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Sample records for colombian pacific coast

  1. Gestational and congenital syphilis epidemic in the Colombian Pacific Coast.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Adriana R; Castrillón, Maria Alejandra; Minotta, Alba Yadira; Rubiano, Luisa C; Castaño, Martha C; Salazar, Juan C

    2013-10-01

    Congenital syphilis (CS) is a major global public health problem. Buenaventura, a socioeconomically deprived municipality in the Colombian Pacific Coast, accounts for 6.6% of all CS cases in Colombia. To begin to understand the main reasons for the high rates of the disease in Buenaventura, we conducted a retrospective electronic health record analysis of all infants admitted with CS during the first 7 months of 2011 to the Hospital Departamental de Buenaventura, the city's main birthing hospital. The diagnosis of gestational syphilis and CS was based on a predefined Colombian public health service algorithm. Clinical, laboratory, and sociodemographic parameters for all infants studied, including maternal access to prenatal care, syphilis serologic diagnosis, and adequacy of penicillin treatment, were abstracted and analyzed. A total of 89 infants met the case definition for CS. Most mothers (80%) were affiliated with government-regulated or private health care insurance plans. While 64 (70%) of 92 attended at least 1 antenatal care visit and 59 of these 64 (84%) were screened for syphilis, only 5 (8%) of 59 received appropriate antibiotic therapy. Although most infants were asymptomatic at birth, prematurity (15/82) was common. Two infants died in the neonatal period, and 5 pregnancies ended in stillbirth. Our findings confirm that Buenaventura has a very high incidence of CS and demonstrate that existing antenatal care gestational syphilis programs are flawed. Prevention strategies should emphasize enhanced early syphilis screening in pregnancy, preferably through the implementation of point-of-care testing in the community and same-day treatment with at least 1 dose of penicillin.

  2. Draft Genome Sequences of 13 Colombian Helicobacter pylori Strains Isolated from Pacific Coast and Andean Residents.

    PubMed

    Pazos, Alvaro; Kodaman, Nuri; Piazuelo, M Blanca; Romero-Gallo, Judith; Sobota, Rafal S; Israel, Dawn A; Bravo, Luis E; Morgan, Douglas R; Wilson, Keith T; Correa, Pelayo; Peek, Richard M; Williams, Scott M; Schneider, Barbara G

    2017-04-13

    We present here the draft genomes of 13 Helicobacter pylori strains isolated from Colombian residents on the Pacific coast (n = 6) and in the Andes mountains (n = 7), locations that differ in gastric cancer risk. These 13 strains were obtained from individuals with diagnosed gastric lesions. Copyright © 2017 Pazos et al.

  3. [The red tide caused by the dinoflagellate Alexandrium tamarense in the Colombian Pacific coast (2001)].

    PubMed

    García-Hansen, Ingrid; Cortés-Altamirano, Roberto; Sierra-Beltrán, Arturo P

    2004-09-01

    From April 26th to May 15th 2001, a large algae bloom was observed off Tumaco Bay on the Pacific coast of Colombia. This was the first harmful algae bloom (HAB) reported in the region, and reached Gorgona Island, about 120 km north. A year later, starting March 2002, an offshore HAB developed from Cabo Corrientes North to Solano Bay. The typical abundance during the blooms reached 7.5 x 10(6) cells l(-1) for the 2001 event and 1.6 x 10(6) cells l(-1) for the 2002 event. During both events, low temperature and high salinity were recorded. Typical measurements in the area are 27-27.5 degrees C and 30-31.5 psu. Values observed during the two events were 24-24.6 degrees C and 33-34 psu; 3 degrees C below normal and more than 2.5 psu above average values. These conditions are indicative of local upwelling processes at the time of the events. On both occasions, cells corresponding to the Alexandrium catenella/fundeyense/tamarense complex represented 99-100% of the biomass. It was difficult to differentiate the cells from A. catenella, but the presence of short chains of only 4 cells (single cells represented most of the biomass) was suggestive of A. tamarense. Shape, dimensions, and detailed structure of the apical pore complex, first apical plate, posterior sulcal plate, and position of the ventral pore on plate 1' of cells were consistent with the description of A. tamarense, which has not been reported in the tropical East Pacific. The Control Center of Pacific Contamination of the Maritime General Direction of the Colombian Navy has been monitoring the area since 1994 without finding this species or HABs. This leads us to consider the two events as caused by recently introduced species, where local upwelling processes favor permanent and cyclic HABs. However, during these two events, there were no reports of effects on marine biota or of human poisoning, probably because the blooms occurred some distance offshore and far from exploited shellfish beds.

  4. Unstable, low-level transmission of malaria on the Colombian Pacific Coast.

    PubMed

    González, J M; Olano, V; Vergara, J; Arévalo-Herrera, M; Carrasquilla, G; Herrera, S; López, J A

    1997-06-01

    The development of immune responses to malarial infection in inhabitants of endemic areas differs according to the level of exposure to the parasite. Adults living in a region where the level of malaria transmission is low (Colombia) have been shown to exhibit a similar response to each of the three regions of the circumsporozoite protein (the central repeated NANP region, and the flanking N- and C-termini). Conversely, donors exposed to a frequent sporozoite challenge in areas of high malaria transmission (Mali) exhibit antibodies predominantly to the NANP repeated domain. Malaria in the people of Zacarías, a community on the Pacific Coast of Colombia where malaria transmission is low and unstable, was the subject of the present study. Within a 9-year period, a negative correlation between rainfall and documented malaria cases was recorded for this area. Thick smears of blood samples of 319 individuals revealed that 8.5% had malarial infections. As most (67%) of the smear-positive cases were asymptomatic, it seems that, despite the low prevalence of malaria in this area, the establishment of clinical symptoms is attenuated, probably because of the acquisition of premunition. Within this region, the most commonly found Anopheles species (representing 61.1% of the mosquitoes caught) and that giving the highest monthly biting rate (4.0 bites/man) was An. neivai. Most (90%) of the human sera tested possessed antibodies to blood-stage forms of Plasmodium falciparum, and 18% had antibodies to sporozoites. More than half (58%) of the adults had been in contact with hepatitis B virus, 7.2% carried hepatitis B surface antigen, and syphilis was common but no subject was found to be seropositive for HIV. A better understanding of the dynamics of the different elements influencing malaria in areas of low, unstable transmission, such as the one described here, is essential for the design of new malaria-control strategies.

  5. Colombian ocean waves and coasts modeled by special functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duque Tisnés, Simón

    2013-06-01

    Modeling the ocean bottom and surface of both Atlantic and Pacific Oceans near the Colombian coast is a subject of increasing attention due to the possibility of finding oil deposits that haven't been discovered, and as a way of monitoring the ocean limits of Colombia with other countries not only covering the possibility of naval intrusion but as a chance to detect submarine devices that are used by illegal groups for different unwished purposes. In the development of this topic it would be necessary to use Standard Hydrodynamic Equations to model the mathematical shape of ocean waves that will take differential equations forms. Those differential equations will be solved using computer algebra software and methods. The mentioned solutions will involve the use of Special Functions such as Bessel Functions, Whittaker, Heun, and so on. Using the Special Functions mentioned above, the obtained results will be simulated by numerical methods obtaining the typical patterns around the Colombian coasts (both surface and bottom). Using this simulation as a non-perturbed state, any change in the patter could be taken as an external perturbation caused by a strange body or device in an specific area or region modeled, building this simulation as an ocean radar or an unusual object finder. It's worth mentioning that the use of stronger or more rigorous methods and more advanced Special Functions would generate better theoretical results, building a more accurate simulation model that would lead to a finest detection.

  6. Multiple distant origins for green sea turtles aggregating off Gorgona Island in the Colombian eastern Pacific.

    PubMed

    Amorocho, Diego F; Abreu-Grobois, F Alberto; Dutton, Peter H; Reina, Richard D

    2012-01-01

    Mitochondrial DNA analyses have been useful for resolving maternal lineages and migratory behavior to foraging grounds (FG) in sea turtles. However, little is known about source rookeries and haplotype composition of foraging green turtle aggregations in the southeastern Pacific. We used mitochondrial DNA control region sequences to identify the haplotype composition of 55 green turtles, Chelonia mydas, captured in foraging grounds of Gorgona National Park in the Colombian Pacific. Amplified fragments of the control region (457 bp) revealed the presence of seven haplotypes, with haplotype (h) and nucleotide (π) diversities of h = 0.300±0.080 and π = 0.009±0.005 respectively. The most common haplotype was CMP4 observed in 83% of individuals, followed by CMP22 (5%). The genetic composition of the Gorgona foraging population primarily comprised haplotypes that have been found at eastern Pacific rookeries including Mexico and the Galapagos, as well as haplotypes of unknown stock origin that likely originated from more distant western Pacific rookeries. Mixed stock analysis suggests that the Gorgona FG population is comprised mostly of animals from the Galapagos rookery (80%). Lagrangian drifter data showed that movement of turtles along the eastern Pacific coast and eastward from distant western and central Pacific sites was possible through passive drift. Our results highlight the importance of this protected area for conservation management of green turtles recruited from distant sites along the eastern Pacific Ocean.

  7. Multiple Distant Origins for Green Sea Turtles Aggregating off Gorgona Island in the Colombian Eastern Pacific

    PubMed Central

    Amorocho, Diego F.; Abreu-Grobois, F. Alberto; Dutton, Peter H.; Reina, Richard D.

    2012-01-01

    Mitochondrial DNA analyses have been useful for resolving maternal lineages and migratory behavior to foraging grounds (FG) in sea turtles. However, little is known about source rookeries and haplotype composition of foraging green turtle aggregations in the southeastern Pacific. We used mitochondrial DNA control region sequences to identify the haplotype composition of 55 green turtles, Chelonia mydas, captured in foraging grounds of Gorgona National Park in the Colombian Pacific. Amplified fragments of the control region (457 bp) revealed the presence of seven haplotypes, with haplotype (h) and nucleotide (π) diversities of h = 0.300±0.080 and π = 0.009±0.005 respectively. The most common haplotype was CMP4 observed in 83% of individuals, followed by CMP22 (5%). The genetic composition of the Gorgona foraging population primarily comprised haplotypes that have been found at eastern Pacific rookeries including Mexico and the Galapagos, as well as haplotypes of unknown stock origin that likely originated from more distant western Pacific rookeries. Mixed stock analysis suggests that the Gorgona FG population is comprised mostly of animals from the Galapagos rookery (80%). Lagrangian drifter data showed that movement of turtles along the eastern Pacific coast and eastward from distant western and central Pacific sites was possible through passive drift. Our results highlight the importance of this protected area for conservation management of green turtles recruited from distant sites along the eastern Pacific Ocean. PMID:22319635

  8. Conservation Genetics of the Scalloped Hammerhead Shark in the Pacific Coast of Colombia.

    PubMed

    Quintanilla, Sonia; Gómez, Alberto; Mariño-Ramírez, Camila; Sorzano, Carolina; Bessudo, Sandra; Soler, German; Bernal, Jaime E; Caballero, Susana

    2015-01-01

    Previous investigations of the population genetics of the scalloped hammerhead sharks (Sphyrna lewini) in the Eastern Tropical Pacific have lacked information about nursery areas. Such areas are key to promoting conservation initiatives that can protect young sharks from threats such as overfishing. Here, we investigated the genetic diversity, phylogeography, and connectivity of S. lewini found in 3 areas of Colombia's Pacific coast: around Malpelo Island and in 2 National Natural Parks on the Colombian Pacific mainland (Sanquianga and Ensenada de Utría). We analyzed mtDNA control region (CR) sequences and genotyped 15 microsatellite loci in 137 samples of adults and juveniles. The mtDNA analyses showed haplotypes shared between the Colombian Pacific individuals sampled in this investigation and other areas in the Eastern Tropical Pacific, the Indo-Pacific, and with sequences previously reported in Colombia (Buenaventura Port), as well as 4 unique haplotypes. Population assignment and paternity analyses detected 3 parent-offspring pairs between Malpelo and Sanquianga and 1 between Malpelo and Utría. These results indicate high genetic connectivity between Malpelo Island and the Colombian Pacific coast, suggesting that these 2 areas are nurseries for S. lewini. This is, to our knowledge, the first evidence of nursery areas identified for the scalloped hammerhead shark anywhere in the world. Additional conservation planning may be required to protect these nursery habitats of this endangered shark species. © The American Genetic Association 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Malaria Vectors in Ecologically Heterogeneous Localities of the Colombian Pacific Region

    PubMed Central

    Naranjo-Díaz, Nelson; Altamiranda, Mariano; Luckhart, Shirley; Conn, Jan E.; Correa, Margarita M.

    2014-01-01

    The Colombian Pacific region is second nationally in number of malaria cases reported. This zone presents great ecological heterogeneity and Anopheles species diversity. However, little is known about the current spatial and temporal distribution of vector species. This study, conducted in three ecologically different localities of the Pacific region, aimed to evaluate the composition and distribution of Anopheles species and characterize transmission intensity. A total of 4,016 Anopheles mosquitoes were collected representing seven species. The composition and dominant species differed in each locality. Three species were infected with malaria parasites: Anopheles darlingi and An. calderoni were infected with Plasmodium falciparum and An. nuneztovari with Plasmodium vivax VK210 and VK247. Annual EIRs varied from 3.5–7.2 infective bites per year. These results confirm the importance of the primary vector An. nuneztovari in areas disturbed by human interventions, of An. darlingi in deforested margins of humid tropical rainforest and An. albimanus and the suspected vector An. calderoni in areas impacted by urbanization and large-scale palm oil agriculture close to the coast. This constitutes the first report in the Colombia Pacific region of naturally infected An. darlingi, and in Colombia of naturally infected An. calderoni. Further studies should evaluate the epidemiological importance of An. calderoni in the Pacific region. PMID:25090233

  10. 50 CFR 660.50 - Pacific Coast treaty Indian fisheries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pacific Coast treaty Indian fisheries. 660... ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OFF WEST COAST STATES West Coast Groundfish Fisheries § 660.50 Pacific Coast treaty Indian fisheries. (a) Pacific Coast treaty Indian...

  11. 50 CFR 660.324 - Pacific Coast treaty Indian fisheries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pacific Coast treaty Indian fisheries. 660... ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OFF WEST COAST STATES West Coast Groundfish Fisheries § 660.324 Pacific Coast treaty Indian fisheries. (a) Pacific Coast treaty Indian...

  12. 50 CFR 660.50 - Pacific Coast treaty Indian fisheries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Pacific Coast treaty Indian fisheries... ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OFF WEST COAST STATES West Coast Groundfish Fisheries § 660.50 Pacific Coast treaty Indian fisheries. (a) Pacific Coast treaty Indian tribes...

  13. 50 CFR 660.50 - Pacific Coast treaty Indian fisheries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Pacific Coast treaty Indian fisheries... ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OFF WEST COAST STATES West Coast Groundfish Fisheries § 660.50 Pacific Coast treaty Indian fisheries. (a) Pacific Coast treaty Indian tribes...

  14. 50 CFR 660.50 - Pacific Coast treaty Indian fisheries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Pacific Coast treaty Indian fisheries... ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OFF WEST COAST STATES West Coast Groundfish Fisheries § 660.50 Pacific Coast treaty Indian fisheries. (a) Pacific Coast treaty Indian tribes...

  15. 50 CFR 660.50 - Pacific Coast treaty Indian fisheries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Pacific Coast treaty Indian fisheries... ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OFF WEST COAST STATES West Coast Groundfish Fisheries § 660.50 Pacific Coast treaty Indian fisheries. (a) Pacific Coast treaty Indian tribes...

  16. [Taxonomic composition and distribution of the echinoderms associations in the littoral ecosystems from the Colombian Pacific].

    PubMed

    Neira, Raúl; Cantera, Jaime R

    2005-12-01

    This paper examines published information and gray literature about taxonomy and ecology of echinoderm species of the Colombian Pacific Coast. Unpublished collection data of specimens kept in the Marine Sciences Museum of the University of Valle are also considered. Sixty-six species are found in coastal ecosystems and shallow bottoms of ten geographical, coastal and insular localities of the Pacific coast of Colombia. Main habitats having echinoderms are: rocky cliffs and shores, coral reefs, sand beaches, mud substrates, mangroves, and shallow bottoms of mud, sand, gravel and rocks. Regular Echinoidea and Asteroidea are the most diverse and abundant groups, mainly in subtidal rocky shallow bottoms and coral reefs. Ophiuroidea are abundant below rocky boulders. Irregular Echinoidea are abundant on sand beaches. The relatively high number of species shows that this geographical area presents a high diversity of echinoderms compared with other tropical shallow and littoral zones of the world. Rocky substrates and coral reefs are the ecosystems with the highest numbers of echinoderm species and individuals. A conservation status assessment is difficult because the lack of periodical sampling and few data about deep zones. In general, the species reported in the last 25 years, have not experimented important changes in their populations, although in some specific places, populations may decrease because human activities in coastal areas increase sedimentation rates change some rocky substrates to mud or sand.

  17. Long term persistence of clonal malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum lineages in the Colombian Pacific region

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Resistance to chloroquine and antifolate drugs has evolved independently in South America, suggesting that genotype - phenotype studies aimed at understanding the genetic basis of resistance to these and other drugs should be conducted in this continent. This research was conducted to better understand the population structure of Colombian Plasmodium falciparum in preparation for such studies. Results A set of 384 SNPs were genotyped in blood spot DNA samples from 447 P. falciparum infected subjects collected over a ten year period from four provinces of the Colombian Pacific coast to evaluate clonality, population structure and linkage disequilibrium (LD). Most infections (81%) contained a single predominant clone. These clustered into 136 multilocus genotypes (MLGs), with 32% of MLGs recovered from multiple (2 – 28) independent subjects. We observed extremely low genotypic richness (R = 0.42) and long persistence of MLGs through time (median = 537 days, range = 1 – 2,997 days). There was a high probability (>5%) of sampling parasites from the same MLG in different subjects within 28 days, suggesting caution is needed when using genotyping methods to assess treatment success in clinical drug trials. Panmixia was rejected as four well differentiated subpopulations (FST = 0.084 - 0.279) were identified. These occurred sympatrically but varied in frequency within the four provinces. Linkage disequilibrium (LD) decayed more rapidly (r2 = 0.17 for markers <10 kb apart) than observed previously in South American samples. Conclusions We conclude that Colombian populations have several advantages for association studies, because multiple clone infections are uncommon and LD decays over the scale of one or a few genes. However, the extensive population structure and low genotype richness will need to be accounted for when designing and analyzing association studies. PMID:23294725

  18. 75 FR 51684 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-23

    ...; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; Inseason Adjustments to Fishery... coasts of Washington, Oregon, and California. These actions, which are authorized by the Pacific Coast... for the Pacific Coast groundfish fishery (73 FR 80516). The final rule to implement the 2009-2010...

  19. 77 FR 20337 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; Advance Notice of Proposed...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-04

    ... West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; Advance Notice of Proposed Rulemaking Regarding... quota (IFQ) fishery and the at-sea mothership fishery of the Pacific Coast Groundfish Trawl...

  20. 50 CFR 660.518 - Pacific Coast Treaty Indian Rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Pacific Coast Treaty Indian Rights. 660... ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OFF WEST COAST STATES Coastal Pelagics Fisheries § 660.518 Pacific Coast Treaty Indian Rights. (a) Pacific Coast treaty Indian tribes...

  1. 50 CFR 660.706 - Pacific Coast Treaty Indian rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Pacific Coast Treaty Indian rights. 660... ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OFF WEST COAST STATES Highly Migratory Fisheries § 660.706 Pacific Coast Treaty Indian rights. (a) Pacific Coast treaty Indian tribes...

  2. 50 CFR 660.706 - Pacific Coast Treaty Indian rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Pacific Coast Treaty Indian rights. 660... ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OFF WEST COAST STATES Highly Migratory Fisheries § 660.706 Pacific Coast Treaty Indian rights. (a) Pacific Coast treaty Indian tribes...

  3. 50 CFR 660.518 - Pacific Coast Treaty Indian Rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Pacific Coast Treaty Indian Rights. 660... ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OFF WEST COAST STATES Coastal Pelagics Fisheries § 660.518 Pacific Coast Treaty Indian Rights. (a) Pacific Coast treaty Indian tribes...

  4. 50 CFR 660.518 - Pacific Coast Treaty Indian Rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pacific Coast Treaty Indian Rights. 660... ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OFF WEST COAST STATES Coastal Pelagics Fisheries § 660.518 Pacific Coast Treaty Indian Rights. (a) Pacific Coast treaty Indian tribes...

  5. 50 CFR 660.706 - Pacific Coast Treaty Indian rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Pacific Coast Treaty Indian rights. 660... ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OFF WEST COAST STATES Highly Migratory Fisheries § 660.706 Pacific Coast Treaty Indian rights. (a) Pacific Coast treaty Indian tribes...

  6. 50 CFR 660.706 - Pacific Coast Treaty Indian rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Pacific Coast Treaty Indian rights. 660... ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OFF WEST COAST STATES Highly Migratory Fisheries § 660.706 Pacific Coast Treaty Indian rights. (a) Pacific Coast treaty Indian tribes...

  7. 50 CFR 660.518 - Pacific Coast Treaty Indian Rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Pacific Coast Treaty Indian Rights. 660... ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OFF WEST COAST STATES Coastal Pelagics Fisheries § 660.518 Pacific Coast Treaty Indian Rights. (a) Pacific Coast treaty Indian tribes...

  8. 50 CFR 660.518 - Pacific Coast Treaty Indian Rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Pacific Coast Treaty Indian Rights. 660... ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OFF WEST COAST STATES Coastal Pelagics Fisheries § 660.518 Pacific Coast Treaty Indian Rights. (a) Pacific Coast treaty Indian tribes...

  9. 50 CFR 660.706 - Pacific Coast Treaty Indian rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pacific Coast Treaty Indian rights. 660... ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OFF WEST COAST STATES Highly Migratory Fisheries § 660.706 Pacific Coast Treaty Indian rights. (a) Pacific Coast treaty Indian tribes...

  10. Common Elements Treatment Approach based on a Cognitive Behavioral Intervention: implementation in the Colombian Pacific.

    PubMed

    Pacichana-Quinayáz, Sara Gabriela; Osorio-Cuéllar, Gisel Viviana; Bonilla-Escobar, Francisco Javier; Fandiño-Losada, Andrés; Gutiérrez-Martínez, María Isabel

    2016-06-01

    Due to the limited supply of mental health services for Afro-Colombian victims of violence, a Common Elements Treatment Approach (CETA) intervention has been implemented in the Colombian Pacific. Given the importance of improvement in mental health interventions for this population, it is necessary to characterize this process. This article seeks to describe the implementation of CETA for Afro-Colombian victims of violence in Buenaventura and Quibdó, Colombia through case studieswith individual in-depth interviews with Lay Psychosocial Community Workers (LPCW), supervisors, and coordinators responsible for implementing CETA. From this six core categories were obtained: 1. Effect of armed conflict and poverty 2. Trauma severity 3. Perceived changes with CETA 4. Characteristics and LPCW's performance 5. Afro-Colombian culturalapproach and 6. Strategies to promote users' well-being.Colombian Pacific's scenario implies several factors, such as the active armed conflict, economic crisis, and lack of mental health care resources, affecting the implementation process and the intervention effects. This implies the need to establish and strengthen partnerships between institutions in order to administer necessary mental health care for victims of violence in the Colombian Pacific.

  11. 75 FR 11829 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-12

    ... Provisions; Fisheries off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; 2010 Tribal Fishery for... coastal treaty Indian tribes' rights to harvest Pacific Coast groundfish. Washington coastal treaty Indian... rights in the area covered by the Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan (FMP) can request...

  12. 76 FR 38313 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-30

    ... Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery... rule announces inseason changes to management measures in the commercial Pacific Coast groundfish fisheries. These actions, which are authorized by the Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan...

  13. 75 FR 8820 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-26

    ... Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; Biennial Specifications and... management measures in the commercial, recreational and tribal Pacific Coast groundfish fisheries. These actions, which are authorized by the Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan (FMP), are intended...

  14. 76 FR 79122 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-21

    ... Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; Biennial Specifications and... management measures in the commercial and recreational Pacific Coast groundfish fisheries. These actions, which are authorized by the Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan (FMP), are intended to...

  15. Diseases of Pacific Coast conifers. Agriculture handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Scharpf, R.F.

    1993-06-01

    The handbook provides basic information needed to identify the common diseases of Pacific Coast conifers. Hosts, distribution, disease cycles, and identifying characteristics are described for more than 150 diseases, including cankers, diebacks, galls, rusts, needle diseases, root diseases, mistletoes, and rots. Diseases in which abiotic factors are involved are also described. For some groups of diseases, a descriptive key to field identification is included.

  16. 50 CFR 600.1102 - Pacific Coast groundfish fee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Pacific Coast groundfish fee. 600.1102... Fishing Capacity Reduction Regulations § 600.1102 Pacific Coast groundfish fee. (a) Purpose. This section implements the fee for repaying the reduction loan financing the Pacific Coast Groundfish Program authorized...

  17. 50 CFR 600.1102 - Pacific Coast groundfish fee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Pacific Coast groundfish fee. 600.1102... Fishing Capacity Reduction Regulations § 600.1102 Pacific Coast groundfish fee. (a) Purpose. This section implements the fee for repaying the reduction loan financing the Pacific Coast Groundfish Program authorized...

  18. 50 CFR 600.1102 - Pacific Coast groundfish fee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Pacific Coast groundfish fee. 600.1102... Fishing Capacity Reduction Regulations § 600.1102 Pacific Coast groundfish fee. (a) Purpose. This section implements the fee for repaying the reduction loan financing the Pacific Coast Groundfish Program authorized...

  19. 50 CFR 600.1102 - Pacific Coast groundfish fee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Pacific Coast groundfish fee. 600.1102... Fishing Capacity Reduction Regulations § 600.1102 Pacific Coast groundfish fee. (a) Purpose. This section implements the fee for repaying the reduction loan financing the Pacific Coast Groundfish Program authorized...

  20. 78 FR 2254 - Fisheries Off West Coast States and in the Western Pacific; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-10

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC397 Fisheries Off West Coast States and in the Western Pacific; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; Application for an Exempted Fishing Permit AGENCY... INFORMATION: This action is authorized by the Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan (FMP) and the...

  1. 75 FR 75449 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-03

    ... Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; Comment Period Extension...; Amendment 16-5; and Amendment 23 to the Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan (PCGFMP). The... specifications and management measures for groundfish taken in the U.S. exclusive economic zone off the coasts of...

  2. 75 FR 39178 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-08

    ... Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; Biennial Specifications and... for the Pacific Coast groundfish fishery (73 FR 80516), including, among other species, darkblotched.... Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) off the coasts of Washington, Oregon, and California, and revised rebuilding...

  3. 75 FR 23620 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-04

    ...-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; Biennial... economic zone (EEZ) and state waters off the coasts of Washington, Oregon, and California, as authorized by the Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan (FMP). These specifications include the level of...

  4. Energy resources of Pacific Coast of Colombia

    SciTech Connect

    Bueno Salazar, R.

    1986-07-01

    Despite failure of modest exploration efforts to yield commercial hydrocarbon production in the Choco-Pacific coastal basin of Colombia, recent geophysical, geochemical, and surface geologic investigations indicate a potential for petroleum accumulations, which could be related to fields located on the western basins of Ecuador that in fact constitute an extension of the Colombian Pacific geologic scheme. The Choco-Pacific coastal basin of Colombia covers an area of approximately 70,000 km/sup 2/, of which 14,000 km/sup 2/ lies offshore. The structural style of this area corresponds to a convergent plate basin created over folded oceanic sediments and adjacent to the subduction zone. Such a framework could be conducive to an attractive array of potential hydrocarbon-bearing traps. Geochemical knowledge of potential source rocks of Cretaceous and early Tertiary age confers an added attraction to the area. Most evaluations reveal kerogen-rich, gas-prone organic matter. Nevertheless, the existence of oil seeps from Cretaceous outcrops could indicate sufficient thermal maturity for oil generation. Adequate reservoirs could be found in sandy or calcareous rocks of late Eocene to Oligocene age, predominantly of marine origin with an estimated thickness exceeding 20,000 ft. Colombia has been one of the leading world producers of gold and platinum, mostly derived from the vast alluvial cover of the onshore area of the basin. In rocks cropping out in the Western Cordillera (eastern margin of the basin), deposits of potentially commercial value of porphyry copper and molybdenum, as well as massive sulfur, manganese, and bauxite, have been found.

  5. Changes on the coastline of buenaventura bay (colombian pacific) and its relationship with the climatic conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coca-Domínguez, Oswaldo; Ricaurte-Villota, Constanza; Andres Ordoñez, Silvio

    2016-04-01

    Some authors point out that the variability of a coastal system is the response of physical factors (climate, waves, currents, wind, etc.) or combination of some of them, for example long-term variations in the relationship between climate and supply of sedimentary material. For Colombian Pacific coast it has been said that the regimen of meso-tidal is one of the agents that contribute to changes in the morphology of the littoral zone. Between 2012-2015 was conducted a research in the mouth of Buenaventura Bay (Colombia Pacific coast), using two stations: Soldado point (southern point of the bay) and Bazan point (the northern point of the bay), for those stations the digital elevation model (DEM) was performed using a DGPS with technology GNSS the recent evolution of the coastline and changes in volume of sand from beaches for two scalar approaches were determined: annual and intra-annual. The use of ArcGIS 3D Analyst in the DEMs allowed to calculate the cubic area between the raised surfaces each month. Changes in the coastline were made using Digital Shoreline Analysis System (DSAS) an ARCGIS extension. We used zonal and meridional components of the wind data near the coast from WindSat, rainfall and sea level anomaly data from the database AVISO (Archiving, Validation and Interpretation of Satellite Oceanographic), and sea level pressure (SLP) from NCEP/NCAR (National Center for Environmental Prediction/ National Center for Atmospheric Research), in collaboration with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). Finally, climatic variables were correlated with the rates of coastal erosion and changes in sand volume of the beaches, because wind and precipitation are some of the factors in sediment transport. The study showed erosion rates with negative values in 2014 and 2015 that represent loss of land, the intra-annual variability in September and October were the highest loss of land, this coincides with the values of the highest tides of the

  6. 75 FR 67032 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan; Amendments 20...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-01

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 660 RIN 0648-AY68 Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan; Amendments 20 and 21; Trawl Rationalization... ``Initial Issuance Final Rule''). In addition, that rule restructured the entire Pacific Coast...

  7. Ctenophores from the Oaxaca coast, including a checklist of species from the Pacific coast of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Escobar, Fernando; Valadez-Vargas, Diana K; Oliveira, Otto M P

    2015-03-20

    Ctenophores are poorly known in the tropical eastern Pacific, including the southern coast of Mexico. Previous records of ctenophores along the Pacific coast have been provided mainly from northern waters. For the coast of Oaxaca state, their occurrence has only been mentioned before at phylum level. In this paper, we provide the first three records of ctenophores for the Oaxacan coast, which represent new records of Beroe forskalii and Bolinopsis vitrea as well as the first record of Ocyropsis maculata in the tropical eastern Pacific. Descriptions of these three species, as well as a checklist of the ctenophores from the west coast of Mexico are provided.

  8. 75 FR 12729 - Fisheries Off West Coast States and in the Western Pacific; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XU95 Fisheries Off West Coast States and in the Western Pacific; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; Application for an Exempted Fishing Permit AGENCY...

  9. [Foliage production of the mangrove from San Andrés Island, Colombian Caribbean coast].

    PubMed

    García-Hansen, Ingrid; Gaviria-Chiquazuque, Johanna F; Prada-Triana, Martha C; Alvarez-León, Ricardo

    2002-03-01

    Litter fall from a San Andres Island mangrove (12 degrees 32' N, 81 degrees 41' W, Colombian Caribbean coast), was collected monthly (1994-1995) with mesh baskets, keeping results separate for the three species (Rhizophora mangle, Avicennia germinans and Laguncularia racemosa), and taking a sample and a replica per case. Nine sampling sites were selected in two groups of woodlands: one in the inner side behind a sand-bar and the coast road (Mount Pleasant, Salt Creek, Sound Bay and Smith Channel) and a peripheral site, exposed to the waves (Bahía Hooker-Bahía Honda and El Cove). Productivity was greater for all species in the inner group, and higher in the rainy seasons. Rhizophora mangle was the only species contributing reproductive components throughout the year.

  10. Tsunami hazard assessment in the Colombian Caribbean Coast with a deterministic approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otero Diaz, L.; Correa, R.; Ortiz R, J. C.; Restrepo L, J. C.

    2014-12-01

    For the Caribbean Sea, we propose six potential tectonic sources of tsunami, defining for each source the worst credible earthquake from the analysis of historical seismicity, tectonics, pasts tsunami, and review of IRIS, PDE, NOAA, and CMT catalogs. The generation and propagation of tsunami waves in the selected sources were simulated with COMCOT 1.7, which is a numerical model that solves the linear and nonlinear long wave equations in finite differences in both Cartesian, and spherical coordinates. The results of the modeling are presented in maps of maximum displacement of the free surface for the Colombian Caribbean coast and the island areas, and they show that the event would produce greater impact is generated in the source of North Panama Deformed Belt (NPDB), where the first wave train reaches the central Colombian coast in 40 minutes, generating wave heights up to 3.7 m. In San Andrés and Providencia island, tsunami waves reach more than 4.5 m due effects of edge waves caused by interactions between waves and a barrier coral reef around of each island. The results obtained in this work are useful for planning systems and future regional and local warning systems and to identify priority areas to conduct detailed research to the tsunami threat.

  11. 75 FR 13081 - Fisheries off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; Trawl Rationalization Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-18

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XRO1 Fisheries off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; Trawl Rationalization Program AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... trawl rationalization program that would affect the limited entry trawl fishery of the Pacific...

  12. 77 FR 65639 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off the West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-30

    ... Provisions; Fisheries Off the West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; Pacific Whiting and Non... October 4, 2012. This action is authorized by regulations implementing the Pacific Coast Groundfish... available for harvest to other sectors of the trawl fishery. For 2012 the Washington Coast treaty tribes...

  13. 75 FR 33196 - Fisheries off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; Suspension of the Primary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-11

    ... States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; Suspension of the Primary Pacific Whiting Season for the Shore... announces the suspension of the Pacific whiting (whiting) fishery primary season for the shore-based sector... reinstated until 0001 hours June 15, 2010, at which time the primary season for the shore-based sector...

  14. 76 FR 59634 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; 2012 Specifications and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-27

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 660 RIN 0648-BB27 Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; 2012 Specifications and Management Measures and Secretarial... the U.S. exclusive economic zone (EEZ) off the coasts of Washington, Oregon, and California...

  15. 76 FR 77415 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; 2012 Specifications and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-13

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 660 RIN 0648-BB27 Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; 2012 Specifications and Management Measures and Secretarial... (EEZ) off the coasts of Washington, Oregon, and California consistent with the Magnuson-Stevens...

  16. Pacific Coast Torpedo Station, Keyport Industrial District, Both sides of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Pacific Coast Torpedo Station, Keyport Industrial District, Both sides of Second Street, between Dedrick Drive and Liberty Bay and one building west of Dedrick Drive and south of Second Street, Keyport, Kitsap County, WA

  17. The first report of a microdiverse anammox bacteria community in waters of Colombian Pacific, a transition area between prominent oxygen minimum zones of the eastern tropical Pacific.

    PubMed

    Castro-González, M; Molina, V; Rodríguez-Rubio, E; Ulloa, O

    2014-12-01

    Anaerobic ammonium oxidizers contribute to the removal of fixed nitrogen in oxygen-deficient marine ecosystems such as oxygen minimum zones (OMZ). Here we surveyed for the first time the occurrence and diversity of anammox bacteria in the Colombian Pacific, a transition area between the prominent South and North Pacific OMZs. Anammox bacteria were detected in the coastal and oceanic areas of the Colombian Pacific in low oxygen (< 22 μM), high nitrate (25–35 μM) and low nitrite (< 0.07 μM), and ammonium (< 1 μM) waters. In these waters, anammox bacteria were rich [∼ 7 operational taxonomic units (OTUs), 98% cut-off) and microdiverse (Shannon index H′ < 1.24), in comparison with the observed at the prominent OMZ of the Eastern Tropical South Pacific, Arabian Sea and Black Sea. Anammox bacteria-like sequences from the Colombian Pacific were grouped together with sequences retrieved from the distinct OMZ's marine subclusters (Peru, Northern Chile and Arabian Sea) within Candidatus ‘Scalindua spp’. Moreover, some anammox bacteria OTUs shared a low similarity with environmental phylotypes (86–94%). Our results indicated that a microdiverse anammox community inhabits the Colombian Pacific, generating new questions about the ecological and biogeochemical differences influencing its community structure.

  18. 78 FR 7371 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; Trawl Rationalization Program...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-01

    ...This action would implement a cost recovery program for the Pacific coast groundfish trawl rationalization program, which is a catch share program and type of limited access privilege program (LAPP), as required by the Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act (MSA). This action includes regulations that affect all trawl rationalization program sectors (Shorebased Individual Fishing Quota (IFQ) Program, Mothership Coop Program, and Catcher/Processor Coop Program) managed under the Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan (FMP).

  19. 77 FR 28497 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-15

    ...NMFS issues this final rule for the 2012 Pacific whiting fishery under the authority of the Pacific Whiting Act of 2006, the Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan (PCGFMP), and the Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act (Magnuson- Stevens Act). This final rule establishes: The tribal allocation of 48,556 metric tons of Pacific whiting for 2012; provisions associated with the reapportionment of unused tribal whiting to the non-tribal fishery in 2012; and final allocations of Pacific whiting to the non- tribal sector for 2012.

  20. 75 FR 26702 - Fisheries off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan; Amendments 20...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-12

    ... Management Plan; Amendments 20 and 21; Trawl Rationalization Program AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries... amendments to a fishery management plan; request for comments. SUMMARY: NMFS announces that the Pacific Fishery Management Council (Council) has submitted Amendments 20 and 21 to the Pacific Coast Groundfish...

