECT/CT.

    PubMed

    Silindir, Mine; Erdoğan, Suna; Özer, A Yekta; Doğan, A Lale; Tuncel, Murat; Uğur, Ömer; Torchilin, Vladimir P

    2013-03-01

    Among currently used cancer imaging methods, nuclear medicine modalities provide metabolic information, whereas modalities in radiology provide anatomical information. However, different modalities, having different acquisition times in separate machines, decrease the specificity and accuracy of images. To solve this problem, hybrid imaging modalities were developed as a new era, especially in the cancer imaging field. With widespread usage of hybrid imaging modalities, specific contrast agents are essentially needed to use in both modalities, such as single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT). Liposomes are one of the most desirable drug delivery systems, depending on their suitable properties. The aim of this study was to develop a liposomal contrast agent for the diagnosis and molecular imaging of tumor by SPECT/CT. Liposomes were prepared nanosized, coated with polyethylene glycol to obtain long blood circulation, and modified with monoclonal antibody 2C5 for specific tumor targeting. Although DTPA-PE and DTPA-PLL-NGPE (polychelating amphilic polymers; PAPs) were loaded onto liposomes for stable radiolabeling for SPECT imaging, iopromide was encapsulated into liposomes for CT imaging. Liposomes [(DPPC:PEG(2000)-PE:Chol:DTPA-PE), (PL 90G:PEG(2000)-PE:Chol:DTPA-PE), (DPPC:PEG(2000)-PE:Chol:PAPs), (PL 90G:PEG(2000)-PE:Chol:PAPs), (60:0.9:39:0.1% mol ratio)] were characterized in terms of entrapment efficiency, particle size, physical stability, and release kinetics. Additionally, in vitro cell-binding studies were carried out on two tumor cell lines (MCF-7 and EL 4) by counting radioactivity. Tumor-specific antibody-modified liposomes were found to be effective multimodal contrast agents by designating almost 3-8 fold more uptake than nonmodified ones in different tumor cell lines. These results could be considered as an important step in the development of tumor-targeted SPECT/CT contrast agents for cancer imaging.

  8. Systemic antibody response to nano-size calcium phospate biocompatible adjuvant adsorbed HEV-71 killed vaccine

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Since 1980s, human enterovirus-71 virus (HEV-71) is one of the common infectious disease in Asian Pacific region since late 1970s without effective commercial antiviral or protective vaccine is unavailable yet. The work examines the role of vaccine adjuvant particle size and the route of administration on postvaccination antibody response towards HEV-71 vaccine adsorbed to calcium phosphate (CaP) adjuvant. Materials and Methods First, CaP nano-particles were compared to a commercial micro-size and vaccine alone. Secondly, intradermal reduced dosage was compared to the conventional intramuscular immunization. Killed HEV-71 vaccines adsorbed to CaP nano-size (73 nm) and commercial one of micro-size (1.7 µm) were administered through intradermal, intramuscular, rabbits received vaccine alone and unvaccinated animals. Results CaP nano-particles adsorbed HEV-71 vaccine displayed higher antibody than the micro-size or unadsorbed vaccine alone, through both parenteral immunization routes. Moreover, the intradermal route (0.5 µg/mL) of 0.1-mL volume per vaccine dose induced equal IgG antibody level to 1.0-mL intramuscular route (0.5 µg/mL). Conclusion The intradermal vaccine adsorbed CaP nano-adjuvant showed safer and significant antibody response after one-tenth reduced dose quantity (0.5 µg/mL) of only 0.1-mL volume as the most suitable protective, cost effective and affordable formulation not only for HEV-71; but also for developing further effective vaccines toward other human pathogens. PMID:25649429

  9. Nano-sized emission from commercially available paints used for indoor surfaces during drying.

    PubMed

    Jørgensen, Rikke Bramming; Hveding, Ingrid Grav; Solheim, Karoline

    2017-09-08

    Consumers worry about the presence of nano-particles in paints and the risk of exposure. As a result, the paint industry now omits marketing paints as containing nanoparticles. The industry claims that no nanoparticles are released into the indoor environment; this, however, has yet to be documented. In this study, the emission of nano-sized emission from four indoor paints was investigated. The emission was studied for both base and full-pigmented versions of the paints, which consisted of three water-borne acrylic paints and one solvent-borne alkyd paint. All experiments were performed twice in a 6.783 m(3) stainless-steel test chamber under standardized conditions (22.98 °C, 50.08% RH, air exchange rate 0.48 h(-1)). Emissions during the paint-drying period were measured using a TSI Fast Mobility Particle Sizer (FMPS) measuring the number concentration of nano-particles and the size distribution in the range 5.6-560 nm. The results from the solvent-borne paint showed the highest concentration, with a mean concentration of 3.2·10(5) particles/cm(3) and a maximum of 1.4·10(6) particles/cm(3). This paint also had the smallest particle size distribution, with 9.31 nm particles as the most dominant particle size. The results from this study showed that the exposure to nanoparticles for the residents evaluated over a 7 or 28 day period was low and that interior paints are probably not very important when it comes to identifying products that release nano-particles into indoor environments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Effective removal of trace thallium from surface water by nanosized manganese dioxide enhanced quartz sand filtration.

    PubMed

    Huangfu, Xiaoliu; Ma, Chengxue; Ma, Jun; He, Qiang; Yang, Chun; Zhou, Jian; Jiang, Jin; Wang, Yaan

    2017-09-12

    Thallium (Tl) has drawn wide concern due to its high toxicity even at extremely low concentrations, as well as its tendency for significant accumulation in the human body and other organisms. The need to develop effective strategies for trace Tl removal from drinking water is urgent. In this study, the removal of trace Tl (0.5 μg L(-1)) by conventional quartz sand filtration enhanced by nanosized manganese dioxide (nMnO2) has been investigated using typical surface water obtained from northeast China. The results indicate that nMnO2 enhanced quartz sand filtration could remove trace Tl(I) and Tl(III) efficiently through the adsorption of Tl onto nMnO2 added to a water matrix and onto nMnO2 attached on quartz sand surfaces. Tl(III)-HA complexes might be responsible for higher residual Tl(III) in the effluent compared to residual Tl(I). Competitive Ca(2+) cations inhibit Tl removal to a certain extent because the Ca(2+) ions will occupy the Tl adsorption site on nMnO2. Moreover, high concentrations of HA (10 mgTOC L(-1)), which notably complexes with and dissolves nMnO2 (more than 78%), resulted in higher residual Tl(I) and Tl(III). Tl(III)-HA complexes might also enhance Tl(III) penetration to a certain extent. Additionally, a higher pH level could enhance the removal of trace Tl from surface water. Finally, a slight increase of residual Tl was observed after backwash, followed by the reduction of the Tl concentration in the effluent to a "steady" state again. The knowledge obtained here may provide a potential strategy for drinking water treatment plants threatened by trace Tl. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. First-principles predictions of potential hydrogen storage materials: Nanosized Ti(core)/Mg(shell) hydrides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, S. X.; Notten, P. H. L.; van Santen, R. A.; Jansen, A. P. J.

    2011-05-01

    MgH2 is one of the most promising hydrogen storage materials. However MgH2 is thermodynamicly too stable, leading to a too high desorption temperature of 300°C at atmospheric pressure, which is a major impediment for practical applications. In this study, aiming to tune the thermodynamic stability of the MgH2, nanosized two-dimensional Mg/Ti/Mg sandwich and three-dimensional Ti(core)/Mg(shell) hydrides have been investigated by using density functional theory calculations. For both structures, four types of hydrogen atoms can be distinguished: on the surface of the Mg (Hsurf), within the Mg (HMg), at the Mg/Ti interface (HMgTi), and within the Ti (HTi). For the dehydrogenation reaction, the hydrogen desorption from the hydride is in the order Hsurf, HMg, HMgTi, HTi. The desorption energy of Hsurf is unexpectedly high. As expected, due to the well-preserved fluorite structure of the partially hydrogenated hydride, the desorption energy of HMg is significantly lower than that of bulk rutile MgH2. The further desorption of HMgTi and HTi becomes more difficult due to the strong Ti-H bonding. We propose that partial hydrogenation without adsorption of Hsurf and partial dehydrogenation without desorption of HMgTi and HTi would keep the fluorite symmetry with its favorable thermodynamics. The reversible hydrogen capacity (HMg) of the Mg/Ti/Mg sandwich structure is low, whereas the reversible hydrogen capacity of the Ti(core)/Mg(shell) is calculated to be reasonable high. Our results predicted Ti(core)/Mg(shell) structures are potential useful materials for hydrogen storage application.

  12. Toxicological mechanisms of nanosized titanium dioxide-induced spleen injury in mice after repeated peroral application.

    PubMed

    Sang, Xuezi; Li, Bing; Ze, Yuguan; Hong, Jie; Ze, Xiao; Gui, Suxin; Sun, Qingqing; Liu, Huiting; Zhao, Xiaoyang; Sheng, Lei; Liu, Dong; Yu, Xiaohong; Wang, Ling; Hong, Fashui

    2013-06-12

    Due to an increase in surface area per particle weight, nanosized titanium dioxide (nano-TiO2) has greatly increased its function as a catalyst and is used for whitening and brightening foods. However, concerns over the safety of nano-TiO2 have been raised. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the protein kinase MAPKs/PI3-K/Akt signaling pathways and transcription factors are activated prior to or concurrent with COX-2 up-regulation in mouse spleen following exposure to 10 mg/kg BW of pure anatase nano-TiO2 by the intragastric route for 15-90 days. The study clearly showed that nano-TiO2 was deposited in the spleen and resulted in reactive oxygen species production, time-dependent splenic inflammation, and necrosis, coupled with a 12.64-64.06% increase in COX-2 and prostaglandin E2 expression, respectively. Furthermore, nano-TiO2 elevated the expressions of ERK, AP-1, CRE, Akt, JNK2, MAPKs, PI3-K, c-Jun, and c-Fos in the spleen by 1.08-6-fold with increased exposure duration, respectively. These findings suggested that nano-TiO2-induced COX-2 expression may be mediated predominantly through the induction of AP-1 and CRE and that AP-1/CRE induction occurred via the MAPKs/PI3-K/Akt signaling pathways in the spleen. Therefore, the findings suggest the need for caution when using nanomaterials as food additives.

  13. Microwave properties of polymer composites containing combinations of micro- and nano-sized magnetic fillers.

    PubMed

    Kolev, Svetoslav; Koutzarova, Tatyana; Yanev, Andrey; Ghelev, Chavdar; Nedkov, Ivan

    2008-02-01

    We investigated the microwave absorbing properties of composite bulk samples with nanostructured and micron-sized fillers. As magnetic fillers we used magnetite powder (Fe3O4 with low magnetocrystalline anisotropy) and strontium hexaferrite (SrFe12O9 with high magnetocrystalline anisotropy). The dielectric matrix consisted of silicone rubber. The average particle size was 30 nm for the magnetite powder and 6 micro/m for the strontium hexaferrite powder. The micron-sized SrFe12O19 powder was prepared using a solid-state reaction. We investigated the influence of the filler concentration and the filler ratio (Fe3O4/SrFe12O19) in the polymer matrix on the microwave absorption in a large frequency range (1 / 18 GHz). The results obtained showed that the highly anisotropic particles become centers of clusterification and the small magnetite particles form magnetic balls with different diameter depending on the concentration. The effect of adding micron-sized SrFe12O19 to the nanosized Fe3O4 filler in composites absorbing structures has to do with the ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) shifting to the higher frequencies due to the changes in the ferrite filler's properties induced by the presence of a magnetic material with high magnetocrystalline anisotropy. The two-component filler possesses new values of the saturation magnetization and of the anisotropy constant, differing from those of both SrFe12O1919 and Fe3O4, which leads to a rise in the effective anisotropy field. The results demonstrate the possibility to vary the composite's absorption characteristics in a controlled manner by way of introducing a second magnetic material.

  14. Diffusion and adsorption of uranyl carbonate species in nanosized mineral fractures.

    PubMed

    Kerisit, Sebastien; Liu, Chongxuan

    2012-02-07

    Atomistic simulations were performed to study the diffusion and adsorption of Ca(2)UO(2)(CO3)3 and of some of its constituent species, i.e., UO(2)2+, CO(3)2–, and UO(2)CO3, in feldspar nanosized fractures. Feldspar is important to uranium remediation efforts at the U.S. Department of Energy Hanford site as it has been found in recent studies to host contaminants within its intragrain fractures. In addition, uranyl carbonate species are known to dominate U(VI) speciation in conditions relevant to the Hanford site. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations showed that the presence of the feldspar surface diminishes the diffusion coefficients of all of the species considered in this work and that the diffusion coefficients do not reach their bulk aqueous solution values in the center of a 2.5 nm fracture. Moreover, the MD simulations showed that the rate of decrease in the diffusion coefficients with decreasing distance from the surface is greater for larger adsorbing species. Free energy profiles of the same species adsorbing on the feldspar surface revealed a large favorable free energy of adsorption for UO(2)2+ and UO(2)CO3, which are able to adsorb to the surface with their uranium atom directly bonded to a surface hydroxyl oxygen, whereas adsorption of CO(3)2– and Ca(2)UO(2)(CO3)3, which attach to the surface via hydrogen bonding from a surface hydroxyl group to a carbonate oxygen, was calculated to be either only slightly favorable or unfavorable.

  15. Physical properties and characterization of biodegradable films using nano-sized TiO2/poly(acrylamide-co-methyl methacrylate) composite.

    PubMed

    Byun, Hun-Soo; Park, Mi-Hwa; Lim, Gyeong-Taek; Yoon, Soon-Do

    2011-02-01

    In this study, biodegradable films were prepared by using corn starch, PVA, nano-sized poly(acrylamide-co-methyl methacrylate) (PAAm-co-MMA), nano-sized TiO2(P-25)/PAAm-co-MMA composite, and additives which are harmless to the human body, that is, glycerol (GL) and citric acid (CA). Nano-sized PAAm-co-MMA was synthesized by the method of emulsion polymerization. Also, nano-sized TiO2/PAAm-co-MMA composites were synthesized by wet milling for 48 h. The morphology and crystallinty of nano-sized PAAm-co-MMA and TiO2/PAAm-co-MMA composite was observed by the SEM and XRD. The physical properties such as tensile strength (TS), elongation at break (%E), degree of swelling (DS), and solubility (S) of biodegradable films were investigated. The photocatalytic degradability of starch/PVA/nano-sized TiO2/PAAm-co-MMA composite blended films was evaluated using methylene blue as photodegradation target.

  16. High rate performance intensified by nanosized LiFePO4 combined with three-dimensional graphene networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, Ping-Lin; Hsu, Chun-Han; Chiang, Huan-Te; Hsu, Jung-Mu

    2013-12-01

    A sample of nanosized LiFePO4/graphene/carbon (NLFP/GC) hybrid material was achieved by homogenously dispersing a lab-fabricated NLFP (<100 nm) preparation inside well-exfoliated graphene, followed by carbon coating on the NLFP to constitute a three-dimensional network. For comparison, the NLFP coated with sucrose (NLFP/C) and the NLFP solely dispersed in graphene (NLFP/G) were prepared and evaluated. For these as-prepared products, the purity of the LFP component was characterized by X-ray diffraction, while the morphology was characterized by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The nanosized and homogeneously dispersed NLFP/C in composite insures high capacities, indicating that can significantly shorten the pathway for lithium ion diffusion. Under different charge/discharge rates, the capacities of NLFP/GC are all higher than those of NLFP, NLFP/C, and NLFP/G. Also, NLFP/GC exhibited the excellent rate performance of 101 mAh g-1 compared to NLFP/C (ca. 0 mAh g-1) and NLFP/G (58 mAh g-1) at 10C. It is clear that the three-dimensional graphene network of NLFP/GC, very efficiently promote the conductivity of the poorly conductive LiFePO4. Also, the graphene skeleton can serve as a solid scaffold to restrain the aggregation of NLFP. The outstanding electrochemical performance of NLFP/GC derives from the nanosized NLFP in combination with the graphene/carbon layer.

  17. Effect of interface atomic structure on the electronic properties of nano-sized metal-oxide interfaces.

    PubMed

    Qin, Wei; Hou, Jiechang; Bonnell, Dawn A

    2015-01-14

    We report that the size dependence of electronic properties at nanosized metal-semiconducting oxide interfaces is significantly affected by the interface atomic structure. The properties of interfaces with two orientations are compared over size range of 20-200 nm. The difference in interface atomic structure leads to electronic structure differences that alter electron transfer paths. Specifically, interfaces with a higher concentration of undercoordinated Ti result in enhanced tunneling due to the presence of defect states or locally reduced tunnel barrier widths. This effect is superimposed on the mechanisms of size dependent properties at such small scales.

  18. Aging of the nanosized photochromic WO3 films and the role of adsorbed water in the photochromism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavrilyuk, A. I.

    2016-02-01

    Here it has been reported on aging of the nanosized WO3 film, which is revealed is continuous reduction of the photochromic sensitivity over time. Water molecules physically adsorbed on the film surface from ambient air form donor-acceptor and hydrogen bonds, changing gradually the adsorption state to chemisorption which prevents an access of organic molecules that serve as hydrogen donors by the photochromism. The mechanism of the process has been investigated and discussed. The role of water in the photochromism has been highlighted. The difference in the efficiency for being of a hydrogen donor in the photochromic process between water and organic molecules is discussed.

  19. Novel processing of bioglass ceramics from silicone resins containing micro- and nano-sized oxide particle fillers.

    PubMed

    Fiocco, L; Bernardo, E; Colombo, P; Cacciotti, I; Bianco, A; Bellucci, D; Sola, A; Cannillo, V

    2014-08-01

    Highly porous scaffolds with composition similar to those of 45S5 and 58S bioglasses were successfully produced by an innovative processing method based on preceramic polymers containing micro- and nano-sized fillers. Silica from the decomposition of the silicone resins reacted with the oxides deriving from the fillers, yielding glass ceramic components after heating at 1000°C. Despite the limited mechanical strength, the obtained samples possessed suitable porous architecture and promising biocompatibility and bioactivity characteristics, as testified by preliminary in vitro tests.

  20. Influence of the preparation methods on the structure and magnetic properties of nanosized Al-substituted barium hexaferrite powders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peneva, P.; Koutzarova, T.; Kolev, S.; Ghelev, Ch.; Vertruyen, B.; Henrist, C.; Closet, R.; Cloots, R.; Zaleski, A.

    2016-03-01

    We report studies on the correlation between the method of preparation, microstructure and magnetic properties of nanosized monodomain Al-substituted barium hexaferrite (BaAlFe11O19) powders. The powders were obtained by the co-precipitation and single microemulsion methods. The particles in the samples had a size between 80 nm and 135 nm depending on the synthesis conditions. The value of the saturation magnetization Ms measured was very high, namely, 66.12 emu/g. The hysteresis loop was very narrow, with the coercivity Hc being 163 Oe, which indicated that the particles were in a near-superparamagnetic state.

