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Sample records for colloidal au nanoparticles

  1. Experimental study on the coalescence process of SiO2 supported colloidal Au nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruffino, F.; Torrisi, V.; Grimaldi, M. G.

    2015-11-01

    We report on an experimental study of the coalescence-driven grow process of colloidal Au nanoparticles on SiO2 surface. Nanoparticles with 30, 50, 80, 100 nm nominal diameters on a SiO2 substrate were deposited, from solutions, by the drop-casting method. Then, annealing processes, in the 573-1173 K temperature range and 900-3600 s time range, were performed. Using scanning electron microscopy analyses, the temporal evolution of the nanoparticles sizes has been studied. In particular, for all classes of nanoparticles, the experimental-obtained diameters distributions evidenced double-peak shapes (i. e. bimodal distributions): a first peak centered (and unchanged changing the annealing temperature and/or time) at the nominal diameter of the as-deposited nanoparticles, , and a second peak shifting at higher mean diameters, , increasing the annealing temperature and/or time. This observation suggested us a coalescence-driven growth process of a nanoparticles sub-population. As a consequence, the temporal evolution of (for each class of nanoparticles and each annealing temperature), within the well-established particles coalescence theoretical framework, has been analyzed. In particular, by the analyses of the experimental data using relations as prescribed by the theoretical model, a characteristic size-dependent activation energy for the Au nanoparticles coalescence process has been evaluated.

  2. Critical island-size, stability, and morphology of 2D colloidal Au nanoparticle islands.

    PubMed

    Hubartt, Bradley C; Amar, Jacques G

    2015-01-14

    The critical island-size, stability, and morphology of 2D colloidal Au nanoparticle islands formed during drop-drying are studied using an empirical potential which takes into account core-core, ligand-ligand, and ligand-solvent interactions. Good agreement with experiment is obtained for the dependence of the critical island-size on nanoparticle diameter. Our results for the critical length-scale for smoothing via edge-diffusion are also consistent with the limited facet size and island-relaxation observed in experiments. In addition, the relatively high rate of monomer diffusion on an island as well as the low barrier for interlayer diffusion are consistent with experimental observations that second-layer growth does not occur until after the first layer is complete.

  3. Preparation of Ultrafine Fe-Pt Alloy and Au Nanoparticle Colloids by KrF Excimer Laser Solution Photolysis.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Masato; Takamura, Hitoshi; Sugai, Hiroshi

    2009-03-10

    We prepared ultrafine Fe-Pt alloy nanoparticle colloids by UV laser solution photolysis (KrF excimer laser of 248 nm wavelength) using precursors of methanol solutions into which iron and platinum complexes were dissolved together with PVP dispersant to prevent aggregations. From TEM observations, the Fe-Pt nanoparticles were found to be composed of disordered FCC A1 phase with average diameters of 0.5-3 nm regardless of the preparation conditions. Higher iron compositions of nanoparticles require irradiations of higher laser pulse energies typically more than 350 mJ, which is considered to be due to the difficulty in dissociation of Fe(III) acetylacetonate compared with Pt(II) acetylacetonate. Au colloid preparation by the same method was also attempted, resulting in Au nanoparticle colloids with over 10 times larger diameters than the Fe-Pt nanoparticles and UV-visible absorption peaks around 530 nm that originate from the surface plasmon resonance. Differences between the Fe-Pt and Au nanoparticles prepared by the KrF excimer laser solution photolysis are also discussed.

  4. Optimization of Optical Absorption of Colloids of SiO2@Au and Fe3O4@Au Nanoparticles with Constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Xiaozheng; Sukhotskiy, Viktor; Furlani, Edward P.

    2016-10-01

    We study the optical response of monodisperse colloids of core-shell plasmonic nanoparticles and introduce a computational approach to optimize absorption for photothermal applications that require dilute colloids of non-interacting particles with a prescribed volume fraction. Since the volume fraction is held constant, the particle concentration is size-dependent. Optimization is achieved by comparing the absorption spectra of colloids as a function of particle size and structure. We demonstrate the approach via application to colloids of core-shell SiO2@Au and Fe3O4@Au nanoparticles with particle sizes that range from 5–100 nm and with the incident wavelength varying from 600–1200 nm. The absorption spectra are predicted using Mie theory and the analysis shows that there is a unique mix of parameters (core radius, shell thickness, wavelength) that maximize absorption, independent of the value of volume fraction. We show that lossy Fe3O4 cores produce a much broader absorption peak with much less sensitivity to variations in particle structure and wavelength than lossless SiO2 cores. This approach can be readily adapted to colloids of nanoparticles with arbitrary materials, shapes and structure using appropriate numerical methods to compute the absorption spectra. As such, it is useful for the rational design of colloids and process variables for a broad range of photothermal applications.

  5. Optimization of Optical Absorption of Colloids of SiO2@Au and Fe3O4@Au Nanoparticles with Constraints

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Xiaozheng; Sukhotskiy, Viktor; Furlani, Edward P.

    2016-01-01

    We study the optical response of monodisperse colloids of core-shell plasmonic nanoparticles and introduce a computational approach to optimize absorption for photothermal applications that require dilute colloids of non-interacting particles with a prescribed volume fraction. Since the volume fraction is held constant, the particle concentration is size-dependent. Optimization is achieved by comparing the absorption spectra of colloids as a function of particle size and structure. We demonstrate the approach via application to colloids of core-shell SiO2@Au and Fe3O4@Au nanoparticles with particle sizes that range from 5–100 nm and with the incident wavelength varying from 600–1200 nm. The absorption spectra are predicted using Mie theory and the analysis shows that there is a unique mix of parameters (core radius, shell thickness, wavelength) that maximize absorption, independent of the value of volume fraction. We show that lossy Fe3O4 cores produce a much broader absorption peak with much less sensitivity to variations in particle structure and wavelength than lossless SiO2 cores. This approach can be readily adapted to colloids of nanoparticles with arbitrary materials, shapes and structure using appropriate numerical methods to compute the absorption spectra. As such, it is useful for the rational design of colloids and process variables for a broad range of photothermal applications. PMID:27786279

  6. Structural and Optical Properties of Discrete Dendritic Pt Nanoparticles on Colloidal Au Nanoprisms

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Catalytic and optical properties can be coupled by combining different metals into nanoscale architectures in which both the shape and the composition provide fine-tuning of functionality. Here, discrete, small Pt nanoparticles (diameter = 3–6 nm) were grown in linear arrays on Au nanoprisms, and the resulting structures are shown to retain strong localized surface plasmon resonances. Multidimensional electron microscopy and spectroscopy techniques (energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, electron tomography, and electron energy-loss spectroscopy) were used to unravel their local composition, three-dimensional morphology, growth patterns, and optical properties. The composition and tomographic analyses disclose otherwise ambiguous details of the Pt-decorated Au nanoprisms, revealing that both pseudospherical protrusions and dendritic Pt nanoparticles grow on all faces of the nanoprisms (the faceted or occasionally twisted morphologies of which are also revealed), and shed light on the alignment of the Pt nanoparticles. The electron energy-loss spectroscopy investigations show that the Au nanoprisms support multiple localized surface plasmon resonances despite the presence of pendant Pt nanoparticles. The plasmonic fields at the surface of the nanoprisms indeed extend into the Pt nanoparticles, opening possibilities for combined optical and catalytic applications. These insights pave the way toward comprehensive nanoengineering of multifunctional bimetallic nanostructures, with potential applications in plasmon-enhanced catalysis and in situ monitoring of chemical processes via surface-enhanced spectroscopy. PMID:27688821

  7. Adsorption and diffusion of colloidal Au nanoparticles at a liquid-vapor interface.

    PubMed

    Poddar, Nitun N; Amar, Jacques G

    2014-06-28

    Motivated by recent drop-drying experiments of Au nanoparticle (NP) island self-assembly, we investigate the structure, diffusion, and binding of dodecanethiol-coated Au NPs adsorbed at the toluene-vapor interface using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations as well as analytical calculations. For a 6 nm core diameter NP our results indicate the existence of significant intermixing between the ligands and the solvent. As a result, the NP lies primarily below the interface with only a portion of the ligands sticking out, while the toluene-vapor interface is significantly higher in the region above the NP core than away from the NP. These results are consistent with a competition between the negative free energy of mixing of toluene and the dodecanethiol ligands, which tends to keep the NP below the interface, and the effects of surface tension which keeps the NP near the interface. Consistent with this result, we find that the coefficient for nanoparticle diffusion along the interface is close to the Stokes-Einstein prediction for three-dimensional bulk diffusion. An analysis of the ligand arrangement surrounding the NP also indicates that there is relatively little asymmetry in the ligand-coating. We then consider the effects of van der Waals interactions on the adsorption energy. In particular, we derive an analytical expression for the van der Waals interaction energy between a coated nanoparticle and the surrounding solvent along with a closed-form expression for the van der Waals corrections to the binding energy at the interface due to the long-range core-solvent interaction. Using these results along with the results of our MD simulations, we then estimate the van der Waals corrections to the adsorption energy for dodecanethiol-coated Au nanoparticles at the toluene-vapor interface as well as for decanethiol-coated nanoparticles at the water-vapor interface. In both cases, we find that the long-range core-solvent interaction may significantly reduce the binding

  8. Nanoparticle Over Mirror plasmonic structures prepared with use of Au colloid produced by laser ablation in water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawczak, Mirosław; Zyskowski, Marcin; Karczewski, Jakub; Atanasov, Petar A.; Nedyalkov, Nikolay N.; Nikov, Rumen G.; Stankova, Nadya A.; Śliwiński, Gerard

    2016-01-01

    Recently, an intensive research is carried out on plasmonic structures due to their potential application in many areas such as sensing, light harvesting and energy conversion and storage. In particular, a growing interest is observed in the Nanoparticle Over Mirror (NOM) structures for which the lithography and surface chemical functionalization represent the most popular production routes1. However, the application of those techniques is limited by the low efficacy, process complexity and chemical contamination of nanoparticles (NP). In this work, we report the contamination-free and low cost fabrication method of NOMs based on wet coating and ultrasonic-assisted nanocolloid drying process. The glass plates covered with magnetron sputtered 100 nm thick Au film and subsequently with Al2O3 layers (6 - 36 nm) by means of pulsed laser deposition are used as substrates. Au NPs are produced in the form of colloidal suspension by means of laser ablation in water using the 1064 nm, 6 ns Nd:YAG laser. The NOM synthesis is finalized by imposing of the Au NP suspension onto the as prepared Au-Al2O3/glass substrates and dried. To avoid NP agglomeration, the wet coated substrates are sonicated using 20W, 20 kHz ultrasound generator. SEM inspection of the obtained NOM structures confirms the positive sonication effect, i.e. the presence of agglomerate-free, homogenous layers. These consist of NPs (36 nm average diameter) which are characterized by the resonance absorption band at 528 nm. For NOM structures the UV-vis spectra reveal increased infrared activity and peak shift in agreement with theoretical modeling2. The NOM structure characterization is completed by analysis of the SEM and profilometry measurement results.

  9. An ultrasensitive electrochemical immunosensor for the detection of CD146 based on TiO2 colloidal sphere laden Au/Pd nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yaoguang; Li, Yueyun; Ma, Hongmin; Guo, Aiping; Du, Bin; Yan, Tao; Wei, Qin

    2015-05-21

    An ultrasensitive electrochemical immunosensor for the detection of cluster of differentiation 146 antigen (CD146) based on TiO2 colloidal sphere laden Au/Pd nanoparticles (Au/Pd@TiO2) was developed. In this work, reduced graphene oxide-tetraethylene pentamine (rGO-TEPA) was applied as an electrode modifying material to modify the surface of a glassy carbon electrode (GCE). Au/Pd@TiO2 was used as the secondary-antibody (Ab2) label for the fabrication of the immunosensor. Amperometric response of the immunosensor for electrocatalytic reduction of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) was recorded. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) proved that fabrication of the immunosensor was successful. The anti-CD146 primary antibody (Ab1) was immobilized on the rGO-TEPA modified GCE by a cross-linking reagent of glutaraldehyde (GA). With Ab1 immobilized onto the rGO-TEPA modified GCE and Ab2 linked with Au/Pd@TiO2, the immunosensor displayed a wide linear range (0.0050-20 ng mL(-1)), a low detection limit (1.6 pg mL(-1)), good reproducibility, good selectivity and acceptable stability. The designed sensing strategy may provide a potential application in the detection of other tumor markers.

  10. Au nanoparticles films used in biological sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosales Pérez, M.; Delgado Macuil, R.; Rojas López, M.; Gayou, V. L.; Sánchez Ramírez, J. F.

    2009-05-01

    Lactobacillus para paracasei are used commonly as functional food and probiotic substances. In this work Au nanoparticles self-assembled films were used for Lactobacillus para paracasei determination at five different concentrations. Functionalized substrates were immersed in a colloidal solution for one and a half hour at room temperature and dried at room temperature during four hours. After that, drops of Lactobacillus para paracasei in aqueous solution were put into the Au nanoparticles film and let dry at room temperature for another two hours. Infrared spectroscopy in attenuated total reflectance sampling mode was used to observe generation peaks due to substrate silanization, enhancement of Si-O band intensity due to the Au colloids added to silanized substrate and also to observe the enhancement of Lactobacillus para paracasei infrared intensity of the characteristic frequencies at 1650, 1534 and 1450 cm-1 due to surface enhancement infrared absorption.

  11. Hydrogen emission under laser exposure of colloidal solutions of nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barmina, E. V.; Simakin, A. V.; Shafeev, G. A.

    2016-07-01

    We report the generation of molecular hydrogen from water by laser irradiation, without any electrodes and photocatalysts. A near infrared pulsed nanosecond laser is used for exposure of colloidal solution of Au nanoparticles suspended in water. Laser exposure of the colloidal solution results in formation of breakdown plasma in liquid and emission of H2. The rate of H2 emission depends critically on the energy of laser pulses. There is a certain threshold in laser fluence in liquid (around 50 J/cm2) below which plasma disappears and H2 emission stops. H2 emission from colloidal solution of Au nanoparticles in ethanol is higher than that from similar water colloid. It is found that formation of plasma and emission of H2 or D2 can be induced by laser exposure of pure liquids, either H2O or D2O, respectively. The results are interpreted as water molecules splitting by direct electron impact from breakdown plasma.

  12. Synthesis of colloids based on gold nanoparticles dispersed in castor oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva, E. C.; da Silva, M. G. A.; Meneghetti, S. M. P.; Machado, G.; Alencar, M. A. R. C.; Hickmann, J. M.; Meneghetti, M. R.

    2008-12-01

    New colloidal solutions of gold nanoparticles (AuNP), using castor oil as a nontoxic organic dispersant agent, were prepared via three different methods. In all three cases, tetrachloroauric(III) acid was employed as the gold source. The colloids were characterized by UV-Vis spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The AuNP produced by the three methods were quasispherical in shape, however with different average sizes. The individual characteristics of the nanoparticles presented in each colloidal system were also confirmed by observation of absorption maxima at different wavelengths of visible light. Each method of synthesis leads to colloids with different grades of stability with respect to particle agglomeration.

  13. Dynamic Colloidal Stabilization by Nanoparticle Halos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karanikas, S.; Louis, A. A.

    2004-12-01

    We explore the conditions under which colloids can be stabilized by the addition of smaller particles. The largest repulsive barriers between colloids occur when the added particles repel each other with soft interactions, leading to an accumulation near the colloid surfaces. At lower densities these layers of mobile particles (nanoparticle halos) result in stabilization, but when too many are added, the interactions become attractive again. We systematically study these effects—accumulation repulsion, reentrant attraction, and bridging—by accurate integral equation techniques.

  14. The filtration of colloidal gold nanoparticles with carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Jong, Frans Jan; Buffet, Adeline

    2016-11-01

    Understanding the local filtering of nanoparticles (NPs) is essential for the development and optimization of medical and industrial applications. Microfocus small-angle X-ray scattering (μSAXS) was used to determine the local filtration kinetics of 100 nm sized colloidal gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) within a multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) forest. To get a physical insight into the Au NP filtration process within the MWCNT forest a novel model based on the well-known DLVO theory was developed. The DLVO theory is commonly used to describe the interaction between colloidal particles. In addition to the attractive Van de Waals force and the electrostatic double-layer force, a non-DLVO force is added to account for hydration and hydrophobic effects. The model presented here shows that the Au NPs are mainly unfavorably deposited into the so-called secondary energy minimum. This latter finding is in good agreement with the experimental observations and the literature, in which unfavorable particle deposition is related to deposition into the secondary energy minimum. The use of μSAXS to get a physical insight into the local deposition kinetics of submicrometer particles opens up new pathways to optimize the preparation of MWCNT forests for filtration purposes.

  15. Luminol chemiluminescence catalysed by colloidal platinum nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Xu, Sheng-Liang; Cui, Hua

    2007-01-01

    Platinum colloids prepared by the reduction of hexachloroplatinic acid with citrate in the presence of different stabilizers were found to enhance the chemiluminescence (CL) of the luminol-H(2)O(2) system, and the most intensive CL signals were obtained with citrate-protected Pt colloids synthesized with citrate as both a reductant and a stabilizer. Light emission was intense and reproducible. Transmission electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies were conducted before and after the CL reaction to investigate the possible CL enhancement mechanism. It is suggested that this CL enhancement is attributed to the catalysis of platinum nanoparticles, which could accelerate the electron-transfer process and facilitate the CL radical generation in aqueous solution. The effects of Pt colloids prepared by the hydroborate reduction were also investigated. The application of the luminol-H(2)O(2)-Pt colloids system was exploited for the determination of compounds such as uric acid, ascorbic acid, phenols and amino acids.

  16. Counterion-Mediated Assembly of Spherical Nucleic Acid-Au Nanoparticle Conjugates (SNA-AuNPs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kewalramani, Sumit; Moreau, Liane; Guerrero-García, Guillermo; Mirkin, Chad; Olvera de La Cruz, Monica; Bedzyk, Michael; Afosr Muri Team

    2015-03-01

    Controlled crystallization of colloids from solution has been a goal of material scientists for decades. Recently, nucleic acid functionalized spherical Au nanoparticles (SNA-AuNPs) have been programmed to assemble in a wide variety of crystal structures. In this approach, the assembly is driven by Watson-Crick hybridization between DNAs coating the AuNPs. Here, we show that counterions can induce ordered assembly of SNA-AuNPs in bulk solutions, even in the absence of base pairing interactions. The electrostatics-driven assembly of spherical nucleic acid-Au nanoparticle conjugates (SNA-AuNPs) is probed as a function of counterion concentration and counterion valency [ +1 (Na+) or +2 (Ca2+) ] by in situ solution X-ray scattering. Assemblies of AuNPs capped with single-stranded (ss-) or double-stranded (ds-) DNA are examined. SAXS reveals disordered (gas-like) --> face-centered-cubic (FCC) --> glass-like phase transitions with increasing solution ionic strength. These studies demonstrate how non-base-pairing interactions can be tuned to create crystalline assemblies of SNA-AuNPs. The dependence of the inter-SNA-AuNP interactions on counterion valency and stiffness of the DNA corona will be discussed.

  17. Toxicity and Biokinetics of Colloidal Gold Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Jo, Mi-Rae; Bae, Song-Hwa; Go, Mi-Ran; Kim, Hyun-Jin; Hwang, Yun-Gu; Choi, Soo-Jin

    2015-01-01

    Gold nanoparticles (Au-NPs) have promising potential for diverse biological application, but it has not been completely determined whether Au-NP has potential toxicity in vitro and in vivo. In the present study, toxicity of Au-NP was evaluated in human intestinal cells as well as in rats after 14-day repeated oral administration. Biokinetic study was also performed to assess oral absorption and tissue distribution. The results demonstrated that Au-NP did not cause cytotoxic effects on cells after 24 h exposure in terms of inhibition of cell proliferation, membrane damage, and oxidative stress. However, when a small number of cells were exposed to Au-NP for seven days, colony forming ability remarkably decreased by Au-NP treatment, suggesting its potential toxicity after long-term exposure at high concentration. Biokinetic study revealed that Au-NP slowly entered the blood stream and slightly accumulated only in kidney after oral administration to rats. Whereas, orally administered Au ions were rapidly absorbed, and then distributed in kidney, liver, lung, and spleen at high levels, suggesting that the biological fate of Au-NP is primarily in nanoparticulate form, not in ionic Au. Fourteen-day repeated oral toxicity evaluation showed that Au-NP did not cause severe toxicity in rats based on histopathological, hematological, and serum biochemical analysis.

  18. Synthesis of a colloid solution of silica-coated gold nanoparticles for X-ray imaging applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Yoshio; Nagasu, Ryoko; Shibuya, Kyosuke; Nakagawa, Tomohiko; Kubota, Yohsuke; Gonda, Kohsuke; Ohuchi, Noriaki

    2014-08-01

    This work proposes a method for fabricating silica-coated gold (Au) nanoparticles, surface modified with poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) (Au/SiO2/PEG), with a particle size of 54.8 nm. X-ray imaging of a mouse is performed with the colloid solution. A colloid solution of 17.9 nm Au nanoparticles was prepared by reducing Au ions (III) with sodium citrate in water at 80 °C. The method used for silica-coating the Au nanoparticles was composed of surface-modification of the Au nanoparticles with (3-aminopropyl)-trimethoxysilane (APMS) and a sol-gel process. The sol-gel process was performed in the presence of the surface-modified Au nanoparticles using tetraethylorthosilicate, APMS, water, and sodium hydroxide, in which the formation of silica shells and the introduction of amino groups to the silica-coated particles took place simultaneously (Au/SiO2-NH2). Surface modification of the Au/SiO2-NH2 particles with PEG, or PEGylation of the particle surface, was performed by adding PEG with a functional group that reacted with an amino group in the Au/SiO2-NH2 particle colloid solution. A computed tomography (CT) value of the aqueous colloid solution of Au/SiO2/PEG particles with an actual Au concentration of 0.112 M was as high as 922 ± 12 Hounsfield units, which was higher than that of a commercial X-ray contrast agent with the same iodine concentration. Injecting the aqueous colloid solution of Au/SiO2/PEG particles into a mouse increased the light contrast of tissues. A CT value of the heart rose immediately after the injection, and this rise was confirmed for up to 6 h.

  19. Behavior of colloidal gold nanoparticles in different ionic strength media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barreto, Ângela; Luis, Luis G.; Girão, Ana V.; Trindade, Tito; Soares, Amadeu M. V. M.; Oliveira, Miguel

    2015-12-01

    The increased applications of engineered nanoparticles (NPs) may lead to environmental release and transport to estuarine environments where NPs are expected to aggregate/agglomerate with increasing ionic strength. However, more stable NPs that may be resistant to high ionic strength media and more dispersed in the aquatic environment are being synthesized. Thus, understanding colloidal NPs' behavior in different ionic strength media is crucial for the assessment of the consequences of their environmental release. This work assessed the behavior of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), with diverse sizes and coatings, in media with different ionic strengths (from biological buffers to artificial seawater). Overall, in biological buffers and artificial seawater, citrate-coated AuNPs were unstable, displaying significantly increased sizes (between 100 and 400 nm), whereas no significant alterations (less than 5 % oscillation) were found for AuNPs with other coatings (bovine serum albumin, polyvinylpyrrolidone, and polyethylene glycol). Data suggest that coated AuNPs, and probably other NPs, may be dispersed in the environment from freshwater to estuarine systems.

  20. Self-assembly of gold nanoparticles and polystyrene: a highly versatile approach to the preparation of colloidal particles with polystyrene cores and gold nanoparticle coronae.

    PubMed

    Tian, Jia; Jin, Jie; Zheng, Fan; Zhao, Hanying

    2010-06-01

    Colloidal particles with polystyrene (PS) cores and gold nanoparticle (AuNP) coronae were prepared on the basis of the self-assembly of AuNP's and PS. Citrate-stabilized AuNP's were dispersed in aqueous solution, and PS with thiol terminal groups (PS-SH) was dissolved in toluene. A stable emulsion was obtained by mixing the two solutions. Optical microscope images indicate that after grafting of PS-SH to the citrate-stabilized AuNP's at liquid-liquid interface, the interfacial tension is reduced and the average size of toluene droplets in the emulsion decreases. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) results also prove the grafting of PS-SH to AuNP's and the location of the hybrid nanoparticles at the liquid-liquid interface. Colloidal particles with PS cores and AuNP coronae were prepared by adding the emulsion to excess methanol. The weight ratio of PS-SH to AuNP exerts a significant effect on the size of colloidal particles. TEM and dynamic light scattering results both indicate that the size of colloidal particles increases with the weight ratio. The application of the core-shell-structured colloidal particles to protein separation was also investigated in this research. Colloidal particles with PS-coated magnetic nanoparticles in the cores were also prepared by this strategy.

  1. Colloidal polymeric nanoparticles and brain drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Khalil, Najeh Maissar; Mainardes, Rubiana Mara

    2009-07-01

    The blood brain barrier protects the brain from harmful substances in the blood stream and has stopped the development of many powerful and interesting drugs candidates for central nervous system due to the low poor distribution and by efflux mechanisms. Many different approaches have been developed in order to overcome this barrier and the drug gain access to the brain. The polymeric nanoparticles are efficient colloidal systems that have been investigated to the brain drug delivery. This review will focus on the current strategies for brain drug delivery emphasizing the properties and characteristics of polymeric nanoparticles for this purpose.

  2. Laser trapping of colloidal metal nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Lehmuskero, Anni; Johansson, Peter; Rubinsztein-Dunlop, Halina; Tong, Lianming; Käll, Mikael

    2015-01-01

    Optical trapping using focused laser beams (laser tweezers) has been proven to be extremely useful for contactless manipulation of a variety of small objects, including biological cells, organelles within cells, and a wide range of other dielectric micro- and nano-objects. Colloidal metal nanoparticles have drawn increasing attention in the field of optical trapping because of their unique interactions with electromagnetic radiation, caused by surface plasmon resonance effects, enabling a large number of nano-optical applications of high current interest. Here we try to give a comprehensive overview of the field of laser trapping and manipulation of metal nanoparticles based on results reported in the recent literature. We also discuss and describe the fundamentals of optical forces in the context of plasmonic nanoparticles, including effects of polarization, optical angular momentum, and laser heating effects, as well as the various techniques that have been used to trap and manipulate metal nanoparticles. We conclude by suggesting possible directions for future research.

  3. Phenolics Impart Au3+-Stress Tolerance to Cowpea by Generating Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Shabnam, Nisha; Pardha-Saradhi, P.; Sharmila, P.

    2014-01-01

    While evaluating impact of Au nanoparticles on seed germination and early seedling growth of cowpea, HAuCl4 was used as control. Seedlings of cowpea raised in HAuCl4, even at concentration as high as 1 mM, did not show any suppression in growth. Accordingly, Au3+, despite being a heavy metal, did not alter levels of stress markers (viz. proline and malondialdehyde) in cowpea. Interestingly, cowpea turned clear pale yellow HAuCl4 solutions colloidal purple during the course of seed germination and seedling growth. These purple colloidal suspensions showed Au-nanoparticle specific surface plasmon resonance band in absorption spectra. Transmission electron microscopic and powder X-ray diffraction investigations confirmed presence of crystalline Au-nanoparticles in these purple suspensions. Each germinating seed of cowpea released ∼35 nmoles of GAE of phenolics and since phenolics promote generation of Au-nanoparticles, which are less/non toxic compared to Au3+, it was contemplated that potential of cowpea to withstand Au3+ is linked to phenolics. Of the different components of germinating seed of cowpea tested, seed coat possessed immense power to generate Au-nanoparticles, as it was the key source of phenolics. To establish role of phenolics in generation of Au-nanoparticles (i) seed coat and (ii) the incubation medium in which phenolics were released by germinating seeds, were tested for their efficacy to generate Au-nanoparticles. Interestingly, incubation of either of these components with Au3+ triggered increase in generation of Au-nanoparticles with concomitant decrease in phenolics. Accordingly, with increase in concentration of Au3+, a proportionate increase in generation of Au-nanoparticles and decrease in phenolics was recorded. In summary, our findings clearly established that cowpea possessed potential to withstand Au3+-stress as the phenolics released by seed coat of germinating seeds possess potential to reduce toxic Au3+ to form non/less toxic Au-nanoparticles

  4. Phenolics impart Au(3+)-stress tolerance to cowpea by generating nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Shabnam, Nisha; Pardha-Saradhi, P; Sharmila, P

    2014-01-01

    While evaluating impact of Au nanoparticles on seed germination and early seedling growth of cowpea, HAuCl4 was used as control. Seedlings of cowpea raised in HAuCl4, even at concentration as high as 1 mM, did not show any suppression in growth. Accordingly, Au(3+), despite being a heavy metal, did not alter levels of stress markers (viz. proline and malondialdehyde) in cowpea. Interestingly, cowpea turned clear pale yellow HAuCl4 solutions colloidal purple during the course of seed germination and seedling growth. These purple colloidal suspensions showed Au-nanoparticle specific surface plasmon resonance band in absorption spectra. Transmission electron microscopic and powder X-ray diffraction investigations confirmed presence of crystalline Au-nanoparticles in these purple suspensions. Each germinating seed of cowpea released ∼35 nmoles of GAE of phenolics and since phenolics promote generation of Au-nanoparticles, which are less/non toxic compared to Au(3+), it was contemplated that potential of cowpea to withstand Au(3+) is linked to phenolics. Of the different components of germinating seed of cowpea tested, seed coat possessed immense power to generate Au-nanoparticles, as it was the key source of phenolics. To establish role of phenolics in generation of Au-nanoparticles (i) seed coat and (ii) the incubation medium in which phenolics were released by germinating seeds, were tested for their efficacy to generate Au-nanoparticles. Interestingly, incubation of either of these components with Au(3+) triggered increase in generation of Au-nanoparticles with concomitant decrease in phenolics. Accordingly, with increase in concentration of Au(3+), a proportionate increase in generation of Au-nanoparticles and decrease in phenolics was recorded. In summary, our findings clearly established that cowpea possessed potential to withstand Au(3+)-stress as the phenolics released by seed coat of germinating seeds possess potential to reduce toxic Au(3+) to form non

  5. Fabrication of quantum dot/silica core-shell particles immobilizing Au nanoparticles and their dual imaging functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Yoshio; Matsudo, Hiromu; Li, Ting-ting; Shibuya, Kyosuke; Kubota, Yohsuke; Oikawa, Takahiro; Nakagawa, Tomohiko; Gonda, Kohsuke

    2016-03-01

    The present work proposes preparation methods for quantum dot/silica (QD/SiO2) core-shell particles that immobilize Au nanoparticles (QD/SiO2/Au). A colloid solution of QD/SiO2 core-shell particles with an average size of 47.0 ± 6.1 nm was prepared by a sol-gel reaction of tetraethyl orthosilicate in the presence of the QDs with an average size of 10.3 ± 2.1 nm. A colloid solution of Au nanoparticles with an average size of 17.9 ± 1.3 nm was prepared by reducing Au3+ ions with sodium citrate in water at 80 °C. Introduction of amino groups to QD/SiO2 particle surfaces was performed using (3-aminopropyl)-triethoxysilane (QD/SiO2-NH2). The QD/SiO2/Au particles were fabricated by mixing the Au particle colloid solution and the QD/SiO2-NH2 particle colloid solution. Values of radiant efficiency and computed tomography for the QD/SiO2/Au particle colloid solution were 2.23 × 107 (p/s/cm2/sr)/(μW/cm2) at a QD concentration of 8 × 10-7 M and 1180 ± 314 Hounsfield units and an Au concentration of 5.4 × 10-2 M. The QD/SiO2/Au particle colloid solution was injected into a mouse chest wall. Fluorescence emitted from the colloid solution could be detected on the skin covering the chest wall. The colloid solution could also be X-ray-imaged in the chest wall. Consequently, the QD/SiO2/Au particle colloid solution was found to have dual functions, i.e., fluorescence emission and X-ray absorption in vivo, which makes the colloid solution suitable to function as a contrast agent for dual imaging processes.

  6. Colloidal Au-enhanced surface plasmon resonance imaging: application in a DNA hybridization process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manera, M. G.; Spadavecchia, J.; Taurino, A.; Rella, R.

    2010-03-01

    The detection of the DNA hybridization mechanism using monodispersed gold nanoparticles as labels is an interesting alternative to increase the sensitivity of the SPR imaging technique. DNA-modified Au nanoparticles (DNA-Au NPs) containing single-stranded (ss) portions of DNA were prepared by monitoring their monolayer formation by UV-vis spectroscopy. The hybridization process between specific thio-oligonucleotides immobilized on the DNA-Au NPs and the corresponding complementary strands is reported and compared with the traditional hybridization process on properly self-assembled thin gold films deposited on glass substrates. A remarkable signal amplification is observed, following the incorporation of colloidal Au into a SPR biosensing experiment, resulting in an increased SPR response to DNA-DNA interactions. In particular Fusarium thiolated DNA (5'HS poly(T)15ATC CCT CAA AAA CTG CCG CT-3) and trichothecenes complementary DNA (5'-AGC GGC AGT TTT TGA GGG AT-3') sequences have been explored due to their possible application to agro-industry for the control of food quality.

  7. Colloidal metal nanoparticles: New building blocks for materials and amplification reagents for immunoassays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musick, Michael David

    This thesis describes new analytical uses for colloidal metal nanoparticles. Investigations into the ligand directed self-assembly of new materials from metal nanoparticles and applications of metal nanoparticle arrays in electrochemistry and immunosensing have addressed several issues; These include (i) the development of a stepwise method to assemble materials composed of metal nanoparticles entirely from solution, (ii) characterization of morphological, optical and electrical properties of these materials, and (iii) potential applications for nanoparticle materials such as biocompatible electrodes, microband electrodes, and patterned arrays. Also discussed are (iv) interactions of colloidal metal particle arrays with surface plasmons, and (v) a new motif for ultrasensitive detection of immunological binding events. A novel method of layer-by-layer film formation from solution of metal nanoparticles film generation was developed and investigated. Atomic force microscopy of multilayered structures revealed an underlying porous nanostructure and a lack of inter- and intra particle order. Optical properties and DC resistance were monitored as a function of colloid coverage and bifunctional crosslinker. High coverage films were similar to evaporated discontinuous metal films in transmission properties (uv-vis/NIR) and in appearance by eye these films resembled their bulk metal counterparts. The measured resistivity was only 100 times greater than bulk Au. Applications in electrochemistry and the construction of a microband electrode of nanometer dimensions, is discussed and detailed further in chapter 4. Chapter 5 encompasses probing nanoparticle assemblies with surface plasmon resonance and the applications of colloidal Au nanoparticles as signal amplification reagents in a sandwich immunoassay. The binding of anti-human IgG:Au colloid conjugate to human IgG immobilized on an Au film produced a enhanced shift in plasmon angle over unconjugated antibody. Detection

  8. Optical nonlinearities of Au nanoparticles and Au/Ag coreshells.

    PubMed

    Seo, Jae Tae; Yang, Qiguang; Kim, Wan-Joong; Heo, Jinhwa; Ma, Seong-Min; Austin, Jasmine; Yun, Wan Soo; Jung, Sung Soo; Han, Sang Woo; Tabibi, Bagher; Temple, Doyle

    2009-02-01

    Au nanoparticles exhibited both negative and positive nonlinear absorptions with ground-state plasmon bleaching and free-carrier absorption that could be origins of the saturable and reverse-saturable optical properties. Au/Ag coreshells displayed only positive nonlinear absorption and reverse-saturable optical properties as a function of excitation intensity at the edge of surface-plasmon resonance, which implies no ground-state plasmon bleaching and the existence of two-photon absorption.

  9. Study of the solution thermal conductivity effect on nonlinear refraction of colloidal gold nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkhosh, L.; Mansour, N.

    2015-06-01

    In nanoparticle colloidal systems, the thermal nonlinearity is affected by the thermal parameters of the surrounding solution. Having a low temperature gradient rate solution may be a key factor in producing high thermal nonlinear properties in colloids. In this manuscript, the effect of the thermal conductivity of the surrounding liquid environment on the thermal nonlinear refraction of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) synthesized by laser ablation of a gold target in different solutions is investigated. Gold nanoparticles colloids have been fabricated by the nanosecond pulsed laser ablation of a pure gold plate in different liquid environments with a thermal conductivity range of 0.14-0.60 W mK-1 including cyclohexanone, castor oil, dimethyl sulfoxide, ethylene glycol, glycerin and water. The AuNPs colloids exhibit a UV-Vis absorption spectrum with a surface plasmon absorption peak at about 540  ±  20 nm. The thermal nonlinear optical responses of the gold colloids are measured using the Z-scan technique under low power CW laser irradiation at 532 nm near the surface plasmon peak of the nanoparticles. Our results show that the nonlinear refractive index of the nanoparticle colloids is considerably affected by the thermal conductivity of liquid medium. The largest nonlinear refractive index of -3.1  ×  10-7 cm2 W-1 is obtained for AuNP in cyclohexanone with the lowest thermal conductivity of 0.14 W mK-1 whereas the lowest one of -0.1  ×  10-7 cm2 W-1 is obtained for AuNP in water with the highest thermal conductivity of 0.60 W mK-1. This study shows that the nonlinear refractive index value of colloids can be controlled by the thermal conductivity of the used liquid’s environment. This allows us to design low threshold optical limiters by choosing a solution with low thermal conductivity for colloidal nanoparticles.

  10. Properties of TiO2/Au nanocomposite produced by pulsed laser irradiation of mixture of individual colloids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghorbani, Vahideh; Dorranian, Davoud

    2016-12-01

    TiO2/Au nanocomposite was produced by irradiating the mixture of Au and TiO2 nanoparticle suspensions with the second harmonic beam of Nd:YAG pulsed laser. TiO2 and Au nanoparticles were produced by laser ablation method separately. Titanium dioxide and gold nanoparticles were prepared by ablation of a high purity titanium and gold plates in deionized water, respectively. The fundamental wavelength of a Nd:YAG laser operating at 1064 nm with pulse width of 7 ns and 10 Hz repetition rate was employed to produce nanoparticles. Targets was placed on the bottom of water contain. The synthesized Au and TiO2 colloidal solutions were mixed in equal volumetric ratio and irradiated with the 532 nm laser. The laser spot size was 6 mm on the solution surface, and the laser fluence during the post-irradiation was at 2 J/cm2. Irradiation was done using 5000 pulses at 10 Hz repetition rate and 7 ns pulse width. Results show that the absorption spectrum of nanocomposite is similar to TiO2 spectrum with a surface plasmonic absorption peak at about 530 nm. Both lattice structure of TiO2 and Au nanoparticles appears in the lattice structure of nanocomposite.

  11. Study on surface-enhanced Raman scattering efficiency of Ag core-Au shell bimetallic nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Xiao; Gu, Huaimin; Kang, Jian; Yuan, Xiaojuan

    2009-08-01

    In this article, the relationship between the states of Ag core-Au shell (core-shell) nanoparticles (NP) and the intensity of Raman scattering of analytes dissolved in the water and adsorbed on the NP was studied. The core-shell NP were synthesised by coating Au layers over Ag seeds by the method of "seed-growth". To highlight the advantage of the core-shell NP, Ag colloid and Au colloid were chosen for contrasting. The analyte that were chosen for this testing were methylene blue (MB) for the reason that MB has very strong signal in surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). The SERS activity of optimalizing states of Ag and Au colloids were compared with that of core-shell NP when MB was used as analyte. In this study, sodium chloride, sodium sulfate and sodium nitrate were used as aggregating agents for Ag, Au colloids and core-shell NP, because anions have a strong influence on the SERS efficiency and the stability of colloids. The results indicate that core-shell NP can obviously enhance the SERS of MB. The aim of this study is to prove that compared with the metal colloid, the core-shell NP is a high efficiency SERS active substrate.

  12. Green synthesis of Au nanoparticles using potato extract: stability and growth mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castillo-López, D. N.; Pal, U.

    2014-08-01

    We report on the synthesis of spherical, well-dispersed colloidal gold nanoparticles of 17.5-23.5 nm average sizes in water using potato extract (PE) both as reducing and stabilizing agent. The effects of PE content and the pH value of the reaction mixture have been studied. Formation and growth dynamics of the Au nanoparticles in the colloids were studied using transmission electron microscopy and UV-Vis optical absorption spectroscopy techniques. While the reductor content and, hence, the nucleation and growth rates of the nanoparticles could be controlled by controlling the PE content in the reaction solution, the stability of the nanoparticles depended strongly on the pH of the reaction mixture. The mechanisms of Au ion reduction and stabilization of Au nanoparticles by potato starch have been discussed. The use of common natural solvent like water and biological reductor like PE in our synthesis process opens up the possibility of synthesizing Au nanoparticles in fully green (environmental friendly) way, and the Au nanoparticles produced in such way should have good biocompatibility.

  13. Nonlinear Optical Properties of Colloids with Carbon Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayor, A. Yu.; Proschenko, D. Yu.; Golik, S. S.; Postnova, I. V.; Shchipunov, Yu. A.; Podlesnyh, A. A.

    Experimentally studied linear and nonlinear characteristics of colloid on the basis of a new class of carbon nanoparticles (CN) synthesized by hydrothermal synthesis. The spectral characteristics of supercontinuum of the colloids with CN in the range 420 - 700 nm were investigated. The effectiveness of excitation of one- and two-photon fluorescence colloids with UN was determined. The anomalous dependence of the nonlinear refractive index of the wavelength of the radiation was revealed. It was installed that the efficiency of spectral transformation of the supercontinuum process in the case of colloid with carbon nanoparticles is less in the anti-stokes region than in case with water.

  14. Development of uniform density control with self-assembled colloidal gold nanoparticles on a modified silicon substrate.

    PubMed

    Kang, ChanKyu; Ashurst, Robert W; Shim, Jae-Jin; Huh, Yun Suk; Roh, Changhyun

    2014-10-01

    Here, we present a simple method for controlling the density of Au nanoparticles (Au NPs) on a modified silicon substrate, by destabilizing the colloidal Au NPs with 3-mercaptopropyltrimethoxylsilane (3-MPTMS) for microelectromechanical-system-based applications to reduce tribological issues. A silicon surface was pretreated with a 3-MPTMS solution, immediately after which thiolated Au NPs were added to it, resulting in their uniform deposition on the silicon substrate. Without any material property change of the colloidal Au NPs, we observed the formation of large clusters Au NPs on the modified silicon surface. Analysis by scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy indicated that the addition of 3-MPTMS resulted in an alternation of the chemical characteristics of the solution. Atomic force microscopy imaging supported the notion that silicon surface modification is the most important factor on tribological properties of materials along with ligand-modified Au NPs. The density of Au NPs on a silicon surface was significantly dependent on several factors, including the concentration of colloidal Au NPs, deposition time, and concentration of 3-MPTMS solution, while temperature range which was used throughout experiment was determined to have no significant effect. A relatively high density of Au NPs forms on the silicon surface as the concentrations of Au NPs and 3-MPTMS are increased. In addition, the maximum deposition of Au NPs on silicon wafer was observed at 3 h, while the effects of temperature variation were minimal.

  15. Deposition of colloidal gold nanoparticles by fully pulsed-voltage-controlled electrohydrodynamic atomisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, K.; Stark, J. P. W.

    2010-03-01

    Pulsed electrohydrodynamic atomisation (EHDA) of aqueous 10 nm gold colloid in a full voltage-controlled form was investigated. By using 4 µm and 20 μm nozzles, electrified fluid jet was emitted and Au nanoparticles in the jet were deposited onto a silicon substrate. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed that different morphology of the artifact was formed by using different voltages pulses. Particularly, island-liked artifact down to 10 μm can be produced regularly in the case of cone-jet mode by low voltage pulse. Our results demonstrate pulsed EHDA is a promising approach in creating micro-patterns of colloid-based nanomaterials.

  16. Magnetic Separation Dynamics of Colloidal Magnetic Nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Kaur, M.; Huijin Zhang,; You Qiang,

    2013-01-01

    Surface functionalized magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) are appealing candidates for analytical separation of heavy metal ions from waste water and separation of actinides from spent nuclear fuel. This work studies the separation dynamics and investigates the appropriate magnetic-field gradients. A dynamic study of colloidal MNPs was performed for steady-state flow. Measurements were conducted to record the separation time of particles as a function of magnetic field gradient. The drag and magnetic forces play a significant role on the separation time. A drop in saturation magnetization and variation of particle size occurs after surface functionalization of the MNPs; these are the primary factors that affect the separation time and velocity of the MNPs. The experimental results are correlated to a theoretical one-dimensional model.

  17. Collision-spike sputtering of Au nanoparticles

    DOE PAGES

    Sandoval, Luis; Urbassek, Herbert M.

    2015-08-06

    Ion irradiation of nanoparticles leads to enhanced sputter yields if the nanoparticle size is of the order of the ion penetration depth. While this feature is reasonably well understood for collision-cascade sputtering, we explore it in the regime of collision-spike sputtering using molecular-dynamics simulation. For this specific case of 200-keV Xe bombardment of Au particles, we show that collision spikes lead to abundant sputtering with an average yield of 397 ± 121 atoms compared to only 116 ± 48 atoms for a bulk Au target. Only around 31% of the impact energy remains in the nanoparticles after impact; the remaindermore » is transported away by the transmitted projectile and the ejecta. The sputter yield of supported nanoparticles is estimated to be around 80% of that of free nanoparticles due to the suppression of forward sputtering.« less

  18. Collision-spike sputtering of Au nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Sandoval, Luis; Urbassek, Herbert M.

    2015-08-06

    Ion irradiation of nanoparticles leads to enhanced sputter yields if the nanoparticle size is of the order of the ion penetration depth. While this feature is reasonably well understood for collision-cascade sputtering, we explore it in the regime of collision-spike sputtering using molecular-dynamics simulation. For this specific case of 200-keV Xe bombardment of Au particles, we show that collision spikes lead to abundant sputtering with an average yield of 397 ± 121 atoms compared to only 116 ± 48 atoms for a bulk Au target. Only around 31% of the impact energy remains in the nanoparticles after impact; the remainder is transported away by the transmitted projectile and the ejecta. The sputter yield of supported nanoparticles is estimated to be around 80% of that of free nanoparticles due to the suppression of forward sputtering.

  19. Collision-spike Sputtering of Au Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Sandoval, Luis; Urbassek, Herbert M

    2015-12-01

    Ion irradiation of nanoparticles leads to enhanced sputter yields if the nanoparticle size is of the order of the ion penetration depth. While this feature is reasonably well understood for collision-cascade sputtering, we explore it in the regime of collision-spike sputtering using molecular-dynamics simulation. For the particular case of 200-keV Xe bombardment of Au particles, we show that collision spikes lead to abundant sputtering with an average yield of 397 ± 121 atoms compared to only 116 ± 48 atoms for a bulk Au target. Only around 31 % of the impact energy remains in the nanoparticles after impact; the remainder is transported away by the transmitted projectile and the ejecta. The sputter yield of supported nanoparticles is estimated to be around 80 % of that of free nanoparticles due to the suppression of forward sputtering.

  20. The Colloidal Stability of Magnetic Nanoparticles in Ionic Liquids

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    SEP 2014 2. REPORT TYPE Final 3. DATES COVERED 06-03-2013 to 05-06-2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE The Colloidal Stability of Magnetic...DATES COVERED (From - To) 6 Mar 2013 – 5 June 2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE The Colloidal Stability of Magnetic Nanoparticles in Ionic Liquids...Polymers and Colloids , Chemistry F11, The University of Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia. - Phone : +61 2 9351 6973 - Fax : +61 2 9351 851 Period of

  1. Nanoscale force induced size-selective separation and self-assembly of metal nanoparticles: sharp colloidal stability thresholds and hcp ordering.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yuanhui; Lalander, Cecilia H; Bach, Udo

    2010-11-14

    A simple and versatile nanoscale force induced precipitation approach for the separation of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) was developed. The AuNPs show sharp size-dependent colloidal stability thresholds as a function of salt concentration. Upon separation, the AuNPs were electrostatically self-assembled onto silicon substrates by fine-tuning interparticle and particle-substrate forces, forming 2D AuNP networks with a high degree of hexagonal closest pack (hcp) superstructures.

  2. The Colloidal Stability of Magnetic Nanoparticles in Ionic Liquids

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-08-03

    Final 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 14 May 2014 – 13 May 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE The Colloidal Stability of Magnetic Nanoparticles in...DATE 11 SEP 2015 2. REPORT TYPE Final 3. DATES COVERED 14-05-2014 to 13-05-2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE The Colloidal Stability of Magnetic...Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 Final Report for AOARD Grant 144062 “The Colloidal Stability of Magnetic Nanoparticles in Ionic Liquids

  3. Atomically Precise Colloidal Metal Nanoclusters and Nanoparticles: Fundamentals and Opportunities.

    PubMed

    Jin, Rongchao; Zeng, Chenjie; Zhou, Meng; Chen, Yuxiang

    2016-09-28

    Colloidal nanoparticles are being intensely pursued in current nanoscience research. Nanochemists are often frustrated by the well-known fact that no two nanoparticles are the same, which precludes the deep understanding of many fundamental properties of colloidal nanoparticles in which the total structures (core plus surface) must be known. Therefore, controlling nanoparticles with atomic precision and solving their total structures have long been major dreams for nanochemists. Recently, these goals are partially fulfilled in the case of gold nanoparticles, at least in the ultrasmall size regime (1-3 nm in diameter, often called nanoclusters). This review summarizes the major progress in the field, including the principles that permit atomically precise synthesis, new types of atomic structures, and unique physical and chemical properties of atomically precise nanoparticles, as well as exciting opportunities for nanochemists to understand very fundamental science of colloidal nanoparticles (such as the stability, metal-ligand interfacial bonding, ligand assembly on particle surfaces, aesthetic structural patterns, periodicities, and emergence of the metallic state) and to develop a range of potential applications such as in catalysis, biomedicine, sensing, imaging, optics, and energy conversion. Although most of the research activity currently focuses on thiolate-protected gold nanoclusters, important progress has also been achieved in other ligand-protected gold, silver, and bimetal (or alloy) nanoclusters. All of these types of unique nanoparticles will bring unprecedented opportunities, not only in understanding the fundamental questions of nanoparticles but also in opening up new horizons for scientific studies of nanoparticles.

  4. Quantification of Heteroaggregation between Citrate-Stabilized Gold Nanoparticles and Hematite Colloids.

    PubMed

    Smith, Brian M; Pike, Daniel J; Kelly, Michael O; Nason, Jeffrey A

    2015-11-03

    Collisions with and attachment to natural colloids (heteroaggregation) is likely to influence significantly the fate, transport, and toxicity of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs). This study investigated heteroaggregation between hematite (α-Fe2O3) colloids and citrate-capped gold nanoparticles (Cit-AuNPs) using a novel approach involving time-resolved dynamic light scattering and parallel experiments designed to quantify nanoparticle attachment and heteroaggregate surface charge. Experiments were performed in low ionic strength synthetic water at environmentally relevant pH in the presence and absence of Suwannee River Natural Organic Matter (SRNOM). In the absence of SRNOM at pH values where Cit-AuNPs and hematite are oppositely charged, attachment efficiencies are high and Cit-AuNPs are capable of destabilizing hematite following an "electrostatic patch" mechanism. Furthermore, maximum observed surface coverages were far below those predicted by geometry alone, a fact predicted by the random sequential adsorption (RSA) model that has significant implications for the estimation of heteroaggregate attachment efficiencies. At pH values where both particles are negative or in the presence of small amounts of SRNOM, attachment was minimal. Calculated attachment efficiencies using the measured surface coverages corroborate these findings. The calculation of attachment efficiencies and the identification of mechanisms governing heteroaggregation represents an important step toward predicting the transport, fate, and toxicity of ENPs in the environment.

  5. Heteroaggregation of graphene oxide nanoparticles and kaolinite colloids.

    PubMed

    Sotirelis, Nikolaos P; Chrysikopoulos, Constantinos V

    2017-02-01

    Graphene oxide (GO) is a material with rapid production growth, and consequently GO nanoparticles are expected to eventually penetrate subsurface formations, where fine mineral particles are in abundance. This study examines the heteroaggregation of GO nanoparticles with kaolinite (KGa-1b) colloids under various conditions. Dynamic batch experiments were conducted in solutions with different pH values (pH=4, 7, and 10), different ionic strengths (IS=7, 12, and 27mM), and at three controlled temperatures (8, 14, and 25°C). The experimental results showed that a relatively small amount of GO nanoparticles (5-20% of the initial concentration) attached immediately onto KGa-1b colloids, and reached equilibrium in <20min. It was shown that neither temperature nor pH played a significant role in the attachment of GO nanoparticles onto KGa-1b colloids. In contrast, the attachment of GO nanoparticles onto KGa-1b colloids was shown to increase with increasing IS. Additionally, time-resolved dynamic light scattering (DLS) was used to identify the influence of IS on heteroaggregation between GO nanoparticles and KGa-1b colloids. The critical coagulation concentration (CCC) for the interaction between GO nanoparticles and KGa-1b colloids was 152mM (NaCl). The interaction energies were calculated, for all experimental conditions, by using measured zeta potentials and applying the classical DLVO theory. The equilibrium experimental data were fitted with a Freundlich isotherm, and the attachment kinetics were described very well with a pseudo-second-order model. Furthermore, thermodynamic analysis revealed that the attachment process was nonspontaneous and exothermic.

  6. Multifunctional Hybrid Fe2O3-Au Nanoparticles for Efficient Plasmonic Heating.

    PubMed

    Murph, Simona E Hunyadi; Larsen, George K; Lascola, Robert J

    2016-02-20

    One of the most widely used methods for manufacturing colloidal gold nanospherical particles involves the reduction of chloroauric acid (HAuCl4) to neutral gold Au(0) by reducing agents, such as sodium citrate or sodium borohydride. The extension of this method to decorate iron oxide or similar nanoparticles with gold nanoparticles to create multifunctional hybrid Fe2O3-Au nanoparticles is straightforward. This approach yields fairly good control over Au nanoparticle dimensions and loading onto Fe2O3. Additionally, the Au metal size, shape, and loading can easily be tuned by changing experimental parameters (e.g., reactant concentrations, reducing agents, surfactants, etc.). An advantage of this procedure is that the reaction can be done in air or water, and, in principle, is amenable to scaling up. The use of such optically tunable Fe2O3-Au nanoparticles for hyperthermia studies is an attractive option as it capitalizes on plasmonic heating of gold nanoparticles tuned to absorb light strongly in the VIS-NIR region. In addition to its plasmonic effects, nanoscale Au provides a unique surface for interesting chemistries and catalysis. The Fe2O3 material provides additional functionality due to its magnetic property. For example, an external magnetic field could be used to collect and recycle the hybrid Fe2O3-Au nanoparticles after a catalytic experiment, or alternatively, the magnetic Fe2O3 can be used for hyperthermia studies through magnetic heat induction. The photothermal experiment described in this report measures bulk temperature change and nanoparticle solution mass loss as functions of time using infrared thermocouples and a balance, respectively. The ease of sample preparation and the use of readily available equipment are distinct advantages of this technique. A caveat is that these photothermal measurements assess the bulk solution temperature and not the surface of the nanoparticle where the heat is transduced and the temperature is likely to be higher.

  7. Nonspherical noble metal nanoparticles: colloid-chemical synthesis and morphology control.

    PubMed

    Sau, Tapan K; Rogach, Andrey L

    2010-04-22

    Metal nanoparticles have been the subject of widespread research over the past two decades. In recent years, noble metals have been the focus of numerous studies involving synthesis, characterization, and applications. Synthesis of an impressive range of noble metal nanoparticles with varied morphologies has been reported. Researchers have made a great progress in learning how to engineer materials on a nanometer length scale that has led to the understanding of the fundamental size- and shape-dependent properties of matter and to devising of new applications. In this article, we review the recent progress in the colloid-chemical synthesis of nonspherical nanoparticles of a few important noble metals (mainly Ag, Au, Pd, and Pt), highlighting the factors that influence the particle morphology and discussing the mechanisms behind the nonspherical shape evolution. The article attempts to present a thorough discussion of the basic principles as well as state-of-the-art morphology control in noble metal nanoparticles.

  8. Synthesis and optical properties of colloidal gold nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, Nguyen Ngoc; Van Vu, Le; Kiem, Chu Dinh; Cong Doanh, Sai; Thi Nguyet, Cao; Thi Hang, Pham; Duy Thien, Nguyen; Quynh, Luu Manh

    2009-09-01

    Colloidal gold nanoparticles (spheres) have been prepared from HAuCl4 containing aqueous solution by using X-ray irradiation and by chemical reduction method. Gold nanorods were synthesized according to the seed-mediated growth method. The colloidal gold nanoparticles were characterized by using transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and UV-VIS absorption spectroscopy. It was found that the concentration of the precursors affects the size of the nanoparticles. In the chemical reduction approach the size of nanoparticles can be controlled by varying amount of trisodium citrate, but in the photochemical method the size of nanoparticles can been controlled by varying the ratio of HAuCl4 to TX-100 and X-ray irradiation duration. Gold nanorods have been synthesized according to the seed-mediated growth method with two steps. The effect of silver acetate and CTAB on formation of gold nanorods has been studied.

  9. Heteroaggregation of titanium dioxide nanoparticles with natural clay colloids.

    PubMed

    Labille, Jérôme; Harns, Carrie; Bottero, Jean-Yves; Brant, Jonathan

    2015-06-02

    To better understand and predict the fate of engineered nanoparticles in the water column, we assessed the heteroaggregation of TiO2 nanoparticles with a smectite clay as analogues for natural colloids. Heteroaggregation was evaluated as a function of water salinity (10(-3) and 10(-1) M NaCl), pH (5 and 8), and selected nanoparticle concentration (0-4 mg/L). Time-resolved laser diffraction was used, coupled to an aggregation model, to identify the key mechanisms and variables that drive the heteroaggregation of the nanoparticles with colloids. Our data show that, at a relevant concentration, nanoparticle behavior is mainly driven by heteroaggregation with colloids, while homoaggregation remains negligible. The affinity of TiO2 nanoparticles for clay is driven by electrostatic interactions. Opposite surface charges and/or high ionic strength favored the formation of primary heteroaggregates via the attachment of nanoparticles to the clay. The initial shape and dispersion state of the clay as well as the nanoparticle/clay concentration ratio also affected the nature of the heteroaggregation mechanism. With dispersed clay platelets (10(-3) M NaCl), secondary heteroaggregation driven by bridging nanoparticles occurred at a nanoparticle/clay number ratio of greater than 0.5. In 10(-1) M NaCl, the clay was preaggregated into larger and more spherical units. This favored secondary heteroaggregation at lower nanoparticle concentration that correlated to the nanoparticle/clay surface area ratio. In this latter case, a nanoparticle to clay sticking efficiency could be determined.

  10. Study on the immobilization of anti-IgG on Au-colloid modified gold electrode via potentiometric immunosensor, cyclic voltammetry, and electrochemical impedance techniques.

    PubMed

    Fu, Yingzi; Yuan, Ruo; Tang, Dianping; Chai, Yaqin; Xu, Lan

    2005-01-15

    The immobilization of anti-IgG on Au-colloid modified gold electrodes has been investigated. A cleaned gold electrode was first immersed in a mercaptoethylamine (AET) solution, and then gold nanoparticles were chemisorbed onto the thiol groups of the mercaptoethylamine. Finally, anti-IgG was adsorbed onto the surface of the gold nanoparticles. Potentiometric immunosensor, cyclic voltammetry, and electrochemical impedance techniques were used to investigate the immobilization of anti-IgG on Au colloids. In the impedance spectroscopic study, an obvious difference of the electron transfer resistance between the Au-colloid modified electrode and the bare gold electrode was observed. The cyclic voltammogram tends to be more irreversible with increased anti-IgG concentration. Using the potentiometric immunosensor, the proposed technique is based on that the specific agglutination of antibody-coated gold nanoparticles, averaging 16 nm in diameter, in the presence of the corresponding antigen causes a potential change that is monitored by a potentiometry. It is found that the developed immunoagglutination assay system is sensitive to the concentration of IgG antigen as low as 12 ng mL(-1). Experimental results showed that the developed technique is in satisfactory agreement with the ELISA method, and that gold nanoparticles can be used as a biocompatible matrix for antibody or antigen immobilization.

  11. Nanoparticle dispersions: A colloid and polymer solution perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Schoot, Paul

    For most solid nanoparticles there are no true solvents in the sense that a powder or crystal of these nanoparticles would spontaneously dissolve when immersed in them. There are exceptions but these typically involve unusual solvents such as super acids or chemical modification of the particles to make particles and solvent compatible. Conventional fluids, including water, are generally poor solvents or dispersants and in them the nanoparticles need to be stabilised against aggregation. Indeed, nanoparticles dispersed or dissolved in a liquid behave very much like polymers and colloidal particles do. The properties of such dispersions can thus be understood in terms of what is known about the behaviour of colloids and polymer solutions. Important aspects are Van der Waals and Coulomb interactions, steric interactions, the impact of depletion agents, phase separation and the tendency of elongated colloidal particles and stiff polymers to form nematic and other types of liquid-crystalline phase. For this book a question of particular interest is how the nanoparticles behave if they are present in a liquid crystalline host fluid, and what kind of medium-induced interaction operates between these particles. However, most types of interaction are also present in isotropic host uids, so the attention of this chapter will primarily be directed towards conventional dispersions. I shall give an overview of the physico-chemical principles most relevant to understanding the behaviour of fluid dispersions and solutions of nanoparticles, using spherical, cylindrical and at, plate-like nanoparticles as illustrative examples.

  12. Oral Toxicity and Intestinal Transport Mechanism of Colloidal Gold Nanoparticle-Treated Red Ginseng

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Song-Hwa; Yu, Jin; Go, Mi-Ran; Kim, Hyun-Jin; Hwang, Yun-Gu; Choi, Soo-Jin

    2016-01-01

    (1) Background: Application of nanotechnology or nanomaterials in agricultural food crops has attracted increasing attention with regard to improving crop production, quality, and nutrient utilization. Gold nanoparticles (Au-NPs) have been reported to enhance seed yield, germination rate, and anti-oxidant potential in food crops, raising concerns about their toxicity potential. In this study, we evaluated the oral toxicity of red ginseng exposed to colloidal Au-NPs during cultivation (G-red ginseng) in rats and their intestinal transport mechanism. (2) Methods: 14-day repeated oral administration of G-red ginseng extract to rats was performed, and body weight, hematological, serum biochemical, and histopathological values were analyzed. An in vitro model of human intestinal follicle-associated epithelium (FAE) and an intestinal epithelial monolayer system were used for intestinal transport mechanistic study. (3) Results: No remarkable oral toxicity of G-red ginseng extract in rats was found, and Au-NPs did not accumulate in any organ, although Au-NP transfer to G-red ginseng and some increased saponin levels were confirmed. Au-NPs were transcytozed by microfold (M) cells, but not by a paracellular pathway in the intestinal epithelium. (4) Conclusion: These findings suggest great potential of Au-NPs for agricultural food crops at safe levels. Further study is required to elucidate the functional effects of Au-NPs on ginseng and long-term toxicity. PMID:28335336

  13. Enhanced Photoresponse of Conductive Polymer Nanowires Embedded with Au Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Junchang; Zhong, Liubiao; Sun, Yinghui; Li, Anran; Huang, Jing; Meng, Fanben; Chandran, Bevita K; Li, Shuzhou; Jiang, Lin; Chen, Xiaodong

    2016-04-20

    A conductive polymer nanowire embedded with a 1D Au nanoparticle chain with defined size, shape, and interparticle distance is fabricated which demonstrates enhanced photoresponse behavior. The precise and controllable positioning of 1D Au nanoparticle chain in the conductive polymer nanowire plays a critical role in modulating the photoresponse behavior by excitation light wavelength or power due to the coupled-plasmon effect of 1D Au nanoparticle chain.

  14. Protective Agent-Free Synthesis of Colloidal Cobalt Nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Balela, M. D. L.; Lockman, Z.; Azizan, A.; Matsubara, E.; Amorsolo, A. V. Jr.

    2010-03-11

    Spherical colloidal cobalt (Co) nanoparticles of about 2-7 nm were synthesized by hydrazine reduction in ethylene glycol at 80 deg. C. The mean diameter of the Co nanoparticles was varied to some extent by changing the pH, temperature, Co(II) chloride hexahydrate concentration, and amount of hydrazine. The Co particle size was reduced by decreasing Co(II) chloride concentration and increasing amount of hydrazine.

  15. Extraordinary Hall-effect in colloidal magnetic nanoparticle films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben Gur, Leah; Tirosh, Einat; Segal, Amir; Markovich, Gil; Gerber, Alexander

    2017-03-01

    Colloidal nickel nanoparticles (NPs) coated with polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) were synthesized. The nanoparticle dispersions were deposited on substrates and dried under mild heating to form conductive films. The films exhibited very small coercivity, nearly metallic conductivity, and a significant extraordinary Hall effect signal. This method could be useful for preparing simple, printed magnetic field sensors with the advantage of relatively high sensitivity around zero magnetic field, in contrast to magnetoresistive sensors, which have maximal field sensitivity away from zero magnetic field.

  16. A total-synthesis framework for the construction of high-order colloidal hybrid nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buck, Matthew R.; Bondi, James F.; Schaak, Raymond E.

    2012-01-01

    Colloidal hybrid nanoparticles contain multiple nanoscale domains fused together by solid-state interfaces. They represent an emerging class of multifunctional lab-on-a-particle architectures that underpin future advances in solar energy conversion, fuel-cell catalysis, medical imaging and therapy, and electronics. The complexity of these ‘artificial molecules’ is limited ultimately by the lack of a mechanism-driven design framework. Here, we show that known chemical reactions can be applied in a predictable and stepwise manner to build complex hybrid nanoparticle architectures that include M-Pt-Fe3O4 (M = Au, Ag, Ni, Pd) heterotrimers, MxS-Au-Pt-Fe3O4 (M = Pb, Cu) heterotetramers and higher-order oligomers based on the heterotrimeric Au-Pt-Fe3O4 building block. This synthetic framework conceptually mimics the total-synthesis approach used by chemists to construct complex organic molecules. The reaction toolkit applies solid-state nanoparticle analogues of chemoselective reactions, regiospecificity, coupling reactions and molecular substituent effects to the construction of exceptionally complex hybrid nanoparticle oligomers.

  17. Regulating the surface plasmon resonance coupling between Au-nanoparticle and Au-film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shuang; Li, Kewu; Zhang, Rui; Jing, Ning; Chen, Youhua; Chen, Yuanyuan; Wang, Zhibin

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we report the coupling between the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) of Au-nanoparticles and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) of the Au-film. According to the conditions for SPR excitation of the classical Kretschmann-Raether structure with 50nm Au thin film, the commonly used classes of spherical Au-nanoparticle is studied and optimized. We used the finite element analysis (COMSOL Multiphysics 5.0), to simulate the coupling. The results from calculation and simulation indicate that the resonant plasmonic coupling between Au-nanoparticles and Au-film could lead to a large field enhancement and thus improve SPR. We demonstrate that the resonant plasmonic coupling could be regulated by the size of nanoparticles, the distance between nanoparticles .

  18. Asymmetric silica encapsulation toward colloidal Janus nanoparticles: a concave nanoreactor for template-synthesis of an electocatalytic hollow Pt nanodendrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koo, Jung Hun; Kim, Daun; Kim, Jin Goo; Jeong, Hwakyeung; Kim, Jongwon; Lee, In Su

    2016-07-01

    A novel reverse microemulsion strategy was developed to asymmetrically encapsulate metal-oxide nanoparticles in silica by exploiting the self-catalytic growth of aminosilane-containing silica at a single surface site. This strategy produced various colloidal Janus nanoparticles, including Au/Fe3O4@asy-SiO2, which were converted to an Au-containing silica nanosphere, Au@con-SiO2, by reductive Fe3O4 dissolution. The use of Au@con-SiO2 as a metal-growing nanoreactor allowed the templated synthesis of various noble-metal nanocrystals, including a hollow dendritic Pt nanoshell which exhibits significantly better electrocatalytic activities for the oxygen reduction reaction than commercial Pt/C catalysts.A novel reverse microemulsion strategy was developed to asymmetrically encapsulate metal-oxide nanoparticles in silica by exploiting the self-catalytic growth of aminosilane-containing silica at a single surface site. This strategy produced various colloidal Janus nanoparticles, including Au/Fe3O4@asy-SiO2, which were converted to an Au-containing silica nanosphere, Au@con-SiO2, by reductive Fe3O4 dissolution. The use of Au@con-SiO2 as a metal-growing nanoreactor allowed the templated synthesis of various noble-metal nanocrystals, including a hollow dendritic Pt nanoshell which exhibits significantly better electrocatalytic activities for the oxygen reduction reaction than commercial Pt/C catalysts. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c6nr03557d

  19. [Phytotoxicity of colloidal solutions of metal-containing nanoparticles].

    PubMed

    Konotop, Ie O; Kovalenko, M S; Ulynets', V Z; Meleshko, A O; Batsmanova, L M; Taran, N Iu

    2014-01-01

    Phytotoxicity of colloidal solutions of metal-containing nanoparticles (Ag, Cu, Fe, Zn, Mn) has been investigated using a standard Allium cepa (L.) test system. Toxicity of experimental solutions at the organism level was evaluated in terms of biomass growth of onion roots, and cytotoxicity was estimated by the mitotic index of root meristem cells. The colloidal solutions of metal nanoparticles inhibited the growth of Allium cepa (L.) roots due to their ability to penetrate into cells and interact with their components, and thus to inhibit mitosis. According to our results cytotoxicity of test solutions decreases in the following order: Cu > or = Zn > Ag > or = Fe. Solution of Mn-containing nanoparticles revealed physiological activity according to root growth reaction.

  20. Solution-Stable Colloidal Gold Nanoparticles via Surfactant-Free, Hyperbranched Polyglycerol-b-polystyrene Unimolecular Templates.

    PubMed

    Iocozzia, James; Lin, Zhiqun

    2016-07-19

    Hyperbranched polyglycerol-block-polystyrene copolymers, denoted HPG-b-PS, are synthesized and employed as a new and effective unimolecular template for synthesizing colloidal gold (Au) nanoparticles. The coordination of noble metal precursors with polyether within the inner HPG core and subsequent in situ reduction enables the formation of well-dispersed and stable PS-capped Au nanoparticles. The inner HPG core is produced via ring opening multibranching polymerization (ROMBP) and subsequently converted into atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) macroinitiators for the controlled growth of polystyrene (PS) arms possessing low polydispersity (PDI < 1.31). An initial investigation into the templating parameters of HPG-b-PS was undertaken by producing templates with different arm numbers (98 and 117) and different PS chain lengths (i.e., molecular weight = 3500-13400 g/mol). It was found that the PS chain length and solvent conditions affect the quality of the resulting PS-capped colloidal Au nanoparticles. This work demonstrates, for the first time, a simple, lower-cost approach for templating nonpolar solvent-soluble PS-capped Au nanoparticles on the order of 10-30 nm in diameter.

  1. Surfactant-assisted stabilization of Au colloids on solids for heterogeneous catalysis

    DOE PAGES

    Zhan, Wangcheng; Shu, Yuan; Sheng, Yujie; ...

    2017-03-22

    Here, the stabilization of surfactant-assisted synthesized colloidal noble metal nanoparticles (NPs, e.g., Au NPs) on solids is a promising strategy for preparing supported nanocatalysts for heterogeneous catalysis because of their uniform particle sizes, controllable shapes, and tunable compositions. However, the removal of surfactants to obtain clean surfaces for catalysis through traditional approaches (e.g., solvent extraction and thermal decomposition) can easily induce the sintering of NPs, greatly hampering their use in synthesis of novel catalysts. Herein, we demonstrate that such unwanted surfactants can be utilized to stabilize NPs on solids via a simple yet efficient thermal annealing strategy. After being annealedmore » in N2 flow, the surface-bound surfactants are in situ carbonized as sacrificial architectures that form a conformal coating on NPs and assist in creating an enhanced metal-support interaction between NPs and substrate, thus slowing down the Ostwald ripening process during post-oxidative calcination to remove surface covers.« less

  2. Novel anti-reflection technology for GaAs single-junction solar cells using surface patterning and Au nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Kim, Youngjo; Lam, Nguyen Dinh; Kim, Kangho; Kim, Sangin; Rotermund, Fabian; Lim, Hanjo; Lee, Jaejin

    2012-07-01

    Single-junction GaAs solar cell structures were grown by low-pressure MOCVD on GaAs (100) substrates. Micro-rod arrays with diameters of 2 microm, 5 microm, and 10 microm were fabricated on the surfaces of the GaAs solar cells via photolithography and wet chemical etching. The patterned surfaces were coated with Au nanoparticles using an Au colloidal solution. Characteristics of the GaAs solar cells with and without the micro-rod arrays and Au nanoparticles were investigated. The short-circuit current density of the GaAs solar cell with 2 microm rod arrays and Au nanoparticles increased up to 34.9% compared to that of the reference cell without micro-rod arrays and Au nanoparticles. The conversion efficiency of the GaAs solar cell that was coated with Au nanoparticles on the patterned surface with micro-rod arrays can be improved from 14.1% to 19.9% under 1 sun AM 1.5G illumination. These results show that micro-rod arrays and Au nanoparticle coating can be applied together in surface patterning to achieve a novel cost-effective anti-reflection technology.