  1. Paleogeography of Cretaceous ammonoids of the Pacific coast of Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jagt-Yazykova, E. A.; Zonova, T. D.

    2012-05-01

    This work presents the results of a study of the biogeographical distribution of Late Albian-Maastrichtian ammonites, found in sequences of the Pacific coast of Russia. The taxa typical of the Pacific Realm were identified, and their distribution traced beyond the borders of this region. In addition, species-migrants, distributed within the studied area were established. As a results of our works, a high level of endemism of ammonite fauna of the East of Russia was noted (75-88% of endemic species, on average). The bipolarity, previously established in the distribution of ammonoids within the Pacific Paleobiogeographical Realm, as well as their high regional provincialism, was confirmed. The following division of the studied area into faunal ammonite provinces in the Late Cretaceous was proposed: Arctic Province; Boreal-Pacific Province, including northeastern Russia (Chukotka Peninsula, the Koryak Upland, Penzhyna Gulf) and the boreal coast of North America (Alaska Peninsula, Arctic Canada and British Columbia); Northwest Pacific Province, including the Primorye Territory, Sakhalin and Shikotan Islands, the Japanese Islands; Northeast Province of the Pacific (the western coast of the United States and Mexico); Southwest Pacific (Australia, New Zealand, Oceania) and Southeast (the western coast of South America and Antarctica, Seymour and James Ross Islands) Provinces. This division is confirmed by data on inoceramid species. In addition, levels of global transgressions and general sea level rise, associated with the appearances of most of widespread marine taxa in the Pacific shelf seas, are established. These include Late Albian, Cenomanian-Turonian boundary, Late Coniacian, Late Campanian, Early-Late Maastrichtian boundary. Moreover, migration of ammonites occurred due to the Tethys Ocean extension and followed the northern sea straits in the Arctic Ocean and within the Pacific Realm, depending on warm currents. Both the counter and one-way migrations were

  2. Adaptive capacity of fishing communities at marine protected areas: a case study from the Colombian Pacific.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Sánchez, Rocío del Pilar; Maldonado, Jorge Higinio

    2013-12-01

    Departing from a theoretical methodology, we estimate empirically an index of adaptive capacity (IAC) of a fishing community to the establishment of marine protected areas (MPAs). We carried out household surveys, designed to obtain information for indicators and sub-indicators, and calculated the IAC. Moreover, we performed a sensitivity analysis to check for robustness of the results. Our findings show that, despite being located between two MPAs, the fishing community of Bazán in the Colombian Pacific is highly vulnerable and that the socioeconomic dimension of the IAC constitutes the most binding dimension for building adaptive capacity. Bazán is characterized by extreme poverty, high dependence on resources, and lack of basic public infrastructure. Notwithstanding, social capital and local awareness about ecological conditions may act as enhancers of adaptive capacity. The establishment of MPAs should consider the development of strategies to confer adaptive capacity to local communities highly dependent on resource extraction.

  3. Status of timber utilization on the Pacific Coast.

    Treesearch

    John B. Grantham

    1974-01-01

    The need for additional sources of energy and raw material in the forest products industry enhances the opportunity to improve timber utilization by reducing logging residue. This is particularly true on the Pacific Coast where some 14 million tons of logging residue accumulate each year and where some 3 million tons of unused bark create a disposal problem at mills....

  4. Language Change, Contact, and Koineization in Pacific Coast Athabaskan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spence, Justin David

    2013-01-01

    The Pacific Coast Athabaskan (PCA) languages are part of the Athabaskan language family, one of the most geographically widespread in North America. Over a millennium ago Athabaskan-speaking groups migrated into northwestern California and southwestern Oregon from a northern point of origin several hundred miles away, but even after several…

  5. Past and future water use in Pacific Coast states.

    Treesearch

    Laurie L. Houston; Michio Watanabe; Jeffrey D. Kline; Ralph J. Alig

    2003-01-01

    We examine socioeconomic factors affecting water demand and expected trends in these factors. Based on these trends, we identify past, current, and projected withdrawal of surface water for various uses in Pacific Coast States (California, Idaho, Oregon, and Washington), including public, domestic, commercial, industrial, thermoelectric, livestock, and irrigation....

  6. Language Change, Contact, and Koineization in Pacific Coast Athabaskan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spence, Justin David

    2013-01-01

    The Pacific Coast Athabaskan (PCA) languages are part of the Athabaskan language family, one of the most geographically widespread in North America. Over a millennium ago Athabaskan-speaking groups migrated into northwestern California and southwestern Oregon from a northern point of origin several hundred miles away, but even after several…

  7. 77 FR 55191 - Fishing Capacity Reduction Program for the Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-07

    ... Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and... reduction program for the Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery has been repaid. Therefore, buyback fee... crab sub-loan of the Pacific Coast Groundfish Capacity Reduction (Buyback) loan in the amount of $2,334...

  8. 78 FR 70016 - Fishing Capacity Reduction Program for the Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-22

    ... Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and... reduction program for the Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery has been repaid. Therefore, buyback fee... review these for further program details. The Washington pink shrimp sub-loan of the Pacific Coast...

  9. 77 FR 31587 - Fishing Capacity Reduction Program for the Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-29

    ... Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and... reduction program for the Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery has been repaid. Therefore, buyback fee... program details. The Oregon pink shrimp sub-loan of the Pacific Coast Groundfish Capacity Reduction...

  10. [Distribution patterns and bioerosion of the sea urchin Centrostephanus coronatus (Diadematoida: Diadematidae), at the reef of Playa Blanca, Colombian Pacific].

    PubMed

    Toro-Farmer, Gerardo; Cantera, Jaime R; Londoño-Cruz, Edgardo; Orozco, Carlos; Neira, Raul

    2004-03-01

    Regular sea-urchins are one of the main bioeroding organisms affecting coral reefs around the world. The abundance, distribution and bioerosion rate of the sea-urchin Centrostephanus coronatus, were determined in different reef zones of Playa Blanca fringing reef (Gorgona Island, Colombian pacific coast) during 1997 and 1998. The erosion rates were determined calcinating the gut content of the sea-urchins to eliminate all organic components and preserve the inorganic portion of calcium carbonate. C. coronatus showed the highest densities towards the central zones of the reef (plain-crest and front) (12.4 ind/m2; range 0-48 ind/m2). The highest mean bioerosion rate was 0.103 kgCaCO3/m2/yr in the reef plain-crest (0-0.69 kgCaCO3/m2/yr). In the other zones, (back reef and reef front) the mean bioerosion rates were 0.071 (range 0-0.39) and 0.052 (range 0-0.31) kgCaCO3/m2/yr respectively. According to the present data, it can be seen that the destruction of coralline skeletons, produced in this reef by sea-urchins is rather low, compared with the abrasion caused by these organisms in other places of the world. However, the combined action of C. coronatus and other bioeroding organisms (borers and grazers). along with some adverse environmental factors to corals, can be causing a negative balance between normal processes of reef accretion-destruction in Gorgona Island reefs.

  11. Pacific Coast Caspian Terns: Dynamics of an expanding population

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gill, Robert E.; Mewaldt, L. Richard

    1983-01-01

    Nesting distribution, age-related seasonal movements, survivorship, and mechanisms of population expansion in Pacific Coast Caspian Terns (Sterna caspia) were examined primarily through analysis of 412 recoveries of birds banded as juveniles between 1935 and 1980. Since the beginning of this century, the population has shifted from nesting in numerous small colonies associated with freshwater marshes in interior California and southern Oregon to nesting primarily in large colonies on human-created habitats along the coast. Colonies at Grays Harbor, Washington and San Francisco and San Diego bays, California account for 77% of the current Pacific Coast population (6,000 pairs), which has breeding and wintering areas separate from those of populations east of the continental divide. There also appears to be some segregation on the wintering grounds by birds from the three major colonies within the Pacific population. Age-related seasonal movements in the Pacific population are characterized by (1) a brief period of northward dispersal by newly fledged birds before migrating to the wintering grounds, (2) a residency on the wintering grounds through their second winter, (3) a return to the breeding grounds the third summer, when most birds are thought to prospect breeding sites and some may breed, and (4) attainment of adulthood the fourth summer, with subsequent annual movements between wintering and breeding grounds.The Pacific population has increased 70% since 1960, apparently all by intrinsic growth. Over half (57%) of the fledglings reach their fourth year, and they have a subsequent annual survival rate of 89% and a mean breeding life expectancy of 8.6 yr. An average annual fledging rate of 0.64 young per pair was calculated as necessary to have provided the observed growth of the population during its recent expansion. Growth of some of the individual colonies, however, particularly those in Washington, could only have resulted from extensive recruitment of

  12. Storm surge along the Pacific coast of North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bromirski, Peter D.; Flick, Reinhard E.; Miller, Arthur J.

    2017-01-01

    Storm surge is an important factor that contributes to coastal flooding and erosion. Storm surge magnitude along eastern North Pacific coasts results primarily from low sea level pressure (SLP). Thus, coastal regions where high surge occurs identify the dominant locations where intense storms make landfall, controlled by storm track across the North Pacific. Here storm surge variability along the Pacific coast of North America is characterized by positive nontide residuals at a network of tide gauge stations from southern California to Alaska. The magnitudes of mean and extreme storm surge generally increase from south to north, with typically high amplitude surge north of Cape Mendocino and lower surge to the south. Correlation of mode 1 nontide principal component (PC1) during winter months (December-February) with anomalous SLP over the northeast Pacific indicates that the dominant storm landfall region is along the Cascadia/British Columbia coast. Although empirical orthogonal function spatial patterns show substantial interannual variability, similar correlation patterns of nontide PC1 over the 1948-1975 and 1983-2014 epochs with anomalous SLP suggest that, when considering decadal-scale time periods, storm surge and associated tracks have generally not changed appreciably since 1948. Nontide PC1 is well correlated with PC1 of both anomalous SLP and modeled wave height near the tide gauge stations, reflecting the interrelationship between storms, surge, and waves. Weaker surge south of Cape Mendocino during the 2015-2016 El Niño compared with 1982-1983 may result from changes in Hadley circulation. Importantly from a coastal impacts perspective, extreme storm surge events are often accompanied by high waves.

  13. 78 FR 579 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-03

    ...This final rule establishes the 2013-2014 harvest specifications and management measures for groundfish taken in the U.S. exclusive economic zone off the coasts of Washington, Oregon, and California consistent with the Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act (MSA) and the Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan (PCGFMP). This final rule also revises the collection of management measures in the groundfish fishery regulations that are intended to keep the total catch of each groundfish species or species complex within the harvest specifications.

  14. Storms or cold fronts? What is really responsible for the extreme waves regime in the Colombian Caribbean coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otero, L. J.; Ortiz-Royero, J. C.; Ruiz-Merchan, J. K.; Higgins, A. E.; Henriquez, S. A.

    2015-05-01

    On Friday, 7 March 2009, a 200 m-long section of the tourist pier in Puerto Colombia collapsed under the impact of the waves generated by a cold front in the area. The aim of this study is to determine the contribution and importance of cold fronts and storms on extreme waves in different areas of the Colombian Caribbean to determine the degree of the threat posed by the flood processes to which these coastal populations are exposed and the actions to which coastal engineering constructions should be subject. In the calculation of maritime constructions, the most important parameter is the wave's height; therefore, it is necessary to definitively know the design wave height to which a coastal engineering structure should be resistant. This wave height varies according to the return period considered. Using Gumbel's extreme value methodology, the significant height values for the study area were calculated. The methodology was evaluated using data from the re-analysis of the spectral NOAA Wavewatch III (WW3) model for 15 points along the 1600 km of the Colombia Caribbean coast (continental and insular) of the last 15 years. The results demonstrated that the extreme waves caused by tropical cyclones and cold fronts have different effects along the Colombian Caribbean coast. Storms and hurricanes are of greater importance in the Guajira Peninsula (Alta Guajira). In the central area formed by Baja Guajira, Santa Marta, Barranquilla, and Cartagena, the strong influence of cold fronts on extreme waves is evident. On the other hand, in the southern region of the Colombian Caribbean coast, from the Gulf of Morrosquillo to the Gulf of Urabá, even though extreme waves are lower than in the previous regions, extreme waves are dominated mainly by the passage of cold fronts. Extreme waves in the San Andrés and Providencia insular region present a different dynamic from that in the continental area due to its geographic location. The wave heights in the extreme regime are

  15. 78 FR 18879 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; Trawl Rationalization Program...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-28

    ...This action revises several portions of the Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Trawl Rationalization Program (program) regulations in response to a court order requiring the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) to reconsider the initial allocation of Pacific whiting (whiting) to the shorebased individual fishing quota (IFQ) fishery and the at-sea mothership fishery. Additionally, NMFS concludes after review of public comments and the record as a whole, that the Pacific Fishery Management Council's (Council's) recommendation to maintain the existing initial allocations of whiting is consistent with the Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act (MSA), the Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan (Groundfish FMP), and other applicable law. This final rule will affect the transfer of quota share (QS) and individual bycatch quota (IBQ) between QS accounts in the shorebased IFQ fishery, and severability of catch history assignments (CHAs) in the mothership fishery, both of which will be allowed on specified dates, with the exception of widow rockfish. Widow rockfish is no longer an overfished species and transfer of QS for this species will be reinstated pending reconsideration of the allocation of widow rockfish QS in a future action. The divestiture period for widow rockfish QS in the IFQ fishery will also be delayed indefinitely.

  16. 78 FR 72 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan; Trawl...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-02

    ...This action proposes revisions to several portions of the Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Trawl Rationalization Program regulations and requests comments on NMFS' preliminary conclusion that the Pacific Fishery Management Council's (Council's) selection of the no action alternative regarding the reconsideration of initial allocation of Pacific whiting (whiting) is consistent with the Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act (MSA), the Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan (FMP), and other applicable law.. This action is necessary to comply with a court order requiring NMFS to reconsider the initial allocation of whiting to the shorebased individual fishing quota (IFQ) fishery and the at-sea mothership fishery. These proposed regulatory changes would affect the transfer of quota share (QS) and individual bycatch quota (IBQ) between QS accounts in the shorebased IFQ fishery, and severability of catch history assignments in the mothership fishery, both of which would be allowed on specified dates with the exception of widow rockfish. Widow rockfish is no longer an overfished species and transfer of QS for this species will be reinstated pending reconsideration of the allocation of widow rockfish QS in a future action. The divestiture period for widow rockfish QS in the IFQ fishery is also proposed to be delayed indefinitely.

  17. Hurricane Celia off the Pacific Coast of Mexico

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-07-23

    Hurricane Celia as observed by NASA's spaceborne Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS). This image shows Celia on July 23 in visible light, as you would perceive it from space. Located in the eastern north Pacific Ocean off the coast of Mexico, Celia's winds have now dissipated to highs of 40 mph. Celia was the first hurricane of the eastern north Pacific season. Figure 1 is a daylight snapshot taken on July 19; Celia as tropical storm, winds at 50mph. Figure 2 is a daylight snapshot taken on July 21; Celia has a small eye with an 80-90% closed eyewall; sustained winds at 75mph with gusts reaching 92mph; Celia is upgraded to hurricane status. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA00438

  18. Main factors determining bioerosion patterns on rocky cliffs in a drowned valley estuary in the Colombian Pacific (Eastern Tropical Pacific)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cobo-Viveros, Alba Marina; Cantera-Kintz, Jaime Ricardo

    2015-10-01

    Bioerosion is an important process that destroys coastal rocks in the tropics. However, the rates at which this process occurs, the organisms involved, and the dynamics of rocky cliffs in tropical latitudes have been less studied than in temperate and subtropical latitudes. To contribute to the knowledge of the bioerosion process in rocky cliffs on the Pacific coast of Colombia (Eastern Tropical Pacific) we compared: 1) boring volume, 2) grain size distribution of the rocks, and 3) rock porosity, across three tidal zones of two cliffs with different wave exposure; these factors were related to the bioeroding community found. We observed that cliffs that were not exposed to wave action (IC, internal cliffs) exhibited high percentages of clays in their grain size composition, and a greater porosity (47.62%) and perforation (15.86%) than exposed cliffs (EC, external cliffs). However, IC also exhibited less diversity and abundance of bioeroding species (22 species and 314 individuals, respectively) compared to the values found in EC (41.11%, 14.34%, 32 and 491, respectively). The most abundant bioeroders were Petrolisthes zacae in IC and Pachygrapsus transversus in EC. Our findings show that the tidal zone is the common factor controlling bioerosion on both cliffs; in addition to the abundance of bioeroders on IC and the number of bioeroding species on EC. The integration of geology, sedimentology, and biology allows us to obtain a more comprehensive view of the patterns and trends in the process of bioerosion.

  19. [Reproductive biology of Lutjanus guttatus (Perciformes: Lutjanidae) in Utria National Park, Colombian Pacific].

    PubMed

    Correa-Herrera, Tatiana; Jiménez-Segura, Luz Fernanda

    2013-06-01

    Protected areas are important for natural population conservation since they work as refuge, feeding and breeding areas, where specimens should be exempt from human pressure. The generation of better criteria for management decisions and conservation of fishery resources, is based on the reproductive aspects of species that support fishing activities, since this information is related to the abundance, size and frequency of capture. With this aim, the reproductive biology of the spotted snapper Lutjanus guttatus was studied from April 2008 and February 2009 at the Utría National Park, Colombian Pacific. For this, we analyzed the volume of catch, size structure, sex ratio, fecundity, maturity size, breeding areas and seasons (n = 278), of daily landings of 21 units of artisanal fisheries in ten fishing grounds in the Park. Form all landings, we evaluated a total of 4319 individuals belonging to 84 species. Based on the number of individuals, Lutjanus guttatus ranked third in catches representing 6.4% (278 individuals), and 16th with 1.8% (95.79kg), based on catch biomass. The average weight was 0.34 kg +/- 0.25 kg, while 29 cm +/- 6.4 cm for total length. The total length-weight relationship had the best fit (Kruskal-Wallis, p < 0.05, n = 272) with the equation P(T) = 0.00000885* LT3.09. The occurrence of mature fish and high condition factors suggested a spawning season in June, September and October in sandy and rocky shores. This species showed an asynchronical gonadal development, with a mean sexual maturity size estimated in 23.5cm total length, and an absolute fecundity of 156 253.11 oocytes (mode of 4 microm diameter). We concluded that L. guttatus medium sizes observed indicated a fishing pressure on small size specimens (the minimum size being 18cm); thus, we recommend the implementation of minimum catch sizes based on the criterion of size at maturity LT100 (25.5 cm) and to apply seasonal fishing closures during the highest reproductive activity (June

  20. Tectonostratigraphy of the Cenozoic Tumaco forearc basin (Colombian Pacific) and its relationship with the northern Andes orogenic build up

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borrero, Carlos; Pardo, Andrés; Jaramillo, Carlos Marcelo; Osorio, Jairo Alonso; Cardona, Agustín; Flores, Abel; Echeverri, Sebastián; Rosero, Sebastián; García, Jenny; Castillo, Hardany

    2012-11-01

    The new tectono-stratigraphic setting of the Tumaco forearc basin based on outcrop logging, cutting description from deep oil wells, new biostratigraphy on calcareous nanofossils and sandstone petrography allows a margin scale comparison of the basin response to the Caribbean and Farallón/Nazca subduction under the South American margin. The results are compared to the laterally continuous Ecuadorian Borbón forearc basin and other southern Colombian basins: Patía sub-basin, Upper Magdalena Valley and southern Putumayo-Caguán basins. The proposed basement of the Tumaco basin is a Colombian Caribbean Oceanic Plateau (CCOP) sliver docked with Santonian-Campanian island arcs that was incorporated into the Colombian Pacific forearc during the Paleocene to Eocene. The filling of the Tumaco basin started with the Oligocene Unidad 1 Sur and the Early-Middle Miocene Cayapas/Viche/Angostura/Formations in a bathyal depositional setting. At Late Miocene to Holocene, a succession of volcaniclastic units was deposited in shallower environments: the Chagüí, San Agustín and Cascajal formations, and the recent volcaniclastic fans. The Late Cretaceous evolution of Northern Andes in Colombia was influenced by the collision and fragmentation of the Colombian Caribbean Oceanic Plateau, producing in the west the Tumaco block basement and an oceanic remnant basin in Patía Valley. The convergence between the Farallón/Nazca and South American plates since Paleocene allowed the development of the Pacific forearc as well as shortening leading to the uplift of the Central Cordillera and formation of the foreland basin system, which later was divided into the Upper Magdalena Valley broken foreland basin and the southern part of the Putumayo-Caguán foreland basin. Since Miocene, events in addition to plate convergence as the collision of the Baudó-Panamá Arc and the subduction of Carnegie Ridge perturbed the subduction zone in southern Colombia. The integration of all of these

  1. Draft Genome Sequence of Bacillus licheniformis CG-B52, a Highly Virulent Bacterium of Pacific White Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei), Isolated from a Colombian Caribbean Aquaculture Outbreak

    PubMed Central

    Gálvez, Eric J. C.; Carrillo-Castro, Katerine; Zárate, Lina; Güiza, Linda; Pieper, Dietmar H.; García-Bonilla, Erika; Salazar, Marcela

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus licheniformis strain CG-B52 was isolated as the etiological agent producing a self-limited outbreak of high mortalities in commercial Litopenaeus vannamei culture ponds on the Colombian Caribbean coast in 2005. Here, we report its draft genome and three novel extrachromosomal elements that it harbors. PMID:27174263

  2. Draft Genome Sequence of Bacillus licheniformis CG-B52, a Highly Virulent Bacterium of Pacific White Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei), Isolated from a Colombian Caribbean Aquaculture Outbreak.

    PubMed

    Gálvez, Eric J C; Carrillo-Castro, Katerine; Zárate, Lina; Güiza, Linda; Pieper, Dietmar H; García-Bonilla, Erika; Salazar, Marcela; Junca, Howard

    2016-05-12

    Bacillus licheniformis strain CG-B52 was isolated as the etiological agent producing a self-limited outbreak of high mortalities in commercial Litopenaeus vannamei culture ponds on the Colombian Caribbean coast in 2005. Here, we report its draft genome and three novel extrachromosomal elements that it harbors.

  3. Ichnological analysis of the Upper Miocene in the ANH-Tumaco-1-ST-P well: assessing paleoenvironmental conditions at the Tumaco Basin, in the Colombian Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giraldo-Villegas, Carlos A.; Celis, Sergio A.; Rodríguez-Tovar, Francisco J.; Pardo-Trujillo, Andrés; Vallejo-Hincapié, Diego F.; Trejos-Tamayo, Raúl A.

    2016-11-01

    Tumaco is a frontier basin located on the SW Colombian Pacific coast. It is composed of a thick siliciclastic sequence up to reach 10,000 m-thick. In recent years, the National Hydrocarbon Agency-ANH has promoted new exploration wells in order to understand the sedimentary dynamic and its relationship with petroleum systems. One of them, the ANH-Tumaco-1-ST-P well has ∼3000 m (12,000 feet). We carried out sedimentological, geochemical, and micropaleontological detailed analyses with special attention to the ichnology on a 55 m-cored interval (from 1695.3 to 1640.4 m = 5563-5382 ft) in order to assess paleoenvironmental conditions. Beds are composed of green and gray mudrocks interbedded with lithic sandstones and fine-grained tuffs. Calcareous microfossil assemblages defined by the recovery of Uvigerina carapitana, Uvigerina laviculata, Uvigerina pigmaea, Globigerina woodi, Globigerionoides obliquus, Discoaster bellus gr., Catinaster coalitus, Reticulofenestra pseudoumbilicus and Sphenolithus abies indicated a Tortonian age, between CN6/CN7 biozones. Six sedimentary facies were identified: (1, 2) massive and laminated mudrocks, (3, 4) massive and normal-graded sandstones, (5) heterolithic beds, and in some cases (6) sandstones with soft-deformation structures. These rocks were accumulated in a shallowing platform-prodelta environment with continuous volcanic influence. Ichnotaxonomic analysis, conducted for the first time in the Colombian Pacific, allowed the identification of eighteen ichnogenera: Alcyonidiopsis, Asterosoma, Chondrites, Conichnus, Cylindrichnus, Diplocraterion, Ophiomorpha, Palaeophycus, Phycosiphon, Planolites, Rhyzocorallium, Schaubcylindrichnus, Scolicia, Siphonichnus, Taeinidum, Teichichnus, Thalassinoides, and Zoophycos. The ichnological association belongs to the archetypal Cruziana ichnofacies and its ;distal; expression. By integrating lithofacies and ichnological results, two segments have been distinguished: 1) the lower one (1695

  4. 40 CFR 408.250 - Applicability; description of the Pacific Coast hand-shucked oyster processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Pacific Coast hand-shucked oyster processing subcategory. 408.250 Section 408.250 Protection of... SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Pacific Coast Hand-Shucked Oyster Processing Subcategory § 408.250 Applicability; description of the Pacific Coast hand-shucked oyster processing subcategory. The...

  5. 40 CFR 408.250 - Applicability; description of the Pacific Coast hand-shucked oyster processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Pacific Coast hand-shucked oyster processing subcategory. 408.250 Section 408.250 Protection of... SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Pacific Coast Hand-Shucked Oyster Processing Subcategory § 408.250 Applicability; description of the Pacific Coast hand-shucked oyster processing subcategory. The...

  6. 40 CFR 408.250 - Applicability; description of the Pacific Coast hand-shucked oyster processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Pacific Coast hand-shucked oyster processing subcategory. 408.250 Section 408.250 Protection of... SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Pacific Coast Hand-Shucked Oyster Processing Subcategory § 408.250 Applicability; description of the Pacific Coast hand-shucked oyster processing subcategory. The...

  7. 40 CFR 408.250 - Applicability; description of the Pacific Coast hand-shucked oyster processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Pacific Coast hand-shucked oyster processing subcategory. 408.250 Section 408.250 Protection of... SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Pacific Coast Hand-Shucked Oyster Processing Subcategory § 408.250 Applicability; description of the Pacific Coast hand-shucked oyster processing subcategory. The...

  8. 40 CFR 408.250 - Applicability; description of the Pacific Coast hand-shucked oyster processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Pacific Coast hand-shucked oyster processing subcategory. 408.250 Section 408.250 Protection of... SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Pacific Coast Hand-Shucked Oyster Processing Subcategory § 408.250 Applicability; description of the Pacific Coast hand-shucked oyster processing subcategory. The...

  9. Antifouling activities against colonizer marine bacteria of extracts from marine invertebrates collected in the Colombian Caribbean Sea and on the Brazilian coast (Santa Catarina).

    PubMed

    Mora-Cristancho, Jennyfer A; Arévalo-Ferro, Catalina; Ramos, Freddy A; Tello, Edisson; Duque, Carmenza; Lhullier, Cintia; Falkenberg, Miriam; Schenkel, Eloir Paulo

    2011-01-01

    The growth inhibition of 12 native marine bacteria isolated from Aplysina sponge surfaces, the shell of a bivalve, and Phytagel immersed for 48 h in sea water were used as indicator of the antifouling activity of the extracts of 39 marine organisms (octocorals, sponges, algae, and zoanthid) collected in the Colombian Caribbean Sea and on the Brazilian coast (Santa Catarina). Gram-negative bacteria represented 75% of the isolates; identified strains belonged to Oceanobacillus iheyensis, Ochrobactrum pseudogrignonense, Vibrio campbellii, Vibrio harveyi, and Bacillus megaterium species and seven strains were classified at genus level by the 16S rRNA sequencing method. The extracts of the octocorals Pseudopterogorgia elisabethae, four Eunicea octocorals, and the sponges Topsentia ophiraphidites, Agelas citrina, Neopetrosia carbonaria, Monanchora arbuscula, Cliona tenuis, Iotrochota imminuta, and Ptilocaulis walpersii were the most active, thus suggesting those species as antifoulant producers. This is the first study of natural antifoulants from marine organisms collected on the Colombian and Brazilian coasts.

  10. Coastal erosion hazard and vulnerability using sig tools. Comparison between "La Barra town, Buenaventura, (Pacific Ocean of Colombia) and Providence - Santa Catalina islands (Colombian Caribbean Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coca-Domínguez, Oswaldo; Ricaurte-Villota, Constanza; Morales-Giraldo, David; Rangel-Buitrago, Nelson

    2014-05-01

    Analysis of hazards and vulnerability associated to coastal erosion along coastlines is a first issue in order to establish plans for adaptation to climate change in coastal areas. La Barra Town, Buenaventura (Pacific ocean of Colombia) and Providence - Santa Catalina Islands (Colombian Caribbean) were selected to develop a detailed analysis of coastal erosion hazard and vulnerability from different perspectives: i) physical (hazard) , ii) social , iii) conservation approach and iv) cultural heritage (Raizal). The analysis was made by a semi quantitative approximation method, applying variables associated with the intrinsic coastal zone properties (i.e. type of beach, exposure of the coast to waves, etc.). Coastal erosion data and associated variables as well land use; conservation and heritage data were used to carry out a further detailed analysis of the human - structural vulnerability and exposure to hazards. The data shows erosion rates close to -17 m yr-1 in La Barra Town (highlighting their critical condition and urgent relocation process), while in some sectors of Providence Island, such as Old Town, erosion rate was -5 m yr-1. The observed erosion process affects directly the land use and the local and regional economy. The differences between indexes and the structural and physical vulnerability as well the use of methodological variables are presented in the context of each region. In this work, all the information was worked using a GIS environment since this allows editing and updating the information continuously. The application of this methodology generates useful information in order to promote risk management as well prevention, mitigation and reduction plans. In both areas the adaptation must be a priority strategy to be considered, including relocation alternatives and sustainable protection with the support of studies of uses and future outlooks in the coast. The methodology is framed into the use of GIS tools and it highlights their benefits

  11. Evolving Shoreline Change Rates Along the US Pacific Northwest Coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, D. L.; Ruggiero, P.; Allan, J. C.

    2013-12-01

    Coastal change hazards are increasingly affecting economically important areas, including those used for infrastructure, commerce, and public recreation. Quantifying shoreline change rates and understanding the contributing factors is crucial to protect these areas and to assist federal, state, and local agencies in developing long-term management plans. A recent study by the USGS National Assessment of Shoreline Change project analyzed the historical shoreline record along the U.S. Pacific Northwest with emphasis on both century-scale (1800s--2002) and decadal-scale (1960-80s--2002) change rates (Ruggiero, P., Kratzmann, M.A., Himmelstoss, E.G., Reid, D., Allan, J., and Kaminsky, G., 2013: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2012-1007, 55 p.). The study was the first consistent state-wide coastal change assessment for Oregon and revealed a significant increase in erosion hazards in the near-term. The coastal landscape in Oregon is particularly dynamic and includes beaches that are backed by both cliffs and dunes, and range in texture from sand to cobble. The high wave energy in the Pacific Northwest results in a morphology with primarily intermediate to dissipative beaches. Resistant rocky headlands separate the Oregon coast into 18 distinct littoral cells, greatly influencing how the shoreline changes with time. While the century-scale average of all 560 km of Oregon coastline suggests the shore is prograding at 0.4 m/yr, the decadal-scale record indicates that 13 of the 18 littoral cells either are accreting at a slower rate, have changed from accretional to erosional, or are eroding at a faster rate. This apparent increase in erosion-affected coasts may be caused by several factors including sea-level rise, increasing storm wave heights, tectonic uplift, and climatic events (eg., El Niño), but overall it indicates a shifting trend in shoreline change rates. In the present study, we quantify shoreline change rates on a third timescale, seasonal to

  12. Patterns of significant seismic quiescence in the Pacific Mexican coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muñoz-Diosdado, Alejandro; Rudolf-Navarro, Adolfo; Barrera-Ferrer, Amilcar; Angulo-Brown, Fernando

    2014-05-01

    Mexico is one of the countries with higher seismicity. During the 20th century, 8% of all the earthquakes in the world of magnitude greater than or equal to 7.0 have taken place in Mexico. On average, an earthquake of magnitude greater than or equal to 7.0 occurred in Mexico every two and a half years. Great earthquakes in Mexico have their epicenters in the Pacific Coast in which some seismic gaps have been identified; for example, there is a mature gap in the Guerrero State Coast, which potentially can produce an earthquake of magnitude 8.2. With the purpose of making some prognosis, some researchers study the statistical behavior of certain physical parameters that could be related with the process of accumulation of stress in the Earth crust. Other researchers study seismic catalogs trying to find seismicity patterns that are manifested before the occurrence of great earthquakes. Many authors have proposed that the study of seismicity rates is an appropriate technique for evaluating how close a seismic gap may be to rupture. We designed an algorithm for identification of patterns of significant seismic quiescence by using the definition of seismic quiescence proposed by Schreider (1990). This algorithm shows the area of quiescence where an earthquake of great magnitude will probably occur. We apply our algorithm to the earthquake catalogue of the Mexican Pacific coast located between 14 and 21 degrees of North latitude and 94 and 106 degrees West longitude; with depths less or equal to 60 km and magnitude greater or equal to 4.2, which occurred from September, 1965 until December, 2014. We have found significant patterns of seismic quietude before the earthquakes of Oaxaca (November 1978, Mw = 7.8), Petatlán (March 1979, Mw = 7.6), Michoacán (September 1985, Mw = 8.0, and Mw = 7.6) and Colima (October 1995, Mw = 8.0). Fortunately, in this century have not occurred earthquakes of great magnitude in Mexico, however, we have identified well-defined seismic

  13. [Population dynamics of Donax dentifer (Veneroida: Donacidae) in Bay of Bahía Málaga, Colombian Pacific during the "El Niño" 1997/1998].

    PubMed

    Riascos, José M; Urban, H

    2002-01-01

    Donax dentifer is a dominant member of the sandy beach communities of the Colombian Pacific coast. A population of this bivalve was monthly sampled in Playa Chucheros at the Bay of Málaga, Colombian Pacific, between August 1997 and July 1998, during the "El Niño 1997/1998" phenomenon. Quantitative samples were taken in perpendicular and parallel to the coastal line transects to determine the population density and a length-frequency distribution. Qualitative samples were taken to study the reproduction and monthly length weight relationship. Sea surface temperature, dissolved oxygen, salinity and pH in the water was monthly registered in the sampling station. Additionally, a tagging-recapture experiment was performed to growth estimations. Results indicate a continuous reproduction cycle with two annual spawning seasons in December and March. The growth parameters of the non-oscillating von Bertalanffy growth function were K = 0.62 yr-1 and L infinity = 29.3 mm. Mortality (Z) was higher (2.65 yr-1) for small individuals (between 2 mm and 5 mm) while a lower Z value (1.71 yr-1) were obtained for larger ones (between 19 mm and 25 mm). An annual mean biomass value of B = 1.229 g ash-free dry weight m-2 and an annual somatic production of Psom = 1.215 g ash-free dry weight m-2 were estimated, which correspond to a Psom/B value of 0.988. Population density increased in November and April, but any population density pattern related with "El Niño" was evident. Low body weight during November-December seems to show a relation between reproductive cycle in D. dentifer and El Niño 97/98 event. The fluctuation in dissolved oxygen show a high correlation with parameters of the reproductive cycle, which could be related to assimilation process and body weight cycle. Growth in D. dentifer in the Colombian Pacific coast was faster than other Donax species, as can be expected for tropical bivalves mollusks in comparison whit high latitude bivalves. The mortality pattern

  14. Molecular detection and identification of Wolbachia in three species of the genus Lutzomyia on the Colombian Caribbean coast.

    PubMed

    Vivero, Rafael José; Cadavid-Restrepo, Gloria; Herrera, Claudia Ximena Moreno; Soto, Sandra I Uribe

    2017-02-28

    The hematophagous habits of insects belonging to the genus Lutzomyia (Diptera: Psychodidae), as well as their role as biological vectors of Leishmania species, make their presence an indication of infection risk. In the present study, seven species of Lutzomyia were identified and screened for natural infections with Wolbachia. Collection of sand flies was done in an endemic focus of leishmaniasis on the Colombian Caribbean coast (Department of Sucre, Ovejas municipality). DNA collected from Lutzomyia species was evaluated with PCR for wsp gene amplification to screen for bacterial infection. Endosymbiotic Wolbachia was found in three species: Lutzomyia c. cayennensis, Lutzomyia dubitans and Lutzomyia evansi. Two Wolbachia strains (genotypes) were found in Lutzomyia spp. These genotypes were previously unknown in dipteran insects. The wLev strain was found in Lutzomyia dubitans, L. c. cayennensis and L. evansi and the wLcy strain was found only in L. c. cayennensis. Genetic analysis indicated that the Wolbachia strains wLcy and wLev belong to the B Supergroup. This study provides evidence of infections of more than one strain of Wolbachia in L. c. cayennensis.

  15. Risk factors for hepatitis C virus infection in the Colombian Caribbean coast: A case-control study.

    PubMed

    Yepes, Ismael de Jesús; Lince, Beatriz; Caez, Clara; De Vuono, Giovanni

    2016-12-01

    An estimated 6.8-8.9 million people are infected with hepatitis C virus in Latin America, of which less than 1% receives antiviral treatment. Studies so far in Colombia have attempted to determine the prevalence of the disease in some risk groups, thus preventing the identification of other factors potentially involved in the spread of the infection. To identify traditional and non-traditional risk factors for chronic hepatitis C in the Colombian Caribbean coast. This was a case-control study (1:3) matched by health care provider and age (± 10 years) conducted at the primary care level of gastroenterology and hepatology outpatient services. All patients with a positive ELISA underwent a confirmatory viral load test. A multivariate logistic regression analysis identified the independent predictors of infection. Blood transfusion (OR=159.2; 95% CI: 35.4-715; p<0.001) and history of hospitalization before 1994 (OR=4.7; 95% CI: 1.3-17.1; p=0.018) were identified as the only two independent predictors of infection. It is necessary to check the reproducibility of these results and to conduct cost-effectiveness studies before recommending their use in the design of new screening strategies.

  16. Patterns of significant seismic quiescence on the Mexican Pacific coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muñoz-Diosdado, A.; Rudolf-Navarro, A. H.; Angulo-Brown, F.; Barrera-Ferrer, A. G.