  1. Poly(acrylic acid)-directed synthesis of colloidally stable single domain magnetite nanoparticles via partial oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altan, Cem L.; Gurten, Berna; Sadza, Roel; Yenigul, Elcin; Sommerdijk, Nico A. J. M.; Bucak, Seyda

    2016-10-01

    Octahedral, single domain magnetite nanoparticles with average size of ~55 nm were synthesized through oxidative aging of a ferrous hydroxide (Fe(OH)2) precursor at high pH in water. The synthesis was also carried out in the presence of the hydrophilic polymer poly(acrylic acid). Presence of the polymer changed the particle morphology from octahedral to spherical while average size decreased to 40-50 nm. Although these particles have a tendency to precipitate due to their high magnetic moment, dispersions of these particles were obtained in the presence of this particular polymer which made the particles stable in water for several days making them suitable for various biotechnological applications such as cell separation owing to their low toxicity.

  2. Tunable and noncytotoxic PET/SPECT-MRI multimodality imaging probes using colloidally stable ligand-free superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Pham, Th Nguyen; Lengkeek, Nigel A; Greguric, Ivan; Kim, Byung J; Pellegrini, Paul A; Bickley, Stephanie A; Tanudji, Marcel R; Jones, Stephen K; Hawkett, Brian S; Pham, Binh Tt

    2017-01-01

    Physiologically stable multimodality imaging probes for positron emission tomography/single-photon emission computed tomography (PET/SPECT)-magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were synthesized using the superparamagnetic maghemite iron oxide (γ-Fe2O3) nanoparticles (SPIONs). The SPIONs were sterically stabilized with a finely tuned mixture of diblock copolymers with either methoxypolyethylene glycol (MPEG) or primary amine NH2 end groups. The radioisotope for PET or SPECT imaging was incorporated with the SPIONs at high temperature. (57)Co(2+) ions with a long half-life of 270.9 days were used as a model for the radiotracer to study the kinetics of radiolabeling, characterization, and the stability of the radiolabeled SPIONs. Radioactive (67)Ga(3+) and Cu(2+)-labeled SPIONs were also produced successfully using the optimized conditions from the (57)Co(2+)-labeling process. No free radioisotopes were detected in the aqueous phase for the radiolabeled SPIONs 1 week after dispersion in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). All labeled SPIONs were not only well dispersed and stable under physiological conditions but also noncytotoxic in vitro. The ability to design and produce physiologically stable radiolabeled magnetic nanoparticles with a finely controlled number of functionalizable end groups on the SPIONs enables the generation of a desirable and biologically compatible multimodality PET/SPECT-MRI agent on a single T2 contrast MRI probe.

  3. Tunable and noncytotoxic PET/SPECT-MRI multimodality imaging probes using colloidally stable ligand-free superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Pham, TH Nguyen; Lengkeek, Nigel A; Greguric, Ivan; Kim, Byung J; Pellegrini, Paul A; Bickley, Stephanie A; Tanudji, Marcel R; Jones, Stephen K; Hawkett, Brian S; Pham, Binh TT

    2017-01-01

    Physiologically stable multimodality imaging probes for positron emission tomography/single-photon emission computed tomography (PET/SPECT)-magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were synthesized using the superparamagnetic maghemite iron oxide (γ-Fe2O3) nanoparticles (SPIONs). The SPIONs were sterically stabilized with a finely tuned mixture of diblock copolymers with either methoxypolyethylene glycol (MPEG) or primary amine NH2 end groups. The radioisotope for PET or SPECT imaging was incorporated with the SPIONs at high temperature. 57Co2+ ions with a long half-life of 270.9 days were used as a model for the radiotracer to study the kinetics of radiolabeling, characterization, and the stability of the radiolabeled SPIONs. Radioactive 67Ga3+ and Cu2+-labeled SPIONs were also produced successfully using the optimized conditions from the 57Co2+-labeling process. No free radioisotopes were detected in the aqueous phase for the radiolabeled SPIONs 1 week after dispersion in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). All labeled SPIONs were not only well dispersed and stable under physiological conditions but also noncytotoxic in vitro. The ability to design and produce physiologically stable radiolabeled magnetic nanoparticles with a finely controlled number of functionalizable end groups on the SPIONs enables the generation of a desirable and biologically compatible multimodality PET/SPECT-MRI agent on a single T2 contrast MRI probe. PMID:28184160

  4. Self-assembled Ag nanoparticle network passivated by a nano-sized ZnO layer for transparent and flexible film heaters

    SciTech Connect

    Seo, Ki-Won; Kim, Han-Ki; Kim, Min-Yi; Chang, Hyo-Sik

    2015-12-15

    We investigated a self-assembled Ag nanoparticle network electrode passivated by a nano-sized ZnO layer for use in high-performance transparent and flexible film heaters (TFFHs). The low temperature atomic layer deposition of a nano-sized ZnO layer effectively filled the uncovered area of Ag network and improved the current spreading in the self-assembled Ag network without a change in the sheet resistance and optical transmittance as well as mechanical flexibility. The time-temperature profiles and heat distribution analysis demonstrate that the performance of the TFTH with the ZnO/Ag network is superior to that of a TFFH with Ag nanowire electrodes. In addition, the TFTHs with ZnO/Ag network exhibited better stability than the TFFH with a bare Ag network due to the effective current spreading through the nano-sized ZnO layer.

  5. Cr(VI) Sorption by Nanosized FeS-Coated Sand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, M.; Jeong, H. Y.; Lee, S.; Kang, N.; Kim, K. H.; Choi, H. J.

    2015-12-01

    Cr(VI) sorption experiments were conducted as a function of pH (4.7, 7.0 and 9.7) using nanosized FeS-coated sand under anoxic environments. Under the experimental conditions, the sand used, with the FeS content of 0.068 mmol per 1 g sand, completely reduced the initially added Cr(VI) to Cr(III) over the pH range examined. The sorption of the once-reduced Cr(III) varied greatly with the solution pH. By the solution-phase analysis, significant amounts of Cr(III) remained as dissolved species at pH 4.7. On the other hands, dissolved Cr was below the detection limit (0.2 μM) at pH 7.0 and 9.7, indicating the greater sorption of Cr(III) at neutral to basic pH than acidic pH. From Cr-K edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) analysis of the solid products, the sorbed Cr was shown to be present predominantly as trivalent state in all samples. Regardless of pH, the second coordination shell around Cr (i.e., the Cr-Cr(Fe) shell) was shown to be located at ~2.6 Å, which was far shorter than those in Cr(III)-bearing model compounds such as Cr(OH)3(s) and [Cr, Fe](OH)3(s). Furthermore, the coordination numbers of the second and third shells in the sorption samples (N = 0.7-1.8) were much lower than those in Cr(OH)3(s) and [Cr, Fe](OH)3(s). Taken together, the sorption of the once-reduced Cr(III) was likely to occur via surface-mediated processes (e.g., surface complexation and/or surface precipitation) rather than the bulk-phase precipitation. Financial support was provided by the "R&D Project on Environmental Management of Geologic CO2 Storage" from the KEITI (Project Number: 2014001810003).

  6. Effects of Incorporating Nanosized Calcium Phosphate Particles on Properties of Whisker-Reinforced Dental Composites

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Hockin H. K.; Sun, Limin; Weir, Mike D.; Takagi, Shozo; Chow, Laurence C.; Hockey, Bernard

    2009-01-01

    Clinical data indicate that secondary caries and restoration fracture are the most common problems facing tooth restorations. Our ultimate goal was to develop mechanically-strong and caries-inhibiting dental composites. The specific goal of this pilot study was to understand the relationships between composite properties and the ratio of reinforcement filler/releasing filler. Nanoparticles of monocalcium phosphate monohydrate (MCPM) were synthesized and incorporated into a dental resin for the first time. Silicon carbide whiskers were fused with silica nanoparticles and mixed with the MCPM particles at MCPM/whisker mass ratios of 1:0, 2:1, 1:1, 1:2, and 0:1. The composites were immersed for 1–56 days to measure Ca and PO4 release. When the MCPM/whisker ratio was changed from 0:1 to 1:2, the composite flexural strength (mean ± SD; n = 5) decreased from 174 ± 26 MPa to 138 ± 9 MPa (p < 0.05). A commercial nonreleasing composite had a strength of 112 ± 14 MPa. When the MCPM/whisker ratio was changed from 1:2 to 1:1, the Ca concentration at 56 days increased from 0.77 ± 0.04 mmol/L to 1.74 ± 0.06 mmol/L (p < 0.05). The corresponding PO4 concentration increased from 3.88 ± 0.21 mmol/L to 9.95 ± 0.69 mmol/L (p < 0.05). Relationships were established between the amount of release and the MCPM volume fraction vMCPM in the resin: [Ca]= 42.9 vMCPM2.7, and [PO4] = 48.7 vMCPM1.4. In summary, the method of combining nanosized releasing fillers with reinforcing fillers yielded Ca- and PO4-releasing composites with mechanical properties matching or exceeding a commercial stress-bearing, nonreleasing composite. This method may be applicable to the use of other Ca–PO4 fillers in developing composites with high stress-bearing and caries-preventing capabilities, a combination not yet available in any dental materials. PMID:16924611

  7. Material nanosizing effect on living organisms: non-specific, biointeractive, physical size effects

    PubMed Central

    Watari, Fumio; Takashi, Noriyuki; Yokoyama, Atsuro; Uo, Motohiro; Akasaka, Tsukasa; Sato, Yoshinori; Abe, Shigeaki; Totsuka, Yasunori; Tohji, Kazuyuki

    2009-01-01

    Nanosizing effects of materials on biological organisms was investigated by biochemical cell functional tests, cell proliferation and animal implantation testing. The increase in specific surface area causes the enhancement of ionic dissolution and serious toxicity for soluble, stimulative materials. This effect originates solely from materials and enhances the same functions as those in a macroscopic size as a catalyst. There are other effects that become prominent, especially for non-soluble, biocompatible materials such as Ti. Particle size dependence showed the critical size for the transition of behaviour is at approximately 100 μm, 10 μm and 200 nm. This effect has its origin in the biological interaction process between both particles and cells/tissue. Expression of superoxide anions, cytokines tumour necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β from neutrophils was increased with the decrease in particle size and especially pronounced below 10 μm, inducing phagocytosis to cells and inflammation of tissue, although inductively coupled plasma chemical analysis showed no dissolution from Ti particles. Below 200 nm, stimulus decreases, then particles invade into the internal body through the respiratory or digestive systems and diffuse inside the body. Although macroscopic hydroxyapatite, which exhibits excellent osteoconductivity, is not replaced with natural bone, nanoapatite composites induce both phagocytosis of composites by osteoclasts and new bone formation by osteoblasts when implanted in bone defects. The progress of this bioreaction results in the conversion of functions to bone substitution. Although macroscopic graphite is non-cell adhesive, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are cell adhesive. The adsorption of proteins and nano-meshwork structure contribute to the excellent cell adhesion and growth on CNTs. Non-actuation of the immune system except for a few innate immunity processes gives the non-specific nature to the particle bioreaction and

  8. Biological consequences from interaction of nanosized titanium(iv) oxides with defined human blood components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stella, Aaron

    The utility of engineered nanomaterials is growing, particularly the titanium(iv) oxide (titanium dioxide, TiO2) nanoparticles. TiO 2 is very useful for brightening paints, and coloring foods. Nano-sized TiO2 is also useful for sunscreens, cosmetics, and can be utilized as a photocatalyst. However, the nanometer size of the TiO2 nanoparticle is a characteristic that may contribute oxidative stress to red blood cells (RBCs) in humans. This study utilized screening methods to evaluate different forms of TiO2 nanoparticles which differ by primary particle size, specific surface area, crystalline phase, and surface polarity. RBCs are rich in the intracellular antioxidant glutathione (GSH). HPLC analysis revealed that some TiO2 nanoparticles caused oxidation of GSH to glutathione disulfide (GSSG). Vitamin E is a major membrane-bound antioxidant. Vitamin E levels were then determined by HPLC in the RBC membrane after exposure to TiO2 nanoparticles. The HPLC results showed that each nanoparticle oxidized RBC glutathione and membrane vitamin E at different rates. When hemoglobin was mixed with each TiO2 nanoparticle, hemoglobin was adsorbed at varying rates to the surface of the nanoparticles. Similarly, the aminothiol homocysteine was also adsorbed at different rates by the TiO2 nanoparticles. Using light microscopy, some TiO2 nanoparticles caused the formation of RBC aggregates which significantly changed the RBC morphology. The aggregation data was quantified using a hemacytometer. The TiO2 nanoparticles also caused hemolysis of RBCs. Hemolysis is considered to be a toxic endpoint for RBCs. Changes in the nucleated lymphocyte gene expression of certain oxidative stress genes were also observed using real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). The data indicates that RBCs can ultimately be hemolyzed by biological oxidative damage resulting from a combination of oxidative mechanisms. Additionally, the TiO2 nanoparticles demonstrated the ability to adsorb biomolecules to

  9. [Investigation on damage of bovine serum albumin (BSA) catalyzed by nano-sized silicon dioxide (SiO2) under ultrasonic irradiation using spectral methods].

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun; Ding, Na; Zhang, Zhao-hong; Guo, Ying; Wang, Shi-xian; Xu, Rui; Zhang, Xiang-dong

    2009-04-01

    The damage of bovine serum albumin (BSA) molecules under ultrasonic irradiation in the presence of nano-sized silicon dioxide (SiO2) particles was studied by UV-Vis and fluorescence spectra. In addition, the influences of ultrasonic irradiation time, nano-sized SiO2 addition amount, solution acidity (pH) and ultrasonic irradiation power on the damage of BSA molecules in aqueous solution were also detected. For BSA solution of 1.0 x 10(-5) mol x L(-1) at (37.0+/-0.2) degrees C, the UV-Vis spectra of BSA solutions showed that the absorption peaks of BSA displayed obvious hyperchromic effect with the increase in some influence factors such as ultrasonic irradiation time, nano-sized SiO2 addition amount, pH value and ultrasonic irradiation power. However, the fluorescence spectra of BSA solutions showed the phenomenon of fluorescence quenching with the increase in ultrasonic irradiation time, nano-sized SiO2 addition amount, pH value and ultrasonic irradiation power. Moreover, the possible mechanism behind the damage of BSA molecule in the presence of nano-sized SiO2 powders under ultrasonic irradiation was discussed. It was considered that the damage of BSA molecules was attributed to the formation of *OH radicals resulting from the sonoluminescence and high-heat excitation of ultrasonic cavitation. The research results could be of great significance to using sonocatalytic method to treat tumour in clinic application and for developing nano-sized drug in the future.

  10. Flame Synthesis of Nanosized Cu-Ce-O, Ni-Ce-O, and Fe-Ce-O Catalysts for the Water-Gas Shift (WGS) Reaction

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-11-04

    transition-metal-doped ceria materials, which include coprecipitation (19-21), hydro- thermal (22), microemulsion (23-25), sol - gel (26, 27), and solution...Flame Synthesis of Nanosized Cu-Ce-O, Ni-Ce-O, and Fe-Ce-O Catalysts for the Water-Gas Shift (WGS) Reaction Ranjan K. Pati, Ivan C. Lee, Sicong Hou...ABSTRACT A flame synthesis method has been used to prepare nanosized, high-surface-area Cu-Ce-O, Ni-Ce-O, and Fe-Ce-O catalysts from aqueous

  11. Surface smoothing effect of an amorphous thin film deposited by atomic layer deposition on a surface with nano-sized roughness

    SciTech Connect

    Lau, W. S. Wan, X.; Xu, Y.; Wong, H.; Zhang, J.; Luo, J. K.

    2014-02-15

    Previously, Lau (one of the authors) pointed out that the deposition of an amorphous thin film by atomic layer deposition (ALD) on a substrate with nano-sized roughness probably has a surface smoothing effect. In this letter, polycrystalline zinc oxide deposited by ALD onto a smooth substrate was used as a substrate with nano-sized roughness. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (XTEM) were used to demonstrate that an amorphous aluminum oxide thin film deposited by ALD can reduce the surface roughness of a polycrystalline zinc oxide coated substrate.

  12. Structural Transitions in Nanosized Zn0.97Al0.03O Powders under High Pressure Analyzed by in Situ Angle-Dispersive X-ray Diffraction

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chih-Ming; Liu, Hsin-Tzu; Zhong, Shi-Yao; Hsu, Chia-Hung; Chiu, Yi-Te; Tai, Ming-Fong; Juang, Jenh-Yih; Chuang, Yu-Chun; Liao, Yen-Fa

    2016-01-01

    Nanosized aluminum-doped zinc oxide Zn1−xAlxO (AZO) powders (AZO-NPs) with x = 0.01, 0.03, 0.06, 0.09 and 0.11 were synthesized by chemical precipitation method. The thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) indicated that the precursors were converted to oxides from hydroxides near 250 °C, which were then heated to 500 °C for subsequent thermal processes to obtain preliminary powders. The obtained preliminary powders were then calcined at 500 °C for three hours. The structure and morphology of the products were measured and characterized by angle-dispersive X-ray diffraction (ADXRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). ADXRD results showed that AZO-NPs with Al content less than 11% exhibited würtzite zinc oxide structure and there was no other impurity phase in the AZO-NPs, suggesting substitutional doping of Al on Zn sites. The Zn0.97Al0.03O powders (A3ZO-NPs) with grain size of about 21.4 nm were used for high-pressure measurements. The in situ ADXRD measurements revealed that, for loading run, the pressure-induced würtzite (B4)-to-rocksalt (B1) structural phase transition began at 9.0(1) GPa. Compared to the predicted phase-transition pressure of ~12.7 GPa for pristine ZnO nanocrystals of similar grain size (~21.4 nm), the transition pressure for the present A3ZO-NPs exhibited a reduction of ~3.7 GPa. The significant reduction in phase-transition pressure is attributed to the effects of highly selective site occupation, namely Zn2+ and Al3+, were mainly found in tetrahedral and octahedral sites, respectively. PMID:28773683

  13. Nano-sized magnetic iron oxides as catalysts for heterogeneous Fenton-like reactions-Influence of Fe(II)/Fe(III) ratio on catalytic performance.