  3. Shear banding in drying films of colloidal nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Yang, Bin; Sharp, James S; Smith, Michael I

    2015-04-28

    Drying suspensions of colloidal nanoparticles exhibit a variety of interesting strain release mechanisms during film formation. These result in the selection of characteristic length scales during failure processes such as cracking and subsequent delamination. A wide range of materials (e.g., bulk metallic glasses) release strain through plastic deformations which occur in a narrow band of material known as a shear band. Here we show that drying colloidal films also exhibit shear banding. Bands are observed to form a small distance behind the drying front and then to propagate rapidly at ∼45° to the direction of drying. It is shown that the spacing of the bands depends on salt concentration and the evaporation rate of the colloidal suspension. These combined observations suggest that there is a critical shear rate (related to the film yield stress) which controls the ratio of bandwidth to band spacing. Local deformations were measured in the early stages of drying using fluorescent tracer particles. The measurements were used to show that the existence of shear bands is linked to the compaction of particles perpendicular to the drying front. The spacing of shear bands was also found to be strongly correlated with the characteristic length scale of the compaction process. These combined studies elucidate the role of plastic deformation during pattern formation in drying films of colloidal nanoparticles.

  4. Non-hazardous anticancerous and antibacterial colloidal 'green' silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Barua, Shaswat; Konwarh, Rocktotpal; Bhattacharya, Satya Sundar; Das, Pallabi; Devi, K Sanjana P; Maiti, Tapas K; Mandal, Manabendra; Karak, Niranjan

    2013-05-01

    Poly(ethylene glycol) stabilized colloidal silver nanoparticles were prepared using the reductive potency of the aqueous extract of Thuja occidentalis leaves under ambient conditions. The nanoparticles were well dispersed within a narrow size spectrum (7-14 nm) and displayed characteristic surface plasmon resonance peak at around 420 nm and Bragg's reflection planes of fcc structure. MTT assay revealed the dose-dependent cytocompatibility and toxicity of the nanoparticles with the L929 normal cell line. On the other hand, the antiproliferative action of the nanoparticles was evaluated on HeLa cell (cancerous cells) line. Fluorescence and phase contrast microscopic imaging indicated the appearance of multinucleate stages with aggregation and nuclear membrane disruption of the HeLa cells post treatment with the nanoparticles. The interaction at the prokaryotic level was also assessed via differential antibacterial efficacy against Staphylococcus aureus (MTCC 3160) and Escherichia coli (MTCC 40). Under these perspectives, it is also necessary to observe the environmental impact of the prepared silver nanoparticles. Hence, the dose dependent toxicity of silver nanoparticles was evaluated upon the earthworm species Eisenia fetida. Neither the survival nor the reproduction was affected by the addition of silver nanoparticles up to 1000 ppm. Thus these 'green' silver nanoparticles have promising potential as future materials.

  5. Dielectric Anisotropy of Gold Nanoparticle Colloids in Nematic Liquid Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Visco, Angelo; Foust, Jon; Mahmood, Rizwan

    We present electrical and optical studies of hexanethiol-treated gold nanoparticle (GNPs) colloids in 4-cyano-4 '-pentyl-biphenyl (5CB) liquid crystals. Preliminary data analysis suggests an unusual behavior of sudden drop and then rise in the dielectric anisotropy at a critical concentration of 0.0862% by wt. GNPs and a sudden rise and then drop in the nematic to isotropic transition temperature. Above the critical concentration the data level off to within the uncertainty of the experimental errors. This colloidal system will help us to understand the interaction and the effects of nanoparticles on the self-assembly of LC molecules and the manner in which these particles organize in LC. This study is important for further developments in nanotechnology, sharp and fast display panels, and within the medical field.

  6. Antimicrobial polyethyleneimine-silver nanoparticles in a stable colloidal dispersion.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyun Ju; Lee, Se Guen; Oh, Eun Jung; Chung, Ho Yun; Han, Sang Ik; Kim, Eun Jung; Seo, Song Yi; Ghim, Han Do; Yeum, Jeong Hyun; Choi, Jin Hyun

    2011-11-01

    Excellent colloidal stability and antimicrobial activity are important parameters for silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in a range of biomedical applications. In this study, polyethyleneimine (PEI)-capped silver nanoparticles (PEI-AgNPs) were synthesized in the presence of sodium borohydride (NaBH(4)) and PEI at room temperature. The PEI-AgNPs had a positive zeta potential of approximately +49 mV, and formed a stable nanocolloid against agglomeration due to electrostatic repulsion. The particle size and hydrodynamic cluster size showed significant correlations with the amount of PEI and NaBH(4). PEI-AgNPs and even PEI showed excellent antimicrobial activity against Staphylococus aureus and Klebsiella pneumoniae. The cytotoxic effects of PEI and PEI-AgNPs were confirmed by an evaluation of the cell viability. The results suggest that the amount of PEI should be minimized to the level that maintains the stability of PEI-AgNPs in a colloidal dispersion.

  7. FRET controlled photoluminescence in β-In2S3 microflower—Au nanoparticle ensemble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warrier, Anita R.; Parameswaran, Chithra; Bingi, Jayachandra; Vijayan, C.

    2016-06-01

    We report on the exciton-plasmon interaction and fluorescence resonance energy transfer controlled photoluminescence quenching and switching in β-In2S3 microflowers dispersed in Au nanoparticle colloid. The strong resonant interaction of excited β-In2S3 microflowers with the surface plasmons of Au nanoparticles (˜520 nm) lead to shift in the excitonic binding energy (2.4 eV) with a magnitude of ˜50 meV. In the proximity of Au nanoparticles, the broad emission spectrum of β-In2S3 microflowers with prominent peak at wavelength of ˜540 nm is quenched and the peak switches to wavelength of ˜600 nm. We demonstrate that the quenching and switching of emission band depends on the rate of fluorescence resonance energy transfer, extent of spectral overlap and β-In2S3 microflowers (donor)- Au nanoparticles (acceptor) distance. This study opens the wide possibility of fabricating sensors and photonic devices with tunable optical properties.

  8. Selective porous gates made from colloidal silica nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Avetta, Paola; Calza, Paola; Fabbri, Debora; Magnacca, Giuliana; Scalarone, Dominique

    2015-01-01

    Summary Highly selective porous films were prepared by spin-coating deposition of colloidal silica nanoparticles on an appropriate macroporous substrate. Silica nanoparticles very homogenous in size were obtained by sol–gel reaction of a metal oxide silica precursor, tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS), and using polystyrene-block-poly(ethylene oxide) (PS-b-PEO) copolymers as soft-templating agents. Nanoparticles synthesis was carried out in a mixed solvent system. After spin-coating onto a macroporous silicon nitride support, silica nanoparticles were calcined under controlled conditions. An organized nanoporous layer was obtained characterized by a depth filter-like structure with internal porosity due to interparticle voids. Permeability and size-selectivity were studied by monitoring the diffusion of probe molecules under standard conditions and under the application of an external stimulus (i.e., electric field). Promising results were obtained, suggesting possible applications of these nanoporous films as selective gates for controlled transport of chemical species in solution. PMID:26665082

  9. Removal of Metal Nanoparticles Colloidal Solutions by Water Plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olkhovych, Olga; Svietlova, Nataliia; Konotop, Yevheniia; Karaushu, Olena; Hrechishkina, Svitlana

    2016-11-01

    The ability of seven species of aquatic plants ( Elodea canadensis, Najas guadelupensis, Vallisneria spiralis L., Riccia fluitans L., Limnobium laevigatum, Pistia stratiotes L., and Salvinia natans L.) to absorb metal nanoparticles from colloidal solutions was studied. It was established that investigated aquatic plants have a high capacity for removal of metal nanoparticles from aqueous solution (30-100%) which indicates their high phytoremediation potential. Analysis of the water samples content for elements including the mixture of colloidal solutions of metal nanoparticles (Mn, Cu, Zn, Ag + Ag2O) before and after exposure to plants showed no significant differences when using submerged or free-floating hydrophytes so-called pleuston. However, it was found that the presence of submerged hydrophytes in aqueous medium ( E. canadensis, N. guadelupensis, V. spiralis L., and R. fluitans L.) and significant changes in the content of photosynthetic pigments, unlike free-floating hydrophytes ( L. laevigatum, P. stratiotes L., S. natans L.), had occur. Pleuston possesses higher potential for phytoremediation of contaminated water basins polluted by metal nanoparticles. In terms of removal of nanoparticles among studied free-floating hydrophytes, P. stratiotes L. and S. natans L. deserve on special attention.

  10. Solvent: A Key in Digestive Ripening for Monodisperse Au Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Peng; Qi, Xuan; Zhang, Xuemin; Wang, Tieqiang; Li, Yunong; Zhang, Kai; Zhao, Shuang; Zhou, Jun; Fu, Yu

    2017-01-01

    This work has mainly investigated the influence of the solvent on the nanoparticles distribution in digestive ripening. The experiments suggested that the solvents played a key role in digestive ripening of Au nanoparticles (Au NPs). For the benzol solvents, the resulting size distribution of Au NPs was inversely related to the solvent polarity. It may be interpreted by the low Gibbs free energy of nanoparticles in the high polarity medium, which was supposedly in favor of reducing the nanoparticles distribution. Through digestive ripening in the highly polar benzol solvent of p-chlorotoluene, monodisperse Au NPs with relative standard deviation (RSD) of 4.8% were achieved. This indicated that digestive ripening was an effective and practical way to prepare high-quality nanoparticles, which holds great promise for the nanoscience and nanotechnology.

  11. DNA-guided crystallization of colloidal nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nykypanchuk, Dmytro; Maye, Mathew M.; van der Lelie, Daniel; Gang, Oleg

    2008-01-01

    Many nanometre-sized building blocks will readily assemble into macroscopic structures. If the process is accompanied by effective control over the interactions between the blocks and all entropic effects, then the resultant structures will be ordered with a precision hard to achieve with other fabrication methods. But it remains challenging to use self-assembly to design systems comprised of different types of building blocks-to realize novel magnetic, plasmonic and photonic metamaterials, for example. A conceptually simple idea for overcoming this problem is the use of `encodable' interactions between building blocks; this can in principle be straightforwardly implemented using biomolecules. Strategies that use DNA programmability to control the placement of nanoparticles in one and two dimensions have indeed been demonstrated. However, our theoretical understanding of how to extend this approach to three dimensions is limited, and most experiments have yielded amorphous aggregates and only occasionally crystallites of close-packed micrometre-sized particles. Here, we report the formation of three-dimensional crystalline assemblies of gold nanoparticles mediated by interactions between complementary DNA molecules attached to the nanoparticles' surface. We find that the nanoparticle crystals form reversibly during heating and cooling cycles. Moreover, the body-centred-cubic lattice structure is temperature-tuneable and structurally open, with particles occupying only ~4% of the unit cell volume. We expect that our DNA-mediated crystallization approach, and the insight into DNA design requirements it has provided, will facilitate both the creation of new classes of ordered multicomponent metamaterials and the exploration of the phase behaviour of hybrid systems with addressable interactions.

  12. On the thermal conductivity of gold nanoparticle colloids.

    PubMed

    Shalkevich, Natallia; Escher, Werner; Bürgi, Thomas; Michel, Bruno; Si-Ahmed, Lynda; Poulikakos, Dimos

    2010-01-19

    Nanofluids (colloidal suspensions of nanoparticles) have been reported to display significantly enhanced thermal conductivities relative to those of conventional heat transfer fluids, also at low concentrations well below 1% per volume (Putnam, S. A., et at. J. Appl. Phys. 2006, 99, 084308; Liu, M.-S. L., et al. Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer. 2006, 49; Patel, H. E., et al. Appl. Phys. Lett. 2003, 83, 2931-2933). The purpose of this paper is to evaluate the effect of the particle size, concentration, stabilization method and particle clustering on the thermal conductivity of gold nanofluids. We synthesized spherical gold nanoparticles of different size (from 2 to 45 nm) and prepared stable gold colloids in the range of volume fraction of 0.00025-1%. The colloids were inspected by UV-visible spectroscopy, transmission electron microscope (TEM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS). The thermal conductivity has been measured by the transient hot-wire method (THW) and the steady state parallel plate method (GAP method). Despite a significant search in parameter space no significant anomalous enhancement of thermal conductivity was observed. The highest enhancement in thermal conductivity is 1.4% for 40 nm sized gold particles stabilized by EGMUDE (triethyleneglycolmono-11-mercaptoundecylether) and suspended in water with a particle-concentration of 0.11 vol%.

  13. DNA Linker Mediated Assembly of Colloidal Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Huiming; van der Lelie, Daniel; Gang, Oleg

    2009-03-01

    When flexible ssDNA linkers are added to the mixture of two types of dispersed, ssDNAs capped gold nanocolloids which are mutually non-complementary but complementary to the respective ends of the linker DNA, a crystalline phase of body-centered-cubic unit cell forms. The phase diagram of DNA linker mediated nanoparticle assemblies has been experimentally investigated and constructed by using in-situ small angle x-ray scattering. The influence of linkage defects on crystalline structure was also examined.

  14. Copolymerization of Metal Nanoparticles: A Route to Colloidal Plasmonic Copolymers**

    PubMed Central

    Lukach, Ariella; Sugikawa, Kota; Chung, Siyon; Vickery, Jemma; Therien-Aubin, Heloise; Yang, Bai; Rubinstein, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The resemblance between colloidal and molecular polymerization reactions has been recognized as a powerful tool for the fundamental studies of polymerization reactions, as well as a platform for the development of new nanoscale systems with desired properties. Future applications of colloidal polymers will require nanoparticle (NP) ensembles with a high degree of complexity that can be realized by hetero-assembly of NPs with different dimensions, shapes and compositions. In the present work, we have developed a method to apply strategies from molecular copolymerization to the co-assembly of gold nanorods with different dimensions into random and block copolymer structures (plasmonic copolymers). The approach was extended to the co-assembly of random copolymers of gold and palladium nanorods. A kinetic model validated and further expanded the kinetic theories developed for molecular copolymerization reactions. PMID:24520012

  15. Colloidal stability of polymeric nanoparticles in biological fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazzari, Stefano; Moscatelli, Davide; Codari, Fabio; Salmona, Mario; Morbidelli, Massimo; Diomede, Luisa

    2012-06-01

    Estimating the colloidal stability of polymeric nanoparticles (NPs) in biological environments is critical for designing optimal preparations and to clarify the fate of these devices after administration. To characterize and quantify the physical stability of nanodevices suitable for biomedical applications, spherical NPs composed of poly-lactic acid (PLA) and poly-methyl-methacrylate (PMMA), in the range 100-200 nm, were prepared. Their stability in salt solutions, biological fluids, serum and tissue homogenates was analyzed by dynamic light scattering (DLS). The PMMA NPs remained stable in all fluids, while PLA NPs aggregated in gastric juice and spleen homogenate. The proposed stability test is therefore useful to see in advance whether NPs might aggregate when administered in vivo. To assess colloidal stability ex vivo as well, spectrophotofluorimetric analysis was employed, giving comparable results to DLS.

  16. Understanding Structure-Property Relationships for Palladium-Gold Nanoparticles as Colloidal Catalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Yu-Lun

    Bimetallic palladium-gold (PdAu) nanoparticle (NP) catalysts have been demonstrated for the better catalytic performance than monometallic Pd catalysts in various reactions; however, the enhancement mechanism is not completely clear for most reactions. This thesis addresses the investigation of PdAu NP catalysts with emphasis on the structure-property relationships in water-phase reactions, using hydrodechlorination (HDC) of trichloroethene (TCE) as the model reaction. Catalyzed TCE HDC is a potential approach for water pollution control, in which colloidal Pd-decorated Au NPs (Pd/Au NPs) are known to be significantly better catalysts than monometallic Pd ones. X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) of carbon-supported Pd/Au NPs with different surface Pd coverages verified their core-shell structure (Au-rich core and Pd-rich shell). Structure evolution was observed upon heat treatment, in which Pd was in the form of surface Pd ensembles at room temperature. The metals formed a surface PdAu alloy or a bulk PdAu alloy above 200°C, as determined from the average coordination environment. Results suggested a new way to promote Pd catalysis, namely, by impregnating supported Pd catalysts with gold salt followed by thermal annealing; such post-impregnation with different heat treatments could lead to >15-fold increase in TCE HDC activity. Pd ensembles on the Au NP surface were demonstrated to be major active sites for TCE HDC as the reaction rates correlated strongly with the size of Pd ensembles determined from XAS. The geometric effect, in which atomic ensembles act as active sites, appeared to dominate over the mixed metal site effect and the electronic effect. Au NPs could stabilize surface Pd atoms in the metallic form, possibly leading to a set of highly active sites that is not present in monometallic Pd NPs. The TCE HDC reaction with Pd/Au NPs and Pd NPs was conducted as a closed batch system. Mass transfer effects in this three-phase reaction were assessed and

  17. The effect of Au amount on size uniformity of self-assembled Au nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, S.-H.; Wang, D.-C.; Chen, G.-Y.; Chen, K.-Y.

    2008-03-01

    The self-assembled fabrication of nanostructure, a dreaming approach in the area of fabrication engineering, is the ultimate goal of this research. A finding was proved through previous research that the size of the self-assembled gold nanoparticles could be controlled with the mole ratio between AuCl4- and thiol. In this study, the moles of Au were fixed, only the moles of thiol were adjusted. Five different mole ratios of Au/S with their effect on size uniformity were investigated. The mole ratios were 1:1/16, 1:1/8, 1:1, 1:8, 1:16, respectively. The size distributions of the gold nanoparticles were analyzed by Mac-View analysis software. HR-TEM was used to derive images of self-assembled gold nanoparticles. The result reached was also the higher the mole ratio between AuCl4- and thiol the bigger the self-assembled gold nanoparticles. Under the condition of moles of Au fixed, the most homogeneous nanoparticles in size distribution derived with the mole ratio of 1:1/8 between AuCl4- and thiol. The obtained nanoparticles could be used, for example, in uniform surface nanofabrication, leading to the fabrication of ordered array of quantum dots.

  18. An evaluation of acute toxicity of colloidal silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Maneewattanapinyo, Pattwat; Banlunara, Wijit; Thammacharoen, Chuchaat; Ekgasit, Sanong; Kaewamatawong, Theerayuth

    2011-11-01

    Tests for acute oral toxicity, eye irritation, corrosion and dermal toxicity of colloidal silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were conducted in laboratory animals following OECD guidelines. Oral administration of AgNPs at a limited dose of 5,000 mg/kg produced neither mortality nor acute toxic signs throughout the observation period. Percentage of body weight gain of the mice showed no significant difference between control and treatment groups. In the hematological analysis, there was no significant difference between mice treated with AgNPs and controls. Blood chemistry analysis also showed no differences in any of the parameter examined. There was neither any gross lesion nor histopathological change observed in various organs. The results indicated that the LD(50) of colloidal AgNPs is greater than 5,000 mg/kg body weight. In acute eye irritation and corrosion study, no mortality and toxic signs were observed when various doses of colloidal AgNPs were instilled in guinea pig eyes during 72 hr observation period. However, the instillation of AgNPs at 5,000 ppm produced transient eye irritation during early 24 hr observation time. No any gross abnormality was noted in the skins of the guinea pigs exposed to various doses of colloidal AgNPs. In addition, no significant AgNPs exposure relating to dermal tissue changes was observed microscopically. In summary, these findings of all toxicity tests in this study suggest that colloidal AgNPs could be relatively safe when administered to oral, eye and skin of the animal models for short periods of time.

  19. Non-lithographic SERS substrates: tailoring surface chemistry for Au nanoparticle cluster assembly.

    PubMed

    Adams, Sarah M; Campione, Salvatore; Caldwell, Joshua D; Bezares, Francisco J; Culbertson, James C; Capolino, Filippo; Ragan, Regina

    2012-07-23

    Near-field plasmonic coupling and local field enhancement in metal nanoarchitectures, such as arrangements of nanoparticle clusters, have application in many technologies from medical diagnostics, solar cells, to sensors. Although nanoparticle-based cluster assemblies have exhibited signal enhancements in surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) sensors, it is challenging to achieve high reproducibility in SERS response using low-cost fabrication methods. Here an innovative method is developed for fabricating self-organized clusters of metal nanoparticles on diblock copolymer thin films as SERS-active structures. Monodisperse, colloidal gold nanoparticles are attached via a crosslinking reaction on self-organized chemically functionalized poly(methyl methacrylate) domains on polystyrene-block-poly(methyl methacrylate) templates. Thereby nanoparticle clusters with sub-10-nanometer interparticle spacing are achieved. Varying the molar concentration of functional chemical groups and crosslinking agent during the assembly process is found to affect the agglomeration of Au nanoparticles into clusters. Samples with a high surface coverage of nanoparticle cluster assemblies yield relative enhancement factors on the order of 10⁹ while simultaneously producing uniform signal enhancements in point-to-point measurements across each sample. High enhancement factors are associated with the narrow gap between nanoparticles assembled in clusters in full-wave electromagnetic simulations. Reusability for small-molecule detection is also demonstrated. Thus it is shown that the combination of high signal enhancement and reproducibility is achievable using a completely non-lithographic fabrication process, thereby producing SERS substrates having high performance at low cost.

  20. Biosynthesis of Au, Ag and Au-Ag nanoparticles using edible mushroom extract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Philip, Daizy

    2009-07-01

    Integration of green chemistry principles to nanotechnology is one of the key issues in nanoscience research. There is growing need to develop environmentally benign metal nanoparticle synthesis process that do not use toxic chemicals in the synthesis protocols to avoid adverse effects in medical applications. Here, it is a report on extracellular synthesis method for the preparation of Au, Ag and Au-Ag nanoparticles in water, using the extract of Volvariella volvacea, a naturally occurring edible mushroom, as reducing and protecting agents. Gold nanoparticles of different sizes (20-150 nm) and shapes from triangular nanoprisms to nearly spherical and hexagonal are obtained by this novel method. The size and shape of gold nanoparticles are also found to depend on temperature of the extract. The silver nanoparticles are spherical with size ˜15 nm. There is increased productivity of nanoparticles as shown by sharp and intense surface plasmon resonance bands for the nanoparticles prepared using an excess of the extract. The Au-Ag nanoparticles prepared by co-reduction has only one plasmon band due to alloying of the constituents. All the synthesized nanoparticles are found to be photoluminescent and are highly crystalline as shown by SAED and XRD patterns with fcc phase oriented along the (1 1 1) plane. FTIR measurements were carried out to identify the possible biomolecules responsible for capping and efficient stabilization of the nanoparticles. It is found that Au nanoparticles are bound to proteins through free amino groups and silver nanoparticles through the carboxylate group of the amino acid residues. The position and intensity of the emission band is found to depend on composition of the nanoparticles indicating the possible use in therapeutic applications.

  1. Synthesis of Au/TiO2 Core-Shell Nanoparticles from Titanium Isopropoxide and Thermal Resistance Effect of TiO2 Shell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Hyun-Woo; Lim, Young-Min; Tripathy, Suraj Kumar; Kim, Byoung-Gyu; Lee, Min-Sang; Yu, Yeon-Tae

    2007-04-01

    On the synthesis of Au/TiO2 core-shell structure nanoparticles, the effect of the concentration of Ti4+ on the morphology and optical property of Au/TiO2 core-shell nanoparticles was examined. A gold colloid was prepared by mixing HAuCl4\\cdot4H2O and C6H5Na3\\cdot2H2O. Titanium stock solution was prepared by mixing solutions of titanium(IV) isopropoxide (TTIP) and triethanolamine (TEOA). The concentration of the Ti4+ stock solution was adjusted to 0.01-0.3 mM, and then the gold colloid was added to the Ti4+ stock solution. Au/TiO2 core-shell structure nanoparticles could be prepared by the hydrolysis of the Ti4+ stock solution at 80 °C. The size of the as-prepared Au nanoparticles was 15 nm. The thickness of the TiO2 shell on the surface of gold particles was about 10 nm. The absorption peak of the Au/TiO2 core-shell nanoparticles shifted towards the red end of the spectrum by about 3 nm because of the formation of the TiO2 shell on the surface of the gold particles. The crystal structure of the TiO2 shell showed an anatase phase. The increase in the Au crystallite size of the Au/TiO2 nanoparticles with increasing heat treatment temperature is smaller than that in the pure Au nanoparticles. This may be due to the encapsulation of Au particles with the TiO2 shell that prevents the growth of the nanoparticle nucleation.

  2. Use of Polycrystalline Ice for Assembly of Large Area Au Nanoparticle Superstructures as SERS Substrates.

    PubMed

    Bekana, Deribachew; Liu, Rui; Amde, Meseret; Liu, Jing-Fu

    2017-01-11

    It is still a great challenge to develop simple and low-cost methods for preparation of surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrates with high sensitivity and reproducibility. Taking advantage of the microstructure of polycrystalline ice, we developed a new method to assemble large area gold nanoparticle (AuNP) superstructures as SERS substrates without external templating and aggregating agent. The assembly was conducted by freezing AuNP colloid at -20 °C, which concentrated AuNPs in the ice veins and produced an AuNP superstructure upon thawing the ice. The AuNP superstructures exhibited high SERS activity with enhancement factors on the order of 7.63 × 10(7) owing to the high-density hot spots throughout the superstructures. The SERS activity was found to increase with particle size and aggregate size of AuNP superstructures. Besides, the substrates showed good uniformity and reproducibility with relative standard deviations of 11.9% and 12.4%, respectively. The substrates showed long-term stability, maintaining SERS activity over a period of five months without noticeable change in morphology of the superstructures. The substrates was further used for label-free detection of trace Thiram on apple fruit with high sensitivity down to the concentration of 0.28 ng/cm(2), offering great potential to monitor Thiram levels in foodstuffs and environmental samples.

  3. Magnetism of Au Nanoparticles on Sulfolubus Acidocaldarius S-Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartolome, Juan; Bartolome, F.; Garcia, L. M.; Figueroa, A. I.; Herrmannsdoerfer, T.; Skrotzki, R.; Schoenemann, R.; Wosnitza, J.; Selenska-Pobell, S.; Geissler, A.; Reitz, T.; Wilhelm, F.; Rogalev, A.

    2011-03-01

    Au nanoparticles (NP) with diameters of a few nm have been synthesized on a protein S-layer of Sulfolobus Acidocaldarius bacteria. SQUID magnetization (1.8 K T 300 Kand 0 B 7 T) showssuperparamagneticbehavioratlow - T . ItsoriginlaysattheAuNP ' s , ashasbeenprovenbyAuL 2,3- edgeXMCDspectroscopy , performedintherange 2.2 T 20 KanduptoB app = 17 T . XMCDanalysisyieldsatotalmagneticmomentperAuatom μAu = 0.050 (1) μB , aparticleaveragemomentm part = 2.3 μB , Auorbitaltospinmomentratioofm L / m S = 0.29 Curie and - like superparamagnetism. Au - S bonds are detected by S K - edge XAS measurements. Besides , EXAFS at the Au L 3 -edge shows that the Au NP internal structure is fcc, and Au-S bonds are located at the particle surface. An increase of the hole charge carrier density in the Au 5d band due to electron transfer with the S-layer explains the Au magnetism. The observed magnetic moment per Au atom is 25 times larger than those previously found by XMCD in Au-thiol capped NPs.

  4. Cream formulation impact on topical administration of engineered colloidal nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Santini, Benedetta; Zanoni, Ivan; Marzi, Roberta; Cigni, Clara; Bedoni, Marzia; Gramatica, Furio; Palugan, Luca; Corsi, Fabio; Granucci, Francesca; Colombo, Miriam

    2015-01-01

    In order to minimize the impact of systemic toxicity of drugs in the treatment of local acute and chronic inflammatory reactions, the achievement of reliable and efficient delivery of therapeutics in/through the skin is highly recommended. While the use of nanoparticles is now an established practice for drug intravenous targeted delivery, their transdermal penetration is still poorly understood and this important administration route remains almost unexplored. In the present study, we have synthesized magnetic (iron oxide) nanoparticles (MNP) coated with an amphiphilic polymer, developed a water-in-oil emulsion formulation for their topical administration and compared the skin penetration routes with the same nanoparticles deposited as a colloidal suspension. Transmission and scanning electron microscopies provided ultrastructural evidence that the amphiphilic nanoparticles (PMNP) cream formulation allowed the efficient penetration through all the skin layers with a controllable kinetics compared to suspension formulation. In addition to the preferential follicular pathway, also the intracellular and intercellular routes were involved. PMNP that crossed all skin layers were quantified by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The obtained data suggests that combining PMNP amphiphilic character with cream formulation improves the intradermal penetration of nanoparticles. While PMNP administration in living mice via aqueous suspension resulted in preferential nanoparticle capture by phagocytes and migration to draining lymph nodes, cream formulation favored uptake by all the analyzed dermis cell types, including hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic. Unlike aqueous suspension, cream formulation also favored the maintenance of nanoparticles in the dermal architecture avoiding their dispersion and migration to draining lymph nodes via afferent lymphatics.

  5. Cream Formulation Impact on Topical Administration of Engineered Colloidal Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Marzi, Roberta; Cigni, Clara; Bedoni, Marzia; Gramatica, Furio; Palugan, Luca; Corsi, Fabio; Granucci, Francesca; Colombo, Miriam

    2015-01-01

    In order to minimize the impact of systemic toxicity of drugs in the treatment of local acute and chronic inflammatory reactions, the achievement of reliable and efficient delivery of therapeutics in/through the skin is highly recommended. While the use of nanoparticles is now an established practice for drug intravenous targeted delivery, their transdermal penetration is still poorly understood and this important administration route remains almost unexplored. In the present study, we have synthesized magnetic (iron oxide) nanoparticles (MNP) coated with an amphiphilic polymer, developed a water-in-oil emulsion formulation for their topical administration and compared the skin penetration routes with the same nanoparticles deposited as a colloidal suspension. Transmission and scanning electron microscopies provided ultrastructural evidence that the amphiphilic nanoparticles (PMNP) cream formulation allowed the efficient penetration through all the skin layers with a controllable kinetics compared to suspension formulation. In addition to the preferential follicular pathway, also the intracellular and intercellular routes were involved. PMNP that crossed all skin layers were quantified by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The obtained data suggests that combining PMNP amphiphilic character with cream formulation improves the intradermal penetration of nanoparticles. While PMNP administration in living mice via aqueous suspension resulted in preferential nanoparticle capture by phagocytes and migration to draining lymph nodes, cream formulation favored uptake by all the analyzed dermis cell types, including hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic. Unlike aqueous suspension, cream formulation also favored the maintenance of nanoparticles in the dermal architecture avoiding their dispersion and migration to draining lymph nodes via afferent lymphatics. PMID:25962161

  6. Single-step colloidal processing of stable aqueous dispersions of ferroelectric nanoparticles for biomedical imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zribi, Olena; Garbovskiy, Yuriy; Glushchenko, Anatoliy

    2014-12-01

    The biomedical applications of ferroelectric nanoparticles rely on the production of stable aqueous colloids. We report an implementation of the high energy ball milling method to produce and disperse ultrafine BaTiO3 nanoparticles in an aqueous media in a single step. This technique is low-cost, environmentally friendly and has the capability to control nanoparticle size and functionality with milling parameters. As a result, ultrafine nanoparticles with sizes as small as 6 nm can be produced. These nanoparticles maintain ferroelectricity and can be used as second harmonic generating nanoprobes for biomedical imaging. This technique can be generalized to produce aqueous nanoparticle colloids of other imaging materials.

  7. Spiral Patterning of Au Nanoparticles on Au Nanorod Surface to Form Chiral AuNR@AuNP Helical Superstructures Templated by DNA Origami.

    PubMed

    Shen, Chenqi; Lan, Xiang; Zhu, Chenggan; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Leyu; Wang, Qiangbin

    2017-02-20

    Plasmonic motifs with precise surface recognition sites are crucial for assembling defined nanostructures with novel functionalities and properties. In this work, a unique and effective strategy is successfully developed to pattern DNA recognition sites in a helical arrangement around a gold nanorod (AuNR), and a new set of heterogeneous AuNR@AuNP plasmonic helices is fabricated by attaching complementary-DNA-modified gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) to the predesigned sites on the AuNR surface. AuNR is first assembled to one side of a bifacial rectangular DNA origami, where eight groups of capture strands are selectively patterned on the other side. The subsequently added link strands make the rectangular DNA origami roll up around the AuNR into a tubular shape, therefore giving birth to a chiral patterning of DNA recognition sites on the surface of AuNR. Following the hybridization with the AuNPs capped with the complementary strands to the capture strands on the DNA origami, left-handed and right-handed AuNR@AuNP helical superstructures are precisely formed by tuning the pattern of the recognition sites on the AuNR surface. Our strategy of nanoparticle surface patterning innovatively realizes hierarchical self-assembly of plasmonic superstructures with tunable chiroptical responses, and will certainly broaden the horizon of bottom-up construction of other functional nanoarchitectures with growing complexity.

  8. Tailor-made Au@Ag core-shell nanoparticle 2D arrays on protein-coated graphene oxide with assembly enhanced antibacterial activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Huiqiao; Liu, Jinbin; Wu, Xuan; Tong, Zhonghua; Deng, Zhaoxiang

    2013-05-01

    Water-dispersible two-dimensional (2D) assemblies of Au@Ag core-shell nanoparticles are obtained through a highly selective electroless silver deposition on pre-assembled gold nanoparticles on bovine serum albumin (BSA)-coated graphene oxide (BSA-GO). While neither BSA-GO nor AuNP-decorated BSA-GO shows any antibacterial ability, the silver-coated GO@Au nanosheets (namely GO@Au@Ag) exhibit an enhanced antibacterial activity against Gram-negative Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacteria, superior to unassembled Au@Ag nanoparticles and even ionic Ag. Such an improvement may be attributed to the increased local concentration of silver nanoparticles around a bacterium and a polyvalent interaction with the bacterial surface. In addition, the colloidal stability of this novel nano-antimicrobial against the formation of random nanoparticle aggregates guarantees a minimized activity loss of the Au@Ag nanoparticles. The antibacterial efficacy of GO@Au@Ag is less sensitive to the existence of Cl-, in comparison with silver ions, providing another advantage for wound dressing applications. Our research unambiguously reveals a strong and very specific interaction between the GO@Au@Ag nanoassembly and E. coli, which could be an important clue toward a rational design, synthesis and assembly of innovative and highly active antibacterial nanomaterials.

  9. Electromagnetically assisted synthesis of highly concentrated gold nanoparticle colloids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez, Laura; Rosas, Walter; Naranjo, Guillermo; Peralta, Xomalin G.; Vargas, Watson L.

    2015-03-01

    The synthesis of metallic nanoparticles is currently an extremely active area of research due to the multiple potential applications of nanomaterials to areas ranging from nano-medicine to catalysis. Some of the current challenges of nanoparticle synthesis protocols include synthesizing nanoparticles in high concentrations with a small polydispersity. The present study contrasts and compares the synthesis of highly concentrated colloidal gold using three different sources of electromagnetic radiation to assist the reaction. The first source was a Spectra Physics Mai Tai Ti:Sapphire laser made by Sperian, this laser generates 70 fs FWHM pulses with wavelengths in the range of 690-1040 nm. The second source was sun light; this was measured to have a power of 10W. The third source was a lowelDP lamp with a measured intensity of 25W. Both the solar light and the lamp's rays were concentrated using a 28cm x 28cm Fresnel lens. Results will be presented highlighting differences and similarities in size, shape, crystallinity and time of the reaction. We speculate about the role played by variations in wavelength, temporal profile of the electromagnetic source (pulsed vs. continuous), temperature of the reaction and excitation power in the final structure of the nanoparticles generated.

  10. Fluorescence quenching of uranine on confeito-like Au nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Ujihara, Masaki; Dang, Nhut Minh; Imae, Toyoko

    2014-07-01

    Effect of structure and size of Au nanoparticles (AuNPs) on fluorescence behavior of uranine was examined. Confeito-like AuNPs with different sizes (30 nm, 60 nm and 100 nm, respectively) had plasmon absorption bands at 555, 600 and 660 nm, while the band of spherical AuNP (20 nm in size) was at 525 nm. Fluorescence of uranine was significantly quenched by the small and medium confeito-like AuNPs, and the quenching effect by the large particle was less. In comparison, the spherical AuNP quenched more remarkable than the confeito-like AuNPs. A mechanism of resonance energy transfer from uranine to AuNPs via the surface plasmon was suggested, and the strong quenching effect of the small AuNPs could be explained by the energy transfer from adsorbed uranine molecules to AuNPs. These behaviors indicate that the large confeito-like AuNPs can be a preferable nano-probe and useful for plasmonic devices, which can tune or maintain the fluorescence properties of other markers.

  11. Quantitative Evaluation of the Total Magnetic Moments of Colloidal Magnetic Nanoparticles: A Kinetics-based Method.

    PubMed

    Liu, Haiyi; Sun, Jianfei; Wang, Haoyao; Wang, Peng; Song, Lina; Li, Yang; Chen, Bo; Zhang, Yu; Gu, Ning

    2015-06-08

    A kinetics-based method is proposed to quantitatively characterize the collective magnetization of colloidal magnetic nanoparticles. The method is based on the relationship between the magnetic force on a colloidal droplet and the movement of the droplet under a gradient magnetic field. Through computational analysis of the kinetic parameters, such as displacement, velocity, and acceleration, the magnetization of colloidal magnetic nanoparticles can be calculated. In our experiments, the values measured by using our method exhibited a better linear correlation with magnetothermal heating, than those obtained by using a vibrating sample magnetometer and magnetic balance. This finding indicates that this method may be more suitable to evaluate the collective magnetism of colloidal magnetic nanoparticles under low magnetic fields than the commonly used methods. Accurate evaluation of the magnetic properties of colloidal nanoparticles is of great importance for the standardization of magnetic nanomaterials and for their practical application in biomedicine.

  12. Quantitative analysis of PEG-functionalized colloidal gold nanoparticles using charged aerosol detection.

    PubMed

    Smith, Mackensie C; Crist, Rachael M; Clogston, Jeffrey D; McNeil, Scott E

    2015-05-01

    Surface characteristics of a nanoparticle, such as functionalization with polyethylene glycol (PEG), are critical to understand and achieve optimal biocompatibility. Routine physicochemical characterization such as UV-vis spectroscopy (for gold nanoparticles), dynamic light scattering, and zeta potential are commonly used to assess the presence of PEG. However, these techniques are merely qualitative and are not sensitive enough to distinguish differences in PEG quantity, density, or presentation. As an alternative, two methods are described here which allow for quantitative measurement of PEG on PEGylated gold nanoparticles. The first, a displacement method, utilizes dithiothreitol to displace PEG from the gold surface. The dithiothreitol-coated gold nanoparticles are separated from the mixture via centrifugation, and the excess dithiothreitol and dissociated PEG are separated through reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). The second, a dissolution method, utilizes potassium cyanide to dissolve the gold nanoparticles and liberate PEG. Excess CN(-), Au(CN)2 (-), and free PEG are separated using RP-HPLC. In both techniques, the free PEG can be quantified against a standard curve using charged aerosol detection. The displacement and dissolution methods are validated here using 2-, 5-, 10-, and 20-kDa PEGylated 30-nm colloidal gold nanoparticles. Further value in these techniques is demonstrated not only by quantitating the total PEG fraction but also by being able to be adapted to quantitate the free unbound PEG and the bound PEG fractions. This is an important distinction, as differences in the bound and unbound PEG fractions can affect biocompatibility, which would not be detected in techniques that only quantitate the total PEG fraction.

  13. Electromagnetic Enhancement Factor of Surface-enhanced Raman Scattering of Rh6G Molecules on Au Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Jaetae; Kim, Wanjoong; Jung, Sungsoo

    2009-05-01

    Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) of molecules on nanometals has been intensively studied for technical application of bio-chemical sensing. Among physical origins of SERS enhancement, the electromagnetic effect is the most fundamental contribution of SERS enhancement. Relevant REF of C-C stretching mode of Rh6G near 1511 cm-1 was shown two-order enhancement with 5-nm Au colloidal nanoparticles. The REF was greatly enhanced up to ˜six orders with ˜35 nm Au particles, and was enhanced ˜five orders with 40-nm Au nanoparticles. The reduction of REF with smaller sizes is possibly due to the scattering of conduction electrons on particles surfaces; that with larger sizes is probably due to tips or complex structures. This work at Hampton University was supported by the National Science Foundation (HRD-0734635, HRD-0630372, and ESI-0426328/002) and the U.S. Army Research Office (W911NF-07-1-0608).

  14. Fe/Au Core-Shell Nanoparticles for Biomedical Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sra, Amandeep; Leslie-Pelecky, Diandra

    2009-10-01

    The physical properties of nanoparticles, including size, composition and surface chemistry, greatly influence biological and pharmacological properties and, ultimately, their clinical applications. Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles are widely used for applications such as MRI contrast agents, drug delivery via magnetic targeting and hyperthermia due to their chemical stability and biocompatibility; however, enhancing the saturation magnetization (Ms) of nanoparticles would produce greater sensitivity. Our design strategy involves a bottom-up wet chemistry approach to the synthesis of Fe nanoparticles. Specific advantages of Fe are the high value of Ms (210 emu/g in bulk) coupled with low toxicity; however, Fe nanoparticles must be protected from oxidation, which causes a dramatic reduction in Ms. To circumvent oxidation, Fe nanoparticles are coated with a Au shell that prevents the oxidation of the magnetic core and also provides the nanoparticles with plasmonic properties for optical stimulation. Ligands of various functionalities can be introduced through the well established Au-thiol surface chemistry for different biomedical applications while maintaining the magnetic functionality of the Fe core. In this presentation, we will discuss the physical, chemical and magnetic properties of our Fe/Au nanoparticles and their resistance to oxidation.

  15. Formation of one-dimensional Ag-Au solid solution colloids with Au nanorods as seeds, their alloying mechanisms, and surface plasmon resonances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Tao; Tan, Yiwei

    2012-12-01

    In this work, one dimensional (1D) Ag-Au solid solution nanoalloys were synthesized by rapidly diffusing Ag into the preformed Au nanorod (AuNR) seeds at ambient temperature in aqueous solution. By varying the molar ratio of AgCl/AuNR (in gold atoms), two kinds of 1D Ag-Au alloy nanostructures with a narrow size distribution--AgAu nanowires and Ag33Au67 nanorods--could be obtained in high yields when NaCl and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) were used as an additive and capping reagent, respectively. Based on HRTEM imaging combined with a series of control experiments, it is conceivable that vacancy/defect-motivated interdiffusion of Ag and Au atoms coupled with oxidative etching is a crucial stage in the mechanism responsible for this room-temperature alloying process, and the subsequent conjugation of the fused Ag-Au alloyed nanostructures is associated with the formation of the AgAu nanowires. The resulting 1D Ag-Au nanoalloys form stable colloidal dispersions and show unique localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) peaks in the ensemble extinction spectra.In this work, one dimensional (1D) Ag-Au solid solution nanoalloys were synthesized by rapidly diffusing Ag into the preformed Au nanorod (AuNR) seeds at ambient temperature in aqueous solution. By varying the molar ratio of AgCl/AuNR (in gold atoms), two kinds of 1D Ag-Au alloy nanostructures with a narrow size distribution--AgAu nanowires and Ag33Au67 nanorods--could be obtained in high yields when NaCl and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) were used as an additive and capping reagent, respectively. Based on HRTEM imaging combined with a series of control experiments, it is conceivable that vacancy/defect-motivated interdiffusion of Ag and Au atoms coupled with oxidative etching is a crucial stage in the mechanism responsible for this room-temperature alloying process, and the subsequent conjugation of the fused Ag-Au alloyed nanostructures is associated with the formation of the AgAu nanowires. The resulting 1D Ag-Au

  16. Heterostructured CIGS-Au nanoparticles: from Au-CIGS side-by-side structure to Au-core/CIGS-shell configuration.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yeming; Li, Quan

    2011-08-01

    Heterostructured Au-Copper Indium Gallium Selenide (CIGS) nanoparticles (nps) with Au-CIGS side-by-side and Au-core/CIGS-shell configurations have been synthesized in a controllable manner using seed mediated growth. Detailed microstructure analysis reveals that (112) planes in the tetragonal chalcopyrite CIGS serve as the predominant termination surfaces during single phase CIGS nanoparticle growth. Preferential nucleation of Au on such planes determines the Au-CIGS side-by-side configuration when the pre-synthesized CIGS nps are used as the seeds for further Au growth. Reversing the growth sequence by employing Au nano-seeds results in Au-core/CIGS-shell configuration, as determined by the non-preferential nucleation of CIGS on the spherical Au nanoparticle surface. The different morphological configurations of the heterostructures are found to modify the surface plasmon resonance of Au in the corresponding samples.

  17. Light-Induced Resistance Effect Observed in Nano Au Films Covered Two-Dimensional Colloidal Crystals.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shuai; Huang, Meizhen; Yao, Yanjie; Wang, Hui; Jin, Kui-juan; Zhan, Peng; Wang, Zhenlin

    2015-09-09

    Tailoring resistance response using periodic nanostructures is one of the key issues in the current research. Two-dimensional colloidal crystals (CCs) structure is one of popular periodic nanospheres' structures and most of reports are focused on anomalous transmission of light or biomedical applications. In this work, a light-induced resistance effect is observed on silicon-based Au films covered CCs, featuring a remarkable resistance change as much as 56% and resistance switching characteristic. The diffusion and recombination of photocarriers is the crucial factor for this effect. This finding will expand photoelectricity functionality and be useful for future development of CC-based photoelectric devices.

  18. Two-stage melting of Au-Pd nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Mejía-Rosales, Sergio J; Fernandez-Navarro, Carlos; Pérez-Tijerina, Eduardo; Montejano-Carrizales, Juan Martín; José-Yacamán, Miguel

    2006-07-06

    Several series of molecular dynamics runs were performed to simulate the melting transition of bimetallic cuboctahedral nanoparticles of gold-palladium at different relative concentrations to study their structural properties before, in, and after the transition. The simulations were made in the canonical ensemble, each series covering a range of temperatures from 300 to 980 K, using the Rafii-Tabar version of the Sutton and Chen interatomic potential for metallic alloys. We found that the melting transition temperature has a strong dependence on the relative concentrations of the atomic species. We also found that, previous to the melting transition, the outer layer of the nanoparticle gets disordered in what can be thought as a premelting stage, where Au atoms near the surface migrate to the surface and remain there after the particle melts as a whole. The melting of the surface below Tm is consistent with studies of the interaction of a TEM electron beam with Au and Au-Pd nanoparticles.

  19. Agglomeration of Luminescent Porous Silicon Nanoparticles in Colloidal Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herynková, Kateřina; Šlechta, Miroslav; Šimáková, Petra; Fučíková, Anna; Cibulka, Ondřej

    2016-08-01

    We have prepared colloidal solutions of clusters composed from porous silicon nanoparticles in methanol, water and phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). Even if the size of the nanoclusters is between 60 and 500 nm, due to their highly porous "cauliflower"-like structure, the porous silicon nanoparticles are composed of interconnected nanocrystals having around 2.5 nm in size and showing strong visible luminescence in the orange-red spectral region (centred at 600-700 nm). Hydrophilic behaviour and good solubility of the nanoclusters in water and water-based solutions were obtained by adding hydrogen peroxide into the etching solution during preparation and 16 min long after-bath in hydrogen peroxide. By simple filtration of the solutions with syringe filters, we have extracted smaller nanoclusters with sizes of approx. 60-70 nm; however, these nanoclusters in water and PBS solution (pH neutral) are prone to agglomeration, as was confirmed by zeta potential measurements. When the samples were left at ambient conditions for several weeks, the typical nanocluster size increased to approx. 330-400 nm and then remained stable. However, both freshly filtered and aged samples (with agglomerated porous silicon nanoparticles) of porous silicon in water and PBS solutions can be further used for biological studies or as luminescent markers in living cells.

  20. Gold nanoparticle (AuNPs) and gold nanopore (AuNPore) catalysts in organic synthesis.

    PubMed

    Takale, Balaram S; Bao, Ming; Yamamoto, Yoshinori

    2014-04-07

    Organic synthesis using gold has gained tremendous attention in last few years, especially heterogeneous gold catalysis based on gold nanoparticles has made its place in almost all organic reactions, because of the robust and green nature of gold catalysts. In this context, gold nanopore (AuNPore) with a 3D metal framework is giving a new dimension to heterogeneous gold catalysts. Interestingly, AuNPore chemistry is proving better than gold nanoparticles based chemistry. In this review, along with recent advances, major discoveries in heterogeneous gold catalysis are discussed.

  1. Preparing a magnetically responsive single-wall carbon nanohorn colloid by anchoring magnetite nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Utsumi, Shigenori; Urita, Koki; Kanoh, Hirofumi; Yudasaka, Masako; Suenaga, Kazutomo; Iijima, Sumio; Kaneko, Katsumi

    2006-04-13

    A single-wall carbon nanohorn (SWNH) colloid was made to be magnetically responsive by anchoring magnetite nanoparticles prepared by the homogeneous mixing of FeCl(2)-FeCl(3) and NaOH solutions. Transmission electron microscopy observation showed the high dispersion of magnetite particles of 2-9 nm on the surface of the SWNH colloid, coinciding with the broad X-ray diffraction peaks of the magnetites. The magnetization measurements showed that the magnetite nanoparticles-anchored SWNH (mag-SWNH) colloid has the hybrid property of ferrimagnetism and superparamagnetism. It was demonstrated that mag-SWNH colloid dispersed in water by sonication responded to an external magnetic field, gathering toward a magnet. N(2) adsorption experiments showed the high nanoporosity of mag-SWNHs and that magnetite nanoparticles were preferably anchored at "nanowindow" sites and the entrance sites of interstitial pores. This magnetically responsive SWNH colloid should contribute to the field of drug delivery.

  2. Source of cytotoxicity in a colloidal silver nanoparticle suspension.

    PubMed

    Hatipoglu, Manolya Kukut; Keleştemur, Seda; Altunbek, Mine; Culha, Mustafa

    2015-05-15

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are increasingly used in a variety of applications because of their potential antimicrobial activity and their plasmonic and conductivity properties. In this study, we investigated the source of cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production on human dermal fibroblast and human lung cancer (A549) cell lines upon exposure to AgNP colloidal suspensions prepared with the simplest and most commonly used Lee–Meisel method with a variety of reaction times and the concentrations of the reducing agent. The AgNPs synthesized with shorter reaction times were more cytotoxic and genotoxic due to the presence of a few nanometer-sized AgNP seeds. The suspensions prepared with an increased citrate concentration were not cytotoxic, but they induced more ROS generation on A549 cells due to the high citrate concentration. The genotoxicity of the suspension decreased significantly at the higher citrate concentrations. The analysis of both transmission electron microscopy images from the dried droplet areas of the colloidal suspensions and toxicity data indicated that the AgNP seeds were the major source of toxicity. The completion of the nucleation step and the formation of larger AgNPs effectively decreased the toxicity.

  3. Colloidal Metal Nanoparticles Prepared by Laser Ablation and their Applications.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jianming; Claverie, Jerome; Chaker, Mohamed; Ma, Dongling

    2017-02-05

    This review article highlights the recent advances of the synthesis and application of metal nanoparticles (NPs) fabricated via pulsed laser ablation in liquid (PLAL) phase and also introduces relevant NP formation mechanisms. Although wet-chemical approaches have been well established to synthesize colloidal metal NPs with various components and structures, some inherent drawbacks, such as reaction residuals and/or contaminations, largely limit some of their applications. The PLAL method has recently been developed as an alternative approach and received increasing attention for colloidal NP preparation, without involving complicated chemical reactions. In certain cases, by using PLAL, ligand-free and surface-clean NPs can be obtained and well dispersed in liquid, leading to the formation of a "surface-clean" NP dispersion. This unique feature renders PLAL-synthesised metal NPs attractive candidates for many interesting applications in catalysis, biology, sensing, and clean energy generation and storage. We conclude this review by proposing several interesting research directions and future challenges, from PLAL fabrication to applications. We hope this review can serve as a good reference and help with the further development of PLAL-NPs and their diverse applications.

  4. Source of cytotoxicity in a colloidal silver nanoparticle suspension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kukut Hatipoglu, Manolya; Keleştemur, Seda; Altunbek, Mine; Culha, Mustafa

    2015-05-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are increasingly used in a variety of applications because of their potential antimicrobial activity and their plasmonic and conductivity properties. In this study, we investigated the source of cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production on human dermal fibroblast and human lung cancer (A549) cell lines upon exposure to AgNP colloidal suspensions prepared with the simplest and most commonly used Lee-Meisel method with a variety of reaction times and the concentrations of the reducing agent. The AgNPs synthesized with shorter reaction times were more cytotoxic and genotoxic due to the presence of a few nanometer-sized AgNP seeds. The suspensions prepared with an increased citrate concentration were not cytotoxic, but they induced more ROS generation on A549 cells due to the high citrate concentration. The genotoxicity of the suspension decreased significantly at the higher citrate concentrations. The analysis of both transmission electron microscopy images from the dried droplet areas of the colloidal suspensions and toxicity data indicated that the AgNP seeds were the major source of toxicity. The completion of the nucleation step and the formation of larger AgNPs effectively decreased the toxicity.

  5. Applying Inkjet Technology to Dispense Colloidal Nanoparticle Fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O, Annie; Mohar, Harjyot; Hernandez, Victor; Estrada, Arturo; Munoz, Leonel; Fan, Sewan; Fatuzzo, Laura; Jimenez, Steven

    2014-03-01

    The inkjet technology is widely employed to reliably deliver nanomaterials onto a substrate medium for further characterization and processing. To explore the feasibility of inkjet deposition for colloids, a novel drop-on-demand fluid dispenser is constructed to eject various types of liquids to produce atomized droplets. To make structured nanomaterials on a substrate using inkjet techniques, it is essential to determine the dynamical properties of the droplets as they are being formed. These would include the ejection speed, acceleration, terminal velocity and flight trajectories. For measuring these dynamic parameters, we successfully dispensed propylene glycol solution in different mixing ratios. This forms a reference fluid for establishing a baseline for our investigations. Our experimental data suggest that rapidly ejected droplets can be accurately modeled using Newton's equations and Stokes' law. In this conference, we describe our experiments consisting of an innovative inkjet dispensing apparatus in synchronization with a high-resolution camera imaging system. Furthermore, we plan to discuss our research efforts in dispensing microdroplets for relevant materials, such as chemical colloidal suspensions containing nanoparticles and polymer based fluids. Department of Education grant number P031S90007.

  6. Meningosis prophylaxis with intrathecal /sup 198/Au-colloid and methotrexate in childhood acute lymphocytic leukemia

    SciTech Connect

    Metz, O.; Stoll, W.; Plenert, W.

    1982-01-15

    Since 1972, telecobalt irradiation plus intrathecal methotrexate (ITMTX) has been successfully replaced in Jena by intrathecal colloidal radioactive gold (/sup 198/Au) plus ITMTX for meningosis prophylaxis in leukemia. Seventy-three children with acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) were given 1.24-4.89 mCi (45.8-181 MBq) of colloidal 198Au IT after successful initiation of remission. During cytostatic therapy, the following relapses occurred: meningosis leucaemica, five patients (6.8%); bone-marrow relapse and the meningosis leucaemica, one patient; and bone-marrow relapse, 20 patients (27.4%). In 18 children, combination chemotherapy was terminated after two and a half or three years of treatment. After that time, one meningeal relapse and six bone-marrow relapses occurred. Within the first 24 hours after application of radioactive gold, headaches, vomiting, and fever occurred in less than 10% of the children. An apathy syndrome, leukecephalopathy, or severe infections, were not observed in a single case. Radioactive gold spreads in the subarachnoid space and is phagocytized by the arachnoidea. The tumoricide effect extends selectively over the space of distribution of the latent meningosis leucaemia. The cerebral parenchyma remains unaffected by radiation. Thus, radioactive gold may be preferable to telecobalt irradiation in preventing central nervous system leukemia.

  7. Theoretical studies of acrolein hydrogenation on Au20 nanoparticle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhe; Chen, Zhao-Xu; He, Xiang; Kang, Guo-Jun

    2010-05-01

    Gold nanoparticles play a key role in catalytic processes. We investigated the kinetics of stepwise hydrogenation of acrolein on Au20 cluster model and compared with that on Au(110) surface. The rate-limiting step barrier of CC reduction is about 0.5 eV higher than that of CO hydrogenation on Au(110) surface. On Au20 nanoparticle, however, the energy barrier of the rate-determining step for CC hydrogenation turns out to be slightly lower than the value for the CO reduction. The selectivity difference on the two substrate models are attributed to different adsorption modes of acrolein: via the CC on Au20, compared to through both CC and CO on Au(110). The preference switch implies that the predicted selectivity of competitive hydrogenation depends on substrate model sensitively, and particles with more low-coordinated Au atoms than flat surfaces are favorable for CC hydrogenation, which is in agreement with experimental result.

  8. Ag@Au core-shell nanoparticles synthesized by pulsed laser ablation in water: Effect of plasmon coupling and their SERS performance.

    PubMed

    Vinod, M; Gopchandran, K G

    2015-01-01

    Ag@Au core-shell nanoparticles are synthesised by pulsed laser ablation in water using low energy laser pulses. The plasmon characteristics of these core-shell nanoparticles are found to be highly sensitive to the thickness of Au coating. In the synthesis, at first silver nanocolloid was prepared by ablating Ag target and then it is followed by ablation of Au target for different time durations to form Ag@Au core-shell nanostructures. The effect of plasmon-plasmon coupling on the absorption spectra is investigated by decreasing the effective distance between the nanoparticles. This is achieved by reducing the total volume of the colloidal suspension by simple evaporation of water, the solvent used. The suitability of these core-shell nanostructures for application as surface enhanced Raman scattering substrates are tested with crystal violet as probe molecules. Influence of plasmon coupling on the enhancement of Raman bands is found to be different for different bands.

  9. Programming Colloidal Crystal Habit with Anisotropic Nanoparticle Building Blocks and DNA Bonds.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Matthew N; Lin, Hai-Xin; Girard, Martin; Olvera de la Cruz, Monica; Mirkin, Chad A

    2016-11-09

    Colloidal crystallization can be programmed using building blocks consisting of a nanoparticle core and DNA bonds to form materials with controlled crystal symmetry, lattice parameters, stoichiometry, and dimensionality. Despite this diversity of colloidal crystal structures, only spherical nanoparticles crystallized with BCC symmetry experimentally yield single crystals with well-defined crystal habits. Here, we use low-symmetry, anisotropic nanoparticles to overcome this limitation and to access single crystals with different equilibrium Wulff shapes: a cubic habit from cube-shaped nanoparticles, a rhombic dodecahedron habit from octahedron-shaped nanoparticles, and an octahedron habit from rhombic dodecahedron-shaped nanoparticles. The observation that one can control the microscopic shape of single crystals based upon control of particle building block and crystal symmetry has important fundamental and technological implications for this novel class of colloidal matter.

  10. Formation of one-dimensional Ag-Au solid solution colloids with Au nanorods as seeds, their alloying mechanisms, and surface plasmon resonances.

    PubMed

    Guo, Tao; Tan, Yiwei

    2013-01-21

    In this work, one dimensional (1D) Ag-Au solid solution nanoalloys were synthesized by rapidly diffusing Ag into the preformed Au nanorod (AuNR) seeds at ambient temperature in aqueous solution. By varying the molar ratio of AgCl/AuNR (in gold atoms), two kinds of 1D Ag-Au alloy nanostructures with a narrow size distribution--AgAu nanowires and Ag(33)Au(67) nanorods--could be obtained in high yields when NaCl and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) were used as an additive and capping reagent, respectively. Based on HRTEM imaging combined with a series of control experiments, it is conceivable that vacancy/defect-motivated interdiffusion of Ag and Au atoms coupled with oxidative etching is a crucial stage in the mechanism responsible for this room-temperature alloying process, and the subsequent conjugation of the fused Ag-Au alloyed nanostructures is associated with the formation of the AgAu nanowires. The resulting 1D Ag-Au nanoalloys form stable colloidal dispersions and show unique localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) peaks in the ensemble extinction spectra.

  11. Using supported Au nanoparticles as starting material for preparing uniform Au/Pd bimetallic catalysts.

    PubMed

    Villa, Alberto; Wang, Di; Su, Dangsheng; Veith, Gabriel M; Prati, Laura

    2010-03-07

    One of the best methods for producing bulk homogeneous (composition) supported bimetallic AuPd clusters involves the immobilization of a protected Au seed followed by the addition of Pd. This paper investigates the importance of this gold seed in controlling the resulting bimetallic AuPd clusters structures, sizes and catalytic activities by investigating three different gold seeds. Uniform Au-Pd alloy were obtained when a steric/electrostatic protecting group, poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA), was used to form the gold clusters on activated carbon (AC). In contrast Au/AC precursors prepared using Au nanoparticles with only electrostatic stabilization (tetrakis(hydroxypropyl)phosphonium chloride (THPC)), or no stabilization (magnetron sputtering) produced inhomogeneous alloys and segregation of the gold and palladium. The uniform alloyed catalyst (Pd@Au(PVA)/AC) is the most active and selective catalyst, while the inhomogenous catalysts are less active and selective. Further study of the PVA protected Au clusters revealed that the amount of PVA used is also critical for the preparation of uniform alloyed catalyst, their stability, and their catalytic activity.

  12. Using supported Au nanoparticles as starting material for preparing uniform Au/Pd bimetallic catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Villa, Alberto; Prati, Laura; Su, Dangshen; Wang, Di; Veith, Gabriel M

    2010-01-01

    One of the best methods for producing bulk homogeneous (composition) supported bimetallic AuPd clusters involves the immobilization of a protected Au seed followed by the addition of Pd. This paper investigates the importance of this gold seed in controlling the resulting bimetallic AuPd clusters structures, sizes and catalytic activities by investigating three different gold seeds. Uniform Au-Pd alloy were obtained when a steric/electrostatic protecting group, poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA), was used to form the gold clusters on activated carbon (AC). In contrast Au/AC precursors prepared using Au nanoparticles with only electrostatic stabilization (tetrakis(hydroxypropyl)phosphonium chloride (THPC)), or no stabilization (magnetron sputtering) produced inhomogeneous alloys and segregation of the gold and palladium. The uniform alloyed catalyst (Pd{at}Au{sub PVA}/AC) is the most active and selective catalyst, while the inhomogenous catalysts are less active and selective. Further study of the PVA protected Au clusters revealed that the amount of PVA used is also critical for the preparation of uniform alloyed catalyst, their stability, and their catalytic activity.

  13. Dielectrophoresis force spectroscopy for colloidal nanoparticles (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ou-Yang, H. Daniel; Huang, Hao

    2016-09-01

    Dielectrophoresis (DEP) is the motion of colloidal particles in an inhomogeneous electric field. Accurate determination of dielectrophoresis (DEP) force is important for lab-on-a-chip applications. However current DEP force spectroscopy methods are not suitable for accurately measuring the DEP force for sub-micron particles. A new and facile method is developed to measure the DEP force as a function of the frequency of the electric field for nanoparticles by an ensemble analysis approach. Using the principle of Boltzmann distribution of the concentration of non-interacting particles in a DEP potential field, the new method determines the DEP potential field from the measured time-averaged concentration distribution of fluorescently labeled nanoparticle in the DEP field by confocal fluorescence microscopy. Frequency dependent DEP force is determined by the negative gradient of the DEP potential created by the electric field across gold-film electrodes in a microfluidic setting. This approach is capable of measuring forces at the level of one femto Newton for particles with diameters in the range of 63 nm to 410 nm.

  14. Silver colloid nanoparticles: synthesis, characterization, and their antibacterial activity.

    PubMed

    Panacek, Ales; Kvítek, Libor; Prucek, Robert; Kolar, Milan; Vecerova, Renata; Pizúrova, Nadezda; Sharma, Virender K; Nevecna, Tat'jana; Zboril, Radek

    2006-08-24

    A one-step simple synthesis of silver colloid nanoparticles with controllable sizes is presented. In this synthesis, reduction of [Ag(NH(3))(2)](+) complex cation by four saccharides was performed. Four saccharides were used: two monosaccharides (glucose and galactose) and two disaccharides (maltose and lactose). The syntheses performed at various ammonia concentrations (0.005-0.20 mol L(-1)) and pH conditions (11.5-13.0) produced a wide range of particle sizes (25-450 nm) with narrow size distributions, especially at the lowest ammonia concentrations. The average size, size distribution, morphology, and structure of particles were determined by dynamic light scattering (DLS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and UV/Visible absorption spectrophotometry. The influence of the saccharide structure (monosacharides versus disaccharides) on the size of silver particles is briefly discussed. The reduction of [Ag(NH(3))(2)](+) by maltose produced silver particles with a narrow size distribution with an average size of 25 nm, which showed high antimicrobial and bactericidal activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, including highly multiresistant strains such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles was found to be dependent on the size of silver particles. A very low concentration of silver (as low as 1.69 mug/mL Ag) gave antibacterial performance.

  15. Graphite oxide-coated Au nanoparticles for improved SERS sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Bingfei; Wang, Qi; Tian, Tian; Mao, Guoming; Liu, Hao; Ren, Xiao Min

    2016-11-01

    Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) is an effective spectral analysis technique as its advantage of molecular fingerprint, ultra-sensitivity and non-contact. It is the most popular and easiest method to create SERS metal nanoparticles (NPs) combining magnetron sputtering deposition of noble metal with rapid annealing. In this study, we have demonstrated an approach to improve the SERS effect by using graphene oxide (GO) Au NPs composite structure. Here, we obtain the Au NPs coated SOI substrate prepared by magnetron sputtering 4 nm Au film and followed by rapid annealing treatment. The experimental results indicate that the SERS intensity is maximum of the Au NPs coated SOI substrate with the average particle diameter of 20 nm when the rapid annealing time is 30s and temperature is 500 degrees. Then, graphene oxide solution is spin coated on the Au NPs to form the GO-Au NPs composite structure. The morphology of GO-Au NPs have been characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM). Rhodamine 6G (R6G) is used as the probe molecule to detect the SERS intensity. The GO-Au NPs has an excellent SERS effect which can detect R6G as low as 10-9M. Besides, compared to the Au NPs without GO the GO-Au NPs has two times Raman intensity enhancement of bands at 774 cm-1 because of the GO improving the SERS properties through strong ability of adsorption the probe molecule and chemical enhancement effect. Therefore, the GO-Au NPs composite structure shows a promising future to detect low concentration material.

  16. On the stability of AuFe alloy nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Velasco, V; Pohl, D; Surrey, A; Bonatto-Minella, A; Hernando, A; Crespo, P; Rellinghaus, B

    2014-05-30

    AuFe nanoparticles with mean diameters d p  = 13.2 nm have been prepared by inert-gas condensation. Conventional and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy investigations show that the particles are mostly icosahedra. Scanning transmission electron microscopy-energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy and scanning transmission electron microscopy-electron energy-loss spectroscopy show that the as-grown particles exhibit a core-shell structure. The shell is mainly composed of an amorphous FeO layer. Although Fe and Au are immiscible in the bulk, the particle cores are found to be homogeneously mixed at the atomic level with a local composition of around Au84Fe16 (at.%). AuFe nanoparticles exhibit a complex magnetic structure in which the core behaves as a spin glass with a freezing temperature of 35 K, whereas the amorphous FeO shell behaves as a ferro-ferrimagnetic system. On annealing above 300 °C, the AuFe icosahedra phases separate into their elemental constituents. Hence the as-grown AuFe icosahedra are metastable, thereby implying that the bulk phase diagram also applies for nanoscopic materials.

  17. Studies on the antimicrobial properties of colloidal silver nanoparticles stabilized by bovine serum albumin.

    PubMed

    Mathew, Thomas V; Kuriakose, Sunny

    2013-01-01

    Colloidal silver nanoparticles were synthesised using sol-gel method and these nanoparticles were stabilised by encapsulated into the scaffolds of bovine serum albumin. Silver nanoparticles and encapsulated products were characterised by FTIR, NMR, XRD, TG, SEM and TEM analyses. Silver nanoparticle encapsulated bovine serum albumin showed highly potent antibacterial activity towards the bacterial strains such as Staphylococcus aureus, Serratia marcescens, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae.

  18. Cell adhesion and proliferation on polyethylene grafted with Au nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasálková, N. Slepičková; Slepička, P.; Kolská, Z.; Sajdl, P.; Bačáková, L.; Rimpelová, S.; Švorčík, V.

    2012-02-01

    Plasma treatment and subsequent Au nano-particles grafting of polyethylene (PE) lead to changes in surface morphology, roughness and wettability, significantly increasing the attractiveness of the material for cells. The PE samples were exposed to argon plasma. Plasma modified PE was chemically grafted by immersion to biphenyldithiol and consequently into solution of Au nano-particles. Changes in chemical structure of the modified PE were studied using X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) and electrokinetic analysis ( ζ-potential). The surface wettability of the modified PE samples was examined by measurement of the contact angle by standard goniometry. The surface morphology of the plasma modified PE and that grafted with Au nano-particles was studied by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). The modified PE samples were seeded with rat vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and their adhesion and proliferation were studied. Chemically bounded biphenyldithiol increases the number of the incorporated gold nano-particles and changes sample surface properties. The presence of the biphenyldithiol and the gold nano-particles on the PE surface influences dramatically adhesion and proliferation of VSMCs.

  19. In situ inclusion of Au nanoparticles in porous silicon structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Severiano, F.; Gayou, V. L.; García, G.; Macuil, R. Delgado; Gutiérrez, H. Martínez; Nieto, G.; Diaz, T.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the structural modification in the porous silicon layer (PSL), when they are obtained from electrodeposition using a metal salt of Au (HAuCl4) in the electrolyte. The deposition of Au nanoparticles and the formation of the PSL were performed simultaneously. The structural and optical properties of the gold/porous-Si were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), photoluminescence (PL) and Raman scattering. Through the methodology implemented, it was obtained gold/porous-Si nanocomposites. The size of the gold nanoparticles was above 15 nm, and the pore size was 18 nm. The PL intensity showed an increase with the incorporation of gold nanoparticles due to the enhancement of a surface plasmon effect. The size of Si nanocrystals in the PSL structure was estimated through PL and Raman measures and it was 3 nm.

  20. Influence of α-amylase template concentration on systematic entrapment of highly stable and monodispersed colloidal gold nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ananth, A. Nitthin; Ananth, A. Nimrodh; Jose, Sujin P.; Umapathy, S.; Mathavan, T.

    2016-01-01

    Nano gold / α-amylase colloidal dispersions of profound stability were made using simple procedure with a conventional reducing agent. The surface plasmon resonance of the gold nanocrystals was used to quantify the extent of the dispersion stability and functionalization. It is found that the reduced gold nanoparticles were trapped into the protein network without denaturation the structure of α-amylase protein. This kind of entrapment of particles into the protein network prevents clustering of individual gold nanoparticles (6.42 nm ± 0.92 nm) by acting as a natural spacer. Systematic entrapment was facilitated by the affinity of gold to the sulfur moieties (Au-S) in the protein structure.

  1. Assembling Bare Au Nanoparticles at Positively Charged Templates

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wenjie; Zhang, Honghu; Kuzmenko, Ivan; Mallapragada, Surya; Vaknin, David

    2016-01-01

    In-situ X-ray reflectivity (XRR) and grazing incidence X-ray small-angle scattering (GISAXS) reveal that unfunctionalized (bare) gold nanoparticles (AuNP) spontaneously adsorb to a cationic lipid template formed by a Langmuir monolayer of DPTAP (1,2-dihexadecanoyl-3-trimethylammonium-propane) at vapor/aqueous interfaces. Analysis of the XRR yields the electron density profile across the charged-interfaces along the surface normal showing the AuNPs assemble with vertical thickness comparable to the particle size. The GISAXS analysis indicates that the adsorbed mono-particle layer exhibits short-range in-plane correlations. By contrast, single-stranded DNA-functionalized AuNPs, while attracted to the positively charged surface (more efficiently with the addition of salt to the solution), display less in-plane regular packing compared to bare AuNPs. PMID:27225047

  2. Assembling Bare Au Nanoparticles at Positively Charged Templates

    DOE PAGES

    Wang, Wenjie; Zhang, Honghu; Kuzmenko, Ivan; ...