    Many authors have proposed that the study of seismicity rates is an appropriate technique for evaluating how close a seismic gap may be to rupture. We designed an algorithm for identification of patterns of significant seismic quiescence by using the definition of seismic quiescence proposed by Schreider (1990). This algorithm shows the area of quiescence where an earthquake of great magnitude may probably occur. We have applied our algorithm to the earthquake catalog on the Mexican Pacific coast located between 14 and 21 degrees of North latitude and 94 and 106 degrees West longitude; with depths less than or equal to 60 km and magnitude greater than or equal to 4.3, which occurred from January, 1965 until December, 2014. We have found significant patterns of seismic quietude before the earthquakes of Oaxaca (November 1978, Mw = 7.8), Petatlán (March 1979, Mw = 7.6), Michoacán (September 1985, Mw = 8.0, and Mw = 7.6) and Colima (October 1995, Mw = 8.0). Fortunately, in this century earthquakes of great magnitude have not occurred in Mexico. However, we have identified well-defined seismic quiescences in the Guerrero seismic-gap, which are apparently correlated with the occurrence of silent earthquakes in 2002, 2006 and 2010 recently discovered by GPS technology.

  17. Genetic variability and heterogeneity of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus vector Ochlerotatus taeniorhynchus (Diptera: Culicidae) populations of the Colombian Atlantic coast, based on microsatellite loci.

    PubMed

    Bello, F; Becerra, V

    2009-09-29

    In Colombia, the mosquito Ochlerotatus taeniorhynchus has been identified as an efficient vector of the epidemic-epizootic Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus. We evaluated the genetic variability and heterogeneity of this mosquito in Colombian populations using eight microsatellite DNA loci. Two hundred and ten mosquito specimens collected from seven populations of the Colombian Atlantic coast (San Bernardo del Viento, Coveñas, Cartagena, Barranquilla, Ciénaga, Dibulla, and Riohacha) were analyzed. We found five polymorphic microsatellite loci, with 19 alleles giving 62.5% polymorphism; the mean number of alleles per locus was 3.8. The mean expected heterogeneity ranged from 0.568 to 0.660. Most of the polymorphic microsatellite loci were in Hardy-Weinberg disequilibrium, due to both deficit and excess of heterozygotes. The Fst statistic gave a total value of 0.0369, reflecting low genetic differentiation among the populations and, as a consequence, a low degree of structuring among them, while gene flow was high (Nm = 6.52); these findings point to genetic homogeneity among these populations. There was no significant linkage disequilibrium between genotype pairs of the various populations. We concluded that this mosquito is distributed in local populations along the Colombian Atlantic coast; these findings will be useful for developing strategies for controlling this vector.

  18. NAT2 gene polymorphisms in three indigenous groups in the Colombian Caribbean Coast region

    PubMed Central

    Arias, Isis; Lecompte, Nelly; Visbal, Lila; Curiel, Iliana; Hernández, Enio; Garavito, Pilar

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To study the NAT2 gene polymorphisms 481T, 590A and 857A in the Chimila, Wiwa and Wayuu indigenous groups of the Colombian Caribbean to determine the frequencies of the alleles NAT2*4, NAT2*5, NAT2*6, and NAT2*7 and to determine the types of acetylators present in these populations. Methods: A total of 202 subjects were studied: 47 Chimila, 55 Wiwa, and 100 Wayuu. The polymorphisms were identified using a real-time PCR method for allelic discrimination designed using Taqman of Applied Biosystems. Results: The following alleles were found at the highest frequency in the following groups: the NAT2*4 allele (wild type) in the Wayuu group (55.3%), the NAT2*5 allele in the Wiwa group (34.5%), and the NAT2*7 allele in the Chimila group (24.2%). A higher frequency of the rapid acetylator status was found in the Wayuu group (31.3%) and Chimila group (29.5%) compared with the Wiwa group (12.7%). The intermediate acetylator status distribution was very similar in all three groups, and the frequency of the slow acetylator status was higher in the Wiwa group (32.7%) compared with the Chimila and Wayuu groups (20.5% and 21.2%, respectively). Conclusion: The results demonstrated the allelic distribution and pharmacogenetic differences of the three groups studied and revealed the most frequent acetylator status and phenotype. Because of the high prevalence of slow acetylators, a greater incidence of tuberculosis (TB) drug-induced hepatotoxicity is predicted in these populations, with a higher frequency in the Wiwa group. PMID:25767302

  19. Coastal dynamics studies for evaluation of hazard and vulnerability for coastal erosion. case study the town La Bocana, Buenaventura, colombian pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coca-Domínguez, Oswaldo; Ricaurte-Villota, Constanza

    2015-04-01

    The analysis of the hazard and vulnerability in coastal areas caused for erosion is based on studies of coastal dynamics since that allows having a better information detail that is useful for decision-making in aspects like prevention, mitigation, disaster reduction and integrated risk management. The Town of La Bocana, located in Buenaventura (Colombian Pacific) was selected to carry out the threat assessment for coastal erosion based on three components: i) magnitude, ii) occurrence and iii) susceptibility. Vulnerability meanwhile, is also composed of three main components for its evaluation: i) exposure ii) fragility and iii) resilience, which in turn are evaluated in 6 dimensions of vulnerability: physical, social, economic, ecological, institutional and cultural. The hazard analysis performed used a semi-quantitative approach, and an index of variables such as type of geomorphological unit, type of beach, exposure of the surfing coast, occurrence, among others. Quantitative data of coastal retreat was measured through the use of DSAS (Digital Shoreline Analysis System) an application of ArcGIS, as well as the development of digital elevation models from the beach and 6 beach profiles strategically located on the coast obtained with GNSS technology. Sediment samples collected from these beaches, medium height and wave direction were used as complementary data. The information was integrated across the coast line into segments of 250 x 250 meters. 4 sectors are part of the coastal area of La Bocana: Pianguita, Vistahermosa, Donwtown and Shangay. 6 vulnerability dimensions units were taken from these population, as well as its density for exposure, wich was analyzed through a multi-array method that include variables such as, land use, population, type of structure, education, basic services, among others, to measure frailty, and their respective indicator of resilience. The hazard analysis results indicate that Vistahermosa is in very high threat, while

  20. Anglers' Guide to the United States Pacific Coast: Marine Fish, Fishing Grounds & Facilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Squire, James L., Jr.; Smith, Susan E.

    The purpose of this guide is to provide a general source of information on areas of the Pacific coast that are more frequently fished and the species of fish that are commonly taken. The guide covers the marine and estuarine waters along the coasts of California, Oregon, Washington, Alaska, Hawaii, American Samoa, and Guam. It is arranged in five…

  1. 33 CFR 334.920 - Pacific Ocean off the east coast of San Clemente Island, Calif.; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Pacific Ocean off the east coast... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.920 Pacific Ocean off the east coast of San Clemente Island, Calif.; naval restricted area. (a) The area. The waters of the Pacific Ocean within an area extending easterly from the...

  2. 33 CFR 334.920 - Pacific Ocean off the east coast of San Clemente Island, Calif.; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pacific Ocean off the east coast... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.920 Pacific Ocean off the east coast of San Clemente Island, Calif.; naval restricted area. (a) The area. The waters of the Pacific Ocean within an area extending easterly from the...

  3. 33 CFR 334.920 - Pacific Ocean off the east coast of San Clemente Island, Calif.; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Pacific Ocean off the east coast... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.920 Pacific Ocean off the east coast of San Clemente Island, Calif.; naval restricted area. (a) The area. The waters of the Pacific Ocean within an area extending easterly from the...

  4. 33 CFR 334.920 - Pacific Ocean off the east coast of San Clemente Island, Calif.; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pacific Ocean off the east coast... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.920 Pacific Ocean off the east coast of San Clemente Island, Calif.; naval restricted area. (a) The area. The waters of the Pacific Ocean within an area extending easterly from the...

  5. 33 CFR 334.920 - Pacific Ocean off the east coast of San Clemente Island, Calif.; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pacific Ocean off the east coast... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.920 Pacific Ocean off the east coast of San Clemente Island, Calif.; naval restricted area. (a) The area. The waters of the Pacific Ocean within an area extending easterly from the...

  6. Holocene Tsunami deposits associated with earthquakes along Pacific coast, northeast Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, H.; Imaizumi, T.; Ishiyama, T.; Miyauchi, T.; Kagohara, K.; Haraguchi, T.; Marushima, N.; Omachi, T.

    2009-12-01

    We investigated Holocene tsumami deposits along the Pacific coast of northeast Japan in order to define the ages and source areas of earthquakes generating large tsunamis. Sediment cores were collected by using geoslicers and hand augers at alluvial lowlands interpreted by aerial photographs, and ages of deposits were dated by radiocarbon methods and tephrochronology. Pacific coast of northeast Japan faces the Japan trench where Pacific plate subducts beneath the Eurasian plate, so that the coast has repeatedly experienced some large tsunamis following historical interplate earthquakes (the 1896 Meiji Sanriku Tsunami, the 1793 Kansei Tsunami, the 1611 Keicho Sanriku Tsunami and the 869 Jogan Tsunami). While the southern part along the Pacific coast (from the Sendai Plain to the Joban coastal region) has nearly straight shorelines and well developed coastal lowlands, the northern part (the Sanriku coastal region) has typical ria shorelines and poorly developed coastal lowlands. Multiple sand layers are identified between muddy or peaty sediments in drilled core samples to a depth of 1-5.5 m at several coastal areas, which is located at backlands of beach ridges and natural levees. In the southern part along the Pacific coast, sand layers corresponding to the 869 Jogan Tsunami are identified, and the older sand layers suggest that tsunamis which are as large as the 869 tsunami have occurred at few hundred years intervals over the past 5000 years. On the other hand, in the northern part along the Pacific coast, multiple sand layers which indicate the arrival of large tsunamis are also found at the similar intervals to the southern coast during 6000-2000 years ago, but most of the depositional ages of the sand layers do not coincide with those of the southern coast. We suggest that earthquakes generating large tsunamis along northern and southern Pacific coast of northeast Japan have both occurred at few hundred years intervals during the late Holocene, but in most

  7. Leishmaniasis in Colombia. I. Studies on the phlebotomine fauna associated with endemic foci in the Pacific Coast region.

    PubMed

    Travi, B L; Montoya, J; Solarte, Y; Lozano, L; Jaramillo, C

    1988-09-01

    Studies on the phlebotomine fauna related to the leishmaniasis endemic foci of the Colombian Pacific Coast were carried out in the municipalities of Tumaco and Buenaventura. In Inguapí del Guadual, Tumaco, Lutzomyia trapidoi and Lu. gomezi were the predominant anthropophilic species; Lu. panamensis and Lu. hartmanni were less frequent. In Bajo Calima, Buenaventura, Lu. trapidoi represented over 94% of the anthropophilic sandflies. Continuous sampling from 1800 to 0600 hours in Inguapí del Guadual demonstrated that Lu. trapidoi bites mainly at dusk and dawn whereas Lu. gomezi remains active throughout the night. In Inguapí del Guadual, promastigotes were found in 0.1% (2/2, 305) of Lu. trapidoi, 0.2% (3/140) of Lu. gomezi, and 0.2% (1/424) of Lu. panamensis samples collected. In Bajo Calima, 1.9% (8/429) of Lu. trapidoi were found to be infected. Leishmania braziliensis panamensis, the most common Leishmania subspecies in the human population of this endemic focus, was isolated from 1 Lu. trapidoi from Inguapí del Guadual. Parasitological and entomological findings suggest that Lu. trapidoi could be the main vector of Leishmania in these areas, although Lu. gomezi and Lu. panamensis were also predominant.

  8. G and P genotypes of rotavirus circulating among children with diarrhea in the Colombian northern coast.

    PubMed

    Urbina, Delfina; Rodríguez, Juan G; Arzuza, Octavio; Parra, Edgar; Young, Gregorio; Castro, Raimundo; del-Portillo, Patricia

    2004-06-01

    A study on the prevalence of rotavirus G and P genotypes was carried out based on 253 stool specimens obtained from children living in the Colombia northern coast region who were less than 3-years-old and who suffered from acute diarrhea. A previous study had detected the presence of rotavirus A in 90 (36.5%) of the 246 samples tested by enzyme immunoassay (EIA), and these strains were investigated in the present study. Of these, 50 strains yielded an RNA electropherotype, most of which (80.0%) had long profiles and 20.0% of which had short profiles. Genotyping of 84 positive samples indicated that 67.9% of the strains could be typed. G1 (57.9%), was the most predominant VP7 genotype, followed by G3 (21.1%), G9 (15.8%) and G2 (5.3%). Among the VP4 genotypes, P[4] (49.1%) was the most prevalent, followed by P[6] 36.4% and P[8] (14.5%). Neither G4 nor G8 nor P[9] types were detected. The most common G-P combinations were G3 P[4] (8.8%) and G9 P[6] (7.0%), followed by G1 P[4] and G1 P[8] (5.3% each). All G1 P[8] strains showed long RNA profiles, whereas G3 P[4] and G9 P[6] displayed both long and short patterns. Mixed infections involved 21.0% of strains. There was a marked diversity among strains collected, and novel strains, including G9, as well as other atypical combinations of G and P genotypes, such as G9 P[6] and G3 P[4], were found.

  9. Hurricane Celia off the Pacific Coast of Mexico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1: July 19 Daylight Snapshot for PIA00438 Figure 2: July 21 Daylight Snapshot for PIA00438 Hurricane Celia as observed by NASA's spaceborne Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS). This image shows Celia on July 23 in visible light, as you would perceive it from space. Located in the eastern north Pacific Ocean off the coast of Mexico, Celia's winds have now dissipated to highs of 40 mph. Celia was the first hurricane of the eastern north Pacific season. Figure 1 is a daylight snapshot taken on July 19; Celia as tropical storm, winds at 50mph. Figure 2 is a daylight snapshot taken on July 21; Celia has a small eye with an 80-90% closed eyewall; sustained winds at 75mph with gusts reaching 92mph; Celia is upgraded to hurricane status.

    The major contribution to radiation (infrared light) that AIRS channels sense comes from different levels in the atmosphere, depending upon the channel wavelength. To create the movies, a set of AIRS channels were selected which probe the atmosphere at progressively deeper levels. If there were no clouds, the color in each frame would be nearly uniform until the Earth's surface is encountered. The tropospheric air temperature warms at a rate of 6 K (about 11 F) for each kilometer of descent toward the surface. Thus the colors would gradually change from cold to warm as the movie progresses.

    Clouds block the infrared radiation. Thus wherever there are clouds we can penetrate no deeper in infrared. The color remains fixed as the movie progresses, for that area of the image is 'stuck' to the cloud top temperature. The coldest temperatures around 220 K (about -65 F) come from altitudes of about 10 miles.

    We therefore see in a 'surface channel' at the end of the movie, signals from clouds as cold as 220 K and from Earth's surface at 310 K (about 100 F). The very coldest clouds are seen in deep convection thunderstorms over

  10. Hurricane Celia off the Pacific Coast of Mexico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1: July 19 Daylight Snapshot for PIA00438 Figure 2: July 21 Daylight Snapshot for PIA00438 Hurricane Celia as observed by NASA's spaceborne Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS). This image shows Celia on July 23 in visible light, as you would perceive it from space. Located in the eastern north Pacific Ocean off the coast of Mexico, Celia's winds have now dissipated to highs of 40 mph. Celia was the first hurricane of the eastern north Pacific season. Figure 1 is a daylight snapshot taken on July 19; Celia as tropical storm, winds at 50mph. Figure 2 is a daylight snapshot taken on July 21; Celia has a small eye with an 80-90% closed eyewall; sustained winds at 75mph with gusts reaching 92mph; Celia is upgraded to hurricane status.

    The major contribution to radiation (infrared light) that AIRS channels sense comes from different levels in the atmosphere, depending upon the channel wavelength. To create the movies, a set of AIRS channels were selected which probe the atmosphere at progressively deeper levels. If there were no clouds, the color in each frame would be nearly uniform until the Earth's surface is encountered. The tropospheric air temperature warms at a rate of 6 K (about 11 F) for each kilometer of descent toward the surface. Thus the colors would gradually change from cold to warm as the movie progresses.

    Clouds block the infrared radiation. Thus wherever there are clouds we can penetrate no deeper in infrared. The color remains fixed as the movie progresses, for that area of the image is 'stuck' to the cloud top temperature. The coldest temperatures around 220 K (about -65 F) come from altitudes of about 10 miles.

    We therefore see in a 'surface channel' at the end of the movie, signals from clouds as cold as 220 K and from Earth's surface at 310 K (about 100 F). The very coldest clouds are seen in deep convection thunderstorms over

  11. 77 FR 2655 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-19

    ....5 mt of Pacific Ocean Perch, 3.3 mt of Canary rockfish, and 48.3 mt of Widow rockfish allocated to.... This notice announces the reapportionment of 4.3 mt of Darkblotched rockfish, 6.5 mt of Pacific Ocean..., mothership sector; Pacific Ocean Perch, 16.7 mt, catcher/processor sector, 0.66 mt, mothership sector; Canary...

  12. 76 FR 42588 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan; Amendments 20...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-19

    ... limit and for calculation of Pacific halibut individual bycatch quota (IBQ) pounds in the Shorebased... Pacific halibut trawl mortality bycatch limit, specified at Sec. 660.55(m), subpart C, and calculations... calculation of Pacific halibut IBQ pounds in the Shorebased IFQ Program for 2012 and beyond. Therefore,...

  13. Fire-climate interactions in forests of the American Pacific coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trouet, Valerie; Taylor, Alan H.; Carleton, Andrew M.; Skinner, Carl N.

    2006-09-01

    We investigate relationships between climate and wildfire activity between 1929 and 2004 in Pacific coast forests of the United States. Self-Organizing Mapping (SOM) of annual area burned in National Forests (NF) in California, Oregon, and Washington identifies three contiguous NF groups and a fourth group of NF traversed by major highways. Large fire years in all groups are dry compared to small fire years. A sub-hemispheric circulation pattern of a strong trough over the North Pacific and a ridge over the West Coast is characteristic of large fire years in all groups. This pattern resembles the Pacific North American (PNA) teleconnection and positive phase of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO). A reverse PNA and negative PDO phase characterizes small fire years. Despite the effect of fire suppression management between 1929 and 2004, forest area burned is linked to climatic variations related to large-scale atmospheric circulation patterns.

  14. Business Case Analysis: Restructuring of Coast Guard Pacific Area Mental Health Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-10

    Archives and Records Administration , 1994). Essentially, the CG pays 93.14% ( CHAMPUS Max Allowable Charge (CMAC)) of the full cost a DoD facility...mental 19 health treatment for Coast Guard members (M2, 2008) . When factoring in the CHAMPUS Max Allowable Charge (CMAC) of 93.14%, the Pacific...factoring in the CHAMPUS Max Allowable Charge (CMAC) of 93.14%, the Pacific Area Command reimbursed, on average, over $55,000 per month on direct care

  15. Genes, Diversity, and Geologic Process on the Pacific Coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, David K.

    2004-05-01

    We examine the genetics of marine diversification along the West Coast of North America in relation to the Late Neogene geology and climate of the region. Trophically important components of the diverse West Coast fauna, including kelp, alcid birds (e.g., auks, puffins), salmon, rockfish, abalone, and Cancer crabs, appear to have radiated during peaks of upwelling primarily in the Late Miocene and in some cases secondarily in the Pleistocene. Phylogeographic barriers associated with Mio-Pliocene estuaries of the mid-California coast, the Pliocene opening of the Gulf of California, tectonic and eustatic evolution of the California Bight, as well as the influence of Pleistocene and Holocene climate change on genetic structure are assessed in a geologic context. Comparisons to East Coast and western freshwater systems, as well as upwelling systems around the globe, provide perspective for the survey.

  16. Earthquake studies on Canada’s west coast; Pacific Geoscience Centre

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rogers, G. C.; Riddihough, R.P.

    1979-01-01

    On a global scale, Canada's west coast lies within the zone of a seismicity that stretches around the Pacific Ocean. In plate tectonic terms, it is dominated by the same right-lateral shearing between the Pacific and American plates that is responsible for the seismicity of California. However, in southern British Columbia the interaction is further complicated. Between the San Andreas fault in California and the Queen Charlotte fault off British Columbia, the Pacific and American plates are separated by the small independent Juan de Fuca plate system. This is spreading away from the Pacific plate and converging with the margin of the Pacific Northwest. The resulting Cascade volcanic chain and its extension into southern British Columbia are the topograhic expression of its subduction. 

  17. Integrated Bird Conservation along the Pacific Coast of North America: An Action Agenda

    Treesearch

    Gregg Elliott; Bob Altman; Wendy Easton; Ricardo Estrella; Geoffrey Geupel; Mary Chase; Ellie Cohen; Ann Chrisney

    2005-01-01

    Scientists and managers representing the continental bird conservation plans explored the status of conservation planning and implementation for birds along the Pacific coast of North America. The theme of the session, "using common currencies to advance bird conservation," emphasized the components of bird conservation shared among the major initiatives,...

  18. EstuRe Project: U.S. Pacific Coast Estuary/Watershed Data and R Tools

    EPA Science Inventory

    The EstuRe Project is a collaborative effort of the U.S. EPA and USGS to standardize and improve the accessibility of data for U.S. Pacific Coast estuaries and their corresponding watersheds. We are presenting a preview of the datasets and tools that will soon be available from ...

  19. Changes in tussock architecture of invasive Spartina densiflora (Poaceae) along the Pacific Coast of North America

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    It is important to link functional trait-based responses of invaders to environmental changes to improve our understanding of mechanisms that promote invasiveness. The invasion of alien Spartina densiflora Brongn. along the Pacific coast of North America provides a natural model system for studying ...

  20. Understanding the science of climate change: Talking points - impacts to the Pacific Coast

    Treesearch

    Amanda Schramm; Rachel Loehman

    2012-01-01

    The Pacific Coast is an area of incredible biodiversity and diverse landscapes that are subject to a range of effects as regional climates shift. Changes that have already been observed within this bioregion include warmer average temperatures, earlier runoff season, rising sea levels, coastal erosion, species migration, and a longer growing season. In the next century...

  1. WestuRe: U.S. Pacific Coast estuary/watershed data and R tools

    EPA Science Inventory

    There are about 350 estuaries along the U.S. Pacific Coast. Basic descriptive data for these estuaries, such as their size and watershed area, are important for coastal-scale research and conservation planning. However, this information is spread among many sources and can be dif...

  2. Fire-climate interactions in forests of the American Pacific Coast

    Treesearch

    Valerie Trouet; Alan H. Taylor; Andrew M. Carleton; Carl N. Skinner

    2006-01-01

    We investigate relationships between climate and wildfire activity between 1929 and 2004 in Pacific coast forests of the United States. Self-Organizing Mapping (SOM) of annual area burned in National Forests (NF) in California, Oregon, and Washington identifies three contiguous NF groups and a fourth group of NF traversed by major highways. Large fire years in all...

  3. Pacific coast southwestern Mexico as seen from the Apollo 7 spacecraft

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1968-10-13

    AS07-05-1652 (13 Oct. 1968) --- Pacific coast area of southwestern Mexico, State of Guerrero, from Acapulco to Tecoanapa, as seen from the Apollo 7 spacecraft during its 34th revolution of Earth. Photographed from an altitude of 125 nautical miles, at ground elapsed time of 54 hours and 10 minutes. Much cloud cover in area.

  4. EstuRe Project: U.S. Pacific Coast Estuary/Watershed Data and R Tools

    EPA Science Inventory

    The EstuRe Project is a collaborative effort of the U.S. EPA and USGS to standardize and improve the accessibility of data for U.S. Pacific Coast estuaries and their corresponding watersheds. We are presenting a preview of the datasets and tools that will soon be available from ...

  5. Seasonal levels of the Vibrio predator Bacteriovorax in Atlantic, Pacific and Gulf Coast Seawater

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Bacteriovorax were quantified in US Atlantic, Gulf and Pacific seawater to determine baseline levels of these predatory bacteria and possible seasonal fluctuations in levels. Surface seawater was analyzed monthly for 1 year from Kailua-Kona, Hawaii; the Gulf Coast of Alabama; and four sites along t...

  6. WestuRe: U.S. Pacific Coast estuary/watershed data and R tools

    EPA Science Inventory

    There are about 350 estuaries along the U.S. Pacific Coast. Basic descriptive data for these estuaries, such as their size and watershed area, are important for coastal-scale research and conservation planning. However, this information is spread among many sources and can be dif...

  7. Assessment of tsunami hazard for the American Pacific coast from southern Mexico to northern Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brizuela, B.; Armigliato, A.; Tinti, S.

    2013-06-01

    Central America has been struck by at least 49 tsunamis between 1539 and 1996. As many as 37 of these events occurred at the Pacific Coast, and 31 were generated by earthquakes. Some of the events have been destructive, but despite this, tsunamis are an underrated hazard in Central America: people are not aware that they are at risk and even recent tsunami events have been forgotten. Recent studies, following the destructive tsunami occurred in Nicaragua in 1992, have revealed that Central America is a moderately tsunamigenic zone that is mainly affected by tsunamis triggered by earthquakes, especially at the Pacific coast where the Middle American Trench runs parallel to the coast. In this study, a statistical first and then a deterministic analysis for the Pacific coast of Central America has been carried out. The statistical approach aims to estimate the Gutenberg-Richter coefficients of the main seismic tsunamigenic regions of the area in order to assess the annual rate of occurrence of tsunamigenic earthquakes and their corresponding return period. A deterministic approach is then used to compute the tsunami run-up distribution along the coast corresponding to a given annual rate of occurrence of tsunamigenic earthquakes.

  8. 78 FR 75268 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; Trawl Rationalization Program...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-11

    ... development. Risk pools, where quota share or quota pound holders work together in sharing arrangements, have... of Representatives and the Senate, titled ``Revitalizing the Economy of Fisheries in the Pacific...

  9. 77 FR 29955 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan; Trawl...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-21

    ... critical habitat: Sei whales (Balaenoptera borealis); North Pacific Right whales (Eubalaena japonica); Blue whales (Balaenoptera musculus); Fin whales (Balaenoptera physalus); Sperm whales (Physter macrocephalus... medirostris), eulachon (Thaleichthys pacificus), humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae), Steller sea...

  10. Feeding ecology of elasmobranch fishes in coastal waters of the Colombian Eastern Tropical Pacific.

    PubMed

    Navia, Andrés F; Mejía-Falla, Paola A; Giraldo, Alan

    2007-09-18

    Stomach contents of 131 specimens of five elasmobranch species (Mustelus lunulatus, Dasyatis longa, Rhinobatos leucorhynchus, Raja velezi and Zapteryx xyster) caught in the central fishing zone in the Pacific Ocean of Colombia were counted and weighed to describe feeding habits and dietary overlaps. Twenty-one prey items belonging to four major groups (stomatopods, decapods, mollusks and fish) were identified. Decapod crustaceans were the most abundant prey found in stomachs. The mantis shrimp Squilla panamensis was the main prey item in the diet of M. lunulatus; tiger shrimp Trachypenaeus sp. was the main prey item in the diet of Rhinobatos leucorhynchus and Raja velezi, and Penaeidae shrimp were the main prey items in the diet of Z. xyster. Furthermore, fish were important in the diet of Raja velezi, Z. xyster and D. longa. The greatest diet breadth corresponded to Z. xyster whereas M. lunulatus was the most specialized predator. Finally, four significant diet overlaps between the five species were found, attributable mainly to Squillidae, Penaeidae and Fish. Shrimps (Penaeidae and stomatopods) and benthic fishes were the most important food types in the diet of the elasmobranch species studied. Diet breadth and overlap were relatively low. Determination of food resource partitioning among the batoid species studied was not possible. However, we identified partitions in other niche axes (time of feeding activity and habitat utilization). It is possible to assume that diffuse competition could be exceeding the biunivocal competition among the studied species. Therefore, this assemblage would have a strong tendency to trophic guild formation.

  11. Variability of extreme events in the Colombian Pacific and Caribbean catchment basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoyos, Isabel; Baquero-Bernal, Astrid; Jacob, Daniela; Rodríguez, Boris A.

    2013-04-01

    This paper analyses the behavior of extreme events of surface precipitation and temperature inside the Pacific and Caribbean Catchment Basins in Colombia using several datasets such as observations, reconstructed data, NCEP-NCAR and ERA-40 reanalyses and data from the regional model REMO. We use an extreme value method that selects the time series excesses over a nonstationary threshold and adjusts them to a generalized Pareto distribution. The goodness of fit is evaluated through a test that includes the Cramer-von Mises, Kolmogorov-Smirnov and Anderson-Darling statistics and the p values generated by parametric bootstrap resampling. The test not only evaluates the goodness of fit but also the threshold choice. The parameters are presented in maps that allow recognition of the features of the extreme behaviour inside the catchment basins, and differences and similarities between them. Maps of return periods for the maximum extreme events are also presented. A strong influence of the El Niño-Southern oscillation on the extreme events of both temperature and precipitation is found in the two catchment basins.

  12. Tilt of Mean Sea Level Along the Pacific Coasts of North America and Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, H.; Thompson, K. R.; Huang, J.; Veronneau, M.

    2016-02-01

    The tilt of coastal mean sea level with respect to an equipotential surface is estimated using two fundamentally different approaches. The geodetic approach is based on tide gauge and GPS observations, and a model of the geoid. The ocean approach uses a high resolution, dynamically-based ocean model to estimate mean dynamic topography. Along the Pacific coast of North America the two approaches give similar large scale profiles with a minimum at about 40°N and a maximum in the northern part of the Gulf of Alaska. Along the Pacific coast of Japan the geodetically determined coastal sea levels indicate an eastward drop of about 20 cm along the south coast and a further northward drop across Tsugaru Strait. Both of these features are reproduced by the ocean models. An analysis of the alongshore momentum balance suggests that alongshore wind stress acting over the inner shelf is the primary driver of the mean sea level profile along the coast of North America. Several large scale features are explained using arrested topographic wave theory. A similar momentum analysis, and an additional study of time variability of sea level and circulation, suggest that the Kuroshio is the main driver of the mean sea level tilt along the south coast of Japan. Discrepancies in the alongshore tilt of sea level estimated by the geodetic and ocean approaches along both coasts are discussed in terms of errors in the ocean and geoid models.

  13. Tilt of mean sea level along the Pacific coasts of North America and Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Hongyang; Thompson, Keith R.; Huang, Jianliang; Véronneau, Marc

    2015-10-01

    The tilt of coastal mean sea level with respect to an equipotential surface is estimated using two fundamentally different approaches. The geodetic approach is based on tide gauge and GPS observations, and a model of the geoid. The ocean approach uses a high-resolution, dynamically based ocean model to estimate mean dynamic topography. Along the Pacific coast of North America the two approaches give similar large-scale profiles with a minimum at about 40°N and a maximum in the northern part of the Gulf of Alaska. Along the Pacific coast of Japan the geodetically determined coastal sea levels indicate an eastward drop of about 20 cm along the south coast and a further northward drop across Tsugaru Strait. Both of these features are reproduced by the ocean models. An analysis of the alongshore momentum balance suggests that alongshore wind stress acting over the inner shelf is the primary driver of the mean sea level profile along the coast of North America. Several large-scale features are explained using arrested topographic wave theory. A similar momentum analysis, and an additional study of time variability of sea level and circulation, suggests that the Kuroshio is the main driver of the mean sea level tilt along the south coast of Japan. Discrepancies in the alongshore tilt of sea level estimated by the geodetic and ocean approaches along both coasts are discussed in terms of errors in the ocean and geoid models.

  14. Feeding ecology of elasmobranch fishes in coastal waters of the Colombian Eastern Tropical Pacific

    PubMed Central

    Navia, Andrés F; Mejía-Falla, Paola A; Giraldo, Alan

    2007-01-01

    Background Stomach contents of 131 specimens of five elasmobranch species (Mustelus lunulatus, Dasyatis longa, Rhinobatos leucorhynchus, Raja velezi and Zapteryx xyster) caught in the central fishing zone in the Pacific Ocean of Colombia were counted and weighed to describe feeding habits and dietary overlaps. Results Twenty-one prey items belonging to four major groups (stomatopods, decapods, mollusks and fish) were identified. Decapod crustaceans were the most abundant prey found in stomachs. The mantis shrimp Squilla panamensis was the main prey item in the diet of M. lunulatus; tiger shrimp Trachypenaeus sp. was the main prey item in the diet of Rhinobatos leucorhynchus and Raja velezi, and Penaeidae shrimp were the main prey items in the diet of Z. xyster. Furthermore, fish were important in the diet of Raja velezi, Z. xyster and D. longa. The greatest diet breadth corresponded to Z. xyster whereas M. lunulatus was the most specialized predator. Finally, four significant diet overlaps between the five species were found, attributable mainly to Squillidae, Penaeidae and Fish. Conclusion Shrimps (Penaeidae and stomatopods) and benthic fishes were the most important food types in the diet of the elasmobranch species studied. Diet breadth and overlap were relatively low. Determination of food resource partitioning among the batoid species studied was not possible. However, we identified partitions in other niche axes (time of feeding activity and habitat utilization). It is possible to assume that diffuse competition could be exceeding the biunivocal competition among the studied species. Therefore, this assemblage would have a strong tendency to trophic guild formation. PMID:17877796

  15. Characterization and effects of cold fronts in the Colombian Caribbean Coast and their relationship to extreme wave events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortiz-Royero, J. C.; Otero, L. J.; Restrepo, J. C.; Ruiz, J.; Cadena, M.

    2013-07-01

    Extreme ocean waves in the Caribbean Sea are commonly related to the effects of storms and hurricanes during the months of June through November. The collapse of 200 m of the Puerto Colombia pier in March 2009 revealed the effects of meteorological phenomena other than storms and hurricanes that may be influencing the extreme wave regime in the Colombian Caribbean. The marked seasonality of these atmospheric fronts was established by analyzing the meteorological-marine reports of Instituto de Hidrología, Meteorología y Estudios Ambientales of Colombia (IDEAM, based on its initials in Spanish) and Centro de Investigación en Oceanografía y Meteorología of Colombia (CIOH, based on its initials in Spanish). The highest occurrences were observed during the months of January, February, and March, with 6 fronts occurring per year. An annual trend was not observed, although the highest number of fronts occurred in 2010 (20 in total). An annual strong relationship between the maximum average wave values and the cold fronts, in the central zone of the Colombian Caribbean during the first three months of the year was established. In addition, the maximum values of the significant height produced by the passage of cold fronts during the last 16 yr were identified. Although the Colombian Caribbean has been affected by storms and hurricanes in the past, this research allows us to conclude that, there is a strong relationship between cold fronts and the largest waves in the Colombian Caribbean during the last 16 yr, which have caused damage to coastal infrastructure. We verified that the passage of a cold front corresponded to the most significant extreme wave event of the last two decades in the Colombian Caribbean, which caused the structural collapse of the Puerto Colombia pier, located near the city of Barranquilla, between 5 and 10 March 2009. This information is invaluable when evaluating average and extreme wave regimes for the purpose of informing the design of

  16. Documented case of ciguatera on the Mexican Pacific coast.

    PubMed

    Lechuga-Devéze, C H; Sierra-Beltrán, A P

    1995-01-01

    Serranidae and Labridae fish caught in 1993 at Alijos Rocks, 300 miles off East Magdalena Bay, Southern Baja California, caused severe illness of a fishing boat crew. The described symptoms resembled those of ciguatera. The presence of ciguatera-like toxins was confirmed on extracts from these fish using the mouse bioassay procedure, showing activities between 220 to 390 mouse units (M.U.). The founding of ciguatoxin at Alijos Rocks 24 degrees 57' N, 115 degrees 45' W) extends to the northeast its geographical distribution in the Pacific and locates the outbreak near the continental coastline.

  17. Reconstruction of Holocene Seismic Events Along Kamchatka's Pacific Coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinegina, T.; Bourgeois, J.

    2004-12-01

    Since 1995 we have been conducting detailed neotectonic and paleoseismological field studies of the Holocene at more than 15 localities along the east coast of Kamchatka. Specific methods of these investigations include 1) application of tephra chronology and tephra stratigraphy for dating and correlation of various types of coastal deposits and landforms; 2) study of paleotsunami deposits in order to determine their ages and recurrence rate and to estimate the magnitude of large tsunamis and tsunamigenic earthquakes along the Kurile-Kamchatka subduction zone and north of the latter during Holocene time; 3) analysis of the geologic structure, age, and modern and paleo-topography of marine terraces and beach ridges in order to determine the direction and scale of seismotectonic movements over different time intervals; and 4) identification and dating of inferred seismogenic landslides along the coast. Eastern Kamchatka's short history (since about 1730 A.D.) includes many large and several great earthquakes, although historical coverage of these events is scarce because of both low population density, and also military secrecy. Nevertheless, we can use historical earthquakes and tsunami deposits as benchmarks for pre-historic events. Moreover, our studies have helped elucidate historic cases, including co-seismic deformation, tsunami runup, and tsunami source mechanism. As a result of these studies we have reconstructed key events in coastal evolution during the Holocene, and determined the ages of marine accumulative landforms on various segments of the coast. A combination of all our data enables us to get an idea about spatial and temporal distribution of strong subduction-type earthquakes along the Kuril-Kamchatka trench and 'non-subduction' earthquakes north of the trench terminus.

  18. 78 FR 56641 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan; Commercial...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-13

    ... size standard for Finfish Fishing from $ 4.0 to 19.0 million, for Shellfish Fishing from $ 4.0 to 5.0..., including Dover sole, went unharvested in 2012. Over 5.5 million pounds of Pacific cod and lingcod went... were closed by the trawl RCA in the area north of 40 10' N. lat. to increase access to target...

  19. 77 FR 10466 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-22

    ..., school districts, or ] special districts with populations of less than 50,000. Over the past five years... Pacific whiting. The Makah Tribe has annually harvested a whiting allocation every year since 1996 using... with all three tribes regarding their intent for those fishing years. The table below provides a...