    PubMed

    Rusevova, Klara; Kopinke, Frank-Dieter; Georgi, Anett

    2012-11-30

    Nano-sized Fe(II, III) oxides with various Fe(II)/Fe(III) ratios were characterized and tested as catalysts for the oxidative degradation of phenol via Fenton-like reactions at neutral pH. Under conditions typically applied for wet peroxide oxidation, Fe(II) in magnetite is oxidized to Fe(III), successively converting the mineral into maghemite. The residual Fe(II) content in the catalyst core is of only minor benefit for the catalytic activity in phenol oxidation, i.e. magnetite is not superior to maghemite. Achievable reaction rates for phenol degradation appeared to be rather low, e.g. phenol half-life of about 12 h when 3 g L(-1) magnetite and 5 g L(-1) H(2)O(2) were applied. Preceding surface-reduction of maghemite by NaBH(4), leading to an over-stoichiometric Fe(II) content compared to magnetite, only enhanced the non-productive decomposition of H(2)O(2) rather than the rate of phenol degradation. Reaction rates were shown to be relatively insensitive to catalyst concentration in the range of 1-10 g L(-1), probably resulting from a scavenging of reactive species by the catalyst surface, whereby particle agglomeration seems to play a key role. Degradation experiments with various structurally distinct compounds were carried out, indicating a similar selectivity of the heterogeneous Fenton-like system to that known for oxidation with ·OH. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Turning Waste into Value: Nanosized Natural Plant Materials of Solanum incanum L. and Pterocarpus erinaceus Poir with Promising Antimicrobial Activities

    PubMed Central

    Griffin, Sharoon; Tittikpina, Nassifatou Koko; Al-marby, Adel; Alkhayer, Reem; Denezhkin, Polina; Witek, Karolina; Gbogbo, Koffi Apeti; Batawila, Komlan; Duval, Raphaël Emmanuel; Nasim, Muhammad Jawad; Awadh-Ali, Nasser A.; Kirsch, Gilbert; Chaimbault, Patrick; Schäfer, Karl-Herbert; Keck, Cornelia M.; Handzlik, Jadwiga; Jacob, Claus

    2016-01-01

    Numerous plants are known to exhibit considerable biological activities in the fields of medicine and agriculture, yet access to their active ingredients is often complicated, cumbersome and expensive. As a consequence, many plants harbouring potential drugs or green phyto-protectants go largely unnoticed, especially in poorer countries which, at the same time, are in desperate need of antimicrobial agents. As in the case of plants such as the Jericho tomato, Solanum incanum, and the common African tree Pterocarpus erinaceus, nanosizing of original plant materials may provide an interesting alternative to extensive extraction and isolation procedures. Indeed, it is straightforward to obtain considerable amounts of such common, often weed-like plants, and to mill the dried material to more or less uniform particles of microscopic and nanoscopic size. These particles exhibit activity against Steinernema feltiae or Escherichia coli, which is comparable to the ones seen for processed extracts of the same, respective plants. As S. feltiae is used as a model nematode indicative of possible phyto-protective uses in the agricultural arena, these findings also showcase the potential of nanosizing of crude “waste” plant materials for specific practical applications, especially—but not exclusively—in developing countries lacking a more sophisticated industrial infrastructure. PMID:27104554

  15. Nano-sized ZnO powders prepared by co-precipitation method with various pH

    SciTech Connect

    Purwaningsih, S. Y. Pratapa, S.; Triwikantoro,; Darminto

    2016-04-19

    In this work, nano-sized ZnO powders have been synthesized by the co-precipitation method with Zn(CH3COOH)2.2H2O, HCl, and NH3.H2O as raw materials in various pH ranging from 8 to 10. The purity, microstructure, chemical group analysis, morphology of the prepared ZnO powders were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR), energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX), and scanning electron microscope (SEM), respectively. Rietveld refinement of XRD data showed that ZnO crystallizes in the wurtzite structure with high purity. The obtained powders were nano-sized particles with the average crystallite size about 17.9 ± 2.1 nm synthesized with pH of 9.5, at 85°C, and stirring time of 6 h. The SEM results have visualied the morphology of ZnO nanoparticles with spherical-like shape. The effect of processing conditions on morphology of ZnO was also discussed.

  16. Fabrication of nano-sized magnetic tunnel junctions using lift-off process assisted by atomic force probe tip.

    PubMed

    Jung, Ku Youl; Min, Byoung-Chul; Ahn, Chiyui; Choi, Gyung-Min; Shin, Il-Jae; Park, Seung-Young; Rhie, Kungwon; Shin, Kyung-Ho

    2013-09-01

    We present a fabrication method for nano-scale magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs), employing e-beam lithography and lift-off process assisted by the probe tip of atomic force microscope (AFM). It is challenging to fabricate nano-sized MTJs on small substrates because it is difficult to use chemical mechanical planarization (CMP) process. The AFM-assisted lift-off process enables us to fabricate nano-sized MTJs on small substrates (12.5 mm x 12.5 mm) without CMP process. The e-beam patterning has been done using bi-layer resist, the poly methyl methacrylate (PMMA)/ hydrogen silsesquioxane (HSQ). The PMMA/HSQ resist patterns are used for both the etch mask for ion milling and the self-aligned mask for top contact formation after passivation. The self-aligned mask buried inside a passivation oxide layer, is readily lifted-off by the force exerted by the probe tip. The nano-MTJs (160 nm x 90 nm) fabricated by this method show clear current-induced magnetization switching with a reasonable TMR and critical switching current density.

  17. Noncatalytic hydrogenation of decene-1 with hydrogen accumulated in a hybrid carbon nanostructure in nanosized membrane reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soldatov, A. P.

    2014-08-01

    Studies on the creation of nanosized membrane reactors (NMRs) of a new generation with accumulated hydrogen and a regulated volume of reaction zone were continued at the next stage. Hydrogenation was performed in the pores of ceramic membranes with hydrogen preliminarily adsorbed in mono- and multilayered orientated carbon nanotubes with graphene walls (OCNTGs)—a new hybrid carbon nanostructure formed on the inner pore surface. Quantitative determination of hydrogen adsorption in OCNTGs was performed using TRUMEM ultrafiltration membranes with D av = 50 and 90 nm and showed that hydrogen adsorption was up to ˜1.5% of the mass of OCNTG. The instrumentation and procedure for noncatalytic hydrogenation of decene-1 at 250-350°C using hydrogen accumulated and stored in OCNTG were developed. The conversion of decene-1 into decane was ˜0.2-1.8% at hydrogenation temperatures of 250 and 350°C, respectively. The rate constants and activation energy of hydrogenation were determined. The latter was found to be 94.5 kJ/mol, which is much smaller than the values typical for noncatalytic hydrogenations and very close to the values characteristic for catalytic reactions. The quantitative distribution of the reacting compounds in each pore regarded as a nanosized membrane reactor was determined. The activity of hydrogen adsorbed in a 2D carbon nanostructure was evaluated. Possible mechanisms of noncatalytic hydrogenation were discussed.

  18. Synthesis of nano-sized ZnO particles by co-precipitation method with variation of heating time

    SciTech Connect

    Purwaningsih, S. Y. Pratapa, S.; Triwikantoro; Darminto

    2016-02-08

    Zinc oxide powders have been synthesized by a co-precipitation method at low temperature (85 °C), using zinc acetate dihydrate, ammonia, hydrochloric acid solutions as the reactants. A number of process parameters such as reaction temperature, solution basicity or pH and heating time are the main factors affecting the morphology and physical properties of the ZnO nanostructures. In this work the effect of heating time on the morphology and particles size were studied. The as-synthesized ZnO powders were characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. The samples were also analyzed using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR). Rietveld refinement of XRD data confirms that ZnO crystallizes in the hexagonal wurtzite structure with high degree of purity and the (101) plane predominant. The XRD results show that the average crystallite sizes were about 66, 27 and 12 nm for 3, 4 and 5 h of heating times, respectively. The XRD analysis indicated that a fraction of nano-sized ZnO powders were in the form of aggregates, which was also verified by TEM image. The TEM photograph demonstrated that the nano-sized ZnO particles were a pseudo-spherical shape.

  19. Synthesis and electrochemical performance of surface-modified nano-sized core/shell tin particles for lithium ion batteries.

    PubMed

    Schmuelling, Guido; Oehl, Nikolas; Knipper, Martin; Kolny-Olesiak, Joanna; Plaggenborg, Thorsten; Meyer, Hinrich-Wilhelm; Placke, Tobias; Parisi, Jürgen; Winter, Martin

    2014-09-05

    Tin is able to lithiate and delithiate reversibly with a high theoretical specific capacity, which makes it a promising candidate to supersede graphite as the state-of-the-art negative electrode material in lithium ion battery technology. Nevertheless, it still suffers from poor cycling stability and high irreversible capacities. In this contribution, we show the synthesis of three different nano-sized core/shell-type particles with crystalline tin cores and different amorphous surface shells consisting of SnOx and organic polymers. The spherical size and the surface shell can be tailored by adjusting the synthesis temperature and the polymer reagents in the synthesis, respectively. We determine the influence of the surface modifications with respect to the electrochemical performance and characterize the morphology, structure, and thermal properties of the nano-sized tin particles by means of high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, and thermogravimetric analysis. The electrochemical performance is investigated by constant current charge/discharge cycling as well as cyclic voltammetry.

  20. Effect of nano-size ZrO2 addition on the flux pinning properties of (Bi, Pb)-2223 superconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zouaoui, M.; Ghattas, A.; Annabi, M.; Ben Azzouz, F.; Ben Salem, M.

    2008-12-01

    We investigated the microstructure and flux pinning capability of the bulk (Bi,Pb)2Sr2Ca2Cu3Oy system (denoted as (Bi, Pb)-2223) with 0.0-0.3 wt% nano-size ZrO2 particles (10-20 nm) addition synthesized by solid state reaction. Phase analysis by x-ray diffraction (XRD), granular structure examination by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), microstructure investigation by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) equipped with energy dispersive x-ray spectrometer (EDS), critical current density dependence on the applied magnetic field Jc(H) and electrical resistivity ρ(T,H) were carried out. The results show that activation energies of vortex flux motion U(H), critical current density Jc(H) behavior in applied magnetic field and volume pinning force density Fp are enhanced by the addition of 0.1 wt% ZrO2. The pinning force analysis and microstructure observations indicated that the improvement of flux pinning is suggested to originate from the introduction of extrinsic pinning centers due to the formation of normal nano-sized Zr-rich phase.

  1. A reversible adsorption-desorption interface of DNA based on nano-sized zirconia and its application.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shou-Qing; Xu, Jing-Juan; Chen, Hong-Yuan

    2004-08-01

    It is essential for the information storage in DNA-based bio-chips to construct a reversible exchange interface of DNA. Here, a highly reproducible and reversible adsorption-desorption interface of DNA based on the nano-sized zirconia in different pH solution was successfully fabricated. The results showed that DNA can be adsorbed onto the nano-sized zirconia from its solution, and can desorb from the nanoparticles in 0.10 M KOH solution. When the matrix with nanoparticles returns to the DNA solution again, DNA can be re-adsorbed onto them as initial state. Moreover, the interaction of DNA with non-electroactive molecules, 2,2'-bipyridine, has been studied by electrochemistry method in the aid of probe Co(phen)(3)(3+). The experiments showed that when 2,2'-bipyridine was added into the test solution, the voltammetric peak currents of Co(phen)(3)(3+) decreased; and the decrease value of peak current against the concentration of 2,2'-bipyridine has a good Langmuir relationship, by which the equilibrium constant of interaction between 2,2'-bipyridine and DNA was estimated to be 1.57 x 10(4)M(-1).

  2. Turning Waste into Value: Nanosized Natural Plant Materials of Solanum incanum L. and Pterocarpus erinaceus Poir with Promising Antimicrobial Activities.

    PubMed

    Griffin, Sharoon; Tittikpina, Nassifatou Koko; Al-Marby, Adel; Alkhayer, Reem; Denezhkin, Polina; Witek, Karolina; Gbogbo, Koffi Apeti; Batawila, Komlan; Duval, Raphaël Emmanuel; Nasim, Muhammad Jawad; Awadh-Ali, Nasser A; Kirsch, Gilbert; Chaimbault, Patrick; Schäfer, Karl-Herbert; Keck, Cornelia M; Handzlik, Jadwiga; Jacob, Claus

    2016-04-19

    Numerous plants are known to exhibit considerable biological activities in the fields of medicine and agriculture, yet access to their active ingredients is often complicated, cumbersome and expensive. As a consequence, many plants harbouring potential drugs or green phyto-protectants go largely unnoticed, especially in poorer countries which, at the same time, are in desperate need of antimicrobial agents. As in the case of plants such as the Jericho tomato, Solanum incanum, and the common African tree Pterocarpus erinaceus, nanosizing of original plant materials may provide an interesting alternative to extensive extraction and isolation procedures. Indeed, it is straightforward to obtain considerable amounts of such common, often weed-like plants, and to mill the dried material to more or less uniform particles of microscopic and nanoscopic size. These particles exhibit activity against Steinernema feltiae or Escherichia coli, which is comparable to the ones seen for processed extracts of the same, respective plants. As S. feltiae is used as a model nematode indicative of possible phyto-protective uses in the agricultural arena, these findings also showcase the potential of nanosizing of crude "waste" plant materials for specific practical applications, especially-but not exclusively-in developing countries lacking a more sophisticated industrial infrastructure.

  3. Synthesis of nano-sized ZnO particles by co-precipitation method with variation of heating time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purwaningsih, S. Y.; Pratapa, S.; Triwikantoro, Darminto

    2016-02-01

    Zinc oxide powders have been synthesized by a co-precipitation method at low temperature (85 °C), using zinc acetate dihydrate, ammonia, hydrochloric acid solutions as the reactants. A number of process parameters such as reaction temperature, solution basicity or pH and heating time are the main factors affecting the morphology and physical properties of the ZnO nanostructures. In this work the effect of heating time on the morphology and particles size were studied. The as-synthesized ZnO powders were characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. The samples were also analyzed using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR). Rietveld refinement of XRD data confirms that ZnO crystallizes in the hexagonal wurtzite structure with high degree of purity and the (101) plane predominant. The XRD results show that the average crystallite sizes were about 66, 27 and 12 nm for 3, 4 and 5 h of heating times, respectively. The XRD analysis indicated that a fraction of nano-sized ZnO powders were in the form of aggregates, which was also verified by TEM image. The TEM photograph demonstrated that the nano-sized ZnO particles were a pseudo-spherical shape.

  4. Highly Water-Stable Novel Lanthanide Wheel Cluster Organic Frameworks Featuring Coexistence of Hydrophilic Cagelike Chambers and Hydrophobic Nanosized Channels.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yuan-Yuan; Shi, Yang; Geng, Bing; Bo, Qi-Bing

    2017-02-15

    In attempts to investigate the potential luminescent sensing materials for sensitive detection of environmental pollutants, a new family of lanthanide wheel cluster organic frameworks (Ln-WCOFs) UJN-Ln4 has been constructed by employing one of the cycloalkane dicarboxylic acid derivatives. Adopting different conformations, the ligand links Ln4 second building units (SBUs) and Ln24 tertiary building units (TBUs) to form a unique wheel cluster layer-pillared 3D framework featuring the coexistence of hydrophobic nanosized channels and trigonal antiprism arrays with hydrophilic cagelike chambers. Apart from charming structures, isostructural UJN-Ln4 displays interesting porous, water-stable features. Systematic luminescence studies demonstrate that solvent water molecules can enhance the emission intensity of solid-state UJN-Eu4. Acting as a recyclable luminescent probe, water-stable luminescent UJN-Eu4 exhibits superior "turn-off" detection for Fe(3+) and Cu(2+) ions in aqueous solutions. Due to the nanosized hydrophobic channels, UJN-Eu4 also shows highly sensitive sensing of sodium dodecyl benzenesulfonate (SDBS) via luminescence "turn-on" respondence, representing the first example of quantitatively detecting SDBS in aqueous solutions by employing luminescent lanthanide frameworks as fluorescent sensors. The results also open up the exploration of novel luminescent Ln-WCOFs exhibiting unique applications in sensitive detecting of harmful pollutants in aquatic environments.

  5. Nano-sized ZnO powders prepared by co-precipitation method with various pH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purwaningsih, S. Y.; Pratapa, S.; Triwikantoro, Darminto

    2016-04-01

    In this work, nano-sized ZnO powders have been synthesized by the co-precipitation method with Zn(CH3COOH)2.2H2O, HCl, and NH3.H2O as raw materials in various pH ranging from 8 to 10. The purity, microstructure, chemical group analysis, morphology of the prepared ZnO powders were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR), energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX), and scanning electron microscope (SEM), respectively. Rietveld refinement of XRD data showed that ZnO crystallizes in the wurtzite structure with high purity. The obtained powders were nano-sized particles with the average crystallite size about 17.9 ± 2.1 nm synthesized with pH of 9.5, at 85°C, and stirring time of 6 h. The SEM results have visualied the morphology of ZnO nanoparticles with spherical-like shape. The effect of processing conditions on morphology of ZnO was also discussed.

  6. Development of high-energy amorphous solid dispersion of nanosized nobiletin, a citrus polymethoxylated flavone, with improved oral bioavailability.

    PubMed

    Onoue, Satomi; Uchida, Atsushi; Takahashi, Haruki; Seto, Yoshiki; Kawabata, Yohei; Ogawa, Kazunori; Yuminoki, Kayo; Hashimoto, Naofumi; Yamada, Shizuo

    2011-09-01

    Nobiletin (NOB), a citrus polymethoxylated flavone, attracts attention because of a wide range of pharmacological activities such as anti-inflammation, anticancer, and most notably ameliorative actions on memory impairment and β-amyloid pathology. However, clinical use of NOB could be partly limited due to its poor solubility and bioavailability, which might necessitate high doses in order to reach therapeutic plasma concentrations in the central nervous system (CNS) after oral administration. In the present study, amorphous solid dispersion (SD) of nanosized NOB (NOB/SD) was prepared by wet-milling technique with the aim of improving dissolution behavior and pharmacokinetic properties of NOB. Physicochemical properties of the NOB/SD were characterized with focus on surface morphology, particle size distribution, dissolution, and crystallinity assessment. Wet-milled NOB particles in NOB/SD appeared to be amorphous with a diameter of approximately 270 nm, and there was marked improvement in the dissolution behavior compared with that of crystalline NOB. After oral administration of NOB/SD, higher exposure of NOB was observed with increases of bioavailability and CNS distribution by 13- and sevenfold, respectively, compared with those of crystalline NOB. These findings suggest that an amorphous, nanosized SD could be a viable option for enhancing the bioavailability and CNS delivery of NOB.

  7. Porous carbon nanotubes decorated with nanosized cobalt ferrite as anode materials for high-performance lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lingyan; Zhuo, Linhai; Cheng, Haiyang; Zhang, Chao; Zhao, Fengyu

    2015-06-01

    Generally, the fast ion/electron transport and structural stability dominate the superiority in lithium-storage applications. In this work, porous carbon nanotubes decorated with nanosized CoFe2O4 particles (p-CNTs@CFO) have been rationally designed and synthesized by the assistance of supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2). When tested as anode materials for lithium-ion batteries, the p-CNTs@CFO composite exhibits outstanding electrochemical behavior with high lithium-storage capacity (1077 mAh g-1 after 100 cycles) and rate capability (694 mAh g-1 at 3 A g-1). These outstanding electrochemical performances are attributed to the synergistic effect of porous p-CNTs and nanosized CFO. Compared to pristine CNTs, the p-CNTs with substantial pores in the tubes possess largely increased specific surface area and rich oxygen-containing functional groups. The porous structure can not only accommodate the volume change during lithiation/delithiation processes, but also provide bicontinuous electron/ion pathways and large electrode/electrolyte interface, which facilitate the ion diffusion kinetics, improving the rate performance. Moreover, the CFO particles are bonded strongly to the p-CNTs through metal-oxygen bridges, which facilitate the electron fast capture from p-CNTs to CFO, and thus resulting in a high reversible capacity and excellent rate performance. Overall, the porous p-CNTs provide an efficient way for ion diffusion and continuous electron transport as anode materials.