    2016-05-26

    In-situ X-ray reflectivity (XRR) and grazing incidence X-ray small-angle scattering (GISAXS) reveal that unfunctionalized (bare) gold nanoparticles (AuNP) spontaneously adsorb to a cationic lipid template formed by a Langmuir monolayer of DPTAP (1,2-dihexadecanoyl-3-trimethylammonium-propane) at vapor/aqueous interfaces. Analysis of the XRR yields the electron density profile across the charged-interfaces along the surface normal showing the AuNPs assemble with vertical thickness comparable to the particle size. The GISAXS analysis indicates that the adsorbed mono-particle layer exhibits short-range in-plane correlations. By contrast, single-stranded DNA-functionalized AuNPs, while attracted to the positively charged surface (more efficiently with the addition of salt to the solution), displaymore » less in-plane regular packing compared to bare AuNPs.« less

  3. Assembling Bare Au Nanoparticles at Positively Charged Templates

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Wenjie; Zhang, Honghu; Kuzmenko, Ivan; Mallapragada, Surya; Vaknin, David

    2016-05-26

    In-situ X-ray reflectivity (XRR) and grazing incidence X-ray small-angle scattering (GISAXS) reveal that unfunctionalized (bare) gold nanoparticles (AuNP) spontaneously adsorb to a cationic lipid template formed by a Langmuir monolayer of DPTAP (1,2-dihexadecanoyl-3-trimethylammonium-propane) at vapor/aqueous interfaces. Analysis of the XRR yields the electron density profile across the charged-interfaces along the surface normal showing the AuNPs assemble with vertical thickness comparable to the particle size. The GISAXS analysis indicates that the adsorbed mono-particle layer exhibits short-range in-plane correlations. By contrast, single-stranded DNA-functionalized AuNPs, while attracted to the positively charged surface (more efficiently with the addition of salt to the solution), display less in-plane regular packing compared to bare AuNPs.

  4. Assembling Bare Au Nanoparticles at Positively Charged Templates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wenjie; Zhang, Honghu; Kuzmenko, Ivan; Mallapragada, Surya; Vaknin, David

    2016-05-01

    In-situ X-ray reflectivity (XRR) and grazing incidence X-ray small-angle scattering (GISAXS) reveal that unfunctionalized (bare) gold nanoparticles (AuNP) spontaneously adsorb to a cationic lipid template formed by a Langmuir monolayer of DPTAP (1,2-dihexadecanoyl-3-trimethylammonium-propane) at vapor/aqueous interfaces. Analysis of the XRR yields the electron density profile across the charged-interfaces along the surface normal showing the AuNPs assemble with vertical thickness comparable to the particle size. The GISAXS analysis indicates that the adsorbed mono-particle layer exhibits short-range in-plane correlations. By contrast, single-stranded DNA-functionalized AuNPs, while attracted to the positively charged surface (more efficiently with the addition of salt to the solution), display less in-plane regular packing compared to bare AuNPs.

  5. Efficient One-Pot Synthesis of Colloidal Zirconium Oxide Nanoparticles for High-Refractive-Index Nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chao; Hajagos, Tibor Jacob; Chen, Dustin; Chen, Yi; Kishpaugh, David; Pei, Qibing

    2016-02-01

    Zirconium oxide nanoparticles are promising candidates for optical engineering, photocatalysis, and high-κ dielectrics. However, reported synthetic methods for the colloidal zirconium oxide nanoparticles use unstable alkoxide precursors and have various other drawbacks, limiting their wide application. Here, we report a facile one-pot method for the synthesis of colloidally stable zirconium oxide nanoparticles. Using a simple solution of zirconium trifluoroacetate in oleylamine, highly stable zirconium oxide nanoparticles have been synthesized with high yield, following a proposed amidization-assisted sol-gel mechanism. The nanoparticles can be readily dispersed in nonpolar solvents, forming a long-term stable transparent solution, which can be further used to fabricate high-refractive-index nanocomposites in both monolith and thin-film forms. In addition, the same method has also been extended to the synthesis of titanium oxide nanoparticles, demonstrating its general applicability to all group IVB metal oxide nanoparticles.

  6. Au/Pd core-shell nanoparticles with varied hollow Au cores for enhanced formic acid oxidation

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    A facile method has been developed to synthesize Au/Pd core-shell nanoparticles via galvanic replacement of Cu by Pd on hollow Au nanospheres. The unique nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy, and electrochemical measurements. When the concentration of the Au solution was decreased, grain size of the polycrystalline hollow Au nanospheres was reduced, and the structures became highly porous. After the Pd shell formed on these Au nanospheres, the morphology and structure of the Au/Pd nanoparticles varied and hence significantly affected the catalytic properties. The Au/Pd nanoparticles synthesized with reduced Au concentrations showed higher formic acid oxidation activity (0.93 mA cm-2 at 0.3 V) than the commercial Pd black (0.85 mA cm-2 at 0.3 V), suggesting a promising candidate as fuel cell catalysts. In addition, the Au/Pd nanoparticles displayed lower CO-stripping potential, improved stability, and higher durability compared to the Pd black due to their unique core-shell structures tuned by Au core morphologies. PMID:23452438

  7. Au/Pd core-shell nanoparticles with varied hollow Au cores for enhanced formic acid oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Chiajen; Huang, Chienwen; Hao, Yaowu; Liu, Fuqiang

    2013-03-01

    A facile method has been developed to synthesize Au/Pd core-shell nanoparticles via galvanic replacement of Cu by Pd on hollow Au nanospheres. The unique nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, and electrochemical measurements. When the concentration of the Au solution was decreased, grain size of the polycrystalline hollow Au nanospheres was reduced, and the structures became highly porous. After the Pd shell formed on these Au nanospheres, the morphology and structure of the Au/Pd nanoparticles varied and hence significantly affected the catalytic properties. The Au/Pd nanoparticles synthesized with reduced Au concentrations showed higher formic acid oxidation activity (0.93 mA cm-2 at 0.3 V) than the commercial Pd black (0.85 mA cm-2 at 0.3 V), suggesting a promising candidate as fuel cell catalysts. In addition, the Au/Pd nanoparticles displayed lower CO-stripping potential, improved stability, and higher durability compared to the Pd black due to their unique core-shell structures tuned by Au core morphologies.

  8. Au/Pd core-shell nanoparticles with varied hollow Au cores for enhanced formic acid oxidation.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Chiajen; Huang, Chienwen; Hao, Yaowu; Liu, Fuqiang

    2013-03-01

    A facile method has been developed to synthesize Au/Pd core-shell nanoparticles via galvanic replacement of Cu by Pd on hollow Au nanospheres. The unique nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, and electrochemical measurements. When the concentration of the Au solution was decreased, grain size of the polycrystalline hollow Au nanospheres was reduced, and the structures became highly porous. After the Pd shell formed on these Au nanospheres, the morphology and structure of the Au/Pd nanoparticles varied and hence significantly affected the catalytic properties. The Au/Pd nanoparticles synthesized with reduced Au concentrations showed higher formic acid oxidation activity (0.93 mA cm-2 at 0.3 V) than the commercial Pd black (0.85 mA cm-2 at 0.3 V), suggesting a promising candidate as fuel cell catalysts. In addition, the Au/Pd nanoparticles displayed lower CO-stripping potential, improved stability, and higher durability compared to the Pd black due to their unique core-shell structures tuned by Au core morphologies.

  9. Efficient intracellular delivery and improved biocompatibility of colloidal silver nanoparticles towards intracellular SERS immuno-sensing.

    PubMed

    Bhardwaj, Vinay; Srinivasan, Supriya; McGoron, Anthony J

    2015-06-21

    High throughput intracellular delivery strategies, electroporation, passive and TATHA2 facilitated diffusion of colloidal silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are investigated for cellular toxicity and uptake using state-of-art analytical techniques. The TATHA2 facilitated approach efficiently delivered high payload with no toxicity, pre-requisites for intracellular applications of plasmonic metal nanoparticles (PMNPs) in sensing and therapeutics.

  10. Size-dependent conductivity dispersion of gold nanoparticle colloids in a microchip: contactless measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalafalla, M. A. H.; Mesli, A.; Widattallah, H. M.; Sellai, A.; Al-harthi, S.; Al-Lawati, Haider A. J.; Suliman, F. O.

    2014-08-01

    We performed admittance measurements to investigate the particle size dependence of the conductivity of gold nanoparticle (Diameters: 6-100 nm) colloids in electrophoresis microchip in the frequency range of 0.03-1.00 MHz. The admittance was measured with two electrodes capacitively coupled to the colloid contained in a microchip capillary channel. The imaginary and real components of the admittance showed low-frequency dispersion associated with the polarization of the nanoparticles induced by the AC electric field. This was evident from the linear dependence of the process relaxation time as a function of the square of the radius of the nanoparticle.

  11. Ultrafast laser melting of Au nanoparticles: atomistic simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ningyu; Rokhlin, S. I.; Farson, D. F.

    2011-10-01

    In spite of the technological importance of laser modification and processing of nanoparticles, the interaction of laser energy with nanoparticles is not well understood. In this work, integrated molecular dynamics (MD) and two-temperature (TTM) computational models have been developed to study ultrafast laser interaction with free Au nanoparticles with sizes 2.44-6.14 nm. At low intensity, when surface premelting and solid-liquid phase transition dominate, a nonhomogeneous surface premelting mechanism was identified. The appearance of a contiguous surface liquid layer (complete surface premelting) is size dependent and is not related to surface premelting history. The effects of temporary superheating and stable supercooling of nanoparticles were found and examined.

  12. Surfactant-Assisted Stabilization of Au Colloids on Solids for Heterogeneous Catalysis.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Wangcheng; Shu, Yuan; Sheng, Yujie; Zhu, Huiyuan; Guo, Yanglong; Wang, Li; Guo, Yun; Zhang, Jinshui; Lu, Guanzhong; Dai, Sheng

    2017-03-22

    The stabilization of surfactant-assisted synthesized colloidal noble metal nanoparticles (NPs, such as Au NPs) on solids is a promising strategy for preparing supported nanocatalysts for heterogeneous catalysis because of their uniform particle sizes, controllable shapes, and tunable compositions. However, surfactant removal to obtain clean surfaces for catalysis through traditional approaches (such as solvent extraction and thermal decomposition) can easily induce the sintering of NPs, greatly hampering their use in synthesis of novel catalysts. Such unwanted surfactants have now been utilized to stabilize NPs on solids by a simple yet efficient thermal annealing strategy. After being annealed in N2 flow, the surface-bound surfactants are carbonized in situ as sacrificial architectures that form a conformal coating on NPs and assist in creating an enhanced metal-support interaction between NPs and substrate, thus slowing down the Ostwald ripening process during post-oxidative calcination to remove surface covers.

  13. Controlling Au Photodeposition on Large ZnO Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Fernando, Joseph F S; Shortell, Matthew P; Noble, Christopher J; Harmer, Jeffrey R; Jaatinen, Esa A; Waclawik, Eric R

    2016-06-08

    This study investigated how to control the rate of photoreduction of metastable AuCl2(-) at the solid-solution interface of large ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) (50-100 nm size). Band-gap photoexcitation of electronic charge in ZnO by 370 nm UV light yielded Au NP deposition and the formation of ZnO-Au NP hybrids. Au NP growth was observed to be nonepitaxial, and the patterns of Au photodeposition onto ZnO NPs observed by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy were consistent with reduction of AuCl2(-) at ZnO facet edges and corner sites. Au NP photodeposition was effective in the presence of labile oleylamine ligands attached to the ZnO surface; however, when a strong-binding dodecanethiol ligand coated the surface, photodeposition was quenched. Rates of interfacial electron transfer at the ZnO-solution interface were adjusted by changing the solvent, and these rates were observed to strongly depend on the solvent's permittivity (ε) and viscosity. From measurements of electron transfer from ZnO to the organic dye toluidine blue at the ZnO-solution interface, it was confirmed that low ε solvent mixtures (ε ≈ 9.5) possessed markedly higher rates of photocatalytic interfacial electron transfer (∼3.2 × 10(4) electrons·particle(-1)·s(-1)) compared to solvent mixtures with high ε (ε = 29.9, ∼1.9 × 10(4) electrons·particle(-1)·s(-1)). Dissolved oxygen content in the solvent and the exposure time of ZnO to band-gap, near-UV photoexcitation were also identified as factors that strongly affected Au photodeposition behavior. Production of Au clusters was favored under conditions that caused electron accumulation in the ZnO-Au NP hybrid. Under conditions where electron discharge was rapid (such as in low ε solvents), AuCl2(-) precursor ions photoreduced at ZnO surfaces in less than 5 s, leading to deposition of several small, isolated ∼6 nm Au NP on the ZnO host instead.

  14. Amorphous RE–Fe–B–Na colloidal nanoparticles: High temperature solution synthesis and magnetic properties

    SciTech Connect

    Jia, Li-Ping; Yan, Bing

    2015-04-15

    Graphical abstract: RE–Fe–B–Na (RE = Nd–Er) colloidal nanoparticles by high-temperature solution synthesis are ultra-small monodisperse and air-stable amorphous, whose size and magnetic dependence are studied. - Highlights: • RE–Fe–B–Na nanoparticles are obtained by high-temperature solution synthesis. • These colloidal nanoparticles are monodisperse and size controlled. • The magnetism dependence and possible magnetic coupling mechanism are studied. - Abstract: RE–Fe–B–Na (RE = Nd–Er) colloidal nanoparticles are prepared by high-temperature solution synthesis. These nanoparticles are ultra-small monodisperse, air-stable and amorphous, whose particle size and magnetic property are characterized by transmission electron microscope and superconducting quantum interference device. Taking Nd–Fe–B–Na nanoparticle as an example, it is found that the particle size can be controlled in less than 7 nm. Besides, the magnetic properties of RE–Fe–B–Na colloidal nanoparticles can be compared for different rare earth elements. Based on the bulk ferromagnetic coupling, other possible magnetic coupling mechanism is discussed.

  15. Optical properties of colloidal CdS and ZnS quantum dots nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amran, Afiqah Shafify; Shamsudin, Siti Aisyah

    2016-11-01

    CdS and ZnS nanoparticles are luminescent semiconductors with great properties to be used in biosensors. Both semiconducting nanoparticles were synthesized in distilled water by using the simple colloidal method. Thioglycolic acid (TGA) was used as a stabilizer and Polyethyleneimine (PEI) was used as a surface modifier. The chemical composition and optical properties of the CdS and ZnS nanoparticles were investigated using Ultra Violet (UV) lamp, UV Spectroscopy and Photoluminescence (PL) Spectroscopy.

  16. Thermal induced structural transformation of bimetallic AuPd nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruma, A.; Li, Z. Y.

    2014-06-01

    High Angle Annular Dark Field Scanning Transmission Electron Microscope (HAADF-STEM) has been employed for the study of thermal effects of structural transformation of AuPd nanoparticles produced by physical vapour deposition. Depending on the duration of annealing at a temperature of 500 K, atomic resolved imaging analysis reveals the formation of various structure morphologies from the ordered L12 superlattice to the core-shell structure. The effects of Pd-oxides are also discussed.

  17. Photoacoustic emission from Au nanoparticles arrayed on thermal insulation layer.

    PubMed

    Namura, Kyoko; Suzuki, Motofumi; Nakajima, Kaoru; Kimura, Kenji

    2013-04-08

    Efficient photoacoustic emission from Au nanoparticles on a porous SiO(2) layer was investigated experimentally and theoretically. The Au nanoparticle arrays/porous SiO(2)/SiO(2)/Ag mirror sandwiches, namely, local plasmon resonators, were prepared by dynamic oblique deposition (DOD). Photoacoustic measurements were performed on the local plasmon resonators, whose optical absorption was varied from 0.03 (3%) to 0.95 by varying the thickness of the dielectric SiO(2) layer. The sample with high absorption (0.95) emitted a sound that was eight times stronger than that emitted by graphite (0.94) and three times stronger than that emitted by the sample without the porous SiO(2) layer (0.93). The contribution of the porous SiO(2) layer to the efficient photoacoustic emission was analyzed by means of a numerical method based on a one-dimensional heat transfer model. The result suggested that the low thermal conductivity of the underlying porous layer reduces the amount of heat escaping from the substrate and contributes to the efficient photoacoustic emission from Au nanoparticle arrays. Because both the thermal conductivity and the spatial distribution of the heat generation can be controlled by DOD, the local plasmon resonators produced by DOD are suitable for the spatio-temporal modulation of the local temperature.

  18. Ionic Functionalization of Hydrophobic Colloidal Nanoparticles To Form Ionic Nanoparticles with Enzymelike Properties

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Inorganic colloidal nanoparticles (NPs) stabilized by a layer of hydrophobic surfactant on their surfaces have poor solubility in the aqueous phase, thus limiting their application as biosensors under physiological conditions. Here we report a simple model to ionize various types of hydrophobic colloidal NPs, including FePt, cubic Fe3O4, Pd, CdSe, and NaYF4 (Yb 30%, Er 2%, Nd 1%) NPs, to multicharged (positive and negative) NPs via ligand exchange. Surfaces of neutral hydrophobic NPs were converted to multicharged ions, thus making them soluble in water. Furthermore, peroxidase-like activity was observed for ionic FePt, Fe3O4, Pd, and CdSe NPs, of which FePt and CdSe catalyzed the oxidation of the colorless substrate 3,3′,5,5′-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) to the blue-colored product in the absence of H2O2, while Pd and Fe3O4 catalyzed the oxidization of TMB in the presence of H2O2. With the benefit of the ionic functionalization protocols described herein, colloidal NPs should gain wider use as biomarkers, nanozymes, and biosensors. PMID:26562739

  19. Colloidally prepared Pt nanowires versus impregnated Pt nanoparticles: comparison of adsorption and reaction properties.

    PubMed

    Haghofer, Andreas; Sonström, Patrick; Fenske, Daniela; Föttinger, Karin; Schwarz, Sabine; Bernardi, Johannes; Al-Shamery, Katharina; Bäumer, Marcus; Rupprechter, Günther

    2010-11-02

    Ligand-capped Pt nanowires, prepared by colloidal synthesis and deposited on a high surface area γ-Al(2)O(3) support, were subjected to surface characterization by electron microscopy and FTIR spectroscopy using CO as a probe molecule. The structural, adsorption, and catalytic reaction properties of the colloidal Pt nanowires were compared to those of conventional, impregnated Pt nanoparticles on the same Al(2)O(3) support. In situ FTIR spectroscopy indicated ligand effects on the CO resonance frequency, irreversible CO-induced surface roughening upon CO adsorption, and a higher resistance of colloidal catalysts toward oxidation (both in oxygen and during CO oxidation), suggesting that the organic ligands might protect the Pt surface. Elevated temperature induced a transformation of Pt nanowires to faceted Pt nanoparticles. The colloidal catalyst was active for hydrodechlorination of trichloroethylene (TCE), but no ligand effect on selectivity was obtained.

  20. Acetanilide mediated reversible assembly and disassembly of Au nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Murugadoss, A; Kar, Manoranjan; Chattopadhyay, Arun

    2008-08-01

    Herein we report the generation of Au nanoparticles (NPs) by sparingly soluble acetanilide in water. We also report the formation of linear chain-like superstructures of self-assembled Au NPs, in the presence of excess acetanilide. This was achieved in two different ways. In the first method, acetanilide was added, with increasing concentration, into aqueous HAuCl(4) to produce Au NPs as well as for the formation of assembly, which varied according to the concentration of acetanilide. The other route involved formation of spherical Au NPs at the lowest concentration of acetanilide, which was followed by the formation of assembly of various lengths upon further addition of variable amount of acetanilide. The assemblies were stable in aqueous solution for days with characteristic UV-vis absorption spectra consisting of two peaks. While the wavelength of the first peak remained the same, the position of the second peak changed to longer wavelength with increasing acetanilide concentration. Interestingly, the linear chain-like arrays could be broken into individual particles by first dilution of the solution concentration followed by treatment with ultrasonic waves. The individual Au NPs again formed linear chain-like arrays upon addition of excess acetanilide.

  1. Synthesis of solvent-stabilized colloidal nanoparticles of platinum, rhodium, and ruthenium by microwave-polyol process.

    PubMed

    He, Baolin; Chen, Yixian; Liu, Hanfan; Liu, Yuan

    2005-02-01

    Solvent-stabilized Pt, Rh, and Ru colloidal nanoparticles were synthesized by a microwave-polyol process. They were characterized by TEM and XPS, XRD, and UV-vis examination. These colloids have small particle sizes with narrow size distribution, and they were stable in glycol upon storage under ambient condition for months. Separation and XPS characterization of the intermediate colloids demonstrated the two-step mechanism for the formation of solvent-stabilized metal colloids via hydrolysis.

  2. The effect of polymer matrix on laser microfabrication of Au nanoparticles dispersed polymer resists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yagyu, Hiromasa; Tabata, Osamu

    2008-12-01

    The effect of polymer matrix on laser processing of Au nanoparticles dispersed polymer resist was reported. Au nanoparticles dispersed polymer is a resist in which Au nanoparticles with average diameter of around 3 nm was dispersed. Since the resist has a strong absorption at the wavelength of around 530 nm, it can be micromachined using focused low power Nd:YVO 4-SHG laser (CW, wavelength of 532 nm). From the evaluation of a dispersibility of Au nanoparticle in the different polymer using X-ray diffraction and visible ray absorbance, it was confirmed that the dispersibility of Au nanoparticle induced by the kind of polymer matrix influenced laser-processed shape. Moreover, from thermal properties and the calculation of temperature rise distribution by laser beam in polymer resist, it was predicted that the processing mechanism for thermoplastic polymer resist was related with melt and grain growth of Au nanoparticle.

  3. Phytosynthesis of stable Au, Ag and Au-Ag alloy nanoparticles using J. Sambac leaves extract, and their enhanced antimicrobial activity in presence of organic antimicrobials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yallappa, S.; Manjanna, J.; Dhananjaya, B. L.

    2015-02-01

    A green chemistry approach for the synthesis of Au, Ag and Au-Ag alloy nanoparticles (NPs) using the corresponding metal precursors and Jasminum sambac leaves extract as both reducing and capping media, under microwave irradiation, is reported. During the formation, as expected, the reaction mixture shows marginal decrease in pH and an increase in solution potential. The formation of NPs is evident from their surface plasmon resonance (SPR) peak observed at ∼555 nm for Au, ∼435 nm for Ag and ∼510 nm for Au-Ag alloy. The XRD pattern shows fcc structure while the FTIR spectra indicate the presence of plant residues adsorbed on these NPs. Such a bio-capping of NPs is characterized by their weight loss, ∼35% due to thermal degradation of biomass, as observed in TG analysis. The colloidal dispersion of NPs is stable for about 6 weeks. The near spherical shape of NPs (ϕ20-50 nm) is observed by FE-SEM/TEM images and EDAX gives the expected elemental composition. Furthermore, these NPs showed enhanced antimicrobial activity (∼1-4-fold increase in zone of inhibition) in combination with antimicrobials against test strains. Thus, the phytosynthesized NPs could be used as effective growth inhibitors for various microorganisms.

  4. Phytosynthesis of stable Au, Ag and Au-Ag alloy nanoparticles using J. sambac leaves extract, and their enhanced antimicrobial activity in presence of organic antimicrobials.

    PubMed

    Yallappa, S; Manjanna, J; Dhananjaya, B L

    2015-02-25

    A green chemistry approach for the synthesis of Au, Ag and Au-Ag alloy nanoparticles (NPs) using the corresponding metal precursors and Jasminum sambac leaves extract as both reducing and capping media, under microwave irradiation, is reported. During the formation, as expected, the reaction mixture shows marginal decrease in pH and an increase in solution potential. The formation of NPs is evident from their surface plasmon resonance (SPR) peak observed at ∼555 nm for Au, ∼435 nm for Ag and ∼510 nm for Au-Ag alloy. The XRD pattern shows fcc structure while the FTIR spectra indicate the presence of plant residues adsorbed on these NPs. Such a bio-capping of NPs is characterized by their weight loss, ∼35% due to thermal degradation of biomass, as observed in TG analysis. The colloidal dispersion of NPs is stable for about 6 weeks. The near spherical shape of NPs (ϕ20-50 nm) is observed by FE-SEM/TEM images and EDAX gives the expected elemental composition. Furthermore, these NPs showed enhanced antimicrobial activity (∼1-4-fold increase in zone of inhibition) in combination with antimicrobials against test strains. Thus, the phytosynthesized NPs could be used as effective growth inhibitors for various microorganisms.

  5. Stable colloidal solutions of strontium hexaferrite hard magnetic nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Trusov, Lev A; Vasiliev, Alexander V; Lukatskaya, Maria R; Zaytsev, Dmitry D; Jansen, Martin; Kazin, Pavel E

    2014-12-04

    Herein we demonstrate an approach to prepare a colloidal solution of strontium hexaferrite via a glass-ceramic route. The as obtained colloids are stable and resistive to aggregation or sedimentation. They reveal outstanding magnetic and magneto-optical properties because of their platelet-like anisotropic shape and high permanent magnetic moment.

  6. Single-step fabrication of quantum funnels via centrifugal colloidal casting of nanoparticle films.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin Young; Adinolfi, Valerio; Sutherland, Brandon R; Voznyy, Oleksandr; Kwon, S Joon; Kim, Tae Wu; Kim, Jeongho; Ihee, Hyotcherl; Kemp, Kyle; Adachi, Michael; Yuan, Mingjian; Kramer, Illan; Zhitomirsky, David; Hoogland, Sjoerd; Sargent, Edward H

    2015-07-13

    Centrifugal casting of composites and ceramics has been widely employed to improve the mechanical and thermal properties of functional materials. This powerful method has yet to be deployed in the context of nanoparticles--yet size-effect tuning of quantum dots is among their most distinctive and application-relevant features. Here we report the first gradient nanoparticle films to be constructed in a single step. By creating a stable colloid of nanoparticles that are capped with electronic-conduction-compatible ligands we were able to leverage centrifugal casting for thin-films devices. This new method, termed centrifugal colloidal casting, is demonstrated to form films in a bandgap-ordered manner with efficient carrier funnelling towards the lowest energy layer. We constructed the first quantum-gradient photodiode to be formed in a single deposition step and, as a result of the gradient-enhanced electric field, experimentally measured the highest normalized detectivity of any colloidal quantum dot photodetector.

  7. Single-step fabrication of quantum funnels via centrifugal colloidal casting of nanoparticle films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jin Young; Adinolfi, Valerio; Sutherland, Brandon R.; Voznyy, Oleksandr; Kwon, S. Joon; Kim, Tae Wu; Kim, Jeongho; Ihee, Hyotcherl; Kemp, Kyle; Adachi, Michael; Yuan, Mingjian; Kramer, Illan; Zhitomirsky, David; Hoogland, Sjoerd; Sargent, Edward H.

    2015-07-01

    Centrifugal casting of composites and ceramics has been widely employed to improve the mechanical and thermal properties of functional materials. This powerful method has yet to be deployed in the context of nanoparticles--yet size-effect tuning of quantum dots is among their most distinctive and application-relevant features. Here we report the first gradient nanoparticle films to be constructed in a single step. By creating a stable colloid of nanoparticles that are capped with electronic-conduction-compatible ligands we were able to leverage centrifugal casting for thin-films devices. This new method, termed centrifugal colloidal casting, is demonstrated to form films in a bandgap-ordered manner with efficient carrier funnelling towards the lowest energy layer. We constructed the first quantum-gradient photodiode to be formed in a single deposition step and, as a result of the gradient-enhanced electric field, experimentally measured the highest normalized detectivity of any colloidal quantum dot photodetector.

  8. Air stable colloidal copper nanoparticles: Synthesis, characterization and their surface-enhanced Raman scattering properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramani, Thekkathu; Leon Prasanth, K.; Sreedhar, Bojja

    2016-03-01

    Air stable colloidal copper nanoparticles are synthesized by a simple chemical reduction method using octadecylsilane as a reducing agent and octadecylamine as a stabilizing agent in toluene without any inert gas. The formation of nanosized copper was confirmed by its characteristic surface plasmon absorption peaks in UV-visible spectra. The transmission electron microscopic (TEM) images show that the resulting copper nanoparticles are distributed uniformly with a narrow size distribution. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) demonstrated that the obtained copper nanoparticles are single crystalline nanoparticles. Fourier transform infra-red (FT-IR) spectroscopic data suggested that the silane Si-H is responsible for the reduction of copper ions. And also the resulting colloidal copper nanoparticles exhibit large surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) signals.

  9. The study of the antimicrobial activity of colloidal solutions of silver nanoparticles prepared using food stabilizers.

    PubMed

    Balandin, G V; Suvorov, O A; Shaburova, L N; Podkopaev, D O; Frolova, Yu V; Ermolaeva, G A

    2015-06-01

    The bactericidal effect of colloidal solutions of silver nanoparticles based on food stabilizers, gum arabic and chitosan, against bacterial cultures of microorganisms in food production is described. The antibacterial activity of nanotechnology products containing different amounts of stabilizing additives when applied to solid pH-neutral substrates is studied. For its evaluation a method making it possible to take into account the capability of nanoparticles to diffuse in solid media was applied. Minimal inhibitory concentrations of nanoparticles used against Erwinia herbicola, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Bacillus subtilis, Sarcina flava were found. A suggestion was made concerning the influence of the spatial structure of bacteria on the antibacterial activity of colloidal solutions of silver nanoparticles. The data concerning the antibacterial activity and minimal inhibiting concentrations of nanoparticles may be used for development of products suppressing activity of microorganisms hazardous for food production.

  10. Synthesis, characterization and SERS activity of Au-Ag nanorods.

    PubMed

    Philip, Daizy; Gopchandran, K G; Unni, C; Nissamudeen, K M

    2008-09-01

    The formation mechanism and morphology of Au-Ag bimetallic colloidal nanoparticles depend on the composition. Ag coated Au colloidal nanoparticles have been prepared by deposition of Ag through chemical reduction on performed Au colloid. The composition of the Au100-x-Agx particles was varied from x=0 to 50. The obtained colloids were characterized by UV-vis spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The Au80-Ag20 colloid consists of alloy nanorods with dimension of 25nm x 100nm. The activity of these nanorods in surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) was checked by using sodium salicylate as an adsorbate probe. Intense SERS bands are observed indicating its usefulness as a SERS substrate in near infrared (NIR) laser excitation.

  11. Biocompatible Colloidal Suspensions Based on Magnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles: Synthesis, Characterization and Toxicological Profile

    PubMed Central

    Coricovac, Dorina-Elena; Moacă, Elena-Alina; Pinzaru, Iulia; Cîtu, Cosmin; Soica, Codruta; Mihali, Ciprian-Valentin; Păcurariu, Cornelia; Tutelyan, Victor A.; Tsatsakis, Aristidis; Dehelean, Cristina-Adriana

    2017-01-01

    The use of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles in biomedicine has evolved intensely in the recent years due to the multiple applications of these nanomaterials, mainly in domains like cancer. The aim of the present study was: (i) to develop biocompatible colloidal suspensions based on magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles as future theranostic tools for skin pathology and (ii) to test their effects in vitro on human keratinocytes (HaCat cells) and in vivo by employing an animal model of acute dermal toxicity. Biocompatible colloidal suspensions were obtained by coating the magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles resulted during the solution combustion synthesis with a double layer of oleic acid, as innovative procedure in increasing bioavailability. The colloidal suspensions were characterized in terms of dynamic light scattering (DLS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The in vitro effects of these suspensions were tested by means of Alamar blue assay and the noxious effects at skin level were measured using non-invasive methods. The in vitro results indicated a lack of toxicity on normal human cells induced by the iron oxide nanoparticles colloidal suspensions after an exposure of 24 h to different concentrations (5, 10, and 25 μg·mL−1). The dermal acute toxicity test showed that the topical applications of the colloidal suspensions on female and male SKH-1 hairless mice were not associated with significant changes in the quality of barrier skin function.

  12. Design of Au/SPIO composite nanoparticle for facile and biocompatible surface functionalization via Au-S bond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seino, Satoshi; Shibata, Yujin; Yamanaka, Masayuki; Nakagawa, Takashi; Mukai, Yohei; Nakagawa, Shinsaku; Yamamoto, Takao A.

    2013-01-01

    Immobilization of Au nanoparticles on super-paramagnetic iron-oxide (SPIO) enables facile and biocompatible surface functionalization via Au-S bond. Au/SPIO composite nanoparticle is easily modified by thiol-modified polyethylene glycol (PEG-SH), and they are successfully applied on MR tumor imaging. However, its large hydrodynamic size ( 150 nm) still causes the accumulation to liver in vivo. In this study, we controlled the hydrodynamic size of Au/SPIO by testing different raw SPIOs and stabilizing polymers. As the best candidate, Au/Molday-ION which was synthesized from Molday-ION and polyvinyl alcohol comprised the hydrodynamic size of 56 nm. Moreover, PEGylated Au/Molday-ION showed excellent dispersibility in blood serum, with the hydrodynamic size of 65 nm. This surface functionalization strategy is effective for the constructions of magnetic nanocarriers for in vivo applications.

  13. Theoretical Comparison of Optical Properties of Near-Infrared Colloidal Plasmonic Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Kai; Xue, Xiaozheng; Furlani, Edward P.

    2016-01-01

    We study optical properties of near-infrared absorbing colloidal plasmonic nanostructures that are of interest for biomedical theranostic applications: SiO2@Au core-shell particles, Au nanocages and Au nanorods. Full-wave field analysis is used to compare the absorption spectra and field enhancement of these structures as a function of their dimensions and orientation with respect to the incident field polarization. Absorption cross-sections of structures with the same volume and LSPR wavelength are compared to quantify differential performance for imaging, sensing and photothermal applications. The analysis shows that while the LSPR of each structure can be tuned to the NIR, particles with a high degree of rotational symmetry, i.e. the SiO2@Au and nanocage particles, provide superior performance for photothermal applications because their absorption is less sensitive to their orientation, which is random in colloidal applications. The analysis also demonstrates that Au nanocages are advantaged with respect to other structures for imaging, sensing and drug delivery applications as they support abundant E field hot spots along their surface and within their open interior. The modeling approach presented here broadly applies to dilute colloidal plasmonic nanomaterials of arbitrary shapes, sizes and material constituents and is well suited for the rational design of novel plasmon-assisted theranostic applications. PMID:27665922

  14. Theoretical Comparison of Optical Properties of Near-Infrared Colloidal Plasmonic Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Kai; Xue, Xiaozheng; Furlani, Edward P.

    2016-09-01

    We study optical properties of near-infrared absorbing colloidal plasmonic nanostructures that are of interest for biomedical theranostic applications: SiO2@Au core-shell particles, Au nanocages and Au nanorods. Full-wave field analysis is used to compare the absorption spectra and field enhancement of these structures as a function of their dimensions and orientation with respect to the incident field polarization. Absorption cross-sections of structures with the same volume and LSPR wavelength are compared to quantify differential performance for imaging, sensing and photothermal applications. The analysis shows that while the LSPR of each structure can be tuned to the NIR, particles with a high degree of rotational symmetry, i.e. the SiO2@Au and nanocage particles, provide superior performance for photothermal applications because their absorption is less sensitive to their orientation, which is random in colloidal applications. The analysis also demonstrates that Au nanocages are advantaged with respect to other structures for imaging, sensing and drug delivery applications as they support abundant E field hot spots along their surface and within their open interior. The modeling approach presented here broadly applies to dilute colloidal plasmonic nanomaterials of arbitrary shapes, sizes and material constituents and is well suited for the rational design of novel plasmon-assisted theranostic applications.

  15. Bismuth oxide aqueous colloidal nanoparticles inhibit Candida albicans growth and biofilm formation.

    PubMed

    Hernandez-Delgadillo, Rene; Velasco-Arias, Donaji; Martinez-Sanmiguel, Juan Jose; Diaz, David; Zumeta-Dube, Inti; Arevalo-Niño, Katiushka; Cabral-Romero, Claudio

    2013-01-01

    Multiresistance among microorganisms to common antimicrobials has become one of the most significant concerns in modern medicine. Nanomaterials are a new alternative to successfully treat the multiresistant microorganisms. Nanostructured materials are used in many fields, including biological sciences and medicine. Recently, it was demonstrated that the bactericidal activity of zero-valent bismuth colloidal nanoparticles inhibited the growth of Streptococcus mutans; however the antimycotic potential of bismuth nanostructured derivatives has not yet been studied. The main objective of this investigation was to analyze the fungicidal activity of bismuth oxide nanoparticles against Candida albicans, and their antibiofilm capabilities. Our results showed that aqueous colloidal bismuth oxide nanoparticles displayed antimicrobial activity against C. albicans growth (reducing colony size by 85%) and a complete inhibition of biofilm formation. These results are better than those obtained with chlorhexidine, nystatin, and terbinafine, the most effective oral antiseptic and commercial antifungal agents. In this work, we also compared the antimycotic activities of bulk bismuth oxide and bismuth nitrate, the precursor metallic salt. These results suggest that bismuth oxide colloidal nanoparticles could be a very interesting candidate as a fungicidal agent to be incorporated into an oral antiseptic. Additionally, we determined the minimum inhibitory concentration for the synthesized aqueous colloidal Bi2O3 nanoparticles.

  16. Bismuth oxide aqueous colloidal nanoparticles inhibit Candida albicans growth and biofilm formation

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez-Delgadillo, Rene; Velasco-Arias, Donaji; Martinez-Sanmiguel, Juan Jose; Diaz, David; Zumeta-Dube, Inti; Arevalo-Niño, Katiushka; Cabral-Romero, Claudio

    2013-01-01

    Multiresistance among microorganisms to common antimicrobials has become one of the most significant concerns in modern medicine. Nanomaterials are a new alternative to successfully treat the multiresistant microorganisms. Nanostructured materials are used in many fields, including biological sciences and medicine. Recently, it was demonstrated that the bactericidal activity of zero-valent bismuth colloidal nanoparticles inhibited the growth of Streptococcus mutans; however the antimycotic potential of bismuth nanostructured derivatives has not yet been studied. The main objective of this investigation was to analyze the fungicidal activity of bismuth oxide nanoparticles against Candida albicans, and their antibiofilm capabilities. Our results showed that aqueous colloidal bismuth oxide nanoparticles displayed antimicrobial activity against C. albicans growth (reducing colony size by 85%) and a complete inhibition of biofilm formation. These results are better than those obtained with chlorhexidine, nystatin, and terbinafine, the most effective oral antiseptic and commercial antifungal agents. In this work, we also compared the antimycotic activities of bulk bismuth oxide and bismuth nitrate, the precursor metallic salt. These results suggest that bismuth oxide colloidal nanoparticles could be a very interesting candidate as a fungicidal agent to be incorporated into an oral antiseptic. Additionally, we determined the minimum inhibitory concentration for the synthesized aqueous colloidal Bi2O3 nanoparticles. PMID:23637533

  17. Anodic dissolution of gold in a solution of 1,3-diaminopropane with the formation of a cathodic deposit and a colloidal solution of Au

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vedenyapina, M. D.; Ubushieva, G. Ts.; Kuznetsov, V. V.; Makhova, N. N.; Vedenyapin, A. A.

    2016-11-01

    The corrosion of a Au anode in a solution of 1,3-diaminopropane (DAP) is studied by means of gravimetry. It is found that the products of corrosion of Au electrode in galvanostatic conditions are reduced on a Pt cathode with the formation of either an electrolytic Au deposit or a colloidal solution of metallic Au, depending on the current strength. The kinetics of the dissolution of Au in the presence of DAP is investigated. The formation of a complex of Au with DAP is observed, and a structure for it is proposed.

  18. Biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles using catclaw buttercup (Radix Ranunculi Ternati) and evaluation of its colloidal stability.

    PubMed

    Ren, Fang; He, Xiaoxiao; Wang, Kemin; Yin, Jinjin

    2012-08-01

    The biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles using catclaw buttercup (Radix Ranunculi Ternati) and their stability have been reported in this paper. The aqueous catclaw buttercup was used as mild reducing agent for gold nanoparticles synthesis from HAuCl4 solutions. The influence of reaction time, temperature and mass ratio of HAuCl4/catclaw buttercup were evaluated to investigate their effects on gold nanoparticles synthesis. Under the optimized reaction parameters, the gold nanoparticles obtained are characterized by UV-vis spectrum, X-ray diffraction (XRD), EDAX technique (EDX), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), FTIR spectrum, anthrone-sulfuric colorimetric method, and plus Improved-Lowry Protein Assay Kit. The HRTEM images showed that the biosynthesized gold nanoparticles are mostly spherical with size range from 9-24 nm. Furthermore, it was found that the biosynthesized gold nanoparticles possessed outstanding colloid stability in aqueous solutions as a function of category and concentration of monovalent salt and pH value of the solution when compared with chemosynthetic ones with the similar size. Anthrone-sulfuric colorimetric method revealed that there is no sugar in the biosynthesized gold colloid. While Improved-Lowry tests results demonstrated that the existence of much protein in the biosynthesized gold colloid, which may played an important role in stabilization of it. Owing to their stability, biocompatibility, lower cost and so on, gold nanoparticles synthesized by this biosynthesis method show potential application prospect in optoelectronic and biomedicine.

  19. Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles incorporated into silica nanoparticles by inelastic collision via ultrasonic field: Role of colloidal stability

    SciTech Connect

    Sodipo, Bashiru Kayode; Azlan, Abdul Aziz

    2015-04-24

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION)/Silica composite nanoparticles were prepared by ultrasonically irradiating colloidal suspension of silica and SPION mixture. Both silica and SPION were synthesized independently via co-precipitation and sol-gel method, respectively. Their mixtures were sonicated at different pH between 3 and 5. Electrophoresis measurement and other physicochemical analyses of the products demonstrate that at lower pH SPION was found incorporated into the silica. However, at pH greater than 4, SPION was unstable and unable to withstand the turbulence flow and shock wave from the ultrasonic field. Results suggest that the formation of the SPION/silica composite nanoparticles is strongly related to the inelastic collision induced by ultrasonic irradiation. More so, the formation the composite nanoparticles via the ultrasonic field are dependent on the zeta potential and colloidal stability of the particles.

  20. Colloidal silver nanoparticles/rhamnolipid (SNPRL) composite as novel chemotactic antibacterial agent.

    PubMed

    Bharali, P; Saikia, J P; Paul, S; Konwar, B K

    2013-10-01

    The antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles and rhamnolipid are well known individually. In the present research, antibacterial and chemotactic activity due to colloidal silver nanoparticles (SNP), rhamnolipid (RL) and silver nanoparticles/rhamnolipid composite (SNPRL) were evaluated using Staphylococcus aureus (MTCC3160), Escherichia coli (MTCC40), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MTCC8163) and Bacillus subtilis (MTCC441) as test strains. Further, the SNPRL nanoparticles were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The observation clearly indicates that SNPRL shows prominent antibacterial and chemotactic activity in comparison to all of its individual precursor components.

  1. Gold and silver nanoparticle monomers are non-SERS-active: a negative experimental study with silica-encapsulated Raman-reporter-coated metal colloids.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuying; Walkenfort, Bernd; Yoon, Jun Hee; Schlücker, Sebastian; Xie, Wei

    2015-09-07

    Noble metal nanoparticles (NPs) are the most commonly employed plasmonic substrates in surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) experiments. Computer simulations show that monomers of Ag and Au nanocrystals ("spherical" NPs) do not exhibit a notable plasmonic enhancement, i.e., they are essentially non-SERS-active. However, in experiments, SERS enhanced by spherical NP colloids has been frequently reported. This implies that the monomers do not have strong SERS activity, but detectable enhancement should more or less be there. Because of the gap between theory and practice, it is important to demonstrate experimentally how SERS-active the metal colloid actually is and, in case a SERS signal is observed, where it originates from. In particular the aggregation of the colloid, induced by high centrifugal forces in washing steps or due to a harsh ionic environment of the suspension medium, should be controlled since it is the very high SERS activity of NP clusters which dominates the overall SERS signal of the colloid. We report here the experimental evaluation of the SERS activity of 80 nm Au and Ag NP monomers. Instead of showing fancy nanostructures and super SERS enhancement, we present the method on how to obtain negative experimental data. In this approach, no SERS signal was obtained from the colloid with a Raman reporter on the metal surface when the NPs were encapsulated carefully within a thick silica shell. Without silica encapsulation, if a very low centrifugation speed is used for the washing steps, only a negligible SERS signal can be detected even at very high NP concentrations. In contrast, strong SERS signals can be detected when the NPs are suspended in acidic solutions. These results indicate that Au and Ag NP monomers essentially exhibit no SERS activity of practical relevance.

  2. Synthesis and characterization of hollow magnetic nanospheres modified with Au nanoparticles for bio-encapsulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seisno, Satoshi; Suga, Kent; Nakagawa, Takashi; Yamamoto, Takao A.

    2017-04-01

    Hollow magnetic nanospheres modified with Au nanoparticles were successfully synthesized. Au/SiO2 nanospheres fabricated by a radiochemical process were used as templates for ferrite templating. After the ferrite plating process, Au/SiO2 templates were fully coated with magnetite nanoparticles. Dissolution of the SiO2 core lead to the formation of hollow magnetic nanospheres with Au nanoparticles inside. The hollow magnetic nanospheres consisted of Fe3O4 grains, with an average diameter of 60 nm, connected to form the sphere wall, inside which Au grains with an average diameter of 7.2 nm were encapsulated. The Au nanoparticles immobilized on the SiO2 templates contributed to the adsorption of the Fe ion precursor and/or Fe3O4 seeds. These hollow magnetic nanospheres are proposed as a new type of nanocarrier, as the Au grains could specifically immobilize biomolecules inside the hollow sphere.

  3. Photocatalytic hybrid Au/ZnO nanoparticles assembled through a one-pot method.

    PubMed

    Manna, Joydeb; Vinod, T P; Flomin, Kobi; Jelinek, Raz

    2015-12-15

    Growth of metal domains on semiconductor nanoparticles is known to enhance their photocatalytic properties. We prepared ZnO nanoparticles decorated with metallic Au domains through a new one-pot microwave-based strategy. The synthetic route utilized microwave-heating of a mixture of only three components: Zn(2+) salt, Au(SCN)4(-) which served as a precursor for metallic gold, and Tris base. The Tris molecules had a dual role in the process, both shaping the morphology of the ZnO particles, as well as constituting docking and nucleation sites for the Au(SCN)4(-) ions. The Au complex subsequently underwent spontaneous crystallization/reduction without co-addition of reducing or stabilizing agents, yielding Au nanoparticles attached to the ZnO surface. We show that the hybrid Au/ZnO nanoparticles exhibited enhanced photocatalytic properties compared to the plain ZnO nanoparticles.

  4. Colloidal stability of iron oxide nanoparticles with multivalent polymer surfactants.

    PubMed

    Choi, Young-Wook; Lee, Hoik; Song, Youngjun; Sohn, Daewon

    2015-04-01

    This paper introduces a new approach for preparing magnetic colloidal suspensions with electrostatic repulsion between particles and polyelectrolyte surfactants. The surface charge of the iron oxide particles was positive in acidic aqueous conditions; however the surface charge of the colloid was negative in basic aqueous conditions due to the amphoteric property of Fe2O3. The long-term colloidal stability and particle distribution of the multivalent charged polymers, Poly(4-vinylbenzenesulfonate sodium salt) (PSS), Poly(acrylic acid) (PAA), and Poly(allylamine hydrochloride) (PAH) were compared with the monovalent surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). Both mono- and multivalent surfactant molecules showed good colloidal stability for extended periods of time. However, the particle distribution was dependent on the hydrophobicity of the surfactants' functional groups. Polyelectrolytes with a negatively charged functional group showed good long-term stability of particles and a narrow particle distribution regardless of the acid dissociation constant (pKa) of the polymer.

  5. Synthesis of triangular Au core-Ag shell nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Rai, Akhilesh; Chaudhary, Minakshi; Ahmad, Absar; Bhargava, Suresh; Sastry, Murali . E-mail: msastry@tatachemicals.com

    2007-07-03

    In this paper, we demonstrate a simple and reproducible method for the synthesis of triangular Au core-Ag shell nanoparticles. The triangular gold core is obtained by the reduction of gold ions by lemongrass extract. Utilizing the negative charge on the gold nanotriangles, silver ions are bound to their surface and thereafter reduced by ascorbic acid under alkaline conditions. The thickness of the silver shell may be modulated by varying the pH of the reaction medium. The formation of the Au core-Ag shell triangular nanostructures has been followed by UV-vis-NIR Spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurements. The sharp vertices of the triangles coupled with the core-shell structure is expected to have potential for application in surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy and in the sensitive detection of biomolecules.

  6. Microwave-accelerated ultrafast nanoparticle aggregation assays using gold colloids.

    PubMed

    Aslan, Kadir; Geddes, Chris D

    2007-03-01

    In this paper, the proof of principle of microwave-accelerated aggregation assay technology, which shortens the solution-based aggregation assays' run time to seconds (>100-fold increase in kinetics) with microwave heating, was demonstrated using a model aggregation assay based on the well-known interactions of biotin and avidin. Biotinylated gold colloids were aggregated in solution with the addition of streptavidin, which takes 20 min at room temperature to reach >90% completion and only 10 s with microwave heating. The initial velocity (after 1-s microwave heating) of the biotinylated gold colloids reaches up to 10.5 m/s, which gives rise to greater sampling of the total volume but not a large increase in bulk temperature. The room-temperature, steady-state velocity of the colloids was <0.5 microm/s. In control experiments, where streptavidin preincubated with d-biotin in solution is added to biotinylated gold colloids and microwave heated, gold colloids did not aggregate, demonstrating that nonspecific interactions between biotinylated gold colloids and streptavidin were negligible.

  7. Surface treatment of silica nanoparticles for stable and charge-controlled colloidal silica

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyoung-Min; Kim, Hye Min; Lee, Won-Jae; Lee, Chang-Woo; Kim, Tae-il; Lee, Jong-Kwon; Jeong, Jayoung; Paek, Seung-Min; Oh, Jae-Min

    2014-01-01

    An attempt was made to control the surface charge of colloidal silica nanoparticles with 20 nm and 100 nm diameters. Untreated silica nanoparticles were determined to be highly negatively charged and have stable hydrodynamic sizes in a wide pH range. To change the surface to a positively charged form, various coating agents, such as amine containing molecules, multivalent metal cation, or amino acids, were used to treat the colloidal silica nanoparticles. Molecules with chelating amine sites were determined to have high affinity with the silica surface to make agglomerations or gel-like networks. Amino acid coatings resulted in relatively stable silica colloids with a modified surface charge. Three amino acid moiety coatings (L-serine, L-histidine, and L-arginine) exhibited surface charge modifying efficacy of L-histidine > L-arginine > L-serine and hydrodynamic size preservation efficacy of L-serine > L-arginine > L-histidine. The time dependent change in L-arginine coated colloidal silica was investigated by measuring the pattern of the backscattered light in a Turbiscan™. The results indicated that both the 20 nm and 100 nm L-arginine coated silica samples were fairly stable in terms of colloidal homogeneity, showing only slight coalescence and sedimentation. PMID:25565824

  8. A novel 'green' synthesis of colloidal silver nanoparticles (SNP) using Dillenia indica fruit extract.

    PubMed

    Singh, Susmita; Saikia, Jyoti P; Buragohain, Alak K

    2013-02-01

    In the present research we have defined a novel green method of silver nanoparticles synthesis using Dillenia indica fruit extract. D. indica is an edible fruit widely distributed in the foothills of Himalayas and known for its antioxidant and further predicted for cancer preventive potency. The maximum absorbance of the colloidal silver nanoparticle solution was observed at 421 nm when examined with UV-vis spectrophotometer.

  9. Ultrasmall iron oxide nanoparticles for biomedical applications: improving the colloidal and magnetic properties.

    PubMed

    Costo, Rocio; Bello, Valentina; Robic, Caroline; Port, Marc; Marco, Jose F; Puerto Morales, M; Veintemillas-Verdaguer, Sabino

    2012-01-10

    A considerable increase in the saturation magnetization, M(s) (40%), and initial susceptibility of ultrasmall (<5 nm) iron oxide nanoparticles prepared by laser pyrolysis was obtained through an optimized acid treatment. Moreover, a significant enhancement in the colloidal properties, such as smaller aggregate sizes in aqueous media and increased surface charge densities, was found after this chemical protocol. The results are consistent with a reduction in nanoparticle surface disorder induced by a dissolution-recrystallization mechanism.

  10. In vitro interaction of colloidal nanoparticles with mammalian cells: What have we learned thus far?

    PubMed Central

    Nazarenus, Moritz; Zhang, Qian; Soliman, Mahmoud G; del Pino, Pablo; Pelaz, Beatriz; Carregal-Romero, Susana; Rejman, Joanna; Rothen-Rutishauser, Barbara; Clift, Martin J D; Zellner, Reinhard; Nienhaus, G Ulrich; Delehanty, James B; Medintz, Igor L

    2014-01-01

    Summary The interfacing of colloidal nanoparticles with mammalian cells is now well into its second decade. In this review our goal is to highlight the more generally accepted concepts that we have gleaned from nearly twenty years of research. While details of these complex interactions strongly depend, amongst others, upon the specific properties of the nanoparticles used, the cell type, and their environmental conditions, a number of fundamental principles exist, which are outlined in this review. PMID:25247131

  11. Protein corona composition does not accurately predict hematocompatibility of colloidal gold nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Dobrovolskaia, Marina A; Neun, Barry W; Man, Sonny; Ye, Xiaoying; Hansen, Matthew; Patri, Anil K; Crist, Rachael M; McNeil, Scott E

    2014-10-01

    Proteins bound to nanoparticle surfaces are known to affect particle clearance by influencing immune cell uptake and distribution to the organs of the mononuclear phagocytic system. The composition of the protein corona has been described for several types of nanomaterials, but the role of the corona in nanoparticle biocompatibility is not well established. In this study we investigate the role of nanoparticle surface properties (PEGylation) and incubation times on the protein coronas of colloidal gold nanoparticles. While neither incubation time nor PEG molecular weight affected the specific proteins in the protein corona, the total amount of protein binding was governed by the molecular weight of PEG coating. Furthermore, the composition of the protein corona did not correlate with nanoparticle hematocompatibility. Specialized hematological tests should be used to deduce nanoparticle hematotoxicity. From the clinical editor: It is overall unclear how the protein corona associated with colloidal gold nanoparticles may influence hematotoxicity. This study warns that PEGylation itself may be insufficient, because composition of the protein corona does not directly correlate with nanoparticle hematocompatibility. The authors suggest that specialized hematological tests must be used to deduce nanoparticle hematotoxicity.

  12. Fractures as Carriers for Colloid and Nano-Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weisbrod, N.; Cohen, M.; Tang, X.; Zvikelsky, O.; Meron, H.

    2013-12-01

    One of the major questions in studies in which transport of colloids and nano particles (NPs) is being explored is whether or not they will be mobile on large scales and in large conduits such as fractures and cracks. While many studies explore the migration on a small scale and mostly in ideal porous media, less is known about this topic on larger scales and in fractured rocks or cracked soils. Fractures are likely to be favorable carriers for colloids and NPs due to their large aperture, enabling relatively high flow velocity and smaller tortuosity of the flow path. Transport of various colloids including microspheres, clay particles and viruses, as well as colloid-facilitated transport of lead and cesium was explored in a naturally discrete fractured chalk cores. Preliminary work exploring the transport of NZVIs and TiO2 NPs is being carried out through these cores as well. Our results indicate very high recovery of large microspheres (0.2 and 1 micron) and lower recovery of the small spheres (0.02 micron). It was observed that clay particles, with similar surface properties and sizes to that of the microspheres, show significantly lower recoveries (50 vs over 90%), probably due to the high density of clay particles in respect to the microspheres (2.65 vs. 1.05 g/cm3). High recovery of bacteriophages was also observed, but they exhibit some differences in respect to microspheres with similar properties. In all cases, including the 0.02 micron colloids exhibiting lower recovery rates, arrival times were earlier than that of the bromide that was used as a reference. It was found that colloid-facilitated transport played a major role in the migration of lead and cesium through the fracture. In practice, lead was found to be mobile only in a colloidal form. The on-going work on NP transport through fractures is still in a preliminary phase. Nevertheless, TiO2 recovery was found to be very low. In conclusion, it was observed that in many cases fractures are favorable

  13. Gold surfaces and nanoparticles are protected by Au(0)-thiyl species and are destroyed when Au(I)-thiolates form.

    PubMed

    Reimers, Jeffrey R; Ford, Michael J; Halder, Arnab; Ulstrup, Jens; Hush, Noel S

    2016-03-15

    The synthetic chemistry and spectroscopy of sulfur-protected gold surfaces and nanoparticles is analyzed, indicating that the electronic structure of the interface is Au(0)-thiyl, with Au(I)-thiolates identified as high-energy excited surface states. Density-functional theory indicates that it is the noble character of gold and nanoparticle surfaces that destabilizes Au(I)-thiolates. Bonding results from large van der Waals forces, influenced by covalent bonding induced through s-d hybridization and charge polarization effects that perturbatively mix in some Au(I)-thiolate character. A simple method for quantifying these contributions is presented, revealing that a driving force for nanoparticle growth is nobleization, minimizing Au(I)-thiolate involvement. Predictions that Brust-Schiffrin reactions involve thiolate anion intermediates are verified spectroscopically, establishing a key feature needed to understand nanoparticle growth. Mixing of preprepared Au(I) and thiolate reactants always produces Au(I)-thiolate thin films or compounds rather than monolayers. Smooth links to O, Se, Te, C, and N linker chemistry are established.

  14. Invasion noise in nanoparticle WO3/Au thin film devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoel, Anders; Ederth, Jesper; Heszler, Peter; Kish, Laszlo B.; Olsson, Eva; Granqvist, Claes-Goeran

    2001-11-01

    Conduction noise measurements were carried out in the 0.3 to 45 Hz frequency range on Au films covered by a thin layer of tungsten trioxide (WO3) nanoparticles. Exposing the films to alcohol vapor resulted in a gradually increased noise intensity which went through a maximum after an exposure time of the order of 15 min. The maximum noise intensity could increase by several orders of magnitude above the initial level. Longer exposure times made the noise decrease and approach its original value. This effect was not observed in the absence of WO3 nanoparticles. The phenomenon is discussed in terms of a new invasion noise model in which the noise is related to the insertion and extraction of mobile chemical species.

  15. Single-step fabrication of quantum funnels via centrifugal colloidal casting of nanoparticle films

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jin Young; Adinolfi, Valerio; Sutherland, Brandon R.; Voznyy, Oleksandr; Kwon, S. Joon; Kim, Tae Wu; Kim, Jeongho; Ihee, Hyotcherl; Kemp, Kyle; Adachi, Michael; Yuan, Mingjian; Kramer, Illan; Zhitomirsky, David; Hoogland, Sjoerd; Sargent, Edward H.

    2015-01-01

    Centrifugal casting of composites and ceramics has been widely employed to improve the mechanical and thermal properties of functional materials. This powerful method has yet to be deployed in the context of nanoparticles—yet size–effect tuning of quantum dots is among their most distinctive and application-relevant features. Here we report the first gradient nanoparticle films to be constructed in a single step. By creating a stable colloid of nanoparticles that are capped with electronic-conduction-compatible ligands we were able to leverage centrifugal casting for thin-films devices. This new method, termed centrifugal colloidal casting, is demonstrated to form films in a bandgap-ordered manner with efficient carrier funnelling towards the lowest energy layer. We constructed the first quantum-gradient photodiode to be formed in a single deposition step and, as a result of the gradient-enhanced electric field, experimentally measured the highest normalized detectivity of any colloidal quantum dot photodetector. PMID:26165185

  16. Anionically cross linked homopolymer colloids applied in formation of platinum nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Tangeysh, Behzad; Fryd, Michael; Hayik, Sara E N; Kamps, Amanda C; Wayland, Bradford B

    2012-03-01

    Diprotonic sulfuric and succinic acids react efficiently with the tertiary amine sites in polydimethylaminoethylmethacrylate (PDMAEMA) to produce polymer colloid nano-particles held together by dinegatively charged anions that cross link the partially protonated PDMAEMA homopolymer. This procedure is used to encorporate [PtCl(6)](2-) as a cross linker into the framework of well defined polymer network colloid particles that have dual roles as nanoreactors and a source of protective polymer coating. Reduction of the cross linking [PtCl(6)](2-) groups produces platinum metal nano-particles (1.12(.25)nm) that are relatively small and narrowly dispersed. Formation of colloid particles by reaction of diprotic acids with homopolymers that have proton accepting centers provides a convenient intentional route to incorporate a variety of homopolymers into self assembled polymer network materials for applications as nanoreactors and transport systems.

  17. Au nanoparticles decorated C60 nanoparticle-based label-free electrochemiluminesence aptasensor via a novel "on-off-on" switch system.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Min; Zhuo, Ying; Chai, Ya-Qin; Yuan, Ruo

    2015-06-01

    Herein, a label-free electrochemiluminescence (ECL) aptasensor for highly sensitive determination of kanamycin was developed based on a novel "on-off-on" switch system. The first "switch on" state with remarkably high ECL intensity was obtained by the tri-layer composite films modified glassy carbon electrode towards the S2O8(2-)-O2 system. To be specific, the first layer was the Au nanoparticles decorated C60 nanoparticles (abbreviation as Au@nano-C60) as inner-layer which was prepared by the in situ generating of Au nanoparticles onto the surface of bovine serum albumin decorated nano-C60 nanoparticles. Then poly-L-histidine was first selected as a novel coreactant of S2O8(2-)-O2 system and it was adsorbed on the Au@nano-C60 modified electrode as inter-layer. Finally, a self-assembling layer of colloidal Au nanoparticles (AuNPs) was the outer-layer. The three layers were interaction by the Au-N covalent bond which could achieve a desirable initial amplified ECL signal. Successively, the capture probes (CPs) of the aptamer for the target of kanamycin was anchored on the resultant tri-layer composite films modified electrode. Later, the "switch off" state was made by the quenching effect of hemin/G-quadruplex DNAzymes towards S2O8(2-)-O2 system according to the DNA hybridization reaction of an assistant probes (APs, guanine-rich nucleic acid) with CPs which could generate a large amount of hemin/G-quadruplex DNAzymes in the presence of hemin with a simple and label-free process. As expected, the second "switch on" state was the ECL signal recovery when the target of kanamycin was present, it is attributed to that the formation of the aptamer-kanamycin complex makes the quencher of hemin/G-quadruplex DNAzymes release from the sensing interface. With the association of "on-off-on" switch system, a linear response about 9 orders of magnitude for kanamycin detection was obtained from 0.15 nM to 170 mm as well as a detection limit down to 45 pM.

  18. Assembling nanoparticle coatings to improve the drug delivery performance of lipid based colloids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simovic, Spomenka; Barnes, Timothy J.; Tan, Angel; Prestidge, Clive A.

    2012-02-01

    Lipid based colloids (e.g. emulsions and liposomes) are widely used as drug delivery systems, but often suffer from physical instabilities and non-ideal drug encapsulation and delivery performance. We review the application of engineered nanoparticle layers at the interface of lipid colloids to improve their performance as drug delivery systems. In addition we focus on the creation of novel hybrid nanomaterials from nanoparticle-lipid colloid assemblies and their drug delivery applications. Specifically, nanoparticle layers can be engineered to enhance the physical stability of submicron lipid emulsions and liposomes, satbilise encapsulated active ingredients against chemical degradation, control molecular transport and improve the dermal and oral delivery characteristics, i.e. increase absorption, bioavailability and facilitate targeted delivery. It is feasible that hybrid nanomaterials composed of nanoparticles and colloidal lipids are effective encapsulation and delivery systems for both poorly soluble drugs and biological drugs and may form the basis for the next generation of medicines. Additional pre-clinical research including specific animal model studies are required to advance the peptide/protein delivery systems, whereas the silica lipid hybrid systems have now entered human clinical trials for poorly soluble drugs.

  19. Sweet Nanochemistry: A Fast, Reliable Alternative Synthesis of Yellow Colloidal Silver Nanoparticles Using Benign Reagents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooke, Jason; Hebert, Dominique; Kelly, Joel A.

    2015-01-01

    This work describes a convenient and reliable laboratory experiment in nanochemistry that is flexible and adaptable to a wide range of educational settings. The rapid preparation of yellow colloidal silver nanoparticles is achieved by glucose reduction of silver nitrate in the presence of starch and sodium citrate in gently boiling water, using…

  20. Multifunctional hybrid Fe2O3-Au nanoparticles for efficient plasmonic heating

    DOE PAGES

    Murph, Simona E. Hunyadi; Larsen, George K.; Lascola, Robert J.

    2016-02-20

    We describe the synthesis and properties of multifunctional Fe2O3-Au nanoparticles produced by a wet chemical approach and investigate their photothermal properties using laser irradiation. Here, the composite Fe2O3-Au nanoparticles retain the properties of both materials, creating a multifunctional structure with excellent magnetic and plasmonic properties.

  1. XAFS study on structural order in highly monodispersed thiol-stabilized Au nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Y.; Liu, W.; Yang, L.; Huang, T.; Jiang, Y.; Yao, T.; Wei, S.

    2016-05-01

    Understanding the influence of thiol on nanoparticle size and structure is essential for the fundamental and applied researches. Here, using x-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy, we investigate the structural order of Au nanoparticles (NPs) in the protection of thiol ligands with different contents. We found that besides protecting Au NPs against aggregation and growth, thiolates can effectively eliminate the dangling bonds of unsaturated Au atoms, and thus increase the structural order. This work enriches our knowledge of Au-S interface interaction and guides the way towards preparing size-controllable nanoparticles with specific physical/chemical properties.

  2. Stability of colloidal silver nanoparticles trapped in lipid bilayer: effect of lecithin concentration and applied temperature.

    PubMed

    Barani, Hossein; Montazer, Majid; Braun, Hans-Georg; Dutschk, Victoria

    2014-12-01

    The use of silver nanoparticle on various substrates has been widespread because of its good antibacterial properties that directly depend on the stability of the silver nanoparticles in a colloidal suspension. In this study, the colloidal solutions of the silver nanoparticles were synthesised by a simple and safe method by using lecithin as a stabilising agent and their stability was examined at various temperatures. The effect of the lecithin concentrations on the stability of the synthesised silver nanoparticles was examined from 25 to 80°C at 5°C intervals, by recording the changes in the UV-vis absorption spectra, the hydrodynamic diameter and the light scattering intensity of the silver nanoparticles. In addition, the morphology of the synthesised silver nanoparticles was investigated with the low-voltage scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The results indicated that increasing temperature caused different changes in the size of the stabilised and the unstabilised silver nanoparticles. The size of the stabilised silver nanoparticles reduced from 38 to 36 nm during increasing temperature, which confirmed good stability.

  3. Photochemical arrays formed by spatial compartmentalization of colloidal nanoparticles in a polymer-based hydrogel

    SciTech Connect

    Firestone, M. A.; Rajh, T.; Makarova, O. V.; Seifert, S.; Tiede, D. M.; Thurnauer, M. C.

    2000-01-13

    The development of practical strategies for the assembly of semiconductor and metal colloid nanoparticles into ordered architectures is an area of considerable current interest, since it offers an opportunity for exploiting the optical and electronic properties of these colloids for device development. Prior research has explored creating such organized nanoparticle assemblies by Langmuir-Blodgett techniques or controlled solvent evaporation on suitable substrates. These approaches suffer from several limitations, however, most notably the generation of relatively simple structures and the lack of structural tailorability, preventing full exploitation of these materials. More recently, directed assembly using chemisorption of streptavidin-biotin or thiol-derivatized gold nanoparticles onto substrates has been described. Alternative approaches to achieving two-dimensional confinement of nanoparticles that do not involve substrate-supported materials, but rather organize the nanoparticles into mesoscopically-ordered soft condensed matter, may offer the advantage of enhanced processability and may permit construction of nanocomposite structures based on functional nanoparticles embedded in a processable, polymer-based matrix. This work describes the development of an alternative strategy for constructing 2-D arrays of functional metal and semiconductor nanoparticles. The approach involves directing the organization of nanocrystals into a processable (i.e., by externally applied magnetic and electric fields) polymer-grafted lipid-based complex fluid. By altering the surface chemistry of the nanoparticles, they can be selectively placed into defined regions encapsulating matrix.

  4. Au Colloids Formed by Ion Implantation in Muscovite Mica Studied by Vibrational and Electronic Spectroscopes and Atomic Force Microscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tung, Y. S.; Henderson, D. O.; Mu, R.; Ueda, A.; Collins, W. E.; White, C. W.; Zuhr, R. A.; Zhu, Jane G.

    1997-01-01

    Au was implanted into the (001) surface of Muscovite mica at an energy of 1.1 MeV and at doses of 1, 3, 6, and 10 x 10(exp 16) ions/cu cm. Optical spectra of the as-implanted samples revealed a peak at 2.28 eV (545 nm) which is attributed to the surface plasmon absorption of Au colloids. The infrared reflectance measurements show a decreasing reflectivity with increasing ion dose in the Si-O stretching region (900-1200 /cm). A new peak observed at 967 /cm increases with the ion dose and is assigned to an Si-O dangling bond. Atomic force microscopy images of freshly cleaved samples implanted with 6 and 10 x 10(exp 16) ions/sq cm indicated metal colloids with diameters between 0.9- 1.5 nm. AFM images of the annealed samples showed irregularly shaped structures with a topology that results from the fusion of smaller colloids.

  5. Highly colloidally stable hyperbranched polyglycerol grafted red fluorescent silicon nanoparticle as bioimaging probe.

    PubMed

    Das, Pradip; Jana, Nikhil R

    2014-03-26

    Here we report a surface modification approach for fluorescent silicon nanoparticle that transforms hydrophobic nanoparticle into water-soluble nanoparticle of high colloidal stability. The approach involves ring-opening polymerization of glycidol at the hydroxyl-terminated nanoparticle surface that results in a hyperbranched polyglycerol grafted silicon nanoparticle (Si-HPG). The resultant Si-HPG has 25 nm hydrodynamic diameter, low surface charge, and broad emission in the range of 450-700 nm with a fluorescence quantum yield of 6-9%. The Si-HPG has been transformed into cyclic RGD peptide functionalized nanoprobe using the conventional bioconjugation chemistry and used for specific targeting to αvβ3 integrin overexpressed cervical cancer cells and glioblastoma cells. Result shows that a silicon nanoparticle-based red fluorescent nanoprobe can be developed for in vitro/in vivo bioimaging applications.

  6. Growth of textured thin Au coatings on iron oxide nanoparticles with near infrared absorbance

    PubMed Central

    Ma, L L; Borwankar, A U; Willsey, B W; Yoon, K Y; Tam, J O; Sokolov, K V; Feldman, M D; Milner, T E; Johnston, K P

    2013-01-01

    A homologous series of Au-coated iron oxide nanoparticles, with hydrodynamic diameters smaller than 60 nm was synthesized with very low Auto-iron mass ratios as low as 0.15. The hydrodynamic diameter was determined by dynamic light scattering and the composition by atomic absorption spectroscopy and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS). Unusually low Au precursor supersaturation levels were utilized to nucleate and grow Au coatings on iron oxide relative to formation of pure Au nanoparticles. This approach produced unusually thin coatings, by lowering autocatalytic growth of Au on Au, as shown by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Nearly all of the nanoparticles were attracted by a magnet indicating a minimal amount of pure Au particles The coatings were sufficiently thin to shift the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) to the near infrared (NIR), with large extinction coefficients., despite the small particle hydrodynamic diameters, observed from dynamic light scattering to be less than 60 nm. PMID:23238021

  7. Metanephrine neuroendocrine tumor marker detection by SERS using Au nanoparticle/Au film sandwich architecture.

    PubMed

    Boca, Sanda; Farcau, Cosmin; Baia, Monica; Astilean, Simion

    2016-02-01

    Neuroendocrine tumors, such as pheochromocytoma or paraganglioma, are dangerous tumors that constitute a potential threat for a large number of patients. Currently, the biochemical diagnosis of neuroendocrine tumors is based on measurement of the direct secretory products of the adrenomedullary-sympathetic system or of their metabolites, such as catecholamines or their metanephrine derivatives, from plasma or urine. The techniques used for analysis of plasma free metanephrines, i.e. high-performance liquid chromatography or high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass-spectrometry are technically-demanding and time consuming, which limit their availability. Here we demonstrate a simple, fast and low-cost method for detecting metanephrine by Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS). The protocol consists in using evaporation-induced self-assembly of gold (Au) nanoparticles incubated with the analyte, on planar gold films. The assembly process produces regions with a dense distribution of both inter-particle gaps and particle-film gaps. Finite-difference time-domain simulations confirm that both kinds of gaps are locations of enhanced electromagnetic fields resulting from inter-particle and particle-film plasmonic coupling, useful for SERS amplification. Metanephrine vibrational bands assignment was performed according to density functional theory calculations. Metanephrine metabolite was detected in liquid at concentration levels lower than previously reported for other similar metabolites. The obtained results demonstrate that the Au nanoparticle/Au film exhibits noticeable SERS amplification of the adsorbed metabolite and can be used in the design of efficient, stable SERS-active substrates for the detection and identification of specific tumor markers.