  20. 75 FR 82296 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan; Amendments 20...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-30

    ... opportunities to provide community stability. This is contradictory to one of the goals of the FMP to keep year... stability. It is also in the public interest to revise the calculation method for Pacific halibut IBQ pounds... allow for year round fishing opportunities to provide community stability. It is also in the public...

  1. 78 FR 14259 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-05

    ... adversely affect green sea turtles, olive ridley sea turtles, loggerhead sea turtles, sei whales, North Pacific right whales, blue whales, fin whales, sperm whales, Southern Resident killer whales, Guadalupe..., humpback whales, Steller sea lions, and leatherback sea turtles. The opinion also concludes that...

  2. 78 FR 3848 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; Trawl Rationalization Program...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-17

    ... adversely affect green sea turtles, olive ridley sea turtles, loggerhead sea turtles, sei whales, North Pacific right whales, blue whales, fin whales, sperm whales, Southern Resident killer whales, Guadalupe..., humpback whales, Steller sea lions, and leatherback sea turtles. The opinion also concludes that...

  3. Avian influenza virus antibodies in Pacific Coast Red Knots (Calidris canutus rufa)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, James A.; DeCicco, Lucas H.; Ruthrauff, Daniel R.; Krauss, Scott; Hall, Jeffrey S.

    2014-01-01

    Prevalence of avian influenza virus (AIV) antibodies in the western Atlantic subspecies of Red Knot (Calidris canutus rufa) is among the highest for any shorebird. To assess whether the frequency of detection of AIV antibodies is high for the species in general or restricted only to C. c. rufa, we sampled the northeastern Pacific Coast subspecies of Red Knot (Calidris canutus roselaari) breeding in northwestern Alaska. Antibodies were detected in 90% of adults and none of the chicks sampled. Viral shedding was not detected in adults or chicks. These results suggest a predisposition of Red Knots to AIV infection. High antibody titers to subtypes H3 and H4 were detected, whereas low to intermediate antibody levels were found for subtypes H10 and H11. These four subtypes have previously been detected in shorebirds at Delaware Bay (at the border of New Jersey and Delaware) and in waterfowl along the Pacific Coast of North America.

  4. The physical hydrology of a lagoon system on the Pacific coast of Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, N. H.; Slinn, D. J.

    1984-10-01

    The annual hydrological cycle of the Caimanero-Huizache lagoon system on the Pacific coast of Mexico was investigated during 1977-1978. There is a well defined wet season during which the lagoons fill with water derived from fluvial inputs and direct precipitation. Water is lost by evaporation and outflow to the sea, the latter process starting as the wet season progresses and being facilitated by a falling mean sea level. Evaporation exceeds in situ precipitation and during the dry season complete desiccation may be prevented by a now rising mean sea level which promotes the flow of seawater into the lagoon basin. A quantitative estimate of the magnitude of these controlling processes is presented and processes bringing about mixing in the lagoons discussed. A brief comparison is made with other lagoon systems on the Pacific coast of Mexico.

  5. Decomposition of plant litter in Pacific coast tidal marshes, 2014-2015

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Janousek, Christopher; Buffington, Kevin J.; Guntenspergen, Glenn R.; Thorne, Karen M.; Dugger, Bruce D.; Takekawa, John Y.

    2017-01-01

    Decomposition of plant matter is one of the key processes affecting carbon cycling and storage in tidal wetlands. In this study, we evaluated the effects of factors related to climate change (temperature, inundation) and vegetation composition on rates of litter decay in seven tidal marsh sites along the Pacific coast. In 2014 we conducted manipulative experiments to test inundation effects on litter decay at Siletz Bay, OR and Petaluma marsh, CA. In 2015 we studied decay of litter in high and low elevation marshes at seven Pacific coast sites.These data support the following publication: Janousek, C.N., Buffington, K.J., Guntenspergen, G.R. et al. Ecosystems (2017). doi:10.1007/s10021-017-0111-6. http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10021-017-0111-6

  6. PCEIS - THE PACIFIC COAST ECOSYSTEM INFORMATION SYSTEM, CHANGING THE WAY SCIENTISTS VIEW THE NATURAL HISTORY OF SPECIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Pacific Coast Ecosystem Information System (PCEIS) is a database that provides biological, ecological and geospatial information for over 8100 species from Alaska to Baja. PCEIS goes beyond capturing species’ taxonomic information by integrating monitoring information from Co...

  7. PCEIS - THE PACIFIC COAST ECOSYSTEM INFORMATION SYSTEM, CHANGING THE WAY SCIENTISTS VIEW THE NATURAL HISTORY OF SPECIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Pacific Coast Ecosystem Information System (PCEIS) is a database that provides biological, ecological and geospatial information for over 8100 species from Alaska to Baja. PCEIS goes beyond capturing species’ taxonomic information by integrating monitoring information from Co...

  8. Metamorphic waters from the pacific tectonic belt of the west coast of the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barnes, I.

    1970-01-01

    Waters unusually rich in ammonia, boron, carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulfide, and hydrocarbons are found in more than 100 localities along the Pacific coast of the United States. The waters are believed to be products of low-grade metamorphism of marine sediments. The marine sedimentary rocks would have to be tectonically emplaced below crystalline rocks in many places. Mercury are deposits are probably also products of the low-grade metamorphism.

  9. Hurricane Darby off the Pacific Coast of Mexico

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-07-26

    Hurricane Darby as observed by the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder AIRS onboard NASA Aqua in July, 2004. This daylight image of Hurricane Darby on July 28 was made with the visible sensor in the AIRS instrument suite. After reaching sustained winds on July 27 of 100 knots (115 mph) with gusts to 120 knots (138 mph), the intensity of the storm is now lowered to 75 knots (86 mph). Located in the eastern north Pacific Ocean located about 1,165 miles west-southwest of the southern tip of Baja California, the storm continues its west/northwest path at 14 knots (16mph). Figure 1 is a daylight snapshot from AIRS visible/near-infrared sensor before Darby became a tropical storm. Darby is in the upper right-hand corner. Circulation is not apparent because the storm was not organized sufficiently to allow the nascent eye to appear. At this time, winds were approximately 35 mph. Figure 2 is an AIRS infrared image. Darby falls on the edge of two AIRS data granules, which have been "stitched" together in this image. Storm intensity is lowered to 75 knots (86 mph), down from 100 knots (115 mph). http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA00439

  10. Marine biodiversity in the Atlantic and Pacific coasts of South America: knowledge and gaps.

    PubMed

    Miloslavich, Patricia; Klein, Eduardo; Díaz, Juan M; Hernández, Cristián E; Bigatti, Gregorio; Campos, Lucia; Artigas, Felipe; Castillo, Julio; Penchaszadeh, Pablo E; Neill, Paula E; Carranza, Alvar; Retana, María V; Díaz de Astarloa, Juan M; Lewis, Mirtha; Yorio, Pablo; Piriz, María L; Rodríguez, Diego; Yoneshigue-Valentin, Yocie; Gamboa, Luiz; Martín, Alberto

    2011-01-31

    The marine areas of South America (SA) include almost 30,000 km of coastline and encompass three different oceanic domains--the Caribbean, the Pacific, and the Atlantic--ranging in latitude from 12∘N to 55∘S. The 10 countries that border these coasts have different research capabilities and taxonomic traditions that affect taxonomic knowledge. This paper analyzes the status of knowledge of marine biodiversity in five subregions along the Atlantic and Pacific coasts of South America (SA): the Tropical East Pacific, the Humboldt Current,the Patagonian Shelf, the Brazilian Shelves, and the Tropical West Atlantic, and it provides a review of ecosystem threats and regional marine conservation strategies. South American marine biodiversity is least well known in the tropical subregions (with the exception of Costa Rica and Panama). Differences in total biodiversity were observed between the Atlantic and Pacific oceans at the same latitude. In the north of the continent, the Tropical East Pacific is richer in species than the Tropical West Atlantic, however, when standardized by coastal length, there is very little difference among them. In the south, the Humboldt Current system is much richer than the Patagonian Shelf. An analysis of endemism shows that 75% of the species are reported within only one of the SA regions, while about 22% of the species of SA are not reported elsewhere in the world. National and regional initiatives focusing on new exploration, especially to unknown areas and ecosystems, as well as collaboration among countries are fundamental to achieving the goal of completing inventories of species diversity and distribution.These inventories will allow accurate interpretation of the biogeography of its two oceanic coasts and latitudinal trends,and will also provide relevant information for science based policies.

  11. Holocene Paleoenvironments, Relative Sea-Level Changes and Marine Incursions On The Mexican Pacific Coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramirez, T.

    2008-12-01

    Although the relative sea-level and environment variability have received considerable attention elsewhere, relatively little has been directed toward sea-level and significant environmental changes on the Mexican Pacific coast in the Holocene (11,500 cal yr BP to present) noted in this study. Examination of previous published work and sediment-stratigraphic records of lagoon sediments reveal strong evidence for changes in salinity and environment of lagoonal marshes, which provide scientific bases for past relative sea-level change and marine incursions of the on the Mexican Pacific coast. Sediment records show that sea-level was at or close to the present level by at least c. 4630 yr BP, when the brackish lagoons and beach barriers where established. A marine inundation (evidence of a probable tsunami is presented), that occurred by c. 3400-3500 yr BP. A return to marginal lagoon conditions, indicating a drop in relative sea-level, occurred in the most recent time (c. 2300 yr BP). Climate records in the mid- to late-Holocene, although scarce and clustered in Yucatan, central and northern Mexico, cannot explain the observed environmental changes. In general, most of the Holocene relative sea-level changes observed obscure any climatic signal in this period on the tectonically-active Mexican Pacific coast.

  12. Radiostrontium monitoring of bivalves from the Pacific coast of eastern Japan.

    PubMed

    Karube, Zin'ichi; Inuzuka, Yoko; Tanaka, Atsushi; Kurishima, Katsuaki; Kihou, Nobuharu; Shibata, Yasuyuki

    2016-09-01

    In early April 2011, radiostrontium was accidentally released from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant to the Pacific coast of eastern Japan. We developed a simple procedure to analyze radiostrontium levels in marine mussels (Septifer virgatus) and seawater using crown ether (Sr Resin; Eichrom). Then, we used our method to describe the spatial and temporal distribution of radiostrontium in mussels and seawater on the Pacific coast of eastern Japan from 2011 to 2013 and for 2015. Activity of (90)Sr in mussels and seawater decreased with distance from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant and between 2011 and 2013 tended to be higher in areas south of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant than to the north of it. Activity in mussels and seawater also tended to decrease from 2011 to 2013 and by 2015 had reached levels experienced prior to the Fukushima accident. Our results suggest that radiostrontium discharged from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant was dispersed by coastal currents in a southerly direction along the Pacific coast of eastern Japan from 2011 to 2013, following which its activity decreased to background levels by 2015.

  13. Paleocoastal marine fishing on the Pacific Coast of the Americas: perspectives from Daisy Cave, California.

    PubMed

    Rick, T C; Erlandson, J M; Vellanoweth, R L

    2001-10-01

    Analysis of over 27,000 fish bones from strata at Daisy Cave dated between about 11,500 and 8500 cal B.P. suggests that early Channel Islanders fished relatively intensively in a variety of habitats using a number of distinct technologies, including boats and the earliest evidence for hook-and-line fishing on the Pacific Coast of the Americas. The abundance of fish remains and fishing-related artifacts supports dietary reconstructions that suggest fish provided more than 50 percent of the edible meat represented in faunal samples from the early Holocene site strata. The abundance and economic importance of fish at Daisy Cave, unprecedented among early sites along the Pacific Coast of North America, suggest that early maritime capabilities on the Channel Islands were both more advanced and more variable than previously believed. When combined with a survey of fish remains from several other early Pacific Coast sites, these data suggest that early New World peoples effectively used watercraft, captured a diverse array of fish, and exploited a variety of marine habitats and resources.

  14. Assessment of tsunami hazards for the Central American Pacific coast from southern Mexico to northern Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brizuela, B.; Armigliato, A.; Tinti, S.

    2014-07-01

    Central America (CA), from Guatemala to Panama, has been struck by at least 52 tsunamis between 1539 and 2013, and in the extended region from Mexico to northern Peru (denoted as ECA, Extended Central America in this paper) the number of recorded tsunamis in the same time span is more than 100, most of which were triggered by earthquakes located in the Middle American Trench that runs parallel to the Pacific coast. The most severe event in the catalogue is the tsunami that occurred on 2 September 1992 off Nicaragua, with run-up measured in the range of 5-10 m in several places along the Nicaraguan coast. The aim of this paper is to assess the tsunami hazard on the Pacific coast of this extended region, and to this purpose a hybrid probabilistic-deterministic analysis is performed, that is adequate for tsunamis generated by earthquakes. More specifically, the probabilistic approach is used to compute the Gutenberg-Richter coefficients of the main seismic tsunamigenic zones of the area and to estimate the annual rate of occurrence of tsunamigenic earthquakes and their corresponding return period. The output of the probabilistic part of the method is taken as input by the deterministic part, which is applied to calculate the tsunami run-up distribution along the coast.

  15. Hurricane Darby off the Pacific Coast of Mexico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1: AIRS VIS Daylight Snapshot July 26Figure 2: AIRS Infrared Image July 28

    Hurricane Darby as observed by NASA's spaceborne Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS). This daylight image of Hurricane Darby on July 28 was made with the visible sensor in the AIRS instrument suite. After reaching sustained winds on July 27 of 100 knots (115 mph) with gusts to 120 knots (138 mph), the intensity of the storm is now lowered to 75 knots (86 mph). Located in the eastern north Pacific Ocean located about 1,165 miles west-southwest of the southern tip of Baja California, the storm continues its west/northwest path at 14 knots (16mph). Figure 1 is a daylight snapshot from AIRS visible/near-infrared sensor before Darby became a tropical storm. Darby is in the upper right-hand corner. Circulation is not apparent because the storm was not organized sufficiently to allow the nascent eye to appear. At this time, winds were approximately 35 mph. Figure 2 is an AIRS infrared image. Darby falls on the edge of two AIRS data granules, which have been 'stitched' together in this image. Storm intensity is lowered to 75 knots (86 mph), down from 100 knots (115 mph).

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Frame from July 27 movie, slicing down the atmosphere with the AIRS infrared sensor

    The major contribution to radiation (infrared light) that AIRS infrared channels sense comes from different levels in the atmosphere, depending upon the channel wavelength. To create the movies, a set of AIRS infrared channels were selected which probe the atmosphere at progressively deeper levels. If there were no clouds, the color in each frame would be nearly uniform until the Earth's surface is encountered. The tropospheric air temperature warms at a rate of 6 K (about 11 F) for each kilometer of descent toward the surface. Thus the colors would gradually change from cold to

  16. Quantification of tsunami hazard on Canada's Pacific Coast; implications for risk assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Stephen G.; Delaney, Keith B.

    2015-04-01

    Our assessment of tsunami hazard on Canada's Pacific Coast (i.e., the coast of British Columbia) begins with a review of the 1964 tsunami generated by The Great Alaska Earthquake (M9.2) that resulted in significant damage to coastal communities and infrastructure. In particular, the tsunami waves swept up inlets on the west coast of Vancouver Island and damaged several communities; Port Alberni suffered upwards of 5M worth of damage. At Port Alberni, the maximum tsunami wave height was estimated at 8.2 m above mean sea level and was recorded on the stream gauge on the Somass River located at about 7 m a.s.l, 6 km upstream from its mouth. The highest wave (9.75 m above tidal datum) was reported from Shields Bay, Graham Island, Queen Charlotte Islands (Haida Gwaii). In addition, the 1964 tsunami was recorded on tide gauges at a number of locations on the BC coast. The 1964 signal and the magnitude and frequency of traces of other historical Pacific tsunamis (both far-field and local) are analysed in the Tofino tide gauge records and compared to tsunami traces in other tide gauges in the Pacific Basin (e.g., Miyako, Japan). Together with a review of the geological evidence for tsunami occurrence along Vancouver Island's west coast, we use this tide gauge data to develop a quantitative framework for tsunami hazard on Canada's Pacific coast. In larger time scales, tsunamis are a major component of the hazard from Cascadia megathrust events. From sedimentological evidence and seismological considerations, the recurrence interval of megathrust events on the Cascadia Subduction Zone has been estimated by others at roughly 500 years. We assume that the hazard associated with a high-magnitude destructive tsunami thus has an annual frequency of roughly 1/500. Compared to other major natural hazards in western Canada this represents a very high annual probability of potentially destructive hazard that, in some coastal communities, translates into high levels of local risk

  17. Morphological differences in Pacific Coast populations of greater white-fronted geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Orthmeyer, D.L.; Takekawa, J.Y.; Ely, C.R.; Wege, M.; Newton, W.E.

    1995-01-01

    We examined morphological relationships of three Pacific coast populations of Greater White-fronted Geese (Anser albifrons). Adult geese were captured and measured at three breeding areas in Alaska and two wintering areas in California, 1980-1991. A two-step discriminant function analysis examined morphological differences among the three populations. Stepwise discriminant function procedures created the simplest measurement models. Each sex was analyzed separately since multivariate analysis of variance indicated that males were significantly larger than females for all three populations. Tule Greater White-fronted Geese (A. a. gambelli) were significantly larger than Pacific Greater White-fronted Geese (A. a. frontalis), hereafter Pacific Geese. The first step of discriminant function analysis created models to differentiate Tule Geese from the Pacific Geese. Bivariate stepwise discriminant function models consisting of only two measurements correctly classified 92% of males (bill height, bill width) and 96% of females (bill height, culmen) of these subspecies. The second step of discriminant function analysis compared a small population of Pacific Geese from the Bristol Bay Lowlands (BBL) of southwestern Alaska with the large population of Pacific Geese that breed on the Yukon-Kuskokwim River Delta (YKD) of westcentral Alaska. We developed models with three (culmen, diagonal tarsus, midtoe) and five (culmen, diagonal tarsus, midtoe, total tarsus, bill height) measurements from stepwise discriminant function analyses to correctly classify 72% of males and 74% of females of these populations. Thus, morphology of Tule Geese differed highly significantly from Pacific Geese, as expected but differences between populations from the BBL and YKD areas were also significant. Morphometric analyses as these provided supporting evidence for clinal variation in populations of Greater White-fronted Geese. They also underscore a need for further studies of differences among

  18. The last interglacial period on the Pacific Coast of North America: Timing and paleoclimate

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muhs, D.R.; Simmons, K.R.; Kennedy, G.L.; Rockwell, T.K.

    2002-01-01

    New, high-precision U-series ages of solitary corals (Balanophyllia elegans) coupled with molluscan faunal data from marine terraces on the Pacific Coast of North America yield information about the timing and warmth of the last interglacial sea-level highstand. Balanophyllia elegans takes up U in isotopic equilibrium with seawater during growth and shortly after death. Corals from the second terrace on San Clemente Island (offshore southern California), the third terrace on Punta Banda (on the Pacific Coast of northern Baja California), and the Discovery Point Formation on Isla de Guadalupe (in the Pacific Ocean offshore Baja California) date to the peak of the last interglacial period and have U-series ages ranging from ca. 123 to 114 ka. The first terrace on Punta Banda has corals with ages ranging from ca. 83 to 80 ka, which corresponds to a sea-level highstand formed in the late last interglacial period. U-series analyses of corals from the Cayucos terrace (central California) and the Nestor terrace at Point Loma (southern California) show that these fossils have evidence of open-system history, similar to what has been reported by other workers for the same localities. Nevertheless, a model of continuous, secondary U and Th uptake shows that two ages of corals are likely present at these localities, representing the ca. 105 and ca. 120 ka sea-level highstands reported elsewhere. U-series ages of last interglacial corals from the Pacific Coast overlap with, but are on average younger than the ages of corals from Barbados, the Bahamas, and Hawaii. This age difference is explained by the nature of the geomorphic response to sea-level change: fringing or barrier reefs on low-latitude coastlines have an accretionary growth style that keeps pace with rising sea level, whether on a tectonically rising or stable coastline. In contrast, midlatitude, high-energy coastlines are sites of platform cutting during the early part of a sea-level high stand and terrace

  19. Stable isotope signatures of seasonal precipitation on the Pacific coast of central Panama.

    PubMed

    Kern, Zoltán; Harmon, Russell S; Fórizs, István

    2016-01-01

    As calculated from data archived in the IAEA-WMO Global Network of Isotopes in Precipitation programme, the amount-weighted local meteoric water line for the Pacific coast of central Panama is: δ(2)H = 7.63(±0.08) × δ(18)O + 6.51(±0.49). Amount-weighted mean isotopic values were regressed against the sea surface temperature (SST) fields of the adjacent tropical oceans. A negative correlation of precipitation isotope composition with Caribbean SSTs is observed only for the early wet season (May-June), whilst the mid-summer dry period is characterized by positive correlation with eastern Pacific SSTs, similar to the late wet season (October-November). The negative response of May-June rainfall isotopic composition to Caribbean SSTs is explained by a SST-mediated change in stratiform rain fraction from organized convective systems proximal to the Inter Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ). The positive correlation for the rest of the wet season, when the organized convective zone of ITCZ and its attached stratiform belt are distant from the Pacific coast of Panama, is interpreted as simple evaporative temperature effect on isotopic fractionation.

  20. Occurrence of energetic extreme oceanic events in the Colombian Caribbean coasts and some approaches to assess their impact on ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernal, G.; Osorio, A. F.; Urrego, L.; Peláez, D.; Molina, E.; Zea, S.; Montoya, R. D.; Villegas, N.

    2016-12-01

    Above-normal meteorological and oceanographic conditions that generate damage on coastal ecosystems and associated human communities are called extreme oceanic events. Accurate data are needed to predict their occurrence and to understand their effects. We analyzed available data from four localities in the Colombian Caribbean to study the effect of wave-related extreme events (hurricanes, surges) in three coastal ecosystems, i.e., mangroves, beaches, and reefs. Three localities were continental (Portete Bay mangroves at the Guajira Peninsula, Bocagrande Public Beach at Cartagena City, Tayrona Natural Park reefs near Santa Marta City), and one was oceanic (Old Providence Island reefs in the San Andres and Old Providence Archipelago, SW Caribbean). We gathered data on ocean surface winds (1978-2011) for the four locations, then modeled significant wave heights, then identified extreme events, and finally tried to identify effects on the ecosystems, directly or from published literature. Wave-related extreme surges were also compiled from Colombian press news (1970-2008). Modeled wave maximums (> 5 m significant wave height) and press-reported events coincided with hurricanes, extreme dry season, mid-summer drought and northern hemisphere winter cold fronts, with neither a relationship to ENSO events, nor a temporal trend of increase, excepting Portete Bay, with a marked increase after 1995. Changes in Portete Bay mangroves were analyzed from aerial photographs before and after Tropical Storm Cesar (1996). In the 38 years before Cesar there was mangrove inland colonization, with some loss associated to beach erosion, while during the 8 years following the storm there were localized retreats and important changes in vegetation composition related to the falling of large trees and subsequent recolonization by species that are faster colonizers, and changes in soil composition brought about by inundation. Cartagena's Bocagrande Beach was followed between 2009 and 2011

  1. Rapid, climate-driven changes in outlet glaciers on the Pacific coast of East Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Miles, B W J; Stokes, C R; Vieli, A; Cox, N J

    2013-08-29

    Observations of ocean-terminating outlet glaciers in Greenland and West Antarctica indicate that their contribution to sea level is accelerating as a result of increased velocity, thinning and retreat. Thinning has also been reported along the margin of the much larger East Antarctic ice sheet, but whether glaciers are advancing or retreating there is largely unknown, and there has been no attempt to place such changes in the context of localized mass loss or climatic or oceanic forcing. Here we present multidecadal trends in the terminus position of 175 ocean-terminating outlet glaciers along 5,400 kilometres of the margin of the East Antarctic ice sheet, and reveal widespread and synchronous changes. Despite large fluctuations between glaciers--linked to their size--three epochal patterns emerged: 63 per cent of glaciers retreated from 1974 to 1990, 72 per cent advanced from 1990 to 2000, and 58 per cent advanced from 2000 to 2010. These trends were most pronounced along the warmer western South Pacific coast, whereas glaciers along the cooler Ross Sea coast experienced no significant changes. We find that glacier change along the Pacific coast is consistent with a rapid and coherent response to air temperature and sea-ice trends, linked through the dominant mode of atmospheric variability (the Southern Annular Mode). We conclude that parts of the world's largest ice sheet may be more vulnerable to external forcing than recognized previously.

  2. Organochlorine contaminants in seabird eggs from the Pacific coast of Canada, 1971-1986.

    PubMed

    Elliott, J E; Noble, D G; Norstrom, R J; Whitehead, P E

    1989-04-01

    Eggs were collected from seven seabird species at colonies on the British Columbia coast from 1983 to 1986 and analyzed for organochlorine contaminants. Total PCB levels (wet weight) were highest in double-crested cormorants (Phalacrocorax auritus) from the Fraser estuary (2.91 mg kg(-1)) and the Strait of Georgia (3.79 mg kg(-1)). Highest DDE levels were in fork-tailed storm-petrels (Oceanodroma furcata) from the Queen Charlotte Islands (1.68 mg kg(-1)). Organochlorine levels were generally lower in eggs from the mid 1980s than in those collected in the early 1970s. Organochlorine levels in Pacific alcids and hydrobatids foraging in offshore locations were compared to those in the same or ecologically similar species from the Canadian Atlantic coast. DDT- and HCH-related compounds were higher in Pacific populations while levels of dieldrin, oxychlordane, and HCB were generally lower. With the exception of β-HCH, levels of all measured organochlorines were lower in cormorants breeding in the Fraser River estuary than in cormorants from the St. Lawrence River estuary on the Atlantic coast.

  3. A preliminary spatial assessment of risk: Marine birds and chronic oil pollution on Canada's Pacific coast.

    PubMed

    Fox, C H; O'Hara, P D; Bertazzon, S; Morgan, K; Underwood, F E; Paquet, P C

    2016-12-15

    Chronic oil pollution poses substantial risks to marine birds and other marine wildlife worldwide. On Canada's Pacific coast, the negative ecological consequences to marine birds and marine ecosystems in general remain poorly understood. Using information relating to oil spill probability of occurrence, areas of overall importance to marine birds, and the at-sea distribution and density of 12 marine bird species and seven bird groups, including multiple Species at Risk, we undertook a spatial assessment of risk. Our results identify two main areas important to marine birds potentially at higher risk of exposure to oil. For individual bird species or species groups, those predicted to have elevated bird densities near the mainland and the northeast coast of Vancouver Island were identified as being at higher potential risk of exposure. Our results, however, should be considered preliminary. As with other anthropogenic stressors, in order to better understand and subsequently mitigate the consequences of chronic oil pollution on marine birds, improved information relating to marine birds and the occurrence of oil spills on Canada's Pacific coast is needed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Spectral analysis of Chilean tsunami (February 27, 2010) records on the Pacific coast of Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivelskaya, Tatiana; Shevchenko, George; Korolyov, Pavel

    2010-05-01

    Russian Tsunami Warning Service was developed considerably with the installation of group of telemetric bottom pressure gauges on the Pacific coast in the late 2009. The most important information was obtained from the gauges which were installed on the Pacific coast of Russia: Bering Island (Nikolskoe), in the Avachinsaya Guba Bay (Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky), on south-eastern coast of Kamchatka (Vodopadnaya) and on the coast of Paramushir Island (Severo-Kurilsk). Three stations were installed on the southeastern coast of Sakhalin (Poronaisk, Starodubskoe, Korsakov) and four on the coasts of Sea of Japan (Vladivostok, Preobrazhenia Bay, Rudnaya Pristan and Kholmsk). We received a tidal gauge tape with Chili tsunami records from Malokurilskoe (Shikotsn Island). The tape records were digitized and used for analysis too. We used data of several gauges which located on the coast of Hokkaido and Honshu Islands (Hanasaki, Ofunato and others). These data we found on the NOAA website http://wcatwc.arh.noaa.gov/about/tsunamimain.php. The tsunami heights were more than 1 meter on the Pacific coast of Russia in spite of the large distance from the source. The maximal heights (from the trough to the crest) were recorded by the Severo-Kurilsk (228 cm), Vodopadnaya (120 cm) and Malokurilskoe gauges (110 cm). As opposed to these stations, the tsunami heights in Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky (16 cm) and Nikolskoe (19 cm) were significantly smaller. The narrow channel which connected the Pacific Ocean and Avachinskaya Guba Bay is probably a cause of tsunami weakening at Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky. The cause of tsunami weakening in the area adjacent to the Bering Island is difficult to explain. To examine spectral properties of long wave oscillations for each gauge, we calculated wave spectra using two different data segments (both of two day long because of very long tsunami-caused oscillations): The period from 00:00 of February 26 to 24:00 of February 27 (UTC), preceding the tsunami

  5. Records of chimaeroid fishes (Holocephali: Chimaeriformes) from the Pacific coast of Costa Rica, with the description of a new species of Chimera (Chimaeridae) from the eastern Pacific Ocean.

    PubMed

    Angulo, Arturo; López, Myrna I; Bussing, William A; Murase, Atsunobu

    2014-09-18

    A new species of Chimaera Linnaeus 1758 is described from three specimens collected from off the Pacific coasts of Costa Rica and Peru. Chimaera orientalis n. sp., the first species of the genus described from the eastern Pacific Ocean, is distinguished from its other congeners by a combination of coloration and morphology. Additionally, new records of occurrence for another four species of chimaeroid fishes (Harriotta raleighana (Goode & Bean 1895), Rhinochimaera africana Compagno, Stehmann & Ebert 1990, Hydrolagus colliei Lay & Bennett 1839, and H. macrophthalmus de Buen 1959) previously unknown for the continental shelf of the Pacific coast of Costa Rica and Central America are reported. A key to the eastern Pacific species of the order Chimaeriformes is also presented.

  6. Perkinsus marinus in pleasure oyster Crassostrea corteziensis from Nayarit, Pacific coast of México.

    PubMed

    Cáceres-Martínez, J; Vásquez-Yeomans, R; Padilla-Lardizábal, G; del Río Portilla, M A

    2008-09-01

    Culture of the pleasure oyster Crassostrea corteziensis is emerging as an alternative to the Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) for oyster producers, who face severe mortalities since 1997 in Northwest México. For determining the health status of this species, we conducted a histopathological analysis of cultured populations from two estuaries in the Pacific coast of México. Macroscopical analysis revealed animals with transparent and retracted mantle. Histopathological analysis of these specimens showed tissue alterations and parasitic forms consistent with Perkinsus sp. infection. Stages of the parasite identified included tomont and trophozoites with an eccentric vacuole characteristic of Perkinsus spp. Pieces of tissues of infected oysters were incubated in Fluid Thioglycollate Medium (FTM) resulting in blue-black hypnospores after incubation. The identity of the parasite was confirmed by species specific PCR-based assay in DNA samples from oysters, tissue fractions from FTM cultures, and deparaffined samples with Perkinsus-like parasite detected by histology. Sequencing of positive amplified fragments (307bp) showed a sequence similar to Perkinsus marinus strain TXsc NTS ribosomal RNA gene (100% coverage and 98% identity, GenBank Accession No. AF497479.1) and to P. marinus, Genomic DNA, (100% coverage and 97% identity, GenBank Accession No. S78416.1). The prevalence of P. marinus varied from 1 to 5% in Boca del Camichín and from 1 to 6% in Pozo Chino. In general, the intensity of infection was moderate. The infection was observed in oysters from 31 to 110mm of shell length. This is the first record of P. marinus in oysters from the North America Pacific coast and the first record in C. corteziensis. The origin of this parasite in the area is unknown, but it may be associated to introductions of Crassostrea virginica from the East coast of United States of America or Gulf of México.

  7. Frequent non-storm washover of barrier islands, Pacific coast of Colombia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morton, R.A.; Gonzalez, J.L.; Lopez, G.I.; Correa, I.D.

    2000-01-01

    Barrier islands of the Pacific coast of Colombia repeatedly experience severe washover even when breaking waves in the eastern Pacific are low and onshore winds are calm. On the barrier island of El Choncho, recent non-storm washover events have breached a new inlet, caused rapid beach retreat, destroyed a shoreline protection structure, and flooded a small village of indigenous people so frequently that it had to be relocated. Barrier washover may be augmented by lowered land elevations associated with earthquake-induced subsidence or long-term beach retreat, but temporally it is most closely associated with a 20 to 30 cm regional increase in sea level caused by El Nino. The contradiction of a tranquil tropical island scene simultaneously disturbed by hostile turbulent washover may be unique at present, but it exemplifies how coastal plains throughout the world would be affected if sea level were to rise rapidly as a result of global warming.

  8. Pacific Coast of Southern California including Los Angeles and San Diego

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1974-02-01

    SL4-142-4542 (November 1973-February 1974) --- An oblique view of the Pacific Coast of Southern California, including the Los Angeles and San Diego areas, as seen from the Skylab space station in Earth orbit. This picture was taken by one of the Skylab 4 crewmen using a hand-held 70mm Hasselblad camera with a 100mm lens and SO-368 medium-speed Ektachrome film. The visible coastline extends from San Diego northwesterly to Santa Barbara. The Mojave Desert occupies much of the photograph. This view also includes the Channel Islands off the coast. Note that the higher elevations of the mountains are covered with snow. Photo credit: NASA

  9. Prevalence of viral pathogens WSSV and IHHNV in wild organisms at the Pacific Coast of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Macías-Rodríguez, Norma A; Mañón-Ríos, Nathalie; Romero-Romero, Jesús L; Camacho-Beltrán, Erika; Magallanes-Tapia, Marco A; Leyva-López, Norma E; Hernández-López, Jorge; Magallón-Barajas, Francisco J; Perez-Enriquez, Ricardo; Sánchez-González, Sergio; Méndez-Lozano, Jesús

    2014-02-01

    This study investigated whether white spot syndrome virus and Infectious hypodermal and hematopoietic necrosis virus, can survive in wild invertebrates and vertebrates in the environment surrounding shrimp farms along the Pacific coast of Mexico. The evidences imply that both viruses have a potential of persisting in crabs, blue, white and brown shrimps. The most prevalent virus, IHHNV was present in 19.5% (344/1736) followed by WSSV in 3.6% (65/1736). Coinfection of WSSV and IHHNV was also detected in crabs, blue and white shrimps. This is the first prevalence report of WSSV and IHHNV associated with wildlife species in Mexico.

  10. Hindcasts of potential harmful algal bloom transport pathways on the Pacific Northwest coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giddings, S. N.; MacCready, P.; Hickey, B. M.; Banas, N. S.; Davis, K. A.; Siedlecki, S. A.; Trainer, V. L.; Kudela, R. M.; Pelland, N. A.; Connolly, T. P.

    2014-04-01

    Harmful algal blooms (HABs) pose a significant threat to human and marine organism health, and negatively impact coastal economies around the world. An improved understanding of HAB formation and transport is required to improve forecasting skill. A realistic numerical simulation of the US Pacific Northwest region is used to investigate transport pathways from known HAB formation hot spots, specifically for Pseudo-nitzschia (Pn), to the coast. We show that transport pathways are seasonal, with transport to the Washington (WA) coast from a northern source (the Juan de Fuca Eddy) during the summer/fall upwelling season and from a southern source (Heceta Bank) during the winter/early spring due to the predominant wind-driven currents. Interannual variability in transport from the northern source is related to the degree of wind intermittency with more transport during years with more frequent relaxation/downwelling events. The Columbia River plume acts to mitigate transport to the coast as the plume front blocks onshore transport. The plume's influence on alongshore transport is variable although critical in aiding transport from the southern source to the WA coast via plume entrainment. Overall transport from our simulations captures most observed Pn HAB beach events from 2004 to 2007 (characterized by Pseudo-nitzschia cell abundance); however, numerous false positives occur. We show that incorporating phytoplankton biomass results from a coupled biogeochemical model reduces the number of false positives significantly and thus improves our Pn HAB predictions.

  11. Historical Earthquakes And Their Geologic Signature On The Guerrero, Mexican Pacific Coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramírez Herrera, M.; Rangel, V.; Kostoglodov, V.; Ruíz-Fernández, A.; Machain, M.; Caballero, M.; Goguitchaichrili, A.

    2012-12-01

    Historical, ethnographic and instrumental data show that the Pacific coast of Mexico has been exposed to destructive tsunamis over at least the past 500 years. This coast parallels the active Mexican subduction zone, where earthquakes M > 8 have been registered and are known to have triggered tsunamis. The purpose of our study was two-fold, a) to determine whether we could distinguish the geologic signature of historical earthquakes, and b) whether tsunami deposits are preserved in the tropical environments of the Barra de Potosí Bay, Guerrero coast. Multiple sites were dug and cores recovered to determine the presence, continuity and extension of a sharp basal contact between a clayish silt unit and a sand unit. The trench, pit, and monolith at Barra de Potosí yield a similar stratigraphy. Several lines of evidence using a multi-proxy approach (historical studies, interviews with local witnesses, geomorphological and geological surveys, coring and trenching, and laboratory analyses including grain size, micropaleontology, geochemistry, magnetic susceptibility and radiometric dating - Pb-210 and C-14) indicate the occurrence of two earthquakes that we link to local events: the 1985 (M 8.1) Mexico and possibly the 1907 (M 8.3) earthquake. No conclusive evidence of tsunami deposits were recognized, however an anomalous sand layer with incorporated mud clasts, shallow marine foraminifera, and the presence of organic debris in this sand bed suggests a mixture of terrestrial influence associated with the inland transport of high-energy marine material most likely from a nearshore beach environment. The radiocarbon dates provide a minimum age i.e. the maximum estimate for the period of burial of the plant material in the lower observed sand layer of ca. 2320-2050 cal yr BP (Cal BC 370 to 100). We thereby provide onshore geological evidence of historical coseismic deformation and possibly a tsunami on the Pacific coast of Mexico.

  12. Discharge diversion in the Patía River delta, the Colombian Pacific: Geomorphic and ecological consequences for mangrove ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Restrepo, Juan D.; Cantera, Jaime R.