  8. New nanosized catalytic membrane reactors for hydrogenation with stored hydrogen: Prerequisites and the experimental basis for their creation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soldatov, A. P.; Tsodikov, M. V.; Parenago, O. P.; Teplyakov, V. V.

    2010-12-01

    The prerequisites and prospects for creating a new generation of nanosized membrane reactors are considered. For the first time, hydrogenation reactions take place in ceramic membrane pores with hydrogen adsorbed beforehand in mono- and multilayered oriented carbon nanotubes with graphene walls (OCNTGs) formed on the internal pore surface. It is shown for Trumem microfiltration membranes with D avg ˜130 nm that oxidation reactions of CO on a Cu0.03Ti0.97O2 ± δ catalyst and the oxidative conversion of methane into synthesis gas and light hydrocarbons on La + Ce/MgO are considerably enhanced when they occur in membranes. Regularities of hydrogen adsorption, storage, and desorption in nanosized membrane reactors are investigated through OCNTG formation in Trumem ultrafiltration membrane pores with D avg = 50 and 90 nm and their saturation with hydrogen at a pressure of 10-13 MPa. It is shown that the amount of adsorbed hydrogen reaches 14.0% of OCNTG mass. Using thermogravimetric analysis in combination with mass-spectrometric analysis, hydrogen adsorption in OCNTG is first determined and its desorption is found to proceed at atmospheric pressure at a temperature of ˜175°C. It is shown that adsorbed hydrogen affects the transport properties of the membranes, reducing their efficiency with respect to liquids by 4-26 times. This is indirect confirmation of its high activity, due apparently the dissociative mechanism of adsorption.

  9. Microencapsulated Multicellular Tumor Spheroids as a Tool to Test Novel Anticancer Nanosized Drug Delivery Systems In Vitro.

    PubMed

    Privalova, Anna M; Uglanova, Svetlana V; Kuznetsova, Natalia R; Klyachko, Natalia L; Golovin, Yury I; Korenkov, Viktor V; Vodovozova, Elena L; Markvicheva, Elena A

    2015-07-01

    In the study, MCF-7 human breast adenocarcinoma cells were used to study cytotoxicity of novel anticancer nanosized formulations, such as docetaxel-loaded nanoemulsion and liposomal formulation of a lipophilic methotrexate (MTX) prodrug. In vitro study of cytotoxicity was carried out in 2 models, namely using 3D in vitro model based on multicellular tumor spheroids (MTS) and 2D monolayer culture. MTS were generated by tumor cell cultivation within alginate-oligochitosan microcapsules. In the case of the monolayer culture, cell viability was found to be 25, 18 and 12% for the samples containing nanoemulsion at concentrations 20, 300 and 1000 nM of docetaxel, respectively, after 48 hs incubation. For MTS these values were higher, namely 33, 23 and 18%, respectively. Cytotoxicity of liposomal MTX prodrug-based formulation with final concentration of 1, 2, 10, 50, 100 and 1000 nM in both models was also studied. MTX liposomal formulation demonstrated lower cytotoxicity on MTS compared to intact MTX. Moreover, MTS were also more resistant to both liposomal formulation and intact MTX than the monolayer culture. Thus, at 1000 nM MTX in the liposomal form, cell viability in MTS was 1.4-fold higher than that in the monolayer culture. MTS could be proposed as a promising tool to test novel anticancer nanosized formulations in vitro.

  10. An efficient and low toxic human serum albumin conjugated polyethylenimine nano-sized complex for gene delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jiin-Long; Peng, Ssu-Wei; Ko, Wei-Hsu; Wu, Ching-Jan; Li, Teung-Wang; Yeh, Ming-Kung; Chiang, Chiao-Hsi

    2014-09-01

    A novel low cytotoxicity and high efficiency transfection reagent, human serum albumin (HSA)-conjugated polyethylenimine (PEI) was prepared to improve the effect of PEI on gene transfection in this study. Transfecting a cell with DNA is a crucial step for DNA vaccination or gene therapy. PEI, a non-viral vector, is one of the popularly used cationic polymers because of its intensive positive charge that condenses DNA as a nano-sized complex, and attaches on the negative-charged cell membrane, triggering cell endocytosis. In this study, we used a zero-length cross-linkage EDC system to chemically conjugate HSA and PEI, and the size of final synthesized product HSA-conjugated PEI (HSA-PEI) was 14 nm with a positive zeta potential 20.8 mV. We also evaluated the characteristics of HSA-PEI in cells. We chose the A549 cell line as our evaluation model because of its GP-60 receptor. Our results showed that HSA-conjugated PEI was easily applied to form a nano-sized complex with plasmid DNA (pDNA) by simply mixing. The functional ligand, HSA, has a large size, much free PEI (or equivalent free PEI effect) and increases the protection of pDNA by stereo-barring, good condensation effect. HSA-PEI also showed good pDNA transfection enhancement in A549 cell lines, and low toxic characteristics.

  11. Sonochemical synthesis, characterization, antimicrobial activity and textile dyeing behavior of nano-sized cobalt(III) complexes.

    PubMed

    Bala, Ritu; Behal, Jagriti; Kaur, Varinder; Jain, Subheet Kumar; Rani, Riveka; Manhas, Rajesh Kumari; Prakash, Vinit

    2017-03-01

    Using ultrasonic irradiations, nano-sized cobalt(III) coordination complexes, [Co(NH3)6]Cl3·2H2O (A), [Co(en)3]Cl3·3H2O (B) (en-ethylenediamine) and [Co(dien)2]Cl3·3.5H2O (C) (dien-diethylenetriamine) were synthesized. These complexes were characterized by spectroscopic studies like IR, UV/Visible and NMR. Morphology of these complexes was determined by SEM and particle size with the help of TEM & Zeta-sizer. The comparative thermal stability along with phase difference between nano structures and their respective bulk complexes has been studied by thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) study respectively. The dyeing behavior of nano-sized Co(III) complexes and their respective bulks has also been studied (using both exhaust and pad dyeing methods) on cotton and wool fabrics and results shown rationalized dyeing behavior. All these complexes were further tested for antimicrobial activity (against B. subtilis, E. coli, K. pneumoniae, F. oxysporum and A. alternate) and it was observed that nano sized complexes enhanced the activity further.

  12. Thermally driven metastable solid-solution Li(0.5)FePO4 in nanosized particles and its phase separation behaviors.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Sunyoung; Kang, Byoungwoo

    2013-10-25

    Nanosized LiFePO4 particles easily show a fast electrochemical response that can be achieved via a non-equilibrium pathway. To understand this intriguing phase transition behavior in nanosized LiFePO4 particles, the metastable solid-solution phase was prepared by thermal treatment with a chemically delithiated nanosized Li0.5FePO4 sample. Thermal treatment makes all the nanosized particles transform easily to the metastable solid-solution phase because of the large thermal energy while an electrochemical reaction does not. The phase separation behavior of the metastable solid-solution sample (Li0.5FePO4) was investigated under various kinetic conditions to understand critical factors affecting the phase separation behavior of nanosized LiFePO4 particles. The main findings in this study are as follows. The first finding is that the depressed phase separation behavior of the metastable phase may originate from the nanoparticle effect, in which the formation of a second phase inside a nanosized particle is not energetically favored because of the large interfacial energy. Therefore, phase separation in nanosized particles occurs between particles rather than inside a particle. If there was no over-potential, such as in the relaxed pellet experiment or in the relaxed electrode experiment in the electrolyte, the metastable phase was quite stable showing no phase separation behavior even though efficient pathways for lithium ions and electrons were well developed. The second finding is that the phase separation behavior of the metastable phase actually depends on the over-potential. Under open circuit voltage (OCV) conditions, the metastable phase started to exhibit a slight structural change during a long relaxation time, about ten days. The slow change of the metastable phase may be due to the low driving force, less than 10 mV, which comes from the energetic difference between the two-phase state and the metastable phase. This indicates that the phase separation

  13. Thermally driven metastable solid-solution Li0.5FePO4 in nanosized particles and its phase separation behaviors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoo, Sunyoung; Kang, Byoungwoo

    2013-10-01

    Nanosized LiFePO4 particles easily show a fast electrochemical response that can be achieved via a non-equilibrium pathway. To understand this intriguing phase transition behavior in nanosized LiFePO4 particles, the metastable solid-solution phase was prepared by thermal treatment with a chemically delithiated nanosized Li0.5FePO4 sample. Thermal treatment makes all the nanosized particles transform easily to the metastable solid-solution phase because of the large thermal energy while an electrochemical reaction does not. The phase separation behavior of the metastable solid-solution sample (Li0.5FePO4) was investigated under various kinetic conditions to understand critical factors affecting the phase separation behavior of nanosized LiFePO4 particles. The main findings in this study are as follows. The first finding is that the depressed phase separation behavior of the metastable phase may originate from the nanoparticle effect, in which the formation of a second phase inside a nanosized particle is not energetically favored because of the large interfacial energy. Therefore, phase separation in nanosized particles occurs between particles rather than inside a particle. If there was no over-potential, such as in the relaxed pellet experiment or in the relaxed electrode experiment in the electrolyte, the metastable phase was quite stable showing no phase separation behavior even though efficient pathways for lithium ions and electrons were well developed. The second finding is that the phase separation behavior of the metastable phase actually depends on the over-potential. Under open circuit voltage (OCV) conditions, the metastable phase started to exhibit a slight structural change during a long relaxation time, about ten days. The slow change of the metastable phase may be due to the low driving force, less than 10 mV, which comes from the energetic difference between the two-phase state and the metastable phase. This indicates that the phase separation

  14. Evaluating structure selection in the hydrothermal growth of FeS2 pyrite and marcasite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitchaev, Daniil A.; Ceder, Gerbrand

    2016-12-01

    While the ab initio prediction of the properties of solids and their optimization towards new proposed materials is becoming established, little predictive theory exists as to which metastable materials can be made and how, impeding their experimental realization. Here we propose a quasi-thermodynamic framework for predicting the hydrothermal synthetic accessibility of metastable materials and apply this model to understanding the phase selection between the pyrite and marcasite polymorphs of FeS2. We demonstrate that phase selection in this system can be explained by the surface stability of the two phases as a function of ambient pH within nano-size regimes relevant to nucleation. This result suggests that a first-principles understanding of nano-size phase stability in realistic synthesis environments can serve to explain or predict the synthetic accessibility of structural polymorphs, providing a guideline to experimental synthesis via efficient computational materials design.

  15. Evaluating structure selection in the hydrothermal growth of FeS2 pyrite and marcasite

    PubMed Central

    Kitchaev, Daniil A.; Ceder, Gerbrand

    2016-01-01

    While the ab initio prediction of the properties of solids and their optimization towards new proposed materials is becoming established, little predictive theory exists as to which metastable materials can be made and how, impeding their experimental realization. Here we propose a quasi-thermodynamic framework for predicting the hydrothermal synthetic accessibility of metastable materials and apply this model to understanding the phase selection between the pyrite and marcasite polymorphs of FeS2. We demonstrate that phase selection in this system can be explained by the surface stability of the two phases as a function of ambient pH within nano-size regimes relevant to nucleation. This result suggests that a first-principles understanding of nano-size phase stability in realistic synthesis environments can serve to explain or predict the synthetic accessibility of structural polymorphs, providing a guideline to experimental synthesis via efficient computational materials design. PMID:27966547

  16. Improvement of the tool life of a micro-end mill using nano-sized SiC/Ni electroplating method.

    PubMed

    Park, Shinyoung; Kim, Kwang-Su; Roh, Ji Young; Jang, Gyu-Beom; Ahn, Sung-Hoon; Lee, Caroline Sunyong

    2012-04-01

    High mechanical properties of a tungsten carbide micro-end-mill tool was achieved by extending its tool life by electroplating nano-sized SiC particles (< 100 nm) that had a hardness similar to diamond in a nickel-based material. The co-electroplating method on the surface of the micro-end-mill tool was applied using SiC particles and Ni particles. Organic additives (saccharin and ammonium chloride) were added in a Watts bath to improve the nickel matrix density in the electroplating bath and to smooth the surface of the co-electroplating. The morphology of the coated nano-sized SiC particles and the composition were measured using Scanning Electron Microscope and Energy Dispersive Spectrometer. As the Ni/SiC co-electroplating layer was applied, the hardness and friction coefficient improved by 50%. Nano-sized SiC particles with 7 wt% were deposited on the surface of the micro-end mill while the Ni matrix was smoothed by adding organic additives. The tool life of the Ni/SiC co-electroplating coating on the micro-end mill was at least 25% longer than that of the existing micro-end mills without Ni/SiC co-electroplating. Thus, nano-sized SiC/Ni coating by electroplating significantly improves the mechanical properties of tungsten carbide micro-end mills.

  17. A novel copper (II) complex containing a tetradentate Schiff base: Synthesis, spectroscopy, crystal structure, DFT study, biological activity and preparation of its nano-sized metal oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tohidiyan, Zeinab; Sheikhshoaie, Iran; Khaleghi, Mouj; Mague, Joel T.

    2017-04-01

    A new nano-sized copper (II) complex, [Cu(L)] with a tetra dentate Schiff base ligand, 2-((E)-(2-(E-5- bromo-2-hydroxybezenylideneamino) methyl)-4-bromophenol [H2L] was prepared by the reaction between of Cu (CH3COO)2·2H2O and (H2L) ligand with the ratio of 1:1, at the present of triethylamine by sonochemical method. The structure of [Cu (L)] complex was determined by FT-IR, UV-Vis, FESEM and molar conductivity. The structure of [Cu (L)] complex was characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction. The geometry of [Cu (L)] complex was optimized using density functional theory (DFT) method with the B3LYP/6-31(d) level of theory. The calculated bond lengths and bond angles are in good agreement with the X-ray data. This complex was used as a novel precursor for preparing of CuO nano particles by the thermal decomposition method. The antibacterial activities of [H2L] ligand, nano-sized [Cu (L)] complex and nano-sized CuO have been screened against various strains of bacteria. According to the results, nano-sized CuO can be considered as an appropriate antibiotic agent.

  18. Twenty-Eight-Day Repeated Inhalation Toxicity Study of Nano-Sized Neodymium Oxide in Male Sprague-Dawley Rats.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yong-Soon; Lim, Cheol-Hong; Shin, Seo-Ho; Kim, Jong-Choon

    2017-07-01

    Neodymium is a future-oriented material due to its unique properties, and its use is increasing in various industrial fields worldwide. However, the toxicity caused by repeated exposure to this metal has not been studied in detail thus far. The present study was carried out to investigate the potential inhalation toxicity of nano-sized neodymium oxide (Nd2O3) following a 28-day repeated inhalation exposure in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Male rats were exposed to nano-sized Nd2O3-containing aerosols via a nose-only inhalation system at doses of 0 mg/m(3), 0.5 mg/m(3), 2.5 mg/m(3), and 10 mg/m(3) for 6 hr/day, 5 days/week over a 28-day period, followed by a 28-day recovery period. During the experimental period, clinical signs, body weight, hematologic parameters, serum biochemical parameters, necropsy findings, organ weight, and histopathological findings were examined; neodymium distribution in the major organs and blood, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), and oxidative stress in lung tissues were analyzed. Most of the neodymium was found to be deposited in lung tissues, showing a dose-dependent relationship. Infiltration of inflammatory cells and pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) were the main observations of lung histopathology. Infiltration of inflammatory cells was observed in the 2.5 mg/m(3) and higher dose treatment groups. PAP was observed in all treatment groups accompanied by an increase in lung weight, but was observed to a lesser extent in the 0.5 mg/m(3) treatment group. In BALF analysis, total cell counts, including macrophages and neutrophils, lactate dehydrogenase, albumin, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha, increased significantly in all treatment groups. After a 4-week recovery period, these changes were generally reversed in the 0.5 mg/m(3) group, but were exacerbated in the 10 mg/m(3) group. The lowest-observed-adverse-effect concentration of nano-sized Nd2O3 was determined to be 0.5 mg/m(3), and the target organ was determined to

  19. Twenty-Eight-Day Repeated Inhalation Toxicity Study of Nano-Sized Neodymium Oxide in Male Sprague-Dawley Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yong-Soon; Lim, Cheol-Hong; Shin, Seo-Ho; Kim, Jong-Choon

    2017-01-01

    Neodymium is a future-oriented material due to its unique properties, and its use is increasing in various industrial fields worldwide. However, the toxicity caused by repeated exposure to this metal has not been studied in detail thus far. The present study was carried out to investigate the potential inhalation toxicity of nano-sized neodymium oxide (Nd2O3) following a 28-day repeated inhalation exposure in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Male rats were exposed to nano-sized Nd2O3-containing aerosols via a nose-only inhalation system at doses of 0 mg/m3, 0.5 mg/m3, 2.5 mg/m3, and 10 mg/m3 for 6 hr/day, 5 days/week over a 28-day period, followed by a 28-day recovery period. During the experimental period, clinical signs, body weight, hematologic parameters, serum biochemical parameters, necropsy findings, organ weight, and histopathological findings were examined; neodymium distribution in the major organs and blood, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), and oxidative stress in lung tissues were analyzed. Most of the neodymium was found to be deposited in lung tissues, showing a dose-dependent relationship. Infiltration of inflammatory cells and pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) were the main observations of lung histopathology. Infiltration of inflammatory cells was observed in the 2.5 mg/m3 and higher dose treatment groups. PAP was observed in all treatment groups accompanied by an increase in lung weight, but was observed to a lesser extent in the 0.5 mg/m3 treatment group. In BALF analysis, total cell counts, including macrophages and neutrophils, lactate dehydrogenase, albumin, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha, increased significantly in all treatment groups. After a 4-week recovery period, these changes were generally reversed in the 0.5 mg/m3 group, but were exacerbated in the 10 mg/m3 group. The lowest-observed-adverse-effect concentration of nano-sized Nd2O3 was determined to be 0.5 mg/m3, and the target organ was determined to be the lung

  20. Preparation of radioactive praseodymium oxide as a multifunctional agent in nuclear medicine: expanding the horizons of cancer therapy using nanosized neodymium oxide.