  8. Optical properties of ion-beam-synthesized Au nanoparticles in SiO2 matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsieh, Chang-Lin; Oyoshi, Keiji; Chao, Der-Sheng; Tsai, Hsu-Sheng; Hong, Wei-Lun; Takeda, Yoshihiko; Liang, Jenq-Horng

    2016-05-01

    In recent years, gold (Au) nanoparticles have been synthesized via various methods and used in optical and biomedical detection. Au nanoparticles contain some remarkable dimension-dependent optical properties due to surface plasmon resonance (SPR) in Au nanoparticles which causes high absorption in visible light regions. Since SPR in well-crystallized Au nanoparticles can enhance the local electromagnetic field, it is thus expected that greater efficiency in the photoluminescence (PL) originating from oxygen deficiency centers (ODC) can be achieved in Au-implanted SiO2 matrix. In order to demonstrate the enhancement of PL, Au nanoparticles were formed in SiO2 film using ion beam synthesis and their optical and microstructural properties were also investigated in this study. The results revealed that a clear absorption peak at approximately 530 nm was identified in the UV-Vis spectra and was attributed to SPR induced by Au nanoparticles in SiO2. The SPR of Au nanoparticles is also dependent on thermal treatment conditions, such as post-annealing temperature and ambient. The Au nanoparticle-containing SiO2 film also displayed several distinctive peaks at approximately 320, 360, 460, and 600 nm in the PL spectra and were found to be associated with ODC-related defects and non-bridging oxygen hole centers (NBOHC) in SiO2. In addition, the PL peak intensities increased as post-annealing temperature increased, a finding contradictory to the defect recovery but highly consistent with the SPR tendency. A maximum PL emission was achieved when the Au-implanted SiO2 film was annealed at 1100 °C for 1 h under N2. Therefore, the existence of Au nanoparticles in SiO2 film can induce SPR effects as well as enhance PL emission resulting from defect-related luminescence centers.

  9. Green synthesis of colloid silver nanoparticles and resulting biodegradable starch/silver nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Cheviron, Perrine; Gouanvé, Fabrice; Espuche, Eliane

    2014-08-08

    Environmentally friendly silver nanocomposite films were prepared by an ex situ method consisting firstly in the preparation of colloidal silver dispersions and secondly in the dispersion of the as-prepared nanoparticles in a potato starch/glycerol matrix, keeping a green chemistry process all along the synthesis steps. In the first step concerned with the preparation of the colloidal silver dispersions, water, glucose and soluble starch were used as solvent, reducing agent and stabilizing agent, respectively. The influences of the glucose amount and reaction time were investigated on the size and size distribution of the silver nanoparticles. Two distinct silver nanoparticle populations in size (diameter around 5 nm size for the first one and from 20 to 50 nm for the second one) were distinguished and still highlighted in the potato starch/glycerol based nanocomposite films. It was remarkable that lower nanoparticle mean sizes were evidenced by both TEM and UV-vis analyses in the nanocomposites in comparison to the respective colloidal silver dispersions. A dispersion mechanism based on the potential interactions developed between the nanoparticles and the polymer matrix and on the polymer chain lengths was proposed to explain this morphology. These nanocomposite film series can be viewed as a promising candidate for many applications in antimicrobial packaging, biomedicines and sensors.

  10. Magnetorheology of colloidal dispersion containing Fe nanoparticles synthesized by the arc-plasma method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noma, Junichi; Abe, Hiroya; Kikuchi, Takehito; Furusho, Junji; Naito, Makio

    2010-07-01

    Spherical crystalline Fe nanoparticles, ˜100 nm in diameter, were synthesized under Ar-50% H 2 arc-plasma. These nanoparticles were dispersed in silicone oil after silane treatment on as-grown thin oxide layer (˜2 nm) to make their surfaces hydrophobic. The resulting Fe nanoparticles exhibited a high saturation magnetization of ˜190 emu/g at room temperature. The static magnetorheological behavior was measured for the colloidal dispersion (solid concentration: 15 vol%) at room temperature under magnetic flux densities of 0-0.3 T, using a parallel-plate-type commercial rheometer. The yield stress continuously increased with magnetic flux density, demonstrating the Bingham plastic behavior. Moreover, subjecting the sample to a magnetic flux density of 0.3 T increased the yield stress by ˜10 2. Additionally, the colloidal dispersion exhibited good stability against sedimentation.

  11. Self-assembly of disk-like multiring ZnO-SnO2 colloidal nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Ji, Hongjun; Liu, Xiaoheng; Wang, Xin; Liang, Shiming; Ge, Xiutao; Li, Yonghong

    2011-04-15

    ZnO-SnO(2) colloidal nanoparticles have been successfully synthesized by using the composite of ZnCl(2) and Sn(OC(4)H(9))(4) as inorganic precursor and dodecylbenzenesulfonic acid (DBSA) as an organic template. The assembled nanostructures of ZnO-SnO(2) products have been carefully investigated by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). It is found that ZnO-SnO(2) colloidal nanoparticles take a disk-like multiring nanostructure. This interesting structure is predominantly determined by the tenacity for ZnO-SnO(2) mixtures to stabilize lamellae. A mechanism based on electrostatic interactions between the precursor and template has been proposed to illustrate the resulting nanoparticle structure.

  12. Formation of stable uranium(VI) colloidal nanoparticles in conditions relevant to radioactive waste disposal.

    PubMed

    Bots, Pieter; Morris, Katherine; Hibberd, Rosemary; Law, Gareth T W; Mosselmans, J Frederick W; Brown, Andy P; Doutch, James; Smith, Andrew J; Shaw, Samuel

    2014-12-09

    The favored pathway for disposal of higher activity radioactive wastes is via deep geological disposal. Many geological disposal facility designs include cement in their engineering design. Over the long term, interaction of groundwater with the cement and waste will form a plume of a hyperalkaline leachate (pH 10-13), and the behavior of radionuclides needs to be constrained under these extreme conditions to minimize the environmental hazard from the wastes. For uranium, a key component of many radioactive wastes, thermodynamic modeling predicts that, at high pH, U(VI) solubility will be very low (nM or lower) and controlled by equilibrium with solid phase alkali and alkaline-earth uranates. However, the formation of U(VI) colloids could potentially enhance the mobility of U(VI) under these conditions, and characterizing the potential for formation and medium-term stability of U(VI) colloids is important in underpinning our understanding of U behavior in waste disposal. Reflecting this, we applied conventional geochemical and microscopy techniques combined with synchrotron based in situ and ex situ X-ray techniques (small-angle X-ray scattering and X-ray adsorption spectroscopy (XAS)) to characterize colloidal U(VI) nanoparticles in a synthetic cement leachate (pH > 13) containing 4.2-252 μM U(VI). The results show that in cement leachates with 42 μM U(VI), colloids formed within hours and remained stable for several years. The colloids consisted of 1.5-1.8 nm nanoparticles with a proportion forming 20-60 nm aggregates. Using XAS and electron microscopy, we were able to determine that the colloidal nanoparticles had a clarkeite (sodium-uranate)-type crystallographic structure. The presented results have clear and hitherto unrecognized implications for the mobility of U(VI) in cementitious environments, in particular those associated with the geological disposal of nuclear waste.

  13. Tailoring the local structure and electronic property of AuPd nanoparticles by selecting capping molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Feng; Zhang, Peng

    2010-01-01

    Nine AuPd nanoparticle samples selectively capped with tetraoctylphosphonium bromide, primary amine and tertiary amine molecules were studied with the Au L3-edge x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). The AuPd mixing patterns were analyzed by comparing the XAS results with the theoretical coordination numbers of 24 AuPd model clusters of varied size, Au concentration, and bimetal mixing pattern. It was found that the use of amines, particularly tertiary amine, produced a more homogeneous AuPd mixing pattern and the Au d-electron density was fine-tunable by tailoring the density of Au-Pd bonds. Mechanisms for the tailored structural and electronic properties of these nanoparticles were proposed.

  14. Asymmetric photoelectric property of transparent TiO2 nanotube films loaded with Au nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hui; Liang, Wei; Liu, Yiming; Zhang, Wanggang; Zhou, Diaoyu; Wen, Jing

    2016-11-01

    Semitransparent composite films of Au loaded TiO2 nanotubes (TNT-Au) were prepared by sputtering Au nanoparticles on highly transparent TiO2 nanotubes films, which were fabricated directly on FTO glasses by anodizing the Ti film sputtered on the FTO glasses. Compared with pure TNT films, the prepared TNT-Au films possessed excellent absorption ability and high photocurrent response and improved photocatalytic activity under visible-light irradiation. It could be concluded that Au nanoparticles played important roles in improving the photoelectrochemical performance of TNT-Au films. Moreover, in this work, both sides of TNT-Au films were researched and compared owing to theirs semitransparency. It was firstly found that the photoelectric activity of TNT-Au composite films with back-side illumination was obviously superior to front-side illumination.

  15. Powerful colloidal silver nanoparticles for the prevention of gastrointestinal bacterial infections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le, Anh-Tuan; Tam Le, Thi; Quy Nguyen, Van; Hoang Tran, Huy; Dang, Duc Anh; Tran, Quang Huy; Vu, Dinh Lam

    2012-12-01

    In this work we have demonstrated a powerful disinfectant ability of colloidal silver nanoparticles (NPs) for the prevention of gastrointestinal bacterial infections. The silver NPs colloid was synthesized by a UV-enhanced chemical precipitation. Two gastrointestinal bacterial strains of Escherichia coli (ATCC 43888-O157:k-:H7) and Vibrio cholerae (O1) were used to verify the antibacterial activity of the as-prepared silver NPs colloid by means of surface disinfection assay in agar plates and turbidity assay in liquid media. Transmission electron microscopy was also employed to analyze the ultrastructural changes of bacterial cells caused by silver NPs. Noticeably, our silver NPs colloid displayed a highly effective bactericidal effect against two tested gastrointestinal bacterial strains at a silver concentration as low as ˜3 mg l-1. More importantly, the silver NPs colloid showed an enhancement of antibacterial activity and long-lasting disinfectant effect as compared to conventional chloramin B (5%) disinfection agent. These advantages of the as-prepared colloidal silver NPs make them very promising for environmental treatments contaminated with gastrointestinal bacteria and other infectious pathogens. Moreover, the powerful disinfectant activity of silver-containing materials can also help in controlling and preventing further outbreak of diseases.

  16. Kinetics of colloidal gold nanoparticle chain assembly via in situ liquid cell electron microscopy observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woehl, Taylor; Prozorov, Tanya; Emergent Atomic; Magnetic Structures Team

    2014-11-01

    Various types of colloidal nanoparticles are known to self-assemble into hierarchical mesostructures via anisotropic interparticle interactions. Previous modeling and experiments have suggested that dipolar interactions may be responsible for assembly of one dimensional nanoparticle chain structures; however, due to a lack of in situobservations little is known about the kinetics of the self-assembly. Here we use real-time nanoscale observations to measure the self-assembly kinetics of colloidal gold nanoparticles into one dimensional chains. Gold nanoparticles suspended in acetate buffer were observed viain situ liquid electron microscopy to self-assemble into chains of 5--10 nanoparticles over a time of minutes. Self-assembly is initiated upon irradiation of the nanoparticles with the imaging electron beam. Measurements of the self-assembly kinetics revealed that the chains formed via second order aggregation kinetics during the first tens of seconds. We investigate the effects of the electron beam current and ionic strength of the buffer solution on the effective aggregation rate and chain formation mechanism. Our observations suggest that the aggregation rate increases with the effective diffusivity of the nanoparticles. T.P. acknowledges support from the Department of Energy Office of Science Early Career Research Award, Biomolecular Materials Program. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Science, Division of Materials Sciences.

  17. Resistance switching in a SiC nanowire/Au nanoparticle network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mori, Y.; Kohno, H.

    2009-07-01

    Resistance switching in a semiconductor nanowire/metal nanoparticle system is demonstrated. SiC nanowires grown on a Si substrate and decorated with Au nanoparticles are measured using W microprobes in a scanning electron microscope, where one probe is grounded and the other is biased. HIGH and LOW states can be toggled by applying a negative or positive pulse voltage. The switching mechanism is attributed to a charge transfer between the SiC nanowires and the Au nanoparticles.

  18. Synthesis of gold nano-wire and nano-dumbbell shaped colloids and AuC60 nano-clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landon, Preston B.; Jarvis, Brandon C.; Gilleland, Cody L.; Renfro, Tim; Gutierrez, Jose; Synowczynski, Jennifer; Hirsch, Samuel G.; Glosser, Robert

    2005-08-01

    A technique for the fabrication of colloidal gold nano-wire and nano-dumbbell shaped particles using carbon nanotubes and rod shaped viruses as templates is described. The gold (Au) encapsulation process was accomplished by the precipitation of gold chloride from aqueous solutions. When this process was conducted in the presence of hydroxylated C60, small pieces of phase-separated composites of AuC60 appeared to have formed. These nano-clusters may turn out to be large noble metal analogs of the alkali metal fullerides with the smallest geometrically possible Au aggregate consisting of 55 gold atoms. The existence of noble metal fullerene composites has been previously theorized. The alkali metal fullerides are examples of phase separated solids and have exhibited superconductivity with temperatures as high 33K. The mechanism required for the binding energy between C60 and gold has been observed to exist between C60 and many of the mirror metals (Al, Ag, Au, Cu, Ni). This binding energy is a charge transfer from the metal Fermi level into the C60 LUMO. If this bonding energy, is greater than the metals coagulation energy an Au/C60 size terminated mechanism during the formation of the gold aggregates by the adhesion of C60 to the surface is energetically favorable.

  19. In house development of (99m)Tc-Rhenium sulfide colloidal nanoparticles for sentinel lymph node detection.

    PubMed

    Dar, Ume-Kalsoom; Khan, Irfanullah; Javed, Muhammad; Ali, Muhammad; Hyder, Syed Waqar; Murad, Sohail; Anwar, Jamil

    2013-03-01

    In this study, rhenium sulfide colloidal nanoparticles were developed as radiopharmaceutical for sentinel lymph node detection. We directly used rhenium sulfide as a starting material for the preparation of colloidal nanoparticles. UV-visible spectrophotometry was used for characterization of in house developed colloidal particles. The size distribution of radioactive particles was studied by using membrane filtration method. The percentage of radiolabeled colloidal nanoparticles was determined by paper chromatography (PC). The study also includes in vitro stability, protein binding in human blood and bioevaluation in a rabbit model. The results indicate that 77.27 ± 3.26 % particles of size less than 20nm (suitable for lymphoscintigraphy) were radiolabeled. (99m)Tc labeled rhenium sulfide labeling efficacy with the radiometal is 98.5 ± 0.5%, which remains considerably stable beyond 5h at room temperature. Furthermore, it was observed that 70.2 ± 1.3% radiolabeled colloid complex showed binding with the blood protein. Bioevaluation results show the remarkable achievement of our radiopharmaceutical. The in house prepared (99m)Tc labeled rhenium sulfide colloidal nanoparticles reached the sentinel node within 15 min of post injection. These results indicate that (99m)Tc labeled rhenium sulfide colloid nanoparticles kit produced by a novel procedure seems of significant potential as a feasible candidate for further development to be used in clinical practice.

  20. Quantitative characterization of the colloidal stability of metallic nanoparticles using UV-vis absorbance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Ray, Tyler R; Lettiere, Bethany; de Rutte, Joseph; Pennathur, Sumita

    2015-03-31

    Plasmonic nanoparticles are used in a wide variety of applications over a broad array of fields including medicine, energy, and environmental chemistry. The continued successful development of this material class requires the accurate characterization of nanoparticle stability for a variety of solution-based conditions. Although many characterization methods exists, there is an absence of a unified, quantitative means for assessing the colloidal stability of plasmonic nanoparticles. We present the particle instability parameter (PIP) as a robust, quantitative, and generalizable characterization technique based on UV-vis absorbance spectroscopy to characterize colloidal instability. We validate PIP performance with both traditional and alternative characterization methods by measuring gold nanorod instability in response to different salt (NaCl) concentrations. We further measure gold nanorod stability as a function of solution pH, salt, and buffer (type and concentration), nanoparticle concentration, and concentration of free surfactant. Finally, these results are contextualized within the literature on gold nanorod stability to establish a standardized methodology for colloidal instability assessment.

  1. Thermal stability of bimetallic Au/Fe nanoparticles in silica matrix

    SciTech Connect

    Pannu, Compesh Singh, Udai B. Hooda, Sonu Kabiraj, D. Avasthi, D. K.

    2014-04-24

    Thin silica film containing Au and Fe bimetallic nanoparticles were prepared by atom beam cosputtering. The samples were annealed at different temperatures from 400 to 800° C to study the thermal stability of bimetallic nanoparticles using X ray diffraction. It is observed that at 800° C strong structural rearrangement took place leading to thermal decomposition of bimetallic nanoparticles.

  2. Nanoscale mapping of plasmon and exciton in ZnO tetrapods coupled with Au nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Bertoni, Giovanni; Fabbri, Filippo; Villani, Marco; Lazzarini, Laura; Turner, Stuart; Van Tendeloo, Gustaaf; Calestani, Davide; Gradečak, Silvija; Zappettini, Andrea; Salviati, Giancarlo

    2016-01-01

    Metallic nanoparticles can be used to enhance optical absorption or emission in semiconductors, thanks to a strong interaction of collective excitations of free charges (plasmons) with electromagnetic fields. Herein we present direct imaging at the nanoscale of plasmon-exciton coupling in Au/ZnO nanostructures by combining scanning transmission electron energy loss and cathodoluminescence spectroscopy and mapping. The Au nanoparticles (~30 nm in diameter) are grown in-situ on ZnO nanotetrapods by means of a photochemical process without the need of binding agents or capping molecules, resulting in clean interfaces. Interestingly, the Au plasmon resonance is localized at the Au/vacuum interface, rather than presenting an isotropic distribution around the nanoparticle. On the contrary, a localization of the ZnO signal has been observed inside the Au nanoparticle, as also confirmed by numerical simulations. PMID:26754789

  3. Nanoscale mapping of plasmon and exciton in ZnO tetrapods coupled with Au nanoparticles

    DOE PAGES

    Bertoni, Giovanni; Fabbri, Filippo; Villani, Marco; ...

    2016-01-12

    Metallic nanoparticles can be used to enhance optical absorption or emission in semiconductors, thanks to a strong interaction of collective excitations of free charges (plasmons) with electromagnetic fields. Herein we present direct imaging at the nanoscale of plasmon-exciton coupling in Au/ZnO nanostructures by combining scanning transmission electron energy loss and cathodoluminescence spectroscopy and mapping. The Au nanoparticles (~30 nm in diameter) are grown in-situ on ZnO nanotetrapods by means of a photochemical process without the need of binding agents or capping molecules, resulting in clean interfaces. Interestingly, the Au plasmon resonance is localized at the Au/vacuum interface, rather than presentingmore » an isotropic distribution around the nanoparticle. Moreover, on the contrary, a localization of the ZnO signal has been observed inside the Au nanoparticle, as also confirmed by numerical simulations.« less

  4. Nanoscale mapping of plasmon and exciton in ZnO tetrapods coupled with Au nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Bertoni, Giovanni; Fabbri, Filippo; Villani, Marco; Lazzarini, Laura; Turner, Stuart; Van Tendeloo, Gustaaf; Calestani, Davide; Gradečak, Silvija; Zappettini, Andrea; Salviati, Giancarlo

    2016-01-12

    Metallic nanoparticles can be used to enhance optical absorption or emission in semiconductors, thanks to a strong interaction of collective excitations of free charges (plasmons) with electromagnetic fields. Herein we present direct imaging at the nanoscale of plasmon-exciton coupling in Au/ZnO nanostructures by combining scanning transmission electron energy loss and cathodoluminescence spectroscopy and mapping. The Au nanoparticles (~30 nm in diameter) are grown in-situ on ZnO nanotetrapods by means of a photochemical process without the need of binding agents or capping molecules, resulting in clean interfaces. Interestingly, the Au plasmon resonance is localized at the Au/vacuum interface, rather than presenting an isotropic distribution around the nanoparticle. Moreover, on the contrary, a localization of the ZnO signal has been observed inside the Au nanoparticle, as also confirmed by numerical simulations.

  5. Experimental evidence of colloids and nanoparticles presence from 25 waste leachates

    SciTech Connect

    Hennebert, Pierre; Avellan, Astrid; Yan, Junfang; Aguerre-Chariol, Olivier

    2013-09-15

    Highlights: • This work is the first assessment of colloids in waste leachates. • Analytical methods are proposed and discussed. • All the waste have at least one element in colloidal form, and some elements are always colloidal. • Man-made nanoparticles are observed. • It can change the interpretation of leachate elemental concentration. - Abstract: The potential colloids release from a large panel of 25 solid industrial and municipal waste leachates, contaminated soil, contaminated sediments and landfill leachates was studied. Standardized leaching, cascade filtrations and measurement of element concentrations in the microfiltrate (MF) and ultrafiltrate (UF) fraction were used to easily detect colloids potentially released by waste. Precautions against CO{sub 2} capture by alkaline leachates, or bacterial re-growth in leachates from wastes containing organic matter should be taken. Most of the colloidal particles were visible by transmission electron microscopy with energy dispersion spectrometry (TEM–EDS) if their elemental MF concentration is greater than 200 μg l{sup −1}. If the samples are dried during the preparation for microscopy, neoformation of particles can occur from the soluble part of the element. Size distribution analysis measured by photon correlation spectroscopy (PCS) were frequently unvalid, particularly due to polydispersity and/or too low concentrations in the leachates. A low sensitivity device is required, and further improvement is desirable in that field. For some waste leachates, particles had a zeta potential strong enough to remain in suspension. Mn, As, Co, Pb, Sn, Zn had always a colloidal form (MF concentration/UF concentration > 1.5) and total organic carbon (TOC), Fe, P, Ba, Cr, Cu, Ni are partly colloidal for more than half of the samples). Nearly all the micro-pollutants (As, Ba, Co, Cr, Cu, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Sn, V and Zn) were found at least once in colloidal form greater than 100 μg l{sup −1}. In particular

  6. Modification of TiO2 by Bimetallic Au-Cu Nanoparticles for Wastewater Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Hai, Zibin; Kolli, Nadia EL; Uribe, Daniel Bahena; Beaunier, Patricia; José-Yacaman, Miguel; Vigneron, Jackie; Etcheberry, Arnaud; Sorgues, Sébastien; Colbeau-Justin, Christophe; Chen, Jiafu; Remita, Hynd

    2016-01-01

    Au, Cu and bimetallic Au-Cu nanoparticles were synthesized on the surface of commercial TiO2 compounds (P25) by reduction of the metal precursors with tetrakis (hydroxymethyl) phosphonium chloride (THPC) (0.5 % in weight). The alloyed structure of Au-Cu NPs was confirmed by HAADF-STEM, EDS, HRTEM and XPS techniques. The photocatalytic properties of the modified TiO2 have been studied for phenol photodegradation in aqueous suspensions under UV-visible irradiation. The modification by the metal nanoparticles induces an increase in the photocatalytic activity. The highest photocatalytic activity is obtained with Au-Cu/TiO2 (Au/Cu 1:3). Their electronic properties have been studied by time resolved microwave conductivity (TRMC) to follow the charge-carrier dynamics. TRMC measurements show that the TiO2 modification with Au, Cu and Au-Cu nanoparticles plays a role in charge-carrier separations increasing the activity under UV-light. Indeed, the metal nanoparticles act as a sink for electron, decreasing the charge carrier recombination. The TRMC measurements show also that the bimetallic Au-Cu nanoparticles are more efficient in electron scavenging than the monometallic Au and Cu ones. PMID:27274844

  7. Modification of TiO2 by Bimetallic Au-Cu Nanoparticles for Wastewater Treatment.

    PubMed

    Hai, Zibin; Kolli, Nadia El; Uribe, Daniel Bahena; Beaunier, Patricia; José-Yacaman, Miguel; Vigneron, Jackie; Etcheberry, Arnaud; Sorgues, Sébastien; Colbeau-Justin, Christophe; Chen, Jiafu; Remita, Hynd

    2013-09-28

    Au, Cu and bimetallic Au-Cu nanoparticles were synthesized on the surface of commercial TiO2 compounds (P25) by reduction of the metal precursors with tetrakis (hydroxymethyl) phosphonium chloride (THPC) (0.5 % in weight). The alloyed structure of Au-Cu NPs was confirmed by HAADF-STEM, EDS, HRTEM and XPS techniques. The photocatalytic properties of the modified TiO2 have been studied for phenol photodegradation in aqueous suspensions under UV-visible irradiation. The modification by the metal nanoparticles induces an increase in the photocatalytic activity. The highest photocatalytic activity is obtained with Au-Cu/TiO2 (Au/Cu 1:3). Their electronic properties have been studied by time resolved microwave conductivity (TRMC) to follow the charge-carrier dynamics. TRMC measurements show that the TiO2 modification with Au, Cu and Au-Cu nanoparticles plays a role in charge-carrier separations increasing the activity under UV-light. Indeed, the metal nanoparticles act as a sink for electron, decreasing the charge carrier recombination. The TRMC measurements show also that the bimetallic Au-Cu nanoparticles are more efficient in electron scavenging than the monometallic Au and Cu ones.

  8. Rationalization of Au concentration and distribution in AuNi@Pt core-shell nanoparticles for oxygen reduction reaction

    DOE PAGES

    An, Wei; Liu, Ping

    2015-09-18

    Improving the activity and stability of Pt-based core–shell nanocatalysts for proton exchange membrane fuel cells while lowering Pt loading has been one of the big challenges in electrocatalysis. Here, using density functional theory, we report the effect of adding Au as the third element to enhance the durability and activity of Ni@Pt core–shell nanoparticles (NPs) during the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). Our results show that the durability and activity of a Ni@Pt NP can be finely tuned by controlling Au concentration and distribution. For a NiAu@Pt NP, the durability can be greatly promoted by thermodynamically favorable segregation of Au tomore » replace the Pt atoms at vertex, edge, and (100) facets on the shell, while still keeping the ORR activity on the active Pt(111) shell as high as that of Ni@Pt nanoparticles. Such behavior strongly depends on a direct interaction with the Ni interlayer. The results not only highlight the importance of interplay between surface strain on the shell and the interlayer–shell interaction in determining the durability and activity but also provide guidance on how to maximize the usage of Au to optimize the performance of core–shell (Pt) nanoparticles. As a result, such understanding has allowed us to discover a novel NiAu@Pt nanocatalyst for the ORR.« less

  9. Rationalization of Au concentration and distribution in AuNi@Pt core-shell nanoparticles for oxygen reduction reaction

    SciTech Connect

    An, Wei; Liu, Ping

    2015-09-18

    Improving the activity and stability of Pt-based core–shell nanocatalysts for proton exchange membrane fuel cells while lowering Pt loading has been one of the big challenges in electrocatalysis. Here, using density functional theory, we report the effect of adding Au as the third element to enhance the durability and activity of Ni@Pt core–shell nanoparticles (NPs) during the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). Our results show that the durability and activity of a Ni@Pt NP can be finely tuned by controlling Au concentration and distribution. For a NiAu@Pt NP, the durability can be greatly promoted by thermodynamically favorable segregation of Au to replace the Pt atoms at vertex, edge, and (100) facets on the shell, while still keeping the ORR activity on the active Pt(111) shell as high as that of Ni@Pt nanoparticles. Such behavior strongly depends on a direct interaction with the Ni interlayer. The results not only highlight the importance of interplay between surface strain on the shell and the interlayer–shell interaction in determining the durability and activity but also provide guidance on how to maximize the usage of Au to optimize the performance of core–shell (Pt) nanoparticles. As a result, such understanding has allowed us to discover a novel NiAu@Pt nanocatalyst for the ORR.

  10. Facile synthesis of PtAu alloy nanoparticles with high activity for formic acid oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Sheng; Shao, Yuyan; Yin, Geping; Lin, Yuehe

    2010-02-15

    We report the facile synthesis of carbon supported PtAu alloy nanoparticles with high electrocatalytic activity as the anode catalyst for direct formic acid fuel cells (DFAFCs). PtAu alloy nanopaticles are synthesized by co-reducing HAuCl4 and H2PtCl6 with NaBH4 in the presence of sodium citrate and then the nanoparticles are deposited on Vulcan XC-72R carbon support (PtAu/C). The obtained catalysts are characterized with X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscope (TEM), which reveal PtAu alloy formation with an average diameter of 4.6 nm. PtAu/C exhibits 8 times higher catalytic activity toward formic acid oxidation than Pt/C. The enhanced activity of PtAu/C catalyst is attributed to noncontinuous Pt sites formed in the presence of the neighbored Au sites, which promotes direct oxidation of formic acid by avoiding poison CO.

  11. Eulerian flow modeling of suspensions containing interacting nano-particles: application to colloidal film drying.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gergianakis, I.; Meireles, M.; Bacchin, P.; Hallez, Y.

    2015-11-01

    Nano-particles in suspension often experience strong non-hydrodynamic interactions (NHIs) such as electrostatic repulsions. In this work, we present and justify a flow modeling strategy adapted to such systems. Earlier works on colloidal transport in simple flows, were based on the solution of a transport equation for the colloidal volume fraction with a known fluid velocity field and a volume-fraction-dependent diffusion coefficient accounting for mass fluxes due to NHIs. Extension of this modelling to complex flows requires the coupled resolution of a momentum transport equation for the suspension velocity field. We use the framework of the Suspension Balance Model to show that in the Pe << 1 regime relevant here, the average suspension velocity field is independent of NHIs between nanoparticles , while the average fluid phase and solid phase velocity fields both always depend of the NHIs. Lastly, we apply this modelling strategy to the problem of the drying of a colloidal suspension in a micro-evaporator [Merlin et al., 2012, Soft Matter]. The influence of the effective Peclet number on the 1D/2D character of the flow is evaluated and the possible colloidal film patterning due to defaults of substrate topography is commented.

  12. Fluorescence Development of Latent Fingerprint with Conjugated Polymer Nanoparticles in Aqueous Colloidal Solution.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hong; Ma, Rong-Liang; Chen, Yun; Fan, Li-Juan

    2017-02-08

    Poly(p-phenylenevinylene) (PPV) nanoparticles in aqueous colloidal solution have been prepared via a modified Wessling method, with the addition of surfactant. The fluorescent colloidal solution was used as the developing solution to develop the fingerprints on different substrates. The developing process was accomplished simply by immersing the substrates into developing solution and then taking out, followed by rinsing with deionized water. The initial study about the fingerprints on the adhesive tapes showed that the developing solution is very effective in fluorescence development on both fresh and aged visible fingerprints; and such an effect was negligibly affected by treating the fingerprints with water or other organic solvents, whether before developing or after. Further study on latent fingerprints (LFPs) demonstrated that PPV nanoparticles in colloidal solution have high sensitivity in developing fingerprints to give very clearly fluorescent patterns. At least 6 months of storage of the colloidal solution did not reduce the developing effect; and each developing solution (3.6 mg/mL, 5.0 mL) can be used to develop at least 30 fingerprints without sacrificing the legibility of the pattern. The preliminary mechanism investigation suggested that selectivity achieved toward the ridge of the fingerprint is very likely due to the affinity between PPV molecules and oily secretions of the fingerprints. Digital magnification of the developed fingerprints provided more details about the fingerprint.

  13. Biopolymer-stabilized Pt nanoparticles colloid: a highly active and recyclable catalyst for biphasic catalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yujia; Shen, Yueyue; Qiu, Yunfei; Zhang, Ting; Liao, Yang; Zhao, Shilin; Ma, Jun; Mao, Hui

    2016-10-01

    Noble metal nanoparticles are promising candidates to replace conventional bulk counterparts owing to their high activity and selectivity. To enable catalyst recovery, noble metal nanoparticles are often supported onto solid matrices to prepare heterogeneous catalyst. Although recycle of noble metal nanoparticles is realized by heterogenization, a loss of activity is usually encountered. In the present investigation, Pt nanoparticles with tunable particle size (1.85-2.80 nm) were facilely prepared by using polyphenols as amphiphilic stabilizers. The as-prepared Pt nanoparticles colloid solution could be used as highly active catalyst in aqueous-organic biphasic catalysis. The phenolic hydroxyls of polyphenols could constrain Pt nanoparticles in aqueous phase, and simultaneously, the aromatic scaffold of polyphenols ensured effective interactions between substrates and Pt nanoparticles. As a consequence, the obtained polyphenols-stabilized Pt nanoparticles exhibited high activity and cycling stability in biphasic hydrogenation of a series of unsaturated compounds. Compared with conventional heterogeneous Pt-C and Pt-Al2O3 catalysts, polyphenols-stabilized Pt nanoparticles showed obvious advantage both in activity and cycling stability.

  14. Fungal Isolate Optimized for Biogenesis of Silver Nanoparticles with Enhanced Colloidal Stability.

    PubMed

    Rajput, Sunil; Werezuk, Rodney; Lange, Ralph M; McDermott, Mark T

    2016-08-30

    Understanding the synthesis and properties of nanomaterials is critical for reliable applications. Biological systems, such as fungi, have been described as a "green" alternative to synthesis, yet knowledge gaps exist in terms of production variability, comparison with commercial products, and identifying a clear biological advantage over other synthesis methods. In this study, we evaluated 12 fungal isolates of Fusarium oxysporum for Ag nanoparticle production and characterized the resultant biologically produced (biogenic) nanoparticles. We show evidence that isolate selection, temperature, and pH can influence the quantity, size, and shape of nanoparticles. All F. oxysporum isolates produced Ag nanoparticles, but in varied quantities. Increasing incubation temperature increased the quantity, yet nanoparticle diameter was inversely related to temperature. Variations in pH predominately influenced nanoparticle morphology. A direct comparison with commercial, chemically produced Ag nanoparticles yielded physical similarities; however, important differences in surface chemistry are observed. Biogenic nanoparticles show a greater degree of colloidal stability in high-ionic-strength solutions, pointing to a biological advantage associated with the fungal produced layer (corona) surrounding the nanoparticles. It is clear that understanding the organic layer and interfacial interactions will be beneficial in developing innovative applications, particularly in the field of biosensing.

  15. Synthesis of ultrasmall magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles and study of their colloid and surface chemistry

    PubMed Central

    Goloverda, Galina; Jackson, Barry; Kidd, Clayton; Kolesnichenko, Vladimir

    2009-01-01

    Colloidal nanoparticles of Fe3O4 (4 nm) were synthesized by high-temperature hydrolysis of chelated iron (II) and (III) diethylene glycol alkoxide complexes in a solution of the parent alcohol (H2DEG) without using capping ligands or surfactants: [Fe(DEG)Cl2]2- + 2[Fe(DEG)Cl3]2- + 2H2O + 2OH- → Fe3O4 + 3H2DEG + 8Cl- The obtained particles were reacted with different small-molecule polydentate ligands, and the resulting adducts were tested for aqueous colloid formation. Both the carboxyl and α-hydroxyl groups of the hydroxyacids are involved in coordination to the nanoparticles’ surface. This coordination provides the major contribution to the stability of the ligand-coated nanoparticles against hydrolysis. PMID:20161232

  16. Generating nanoscale aggregates from colloidal nanoparticles by various aerosol spray techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Mahurin, Shannon Mark; Cheng, Mengdawn

    2007-01-01

    Growing interest in the environmental and health effects of engineered nanostructured materials requires accurate control of cluster morphology and size in order to make valid interpretations of nanomaterial toxicity. We report the comparison of three methods for the generation of aggregated uniform polystyrene latex (PSL) nanospheres from a colloidal suspension. Atomization, ultrasonic generation and electrospray, which utilize distinct mechanisms for the formation of liquid droplets from a PSL colloidal suspension, are explored as potential methods for nanostructured material synthesis. Electrospray produced isolated PSL particles most suited for use in experiments involving exposure to non-aggregated nanoparticles. Though producing the largest cluster size, ultrasonic generation proved to be a relatively straightforward process for reproducibly generating nanoparticle aggregates. Further advantages and disadvantages of each method are presented in relation to future toxicology experiments.

  17. Third-order nonlinear optical response of colloidal gold nanoparticles prepared by sputtering deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro, Hemerson P. S.; Wender, Heberton; Alencar, Márcio A. R. C.; Teixeira, Sergio R.; Dupont, Jairton; Hickmann, Jandir M.

    2013-11-01

    The nonlinear optical responses of gold nanoparticles dispersed in castor oil produced by sputtering deposition were investigated, using the thermally managed Z-scan technique. Particles with spherical shape and 2.6 nm of average diameter were obtained and characterized by transmission electron microscopy and small angle X-ray scattering. This colloid was highly stable, without the presence of chemical impurities, neither stabilizers. It was observed that this system presents a large refractive third-order nonlinear response and a negligible nonlinear absorption. Moreover, the evaluation of the all-optical switching figures of merit demonstrated that the colloidal nanoparticles prepared by sputtering deposition have a good potential for the development of ultrafast photonic devices.

  18. Third-order nonlinear optical response of colloidal gold nanoparticles prepared by sputtering deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Castro, Hemerson P. S.; Alencar, Márcio A. R. C.; Hickmann, Jandir M.; Wender, Heberton; Teixeira, Sergio R.; Dupont, Jairton

    2013-11-14

    The nonlinear optical responses of gold nanoparticles dispersed in castor oil produced by sputtering deposition were investigated, using the thermally managed Z-scan technique. Particles with spherical shape and 2.6 nm of average diameter were obtained and characterized by transmission electron microscopy and small angle X-ray scattering. This colloid was highly stable, without the presence of chemical impurities, neither stabilizers. It was observed that this system presents a large refractive third-order nonlinear response and a negligible nonlinear absorption. Moreover, the evaluation of the all-optical switching figures of merit demonstrated that the colloidal nanoparticles prepared by sputtering deposition have a good potential for the development of ultrafast photonic devices.

  19. Investigation on the adsorption characteristics of anserine on the surface of colloidal silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Thomas, S; Maiti, N; Mukherjee, T; Kapoor, S

    2013-08-01

    The surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) studies of anserine (beta-alanyl-N-methylhistidine) was carried out on colloidal silver nanoparticles to understand its adsorption characteristics. The experimentally observed Raman bands were assigned based on the results of DFT calculations. The studies suggest that the interaction of anserine is primarily through the carboxylate group with the imidazole ring in an upright position with respect to the silver surface. Concentration dependent SERS studies suggest a change in orientation at sub-monolayer concentration.

  20. Shaping of Au nanoparticles embedded in various layered structures by swift heavy ion beam irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawi, E. A.; ArnoldBik, W. M.; Ackermann, R.; Habraken, F. H. P. M.

    2016-10-01

    We present a novel method to extend the ion-beam induced shaping of metallic nanoparticles in various layered structures. Monodisperse Au nanoparticles having mean diameter of 30 nm and their ion-shaping process is investigated for a limited number of experimental conditions. Au nanoparticles were embedded within a single plane in various layered structures of silicon nitride films (Si3N4), combinations of oxide-nitride films (SiO2-Si3N4) and amorphous silicon films (a-Si) and have been sequentially irradiated at 300 K at normal incidence with 50 and 25 MeV Ag ions, respectively. Under irradiation with heavy Ag ions and with sequential increase of the irradiation fluence, the evolution of the Au peak derived from the Rutherford Backscattering Spectrometry show broadening in Au peak, which indicates that the Au becomes distributed over a larger depth region, indicative of the elongation of the nanoparticles. The latter is observed almost for every layer structure investigated except for Au nanoparticles embedded in pure a-Si matrix. The largest elongation rate at all fluences is found for the Au nanoparticles encapsulated in pure Si3N4 films. For all irradiation energy applied, we again demonstrate the existence of both threshold and saturation fluences for the elongation effects mentioned.

  1. Colloidal Stability and Monodispersible Magnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles in Biotechnology Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shamili, K.; Rajesh, E. M.; Rajendran, R.; Madhan Shankar, S. R.; Elango, M.; Abitha Devi, N.

    2013-02-01

    Magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles are promising material for various biological applications. In the recent decades, magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (MNPs) have great attention in biomedical applications such as drug delivery, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetic fluid hyperthermia (MFH). This review focuses on the colloidal stability and monodispersity properties of MNPs, which pay more attention toward biomedical applications. The simplest and the most promising method for the synthesis of MNPs is co-precipitation. The biocompatible MNPs are more interested in MRI application. This review also apportions synthesis, characterization and applications of MNP in biological and biomedical as theranostics and imaging.

  2. Enzyme:nanoparticle bioconjugates with two sequential enzymes: stoichiometry and activity of malate dehydrogenase and citrate synthase on Au nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Keighron, Jacqueline D; Keating, Christine D

    2010-12-21

    We report the synthesis and characterization of bioconjugates in which the enzymes malate dehydrogenase (MDH) and/or citrate synthase (CS) were adsorbed to 30 nm diameter Au nanoparticles. Enzyme:Au stoichiometry and kinetic parameters (specific activity, k(cat), K(M), and activity per particle) were determined for MDH:Au, CS:Au, and three types of dual-activity MDH/CS:Au bioconjugates. For single-activity bioconjugates (MDH:Au and CS:Au), the number of enzyme molecules adsorbed per particle was dependent upon the enzyme concentration in solution, with multilayers forming at high enzyme:Au solution ratios. The specific activity of adsorbed enzyme increased with increasing number adsorbed per particle for CS:Au, but was less sensitive to stoichiometry for MDH:Au. Dual activity bioconjugates were prepared in three ways: (1) by adsorption of MDH followed by CS, (2) by adsorption of CS followed by MDH, and (3) by coadsorption of both enzymes from the same solution. The resulting bioconjugates differed substantially in the number of enzyme molecules adsorbed per particle, the specific activity of the adsorbed enzymes, and also the enzymatic activity per particle. Bioconjugates formed by adding CS to the Au nanoparticles before MDH was added exhibited higher specific activities for both enzymes than those formed by adding the enzymes in the reverse order. These bioconjugates also had 3-fold higher per-particle sequential activity for conversion of malate to citrate, despite substantially fewer copies of both enzymes present.

  3. Adsorption of DNA on colloidal Ag nanoparticles: effects of nanoparticle surface charge, base content and length of DNA.

    PubMed

    Abbasian, Sara; Moshaii, Ahmad; Nikkhah, Maryam; Farkhari, Nahid

    2014-04-01

    The adsorption of single and double stranded DNA on colloidal silver nanoparticles has been studied to investigate the effects of surface charge of the nanoparticles, the composition of the oligonucleotide and its length on the adsorption characteristics. The results explain that the nanoparticle surface charge is a key parameter determining the propensity of oligonucleotides to adsorb on nanoparticles. The adsorption also depends on the length and composition of oligonucleotide. The protective effects of both single and double stranded DNA against salt-induced aggregation dramatically increase as the DNA length increases. In contrast to other available reports, we observed that long oligonucleotides (single-stranded and double stranded) can well be adsorbed on the nanoparticles as the short ones leading to almost complete protection of nanoparticles against salt induced aggregation and hence are not suitable for the sensing applications. Finally, the light scattering from the Ag nanoparticles has been simulated and the results compared with the experiments. Our understanding should improve development of colorimetric assays for DNA detection based on aggregation of unmodified metallic nanoparticles.

  4. Time-resolved fluorescence immunoassay for C-reactive protein using colloidal semiconducting nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Härmä, Harri; Toivonen, Juha; Soini, Juhani T; Hänninen, Pekka; Parak, Wolfgang J

    2011-01-01

    Besides the typical short-lived fluorescence with decay times in the nanosecond range, colloidal II/VI semiconductor nanoparticles dispersed in buffer also possess a long-lived fluorescence component with decay times in the microsecond range. Here, the signal intensity of the long-lived luminescence at microsecond range is shown to increase 1,000-fold for CdTe nanoparticles in PBS buffer. This long-lived fluorescence can be conveniently employed for time-gated fluorescence detection, which allows for improved signal-to-noise ratio and thus the use of low concentrations of nanoparticles. The detection principle is demonstrated with a time-resolved fluorescence immunoassay for the detection of C-reactive protein (CRP) using CdSe-ZnS nanoparticles and green light excitation.

  5. In situ spectroscopy of ligand exchange reactions at the surface of colloidal gold and silver nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinkel, Rebecca; Peukert, Wolfgang; Braunschweig, Björn

    2017-04-01

    Gold and silver nanoparticles with their tunable optical and electronic properties are of great interest for a wide range of applications. Often the ligands at the surface of the nanoparticles have to be exchanged in a second step after particle formation in order to obtain a desired surface functionalization. For many techniques, this process is not accessible in situ. In this review, we present second-harmonic scattering (SHS) as an inherently surface sensitive and label-free optical technique to probe the ligand exchange at the surface of colloidal gold and silver nanoparticles in situ and in real time. First, a brief introduction to SHS and basic features of the SHS of nanoparticles are given. After that, we demonstrate how the SHS intensity decrease can be correlated to the thiol coverage which allows for the determination of the Gibbs free energy of adsorption and the surface coverage.

  6. Wrinkled-graphene wrapped silicon nanoparticles synthesized through charged colloidal assembly for enhanced battery performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hai; Lu, Chunxiang; Ma, Canliang; Zhang, Baoping

    2014-10-01

    Elastic composite of wrinkled graphene sheets and Si nanoparticles has been prepared through engineering charged Si nanoparticles capping with 3-aminopropyl triethoxysilane and graphene oxide in colloidal state. In the composite, the Si nanoparticles are uniformly wrapped by the graphene sheets. When used as an anode for lithium-ion batteries, the as-obtained material exhibits high Coulombic efficiency, good cycling stability of 1044 mAh g-1 at a current density of 200 mA g-1 after 100 cycles, and superior rate capability. Such excellent electrochemical performance should be attributed to the wrinkled graphene sheets, which not only buffer volume expansion of Si nanoparticles during the cycling but also act as electrical conducting pathway.

  7. Amphiphilic comblike polymers enhance the colloidal stability of Fe(3)O(4) nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Kim, Myeongjin; Jung, Jaeyeon; Lee, Jonghwan; Na, Kyunga; Park, Subeom; Hyun, Jinho

    2010-03-01

    Stable colloidal dispersions of magnetite (Fe(3)O(4)) nanoparticles (MNPs) were obtained with the inclusion of an amphiphilic comblike polyethylene glycol derivative (CL-PEG) as an amphiphilic polymeric surfactant. Both the size and morphology of the resulting CL-PEG-modified MNPs could be controlled and were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The interaction between MNPs and CL-PEG was confirmed by the presence of characteristic infrared absorption peaks, and the colloidal stability of the nanoparticle dispersion in water was evaluated by long-term observation of the dispersion using UV-visible spectroscopy. SQUID measurements confirmed the magnetization of CL-PEG-modified MNPs. The zeta potential of the CL-PEG-modified MNPs showed a dramatic conversion from positive to negative in response to the pH of the surrounding aqueous medium due to the presence of carboxyl groups at the surface. These carboxyl groups can be used to functionalize the MNPs with biomolecules for biotechnological applications. However, regardless of surface electrostatics, the flexible, hydrophilic side chains of CL-PEG-modified MNPs prevented the approach of adjacent nanoparticles, thereby resisting aggregation and resulting in a stable aqueous colloid. The cytotoxicity of MNPs and CL-PEG-modified MNPs was evaluated by a MTT assay.

  8. Composites of Quasi-Colloidal Layered Double Hydroxide Nanoparticles and Agarose Hydrogels for Chromate Removal

    PubMed Central

    Gwak, Gyeong-Hyeon; Kim, Min-Kyu; Oh, Jae-Min

    2016-01-01

    Composite hydrogels were prepared that consisted of quasi-colloidal layered double hydroxide (LDH) nanoparticles and agarose via the electrophoretic method, starting from three different agarose concentrations of 0.5, 1, and 2 wt/v%. The composite hydrogel was identified to have a uniform distribution of LDH nanoparticles in agarose matrix. Microscopic studies revealed that the composite hydrogel had a homogeneous quasi-colloidal state of LDHs, while the simple mixture of LDH powder and agarose hydrogels did not. It was determined that agarose concentration of the starting hydrogel did not significantly influence the amount of LDH that developed in the composite. The chromate scavenging efficiency of the composite hydrogel and corresponding agarose or mixture hydrogel was evaluated with respect to time, and chromate concentration. In general, the composite hydrogels exhibited much higher chromate removal efficacy compared with agarose or mixture hydrogels. Through estimating chromate adsorption by LDH moiety in the composite or mixture hydrogel, it was suggested that the agarose component facilitated the stability and dispersibility of the quasi-colloidal state of LDH nanoparticles in the composite resulting in high adsorption efficacy. From Freundlich isotherm adsorption fitting, composites were determined to possess beneficial cooperative adsorption behavior with a high adsorption coefficient. PMID:28344282

  9. Performance of colloidal CdS sensitized solar cells with ZnO nanorods/nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Anurag; Das, Partha Pratim; Tathavadekar, Mukta; Das, Sumita

    2017-01-01

    As an alternative photosensitizer in dye-sensitized solar cells, bovine serum albumin (BSA) (a nonhazardous protein) was used in the synthesis of colloidal CdS nanoparticles (NPs). This system has been employed to replace the commonly used N719 dye molecule. Various nanostructured forms of ZnO, namely, nanorod and nanoparticle-based photoanodes, have been sensitized with colloidal CdS NPs to evaluate their effective performance towards quantum dot sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs). A polysulphide (Sx 2−)-based electrolyte and CuxS counter electrode were used for cell fabrication and testing. An interesting improvement in the performance of the device by imposing nanorods as a scattering layer on a particle layer has been observed. As a consequence, a maximum conversion efficiency of 1.06% with an open-circuit voltage (V OC) of 0.67 V was achieved for the ZnO nanorod/nanoparticle assembled structure. The introduction of ZnO nanorods over the nanoparticle led to a significant enhancement of the overall efficiency compared to the corresponding bare nanoparticles. PMID:28243559

  10. Biomolecule-based formaldehyde resin microspheres loaded with Au nanoparticles: a novel immunoassay for detection of tumor markers in human serum.

    PubMed

    Lu, Wenbo; Qian, Chen; Bi, Liyan; Tao, Lin; Ge, Juan; Dong, Jian; Qian, Weiping

    2014-03-15

    A surfactant-free and template-free method for the high-yield synthesis of biomolecule (serotonin)-based formaldehyde resin (BFR) microspheres is proposed for the first time. The colloidal microspheres loaded with Au nanoparticles (AuNPs) prepared by a convenient in-situ synthesis of AuNPs on BFR (AuNPs/BFR) microsphere surface show good stability. AuNPs/BFR microspheres not only favor the immobilization of antibody but also facilitate the electron transfer. It is found that the resultant AuNPs/BFR microspheres can be designed to act as a sensitive label-free electrochemical immunosensor for carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) determination. The immunosensor is prepared by immobilizing capture anti-CEA on AuNPs/BFR microspheres assembled on thionine (TH) modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE). TH acts as the redox probe. Under the optimized conditions, the linear range of the proposed immunosensor is estimated to be from 25 pg/mL to 2000 pg/mL (R=0.998) and the detection limit is estimated to be 3.5 pg/mL at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3. The prepared immunosensor for detection of CEA shows high sensitivity, reproducibility and stability. Our study demonstrates that the immunosensor can be used for the CEA detection in humans serum.

  11. SERS active colloidal nanoparticles for the detection of small blood biomarkers using aptamers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marks, Haley; Mabbott, Samuel; Jackson, George W.; Graham, Duncan; Cote, Gerard L.

    2015-03-01

    Functionalized colloidal nanoparticles for SERS serve as a promising multifunctional assay component for blood biomarker detection. Proper design of these nanoprobes through conjugation to spectral tags, protective polymers, and sensing ligands can provide experimental control over the sensitivity, range, reproducibility, particle stability, and integration with biorecognition assays. Additionally, the optical properties and degree of electromagnetic SERS signal enhancement can be altered and monitored through tuning the nanoparticle shape, size, material and the colloid's local surface plasmon resonance (LSPR). Aptamers, synthetic affinity ligands derived from nucleic acids, provide a number of advantages for biorecognition of small molecules and toxins with low immunogenicity. DNA aptamers are simpler and more economical to produce at large scale, are capable of greater specificity and affinity than antibodies, are easily tailored to specific functional groups, can be used to tune inter-particle distance and shift the LSPR, and their intrinsic negative charge can be utilized for additional particle stability.1,2 Herein, a "turn-off" competitive binding assay platform involving two different plasmonic nanoparticles for the detection of the toxin bisphenol A (BPA) using SERS is presented. A derivative of the toxin is immobilized onto a silver coated magnetic nanoparticle (Ag@MNP), and a second solid silver nanoparticle (AgNP) is functionalized with the BPA aptamer and a Raman reporter molecule (RRM). The capture (Ag@MNP) and probe (AgNP) particles are mixed and the aptamer binding interaction draws the nanoparticles closer together, forming an assembly that results in an increased SERS signal intensity. This aptamer mediated assembly of the two nanoparticles results in a 100x enhancement of the SERS signal intensity from the RRM. These pre-bound aptamer/nanoparticle conjugates were then exposed to BPA in free solution and the competitive binding event was monitored

  12. Synthesis of monosized magnetic-optical AuFe alloy nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hong Ling; Wu, Jun Hua; Min, Ji Hyun; Kim, Young Keun

    2008-04-01

    We report the preparation and characterization of multifunctional AuFe alloy nanoparticles of three compositions, Au0.25Fe0.75, Au0.5Fe0.5, and Au0.75Fe0.25, by a polyol process. It is found that the fusion of the two elements into one nanostructure entity retains the optical and magnetic properties of the individual components. The x-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy analyses confirm the formation of the alloy nanostructure with a narrow distribution of particle sizes and provides the detailed structural arrangements. The magnetic investigation shows the superparamagnetic or soft ferromagnetic behavior of the nanoparticles at room temperature, whereas the UV-visible measurements display the variation of the absorption bands at ˜560nm. The AuFe nanoparticles are rendered water soluble after thiolation.

  13. Effect of different-sized colloids on the transport and deposition of titanium dioxide nanoparticles in quartz sand.

    PubMed

    Cai, Li; Peng, Shengnan; Wu, Dan; Tong, Meiping

    2016-01-01

    Colloids (non-biological and biological) with different sizes are ubiquitous in natural environment. The investigations regarding the influence of different-sized colloids on the transport and deposition behaviors of engineered-nanoparticles in porous media yet are still largely lacking. This study investigated the effects of different-sized non-biological and biological colloids on the transport of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (nTiO2) in quartz sand under both electrostatically favorable and unfavorable conditions. Fluorescent carboxylate-modified polystyrene latex microspheres (CML) with sizes of 0.2-2 μm were utilized as model non-biological colloids, while Gram-negative Escherichia coli (∼ 1 μm) and Gram-positive Bacillus subtilis (∼ 2 μm) were employed as model biological colloids. Under the examined solution conditions, both breakthrough curves and retained profiles of nTiO2 with different-sized CML particles/bacteria were similar as those without colloids under favorable conditions, indicating that the copresence of model colloids in suspensions had negligible effects on the transport and deposition of nTiO2 under favorable conditions. In contrast, higher breakthrough curves and lower retained profiles of nTiO2 with CML particles/bacteria relative to those without copresent colloids were observed under unfavorable conditions. Clearly, the copresence of model colloids increased the transport and decreased the deposition of nTiO2 in quartz sand under unfavorable conditions (solution conditions examined in present study). Both competition of deposition sites on quartz sand surfaces and the enhanced stability/dispersion of nTiO2 induced by copresent colloids were found to be responsible for the increased nTiO2 transport with colloids under unfavorable conditions. Moreover, the smallest colloids had the highest coverage on sand surface and most significant dispersion effect on nTiO2, resulting in the greatest nTiO2 transport.

  14. Core-shell Au@Pd nanoparticles with enhanced catalytic activity for oxygen reduction reaction via core-shell Au@Ag/Pd constructions

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Dong; Li, Chengyin; Liu, Hui; Ye, Feng; Yang, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Core-shell nanoparticles often exhibit improved catalytic properties due to the lattice strain created in these core-shell particles. Herein, we demonstrate the synthesis of core-shell Au@Pd nanoparticles from their core-shell Au@Ag/Pd parents. This strategy begins with the preparation of core-shell Au@Ag nanoparticles in an organic solvent. Then, the pure Ag shells are converted into the shells made of Ag/Pd alloy by galvanic replacement reaction between the Ag shells and Pd2+ precursors. Subsequently, the Ag component is removed from the alloy shell using saturated NaCl solution to form core-shell Au@Pd nanoparticles with an Au core and a Pd shell. In comparison with the core-shell Au@Pd nanoparticles upon directly depositing Pd shell on the Au seeds and commercial Pd/C catalysts, the core-shell Au@Pd nanoparticles via their core-shell Au@Ag/Pd templates display superior activity and durability in catalyzing oxygen reduction reaction, mainly due to the larger lattice tensile effect in Pd shell induced by the Au core and Ag removal. PMID:26144550

  15. Building up strain in colloidal metal nanoparticle catalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sneed, Brian T.; Young, Allison P.; Tsung, Chia-Kuang

    2015-07-01

    The focus on surface lattice strain in nanostructures as a fundamental research topic has gained momentum in recent years as scientists investigated its significant impact on the surface electronic structure and catalytic properties of nanomaterials. Researchers have begun to tell a more complete story of catalysis from a perspective which brings this concept to the forefront of the discussion. The nano-`realm' makes the effects of surface lattice strain, which acts on the same spatial scales, more pronounced due to a higher ratio of surface to bulk atoms. This is especially evident in the field of metal nanoparticle catalysis, where displacement of atoms on surfaces can significantly alter the sorption properties of molecules. In part, the concept of strain-engineering for catalysis opened up due to the achievements that were made in the synthesis of a more sophisticated nanoparticle library from an ever-expanding set of methodologies. Developing synthesis methods for metal nanoparticles with well-defined and strained architectures is a worthy goal that, if reached, will have considerable impact in the search for catalysts. In this review, we summarize the recent accomplishments in the area of surface lattice-strained metal nanoparticle synthesis, framing the discussion from the important perspective of surface lattice strain effects in catalysis.

  16. Growth of Au@Pt coreshell nanoparticles: Probed by in-situ XANES and UV-visible spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nayak, C.; Bhattacharyya, K.; Tripathi, A. K.; Jha, S. N.; Bhattacharyya, D.; Sahoo, N. K.

    2016-05-01

    Au@Pt core shell nanoparticles have been synthesized by reducing Au and Pt chloride precursors with Block Co-polymer and Ascorbic acid. The growth and nucleation of Au@Pt nanoparticles have been investigated by in-situ time resolved XANES measurement which gives the evolution of the reduction process of the precursors. Linear combination fitting of the XANES spectra has been carried out to find the fraction of Au and Pt cations reduced at a particular reaction time. UV-Visible spectroscopy is used as a complementary technique which gives the changes in the Au SPR peak as Au@Pt core shell nanoparticles are formed.

  17. Coupling between magnetic and optical properties of stable Au-Fe solid solution nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Julián Fernández, C.; Mattei, G.; Paz, E.; Novak, R. L.; Cavigli, L.; Bogani, L.; Palomares, F. J.; Mazzoldi, P.; Caneschi, A.

    2010-04-01

    Au-Fe nanoparticles constitute one of the simplest prototypes of a multifunctional nanomaterial that can exhibit both magnetic and optical (plasmonic) properties. This solid solution, not feasible in the bulk phase diagram in thermal equilibrium, can be formed as a nanostructure by out-of-equilibrium processes. Here, the novel magnetic, optical and magneto-optical properties of ion-implanted Au-Fe solid solution nanoparticles dispersed in a SiO2 matrix are investigated and correlated. The surface plasmon resonance of the Au-Fe nanoparticles with almost equicomposition is strongly damped when compared to pure Au and to Au-rich Au-Fe nanoparticles. In all cases, the Au atoms are magnetically polarized, as measured by x-ray magnetic circular dichroism, and ferromagnetically coupled with Fe atoms. Although the chemical stability of Au-Fe nanoparticles is larger than that of Fe nanoparticles, both the magnetic moment per Fe atom and the order temperature are smaller. These results suggest that electronic and magnetic properties are more influenced by the hybridization of the electronic bands in the Au-Fe solid solution than by size effects. On the other hand, the magneto-optical transitions allowed in the vis-nIR spectral regions are very similar. In addition, we also observe, after studying the properties of thermally treated samples, that the Au-Fe alloy is stabilized, not by surface effects, but by the combination of the out-of-equilibrium nature of the ion implantation technique and by changes in the properties due to size effects.

  18. Transition-sized Au92 nanoparticle bridging non-fcc-structured gold nanoclusters and fcc-structured gold nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Liao, Lingwen; Chen, Jishi; Wang, Chengming; Zhuang, Shengli; Yan, Nan; Yao, Chuanhao; Xia, Nan; Li, Lingling; Bao, Xiaoli; Wu, Zhikun

    2016-10-04

    Herein, we report the intriguing structure, optical absorption and electrochemical properties of the transition-sized Au92(TBBT)44 (Au92 for short, TBBT = 4-tert-butylbenzenethiolate) nanoparticle. An interesting observation is the 4H phase array of Au92 nanoparticles in the unit cells of single crystals.

  19. The Interaction between Zein and Lecithin in Ethanol-Water Solution and Characterization of Zein–Lecithin Composite Colloidal Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Lei; Sun, Cuixia; Wang, Di; Gao, Yanxiang

    2016-01-01

    Lecithin, a naturally small molecular surfactant, which is widely used in the food industry, can delay aging, enhance memory, prevent and treat diabetes. The interaction between zein and soy lecithin with different mass ratios (20:1, 10:1, 5:1, 3:1, 2:1, 1:1 and 1:2) in ethanol-water solution and characterisation of zein and lecithin composite colloidal nanoparticles prepared by antisolvent co-precipitation method were investigated. The mean size of zein-lecithin composite colloidal nanoparticles was firstly increased with the rise of lecithin concentration and then siginificantly decreased. The nanoparticles at the zein to lecithin mass ratio of 5:1 had the largest particle size (263 nm), indicating that zein and lecithin formed composite colloidal nanoparticles, which might aggregate due to the enhanced interaction at a higher proportion of lecithin. Continuing to increase lecithin concentration, the zein-lecithin nanoparticles possibly formed a reverse micelle-like or a vesicle-like structure with zein in the core, which prevented the formation of nanoparticle aggregates and decreased the size of composite nanoparticles. The presence of lecithin significantly reduced the ζ-potential of zein-lecithin composite colloidal nanoparticles. The interaction between zein and lecithin enhanced the intensity of the fluorescence emission of zein in ethanol-water solution. The secondary structure of zein was also changed by the addition of lecithin. Differential scanning calorimetry thermograms revealed that the thermal stability of zein-lecithin nanoparticles was enhanced with the rise of lecithin level. The composite nanoparticles were relatively stable to elevated ionic strengths. Possible interaction mechanism between zein and lecithin was proposed. These findings would help further understand the theory of the interaction between the alcohol soluble protein and the natural small molecular surfactant. The composite colloidal nanoparticles formed in this study can

  20. Intrinsic catalytic activity of Au nanoparticles with respect to hydrogen peroxide decomposition and superoxide scavenging.

    PubMed

    He, Weiwei; Zhou, Yu-Ting; Wamer, Wayne G; Hu, Xiaona; Wu, Xiaochun; Zheng, Zhi; Boudreau, Mary D; Yin, Jun-Jie

    2013-01-01

    Gold nanoparticles have received a great deal of interest due to their unique optical and catalytic properties and biomedical applications. Developing applications as well as assessing associated risks requires an understanding of the interactions between Au nanoparticles (NPs) and biologically active substances. In this paper, electron spin resonance spectroscopy (ESR) was used to investigate the catalytic activity of Au NPs in biologically relevant reactions. We report here that Au NPs can catalyze the rapid decomposition of hydrogen peroxide. Decomposition of hydrogen peroxide is accompanied by the formation of hydroxyl radicals at lower pH and oxygen at higher pH. In addition, we found that, mimicking SOD, Au NPs efficiently catalyze the decomposition of superoxide. These results demonstrate that Au NPs can act as SOD and catalase mimetics. Since reactive oxygen species are biologically relevant products being continuously generated in cells, these results obtained under conditions resembling different biological microenvironments may provide insights for evaluating risks associated with Au NPs.

  1. Polarization and spectral characteristics of the two-photon luminescence from colloidal gold nanoparticles excited by tunable laser radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Yashunin, D. A. Korytin, A. I.; Stepanov, A. N.

    2015-12-15

    We have experimentally studied two-photon luminescence from a colloidal solution of spherical gold nanoparticles by tuning the wavelength of the exciting radiation. The measured polarization and spectral characteristics of the two-photon luminescence signal show that the observed nonlinear optical response is determined by the dimers present in the solution with a concentration of a few percent of total nanoparticle number.

  2. Electrochemical activity of glucose oxidase on a poly(ionic liquid) - Au nanoparticle composite.

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.; Ringstrand, B. S.; Stone, D. A.; Firestone, M. A.

    2012-01-01

    Glucose oxidase (GOx) adsorbed on an ionic liquid-derived polymer containing internally organized columns of Au nanoparticles exhibits direct electron transfer and bioelectrocatalytic properties towards the oxidation of glucose. The cationic poly(ionic liquid) provides an ideal substrate for the electrostatic immobilization of GOx. The encapsulated Au nanoparticles serve to both promote the direct electron transfer with the recessed enzyme redox centers and impart electronic conduction to the composite, allowing it to function as an electrode for electrochemical detection.

  3. Dependence of SERS enhancement on the chemical composition and structure of Ag/Au hybrid nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaffin, Elise; O'Connor, Ryan T.; Barr, James; Huang, Xiaohua; Wang, Yongmei

    2016-08-01

    Noble metal nanoparticles (NPs) such as silver (Ag) and gold (Au) have unique plasmonic properties that give rise to surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). Generally, Ag NPs have much stronger plasmonic properties and, hence, provide stronger SERS signals than Au NPs. However, Ag NPs lack the chemical stability and biocompatibility of comparable Au NPs and typically exhibit the most intense plasmonic resonance at wavelengths much shorter than the optimal spectral region for many biomedical applications. To overcome these issues, various experimental efforts have been devoted to the synthesis of Ag/Au hybrid NPs for the purpose of SERS detections. However, a complete understanding on how the SERS enhancement depends on the chemical composition and structure of these nanoparticles has not been achieved. In this study, Mie theory and the discrete dipole approximation have been used to calculate the plasmonic spectra and near-field electromagnetic enhancements of Ag/Au hybrid NPs. In particular, we discuss how the electromagnetic enhancement depends on the mole fraction of Au in Ag/Au alloy NPs and how one may use extinction spectra to distinguish between Ag/Au alloyed NPs and Ag-Au core-shell NPs. We also show that for incident laser wavelengths between ˜410 nm and 520 nm, Ag/Au alloyed NPs provide better electromagnetic enhancement than pure Ag, pure Au, or Ag-Au core-shell structured NPs. Finally, we show that silica-core Ag/Au alloy shelled NPs provide even better performance than pure Ag/Au alloy or pure solid Ag and pure solid Au NPs. The theoretical results presented will be beneficial to the experimental efforts in optimizing the design of Ag/Au hybrid NPs for SERS-based detection methods.

  4. Spectroscopic characterization of magnetic Fe3O4@Au core shell nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fouad, Dina M.; El-Said, Waleed A.; Mohamed, Mona B.

    2015-04-01

    The magnetic nanoparticles iron oxide (Fe3O4) nanoparticles and iron oxide/gold core-shell (Fe3O4/Au) nanoparticles were synthesized and their catalytic photo-degradation activity towards malathion as example of organophosphorus pesticides were reported. Iron oxide (Fe3O4) magnetic nanoparticle was successfully prepared through co-precipitation method by the reduction of ferric chloride (FeCl3) using ascorbic acid. The morphology of the prepared nanoparticles was characterized by the TEM and XRD (X-ray diffraction) techniques. Degradation of 10 ppm of malathion in the presence of these nanoparticles under UV radiation was monitored using (HPLC) and UV-visible spectra. Fe3O4/Au nanoparticles showed higher efficiency in photo-degradation of malathion than Fe3O4 ones.

  5. Superparamagnetic Au-Fe3O4 nanoparticles: one-pot synthesis, biofunctionalization and toxicity evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pariti, A.; Desai, P.; Maddirala, S. K. Y.; Ercal, N.; Katti, K. V.; Liang, X.; Nath, M.

    2014-09-01

    Superparamagnetic Au-Fe3O4 bifunctional nanoparticles have been synthesized using a single step hot-injection precipitation method. The synthesis involved using Fe(CO)5 as iron precursor and HAuCl4 as gold precursor in the presence of oleylamine and oleic acid. Oleylamine helps in reducing Au3+ to Au0 seeds which simultaneously oxidizes Fe(0) to form Au-Fe3O4 bifunctional nanoparticles. Triton® X-100 was employed as a highly viscous solvent to prevent agglomeration of Fe3O4 nanoparticles. Detailed characterization of these nanoparticles was performed by using x-ray powder diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, scanning tunneling electron microscopy, UV-visible spectroscopy, Mössbauer and magnetometry studies. To evaluate these nanoparticles’ applicability in biomedical applications, L-cysteine was attached to the Au-Fe3O4 nanoparticles and cytotoxicity of Au-Fe3O4 nanoparticles was tested using CHO cells by employing MTS assay. L-cysteine modified Au-Fe3O4 nanoparticles were qualitatively characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy; and quantitatively using acid ninhydrin assay. Investigations reveal that that this approach yields Au-Fe3O4 bifunctional nanoparticles with an average particle size of 80 nm. Mössbauer studies indicated the presence of Fe in Fe3+ in A and B sites (tetrahedral and octahedral, respectively) and Fe2+ in B sites (octahedral). Magnetic measurements also indicated that these nanoparticles were superparamagnetic in nature due to Fe3O4 region. The saturation magnetization for the bifunctional nanoparticles was observed to be ˜74 emu g-1, which is significantly higher than the previously reported Fe3O4 nanoparticles. Mössbauer studies indicated that there was no significant Fe(0) impurity that could be responsible for the superparamagnetic nature of these nanoparticles. None of the investigations showed any presence of other impurities such as Fe2O3 and FeOOH. These Au-Fe3O4 bifunctional

  6. Colloidal behavior of aluminum oxide nanoparticles as affected by pH and natural organic matter.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Saikat; Mashayekhi, Hamid; Pan, Bo; Bhowmik, Prasanta; Xing, Baoshan

    2008-11-04

    The colloidal behavior of aluminum oxide nanoparticles (NPs) was investigated as a function of pH and in the presence of two structurally different humic acids (HAs), Aldrich HA (AHA) and the seventh HA fraction extracted from Amherst peat soil (HA7). Dynamic light scattering (DLS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) were employed to determine the colloidal behavior of the NPs. Influence of pH and HAs on the surface charges of the NPs was determined. zeta-Potential data clearly showed that the surface charge of the NPs decreased with increasing pH and reached the point of zero charge (ZPC) at pH 7.9. Surface charge of the NPs also decreased with the addition of HAs. The NPs tend to aggregate as the pH of the suspension approaches ZPC, where van der Waals attraction forces dominate over electrostatic repulsion. However, the NP colloidal suspension was stable in the pHs far from ZPC. Colloidal stability was strongly enhanced in the presence of HAs at the pH of ZPC or above it, but in acidic conditions NPs showed strong aggregation in the presence of HAs. AFM imaging revealed the presence of long-chain fractions in HA7, which entangled with the NPs to form large aggregates. The association of HA with the NP surface can be assumed to follow a two-step process, possibly the polar fractions of the HA7 sorbed on the NP surface followed by entanglement with the long-chain fractions. Thus, our study demonstrated that the hydrophobic nature of the HA molecules strongly influenced the aggregation of colloidal NPs, possibly through their conformational behavior in a particular solution condition. Therefore, various organic matter samples will result in different colloidal behavior of NPs, subsequently their environmental fate and transport.