    2013-10-01

    In the Patía River delta, the best-developed delta on the western margin of South America, a major water diversion started in 1972. The diversion of the Patía flow to the Sanquianga River, the latter a small stream draining internal lakes from the Pacific lowlands, shifted the active delta plain from the south to the north and changed the northern estuarine system into an active delta plain. The Sanquianga Mangrove National Park, a mangrove reserve measuring 800 km2, lies in this former estuary, where major hydrologic and sedimentation changes are occurring. Overall, major environmental consequences of this discharge diversion in terms of geomorphic changes along distributary channels and ecological impacts on mangrove ecosystems are evidenced by: (1) distributary channel accretion by operating processes such as sedimentation, overbank flow, increasing width of levees, sedimentation in crevasses, interdistributary channel fill, and colonization of pioneer mangrove; (2) freshening conditions in the Sanquianga distributary channel, a hydrologic change that has shifted the upper estuarine region (salinity <1%) downstream; (3) downstream advance of freshwater vegetation, which is invading channel banks in the lower and mixing estuarine zones; (4) die-off of approximately 5200 ha of mangrove near the delta apex at Bocas de Satinga, where the highest sediment accumulation rates occur; and (5) recurrent periods of mangrove defoliation due to a worm plague. Further analyses indicate strong mangrove erosion along transgressive barrier islands on the former delta plain. Here tectonic-induced subsidence, relative sea-level rise, and sediment starving conditions due to the channel diversion, are the main causes of the observed retreating conditions of mangrove communities. Our data also indicate that the Patía River has the highest sediment load (27 × 106 t yr-1) and basin-wide sediment yield (1500 t km-2 yr-1) on the west coast of South America. Erosion rates from the Pat

  13. The Eco-epidemiology of Pacific Coast Tick Fever in California

    PubMed Central

    Bonilla, Denise; Eremeeva, Marina E.; Glaser, Carol; Lane, Robert S.; Porse, Charsey Cole; Castro, Martin B.; Messenger, Sharon; Espinosa, Alex; Hacker, Jill; Kjemtrup, Anne; Ryan, Bonnie; Scott, Jamesina J.; Hu, Renjie; Yoshimizu, Melissa Hardstone; Dasch, Gregory A.; Kramer, Vicki

    2016-01-01

    Rickettsia philipii (type strain “Rickettsia 364D”), the etiologic agent of Pacific Coast tick fever (PCTF), is transmitted to people by the Pacific Coast tick, Dermacentor occidentalis. Following the first confirmed human case of PCTF in 2008, 13 additional human cases have been reported in California, more than half of which were pediatric cases. The most common features of PCTF are the presence of at least one necrotic lesion known as an eschar (100%), fever (85%), and headache (79%); four case-patients required hospitalization and four had multiple eschars. Findings presented here implicate the nymphal or larval stages of D. occidentalis as the primary vectors of R. philipii to people. Peak transmission risk from ticks to people occurs in late summer. Rickettsia philipii DNA was detected in D. occidentalis ticks from 15 of 37 California counties. Similarly, non-pathogenic Rickettsia rhipicephali DNA was detected in D. occidentalis in 29 of 38 counties with an average prevalence of 12.0% in adult ticks. In total, 5,601 ticks tested from 2009 through 2015 yielded an overall R. philipii infection prevalence of 2.1% in adults, 0.9% in nymphs and a minimum infection prevalence of 0.4% in larval pools. Although most human cases of PCTF have been reported from northern California, acarological surveillance suggests that R. philipii may occur throughout the distribution range of D. occidentalis. PMID:27706171

  14. The Eco-epidemiology of Pacific Coast Tick Fever in California.

    PubMed

    Padgett, Kerry A; Bonilla, Denise; Eremeeva, Marina E; Glaser, Carol; Lane, Robert S; Porse, Charsey Cole; Castro, Martin B; Messenger, Sharon; Espinosa, Alex; Hacker, Jill; Kjemtrup, Anne; Ryan, Bonnie; Scott, Jamesina J; Hu, Renjie; Yoshimizu, Melissa Hardstone; Dasch, Gregory A; Kramer, Vicki

    2016-10-01

    Rickettsia philipii (type strain "Rickettsia 364D"), the etiologic agent of Pacific Coast tick fever (PCTF), is transmitted to people by the Pacific Coast tick, Dermacentor occidentalis. Following the first confirmed human case of PCTF in 2008, 13 additional human cases have been reported in California, more than half of which were pediatric cases. The most common features of PCTF are the presence of at least one necrotic lesion known as an eschar (100%), fever (85%), and headache (79%); four case-patients required hospitalization and four had multiple eschars. Findings presented here implicate the nymphal or larval stages of D. occidentalis as the primary vectors of R. philipii to people. Peak transmission risk from ticks to people occurs in late summer. Rickettsia philipii DNA was detected in D. occidentalis ticks from 15 of 37 California counties. Similarly, non-pathogenic Rickettsia rhipicephali DNA was detected in D. occidentalis in 29 of 38 counties with an average prevalence of 12.0% in adult ticks. In total, 5,601 ticks tested from 2009 through 2015 yielded an overall R. philipii infection prevalence of 2.1% in adults, 0.9% in nymphs and a minimum infection prevalence of 0.4% in larval pools. Although most human cases of PCTF have been reported from northern California, acarological surveillance suggests that R. philipii may occur throughout the distribution range of D. occidentalis.

  15. Did an underwater landslide trigger the June 22, 1932 tsunami off the Pacific coast of Mexico?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corona, Néstor; Ramírez-Herrera, María-Teresa

    2015-12-01

    On June 22, 1932, a 10- to 12-m-high tsunami wave struck ~60 km off the Mexican Pacific coast. The associated earthquake that apparently produced this tsunami is questionable because of its relatively small magnitude ( M s = 6.9) to produce such tsunami heights. Historical documents, survivor testimony, tsunami catalogs, a post-tsunami survey report, together with geomorphological interpretation of the continental shelf and slope, and numerical modeling were combined to characterize the tsunami parameters. Our results suggest that recorded maximum tsunami wave height, horizontal inundation, arrival time, directivity, effects, and damage are compatible with those characteristics related to an underwater landslide tsunami. The associated landslide (slump) is 4.2 km long, 3.9 km wide, 0.448 km thick, and is located in the upper continental shelf of the Armería Canyon. Elucidating the cause and mechanisms of the near-field 1932 tsunami would aid in considering a wider spectrum of tsunami sources in hazard mitigation programs of the Mexican Pacific coast.

  16. Seasonal levels of the Vibrio predator bacteriovorax in atlantic, pacific, and gulf coast seawater.

    PubMed

    Richards, Gary P; Watson, Michael A; Boyd, E Fidelma; Burkhardt, William; Lau, Ronald; Uknalis, Joseph; Fay, Johnna P

    2013-01-01

    Bacteriovorax were quantified in US Atlantic, Gulf, and Pacific seawater to determine baseline levels of these predatory bacteria and possible seasonal fluctuations in levels. Surface seawater was analyzed monthly for 1 year from Kailua-Kona, Hawaii; the Gulf Coast of Alabama; and four sites along the Delaware Bay. Screening for Bacteriovorax was performed on lawns of V. parahaemolyticus host cells. Direct testing of 7.5 mL portions of seawater from the Atlantic, Pacific, and Gulf coasts gave mean annual counts ≤12.2 PFU. Spikes in counts were observed at 3 out of 4 sites along the Delaware Bay 1 week after Hurricane Sandy. A comparison of summer versus winter counts showed significantly more Bacteriovorax (P ≤ 0.0001) in the Delaware Bay during the summer and significantly more (P ≤ 0.0001) in the Gulf during the winter, but no significant seasonal differences (P > 0.05) for Hawaiian seawater. Bacteriovorax counts only correlated with seawater salinity and temperature at one Delaware site (r = 0.79 and r = 0.65, resp.). There was a relatively strong negative correlation between temperature and Bacteriovorax levels (r = -0.585) for Gulf seawater. Selected isolates were sequenced and identified by phylogenetic analysis as Bacteriovorax clusters IX, X, XI, and XII.

  17. Seasonal Levels of the Vibrio Predator Bacteriovorax in Atlantic, Pacific, and Gulf Coast Seawater

    PubMed Central

    Richards, Gary P.; Watson, Michael A.; Boyd, E. Fidelma; Burkhardt, William; Lau, Ronald; Uknalis, Joseph; Fay, Johnna P.

    2013-01-01

    Bacteriovorax were quantified in US Atlantic, Gulf, and Pacific seawater to determine baseline levels of these predatory bacteria and possible seasonal fluctuations in levels. Surface seawater was analyzed monthly for 1 year from Kailua-Kona, Hawaii; the Gulf Coast of Alabama; and four sites along the Delaware Bay. Screening for Bacteriovorax was performed on lawns of V. parahaemolyticus host cells. Direct testing of 7.5 mL portions of seawater from the Atlantic, Pacific, and Gulf coasts gave mean annual counts ≤12.2 PFU. Spikes in counts were observed at 3 out of 4 sites along the Delaware Bay 1 week after Hurricane Sandy. A comparison of summer versus winter counts showed significantly more Bacteriovorax (P ≤ 0.0001) in the Delaware Bay during the summer and significantly more (P ≤ 0.0001) in the Gulf during the winter, but no significant seasonal differences (P > 0.05) for Hawaiian seawater. Bacteriovorax counts only correlated with seawater salinity and temperature at one Delaware site (r = 0.79 and r = 0.65, resp.). There was a relatively strong negative correlation between temperature and Bacteriovorax levels (r = −0.585) for Gulf seawater. Selected isolates were sequenced and identified by phylogenetic analysis as Bacteriovorax clusters IX, X, XI, and XII. PMID:24454382

  18. Post-glacial sea-level change along the Pacific coast of North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shugar, Dan H.; Walker, Ian J.; Lian, Olav B.; Eamer, Jordan B. R.; Neudorf, Christina; McLaren, Duncan; Fedje, Daryl

    2014-08-01

    Sea-level history since the Last Glacial Maximum on the Pacific margin of North America is complex and heterogeneous owing to regional differences in crustal deformation (neotectonics), changes in global ocean volumes (eustasy) and the depression and rebound of the Earth's crust in response to ice sheets on land (isostasy). At the Last Glacial Maximum, the Cordilleran Ice Sheet depressed the crust over which it formed and created a raised forebulge along peripheral areas offshore. This, combined with different tectonic settings along the coast, resulted in divergent relative sea-level responses during the Holocene. For example, sea level was up to 200 m higher than present in the lower Fraser Valley region of southwest British Columbia, due largely to isostatic depression. At the same time, sea level was 150 m lower than present in Haida Gwaii, on the northern coast of British Columbia, due to the combined effects of the forebulge raising the land and lower eustatic sea level. A forebulge also developed in parts of southeast Alaska resulting in post-glacial sea levels at least 122 m lower than present and possibly as low as 165 m. On the coasts of Washington and Oregon, as well as south-central Alaska, neotectonics and eustasy seem to have played larger roles than isostatic adjustments in controlling relative sea-level changes.

  19. A post-glacial sea level hinge on the central Pacific coast of Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLaren, Duncan; Fedje, Daryl; Hay, Murray B.; Mackie, Quentin; Walker, Ian J.; Shugar, Dan H.; Eamer, Jordan B. R.; Lian, Olav B.; Neudorf, Christina

    2014-08-01

    Post-glacial sea level dynamics during the last 15,000 calendar years are highly variable along the Pacific coast of Canada. During the Last Glacial Maximum, the Earth's crust was depressed by ice loading along the mainland inner coast and relative sea levels were as much as 200 m higher than today. In contrast, some outer coastal areas experienced a glacial forebulge (uplift) effect that caused relative sea levels to drop to as much as 150 m below present levels. Between these inner and outer coasts, we hypothesize that there would have been an area where sea level remained relatively stable, despite regional and global trends in sea level change. To address this hypothesis, we use pond basin coring, diatom analysis, archaeological site testing, sedimentary exposure sampling, and radiocarbon dating to construct sea level histories for the Hakai Passage region. Our data include 106 newly reported radiocarbon ages from key coastal sites that together support the thesis that this area has experienced a relatively stable sea level over the last 15,000 calendar years. These findings are significant in that they indicate a relatively stable coastal environment amenable to long-term human occupation and settlement of the area. Our results will help inform future archaeological investigations in the region.

  20. [The cost-effectiveness of installing natural gas as a sanitary alternative for rural communities on the Colombian Caribbean coast burning biomass fuels].

    PubMed

    Alvis-Guzmán, Nelson; Alvis-Estrada, Luís; Orozco-Africano, Julio

    2008-01-01

    Evaluating the economic impact of natural gas as a sanitary technology regarding respiratory disease associated with indoor air pollution in rural localities on the Colombian Caribbean coast. Three studies were carried out: the burden of respiratory disease was evaluated (acute lower respiratory infection-ALRI and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease - COPD), disease costs were studied and the cost effectiveness of natural gas was analysed in terms of reducing indoor air pollution. Without natural gas in these localities, it would be expected that 498 (477-560) cases of ALRI per year would lead to 149 (119-196) hospitalisations, 6 (4-10) deaths and 7 291 (5,746-9,696) disability adjusted life years (DALY) annually. Furthermore, it is expected that 459 (372-684) cases of COPD per year would lead to 138 (93-239), hospitalisations, 11 deaths (5-26) and 1 500 (973-2 711) DALY annually. Annual disease burden cost was 5,2 (3,8-8,3) million dollars before installing domiciliary natural gas (DNG); most of such cost arose from COPD (around 85 %). ARI and COPD costs after installing DNG would rise to 3,5 (2,5-5,7) million dollars; avoided costs would be 1,6 (1,2-2,6) million dollars, (30 % of disease burden cost without DNG). The incremental cost-effectiveness (ICER) of installing DNG would be 56 (22-74) thousand dollars per life saved and ICER per DALY saved would be 43-66 dollars. DNG is a sanitary technology which reduces the burden of indoor air pollution-associated respiratory diseases arising from burning biomass fuel in rural localities in a cost-effective way.

  1. The potential effects of global climate change on the distribution of native and introduced Zostera seagrasses on the Pacific Coast of North America

    EPA Science Inventory

    At least two seagrass species in the genus Zostera occur on the Pacific coast of North America: the native species Zostera marina L., and an introduced species, Z. japonica Ascher. & Graeb. Z. marina occurs along the entire Pacific coast of the United States and Canada. Zos...

  2. The potential effects of global climate change on the distribution of native and introduced Zostera seagrasses on the Pacific Coast of North America

    EPA Science Inventory

    At least two seagrass species in the genus Zostera occur on the Pacific coast of North America: the native species Zostera marina L., and an introduced species, Z. japonica Ascher. & Graeb. Z. marina occurs along the entire Pacific coast of the United States and Canada. Zos...

  3. Tsunamis on the Pacific Coast of Canada Recorded in 1994-2007

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephenson, Frederick E.; Rabinovich, Alexander B.

    2009-02-01

    In the last 15 years there have been 16 tsunami events recorded at tide stations on the Pacific Coast of Canada. Eleven of these events were from distant sources covering almost all regions of the Pacific, as well as the December 26, 2004 Sumatra tsunami in the Indian Ocean. Three tsunamis were generated by local or regional earthquakes and two were meteorological tsunamis. The earliest four events, which occurred in the period 1994-1996, were recorded on analogue recorders; these tsunami records were recently re-examined, digitized and thoroughly analysed. The other 12 tsunami events were recorded using digital high-quality instruments, with 1-min sampling interval, installed on the coast of British Columbia (B.C.) in 1998. All 16 tsunami events were recorded at Tofino on the outer B.C. coast, and some of the tsunamis were recorded at eight or more stations. The tide station at Tofino has been in operation for 100 years and these recent observations add to the dataset of tsunami events compiled previously by S.O. W igen (1983) for the period 1906-1980. For each of the tsunami records statistical analysis was carried out to determine essential tsunami characteristics for all events (arrival times, maximum amplitudes, frequencies and wave-train structure). The analysis of the records indicated that significant background noise at Langara, a key northern B.C. Tsunami Warning station located near the northern end of the Queen Charlotte Islands, creates serious problems in detecting tsunami waves. That station has now been moved to a new location with better tsunami response. The number of tsunami events observed in the past 15 years also justified re-establishing a tide gauge at Port Alberni, where large tsunami wave amplitudes were measured in March 1964. The two meteorological events are the first ever recorded on the B.C. coast. Also, there have been landslide generated tsunami events which, although not recorded on any coastal tide gauges, demonstrate, along with

  4. 75 FR 4684 - Fisheries off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; Data Collection for the Trawl...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-29

    ... States Marine Fisheries Commission's Pacific Fisheries Information Network (PacFIN) database, NMFS' Northwest Fisheries Science Center's Pacific whiting observer data from NORPAC (a database of North Pacific... trawl- endorsed groundfish limited entry permit database to determine initial allocation of quota...

  5. Energy and raw material potentials of wood residue in the Pacific Coast States: a summary of a preliminary feasibility investigation.

    Treesearch

    John B. Grantham; Eldon Estep; John M. Pierovich; Harold Tarkow; Thomas C. Adams

    1974-01-01

    Results are reported of a preliminary investigation of feasibility of using wood residue to meet energy and raw material needs in the Pacific Coast States. Magnitude of needs was examined and volume of logging-residue and unused mill residue was estimated. Costs of obtaining and preprocessing logging residue for energy and pulp and particle board raw material were...

  6. Phenotypic plasticity of invasive Spartina densiflora (Poaceae) along a broad latitudinal gradient on the Pacific Coast of North America

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We examined morphological and physiological leaf traits of Spartina densiflora plants in populations from invaded estuarine sites across broad latitudinal and climate gradients along the Pacific west coast of North America, and in favourable conditions in a common garden experiment. We hypothesized ...

  7. Identification of feeding stimulants for Pacific coast wireworm by use of a filter paper assay (Coleoptera: Elateridae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sugars and several plant essential oils were evaluated as feeding stimulants for larvae of Pacific coast wireworm, Limonius canus (Coleoptera: Elateridae). Compounds were evaluated by quantifying biting rates of wireworms on treated filter paper disks, modifying a method used previously in assays w...

  8. Modulation of atmospheric rivers near Alaska and the U.S. West Coast by northeast Pacific height anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mundhenk, Bryan D.; Barnes, Elizabeth A.; Maloney, Eric D.; Nardi, Kyle M.

    2016-11-01

    Atmospheric rivers (ARs) can cause wide-ranging impacts upon landfall at high northern latitudes, but comparatively little is known about the dynamics supporting these ARs in contrast to their midlatitude counterparts. Here ARs near the U.S. West Coast and the Gulf of Alaska during 1979-2015 are compared. ARs are found to occur in both regions with similar frequency, but with different seasonality. Composited atmospheric conditions from the NASA Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications data set reveal that a broad height anomaly over the northeast Pacific is influential to AR activity in both regions. When a positive height anomaly exists over the northeast Pacific, AR activity is often deflected poleward toward Alaska, while the U.S. West Coast experiences a decrease in AR activity. The opposing relationship also applies; that is, AR activity is decreased near Alaska and increased along the U.S. West Coast in the presence of a negative height anomaly. Quantitatively, nearly 79% of Gulf of Alaska ARs are associated with a positive northeast Pacific height anomaly and 86% of U.S. West Coast ARs are associated with a negative anomaly. Results suggest that this relationship applies across a range of time scales, to include subseasonal and interannual, not just with respect to individual transient waves. Both ARs and height anomalies are found to be associated with Rossby wave breaking, thereby dynamically linking AR activity with broader North Pacific dynamics.

  9. Trends in marine debris along the U.S. Pacific Coast and Hawai'i 1998-2007.

    PubMed

    Ribic, Christine A; Sheavly, Seba B; Rugg, David J; Erdmann, Eric S

    2012-05-01

    We assessed amounts, composition, and trends of marine debris for the U.S. Pacific Coast and Hawai'i using National Marine Debris Monitoring Program data. Hawai'i had the highest debris loads; the North Pacific Coast region had the lowest debris loads. The Southern California Bight region had the highest land-based debris loads. Debris loads decreased over time for all source categories in all regions except for land-based and general-source loads in the North Pacific Coast region, which were unchanged. General-source debris comprised 30-40% of the items in all regions. Larger local populations were associated with higher land-based debris loads across regions; the effect declined at higher population levels. Upwelling affected deposition of ocean-based and general-source debris loads but not land-based loads along the Pacific Coast. LNSO decreased debris loads for both land-based and ocean-based debris but not general-source debris in Hawai'i, a more complex climate-ocean effect than had previously been found. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Trends in Marine Debris along the U.S. Pacific Coast and Hawai’i 1998-2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ribic, Christine; Seba B. Sheavly,; Rugg, David J.; Erdmann, Eric S.

    2012-01-01

    We assessed amounts, composition, and trends of marine debris for the U.S. Pacific Coast and Hawai’i using National Marine Debris Monitoring Program data. Hawai’i had the highest debris loads; the North Pacific Coast region had the lowest debris loads. The Southern California Bight region had the highest land-based debris loads. Debris loads decreased over time for all source categories in all regions except for land-based and general-source loads in the North Pacific Coast region, which were unchanged. General-source debris comprised 30–40% of the items in all regions. Larger local populations were associated with higher land-based debris loads across regions; the effect declined at higher population levels. Upwelling affected deposition of ocean-based and general-source debris loads but not land-based loads along the Pacific Coast. LNSO decreased debris loads for both land-based and ocean-based debris but not general-source debris in Hawai’i, a more complex climate-ocean effect than had previously been found.

  11. usSEABED: Pacific coast (California, Oregon, Washington) offshore surficial-sediment data release

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reid, Jane A.; Reid, Jamey M.; Jenkins, Chris J.; Zimmermann, Mark; Williams, S. Jeffress; Field, Michael E.

    2006-01-01

    Over the past 50 years there has been an explosion in scientific interest, research effort, and information gathered on the geologic sedimentary character of the continental margin of the United States. Data and information from thousands of publications have greatly increased our scientific understanding of the geologic origins of the margin surface but rarely have those data been combined and integrated. This publication is the first release of the Pacific coast data from the usSEABED database. The report contains a compilation of published and unpublished sediment texture and other geologic data about the sea floor from diverse sources. usSEABED is an innovative database system developed to unify assorted data, with the data processed by the dbSEABED system. Examples of maps displaying attributes such as grain size and sediment color are included. This database contains information that is a scientific foundation for the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Sea floor Mapping and Benthic Habitats project and the Marine Aggregate Resources and Processes assessment project, and will be useful to the marine science community for other studies of the Pacific coast continental margin. The publication is divided into 10 sections: Home, Introduction, Content, usSEABED (data), dbSEABED (processing), Data Catalog, References, Contacts, Acknowledgments, and Frequently Asked Questions. Use the navigation bar on the left to navigate to specific sections of this report. Underlined topics throughout the publication are links to more information. Links to specific and detailed information on processing and to those to pages outside this report will open in a new browser window.

  12. Extreme Wave Deposits On The Pacific Coast Of Mexico: Tsunamis Or Storms? - A Multi-Proxy Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramirez Herrera, M.; Lagos, M.; Hutchinson, I.; Chague-Goff, C.; Kostoglodov, V.; Goff, J. R.; Ruiz-Fernandez, A.; Machain, M.; Caballero, M.; Goguitchaichrili, A.; Aguilar, B.; Urquijo, P.; Laboratorio Universitario de Geofísica Ambiental (Luga)

    2011-12-01

    Historical and instrumental data show that the Pacific coast of Mexico has been exposed to destructive tsunamis over at least the past 500 years. This coast is also affected by hurricanes generated in the eastern Pacific. The great 1985 Mexico earthquake and its aftershock generated tsunamis that affected the Ixtapa-Zihuatanejo and Michoacán coast. The purpose of our study was two-fold, a) to determine whether we could distinguish storm from tsunami deposits, and b) whether tsunami deposits from historical events are preserved in the tropical environments of the Ixtapa-Zihuatanejo coast. Two anomalous sand units in the Ixtapa estuary are interpreted as the result of high-energy marine inundation events that occurred in the last century. Several lines of evidence using a multi-proxy approach (historical studies, interviews with local witnesses, geomorphological and geological surveys, coring and trenching, and laboratory analyses including grain size, micropaleontology, geochemistry, magnetic susceptibility and radiometric dating) indicate the occurrence of two tsunamis that we link to local events: the 1985 Mexico and possibly the 1979 Petatlan earthquakes. We thereby provide the first onshore geological evidence of historical tsunamis on the Pacific coast of Mexico.

  13. Extreme wave deposits on the Pacific coast of Mexico: Tsunamis or storms? — A multi-proxy approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramírez-Herrera, María-Teresa; Lagos, Marcelo; Hutchinson, Ian; Kostoglodov, Vladimir; Machain, Maria Luisa; Caballero, Margarita; Goguitchaichvili, Avto; Aguilar, Bertha; Chagué-Goff, Catherine; Goff, James; Ruiz-Fernández, Ana-Carolina; Ortiz, Modesto; Nava, Hector; Bautista, Francisco; Lopez, Gloria I.; Quintana, Patricia

    2012-02-01

    Historical and instrumental data show that the Pacific coast of Mexico has been exposed to destructive tsunamis over at least the past 500 years. This coast is also affected by hurricanes generated in the eastern Pacific. The great 1985 Mexico earthquake and its aftershock generated tsunamis that affected the Ixtapa-Zihuatanejo and Michoacán coast. The purpose of our study was two-fold — a) to determine whether storm and tsunami deposits could be distinguished, and b) whether tsunami deposits from historical events are preserved in the tropical environments of the Ixtapa-Zihuatanejo coast. Two anomalous sand units in the Ixtapa estuary are interpreted to be the result of high-energy marine inundation events that occurred in the last century. Several lines of evidence using a multi-proxy approach (historical studies, interviews with local witnesses, geomorphological and geological surveys, coring and trenching, laboratory analyses including grain size, micropaleontology, geochemistry, magnetic susceptibility and radiometric dating, and numerical modeling) indicate the occurrence of two tsunamis that we link to local events: the 21st September 1985 Mexico and possibly the 14th March 1979 Petatlan earthquakes. We thereby provide the first onshore geological evidence of historical tsunamis on the Pacific coast of Mexico.

  14. Spring migration routes and chronology of surf scoters (Melanitta perspicillata): a synthesis of Pacific coast studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    de la Cruz, S.E.W.; Takekawa, John Y.; Wilson, M.T.; Nysewander, D.R.; Evenson, J.R.; Esler, Daniel; Boyd, W.S.; Ward, D.H.

    2009-01-01

    Understanding interconnectivity among wintering, stopover, and breeding areas of migratory birds is pivotal to discerning how events occurring in each might have a cross-seasonal effect on another. Such information can guide the location and timing of conservation efforts. Thus, we examined spring migration routes, chronology, and stopover use of 85 surf scoters (Melanitta perspicillata (L., 1758)) marked with satellite transmitters at four Pacific Flyway wintering sites: San Quintin Bay, Baja California; San Francisco Bay, California; Puget Sound, Washington; and Strait of Georgia, British Columbia. Eighty-three percent of marked scoters followed two main routes to the breeding area: a Southern Inland route involving staging in Puget Sound and Strait of Georgia and protracted inland migration, or a Northern Coastal route characterized by short movements along the Pacific coast of British Columbia and southeast Alaska with inland migration initiating from Lynn Canal and surrounding areas. Route choice was related to nesting site latitude in the Canadian Northern Boreal Forest. Data from birds tracked over 2 years indicated strong migration route fidelity, but altered chronology and stopover locations between years. Departure date varied by wintering site, but arrival and apparent settling dates were synchronous, suggesting individuals adjusted migration timing to meet an optimized reproductive schedule.

  15. The First Dinosaur from Washington State and a Review of Pacific Coast Dinosaurs from North America

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    We describe the first diagnostic dinosaur fossil from Washington State. The specimen, which consists of a proximal left femur, was recovered from the shallow marine rocks of the Upper Cretaceous (Campanian) Cedar District Formation (Nanaimo Group) and is interpreted as pertaining to a large theropod on the basis of its hollow medullary cavity and proximally placed fourth trochanter. The Washington theropod represents one of the northernmost occurrences of a Mesozoic dinosaur on the west coast of the United States and one of only a handful from the Pacific coast of Laramidia during the Cretaceous. Its isolated nature and preservation in marine rocks suggest that the element was washed in from a nearby fluvial system. If the femur pertains to a tyrannosauroid, which seems likely given its size and the widespread occurrence of the group across Laramidia during Late Cretaceous times, then it would represent an earlier occurrence of large body size than previously recognized (complete femur length estimated at 1.2 meters). Uncertainty surrounding the latitude of deposition of the Nanaimo Group (i.e., the Baja-British Columbia hypothesis) precludes assigning the Washington theropod to either of the putative northern or southern biogeographic provinces of Laramidia. PMID:25993090

  16. The first dinosaur from Washington State and a review of Pacific coast dinosaurs from North America.

    PubMed

    Peecook, Brandon R; Sidor, Christian A

    2015-01-01

    We describe the first diagnostic dinosaur fossil from Washington State. The specimen, which consists of a proximal left femur, was recovered from the shallow marine rocks of the Upper Cretaceous (Campanian) Cedar District Formation (Nanaimo Group) and is interpreted as pertaining to a large theropod on the basis of its hollow medullary cavity and proximally placed fourth trochanter. The Washington theropod represents one of the northernmost occurrences of a Mesozoic dinosaur on the west coast of the United States and one of only a handful from the Pacific coast of Laramidia during the Cretaceous. Its isolated nature and preservation in marine rocks suggest that the element was washed in from a nearby fluvial system. If the femur pertains to a tyrannosauroid, which seems likely given its size and the widespread occurrence of the group across Laramidia during Late Cretaceous times, then it would represent an earlier occurrence of large body size than previously recognized (complete femur length estimated at 1.2 meters). Uncertainty surrounding the latitude of deposition of the Nanaimo Group (i.e., the Baja-British Columbia hypothesis) precludes assigning the Washington theropod to either of the putative northern or southern biogeographic provinces of Laramidia.

  17. NOAA/West Coast and Alaska Tsunami Warning Center Pacific Ocean response criteria

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Whitmore, P.; Benz, H.; Bolton, M.; Crawford, G.; Dengler, L.; Fryer, G.; Goltz, J.; Hansen, R.; Kryzanowski, K.; Malone, S.; Oppenheimer, D.; Petty, E.; Rogers, G.; Wilson, Jim

    2008-01-01

    New West Coast/Alaska Tsunami Warning Center (WCATWC) response criteria for earthquakes occurring in the Pacific basin are presented. Initial warning decisions are based on earthquake location, magnitude, depth, and - dependent on magnitude - either distance from source or precomputed threat estimates generated from tsunami models. The new criteria will help limit the geographical extent of warnings and advisories to threatened regions, and complement the new operational tsunami product suite. Changes to the previous criteria include: adding hypocentral depth dependence, reducing geographical warning extent for the lower magnitude ranges, setting special criteria for areas not well-connected to the open ocean, basing warning extent on pre-computed threat levels versus tsunami travel time for very large events, including the new advisory product, using the advisory product for far-offshore events in the lower magnitude ranges, and specifying distances from the coast for on-shore events which may be tsunamigenic. This report sets a baseline for response criteria used by the WCATWC considering its processing and observational data capabilities as well as its organizational requirements. Criteria are set for tsunamis generated by earthquakes, which are by far the main cause of tsunami generation (either directly through sea floor displacement or indirectly by triggering of slumps). As further research and development provides better tsunami source definition, observational data streams, and improved analysis tools, the criteria will continue to adjust. Future lines of research and development capable of providing operational tsunami warning centers with better tools are discussed.

  18. a Relative Sea Level Database for the Pacific Coast of North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engelhart, S. E.; Vacchi, M.; Horton, B.; Nelson, A. R.

    2013-12-01

    Reconstruction of relative sea level (RSL) has implications for investigation of crustal movements, calibration of earth rheology models and the reconstruction of ice sheets. Here we present a quality-controlled RSL database compiled using data from the Pacific coast of North America (British Columbia, Canada to California, USA). This dataset includes 446 sea level index points that estimate the position of former RSL in time and space, and 181 limiting dates that constrain whether RSL was above (marine limiting) or below (terrestrial limiting) the sample. This coastal area is characterized by significant tectonic activity due to the Cascadia Subduction Zone in the north from British Columbia to northern California, and the San Andreas Fault in northern and central California. However, the tectonic contribution to RSL change from the Cascadia Subduction Zone and the San Andreas Fault is unknown. Elastic dislocation models of the earthquake deformation cycle have commonly assumed that Glacial Isostatic Adjustment (GIA) in the Cascadia subduction zone is non-existent. However, our data indicate ongoing GIA-related subsidence along the coasts of Washington, Oregon and California of a similar magnitude observed along the Atlantic coast of the USA and other proglacial forebulge regions in Europe. This has implications for GPS observations of vertical land movement from Cascadia that assume all motion is due to subduction zone deformation. Using a late Holocene subset of our database, we estimated the land-level changes associated with the ongoing GIA. Comparing this value with long-term (>50 year) tide gauge records allows us to improve estimates of the ongoing vertical deformation at Cascadia due to the subduction of the Juan de Fuca plate beneath the North American plate.

  19. Population genetic structure of annual and perennial populations of Zostera marina L. along the Pacific coast of Baja California and the Gulf of California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Munoz-Salazar, R.; Talbot, S.L.; Sage, G.K.; Ward, D.H.; Cabello-Pasini, Alejandro

    2005-01-01

    The Baja California peninsula represents a biogeographical boundary contributing to regional differentiation among populations of marine animals. We investigated the genetic characteristics of perennial and annual populations of the marine angiosperm, Zostera marina, along the Pacific coast of Baja California and in the Gulf of California, respectively. Populations of Z. marina from five coastal lagoons along the Pacific coast and four sites in the Gulf of California were studied using nine microsatellite loci. Analyses of variance revealed significant interregional differentiation, but no subregional differentiation. Significant spatial differentiation, assessed using θ values, was observed among all populations within the two regions. Z. marina populations along the Pacific coast are separated by more than 220 km and had the greatest θ (0.13-0.28) values, suggesting restricted gene flow. In contrast, lower but still significant genetic differentiation was observed among populations within the Gulf of California (θ = 0.04-0.18), even though populations are separated by more than 250 km. This suggests higher levels of gene flow among Gulf of California populations relative to Pacific coast populations. Direction of gene flow was predominantly southward among Pacific coast populations, whereas no dominant polarity in the Gulf of California populations was observed. The test for isolation by distance (IBD) showed a significant correlation between genetic and geographical distances in Gulf of California populations, but not in Pacific coast populations, perhaps because of shifts in currents during El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events along the Pacific coast.

  20. Population genetic structure of annual and perennial populations of Zostera marina L. along the Pacific coast of Baja California and the Gulf of California.

    PubMed

    Muñiz-Salazar, Raquel; Talbot, Sandra L; Sage, George K; Ward, David H; Cabello-Pasini, Alejandro

    2005-03-01

    The Baja California peninsula represents a biogeographical boundary contributing to regional differentiation among populations of marine animals. We investigated the genetic characteristics of perennial and annual populations of the marine angiosperm, Zostera marina, along the Pacific coast of Baja California and in the Gulf of California, respectively. Populations of Z. marina from five coastal lagoons along the Pacific coast and four sites in the Gulf of California were studied using nine microsatellite loci. Analyses of variance revealed significant interregional differentiation, but no subregional differentiation. Significant spatial differentiation, assessed using theta(ST) values, was observed among all populations within the two regions. Z. marina populations along the Pacific coast are separated by more than 220 km and had the greatest theta(ST) (0.13-0.28) values, suggesting restricted gene flow. In contrast, lower but still significant genetic differentiation was observed among populations within the Gulf of California (theta(ST) = 0.04-0.18), even though populations are separated by more than 250 km. This suggests higher levels of gene flow among Gulf of California populations relative to Pacific coast populations. Direction of gene flow was predominantly southward among Pacific coast populations, whereas no dominant polarity in the Gulf of California populations was observed. The test for isolation by distance (IBD) showed a significant correlation between genetic and geographical distances in Gulf of California populations, but not in Pacific coast populations, perhaps because of shifts in currents during El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events along the Pacific coast.

  1. Extensive Submarine Active Fault and the 2011 off the Pacific Coast of Tohoku Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakata, T.; Kumamoto, T.; Muroi, S.; Watanabe, M.

    2013-12-01

    Active faults observed on seafloor along Japan Trench are resultants of repeated large earthquakes. We discuss on the relation between large earthquakes and their source faults based on a detailed active fault map along Japan Trench. Judging from location and continuation of active faults in the earthquake source area, we consider that one of the extensive thrust faults which extends from off-Sanriku to off-Ibaraki for about 500km, is directly related to the source fault of the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake. The 2011 off the Pacific Coast of Tohoku Earthquake (Mw9.0) generated large tsunami with massive pulsating pattern of waves (Maeda et al. 2011). A leading hypothesis believed among many seismologists that an earthquake source fault that generated the earthquake, caused the near-surface fault rupture along the axis of Japan Trench, and large displacement ~50m eastward and ~7 to ~10m upward was estimated from comparison of data obtained before and after the earthquake in 2004 and 2011 by multibeam bathymetric surveys across the trench (Fujiwara et al. 2011). Satake et al. (2011) explained the large tsunami height by simultaneous faulting on two different fault planes, one on subducting plate boundary and the other near the trench axis. Since most of the workers hypothesized without any doubt believed that the earthquake was caused by the fault ruptured up to the trench axis, existence of submarine active fault is rather overlooked so far. However, we consider the large displacement is due to landslide and do not find any extensive fault scarp on the trench axis. We simulated pattern of seafloor deformation associated with the earthquake using a simple dislocation model for a single fault plane with uniform slip that dips 14 degree in depth and 33.6 degree beneath the tectonic bulge related to the extensive active fault. A result shows that an area of large uplift agrees more or less with the location of tectonic bulge with width of about 20km

  2. Clinical and molecular characterisation of two siblings with fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva, from the Colombian Pacific coast (South America).