    PubMed

    Bakht, Mohamadreza K; Sadeghi, Mahdi; Ahmadi, Seyed J; Sadjadi, Sodeh S; Tenreiro, Claudio

    2013-01-01

    Many studies have attempted to assess the significance of the use of the β(-)particle emitter praseodymium-142 ((142)Pr) in cancer treatment. As praseodymium oxide (Pr(2)O(3)) powder is not water soluble, it was dissolved in HCl solution and the resultant solution had to be pH adjusted to be in an injectable radiopharmaceutical form. Moreover, it was shown that the nanosized neodymium oxide (Nd(2)O(3)) induced massive vacuolization and cell death in non-small-cell lung cancer. In this work, the production of (142)Pr was studied and water-dispersible nanosized Pr(2)O(3) was proposed to improve the application of (142)Pr in nuclear medicine. Data from different databases pertaining to the production of (142)Pr were compared to evaluate the accuracy of the theoretical calculations. Water-dispersible nanosized Pr(2)O(3) was prepared using a poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) coating or PEGylation method as a successful mode of drug delivery. Radioactive (142)Pr(2)O(3) was produced via a (142)Pr(n,γ)(142)Pr reaction by thermal neutron bombardment of the prepared sample. There was good agreement between the reported experimental data and the data based on nuclear model calculations. In addition, a small part of nano-Pr(2)O(3) particles remained in suspension and most of them settled out of the water. Interestingly, the PEGylated Pr(2)O(3) nanoparticles were water dispersible. After neutron bombardment of the sample, a stable colloidal (142)Pr(2)O(3) was formed. The radioactive (142)Pr(2)O(3) decays to the stable (142)Nd(2)O(3). The suggested colloidal (142)Pr(2)O(3) as a multifunctional therapeutic agent could have dual roles in cancer treatment as a radiotherapeutic agent using nanosized (142)Pr(2)O(3) and as an autophagy-inducing agent using nanosized (142)Nd(2)O(3).

  1. Comparison of nano-sized Mn oxides with the Mn cluster of photosystem II as catalysts for water oxidation.

    PubMed

    Najafpour, Mohammad Mahdi; Ghobadi, Mohadeseh Zarei; Haghighi, Behzad; Tomo, Tatsuya; Shen, Jian-Ren; Allakhverdiev, Suleyman I

    2015-02-01

    "Back to Nature" is a promising way to solve the problems that we face today, such as air pollution and shortage of energy supply based on conventional fossil fuels. A Mn cluster inside photosystem II catalyzes light-induced water-splitting leading to the generation of protons, electrons and oxygen in photosynthetic organisms, and has been considered as a good model for the synthesis of new artificial water-oxidizing catalysts. Herein, we surveyed the structural and functional details of this cluster and its surrounding environment. Then, we review the mechanistic findings concerning the cluster and compare this biological catalyst with nano-sized Mn oxides, which are among the best artificial Mn-based water-oxidizing catalysts.

  2. Low-relaxation spin waves in laser-molecular-beam epitaxy grown nanosized yttrium iron garnet films

    SciTech Connect

    Lutsev, L. V. Korovin, A. M.; Bursian, V. E.; Gastev, S. V.; Fedorov, V. V.; Suturin, S. M.; Sokolov, N. S.

    2016-05-02

    Synthesis of nanosized yttrium iron garnet (Y{sub 3}Fe{sub 5}O{sub 12}, YIG) films followed by the study of ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) and spin wave propagation in these films is reported. The YIG films were grown on gadolinium gallium garnet substrates by laser molecular beam epitaxy. It has been shown that spin waves propagating in YIG deposited at 700 °C have low damping. At the frequency of 3.29 GHz, the spin-wave damping parameter is less than 3.6 × 10{sup −5}. Magnetic inhomogeneities of the YIG films give the main contribution to the FMR linewidth. The contribution of the relaxation processes to the FMR linewidth is as low as 1.2%.

  3. Magnetic nanosized rare earth iron garnets R3Fe5O12: Sol-gel fabrication, characterization and reinspection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Opuchovic, Olga; Kareiva, Aivaras; Mazeika, Kestutis; Baltrunas, Dalis

    2017-01-01

    The magnetic nanosized rare earth iron garnets (R3Fe5O12, where R=Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu) were prepared by an aqueous sol-gel method. Herein we present, that all these garnets can be obtained by this effective synthesis method simply by changing the temperature of the final annealing. It was also demonstrated, that a different annealing temperature leads to a different particle size distribution of the final product. The SEM analysis results revealed that the smallest particles were formed in the range of 75-130 nm. The phase purity and structure of the rare earth iron garnets were estimated using XRD analysis and Mössbauer spectroscopy. Magnetic properties were determined by magnetization measurements. The relation between the particle size, composition and magnetic properties of the sol-gel derived garnets were also discussed in this study.

  4. Variation in the EPR characteristics of nanosized zirconia particles under exposure to X-ray radiation and annealing in hydrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bykov, I. P.; Brik, A. B.; Glinchuk, M. D.; Bevz, V. V.; Kalinichenko, E. A.; Konstantinova, T. E.; Danilenko, I. A.

    2008-12-01

    The effects of various external factors on the properties of nanosized zirconia particles are studied using electron paramagnetic resonance. It is shown that x-rays initiate radiation-stimulated oxidation of chromium impurity ions according to the scheme Cr3+ → Cr5+. Annealing of samples in hydrogen at temperatures in the range 250-650°C brings about a substantial decrease in the fraction of chromium ions in the Cr5+ charge state, but subsequent annealing of these samples in air leads to an increase in the Cr5+ fraction. Samples annealed in hydrogen generate a singlet EPR signal with the g factor of 2.0033 ± 0.0005 originating from electrically conducting regions which are formed on the surface of zirconia nanoparticles during their annealing in hydrogen.

  5. Surfactant-modified montmorillonite as a nanosized adsorbent for removal of an insecticide: kinetic and isotherm studies.

    PubMed

    Hassani, Aydin; Khataee, Alireza; Karaca, Semra; Shirzad-Siboni, Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    Surfactant-modified montmorillonites (MMT) were prepared using trimethyloctylammonium bromide (TMOAB) and employed as a nanosized adsorbent to remove diazinon from aqueous solutions. The prepared adsorbent was characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX). The dependence of removal efficiency on initial diazinon concentration, amount of adsorbent, pH of the solution and ionic strength was investigated. The affinity sequence for ion adsorption on TMOAB/MMT was in the order: without anion> sodium carbonate> sodium bicarbonate> sodium sulphate> sodium chloride. The adsorption kinetic and isotherm were best fit by a pseudo-second-order kinetic and Langmuir isotherm models, respectively.

  6. Suppression of the commensurate magnetic phase in nanosized hübnerite MnW O4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zajdel, P.; Gągor, A.; Pajerowski, D. M.; Ptak, M.; Szlawska, M.

    2017-05-01

    Magnetic structures of nanosized (20 to 70 nm) powders of MnW O4 and MnW O4 :Mo were studied using neutron powder diffraction (NPD). Sizes and shapes of the crystallites calculated from anisotropic peak broadening of diffraction peaks were found to be orthogonal parallelepipedlike with the longest edge along the c axis and the shortest along the b axis. SQUID measurements indicate the presence of two magnetic transitions around 8 and 12 K. Rietveld refinement of the NPD data below the magnetic transition was consistent with the presence of an incommensurate spiral-like (a c -AF 2 ) phase. A commensurate phase AF1 was not observed down to 2.5 K for all of the samples.

  7. Nanoparticle Capture During Directional Solidification of Nano-Sized SiC Particle-Reinforced AZ91D Composites.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Qiaobo; Liu, Hongchang; Li, Wenzhen; Gao, Weiming; Li, Qiushu

    2015-05-01

    The capture/push behavior of a particle in front of a solidification interface was analyzed theoretically and experimentally in this work. Van der Waals force, viscous force, and force due to interfacial energy played important roles in the particle capture/push process. Directional solidification experiments were conducted with nano-sized SiC particle-reinforced AZ91D composites to observe the distribution of nanoparticles in different solidification morphologies under varied cooling rates. When the composite solidified with plane manner, the nanoparticles could be captured by the solidification front and distributed uniformly in the matrix. When solidified with columnar or equiaxial manners, the nanoparticles could be captured by the solidification front but distributed uniformly only in the grain boundary as a result of the difference in interfacial energy and wettability between SiC/α-Mg and SiC/eutectic phase. Theoretical prediction of particle capture was in agreement with the experiment results.

  8. Changes in the magnetic and mechanical properties of thermally aged Fe-Cu alloys due to nano-sized precipitates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yi; Li, Yuanfei; Deng, Shanquan; Xu, Ben; Li, Qiulin; Shu, Guogang; Liu, Wei

    2016-01-01

    The changes in the magnetic properties, mechanical properties, and microstructural parameters of Fe-Cu alloys due to thermal aging have been investigated to improve the fundamental understanding of using magnetic technology for the nondestructive evaluation (NDE) of irradiation embrittlement in the reactor pressure vessel (RPV). Nano-sized Cu particles precipitated from a Fe matrix after thermal aging at 500 °C for various times, and the microstructure parameters were determined. The coercivity, Barkhausen noise (BN), Vickers hardness, and yield stress were also measured for these samples. These properties show the same hardening-softening trend with increasing aging time, which can be interpreted in terms of the microstructure parameters evolution based on the model of the pinning of precipitates on domain walls and dislocations. These results suggest the practicability of using magnetic technology for the NDE of the irradiation embrittlement of the RPV.

  9. Propagation of electro-kinetic waves in magnetized GaN semiconductor with nano-sized ion colloids

    SciTech Connect

    Saxena, Ajay; Sharma, Giriraj; Jat, K. L.; Rishi, M. P.

    2015-07-31

    Based on hydrodynamic model of multi-component plasma, an analytical study on propagation of longitudinal electro-kinetic (LEK) waves in wurtzite and zincblende structures of GaN is carried out. Nano-sized ion colloids (NICs) are embedded in the sample by the technique of ion-implantation. The implanted NICs are considered massive by an order as compared to the host lattice points and do not participate in Based LEK perturbations. Though, the NICs are continuously bombarded by the electrons as well as the holes yet, the former acquires a net negative charge owing to relatively higher mobility of electrons and consequently results into depletion of electron density in the medium. It i s found that the presence of charged NICs significantly modifies the dispersion and amplification characteristics of LEK waves in magnetized GaN semiconductor plasma and their role becomes increasingly effective as the fraction of charge on them increases.

  10. Dependence on cation distribution of particle size, lattice parameter, and magnetic properties in nanosize Mn-Zn ferrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rath, Chandana; Anand, S.; Das, R. P.; Sahu, K. K.; Kulkarni, S. D.; Date, S. K.; Mishra, N. C.

    2002-02-01

    In Mn1-xZnxFe2O4 (x=0 to 1) nanosize particles prepared through hydrothermal precipitation we observe a decrease in particle size from 13 to 4 nm with increasing Zn concentration from 0 to 1. The lattice constant, a, for all Mn/Zn concentrations is found to be less than that for the corresponding bulk values. At specific compositions within x=0.35 and 0.5, the temperature dependence of the magnetization exhibits a cusp-like behavior below the temperature at which the nanoparticles undergo a ferri- to para-magnetic transition (Tc). The Curie temperatures, Tc, of the nanoparticles are in the range of 175-500 °C, which are much higher than their corresponding bulk values. To explain these unusual features, the strong preferential occupancy of cations in chemically inequivalent A and B sites and the metastable cation distribution in nanoparticles are invoked.

  11. [Degradation of trace nitrobenzene in aqueous solution by ozone with catalysis of nanosized TiO2 supported on haydite].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jing; Ma, Jun; Yang, Yi-xin; Wang, Sheng-jun; Qin, Qing-dong

    2007-10-01

    This paper presented the results of catalytic degradation of nitrobenzene by ozone in the presence of nanosized TiO2 supported on haydite, and evaluated influencing factors and the pathway of degradation. Catalysts were prepared by sol-sel method, and sintered in electrical resistance furnace. The optimum sinter temperature was found for preparing the catalyst. The SEM was also used to characterize the catalyst. When the catalyst was sintered at 700 degrees C, it had the best property of catalysis. The catalytic ozonation of nitrobenzene was first order reaction with respect to the concentration of nitrobenzene, and OH* was the dominating species in the oxidation process. As the dose of catalyst increased, the removing rate of nitrobenzene also increased. The highest ozonation rate of this compound, which is 46.5%, was found when pH value was approximately 10. Besides, the catalyst showed good ability after 3 times repeated uses.

  12. Inactivation of Avian Influenza Virus, Newcastle Disease Virus and Goose Parvovirus Using Solution of Nano-Sized Scallop Shell Powder

    PubMed Central

    THAMMAKARN, Chanathip; SATOH, Keisuke; SUGURO, Atsushi; HAKIM, Hakimullah; RUENPHET, Sakchai; TAKEHARA, Kazuaki

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Scallop shell powder produced by calcination process − the average diameter of the powder particles being 20 µm (SSP) − was further ground into nano-sized particles, with average diameter of 500 nm, here designated CaO-Nano. Solution of CaO-Nano could inactivate avian influenza virus within 5 sec, whereas the solution of SSP could not even after 1 hr incubation. CaO-Nano solution could also inactivate Newcastle disease virus and goose parvovirus within 5 sec and 30 sec, respectively. The virus-inactivating capacity (neutralizing index: NI>3) of the solution was not reduced by the presence of 20% fetal bovine serum. CaO-Nano solution seems to be a good candidate of materials for enhancement of biosecurity in farms. PMID:24871643

  13. Inactivation of avian influenza virus, newcastle disease virus and goose parvovirus using solution of nano-sized scallop shell powder.

    PubMed

    Thammakarn, Chanathip; Satoh, Keisuke; Suguro, Atsushi; Hakim, Hakimullah; Ruenphet, Sakchai; Takehara, Kazuaki

    2014-09-01

    Scallop shell powder produced by calcination process - the average diameter of the powder particles being 20 µm (SSP) - was further ground into nano-sized particles, with average diameter of 500 nm, here designated CaO-Nano. Solution of CaO-Nano could inactivate avian influenza virus within 5 sec, whereas the solution of SSP could not even after 1 hr incubation. CaO-Nano solution could also inactivate Newcastle disease virus and goose parvovirus within 5 sec and 30 sec, respectively. The virus-inactivating capacity (neutralizing index: NI>3) of the solution was not reduced by the presence of 20% fetal bovine serum. CaO-Nano solution seems to be a good candidate of materials for enhancement of biosecurity in farms.

  14. Absorption and Bioavailability of Nano-Size Reduced Calcium Citrate Fortified Milk Powder in Ovariectomized and Ovariectomized-Osteoporosis Rats.

    PubMed

    Erfanian, Arezoo; Mirhosseini, Hamed; Rasti, Babak; Hair-Bejo, Mohd; Bin Mustafa, Shuhaimi; Abd Manap, Mohd Yazid

    2015-06-24

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of fortification and nano-size reduction on calcium absorption and bioavailability of milk powder formula in sham, ovariectomized, and ovariectomized-osteoporosis rats as a menopause and menopause-osteoporosis model. Skim milk powder and skim milk powder fortified with calcium citrate and the suitable doses of inulin, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and vitamins D3, K1, and B6 were formulated based on the North American and Western European recommended dietary allowances. Optimization on cycle and pressure of high-pressure homogenizer was done to produce nano-fortified milk powder. In vivo study demonstrated that fortification and calcium citrate nano-fortified milk powder increased absorption and bioavailability of calcium, as well as bone stiffness and bone strength in sham, ovariectomized, and ovariectomized-osteoporosis rats. This study successfully developed an effective fortified milk powder for food application.

  15. Understanding dual precipitation strengthening in ultra-high strength low carbon steel containing nano-sized copper precipitates and carbides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phaniraj, M. P.; Shin, Young-Min; Jung, Woo-Sang; Kim, Man-Ho; Choi, In-Suk

    2017-07-01

    Low carbon ferritic steel alloyed with Ti, Mo and Cu was hot rolled and interrupt cooled to produce nano-sized precipitates of copper and (Ti,Mo)C carbides. The steel had a tensile strength of 840 MPa, an increase in yield strength of 380 MPa over that of the plain carbon steel and reasonable ductility. Transmission electron microscopy and small angle neutron scattering were used to characterize size and volume fraction of the precipitates in the steels designed to form only copper precipitates and only (Ti,Mo)C carbides. The individual and combined precipitation strengthening contributions was calculated using the size and volume fraction of precipitates and compared with the measured values.

  16. High-yield nanosized (Si)AlPO-41 using ethanol polarity equalization and co-templating synthesis approach.

    PubMed

    Majano, Gerardo; Raltchev, Kolio; Vicente, Aurelie; Mintova, Svetlana

    2015-03-19

    Control of the crystallite dimensions of the microporous aluminophosphate AlPO-41 (AFO-type framework structure), and the Si-containing analogue SAPO-41, was attained down to the nanometer scale under stable hydrothermal conditions. The combined application of a tetraalkylammonium co-template (tetrapentylammonium hydroxide) along with an amine structure directing agent (n-dipropylamine) stabilized through the use of ethanol in the initial suspension enables a crystallization medium, which remains homogeneous throughout the entire synthesis. As a direct consequence of the optimized homogeneity of the suspension, the AFO-type microporous nanocrystals (AlPO-41 and SAPO-41) with a size in the range of 30-500 nm with yields surpassing 50% are obtained. The feasibility to obtain nanosized AlPO-41 and SAPO-41 crystals using ethanol as a polarity equalizing agent, resulting in a scalable hydrothermal synthesis from non-colloidal starting mixtures without the use of other assisting methods, is presented.

  17. Biodegradable HA-PLA 3-D porous scaffolds: effect of nano-sized filler content on scaffold properties.

    PubMed

    Kothapalli, Chandrasekhar R; Shaw, Montgomery T; Wei, Mei

    2005-11-01

    Scaffolds comprising poly(lactic acid) and nano-hydroxyapatite (HA) were prepared using the solvent-casting/salt-leaching technique. NaCl was used as the leaching agent. Nano-sized HA was synthesized by a hydrothermal method at 170 degrees C and autogenous pressure. High-resolution TEM imaging revealed that the HA particles were ellipsoidal-shaped with needle-like morphologies. The particles had an average size of approximately 25 nm in width and 150 nm in length with aspect ratios ranging from 6 to 8. As the HA content increased in the scaffold from 0 to 50 wt%, the compression modulus of the scaffolds increased from 4.72+/-1.2 to 9.87+/-1.8 MPa, while the yield strength from 0.29+/-0.03 to 0.44+/-0.01 MPa. Such polymeric scaffolds should be suitable materials for non-load sharing tissue-engineering applications.

  18. [Study on anti-coagulant property of radio frequency sputtering nano-sized TiO2 thin films].

    PubMed

    Tang, Xiaoshan; Li, Da

    2010-12-01

    Nano-TiO2 thin films were prepared by Radio frequency (RF) sputtering on pyrolytic carbon substrates. The influences of sputtering power on the structure and the surface morphology of TiO2 thin films were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), and by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results show that the TiO2 films change to anatase through the optimum of sputtering power. The mean diameter of nano-particle is about 30 nm. The anti-coagulant property of TiO2 thin films was observed through platelet adhesion in vitro. The result of experiment reveals the amount of thrombus on the TiO2 thin films being much less than that on the pyrolytic carbon. It also indicates that the RF sputtering Nano-sized TiO2 thin films will be a new kind of promising materials applied to artificial heart valve and endovascular stent.