  7. Surface enhanced Raman scattering of pyridine adsorbed on Au@Pd core/shell nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Zhilin; Li, Yan; Li, Zhipeng; Wu, Deyin; Kang, Junyong; Xu, Hongxing; Sun, Mengtao

    2009-06-01

    Surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) of pyridine adsorbed on Au@Pd core/shell nanoparticles has been investigated theoretically with quantum chemical method, generalized Mie theory and three-dimensional finite-difference time domain (3D-FDTD) method. We first studied the influence of the coated Pd on the electronic structure of Au nanoparticle, and compared the electronic structure of Au20 cluster with that of Au10Pd10 (core/shell) cluster. Second, we studied SERS spectroscopy of pyridine on Au@Pd core/shell nanoparticles, which revealed the rate of static chemical enhancement and electromagnetic enhancement in the experimental reports. Third, the influence of the Pd shell thickness to the optical absorption of Au@Pd core/shell nanoparticles was investigated with generalized Mie theory. Fourth, we studied the influence of the shell thickness to the local electric field enhancement with 3D-FDTD method. The theoretical results reveal that the static chemical enhancement and electromagnetic enhancement are in the order of 10 and 103, respectively. These theoretical studies promote the deeper understanding of the electronic structure and optical absorption properties of Au@Pd, and the mechanisms for SERS of molecule adsorbed on Au@Pd.

  8. Highly stable covalent organic framework-Au nanoparticles hybrids for enhanced activity for nitrophenol reduction.

    PubMed

    Pachfule, Pradip; Kandambeth, Sharath; Díaz Díaz, David; Banerjee, Rahul

    2014-03-25

    Gold [Au(0)] nanoparticles immobilized into a stable covalent organic framework (COF) have been synthesized via the solution infiltration method. The as-synthesized Au(0)@TpPa-1 catalyst shows high recyclability and superior reactivity for nitrophenol reduction reaction than HAuCl4·3H2O.

  9. Conjugating folate on superparamagnetic Fe3O4@Au nanoparticles using click chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Xiaofang; Ge, Zhaoqiang; Pang, Yuehong

    2015-02-01

    Gold-coated magnetic core@shell nanoparticles, which exhibit magneto-optical properties, not only enhance the chemical stability of core and biocompatibility of surface, but also provide a combination of multimodal imaging and therapeutics. The conjugation of these tiny nanoparticles with specific biomolecules allows researchers to target the desired location. In this paper, superparamagnetic Fe3O4@Au nanoparticles were synthesized and functionalized with the azide group on the surface by formation of self-assembled monolayers. Folate (FA) molecules, non-immunogenic target ligands for cancer cells, are conjugated with alkyne and then immobilized on the azide-terminated Fe3O4@Au nanoparticles through copper(I)-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (click reaction). Myelogenous leukemia K562 cells were used as a folate receptor (FR) model, which can be targeted and extracted by magnetic field after interaction with the Fe3O4@Au-FA nanoparticles.

  10. Cooperative plasmonic effect of Ag and Au nanoparticles on enhancing performance of polymer solar cells.

    PubMed

    Lu, Luyao; Luo, Zhiqiang; Xu, Tao; Yu, Luping

    2013-01-09

    This article describes a cooperative plasmonic effect on improving the performance of polymer bulk heterojunction solar cells. When mixed Ag and Au nanoparticles are incorporated into the anode buffer layer, dual nanoparticles show superior behavior on enhancing light absorption in comparison with single nanoparticles, which led to the realization of a polymer solar cell with a power conversion efficiency of 8.67%, accounting for a 20% enhancement. The cooperative plasmonic effect aroused from dual resonance enhancement of two different nanoparticles. The idea was further unraveled by comparing Au nanorods with Au nanoparticles for solar cell application. Detailed studies shed light into the influence of plasmonic nanostructures on exciton generation, dissociation, and charge recombination and transport inside thin film devices.

  11. Monitoring the Photocleaving Dynamics of Colloidal MicroRNA-Functionalized Gold Nanoparticles Using Second Harmonic Generation.

    PubMed

    Kumal, Raju R; Landry, Corey R; Abu-Laban, Mohammad; Hayes, Daniel J; Haber, Louis H

    2015-09-15

    Photoactivated drug delivery systems using gold nanoparticles provide the promise of spatiotemporal control of delivery that is crucial for applications ranging from regenerative medicine to cancer therapy. In this study, we use second harmonic generation (SHG) spectroscopy to monitor the light-activated controlled release of oligonucleotides from the surface of colloidal gold nanoparticles. MicroRNA is functionalized to spherical gold nanoparticles using a nitrobenzyl linker that undergoes photocleaving upon ultraviolet irradiation. The SHG signal generated from the colloidal nanoparticle sample is shown to be a sensitive probe for monitoring the photocleaving dynamics in real time. The photocleaving irradiation wavelength is scanned to show maximum efficiency on resonance at 365 nm, and the kinetics are investigated at varying irradiation powers to demonstrate that the nitrobenzyl photocleaving is a one-photon process. Additional characterization methods including electrophoretic mobility measurements, extinction spectroscopy, and fluorimetry are used to verify the SHG results, leading to a better understanding of the photocleaving dynamics for this model oligonucleotide therapeutic delivery system.

  12. Au@AuPt nanoparticles embedded in B-doped graphene: A superior electrocatalyst for determination of rutin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xianlan; Yang, Guangming; Feng, Shaoping; Shi, Ling; Huang, Zhaolong; Pan, Haibo; Liu, Wei

    2017-04-01

    A hydrothermal approach was used to prepare B-doped graphene with B2O3 as reductant and boron source. Results reveal that the boron atoms have been successfully embedded into graphene with a high content of a total B species (2.85 at.%). Then, B-doped graphene was exfoliated further into monolayer nanosheet by impregnating Au@AuPt core-shell nanoparticles (Au@AuPt NPs) because boron atom creates a net positive charge, which facilitates Au@AuPt NPs adsorption to form Au@AuPt NPs/B-doped graphene hybrid nanocatalysts. After that, the Au@AuPt NPs/B-doped hybrid suspension was dropped on glassy carbon electrode for sensing rutin. In this way, the dispersed carboxyl units of B-doped graphene can form hydrogen bonding with the phenolic hydroxyl groups of rutin, making rutin enrich easily on modified electrode surface to enhance the electrochemical response. At the same time, its electrochemical mechanism on the modified electrode was elucidated using cyclic voltammetry. It was found that its electrochemical behavior on modified electrode surface was a surface-controlled quasi-reversible process, and the charge transfer coefficient (α) and electron transfer number (n) were 0.296 and 2, respectively. This electrochemical sensor for rutin provided a wide linear response range of 2.00 × 10-9-4.00 × 10-6 M with the detection limit (S/N = 3) of 2.84 × 10-10 M. The proposed method was applied successfully to selective determination of rutin in Tablets with acceptable recovery range (97.23-101.65%).

  13. Green synthesis of colloidal silver nanoparticles using natural rubber latex extracted from Hevea brasiliensis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guidelli, Eder José; Ramos, Ana Paula; Zaniquelli, Maria Elisabete D.; Baffa, Oswaldo

    2011-11-01

    Colloidal silver nanoparticles were synthesized by an easy green method using thermal treatment of aqueous solutions of silver nitrate and natural rubber latex (NRL) extracted from Hevea brasiliensis. The UV-Vis spectra detected the characteristic surface plasmonic absorption band around 435 nm. Both NRL and AgNO 3 contents in the reaction medium have influence in the Ag nanoparticles formation. Lower AgNO 3 concentration led to decreased particle size. The silver nanoparticles presented diameters ranging from 2 nm to 100 nm and had spherical shape. The selected area electron diffraction (SAED) patterns indicated that the silver nanoparticles have face centered cubic (fcc) crystalline structure. FTIR spectra suggest that reduction of the silver ions are facilitated by their interaction with the amine groups from ammonia, which is used for conservation of the NRL, whereas the stability of the particles results from cis-isoprene binding onto the surface of nanoparticles. Therefore natural rubber latex extracted from H. brasiliensis can be employed in the preparation of stable aqueous dispersions of silver nanoparticles acting as a dispersing and/or capping agent. Moreover, this work provides a new method for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles that is simple, easy to perform, pollutant free and inexpensive.

  14. Green synthesis of colloidal silver nanoparticles using natural rubber latex extracted from Hevea brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Guidelli, Eder José; Ramos, Ana Paula; Zaniquelli, Maria Elisabete D; Baffa, Oswaldo

    2011-11-01

    Colloidal silver nanoparticles were synthesized by an easy green method using thermal treatment of aqueous solutions of silver nitrate and natural rubber latex (NRL) extracted from Hevea brasiliensis. The UV-Vis spectra detected the characteristic surface plasmonic absorption band around 435 nm. Both NRL and AgNO(3) contents in the reaction medium have influence in the Ag nanoparticles formation. Lower AgNO(3) concentration led to decreased particle size. The silver nanoparticles presented diameters ranging from 2 nm to 100 nm and had spherical shape. The selected area electron diffraction (SAED) patterns indicated that the silver nanoparticles have face centered cubic (fcc) crystalline structure. FTIR spectra suggest that reduction of the silver ions are facilitated by their interaction with the amine groups from ammonia, which is used for conservation of the NRL, whereas the stability of the particles results from cis-isoprene binding onto the surface of nanoparticles. Therefore natural rubber latex extracted from H. brasiliensis can be employed in the preparation of stable aqueous dispersions of silver nanoparticles acting as a dispersing and/or capping agent. Moreover, this work provides a new method for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles that is simple, easy to perform, pollutant free and inexpensive.

  15. Size Characterization of Colloidal Platinum Nanoparticles by MALDI-TOF Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Navin, Jason K.; Grass, Michael E.; Somorjai, Gabor A.; Marsh, Anderson L.

    2009-08-15

    In this work, matrix assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry (MS) has been utilized to characterize colloidal platinum nanoparticles synthesized in the 1-4 nm size range. The nanoparticles were prepared via a solution-based method in which the size could be controlled by varying reaction conditions, such as the alcohol used as the reductant. Poly(vinylpyrrolidone), or PVP, (MW = 29,000 g/mol) was employed as a capping agent to stabilize the synthesized nanoparticles in solution. A model for determining the size of the metallic nanoparticle core from MALDI-TOF mass spectra has been developed and verified through correlation with particle sizes from transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements. In this model it was assumed that 1.85 nm nanoparticles are capped by one PVP chain, which was verified through experiments performed with capped and uncapped nanoparticles. Larger nanoparticles are capped by either two (2.60 and 2.94 nm) or three (3.69 nm) PVP chains. These findings clearly indicate the usefulness of MALDI-TOF MS as a technique for fully characterizing nanoscale materials in order to elucidate structure-property relationships.

  16. Tunneling mechanism and contact mechanics of colloidal nanoparticle assemblies.

    PubMed

    Biaye, Moussa; Zbydniewska, Ewa; Mélin, Thierry; Deresmes, Dominique; Copie, Guillaume; Cleri, Fabrizio; Sangeetha, Neralagatta; Decorde, Nicolas; Viallet, Benoit; Grisolia, Jérémie; Ressier, Laurence; Diesinger, Heinrich

    2016-11-25

    Nanoparticle assemblies with thiol-terminated alkyl chains are studied by conducting atomic force microscopy (c-AFM) regarding their use as strain gauges for touch-sensitive panels. Current-force spectroscopy is used as a characterization tool complementary to the macroscopic setup since it allows a bias to be applied to a limited number of junctions, overcoming the Coulomb blockade energy and focusing on the contact electromechanics and the transport mechanism across the ligand. First, transition voltage spectroscopy is applied with varying force to target the underlying tunneling mechanism by observing whether the transition between the ohmic and exponential current-voltage behavior is force-dependent. Secondly, current-force spectroscopy in the ohmic range below the transition voltage is performed. The current-force behavior of the AFM probe in contact with a nanoparticle multilayer is associated with the spread of force and current within the nanoparticle lattice and at the level of adjacent particles by detailed contact mechanics treatment. The result is twofold: concerning the architecture of sensors, this work is a sample case of contact electromechanics at scales ranging from the device scale down to the individual ligand molecule. Regarding transport across the molecule, the vacuum tunneling mechanism is favored over the conduction by coherent molecular states, which is a decision-making aid for the choice of ligand in applications.

  17. Tunneling mechanism and contact mechanics of colloidal nanoparticle assemblies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biaye, Moussa; Zbydniewska, Ewa; Mélin, Thierry; Deresmes, Dominique; Copie, Guillaume; Cleri, Fabrizio; Sangeetha, Neralagatta; Decorde, Nicolas; Viallet, Benoit; Grisolia, Jérémie; Ressier, Laurence; Diesinger, Heinrich

    2016-11-01

    Nanoparticle assemblies with thiol-terminated alkyl chains are studied by conducting atomic force microscopy (c-AFM) regarding their use as strain gauges for touch-sensitive panels. Current-force spectroscopy is used as a characterization tool complementary to the macroscopic setup since it allows a bias to be applied to a limited number of junctions, overcoming the Coulomb blockade energy and focusing on the contact electromechanics and the transport mechanism across the ligand. First, transition voltage spectroscopy is applied with varying force to target the underlying tunneling mechanism by observing whether the transition between the ohmic and exponential current-voltage behavior is force-dependent. Secondly, current-force spectroscopy in the ohmic range below the transition voltage is performed. The current-force behavior of the AFM probe in contact with a nanoparticle multilayer is associated with the spread of force and current within the nanoparticle lattice and at the level of adjacent particles by detailed contact mechanics treatment. The result is twofold: concerning the architecture of sensors, this work is a sample case of contact electromechanics at scales ranging from the device scale down to the individual ligand molecule. Regarding transport across the molecule, the vacuum tunneling mechanism is favored over the conduction by coherent molecular states, which is a decision-making aid for the choice of ligand in applications.

  18. A combined experimental and computational study of AuPd nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruma, Alina

    The thesis is focused on the investigation of structural properties of AuPd nanoparticles via theoretical and experimental studies. For the first system, the 98-atom AuPd nanoclusters, a theoretical analysis has been employed to study the energetics and segregation effects and to assess how typical is the Leary Tetrahedron (LT). Although this motif is the most stable at the empirical level, it loses stability at the DFT level against FCC or Marks Decahedron. The second system is the Au24Pd1 nanoclusters. Theoretically, by performing a search at the DFT level using Basin Hopping Monte Carlo, we identified pyramidal cage structures as putative global minima, where Pd sits in the core and Au occupies surface positions. The Lowdin analysis emphasized charge transfer between Pd and Au, explaining the enhanced catalytic activity with respect to Au25 clusters. Experimentally, STEM has been employed for the structural characterization of Au24Pd1 clusters supported on Multiwall Carbon Nanotubes. Whenever possible, we have tried to link the experimental analysis to the theoretical findings. The third system has been the evaporated AuPd nanoparticles. We observed that the annealing process led to the formation of L12 ordered phases as well as layered and core-shell structures. This study aimed to bring an insight on the segregation and energetics effects of AuPd nanoparticles with potential applications in nanocatalysis.

  19. Shear-driven aggregation of binary colloids for randomly distributing nanoparticles in a matrix.

    PubMed

    Meng, Xia; Wu, Hua; Morbidelli, Massimo

    2016-04-20

    We propose a methodology for preparing composite materials where A nanoparticles (NPs) are uniformly and randomly distributed inside a matrix of B NPs. It is based on intense shear-driven aggregation of binary colloids composed of A and B NPs, without using any additives. Its feasibility has been demonstrated using stable binary colloids composed of poly-methyl methacrylate (PMMA) particles and polystyrene (PS) particles. The PS particles alone undergo shear-driven aggregation (shear-active), while the PMMA particles alone do not exhibit any aggregation under the same conditions (shear-inactive). It is found that the shear-driven aggregation of the binary colloids does occur, and the formed clusters are composed of both the "shear-active" PS and "shear-inactive" PMMA particles. The SEM pictures demonstrate that the PMMA particles are uniformly and randomly distributed among the PS particles in the clusters, thus confirming the feasibility of the proposed methodology. The mechanism leading to the aggregation of the binary colloids has been discussed based on the experimental observations.

  20. Antibacterial Activity of Electrochemically Synthesized Colloidal Silver Nanoparticles Against Hospital-Acquired Infections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thuc, Dao Tri; Huy, Tran Quang; Hoang, Luc Huy; Hoang, Tran Huy; Le, Anh-Tuan; Anh, Dang Duc

    2017-02-01

    This study evaluated the antibacterial activity of electrochemically synthesized colloidal silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) against hospital-acquired infections. Colloidal AgNPs were synthesized via a single process using bulk silver bars, bi-distilled water, trisodium citrate, and direct current voltage at room temperature. Colloidal AgNPs were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, field-emission scanning electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive x-ray analyses. The antibacterial activity of colloidal AgNPs against four bacterial strains isolated from clinical samples, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli O157:H7, multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumonia, was evaluated by disc diffusion, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), and ultrathin sectioning electron microscopy. The results showed that the prepared AgNPs were 19.7 ± 4.3 nm in size, quasi-spherical, and of high purity. Zones of inhibition approximately 6-10 mm in diameter were found, corresponding to AgNPs concentrations of 50 μg/mL to 100 μg/mL. The MIC results revealed that the antibacterial activity of the prepared AgNPs was strongly dependent on the concentration and strain of the tested bacteria.

  1. Catalytic self-assembled monolayers on Au nanoparticles: the source of catalysis of a transphosphorylation reaction.

    PubMed

    Zaupa, Giovanni; Mora, Claudia; Bonomi, Renato; Prins, Leonard J; Scrimin, Paolo

    2011-04-18

    The catalytic activity of a series of Au monolayer protected colloids (Au MPCs) containing different ratios of the catalytic unit triazacyclononane⋅Zn(II) (TACN⋅Zn(II) ) and an inert triethyleneglycol (TEG) unit was measured. The catalytic self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) are highly efficient in the transphosphorylation of 2-hydroxy propyl 4-nitrophenyl phosphate (HPNPP), an RNA model substrate, exhibiting maximum values for the Michaelis-Menten parameters k(cat) and K(M) of 6.7×10(-3) s(-1) and 3.1×10(-4) M, respectively, normalized per catalytic unit. Despite the structural simplicity of the catalytic units, this renders these nanoparticles among the most active catalysts known for this substrate. Both k(cat) and K(M) parameters were determined as a function of the mole fraction of catalytic unit (x(1)) in the SAM. Within this nanoparticle (NP) series, k(cat) increases up till x(1) ≈0.4, after which it remains constant and K(M) decreases exponentially over the range studied. A theoretical analysis demonstrated that these trends are an intrinsic property of catalytic SAMs, in which catalysis originates from the cooperative effect between two neighboring catalytic units. The multivalency of the system causes an increase of the number of potential dimeric catalytic sites composed of two catalytic units as a function of the x(1) , which causes an apparent increase in binding affinity (decrease in K(M)). Simultaneously, the k(cat) value is determined by the number of substrate molecules bound at saturation. For values of x(1) >0.4, isolated catalytic units are no longer present and all catalytic units are involved in catalysis at saturation. Importantly, the observed trends are indicative of a random distribution of the thiols in the SAM. As indicated by the theoretical analysis, and confirmed by a control experiment, in case of clustering both k(cat) and K(M) values remain constant over the entire range of x(1) .

  2. Influence of colloidal silver nanoparticles on the novel flower-like titanium dioxide oxygen sensor performances.

    PubMed

    Castañeda, L; López-Suárez, A; Tiburcio-Silver, A

    2010-02-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2-anatase phase) thin films, consisting of agglomerated flower-like nanoparticles, have been synthesized using an ultrasonic spray pyrolysis (USP) method in combination with titanium (IV) oxide acetylacetonate [TiO(acac)2], and methanol at 550 degrees C. These thin films were subsequently thermally treated in air, at 950 degrees C for six hours, and the flower-like particles were transformed into smooth surfaces mainly formed by the TiO2-rutile phase. In order to prepare oxygen sensors of good performance, TiO2 thin films were deposited on interdigitated gold electrodes with contacted alumina substrates. The silver colloidal solution was impregnated on the TiO2 thin film. Since the solvent in which the silver nanoparticles are suspended evaporates at 200 degrees C, the thin films were then annealed at this temperature in air for one hour. The effect of colloidal silver nanoparticles on the response of the thin films TiO2 oxygen sensors has been studied, in a mixture with zero-grade air. The gas-sensing properties of TiO2 sensors in an atmosphere of 10(4) ppm of oxygen were measured between 25 and 500 degrees C. The experimental results obtained with colloidal silver nanoparticles as surface additive show that the sensitivity to an O2 concentration of 100 ppm in zero grade air at 300 degrees C reaches a stationary value of 0.40, and 0.03, for TiO2-anatase and -rutile phase films, respectively. This values are as high as those reported for oxygen sensors prepared by more expensive techniques.

  3. Directed Assembly of Soft Anisotropic Nanoparticles by Colloid Electrospinning.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Shuai; Mable, Charlotte J; Armes, Steven P; Crespy, Daniel

    2016-10-01

    Directed assembly of triblock copolymer worms to produce nanostructured fibers is achieved via colloid electrospinning. These copolymer worms are conveniently prepared by polymerization-induced self-assembly in concentrated aqueous dispersion. Addition of a second water-soluble component, poly(vinyl alcohol), is found to be critical for the production of well-defined fibers: trial experiments performed using the worms alone produce only spherical microparticles. Transmission electron microscopy studies confirm that the worm morphology survives electrospinning and the worms become orientated parallel to the main axis of the fibers during their generation. The average deviant angle (θdev ) between the worm orientation and fiber axis decreases from 17° to 9° as the worm/PVA mass ratio increases from 1.15:1 to 5:1, indicating a greater degree of worm alignment within fibers with higher worm contents and smaller fiber diameters. Thus triblock copolymer fibers of ≈300 ± 120 nm diameter can be readily produced that comprise aligned worms on the nanoscale.

  4. Digestive Ripening of Au Nanoparticles Using Multidentate Ligands.

    PubMed

    Sahu, Puspanjali; Shimpi, Jayesh; Lee, Han Ju; Lee, T Randall; Prasad, Bhagavatula L V

    2017-02-16

    The efficiency of multidentate ligands as digestive ripening (DR) agents for the preparation of monodisperse Au nanoparticles (NPs) was investigated. This systematic investigation was performed using ligands possessing one, two, or three thiol moieties as ligands/DR agents. Our results clearly establish that among the different ligands, monodentate ligands and the use of temperature in the range of 60-120 °C offer the best conditions for DR. In addition, when DR was carried out at lower temperatures (e.g., 60 °C), the NP size increased as the number of thiol groups per ligand increased. However, in the case of ligands possessing two and three thiol moieties, when they were heated with polydispersed particles at higher temperatures (120 or 180 °C), the etching process dominated, which affected the quality of the NPs in terms of their monodispersity. We conclude that the temperature-dependent strength of the interaction between the ligand headgroup and the NP surface plays a vital role in controlling the final particle sizes.

  5. Effect of Au nano-particle aggregation on the deactivation of the AuCl3/AC catalyst for acetylene hydrochlorination

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Bin; Wang, Qinqin; Yu, Feng; Zhu, Mingyuan

    2015-01-01

    A detailed study of the valence state and distribution of the AuCl3/AC catalyst during the acetylene hydrochlorination deactivation process is described and discussed. Temperature-programmed reduction and X-ray photoelectron spectral analysis indicate that the active Au3+ reduction to metallic Au0 is one reason for the deactivation of AuCl3/AC catalyst. Transmission electron microscopy characterization demonstrated that the particle size of Au nano-particles increases with increasing reaction time. The results indicated that metallic Au0 exhibits considerable catalytic activity and that Au nano-particle aggregation may be another reason for the AuCl3/AC catalytic activity in acetylene hydrochlorination. PMID:25994222

  6. Effect of Au nano-particle aggregation on the deactivation of the AuCl3/AC catalyst for acetylene hydrochlorination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Bin; Wang, Qinqin; Yu, Feng; Zhu, Mingyuan

    2015-05-01

    A detailed study of the valence state and distribution of the AuCl3/AC catalyst during the acetylene hydrochlorination deactivation process is described and discussed. Temperature-programmed reduction and X-ray photoelectron spectral analysis indicate that the active Au3+ reduction to metallic Au0 is one reason for the deactivation of AuCl3/AC catalyst. Transmission electron microscopy characterization demonstrated that the particle size of Au nano-particles increases with increasing reaction time. The results indicated that metallic Au0 exhibits considerable catalytic activity and that Au nano-particle aggregation may be another reason for the AuCl3/AC catalytic activity in acetylene hydrochlorination.

  7. A highly sensitive nanoscale pH-sensor using Au nanoparticles linked by a multifunctional Raman-active reporter molecule.

    PubMed

    Lawson, Latevi S; Chan, James W; Huser, Thomas

    2014-07-21

    Chemical sensing on the nanoscale has been breaking new ground since the discovery of surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). For nanoparticles, controlled particle aggregation is necessary to achieve the largest SERS enhancements. Therefore, aggregating agents such as salts or linker molecules are used in conjunction with chemically sensitive reporters in order to develop robust environmentally sensitive SERS probes. While salt-induced colloidal nanosphere aggregates have produced robust SERS signals, their variability in aggregate size contributes significantly to poor SERS signal reproducibility, which can complicate their use in in vitro cellular studies. Such systems often also lack reproducibility in spectral measurements between different nanoparticle clusters. Preaggregation of colloids via linkers followed by surface functionalization with reporter molecules results in the linker occupying valuable SERS hotspot volume which could otherwise be utilized by additional reporter molecules. Ideally, both functionalities should be obtained from a single molecule. Here, we report the use of 3,5-dimercaptobenzoic acid, a single multifunctional molecule that creates SERS hotspots via the controlled aggregation of nanoparticles, and also reports pH values. We show that 3,5-dimercaptobenzoic acid bound to Au nanospheres results in an excellent pH nanoprobe, producing very robust, and highly reproducible SERS signals that can report pH across the entire physiological range with excellent pH resolution. To demonstrate the efficacy of our novel pH reporters, these probes were also used to image both the particle and pH distribution in the cytoplasm of human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs).

  8. Effects of Au nanoparticles on photoluminescence emission from Si-vacancy in diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orlanducci, S.; Cianchetta, I.; Tamburri, E.; Guglielmotti, V.; Terranova, M. L.

    2012-10-01

    We studied the coupling of diamond Si color centers with size-controlled Au nanoparticles obtained by chemical routes. The diamond samples, synthesized by Chemical Vapor Deposition, were polycrystalline films or isolated grains. The plasmonic responses of the Au nanoparticles were found to couple with the Ar+ laser frequency or with the frequency of the Si-defects photoluminescence (PL). When the PL of Si optical centers is resonant with the maximum of the Au extinction spectrum, a threshold behavior and a decrease of the PL band FWHM with increasing laser energy is detected, suggesting the transition from spontaneous to stimulated emission.

  9. Study of Vegetable Biodiesel Enhanced by Gold Nanoparticles Using Thermal-Lens Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiménez-Pérez, J. L.; Fuentes, R. Gutiérrez; Correa-Pacheco, Z. N.; Tánori-Cordova, J.; Cruz-Orea, A.; Gamboa, G. López

    2015-06-01

    In this work, experimental results for the enhancement of the thermal diffusivity of a colloidal suspension of gold nanoparticles in biodiesel oil are reported. Different concentrations of Au nanoparticles are prepared using a microemulsion method, by simultaneous reduction of Au ions in the presence of hydrazine as a reducing agent. The thermal diffusivity was found to increase with increasing nanoparticle concentration.

  10. Thin nanocomposite films of polyaniline/Au nanoparticles by the Langmuir-Blodgett technique.

    PubMed

    Tanami, Golan; Gutkin, Vitaly; Mandler, Daniel

    2010-03-16

    The Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) method was used to deposit multilayers of polyaniline (PANI)- and mercaptoethanesulfonate (MES)-stabilized Au nanoparticles. The electrostatic interaction between the negatively charged nanoparticles in the subphase and the positively charged PANI at the air-water interface assisted the deposition of the nanocomposite film onto a solid support. These PANI/Au-NPs films were characterized using cyclic voltammetry, copper under potential deposition, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. We found that the nanocomposite layers were uniform and reproducible. The density of Au-NPs in the monolayer depended on the acidity of the subphase as well as on the nanoparticles concentration. Moreover, the Au-NPs extrude above the PANI and therefore could be used as nanoelectrodes for the underpotential deposition (UPD) of copper.

  11. Protein Viability on Au Nanoparticles during an Electrospray and Electrostatic-Force-Directed Assembly Process

    DOE PAGES

    Mao, Shun; Lu, Ganhua; Yu, Kehan; ...

    2010-01-01

    We study the protein viability on Au nanoparticles during an electrospray and electrostatic-force-directed assembly process, through which Au nanoparticle-antibody conjugates are assembled onto the surface of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) to fabricate carbon nanotube field-effect transistor (CNTFET) biosensors. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and field-effect transistor (FET) measurements have been used to investigate the antibody activity after the nanoparticle assembly. Upon the introduction of matching antigens, the colored reaction from the ELISA and the change in the electrical characteristic of the CNTFET device confirm that the antibody activity is preserved during the assembly process.

  12. Nanomedicine: Interaction of biomimetic apatite colloidal nanoparticles with human blood components.

    PubMed

    Choimet, Maëla; Hyoung-Mi, Kim; Jae-Min, Oh; Tourrette, Audrey; Drouet, Christophe

    2016-09-01

    This contribution investigates the interaction of two types of biomimetic-apatite colloidal nanoparticles (negatively-charged 47nm, and positively-charged 190nm NPs) with blood components, namely red blood cells (RBC) and plasma proteins, with the view to inspect their hemocompatibility. The NPs, preliminarily characterized by XRD, FTIR and DLS, showed low hemolysis ratio (typically lower than 5%) illustrating the high compatibility of such NPs with respect to RBC, even at high concentration (up to 10mg/ml). The presence of glucose as water-soluble matrix for freeze-dried and re-dispersed colloids led to slightly increased hemolysis as compared to glucose-free formulations. NPs/plasma protein interaction was then followed, via non-specific protein fluorescence quenching assays, by contact with whole human blood plasma. The amount of plasma proteins in interaction with the NPs was evaluated experimentally, and the data were fitted with the Hill plot and Stern-Volmer models. In all cases, binding constants of the order of 10(1)-10(2) were found. These values, significantly lower than those reported for other types of nanoparticles or molecular interactions, illustrate the fairly inert character of these colloidal NPs with respect to plasma proteins, which is desirable for circulating injectable suspensions. Results were discussed in relation with particle surface charge and mean particle hydrodynamic diameter (HD). On the basis of these hemocompatibility data, this study significantly complements previous results relative to the development and nontoxicity of biomimetic-apatite-based colloids stabilized by non-drug biocompatible organic molecules, intended for use in nanomedicine.

  13. Enantiomeric separations of chiral pharmaceuticals using chirally modified tetrahexahedral Au nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukla, N.; Yang, D.; Gellman, A. J.

    2016-06-01

    Tetrahexahedral (THH, 24-sided) Au nanoparticles modified with D- or L-cysteine (Cys) have been used as enantioselective separators of the chiral pharmaceutical propranolol (PLL) in solution phase. Polarimetry has been used to measure the rotation of linearly polarized light by solutions containing mixtures of PLL and Cys/THH-Au NPs with varying enantiomeric excesses of each. Polarimetry yields clear evidence of enantiospecific adsorption of PLL onto the Cys/THH-Au NPs. This extends prior work using propylene oxide as a test chiral probe, by using the crystalline THH Au NPs with well-defined facets to separate a real pharmaceutical. This work suggests that chiral nanoparticles, coupled with a density separation method such as centrifugation, could be used for enantiomeric purification of real pharmaceuticals. A simple robust model developed earlier has also been used to extract the enantiospecific equilibrium constants for R- and S-PLL adsorption onto the D- and L-Cys/THH-Au NPs.

  14. Au nanoparticle sensitized ZnO nanopencil arrays for photoelectrochemical water splitting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Tuo; Lv, Rui; Zhang, Peng; Li, Changjiang; Gong, Jinlong

    2014-11-01

    This paper describes the synthesis of Au nanoparticle sensitized ZnO nanopencil arrays on F-doped SnO2 substrates by an aqueous chemical growth and subsequent photoreduction method. The Au-ZnO nanopencil arrays yield a photocurrent of ~1.5 mA cm-2 at 1 V versus Ag/AgCl. The enhanced photocurrent is attributed to the surface plasmon resonance effect of Au nanoparticles and the prolonged lifetime of the photo-generated electron-hole pairs. The improved stability of ZnO is due to the plasmon resonance energy transfer process enabled by the Au nanoparticles, which enhances the electric field intensity in a small, well-defined location of the ZnO semiconductor.This paper describes the synthesis of Au nanoparticle sensitized ZnO nanopencil arrays on F-doped SnO2 substrates by an aqueous chemical growth and subsequent photoreduction method. The Au-ZnO nanopencil arrays yield a photocurrent of ~1.5 mA cm-2 at 1 V versus Ag/AgCl. The enhanced photocurrent is attributed to the surface plasmon resonance effect of Au nanoparticles and the prolonged lifetime of the photo-generated electron-hole pairs. The improved stability of ZnO is due to the plasmon resonance energy transfer process enabled by the Au nanoparticles, which enhances the electric field intensity in a small, well-defined location of the ZnO semiconductor. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Illustrative schematic of PEC measurements, XPS of ZnO nanorods and nanopencils. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr03735a

  15. High magnetic field quantum transport in Au nanoparticle-cellulose films.

    PubMed

    Turyanska, L; Makarovsky, O; Patanè, A; Kozlova, N V; Liu, Z; Li, M; Mann, S

    2012-02-03

    We report the magneto-transport properties of cellulose films comprising interconnected networks of gold nanoparticles (Au NPs). Cellulose is a biopolymer that can be made electrically conducting by cellulose regeneration in Au NP dispersions. The mechanism of electronic conduction in the Au-cellulose films changes from variable range hopping to metallic-like conduction with decreasing resistivity. Our experiments in high magnetic fields (up to 45 T) reveal negative magnetoresistance in the highly resistive films. This is attributed to the spin polarization of the Au NPs and the magnetic field induced suppression of electron spin flips during spin-polarized tunneling in the NP network.

  16. Processing pathway dependence of amorphous silica nanoparticle toxicity - colloidal versus pyrolytic

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Haiyuan; Dunphy, Darren R.; Jiang, Xingmao; Meng, Huan; Sun, Bingbing; Tarn, Derrick; Xue, Min; Wang, Xiang; Lin, Sijie; Ji, Zhaoxia; Li, Ruibin; Garcia, Fred L.; Yang, Jing; Kirk, Martin L.; Xia, Tian; Zink, Jeffrey I; Nel, Andre; Brinker, C. Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    We have developed structure/toxicity relationships for amorphous silica nanoparticles (NPs) synthesized through low temperature, colloidal (e.g. Stöber silica) or high temperature pyrolysis (e.g. fumed silica) routes. Through combined spectroscopic and physical analyses, we have determined the state of aggregation, hydroxyl concentration, relative proportion of strained and unstrained siloxane rings, and potential to generate hydroxyl radicals for Stöber and fumed silica NPs with comparable primary particle sizes (16-nm in diameter). Based on erythrocyte hemolytic assays and assessment of the viability and ATP levels in epithelial and macrophage cells, we discovered for fumed silica an important toxicity relationship to post-synthesis thermal annealing or environmental exposure, whereas colloidal silicas were essentially non-toxic under identical treatment conditions. Specifically, we find for fumed silica a positive correlation of toxicity with hydroxyl concentration and its potential to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cause red blood cell hemolysis. We propose fumed silica toxicity stems from its intrinsic population of strained three-membered rings (3MRs) along with its chain-like aggregation and hydroxyl content. Hydrogen-bonding and electrostatic interactions of the silanol surfaces of fumed silica aggregates with the extracellular plasma membrane cause membrane perturbations sensed by the Nalp3 inflammasome, whose subsequent activation leads to secretion of the cytokine IL-1β. Hydroxyl radicals generated by the strained 3MRs in fumed silica but largely absent in colloidal silicas may contribute to the inflammasome activation. Formation of colloidal silica into aggregates mimicking those of fumed silica had no effect on cell viability or hemolysis. This study emphasizes that not all amorphous silica is created equal and that the unusual toxicity of fumed silica compared to colloidal silica derives from its framework and surface chemistry along

  17. Aggregation and Colloidal Stability of Commercially Available Al2O3 Nanoparticles in Aqueous Environments

    PubMed Central

    Mui, Julie; Ngo, Jennifer; Kim, Bojeong

    2016-01-01

    The aggregation and colloidal stability of three, commercially-available, gamma-aluminum oxide nanoparticles (γ-Al2O3 NPs) (nominally 5, 10, and 20–30 nm) were systematically examined as a function of pH, ionic strength, humic acid (HA) or clay minerals (e.g., montmorillonite) concentration using dynamic light scattering and transmission electron microscopy techniques. NPs possess pH-dependent surface charges, with a point of zero charge (PZC) of pH 7.5 to 8. When pH < PZC, γ-Al2O3 NPs are colloidally stable up to 100 mM NaCl and 30 mM CaCl2. However, significant aggregation of NPs is pronounced in both electrolytes at high ionic strength. In mixed systems, both HA and montmorillonite enhance NP colloidal stability through electrostatic interactions and steric hindrance when pH ≤ PZC, whereas their surface interactions are quite limited when pH > PZC. Even when pH approximates PZC, NPs became stable at a HA concentration of 1 mg·L−1. The magnitude of interactions and dominant sites of interaction (basal planes versus edge sites) are significantly dependent on pH because both NPs and montmorillonite have pH-dependent (conditional) surface charges. Thus, solution pH, ionic strength, and the presence of natural colloids greatly modify the surface conditions of commercial γ-Al2O3 NPs, affecting aggregation and colloidal stability significantly in the aqueous environment. PMID:28335218

  18. Kinetic analyses and performance of a colloidal magnetic nanoparticle based immunoassay dedicated to allergy diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Teste, Bruno; Kanoufi, Frédéric; Descroix, Stéphanie; Poncet, Pascal; Georgelin, Thomas; Siaugue, Jean-Michel; Petr, Jan; Varenne, Anne; Hennion, Marie-Claire

    2011-07-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate the possibility to use magnetic nanoparticles as immunosupports for allergy diagnosis. Most immunoassays used for immunosupports and clinical diagnosis are based on a heterogeneous solid-phase system and suffer from mass-transfer limitation. The nanoparticles' colloidal behavior and magnetic properties bring the advantages of homogeneous immunoassay, i.e., species diffusion, and of heterogeneous immunoassay, i.e., easy separation of the immunocomplex and free forms, as well as analyte preconcentration. We thus developed a colloidal, non-competitive, indirect immunoassay using magnetic core-shell nanoparticles (MCSNP) as immunosupports. The feasibility of such an immunoassay was first demonstrated with a model antibody and described by comparing the immunocapture kinetics using macro (standard microtiter plate), micro (microparticles) and nanosupports (MCSNP). The influence of the nanosupport properties (surface chemistry, antigen density) and of the medium (ionic strength, counter ion nature) on the immunocapture efficiency and specificity was then investigated. The performances of this original MCSNP-based immunoassay were compared with a gold standard enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using a microtiter plate. The capture rate of target IgG was accelerated 200-fold and a tenfold lower limit of detection was achieved. Finally, the MCSNP-based immunoassay was successfully applied to the detection of specific IgE from milk-allergic patient's sera with a lower LOD and a good agreement (CV < 6%) with the microtiter plate, confirming the great potential of this analytical platform in the field of immunodiagnosis.

  19. Temporal dynamics of optical bistability and modulation instability in colloidal nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharif, Morteza A.; Ghafary, Bijan; Majles Ara, M. H.

    2015-01-01

    Colloidal nanoparticles are attractive optical materials for their low threshold nonlinear response and thus all-optical, nondestructive features which are important in biomedical optics and optical processing. We develop a theoretical scheme based on numerical solution of Nonlinear Schrödinger Equation and nonideal gas model of nonlinearity to investigate temporal analysis of optical bistability (OB) and modulation instability in colloidal nanoparticles. Our scheme determines the dependence of a nanosuspension system dynamic state on characteristic/control parameters including external feedback depth, nanosuspension length, and the initial density of nanoparticles as well as the optical input power. We show that these parameters are intensely correlated. We also indicate that the nonlinear response of nanosuspension may be saturated over a threshold of input power, and thus an unexpected procedure of system evolution toward stability rather than transition to chaos will occur. Consequently, provided that internal feedback is present inside the nanosuspension controlling chaos will be attainable by simply adjusting the optical input power as the control parameter in contrast to the other chaos control methods which require external injection. Finally, we propose an approach which gives a measure of switching time to optimize OB. The optimum results are obtained for the lowest taken values of characteristic/control parameters.

  20. Formation mechanism of colloidal nanoparticles obtained from probucol/PVP/SDS ternary ground mixture.

    PubMed

    Pongpeerapat, Adchara; Wanawongthai, Chalermphon; Tozuka, Yuichi; Moribe, Kunikazu; Yamamoto, Keiji

    2008-03-20

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the formation mechanism of colloidal nanoparticles after dispersion of probucol/polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)/sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) ternary ground mixture (GM) into water. Probucol, PVP and SDS were mixed at a weight ratio of 1:3:1 and ground for 30 min with a vibrational rod mill. The morphology and physicochemical properties were investigated through high resolution scanning electron microscopy (SEM), environmental SEM, dynamic light scattering, (13)C NMR and zeta potential measurements. SEM images confirmed the presence of 20 nm size primary particles in the GM powder of probucol/PVP K17/SDS. Spherical nanoparticles with a size of around 100 nm, formed after dispersion of the GM into water, suggested an agglomeration of the primary particles. A further agglomeration of around 160 nm was observed with the stability experiment. Zeta potential and particle size measurements using latex beads revealed that PVPK 17/SDS complex was adsorbed on the probucol particle surface forming a layered structure. A similar agglomeration behavior was observed using the GM of probucol/PVP K12/SDS, though the molecular state of the PVPK 12/SDS complex at the particle surface was different from that of the PVPK 17/SDS complex. (13)C NMR results suggested that intermolecular interactions between PVP K12 and SDS did not reach the same level as the interactions between PVP K17 and SDS. This study proposed a formation mechanism of colloidal nanoparticles.

  1. Influence of dissolved organic matter on the environmental fate of metals, nanoparticles, and colloids

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aiken, George R.; Hsu-Kim, Heileen; Ryan, Joseph N.

    2011-01-01

    We have known for decades that dissolved organic matter (DOM) plays a critical role in the biogeochemical cycling of trace metals and the mobility of colloidal particles in aquatic environments. In recent years, concerns about the ecological and human health effects of metal-based engineered nanoparticles released into natural waters have increased efforts to better define the nature of DOM interactions with metals and surfaces. Nanomaterials exhibit unique properties and enhanced reactivities that are not apparent in larger materials of the same composition1,2 or dissolved ions of metals that comprise the nanoparticles. These nanoparticle-specific properties generally result from the relatively large proportion of the atoms located at the surface, which leads to very high specific surface areas and a high proportion of crystal lattice imperfections relative to exposed surface area. Nanoscale colloids are ubiquitous in nature,2 and many engineered nanomaterials have analogs in the natural world. The properties of these materials, whether natural or manmade, are poorly understood, and new challenges have been presented in assessing their environmental fate. These challenges are particularly relevant in aquatic environments where interactions with DOM are key, albeit often overlooked, moderators of reactivity at the molecular and nanocolloidal scales.

  2. Fe impurities weaken the ferromagnetic behavior in Au nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Crespo, P; García, M A; Fernández Pinel, E; Multigner, M; Alcántara, D; de la Fuente, J M; Penadés, S; Hernando, A

    2006-10-27

    In this Letter, we report on a crucial experiment showing that magnetic impurities reduce the ferromagnetic order temperature in thiol-capped Au glyconanoparticles (GNPs). The spontaneous magnetization of AuFe GNPs exhibits a fast decrease with temperature that contrasts with the almost constant value of the magnetization observed in Au NPs. Moreover, hysteresis disappears below 300 K. Both features indicate that Fe impurities reduce the high local anisotropy field responsible for the ferromagnetic behavior in Au GNPs. As a consequence, the amazing ferromagnetism in Au NPs should not be associated with the presence of magnetic impurities.

  3. Organic acids and protein compounds causing the photoluminescence properties of natural rubber membranes and the quenching phenomena from Au nanoparticle incorporation.

    PubMed

    Cabrera, Flávio C; Agostini, Deuber L S; Dos Santos, Renivaldo J; Guimarães, Francisco E G; Guerrero, Ariel R; Aroca, Ricardo F; Job, Aldo E

    2014-12-01

    Natural rubber membranes were fabricated using latex from Hevea brasiliensis trees (clone RRIM 600) by casting, and controlling the time and temperature of thermal treatment. Three temperatures were used: 65, 80 and 120 °C and the corresponding annealing times of 6, 8, 10 and 12 h. The centrifugation of the latex produces the constituent phases: solid rubber (F1), serum or protein components (F2) and bottom fraction (F3). The photoluminescence properties could be correlated with organic acid components of latex. Natural rubber membranes were used as the active substrate (reducing agent) for the incorporation of colloidal Au nanoparticles synthesized by in situ reduction at different times. The intensity of photoluminescence bands assigned to the natural rubber decreases with the increase in amount of nanoparticles present on the membrane surface. It can be assumed that Au nanoparticles may be formed by reduction of the Au cation reacting with functional groups that are directly related to photoluminescence properties. However, the quenching of fluorescence may be attributed to the formation of a large amount of metal nanostructures on the natural rubber surface.

  4. Hollow Au-Ag Nanoparticles Labeled Immunochromatography Strip for Highly Sensitive Detection of Clenbuterol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jingyun; Zhang, Lei; Huang, Youju; Dandapat, Anirban; Dai, Liwei; Zhang, Ganggang; Lu, Xuefei; Zhang, Jiawei; Lai, Weihua; Chen, Tao

    2017-01-01

    The probe materials play a significant role in improving the detection efficiency and sensitivity of lateral-flow immunochromatographic test strip (ICTS). Unlike conventional ICTS assay usually uses single-component, solid gold nanoparticles as labeled probes, in our present study, a bimetallic, hollow Au-Ag nanoparticles (NPs) labeled ICTS was successfully developed for the detection of clenbuterol (CLE). The hollow Au-Ag NPs with different Au/Ag mole ratio and tunable size were synthesized by varying the volume ratio of [HAuCl4]:[Ag NPs] via the galvanic replacement reaction. The surface of hollow Ag-Au NPs was functionalized with 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid (MUA) for further covalently bonded with anti-CLE monoclonal antibody. Overall size of the Au-Ag NPs, size of the holes within individual NPs and also Au/Ag mole ratio have been systematically optimized to amplify both the visual inspection signals and the quantitative data. The sensitivity of optimized hollow Au-Ag NPs probes has been achieved even as low as 2 ppb in a short time (within 15 min), which is superior over the detection performance of conventional test strip using Au NPs. The optimized hollow Au-Ag NPs labeled test strip can be used as an ideal candidate for the rapid screening of CLE in food samples.

  5. Hollow Au-Ag Nanoparticles Labeled Immunochromatography Strip for Highly Sensitive Detection of Clenbuterol

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jingyun; Zhang, Lei; Huang, Youju; Dandapat, Anirban; Dai, Liwei; Zhang, Ganggang; Lu, Xuefei; Zhang, Jiawei; Lai, Weihua; Chen, Tao

    2017-01-01

    The probe materials play a significant role in improving the detection efficiency and sensitivity of lateral-flow immunochromatographic test strip (ICTS). Unlike conventional ICTS assay usually uses single-component, solid gold nanoparticles as labeled probes, in our present study, a bimetallic, hollow Au-Ag nanoparticles (NPs) labeled ICTS was successfully developed for the detection of clenbuterol (CLE). The hollow Au-Ag NPs with different Au/Ag mole ratio and tunable size were synthesized by varying the volume ratio of [HAuCl4]:[Ag NPs] via the galvanic replacement reaction. The surface of hollow Ag-Au NPs was functionalized with 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid (MUA) for further covalently bonded with anti-CLE monoclonal antibody. Overall size of the Au-Ag NPs, size of the holes within individual NPs and also Au/Ag mole ratio have been systematically optimized to amplify both the visual inspection signals and the quantitative data. The sensitivity of optimized hollow Au-Ag NPs probes has been achieved even as low as 2 ppb in a short time (within 15 min), which is superior over the detection performance of conventional test strip using Au NPs. The optimized hollow Au-Ag NPs labeled test strip can be used as an ideal candidate for the rapid screening of CLE in food samples. PMID:28134263

  6. Monodisperse Colloidal Gallium Nanoparticles: Synthesis, Low Temperature Crystallization, Surface Plasmon Resonance and Li-Ion Storage

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    We report a facile colloidal synthesis of gallium (Ga) nanoparticles with the mean size tunable in the range of 12–46 nm and with excellent size distribution as small as 7–8%. When stored under ambient conditions, Ga nanoparticles remain stable for months due to the formation of native and passivating Ga-oxide layer (2–3 nm). The mechanism of Ga nanoparticles formation is elucidated using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and with molecular dynamics simulations. Size-dependent crystallization and melting of Ga nanoparticles in the temperature range of 98–298 K are studied with X-ray powder diffraction, specific heat measurements, transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray absorption spectroscopy. The results point to delta (δ)-Ga polymorph as a single low-temperature phase, while phase transition is characterized by the large hysteresis and by the large undercooling of crystallization and melting points down to 140–145 and 240–250 K, respectively. We have observed size-tunable plasmon resonance in the ultraviolet and visible spectral regions. We also report stable operation of Ga nanoparticles as anode material for Li-ion batteries with storage capacities of 600 mAh g–1, 50% higher than those achieved for bulk Ga under identical testing conditions. PMID:25133552

  7. Periodically arranged colloidal gold nanoparticles for enhanced light harvesting in organic solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirsafaei, Mina; Fernandes Cauduro, André Luis; Kunstmann-Olsen, Casper; Davidson, Adam Michael; Hassing, Søren; Hedegaard, Martin A. B.; Rubahn, Horst-Günter; Adam, Jost; Madsen, Morten

    2016-04-01

    Although organic solar cells show intriguing features such as low-cost, mechanical flexibility and light weight, their efficiency is still low compared to their inorganic counterparts. One way of improving their efficiency is by the use of light-trapping mechanisms from nano- or microstructures, which makes it possible to improve the light absorption and charge extraction in the device's active layer. Here, periodically arranged colloidal gold nanoparticles are demonstrated experimentally and theoretically to improve light absorption and thus enhance the efficiency of organic solar cells. Surface-ordered gold nanoparticle arrangements are integrated at the bottom electrode of organic solar cells. The resulting optical interference and absorption effects are numerically investigated in bulk hetero-junction solar cells based on the Finite-Difference Time-Domain (FDTD) and Transfer Matrix Method (TMM) and as a function of size and periodicity of the plasmonic arrangements. In addition, light absorption enhancement in the organic active layer is investigated experimentally following integration of the nanoparticle arrangements. The latter are fabricated using a lithography-free stamping technique, creating a centimeter scaled area with nanoparticles having a defined inter-particle spacing. Our study reveals the light harvesting ability of template-assisted nanoparticle assemblies in organic solar cells. As the approach is easily scalable, it is an efficient and transferable method for large-scale, low cost device fabrication.

  8. Gold Nanoparticles Doped with (199) Au Atoms and Their Use for Targeted Cancer Imaging by SPECT.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yongfeng; Pang, Bo; Luehmann, Hannah; Detering, Lisa; Yang, Xuan; Sultan, Deborah; Harpstrite, Scott; Sharma, Vijay; Cutler, Cathy S; Xia, Younan; Liu, Yongjian

    2016-04-20

    Gold nanoparticles have been labeled with various radionuclides and extensively explored for single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in the context of cancer diagnosis. The stability of most radiolabels, however, still needs to be improved for accurate detection of cancer biomarkers and thereby monitoring of tumor progression and metastasis. Here, the first synthesis of Au nanoparticles doped with (199)Au atoms for targeted SPECT tumor imaging in a mouse triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) model is reported. By directly incorporating (199)Au atoms into the crystal lattice of each Au nanoparticle, the stability of the radiolabel can be ensured. The synthetic procedure also allows for a precise control over both the radiochemistry and particle size. When conjugated with D-Ala1-peptide T-amide, the Au nanoparticles doped with (199)Au atoms can serve as a C-C chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5)-targeted nanoprobe for the sensitive and specific detection of both TNBC and its metastasis in a mouse tumor model.

  9. Real-time imaging and elemental mapping of AgAu nanoparticle transformations.

    PubMed

    Lewis, E A; Slater, T J A; Prestat, E; Macedo, A; O'Brien, P; Camargo, P H C; Haigh, S J

    2014-11-21

    We report the controlled alloying, oxidation, and subsequent reduction of individual AgAu nanoparticles in the scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM). Through sequential application of electron beam induced oxidation and in situ heating and quenching, we demonstrate the transformation of Ag-Au core-shell nanoparticles into: AgAu alloyed, Au-Ag core-shell, hollow Au-Ag2O core-shell, and Au-Ag2O yolk-shell nanoparticles. We are able to directly image these morphological transformations in real-time at atomic resolution and perform energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectrum imaging to map changing elemental distributions with sub-nanometre resolution. By combining aberration corrected STEM imaging and high efficiency EDX spectroscopy we are able to quantify not only the growth and coalescence of Kirkendall voids during oxidation but also the compositional changes occurring during this reaction. This is the first time that it has been possible to track the changing distribution of elements in an individual nanoparticle undergoing oxidation driven shell growth and hollowing.

  10. Fabrication of colloidal crystals composed of pore-expanded mesoporous silica nanoparticles prepared by a controlled growth method.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Eisuke; Mori, Seiya; Shimojima, Atsushi; Wada, Hiroaki; Kuroda, Kazuyuki

    2017-02-16

    Colloidal crystals composed of mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) are expected to have various applications because of their unique hierarchical structures and tunable functions. The expansion of the mesopore size is important for introducing guest species which cannot be accommodated by using conventional colloidal crystals of MSNs; however, the preparation of MSNs with a controllable pore size, suitable for the fabrication of colloidal crystals, still remains a challenge. In this study, we fabricated colloidal crystals composed of pore-expanded MSNs using a sophisticated particle growth method to control the pore size of colloidal MSNs while retaining their monodispersity high enough to form colloidal crystals. By adding triisopropylbenzene (TIPB) only during the growth process with the stepwise addition of tetrapropoxysilane (TPOS), the particle size can be tuned from 60 nm to 100 nm, while the pore size can be tuned from 3 nm to ten plus several nm which is the largest size among the previous MSNs capable of forming colloidal crystals. These novel colloidal crystals should contribute to the expansion of nanomaterials science.

  11. Photoluminescence enhancement in few-layer WS{sub 2} films via Au nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Sin Yuk; Yip, Cho Tung; Li, Guang-Can; Lei, Dang Yuan; Fung, Kin Hung; Yu, Siu Fung E-mail: jh.hao@polyu.edu.hk; Hao, Jianhua E-mail: jh.hao@polyu.edu.hk

    2015-06-15

    Nano-composites of two-dimensional atomic layered WS{sub 2} and Au nanoparticles (AuNPs) have been fabricated by sulfurization of sputtered W films followed by immersing into HAuCl{sub 4} aqueous solution. The morphology, structure and AuNPs distribution have been characterized by electron microscopy. The decorated AuNPs can be more densely formed on the edge and defective sites of triangle WS{sub 2}. We have compared the optical absorption and photoluminescence of bare WS{sub 2} and Au-decorated WS{sub 2} layers. Enhancement in the photoluminescence is observed in the Au-WS{sub 2} nano-composites, attributed to localized surface plasmonic effect. This work provides the possibility to develop photonic application in two-dimensional materials.

  12. Assemblies of silicate sol-gel matrix encapsulated core/shell Au/Ag nanoparticles: interparticles surface plasmon coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manivannan, Shanmugam; Ramaraj, Ramasamy

    2012-06-01

    Cluster-like assemblies of bimetal core/shell Au/Ag nanoparticles were prepared. The Ag shell was deposited on the preformed Au nanoparticles using two different types of preformed Au nanoparticles in the presence of EDAS silane monomer, one stabilized by citrate and other by β-cyclodextrin. The Ag shell was deposited on the preformed Au nanoparticles by the reduction of Ag+ ions by β-cyclodextrin and EDAS silane composite. Interestingly, productive Ag shell deposition occurred only on the β-cyclodextrin-stabilized Au nanoparticles and led to the assembly formation, whereas aggregation occurred with the citrate-stabilized Au nanoparticles. The average particle size of the core/shell Au/Ag nanoparticles was found to be 6.5 nm. Spectral features of this assembly of core/shell Au/Ag nanoparticles resembled the longitudinal surface plasmon resonance behavior of Au nanorod-like structures arising from the interparticles surface plasmon coupling. The assemblies so prepared were characterized by uv-vis absorption spectroscopy and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy.

  13. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering of coumarin 343 on silver colloidal nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussain, Shafqat; Pang, Yoonsoo

    2016-09-01

    Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) of coumarin 343 (C343) adsorbed on silver colloidal nanoparticles reduced by sodium citrate was investigated and the surface adsorption geometry of C343 on Ag was sought by optimizing C343-Ag complexes for neutral and deprotonated C343 molecules in the DFT simulations. The SERS of C343 showed a number of spectral changes upon solution pH change. We found that deprotonated C343 adsorbs on the Ag nanoparticles through the carboxylate group keeping a perpendicular geometry to the surface. When protonated, the adsorption geometry of C343 is changed into more or less flat to the surface as the cyclic ester group becomes a preferred surface adsorption site.

  14. Avoiding drying-artifacts in transmission electron microscopy: Characterizing the size and colloidal state of nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Michen, Benjamin; Geers, Christoph; Vanhecke, Dimitri; Endes, Carola; Rothen-Rutishauser, Barbara; Balog, Sandor; Petri-Fink, Alke

    2015-01-01

    Standard transmission electron microscopy nanoparticle sample preparation generally requires the complete removal of the suspending liquid. Drying often introduces artifacts, which can obscure the state of the dispersion prior to drying and preclude automated image analysis typically used to obtain number-weighted particle size distribution. Here we present a straightforward protocol for prevention of the onset of drying artifacts, thereby allowing the preservation of in-situ colloidal features of nanoparticles during TEM sample preparation. This is achieved by adding a suitable macromolecular agent to the suspension. Both research- and economically-relevant particles with high polydispersity and/or shape anisotropy are easily characterized following our approach (http://bsa.bionanomaterials.ch), which allows for rapid and quantitative classification in terms of dimensionality and size: features that are major targets of European Union recommendations and legislation. PMID:25965905

  15. Synthesis of colloidal dispersions of rhodium nanoparticles under high temperatures and high pressures.

    PubMed

    Harada, Masafumi; Abe, Daisuke; Kimura, Yoshifumi

    2005-12-01

    Colloidal dispersions of rhodium (Rh) nanoparticles have been synthesized by the reduction of Rh ions (III) in high-temperature and high-pressure water, ethanol, or water-ethanol mixture under the existence of the protective polymer of poly(N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone). The possibility of the regulation of the particle size and size distribution has been tested under several solvents at various temperatures and pressures. At 473 K and 25 MPa, particularly, concentrated colloidal dispersions of Rh particles of 2.5+/-0.5 nm were synthesized from the ionic solution of ethanol ([Rh]=15 mM) within a few seconds. Dilute colloidal dispersions of Rh particles were also synthesized from the dilute ionic solution ([Rh]=1.5 mM) with a diameter of 2.0+/-0.4 nm. From the water solution, Rh particles tended to form aggregates, especially for the lower concentration solution. In the case of solutions in water and ethanol mixture, the average diameter of Rh particles tended to be larger than in ethanol solution, and their distribution became broad.

  16. Effect of sonication on the colloidal stability of iron oxide nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Sodipo, Bashiru Kayode; Aziz, Azlan Abdul

    2015-04-24

    Colloidal stability of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles’ (SPION) suspensions, ultrasonically irradiated at various pH was studied. Electrophoresis measurement of the sonicated SPION showed that the shock waves and other unique conditions generated from the acoustic cavitation process (formation, growth and collapse of bubbles) affect the zeta potential value of the suspension. In this work, stabled colloidal suspensions of SPION were prepared and their pH is varied between 3 and 5. Prior to ultrasonic irradiation of the suspensions, their initial zeta potential values were determined. After ultrasonic irradiation of the suspensions, we observed that the sonication process interacts with colloidal stability of the nanoparticles. The results demonstrated that only suspensions with pH less 4 were found stable and able to retain more than 90% of its initial zeta potential value. However, at pH greater than 4, the suspensions were found unstable. The result implies that good zeta potential value of SPION can be sustained in sonochemical process as long as the pH of the mixture is kept below 4.

  17. Surface functionalized LSMO nanoparticles with improved colloidal stability for hyperthermia applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorat, N. D.; Khot, V. M.; Salunkhe, A. B.; Prasad, A. I.; Ningthoujam, R. S.; Pawar, S. H.

    2013-03-01

    LSMO (La0.7Sr0.3MnO3) magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) coated with double layer oleic acid (OA) surfactant are prepared to make a water based magnetic nanofluid for hyperthermia application. Various experimental techniques are used for bilayer coating analysis. The effect of the bilayer coating on magnetic properties is studied by superconducting quantum interface device (SQUID). Colloidal behaviour of coated MNPs in aqueous medium is studied by the zeta potential and dynamic light scattering. The effects of pH and ionic strength on the colloidal stability of the MNPs are studied in detail. For the bilayer-coated LSMO MNPs aggregation is not observed even in high ionic strength and at physiological pH (7.4). For making the nanofluid of the bilayer-coated MNPs the colloidal stability is studied in physiological media like phosphate buffer solution. Under induction heating experiment, hyperthermia temperature (42-43 °C) could be achieved by the bilayer-coated sample at a magnetic field of 168-335 Oe and frequency of 267 kHz. The bilayer OA coating can hinder the agglomeration of MNPs significantly and produce stable suspension with improved hyperthermia properties. The bilayer OA coating also improves the specific absorption rate (SAR) of LSMO MNPs from 25 to 40 W g-1.

  18. Au-ZnO hybrid nanoparticles exhibiting strong charge-transfer-induced SERS for recyclable SERS-active substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Liping; Yang, Haitao; Ren, Xiao; Tang, Jin; Li, Yongfeng; Zhang, Xiangqun; Cheng, Zhaohua

    2015-03-01

    Flower-shaped Au-ZnO hybrid nanoparticles have been prepared via seeding growth and subsequent wet-chemical etching of Au-ZnO core-shell nanoparticles. The etched Au-ZnO hybrid nanoparticles have shown a stronger surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) signal of the nontotally symmetric (b2) vibrational modes of PATP molecules than Au nanoparticles alone, which is attributed to the chemical enhancement effect of the ZnO layer which is greatly excited by the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) of Au cores. Further, the mechanism of the LSPR-enhanced charge transfer (CT) effect has been proved by the SERS spectra of PATP molecules excited using different laser sources from 325 to 785 nm. Moreover, the photocatalytic experimental results indicated that Au-ZnO hybrid nanoparticles are promising as biologically compatible and recyclable SERS-active platforms for different molecular species.Flower-shaped Au-ZnO hybrid nanoparticles have been prepared via seeding growth and subsequent wet-chemical etching of Au-ZnO core-shell nanoparticles. The etched Au-ZnO hybrid nanoparticles have shown a stronger surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) signal of the nontotally symmetric (b2) vibrational modes of PATP molecules than Au nanoparticles alone, which is attributed to the chemical enhancement effect of the ZnO layer which is greatly excited by the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) of Au cores. Further, the mechanism of the LSPR-enhanced charge transfer (CT) effect has been proved by the SERS spectra of PATP molecules excited using different laser sources from 325 to 785 nm. Moreover, the photocatalytic experimental results indicated that Au-ZnO hybrid nanoparticles are promising as biologically compatible and recyclable SERS-active platforms for different molecular species. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr00491h

  19. Self-organized colloidal quantum dots and metal nanoparticles for plasmon-enhanced intermediate-band solar cells.

    PubMed

    Mendes, Manuel J; Hernández, Estela; López, Esther; García-Linares, Pablo; Ramiro, Iñigo; Artacho, Irene; Antolín, Elisa; Tobías, Ignacio; Martí, Antonio; Luque, Antonio

    2013-08-30

    A colloidal deposition technique is presented to construct long-range ordered hybrid arrays of self-assembled quantum dots and metal nanoparticles. Quantum dots are promising for novel opto-electronic devices but, in most cases, their optical transitions of interest lack sufficient light absorption to provide a significant impact in their implementation. A potential solution is to couple the dots with localized plasmons in metal nanoparticles. The extreme confinement of light in the near-field produced by the nanoparticles can potentially boost the absorption in the quantum dots by up to two orders of magnitude.In this work, light extinction measurements are employed to probe the plasmon resonance of spherical gold nanoparticles in lead sulfide colloidal quantum dots and amorphous silicon thin-films. Mie theory computations are used to analyze the experimental results and determine the absorption enhancement that can be generated by the highly intense near-field produced in the vicinity of the gold nanoparticles at their surface plasmon resonance.The results presented here are of interest for the development of plasmon-enhanced colloidal nanostructured photovoltaic materials, such as colloidal quantum dot intermediate-band solar cells.

  20. Self-organized colloidal quantum dots and metal nanoparticles for plasmon-enhanced intermediate-band solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendes, Manuel J.; Hernández, Estela; López, Esther; García-Linares, Pablo; Ramiro, Iñigo; Artacho, Irene; Antolín, Elisa; Tobías, Ignacio; Martí, Antonio; Luque, Antonio

    2013-08-01

    A colloidal deposition technique is presented to construct long-range ordered hybrid arrays of self-assembled quantum dots and metal nanoparticles. Quantum dots are promising for novel opto-electronic devices but, in most cases, their optical transitions of interest lack sufficient light absorption to provide a significant impact in their implementation. A potential solution is to couple the dots with localized plasmons in metal nanoparticles. The extreme confinement of light in the near-field produced by the nanoparticles can potentially boost the absorption in the quantum dots by up to two orders of magnitude. In this work, light extinction measurements are employed to probe the plasmon resonance of spherical gold nanoparticles in lead sulfide colloidal quantum dots and amorphous silicon thin-films. Mie theory computations are used to analyze the experimental results and determine the absorption enhancement that can be generated by the highly intense near-field produced in the vicinity of the gold nanoparticles at their surface plasmon resonance. The results presented here are of interest for the development of plasmon-enhanced colloidal nanostructured photovoltaic materials, such as colloidal quantum dot intermediate-band solar cells.

  1. A new approach for determination of fouling potential by colloidal nanoparticles during reverse osmosis (RO) membrane filtration of seawater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Ji Yeon; Lim, Sungil; Park, Kihong

    2013-04-01

    A direct measurement of number concentration of colloidal nanoparticles (15-450 nm) in water was made with the membrane filtration-differential mobility analyzer technique, and its corresponding flux decline rate (FDR) was determined by laboratory-scale RO fouling test unit using varying number concentrations of silica nanoparticles in artificial seawaters. This relationship was used to predict fouling potential of colloidal nanoparticles in reverse osmosis (RO) membrane process of seawaters in RO plant. It was found that the FDR linearly increased with the increasing number of colloidal nanoparticles for the given concentration range and that the relationship between the number concentration and the FDR also depended on RO membrane surface properties. Data for estimated FDR values for natural seawaters after pretreatment showed a clear difference among samples, which is contrary to the pre-existing index such as silt density index and modified fouling index. Our data suggest that measurement of colloidal nanoparticles is useful for selection of proper pretreatment and successful operation of RO membrane process along with other particle fouling predictors accounting for large particles (>450 nm).

  2. Influence of the S-Au Bond Strength on the Magnetic Behavior of S-Capped Au Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vázquez, María J. Rodríguez; Rivas, José; López-Quintela, M. Arturo; Mosquera, Antonio Mouriño; Torneiro, Mercedes

    Recently, large permanent atomic magnetic moments have been found in Au nanoparticles capped with thiols. It is assumed that the formation of localized Au-S bonds at the particle surface induces the damping of the surface plasmon resonance and the appearance of a ferromagnetic-like behavior. In this work we will show for the first time that thioethers can also induce both phenomena, i.e., the damping of the plasmon band and the appearance of permanent magnetic moments. Furthermore, we have studied the influence of the Au-S bond strength on both phenomena using two different synthesized thioether ligands. It will be shown that, although both ligands can induce a complete damping of the plasmon band, only with one of the ligands (the one corresponding to the stronger S-Au bond) the appearance of a ferromagnetic-like order is observed. This is an indication of the extreme sensitivity of the magnetism on the strength of the charge transfer at the S-Au bond.

  3. Studies on interaction of colloidal Ag nanoparticles with Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA).

    PubMed

    Ravindran, Aswathy; Singh, Anupam; Raichur, Ashok M; Chandrasekaran, N; Mukherjee, Amitava

    2010-03-01

    Biofunctionalization of noble metal nanoparticles like Ag, Au is essential to obtain biocompatibility for specific biomedical applications. Silver nanoparticles are being increasingly used in bio-sensing applications owing to excellent optoelectronic properties. Among the serum albumins, the most abundant proteins in plasma, a wide range of physiological functions of Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) has made it a model system for biofunctionalization. In absence of adequate prior reports, this study aims to investigate the interaction between silver nanoparticles and BSA. The interaction of BSA [0.05-0.85% concentrations] with Ag nanoparticles [50ppm concentration] in aqueous dispersion was studied through UV-vis spectral changes, morphological and surface structural changes. At pH 7, which is more than the isoelectric point of BSA, a decrease in absorbance at plasmon peak of uninteracted nanoparticles (425nm) was noted till 0.45% BSA, beyond that a blue shift towards 410nm was observed. The blue shift may be attributed to enhanced electron density on the particle surfaces. Increasing pH to 12 enhanced the blue shift further to 400nm. The conformational changes in BSA at alkaline pH ranges and consequent hydrophobic interactions also played an important role. The equilibrium adsorption data fitted better to Freundlich isotherm compared to Langmuir curve. The X-ray diffraction study revealed complete coverage of Ag nanoparticles by BSA. The scanning electron microscopic study of the interacted nanoparticles was also carried out to decipher morphological changes. This study established that tailoring the concentration of BSA and pH of the interaction it was possible to reduce aggregation of nanoparticles. Biofunctionalized Ag nanoparticles with reduced aggregation will be more amenable towards bio-sensing applications.

  4. Synthesis of colloidal silver iron oxide nanoparticles--study of their optical and magnetic behavior.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Anil; Singhal, Aditi

    2009-07-22

    Silver iron oxide nanoparticles of fairly small size (average diameter approximately 1 nm) with narrow size distribution have been synthesized by the interaction of colloidal beta- Fe2O3 and silver nanoparticles. The surface morphology and size of these particles have been analyzed by using atomic force microscopy (AFM), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Their structural analysis has been carried out by employing x-ray diffraction (XRD), selected-area electron diffraction (SAED), optical and infrared (IR) spectroscopic techniques. The ageing of these particles exhibits the formation of self-assembly, possibly involving weak supramolecular interactions between Ag(I)O4 and Fe(III)O4 species. These particles display the onset of absorption in the near-infrared region and have higher absorption coefficient in the visible range compared to that of its precursors. Magnetic measurements reveal an interesting transition in their magnetic behavior from diamagnetic to superparamagnetic. The magnetic moment of these particles attains a limiting value of about 0.19 emu cm(-2), which is more than two times higher than that of colloidal beta- Fe2O3. With enhanced optical and magnetic properties, this system is suggested to have possible applications in optoelectronic and magnetic devices.

  5. Study of optical and physicochemical properties of colloidal silver nanoparticles as an efficient substrate for SERS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cyrankiewicz, M.; Kruszewski, S.