    PubMed

    Pachajoa, Harry; Botero, Andres Felipe Ramirez

    2015-06-08

    Fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP, MIM 135 100) is an uncommon genetic disease with a dominant autosomal germline transmission pattern; however, most cases are products of spontaneous individual mutations. It is a disabling condition that affects connective tissue, and it is distinguished by progressive heterotopic ossifications and congenital malformations of the great toes. The case of 2 brothers with progressive osseous deformation, along with ankylosis of the jaw, scoliosis and mental retardation, is presented. Blood samples were taken from each patient identifying in both of them a heterozygote mutation in exon 6 of the gene ACVR1 (c.617G>A p.Arg206His), which diagnoses the 'classic' form of FOP. The current medical treatment of this disease is early detection to avoid trauma and aggravating factors, prophylactic measures against infections and respiratory decline, symptomatic relief and physical therapy. There is currently no cure for the disease.

  3. Characterization of Plasmodium vivax Transmission-Blocking Activity in Low to Moderate Malaria Transmission Settings of the Colombian Pacific Coast

    PubMed Central

    Arévalo-Herrera, Myriam; Solarte, Yezid; Rocha, Leonardo; Álvarez, Diego; Beier, John C.; Herrera, Sócrates

    2011-01-01

    Malaria infection induces antibodies capable of suppressing the infectivity of gametocytes and gametes, however, little is known about the duration of the antibody response, the parasite specificity, and the role of complement. We report the analyses of the transmission-blocking (TB) activity of sera collected from 105 Plasmodium vivax-infected and 44 non-infected individuals from a malaria endemic region of Colombia, using a membrane feeding assay in Anopheles albimanus mosquitoes. In infected donors we found that TB activity was antibody dose dependent (35%), lasted for 2–4 months after infection, and in 70% of the cases different P. vivax wild isolates displayed differential susceptibility to blocking antibodies. Additionally, in a number of assays TB was complement-dependent. Twenty-seven percent of non-infected individuals presented TB activity that correlated with antibody titers. Studies here provide preliminary data on factors of great importance for further work on the development of TB vaccines. PMID:21292881

  4. Blue Carbon Accumulation Rates for the Pacific Coast of Canada: Examples from Pacific Rim National Park Reserve and the Clayoquot Biosphere Reserve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chastain, S. G.; Kohfeld, K. E.; Pellatt, M. G.; McGowan, A. E.; Postlethwaite, V. R.; Robinson, C.

    2016-12-01

    While a complete understanding of the carbon cycle is a crucial component of well-designed climate policy, the carbon dynamics of vegetated, coastal ecosystems are poorly understood when compared with other ecosystems. `Blue carbon' refers to the carbon stored in coastal systems such as salt marshes, seagrass meadows, and mangroves; research indicates that these blue carbon ecosystems sequester carbon at high rates, potentially greater than terrestrial forests per unit area. However, specific data on their carbon accumulation rates, as well as spatial extents of the ecosystems themselves, is limited, especially in the temperate Northeast Pacific coast. This study incorporates several sites from Pacific Rim National Park Reserve and around Clayoquot Sound on the Pacific coast of Canada, where we measure carbon density and accumulation rates of soils and peats underlying estuarine salt marshes. Elemental analysis and loss-on-ignition quantified soil carbon which, alongside bulk density, 210Pb, and 14C radioisotope dating, produces carbon accumulation rate estimates. This study will provide the Government of Canada (Parks Canada) and the Commission for Environmental Cooperation (Canada, Mexico and the USA) with data regarding blue carbon stocks on the west coast of Canada. This information will serve as a baseline to inform scientists and managers about typical saltmarsh carbon accumulation rates in relatively undisturbed study sites. These data may inform future studies on the feasibility of northern, temperate salt marshes as carbon sinks, and can contribute to the growing interest in conserving coastal ecosystems for purposes of carbon sequestration.

  5. [The fisheries and growth of Ark Clams (Arcoida: Arcidae) Anadara tuberculosa in Málaga Bay, Colombian Pacific, 2005-2007].

    PubMed

    Lucero, Carlos; Cantera, Jaime; Neira, Raúl

    2012-03-01

    A. tuberculosa, is the most important bivalve species under exploitation in Colombia. Here, this species is found from Cabo Corrientes (Chocó) to the Ecuador border, in muddy substrates of mangrove forests. In order to determine the growth and the state of fisheries of A. tuberculosa, between December 2005 and April 2007, both, biological (in situ) and commercial studies were performed at Bahia Malaga (Colombian Pacific). The growth was estimated using the general equation of von Bertalanffy, with prior application of the methods of Bhattacharya and Powell-Wetherall. Mortality and exploitation rate were determined using the inverse model of von Bertalanffy. For the biological samplings, a total of 446 individuals of A. tuberculosa (0.64 +/- 0.13 individuals/m2) and 53 individuals (0.05 +/- 0.049 individuals/m2) of Anadara similis were collected. 79% of the catch was below 51mm. In the commercial samplings, 836 individuals of A. tuberculosa (size range: 31.1-92.2mm) were measured, but no A. similis samples were available for this. Recruitment of A. tuberculosa was higher during March, May, July and November. According to the data, A. tuberculosa might be reproducing during December, February, April and August. The data gathered with the biological samples were more reliable on explaining the growth of A. tuberculosa (K=0.332 per year, L(infinity)=88.256mm, t0=0.0556 years) than the one taken from market samples (K=0.256 per year, L(infinity)=89.77mm, t0=0733 years). The high exploitation rate (77%), the low density and the high mortality suggest that A. tuberculosa is in overexploitation state in Bahia Malaga and management strategies are urgently required.

  6. Assessing the Extent and Density of Seagrass Meadows in Pacific Rim National Park Reserve and Clayoquot Sound on the Pacific Coast of Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGowan, A. E.; Postlethwaite, V. R.; Pellatt, M. G.; Kohfeld, K. E.; Robinson, C.; Yakimishyn, J.; Chastain, S. G.

    2016-12-01

    Across the globe seagrass habits are recognized as highly productive systems, and have recently been characterized by their ability to store and sequester substantial amounts of organic carbon, known as `blue carbon.' Unfortunately, seagrasses are among the most rapidly disappearing ecosystems on Earth due to anthropogenic activities and development. Given the paucity of geospatial information on the global abundance of blue carbon environments, the rate of seagrass habitat loss is uncertain. Recent studies indicate that the consequences of coastal ecosystem conversion are larger than predicted, particularly on Canada's Pacific coastline where agricultural, forestry, and commercial developments have destroyed substantial amounts of seagrass habitat. This lack of knowledge hinders coastal habitat and blue carbon conservation planning and inhibits comprehensive policy development regarding coastal carbon management. This research quantitatively assesses various measures of above and below ground biomass and eelgrass shoot density as well as incorporates geospatial data collected from remote sensing technologies from three seagrass meadows on the Pacific coast of British Columbia. Using ArcGIS software, the distribution, extent, and density of seagrass located in the Pacific Rim National Park Reserve and southern Clayoquot Sound will be used to contribute to the first set of continental maps of blue carbon habitats within North America led by the Commission for Environmental Cooperation. Further, these results will be integrated into a geospatial database on the carbon accumulation rates in seagrass meadows on the Pacific coast of North America, providing a baseline for determining the role blue carbon habitats play in carbon mitigation on coastal British Columbia.

  7. HLA in Jaidukama: an Amerindian secluded Colombian population with new haplotypes and Asian and Pacific-shared alleles.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Laso, J; Montoya, F; Areces, C; Moscoso, J; Silvera, C; Rey, D; Parga-Lozano, C; Gomez-Prieto, P; Enriquez de Salamanca, M; Arnaiz-Villena, A

    2011-08-01

    America first inhabitants and peopling are still debated. In order to increase knowledge about these questions, we have aimed to detect HLA genes of an Amerindian secluded community: Jaidukama, who lives in North Colombia Equatorial forest. HLA genotyping and extended haplotype calculations were carried out in 39 healthy individuals belonging to 13 families. HLA frequencies were compared to other Amerindians and worldwide populations by calculating genetic distances, relatedness dendrograms and correspondence analyses. Only four DRB1 alleles were found (*0404, *0407, *1402 and *1602); however a total of 17 Amerindian different extended class I-class II HLA haplotypes were directly counted from the family studies, nine of them were specific of Jaidukamas. Some of the alleles or group of alleles within an extended haplotype (i.e. DQB1-DRB1) were also found in Asians and Pacific Islanders, further supporting existence of Asian and Pacific gene flow with Amerindians or a common founder effect. It is further supported that HLA extended haplotypes vary faster than alleles in populations. It is concluded that this unique model of Amerindian secluded families study suggests that rapid HLA haplotype variation may be more important than allele variation for survival (starting immune responses). This work may also be useful for future transplant programs in the area.

  8. Biomass Carbon in the South Mexican Pacific Coast: Exploring Mangrove Potential to REDD+ Mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bejarano, M.; Amezcua-Torrijos, I.

    2014-12-01

    Mangroves have the highest carbon stocks amongst tropical forests. In Mexico, however, little is known about their potential to mitigate climate change. In this work, we estimated biomass carbon stocks in the Southern Mexican Pacific Coast (~69,000 ha). We quantified above and belowground biomass carbon stocks at (1) the regional scale along two environmental strata (i.e. dry and wet), and (2) at the local scale along three geomorphological types of mangroves (i.e. fringe, estuarine and basin). Regional strata were defined using intensity and influence of rivers and, the mean annual precipitation and evapotranspiration ratio (i.e., wet < 1 > dry). By lowering the stressing environmental conditions (e.g., low salinity and high sediment accumulation), we expected the highest stocks in mangroves growing in wet and estuarine strata at the regional scale and local scale, respectively. Quantifications were carried out in sixty-six sites chosen through stratified randomized design in which six strata were obtained by a full combination of regional and local strata. In all strata, aboveground carbon represents 64-67% of total carbon. Total biomass carbon was higher in wet than dry stratum (W: 87.3 ± 6.9, D: 47.0 ± 5.0, p<0.001). While at local scale, total biomass carbon was high in estuarine mangroves of both wet and dry regions (W: 91.6 ± 7.8, D: 77.6 ± 14.8, p<0.001), and these were statistically similar to fringe wet mangroves (110.9 ± 24.2, p<0.001), the stratum with the highest total carbon. Following a conservative approach, the Mexican Southern Pacific Coast is storing near 20,344 Gg CO2e. If the historical annual deforestation rate of 0.54% continues, this region could emit between 0.03 and 14.4 Gg of CO2e ha/year, out of which wet estuarine mangroves would have the highest emission values. Evidence suggests that these mangroves are the most important strata in which REDD+ mechanisms could be implemented due to (1) their carbon stocks, and (2) their highest

  9. Population genetics of the invasive cryptogenic anemone, Anemonia alicemartinae, along the southeastern Pacific coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canales-Aguirre, C. B.; Quiñones, A.; Hernández, C. E.; Neill, P. E.; Brante, A.

    2015-08-01

    One of the most important issues in biological invasions is understanding the factors and mechanisms determining the invasion success of non-native species. Theoretical and empirical works have shown that genetic diversity is a determinant of invasion success; thus, studying spatial patterns of genetic diversity, and exploring how biological and physical factors shape this population trait, are fundamental for understanding this phenomenon. Coastal marine ecosystems are one of the most susceptible habitats to invasion given the complex network of maritime transport. In this work we study the cryptogenic anemone, Anemonia alicemartinae, which has rapidly increased its geographical range southward during the last 50 years (approx. 2000 km) along the southeastern Pacific coast. Based on COI mtDNA sequences we evaluated three main hypotheses: a) the genetic diversity of A. alicemartinae decreases according to the direction of invasion (from north to south); b) there is biogeographic-phylogeographic concordance at the 30°S biogeographic break; and c) the demographic history is coherent with a recent geographic expansion. A total of 161 individual samples of A. alicemartinae were collected along the southeastern Pacific coast range of distribution, covering more than 2000 km, including samples along the 30°S biogeographical break. Results showed low genetic diversity (Hd = 0.253; π = 0.08) and a lack of geographic population genetic structure (FST = - 0.009, p-value = 0.656). The highest genetic diversity was observed in Peru (Chero and Mesas) and at localities close to the main Chilean seaports. We did not observe concordance between biogeographic and phylogeographic patterns or isolation by distance. Demographic indices (D = - 2.604, p < 0.001; Fu's = - 26.619, p < 0.001), as well as a star-like configuration of the haplotype network support recent population expansion of this species. Our results, together with historical field observations, support the idea that

  10. Assessing Carbon Storage and Sequestration of Seagrass Meadows on the Pacific Coast of Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Postlethwaite, V. R.; McGowan, A. E.; Robinson, C.; Kohfeld, K. E.; Pellatt, M. G.; Yakimishyn, J.; Chastain, S. G.

    2016-12-01

    Recent estimates suggest that seagrasses are highly efficient carbon sinks, storing a disproportionate amount of carbon for their relatively small area (only approximately 0.2% of the global ocean), and that they may bury carbon up to 12 times faster than terrestrial forests. Unfortunately, seagrass meadows are being lost at a rate of 0.4-2.6% yr-1, potentially releasing 0.15-1.02 Pg (billion tonnes) carbon dioxide into the atmosphere annually. Research on seagrass carbon stocks has been mainly limited to areas in the Mediterranean, Southeast Asia, and Western Australia, and specifically has been very limited in the Northeast Pacific. We aim to characterize the carbon storage and sequestration occurring in the Pacific Rim National Park Reserve and the Clayoquot Sound area, off the western coast of Vancouver Island, British Columbia (BC). Each of our sites varied in environmental characteristics representative of BC's seagrass meadows, including freshwater influence. Six cores, plus one from a "reference" site were taken from each meadow. Loss on ignition (LOI) and elemental analysis will be used to determine organic C and carbonate content. Additionally, we will use dry bulk density, 210Pb dating and seagrass density data to determine carbon accumulation rates and total meadow carbon stocks to provide a comprehensive picture of carbon storage and sequestration in BC's seagrass meadows. Carbon storage results will contribute to global estimates of seagrass carbon stocks via the Commission for Environmental Cooperation, as well as assist in marine ecosystem conservation planning and help in understanding the value of these ecosystems, especially as a means of climate change mitigation.

  11. Divergent ecological effects of oceanographic anomalies on terrestrial ecosystems of the Mexican Pacific coast

    PubMed Central

    Caso, Margarita; González-Abraham, Charlotte; Ezcurra, Exequiel

    2007-01-01

    Precipitation pulses are essential for the regeneration of drylands and have been shown to be related to oceanographic anomalies. However, whereas some studies report increased precipitation in drylands in northern Mexico during El Niño years, others report increased drought in the southern drylands. To elucidate the effect of oceanographic/atmospheric anomalies on moisture pulses along the whole Pacific coast of Mexico, we correlated the average Southern Oscillation Index values with total annual precipitation for 117 weather stations. We also analyzed this relationship for three separate rainfall signals: winter-spring, summer monsoon, and fall precipitation. The results showed a distinct but divergent seasonal pattern: El Niño events tend to bring increased rainfall in the Mexican northwest but tend to increase aridity in the ecosystems of the southern tropical Pacific slope. The analysis for the separated rainfall seasons showed that El Niño conditions produce a marked increase in winter rainfall above 22° latitude, whereas La Niña conditions tend to produce an increase in the summer monsoon-type rainfall that predominates in the tropical south. Because these dryland ecosystems are dependent on rainfall pulses for their renewal, understanding the complex effect of ocean conditions may be critical for their management in the future. Restoration ecology, grazing regimes, carrying capacities, fire risks, and continental runoff into the oceans could be predicted from oceanographic conditions. Monitoring the coupled atmosphere–ocean system may prove to be important in managing and mitigating the effects of large-scale climatic change on coastal drylands in the future. PMID:17563355

  12. Species composition and bathymetric distribution of gorgonians (Anthozoa: Octocorallia) on the Southern Mexican Pacific coast.

    PubMed

    Abeytia, Rosalinda; Guzmán, Hector M; Breedy, Odalisca

    2013-09-01

    Gorgonians are important components of coastal ecosystems, as they provide niches, natural compounds with medical applications and are used as bioindicators. Species composition and assemblage structure of gorgonians (Anthozoa: Octocorallia) were studied along a bathymetric profile in the Southern Mexican Pacific coast. Species composition was based on specimens collected within a depth range of 0-70 m in 15 sites. The relative abundance of species was determined in six sites at four depths (5, 10, 20 and 25 m) using three 10 m2 transects at each depth level. Twenty-seven species of gorgonians belonging to six genera and three families were registered. The species composition varied with depth: 11 species were distributed between 0-25m depth, while 17 species were found between 40-70 m depth interval. The shallow zone is characterized by a relatively large abundance of gorgonians, dominated by colonies of Leptogorgia cuspidata and L. ena. In contrast, the deepest zone was characterized by relatively low abundance of gorgonians, dominated by L. alba, the only species observed in both depth intervals. The similarity analysis showed differences in the composition and abundance of species by depth and site, suggesting that the main factor in determining the assemblage structure is depth. Results of this study suggest that the highest richness of gorgonian species in the study area may be located at depths of 40-70 m, whereas the highest abundances are found between 5 and 10 m depth. This study represents a contribution to the poorly known eastern Pacific gorgonian biota.

  13. Divergent ecological effects of oceanographic anomalies on terrestrial ecosystems of the Mexican Pacific coast.

    PubMed

    Caso, Margarita; González-Abraham, Charlotte; Ezcurra, Exequiel

    2007-06-19

    Precipitation pulses are essential for the regeneration of drylands and have been shown to be related to oceanographic anomalies. However, whereas some studies report increased precipitation in drylands in northern Mexico during El Niño years, others report increased drought in the southern drylands. To elucidate the effect of oceanographic/atmospheric anomalies on moisture pulses along the whole Pacific coast of Mexico, we correlated the average Southern Oscillation Index values with total annual precipitation for 117 weather stations. We also analyzed this relationship for three separate rainfall signals: winter-spring, summer monsoon, and fall precipitation. The results showed a distinct but divergent seasonal pattern: El Niño events tend to bring increased rainfall in the Mexican northwest but tend to increase aridity in the ecosystems of the southern tropical Pacific slope. The analysis for the separated rainfall seasons showed that El Niño conditions produce a marked increase in winter rainfall above 22 degrees latitude, whereas La Niña conditions tend to produce an increase in the summer monsoon-type rainfall that predominates in the tropical south. Because these dryland ecosystems are dependent on rainfall pulses for their renewal, understanding the complex effect of ocean conditions may be critical for their management in the future. Restoration ecology, grazing regimes, carrying capacities, fire risks, and continental runoff into the oceans could be predicted from oceanographic conditions. Monitoring the coupled atmosphere-ocean system may prove to be important in managing and mitigating the effects of large-scale climatic change on coastal drylands in the future.

  14. SURVEY REPORT OF HIGHLANDS TRANSFER IN SANRIKU REGION OF THE 2011 OFF THE PACIFIC COAST OF TOHOKU EARTHQUAKE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ihara, Tsuyoshi; Fujiu, Makoto; Numada, Muneyoshi; Ohara, Miho; Meguro, Kimiro

    During the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake, Tohoku region suffered extensive damage by tsunami. The Tohoku region coast of the Pacific Ocean has been repeatedly damaged by tsunami in the past. Therefore, mitigation measures, such as highland transfer, education, construction of Tsunami protection wall, and training of evacuation have been taken by the government and the citizen. However, consciousness faded with the passage of time and same mistake was repeated. This report introduced the history of highland transfer carried out in affected areas and its effects on damage reduction due to the Tsunami. Also, it described the results of field survey and interview survey conducted with local residents of Ofunato and Toni from 26th March to 1th May 2011 by the authors.

  15. Genetic diversity in two introduced biofouling amphipods (Amphipods valida and Jassa marmorata) along the Pacific North American coast: investigation into molecular identification and cryptic diversity

    EPA Science Inventory

    We investigated patterns of genetic diversity among invasive populations of A. valida and J. marmorata from the Pacific North American coast to assess the accuracy of morphological identification and determine whether or not cryptic diversity and multiple introductions contribute...

  16. Genetic diversity in two introduced biofouling amphipods (Amphipods valida and Jassa marmorata) along the Pacific North American coast: investigation into molecular identification and cryptic diversity

    EPA Science Inventory

    We investigated patterns of genetic diversity among invasive populations of A. valida and J. marmorata from the Pacific North American coast to assess the accuracy of morphological identification and determine whether or not cryptic diversity and multiple introductions contribute...

  17. Plastic in Cassin's Auklets (Ptychoramphus aleuticus) from the 2014 stranding on the Northeast Pacific Coast.

    PubMed

    Floren, Hannah P; Shugart, Gary W

    2017-04-15

    Oceanic plastic debris found in the digestive tracts of seabirds includes industrial plastic pellets and post-consumer user plastics. We examined whether the amount and type of plastic ingested by Cassin's Auklets (Ptychoramphus aleuticus) is changing by surveying the stomach contents of 171 Cassin's Auklets stranded along the Washington and Oregon coasts in 2014. We found that 41.5% of the birds contained plastic in their ventriculi, similar to values from the North Subarctic Pacific reported in the 1980s. Industrial pellets were found in 22.8% of our samples, and accounted for 28.1% of all the plastic pieces found. Industrial pellets tended to be larger than pieces of user plastic and accounted for 40.2% of total plastic weight. These industrial pellets were significantly smaller than those found in other species, suggesting either that Cassin's Auklets selected smaller plastic particles or that plastic was retained in ventriculi and worn down. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Differential recruitment of introduced Pacific oysters and native mussels at the North Sea coast: coexistence possible?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diederich, Susanne

    2005-04-01

    Pacific oysters ( Crassostrea gigas Thunberg 1793) have been introduced into the Wadden Sea (North Sea), where they settle on native mussel beds ( Mytilus edulis L.), which represent the only extensive insular hard substrata in this soft-sediment environment. As abundances of C. gigas rose, some mussel beds became increasingly overgrown with oysters, whereas others did not. Field experiments revealed that recruitment of C. gigas was higher in the lower intertidal than in the upper subtidal zone, that it was higher on conspecifics than on mussels, and that it was not affected by barnacle epigrowth except when settling on mussels. Mussel recruitment is known from inter- and subtidal zones. It occurred equally on oyster and mussel shells but showed a clear preference for barnacle epigrowth over clean shells. Assuming that settlement and recruitment are key processes for species abundances on the North Sea coast, it is predicted that the positive feedback in oyster settlement will lead to rapid reef formation of this invader at the expense of mussel beds. Mussels, however, may escape competitive exclusion by settling between or on the larger oysters especially when barnacles are abundant. Experimental patches with mussels were more often covered by fucoid algae ( Fucus vesiculosus forma mytili Nienburg) than patches with oysters, and oyster recruitment was poor underneath such algal canopies. Thus, fucoids may provide the native mussels with a refuge from the invading oysters and the two bivalves may coexist, provided food is not limiting.

  19. Untangling cultural inheritance: language diversity and long-house architecture on the Pacific northwest coast

    PubMed Central

    Jordan, Peter; O'Neill, Sean

    2010-01-01

    Many recent studies of cultural inheritance have focused on small-scale craft traditions practised by single individuals, which do not require coordinated participation by larger social collectives. In this paper, we address this gap in the cultural transmission literature by investigating diversity in the vernacular architecture of the Pacific northwest coast, where communities of hunter–fisher–gatherers constructed immense wooden long-houses at their main winter villages. Quantitative analyses of long-house styles along the coastline draw on a range of models and methods from the biological sciences and are employed to test hypotheses relating to basic patterns of macro-scale cultural diversification, and the degree to which the transmission of housing traits has been constrained by the region's numerous linguistic boundaries. The results indicate relatively strong branching patterns of cultural inheritance and also close associations between regional language history and housing styles, pointing to the potentially crucial role played by language boundaries in structuring large-scale patterns of cultural diversification, especially in relation to ‘collective’ cultural traditions like housing that require substantial inputs of coordinated labour. PMID:21041212

  20. Hydrology Affects Environmental and Spatial Structuring of Microalgal Metacommunities in Tropical Pacific Coast Wetlands

    PubMed Central

    Rojo, Carmen; Mesquita-Joanes, Francesc; Monrós, Juan S.; Armengol, Javier; Sasa, Mahmood; Bonilla, Fabián; Rueda, Ricardo; Benavent-Corai, José; Piculo, Rubén; Segura, M. Matilde

    2016-01-01

    The alternating climate between wet and dry periods has important effects on the hydrology and therefore on niche-based processes of water bodies in tropical areas. Additionally, assemblages of microorganism can show spatial patterns, in the form of a distance decay relationship due to their size or life form. We aimed to test spatial and environmental effects, modulated by a seasonal flooding climatic pattern, on the distribution of microalgae in 30 wetlands of a tropical dry forest region: the Pacific coast of Costa Rica and Nicaragua. Three surveys were conducted corresponding to the beginning, the highest peak, and the end of the hydrological year during the wet season, and species abundance and composition of planktonic and benthic microalgae was determined. Variation partitioning analysis (as explained by spatial distance or environmental factors) was applied to each seasonal dataset by means of partial redundancy analysis. Our results show that microalgal assemblages were structured by spatial and environmental factors depending on the hydrological period of the year. At the onset of hydroperiod and during flooding, neutral effects dominated community dynamics, but niche-based local effects resulted in more structured algal communities at the final periods of desiccating water bodies. Results suggest that climate-mediated effects on hydrology can influence the relative role of spatial and environmental factors on metacommunities of microalgae. Such variability needs to be accounted in order to describe accurately community dynamics in tropical coastal wetlands. PMID:26900916

  1. Untangling cultural inheritance: language diversity and long-house architecture on the Pacific northwest coast.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Peter; O'Neill, Sean

    2010-12-12

    Many recent studies of cultural inheritance have focused on small-scale craft traditions practised by single individuals, which do not require coordinated participation by larger social collectives. In this paper, we address this gap in the cultural transmission literature by investigating diversity in the vernacular architecture of the Pacific northwest coast, where communities of hunter-fisher-gatherers constructed immense wooden long-houses at their main winter villages. Quantitative analyses of long-house styles along the coastline draw on a range of models and methods from the biological sciences and are employed to test hypotheses relating to basic patterns of macro-scale cultural diversification, and the degree to which the transmission of housing traits has been constrained by the region's numerous linguistic boundaries. The results indicate relatively strong branching patterns of cultural inheritance and also close associations between regional language history and housing styles, pointing to the potentially crucial role played by language boundaries in structuring large-scale patterns of cultural diversification, especially in relation to 'collective' cultural traditions like housing that require substantial inputs of coordinated labour.

  2. Silviculture: the next 30 years the past 30 years. Part II. The Pacific Coast

    SciTech Connect

    Tappeiner J.C. II; Knapp, W.H.; Wierman, C.A.; Atkinson, W.A.; Oliver, C.D.; King, J.E.; Zasada, J.C.

    1986-05-01

    Advances in forest practices during the past few decades have been made in the midst of public debate over the role of forestry. It is time to assess the state of the art of silviculture and to project its evolution for the next 30 years - to reinforce the use of sound practices now employed and to shed outdated concepts and practices. To a large extent, silviculture is driven by social, economic, and management considerations external to the forests. Recognition of this fact is a significant change since the 1950s. Silviculture is not only affected by species characteristics interacting with environmental variables but increasingly by markets, public attitudes, available capital, and skilled labor. Other factors include new technology in logging, forest products, and silviculture itself, but the status of silviculture need not be diminished. Foresters who can successfully produce stands of desired species composition, structure, and growth rates can positively affect markets, public attitudes, profitability, and wildlife populations. This profile of the Pacific Coast is based on discussions with private and public foresters, private landowners, and environmentalists. Although not all points could be substantiated by data, assertions key to the discussion are intended to be fair, logical, and provocative. 21 references, 1 figure, 3 tables.

  3. [Inshore cetaceans from the North and South Pacific coast of Costa Rica].

    PubMed

    Martínez-Fernández, Damián; Montero-Cordero, Andrea; May-Collado, Laura

    2011-03-01

    Twenty nine cetacean species occur in Costa Rican waters but extensive research has been conducted only for three species. The latter shows there is a lack of general and local information about these mammals, even when the country, has shown a remarkable growth in whale watching activities. The increasing use of marine resources in coastal areas has also developed the need to determine the occurrence of cetaceans in areas showing high tourist presence, in order to propose sound conservation measures. In this study, environmental variables were determined and subsequently related to the presence of the species recorded, out of 166 sightings, between 2005 and 2006. The species with highest proportion of sightings were Stenella attenuata (68%), followed by Megaptera novaeangliae (13%) and Tursiops truncatus (10%). The presence of spotted dolphins is related to changes in salinity and water transparency, while that of the humpback whale was related to wave height (Beaufort scale) and water temperature. The presence of seven species of cetaceans was confirmed in two coastal areas of the Pacific coast of Costa Rica, from which three are present throughout the year. Environmental variables were found related to the presence of at least two species.

  4. Modern sedimentary facies of the open Pacific coast and Pleistocene analogs from Montery Bay, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dupre, W.R.; Clifton, H.E.; Hunter, R.E.; Field, Michael E.; Field, Michael E.; ,

    1980-01-01

    Depositional processes and sedimentary structures of wave-dominated Pacific coastal environments vary systematically with water depth. The depth-limited open-coast facies identifiable by their sedimentary structures are the inner shelf, barred or nonbarred nearshore, beach, and coastal dune facies. These facies are most commonly preserved in shallowing-upward progradational sequences. The vertical sequence of sedimentary structures preserved in marine terrace deposits in the northern Monterey Bay region is very similar to that predicted on the basis of the modern facies. Few marine sediments deposited during the marine transgression that accompanied rising sea level were preserved. Most of the the marine and eolian sediments form a progradational sequence deposited mainly during intervals of falling sea level. In contrast, the sediments that form the adjacent fluvial terraces were deposited mainly during periods of rising sea level and became entrenched during the subsequent lowering of sea level. In combination, these fluvial, marine, and eolian deposits provide a record of a complete eustatic cycle. The recognition of the role of changing sea level in controlling patterns of coastal sedimentation and landform development during the Quaternary allows the development of a generalized model for Quaternary sedimentation along a wave-dominated coastline. The application of this model has aided in the interpretation of older Pleistocene sediments in the region (e.g. the Aromas Sand). It also has resulted in the recognition of at least eleven glacio-eustatic cycles preserved in the stratigraphic record of the Monterey Bay area during the Quaternary.

  5. Particulate matter mass and chemical component concentrations over four Chinese cities along the western Pacific coast.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hong; Bi, Xiao-Hui; Zheng, Wei-Wei; Wu, Jian-Hui; Feng, Yin-Chang

    2015-02-01

    China has witnessed rapid economic growth in the past three decades, especially in coastal areas. Particulate matter (PM) pollution is becoming increasingly serious in China's cities along the western Pacific coast with the rapid development of China's society and economy. This study analyzed PM (PM10 and PM2.5) in terms of their mass and chemical composition in four coastal Chinese cities. The goal was to study the spatial variation and characteristics of PM pollution in sites under different levels of economic development and in diverse natural environments. A distinct trend for concentrations of PM and related chemical species was observed and increased from south to north in Haikou, Ningbo, Qingdao, and Tianjin. Secondary inorganic aerosols, crustal materials, and organic matter dominated the composition of both PM10 and PM2.5. Crustal materials were the most abundant species in the northern coastal areas because these areas have less vegetation cover and lower humidity than southern coastal areas. The presence of high SO4 (2-)/nitrate (NO3 (-)) concentrations indicated that the burning of coals gives significant contributions to PM10 and PM2.5. The differences observed in the characteristics of PM pollution in these coastal cities are probably caused by different levels of industrial and urban development.

  6. Hydrology Affects Environmental and Spatial Structuring of Microalgal Metacommunities in Tropical Pacific Coast Wetlands.

    PubMed

    Rojo, Carmen; Mesquita-Joanes, Francesc; Monrós, Juan S; Armengol, Javier; Sasa, Mahmood; Bonilla, Fabián; Rueda, Ricardo; Benavent-Corai, José; Piculo, Rubén; Segura, M Matilde

    2016-01-01

    The alternating climate between wet and dry periods has important effects on the hydrology and therefore on niche-based processes of water bodies in tropical areas. Additionally, assemblages of microorganism can show spatial patterns, in the form of a distance decay relationship due to their size or life form. We aimed to test spatial and environmental effects, modulated by a seasonal flooding climatic pattern, on the distribution of microalgae in 30 wetlands of a tropical dry forest region: the Pacific coast of Costa Rica and Nicaragua. Three surveys were conducted corresponding to the beginning, the highest peak, and the end of the hydrological year during the wet season, and species abundance and composition of planktonic and benthic microalgae was determined. Variation partitioning analysis (as explained by spatial distance or environmental factors) was applied to each seasonal dataset by means of partial redundancy analysis. Our results show that microalgal assemblages were structured by spatial and environmental factors depending on the hydrological period of the year. At the onset of hydroperiod and during flooding, neutral effects dominated community dynamics, but niche-based local effects resulted in more structured algal communities at the final periods of desiccating water bodies. Results suggest that climate-mediated effects on hydrology can influence the relative role of spatial and environmental factors on metacommunities of microalgae. Such variability needs to be accounted in order to describe accurately community dynamics in tropical coastal wetlands.

  7. Low prevalence of avian influenza virus in shorebirds on the Pacific coast of North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Iverson, Samuel A.; Takekawa, John Y.; Schwarzbach, Steven; Cardona, Carol J.; Warnock, Nils; Bishop, Mary Anne; Schirato, Greg A.; Paroulek, Sara; Ackerman, Joshua T.; Ip, Hon; Boyce, Walter M.

    2008-01-01

    The emergence of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 has elevated concerns about wild birds as virus hosts; however, little is known about the ecological and epidemiological factors of transmission by shorebirds. Here we summarize results for 2,773 shorebirds that were live-trapped on the Pacific coast of the United States during 2006-2007 and tested for avian influenza virus using real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and virus isolation. As was the case throughout North America, HPAI H5N1 was not detected in shorebirds during this interval. Contrary to other wild bird groups, most notably waterfowl, the prevalence of even low pathogenicity virus among shorebirds in our study areas in California, Washington, and Alaska was extremely low (0.5%). Virus was detected by RT-PCR from four different species, including, Dunlin (Calidris alpina; N = 3), Western Sandpiper (C. mauri; N = 8), Long-billed Dowitcher (Limnodromus scolopaceus; N = 1), and American Avocet (Recurvirostra americana; N = 1), with the detections in the latter three constituting the first published records for these birds. Based on studies in the eastern United States, we expected, but did not detect (H1 = 1.6, P = 0.21) elevated avian influenza prevalence among shorebirds during spring migration. Diagnostic tests, which were designed to evaluate testing and sampling methods, indicated poor functioning of traditional virus isolation methods and no improvement in detection likelihood by collecting oropharyngeal swabs in addition to cloacal swab samples for low pathogenicity viruses (Z1 = 0.7, P = 0.48).

  8. Magnetic signature of the 22 June 1932 tsunami deposits (Jalisco, Mexican Pacific coast)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bógalo, M. F.; Ramírez-Herrera, M.-T.; Goguitchaichvili, A.; Rey, D.; Mohamed, K. J.; Calvo-Rathert, M.; Corona, N.

    2017-06-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that rock-magnetic analysis may provide additional information to distinguish and characterize extreme marine inundation events such as tsunamis. Rock-magnetic proxies reinforce and improve the environmental evidences supplied by other methods, adding some decisive clues for the interpretation of the origin and genesis of the sedimentary deposits. Here we report rock-magnetic, XRD, and SEM microscopy results obtained in the Palo Verde estuary (Colima Pacific coast, Mexico) in order to enhance the tools for identification and reconstruction of two tsunami-induced deposits. The sedimentary sequence includes two sand units, a tsunami deposit (PV1) associated with the 22 June 1932 tsunami and a deeper sandy layer (PV2) related to a possible paleotsunami that occurred around 1300 C.E. Both sandy units are topped by finer grained units. Magnetic properties exhibit a significant correlation with the stratigraphy. High susceptibility (χ) and high saturation isothermal remanence (SIRM) values typical of high concentrations of (titano)magnetite are a distinctive feature of the most recent sandy tsunamigenic unit PV1 and the overlaying soil. The lower sandy tsunamigenic unit PV2 shows significantly lower χ and SIRM values, indicating lower concentration of (titano)magnetite in this unit and the overlaying clayey-silt unit. The latter also shows a higher coercivity component associated with (titano)hematite. Magnetic grain-size differences are also observed between PV1 and PV2 suggesting differences in hydraulic conditions at the time of deposition. The bulk mineralogical composition and sediment texture of these units also support the hypothesis of different provenances for each tsunamigenic unit as inferred from magnetic properties.

  9. Geographical variation of shell thickness in the mussel Perumytilus purpuratus along the southeast Pacific coast.

    PubMed

    Briones, Carolina; Rivadeneira, Marcelo M; Fernández, Miriam; Guiñez, Ricardo

    2014-12-01

    At broad geographical scales, the variation in bivalve shell thickness can be modulated by environmental factors that vary with latitude, such as sea surface temperature (SST), seawater pH, or calcium carbonate availability. Mussels usually form multilayered beds, and shell thickness is also expected to be affected by density and layering due to intraspecific competition. In this work, we explored the geographical variation of shell thickness in the intertidal mussel Perumytilus purpuratus between 18° and 42°S along the southeastern Pacific coast. We tested the hypothesis that there was a positive relationship between shell thickness and SST, and then we explored other variables that could have an effect on thickness, such as density, number of layers, and others environmental variables (pH and calcite concentration). The expected positive linear relationship between shell thickness and sea surface temperature was not found, but when the other population variables were included in the analysis, an unexpected inverse SST-thickness relationships appeared as significant, probably because this species could be adapted to colder and more acid seawater as are those of the tips of South America. Thickness was also negatively affected by density, which was expected for a gregarious species showing high intraspecific competition. Finally, our results highlight the importance of including density and crowding effects when macroscale patterns are explored, particularly in gregarious species, since these patterns could also be modulated by density-dependent processes, which might then override latitudinal trends of shell thickness when they are not included in the analyses. © 2014 Marine Biological Laboratory.