  19. Strategy for chemotherapeutic delivery using a nanosized porous metal-organic framework with a central composite design

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yingpeng; Li, Xiuyan; Guan, Qingxia; Zhang, Chunjing; Xu, Ting; Dong, Yujing; Bai, Xinyu; Zhang, Weiping

    2017-01-01

    Background Enhancing drug delivery is an ongoing endeavor in pharmaceutics, especially when the efficacy of chemotherapy for cancer is concerned. In this study, we prepared and evaluated nanosized HKUST-1 (nanoHKUST-1), nanosized metal-organic drug delivery framework, loaded with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) for potential use in cancer treatment. Materials and methods NanoHKUST-1 was prepared by reacting copper (II) acetate [Cu(OAc)2] and benzene-1,3,5-tricarboxylic acid (H3BTC) with benzoic acid (C6H5COOH) at room temperature (23.7°C±2.4°C). A central composite design was used to optimize 5-FU-loaded nanoHKUST-1. Contact time, ethanol concentration, and 5-FU:material ratios were the independent variables, and the entrapment efficiency of 5-FU was the response parameter measured. Powder X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and nitrogen adsorption were used to determine the morphology of nanoHKUST-1. In addition, 5-FU release studies were conducted, and the in vitro cytotoxicity was evaluated. Results Entrapment efficiency and drug loading were 9.96% and 40.22%, respectively, while the small-angle X-ray diffraction patterns confirmed a regular porous structure. The SEM and TEM images of the nanoHKUST-1 confirmed the presence of round particles (diameter: approximately 100 nm) and regular polygon arrays of mesoporous channels of approximately 2–5 nm. The half-maximal lethal concentration (LC50) of the 5-FU-loaded nanoHKUST-1 was approximately 10 µg/mL. Conclusion The results indicated that nanoHKUST-1 is a potential vector worth developing as a cancer chemotherapeutic drug delivery system. PMID:28260892

  20. Development of a website and biobank database for the Nanosized Cancer Polymarker Biochip Project: a Multicenter Italian Experience.

    PubMed

    Leon, Antonette E; Fabricio, Aline S C; Benvegnù, Fabio; Michilin, Silvia; Secco, Annamaria; Spangaro, Omar; Meo, Sabrina; Gion, Massimo

    2011-01-01

    The Nanosized Cancer Polymarker Biochip Project (RBLA03S4SP) funded by an Italian MIUR-FIRB grant (Italian Ministry of University and Research - Investment Funds for Basic Research) has led to the creation of a free-access dynamic website, available at the web address https://serviziweb.ulss12.ve.it/firbabo, and of a centralized database with password-restricted access. The project network is composed of 9 research units (RUs) and has been active since 2005. The aim of the FIRB project was the design, production and validation of optoelectronic and chemoelectronic biosensors for the simultaneous detection of a novel class of cancer biomarkers associated with immunoglobulins of the M class (IgM) for early diagnosis of cancer. Biomarker immune complexes (BM-ICs) were assessed on samples of clinical cases and matched controls for breast, colorectal, liver, ovarian and prostate malignancies. This article describes in detail the architecture of the project website, the central database application, and the biobank developed for the FIRB Nanosized Cancer Polymarker Biochip Project. The article also illustrates many unique aspects that should be considered when developing a database within a multidisciplinary scenario. The main deliverables of the project were numerous, including the development of an online database which archived 1400 case report forms (700 cases and 700 matched controls) and more than 2700 experimental results relative to the BM-ICs assayed. The database also allowed for the traceability and retrieval of 21,000 aliquots archived in the centralized bank and stored as backup in the RUs, and for the development of a centralized biological bank in the coordinating unit with 6300 aliquots of serum. The constitution of the website and biobank database enabled optimal coordination of the RUs involved, highlighting the importance of sharing samples and scientific data in a multicenter setting for the achievement of the project goals.

  1. Crystallized nano-sized alpha-tricalcium phosphate from amorphous calcium phosphate: microstructure, cementation and cell response.

    PubMed

    Vecbiskena, Linda; Gross, Karlis Agris; Riekstina, Una; Yang, Thomas Chung-Kuang

    2015-04-17

    New insight on the conversion of amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) to nano-sized alpha tricalcium phosphate (α-TCP) provides a faster pathway to calcium phosphate bone cements. In this work, synthesized ACP powders were treated with either water or ethanol, dried, crystallized between 700 and 800 °C, and then cooled at different cooling rates. Particle size was measured in a scanning electron microscope, but crystallite size calculated by Rietveld analysis. Phase composition and bonding in the crystallized powder was assessed by x-ray diffraction and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. Results showed that 50 nm sized α-TCP formed after crystallization of lyophilized powders. Water treated ACP retained an unstable state that may allow ordering to nanoapatite, and further transition to β-TCP after crystallization and subsequent decomposition. Powders treated with ethanol, favoured the formation of pure α-TCP. Faster cooling limited the growth of β-TCP. Both the initial contact with water and the cooling rate after crystallization dictated β-TCP formation. Nano-sized α-TCP reacted faster with water to an apatite bone cement than conventionally prepared α-TCP. Water treated and freeze-dried powders showed faster apatite cement formation compared to ethanol treated powders. Good biocompatibility was found in pure α-TCP nanoparticles made from ethanol treatment and with a larger crystallite size. This is the first report of pure α-TCP nanoparticles with a reactivity that has not required additional milling to cause cementation.

  2. Noncatalytic hydrogenation of naphthalene in nanosized membrane reactors with accumulated hydrogen and controlled adjustment of their reaction zone volumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soldatov, A. P.

    2017-05-01

    As part of ongoing studies aimed at designing the next generation of nanosized membrane reactors (NMRs) with accumulated hydrogen, the noncatalytic hydrogenation of naphthalene in pores of ceramic membranes (TRUMEM ultrafiltration membranes with D av = 50 and 90 nm) is performed for the first time, using hydrogen preadsorbed in a hybrid carbon nanostructure: mono- and multilayered oriented carbon nanotubes with graphene walls (OCNTGs) that form on inner pore surfaces. In this technique, the reaction proceeds in the temperature range of 330-390°C at contact times of 10-16 h. The feedstock is an 8% naphthalene solution in decane. The products are analyzed via chromatography on a quartz capillary column coated with polydimethylsiloxane (SE-30). It is established for the first time that in NMRs, the noncatalytic hydrogenation of naphthalene occurs at 370-390°C, forming 1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalene in amounts of up to 0.61%. The rate constants and activation energy (123.5 kJ/mol) of the noncatalytic hydrogenation reaction are determined for the first time. The possibility of designing an NMR with an adjustable reaction zone volume is explored. Changes in the pore structure of the membranes after their modification with pyrocarbon nanosized crystallites (PNCs) are therefore studied as well. It is shown that lengthening the process time reduces pore size: within 23 h after the deposition of PNCs, the average pore radius ( r av) falls from 25 to 3.1 nm. The proposed approach would allow us to design nanoreactors of molecular size and conduct hydrogenation reactions within certain guidelines to synthesize new chemical compounds.

  3. Effect of heat treatment on the efficient adsorption of Cd2+ ions by nanosized SiO2, TiO2 and their composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waseem, M.; Muntha, S. T.; Nawaz, M.; Rehman, W.; Rehman, M. A.; Shah, K. H.

    2017-01-01

    In this study nanosized SiO2, TiO2 and their composite were synthesized via the oil in water (o/w) microemulsion method and their thermal treatment was performed at 378, 573, 973 and 1273 K. The physicochemical properties of the samples were studied by surface area measurements, scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction analysis. The Brunauer, Emmett and Teller surface area of all the adsorbents increases from 378 to 573 K, while it decreases upon further heat treatment. The average crystallite size decreases by heating the samples from 378 to 573 K while it increases when the adsorbents were thermally heat treated at 973 and 1273 K. The intensity of a few IR bands was reduced along with the disappearance of most of the bands at higher temperatures. The appearance of the beta-cristobalite phase in SiO2 and the rutile phase in TiO2 was confirmed from the diffraction data. The heat treated samples were subjected to preliminary adsorption of Cd2+ ions from aqueous solution at 293 K. Based on the preliminary adsorption experiments, SiO2, TiO2 and their composite heat treated at 573 K were selected for further adsorption studies. The Langmuir model was found to be fitted to the sorption data of TiO2 and the nanocomposite while the adsorption of Cd2+ ions by the SiO2 nanoparticles was explained well based on the Freundlich model. In the present study, the maximum Cd2+ adsorption capacity of SiO2, TiO2 and their composite was found to be 79.72, 98.55 and 107.17 mg g‑1, respectively. The q m and K f values obtained in the present study were found to be far better than those reported in the literature. The negative values of ΔG confirm the feasibility of an adsorption process at higher temperatures. The positive values of ΔH and ΔS represent the endothermic and physical nature of the adsorption process with the increased randomness of Cd2+ ions at the solid/solution interface.

  4. Flow-induced voltage generation by moving a nano-sized ionic liquids droplet over a graphene sheet: Molecular dynamics simulation.

    PubMed

    Shao, Qunfeng; Jia, Jingjing; Guan, Yongji; He, Xiaodong; Zhang, Xiaoping

    2016-03-28

    In this work, the phenomenon of the voltage generation is explored by using the molecular dynamics simulations, which is performed by driving a nano-sized droplet of room temperature ionic liquids moving along the monolayer graphene sheet for the first time. The studies show that the cations and anions of the droplet will move with velocity nonlinearly increasing to saturation arising by the force balance. The traditional equation for calculating the induced voltage is developed by taking the charge density into consideration, and larger induced voltages in μV-scale are obtained from the nano-size simulation systems based on the ionic liquids (ILs) for its enhanced ionic drifting velocities. It is also derived that the viscosity acts as a reduction for the induced voltage by comparing systems composed of two types of ILs with different viscosity and temperature.

  5. Catalytic damage of bovine serum albumin by metronidazole under ultrasonic irradiation in the presence of nano-sized TiO2 powder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J.; Wang, Z. G.; Jin, X. D.; Guo, Y. W.; Gao, J. Q.; Li, K.; Wang, B. X.; Li, Y.

    2012-05-01

    In previous work, it was found that the bovine serum albumin (BSA) could obviously be damaged by nano-sized TiO2 powder as a sonocatalyst under ultrasonic irradiation. In this work, metronidazole (MTZ) was adopted as a sensitizer to intensify the damage of BSA molecules. It was found that the damage degree of BSA molecules in the presence of MTZ was more serious than in the absence of MTZ. That is, under ultrasonic irradiation combined with nano-sized TiO2 powder, the addition of MTZ could remarkably aggravate the damage to BSA molecules. Meanwhile, the damage degree was also affected by some influence factors, such as ultrasonic irradiation time, ultrasonic irradiation power, MTZ concentration, solution acidity, ionic strength and solution temperature. In addition, the damage site of BSA molecules was also estimated by synchronous fluorescence spectra. It was found that the damage site of BSA molecules was mainly at tyrosine (Tyr) residue.

  6. Effect of a nano-sized TiC particle addition on the flow-assisted corrosion resistance of SA 106B carbon steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jin-Ju; Park, Eun-Kwang; Lee, Gyoung-Ja; Rhee, Chang-Kyu; Lee, Min-Ku

    2017-09-01

    Carbon steel with dispersed nano-sized TiC ceramic particles was fabricated by the ex-situ introduction of the particles into the melt, with the flow-assisted corrosion (FAC) resistance then investigated in the presence and absence of TiC nanoparticles using a once-through type of FAC loop test. From the potentiodynamic polarization curves, the current density at any given anodic potential was decreased and the open-circuit potential was increased by the addition of TiC nanoparticles. In addition, when the nano-sized TiC particles were added, the FAC rate was 1.38 times lower than that of carbon steel without TiC nanoparticles, indicating an improvement of the FAC resistance due to the homogeneous distribution of the TiC reinforcing nanoparticles.

  7. Nanosized Spinel Li4Ti5O12 Anode Material Prepared by Gel-polymer Method using Furfuryl Alcohol as Polymerizable Solvent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Chu-xiong; Bai, Yao-cai; Wei, Cong; Chen, Chun-hua

    2012-08-01

    Nanosized Li4Ti5O12 powders are synthesized by a polymerization-based method using titanium butoxide and lithium nitrate as precursors and furfuryl alcohol as a polymerizable solvent. The prepared samples are characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and Braunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) analysis. The electrochemical performances of these Li4Ti5O12 powders are also studied. The effect of different surfactants including citric acid, polyvinylpyrrolidone, and cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide on the structure and properties is also investigated. It is found that pure spinel phase of Li4Ti5O12 is obtained at an annealing temperature of 700 °C or higher. The use of surfactants can improve the powder morphology of nanosized particles with less agglomeration. With suitable annealing temperature and the addition of surfactant, Li4Ti5O12 powders with high BET surface area and favorable electrochemical performance can be obtained.

  8. Low-temperature synthesis and growth of superparamagnetic Zn 0.5Ni 0.5Fe 2O 4 nanosized particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xia; Wang, Guisu

    2009-05-01

    Mono-disperse spinel Ni 0.5Zn 0.5Fe 2O 4 nanosized particles have been synthesized via a hydrothermal method at low temperature. X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM) analysis indicated that the synthesized nanocrystals were of pure cubic spinel structure with the size about 6-20 nm. The activation energy of grain growth is 35.06 kJ/mol experimented by the Arrhenius equation. A primary experimental model was put forward to shed light on the growth mechanism of crystallined spinel Ni-Zn ferrite nanosized particles under hydrothermal conditions. The magnetic measurements shows that the prepared Ni 0.5Zn 0.5Fe 2O 4 nanoparticle possess good superparamagnetic behavior.

  9. Flow-induced voltage generation by moving a nano-sized ionic liquids droplet over a graphene sheet: Molecular dynamics simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Qunfeng; Jia, Jingjing; Guan, Yongji; He, Xiaodong; Zhang, Xiaoping

    2016-03-01

    In this work, the phenomenon of the voltage generation is explored by using the molecular dynamics simulations, which is performed by driving a nano-sized droplet of room temperature ionic liquids moving along the monolayer graphene sheet for the first time. The studies show that the cations and anions of the droplet will move with velocity nonlinearly increasing to saturation arising by the force balance. The traditional equation for calculating the induced voltage is developed by taking the charge density into consideration, and larger induced voltages in μV-scale are obtained from the nano-size simulation systems based on the ionic liquids (ILs) for its enhanced ionic drifting velocities. It is also derived that the viscosity acts as a reduction for the induced voltage by comparing systems composed of two types of ILs with different viscosity and temperature.

  10. The normal state properties of nano-sized CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} added Bi-based superconductors in bipolaron model

    SciTech Connect

    Ben Salem, M. K.; Slimani, Y.; Hannachi, E.; Hamrita, A.; Ben Azzouz, F.; Ben Salem, M.

    2013-12-16

    The effect of nano-sized CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} particles (10 nm in diameter) addition on the structure and the normal state transport properties of polycrystalline Bi-based superconductors were systematically studied. The additional amount, x wt.%, of CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} in this case varied from 0.0 to 1 wt.% of the total mass of the sample. Phase analysis by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Electrical resistance as a function of temperature, ρ(T) were carried out. Nano-sized particles addition modifies the electrical behavior of the normal state with increasing the CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} concentration. The bipolaron model can explain properly the normal state resistivity of the samples.

  11. Origin of high oxygen reduction reaction activity of Pt12 and strategy to obtain better catalyst using sub-nanosized Pt-alloy clusters

    PubMed Central

    Miyazaki, Kasumi; Mori, Hirotoshi

    2017-01-01

    In the present study, methods to enhance the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) activity of sub-nanosized Pt clusters were investigated in a theoretical manner. Using ab initio molecular dynamics and Monte Carlo simulations based on density functional theory, we have succeeded in determining the origin of the superior ORR activity of Pt12 compared to that of Pt13. That is, it was clarified that the electronic structure of Pt12 fluctuates to a greater extent compared to that of Pt13, which leads to stronger resistance against catalyst poisoning by O/OH. Based on this conclusion, a set of sub-nanosized Pt-alloy clusters was also explored to find catalysts with better ORR activities and lower financial costs. It was suggested that Ga4Pt8, Ge4Pt8, and Sn4Pt8 would be good candidates for ORR catalysts. PMID:28349985

  12. Origin of high oxygen reduction reaction activity of Pt12 and strategy to obtain better catalyst using sub-nanosized Pt-alloy clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyazaki, Kasumi; Mori, Hirotoshi

    2017-03-01

    In the present study, methods to enhance the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) activity of sub-nanosized Pt clusters were investigated in a theoretical manner. Using ab initio molecular dynamics and Monte Carlo simulations based on density functional theory, we have succeeded in determining the origin of the superior ORR activity of Pt12 compared to that of Pt13. That is, it was clarified that the electronic structure of Pt12 fluctuates to a greater extent compared to that of Pt13, which leads to stronger resistance against catalyst poisoning by O/OH. Based on this conclusion, a set of sub-nanosized Pt-alloy clusters was also explored to find catalysts with better ORR activities and lower financial costs. It was suggested that Ga4Pt8, Ge4Pt8, and Sn4Pt8 would be good candidates for ORR catalysts.

  13. Dependence of optical properties of composite materials with nanosize oxide coatings on the properties of film-forming sols: II. Effect of the sol component concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shemanin, V. G.; Atkarskaya, A. B.

    2015-07-01

    We consider the effect of the component structure of a sol on optical characteristics (microscopic structure, refractive index and thickness of coating, reflectance, transmittance, and optical loss in composites of the type of a glass substrate + a nanosize oxide coating of the CuO-TiO2 system) of composite materials with nanosize coatings, which are obtained in accordance with the sol-gel technology. It is shown that the chemical composition of precursors considerably affects the maturing of alcosols, the structure of coatings, and optical characteristics of composites. It is proposed that the dispersed phase represented by nanotubes facilitates a closer packing of particles into a layer as compared to the pseudospherical phase.

  14. Ground-based simulation of the Earth's upper atmosphere oxygen impact on polymer composites with nanosized fillers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novikov, Lev; Chernik, Vladimir; Voronina, Ekaterina; Chechenin, Nikolay; Samokhina, Maria S.; Bondarenko, Gennady G.; Gaidar, Anna I.; Vorobyeva, Ekaterina A.; Petrov, Dmitrii V.; Chirskaya, Natalia P.