    2011-04-01

    The unique optical and physicochemical properties of the noble metal colloidal nanoparticles enable their use in a wide range of applications, especially as a substrate in SERS and MEF study. The aim of this work is to characterize the conditions for the enhancement of Raman scattering by molecules adsorbed on silver surface. Silver sol is prepared by slightly modified Lee-Meisel's method and rhodamine 6G is used as a probe adsorbate. Pure colloidal silver suspension containing isolated nanoparticles exhibits relatively poor SERS efficiency. The extremely large electromagnetic field is induced in the junctions between two or more metallic nanocrystalites so some degree of their aggregation is necessary. The influence of potassium chloride and nitric acid as the aggregating agents is investigated here. The experiments show that both of them can promote the controlled aggregation process but chloride anions, unlike nitrate, much more effectively affect both electromagnetic and chemical mechanisms contributing to SERS. Due to the co-adsorption with rhodamine 6G they allow the dye molecules to directly interact with metallic surface. Moreover, the results clearly indicate that chloride in the presence of silver particles can induce the dimerization of the dye molecules.

  6. Simplified Model for the Remobilization of Colloids and Nanoparticles in Porous Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, B.

    2015-12-01

    When entering the hydrological pathways, natural colloids and engineered nanoparticles may present potential risks to the environment, particularly the soil and groundwater systems. While soils can serve as filter media to immobilize the particles, flow perturbations, such as changes in solution chemistry and flow rate, may remobilize them. Most of the current models on the release of particles in porous media require solving coupled partial different equations that simulate both flow conditions and particle behaviors. This work will present a simple method to model the remobilization of colloids or nanoparticles in porous media. The simplified model assumes that the release of the immobilized particles in the porous media is only controlled by the wet front. It thus can be described by the advection-dispersion equation couple with simple kinetic expressions of particle release. Simulations from the simplified model were tested against experimental data of the remobilization of clay particles in sand column under transient flow conditions. The model results matched the experimental data very well.

  7. Studies on plasmon characteristics and the local density of states of Au and Ag based nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinod, M.; Biju, V.; Gopchandran, K. G.

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge about the conductive properties and the local density of states of chemically pure Au, Ag, Ag@Au core-shell and Au-Ag bimetallic nanoparticles is technologically important. Herein, the I-V characteristics and the density of states derived from scanning tunneling microscopy measurements made under atmospheric conditions is reported. The nanoparticles in thin film form used in this study were prepared by laser ablation in water followed by drop and evaporation. The morphology of the surface of the nanostructures was observed from optimizing tunneling current in each case. The monometallic Au and Ag particles shows almost similar current characteristics as well as discrete energy states but the slope of I-V characteristics was different for bimetallic structures. An attempt has also been made to compare the current measurements done in the nanoscale with the surface plasmon characteristics.

  8. Reactivity of Au nanoparticles supported over SiO2 and TiO2 studiedby ambient pressure photoelectron spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Herranz, Tirma; Deng, Xingyi; Cabot, Andreu; Alivisatos, Paul; Liu, Zhi; Soler-Illia, Galo; Salmeron, Miquel

    2009-04-15

    The influence of the metal cluster size and the identity of the support on the reactivity of gold based catalysts have been studied in the CO oxidation reaction. To overcome the structural complexity of the supported catalysts, gold nanoparticles synthesized from colloidal chemistry with precisely controlled size have been used. Those particles were supported over SiO{sub 2} and TiO{sub 2} and their catalytic activity was measured in a flow reactor. The reaction rate was dependent on the particle size and the support, suggesting two reaction pathways in the CO oxidation reaction. In parallel, ambient pressure photoelectron spectroscopy (APPS) has been performed under reaction conditions using bidimensional model catalysts prepared upon supporting the Au nanoparticles over planar polycrystalline SiO{sub 2} and TiO{sub 2} thin films by means of the Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) technique to mimic the characteristic of the powder samples. In this way, the catalytically active surface was characterized under true reaction conditions, revealing that during CO oxidation gold remains in the metallic state.

  9. Highly sensitive and rapid bacteria detection using molecular beacon-Au nanoparticles hybrid nanoprobes.

    PubMed

    Cao, Jing; Feng, Chao; Liu, Yan; Wang, Shouyu; Liu, Fei

    2014-07-15

    Since many diseases are caused by pathogenic bacterial infections, accurate and rapid detection of pathogenic bacteria is in urgent need to timely apply appropriate treatments and to reduce economic costs. To end this, we designed molecular beacon-Au nanoparticle hybrid nanoprobes to improve the bacterial detection efficiency and sensitivity. Here, we show that the designed molecular beacon modified Au nanoparticles could specifically recognize synthetic DNAs targets and can readily detect targets in clinical samples. Moreover, the hybrid nanoprobes can recognize Escherichia coli within an hour at a concentration of 10(2) cfu/ml, which is 1000-folds sensitive than using molecular beacon directly. Our results show that the molecular beacon-Au nanoparticle hybrid nanoprobes have great potential in medical and biological applications.

  10. Surface-plasmon-enhanced emissions of phosphors with Au nanoparticles embedded in ITO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Ja-Yeon; Oh, Seung Jong; Park, Hyun-Sun; Kim, Min-Woo; Cho, Yoo-Hyun; Kwon, Min-Ki

    2017-03-01

    Au nanoparticles were embedded in a transparent conducting layer of indium tin oxide in order to evaluate the feasibility of applying a surface-plasmon (SP)-enhanced phosphor to light-emitting diodes (LEDs). The efficiency of the phosphor was improved by energy matching between the phosphor and the SP of the Au nanoparticles. After the density of the Au nanoparticles and the thickness of the spacer layer had been optimized, the efficiency of a green phosphor was improved by 64% compared to that of an isolated green phosphor. This work provides a way to fabricate high-efficiency LEDs with high color-rendering indices and wide color gamuts in white LEDs.

  11. Nanosized Fe3O4 an efficient PCR yield enhancer-Comparative study with Au, Ag nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Kambli, Priyanka; Kelkar-Mane, Varsha

    2016-05-01

    Nanomaterials-assisted PCR is a promising field of nanobiotechnology that amalgamates nanomaterials into the conventional PCR system to achieve better amplification of desired product. With literature documenting the variable effects of these nanomaterials on the PCR yield and amplification; it was thought worthwhile to compare the PCR enhancing efficiency of three transition metal nanoparticles in form of stable colloidal suspensions at varying concentrations.The nanoparticles(NPs) of silver, gold and magnetite were chemically synthesized by reducing their respective salts and characterized using UV-vis spectroscopy. Their morphology was assessed using nanoparticle tracking system and AFM. The effect of these nanofluids on amplification of 800 bp prokaryotic DNA template with 30% GC content was studied using conventional thermal cycler. The reaction kinetics for all the three nanofluids yielded a Gaussian curve of amplification with varying concentrations. The ammonium salt of oleic acid coated magnetite (Fe3O4) nanoparticles at a concentration of 0.72 × 10(-2)nM and average size of 33 nm demonstrated highest amplification efficiency of 190% as compared to the citrate stabilized AgNP-25 nm (45%) and AuNP-15.19 nm (134%) using a conventional PCR system. The major reasons that allow Fe3O4 NPs outperform the other 2 transition metal NP's seem to be attributed to its heat conduction property as well as effective adsorption of PCR components onto the ammonium salt of oleic acid coated magnetite nanofluids. The data from our study offers valuable information for the application of ferrofluids as economically, efficient and effective alternative for nanomaterial-assisted PCR yield enhancers.

  12. Boiling, colloid nucleation and aggregation, and the genesis of bonanza Au-Ag ores of the sleeper deposit, Nevada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saunders, J. A.; Schoenly, P. A.

    1995-06-01

    A deep “parent” composition for bonanza oreforming fluids at the Sleeper deposit was calculated by the computer program SOLVEQ using fluid-inclusion microthermometric and gas data, and by assuming equilibrium with the following minerals present in vein samples below the bonanza zones: gold, chalcedony, adularia, pyrite, chalcopyrite, and acanthite. The calculated dissolved gold content of 295 ppb is approximately 2 orders of magnitude higher than that assumed for typical geothermal systems. Thus, a gold-enriched fluid appears to have been a principal factor in the genesis of bonanza Au-Ag ores at the Sleeper deposit. Geochemical modelling of possible ore-forming processes using the computer program CHILLER, with the reconstructed ore-forming solution as a starting composition, indicates that boiling most closely reproduces observed minerals and their relative abundances in bonanza ores. The constraint imposed by the association of amorphous silica with gold precludes all of the mixing scenarios modelled, such as mixing with cold and steam-heated groundwaters (acid-sulfate, CO2-rich). Modelling indicates that boiling of a gold-rich deep solution leads to rapid gold precipitation, and that the amount of gold precipitated initially is large relative to other minerals. These factors apparently led to nucleation of colloidal gold particles instead of in-situ gold deposition or coprecipitation with other phases. Gold colloids apparently were entrained in the upward-flowing hydrothermal solutions and grew as they travelled. Upon reaching a critical size (10 100 nm?), they were deposited due to orthokinetic aggregation at an elevation and temperature at which amorphous silica was nucleating and aggregating.

  13. Plasmonic effect of spray-deposited Au nanoparticles on the performance of inverted organic solar cells.

    PubMed

    Chaturvedi, Neha; Swami, Sanjay Kumar; Dutta, Viresh

    2014-09-21

    Gold nanoparticles with varying sizes were prepared by the spray process under an electric field (DC voltages of 0 V and 1 kV applied to the nozzle) for studying their role in inverted organic solar cells (ITO/Au/ZnO/P3HT:PCBM/Ag). The application of electric field during the spray process resulted in a smaller size (35 nm as compared to 70 nm without the electric field) of the nanoparticles with more uniform distribution. This gave rise to a difference in the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) effect created by the gold nanoparticles (Au NPs), which then affected the solar cell performance. The photovoltaic performances of plasmonic inverted organic solar cells (ITO/Au/ZnO/P3HT:PCBM/Ag) using spray-deposited Au and ZnO layers (both at 1 kV) showed improved efficiency. Fast exciton quenching in the P3HT:PCBM layer was achieved by using a spray-deposited Au layer in between ITO and ZnO layers. The absorption spectra and internal power conversion efficiency (IPCE) curve showed that the Au nanoparticles provide significant plasmonic broadband light absorption enhancement which resulted in the enhancement of the JSC value. Maximum efficiency of 3.6% was achieved for the inverted organic solar cell (IOSC) with an exceptionally high short circuit current density of ∼15 mA cm(-2) which is due to the additional photon absorption and the corresponding increase observed in the IPCE spectrum. The spray technique can be easily applied for the direct formation of Au nanoparticles in the fabrication of IOSC with improved performance over a large area.

  14. Plasmonic effect of spray-deposited Au nanoparticles on the performance of inverted organic solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaturvedi, Neha; Swami, Sanjay Kumar; Dutta, Viresh

    2014-08-01

    Gold nanoparticles with varying sizes were prepared by the spray process under an electric field (DC voltages of 0 V and 1 kV applied to the nozzle) for studying their role in inverted organic solar cells (ITO/Au/ZnO/P3HT:PCBM/Ag). The application of electric field during the spray process resulted in a smaller size (35 nm as compared to 70 nm without the electric field) of the nanoparticles with more uniform distribution. This gave rise to a difference in the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) effect created by the gold nanoparticles (Au NPs), which then affected the solar cell performance. The photovoltaic performances of plasmonic inverted organic solar cells (ITO/Au/ZnO/P3HT:PCBM/Ag) using spray-deposited Au and ZnO layers (both at 1 kV) showed improved efficiency. Fast exciton quenching in the P3HT:PCBM layer was achieved by using a spray-deposited Au layer in between ITO and ZnO layers. The absorption spectra and internal power conversion efficiency (IPCE) curve showed that the Au nanoparticles provide significant plasmonic broadband light absorption enhancement which resulted in the enhancement of the JSC value. Maximum efficiency of 3.6% was achieved for the inverted organic solar cell (IOSC) with an exceptionally high short circuit current density of ~15 mA cm-2 which is due to the additional photon absorption and the corresponding increase observed in the IPCE spectrum. The spray technique can be easily applied for the direct formation of Au nanoparticles in the fabrication of IOSC with improved performance over a large area.

  15. Experimental Aspects of Colloidal Interactions in Mixed Systems of Liposome and Inorganic Nanoparticle and Their Applications

    PubMed Central

    Michel*, Raphael; Gradzielski*, Michael

    2012-01-01

    In the past few years, growing attention has been devoted to the study of the interactions taking place in mixed systems of phospholipid membranes (for instance in the form of vesicles) and hard nanoparticles (NPs). In this context liposomes (vesicles) may serve as versatile carriers or as a model system for biological membranes. Research on these systems has led to the observation of novel hybrid structures whose morphology strongly depends on the charge, composition and size of the interacting colloidal species as well as on the nature (pH, ionic strength) of their dispersing medium. A central role is played by the phase behaviour of phospholipid bilayers which have a tremendous influence on the liposome properties. Another central aspect is the incorporation of nanoparticles into vesicles, which is intimately linked to the conditions required for transporting a nanoparticle through a membrane. Herein, we review recent progress made on the investigations of the interactions in liposome/nanoparticle systems focusing on the particularly interesting structures that are formed in these hybrid systems as well as their potential applications. PMID:23109874

  16. Core-shell Au-Pd nanoparticles as cathode catalysts for microbial fuel cell applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Gaixiu; Chen, Dong; Lv, Pengmei; Kong, Xiaoying; Sun, Yongming; Wang, Zhongming; Yuan, Zhenhong; Liu, Hui; Yang, Jun

    2016-10-01

    Bimetallic nanoparticles with core-shell structures usually display enhanced catalytic properties due to the lattice strain created between the core and shell regions. In this study, we demonstrate the application of bimetallic Au-Pd nanoparticles with an Au core and a thin Pd shell as cathode catalysts in microbial fuel cells, which represent a promising technology for wastewater treatment, while directly generating electrical energy. In specific, in comparison with the hollow structured Pt nanoparticles, a benchmark for the electrocatalysis, the bimetallic core-shell Au-Pd nanoparticles are found to have superior activity and stability for oxygen reduction reaction in a neutral condition due to the strong electronic interaction and lattice strain effect between the Au core and the Pd shell domains. The maximum power density generated in a membraneless single-chamber microbial fuel cell running on wastewater with core-shell Au-Pd as cathode catalysts is ca. 16.0 W m‑3 and remains stable over 150 days, clearly illustrating the potential of core-shell nanostructures in the applications of microbial fuel cells.

  17. Core-shell Au-Pd nanoparticles as cathode catalysts for microbial fuel cell applications.

    PubMed

    Yang, Gaixiu; Chen, Dong; Lv, Pengmei; Kong, Xiaoying; Sun, Yongming; Wang, Zhongming; Yuan, Zhenhong; Liu, Hui; Yang, Jun

    2016-10-13

    Bimetallic nanoparticles with core-shell structures usually display enhanced catalytic properties due to the lattice strain created between the core and shell regions. In this study, we demonstrate the application of bimetallic Au-Pd nanoparticles with an Au core and a thin Pd shell as cathode catalysts in microbial fuel cells, which represent a promising technology for wastewater treatment, while directly generating electrical energy. In specific, in comparison with the hollow structured Pt nanoparticles, a benchmark for the electrocatalysis, the bimetallic core-shell Au-Pd nanoparticles are found to have superior activity and stability for oxygen reduction reaction in a neutral condition due to the strong electronic interaction and lattice strain effect between the Au core and the Pd shell domains. The maximum power density generated in a membraneless single-chamber microbial fuel cell running on wastewater with core-shell Au-Pd as cathode catalysts is ca. 16.0 W m(-3) and remains stable over 150 days, clearly illustrating the potential of core-shell nanostructures in the applications of microbial fuel cells.

  18. Core-shell Au-Pd nanoparticles as cathode catalysts for microbial fuel cell applications

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Gaixiu; Chen, Dong; Lv, Pengmei; Kong, Xiaoying; Sun, Yongming; Wang, Zhongming; Yuan, Zhenhong; Liu, Hui; Yang, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Bimetallic nanoparticles with core-shell structures usually display enhanced catalytic properties due to the lattice strain created between the core and shell regions. In this study, we demonstrate the application of bimetallic Au-Pd nanoparticles with an Au core and a thin Pd shell as cathode catalysts in microbial fuel cells, which represent a promising technology for wastewater treatment, while directly generating electrical energy. In specific, in comparison with the hollow structured Pt nanoparticles, a benchmark for the electrocatalysis, the bimetallic core-shell Au-Pd nanoparticles are found to have superior activity and stability for oxygen reduction reaction in a neutral condition due to the strong electronic interaction and lattice strain effect between the Au core and the Pd shell domains. The maximum power density generated in a membraneless single-chamber microbial fuel cell running on wastewater with core-shell Au-Pd as cathode catalysts is ca. 16.0 W m−3 and remains stable over 150 days, clearly illustrating the potential of core-shell nanostructures in the applications of microbial fuel cells. PMID:27734945

  19. Green synthesis and characterization of Au@Pt core-shell bimetallic nanoparticles using gallic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Guojun; Zheng, Hongmei; Shen, Ming; Wang, Lei; Wang, Xiaosan

    2015-06-01

    In this study, we developed a facile and benign green synthesis approach for the successful fabrication of well-dispersed urchin-like Au@Pt core-shell nanoparticles (NPs) using gallic acid (GA) as both a reducing and protecting agent. The proposed one-step synthesis exploits the differences in the reduction potentials of AuCl4- and PtCl62-, where the AuCl4- ions are preferentially reduced to Au cores and the PtCl62- ions are then deposited continuously onto the Au core surface as a Pt shell. The as-prepared Au@Pt NPs were characterized by transmission electron microscope (TEM); high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HR-TEM); scanning electron microscope (SEM); UV-vis absorption spectra (UV-vis); X-ray diffraction (XRD); Fourier transmission infrared spectra (FT-IR). We systematically investigated the effects of some experimental parameters on the formation of the Au@Pt NPs, i.e., the reaction temperature, the molar ratios of HAuCl4/H2PtCl6, and the amount of GA. When polyvinylpyrrolidone K-30 (PVP) was used as a protecting agent, the Au@Pt core-shell NPs obtained using this green synthesis method were better dispersed and smaller in size. The as-prepared Au@Pt NPs exhibited better catalytic activity in the reaction where NaBH4 reduced p-nitrophenol to p-aminophenol. However, the results showed that the Au@Pt bimetallic NPs had a lower catalytic activity than the pure Au NPs obtained by the same method, which confirmed the formation of Au@Pt core-shell nanostructures because the active sites on the surfaces of the Au NPs were covered with a Pt shell.

  20. A simple approach to obtain hybrid Au-loaded polymeric nanoparticles with a tunable metal load

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luque-Michel, Edurne; Larrea, Ane; Lahuerta, Celia; Sebastian, Víctor; Imbuluzqueta, Edurne; Arruebo, Manuel; Blanco-Prieto, María J.; Santamaría, Jesús

    2016-03-01

    A new strategy to nanoengineer multi-functional polymer-metal hybrid nanostructures is reported. By using this protocol the hurdles of most of the current developments concerning covalent and non-covalent attachment of polymers to preformed inorganic nanoparticles (NPs) are overcome. The strategy is based on the in situ reduction of metal precursors using the polymeric nanoparticle as a nanoreactor. Gold nanoparticles and poly(dl-lactic-co-glycolic acid), PLGA, are located in the core and shell, respectively. This novel technique enables the production of PLGA NPs smaller than 200 nm that bear either a single encapsulated Au NP or several smaller NPs with tunable sizes and a 100% loading efficiency. In situ reduction of Au ions inside the polymeric NPs was achieved on demand by using heat to activate the reductive effect of citrate ions. In addition, we show that the loading of the resulting Au NPs inside the PLGA NPs is highly dependent on the surfactant used. Electron microscopy, laser irradiation, UV-Vis and fluorescence spectroscopy characterization techniques confirm the location of Au nanoparticles. These promising results indicate that these hybrid nanomaterials could be used in theranostic applications or as contrast agents in dark-field imaging and computed tomography.A new strategy to nanoengineer multi-functional polymer-metal hybrid nanostructures is reported. By using this protocol the hurdles of most of the current developments concerning covalent and non-covalent attachment of polymers to preformed inorganic nanoparticles (NPs) are overcome. The strategy is based on the in situ reduction of metal precursors using the polymeric nanoparticle as a nanoreactor. Gold nanoparticles and poly(dl-lactic-co-glycolic acid), PLGA, are located in the core and shell, respectively. This novel technique enables the production of PLGA NPs smaller than 200 nm that bear either a single encapsulated Au NP or several smaller NPs with tunable sizes and a 100% loading

  1. Graphene decorated with PtAu alloy nanoparticles: facile synthesis and promising application for formic acid oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Sheng; Shao, Yuyan; Liao, Honggang; Liu, Jun; Aksay, Ilhan A.; Yin, Geping; Lin, Yuehe

    2011-03-01

    PtAu alloy nanoparticles (~ 3.2 nm in diameter) are synthesized in poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA) aqueous solution and uniformly dispersed on graphene nanosheets. PtAu/graphene exhibits high electrocatalytic activity and stability for formic acid oxidation, which is attributed to the high dispersion of PtAu nanoparticles and the specific interaction between PtAu and graphene, indicating a promising catalyst for direct formic acid fuel cells. The facile method can be readily extended to the synthesis of other alloy nanoparticles.

  2. The effect of colloidal solution of molybdenum nanoparticles on the microbial composition in rhizosphere of Cicer arietinum L.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taran, Natalia Yu; Gonchar, Olena M.; Lopatko, Kostyantyn G.; Batsmanova, Lyudmila M.; Patyka, Mykola V.; Volkogon, Mykola V.

    2014-06-01

    The use of colloidal solutions of metals as micronutrients enhances plant resistance to unfavorable environmental conditions and ensures high yields of food crops due to the active penetration of nanoelements into the plant cells. Microbiological examination of rhizosphere soil have revealed that combined use of colloidal solution of nanoparticles of molybdenum (CSNM, 8 mg/l), and microbial preparation for pre-sowing inoculation of chickpea seeds stimulates the development of `agronomically valuable' microflora. It was shown that combined seed treatment with colloidal solution of Mo nanoparticles with microbial preparation have stimulated nodule formation per plant by four times compared to controls. Single treatment with CSNM increased the number of nodules by two times, while the treatment of microbial preparation have not significantly affected the number of nodules per plant.

  3. In situ biosynthesis of Ag, Au and bimetallic nanoparticles using Piper pedicellatum C.DC: green chemistry approach.

    PubMed

    Tamuly, Chandan; Hazarika, Moushumi; Borah, Sarat Ch; Das, Manash R; Boruah, Manas P

    2013-02-01

    The synthesis of Ag, Au and Ag-Au bimetallic nanoparticles using Piper pedicellatum C.DC leaf extract is demonstrated here. The rapid formation of stable Ag and Au nanoparticles has been found using P. pedicellatum C.DC leaf extract in aqueous medium at normal atmospheric condition. Competitive reduction of Ag(+) and Au(3+) ions present simultaneously in solution during exposure to P. pedicellatum C.DC leaf extract leads to the synthesis of bimetallic Ag-Au nanoparticles in solution. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis revealed that the Ag nanoparticles predominantly form spherical in shape with the size range of 2.0±0.5-30.0±1.2 nm. In case of Au nanoparticles, the particles are spherical in shape along with few triangular, hexagonal and pentagonal shaped nanoparticles also observed. X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies revealed that the nanoparticles were face centered cubic (fcc) in shape. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) showed nanoparticles were capped with plant compounds. The chemical constituents, viz. catechin, gallic acid, courmaric acid and protocatechuic acid of the leaf extract were identified which may act as a reducing, stabilizing and capping agent. The expected reaction mechanism in the formation of Ag and Au nanoparticles is also reported.

  4. Enhancement of the power conversion efficiency for inverted organic photovoltaic devices due to the localized surface plasmonic resonant effect of Au nanoparticles embedded in ZnO nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Yong Hun; Kim, Dae Hun; Lee, Dea Uk; Li, Fushan; Kim, Tae Whan

    2015-07-01

    The absorption spectra and input photon-to-converted current efficiency curves showed that Au nanoparticles increased the plasmonic broadband light absorption, thereby enhancing the short-circuit current density of the inverted organic photovoltaic (OPV) cells with a Au-ZnO nanocomposite electron transport layer (ETL). The power conversion efficiency of the inverted OPV cell fabricated with a Au-ZnO nanocomposite ETL was higher by 40% than that of the inverted OPV cell fabricated with a ZnO nanoparticle ETL, which could be attributed to the enhanced photon absorption in the active layer due to the localized surface plasmonic resonance of the Au nanoparticles.

  5. @AuAg nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Rina; Soni, R. K.

    2014-09-01

    Bimetallic and trimetallic nanoparticles have attracted significant attention in recent times due to their enhanced electrochemical and catalytic properties compared to monometallic nanoparticles. The numerical calculations using Mie theory has been carried out for three-layered metal nanoshell dielectric-metal-metal (DMM) system consisting of a particle with a dielectric core (Al@Al2O3), a middle metal Ag (Au) layer and an outer metal Au (Ag) shell. The results have been interpreted using plasmon hybridization theory. We have also prepared Al@Al2O3@Ag@Au and Al@Al2O3@AgAu triple-layered core-shell or alloy nanostructure by two-step laser ablation method and compared with calculated results. The synthesis involves temporal separations of Al, Ag, and Au deposition for step-by-step formation of triple-layered core-shell structure. To form Al@Ag nanoparticles, we ablated silver for 40 min in aluminium nanoparticle colloidal solution. As aluminium oxidizes easily in water to form alumina, the resulting structure is core-shell Al@Al2O3. The Al@Al2O3 particle acts as a seed for the incoming energetic silver particles for multilayered Al@Al2O3@Ag nanoparticles is formed. The silver target was then replaced by gold target and ablation was carried out for different ablation time using different laser energy for generation of Al@Al2O3@Ag@Au core-shell or Al@Al2O3@AgAu alloy. The formation of core-shell and alloy nanostructure was confirmed by UV-visible spectroscopy. The absorption spectra show shift in plasmon resonance peak of silver to gold in the range 400-520 nm with increasing ablation time suggesting formation of Ag-Au alloy in the presence of alumina particles in the solution.

  6. Enhanced efficiency of graphene-silicon Schottky junction solar cells by doping with Au nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, X.; Zhang, X. W. Yin, Z. G.; Meng, J. H.; Gao, H. L.; Zhang, L. Q.; Zhao, Y. J.; Wang, H. L.

    2014-11-03

    We have reported a method to enhance the performance of graphene-Si (Gr/Si) Schottky junction solar cells by introducing Au nanoparticles (NPs) onto the monolayer graphene and few-layer graphene. The electron transfer between Au NPs and graphene leads to the increased work function and enhanced electrical conductivity of graphene, resulting in a remarkable improvement of device efficiency. By optimizing the initial thickness of Au layers, the power conversion efficiency of Gr/Si solar cells can be increased by more than three times, with a maximum value of 7.34%. These results show a route for fabricating efficient and stable Gr/Si solar cells.

  7. Surface plasmon resonance of Au-Cu bimetallic nanoparticles predicted by a quasi-chemical model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Yen-Hsun; Wang, Wen-Lin

    2013-10-01

    Au-Cu alloys are functional materials with nonlinear optical applications. However, the optical properties of such alloys are difficult to predict due to the random mixing of materials. In this paper, we present a quasi-chemical model to simulate the optical properties of Au-Cu alloy systems based on the mixing of Gibbs free energy. This model is also able to predict the position of the surface plasmon resonance peaks for Au-Cu alloy nanoparticles. The model can be applied to predict the optical properties of alloy systems in the fields of plasmonics and nanophotonics.

  8. Tuning the Composition of AuPt Bimetallic Nanoparticles for Antibacterial Application**

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yuyun; Ye, Chunjie; Liu, Wenwen; Chen, Rong; Jiang, Xingyu

    2014-01-01

    We show that bimetallic nanoparticles (NPs) of AuPt without any surface modification are potent antibiotic reagents, while pure Au NPs or pure Pt NPs display no antibiotic activities. The most potent antibacterial AuPt NPs happen to be the most effective catalysts for chemical transformations. The mechanism of antibiotic action includes the dissipation of membrane potential and the elevation of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) levels. These bimetallic NPs are unique in that they do not produce reactive oxygen species as most antibiotics do. Being non-toxic to human cells, these bimetallic noble NPs might open an entry to a new class of antibiotics. PMID:24828967

  9. Enhancement of laser induced Au nanoparticle formation by femtosecond pulse shaping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, P. H. D.; Silva, D. L.; Siqueira, J. P.; Balogh, D. T.; Canuto, S.; Misoguti, L.; Mendonca, C. R.

    2013-07-01

    We report the control of Au nanoparticle (NP) formation by using shaped 30 fs pulses, in a solution containing HAuCl4 and chitosan. By using a sinusoidal spectral phase, a periodic train of pulses is generated. When the period of the pulse train matches certain Raman resonances of chitosan, the reducing agent of the process, an enhancement of the Au NP formation is observed. Theoretical quantum chemical calculations indicate that the outer groups of the chitosan are mostly influenced by low Raman frequencies, which is in reasonably agreement with the experimental data and indicates an enhancement in the Au NP formation as the pulse train period increases (low frequency).

  10. The fabrication of polymer-nanocone-based 3D Au nanoparticle array and its SERS performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Wenning; Wu, Yiyao; Liu, Xiaoguang; Xu, Yebin; Wang, Shuangbao; Xu, Zhimou

    2017-01-01

    By combining conical-pore-AAO template and NIL technology, we realized the transfer of three-dimensional nanoparticle array to polymer materials. Au nanoparticles were deposited on the surface of conical-pore-AAO template, then the nanostructure was duplicated onto the polymer wafer via NIL method and the nanoparticles were inlaid onto the nanocones. Polymer-nanocone-based 3D Au nanoparticle array was obtained. The product possesses excellent flexibility and transparency in visual and infrared range. As a new class of SERS substrate, the product exhibits excellent sensitivity and reproducibility. Compared with the traditional SERS substrates, it provides unique advantages, such as being flexible, transparent, lightweight, portable, easily handled and low cost.

  11. Growth of Au nanoparticle films and the effect of nanoparticle shape on plasmon peak wavelength

    SciTech Connect

    Horikoshi, S. Matsumoto, N.; Kato, T.; Omata, Y.

    2014-05-21

    Metal nanoparticles (NPs) exhibit localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) and thus have potential for use in a wide range of applications. A facile technique for the preparation of NP films using an electron-cyclotron-resonance plasma sputtering method without a dewetting process is described. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) observations revealed that the Au NPs grew independently as island-like particles during the first stage of sputtering and then coalesced with one another as sputtering time increased to ultimately form a continuous film. A plasmon absorption peak was observed via optical measurement of absorption efficiency. The LSPR peak shifted toward longer wavelengths (red shift) with an increase in sputtering time. The cause of this plasmon peak shift was theoretically investigated using the finite-difference time-domain calculation method. A realistic statistical distribution of the particle shapes based on FE-SEM observations was applied for the analysis, which has not been previously reported. It was determined that the change in the shape of the NPs from spheroidal to oval or slender due to coalescence with neighbouring NPs caused the LSPR peak shift. These results may enable the design of LSPR devices by controlling the characteristics of the nanoparticles, such as their size, shape, number density, and coverage.

  12. Bendable solid-state supercapacitors with Au nanoparticle-embedded graphene hydrogel films

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Kyungwhan; Cho, Kyoungah; Yoon, Dae Sung; Kim, Sangsig

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we fabricate bendable solid-state supercapacitors with Au nanoparticle (NP)-embedded graphene hydrogel (GH) electrodes and investigate the influence of the Au NP embedment on the internal resistance and capacitive performance. Embedding the Au NPs into the GH electrodes results in a decrease of the internal resistance from 35 to 21 Ω, and a threefold reduction of the IR drop at a current density of 5 A/g when compared with GH electrodes without Au NPs. The Au NP-embedded GH supercapacitors (NP-GH SCs) exhibit excellent capacitive performances, with large specific capacitance (135 F/g) and high energy density (15.2 W·h/kg). Moreover, the NP-GH SCs exhibit comparable areal capacitance (168 mF/cm2) and operate under tensile/compressive bending. PMID:28074865

  13. Enhanced Oxygen Reduction Activity In Acid By Tin-Oxide Supported Au Nanoparticle Catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Baker,W.; Pietron, J.; Teliska, M.; Bouwman, P.; Ramaker, D.; Swider-Lyons, K.

    2006-01-01

    Gold nanoparticles supported on hydrous tin-oxide (Au-SnO{sub x}) are active for the four-electron oxygen reduction reaction in an acid electrolyte. The unique electrocatalytic of the Au-SnO is confirmed by the low amount of peroxide detected with rotating ring-disk electrode voltammetry and Koutecky-Levich analysis. In comparison, 10 wt % Au supported on Vulcan carbon and SnO{sub x} catalysts both produce significant peroxide in the acid electrolyte, indicating only a two-electron reduction reaction. Characterization of the Au-SnO{sub x} catalyst reveals a high-surface area, amorphous support with 1.7 nm gold metal particles. The high catalytic activity of the Au-SnO is attributed to metal support interactions. The results demonstrate a possible path to non-Pt catalysts for proton exchange membrane fuel cell cathodes.

  14. Polarization-based immunoassay in aqueous solution using Au nanoparticle-labeled antibody

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizuno, N.; Takeshita, Y.; Kobayashi, J.; Esashika, K.; Saiki, T.

    2014-04-01

    Here we describe an ultrasensitive antigen-antibody immunoassay using gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). Polarization microscopy is used to discriminate individual AuNP dimers from isolated single AuNPs by means of their Brownian motion in aqueous solution. The optical anisotropy and rotational diffusion time were measured to provide accurate and robust discrimination. Since the size of a naked antibody is comparable to that of an AuNP, the distance between two AuNPs (inter-dimer distance) is rather large, and therefore the optical anisotropy is seriously degraded. To address this problem, we digested the antibody with the protease pepsin to reduce the distance. Autocorrelation analysis allowed discrimination of the difference in optical anisotropy and rotational diffusion time. Setting an appropriate threshold for the measurement enabled sufficient accuracy in the discrimination.

  15. Bendable solid-state supercapacitors with Au nanoparticle-embedded graphene hydrogel films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Kyungwhan; Cho, Kyoungah; Yoon, Dae Sung; Kim, Sangsig

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we fabricate bendable solid-state supercapacitors with Au nanoparticle (NP)-embedded graphene hydrogel (GH) electrodes and investigate the influence of the Au NP embedment on the internal resistance and capacitive performance. Embedding the Au NPs into the GH electrodes results in a decrease of the internal resistance from 35 to 21 Ω, and a threefold reduction of the IR drop at a current density of 5 A/g when compared with GH electrodes without Au NPs. The Au NP-embedded GH supercapacitors (NP-GH SCs) exhibit excellent capacitive performances, with large specific capacitance (135 F/g) and high energy density (15.2 W·h/kg). Moreover, the NP-GH SCs exhibit comparable areal capacitance (168 mF/cm2) and operate under tensile/compressive bending.

  16. EDTA assisted highly selective detection of As(3+) on Au nanoparticle modified glassy carbon electrodes: facile in situ electrochemical characterization of Au nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hsiao-Hua; Huang, Jing-Fang

    2014-12-16

    A facile electrochemical characterization technique of Au nanoparticles (AuNPs) developed by Wang et al. ( Wang, Y.; Laborda, E.; Salter, C.; Crossley, A.; Compton, R. G. Analyst 2012 , 137 , 4693 - 4697 ) was used to track the variation in the particle size and density of AuNPs in situ and to assist in optimizing the conditions of analysis and catalysis. In this method, the combination of total surface area determined by Pb underpotential deposition (UPD) and the amount of Au obtained by anodic stripping of Au in HCl solution was used to evaluate the average diameter of AuNPs and the number of particles on the electrode. The detection of As(3+) in aqueous solution by a AuNP modified glassy carbon electrode (Aunano@GCE) using the electrochemical characterization technique was examined. The AuNPs with a uniform shape and size, deposited onto the GCEs using multiple-scan cyclic voltammetry (MSCV), were suitable for the electrochemical evaluation. The calibration curve for the detection of As(3+) had a dynamic range of 0.1-15.0 μg L(-1) (from 1.30 to 200 nM, y = 0.21x (in μA L μg(-1)) + 0.01 (R(2) = 0.999)) and showed a sensitivity of 0.21 μA L μg(-1) (16.15 μA μM(-1)). A detection limit as low as 0.0025 μg L(-1) (32.5 pM) was achieved. The chelating agent ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA) selectively chelated with the interfering metal ions and effectively inhibited the interfering ions from competing with the ion of interest (As(3+)), in the preconcentration process. The presence of EDTA effectively eliminated interference from several metal ions, especially Cu(2+) and Hg(2+). This method was validated by analyzing the As(3+) content in real water samples.

  17. Ethylene binding to Au/Cu alloy nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gammage, Michael D.; Stauffer, Shannon; Henkelman, Graeme; Becker, Michael F.; Keto, John W.; Kovar, Desiderio

    2016-11-01

    Weak chemisorption of ethylene has been shown to be an important characteristic in the use of metals for the separation of ethylene from ethane. Previously, density functional theory (DFT) has been used to predict the binding energies of various metals and alloys, with Ag having the lowest chemisorption energy amongst the metals and alloys studied. Here Au/Cu alloys are investigated by a combination of DFT calculations and experimental measurements. It is inferred from experiments that the binding energy between a Au/Cu alloy and ethylene is lower than to either of the pure metals, and DFT calculations confirm that this is the case when Au segregates to the particle surface. Implications of this work suggest that it may be possible to further tune the binding energy with ethylene by compositional and morphological control of films produced from Au-surface segregated alloys.

  18. Biosynthesis of Au nanoparticles using cumin seed powder extract.

    PubMed

    Sneha, Krishnamurthy; Sathishkumar, Muthuswamy; Lee, Shi Yn; Bae, Min A; Yun, Yeoung-Sang

    2011-02-01

    Cumin seed was investigated for synthesis of gold nanoparticles. Polydispersed particles were obtained at pH 3 and 30 degrees C, and the effect of temperature and pH on synthesis of gold nanoparticles was analyzed. TEM images showed that amount of platelets formed were predominant at lower temperature where as more number of monodispersed spherical particle of size 1-10 nm were perceived at high temperatures. The gold nanoparticles particles formed at higher pH were stable, uniform and spherical in shape. XPS analysis showed the presence of pure gold nanoparticles.

  19. Dealloying-based facile synthesis and highly catalytic properties of Au core/porous shell nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Minho; Ko, Sung Min; Nam, Jwa-Min

    2016-06-01

    Porous nanostructures exhibit excellent catalytic properties due to high surface-to-volume ratio, good surface reactivity and various structural features, but controlling the distribution, size, shape and density of pores and structural features of these particles is highly challenging. Herein, we report a tunable dealloying-based facile synthetic strategy to form highly porous Au core/porous shell nanoparticles (CPS NPs) in high yield by selectively dissolving Ag atoms from Au/Au-Ag core/alloy shell NPs. The CPS NPs exhibit a very short induction time, high conversion rate constant, low activation energy and high turnover frequency due to their catalytically active porous shells containing networked thin ligaments, surface defects, ultra-high porosity and photothermal properties. The CPS NPs are more catalytic Au NPs than other reported Au nanostructures, and the strategy and results open avenues in porous nanostructures and nanocatalysts.Porous nanostructures exhibit excellent catalytic properties due to high surface-to-volume ratio, good surface reactivity and various structural features, but controlling the distribution, size, shape and density of pores and structural features of these particles is highly challenging. Herein, we report a tunable dealloying-based facile synthetic strategy to form highly porous Au core/porous shell nanoparticles (CPS NPs) in high yield by selectively dissolving Ag atoms from Au/Au-Ag core/alloy shell NPs. The CPS NPs exhibit a very short induction time, high conversion rate constant, low activation energy and high turnover frequency due to their catalytically active porous shells containing networked thin ligaments, surface defects, ultra-high porosity and photothermal properties. The CPS NPs are more catalytic Au NPs than other reported Au nanostructures, and the strategy and results open avenues in porous nanostructures and nanocatalysts. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c6nr01321j

  20. Fabrication of photoactive heterostructures based on quantum dots decorated with Au nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Fanizza, Elisabetta; Urso, Carmine; Iacobazzi, R. Maria; Depalo, Nicoletta; Corricelli, Michela; Panniello, Annamaria; Agostiano, Angela; Denora, Nunzio; Laquintana, Valentino; Striccoli, Marinella; Curri, M. Lucia

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Silica based multifunctional heterostructures, exhibiting near infrared (NIR) absorption (650–1200 nm) and luminescence in the visible region, represent innovative nanosystems useful for diagnostic or theranostic applications. Herein, colloidal synthetic procedures are applied to design a photoactive multifunctional nanosystem. Luminescent silica (SiO2) coated quantum dots (QDs) have been used as versatile nanoplatforms to assemble on their surface gold (Au) seeds, further grown into Au spackled structures. The synthesized nanostructures combine the QD emission in the visible region, and, concomitantly, the distinctive NIR absorption of Au nanodomains. The possibility of having multiple QDs in a single heterostructure, the SiO2 shell thickness, and the extent of Au deposition onto SiO2 surface have been carefully controlled. The work shows that a single QD entrapped in 16 nm thick SiO2 shell, coated with Au speckles, represents the most suitable geometry to preserve the QD emission in the visible region and to generate NIR absorption from metal NPs. The resulting architectures present a biomedical potential as an effective optical multimodal probes and as promising therapeutic agents due to the Au NP mediated photothermal effect. PMID:27877861

  1. Tuning the SERS Response with Ag-Au Nanoparticle-Embedded Polymer Thin Film Substrates.

    PubMed

    Rao, V Kesava; Radhakrishnan, T P

    2015-06-17

    Development of facile routes to the fabrication of thin film substrates with tunable surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) efficiency and identification of the optimal conditions for maximizing the enhancement factor (EF) are significant in terms of both fundamental and application aspects of SERS. In the present work, polymer thin films with embedded bimetallic nanoparticles of Ag-Au are fabricated by a simple two-stage protocol. Ag nanoparticles are formed in the first stage, by the in situ reduction of silver nitrate by the poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) film through mild thermal annealing, without any additional reducing agent. In the second stage, aqueous solutions of chloroauric acid spread on the Ag-PVA thin film under ambient conditions, lead to the galvanic displacement of Ag by Au in situ inside the film, and the formation of Ag-Au particles. Evolution of the morphology of the bimetallic nanoparticles into hollow cage structures and the distribution of Au on the nanoparticles are revealed through electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) extinction of the nanocomposite thin film evolves with the Ag-Au composition; theoretical simulation of the extinction spectra provides insight into the observed trends. The Ag-Au-PVA thin films are found to be efficient substrates for SERS. The EF follows the variation of the LSPR extinction vis-à-vis the excitation laser wavelength, but with an offset, and the maximum SERS effect is obtained at very low Au content; experiments with Rhodamine 6G showed EFs on the order of 10(8) and a limit of detection of 0.6 pmol. The present study describes a facile and simple fabrication of a nanocomposite thin film that can be conveniently deployed in SERS investigations, and the utility of the bimetallic system to tune and maximize the EF.

  2. Comparative investigation of Au nano-particle formation process dependent upon various protective agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eitoku, Takeshi; Taniguchi, Kazuya; Nakazato, Yuta; Ono, Shunichi; Katayama, Kenji

    2010-01-01

    Formation process of gold nanoparticles was investigated by near-field heterodyne transient grating method. In the absence of the protective agents, although the diffusion of H[AuICl2] could be observed after the photo-reduction of H[AuIIICl4], the diffusion of nanoparticle-seeds was not observed. On the other hand, in the presence of the protective agents, the diffusion of a complex molecule (Au and protective agent) and nanoparticle-seeds could be observed. From these results, it was found that enough amount of the complex is essential for the nanoparticle formation. We also investigated the formation process with four different chemicals as a protective agent. The hydrodynamic radius of nanoparticle-seeds generated in the poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) and TritonX-100 solutions were larger than those generated in the Tween 20 and Brij 58 solutions. The former two have hydrophilic chain in the molecular structure; on the other hand, the latter two have hydrophobic alkyl chain. Based on those facts, we concluded that the interaction between the chains of the complex molecule plays an important role in the nanoparticle formation process.

  3. Reduction of HAuCl4 by Na2S revisited: The case for Au nanoparticle aggregates and against Au2S/Au core/shell particles

    DOE PAGES

    Schwartzberg, A. M.; Grant, C. D.; van Buuren, Tony; ...

    2007-03-10

    The reaction of sodium sulfide with chloroauric acid has been surrounded by a controversy over the structure of the resulting product. The original report proposed a Au2S/Au core/shell structure based on strong near-IR resonance and limited transmission electron microscopy. Subsequent reports used the same model without further attempts to determine the structure of the products. With a significant body of experimental work compiled over a period of several years, we have shown that the major product of this reaction is aggregated spherical nanoparticles of gold with a minority component consisting of triangular and rod-like structures. This is in contradiction tomore » the core/shell structures as originally proposed. Recently, there have been additional reports that again suggest a Au2S/Au core/shell structure or irregularly shaped Au nanoparticles as an explanation for the near-IR resonance. To help resolve this issue, we have carried out further experiments to determine how the reaction products may depend on experimental conditions such as concentration and aging of the reactants, particularly Na2S. It has been determined that sodium thiosulfate is the likely product from Na2S aging. In addition, persistent spectral hole burning experiments have been conducted on gold nanoparticle aggregate (GNA) samples at excitation intensities that are lower than that required to melt the nanostructures. We have observed a decrease in optical absorption on resonance with the excitation laser wavelength, with simultaneous increases in absorption to the blue and red of this wavelength region. However, in the presence of the stabilizer poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP), no increase in absorbance was observed but rather a blue shifting and decrease in intensity of the near-IR plasmon resonance. These results imply that the non-stabilized GNAs are able to break apart and reform into off resonant aggregate structures. In contrast, this behavior is suppressed in PVP stabilized GNAs

  4. Fabrication of catalytically active Au/Pt/Pd trimetallic nanoparticles by rapid injection of NaBH{sub 4}

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Haijun; Lu, Lilin; Cao, Yingnan; Du, Shuang; Cheng, Zhong; Zhang, Shaowei

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The synthesis and characterization of 2.0 nm-diameter Au/Pt/Pd nanoparticles are reported. The catalytic activity for glucose oxidation of the nanoparticles is several times higher than that of Au nanoparticles with nearly same size. - Highlights: • PVP-protected Au/Pt/Pd trimetallic nanoparticles (TNPs) of 2.0 nm in diameter were prepared. • The catalytic activity of TNPs is several times higher than that of Au nanoparticles. • Negatively charged Au atoms in the TNPs were confirmed by DFT calculation. - Abstract: Au/Pt/Pd trimetallic nanoparticles (TNPs) with an alloyed structure and an average diameter of about 2.0 nm were prepared via reducing the corresponding ions with rapidly injected NaBH{sub 4}, and characterized by UV–vis, TEM and HR-TEM. The catalytic activity of as-prepared TNPs for the aerobic glucose oxidation is several times higher than that of Au monometallic nanoparticles with about the same average size, which could be attributed to the catalytically active sites provided by the negatively charged Au atoms as a result of the electron donation from the neighboring Pd atoms. This was well supported by the electron density calculations based on the density functional theory.

  5. Ultra-pure, water-dispersed Au nanoparticles produced by femtosecond laser ablation and fragmentation.

    PubMed

    Kubiliūtė, Reda; Maximova, Ksenia A; Lajevardipour, Alireza; Yong, Jiawey; Hartley, Jennifer S; Mohsin, Abu S M; Blandin, Pierre; Chon, James W M; Sentis, Marc; Stoddart, Paul R; Kabashin, Andrei; Rotomskis, Ričardas; Clayton, Andrew H A; Juodkazis, Saulius

    2013-01-01

    Aqueous solutions of ultra-pure gold nanoparticles have been prepared by methods of femtosecond laser ablation from a solid target and fragmentation from already formed colloids. Despite the absence of protecting ligands, the solutions could be (1) fairly stable and poly size-dispersed; or (2) very stable and monodispersed, for the two fabrication modalities, respectively. Fluorescence quenching behavior and its intricacies were revealed by fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy in rhodamine 6G water solution. We show that surface-enhanced Raman scattering of rhodamine 6G on gold nanoparticles can be detected with high fidelity down to micromolar concentrations using the nanoparticles. Application potential of pure gold nanoparticles with polydispersed and nearly monodispersed size distributions are discussed.

  6. Ultra-pure, water-dispersed Au nanoparticles produced by femtosecond laser ablation and fragmentation

    PubMed Central

    Kubiliūtė, Reda; Maximova, Ksenia A; Lajevardipour, Alireza; Yong, Jiawey; Hartley, Jennifer S; Mohsin, Abu SM; Blandin, Pierre; Chon, James WM; Sentis, Marc; Stoddart, Paul R; Kabashin, Andrei; Rotomskis, Ričardas; Clayton, Andrew HA; Juodkazis, Saulius

    2013-01-01

    Aqueous solutions of ultra-pure gold nanoparticles have been prepared by methods of femtosecond laser ablation from a solid target and fragmentation from already formed colloids. Despite the absence of protecting ligands, the solutions could be (1) fairly stable and poly size-dispersed; or (2) very stable and monodispersed, for the two fabrication modalities, respectively. Fluorescence quenching behavior and its intricacies were revealed by fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy in rhodamine 6G water solution. We show that surface-enhanced Raman scattering of rhodamine 6G on gold nanoparticles can be detected with high fidelity down to micromolar concentrations using the nanoparticles. Application potential of pure gold nanoparticles with polydispersed and nearly monodispersed size distributions are discussed. PMID:23888114

  7. Characterization of two dimensional self-organized Au nanoparticles embedded in Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}

    SciTech Connect

    Cespedes, Eva; Sanchez-Marcos, Jorge; Prieto, Carlos; Babonneau, David; Lyon, Olivier; Rouziere, Stephan; Olivi, Luca; Traverse, Agnes

    2010-05-15

    Au/Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} films have been prepared by gold and silicon nitride sequential sputtering with different Au thicknesses. The goal is to investigate the Au growth mode and to identify the regime where Au nanoparticles (NPs) can be prepared. The number of Au atoms, the bilayer thickness, the Au environment, the size, and the organization of the particles have been determined. Gold appears in metallic form. The thickest Au layer (8 nm) is continuous whereas the thinnest ones (with average values of 1-3 nm) are formed by nearly spherical Au NPs with diameters in the 5-7 nm range. Au NPs spatial self-organization is observed for average thickness of t{sub Au}=2.9 nm. These growth modes are discussed and compared with those observed for other metal/Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} systems prepared in similar conditions.

  8. Synthesis of Au@Pt bimetallic nanoparticles with concave Au nanocuboids as seeds and their enhanced electrocatalytic properties in the ethanol oxidation reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Lingyu; Li, Lidong; Peng, Yi; Guo, Lin

    2015-12-01

    Herein, a new type of uniform and well-structured Au@Pt bimetallic nanoparticles (BNPs) with highly active concave Au nanocuboids (NCs) as seeds was successfully synthesized by using the classic seed-mediated method. Electrochemical measurements were conducted to demonstrate their greatly enhanced catalytic performance in the ethanol oxidation reaction (EOR). It was found that the electrochemical performance for Au@Pt BNPs with the concave Au NCs as seeds, which were enclosed by {611} high-index facets, could be seven times higher than that of the Au@Pt bimetallic nanoparticles with regular spherical Au NPs as seeds. Furthermore, our findings show that the morphology and electrocatalytic activity of the Au@Pt BNPs can be tuned simply by changing the compositional ratios of the growth solution. The lower the amount of H2PtCl6 used in the growth solution, the thinner the Pt shell grew, and the more high-index facets of concave Au NCs seeds were exposed in Au@Pt BNPs, leading to higher electrochemical activity. These as-prepared concave Au@Pt BNPs will open up new strategies for improving catalytic efficiency and reducing the use of the expensive and scarce resource of platinum in the ethanol oxidation reaction, and are potentially applicable as electrochemical catalysts for direct ethanol fuel cells.

  9. Synthesis of Au@Pt bimetallic nanoparticles with concave Au nanocuboids as seeds and their enhanced electrocatalytic properties in the ethanol oxidation reaction.

    PubMed

    Tan, Lingyu; Li, Lidong; Peng, Yi; Guo, Lin

    2015-12-18

    Herein, a new type of uniform and well-structured Au@Pt bimetallic nanoparticles (BNPs) with highly active concave Au nanocuboids (NCs) as seeds was successfully synthesized by using the classic seed-mediated method. Electrochemical measurements were conducted to demonstrate their greatly enhanced catalytic performance in the ethanol oxidation reaction (EOR). It was found that the electrochemical performance for Au@Pt BNPs with the concave Au NCs as seeds, which were enclosed by {611} high-index facets, could be seven times higher than that of the Au@Pt bimetallic nanoparticles with regular spherical Au NPs as seeds. Furthermore, our findings show that the morphology and electrocatalytic activity of the Au@Pt BNPs can be tuned simply by changing the compositional ratios of the growth solution. The lower the amount of H2PtCl6 used in the growth solution, the thinner the Pt shell grew, and the more high-index facets of concave Au NCs seeds were exposed in Au@Pt BNPs, leading to higher electrochemical activity. These as-prepared concave Au@Pt BNPs will open up new strategies for improving catalytic efficiency and reducing the use of the expensive and scarce resource of platinum in the ethanol oxidation reaction, and are potentially applicable as electrochemical catalysts for direct ethanol fuel cells.

  10. Fluorescent magnetic Fe3 O4 /rare Earth colloidal nanoparticles for dual-modality imaging.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Haie; Shang, Yalei; Wang, Wenhao; Zhou, Yingjie; Li, Penghui; Yan, Kai; Wu, Shuilin; Yeung, Kelvin W K; Xu, Zushun; Xu, Haibo; Chu, Paul K

    2013-09-09

    Fluorescent magnetic colloidal nanoparticles (FMCNPs) are produced by a two-step, seed emulsifier-free emulsion polymerization in the presence of oleic acid and sodium undecylenate-modified Fe3 O4 nanoparticles (NPs). The Fe3 O4 /poly(St-co-GMA) nanoparticles are first synthesized as the seed and Eu(AA)3 Phen is copolymerized with the remaining St and GMA to form the fluorescent polymer shell in the second step. The uniform core-shell structured FMCNPs with a mean diameter of 120 nm exhibit superparamagnetism with saturation magnetization of 1.92 emu/g. Red luminescence from the FMCNPs is confirmed by the salient fluorescence emission peaks of europium ions at 594 and 619 nm as well as 2-photon confocal scanning laser microscopy. The in vitro cytotoxicity test conducted using the MTT assay shows good cytocompatibility and the T2 relaxivity of the FMCNPs is 353.86 mM(-1) S(-1) suggesting its potential in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In vivo MRI studies based on a rat model show significantly enhanced T2 -weighted images of the liver after administration and prussian blue staining of the liver tissue slice reveals accumulation of FMCNPs in the organ. The cytocompatibility, superparamagnetism, and excellent fluorescent properties of FMCNPs make them suitable for biological imaging probes in MRI and optical imaging.

  11. Production of silver ions from colloidal silver by nanoparticle iontophoresis system.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Kuo-Hsiung; Liao, Chih-Yu

    2011-03-01

    Metal ions, especially the silver ion, were used to treat infection before the initiation of antibiotic therapy. Unfortunately, there is a lack of research on the metallic nanoparticle suspension as a reservoir for metal ion release application. For medical purposes, conversion of colloidal silver into an ionic form is necessary, but not using silver salts (e.g., AgNO3, Ag2SO4), due to the fact that the counter-ion of silver salts may cause problems to the body as the silver ion (Ag+) is consumed. The goal of this research is to develop a silver nanoparticle iontophoresis system (NIS) which can provide a relatively safe bactericidal silver ion solution with a controllable electric field. In this study, ion-selective electrodes were used to identify and observe details of the system's activity. Both qualitative and quantitative data analyses were performed. The experimental results show that the ion releasing peak time (R(PT)) has an inversely proportional relationship with the applied current and voltage. The ion releasing maximum level (R(ML)) and dosage (R(D)) are proportional to the current density and inversely proportional to the voltage, respectively. These results reveal that the nanoparticle iontophoresis system (NIS) is an alternative method for the controlled release of a metal ion and the ion's concentration profile, by controlling the magnitude of current density (1 microA/cm2 equal to 1 ppm/hour) and applied voltage.

  12. Functionalization of emissive conjugated polymer nanoparticles by coprecipitation: consequences for particle photophysics and colloidal properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Amita; Bezuidenhout, Michael; Walsh, Nichola; Beirne, Jason; Felletti, Riccardo; Wang, Suxiao; Fitzgerald, Kathleen T.; Gallagher, William M.; Kiely, Patrick; Redmond, Gareth

    2016-07-01

    The functionalization of polyfluorene (PFO) nanoparticles by coprecipitation of the conjugated polymer with an amphiphilic comb polymer, consisting of a hydrophobic polystyrene backbone with hydrophilic, carboxylic acid-terminated polyethylene oxide side-chains (PS-PEG-COOH), is investigated. The comb polymer affects the properties of the formed hybrid nanoparticles. Non-functionalized particles are typically larger (28 nm) than functionalized ones (20 nm); peak molar extinction coefficients are found to differ in a similar trend. Zeta potentials are negative, consistent with negative surface charge on PFO particles due to chemical defect formation, with additional charge on functionalized particles due to the pendant carboxylic acid groups. Emission quantum yields of functionalized particles are typically larger, consistent with lower efficiency of energy transfer to quenchers in smaller particles and weaker PFO interchain interactions due to chain dilution. The trend in per-particle fluorescence brightness values, as confirmed by single particle fluorescence imaging, reflects the nanoparticle extinction coefficients. Photostability studies on aqueous dispersions of hybrid particles indicate mild photobrightening under continuous illumination while PFO particles exhibit slow exponential emission decay. Functionalized particles are also resistant to aggregation during exposure to adenocarcinoma cells. Generally, the hybrid particles exhibit more favorable time-, pH- and medium-dependent stabilities, likely due to steric and electrostatic stabilization by PEG-carboxylic acid functionalities. Overall, the functionalized particles exhibit attractive properties: Reasonably small size, tight size distribution, high absorption cross section, radiative rate and emission quantum yield, excellent brightness and photostability, and good colloidal stability.

  13. Effect of Extracellular Polymeric Substances on CuO Nanoparticle Dissolution and Colloidal Stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adeleye, A. S.; Keller, A. A.

    2013-12-01

    Extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) are high molecular weight polymers produced by microorganisms growing in natural as well as artificial environments. EPS may interact with engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) in aquatic systems via electrostatic and/or hydrophobic associations, therefore, influencing the fate and transport of ENMs. In this study the effect of soluble EPS isolated from Isochrysis galbana, a marine phytoplankton, on the dissolution kinetics and colloidal stability of CuO nanoparticles was investigated. EPS was characterized by measuring hydrodynamic diameter, total organic carbon, carbohydrate, and protein concentrations. CuO nanoparticles were more stable in the presence of EPS in aqueous media as indicated by hydrodynamic size and average count rate measurements. The effect of pH and ionic strength on dissolution was also studied. [Cu2+] and [Cu]total detected after a week were 5.70 mg L-1 and 7.08 mg L-1 respectively when 10 mg L-1 CuO nanoparticles was kept in 10 mM NaCl at pH 4. In the presence of 5 mg-C EPS L-1, [Cu2+] and [Cu]total were slightly lower at 5.0 mg L-1 and 5.53 mg L-1 respectively. Although observed [Cu2+] and [Cu]total were significantly lower at neutral and alkaline pH conditions, a similar pattern was observed.

  14. Surfaces of a colloidal iron nanoparticle in its chemical environment: a DFT description.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Guntram; Poteau, Romuald; Lachaize, Sébastien; Gerber, Iann C

    2014-10-07

    Describing and understanding surface chemistry on the atomic scale is of primary importance in predicting and rationalize nanoparticle morphology as well as their physical and chemical properties. Here we present the results of comprehensive density functional theory studies on the adsorption of several small organic species, representing the major species (H2, Cl2, HCl, NH3, NH4Cl, and CH3COOH), present in the reaction medium during colloidal iron nanoparticle synthesis on various low-index iron surface models, namely, (100), (110), (111), (211), and (310). All of the tested ligands strongly interact with the proposed surfaces. Surface energies are calculated and ligand effects on the morphologies are presented, including temperature effects, based on a thermodynamic approach combined with the Wulff construction scheme. The importance of taking into account vibrational contributions during the calculation of surface energies after adsorption is clearly demonstrated. More importantly, we find that thermodynamic ligand effects can be ruled out as the unique driving force in the formation of recently experimentally observed iron cubic nanoparticles.

  15. Catalytic Gas-Phase Glycerol Processing over SiO2-, Cu-, Ni- and Fe- Supported Au Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Kapkowski, Maciej; Siudyga, Tomasz; Sitko, Rafal; Lelątko, Józef; Szade, Jacek; Balin, Katarzyna; Klimontko, Joanna; Bartczak, Piotr; Polanski, Jaroslaw

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we investigated different metal pairings of Au nanoparticles (NPs) as potential catalysts for glycerol dehydration for the first time. All of the systems preferred the formation of hydroxyacetone (HYNE). Although the bimetallics that were tested, i.e., Au NPs supported on Ni, Fe and Cu appeared to be more active than the Au/SiO2 system, only Cu supported Au NPs gave high conversion (ca. 63%) and selectivity (ca. 70%) to HYNE. PMID:26580400

  16. Au-Ag-Au double shell nanoparticles-based localized surface plasmon resonance and surface-enhanced Raman scattering biosensor for sensitive detection of 2-mercapto-1-methylimidazole.

    PubMed

    Liao, Xue; Chen, Yanhua; Qin, Meihong; Chen, Yang; Yang, Lei; Zhang, Hanqi; Tian, Yuan

    2013-12-15

    In this paper, Au-Ag-Au double shell nanoparticles were prepared based on the reduction of the metal salts HAuCl4 and AgNO3 at the surface of seed particles. Due to the synergistic effect between Au and Ag, the hybrid nanoparticles are particularly stable and show excellent performances on the detection of 2-mercapto-1-methylimidazole (methimazole). The binding of target molecule at the surface of Au-Ag-Au double shell nanoparticles was demonstrated based on both localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) and surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectra. The LSPR intensity is directly proportional to the methimazole concentration in the range of 0.10-3.00×10(-7) mol L(-1). The SERS spectrum can be applied in identification of methimazole molecule. The LSPR coupled with SERS based on the Au-Ag-Au double shell nanoparticles would be very attractive for the quantitative determination and qualitative analysis of the analytes in medicines.

  17. Gold surfaces and nanoparticles are protected by Au(0)–thiyl species and are destroyed when Au(I)–thiolates form

    PubMed Central

    Reimers, Jeffrey R.; Ford, Michael J.; Halder, Arnab; Ulstrup, Jens; Hush, Noel S.

    2016-01-01

    The synthetic chemistry and spectroscopy of sulfur-protected gold surfaces and nanoparticles is analyzed, indicating that the electronic structure of the interface is Au(0)–thiyl, with Au(I)–thiolates identified as high-energy excited surface states. Density-functional theory indicates that it is the noble character of gold and nanoparticle surfaces that destabilizes Au(I)–thiolates. Bonding results from large van der Waals forces, influenced by covalent bonding induced through s–d hybridization and charge polarization effects that perturbatively mix in some Au(I)–thiolate character. A simple method for quantifying these contributions is presented, revealing that a driving force for nanoparticle growth is nobleization, minimizing Au(I)–thiolate involvement. Predictions that Brust–Schiffrin reactions involve thiolate anion intermediates are verified spectroscopically, establishing a key feature needed to understand nanoparticle growth. Mixing of preprepared Au(I) and thiolate reactants always produces Au(I)–thiolate thin films or compounds rather than monolayers. Smooth links to O, Se, Te, C, and N linker chemistry are established. PMID:26929334

  18. Structural and magnetic properties of core-shell Au/Fe3O4 nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    León Félix, L.; Coaquira, J. A. H.; Martínez, M. A. R.; Goya, G. F.; Mantilla, J.; Sousa, M. H.; Valladares, L. De Los Santos; Barnes, C. H. W.; Morais, P. C.

    2017-02-01

    We present a systematic study of core-shell Au/Fe3O4 nanoparticles produced by thermal decomposition under mild conditions. The morphology and crystal structure of the nanoparticles revealed the presence of Au core of d = (6.9 ± 1.0) nm surrounded by Fe3O4 shell with a thickness of ~3.5 nm, epitaxially grown onto the Au core surface. The Au/Fe3O4 core-shell structure was demonstrated by high angle annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy analysis. The magnetite shell grown on top of the Au nanoparticle displayed a thermal blocking state at temperatures below TB = 59 K and a relaxed state well above TB. Remarkably, an exchange bias effect was observed when cooling down the samples below room temperature under an external magnetic field. Moreover, the exchange bias field (HEX) started to appear at T~40 K and its value increased by decreasing the temperature. This effect has been assigned to the interaction of spins located in the magnetically disordered regions (in the inner and outer surface of the Fe3O4 shell) and spins located in the ordered region of the Fe3O4 shell.

  19. Structural and magnetic properties of core-shell Au/Fe3O4 nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    León Félix, L.; Coaquira, J. A. H.; Martínez, M. A. R.; Goya, G. F.; Mantilla, J.; Sousa, M. H.; Valladares, L. de los Santos; Barnes, C. H. W.; Morais, P. C.

    2017-01-01

    We present a systematic study of core-shell Au/Fe3O4 nanoparticles produced by thermal decomposition under mild conditions. The morphology and crystal structure of the nanoparticles revealed the presence of Au core of d = (6.9 ± 1.0) nm surrounded by Fe3O4 shell with a thickness of ~3.5 nm, epitaxially grown onto the Au core surface. The Au/Fe3O4 core-shell structure was demonstrated by high angle annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy analysis. The magnetite shell grown on top of the Au nanoparticle displayed a thermal blocking state at temperatures below TB = 59 K and a relaxed state well above TB. Remarkably, an exchange bias effect was observed when cooling down the samples below room temperature under an external magnetic field. Moreover, the exchange bias field (HEX) started to appear at T~40 K and its value increased by decreasing the temperature. This effect has been assigned to the interaction of spins located in the magnetically disordered regions (in the inner and outer surface of the Fe3O4 shell) and spins located in the ordered region of the Fe3O4 shell. PMID:28165012

  20. Experimental investigation on colloidal alumina nanoparticles produced by collinear nanosecond double-pulse laser ablation in liquid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahdieh, M. H.; Fattahi, B.; Akbari Jafarabadi, M.

    2017-01-01

    In this research, we investigated the effect of inter-pulse delay times on production of colloidal alumina nanoparticles by collinear double pulse laser ablation. In comparison to single pulse laser ablation, collinear double pulse laser ablation with inter-pulse delay times of 5, 10, 15 and 20 ns results in production of colloidal nanoparticles with smaller mean size and lower variance size distribution. In the case of 5 ns inter-pulse delay time, the highest concentration of nanoparticles was obtained due to more rapid cooling time of the plasma as a result of higher rate of nuclei generation than particle growth. The results also showed that the main pulse and the pre-pulse with 5 ns delay time have significant overlap and consequently such condition leads to maximum influence on the ablation.

  1. Protein-silver nanoparticle interactions to colloidal stability in acidic environments.

    PubMed

    Tai, Jui-Ting; Lai, Chao-Shun; Ho, Hsin-Chia; Yeh, Yu-Shan; Wang, Hsiao-Fang; Ho, Rong-Ming; Tsai, De-Hao

    2014-11-04

    We report a kinetic study of Ag nanoparticles (AgNPs) under acidic environments (i.e., pH 2.3 to pH ≈7) and systematically investigate the impact of protein interactions [i.e., bovine serum albumin (BSA) as representative] to the colloidal stability of AgNPs. Electrospray-differential mobility analysis (ES-DMA) was used to characterize the particle size distributions and the number concentrations of AgNPs. Transmission electron microscopy was employed orthogonally to provide visualization of AgNPs. For unconjugated AgNPs, the extent of aggregation, or the average particle size, was shown to be increased significantly with an increase of acidity, where a partial coalescence was found between the primary particles of unconjugated AgNP clusters. Aggregation rate constant, kD, was also shown to be proportional to acidity, following a correlation of log(kD) = -1.627(pH)-9.3715. Using ES-DMA, we observe BSA had a strong binding affinity (equilibrium binding constant, ≈ 1.1 × 10(6) L/mol) to the surface of AgNPs, with an estimated maximum molecular surface density of ≈0.012 nm(-2). BSA-functionalized AgNPs exhibited highly-improved colloidal stability compared to the unconjugated AgNPs under acidic environments, where both the acid-induced interfacial dissolution and the particle aggregation became negligible. Results confirm a complex mechanism of colloidal stability of AgNPs: the aggregation process was shown to be dominant, and the formation of BSA corona on AgNPs suppressed both particle aggregation and interfacial dissolution of AgNP samples under acidic environments.

  2. Spectroscopic and Physical Characterization of Functionalized Au Nanoparticles: A Multiweek Experimental Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masson, Jean-Francois; Yockell-Lelièvre, Hélène

    2014-01-01

    A term project was introduced in teaching advanced spectroscopy and notions of nanotechnology to chemistry students at the graduate level (M.Sc. and Ph.D.). This project could also be suited for an honor's thesis at the undergraduate level. Students were assigned a unique combination of nanoparticle synthesis (13 nm Au nanospheres, ~100 nm…

  3. Fluorescence enhancement of the conjugated polymer films based on well-ordered Au nanoparticle arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Benbin; Zu, Xihong; Yi, Guobin; Huang, Hailiang; Zhang, Minghai; Luo, Hongsheng

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, well-ordered Au nanoparticle arrays on silicon substrates were employed as efficient metal-enhanced fluorescence (MEF) substrates for investigating the fluorescence properties of the conjugated polymer poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT). The ordered Au nanoparticle arrays were fabricated by block copolymer self-assembly technology, and the particle sizes were controlled by adjusting the molar ratios of HAuCl4 precursor to vinyl pyridine units. The approach is economical and suitable to fabricate large-area MEF substrates. The results about fluorescence properties of P3HT showed that the fluorescence intensities of the P3HT films were improved on ordered Au nanoparticle arrays compared to those on bare silicon substrate and were significantly enhanced with the Au nanoparticle sizes increasing. The mechanism is based on localized surface plasmon resonances, coupling and propagating surface plasmons, and the emission enhancement mainly resulted from the increase of the excitation rate. This work provides a new way to prepare efficient MEF substrates for high-performance fluorescence-based devices.

  4. Collagen-chitosan scaffold modified with Au and Ag nanoparticles: Synthesis and structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubina, M. S.; Kamitov, E. E.; Zubavichus, Ya. V.; Peters, G. S.; Naumkin, A. V.; Suzer, S.; Vasil'kov, A. Yu.

    2016-03-01

    Nowadays, the dermal biomimetic scaffolds are widely used in regenerative medicine. Collagen-chitosan scaffold one of these materials possesses antibacterial activity, good compatibility with living tissues and has been already used as a wound-healing material. In this article, collagen-chitosan scaffolds modified with Ag and Au nanoparticles have been synthesized using novel method - the metal-vapor synthesis. The nanocomposite materials are characterized by XPS, TEM, SEM and synchrotron radiation-based X-ray techniques. According to XRD data, the mean size of the nanoparticles (NPs) is 10.5 nm and 20.2 nm in Au-Collagen-Chitosan (Au-CollCh) and Ag-Collagen-Chitosan (Ag-CollCh) scaffolds, respectively in fair agreement with the TEM data. SAXS analysis of the composites reveals an asymmetric size distribution peaked at 10 nm for Au-CollCh and 25 nm for Ag-CollCh indicative of particle's aggregation. According to SEM data, the metal-carrying scaffolds have layered structure and the nanoparticles are rather uniformly distributed on the surface material. XPS data indicate that the metallic nanoparticles are in their unoxidized/neutral states and dominantly stabilized within the chitosan-rich domains.

  5. Air-stable Fe@Au nanoparticles synthesized by the microemulsion's methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivas, José; Redondo, Yolanda Piñeiro; Iglesias-Silva, Esther; Vilas-Vilela, J. M.; León, L. M.; López-Quintela, Manuel Arturo

    2013-05-01

    Magnetic particles covered by gold are very important in many biological applications. However, there are not simple methods to produce small (< 5-10 nm) nanoparticles. One of the main reasons for that is the general use of iron oxides as magnetic cores, which have a large crystalline mismatch with gold. The use of Fe would be more appropriate, but its high tendency to oxidation has largely precluded it from being used as a core. Here, we will show that using a simple "one-pot" successive reaction method in microemulsions, can avoid such problems and is able to produce very stable core-shell Fe@Au nanoparticles. With this procedure, nanoparticles of ˜6 nm with a Fe core of 3 nm can easily be obtained. These Fe@Au nanoparticles, with a saturation magnetization of 1.13 emu/g, are very stable even in air after magnetic separation from the solution, which shows the good covering of the Fe core by the Au shell. In this contribution we will report the key parameters, which have to be taken into account, to prepare such stable Fe@Au dispersions and analyze their optical and magnetic properties, as well as their possible applications as biosensors, targeted magnetic separation, etc.