  10. Comparative health assessment of western Pacific leatherback turtles (Dermochelys coriacea) foraging off the coast of California, 2005-2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harris, Heather S.; Benson, Scott R.; Gilardi, Kirsten V.; Poppenga, Robert H.; Work, Thierry M.; Dutton, Peter H.; Mazet, Jonna A.K.

    2011-01-01

    Leatherback turtles (Dermochelys coriacea) are critically endangered, primarily threatened by the overharvesting of eggs, fisheries entanglement, and coastal development. The Pacific leatherback population has experienced a catastrophic decline over the past two decades. Leatherbacks foraging off the coast of California are part of a distinct Western Pacific breeding stock that nests on beaches in Indonesia, Papua New Guinea, and the Solomon Islands. Although it has been proposed that the rapid decline of Pacific leatherback turtles is due to increased adult mortality, little is known about the health of this population. Health assessments in leatherbacks have examined females on nesting beaches, which provides valuable biological information, but might have limited applicability to the population as a whole. During September 2005 and 2007, we conducted physical examinations on 19 foraging Pacific leatherback turtles and measured normal physiologic parameters, baseline hematologic and plasma biochemistry values, and exposure to heavy metals (cadmium, lead, and mercury), organochlorine contaminants, and domoic acid. We compared hematologic values of foraging Pacific leatherbacks with their nesting counterparts in Papua New Guinea (n=11) and with other nesting populations in the Eastern Pacific in Costa Rica (n=8) and in the Atlantic in St. Croix (n=12). This study provides the most comprehensive assessment to date of the health status of leatherbacks in the Pacific. We found significant differences in blood values between foraging and nesting leatherbacks, which suggests that health assessment studies conducted only on nesting females might not accurately represent the whole population. The establishment of baseline physiologic data and blood values for healthy foraging leatherback turtles, including males, provides valuable data for long-term health monitoring and comparative studies of this endangered population.

  11. Comparative health assessment of western Pacific leatherback turtles (Dermochelys coriacea) foraging off the coast of California, 2005-2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harris, Heather S.; Benson, Scott R.; Gilardi, Kirsten V.; Poppenga, Robert H.; Work, Thierry M.; Dutton, Peter H.; Mazet, Jonna A.K.

    2011-01-01

    Leatherback turtles (Dermochelys coriacea) are critically endangered, primarily threatened by the overharvesting of eggs, fisheries entanglement, and coastal development. The Pacific leatherback population has experienced a catastrophic decline over the past two decades. Leatherbacks foraging off the coast of California are part of a distinct Western Pacific breeding stock that nests on beaches in Indonesia, Papua New Guinea, and the Solomon Islands. Although it has been proposed that the rapid decline of Pacific leatherback turtles is due to increased adult mortality, little is known about the health of this population. Health assessments in leatherbacks have examined females on nesting beaches, which provides valuable biological information, but might have limited applicability to the population as a whole. During September 2005 and 2007, we conducted physical examinations on 19 foraging Pacific leatherback turtles and measured normal physiologic parameters, baseline hematologic and plasma biochemistry values, and exposure to heavy metals (cadmium, lead, and mercury), organochlorine contaminants, and domoic acid. We compared hematologic values of foraging Pacific leatherbacks with their nesting counterparts in Papua New Guinea (n=11) and with other nesting populations in the Eastern Pacific in Costa Rica (n=8) and in the Atlantic in St. Croix (n=12). This study provides the most comprehensive assessment to date of the health status of leatherbacks in the Pacific. We found significant differences in blood values between foraging and nesting leatherbacks, which suggests that health assessment studies conducted only on nesting females might not accurately represent the whole population. The establishment of baseline physiologic data and blood values for healthy foraging leatherback turtles, including males, provides valuable data for long-term health monitoring and comparative studies of this endangered population.

  12. Comparative health assessment of Western Pacific leatherback turtles (Dermochelys coriacea) foraging off the coast of California, 2005-2007.

    PubMed

    Harris, Heather S; Benson, Scott R; Gilardi, Kirsten V; Poppenga, Robert H; Work, Thierry M; Dutton, Peter H; Mazet, Jonna A K

    2011-04-01

    Leatherback turtles (Dermochelys coriacea) are critically endangered, primarily threatened by the overharvesting of eggs, fisheries entanglement, and coastal development. The Pacific leatherback population has experienced a catastrophic decline over the past two decades. Leatherbacks foraging off the coast of California are part of a distinct Western Pacific breeding stock that nests on beaches in Indonesia, Papua New Guinea, and the Solomon Islands. Although it has been proposed that the rapid decline of Pacific leatherback turtles is due to increased adult mortality, little is known about the health of this population. Health assessments in leatherbacks have examined females on nesting beaches, which provides valuable biological information, but might have limited applicability to the population as a whole. During September 2005 and 2007, we conducted physical examinations on 19 foraging Pacific leatherback turtles and measured normal physiologic parameters, baseline hematologic and plasma biochemistry values, and exposure to heavy metals (cadmium, lead, and mercury), organochlorine contaminants, and domoic acid. We compared hematologic values of foraging Pacific leatherbacks with their nesting counterparts in Papua New Guinea (n=11) and with other nesting populations in the Eastern Pacific in Costa Rica (n=8) and in the Atlantic in St. Croix (n=12). This study provides the most comprehensive assessment to date of the health status of leatherbacks in the Pacific. We found significant differences in blood values between foraging and nesting leatherbacks, which suggests that health assessment studies conducted only on nesting females might not accurately represent the whole population. The establishment of baseline physiologic data and blood values for healthy foraging leatherback turtles, including males, provides valuable data for long-term health monitoring and comparative studies of this endangered population.

  13. Anthropophilic biting behaviour of Anopheles (Kerteszia) neivai Howard, Dyar & Knab associated with Fishermen’s activities in a malaria-endemic area in the Colombian Pacific

    PubMed Central

    Escovar, Jesús Eduardo; González, Ranulfo; Quiñones, Martha Lucía

    2013-01-01

    On the southwest Pacific Coast of Colombia, a field study was initiated to determine the human-vector association between Anopheles (Kerteszia) neivai and fishermen, including their nearby houses. Mosquitoes were collected over 24-h periods from mangrove swamps, marshlands and fishing vessels in three locations, as well as in and around the houses of fishermen. A total of 6,382 mosquitoes were collected. An. neivai was most abundant in mangroves and fishing canoes (90.8%), while Anopheles albimanus was found indoors (82%) and outdoors (73%). One An. neivai and one An. albimanus collected during fishing activities in canoes were positive for Plasmodium vivax , whereas one female An. neivai collected in a mangrove was positive for P. vivax . In the mangroves and fishing canoes, An. neivai demonstrated biting activity throughout the day, peaking between 06:00 pm-07:00 pm and there were two minor peaks at dusk and dawn. These peaks coincided with fishing activities in the marshlands and mangroves, a situation that places the fishermen at risk of contracting malaria when they are performing their daily activities. It is recommended that protective measures be implemented to reduce the risk that fishermen will contract malaria. PMID:24402159

  14. Anthropophilic biting behaviour of Anopheles (Kerteszia) neivai Howard, Dyar & Knab associated with Fishermen's activities in a malaria-endemic area in the Colombian Pacific.

    PubMed

    Escovar, Jesús Eduardo; González, Ranulfo; Quiñones, Martha Lucía

    2013-12-01

    On the southwest Pacific Coast of Colombia, a field study was initiated to determine the human-vector association between Anopheles (Kerteszia) neivai and fishermen, including their nearby houses. Mosquitoes were collected over 24-h periods from mangrove swamps, marshlands and fishing vessels in three locations, as well as in and around the houses of fishermen. A total of 6,382 mosquitoes were collected. An. neivai was most abundant in mangroves and fishing canoes (90.8%), while Anopheles albimanus was found indoors (82%) and outdoors (73%). One An. neivai and one An. albimanus collected during fishing activities in canoes were positive for Plasmodium vivax , whereas one female An. neivai collected in a mangrove was positive for P. vivax . In the mangroves and fishing canoes, An. neivai demonstrated biting activity throughout the day, peaking between 06:00 pm-07:00 pm and there were two minor peaks at dusk and dawn. These peaks coincided with fishing activities in the marshlands and mangroves, a situation that places the fishermen at risk of contracting malaria when they are performing their daily activities. It is recommended that protective measures be implemented to reduce the risk that fishermen will contract malaria.

  15. Geographic distribution and diversity in Claviceps purpurea from salt marsh habitats and characterization of Pacific coast populations.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Alison J; Gordon, Thomas R; Ditomaso, Joseph M

    2005-04-01

    Claviceps purpurea specific to grasses in salt marsh habitats (Group G3) has previously been identified on Spartina spp. in two locations: New Jersey, USA and southern England. We have identified this subgroup of C. purpurea (G3) in 11 distinct populations including western Europe, South America, and along the Atlantic and Pacific Coasts of the USA. In addition, G3 C. purpurea was discovered on a new host grass genus, Distichlis. Unweighted pair group mean analyses of AFLP and RAPD data reveal distinct structure in G3 C. purpurea populations. Pacific coast populations show little diversity, suggesting they may have been introduced recently in that region. 43 isolates, representing 11 populations were identified as G3 based on the presence of an EcoRI restriction site in the 5.8S ribosomal DNA, and a clear genetic separation from isolates representing the other two C. purpurea subgroups (G1 and G2). In addition, all isolates originating from Spartina densiflora, S. foliosa, S. alterniflora, and S. anglica were identified as belonging to G3. RAPD and AFLP analyses supported the recognition of three discrete groups within C. purpurea and revealed high genetic variability between groups, with only 1.8% of polymorphic markers shared across all isolates. Similarly, analysis of molecular variation (AMOVA) revealed that genetic variability was mainly due to variations between groups (63.5%) rather than within groups (28.5%) or within populations (7.96%). G3 isolates were 35% similar, Pacific coast isolates 83% similar. Ninety percent similarity among isolates from the San Francisco Bay Area suggests this is a recently introduced population.

  16. Population assessment of the American crocodile, Crocodylus acutus (Crocodilia: Crocodylidae) on the Pacific coast of Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Mauger, Laurie A; Velez, Elizabeth; Cherkiss, Michael S; Brien, Matthew L; Boston, Michael; Mazzotti, Frank J; Spotila, James R

    2012-12-01

    The American crocodile, Crocodylus acutus, is widely distributed in the American neotropics. It is endangered throughout most of its range and is listed as vulnerable by the International Union for the Conservation of Natural Fauna and Flora (IUCN) and on Appendix I of the Convention for the International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Flora and Fauna (CITES). Despite this listing, there are few published reports on population status throughout most of its range. We investigated the status of the C. acutus, at several locations along the Pacific coast of Costa Rica. We carried out spotlight and nesting surveys from 2007-2009 along the Costa Rican Pacific coast in four distinct areas, coastal areas of Las Baulas (N=40) and Santa Rosa (N=9) National Parks and the Osa Conservation Area (N=13), and upriver in Palo Verde National Park (N=11). We recorded crocodile locations and standard environmental data at each observation. Encounter rates, population structure, distribution within each area and data on successful nesting (presence of hatchlings, nests, etc) were determined. We attempted to capture all crocodiles to record standard morphometrics. A total of 586 crocodiles were observed along 185.8km of survey route. The majority of animals encountered (54.9%) were either hatchlings (<0.5m) or juveniles (0.5-1.25m). The average non-hatchling encounter rate per survey for the Pacific coast was 3.1 crocodiles/km, with individual encounter rates ranging from 1.2 crocodiles/km to 4.3 crocodiles/ km in Las Baulas National Park and the Osa Conservation Area respectively. Distribution of size classes within the individual locations did not differ with the exception of Santa Rosa and Las Baulas National Parks, where hatchlings were found in water with lower salinities. These were the first systematic surveys in several of the areas studied and additional work is needed to further characterize the American crocodile population in Costa Rica.

  17. Contribution of the Pacific Coast Area to Particulate Sulfate in the Western United States Based on Trajectory Regression Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, J.; Dubois, D.; Pitchford, M.; Green, M.; Etyemezian, V.

    2005-12-01

    Atmospheric aerosols can significantly reduce visibility and result in regional haze. The Clean Air Act amendments established a national visibility goal to remedy existing impairment and prevent future impairment in Federal Class I areas (national parks and wilderness areas designated by Congress), most of which are in the western U.S. In order to identify the major source regions of the atmospheric aerosols in the Class I areas of the western United States, backtrajectories are calculated for each Western Regional Air Partnership (WRAP) Class I area every three hours at three starting heights (10, 500, 1500m) for the years 2000-2002 using the NOAA HYSPLIT v4.6 model. Under the concept that the amount of time air spends over a region determines that region's contribution to the sulfate concentration measured at the receptor site, multiple-linear regression between the Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments (IMPROVE) measured sulfate concentration and the residence time in the pre-defined potential source regions was conducted for each Class I area. The results suggest that sulfate aerosol can be transported over long distances and impact large areas. Shipping and other port emissions from the Pacific Coast area are estimated to have significant contributions to atmospheric sulfate aerosol concentrations in large areas of the western United States. On average, 11 to 15 percent of the sulfate is attributed to the Pacific Coast area for all WRAP continental IMPROVE sites studied. The Pacific Coast area contributes about 50 percent to ambient sulfate for the major port areas of southern California based on the regression. These analyses suggest that shipping / port emissions need to be considered in the development of efficient control strategies for reducing the concentrations of sulfate and other aerosol species.

  18. [Cloacal and nasal bacterial flora of Lepidochelys olivacea (Testudines: Cheloniidae) from the North Pacific Coast of Costa Rica].

    PubMed

    Santoro, Mario; Orrego, Carlos Mario; Hernández Gómez, Giovanna

    2006-03-01

    Cloacal and nasal bacterial flora of Lepidochelys olivacea (Testudines: Cheloniidae) from the North Pacific coast of Costa Rica. The aerobic cloacal and nasal bacterial flora of 45 apparently healthy female olive ridley sea turtles (Lepidochelys olivacea) was studied at Nancite nesting beach, in Santa Rosa National Park (Costa Rican North Pacific) during July and August 2002. Bacterial samples were obtained by inserting sterile swabs directly into the cloaca and the nasal cavities of the turtles. Ninety-nine aerobic bacterial isolates, including 10 Gram-negative and 5 Gram-positive bacteria, were recovered. The most common bacteria cultured were Aeromonas spp. (13/45) and Citrobacter freundi (6/45) from cloacal samples and Bacillus spp. (32/45), Staphylococcus aureus (6/45) and Corynebacterium spp. (5/45) from nasal ducts. The results of the present study showed that the aerobic bacterial flora of nesting female olive ridleys was composed of several potential human and animal microbe pathogens.

  19. Distribution of trace metals in the Pacific Oyster, Crassostrea gigas, and crabs from the east coast of Kyushu Island, Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Szefer, P.; Frelek, K.; Geldon, J.

    1997-01-01

    Oysters are known to be exceptional accumulators of Zn and Cu, and their tissue concentrations appear to reflect contamination of metals. According to Lauenstein and Dolvin, oysters clearly have a greater affinity for Ag, Cu and Zn than do mussels, while mussels have greater affinity for Cr and Pb. Oysters have been considered to be potential bioindicators for monitoring metallic pollution in marine environments. Extensive investigations of oysters from the east coast of Kyushu Island, Japan, have been performed. The aim of the study was to examine spatial differences in metal concentrations in soft tissues of the Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) and whole bodies (soft tissues with shells) of the crabs Goetice depressa and Leptodius exaratus inhabiting the Japanese coastal region of the Pacific. 18 refs., 3 figs.

  20. A new species of antipatharian coral (Cnidaria: Anthozoa: Antipatharia: Schizopathidae) from the Pacific coast of Costa Rica

    SciTech Connect

    Opresko, Dennis M; Breedy, Odalisca

    2010-09-01

    A new species of black coral, Aphanipathes colombiana (Cnidaria:Antipatharia) from the Caribbean coast of Colombia is described. The species forms small flabellate colonies with anisomorphic polypar spines. It is morphologically similar to the western Atlantic species A. thyoides (Pourtales) but its hypostomal polypar spines are not reduced in size. The new species also resembles the Indo-Pacific species A. reticulata van Pesch but it has smooth-surfaced polypar spines, whereas in A. reticulata these spines have small tubercles on their surface

  1. Waterborne Commerce of the United States, Calendar Year 1982. Part 4. Waterways and Harbors, Pacific Coast, Alaska and Hawaii.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-07-01

    COMMERCE OF THE UNITED STATES CALENDAR YEAR 1/2 1982 PART 4 WRTERM..(U) CORPS OF ENGINEERS FORT BELVOIR VA MATER RESOURCES...8217’. ,’’’. .. ’" ." " - .". -"."-".". ."’.",.- -. ’’-. " ’’..:’..,’",_ ’’,. _’ - -".- -"-" ,-"- . - . ,.. . . . . 𔃺 N° WATERBORNE COMMERCE 1 OF THE UNITED STATES Q PART 4 WATERWAYS AND HARBORS PACIFIC COAST, ALASKA AND HAWAII DTIC>- I ~ELE.CTEI I - .4 C..2...GOVT ACCESSION NO. 3.

  2. National assessment of shoreline change: historical shoreline change along the Pacific Northwest coast

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ruggerio, Peter; Kratzmann, Meredith G.; Himmelstoss, Emily A.; Reid, David; Allan, Jonathan; Kaminsky, George

    2013-01-01

    Beach erosion is a chronic problem along most open ocean shores of the United States. As coastal populations continue to increase and infrastructure is threatened by erosion, there is increased demand for accurate information regarding past and present trends and rates of shoreline movement. There is also a need for a comprehensive analysis of shoreline movement that is consistent from one coastal region to another. To meet these national needs, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is conducting an analysis of historical shoreline changes along the open-ocean sandy shores of the conterminous United States and parts of Hawaii, Alaska, and the Great Lakes. One purpose of this work is to develop standard, repeatable methods for mapping and analyzing shoreline movement so that periodic, systematic, and internally consistent updates regarding coastal erosion and land loss can be made nationally. In the case of the analysis of shoreline change in the Pacific Northwest (PNW), the shoreline is the interpreted boundary between the ocean water surface and the sandy beach. This report on the PNW coasts of Oregon and Washington is the seventh in a series of regionally focused reports on historical shoreline change. Previous investigations include analyses and descriptive reports of the U.S. Gulf of Mexico (Morton and others, 2004), the southeastern Atlantic (Morton and Miller, 2005), the sandy shorelines (Hapke and others, 2006) and coastal cliffs (Hapke and Reid, 2007) of California, the New England and mid-Atlantic coasts (Hapke and others, 2011), and parts of the Hawaii coast (Fletcher and others, 2012). Like the earlier reports in this series, this report summarizes the methods of analysis, interprets the results of the analysis, provides explanations regarding long- and short-term trends and rates of shoreline change, and describes how different coastal communities are responding to coastal erosion. This report differs from the early USGS reports in the series in that those

  3. Genetic characterization of Zostera asiatica on the Pacific Coast of North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Talbot, S.L.; Wyllie-Echeverria, S.; Ward, D.H.; Rearick, J.R.; Sage, G.K.; Chesney, B.; Phillips, R.C.

    2006-01-01

    We gathered sequence information from the nuclear 5.8S rDNA gene and associated internal transcribed spacers, ITS-1 and ITS-2 (5.8S rDNA/ITS), and the chloroplast maturase K (matK) gene, from Zostera samples collected from subtidal habitats in Monterey and Santa Barbara (Isla Vista) bays, California, to test the hypothesis that these plants are conspecific with Z. asiatica Miki of Asia. Sequences from approximately 520 base pairs of the nuclear 5.8S rDNA/ITS obtained from the subtidal Monterey and Isla Vista Zostera samples were identical to homologous sequences obtained from Z. marina collected from intertidal habitats in Japan, Alaska, Oregon and California. Similarly, sequences from the matK gene from the subtidal Zostera samples were identical to matK sequences obtained from Z. marina collected from intertidal habitats in Japan, Alaska, Oregon and California, but differed from Z. asiatica sequences accessioned into GenBank. This suggests the subtidal plants are conspecific with Z. marina, not Z. asiatica. However, we found that herbarium samples accessioned into the Kyoto University Herbarium, determined to be Z. asiatica, yielded 5.8S rDNA/ITS sequences consistent with either Z. japonica, in two cases, or Z. marina, in one case. Similar results were observed for the chloroplast matK gene; we found haplotypes that were inconsistent with published matK sequences from Z. asiatica collected from Japan. These results underscore the need for closer examination of the relationship between Z. marina along the Pacific Coast of North America, and Z. asiatica of Asia, for the retention and verification of specimens examined in scientific studies, and for assessment of the usefulness of morphological characters in the determination of taxonomic relationships within Zosteraceae.

  4. Compiling Multibeam Sonar data for the U.S. Pacific West Coast Extended Continental Shelf Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, E.; Gardner, J. V.; Henderson, J. F.

    2011-12-01

    The United States Extended Continental Shelf (ECS) Project is a multi-agency collaboration whose goals are to determine and define a potential extension of the U.S. continental shelf beyond 200 nautical miles (nmi). Under international law as reflected in the 1982 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS), every coastal state is entitled to a continental shelf out to 200 nmi (the Exclusive Economic Zone) from its coastal baseline or out to a maritime boundary with another coastal country. The extended continental shelf (ECS) is the area that lies beyond this 200 nm limit where a country could gain sovereign rights to the resources of the seafloor and sub-seafloor. In 2007, the U.S. ECS Task Force designated NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) as the Data Management lead for the U.S. ECS Project and the data stewards and archival location for all data related to this project. The process to determine the outer limits of the ECS requires the collection and analysis of data that describe the depth, shape, and geophysical characteristics of the seafloor and sub-seafloor, as well as the thickness of the underlying sediments. The specific types of data that need to be collected include bathymetric data, seismic profiles, magnetic and gravity data, and other geophysical data. NGDC maintains several global geophysical databases, including bathymetric, seismic and geological data, all critical for supporting ECS analysis. Multibeam bathymetry is a primary dataset used for ECS analysis. Since 2003, the U.S. has collected more than 1.65 million square kilometers of multibeam bathymetric data from 18 cruises. One area where new data has been collected and where the U.S. may have an extended continental shelf is off the U.S. Pacific West Coast. New and old multibeam bathymetry archived at and delivered by NGDC were individually gridded by survey for an area within 48-30 degrees north latitude and -140 and -115 west longitude at a resolution of 210

  5. A study of a population of Nyssomyia trapidoi (Diptera: Psychodidae) caught on the Pacific coast of Ecuador

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Cutaneous leishmaniasis is endemic to the Pacific coast of Ecuador, and Nyssomyia trapidoi is considered to be its main vector. Dujardin et al. [1] recorded some differences in body pigmentation and isoenzymatic profiles in sympatric populations of Ny. trapidoi from the Pacific coast of Ecuador and suggested the existence of two cryptic species. Methods Entomological collections were performed in November 2008 and March 2011 in the locality of Paraíso Escondido using CDC miniature light traps and human bait. Morphological, isoenzymatical and molecular (sequencing of cytochome b and cytochrome c oxidase 1 of the mitochondrial DNA) analyses, such as detection of Leishmania DNA and phlebovirus RNA in some females, were performed. Results Neighbor-joining trees from mitochondrial sequences grouped all of Ecuadorian Ny. trapidoi (including the two color variants) in one cluster, except for two specimens which clustered separately in both genes. Isoenzymatic characterization confirmed that the color variants belong to the same population. Additionally, 11.5% of females were found by PCR to contain Endotrypanum monterogeii kinetoplastid DNA. All pools of Ny. trapidoi were negative for phlebovirus RNA. Conclusion Analysis of mitochondrial gene sequences and isoenzymes was unable to support the existence of two sibling species within Ny. trapidoi, which is a probable vector of Endotrypanum monterogeii. PMID:22824472

  6. Redistribution and growth of the Caspian Tern population in the Pacific Coast region of north America, 1981-2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Suryan, R.M.; Craig, D.P.; Roby, D.D.; Chelgren, N.D.; Collis, K.; Shuford, W.D.; Lyons, Donald E.

    2004-01-01

    We examined nesting distribution and demography of the Pacific Coast population of Caspian Terns (Sterna caspia) using breeding records and band recoveries spanning two decades since the first population assessment. Since 1980, population size has more than doubled to about 12 900 pairs, yet the proportion of the population nesting at inland (18%) versus coastal sites (82%) has remained constant. Although the breeding range of the Pacific Coast population has expanded northward into Alaska and farther south in Mexico, there was no net latitudinal shift in the distribution of breeding pairs or new colonies. The distribution of breeding birds among areas changed dramatically, however, with 69% of breeding terns now nesting in Oregon (primarily in the Columbia River estuary) versus 4% during the late 1970s. During the past 20 years, there has continued to be a greater proportion of Caspian Terns breeding at anthropogenic sites compared to natural sites. Estimated annual survival rates for hatch-year and after-third-year birds during 1981-1998 were greater than during 1955-1980, consistent with the higher rate of population increase in recent decades. Fecundity required to maintain a stable population (?? = 1) was estimated at 0.32-0.74 fledglings pair-1, depending on band recovery probabilities for sub-adults. Caspian Terns readily moved among breeding sites and rapidly colonized new areas; however, a greater concentration of breeding Caspian Terns among fewer colonies in response to anthropogenic factors is an important conservation concern for this species.

  7. Geochemistry of Dissolved Trace Metals in the Waters of Bahia Magdalena, Baja California Sur, Pacific Coast, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suresh Babu, S.

    2016-12-01

    Forty two samples were acquired from the surface and bottom water profiles along 5 transects spread over Bahia Magdalena lagoon, Baja California Sur to assess the behavior of trace metals in a high influenced upwelling region on the Pacific coast. To elaborate the fate of metals, also the physico-chemical parameters (pH, temperature, salinity, conductivity, dissolved oxygen). Determination of the concentrations of trace metals (Fe, Mn, Cr, Cu, Co, Pb, Ni, Zn, Cd As, Hg) were measured using Atomic absorption spectrometry. The results demonstrated high values of As, Ni and Co which is attributed to the local geology and phosphate deposits. Low values of Fe and Mn are attested to the oxic conditions of the lagoon which are responsible for the oxidation of Fe and Mn. The region witnesses raised temperatures (28.92ºC) and salinities of 35.2 PSU for its arid climatic conditions and high rates of evaporation. In general, the region presented minor quantities of dissolved trace metals due to dispersion and high intense interaction with the open sea. The results were also compared with other studies to understand the enrichment pattern in this side of the pacific coast which experiences various geothermal activities and upwelling phenomenon.

  8. Distribution and diversity of the enterococcal surface protein (esp) gene in animal hosts and the Pacific coast environment.

    PubMed

    Layton, B A; Walters, S P; Boehm, A B

    2009-05-01

    This study sought to evaluate the distribution of the enterococcal surface protein (esp) gene in Enterococcus faecium in the Pacific coast environment as well as the distribution and diversity of the gene in Northern California animal hosts. Over 150 environmental samples from the Pacific coast environment (sand, surf zone, fresh/estuarine, groundwater, and storm drain) were screened for the esp gene marker in E. faecium, and the marker was found in 37% of the environmental samples. We examined the host specificity of the gene by screening various avian and mammalian faecal samples, and found the esp gene to be widespread in nonhuman animal faeces. DNA sequence analysis performed on esp polymerase chain reaction amplicons revealed that esp gene sequences were not divergent between hosts. Our data confirm recent findings that the E. faecium variant of the esp gene is not human-specific. Our results suggest that the use of the esp gene for microbial source tracking applications may not be appropriate at all recreational beaches.

  9. Determining Intermediate Hosts for Opecoelidae and Microphallidae Species (Platyhelminthes: Trematoda) in the Southeastern Pacific Coast, Using Molecular Markers.

    PubMed

    Leiva, Natalia Verónica; López, Zambra; González, María Teresa; Muñoz, Gabriela

    2017-02-01

    Metacercarial stages of digeneans were collected from decapod crustaceans inhabiting intertidal rocky zones in central Chile. The digeneans were identified through a molecular analysis based on the V4 region of the 18S ribosomal RNA gene. We analyzed 356 crustaceans belonging to 10 species, 115 intertidal fish belonging to 6 species, and 4 specimens of 1 coastal bird species. In total, 74.1% of crustaceans were parasitized with metacercariae. We found 1 species of Opecoelidae. This species showed low genetic divergence (0% and 0.1%) with adult digeneans found in intertidal fish and with the species Helicometrina labrisomi infesting a subtidal fish from northern Chile (Labrisomus philippii). Additionally, we found 2 species of Microphallidae, 1 closely related to Maritrema (1.3% genetic distance) and the other related to Microphallus (5% genetic distance). Therefore, our findings showed that the decapod crustaceans are relevant hosts in food webs from the southeastern Pacific coast. Furthermore, we found 5 species of crustaceans as second intermediate hosts for H. labrisomi and 2 species as secondary intermediate hosts for 2 Microphallidae, which contribute to elucidate parts of their life cycles through molecular markers and extended the host distribution of H. labrisomi in the southeastern Pacific coast.

  10. Geographic distribution and environmental control of vertebral count in Ammodytes spp. along the northern Pacific coast of Japan.

    PubMed

    Aoyama, J; Yoshinaga, T; Tanaka, C; Ishii, K

    2017-03-01

    To examine species composition and population structures in sand lance (Ammodytidae) along the northern Pacific coast of Japan, genetic analysis were carried out for specimens collected in 2014 from Otsuchi Bay, Iwate, Ishinomaki Bay, Miyagi, off Soma, Fukushima and Ise-Mikawa Bays, Aichi. The samples consisted of Ammodytes japonicus and Ammodytes heian, of which the latter is a recently described species. Neither species exhibited significant genetic differences among localities. Only A. japonicus was found in the most southern locality at Aichi, but it decreased northward to <90% in Miyagi and Fukushima and the two species occurred almost evenly in Iwate suggesting a latitudinal cline in their species composition along the northern Pacific coast of Japan, off Tohoku. The vertebral counts differed between A. japonicus and A. heian with modes of 65 and 63, respectively, but this characteristic did not differ significantly within a locality (Iwate). This suggests that the vertebral counts of Ammodytes spp. in Japanese waters are probably strongly determined by the environment than by a species-specific genetic trait.

  11. Shallow very low frequency earthquakes off the Pacific coast of Tohoku, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuzawa, T.; Asano, Y.; Obara, K.

    2012-12-01

    Activities of shallow very low frequency earthquakes (VLFEs) have been reported around the trench axis of the off-Tokachi region, and the Nankai and the Ryukyu subduction zone around the Japan Islands (e.g., Obara and Ito, 2005; Asano et al., 2008; Ando et al., 2012). In NIED, epicenters of seismic sources including VLFEs are routinely located by an array analysis technique using Hi-net high-sensitivity accelerometers (Asano et al., 2008). Some of the epicenters are also located off the Pacific coast of Tohoku, Japan. However, these events are not fully examined, as most of these sources have been thought to arise from regular earthquakes and microseisms, and the number of events is much smaller than those in the previously reported region. In this study, we aim to detect VLFEs in the off-Tohoku region with a waveform correlation analysis. We examined waveforms of the events detected by the array analysis in the off-Tohoku region. Some of events are very similar to pre-known shallow VLFEs, which are dominant around the frequency of 0.05 Hz and have no clear signals in the high frequency band (above 1 Hz). We successfully estimated CMT solutions of some of these events, using F-net broadband seismometers and Hi-net high-sensitivity accelerometers. The result shows that these events are reverse-fault-type Mw~3.5 earthquakes, and located around the depth of the subducting plate interface. As a typical dominant frequency of regular earthquakes with similar magnitude and close hypocenter is several Hz, these events are considered as shallow VLFEs. To reveal the activity of the off-Tohoku VLFEs, other VLFEs were detected by a waveform correlation analysis using a template event. We selected two VLFEs as template events in the central and southern off-Tohoku region. Averaged cross correlation values for template events were calculated using broadband seismograms at surrounding F-net stations which are bandpass-filtered between 0.02 to 0.1 Hz. Finally, we visually checked

  12. Outer trench-slope faulting and the 2011 M w 9.0 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lay, Thorne; Ammon, Charles J.; Kanamori, Hiroo; Kim, Marina J.; Xue, Lian

    2011-07-01

    The 11 March 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake ( M w 9.0) produced megathrust displacements of at least 40 m. The resulting tsunami devastated the Honshu coast southwest of regions struck by earthquake-generated tsunami in 1611, 1896 and 1933. The 1896 Meiji-Sanriku earthquake was also an underthrusting earthquake, but the 1933 Sanriku-oki earthquake was a trench-slope normal faulting event; both generated inundation heights of 10 to 25 m along the coast of Iwate prefecture. Possible occurrence of a great outer trench-slope earthquake seaward of the 2011 Tohoku Earthquake along a southwestward extension of the 1933 fault zone is a concern. The second largest 2011 aftershock, an outer rise M w 7.7 normal faulting earthquake occurred near the southern end of the 1933 rupture. Additional aftershock activity has been distributed along a trend below the trench and diffusely spread in the outer rise, seaward of the megathrust region where the largest slip occurred. Coulomb stress perturbations of at least 5-10 bars are calculated for outer rise normal fault geometries for mainshock slip models. Whether a future great trench slope event will occur is uncertain, but the potential tsunamigenic hazard can be gauged by the huge inundations accompanying the 1933 rupture.

  13. Shifts in condition and distribution of eastern North Pacific flatfish along the U.S. west coast (2003-2010)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, Aimee A.; Bradburn, Mark J.; Simon, Victor H.

    2013-07-01

    Flatfish condition indices and distribution were examined along the U.S. west coast (55-1280 m) in relation to environmental variability and biomass using data from ten frequently occurring species collected in annual groundfish surveys from 2003 to 2010. The study was conducted during a period characterized by a cooling trend in the northern California Current system and by declining biomass for flatfish in general. Annual condition indices for six species (arrowtooth flounder, Dover sole, English sole, Pacific sanddab, petrale sole, and rex sole) were significantly related either to large-scale climatic indices (Pacific Decadal Oscillation, Multivariate El Niño-Southern Oscillation Index, North Pacific Gyre Oscillation) and/or annual biomass levels. Condition was most closely related to environmental effects rather than either biomass alone or both variables, with condition typically higher during cool climatic conditions. A similar analysis revealed that changes in distribution (measured as variation in annual catch-weighted mean latitude, longitude, depth and temperature) tended to be best described by models incorporating environmental effects and biomass rather than either variable alone. Linear trends in the center of distribution along a southeast-northwest axis were significant for seven species (arrowtooth flounder, deepsea sole, Dover sole, flathead sole, Pacific sanddab, petrale sole, and slender sole) with a tendency for flatfish to be displaced towards the southeast as environmental conditions shifted from warm to cooler conditions and biomass declined. A spatial distribution analysis indicated that for the majority of species (80%) the greatest magnitude of displacement (km) occurred when the centers of biomass were compared between environmental phases (average annual displacement 34 km) rather than changing biomass levels (average displacement 24 km). Taken together both approaches revealed that environmental changes and variation in biomass play

  14. Late-Quaternary climatic change on the American North Pacific Coast

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heusser, C. J.; Heusser, L. E.; Peteet, D. M.

    1985-01-01

    The late Quaternary climate of the North Pacific, where according to modelling the solar radiation in the early Holocene at the time of the summer solstice is high and in the late Holocene is relatively low, is investigated. Quantitative temperature and precipitation estimates from southern Alaska are compared with estimates from western Washington and British Columbia. Data extending over more than 10,000 years show a broadly consistent pattern of climatic change in general agreement with predicted variations in solar radiation and their effect on atmospheric circulation and seasonal duration of pressure systems over the North Pacific Ocean. In the early Holocene, the subtropical North Pacific anticyclone annually regulated climate for a longer period at higher latitudes than at present, so that warmth and dryness increased in southern Alaska. The Aleutian low-pressure center intensified during the late Holocene, resulting in colder and more humid coastal climate and increased frequency of glacier growth in the cordillera.

  15. New records of lampriform fishes (Teleostei: Lampriformes) from the Pacific coast of lower Central America, with comments on the diversity, taxonomy and distribution of the Lampriformes in the eastern Pacific Ocean.

    PubMed

    Angulo, Arturo; López-Sánchez, Myrna I

    2017-02-23

    New records of occurrence for four species of lampriform fishes (Teleostei: Lampriformes; Desmodema polystictum, Regalecus russelii, Trachipterus fukuzakii and Zu cristatus) poorly known or previously unknown for the Pacific coast of lower Central America (Costa Rica-Panama) are herein reported. Museum specimens supporting such records are characterized and described. Comparative morphometric and meristic data on other collections and species of lampriforms, as well as distributional information, are provided and discussed. Diversity, taxonomy and distribution of the eastern Pacific species of the order also are briefly discussed. Finally, a key to the eastern Pacific species of the Lampriformes, based on our research and data available in the literature, is presented.

  16. Colombian coal ahead of schedule

    SciTech Connect

    Kern, K.D.

    1985-01-01

    The north block zone of the Cerrejon mine is estimated to contain from 16 to 40 billion metric tons of coal in the 94,000 acres under development. The Cerrejon project is so rich, potentially, that it warranted Exxon and the Colombian government to construct a 90-mile railroad to haul the coal to the coast, and to expand the harbor to accommodate coal carriers up to 150,000 deadweight tons. This paper briefly discusses to the potential effect of Cerrejon coal on the world market and marketing plans of the company.

  17. Techno-Arrogance and Halfway Technologies: Salmon Hatcheries on the Pacific Coast of North America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meffe, Gary K.