    The improvement of durability of polymer composites to the space environment impact is a very important task because these materials are considered currently as very promising type of materials for aerospace engineering. By embedding various nanosized fillers into a polymer matrix it is possible to obtain composites with required mechanical, thermal, electrical and optic properties. However, while developing such materials for operation in low Earth orbits (LEO), it is necessary to study thoroughly their durability to the impact of atomic oxygen (AO) of the Earth’s upper atmosphere, because AO is the main factor that causes erosion and damage of spacecraft surface materials in LEO. Ground-based simulation of AO impact on polymer composites was performed on a magnetoplasmadynamic accelerator developed at Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, Lomonosov Moscow State University. Polymer composite samples which were prepared as films of 30-50 mum thickness with different amount (3-20 wt%) of various inorganic and organic nanofillers including nanoparticles of metal oxides and carbides as well as polyethoxysiloxanes and carbon nanotubes (CNTs), were exposed to hyperthermal AO flow, and mass losses of samples were estimated. Changes in the structure of composite surface and in material optical properties were studied. The experiments demonstrated that embedding nanosized fillers into a polymer matrix can significantly reduced mass losses, and the good dispersion of fillers improves AO durability in comparison with initial polymers [1]. The computer simulation within the developed 2D Monte-Carlo model demonstrated a good agreement with the experimental data [2]. Special attention was given to the study of AO impact on aligned multiwalled CNTs and CNT-based composites [3]. Some results of computer simulation of hyperthermal oxygen atom interaction with CNT and graphene as well as with polymers are presented to discuss elementary processes which occur in nanostructures

  15. Effects of nanosized zinc oxide and γ-polyglutamic acid on eggshell quality and serum parameters of aged laying hens.

    PubMed

    Mao, Syuan-Yian; Lien, Tu-Fa

    2017-10-01

    In order to increase zinc (Zn) absorption and improve eggshell quality, diets for aged laying hens were supplemented with different Zn sources and the effects on egg production, eggshell quality and serum parameters were recorded. Seventy-five 64-week old brown layers were individually caged and randomly allotted to five treatment groups: an un-supplemented Control and four groups, where the following Zn sources were added to the diets, ZnO (group ZnO), Zn-methionine (group Zn-Met), nanosized ZnO (group nanoZnO) and γ-PGA-nano ZnO (group γ-PGA-nanoZnO). The Zn level was maintained at 80 mg/kg in the supplemented diet, while the Control group received Zn at 40 mg/kg diet. The results indicated that the average daily feed intake was highest in group nanoZnO (p < 0.05), whereas further performance parameters were not influenced by treatments. Eggshell thickness was increased in group γ-PGA-nanoZnO (p < 0.05). Zn content in eggshells and Zn concentration in serum were increased in groups Zn-Met, nanoZnO and γ-PGA-nanoZnO (p < 0.05). Serum ghrelin concentration was significantly elevated in all Zn-supplemented groups, but further increased in groups nanoZnO and γ-PGA-nanoZnO (p < 0.05). Carbonic anhydrase activity was highest in group γ-PGA-nanoZnO and lowest in group Zn-Met (p < 0.05). Compared to the Control and group ZnO, supplementation of γ-PGA-nanoZnO and nanoZnO increased serum IgG levels (p < 0.001). In conclusion, dietary supplementation of nanoZnO and γ-PGA-nanoZnO increased Zn content in eggshells, serum Zn concentration, ghrelin and IgG levels of aged layers when compared to regular ZnO. Compared to Zn-Met, the serum carbonic anhydrase activity and ghrelin levels were also increased. Thus, nanosized ZnO alone or mixed with γ-PGA has positive effects on the Zn status of aged layers.

  16. High-yield nanosized (Si)AlPO-41 using ethanol polarity equalization and co-templating synthesis approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majano, Gerardo; Raltchev, Kolio; Vicente, Aurelie; Mintova, Svetlana

    2015-03-01

    Control of the crystallite dimensions of the microporous aluminophosphate AlPO-41 (AFO-type framework structure), and the Si-containing analogue SAPO-41, was attained down to the nanometer scale under stable hydrothermal conditions. The combined application of a tetraalkylammonium co-template (tetrapentylammonium hydroxide) along with an amine structure directing agent (n-dipropylamine) stabilized through the use of ethanol in the initial suspension enables a crystallization medium, which remains homogeneous throughout the entire synthesis. As a direct consequence of the optimized homogeneity of the suspension, the AFO-type microporous nanocrystals (AlPO-41 and SAPO-41) with a size in the range of 30-500 nm with yields surpassing 50% are obtained. The feasibility to obtain nanosized AlPO-41 and SAPO-41 crystals using ethanol as a polarity equalizing agent, resulting in a scalable hydrothermal synthesis from non-colloidal starting mixtures without the use of other assisting methods, is presented.Control of the crystallite dimensions of the microporous aluminophosphate AlPO-41 (AFO-type framework structure), and the Si-containing analogue SAPO-41, was attained down to the nanometer scale under stable hydrothermal conditions. The combined application of a tetraalkylammonium co-template (tetrapentylammonium hydroxide) along with an amine structure directing agent (n-dipropylamine) stabilized through the use of ethanol in the initial suspension enables a crystallization medium, which remains homogeneous throughout the entire synthesis. As a direct consequence of the optimized homogeneity of the suspension, the AFO-type microporous nanocrystals (AlPO-41 and SAPO-41) with a size in the range of 30-500 nm with yields surpassing 50% are obtained. The feasibility to obtain nanosized AlPO-41 and SAPO-41 crystals using ethanol as a polarity equalizing agent, resulting in a scalable hydrothermal synthesis from non-colloidal starting mixtures without the use of other assisting

  17. The Effects of Natural Clinoptilolite and Nano-Sized Clinoptilolite Supplementation on Glucose Levels and Oxidative Stress in Rats with Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Hossein Nia, Behnoosh; Khorram, Sirous; Rezazadeh, Hassan; Safaiyan, Abdolrasol; Tarighat-Esfanjani, Ali

    2017-05-12

    Oxidative stress has a major role in development of diabetic complications. In this study we investigated whether clinoptilolite and nano-sized clinoptilolite could reduce hyperglycemia and oxidative stress in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats and attempted to determine which intervention was more effective. Thirty-six rats were randomly allocated to 2 groups; 1 group was randomly chosen as a diabetic group and injected with streptozotocin (60 mg/kg body weight in 0.1 mol/L sodium citrate buffer, pH 4.5) to induce diabetes. Three days after diabetes induction, each group (diabetic group and nondiabetic group) was randomly divided into 3 subgroups of 6 animals each ([1] control, [2] 1% clinoptilolite/food, [3] 1% nano-sized clinoptilolite/food). Supplementation was continued for 28 days. Blood glucose was measured 3 times, at the beginning of the study and on the 14th and 28th days. Activity of antioxidant enzymes, including glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase, and levels of total antioxidant capacity, as well as malondialdehyde, were evaluated. Blood glucose and malondialdehyde were significantly elevated, but there were no statistically significant changes in superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase or total antioxidant capacity in diabetic rats. In diabetic rats treated with nano-sized clinoptilolite, blood glucose decreased to near normal levels (12.4 vs. 27.5 mmol/L). No significant changes were found in the other groups. None of the oxidative stress indices showed significant changes in either the treated or untreated rats. Nano-sized clinoptilolite exerted a hypoglycemic effect in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats but had no significant influence on oxidative stress markers. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. First self-assembly study of betulinic acid, a renewable nano-sized, 6-6-6-6-5 pentacyclic monohydroxy triterpenic acid.

    PubMed

    Bag, Braja Gopal; Dash, Shib Shankar

    2011-11-01

    Self-assembly of betulinic acid, a renewable nano-sized 6-6-6-6-5 pentacyclic triterpenic acid studied in twenty two organic liquids and alcohol-water mixtures showed that it self-assembled in all the liquids studied affording strong gels in nineteen organic liquids and also in alcohol-water mixtures. Optical and electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy studies revealed fibrillar networks having fibers of nano- to micro-metre cross sections and micrometre lengths.

  19. Nano-Se attenuates cyclophosphamide-induced pulmonary injury through modulation of oxidative stress and DNA damage in Swiss albino mice.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharjee, Arin; Basu, Abhishek; Biswas, Jaydip; Bhattacharya, Sudin

    2015-07-01

    Chemotherapy is an integral part of modern day treatment regimen but anticancer drugs fail to demarcate between cancerous and normal cells thereby causing severe form of systemic toxicity. Among which pulmonary toxicity is a dreadful complication developed in cancer patients upon cyclophosphamide (CP) therapy. Oxidative stress, fibrosis, and apoptosis are the major patho-mechanisms involved in CP-induced pulmonary toxicity. In the present study, we have synthesized Nano-Se, nanotechnology-based new form of elemental selenium which has significantly lower toxicity and acceptable bioavailability. In order to meet the need of effective drugs against CP-induced adverse effects, nano selenium (Nano-Se) was tested for its possible protective efficacy on CP-induced pulmonary toxicity and bone marrow toxicity. CP intoxication resulted in structural and functional lung impairment which was revealed by massive histopathological changes. Lung injury was associated with oxidative stress/lipid peroxidation as evident by increased in reactive oxygen species, nitric oxide level, and malondialdehyde (MDA) formation with decreased in level of antioxidants such as reduced glutathione, glutathione-S-transferase, glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, and catalase. Furthermore, CP at a dose of 25 mg/kg b.w. increased pulmonary DNA damage ('comet tail') and triggered DNA fragmentation and apoptosis in mouse bone marrow cells. On the other hand, Nano-Se at a dose of 2 mg Se/kg b.w., significantly inhibited CP-induced DNA damage in bronchoalveolar lavage cells, and decreased the apoptosis and percentage of DNA fragmentation in bone marrow cells and also antagonized the reduction of the activities of antioxidant enzymes and the increase level of MDA. Thus, our results suggest that Nano-Se in pre- and co-administration may serve as a promising preventive strategy against CP-induced pulmonary toxicity.

  20. Degradation of surfactant wastewater under microwave irradiation in the presence of activated carbon assisted with nano-sized TiO2 or nano-sized ZnO.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Z; Xu, D; Shen, M; Wu, D; Chen, Z; Ji, X; Li, F; Xu, Y

    2011-01-01

    An improved method treating surfactant wastewater by the addition of semiconductor material such as nano-sized TiO2 or ZnO to activated carbon (AC) with microwave (MW) irradiation was proposed so as to assist efficient degradation of organic pollutants. A series of degradation experiments of sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate (SDBS) were carried out under MW irradiation in the presence of AC/TiO2 or AC/ZnO. The influences of catalyst dose, irradiation time, initial SDBS concentration and solution acidity on the degradation were assessed in detail. The results showed that the addition of TiO2 or ZnO obviously promoted the degradation and AC/TiO2 system displayed higher catalytic activity under MW irradiation. Thus the method of MW irradiation with AC/TiO2 or AC/ZnO revealed many advantages of rapid degradation rate, short irradiation time, low cost, no residual intermediates and no secondary pollution in applications.

  1. Exposure to nano-size titanium dioxide causes oxidative damages in human mesothelial cells: The crystal form rather than size of particle contributes to cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Hattori, Kenji; Nakadate, Kazuhiko; Morii, Akane; Noguchi, Takumi; Ogasawara, Yuki; Ishii, Kazuyuki

    2017-10-14

    Exposure to nanoparticles such as carbon nanotubes has been shown to cause pleural mesothelioma similar to that caused by asbestos, and has become an environmental health issue. Not only is the percutaneous absorption of nano-size titanium dioxide particles frequently considered problematic, but the possibility of absorption into the body through the pulmonary route is also a concern. Nevertheless, there are few reports of nano-size titanium dioxide particles on respiratory organ exposure and dynamics or on the mechanism of toxicity. In this study, we focused on the morphology as well as the size of titanium dioxide particles. In comparing the effects between nano-size anatase and rutile titanium dioxide on human-derived pleural mesothelial cells, the anatase form was shown to be actively absorbed into cells, producing reactive oxygen species and causing oxidative damage to DNA. In contrast, we showed for the first time that the rutile form is not easily absorbed by cells and, therefore, does not cause oxidative DNA damage and is significantly less damaging to cells. These results suggest that with respect to the toxicity of titanium dioxide particles on human-derived mesothelial cells, the crystal form rather than the particle size has a greater effect on cellular absorption. Also, it was indicated that the difference in absorption is the primary cause of the difference in the toxicity against mesothelial cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Support for the initial attachment, growth and differentiation of MG-63 cells: a comparison between nano-size hydroxyapatite and micro-size hydroxyapatite in composites

    PubMed Central

    Filová, Elena; Suchý, Tomáš; Sucharda, Zbyněk; Šupová, Monika; Žaloudková, Margit; Balík, Karel; Lisá, Věra; Šlouf, Miroslav; Bačáková, Lucie

    2014-01-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) is considered to be a bioactive material that favorably influences the adhesion, growth, and osteogenic differentiation of osteoblasts. To optimize the cell response on the hydroxyapatite composite, it is desirable to assess the optimum concentration and also the optimum particle size. The aim of our study was to prepare composite materials made of polydimethylsiloxane, polyamide, and nano-sized (N) or micro-sized (M) HA, with an HA content of 0%, 2%, 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25% (v/v) (referred to as N0–N25 or M0–M25), and to evaluate them in vitro in cultures with human osteoblast-like MG-63 cells. For clinical applications, fast osseointegration of the implant into the bone is essential. We observed the greatest initial cell adhesion on composites M10 and N5. Nano-sized HA supported cell growth, especially during the first 3 days of culture. On composites with micro-size HA (2%–15%), MG-63 cells reached the highest densities on day 7. Samples M20 and M25, however, were toxic for MG-63 cells, although these composites supported the production of osteocalcin in these cells. On N2, a higher concentration of osteopontin was found in MG-63 cells. For biomedical applications, the concentration range of 5%–15% (v/v) nano-size or micro-size HA seems to be optimum. PMID:25125978

  3. Differential effects of sodium selenite and nano-Se on growth performance, tissue se distribution, and glutathione peroxidase activity of avian broiler.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanbo

    2009-05-01

    The present research evaluated differential effects of sodium selenite and nano-Se on growth performance, tissue Se distribution, and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity of avian broiler. Broilers were randomly segregated into 12 groups so that three replicates were available for each of the three treatments (T-1, T-2, and T-3) and control groups. The control groups were fed basal diets without Se addition. T-1, T-2, and T-3 were fed with diets containing 0.2 mg kg(-1) sodium selenite, 0.2 mg kg(-1) nano-Se, and 0.5 mg kg(-1) nano-Se, respectively. Compared with the control, Se supplementation remarkably improved daily weight gain and survival rate and decreased feed conversion ratio (P < 0.05). However, no significant difference was observed between T-1, T-2, and T-3. The tissue Se content was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in Se-supplemented groups than the control, and T-3 showed the highest. Furthermore, higher Se content was observed in liver, and there was a significant difference (P < 0.05) compared with that in muscle. As for serum and hepatic GSH-Px activities, Se supplementation remarkably improved GSH-Px activity (P < 0.05), and there was no significant difference (P > 0.05) between treatments (T-1, T-2, and T-3).

  4. Support for the initial attachment, growth and differentiation of MG-63 cells: a comparison between nano-size hydroxyapatite and micro-size hydroxyapatite in composites.

    PubMed

    Filová, Elena; Suchý, Tomáš; Sucharda, Zbyněk; Supová, Monika; Zaloudková, Margit; Balík, Karel; Lisá, Věra; Slouf, Miroslav; Bačáková, Lucie

    2014-01-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) is considered to be a bioactive material that favorably influences the adhesion, growth, and osteogenic differentiation of osteoblasts. To optimize the cell response on the hydroxyapatite composite, it is desirable to assess the optimum concentration and also the optimum particle size. The aim of our study was to prepare composite materials made of polydimethylsiloxane, polyamide, and nano-sized (N) or micro-sized (M) HA, with an HA content of 0%, 2%, 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25% (v/v) (referred to as N0-N25 or M0-M25), and to evaluate them in vitro in cultures with human osteoblast-like MG-63 cells. For clinical applications, fast osseointegration of the implant into the bone is essential. We observed the greatest initial cell adhesion on composites M10 and N5. Nano-sized HA supported cell growth, especially during the first 3 days of culture. On composites with micro-size HA (2%-15%), MG-63 cells reached the highest densities on day 7. Samples M20 and M25, however, were toxic for MG-63 cells, although these composites supported the production of osteocalcin in these cells. On N2, a higher concentration of osteopontin was found in MG-63 cells. For biomedical applications, the concentration range of 5%-15% (v/v) nano-size or micro-size HA seems to be optimum.

  5. Facile synthesis of nano-sized agarose based amino acid-Its pH-dependent protein-like behavior and interactions with bovine serum albumin.

    PubMed

    Chudasama, Nishith A; Siddhanta, A K

    2015-11-19

    In a facile synthesis agarose was amphoterically functionalized to afford nano-sized agarose amino acids, aminoagarose succinate half-esters (AAE) containing one pendant carboxyl group. Nano-sized AAEs (<10 nm; DLS) were characterized and they had three various degrees of substitution [overall DSs 0.88, 0.89 and 0.96], both the amino and half-ester groups were placed on C-6 positions of the 1,3 beta-d-galactopyranose moieties of agarose backbone ((13)C NMR). AAEs performed like large protein molecules exhibiting pH-responsive structural variations (optical rotatory dispersion), presenting a mixed solubility pattern like random coil (soluble) and aggregate (precipitation) formations. Circular dichroism studies showed their pH-dependent associative interactions with bovine serum albumin, which indicated complexation at acidic and basic pHs, and decomplexation at pH 6.8 with AAE (DS 0.96). Thus, these nano-sized AAE based systems may be of potential utility in the domains demanding the merits of preferential protein bindings e.g. pH-responsive cationic/anionic drug carrier, separations or chiral sensing applications.

  6. Synthesis of nano-sized stereoselective imprinted polymer by copolymerization of (S)-2-(acrylamido) propanoic acid and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate in the presence of racemic propranolol and copper ion.

    PubMed

    Alizadeh, Taher; Bagherzadeh, Azam; Shamkhali, Amir Nasser

    2016-06-01

    A new chiral functional monomer of (S)-2-(acrylamido) propanoic acid was obtained by reaction of (l)-alanine with acryloyl chloride. The resulting monomer was characterized by FT-IR and HNMR and then utilized for the preparation of chiral imprinted polymer (CIP). This was carried out by copolymerization of (l)-alanine-derived chiral monomer and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate, in the presence of racemic propranolol and copper nitrate, via precipitation polymerization technique, resulting in nano-sized networked polymer particles. The polymer obtained was characterized by scanning electron microscopy and FT-IR. The non-imprinted polymer was also synthesized and used as blank polymer. Density functional theory (DFT) was also employed to optimize the structures of two diasterometric ternary complexes, suspected to be created in the pre-polymerization step, by reaction of optically active isomers of propranolol, copper ion and (S)-2-(acrylamido) propanoic acid. Relative energies and other characteristics of the described complexes, calculated by the DFT, predicted the higher stability of (S)-propranolol involved complex, compared to (R)-propranolol participated complex. Practical batch extraction test which employed CIP as solid phase adsorbent, indicated that the CIP recognized selectively (S)-propranolol in the racemic mixture of propranolol; whereas, the non-imprinted polymer (NIP) showed no differentiation capability between two optically active isomers of propranolol.