  6. Synthesis of graphene-supported monodisperse AuPd bimetallic nanoparticles for electrochemical oxidation of methanol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Hong-Jun; Shen, Cheng-Min; Shi, Xue-Zhao; Yang, Su-Dong; Tian, Yuan; Lin, Shao-Xiong; Gao, Hong-Jun

    2015-07-01

    Monodisperse AuPd bimetallic nanoparticles (NPs) with different compositions are synthesized by using oleylamine (OAm) as reducing reagent, stabilizer, and solvent. To obtain AuPd solid solution NPs, Pd-OAm and Au-OAm precursors are firstly prepared by mixing OAm with Palladium (II) acetylacetonate (Pd(acac)2) and HAuCl4, respectively. Then Pd-OAm and Au-OAm precursor solutions are injected into a hot oleylamine solution to form AuPd NPs. The size of these NPs ranges from 6.0 to 8.0 nm and the composition is controlled by varying the precursor ratio. The AuPd NPs are loaded onto reduced graphene oxide (RGO) sheets to make catalysts. Alloy NPs show high electrocatalytic activity and stability toward methanol oxidation in the alkaline media. Their catalytic activity for methanol oxidation is found to be dependent on the NP composition. As the Pd component increases, the peak current densities during the forward scan gradually increase and reach the maximum at AuPd2. The enhancement of alloy NPs for methanol oxidation can be attributed to a synergistic effect of Au and Pd on the surface of alloy NPs. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61335006) and the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2013CBA01603).

  7. In-Situ XPS Monitoring and Characterization of Electrochemically Prepared Au Nanoparticles in an Ionic Liquid

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) have been electrochemically prepared in situ and in vacuo using two different electrochemical device configurations, containing an ionic liquid (IL), N-N-diethyl-N-methyl-N-(2-methoxyethyl)ammonium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide, that serves both as reaction and as stabilizing media for the NPs. It was observed in both devices that Au NPs were created using an anodically triggered route. The created Au NPs are relatively small (3–7 nm) and reside within the IL medium. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy is utilized to follow not only the formation of the NPs but also their charging/discharging properties, by monitoring the charging shifts of the Au4f peak representing the electrodes and also the Au NPs as well as the F1s peak of the IL after polarizing one of the electrodes. Accordingly, DC polarization across the electrodes leads to a uniform binding energy shift of F1s of the IL along with that of Au4f of the NPs within. Moreover, this shift corresponds to only half of the applied potential. AC polarization brings out another dimension for demonstrating further the harmony between the charging/discharging property of the IL medium and the Au NPs in temporally and laterally resolved fashions. Polarization of the electrodes result in perfect spectral separation of the Au4f peaks of the NPs from those of the metal in both static (DC) and in time- and position-dependent (AC) modes. PMID:28261688

  8. Crystalline metallic Au nanoparticle-loaded α-Bi2O3 microrods for improved photocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Hai-Ying; Cheng, Kun; Lin, Jun

    2012-09-21

    Crystalline metallic Au nanoparticles were loaded on α-Bi(2)O(3) microrods (Au/α-Bi(2)O(3)) using an Au deposition-precipitation method. The prepared samples were characterized by scanning electron and transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy. Upon visible light irradiation, the Au/α-Bi(2)O(3) exhibits much higher photocatalytic activities than the pure α-Bi(2)O(3) for the degradation of Rhodamine B and 2,4-dichlorophenol in aqueous solution. The role of the Au and the paths of electron transport in the photocatalysis of the Au/α-Bi(2)O(3) were investigated and discussed in detail based on the analysis of the photo-generated hydroxyl radicals (˙OH) and hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) in the visible light irradiated suspension of pure α-Bi(2)O(3) and Au/α-Bi(2)O(3). The result reveals that the Au loaded on α-Bi(2)O(3) plays a critical role in the separation of the electron and hole pairs by accumulating the electrons from the excited α-Bi(2)O(3), which is responsible for the enhanced photocatalytic activity.

  9. Size-related third-order optical nonlinearities of Au nanoparticle arrays.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kai; Long, Hua; Fu, Ming; Yang, Guang; Lu, Peixiang

    2010-06-21

    We report a systematic study of the size-related nonlinear optical properties of triangular Au particles. The triangular Au nanoparticle arrays of four sizes (37 nm, 70 nm, 140 nm and 190 nm) were fabricated on quartz substrates using nanosphere lithography. By performing the Z-scan method with femtosecond laser (800 nm, 50 fs), the optical nonlinearities of Au nanoparticle arrays were determined. The results showed a size-related competition between two mechanisms of groundstate bleaching and two-photon absorption. As the size increased, the nonlinear absorption changed from two-photon absorption to saturated absorption, while the nonlinear refraction changed from self-defocusing to self-focusing. These size-tunable nonlinearities make it possible to optimize the one- and two-photon figures of merit, W and T, for all-optical switching.

  10. Facile synthesis and optical properties of polymer-laced ZnO-Au hybrid nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Bi-phase dispersible ZnO-Au hybrid nanoparticles were synthesized via one-pot non-aqueous nanoemulsion using the triblock copolymer poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(propylene glycol)-block-poly(ethylene glycol) as the surfactant. The characterization shows that the polymer-laced ZnO-Au nanoparticles are monosized and of high crystallinity and demonstrate excellent dispersibility and optical performance in both organic and aqueous medium, revealing the effects of quantum confinement and medium. The findings show two well-behaved absorption bands locating at approximately 360 nm from ZnO and between 520 and 550 nm from the surface plasmon resonance of the nanosized Au and multiple visible fingerprint photoluminescent emissions. Consequently, the wide optical absorbance and fluorescent activity in different solvents could be promising for biosensing, photocatalysis, photodegradation, and optoelectronic devices. PMID:24606946

  11. Synthesis and characterization of Au-core Ag-shell nanoparticles from unmodified apoferritin

    SciTech Connect

    Li, T.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Shibata, T.; Cook, R. E.; Miller, J. T.; Suthiwangcharoen, N.; Lee, S.; Winans, R. E.; Lee, B.

    2012-01-01

    Narrow-size distributed, water-soluble Au-core Ag-shell nanoparticles with a size range from 1 to 5 nm are synthesized using unmodified apoferritin as a template. Fast protein liquid chromatography reveals that the nanoparticles are formed inside the apoferritin cavity and are stable in aqueous solution. Electron microscopy shows that the particles are uniform in size and composed of both Au and Ag. In addition, extended X-ray absorption fine structure confirms that the particles have a core-shell structure with a Au core covered with a Ag shell. By varying the loading amounts of the silver precursor, the Ag shell thickness is controlled from one layer to several layers.

  12. Facile synthesis and optical properties of polymer-laced ZnO-Au hybrid nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, XianHong; Zhang, XiaoYan; Cheng, WenZheng; Shao, HongQin; Liu, Xiao; Li, XueMei; Liu, HongLing; Wu, JunHua

    2014-03-01

    Bi-phase dispersible ZnO-Au hybrid nanoparticles were synthesized via one-pot non-aqueous nanoemulsion using the triblock copolymer poly(ethylene glycol)- block-poly(propylene glycol)- block-poly(ethylene glycol) as the surfactant. The characterization shows that the polymer-laced ZnO-Au nanoparticles are monosized and of high crystallinity and demonstrate excellent dispersibility and optical performance in both organic and aqueous medium, revealing the effects of quantum confinement and medium. The findings show two well-behaved absorption bands locating at approximately 360 nm from ZnO and between 520 and 550 nm from the surface plasmon resonance of the nanosized Au and multiple visible fingerprint photoluminescent emissions. Consequently, the wide optical absorbance and fluorescent activity in different solvents could be promising for biosensing, photocatalysis, photodegradation, and optoelectronic devices.

  13. Evidence for Bioavailability of Au Nanoparticles from Soil and Biodistribution within Earthworms (Eisenia fetida)

    SciTech Connect

    J Unrine; S Hunyadi; O Tsyusko; W Rao; A Shoults-Wilson; P Bertsch

    2011-12-31

    Because Au nanoparticles (NPs) are resistant to oxidative dissolution and are easily detected, they have been used as stable probes for the behavior of nanomaterials within biological systems. Previous studies provide somewhat limited evidence for bioavailability of Au NPs in food webs, because the spatial distribution within tissues and the speciation of Au was not determined. In this study, we provide multiple lines of evidence, including orthogonal microspectroscopic techniques, as well as evidence from biological responses, that Au NPs are bioavailable from soil to a model detritivore (Eisenia fetida). We also present limited evidence that Au NPs may cause adverse effects on earthworm reproduction. This is perhaps the first study to demonstrate that Au NPs can be taken up by detritivores from soil and distributed among tissues. We found that primary particle size (20 or 55 nm) did not consistently influence accumulated concentrations on a mass concentration basis; however, on a particle number basis the 20 nm particles were more bioavailable. Differences in bioavailability between the treatments may have been explained by aggregation behavior in pore water. The results suggest that nanoparticles present in soil from activities such as biosolids application have the potential to enter terrestrial food webs.

  14. Inhibition of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) on pathogenic biofilm formation and invasion to host cells

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Qilin; Li, Jianrong; Zhang, Yueqi; Wang, Yufan; Liu, Lu; Li, Mingchun

    2016-01-01

    Owing to the growing infectious diseases caused by eukaryotic and prokaryotic pathogens, it is urgent to develop novel antimicrobial agents against clinical pathogenic infections. Biofilm formation and invasion into the host cells are vital processes during pathogenic colonization and infection. In this study, we tested the inhibitory effect of Au nanoparticles (AuNPs) on pathogenic growth, biofilm formation and invasion. Interestingly, although the synthesized AuNPs had no significant toxicity to the tested pathogens, Candida albicans and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, the nanoparticles strongly inhibited pathogenic biofilm formation and invasion to dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs). Further investigations revealed that AuNPs abundantly bound to the pathogen cells, which likely contributed to their inhibitory effect on biofilm formation and invasion. Moreover, treatment of AuNPs led to activation of immune response-related genes in DPSCs, which may enhance the activity of host immune system against the pathogens. Zeta potential analysis and polyethylene glycol (PEG)/polyethyleneimine (PEI) coating tests further showed that the interaction between pathogen cells and AuNPs is associated with electrostatic attractions. Our findings shed novel light on the application of nanomaterials in fighting against clinical pathogens, and imply that the traditional growth inhibition test is not the only way to evaluate the drug effect during the screening of antimicrobial agents. PMID:27220400

  15. Selective Decoration of Au Nanoparticles on Monolayer MoS2 Single Crystals

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Yumeng; Huang, Jing-Kai; Jin, Limin; Hsu, Yu-Te; Yu, Siu Fung; Li, Lain-Jong; Yang, Hui Ying

    2013-01-01

    We report a controllable wet method for effective decoration of 2-dimensional (2D) molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) layers with Au nanoparticles (NPs). Au NPs can be selectively formed on the edge sites or defective sites of MoS2 layers. The Au-MoS2 nano-composites are formed by non-covalent bond. The size distribution, morphology and density of the metal nanoparticles can be tuned by changing the defect density in MoS2 layers. Field effect transistors were directly fabricated by placing ion gel gate dielectrics on Au-decorated MoS2 layers without the need to transfer these MoS2 layers to SiO2/Si substrates for bottom gate devices. The ion gel method allows probing the intrinsic electrical properties of the as-grown and Au-decorated MoS2 layers. This study shows that Au NPs impose remarkable p-doping effects to the MoS2 transistors without degrading their electrical characteristics. PMID:23670611

  16. Synthesis and electron microscopy characterization of bimetallic nanoparticles and atomically controlled Au nanoclusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattarai, Nabraj

    The properties of metal nanoparticles are controlled by their composition, shape, size and crystalline structure. Nanoparticles and nanoclusters with controlled shape and size were synthesized and investigated using atomic resolution images from aberration corrected scanning/transmission electron microscopy (STEM) and mass spectrometry (MS). Gold-palladium (Au-Pd) core-shell nanocube and triangular nanoparticles were prepared by a seed-mediated growth process and the growth mechanism was studied by varying the volume of Pd precursors added to the Au seed solution. The atomic resolution STEM images revealed that the nanocube is formed from a single-crystal Au seed with rapid growth along <111> directions while the triangular nanoparticles were obtained with growth preferentially along <110> directions rather than <111> direction. The strain generated by the lattice mismatch between fcc-Au and fcc-Pd, is released by Shockley partial dislocations (SPD), combined with stacking faults (SF) that appear at the final (outer) Pd layer. Then, as the shell grows the SPDs and SFs appear at the interface and combine with misfit dislocations, which finally diffuse to the free surfaces due to the alloying of Au into the Pd shell. In related work, magneto-plasmonic gold-cobalt (Au-Co) nanoparticles of diameter 4-nm were generated by a phase-transfer process and investigated by STEM, where the Z-contrast imaging and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS) showed inhomogeneous alloying between Au and Co at the nanoscale. The observed ferromagnetic behavior carries significance in biomedical applications. In addition, selected metallic (Au144(SR)60) and bimetallic (CuAu144) nanoclusters were obtained with thiolate-ligand protection and characterized using optical, MS, and STEM techniques. The optical spectrum and MS results established the monodispersity and purity of the nanoclusters. Another important aspect is that the emergence of broad strong plasmonic band centered near 520

  17. Functionalized Fe3O4@Au superparamagnetic nanoparticles: in vitro bioactivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salado, J.; Insausti, M.; Lezama, L.; Gil de Muro, I.; Moros, M.; Pelaz, B.; Grazu, V.; de la Fuente, J. M.; Rojo, T.

    2012-08-01

    The interaction of nanoparticles with cells has been a focus of interest during the past decade. We report the fabrication and characterization of hydrosoluble Fe3O4@Au nanoparticles functionalized with biocompatible and fluorescent molecules and their interaction with cell cultures by visualizing them with confocal microscopy. Gold covered iron oxide nanoparticles were synthesized by reducing metal salts in the presence of oleylamine and oleic acid. The functionalization of these particles with an amphiphilic polymer provides a water soluble corona as well as the possibility to incorporate different molecules relevant for bio-applications such as poly(ethylene glycol), glucose or a cadaverine derived dye. The particle size, and the presence of polymer layers and conjugated molecules were characterized and confirmed by transmission electron microscopy, thermogravimetric measurements and infrared spectroscopy. A complete magnetic study was performed, showing that gold provides an optimum coating, which enhances the superparamagnetic behaviour observed above 10-15 K in this kind of nanoparticle. The interaction with cells and the cytotoxicity of the Fe3O4@Au preparations were determined upon incubation with the HeLa cell line. These nanoparticles showed no cytotoxicity when evaluated by the MTT assay and it was demonstrated that nanoparticles clearly interacted with the cells, showing a higher level of accumulation in the cells for glucose conjugated nanoparticles.

  18. Colloidal gold-loaded, biodegradable, polymer-based stavudine nanoparticle uptake by macrophages: an in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Basu, Sumit; Mukherjee, Biswajit; Chowdhury, Samrat Roy; Paul, Paramita; Choudhury, Rupak; Kumar, Ajeet; Mondal, Laboni; Hossain, Chowdhury Mobaswar; Maji, Ruma

    2012-01-01

    Objective We describe the development, evaluation, and comparison of colloidal gold-loaded, poly(d,l-lactic-co-glycolic acid)-based nanoparticles containing anti-acquired immunodeficiency syndrome drug stavudine and uptake of these nanoparticles by macrophages in vitro. Methods We used the following methods in this study: drug-excipient interaction by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, morphology of nanoparticles by field-emission scanning electron microscopy, particle size by a particle size analyzer, and zeta potential and polydispersity index by a zetasizer. Drug loading and in vitro release were evaluated for formulations. The best formulation was incorporated with fluorescein isothiocyanate. Macrophage uptake of fluorescein isothiocyanate nanoparticles was studied in vitro. Results Variations in process parameters, such as speed of homogenization and amount of excipients, affected drug loading and the polydispersity index. We found that the drug was released for a prolonged period (over 63 days) from the nanoparticles, and observed cellular uptake of stavudine nanoparticles by macrophages. Conclusion Experimental nanoparticles represent an interesting carrier system for the transport of stavudine to macrophages, providing reduced required drug dose and improved drug delivery to macrophages over an extended period. The presence of colloidal gold in the particles decreased the drug content and resulted in comparatively faster drug release. PMID:23271908

  19. Hotspots engineering by grafting Au@Ag core-shell nanoparticles on the Au film over slightly etched nanoparticles substrate for on-site paraquat sensing.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chaoguang; Wu, Xuezhong; Dong, Peitao; Chen, Jian; Xiao, Rui

    2016-12-15

    Paraquat (PQ) pollutions are ultra-toxic to human beings and hard to be decomposed in the environment, thus requiring an on-site detection strategy. Herein, we developed a robust and rapid PQ sensing strategy based on the surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) technique. A hybrid SERS substrate was prepared by grafting the Au@Ag core-shell nanoparticles (NPs) on the Au film over slightly etched nanoparticles (Au FOSEN). Hotspots were engineered at the junctions as indicated by the finite difference time domain calculation. SERS performance of the hybrid substrate was explored using p-ATP as the Raman probe. The hybrid substrate gives higher enhancement factor comparing to either the Au FOSEN substrate or the Au@Ag core-shell NPs, and exhibits excellent reproducibility, homogeneity and stability. The proposed SERS substrates were prepared in batches for the practical PQ sensing. The total analysis time for a single sample, including the pre-treatment and measurement, was less than 5min with a PQ detection limit of 10nM. Peak intensities of the SERS signal were plotted as a function of the PQ concentrations to calibrate the sensitivity by fitting the Hill's equation. The plotted calibration curve showed a good log-log linearity with the coefficient of determination of 0.98. The selectivity of the sensing proposal was based on the "finger print" Raman spectra of the analyte. The proposed substrate exhibited good recovery when it applied to real water samples, including lab tap water, bottled water, and commercially obtained apple juice and grape juice. This SERS-based PQ detection method is simple, rapid, sensitive and selective, which shows great potential in pesticide residue and additives abuse monitoring.

  20. Transmission electron microscopy and theoretical analysis of AuCu nanoparticles: atomic distribution and dynamic behavior.

    PubMed

    Ascencio, J A; Liu, H B; Pal, U; Medina, A; Wang, Z L

    2006-07-01

    Though the application of bimetallic nanoparticles is becoming increasingly important, the local atomistic structure of such alloyed particles, which is critical for tailoring their properties, is not yet very clearly understood. In this work, we present detailed study on the atomistic structure of Au-Cu nanoparticles so as to determine their most stable configurations and the conditions for obtaining clusters of different structural variants. The dynamic behavior of these nanoparticles upon local heating is investigated. AuCu nanoparticles are characterized by high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and energy filtering elemental composition mapping (EFECM), which allowed us to study the internal structure and the elemental distribution in the particles. Quantum mechanical approaches and classic molecular dynamics methods are applied to model the structure and to determine the lowest energy configurations, the corresponding electronic structures, and understand structural transition of clusters upon heating, supported by experimental evidences. Our theoretical results demonstrate only the core/shell bimetallic structure have negative heat of formation, both for decahedra and octahedral, and energetically favoring core/shell structure is with Au covering the core of Cu, whose reverse core/shell structure is not stable and may transform back at a certain temperature. Experimental evidences corroborate these structures and their structural changes upon heating, demonstrating the possibility to manipulate the structure of such bimetallic nanoparticles using extra stimulating energy, which is in accordance with the calculated coherence energy proportions between the different configurations.

  1. Nanoparticle metrology of silica colloids and super-resolution studies using the ADOTA fluorophore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, Hazel L.; Yip, Philip; Rosenberg, Martin; Just Sørensen, Thomas; Laursen, Bo W.; Knight, Alex E.; Birch, David J. S.

    2016-04-01

    We describe how a new fluorescent dye, methyl ADOTA (N-methyl-azadioxatriangulenium tetrafluoroborate), is an improvement on dyes reported previously for measuring silica nanoparticle size in sols using the decay of fluorescence anisotropy. Me(thyl)-ADOTA possesses the unusual combination of having a red emission and a long fluorescence lifetime of ~20 ns, leaving it better-placed to reveal particle sizes at the upper end of the 1-10 nm measurement range. For stable LUDOX colloids, Me-ADOTA is shown to offer higher measurement precision in  ⩽1/30th of the measurement time required for dyes previously used. In measurement times of only ~20 min nanoparticle radii for LUDOX SM-AS, AM and AS-40 of 4.6  ±  0.3 nm, 5.9  ±  0.2 nm and 11.1  ±  1.1 nm, are in good agreement with two of the manufacturer’s values of 3.5 nm, 6 nm and 11 nm respectively. Unlike the Si-ADOTA (N-(4-(triethoxysilylethyl)urea-phenyl-) ADOTA tetrafluoroborate) derivative containing a reactive trimetoxysilane group, Me-ADOTA is shown to not induce aggregation of colloidal silica. Measurements on nanoparticles growing in an acidic silica hydrogel at pH 0.94, prior to the gel time of ~50 h, reveals an average nanoparticle size up to ~6.3 nm, significantly larger than the 4.5 nm reported previously. The difference is most certainly due to the longer fluorescence lifetime of Me-ADOTA (~20 ns) revealing the presence of larger particles. Studies of growing silica clusters in an alcogel of tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) were able to resolve a monotonically increasing average radius of 1.42  ±  0.10 nm to 1.81  ±  0.14 nm over a period of 48 h. We have also assessed a carboxylic acid derivative of ADOTA (N-(3-carboxypropylene)-ADOTA tetrafluoroborate-Acid-ADOTA) using dSTORM super-resolution microscopy. Although demonstrating high photochemical stability and blinking, its lower brightness and relative propensity to aggregate

  2. Dumbbell-like Au-Fe3O4 nanoparticles: a new nanostructure for supercapacitors.

    PubMed

    Liu, Sheng; Guo, Shaojun; Sun, Shouheng; You, Xiao-Zeng

    2015-03-21

    Monodispersed dumbbell-like Au-Fe3O4 nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized and studied for use in supercapacitors. These dumbbell NPs show Au/Fe3O4-size dependent capacitive behaviors and the 7-14 nm Au-Fe3O4 NPs have the best specific capacitance of 464 F g(-1) at 1 A g(-1) and capacity retention of 86.4% after 1000 cycles, much larger than pure Fe3O4 NPs (160 F g(-1) and 72.8% retention). This capacitive enhancement is believed to arise from the Au-induced increase in electron transfer across the dumbbell-like NPs. Thise report demonstrates a new strategy to enhance oxide NP capacitance for applications in high performance supercapacitors.

  3. Biocompatible D-Penicillamine Conjugated Au Nanoparticles: Targeting Intracellular Free Copper Ions for Detoxification

    PubMed Central

    Kandanapitiye, Murthi S.; Gunathilake, Chamila; Jaroniec, Mietek

    2015-01-01

    High thiophillicicity of the Au-nanoparticle (Au NP) surface leads to covalent attachment of D-penicillamine molecules to Au NPs to form biocompatible D-penicillamine conjugated Au NPs. The latter are highly water-dispersible, exhibit no cytotoxicity, and can readily penetrate the cell membrane to target intracellular free copper ions for selective copper detoxification in the presence of the other divalent essential metal ions including Zn(II), Fe(II), Mn(II), Ca(II), and Mg(II), thus opening up a new avenue for improving the efficacy and pharmacokinetics of D-penicillamine, an important clinical drug currently used to treat the copper overload-related diseases and disorders. PMID:26213624

  4. Structure-induced enhancement in electrooxidation of trimetallic FePtAu nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Sen; Guo, Shaojun; Zhu, Huiyuan; Su, Dong; Sun, Shouheng

    2012-03-21

    Using FePtAu nanoparticles (NPs) as an example, this Communication demonstrates a new structure-control strategy to tune and optimize NP catalysis. The presence of Au in FePtAu facilitates FePt structure transformation from chemically disordered face-centered cubic (fcc) structure to chemically ordered face-centered tetragonal (fct) structure, and further promotes formic acid oxidation reaction (FAOR). The fct-FePtAu NPs have mass activity as high as 2809.9 mA/mg Pt and retain 92.5% of this activity after a 13 h stability test. They become the most efficient NP catalyst ever reported for FAOR. This structure-control strategy can be extended to other multimetallic NP systems, providing a general approach to advanced NP catalysts with desired activity and durability control for practical applications.

  5. Green synthesis of colloidal copper oxide nanoparticles using Carica papaya and its application in photocatalytic dye degradation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sankar, Renu; Manikandan, Perumal; Malarvizhi, Viswanathan; Fathima, Tajudeennasrin; Shivashangari, Kanchi Subramanian; Ravikumar, Vilwanathan

    2014-03-01

    Copper oxide (CuO) nanoparticles were synthesized by treating 5 mM cupric sulphate with Carica papaya leaves extract. The kinetics of the reaction was studied using UV-visible spectrophotometry. An intense surface Plasmon resonance between 250-300 nm in the UV-vis spectrum clearly reveals the formation of copper oxide nanoparticles. The results of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS) exhibited that the green synthesized copper oxide nanoparticles are rod in shape and having a mean particle size of 140 nm, further negative zeta potential disclose its stability at -28.9 mV. The Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy results examined the occurrence of bioactive functional groups required for the reduction of copper ions. X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectra confirmed the copper oxide nanoparticles crystalline nature. Furthermore, colloidal copper oxide nanoparticles effectively degrade the Coomassie brilliant blue R-250 dye beneath the sunlight.

  6. Green synthesis of colloidal copper oxide nanoparticles using Carica papaya and its application in photocatalytic dye degradation.

    PubMed

    Sankar, Renu; Manikandan, Perumal; Malarvizhi, Viswanathan; Fathima, Tajudeennasrin; Shivashangari, Kanchi Subramanian; Ravikumar, Vilwanathan

    2014-01-01

    Copper oxide (CuO) nanoparticles were synthesized by treating 5 mM cupric sulphate with Carica papaya leaves extract. The kinetics of the reaction was studied using UV-visible spectrophotometry. An intense surface Plasmon resonance between 250-300 nm in the UV-vis spectrum clearly reveals the formation of copper oxide nanoparticles. The results of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS) exhibited that the green synthesized copper oxide nanoparticles are rod in shape and having a mean particle size of 140 nm, further negative zeta potential disclose its stability at -28.9 mV. The Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy results examined the occurrence of bioactive functional groups required for the reduction of copper ions. X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectra confirmed the copper oxide nanoparticles crystalline nature. Furthermore, colloidal copper oxide nanoparticles effectively degrade the Coomassie brilliant blue R-250 dye beneath the sunlight.

  7. Biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles by Aspergillum sp. WL-Au for degradation of aromatic pollutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, Yuanyuan; Pei, Xiaofang; Shen, Wenli; Zhang, Xuwang; Wang, Jingwei; Zhang, Zhaojing; Li, Shuzhen; You, Shengnan; Ma, Fang; Zhou, Jiti

    2017-04-01

    A simple method for synthesis of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) using Aspergillum sp. WL-Au was presented in this study. According to UV-vis spectra and transmission electron microscopy images, the shape and size of AuNPs were affected by different parameters, including buffer solution, pH, biomass and HAuCl4 concentrations. Phosphate sodium buffer was more suitable for extracellular synthesis of AuNPs, and the optimal conditions for AuNPs synthesis were pH 7.0, biomass 100 mg/mL and HAuCl4 3 mM, leading to the production of spherical and pseudo-spherical nanoparticles. The biosynthesized AuNPs possessed excellent catalytic activities for the reduction of 2-nitrophenol, 3-nitrophenol, 4-nitrophenol, o-nitroaniline and m-nitroaniline in the presence of NaBH4, and the catalytic rate constants were calculated to be 6.3×10-3 s-1, 5.5×10-3 s-1, 10.6×10-3 s-1, 8.4×10-3 s-1 and 13.8×10-3 s-1, respectively. The AuNPs were also able to catalyze the decolorization of various azo dyes (e.g. Cationic Red X-GRL, Acid Orange II and Acid scarlet GR) using NaBH4 as the reductant, and the decolorization rates reached 91.0-96.4% within 7 min. The present study should provide a potential candidate for green synthesis of AuNPs, which could serve as efficient catalysts for aromatic pollutants degradation.

  8. Hybrid nanostructures of well-organized arrays of colloidal quantum dots and a self-assembled monolayer of gold nanoparticles for enhanced fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiaoying; McBride, Sean P.; Jaeger, Heinrich M.; Nealey, Paul F.

    2016-07-01

    Hybrid nanomaterials comprised of well-organized arrays of colloidal semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) in close proximity to metal nanoparticles (NPs) represent an appealing system for high-performance, spectrum-tunable photon sources with controlled photoluminescence. Experimental realization of such materials requires well-defined QD arrays and precisely controlled QD-metal interspacing. This long-standing challenge is tackled through a strategy that synergistically combines lateral confinement and vertical stacking. Lithographically generated nanoscale patterns with tailored surface chemistry confine the QDs into well-organized arrays with high selectivity through chemical pattern directed assembly, while subsequent coating with a monolayer of close-packed Au NPs introduces the plasmonic component for fluorescence enhancement. The results show uniform fluorescence emission in large-area ordered arrays for the fabricated QD structures and demonstrate five-fold fluorescence amplification for red, yellow, and green QDs in the presence of the Au NP monolayer. Encapsulation of QDs with a silica shell is shown to extend the design space for reliable QD/metal coupling with stronger enhancement of 11 times through the tuning of QD-metal spatial separation. This approach provides new opportunities for designing hybrid nanomaterials with tailored array structures and multiple functionalities for applications such as multiplexed optical coding, color display, and quantum transduction.

  9. Hydrodechlorination Catalysis of Pd-on-Au Nanoparticles Varies with Particle Size

    SciTech Connect

    Pretzer, Lori A.; Song, Hyun J.; Fang, Yu-Lun; Zhao, Zhun; Guo, Neng; Wu, Tianpin; Arslan, Ilke; Miller, Jeffrey T.; Wong, Michael S.

    2013-02-01

    The dependence of bimetallic PdAu catalytic activity on the relative ratios of Pd and Au has been theoretically predicted and experimentally observed for a number of reactions. Trichloroethene (TCE), a common carcinogenic solvent that is difficult to remove from contaminated groundwater in many industrialized nations, can be chemically degraded especially rapidly with Au nanoparticles partially coated with Pd ("Pd-on-Au NPs"). These NPs catalyze the room-temperature water-phase TCE hydrodechlorination (HDC) reaction with activities that follow a volcano-shape dependence on Pd surface coverage. The effect of particle size is not known, though. Pd-on-Au NPs synthesized with 3, 7, and 10 nm Au NPs and Pd surface coverages between 0 and 150% were studied in detail. Volcano-shape dependence on Au particle size and Pd surface coverage was observed, with 7 nm Au NPs with a Pd coverage of 60-70% having the highest TCE HDC activity. Extended x-ray absorption fine-structure spectroscopy (EXAFS) revealed the correlation was strongest between catalytic activity and the presence of non-oxidized Pd ensembles of ~2-3 atoms in contact with ~8-10 Au atoms. Isolated Pd atoms and Pd ensembles were visualized for the first time through aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). This study provides the most direct evidence yet for Pd-on-Au NPs containing 2-dimensional Pd ensembles as the active sites for TCE HDC and likely for other chemical reactions. A portion of the research was performed using EMSL, a national scientific user facility sponsored by the Department of Energy's Office of Biological and Environmental Research and located at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. This research was supported by the Laboratory Directed Research and Development program at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for the US Department of Energy.

  10. Use of aerosol route to fabricate positively charged Au/Fe3O4 Janus nanoparticles as multifunctional nanoplatforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byeon, Jeong Hoon; Park, Jae Hong

    2016-10-01

    Gold (Au)-decorated iron oxide (Fe3O4), Au/Fe3O4, Janus nanoparticles were fabricated via the continuous route for aerosol Au incorporation with Fe3O4 domains synthesized in an aqueous medium as multifunctional nanoplatforms. The fabricated nanoparticles were subsequently exposed to 185-nm UV light to generate positive charges on Au surfaces, and their activities were tested in computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, gene-delivery and photothermal therapy. No additional polymeric coatings of the Janus particles also had a unique ability to suppress inflammatory responses in macrophages challenged with lipopolysaccharide, which may be due to the absence of amine groups.

  11. CuS2-Passivated Au-Core, Au3Cu-Shell Nanoparticles Analyzed by Atomistic-Resolution Cs-Corrected STEM

    PubMed Central

    Khanal, Subarna; Casillas, Gilberto; Bhattarai, Nabraj; Velázquez-Salazar, J. Jesús; Santiago, Ulises; Ponce, Arturo; Mejía-Rosales, Sergio

    2013-01-01

    Au-core, Au3Cu-alloyed shell nanoparticles passivated with CuS2 were fabricated by the polyol method, and characterized by Cs-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy. The analysis of the high-resolution micrographs reveals that these nanoparticles have decahedral structure with shell periodicity, and that each of the particles is composed by Au core and Au3Cu alloyed shell surrounded by CuS2 surface layer. X-ray diffraction measurements and results from numerical simulations confirm these findings. From the atomic resolution micrographs we identified edge dislocations at the twin boundaries of the particles, as well as evidence of the diffusion of Cu atoms into the Au region, and the reordering of the lattice on the surface, close to the vertices of the particle. These defects will impact the atomic and electronic structures thereby changing the physical and chemical properties of the nanoparticles. On the other hand we show for the first time the formation of an ordered superlattice of Au3Cu and a self-capping layer made using one of the alloy metals. This has significant consequences on the physical mechanism that form multi component nanoparticles. PMID:23802756

  12. From the Au nano-clusters to the nanoparticles on 4H-SiC (0001).

    PubMed

    Li, Ming-Yu; Zhang, Quanzhen; Pandey, Puran; Sui, Mao; Kim, Eun-Soo; Lee, Jihoon

    2015-09-10

    The control over the configuration, size, and density of Au nanoparticles (NPs) has offered a promising route to control the spatial confinement of electrons and photons, as a result, Au NPs with a various configuration, size and density are witnessed in numerous applications. In this work, we investigate the evolution of self-assembled Au nanostructures on 4H-SiC (0001) by the systematic variation of annealing temperature (AT) with several deposition amount (DA). With the relatively high DAs (8 and 15 nm), depending on the AT variation, the surface morphology drastically evolve in two distinctive phases, i.e. (I) irregular nano-mounds and (II) hexagonal nano-crystals. The thermal energy activates adatoms to aggregate resulting in the formation of self-assembled irregular Au nano-mounds based on diffusion limited agglomeration at comparatively low annealing temperature, which is also accompanied with the formations of hillocks and granules due to the dewetting of Au films and surface reordering. At high temperature, hexagonal Au nano-crystals form with facets along {111} and {100} likely due to anisotropic distribution of surface energy induced by the increased volume of NPs. With the small DA (3 nm), only dome shaped Au NPs are fabricated along with the variation of AT from low to elevated temperature.

  13. Development of morin-conjugated Au nanoparticles: Exploring the interaction efficiency with BSA using spectroscopic methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, Hua-Li; Hu, Yan-Jun; Huang, Hong-Gui; Jiang, Shan; Tu, Bao

    2014-09-01

    In order to enhance its interaction efficiency with biomacromolecules for the usage as a therapeutic agent, we have conjugated morin, an antioxidant activity and anti-tumor drug, with citrate-coated Au nanoparticles (M-C-AuNPs). M-C-AuNPs were prepared by reducing chloroauric acid using trisodium citrate in the boiling condition, and the resulted M-C-AuNPs were characterized by UV-vis absorption spectroscopy, Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and FTIR analysis. In this article, UV-vis absorption spectroscopy in combination with fluorescence spectroscopy, and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy were employed to investigate the interactions between M-C-AuNPs and bovine serum albumin (BSA), C-AuNPs and BSA in a phosphate buffer at pH 7.4. By comparing the quenching constant KSV, effective quenching constant Ka, binding constant Kb and the number of binding sites n, it is clearly suggested that M-C-AuNPs could enhance the binding force of morin with BSA, which would pave the way for the design of nanotherapeutic agents with improved functionality.

  14. From the Au nano-clusters to the nanoparticles on 4H-SiC (0001)

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ming-Yu; Zhang, Quanzhen; Pandey, Puran; Sui, Mao; Kim, Eun-Soo; Lee, Jihoon

    2015-01-01

    The control over the configuration, size, and density of Au nanoparticles (NPs) has offered a promising route to control the spatial confinement of electrons and photons, as a result, Au NPs with a various configuration, size and density are witnessed in numerous applications. In this work, we investigate the evolution of self-assembled Au nanostructures on 4H-SiC (0001) by the systematic variation of annealing temperature (AT) with several deposition amount (DA). With the relatively high DAs (8 and 15 nm), depending on the AT variation, the surface morphology drastically evolve in two distinctive phases, i.e. (I) irregular nano-mounds and (II) hexagonal nano-crystals. The thermal energy activates adatoms to aggregate resulting in the formation of self-assembled irregular Au nano-mounds based on diffusion limited agglomeration at comparatively low annealing temperature, which is also accompanied with the formations of hillocks and granules due to the dewetting of Au films and surface reordering. At high temperature, hexagonal Au nano-crystals form with facets along {111} and {100} likely due to anisotropic distribution of surface energy induced by the increased volume of NPs. With the small DA (3 nm), only dome shaped Au NPs are fabricated along with the variation of AT from low to elevated temperature. PMID:26354098

  15. From the Au nano-clusters to the nanoparticles on 4H-SiC (0001)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ming-Yu; Zhang, Quanzhen; Pandey, Puran; Sui, Mao; Kim, Eun-Soo; Lee, Jihoon

    2015-09-01

    The control over the configuration, size, and density of Au nanoparticles (NPs) has offered a promising route to control the spatial confinement of electrons and photons, as a result, Au NPs with a various configuration, size and density are witnessed in numerous applications. In this work, we investigate the evolution of self-assembled Au nanostructures on 4H-SiC (0001) by the systematic variation of annealing temperature (AT) with several deposition amount (DA). With the relatively high DAs (8 and 15 nm), depending on the AT variation, the surface morphology drastically evolve in two distinctive phases, i.e. (I) irregular nano-mounds and (II) hexagonal nano-crystals. The thermal energy activates adatoms to aggregate resulting in the formation of self-assembled irregular Au nano-mounds based on diffusion limited agglomeration at comparatively low annealing temperature, which is also accompanied with the formations of hillocks and granules due to the dewetting of Au films and surface reordering. At high temperature, hexagonal Au nano-crystals form with facets along {111} and {100} likely due to anisotropic distribution of surface energy induced by the increased volume of NPs. With the small DA (3 nm), only dome shaped Au NPs are fabricated along with the variation of AT from low to elevated temperature.

  16. Colloidal Stability of Gold Nanoparticles Coated with Multithiol-Poly(ethylene glycol) Ligands: Importance of Structural Constraints of the Sulfur Anchoring Groups

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-08-13

    Multithiol- Poly (ethylene glycol) Ligands: Importance of Structural Constraints of the Sulfur Anchoring Groups Eunkeu Oh, Kimihiro Susumu, Antti...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Colloidal Stability of Gold Nanoparticles Coated with Multithiol- Poly (ethylene glycol) Ligands: Importance of Structural Constraints...Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 - 1 - Colloidal Stability of Gold Nanoparticles Coated with Multithiol- Poly (ethylene

  17. Advanced Characterization Techniques for Nanoparticles for Cancer Research: Applications of SEM and NanoSIMS for Locating Au Nanoparticles in Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kempen, Paul J; Hitzman, Chuck; Sasportas, Laura S; Gambhir, Sanjiv S; Sinclair, Robert

    2014-01-01

    The ability of nano secondary ion mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS) to locate and analyze Raman active gold core nanoparticles (R-AuNPs) in a biological system is compared with the standard analysis using the scanning electron microscope (SEM). The same cell with R-AuNPs on and inside the macrophage was analyzed with both techniques to directly compare them. SEM analysis showed a large number of nanoparticles within the cell. Subsequent NanoSIMS analysis showed fewer R-AuNPs with lower spatial resolution. SEM was determined to be superior to NanoSIMS for the analysis of inorganic nanoparticles in complex biological systems. PMID:25364091

  18. Advanced Characterization Techniques for Nanoparticles for Cancer Research: Applications of SEM and NanoSIMS for Locating Au Nanoparticles in Cells.

    PubMed

    Kempen, Paul J; Hitzman, Chuck; Sasportas, Laura S; Gambhir, Sanjiv S; Sinclair, Robert

    2013-05-13

    The ability of nano secondary ion mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS) to locate and analyze Raman active gold core nanoparticles (R-AuNPs) in a biological system is compared with the standard analysis using the scanning electron microscope (SEM). The same cell with R-AuNPs on and inside the macrophage was analyzed with both techniques to directly compare them. SEM analysis showed a large number of nanoparticles within the cell. Subsequent NanoSIMS analysis showed fewer R-AuNPs with lower spatial resolution. SEM was determined to be superior to NanoSIMS for the analysis of inorganic nanoparticles in complex biological systems.

  19. Controllable synthesis and characterization of Fe3O4/Au composite nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, Yan; Jin, Yan-Yan; Si, Jian-Chao; Peng, Ming-Li; Wang, Xiao-Fang; Chen, Chao; Cui, Ya-Li

    2015-04-01

    Fe3O4/Au composite nanoparticles (GoldMag NPs) have received considerable attention because of their advantageous properties arisen from both individual Au and Fe3O4 nanoparticles. Many efforts have been devoted to the synthesis of these composite nanoparticles. Herein, GoldMag NPs were reported to be synthesized by two-step method. Fe3O4 nanoparticles were prepared by co-precipitation and modified by the citric acid, and then citric acid-coated Fe3O4 nanoparticles were used as seeds in sodium citrate solution to reduce the HAuCl4. The size of obtained nanoparticles was geared from 25 to 300 nm by controlling the concentration of reactants. The GoldMag NPs were characterized by UV-vis spectrometer, dynamic light scattering (DLS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The GoldMag NPs showed good superparamagnetism at room temperature and were well dispersed in water with surface plasmon resonance absorption peak varied from 538 nm to 570 nm.

  20. Mechanism for the photoreduction of poly(vinylpyrrolidone) to HAuCl4 and the dominating saturable absorption of Au colloids.

    PubMed

    Fan, Guanghua; Han, Yanhua; Luo, Suilian; Li, Yutong; Qu, Shiliang; Wang, Qiang; Gao, Renxi; Chen, Minrui; Han, Min

    2016-04-07

    Both fabrication of Au nano-objects and the nonlinear optical properties of Au nano-objects are the focus of research. In the present work, Au nanoparticles with different mean sizes (18, 32, 42, and 70 nm) are controllably fabricated in ethanol by changing the concentration of poly(vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP) and HAuCl4, as well as the power of continuous wave UV light at 365 nm. PVP acts as both reducing and protective agent. The mechanism of photoreduction of PVP to HAuCl4 is proposed. PVP undergoes a series of chemical reactions which include the attack of the hydrogen atom on the tertiary carbon atom at the α-position of the nitrogen atom, production of a hydroxyl radical, and chain scission. The hydroxyl radical combines with the hydrogen atom produced through the dissociation of HAuCl4, which facilitates the decomposition of HAuCl4. The fabrication mechanism of Au nanoparticles is discussed. The nonlinear absorption of these Au nanoparticles is investigated; all of them exhibit saturable absorption, and the saturable absorption dominates the nonlinear absorption with the increase of laser energy. The dominance of saturable absorption in the nonlinear absorption is due to the stronger single-photon absorbed intraband absorption from the ground state to the first excited state in the conduction band, the weaker excited state absorption in the conduction band, and the weaker two-photon absorption from the d band to the conduction band.

  1. Effect of Au nano-particles doping on polycrystalline YBCO high temperature superconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dadras, Sedigheh; Gharehgazloo, Zahra

    2016-07-01

    In this research, we prepared different Au nanoparticles (0.1-2 wt%) doped YBCO high temperature superconductor samples by sol-gel method. To characterize the samples, we used X-Ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis. Results show the formation of orthorhombic phase of superconductivity for all prepared samples. We observed that by adding Au nanoparticles, the grains' size of the samples reduces from 76 nm to 47 nm as well. The critical current density (Jc) and transition temperature (Tc) were determined using current versus voltage (I-V) and resistivity versus temperature (ρ-T) measurements, respectively. We found that by increasing Au nanoparticles in the compound, in comparison to the pure YBCO sample, the transition temperature, pinning energy and critical current density will increase. Also, the highest Jc is for 1 wt% Au doped YBCO compound that its critical current density is about 8 times more than the Jc of pure one in 0.7 T magnetic field.

  2. Construction of Au nanoparticles on choline chloride modified glassy carbon electrode for sensitive detection of nitrite.

    PubMed

    Wang, Po; Mai, Zhibin; Dai, Zong; Li, Yongxin; Zou, Xiaoyong

    2009-07-15

    A promising electrochemical sensor for sensitive determination of nitrite was fabricated by construction of Au nanoparticles on the surface of choline chloride (Ch) modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE). Field emission scanning electron microscope, powder X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and electrochemical techniques were used for the surface characterization of the modified electrode. It was demonstrated that Ch was covalently immobilized onto the GCE surface forming a planted Ch monolayer, which could provide a suitable supporting material for the construction of Au nanoparticles. As a result, the Au nanoparticles with average size of about 110 nm were assembled to form a flowerlike structure on the surface of Ch monolayer. Moreover, the uniform nano-Au/Ch film exhibited remarkable electrocatalytic activity towards the oxidation of nitrite with obvious reduction of overpotential. Under the optimum conditions, the linear range for the detection of nitrite was 4.0 x 10(-7) to 7.5 x 10(-4)M with a high sensitivity of 0.354 microA microM(-1), and a low detection limit of 1.0 x 10(-7)M. The proposed method was successfully applied in the detection of nitrite in water samples and sausage samples, and the results were consistent with those obtained by ion chromatography and UV-visible spectrophotometric methods.

  3. Enzyme biosensor based on the immobilization of HRP on SiO₂/BSA/Au composite nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Shirong; Yuan, Ruo; Chai, Yaqin; Zhuo, Ying; Yang, Xia; Yuan, Yali

    2010-12-01

    In this work, an enzyme biosensor based on the immobilization of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) on SiO₂/BSA/Au/thionine/nafion-modified gold electrode was fabricated successfully. Firstly, nafion was dropped on the surface of the gold electrode to form a nafion film followed by chemisorption of thionine (Thi) as an electron mediator via the ion-exchange interaction between the Thi and nafion. Subsequently, the SiO₂/BSA/Au composite nanoparticles were assembled onto Thi film through the covalent bounding with the amino groups of Thi. Finally, HRP was immobilized on the SiO₂/BSA/Au composite nanoparticles due to the covalent conjugation to construct an enzyme biosensor. The surface topographies of the SiO₂/BSA/Au composite nanoparticles were investigated by using scanning electronic microscopy. The stepwise self-assemble procedure of the biosensor was further characterized by means of cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry. The enzyme biosensor showed high sensitivity, good stability and selectivity, a wide linear response to hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂) in the range of 8.0 x 10⁻⁶  ~3.72 x 10⁻³ mol/L, with a detection limit of 2.0 x 10⁻⁶ mol/L. The Michaelies-Menten constant K(app)(M) value was estimated to be 2.3 mM.

  4. Characterization of localized surface plasmon resonance transducers produced from Au25 nanoparticle multilayers

    PubMed Central

    Vaccarello, Paul; Tran, Linh; Meinen, Julia; Kwon, Chuhee; Abate, Yohannes; Shon, Young-Seok

    2012-01-01

    This article reports the preparation of gold plasmonic transducers using a nanoparticle self-assembly/heating method and the characterization of the films using scattering-type scanning near-field optical microscopy (s-SNOM). Nanoparticle-polymer multilayer films were prepared by the layer-by-layer assembly on glass slides by alternating exposures to monodisperse Au25 nanoparticles and ionic polymer linkers. Thermal evaporation of organic matters from the nanoparticle-polymer multilayer films at 600 °C allowed the nanoparticles to coalescence and form nanostructured films. Characterization of the nanostructured films generated from Au25 nanoparticles using atomic force microscopy (AFM) showed that the films have rounded, small, island-like morphologies (d: 30-50 nm) with a pit in the center of many islands. However, further characterizations with s-SNOM revealed that the produced nanoislands contain a single gold cluster in a pit surrounded by donut-shaped dielectric species. Formation of such a structure is thought to be resulted from the embedding of gold clusters under the reorganized polysiloxane binder coatings and glass surfaces during heat treatment of the Au25 nanoparticle multilayer films. The nanostructured films displayed strong surface plasmon resonance bands in UV-vis spectra with a peak absorbance occurring at ~545-550 nm. The optical sensing capability of the films was examined using D-glucose-functionalized gold island films with the interaction of Concanavalin A (ConA). The result showed that the adsorption of ConA on island films causes a large change in the LSPR band intensity. PMID:22822292

  5. Impacts of select organic ligands on the colloidal stability, dissolution dynamics, and toxicity of silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Pokhrel, Lok R; Dubey, Brajesh; Scheuerman, Phillip R

    2013-11-19

    Key understanding of potential transformations that may occur on silver nanoparticle (AgNP) surface upon interaction with naturally ubiquitous organic ligands (e.g., -SH (thoil), humic acid, or -COO (carboxylate)) is limited. Herein we investigated how dissolved organic carbon (DOC), -SH (in cysteine, a well-known Ag(+) chelating agent), and -COO (in trolox, a well-known antioxidant) could alter the colloidal stability, dissolution rate, and toxicity of citrate-functionalized AgNPs (citrate-AgNPs) against a keystone crustacean Daphnia magna. Cysteine, DOC, or trolox amendment of citrate-AgNPs differentially modified particle size, surface properties (charge, plasmonic spectra), and ion release dynamics, thereby attenuating (with cysteine or trolox) or promoting (with DOC) AgNP toxicity. Except with DOC amendment, the combined toxicity of AgNPs and released Ag under cysteine or trolox amendment was lower than of AgNO3 alone. The results of this study show that citrate-AgNP toxicity can be associated with oxidative stress, ion release, and the organism biology. Our evidence suggests that specific organic ligands available in the receiving waters can differentially surface modify AgNPs and alter their environmental persistence (changing dissolution dynamics) and subsequently the toxicity; hence, we caveat to generalize that surface modified nanoparticles upon environmental release may not be toxic to receptor organisms.

  6. Colloidal complexed silver and silver nanoparticles in extrapallial fluid of Mytilus edulis.

    PubMed

    Zuykov, Michael; Pelletier, Emilien; Demers, Serge

    2011-02-01

    Metal transport in mollusk extrapallial fluid (EPF) that acts as a "bridge" between soft tissues and shell has surprisingly received little attention until now. Using ultrafiltration and radiotracer techniques we determined silver concentrations and speciation in the EPF of the blue mussel Mytilus edulis after short-term uptake and depuration laboratory experiments. Radiolabelled silver ((¹¹⁰m)Ag) was used in dissolved or nanoparticulate phases (AgNPs < 40 nm), with a similar low Ag concentration (total radioactive and cold Ag ~0.7 μg/L) in a way that mussels could uptake radiotracers only from seawater. Our results indicated that silver nanoparticles were transported to the EPF of blue mussels at a level similar to the Ag ionic form. Bulk activity of radiolabelled silver in the EPF represented only up to 7% of the bulk activity measured in the whole mussels. The EPF extracted from mussels exposed to both treatments exhibited an Ag colloidal complexed form based on EPF ultrafiltration through a 3 kDa filter. This original study brings new insights to internal circulation of nanoparticles in living organisms and contributes to the international effort in studying the potential impacts of engineered nanomaterials on marine bivalves which play an essential role in coastal ecosystems, and are important contributors to human food supply from the sea.

  7. Heteroaggregation of titanium dioxide nanoparticles with model natural colloids under environmentally relevant conditions.

    PubMed

    Praetorius, Antonia; Labille, Jérôme; Scheringer, Martin; Thill, Antoine; Hungerbühler, Konrad; Bottero, Jean-Yves

    2014-09-16

    The heteroaggregation of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) with natural colloids (NCs), which are ubiquitous in natural surface waters, is a crucial process affecting the environmental transport and fate of ENPs. Attachment efficiencies for heteroaggregation, α hetero, are required as input parameters in environmental fate models to predict ENP concentrations and contribute to ENP risk assessment. Here, we present a novel method for determining α hetero values by using a combination of laser diffraction measurements and aggregation modeling based on the Smoluchowski equation. Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs, 15 nm) were used to demonstrate this new approach together with larger silicon dioxide particles (SiO2, 0.5 μm) representing NCs. Heteroaggregation experiments were performed at different environmentally relevant solution conditions. At pH 5 the TiO2 NPs and the SiO2 particles are of opposite charge, resulting in α hetero values close to 1. At pH 8, where all particles are negatively charged, α hetero was strongly affected by the solution conditions, with α hetero ranging from <0.001 at low ionic strength to 1 at conditions with high NaCl or CaCl2 concentrations. The presence of humic acid stabilized the system against heteroaggregation.

  8. Synthesis of gold nanoparticles by laser ablation of an Au foil inside and outside ionic liquids.

    PubMed

    Wender, Heberton; Andreazza, Marcos L; Correia, Ricardo R B; Teixeira, Sérgio R; Dupont, Jairton

    2011-03-01

    Stable gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were prepared by simple laser ablation of an Au foil placed inside or outside four ionic liquids (ILs), without the addition of any external chemical reagent. Irregular spherical AuNPs with a diameter range of 5 to 20 nm were produced after laser ablation of an Au foil located inside or outside the ILs 1-n-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate (BMI·BF4), 1-n-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate (BMI·PF6) and 1-(3-cyanopropyl)-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ((BCN)MI·NTf2). Additionally, whereas laser ablation inside the IL 1-n-butyl-3-methylimidazolium dicyanamide BMI·N(CN)2 produced flower-like shaped nanoparticles of about 50 nm in size, ablation outside this IL presented similar results to the others ILs studied, as determined by TEM and UV-Vis. The size and shape of the prepared NPs were related to where NP nucleation and growth occurred, i.e., at the IL surface or within the IL. Indeed, the chemical composition of the IL/air interface and surface ion orientation played important roles in the stabilization of the AuNPs formed by laser ablation outside the ILs.

  9. Molecular interactions of different size AuNP-COOH nanoparticles with human fibrinogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Jun; Sun, Mingcong; Zhu, Jiyu; Gao, Changyou

    2013-08-01

    Protein adsorption influences greatly the performance of materials used in biotechnology and biomedicine. The binding of fibrinogen (Fg) to nanoparticles (NPs) can result in protein unfolding and exposure of cryptic epitopes that subsequently interact with cell surface receptors. The response and its degree are dependent on the size, charge, and concentration of the NPs. In this study the binding kinetics of human Fg to negatively charged 11-mercaptoundecanoic acid-functionalized gold nanoparticles (AuNPs-COOH) ranging from 5.6 to 64.5 nm were examined. The larger NPs bound Fg with a larger number of proteins per square unit and a higher dissociation rate (Kd'), but with decreased affinity. By contrast, the 5.6 nm AuNPs-COOH behaved in a cooperative manner for Fg adsorption. In the presence of excess Fg, only the 64.5 nm AuNPs-COOH showed severe aggregation, whose degree was alleviated in a dilute Fg solution. The Fg is adsorbed through a side-on configuration and both side-on and end-on configurations on the smaller (5.6 and 14.2 nm) and 31.5 nm AuNPs-COOH, respectively. It also retains the native conformation. By contrast, on the 64.5 nm AuNPs-COOH the Fg adopts the end-on configuration and loses most of the secondary structure.

  10. Preparation and photocatalytic activity of eccentric Au-titania core-shell nanoparticles by block copolymer templates.

    PubMed

    Li, Xue; Fu, Xiaoning; Yang, Hui

    2011-02-21

    A novel route for a preparation of eccentric Au-titania core-shell nanoparticles using gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) with block copolymer shells as a template is reported. AuNPs with poly(2-vinyl pyridine)-block-poly(ethylene oxide) (PVP-b-PEO) block copolymer shells are first prepared by UV irradiation of the solution of PVP-b-PEO/HAuCl(4) complexes. Then the sol-gel reaction of titanium tetra-isopropoxide (TTIP) selectively on the surfaces of AuNPs leads to Au-titania core-shell composite nanoparticles. The eccentric Au-titania core-shell nanoparticles are obtained from the Au-titania core-shell composite nanoparticles by removal of organic interlayer by UV treatment. Photocatalytic activities of the resulting eccentric core-shell nanoparticles are investigated in terms of the degradation of methylene blue (MB). The results show that the eccentric core-shell structures endow the catalyst with greatly enhanced photocatalytic activity.

  11. "Soft and rigid" dithiols and Au nanoparticles grafting on plasma-treated polyethyleneterephthalate

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Surface of polyethyleneterephthalate (PET) was modified by plasma discharge and subsequently grafted with dithiols (1, 2-ethanedithiol (ED) or 4, 4'-biphenyldithiol) to create the thiol (-SH) groups on polymer surface. This "short" dithiols are expected to be fixed via one of -SH groups to radicals created by the plasma treatment on the PET surface. "Free" -SH groups are allowed to interact with Au nanoparticles. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and electrokinetic analysis (EA, zeta potential) were used for the characterization of surface chemistry of the modified PET. Surface morphology and roughness of the modified PET were studied by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The results from XPS, FTIR, EA and AFM show that the Au nanoparticles are grafted on the modified surface only in the case of biphenyldithiol pretreatment. The possible explanation is that the "flexible" molecule of ethanedithiol is bounded to the activated PET surface with both -SH groups. On the contrary, the "rigid" molecule of biphenyldithiol is bounded via only one -SH group to the modified PET surface and the second one remains "free" for the consecutive chemical reaction with Au nanoparticle. The gold nanoparticles are distributed relatively homogenously over the polymer surface. PMID:22117780

  12. Green synthesis and applications of Au-Ag bimetallic nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meena Kumari, M.; Jacob, John; Philip, Daizy

    2015-02-01

    This paper reports for the first time the synthesis of bimetallic nanoparticles at room temperature using the fruit juice of pomegranate. Simultaneous reduction of gold and silver ions in different molar ratios leads to the formation of alloy as well as core-shell nanostructures. The nanoparticles have been characterized using UV-vis spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. The synthesized alloy particles are used as catalysts in the reduction of 2-, 3-, 4-nitrophenols to the corresponding amines and in the degradation of methyl orange. The reduction kinetics for all the reactions follows pseudo-first order. The rate constants follow the order k4-nitrophenol < k2-nitrophenol < k3-nitrophenol. Thermal conductivity is measured as a function of volume fraction and it is observed that the incorporation of the alloy nanoparticles enhances the thermal conductivity of the base fluid (water) showing nanofluid application. The nitric oxide and hydroxyl radical scavenging activity shown by the nanoparticles promise the potential application in biomedical field.

  13. Plasmonic effects of au/ag bimetallic multispiked nanoparticles for photovoltaic applications.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Manisha; Pudasaini, Pushpa Raj; Ruiz-Zepeda, Francisco; Vinogradova, Ekaterina; Ayon, Arturo A

    2014-09-10

    In recent years, there has been considerable interest in the use of plasmons, that is, free electron oscillations in conductors, to boost the performance of both organic and inorganic thin film solar cells. This has been driven by the possibility of employing thin active layers in solar cells in order to reduce materials costs, and is enabled by significant advances in fabrication technology. The ability of surface plasmons in metallic nanostructures to guide and confine light in the nanometer scale has opened up new design possibilities for solar cell devices. Here, we report the synthesis and characterization of highly monodisperse, reasonably stable, multipode Au/Ag bimetallic nanostructures using an inorganic additive as a ligand for photovoltaic applications. A promising surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) effect has been observed for the synthesized bimetallic Au/Ag multispiked nanoparticles, which compare favorably well with their Au and Ag spherical nanoparticle counterparts. The synthesized plasmonic nanostructures were incorporated on the rear surface of an ultrathin planar c-silicon/organic polymer hybrid solar cell, and the overall effect on photovoltaic performance was investigated. A promising enhancement in solar cell performance parameters, including both the open circuit voltage (VOC) and short circuit current density (JSC), has been observed by employing the aforementioned bimetallic multispiked nanoparticles on the rear surface of solar cell devices. A power conversion efficiency (PCE) value as high as 7.70% has been measured in a hybrid device with Au/Ag multispiked nanoparticles on the rear surface of an ultrathin, crystalline silicon (c-Si) membrane (∼ 12 μm). This value compares well to the measured PCE value of 6.72% for a similar device without nanoparticles. The experimental observations support the hope for a sizable PCE increase, due to plasmon effects, in thin-film, c-Si solar cells in the near future.

  14. Mechanical control of the plasmon coupling with Au nanoparticle arrays fixed on the elastomeric film via chemical bond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bedogni, Elena; Kaneko, Satoshi; Fujii, Shintaro; Kiguchi, Manabu

    2017-03-01

    We have fabricated Au nanoparticle arrays on the flexible poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) film. The nanoparticles were bound to the film via a covalent bond by a ligand exchange reaction. Thanks to the strong chemical bonding, highly stable and uniformly dispersed Au nanoparticle arrays were fixed on the PDMS film. The Au nanoparticle arrays were characterized by the UV–vis, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). The UV–vis and SEM measurements showed the uniformity of the surface-dispersed Au nanoparticles, and SERS measurement confirmed the chemistry of the PDMS film. Reflecting the high stability and the uniformity of the Au nanoparticle arrays, the plasmon wavelength of the Au nanoparticles reversely changed with modulation of the interparticle distance, which was induced by the stretching of the PDMS film. The plasmon wavelength linearly decreased from 664 to 591 nm by stretching of 60%. The plasmon wavelength shift can be explained by the change in the strength of the plasmon coupling which is mechanically controlled by the mechanical strain.

  15. Exchange bias effect in Au-Fe3O4 dumbbell nanoparticles induced by the charge transfer from gold

    SciTech Connect

    Feygenson, Mikhail; Bauer, John C.; Gai, Zheng; Marques, Carlos; Aronson, Meigan C.; Teng, Xiaowei; Su, Dong; Stanic, Vesna; Urban, Volker S.; Beyer, Kevin A.; Dai, Sheng

    2015-08-10

    We have studied the origin of the exchange bias effect in the Au-Fe3O4 dumbbell nanoparticles in two samples with different sizes of the Au seed nanoparticles (4.1 and 2.7 nm) and same size of Fe3O4 nanoparticles (9.8 nm). The magnetization, small-angle neutron-scattering, synchrotron x-ray diffraction, and scanning transmission electron microscope measurements determined the antiferromagnetic FeO wustite phase within Fe3O4 nanoparticles, originating at the interface with the Au nanoparticles. The interface between antiferromagnetic FeO and ferrimagnetic Fe3O4 is giving rise to the exchange bias effect. The strength of the exchange bias fields depends on the interfacial area and lattice mismatch between both phases. We propose that the charge transfer from the Au nanoparticles is responsible for a partial reduction of the Fe3O4 into the FeO phase at the interface with Au nanoparticles. The Au-O bonds are formed, presumably across the interface to accommodate an excess of oxygen released during the reduction of magnetite

  16. Efficient purification of lysozyme from egg white by 2-mercapto-5-benzimidazolesulfonic acid modified Fe3O4/Au nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xinjun; Zhang, Lianying; Fu, Aiyun; Yuan, Hao

    2016-02-01

    2-Mercapto-5-benzimidazolesulfonic acid (MBISA) modified Fe3O4/Au nanoparticles were synthesized in aqueous solution and characterized by photo correlation spectroscopy (PCS) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The so-obtained Fe3O4/Au-MBISA nanoparticles were capable of specific adsorbing lysozyme. The maximum amount of lysozyme adsorbed on 1.0mg Fe3O4/Au-MBISA nanoparticles was 346μg. The lysozyme desorption behavior was studied and the lysozyme recovery from Fe3O4/Au-MBISA nanoparticles approached 100% under optimal conditions, and the reusability studies showed that the nanoparticles could maintain about 91% of the initial lysozyme adsorption capacity after 7 repeated adsorption-elution cycles. The Fe3O4/Au-MBISA nanoparticles were used in the purification of lysozyme from chicken egg white, which was verified by a single SDS-PAGE band. Therefore, the obtained Fe3O4/Au-MBISA nanoparticles exhibited excellent performance in the direct purification of lysozyme from egg white.

  17. Exchange bias effect in Au-Fe3O4 dumbbell nanoparticles induced by the charge transfer from gold

    DOE PAGES

    Feygenson, Mikhail; Bauer, John C; Gai, Zheng; ...

    2015-08-10

    We have studied the origin of the exchange bias effect in the Au-Fe3O4 dumbbell nanoparticles in two samples with different sizes of the Au seed nanoparticles (4.1 and 2.7 nm) and same size of Fe3O4 nanoparticles (9.8 nm). The magnetization, small-angle neutron scattering, synchrotron x-ray diffraction and scanning transmission electron microscope measurements determined the antiferromagnetic FeO wüstite phase within Fe3O4 nanoparticles, originating at the interface with the Au nanoparticles. The interface between antiferromagnetic FeO and ferrimagnetic Fe3O4 is giving rise to the exchange bias effect. The strength of the exchange bias fields depends on the interfacial area and lattice mismatchmore » between both phases. We propose that the charge transfer from the Au nanoparticles is responsible for a partial reduction of the Fe3O4 into FeO phase at the interface with Au nanoparticles. The Au-O bonds are formed across the interface to accommodate an excess of oxygen released during the reduction of magnetite.« less

  18. Synthesis and Characterization of Tunable Rainbow Colored Colloidal Silver Nanoparticles Using Single-Nanoparticle Plasmonic Microscopy and Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Tao; Nancy Xu, Xiao-Hong

    2012-01-01

    Noble metal nanoparticles (NPs) possess size- and shape- dependent optical properties, suggesting the possibility of tuning desired optical properties of ensemble NPs at single NP resolution and underscoring the importance of probing the sizes and shapes of single NPs in situ and in real-time. In this study, we synthesized twelve colloids of Ag NPs. Each colloid contains various sizes and shapes of single NPs, showing rainbow colors with peak-wavelength of absorption spectra from 393 to 738 nm. We correlated the sizes and shapes of single NPs determined by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) with scattering localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) spectra of single NPs characterized by dark-field optical microcopy and spectroscopy (DFOMS). Single spherical (2–39 nm in diameter), rod (2–47 nm in length with aspect ratios of 1.3–1.6), and triangular (4–84 nm in length with thickness of 2–27 nm) NPs show LSPR spectra (λmax) at 476±5 or 533±12, 611±23, and 711±40 nm, respectively. Notably, we observed new cookie-shaped NPs, which exhibit LSPR spectra (λmax) at 725±10 nm with a shoulder peak at 604±5 nm. Linear correlations of sizes of any given shape of single NPs with their LSPR spectra (λmax) enable the creation of nano optical rulers (calibration curves) for identification of the sizes and shapes of single NPs in solution in real time using DFOMS, offering the feasibility of using single NPs as multicolored optical probes for study of dynamics events of interest in solutions and living organisms at nm scale in real time. PMID:22707855

  19. Enhanced optical output of InGaN/GaN near-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes by localized surface plasmon of colloidal silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Hong, Sang-Hyun; Kim, Jae-Joon; Kang, Jang-Won; Jung, Yen-Sook; Kim, Dong-Yu; Yim, Sang-Youp; Park, Seong-Ju

    2015-09-25

    We report on the characteristics of localized surface plasmon (LSP)-enhanced near-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes (NUV-LEDs) fabricated by using colloidal silver (Ag) nanoparticles (NPs). Colloidal Ag NPs were deposited on the 20 nm thick p-GaN spacer layer using a spray process. The optical output power of NUV-LEDs with colloidal Ag NPs was increased by 48.7% at 20 mA compared with NUV-LEDs without colloidal Ag NPs. The enhancement was attributed to increased internal quantum efficiency caused by the resonance coupling between excitons in the multiple quantum wells and the LSPs in the Ag NPs.

  20. Antimicrobial and cytotoxicity evaluation of colloidal chitosan - silver nanoparticles - fluoride nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Freire, Priscila L L; Albuquerque, Allan J R; Farias, Isabela A P; da Silva, Teresinha Gonçalves; Aguiar, Jaciana Santos; Galembeck, André; Flores, Miguel A P; Sampaio, Fabio C; Stamford, Thayza Christina Montenegro; Rosenblatt, Aronita

    2016-12-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the antimicrobial activity and cytotoxicity of colloidal chitosan - silver nanoparticle - fluoride nanocomposites (CChAgNpFNc), with different silver nanoparticle shapes and sizes. The syntheses of CChAgNpFNc were performed with silver nitrate added to a chitosan solution, addition of a sodium borohydride solution and solid sodium fluoride. Solution of ascorbic acid was added to synthesize larger silver nanoparticles. CChAgNpFNc obtained: S1- 100% spherical, 8.7±3.1nm; S2- 97% spherical, 15.0±7.9nm and 2.5% triangular, 22.2±9.5nm; S3- 77.3% spherical, 31.8±10.4nm, 15.9% triangular, 27.1±10.1nm and 6.8% elliptical, 33.2±7.8nm; and S4- 75.2% spherical, 43.2±14.3nm; 23.3% triangular 38.2±14.8nm, and 1.5% elliptical 38.4±11.6nm. The CChAgNpFNc showed antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans, by microdilution technique. The influence on the growth of microorganisms was evaluated using a fluorescence assay, and showed an increasing lag phase and a decreasing log phase. Cytotoxicity was investigated using Artemia salina and MTT assays. The S3 and S4 samples exhibited low cytotoxicity. The S1 and S2 samples inhibited murine macrophages and revealed lethal dose concentrations above 1000mg/mL that were classified as moderately toxic. Thus, CChAgNpFNc are potential options for the control of multiple-drug-resistant microorganisms and do not represent substantial risks to human health.

  1. Localized surface plasmon resonance-based hybrid Au-Ag nanoparticles for detection of Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin B

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Shaoli; Du, ChunLei; Fu, Yongqi

    2009-09-01

    A triangular hybrid Au-Ag nanoparticles array was proposed for the purpose of biosensing in this paper. Constructing the hybrid nanoparticles, an Au thin film is capped on the Ag nanoparticles which are attached on glass substrate. The hybrid nanoparticles array was designed by means of finite-difference and time-domain (FDTD) algorithm-based computational numerical calculation and optimization. Sensitivity of refractive index of the hybrid nanoparticles array was obtained by the computational calculation and experimental detection. Moreover, the hybrid nanoparticles array can prevent oxidation of the pure Ag nanoparticles from atmosphere environment because the Au protective layer was deposited on top of the Ag nanoparticles so as to isolate the Ag particles from the atmosphere. We presented a novel surface covalent link method between the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) effect-based biosensors with hybrid nanoparticles array and the detected target molecules. The generated surface plasmon wave from the array carries the biological interaction message into the corresponding spectra. Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxin B (SEB), a small protein toxin was directly detected at nanogramme per milliliter level using the triangular hybrid Au-Ag nanoparticles. Hence one more option for the SEB detection is provided by this way.

  2. Light-induced changes of the refractive indices in a colloid of gold nanoparticles in a nematic liquid crystal.

    PubMed

    Lysenko, D; Ouskova, E; Ksondzyk, S; Reshetnyak, V; Cseh, L; Mehl, G H; Reznikov, Y

    2012-05-01

    It was shown that irradiation of a nematic liquid crystal doped with metal nanoparticles in the visible near the plasmon resonance band led to strong thermal changes of the refractive indices. The effect was studied by recording of dynamic optical gratings in the colloid. Nanoparticles "worked" as effective nano-heaters in a matrix causing the order parameter decrease around the particles. A large nonlinearity parameter (n (2) ≈ 10(-2) cm(2)/kW and fast response (≈ 0.7 ms), with no detectable particles' aggregation and excellent photo- thermo-stability make these colloids potentially attractive nonlinear optical media. Application of a dynamic holography technique allowed measuring the coefficients of thermal conductivity of the liquid crystal along the director k (||) = (0.4 ± 0.02) W m(-1)K(-1) and perpendicular to the director k (⊥) = (0.2 ± 0.01) W m(-1)K(-1).

  3. DC electric field induced phase array self-assembly of Au nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadavali, S.; Sachan, R.; Dyck, O.; Kalyanaraman, R.

    2014-11-01

    In this work we report the discovery of phase array self-assembly, a new way to spontaneously make periodic arrangements of metal nanoparticles. An initially random arrangement of gold (Au) or silver (Ag) nanoparticles on SiO2/Si substrates was irradiated with linearly polarized (P) laser light in the presence of a dc electric (E) field applied to the insulating substrate. For E fields parallel to the laser polarization (E \\parallel P), the resulting periodic ordering was single-crystal like with extremely low defect density and covered large macroscopic areas. The E field appears to be modifying the phase between radiation scattered by the individual nanoparticles thus leading to enhanced interference effects. While phase array behavior is widely known in antenna technology, this is the first evidence that it can also aid in nanoscale self-assembly. These results provide a simple way to produce periodic metal nanoparticles over large areas.

  4. Visual electrochemiluminescence detection of telomerase activity based on multifunctional Au nanoparticles modified with G-quadruplex deoxyribozyme and luminol.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huai-Rong; Wang, Yin-Zhu; Wu, Mei-Sheng; Feng, Qiu-Mei; Shi, Hai-Wei; Chen, Hong-Yuan; Xu, Jing-Juan

    2014-10-25

    A novel visual electrochemiluminescence (ECL) analysis strategy for detection of telomerase activity is reported on a microarray chip, with G-quadruplex deoxyribozyme (DNAzyme) and luminol modified Au nanoparticles (NPs) as double-catalytic amplification labels.

  5. A rapid green strategy for the synthesis of Au "meatball"-like nanoparticles using green tea for SERS applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Shichao; Zhou, Xi; Yang, Xiangrui; Hou, Zhenqing; Shi, Yanfeng; Zhong, Lubin; Jiang, Qian; Zhang, Qiqing

    2014-09-01

    We report a simple and rapid biological approach to synthesize water-soluble and highly roughened "meatball"-like Au nanoparticles using green tea extract under microwave irradiation. The synthesized Au meatball-like nanoparticles possess excellent monodispersity and uniform size (250 nm in diameter). Raman measurements show that these tea-generated meatball-like gold nanostructures with high active surface areas exhibit a high enhancement of surface-enhanced Raman scattering. In addition, the Au meatball-like nanoparticles demonstrate good biocompatibility and remarkable in vitro stability at the biological temperature. Meanwhile, the factors that influence the Au meatball-like nanoparticles morphology are investigated, and the mechanisms behind the nonspherical shape evolution are discussed.

  6. Effect of MacroRAFT Copolymer Adsorption on the Colloidal Stability of Layered Double Hydroxide Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Pavlovic, Marko; Adok-Sipiczki, Monika; Nardin, Corinne; Pearson, Samuel; Bourgeat-Lami, Elodie; Prevot, Vanessa; Szilagyi, Istvan

    2015-11-24

    The colloidal behavior of layered double hydroxide nanoparticles containing Mg(2+) and Al(3+) ions as intralayer cations and nitrates as counterions (MgAl-NO3-LDH) was studied in the presence of a short statistical copolymer of acrylic acid (AA) and butyl acrylate (BA) terminated with 4-cyano-4-thiothiopropylsulfanyl pentanoic acid (CTPPA) (P(AA7.5-stat-BA7.5)-CTPPA) synthesized by reversible addition-fragmentation chain-transfer (RAFT) polymerization. Surface charge properties and aggregation of the particles were investigated by electrophoresis and dynamic light scattering (DLS), respectively. The negatively charged P(AA7.5-stat-BA7.5)-CTPPA adsorbed strongly on the oppositely charged particles, leading to charge neutralization at the isoelectric point (IEP) and charge reversal at higher copolymer concentrations. The dispersions were unstable, i.e., fast aggregation of the MgAl-NO3-LDH occurred near the IEP while high stability was achieved at higher P(AA7.5-stat-BA7.5)-CTPPA concentrations. Atomic force (AFM) and transmission electron (TEM) microscopy imaging revealed that the platelets preferentially adopted a face-to-face orientation in the aggregates. While the stability of the bare particles was very sensitive to ionic strength, the P(AA7.5-stat-BA7.5)-CTPPA copolymer-coated particles were extremely stable even at high salt levels. Accordingly, the limited colloidal stability of bare MgAl-NO3-LDH dispersions was significantly improved by adding an appropriate amount of P(AA7.5-stat-BA7.5)-CTPPA to the suspension.

  7. Fluorometric estimation of amino acids interaction with colloidal suspension of FITC functionalized graphene oxide nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dave, Kashyap; Dhayal, Marshal

    2017-02-01

    A hydrosol approach developed to synthesize fluorescence quenched fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) functionalized colloidal suspension of graphene oxide nanoparticles (GONP). UV-vis spectroscopic measurements showed characteristic peak at 236 nm and 300 nm due to pi-pi* interaction in Cdbnd C and n-pi* transition in Cdbnd O bond of GONP, respectively. Attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectra showed reduced intensity of 1429 cm-1 IR band of GONP due to the electrostatic and pi-pi interactions of FITC with GONP in FITC-GONP. ATR-FTIR spectra of different amino acid co-functionalised FITC-GONP showed an increase in the FTIR band intensity at 1429 cm-1 which was significantly reduced due to electrostatic/pi-pi interactions of FITC with GONP in the absence of the amino acids. A peak at 1084 cm-1 in ATR-FTIR spectra appears which confirms the interaction between amine group of amino acids and sbnd COO- groups at GONP surface. The FITC interaction with GONP lead to fluorescence resonance energy transfers (FRET) and resulted in a liner decrease in the FITC fluorescence with an increase of GONP concentration. An increase in the reappearance of FITC fluorescence observed while the amino acid concentration was increased in co-functionalised FITC-GONP. The quantified amount of reappeared fluorescence of FITC in amino acid co-functionalised FITC-GONP depends on the concentration, polar and non-polar nature of amino acids. The reappearance of FITC from the surface of FITC-GONP with the addition of amino acid was found to be consistent with the organic substitute, size of amino acids and their functionalities. Therefore, FRET based method using FITC-GONP colloidal suspension may have potential application in determining the binding nature of biomolecules with GONP for biomedical applications.

  8. Silver nanoparticles in complex biological media: assessment of colloidal stability and protein corona formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Argentiere, Simona; Cella, Claudia; Cesaria, Maura; Milani, Paolo; Lenardi, Cristina

    2016-08-01

    Engineered silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are among the most used nanomaterials in consumer products, therefore concerns are raised about their potential for adverse effects in humans and environment. Although an increasing number of studies in vitro and in vivo are being reported on the toxicity of AgNPs, most of them suffer from incomplete characterization of AgNPs in the tested biological media. As a consequence, the comparison of toxicological data is troublesome and the toxicity evaluation still remains an open critical issue. The development of a reliable protocol to evaluate interactions of AgNPs with surrounding proteins as well as to assess their colloidal stability is therefore required. In this regard, it is of importance not only to use multiple, easy-to-access and simple techniques but also to understand limitations of each characterization methods. In this work, the morphological and structural behaviour of AgNPs has been studied in two relevant biological media, namely 10 % FBS and MP. Three different techniques (Dynamic Light Scattering, Transmission Electron Microscopy, UV-Vis spectroscopy) were tested for their suitability in detecting AgNPs of three different sizes (10, 40 and 100 nm) coated with either citrate or polyvinylpyrrolidone. Results showed that UV-Vis spectroscopy is the most versatile and informative technique to gain information about interaction between AgNPs and surrounding proteins and to determine their colloidal stability in the tested biological media. These findings are expected to provide useful insights in characterizing AgNPs before performing any further in vitro/in vivo experiment.

  9. Controlled synthesis and synergistic effects of graphene-supported PdAu bimetallic nanoparticles with tunable catalytic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chang-Hai; Liu, Rui-Hua; Sun, Qi-Jun; Chang, Jian-Bing; Gao, Xu; Liu, Yang; Lee, Shuit-Tong; Kang, Zhen-Hui; Wang, Sui-Dong

    2015-03-01

    Graphene-supported bimetallic nanoparticles are promising nanocatalysts, which can show strong and tunable catalytic activity and selectivity. Herein room-temperature-ionic-liquid-assisted metal sputtering is utilized to synthesize PdAu bimetallic nanoparticles on graphene with bare surface, small size, high surface density and controlled Pd-to-Au ratio. This controllable synthetic approach is green-chemistry compatible and totally free of additives and byproducts. The supported PdAu nanoparticles show excellent catalytic capabilities for both oxidation and reduction reactions, strongly dependent on the Pd-to-Au ratio. A strong correlation among catalytic performance, bimetallic composition and charge redistribution in the PdAu nanoparticles has been demonstrated. The results suggest that sufficient Au d-holes appear to be significant to the catalysis of oxidation reaction, and a metallic Pd surface is critical to the catalysis of reduction reaction. By the present method, the bimetallic combination can be tailored for distinct types of catalytic reactions.Graphene-supported bimetallic nanoparticles are promising nanocatalysts, which can show strong and tunable catalytic activity and selectivity. Herein room-temperature-ionic-liquid-assisted metal sputtering is utilized to synthesize PdAu bimetallic nanoparticles on graphene with bare surface, small size, high surface density and controlled Pd-to-Au ratio. This controllable synthetic approach is green-chemistry compatible and totally free of additives and byproducts. The supported PdAu nanoparticles show excellent catalytic capabilities for both oxidation and reduction reactions, strongly dependent on the Pd-to-Au ratio. A strong correlation among catalytic performance, bimetallic composition and charge redistribution in the PdAu nanoparticles has been demonstrated. The results suggest that sufficient Au d-holes appear to be significant to the catalysis of oxidation reaction, and a metallic Pd surface is critical

  10. The synthesis and characterization of polymer-coated FeAu multifunctional nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, HongLing; Hou, Peng; Zhang, WengXing; Kim, Young Keun; Wu, JunHua

    2010-08-01

    We report the one-pot nanoemulsion synthesis of FeAu magnetic-optical multifunctional nanoparticles coated by the biocompatible triblock copolymer, poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(propylene glycol)-block-poly(ethylene glycol) (PEO-PPO-PEO). The FTIR study confirms the PEO-PPO-PEO molecules on the surface of the resulting nanoparticles. The structural characterization identifies the crystallographic parameter 4.072 Å of the cubic phase and the morphology analysis gives the nanoparticle shape, size and size distribution, showing the high crystallinity of the FeAu nanoparticles and an average particle size of ~ 6.5 nm. In addition there is direct confirmation of the alloying by elemental point probing of an individual nanoparticle. Following the visual demonstration of a rapid, efficient and reversible dispersion-collection process of the nanoparticles in solution, the magnetic measurement manifests a soft ferromagnetic behavior of the nanoparticles with a small coercivity of ~ 60 Oe at room temperature. The corresponding magnetic hysteresis curves were effectively assessed by modified bi-phase Langevin equations, which were satisfactorily explained in terms of a bimodal particle size distribution. The UV-vis studies display the broadband absorption of the PEO-PPO-PEO-coated nanoparticles with the maximum surface plasmon resonance around 585 nm. The characterization and analysis, therefore, shows the unification of iron and gold into one alloy nanostructure entity covered by the biocompatible triblock copolymer thin film, preserving the optical and magnetic properties of the individual constituents. This gives the prospect of enhanced performance in applications.

  11. The impact of fabrication conditions on the quality of Au nanoparticle arrays on dimpled Ta templates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Sayed, Hany A.; Molero, Hebert M.; Birss, Viola I.

    2012-11-01

    Highly ordered dimpled Ta (DT) nanotemplates, prepared by electrochemical anodization of Ta, were recently reported to be ideally suited for the fabrication of a Au nanoparticle (NP) array using a Au thin film dewetting method. Here, we provide guidance and understanding of the effect of the DT fabrication and Au film deposition steps on the characteristics of the resulting NP array. Specifically, the optimum anodization time, voltage and solution composition are established, and the thickness of the sputter-deposited metal film is shown to be a very important parameter in achieving the desired single Au NP per dimple. The resulting high quality Au NP arrays are demonstrated to be electrochemically addressable, with the total Au surface area, measured electrochemically for large-scale samples, agreeing with the calculated area, based on scanning electron microscope determination of average particle shape and distribution. As the NP formation process proceeds via confined thin film dewetting, the protocol developed here should be applicable to the formation of NP arrays of a range of other metals and alloys.

  12. Fluorogenic Gold Nanoparticle (AuNP) Substrate: A Model for the Controlled Release of Molecules from AuNP Nanocarriers via Interfacial Staudinger-Bertozzi Ligation.

    PubMed

    Luo, Wilson; Gobbo, Pierangelo; Gunawardene, Praveen N; Workentin, Mark S

    2017-02-28

    The ability to regulate small-molecule release from metallic nanoparticle substrates offers unprecedented opportunities for nanocarrier-based imaging, sensing, and drug-delivery applications. Herein we report a novel and highly specific release methodology off gold nanoparticle (AuNP) surfaces based on the bioorthogonal Staudinger-Bertozzi ligation. A thiol ligand bearing the molecular cargo, a Rhodamine B dye derivative, was synthesized and used to modify small water-soluble 5 nm AuNPs. Upon incorporation into the AuNP monolayer, we observed efficient quenching of the dye emission, resulting in a very low level of fluorescence emission that provided the baseline from which cargo release was monitored. We examined the ability of these AuNPs to react with azide molecules via Staudinger-Bertozzi ligation on the nanoparticle surface by monitoring the fluorescence emission after the introduction of an organic azide. We observed an immediate increase in emission intensity upon azide addition, which corresponded to the release of the dye into the bulk solution. The (31)P NMR spectrum of the AuNP product also agrees with the formation of the ligation product. Thus this system represents a novel and highly specific release methodology off AuNP surfaces that can have potential applications in drug delivery, sensing, and materials science.

  13. Multifunctional hybrid Fe2O3-Au nanoparticles for efficient plasmonic heating

    SciTech Connect

    Murph, Simona E. Hunyadi; Larsen, George K.; Lascola, Robert J.

    2016-02-20

    We describe the synthesis and properties of multifunctional Fe2O3-Au nanoparticles produced by a wet chemical approach and investigate their photothermal properties using laser irradiation. Here, the composite Fe2O3-Au nanoparticles retain the properties of both materials, creating a multifunctional structure with excellent magnetic and plasmonic properties.

  14. Design and optimization of a nanoprobe comprising amphiphilic chitosan colloids and Au-nanorods: Sensitive detection of human serum albumin in simulated urine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jean, Ren-Der; Larsson, Mikael; Cheng, Wei-Da; Hsu, Yu-Yuan; Bow, Jong-Shing; Liu, Dean-Mo

    2016-12-01

    Metallic nanoparticles have been utilized as analytical tools to detect a wide range of organic analytes. In most reports, gold (Au)-based nanosensors have been modified with ligands to introduce selectivity towards a specific target molecule. However, in a recent study a new concept was presented where bare Au-nanorods on self-assembled carboxymethyl-hexanoyl chitosan (CHC) nanocarriers achieved sensitive and selective detection of human serum albumin (HSA) after manipulation of the solution pH. Here this concept was further advanced through optimization of the ratio between Au-nanorods and CHC nanocarriers to create a nanotechnology-based sensor (termed CHC-AuNR nanoprobe) with an outstanding lower detection limit (LDL) for HSA. The CHC-AuNR nanoprobe was evaluated in simulated urine solution and a LDL as low as 1.5 pM was achieved at an estimated AuNR/CHC ratio of 2. Elemental mapping and protein adsorption kinetics over three orders of magnitude in HSA concentration confirmed accumulation of HSA on the nanorods and revealed the adsorption to be completed within 15 min for all investigated concentrations. The results suggest that the CHC-AuNR nanoprobe has potential to be utilized for cost-effective detection of analytes in complex liquids.

  15. Comparison of in situ and ex situ bioconjugation of Au nanoparticles generated by laser ablation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mutisya, S.; Franzel, L.; Barnstein, B. O.; Faber, T. W.; Ryan, J. J.; Bertino, M. F.

    2013-01-01

    Au nanoparticles were generated by laser ablation in PBS buffer and conjugated to immunoglobulin E (IgE) during ablation (in situ) and after ablation (ex situ). Exposure for 5 min to 532 nm pulses with a duration of 150 ps, an energy of 8 mJ and a repetition rate of 10 Hz yielded nanoparticles with a mean diameter of about 4 nm for in situ conjugation and of about 5 nm for ex situ conjugation. ELISA analysis showed that the conjugation efficiency was comparable for in situ and ex situ fabrication. ELISA for cytokine (IL-6) production by IgE-activated mast cells showed that the Au-IgE conjugates induced a response which coincided within error for conjugates prepared in situ and ex situ.

  16. Visualization of Au Nanoparticles Buried in a Polymer Matrix by Scanning Thermal Noise Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Yao, Atsushi; Kobayashi, Kei; Nosaka, Shunta; Kimura, Kuniko; Yamada, Hirofumi

    2017-02-17

    Several researchers have recently demonstrated visualization of subsurface features with a nanometer-scale resolution using various imaging schemes based on atomic force microscopy. Since all these subsurface imaging techniques require excitation of the oscillation of the cantilever and/or sample surface, it has been difficult to identify a key imaging mechanism. Here we demonstrate visualization of Au nanoparticles buried 300 nm into a polymer matrix by measurement of the thermal noise spectrum of a microcantilever with a tip in contact to the polymer surface. We show that the subsurface Au nanoparticles are detected as the variation in the contact stiffness and damping reflecting the viscoelastic properties of the polymer surface. The variation in the contact stiffness well agrees with the effective stiffness of a simple one-dimensional model, which is consistent with the fact that the maximum depth range of the technique is far beyond the extent of the contact stress field.

  17. Visualization of Au Nanoparticles Buried in a Polymer Matrix by Scanning Thermal Noise Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Atsushi; Kobayashi, Kei; Nosaka, Shunta; Kimura, Kuniko; Yamada, Hirofumi

    2017-01-01

    Several researchers have recently demonstrated visualization of subsurface features with a nanometer-scale resolution using various imaging schemes based on atomic force microscopy. Since all these subsurface imaging techniques require excitation of the oscillation of the cantilever and/or sample surface, it has been difficult to identify a key imaging mechanism. Here we demonstrate visualization of Au nanoparticles buried 300 nm into a polymer matrix by measurement of the thermal noise spectrum of a microcantilever with a tip in contact to the polymer surface. We show that the subsurface Au nanoparticles are detected as the variation in the contact stiffness and damping reflecting the viscoelastic properties of the polymer surface. The variation in the contact stiffness well agrees with the effective stiffness of a simple one-dimensional model, which is consistent with the fact that the maximum depth range of the technique is far beyond the extent of the contact stress field. PMID:28210001

  18. Visualization of Au Nanoparticles Buried in a Polymer Matrix by Scanning Thermal Noise Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Atsushi; Kobayashi, Kei; Nosaka, Shunta; Kimura, Kuniko; Yamada, Hirofumi

    2017-02-01

    Several researchers have recently demonstrated visualization of subsurface features with a nanometer-scale resolution using various imaging schemes based on atomic force microscopy. Since all these subsurface imaging techniques require excitation of the oscillation of the cantilever and/or sample surface, it has been difficult to identify a key imaging mechanism. Here we demonstrate visualization of Au nanoparticles buried 300 nm into a polymer matrix by measurement of the thermal noise spectrum of a microcantilever with a tip in contact to the polymer surface. We show that the subsurface Au nanoparticles are detected as the variation in the contact stiffness and damping reflecting the viscoelastic properties of the polymer surface. The variation in the contact stiffness well agrees with the effective stiffness of a simple one-dimensional model, which is consistent with the fact that the maximum depth range of the technique is far beyond the extent of the contact stress field.

  19. Catalytic reduction of 4-nitrophenol using gold nanoparticles biosynthesized by cell-free extracts of Aspergillus sp. WL-Au.

    PubMed

    Shen, Wenli; Qu, Yuanyuan; Pei, Xiaofang; Li, Shuzhen; You, Shengnan; Wang, Jingwei; Zhang, Zhaojing; Zhou, Jiti

    2017-01-05

    A facile one-pot eco-friendly process for synthesis of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) with high catalytic activity was achieved using cell-free extracts of Aspergillus sp. WL-Au as reducing, capping and stabilizing agents. The surface plasmon resonance band of UV-vis spectrum at 532nm confirmed the presence of AuNPs. Transmission electron microscopy images showed that quite uniform spherical AuNPs were synthesized and the average size of nanoparticles increased from 4nm to 29nm with reaction time. X-ray diffraction analysis verified the formation of nano-crystalline gold particles. Fourier transform infrared spectra showed the presence of functional groups on the surface of biosynthesized AuNPs, such as OH, NH, CO, CH, COH and COC groups, which increased the stability of AuNPs. The biogenic AuNPs could serve as a highly efficient catalyst for 4-nitrophenol reduction. The reaction rate constant was linearly correlated with the concentration of AuNPs, which increased from 0.59min(-1) to 1.51min(-1) with the amount of AuNPs increasing form 1.46×10(-6) to 17.47×10(-6)mmol. Moreover, the as-synthesized AuNPs exhibited a remarkable normalized catalytic activity (4.04×10(5)min(-1)mol(-1)), which was much higher than that observed for AuNPs synthesized by other biological and conventional chemical methods.

  20. Surface-enhanced raman scattering detection of DNAs derived from virus genomes using au-coated paramagnetic nanoparticles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A magnetic capture-based, surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) assay for DNA detection has been developed which utilizes Au-coated paramagnetic nanoparticles (Au@PMPs) as both a SERS substrate and effective bio-separation reagent for the selective removal of target DNAs from solution. Hybridizat...

  1. Influence of Temperature on the Colloidal Stability of Polymer-Coated Gold Nanoparticles in Cell Culture Media.

    PubMed

    Zyuzin, Mikhail V; Honold, Tobias; Carregal-Romero, Susana; Kantner, Karsten; Karg, Matthias; Parak, Wolfgang J

    2016-04-06

    The temperature-dependence of the hydrodynamic diameter and colloidal stability of gold-polymer core-shell particles with temperature-sensitive (poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)) and temperature-insensitive shells (polyallylaminine hydrochloride/polystyrensulfonate, poly(isobutylene-alt-maleic anhydride)-graft-dodecyl) are investigated in various aqueous media. The data demonstrate that for all nanoparticle agglomeration, i.e., increase in effective nanoparticle size, the presence of salts or proteins in the dispersion media has to be taken into account. Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) coated nanoparticles show a reversible temperature-dependent increase in size above the volume phase transition of the polymer shell when they are dispersed in phosphate buffered saline or in media containing protein. In contrast, the nanoparticles coated with temperature-insensitive polymers show a time-dependent increase in size in phosphate buffered saline or in medium containing protein. This is due to time-dependent agglomeration, which is particularly strong in phosphate buffered saline, and induces a time-dependent, irreversible increase in the hydrodynamic diameter of the nanoparticles. This demonstrates that one has to distinguish between temperature- and time-induced agglomerations. Since the size of nanoparticles regulates their uptake by cells, temperature-dependent uptake of thermosensitive and non-thermosensitive nanoparticles by cells lines is compared. No temperature-specific difference between both types of nanoparticles could be observed.

  2. An enhanced photocatalytic response of nanometric TiO2 wrapping of Au nanoparticles for eco-friendly water applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scuderi, Viviana; Impellizzeri, Giuliana; Romano, Lucia; Scuderi, Mario; Brundo, Maria V.; Bergum, Kristin; Zimbone, Massimo; Sanz, Ruy; Buccheri, Maria A.; Simone, Francesca; Nicotra, Giuseppe; Svensson, Bengt G.; Grimaldi, Maria G.; Privitera, Vittorio

    2014-09-01

    We propose a ground-breaking approach by an upside-down vision of the Au/TiO2 nano-system in order to obtain an enhanced photocatalytic response. The system was synthesized by wrapping Au nanoparticles (~8 nm mean diameter) with a thin layer of TiO2 (~4 nm thick). The novel idea of embedding Au nanoparticles with titanium dioxide takes advantage of the presence of metal nanoparticles, in terms of electron trapping, without losing any of the TiO2 exposed surface, so as to favor the photocatalytic performance of titanium dioxide. A complete structural characterization was made by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The remarkable photocatalytic performance together with the stability of the nano-system was demonstrated by degradation of the methylene blue dye in water. The non-toxicity of the nano-system was established by testing the effect of the material on the reproductive cycle of Mytilus galloprovincialis in an aquatic environment. The originally synthesized material was also compared to conventional TiO2 with Au nanoparticles on top. The latter system showed a dispersion of Au nanoparticles in the liquid environment, due to their instability in the aqueous solution that clearly represents an environmental contamination issue. Thus, the results show that nanometric TiO2 wrapping of Au nanoparticles has great potential in eco-friendly water/wastewater purification.

  3. Ultrathin organic bulk heterojunction solar cells: Plasmon enhanced performance using Au nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahin, Shiva; Gangopadhyay, Palash; Norwood, Robert A.

    2012-07-01

    The plasmonic effect of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) enhances light absorption and, thus, the efficiency of organic bulk heterojunction solar cells with poly (3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT): [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) as active layer. We report optimization of this enhancement by varying the attachment density of the self-assembled AuNPs on silanized ITO using N1-(3-trimethoxysilylpropyl)diethylenetriamine. Using finite difference time domain simulations, the thicknesses of poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT): poly (styrenesulfonate) (PSS) and P3HT:PCBM layers were suitably varied to ensure broadband optical absorption enhancement and minimal exciton quenching within the active layer. Our experimental results demonstrate that for solar cell structures with 20% surface coverage, absorption is increased by 65% as predicted by simulations. Further, we show that AuNPs increase the efficiency by 30% and that silanization of ITO positively impacts device performance.

  4. Combined Au-plasmonic nanoparticles with mesoporous carbon material (CMK-3) for photocatalytic water splitting

    SciTech Connect

    Hung, Wei Hsuan E-mail: yinm@sari.ac.cn; Lai, Sz Nian; Su, Cheng Yi; Yin, Min E-mail: yinm@sari.ac.cn; Li, Dongdong; Xue, Xinzhong; Tseng, Chuan Ming

    2015-08-17

    The conventional TiO{sub 2} photoelectrode for water splitting was integrated with ordered mesoporous carbon material (CMK-3) and Au metal nanoparticles (NPs) to improve the photocatalytic efficiency under visible light irradiation. Compared to TiO{sub 2}, Au/TiO{sub 2}-CMK-3 photoelectrode demonstrated over two orders of magnitude enhancement of photocurrent under 532 nm laser irradiation due to the generation of hot electron and near field from Au NPs. Furthermore, the improvement of free carrier transport and additional long-wavelength absorption can be achieved by exploiting the superior conductivity and blackbody-like property of CMK-3. This proposed enhancement mechanism was proved by the measurements of photoluminescence emission spectrum and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy.

  5. Sensitive voltammetric determination of vanillin with an AuPd nanoparticles-graphene composite modified electrode.

    PubMed

    Shang, Lei; Zhao, Faqiong; Zeng, Baizhao

    2014-05-15

    In this work, graphene oxide was reduced to graphene with an endogenous reducing agent from dimethylformamide, and then AuPd alloy nanoparticles were electrodeposited on the graphene film. The obtained AuPd-graphene hybrid film was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and voltammetry. The electrochemical behavior of vanillin was studied using the AuPd-graphene hybrid based electrode. It presented high electrocatalytic activity and vanillin could produce a sensitive oxidation peak at it. Under the optimal conditions, the peak current was linear to the concentration of vanillin in the ranges of 0.1-7 and 10-40 μM. The sensitivities were 1.60 and 0.170 mA mM(-1) cm(-2), respectively; the detection limit was 20 nM. The electrode was successfully applied to the detection of vanillin in vanilla bean, vanilla tea and biscuit samples.

  6. Magnetic properties of bimetallic Au/Co nanoparticles prepared by thermal laser treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sosunov, A. V.; Spivak, L. V.

    2016-07-01

    The irradiation of metallic films by a nanosecond pulsed laser leads to a self-assembly of nanoparticle arrays. This method has been used to prepare bimetallic Au/Co nanoparticles on a SiO2 substrate. The microstructure and morphology of the bimetallic nanoparticles have been investigated using scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. It has been shown that the bimetallic nanoparticles have a hemispherical shape with a single-crystal structure and an average size of ~50 nm. The magnetic properties of these nanoparticles have been examined using a vibrating-sample magnetometer in the transverse and longitudinal directions. It has been found that the direction of the magnetization of the bimetallic nanoparticles lies in the plane of the substrate, and the coercive forces in the transverse and longitudinal directions differ by 25%. The use of the vibrating-sample magnetometer method makes it possible to investigate the differences in the magnetic saturations and the coercive forces of an array of bimetallic nanoparticles on a large surface area. The performed investigations have demonstrated that the anisotropic nanomagnetic materials with the desired magnetic orientation can be easily and quickly prepared by means of thermal laser treatment.

  7. Raman scattering of 4-aminobenzenethiol sandwiched between Ag nanoparticle and macroscopically smooth Au substrate: effects of size of Ag nanoparticles and the excitation wavelength.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kwan; Choi, Jeong-Yong; Lee, Hyang Bong; Shin, Kuan Soo

    2011-09-28

    A nanogap formed by a metal nanoparticle and a flat metal substrate is one kind of "hot site" for surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). Accordingly, although no Raman signal is observable when 4-aminobenzenethiol (4-ABT), for instance, is self-assembled on a flat Au substrate, a distinct spectrum is obtained when Ag or Au nanoparticles are adsorbed on the pendent amine groups of 4-ABT. This is definitely due to the electromagnetic coupling between the localized surface plasmon of Ag or Au nanoparticle with the surface plasmon polariton of the planar Au substrate, allowing an intense electric field to be induced in the gap even by visible light. To appreciate the Raman scattering enhancement and also to seek the optimal condition for SERS at the nanogap, we have thoroughly examined the size effect of Ag nanoparticles, along with the excitation wavelength dependence, by assembling 4-ABT between planar Au and a variable-size Ag nanoparticle (from 20- to 80-nm in diameter). Regarding the size dependence, a higher Raman signal was observed when larger Ag nanoparticles were attached onto 4-ABT, irrespective of the excitation wavelength. Regarding the excitation wavelength, the highest Raman signal was measured at 568 nm excitation, slightly larger than that at 632.8 nm excitation. The Raman signal measured at 514.5 and 488 nm excitation was an order of magnitude weaker than that at 568 nm excitation, in agreement with the finite-difference time domain simulation. It is noteworthy that placing an Au nanoparticle on 4-ABT, instead of an Ag nanoparticle, the enhancement at the 568 nm excitation was several tens of times weaker than that at the 632.8 nm excitation, suggesting the importance of the localized surface plasmon resonance of the Ag nanoparticles for an effective coupling with the surface plasmon polariton of the planar Au substrate to induce a very intense electric field at the nanogap.

  8. Architecture effects of glucose oxidase/Au nanoparticle composite Langmuir-Blodgett films on glucose sensing performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ke-Hsuan; Wu, Jau-Yann; Chen, Liang-Huei; Lee, Yuh-Lang

    2016-03-01

    The Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) deposition technique is employed to prepare nano-composite films consisting of glucose oxidase (GOx) and gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) for glucose sensing applications. The GOx and AuNPs are co-adsorbed from an aqueous solution onto an air/liquid interface in the presence of an octadecylamine (ODA) template monolayer, forming a mixed (GOx-AuNP) monolayer. Alternatively, a composite film with a cascade architecture (AuNP/GOx) is also prepared by sequentially depositing monolayers of AuNPs and GOx. The architecture effects of the composite LB films on the glucose sensing are studied. The results show that the presence of AuNPs in the co-adsorption system does not affect the adsorption amount and preferred conformation (α-helix) of GOx. Furthermore, the incorporation of AuNPs in both composite films can significantly improve the sensing performance. However, the enhancement effects of the AuNPs in the two architectures are distinct. The major effect of the AuNPs is on the facilitation of charge-transfer in the (GOx-AuNP) film, but on the increase of catalytic activity in the (AuNP/GOx) one. Therefore, the sensing performance can be greatly improved by utilizing a film combining both architectures (AuNP/GOx-AuNP).

  9. Deformation Localization in Molecular Layers Constrained between Self-Assembled Au Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Copie, G; Biaye, M; Diesinger, H; Melin, T; Krzeminski, C; Cleri, F

    2017-03-14

    The localized deformation of molecular monolayers constrained between the spherical surfaces of Au nanoparticles is studied by means of molecular dynamics simulations. Alkyl or polyethylene glycol long-chain molecules were homogeneously distributed over the curved Au surface, pushed against each other by repeated cycles of force relaxation and constant-volume equilibration at temperatures increasing from 50 to 300 K before being slowly quenched to near-zero temperature. Plots of minimum configurational energy can be obtained as a function of the nanoparticle distance, according to different directions of approach; therefore, such simulations describe a range of deformations, from perfectly uniaxial compression to a combination of compression and shear. Despite the relative rigidity of molecular backbones, the deformation is always found to be localized at the interface between the opposing molecular monolayers. We find that shorter ligands can be more densely packed on the surface but do no interdigitate upon compression; they respond to the applied force by bending and twisting, thus changing their conformation while remaining disjointed. On the contrary, longer ligands attain lower surface densities and can interprenetrate when the nanoparticles are compressed against each other; such molecules remain rather straight and benefit from the increased overlap to maximize the adhesion by dispersion forces. The apparent Young's and shear moduli of a dense nanostructure, composed of a triangular arrangement of identical MUDA-decorated Au nanoparticles, are found to be smaller than estimates indirectly deduced by atomic-force experiments but quite close to previous computer simulations of molecular monolayers on flat surfaces and of bulk nanoparticle assemblies.

  10. Modifying Si-based consolidants through the addition of colloidal nano-particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ksinopoulou, E.; Bakolas, A.; Moropoulou, A.

    2016-04-01

    The modification of silicon-based stone consolidants has been the subject of many scientific studies aiming to overcome the commonly reported drawbacks of these materials, such as the tendency to shrink and crack during drying. The addition of nano-particle dispersions into silica matrix has been found to enhance their effectiveness in several ways. Objective of the current research was to study the preparation of particle-modified consolidants (PMC), consisting of an ethyl silicate matrix (TEOS) loaded with colloidal silica (SiO2) nano-particles and oxide titania (TiO2) particles. The effect of the polyacrylic acid on the dispersion stability was also investigated, by varying its concentration into PMC samples. The prepared materials were allowed to dry in two different relative humidity environments and then evaluated based on their stability in the sol phase, the aggregation sizes, determined through dynamic light scattering, the % solids content and their morphological characteristics, observed via scanning electron microscopy (SEM-EDAX). Mercury intrusion porosimetry was also applied to investigate the microstructural characteristics and differences between the prepared consolidants. Significant role in the final form of the material is played by both the initial molar ratios in the mixtures, as well as the conditions where the drying and aging takes place. Based on the results, the three-component PMCs appear to be promising in stone consolidation, as they show a reduction in cracking and shrinkage during drying and a more porous network, compared with the siliceous material, or the two-component TEOS-SiO2 formulation.

  11. Chitosan nanoparticles loaded the herbicide paraquat: the influence of the aquatic humic substances on the colloidal stability and toxicity.

    PubMed

    Grillo, Renato; Clemente, Zaira; de Oliveira, Jhones Luis; Campos, Estefânia Vangelie Ramos; Chalupe, Victor C; Jonsson, Claudio M; de Lima, Renata; Sanches, Gabriela; Nishisaka, Caroline S; Rosa, André H; Oehlke, Kathleen; Greiner, Ralf; Fraceto, Leonardo F

    2015-04-09

    Polymeric nanoparticles have been developed for several applications, among them as carrier system of pesticides. However, few studies have investigated the fate of these materials in the environment in relation to colloidal stability and toxicity. In nature, humic substances are the main agents responsible for complexation with metals and organic compounds, as well as responsible for the dynamics of these nanoparticles in aquatic and terrestrial environments. In this context, the evaluation of the influence of aquatic humic substances (AHS) on the colloidal stability and toxicity of polymeric nanoparticles of chitosan/tripolyphosphate with or without paraquat was performed. In this study, the nanoparticles were prepared by the ionic gelation method and characterized by size distribution measurements (DLS and NTA), zeta potential, infrared and fluorescence spectroscopy. Allium cepa genotoxicity studies and ecotoxicity assays with the alga Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata were used to investigate the effect of aquatic humic substances (AHS) on the toxicity of this delivery system. No changes were observed in the physical-chemical stability of the nanoparticles due to the presence of AHS using DLS and NTA techniques. However some evidence of interaction between the nanoparticles and AHS was observed by infrared and fluorescence spectroscopies. The ecotoxicity and genotoxicity assays showed that humic substances can decrease the toxic effects of nanoparticles containing paraquat. These results are interesting because they are important for understanding the interaction of these nanostructured carrier systems with species present in aquatic ecosystems such as humic substances, and in this way, opening new perspectives for studies on the dynamics of these carrier systems in the ecosystem.

  12. Effect of laundry surfactants on surface charge and colloidal stability of silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Skoglund, Sara; Lowe, Troy A; Hedberg, Jonas; Blomberg, Eva; Wallinder, Inger Odnevall; Wold, Susanna; Lundin, Maria

    2013-07-16

    The stability of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) potentially released from clothing during a laundry cycle and their interactions with laundry-relevant surfactants [anionic (LAS), cationic (DTAC), and nonionic (Berol)] have been investigated. Surface interactions between Ag NPs and surfactants influence their speciation and stability. In the absence of surfactants as well as in the presence of LAS, the negatively charged Ag NPs were stable in solution for more than 1 day. At low DTAC concentrations (≤1 mM), DTAC-Ag NP interactions resulted in charge neutralization and formation of agglomerates. The surface charge of the particles became positive at higher concentrations due to a bilayer type formation of DTAC that prevents from agglomeration due to repulsive electrostatic forces between the positively charged colloids. The adsorption of Berol was enhanced when above its critical micelle concentration (cmc). This resulted in a surface charge close to zero and subsequent agglomeration. Extended DLVO theory calculations were in compliance with observed findings. The stability of the Ag NPs was shown to depend on the charge and concentration of the adsorbed surfactants. Such knowledge is important as it may influence the subsequent transport of Ag NPs through different chemical transients and thus their potential bioavailability and toxicity.

  13. Silver colloidal nanoparticle stability: influence on Candida biofilms formed on denture acrylic.

    PubMed

    Monteiro, Douglas Roberto; Takamiya, Aline Satie; Feresin, Leonardo Perina; Gorup, Luiz Fernando; de Camargo, Emerson Rodrigues; Delbem, Alberto Carlos Botazzo; Henriques, Mariana; Barbosa, Debora Barros

    2014-08-01

    Our aim in this study was to evaluate how the chemical stability of silver nanoparticles (SNs) influences their efficacy against Candida albicans and C. glabrata biofilms. Several parameters of SN stability were tested, namely, temperature (50ºC, 70ºC, and 100ºC), pH (5.0 and 9.0), and time of contact (5 h and 24 h) with biofilms. The control was defined as SNs without temperature treatment, pH 7, and 24 h of contact. These colloidal suspensions at 54 mg/L were used to treat mature Candida biofilms (48 h) formed on acrylic. Their efficacy was determined by total biomass and colony-forming unit quantification. Data were analyzed using analysis of variance and the Bonferroni post hoc test (α = 0.05). The temperature and pH variations of SNs did not affect their efficacy against the viable cells of Candida biofilms (P > 0.05). Moreover, the treatment periods were not decisive in terms of the susceptibility of Candida biofilms to SNs. These findings provide an important advantage of SNs that may be useful in the treatment of Candida-associated denture stomatitis.

  14. Cytotoxicity and colloidal behavior of polystyrene latex nanoparticles toward filamentous fungi in isotonic solutions.

    PubMed

    Nomura, Toshiyuki; Tani, Shuji; Yamamoto, Makoto; Nakagawa, Takumi; Toyoda, Shunsuke; Fujisawa, Eri; Yasui, Akiko; Konishi, Yasuhiro

    2016-04-01

    The effects of surface physicochemical properties of functionalized polystyrene latex (PSL) nanoparticles (NPs) and model filamentous fungi Aspergillus oryzae and Aspergillus nidulans cultivated in different environment (aqueous and atmospheric environment) on the colloidal behavior and cytotoxicity were investigated in different isotonic solutions (154 mM NaCl and 292 mM sucrose). When the liquid cultivated fungal cells were exposed to positively charged PSL NPs in 154 mM NaCl solution, the NPs were taken into A. oryzae, but not A. nidulans. Atomic force microscopy revealed that the uptake of NPs was more readily through the cell wall of A. oryzae because of its relatively softer cell wall compared with A. nidulans. In contrast, the positively charged PSL NPs entirely covered the liquid cultivated fungal cell surfaces and induced cell death in 292 mM sucrose solution because of the stronger electrostatic attractive force between the cells and NPs compared with in 154 mM NaCl. When the agar cultivated fungal cells were exposed to the positively charged PSL NPs, both fungal cells did not take the NPs inside the cells. Contact angle measurement revealed that the hydrophobin on the agar cultivated cell surfaces inhibited the uptake of NPs because of its relatively more hydrophobic cell surface compared with the liquid cultivated cells.

  15. Synthesis, characterization and potential application of MnZn ferrite and MnZn ferrite @ Au nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin; Wang, Lingyan; Lim, I-Im S; Bao, Kun; Mott, Derrick; Park, Hye-Young; Luo, Jin; Hao, Shunli; Zhong, Chuan-Jian

    2009-05-01

    The ability to tune the magnetic properties of magnetic nanoparticles by manipulating the composition or surface properties of the nanoparticles is important for exploiting the application of the nanomaterials. This report describes preliminary findings of an investigation of the viability of synthesizing MnZn ferrite and core @ shell MnZn ferrite @ Au nanoparticles as potentially magnetization-tunable nanomaterials. The synthesis of the core-shell magnetic nanoparticles involved a simple combination of seed formation of the MnZn ferrite magnetic nanoparticles and surface coating of the seeds with gold shells. Water-soluble MnZn ferrite nanoparticles of 20-40 nm diameters and MnZn ferrite @ Au nanoparticles of 30-60 nm have been obtained. The MnZn ferrite @ Au nanoparticles have been demonstrated to be viable in magnetic separation of nanoparticles via interparticle antibody-specific binding reactivity between antibodies on the gold shells of the core-shell magnetic particles and proteins on gold nanoparticles. These findings have significant implications to the design of the core @ shell magnetic nanomaterials with core composition tuned magnetization for bioassay application.

  16. Unconventional assembly of bimetallic Au-Ni janus nanoparticles on chemically modified silica spheres.

    PubMed

    Jia, Lei; Pei, Xiaowei; Zhou, Feng; Liu, Weimin

    2014-02-10

    This paper reports that Janus Au-Ni nanoparticles (JANNPs) can self-assemble onto silica spheres in a novel way, which is different from that of single-component isotropic nanoparticles. JANNPs modified with octadecylamine (ODA) assemble onto catechol-modified silica spheres (SiO2-OH) to form a very special core-loop complex structure and finally the core-loop assemblies link each other to form large assemblies through capillary force and the hydrophobic interaction of the alkyl chains of ODA. The nanocomposites disassemble in the presence of vanillin and oleic acid because of the breakage of the catechol-metal link. Vanillin-induced disassembly enables the JANNPs to reassemble into a core-loop structure upon ODA addition. The assembly of SiO2-OH and isotropic Ni or Fe3O4 particles generates traditional core-satellite structures. This unconventional self-assembly can be attributed to the synergistic effect of Janus specificity and capillary force, which is also confirmed by the assembly of thiol-terminated silica spheres (SH-SiO2) with anisotropic JANNPs, isotropic Au, and Ni nanoparticles. These results can guide the development of novel composite materials using Janus nanoparticles as the primary building blocks.

  17. Cavitation-free CW laser ablation from a solid target to synthesize low size-dispersed Au nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Kabashin, Andrei V; Kucherik, Alexei; Ryabchikov, Yury; Kutrovskaya, Stella; Al-Kattan, Ahmed; Arakelyan, Sergei; Itina, Tatiana

    2017-02-27

    Continuous wave (CW) radiation from Yb-fiber laser (central wave length is 1064 nm, power 1-200 W) is used to initiate ablation of material Au target in deionized water and synthesize bare (unprotected) Au nanoparticles. We show that the formed nanoparticles present a single low-size-dispersed population with the mean size of the order of 10 nm, which contrasts to previously reported data on dual populations of nanoparticles during pulsed laser ablation in liquids. The lacking second population of nanoparticles is explained by the absence of cavitation-related mechanism of material ablation, which typically takes place under pulsed laser action on a solid target in liquid ambience, and this supposition is confirmed by plume visualization tests. We also observe a gradual growth of mean nanoparticles size from 8-10 to 20-25 nm under the increase of laser power for 532 nm pumping wavelength, while for 1064 nm pumping wavelength the mean size 8-10 nm is independent of radiation power. The growth of the nanoparticles observed for 532 nm wavelength is attributed to the enhanced target melting and splashing followed by an additional heating due to an efficient excitation of plasmons over Au nanoparticles. Bare, low-size-dispersed Au nanoparticles are of importance for a variety of applications, including biomedicine, catalysis, photovoltaics etc., whereas the employment of CW radiation for nanomaterial production promises an improvement of cost-efficiency of this technology.

  18. Beet juice utilization: Expeditious green synthesis of nobel metal nanoparticles (Ag, Au, Pt, and Pd) using microwaves

    EPA Science Inventory

    Metal nanoparticles of Ag, Au, Pt, and Pd were prepared in aqueous solutions via a rapid microwave-assisted green method using beet juice, an abundant sugar-rich agricultural produce, served as both a reducing and a capping reagent. The Ag nanoparticles with capping prepared by b...

  19. Influence of preparation conditions on the depth-dependent composition of AuPd nanoparticles grown on planar oxide surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haire, Andrew R.; Gustafson, Johan; Trant, Aoife G.; Jones, Timothy E.; Noakes, Timothy C. Q.; Bailey, Paul; Baddeley, Christopher J.

    2011-01-01

    The high resolution depth profiling capabilities of medium energy ion scattering are employed to determine the depth dependent composition of Au/Pd nanoparticles grown on thin silica films on Si(100) as functions of Au/Pd composition, total metal loading and annealing temperature. We show that, despite the fact that Au is deposited prior to Pd, the surface of the particles is generally enriched in Au compared to the bulk composition. The extent of this Au enrichment decreases with annealing temperature. In addition, we examine the influence of the adsorption of acetic acid on the surface composition of Au/Pd particles grown on thin alumina films on NiAl(110). We find that acetic acid causes limited segregation of Pd to the bimetallic surface of relatively Au-rich particles.

  20. Laser-induced particle size tuning and structural transformations in germanium nanoparticles prepared by stain etching and colloidal synthesis route

    SciTech Connect

    Karatutlu, Ali E-mail: ali.karatutlu@bou.edu.tr; Seker, Isa

    2015-12-28

    In this study, with the aid of Raman measurements, we have observed transformations in small (∼3 nm and ∼10 nm) free-standing Ge nanoparticles under laser light exposure. The nanoparticles were obtained by the chemical stain etching of a monocrystalline Ge wafer and of Ge powder and by colloidal synthesis route. We found that the transformation path depends on laser power and exposure time. At relatively low values of the laser power (2 mW) over a period of 100 min, the Raman signal indicates transformation of the sample from a nanocrystaline to bulk-like state, followed by partial oxidation and finally a conversion of the entire sample into alpha-quartz type GeO{sub 2}. However, when the laser power is set at 60 mW, we observed a heat release during an explosive crystallization of the nanocrystalline material into bulk Ge without noticeable signs of oxidation. Together with the transmission electron microscopy measurements, these results suggest that the chemical stain etching method for the preparation of porous Ge may not be a top-down process as has been widely considered, but a bottom up one. Systematic studies of the laser exposure on Ge nanoparticles prepared by colloidal synthesis results in the fact that the explosive crystallisation is common for H-terminated and partially disordered Ge nanoparticles regardless of its particle size. We suggest possible bio-medical applications for the observed phenomena.

  1. Improvement of kinetics, yield, and colloidal stability of biogenic gold nanoparticles using living cells of Euglena gracilis microalga

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahoumane, Si Amar; Yéprémian, Claude; Djédiat, Chakib; Couté, Alain; Fiévet, Fernand; Coradin, Thibaud; Brayner, Roberta

    2016-03-01

    Recent years have witnessed a boom in the biosynthesis of a large variety of nanomaterials using different biological resources among which algae-based entities have been gaining much more attention within the community of material scientists worldwide. In our previously published findings, we explored some factors that governed the biofabrication of gold nanoparticles using living cultures of microalgae, such as the utilized microalgal genera, the phylum they belong to, and the impact of tetrachloroauric acid concentrations on the ability of these strains to perform the biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles once in contact with these cations. As a follow-up, we present in this paper an improvement of the features of bioproduced gold colloids using living cells of Euglena gracilis microalga when this species is grown under either mixotrophic or autotrophic conditions, i.e., exposed to light and grown in an organic carbon-enriched culture medium versus under autotrophic conditions. As an outcome to this alteration, the growth rate of this photosynthetic microorganism is multiplied 7-8 times when grown under mixotrophic conditions compared to autotrophic ones. Therefore, the yield, the kinetics, and the colloidal stability of the biosynthesized gold nanoparticles are dramatically enhanced. Moreover, the shape and the size of the as-produced nano-objects via this biological method are affected. In addition to round-shaped gold nanoparticles, particular shapes, such as triangles and hexagons, appear. These findings add up to the amassed knowledge toward the design of photobioreactors for the scalable and sustainable production of interesting nanomaterials.

  2. Facile fabrication and selective detection for cysteine of xylan/Au nanoparticles composite.

    PubMed

    Luo, Yuqiong; Shen, Zuguang; Liu, Pai; Zhao, Lihong; Wang, Xiaoying

    2016-04-20

    This work reported a facile and green method to prepare highly stable and uniformly distributed Au nanoparticles (AuNPs), using biopolymer xylan as stabilizing and reducing agent. Full characterizations were performed and the results revealed that AuNPs were well dispersed with the diameters of 10-30nm. The optimal condition was as follows: the ratio of xylan to HAuCl4 was 150mg:15mg, reaction temperature was 80°C and reaction time was 40min. The xylan/AuNPs composite exhibited highly selective and sensitive sensing of cysteine in aqueous solution, it could distinguish cysteine among dozens kinds of amino acids, and the limit of detection (LOD) for cysteine was calculated as 0.57μM. Besides, the xylan/AuNPs composite was applied for Cys detection in human serum. This study provides a new way for high-value utilization of the rich biomass resource and a cheap, rapid and simple method for Cys detection in real biological samples.

  3. Mixing plasmonic Au nanoparticles into all polymer layers for improving the efficiency of organic solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choy, Wallace C. H.; Wang, Charlie C. D.; Fung, Dixon D. S.; Sha, Wei E. I.; Xie, Feng-Xian

    2012-09-01

    To enhance the light trapping of organic solar cells (OSCs), metallic (e.g. Au, Ag) nanoparticles (NPs) have been incorporated into the polymer layers conveniently in solution process. Although power conversion efficiency (PCE) of OSCs has been shown to improve by incorporating metallic NPs in either the buffer layer such as poly-(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) :poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS)[1] or the active layer[2], the understanding on the changes is still not quite clear. Moreover, there are very limited studies on incorporating metallic NPs in more than one organic layer and investigating their effects on the optical and electrical properties as well as the performances of OSCs. In this work, monofunctional poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)-capped Au NPs of sizes 18 nm and 35 nm are doped in the PEDOT:PSS and poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT): phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) layers respectively, leading to an improvement of PCE by ~22% compared to the optimized control device. We will firstly identify the impact of NPs in each polymer layer on OSC characteristics by doping Au NPs in either the PEDOT:PSS or P3HT:PCBM layer. Then, we will investigate Au NPs incorporated in all polymer layers. We demonstrate that the accumulated benefits of incorporating Au NPs in all organic layers of OSCs can achieve larger improvements in OSC performances.

  4. Facet-controlled phase separation in supersaturated Au-Ni nanoparticles upon shape equilibration

    SciTech Connect

    Herz, A. E-mail: dong.wang@tu-ilmenau.de; Rossberg, D.; Hentschel, M.; Theska, F.; Wang, D. E-mail: dong.wang@tu-ilmenau.de; Schaaf, P.; Friák, M.; Holec, D.; Šob, M.; Schneeweiss, O.

    2015-08-17

    Solid-state dewetting is used to fabricate supersaturated, submicron-sized Au-Ni solid solution particles out of thin Au/Ni bilayers by means of a rapid thermal annealing technique. Phase separation in such particles is studied with respect to their equilibrium crystal (or Wulff) shape by subsequent annealing at elevated temperature. It is found that (100) faceting planes of the equilibrated particles are enriched with Ni and (111) faces with Au. Both phases are considered by quantum-mechanical calculations in combination with an error-reduction scheme that was developed to compensate for a missing exchange-correlation potential that would reliably describe both Au and Ni. The observed phase configuration is then related to the minimization of strongly anisotropic elastic energies of Au- and Ni-rich phases and results in a rather unique nanoparticle composite state that is characterized by nearly uniform value of elastic response to epitaxial strains all over the faceted surface. The same conclusion is yielded also by evaluating bi-axial elastic moduli when employing interpolated experimental elastic constants. This work demonstrates a useful route for studying features of physical metallurgy at the mesoscale.

  5. Composition-dependent electrocatalytic activity of AuPd alloy nanoparticles prepared via simultaneous sputter deposition into an ionic liquid.

    PubMed

    Hirano, Masanori; Enokida, Kazuki; Okazaki, Ken-ichi; Kuwabata, Susumu; Yoshida, Hisao; Torimoto, Tsukasa

    2013-05-21

    Homogeneously alloyed bimetallic particles of AuPd with an average size of ca. 2 nm were successfully prepared by simultaneous sputter deposition of Au and Pd in an ionic liquid in the absence of any additional stabilizing agents. The chemical composition of the AuPd alloy was tunable depending on the area fraction of Au plates in the Au-Pd binary targets for sputtering. The particles were immobilized on an HOPG surface by heat treatment along with the increase in the average size of particles from ca. 2 nm to ca. 7 nm. Ionic liquid species adsorbed on the as-prepared AuPd nanoparticle films on HOPG caused the prevention of electrocatalytic reactions, but repetition of potential sweep cycling in a basic aqueous solution removed the adsorbed ionic species, resulting in electrocatalytic oxidation of ethanol at the AuPd alloy nanoparticle-immobilized HOPG electrode. The electrocatalytic activity of AuPd nanoalloy particles varied upon changing the fraction of Au and Pd in the particles, and alloy particles having an Au fraction of ca. 0.61 exhibited the maximum activity against ethanol oxidation, being higher than the activity of the pure Pt surface.

  6. Interaction of colloidal nanoparticles with their local environment: the (ionic) nanoenvironment around nanoparticles is different from bulk and determines the physico-chemical properties of the nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Pfeiffer, Christian; Rehbock, Christoph; Hühn, Dominik; Carrillo-Carrion, Carolina; de Aberasturi, Dorleta Jimenez; Merk, Vivian; Barcikowski, Stephan; Parak, Wolfgang J.

    2014-01-01

    The physico-chemical properties of colloidal nanoparticles (NPs) are influenced by their local environment, as, in turn, the local environment influences the physico-chemical properties of the NPs. In other words, the local environment around NPs has a profound impact on the NPs, and it is different from bulk due to interaction with the NP surface. So far, this important effect has not been addressed in a comprehensive way in the literature. The vicinity of NPs can be sensitively influenced by local ions and ligands, with effects already occurring at extremely low concentrations. NPs in the Hückel regime are more sensitive to fluctuations in the ionic environment, because of a larger Debye length. The local ion concentration hereby affects the colloidal stability of the NPs, as it is different from bulk owing to Debye Hückel screening caused by the charge of the NPs. This can have subtle effects, now caused by the environment to the performance of the NP, such as for example a buffering effect caused by surface reaction on ultrapure ligand-free nanogold, a size quenching effect in the presence of specific ions and a significant impact on fluorophore-labelled NPs acting as ion sensors. Thus, the aim of this review is to clarify and give an unifying view of the complex interplay between the NP's surface with their nanoenvironment. PMID:24759541

  7. Directed assembly of Au nanoparticles onto planar surfaces via multiple hydrogen bonds.

    PubMed

    Zirbs, Ronald; Kienberger, Ferry; Hinterdorfer, Peter; Binder, Wolfgang H

    2005-08-30

    We have developed a new concept to effect nanoparticle binding on surfaces by use of directed, specific molecular interactions. Hamilton-type receptors displaying a binding strength of approximately 10(5) M(-)(1) were covalently fixed onto self-assembled monolayers via Sharpless-type "click" reactions, thus representing an efficient method to control the densities of ligands over a range from low to complete surface coverage. Au nanoparticles covered with the matching barbituric acid receptors bound with high selectivity onto this surface by a self-assembly process mediated by multiple hydrogen bonds. The binding process was investigated with atomic force microscopy. Moderate control of particle density was achieved by controlling the receptor density on the self-assembled monolayer surface. The method opens a general approach to nanoparticle and small object binding onto patterned surfaces.

  8. Assembly/Disassembly of DNA-Au Nanoparticles: A Strategy of Intervention

    DOE PAGES

    Lim, I-Im S.; Wang, Lingyan; Chandrachud, Uma; ...

    2008-01-01

    This report describes the viability of a strategy for manipulating the assembly/disassembly processes of DNA-Au nanoparticles by molecular intervention. Using the temperature-induced assembly and disassembly processes of DNAs and gold nanoparticles as a model system, the introduction of a molecular recognition probe is demonstrated to lead to the intervention of the assembly/disassembly processes depending on its specific biorecognition. This process can be detected by monitoring the change in the optical properties of gold nanoparticles and their DNA assemblies. Implications of the preliminary results to exploration of the resulting nanostructures for fine-tuning of the interfacial reactivities in DNA-based bioassays and biomaterialmore » engineering are also discussed.« less

  9. Iodide-induced organothiol desorption and photochemical reaction, gold nanoparticle (AuNP) fusion, and SERS signal reduction in organothiol-containing AuNP aggregates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) have been used extensively as surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopic (SERS) substrates for their large SERS enhancements and widely believed chemical stability. Presented is the finding that iodide can rapidly reduce the SERS intensity of the ligands, including organothiols ...

  10. Synthesis of Monometallic (Au and Pd) and Bimetallic (AuPd) Nanoparticles Using Carbon Nitride (C3N4) Quantum Dots via the Photochemical Route for Nitrophenol Reduction.

    PubMed

    Fageria, Pragati; Uppala, Shravan; Nazir, Roshan; Gangopadhyay, Subhashis; Chang, Chien-Hsiang; Basu, Mrinmoyee; Pande, Surojit

    2016-10-04

    In this study, we report the synthesis of monometallic (Au and Pd) and bimetallic (AuPd) nanoparticles (NPs) using graphitic carbon nitride (g-C3N4) quantum dots (QDs) and photochemical routes. Eliminating the necessity of any extra stabilizer or reducing agent, the photochemical reactions have been carried out using a UV light source of 365 nm where C3N4 QD itself functions as a suitable stabilizer as well as a reducing agent. The g-C3N4 QDs are excited upon irradiation with UV light and produce photogenerated electrons, which further facilitate the reduction of metal ions. The successful formation of Au, Pd, and AuPd alloy nanoparticles is evidenced by UV-vis, powder X-ray diffraction, X-ray photon spectroscopy, and energy-dispersive spectroscopy techniques. The morphology and distribution of metal nanoparticles over the C3N4 QD surface has been systematically investigated by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and SAED analysis. To explore the catalytic activity of the as-prepared samples, the reduction reaction of 4-nitrophenol with excellent performance is also investigated. It is noteworthy that the synthesis of both monometallic and bimetallic NPs can be accomplished by using a very small amount of g-C3N4, which can be used as a promising photoreducing material as well as a stabilizer for the synthesis of various metal nanoparticles.

  11. High-Performance Li-O2 Batteries with Controlled Li2O2 Growth in Graphene/Au-Nanoparticles/Au-Nanosheets Sandwich.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guoqing; Tu, Fangfang; Xie, Jian; Du, Gaohui; Zhang, Shichao; Cao, Gaoshao; Zhao, Xinbing

    2016-10-01

    The working of nonaqueous Li-O2 batteries relies on the reversible formation/decomposition of Li2O2 which is electrically insulating and reactive with carbon and electrolyte. Realizing controlled growth of Li2O2 is a prerequisite for high performance of Li-O2 batteries. In this work, a sandwich-structured catalytic cathode is designed: graphene/Au-nanoparticles/Au-nanosheets (G/Au-NP/Au-NS) that enables controlled growth of Li2O2 spatially and structurally. It is found that thin-layer Li2O2 (below 10 nm) can grow conformally on the surface of Au NPs confined in between graphene and Au NSs. This unique crystalline behavior of Li2O2 effectively relieves or defers the electrode deactivation with Li2O2 accumulation and largely reduces the contact of Li2O2 with graphene and electrolyte. As a result, Li-O2 batteries with the G/Au-NP/Au-NS cathode exhibit superior electrochemical performance. A stable cycling of battery can last 300 times at 400 mA g(-1) when the capacity is limited at 500 mAh g(-1). This work provides a practical design of catalytic cathodes capable of controlling Li2O2 growth.

  12. A facile and green strategy for the synthesis of Au, Ag and Au-Ag alloy nanoparticles using aerial parts of R. hypocrateriformis extract and their biological evaluation.

    PubMed

    Godipurge, S S; Yallappa, S; Biradar, Naveen J; Biradar, J S; Dhananjaya, B L; Hegde, Gajanan; Jagadish, K; Hegde, Gurumurthy

    2016-12-01

    A facile and green strategy is reported here to synthesize gold (Au), silver (Ag) and gold-silver (Au-Ag) alloy nanoparticles (NPs) through bio-reduction reactions of aqueous corresponding metal precursors mediated by extracts of aerial parts of R. hypocrateriformis, which act as both reducing and stabilizing agents, under microwave irradiation. UV-vis spectrophotometer, XRD, FT-IR, FESEM/TEM, TGA and EDAX analysis were used to characterize the obtained NPs. The formation of NPs is evident from their surface plasmon resonance peak observed at λmax=∼550, 450 and 500nm for Au, Ag and Au-Ag alloy NPs respectively. XRD pattern revealed that fcc structure, while FT-IR spectra signify the presence of phytochemicals adsorbed on NPs. Such a biofunctionalized NPs were characterized by their weight loss, 30% due to thermal degradation of plant phytochemicals observed in TG analysis. The spherical shape of Au, Ag and Au-Ag alloy NPs (∼10-50nm) is observed by FE-SEM/TEM images. EDAX analysis confirms the expected elemental composition. Moreover, these NPs showed enhanced antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anticancer activities, though it is more pronounced for Au-Ag alloy NPs, which is due to the combining effect of phytochemicals, Au and Ag metals. Thus, the biosynthesized NPs could be applied as effective growth inhibitors for various biomedical applications.

  13. Inverse scattering spectroscopic method for the fast measurement of the number and mass concentrations of metal nanoparticle colloid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Guoce; Bai, Benfeng; Liu, Wenqi; Wu, Xiaochun

    2016-04-01

    Metal nanoparticles (NPs) have wide applications in various fields due to their unique properties. The accurate and fast characterization of metal NP concentration is highly demanded in the synthesis, metrology, and applications of NPs. The commonly used inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) is a standard method for measuring the mass concentration (MC) of NPs, even though it is time-consuming, expensive, and destructive. While for the number concentration (NC) characterization of NPs, the method is less explored. Here, we present an improved optical extinction-scattering spectroscopic method for the fast, non-destructive characterization of the MC and NC of poly-disperse metal NP colloid simultaneously. By measuring the extinction spectrum and the 90° scattering spectrum of the nanorod (NR) colloid, we can solve an inverse scattering problem to retrieve the two dimensional joint probability density function (2D-JPDF) with respect to the width and the aspect ratio of NR sample accurately, based on which the NC and MC of the colloidal NPs can be calculated. This method is powerful to characterize both the geometric parameters and the concentrations, including the MC and NC, of poly-disperse metal NPs simultaneously. It is very useful for the non-destructive, non-contact, and in-situ comprehensive measurement of colloidal NPs. This method also has the potential to characterize NPs of other shapes or made of other materials.

  14. New Insights into the structure of Pd-Au nanoparticles as revealed by aberration-corrected STEM

    PubMed Central

    Deepak, Francis Leonard; Casillas-Garcia, Gilberto; Esparza, Rodrigo; Barron, H.; Jose-Yacaman, Miguel

    2011-01-01

    Bimetallic nanoparticles of Au-Pd find important applications in catalysis. Their catalytic performance is directly related to the structure, alloy formation and variation of composition in the structure. A standard idea is that bimetallic nanoparticles can be either an alloy or a core shell structure. Our group has investigated the structure and composition of Pd-Au nanoparticles by using aberration corrected high angle annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy (HAADF-STEM). We reported previously that the nanoparticles are composed of an evenly alloyed inner core, an Au-rich intermediate layer, and a Pd-rich outer shell. The structure is more complicated than what simple models can predict. In this paper we report additional studies of this system wherein by carrying out spectral and chemical analysis (STEM*-EDAX, STEM-EELS) the interface structure can now be better identified and understood. Apart from the three-layered core-shell structures we have also been able to observe in some cases a four-layered core-shell structure as well. The entire core-shell structure is not rigid and there is indeed intercalation of Au-Pd into the other layers as well. In addition we have been able to locate stacking faults present in the nanoparticles. We also address the problem of the interface structure between the layers. By using nanodiffraction we have found that the whole structure of the nanoparticles becomes hcp in contrast to the bulk structure of Au or Pd. PMID:21804646

  15. Conversion of Ag nanowires to AgCI nanowires decorated with Au nanoparticles and their photocatalytic activity.

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Y.; Center for Nanoscale Materials

    2010-02-11

    A two-step approach has been developed to synthesize AgCl nanowires decorated with Au nanoparticles by using Ag nanowires as chemical templates. In the first step, the Ag nanowires are oxidized with FeCl{sub 3} followed by a simultaneous precipitation reaction between Ag{sup +} and Cl{sup -} ions at room temperature, resulting in conversion of the Ag nanowires to AgCl nanowires as well as reduction of Fe{sup 3+} to Fe{sup 2+} ions. In the second step, the Fe{sup 2+} ions generated in the first step reduce Au precursors (e.g., NaAuCl{sub 4}) to deposit Au nanoparticles on the surfaces of the AgCl nanowires, resulting in the formation of AgCl:Au composite nanowires. Because of strong surface plasmon resonance and chemical inertness of Au nanoparticles, the as-synthesized AgCl:Au nanowires exhibit enhanced absorption coefficient in the visible region and enhanced chemical stability to prevent them from degradation and aggregation. These unique properties enable the AgCl:Au nanowires to be used as a class of promising plasmonic photocatalysts driven by visible light. Preliminary results demonstrate these composite nanowires can efficiently decompose organics, such as methylene blue molecules, under illumination of white light.

  16. Incorporation of CdS nanoparticles from colloidal solution into optically clear ureasilicate matrix with preservation of quantum size effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boev, Victor I.; Soloviev, Alexei; Silva, Carlos J. R.; Gomes, Maria J. M.

    2006-01-01

    Nanocomposite materials based on an organic-inorganic ureasilicate matrix with embedded CdS nanoparticles were produced and characterized by optical (UV/Vis), FTIR, secondary ion mass spectroscopy, inductively-coupled plasma optical emission and steady-state photoluminescence measurements. The ureasilicate precursor was obtained by the reaction between silicon alkoxyde modified by isocyanate groups and polyethylene glycol oligomers with amine terminal groups. The final nanocomposites were prepared by introducing a colloidal solution of CdS nanoparticles with various sizes into the ureasilicate precursor followed by gelation of the mixture in the presence of ammonia/water vapours. The reliable preservation of the quantum-size effect of nanoparticles after their incorporation into the ureasilicate matrix was observed in all samples. The obtained materials were optically transparent at visible range, exhibiting high flexibility and long-term stability.

  17. Morphology evolution of gold nanoparticles as function of time, temperature, and Au(III)/sodium ascorbate molar ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Priolisi, Ornella; Fabrizi, Alberto; Deon, Giovanna; Bonollo, Franco; Cattini, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    In this work the morphology evolution of Au nanoparticles (AuNPs), obtained by direct reduction, was studied as a function of time, temperature, and Au(III)/sodium ascorbate molar ratio. The NPs morphology was examined by transmission electron microscope with image analysis, while time evolution was investigated by visible and near-infrared absorption spectroscopy and dynamic light scattering. It is found that initially formed star-like NPs transform in more spheroidal particles and the evolution appears more rapid by increasing the temperature while a large amount of reducing agent prevents the remodeling of AuNPs. An explication of morphology evolution is proposed.

  18. Regional selective construction of nano-Au on Fe3O4@SiO2@PEI nanoparticles by photoreduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Ying; Ping, Tuo; Maitlo, Inamullah; Wang, Bowen; Yasir Akram, Muhammad; Nie, Jun; Zhu, Xiaoqun

    2016-05-01

    A magnetically separatable catalyst Fe3O4@SiO2@PEI@Au (gold) nanoparticle was successfully constructed by a novel regional selective photoreduction method. Based on the photolysis mechanism of a type II photoinitiator, through controlling the distribution of polyethylene imine (PEI), Au nanoparticles about 10 nm, which are only on the surface of the Fe3O4@SiO2@PEI nanoparticle, could be photoreduced due to the PEI acting as a coordinating agent, capping agent, and photoreducing agent simultaneously. The small size Au nanoparticles endow the catalyst with a high catalytic performance toward the reduction of 4-nitroaniline to 4-aminophenol by NaBH4. In addition, magnetic Fe3O4@SiO2@PEI@Au nanoparticles could easily be recovered and could be reused at least six times still keeping catalytic efficiency higher than 95%, which contributes to their high stability and magnetization. Furthermore, compared to another reported approach, this method showed great regional selectivity of reducing metal nanoparticles by controlling the distribution of the PEI. Taking advantage of the regional selectivity of the photoreducing method could also be used to fabricate other metal nanoparticles as catalysts for various reactions.

  19. Au-assisted fabrication of nano-holes on c-plane sapphire via thermal treatment guided by Au nanoparticles as catalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sui, Mao; Pandey, Puran; Li, Ming-Yu; Zhang, Quanzhen; Kunwar, Sundar; Lee, Jihoon

    2017-01-01

    Nanoscale patterning of sapphires is a challenging task due to the high mechanical strength, chemical stability as well as thermal durability. In this paper, we demonstrate a gold droplet assisted approach of nano-hole fabrication on c-plane sapphire via a thermal treatment. Uniformly distributed nano-holes are fabricated on the sapphire surface guided by dome shaped Au nanoparticles (NPs) as catalysts and the patterning process is discussed based on the disequilibrium of vapor, liquid, solid interface energies at the Au NP/sapphire interface induced by the Au evaporation at high temperature. Followed by the re-equilibration of interface energy, transport of alumina from the beneath of NPs to the sapphire surface can occur along the NP/sapphire interface resulting in the formation of nano-holes. The fabrication of nano-holes using Au NPs as catalysts is a flexible, economical and convenient approach and can find applications in various optoelectronics.

  20. Impedimetric Aptasensor for Ochratoxin A Determination Based on Au Nanoparticles Stabilized with Hyper-Branched Polymer

    PubMed Central

    Evtugyn, Gennady; Porfireva, Anna; Stepanova, Veronika; Kutyreva, Marianna; Gataulina, Alfiya; Ulakhovich, Nikolay; Evtugyn, Vladimir; Hianik, Tibor

    2013-01-01

    An impedimetric aptasensor for ochratoxin A (OTA) detection has been developed on the base of a gold electrode covered with a new modifier consisting of electropolymerized Neutral Red and a mixture of Au nanoparticles suspended in the dendrimeric polymer Botlorn H30®. Thiolated aptamer specific to OTA was covalently attached to Au nanoparticles via Au-S bonding. The interaction of the aptamer with OTA induced the conformational switch of the aptamer from linear to guanine quadruplex form followed by consolidation of the surface layer and an increase of the charge transfer resistance. The aptasensor makes it possible to detect from 0.1 to 100 nM of OTA (limit of detection: 0.02 nM) in the presence of at least 50 fold excess of ochratoxin B. The applicability of the aptasensor for real sample assay was confirmed by testing spiked beer samples. The recovery of 2 nM OTA was found to be 70% for light beer and 78% for