  7. Magnetic, specific heat and electrical transport properties of oxygen-deficient nanosized rutile TiO2‑δ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tran, Vinh Hung; Thi Quynh Hoa, Nguyen

    2017-03-01

    An oxygen-deficient nanosized {{TiO}}2-δ , δ ∼ 0.7 sample was synthesized by a solvothermal method, and was characterized to have both ∼3 nm amorphous solid and ∼36–46 nm diameter rutile nanowires. Physical properties of the sample were investigated by measuring magnetic, specific heat, electrical resistance and magnetoresitance properties. DC magnetization M(H) data confirm ferromagnetic behavior previously reported for undoped TiO2. Furthermore, M(T) dependence follows the power-law relation M{(T)\\propto (1-T/{T}C)}β in the near-critical regime, yielding Curie temperature {T}C ∼ 415 K and critical exponent β = 0.2. Moreover, our results of AC magnetic susceptibility measurements suggest an additional phase transition at {T}* ∼ 310 K, presumably due to spin orientation. The metallic-like electrical resistance exhibits a distinct drop below {T}* with a strong thermal hysteresis in the temperature range 225–275 K. Specific heat in the temperature range 20–300 K is well described by the sum of contributions from acoustic phonons with Debye temperature 605 K and optical phonons with Einstein temperature 113 K. Below 10 K the specific heat divulges a large excess, which can be interpreted as an additional contribution originating from soft potentials.

  8. Reactivity of nano-size zinc powder in the aqueous solution of [Fe(III)(edta)(H2O)]().

    PubMed

    Augustyniak, Adam W; Suchecki, Tomasz T; Kumazawa, Hidehiro

    2017-01-01

    Nitrogen mono-oxide and sulfur dioxide can be removed by simultaneous absorption into aqueous mixed solutions of sulfite and [Fe(II)(edta)]H2O)](2-), ferrous ion coordinated to an anion of ethylene-diaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA or edta). In the industrial system with coexisting oxygen in the gas phase, [Fe(II)(edta)](H2O)](2-) complex is oxidized to [Fe(III)(edta)](H2O)](-) by molecular oxygen. Because the ferric complex has no capability for reaction with NO, the suppression of this undesired oxidation process is a very important technological problem to be overcome. In our preceding work, we discussed the reduction kinetics of ferric ion by metal powder on the basis of the kinetic data regarding the ferric ion reduction in aqueous solutions of [Fe(III)(edta)](H2O)](-) containing aluminum, tin or zinc powders. Zinc powder of normal size was recognized as an effective reducing agent. In the present work, augmentation of reducing capability of zinc powder was examined more. The rate of reduction of nano-size zinc powder was found to be about 11 times higher than that of normal-size zinc one.

  9. Genotoxicity evaluation of nanosized titanium dioxide, synthetic amorphous silica and multi-walled carbon nanotubes in human lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Tavares, Ana M; Louro, Henriqueta; Antunes, Susana; Quarré, Stephanie; Simar, Sophie; De Temmerman, Pieter-Jan; Verleysen, Eveline; Mast, Jan; Jensen, Keld A; Norppa, Hannu; Nesslany, Fabrice; Silva, Maria João

    2014-02-01

    Toxicological characterization of manufactured nanomaterials (NMs) is essential for safety assessment, while keeping pace with innovation from their development and application in consumer products. The specific physicochemical properties of NMs, including size and morphology, might influence their toxicity and have impact on human health. The present work aimed to evaluate the genotoxicity of nanosized titanium dioxide (TiO2), synthetic amorphous silica (SAS) and multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), in human lymphocytes. The morphology and size of those NMs were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, while the hydrodynamic particle size-distributions were determined by dynamic light scattering. Using a standardized procedure to ensure the dispersion of the NMs and the cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay (without metabolic activation), we observed significant increases in the frequencies of micronucleated binucleated cells (MNBCs) for some TiO2 NMs and for two MWCNTs, although no clear dose-response relationships could be disclosed. In contrast, all forms of SAS analyzed in this study were unable to induce micronuclei. The present findings increase the weight of evidence towards a genotoxic effect of some forms of TiO2 and some MWCNTs. Regarding safety assessment, the differential genotoxicity observed for closely related NMs highlights the importance of investigating the toxic potential of each NM individually, instead of assuming a common mechanism and equal genotoxic effects for a set of similar NMs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Comparison of Infectious Agents Susceptibility to Photocatalytic Effects of Nanosized Titanium and Zinc Oxides: A Practical Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogdan, Janusz; Zarzyńska, Joanna; Pławińska-Czarnak, Joanna

    2015-08-01

    Nanotechnology contributes towards a more effective eradication of pathogens that have emerged in hospitals, veterinary clinics, and food processing plants and that are resistant to traditional drugs or disinfectants. Since new methods of pathogens eradication must be invented and implemented, nanotechnology seems to have become the response to that acute need. A remarkable achievement in this field of science was the creation of self-disinfecting surfaces that base on advanced oxidation processes (AOPs). Thus, the phenomenon of photocatalysis was practically applied. Among the AOPs that have been most studied in respect of their ability to eradicate viruses, prions, bacteria, yeasts, and molds, there are the processes of TiO2/UV and ZnO/UV. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) and zinc oxide (ZnO) act as photocatalysts, after they have been powdered to nanoparticles. Ultraviolet (UV) radiation is an agent that determines their excitation. Methods using photocatalytic properties of nanosized TiO2 and ZnO prove to be highly efficient in inactivation of infectious agents. Therefore, they are being applied on a growing scale. AOP-based disinfection is regarded as a very promising tool that might help overcome problems in food hygiene and public health protection. The susceptibility of infectious agents to photocatalylic processes can be generally arranged in the following order: viruses > prions > Gram-negative bacteria > Gram-positive bacteria > yeasts > molds.

  11. Nano-sized precipitate stability and its controlling factors in a NiAl-strengthened ferritic alloy

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Zhiqian; Song, Gian; Ilavsky, Jan; Ghosh, Gautam; Liaw, Peter K.

    2015-01-01

    Coherent B2-ordered NiAl-type precipitates have been used to reinforce solid-solution body-centered-cubic iron for high-temperature application in fossil-energy power plants. In this study, we investigate the stability of nano-sized precipitates in a NiAl-strengthened ferritic alloy at 700–950 °C using ultra-small angle X-ray scattering and electron microscopies. Here we show that the coarsening kinetics of NiAl-type precipitates is in excellent agreement with the ripening model in multicomponent alloys. We further demonstrate that the interfacial energy between the matrix and NiAl-type precipitates is strongly dependent on differences in the matrix/precipitate compositions. Our results profile the ripening process in multicomponent alloys by illustrating controlling factors of interfacial energy, diffusivities, and element partitioning. The study provides guidelines to design and develop high-temperature alloys with stable microstructures for long-term service. PMID:26537060

  12. Comparison of Infectious Agents Susceptibility to Photocatalytic Effects of Nanosized Titanium and Zinc Oxides: A Practical Approach.

    PubMed

    Bogdan, Janusz; Zarzyńska, Joanna; Pławińska-Czarnak, Joanna

    2015-12-01

    Nanotechnology contributes towards a more effective eradication of pathogens that have emerged in hospitals, veterinary clinics, and food processing plants and that are resistant to traditional drugs or disinfectants. Since new methods of pathogens eradication must be invented and implemented, nanotechnology seems to have become the response to that acute need. A remarkable achievement in this field of science was the creation of self-disinfecting surfaces that base on advanced oxidation processes (AOPs). Thus, the phenomenon of photocatalysis was practically applied. Among the AOPs that have been most studied in respect of their ability to eradicate viruses, prions, bacteria, yeasts, and molds, there are the processes of TiO2/UV and ZnO/UV. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) and zinc oxide (ZnO) act as photocatalysts, after they have been powdered to nanoparticles. Ultraviolet (UV) radiation is an agent that determines their excitation. Methods using photocatalytic properties of nanosized TiO2 and ZnO prove to be highly efficient in inactivation of infectious agents. Therefore, they are being applied on a growing scale. AOP-based disinfection is regarded as a very promising tool that might help overcome problems in food hygiene and public health protection. The susceptibility of infectious agents to photocatalylic processes can be generally arranged in the following order: viruses > prions > Gram-negative bacteria > Gram-positive bacteria > yeasts > molds.

  13. Optical study of a polymeric LED with a nano-sized electrode realized by a modified SNOM setup

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Micheletto, Ruggero; Yoshimatsu, Nobuki; Yokokawa, Masatoshi; An, Taekyung; Lee, Haiwon; Okazaki, Satoshi

    2001-09-01

    Semiconductive polythiophene derivate polymers show electroluminescence (EL) properties if excited under opportune conditions and can be used as active element in novel efficient light-emitting diodes (LEDs) or in photovoltaic applications as detectors or solar cells. These intriguing and innovative materials are so far studied in bulk condition, under the excitation of two macroscopic electrodes, averaging the optical phenomena over a large region. To realize a better understanding of the spatial distribution of the EL on the films and its optical properties, we modified a scanning near-field optical microscope (SNOM) setup in order to measure the EL signal of poly-3-(2-(5-chlorobenzotriazolo)ethyl)thiophene. The film were deposited over a macroscopic electrode substrate (a transparent indium tin oxide (ITO) treated glass), while a sharp aluminum coated glass probe worked as a nano-sized Al electrode, realizing an Al/polymer/ITO light emitting device in a highly confined region. We describe in detail the methodology we used for the novel EL measurements and we will show the first resulting high-resolution EL emission mapping, as well as other spectroscopic and morphological characterization of the film used.

  14. Wear and Corrosion Behavior of Functionally Graded Nano-SiC/2014Al Composites Produced by Powder Metallurgy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhi-Guo; Li, Chuan-Peng; Wang, Hui-Yuan; Zhu, Jia-Ning; Wang, Cheng; Jiang, Qi-Chuan

    2016-12-01

    Functionally graded 2014Al/SiC composites (FGMs) with varying volume fractions (1-7%) of nano-SiC particulates (n-SiCp) were fabricated by powder metallurgy. The effect of n-SiCp content on corrosion and wear behaviors was studied. The microstructures of composites were characterized by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The corrosion behavior of the composites was evaluated by potentiodynamic polarization scans in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution. Corrosion results show that corrosion current of composite layer with 3 vol.% n-SiC was much lower than that of 2014Al matrix. Mechanical properties of the composites were assessed by microhardness tests and ball-on-disk wear tests. As the applied load changed from 15 to 30 N, wear rates of the composites increased significantly and the wear mechanism transformed from mild to severe wear regime. It also shows that 3 vol.% n-SiCp/2014Al composite layer observed the lowest wear rate where adhesive and abrasive wear mechanisms played a major role. These results suggest that the n-SiCp are effective candidates for fabricating FGMs for the applications demanding a tough core and a hard, wear or corrosion resisting surface.

  15. Catalytic transformation of persistent contaminants using a new composite material based on nanosized zero-valent iron.

    PubMed

    Dror, Ishai; Jacov, Osnat Merom; Cortis, Andrea; Berkowitz, Brian

    2012-07-25

    A new composite material based on deposition of nanosized zerovalent iron (nZVI) particles and cyanocobalamine (vitamin B12) on a diatomite matrix is presented, for catalytic transformation of organic contaminants in water. Cyanocobalamine is known to be an effective electron mediator, having strong synergistic effects with nZVI for reductive dehalogenation reactions. This composite material also improves the reducing capacity of nZVI by preventing agglomeration of iron nanoparticles, thus increasing their active surface area. The porous structure of the diatomite matrix allows high hydraulic conductivity, which favors channeling of contaminated water to the reactive surface of the composite material resulting in faster rates of remediation. The composite material rapidly degrades or transforms completely a large spectrum of water contaminants, including halogenated solvents like TCE, PCE, and cis-DCE, pesticides like alachlor, atrazine and bromacyl, and common ions like nitrate, within minutes to hours. A field experiment where contaminated groundwater containing a mixture of industrial and agricultural persistent pollutants was conducted together with a set of laboratory experiments using individual contaminant solutions to analyze chemical transformations under controlled conditions.

  16. Improving aqueous solubility and antitumor effects by nanosized gambogic acid-mPEG₂₀₀₀ micelles.

    PubMed

    Cai, Lulu; Qiu, Neng; Xiang, Mingli; Tong, Rongsheng; Yan, Junfeng; He, Lin; Shi, Jianyou; Chen, Tao; Wen, Jiaolin; Wang, Wenwen; Chen, Lijuan

    2014-01-01

    The clinical application of gambogic acid, a natural component with promising antitumor activity, is limited due to its extremely poor aqueous solubility, short half-life in blood, and severe systemic toxicity. To solve these problems, an amphiphilic polymer-drug conjugate was prepared by attachment of low molecular weight (ie, 2 kDa) methoxy poly(ethylene glycol) methyl ether (mPEG) to gambogic acid (GA-mPEG₂₀₀₀) through an ester linkage and characterized by (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance. The GA-mPEG₂₀₀₀ conjugates self-assembled to form nanosized micelles, with mean diameters of less than 50 nm, and a very narrow particle size distribution. The properties of the GA-mPEG₂₀₀₀ micelles, including morphology, stability, molecular modeling, and drug release profile, were evaluated. MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazo l-2-yl)-2,5 diphenyl tetrazolium bromide) tests demonstrated that the GA-mPEG₂₀₀₀ micelle formulation had obvious cytotoxicity to tumor cells and human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Further, GA-mPEG₂₀₀₀ micelles were effective in inhibiting tumor growth and prolonged survival in subcutaneous B16-F10 and C26 tumor models. Our findings suggest that GA-mPEG₂₀₀₀ micelles may have promising applications in tumor therapy.

  17. Uniform nano-sized valsartan for dissolution and bioavailability enhancement: influence of particle size and crystalline state.

    PubMed

    Ma, Qiuping; Sun, Hongrui; Che, Erxi; Zheng, Xin; Jiang, Tongying; Sun, Changshan; Wang, Siling

    2013-01-30

    The central purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of drug particle size and crystalline state on valsartan (VAL) formulations in order to improve its dissolution and bioavailability. VAL microsuspension (mean size 22 μm) and nanosuspension (30-80nm) were prepared by high speed dispersing and anti-solvent precipitation method and converted into powders through spray drying. Differential scanning calorimetry studies indicated amorphization of VAL in the spray-dried valsartan nanosuspension (SD-VAL-Nano) but recrystallization occurred after 6 months storage at room temperature. The spray-dried valsartan microsuspension (SD-VAL-Micro) conserved the crystalline form. The VAL dissolution rate and extent were markedly enhanced with both SD-VAL-Micro and SD-VAL-Nano as compared to crude VAL crystals over the pH range of 1.2-6.8. Pharmacokinetic studies in rats demonstrated a 2.5-fold increase in oral bioavailability in the case of SD-VAL-Nano compared with the commercial product while the SD-VAL-Micro provided a much less desirable pharmacokinetic profile. In conclusion, reducing particle size to the nano-scale appears to be a worthwhile and promising approach to obtain VAL products with optimum bioavailability. In addition, the impact of crystalline state on the bioavailability of nano-sized VAL might be not as big as that of particle size. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Synthesis and characterization of WC-Co nanosized composite powders with in situ carbon and gas carbon sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Qiumin; Yang, Jiangao; Yang, Hailin; Su, Wei; Ruan, Jianming

    2016-07-01

    This study presented nanosized WC-Co composite powders synthesized using a one-step reduction-carbonization process with a combination of CH4/H2 as a gas carbon source and soluble starch as an in situ carbon source. The results of carbon analysis and X-ray diffraction revealed that WC-Co nanocomposite powders with a pure WC and Co phase could be obtained at 1100 °C after 0.5 h. A higher gas flow ratio of CH4/H2 during the reduction-carbonization process led to a higher total carbon content of the sample. A field emission scanning electron microscope confirmed that the particles in the WC-6 wt% Co composite powders had the lowest average size of 43 nm with equiaxed shapes. A sintering neck was observed in the WC-3 wt% Co composite powders whereas faceted particles were found in the WC-12 wt% Co composite powders. Moreover, this method has advantages of simple processing, rapid synthesis and good applicability in potential industry application.

  19. Experiments on depolarized optical scattering to sense in situ the onset of early agglomeration between nano-size soot particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Stasio, Stefano

    2002-04-01

    Soot aerosol particles generated in hydrocarbon flames are investigated in this paper by laser light scattering techniques. The contribution of co- and cross-polarized scattered light, each for vertical and horizontal linear polarization states of the incident laser light at 514.5 nm are measured at variable polar angles θ. Main results here reported are the following: (1) the vertical depolarization ratio ρv measured against the scattering angle is very low and flat in the case of smaller chain-like (aggregate fractal dimension Df≈1.3), whereas, in the case of larger branched-chain aggregates (Df≈1.7), ρv exhibits a maximum at about 90° (2) in contrast to the reciprocity theorem, the measured ratio IHV/IVH between the two depolarized contributes for each of the two possible linear (vertical and horizontal) polarization states of the incident light, is found to be different than unity when first sticking of the primary particles occurs. Therefore, the measurement of the reciprocity ratio IHV/IVH seems a powerful and reliable tool to establish the onset of the early aggregation mechanism between nano-size soot particles formed in a flame.

  20. The way to cover prediction for cytotoxicity for all existing nano-sized metal oxides by using neural network method.

    PubMed

    Fjodorova, Natalja; Novic, Marjana; Gajewicz, Agnieszka; Rasulev, Bakhtiyor

    2017-04-12

    The regulatory agencies should fulfil the data gap in toxicity for new chemicals including nano-sized compounds, like metal oxides nanoparticles (MeOx NPs) according to the registration, evaluation, authorisation and restriction of chemicals (REACH) legislation policy. This study demonstrates the perspective capability of neural network models for prediction of cytotoxicity of MeOx NPs to bacteria Escherichia coli (E. coli) for the widest range of metal oxides extracted from Periodic table. The counter propagation artificial neural network (CP ANN) models for prediction of cytotoxicity of MeOx NPs for data sets of 17, 36 and 72 metal oxides were employed in the study. The cytotoxicity of studied metal oxide NPs was correlated with (i) χ-metal electronegativity (EN) by Pauling scale and composition of metal oxides characterised by (ii) number of metal atoms in oxide, (iii) number of oxygen atoms in oxide and (iv) charge of metal cation in oxide. The paper describes the models in context of five OECD principles of validation models accepted for regulatory use. The recommendations were done for the minimal number of cytotoxicity tests needs for evaluation of the large set of MeOx with different oxidation states. The methodology is expected to be useful for potential hazard assessment of MeOx NPs and prioritisation for further testing and risk assessment.