    1993-01-01

    Discusses an attempt to recover Pacific salmonid fisheries with hatcheries as an example of a human attitude toward nature that places technological mastery over nature at the forefront of our approach to many environmental problems. Points out how this approach addresses the symptoms but not the causes of the salmon population decline. Suggests…

  18. A new species of Peltidium Philippi, 1839 (Crustacea, Copepoda, Harpacticoida) from the Pacific coast of Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Suárez-Morales, Eduardo; Jarquín-González, Jani

    2013-01-01

    Abstract During the analysis of phytal meiobenthic samples collected from a rocky-sandy beach in the state of Nayarit, in the Mexican Pacific, several specimens of harpacticoid copepods were obtained and taxonomically examined. These specimens were found to represent an undescribed species of the peltidiid genus Peltidium Philippi, 1839. The new species, Peltidium nayarit sp. n. is described herein. It resembles Peltidium nichollsi Geddes and Peltidium lerneri Geddes from Bahamas but also the widespread Peltidium speciosum Thompson & Scott and Peltidium purpureum Philippi. The new species from the Mexican Pacific differs from its known congeners by its possession of a unique combination of characters, including a modified pectinate seta on the antennary exopod, three terminal setae on the second endopodal segment of leg 1, third exopodal segment of leg 1 with three elements, inner terminal claw twice as long as outer claw, female fifth leg with 5 exopodal setae, exopodal setae I-III stout, spinulose and seta IV being as long as seta V. This is the second species of the family known to be distributed in the Eastern Tropical Pacific and in Mexico. Pending additional data, the distribution of this species appears to be restricted to this area of the Mexican Pacific. PMID:24003319

  19. Presumed drowning of Aleutian Canada geese on the Pacific coast of California and Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Springer, P.F.; Lowe, R.W.; Stroud, R.K.; Gullett, Patricia A.

    1989-01-01

    Carcasses of 42 and 17 Aleutian Canada geese (Branta canadensis leucopareia), a federally listed endangered species, were found on ocean beaches near Crescent City, California, and near Pacific City, Oregon, respectively, following severe storms. Necropsies and other information suggest that the birds were flushed during the storms and somehow entered the water where they were washed into the surf and drowned.

  20. Techno-Arrogance and Halfway Technologies: Salmon Hatcheries on the Pacific Coast of North America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meffe, Gary K.

    1993-01-01

    Discusses an attempt to recover Pacific salmonid fisheries with hatcheries as an example of a human attitude toward nature that places technological mastery over nature at the forefront of our approach to many environmental problems. Points out how this approach addresses the symptoms but not the causes of the salmon population decline. Suggests…

  1. Measuring nutrient flux in Pacific Coast salt marshes using fluctuating water-level chambers

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nutrient removal from the water column is an important ecosystem function that contributes to the production of clean water, a final valued ecosystem service of wetlands. However, little data is currently available for nutrient exchange in Pacific Northwest tidal ecosystems. We h...

  2. Family Forest Ownerships with 10+ Acres in the Pacific Coast region, 2011-2013

    Treesearch

    Brett J. Butler; Sarah M. Butler

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis program conducts the National Woodland Owner Survey in order to better understand: who owns America's forests, why they own it, what they have done with it in the past, and what they intend to do with it in the future. This document summarizes data on family forest ownerships with 10+ acres in the Pacific...

  3. Priorities for Implementation of the Northern Pacific Coast Regional Shorebird Management Plan

    Treesearch

    Joseph B. Buchanan

    2005-01-01

    Marine and upland habitats in western Washington and Oregon provide essential conditions for many wintering and migratory shorebird species along the Pacific Flyway. Known or potential threats to shorebirds include loss or degradation of habitat, invasion of exotic vegetation and invertebrates, environmental pollution, and human disturbance. Initial priority activities...

  4. Measuring nutrient flux in Pacific Coast salt marshes using fluctuating water-level chambers

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nutrient removal from the water column is an important ecosystem function that contributes to the production of clean water, a final valued ecosystem service of wetlands. However, little data is currently available for nutrient exchange in Pacific Northwest tidal ecosystems. We h...

  5. Three Cultures: The Hopi Indians of the Southwest Desert, the Indians of the Northwest Pacific Coast, and the People of Midwest U.S.A. An Anthropological Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marksberry, Mary Lee

    Intended to acquaint fifth-, sixth-, and seventh-grade children with the concept of culture, this anthropology unit focuses on two groups of Indians who lived in prehistoric times and present-day non-Indian families living in the Midwest. Objectives are to help students understand the behavior of the Northwest Pacific Coast Indians, the Hopi…

  6. Study of the diversity of culturable actinomycetes in the North Pacific and Caribbean coasts of Costa Rica

    PubMed Central

    Solano, Godofredo; Rojas-Jiménez, Keilor; Jaspars, Marcel

    2011-01-01

    In this study, 137 actinomycetes were isolated from subtidal marine sediments in the North Pacific and Caribbean coasts of Costa Rica. Bioinformatics analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequences assigned the isolates to 15 families and 21 genera. Streptomyces was the dominant genus while the remaining 20 genera were poorly represented. Nearly 70% of the phylotypes presented a coastal-restricted distribution whereas the other 30% were common inhabitants of both shores. The coastal tropical waters of Costa Rica showed a high diversity of actinomycetes, both in terms of the number of species and phylogenetic composition, although significant differences were observed between and within shores. The observed pattern of species distribution might be the result of several factors including the characteristics of the ecosystems, presence of endemic species and the influence of terrestrial runoff. PMID:19365710

  7. 210Pb-derived ages for the reconstruction of terrestrial contaminant history into the Mexican Pacific coast: potential and limitations.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Fernández, A C; Hillaire-Marcel, C

    2009-01-01

    (210)Pb is widely used for dating recent sediments in the aquatic environment; however, our experiences working in shallow coastal environments in the Pacific coast of Mexico have demonstrated that the potential of (210)Pb for reliable historical reconstructions might be limited by the low (210)Pb atmospheric fallout, sediment mixing, abundance of coarse sediments and the lack of (137)Cs signal for (210)Pb corroboration. This work discusses the difficulties in obtaining adequate sedimentary records for geochronological reconstruction in such active and complex settings, including examples of (210)Pb geochronologies based on sediment profiles collected in two contrasting areas coastal areas (mudflats associated to coastal lagoons of Sinaloa State and the continental shelf of the Gulf of Tehuantepec), in which geochemical data was used to support the temporal frame established and the changes in sediment supply recorded in the sediment cores which were related to the development of land-based activities during the last century.

  8. Prevalences of zoonotic bacteria among seabirds in rehabilitation centers along the Pacific Coast of California and Washington, USA.

    PubMed

    Steele, Christine M; Brown, Richard N; Botzler, Richard G

    2005-10-01

    Many seabirds are rehabilitated annually by wildlife rehabilitation centers along the Pacific Coast, USA. Although various strains of zoonotic bacteria have been isolated from seabirds, risks to rehabilitators at these centers have not been well documented. From November 2001 through January 2003, we determined the prevalence of detectable enteric fauna by isolation and characterization of Gram-negative bacteria from cloacal swabs taken from 26 common murres (Uria aalge), 49 gulls (Larus spp.), and 14 other seabirds treated by rehabilitators in California and Washington (USA). At least 25 bacterial species were identified, including multiple strains of Escherichia coli, as well as Enterobacter cloacae, Citrobacter freundii, and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Antibiotic resistance was found in 13 of 19 bacterial isolates tested, including E. coli, K. pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumanii, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Potential transfer of these bacteria poses a risk to wildlife rehabilitators and to seabirds in these centers, as well as to free-ranging birds.

  9. Temporal variation of cesium isotope concentrations and atom ratios in zooplankton in the Pacific off the east coast of Japan

    PubMed Central

    Ikenoue, Takahito; Takata, Hyoe; Kusakabe, Masashi; Kudo, Natsumi; Hasegawa, Kazuyuki; Ishimaru, Takashi

    2017-01-01

    After the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident in March 2011, concentrations of cesium isotopes (133Cs, 134Cs, and 137Cs) were measured in zooplankton collected in the Pacific off the east coast of Japan from May 2012 to February 2015. The time series of the data exhibited sporadic 137Cs concentration peaks in zooplankton. In addition, the atom ratio of 137Cs/133Cs in zooplankton was consistently high compared to that in ambient seawater throughout the sampling period. These phenomena cannot be explained fully by the bioaccumulation of 137Cs in zooplankton via ambient seawater intake, the inclusion of resuspended sediment in the plankton sample, or the taxonomic composition of the plankton. Autoradiography revealed highly radioactive particles within zooplankton samples, which could be the main factor underlying the sporadic appearance of high 137Cs concentrations in zooplankton as well as the higher ratio of 137Cs/133Cs in zooplankton than in seawater. PMID:28051136

  10. Temporal variation of cesium isotope concentrations and atom ratios in zooplankton in the Pacific off the east coast of Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikenoue, Takahito; Takata, Hyoe; Kusakabe, Masashi; Kudo, Natsumi; Hasegawa, Kazuyuki; Ishimaru, Takashi

    2017-01-01

    After the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident in March 2011, concentrations of cesium isotopes (133Cs, 134Cs, and 137Cs) were measured in zooplankton collected in the Pacific off the east coast of Japan from May 2012 to February 2015. The time series of the data exhibited sporadic 137Cs concentration peaks in zooplankton. In addition, the atom ratio of 137Cs/133Cs in zooplankton was consistently high compared to that in ambient seawater throughout the sampling period. These phenomena cannot be explained fully by the bioaccumulation of 137Cs in zooplankton via ambient seawater intake, the inclusion of resuspended sediment in the plankton sample, or the taxonomic composition of the plankton. Autoradiography revealed highly radioactive particles within zooplankton samples, which could be the main factor underlying the sporadic appearance of high 137Cs concentrations in zooplankton as well as the higher ratio of 137Cs/133Cs in zooplankton than in seawater.

  11. Stable Isotope Identification of Nitrogen Sources for United States (U.S.) Pacific Coast Estuaries

    EPA Science Inventory

    We used natural abundance stable isotope data to evaluate nitrogen sources to U.S. west coast estuaries. We collected δ15N of macroalgae data and supplemented this with available data from the literature for estuaries from Mexico to Alaska. Stable isotope ratios of green m...

  12. Stable Isotope Identification of Nitrogen Sources for United States (U.S.) Pacific Coast Estuaries

    EPA Science Inventory

    We used natural abundance stable isotope data to evaluate nitrogen sources to U.S. west coast estuaries. We collected δ15N of macroalgae data and supplemented this with available data from the literature for estuaries from Mexico to Alaska. Stable isotope ratios of green m...

  13. Tsunami records due to the 2010 Chile Earthquake observed by GPS buoys established along the Pacific coast of Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, T.; Terada, Y.; Nagai, T.; Koshimura, S.

    2010-12-01

    The twelve GPS buoys that have been established along the Pacific coast of Japan succeeded to record the tsunami due to the 2010 Central Chile Earthquake (Mw8.8) that occurred on 06:34:14, 27th of February 2010 (UTC) according to USGS, which is on 15:34:14 of the same day by the Japanese Standard Time (JST). We have developed GPS buoy for detecting tsunami for over 12 years, considering that early detection of tsunami serves for mitigating tsunami disaster. The current GPS buoy is now operational at about 10km west of Cape Muroto, southwest Japan. The Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism has implemented the similar system with eleven GPS buoys along the Pacific coast of Japan as a part of the Nationwide Ocean Wave information network for Ports and HArbourS (NOWPHAS) system. All of these GPS buoys are located within 20km from the coast. The 2010 Central Chile earthquake generated significant tsunami. The tsunami travelled across the Pacific Ocean and reached the Japanese coasts in about one day. We present the records of tsunamis that have been registered at these GPS buoys. The presentation tries to compare the records with numerically simulated data. The record of experimental GPS buoy operated nearby Muroto is low-pass filtered with 120seconds of cut-off to segregate the long wave length tsunami from higher frequency wind waves. The effect of tide is also removed from the filtered record. The obtained record is visualized through internet facility (http://www.tsunamigps.com/gpsreal.php). The tsunami due to the Chile earthquake arrived at the GPS buoy at around 3:22PM of 28th February (JST), which is nearly one day after the earthquake. The first peak of tsunami is about 12 centimeter above the mean sea surface height. The second peak arrives about one hour and 46 minutes later with about 20cm height, which is the highest peak among the series of the tsunami waves. The later phases of recognizable tsunami waves continued about one day after the

  14. Genetic signature analysis of Perkinsus marinus in Mexico suggests possible translocation from the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific coast of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Ek-Huchim, Juan Pablo; Aguirre-Macedo, Ma Leopoldina; Améndola-Pimenta, Monica; Vidal-Martínez, Victor Manuel; Pérez-Vega, Juan Antonio; Simá-Alvarez, Raúl; Jiménez-García, Isabel; Zamora-Bustillos, Roberto; Rodríguez-Canul, Rossanna

    2017-08-02

    The protozoan Perkinsus marinus (Mackin, Owen & Collier) Levine, 1978 causes perkinsosis in the American oyster Crassostrea virginica Gmelin, 1791. This pathogen is present in cultured C. virginica from the Gulf of Mexico and has been reported recently in Saccostrea palmula (Carpenter, 1857), Crassostrea corteziensis (Hertlein, 1951) and Crassostrea gigas (Thunberg, 1793) from the Mexican Pacific coast. Transportation of fresh oysters for human consumption and repopulation could be implicated in the transmission and dissemination of this parasite across the Mexican Pacific coast. The aim of this study was two-fold. First, we evaluated the P. marinus infection parameters by PCR and RFTM (Ray's fluid thioglycollate medium) in C. virginica from four major lagoons (Términos Lagoon, Campeche; Carmen-Pajonal-Machona Lagoon complex, Tabasco; Mandinga Lagoon, Veracruz; and La Pesca Lagoon, Tamaulipas) from the Gulf of Mexico. Secondly, we used DNA sequence analyses of the ribosomal non-transcribed spacer (rNTS) region of P. marinus to determine the possible translocation of this species from the Gulf of Mexico to the Mexican Pacific coast. Perkinsus marinus prevalence by PCR was 57.7% (338 out of 586 oysters) and 38.2% (224 out of 586 oysters) by RFTM. The highest prevalence was observed in the Carmen-Pajonal-Machona Lagoon complex in the state of Tabasco (73% by PCR and 58% by RFTM) and the estimated weighted prevalence (WP) was less than 1.0 in the four lagoons. Ten unique rDNA-NTS sequences of P. marinus [termed herein the "P. marinus (Pm) haplotype"] were identified in the Gulf of Mexico sample. They shared 96-100% similarity with 18 rDNA-NTS sequences from the GenBank database which were derived from 16 Mexican Pacific coast infections and two sequences from the USA. The phylogenetic tree and the haplotype network showed that the P. marinus rDNA-NTS sequences from Mexico were distant from the rDNA-NTS sequences of P. marinus reported from the USA. The ten r

  15. Effects of salinity on growth and survival in five Artemia franciscana (Anostraca: Artemiidae) populations from Mexico Pacific Coast.

    PubMed

    Castro-Mejía, Jorge; Castro-Barrera, Talía; Hernández-Hernández, Luis Héctor; Arredondo-Figueroa, José Luis; Castro-Mejía, Germán; de Lara-Andrade, Ramón

    2011-03-01

    Salinity is an important factor influencing growth and survival of aquatic organisms such as Artemia, a valuable aquaculture species. This study evaluated the effects of salinity on A. franciscana populations from different water bodies in Mexico's Pacific Coast. With this purpose, five autochthonous bisexual Artemia populations were tested to assess their survival and growth values against salinities of 40, 60, 80, 100 and 120 g/l, under laboratory conditions (25 +/- 2 degrees C; pH 8-10; constant light and aeration). The organisms were fed with 100 mL of rice bran and 2L of Tetraselmis suecica (500 000 cel/ml). The culture experiments were made in 200L plastic tanks, and survival and growth final values were obtained after 21 culture days. Survival and growth curves were determined by a regression analysis (R2). The significant differences between salinities were determined by ANOVA test (p < 0.05). The best survival and growth rates were found at salinities of 100-120 g/l. When the Mexican Artemia populations were cultivated at 40 g/l of salinity, 100% mortality was observed in the juvenile stage. This study determined that survival and growth values of A. franciscana populations increased with salinity. The five A. franciscana populations presented significant differences in their survival rate under various salinity regimes. The studied populations experienced high mortality at salinities under 60 g/l and over 200 g/l, and especially during the metanauplius stage. The present study confirms that growth rates in Mexican A. franciscana populations from Pacific Coast habitats are not inversely proportional to salinity. These A. franciscana populations should be cultured at 100-120 g/l of salinity to obtain better survival and growth rates. This data is useful to improve culture systems in aquaculture biomass production systems.

  16. Impact and Recovery Pattern of a Spring Fire on a Pacific Coast Marsh - Observations and Implications for Endangered Species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, L. N.; Willis, K. S.; Ambrose, R. F.; MacDonald, G. M.

    2015-12-01

    The flammability of California coastal marsh vegetation is highest in winter and spring when dominant high marsh plants such as Sarcocornia pacifica are dormant. With climate change the number of cool-season fires are increasing in the state, and marsh systems are becoming more vulnerable to fire disturbance. Very little information exists in peer-reviewed or grey literature on the presence of fire in Pacific Coast tidal marshes. In 1993, the Green Meadows fire in Ventura County, California burned a small portion of tidally influenced Sarcocornia­-dominated marsh at Point Mugu. After the May 2013 Springs Fire burned a similar portion of the salt marsh vegetation, we conducted a two-year vegetation recovery survey using transects of surface vegetation plots and MODIS derived NDVI remote sensing monitoring. Recovery during the first year was limited. Sixteen months into the recovery period, percent plant coverage reached an average of approximately 60% for all plots in the burned area, as opposed to an average of 100% in control plots, and remained at that level for the duration of the study. NDVI did not approach near pre-fire conditions until 19 months after the fire. While recovery may have been influenced by California's current extreme drought conditions, the recurrence of fire and rate of recovery raise many important questions as to the role of fire in Pacific coast tidal marshes. For example, the lack of Salicornia cover over more than an entire breeding season would be detrimental to protected species such as Rallus obsoletus. Fire adds new vulnerabilities on critical tidal marsh habitat already taxed by the threat of sea-level rise, coastal squeeze and invasive species.

  17. Regional variations of heavy metal concentrations in tissues of barnacles from the subtropical Pacific Coast of Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Paez-Osuna, F.; Bojorquez-Leyva, H.; Ruelas-Inzunza, J.

    1999-07-01

    Concentrations of Cd, Cu, Cr, Fe, Mn, Ni, Ag, Pb, and Zn in soft and hard tissues of barnacles from eight sampling sites in six harbors on the subtropical Pacific Coast of Mexico were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Some inter-regional differences in metal concentrations, especially concerning Zn, Mn, Fe, Cd, and Pb, were identified. The lowest concentrations of Cu, Cr, Fe, and Ag were observed in the barnacle populations from Ceuta Lagoon, an uncontaminated site with rural agriculture and semi-intensive shrimp farms in the surroundings. Conversely, the highest concentrations of: (1) Zn, Cu, and Ag were found in the soft tissues of Balanus eburneus from Mazatlan piers; (2) Pb, Ni, and Cd in the soft tissue of Megabalanus coccopoma from Puerto Vallarta; (3) Fe in the hard tissue of Balanus sp. from Guaymas Harbour; and (4) Mn in the hard tissue of M. coccopoma from Mazatlan Harbour. Inter-comparison of the present data indicates that the soft (mainly Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn) and the hard (mainly for Fe and Mn) tissues are useful in detecting areas of selected metallic contaminants. Barnacles such as B. eburneus, M. coccopoma, and Fistulobalanus dentivarians appear to be convenient biomonitors for identification of coastal waters exposed to Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn, Ni, Mn, Fe, and Ag in the American region of the subtropical Pacific.

  18. Ostreid herpesvirus type 1 genomic diversity in wild populations of Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas from Italian coasts.

    PubMed

    Burioli, E A V; Prearo, M; Riina, M V; Bona, M C; Fioravanti, M L; Arcangeli, G; Houssin, M

    2016-06-01

    Ostreid herpesvirus 1 (OsHV-1) is a significant pathogen affecting the young Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas, worldwide. A new variant, OsHV-1 μVar, has been associated with recurrent mortality events in Europe since 2008. Epidemiological data collection is key for global risk assessment; however little is known about health status and genotypes present in European wild oyster beds. Most studies to date have involved only cultivated individuals during mortality events, and reported low genotype diversity. With this study, conducted along the Italian coasts, we investigated for the first time the presence of OsHV-1 in European natural oyster beds. Analysis of three genomic regions revealed the presence of at least nine different genotypes, including two variants close to the OsHV-1 reference, known since the early 1990s but with no European record reported since 2010, and highlights relevant genotype diversity in natural environment. Phylogenetic analysis distinguished two distinct clusters and geographical distribution of genotypes, with the exception of a variant very closely related to the μVar, which appeared the single genotype present in all the Adriatic sites. Interestingly, these wild symptom free populations could represent, in Europe, an accessible alternative to the import of OsHV-1-resistant oyster strains from the East Pacific, the native area of C. gigas, avoiding the high-risk of non-native marine species and new pathogen introductions.

  19. The Contribution of Trans-Pacific Submicron Aerosols and Local Particle Nucleation Bursts to California's Air Quality as Seen from the Pacific Coast Mountain Range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asher, E. C. C.; Christensen, J. N.; Post, A.; Faloona, I. C.

    2015-12-01

    The long-range transport of dust and anthropogenic aerosols to the Western US has received considerable attention due to the growing disparity between North American and Asian air quality. Using MODIS and space-borne LIDAR measurements some have argued that the transcontinental transport of dust from Asia, Africa, and Europe outweighs that of locally produced combustion aerosols (Yu et al. 2012). This study seeks to compare the aerosol composition, number, and size distribution of locally derived submicron aerosols (including particle nucleation events) vs. long-range transported aerosols observed at a remote mountain site near the Pacific Coast. Toward this aim, rotating drum impactor (RDI) and scanning mobility particle size (SMPS) measurements of size-segregated elemental compositions and size spectra were collected from February to November of 2012 at Chews Ridge (elevation 1450 m) in Monterey County, California. This mountaintop site experiences two main wind modes. The main mode is ohshore-directed winds from the southwest, which are most likely to bring trans-Pacific aerosols to the site; and offshore-directed, northeasterly winds that bring continental aerosols to the site from the interior of California. Elemental ratios (normalized to Al), matrix factorization, and a k-cluster analysis of these data suggest distinct crustal, combustion, and marine sources with considerable seasonal as well as short-term variability. HYSPLIT model back trajectories support the hypothesized sources of these submicron aerosols. Locally, SMPS data reveal consistent nucleation bursts and subsequent growth in the 20-60 nm range during the afternoons. A distinct but weaker diel cycle was observed in the 70 - 100 nm range, corresponding to the smallest RDI impactor stage. Finally, the Pb isotopic composition (206Pb/207Pb and 208Pb/207Pb) of aerosol samples from selected dates will be measured by MC-ICPMS to further identify aerosol origins (e.g. Ewing et al. 2010).

  20. The Pacific Coast Fog Project: A Multi-disciplinary Effort to Provide Web-based Climate Products for Ecologists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torregrosa, A.; Combs, C.; Ellrod, G. P.; Faloona, I. C.; Gultepe, I.

    2012-12-01

    The Pacific Coast Fog Project is an effort to pool the expertise from multiple science disciplines to provide regional and local climate information on the frequency and character of fog for effective management of coastal California natural resources. Marine stratocumulus (fog) is a major modifier of the climatic condition along the Pacific coast and has significant effects on the hydrologic cycle and thermodynamic balance in coastal ecological, biological, and economic systems. For example fog is the major source of moisture during summer months for redwood forests, a treasured natural resource. Fog also modulates shallow stream temperatures to reduce the mortality rate of young salmon during their freshwater life stages and adults returning from the ocean to spawn. Fog induced cooling reduces summer energy costs along the Pacific Coast and reduces sun burn on crops such as grapes that are important to the local economy. Furthermore, disruptions in fog distribution or frequency resulting from future climate change would change evapotranspiration rates impacting California water supply and use. Coastal fog is a complex phenomenon with many measurable parameters including extent, frequency, and duration of cloud cover; cloud deck thickness, liquid water content, base height above land, density, heterogeneity, and thermal properties. Variations in fog are a result of processes acting at multiple scales across ocean-land-atmosphere boundaries. Factors that drive the occurrence, duration, and type of fog events along the coast include dynamics of atmospheric summertime inversions, synoptic weather patterns, ocean upwelling, topography, aerosol-cloud dynamics, and differences in temperature between inland valleys and the littoral ocean areas. Estimating the distribution, frequency and characteristics of coastal fog and stratus and evaluating the resulting ecosystem responses require a diverse array of measurements and models that link processes at multiple scales. The

  1. Developing an Acquisition Strategy for the Colombian Navy’s New Strategic Surface Ships

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-01

    integrity of the Colombian maritime territory and enforce government policies concerning the use of the sea. Today the strategic fleet fulfilling these...and well-trained military service performing the constitutional mission to defend the integrity of the Colombian maritime territory and enforce...in the Caribbean Sea and in the Pacific Ocean. The Colombian maritime territory approximately equals its land dimension at almost a million square

  2. Time-space distribution of tsunamigenic earthquakes along the Pacific and Bering coasts of Kamchatka: insight from paleotsunami deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinegina, Tatiana

    2014-05-01

    Kamchatka and Kurile islands are the most seismically active regions of our planet. Strong earthquakes along Kuril-Kamchatka subduction and the west margin of Bering Sea usually generate tsunami. All intensive tsunami leave the geological traces at the coasts. Data about past tsunami, obtained during last ~20 yr, extend significantly the short historical catalogue of such events. Basing on the distribution of tsunami deposits the runup height and inundation distance for historical tsunami and paleotsunami were estimated, as well as sources and magnitudes of tsunamigenic earthquakes for the past ~2000 years. In excavations along the Bering Sea coast 10 layers of tsunami deposits within this period of time were identified. Earthquakes magnitudes (Mt) calculated from tsunami height at the nearest coasts by Abe relation (Abe, 1999) vary between 7.0 and 8.3, and their recurrence interval is 175 to 250 years. In sections along the Kamchatsky Bay coast 15 layers with tsunami deposits for the past ~2000 years were identified. Average recurrence interval of strong tsunami (with runup >3-4 m) there is 125-145 year, and estimated Mt vary between 7.6 and 8.4. Two earthquakes, which took place in the Kamchatsky Bay during the past ~2000 year, caused 1 to 2 m of coseismic subsidence of the coast. At the Kronotsky Bay coast for the past ~2000 years average recurrence interval of tsunami with runup >3-5 m is ~100 year. At the Avachinsky Bay coast the average recurrence interval of all detected tsunami (for the past ~2000 years) is about 100 years. At the southern Kamchatka and northern Kurile Island it lowers to 70-80 years, and calculated magnitudes Mt of tsunamigenic earthquakes fall in an interval from 6.7 to 8.7. Average recurrence of tsunami with runup >5 m at the open bays and >2 m at the closed bays from Avachinsky Bay to northern Kuriles is 130-150 year. Three tsunamigenic earthquakes (1952 AD, 1737 AD, ~600 AD) were accompanied by coastal coseismic subsidence. Each of

  3. A Capture to Remember: Monitoring the Health of Avian Scavengers on the Pacific Coast.

    PubMed

    Varland, Daniel E

    2015-09-01

    Because of concern over risks to the health of avian communities on the Washington and Oregon coasts, the nonprofit Coastal Raptors and other partners initiated a study where, to date, Coastal Raptors has live-captured and sampled 27 bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus), 27 turkey vultures (Cathartes aura), and 6 common ravens (Corvus corax) for contaminants and disease study. In this article, the author highlights the events of one of the nearly 100 days on which trapping has occurred. An adult bald eagle was captured north of Ocean Shores, WA, USA, and the trapping team was visited by Quinault Indian Nation members.

  4. Cryptic species and historical biogeography of eel gobies (Gobioidei: Odontamblyopus) along the northwestern Pacific coast.

    PubMed

    Tang, Weixing; Lshimatsu, Atsushi; Fu, Cuizhang; Yin, Wei; Li, Guo; Chen, Hui; Wu, Qianhong; Li, Bo

    2010-01-01

    Cryptic species are common in gobioid fishes, as revealed by recent molecular studies. This study collected molecular and morphological data to delimit species boundaries and to reveal the historical biogeography of Odontamblyopus lacepedii sensu lato by sampling 87 specimens from 16 locations in the northwestern Pacific. Phylogenetic trees based on mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase subunit 5 sequences identified three major clades. Clear morphological separations among these clades were detected by examining morphological characters used in taxonomic diagnosis. Therefore, these clades were delineated as three separate species: O. lacepedii sensu stricto (in the East China Sea, Yellow Sea, Gulf of Bohai, and Ariake Bay); O. sp. (in the southern East China Sea and southern Yellow Sea); and O. rebecca (in the Gulf of Tonkin, northern South China Sea, and southern East China Sea). Estimated divergence times were 0.61 +/- 0.15 Ma between O. lacepedii and O. sp., and 2.31+/-0.36 Ma between O. rebecca and O. lacepedii+O. sp. These findings indicate that isolation of marginal seas and habitat fragmentation during major falls in sea level in the late Pliocene and Pleistocene may have been responsible for genetic breaks among Odontamblyopus species in the northwestern Pacific.

  5. Coastal Deformation Patterns Along the Nicoya Seismic Gap, Pacific Coast, Costa Rica, Central America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, J. S.; Khaw, F.; Parra, J. G.; Annis, L. K.; Protti, M.

    2004-12-01

    The Nicoya Peninsula, Costa Rica provides a unique setting for the study of upper plate deformation along the Middle America convergent margin. Located 60-70 km inboard of the trench axis, this outer fore arc peninsula sits directly above the seismogenic zone. A sequence of emergent marine terraces along the Nicoya coast records the net pattern of late Quaternary uplift associated with the subduction cycle. The last major earthquake centered beneath the peninsula (Mw=7.7, 1950) produced widespread damage and generated 0.5-1.0 m of coseismic uplift along the peninsula's coast. With a large slip deficit since 1950, the Nicoya Peninsula is recognized as a high-potential seismic gap. Ongoing field study of uplifted Quaternary shorelines provides an excellent opportunity to evaluate local deformation patterns and large earthquake repeat times. Recent mapping of late Pleistocene marine terraces along the peninsula's northern coast allows for comparison with those previously mapped along the peninsula's southern tip. The "Iguanazul surface" on the northern coast between Tamarindo and Nosara encompasses at least three separate wave-cut treads that preserve paleo-shorelines at 10-12 m, 18-22 m, and 26-32 m elevation. Preliminary correlations with late Pleistocene sea level high stands at 80-330 ka (OIS 5-9) indicate net uplift rates of 0.1 - 0.3 m/k.y. Holocene beach rock horizons along the active beach yield calibrated radiocarbon ages of 1610 and 760 ybp (Playa Negra and Playa Lagarto), consistent with net Holocene uplift at less than 0.5 m/k.y. In contrast, the "Cobano surface" at the peninsula's southern tip (Cabo Blanco) includes at least five distinct Pleistocene terrace treads separated by well-defined risers at 30-220 m elevation. Holocene uplift rates here range from 1.0 - 6.0 m/k.y. along an emergent Holocene terrace (Cabuya surface). The order-of-magnitude difference in Quaternary uplift rates between the northern and southern Nicoya Peninsula may be linked to

  6. [Community structure of zooxanthellate corals (Anthozoa: Scleractinia) in Carrizales coral reef, Pacific coast, Mexico].

    PubMed

    Reyes-Bonilla, Hector; Escobosa-González, Laura Elena; Cupul-Magaña, Amilcar L; Medina-Rosas, Pedro; Calderón-Aguilera, Luis E

    2013-06-01

    Coral reefs in the Mexican Pacific and notably those of the continental coastline of Colima state are still poorly studied. Fortunately, recent efforts have been carried out by researchers from different Mexican institutions to fill up these information gaps. The aim of this study was to determine the ecological structure of the rich and undisturbed coral building communities of Carrizales by using the point transect interception method (25m-long). For this, three survey expeditions were conducted between June and October 2005 and September 2006; and for comparison purposes, the reef was subdivided according to its position in the bay, and depth (0 to 5 m, and 6 to 10 m). Thirteen coral species were observed in the area, with Pocillopora verrucosa as the most abundant, contributing up to 32.8% of total cover, followed by Porites panamensis and Pocillopora capitata with 11% and 7%, respectively. Other species, Pocillopora damicornis, Pavona gigantea, Pocillopora eydouxi and Pocillopora inflata accounted for 1.5% to 2% of coral cover whereas the remaining five species had cover of less than 1%. Seven of the observed species represented new records for Colima state coastline: Pocillopora eydouxi, P inflata, P meandrina, Pavona duerdeni, P varians, Psammocora stellata and P contigua. This last species is a relevant record, because it has never been observed before in the Eastern Pacific. Although there was no significant difference (ANOVA, p = 0.478) neither in the abundance between the sides of the bay, nor between the depths considered, and the shallow zone observed the higher coral cover. Live coral cover was up to 61%, one of the highest ever reported for the Mexican Pacific, including the Gulf of California. The observed values of diversity (H' = 0.44 +/- 0.02), uniformity (J' = 0.76 +/- 0.02), and taxonomic distinctness index (delta* = 45.87 +/- 3.16), showed that currently this is the most important coral reef of Colima coastline. Currently, this region does not

  7. A new species of Leptoderma Vaillant, 1886 (Osmeriformes: Alepocephalidae) from the Pacific coast of Central America.

    PubMed

    Angulo, Arturo; Baldwin, Carole C; Robertson, D Ross

    2016-01-18

    A new species of Leptoderma Vaillant, 1886 is described from a single specimen trawled at 1368-1406 m depth off El Salvador, Central America, tropical eastern Pacific. Leptoderma ospesca n. sp. can be readily distinguished from its congeners by the following combination of characters: dermal papillae absent along the lateral line, pectoral-fin rays 6, pelvic-fin rays 5, pre-dorsal length 54.9% of SL, both dorsal and anal fins separated from the caudal fin, dorsal- and anal-fin rays long, procurrent caudal-fin rays numerous and extending far forward on caudal peduncle, caudal-fin rays 16, and total pre-ural vertebrae 60. A key to the species of the genus is presented.

  8. Chlorinated hydrocarbons in coastal lagoons of the pacific coast of Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, F P; Montenegro-Guillen, S; Villeneuve, J; Cattini, C; Bartocci, J; Lacayo, M; Cruz, A

    1999-02-01

    A screening for persistent chlorinated hydrocarbons was carried out in December 1995 in the main coastal lagoons on the Pacific side of Nicaragua, where most of the country's agriculture and pesticide use has been taking place for decades. Results for a wide range of organochlorine pesticides in lagoon sediments show levels that generally were very low in Estero Real, Estero Padre Ramos, and estuary of San Juan del Sur. For example, total DDTs in these lagoons averaged 4.5 +/- 3.4 ng g-1 dry weight, which may be considered a baseline level for the region. Other compounds such as HCHs, BHC, endosulfan, heptachlor, endrin, toxaphene, and aroclors were present in concentrations even lower, generally below 1 ng g-1 dry weight. However, sediments of the Esteros Naranjo-Paso Caballos system at Chinandega district contained pesticide residues in much higher levels, attaining maximum values of 1,420 ng g-1 and 270 ng g-1 dry weight, respectively, for toxaphene and total DDTs. Other compounds such as aroclors, chlordane, endosulfan, and dieldrin were also present in the sediments of this lagoon system, but in lower concentrations. The very high concentrations of toxaphene and DDTs in this lagoon are a result of the intensive use of these pesticides in cotton growing in the district of Chinandega. Due to the long environmental half-lives of these compounds (t(1/2) > 10 years in temperate soils), their concentrations in lagoon sediments will likely remain high for years to come. Based on these results, the development of the new shrimp farming activities in the Pacific coastal lagoons should be restricted to selected areas.

  9. Inundation, vegetation, and sediment effects on litter decomposition in Pacific Coast tidal marshes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Janousek, Christopher; Buffington, Kevin J.; Guntenspergen, Glenn R.; Thorne, Karen M.; Dugger, Bruce D.; Takekawa, John Y.

    2017-01-01

    The cycling and sequestration of carbon are important ecosystem functions of estuarine wetlands that may be affected by climate change. We conducted experiments across a latitudinal and climate gradient of tidal marshes in the northeast Pacific to evaluate the effects of climate- and vegetation-related factors on litter decomposition. We manipulated tidal exposure and litter type in experimental mesocosms at two sites and used variation across marsh landscapes at seven sites to test for relationships between decomposition and marsh elevation, soil temperature, vegetation composition, litter quality, and sediment organic content. A greater than tenfold increase in manipulated tidal inundation resulted in small increases in decomposition of roots and rhizomes of two species, but no significant change in decay rates of shoots of three other species. In contrast, across the latitudinal gradient, decomposition rates of Salicornia pacifica litter were greater in high marsh than in low marsh. Rates were not correlated with sediment temperature or organic content, but were associated with plant assemblage structure including above-ground cover, species composition, and species richness. Decomposition rates also varied by litter type; at two sites in the Pacific Northwest, the grasses Deschampsia cespitosa and Distichlis spicata decomposed more slowly than the forb S. pacifica. Our data suggest that elevation gradients and vegetation structure in tidal marshes both affect rates of litter decay, potentially leading to complex spatial patterns in sediment carbon dynamics. Climate change may thus have direct effects on rates of decomposition through increased inundation from sea-level rise and indirect effects through changing plant community composition.

  10. Comparison of the genetic background of different Colombian populations using the SNPforID 52plex identification panel.

    PubMed

    Ibarra, Adriana; Freire-Aradas, Ana; Martínez, Martha; Fondevila, Manuel; Burgos, German; Camacho, Mauricio; Ostos, Henry; Suarez, Zuleyma; Carracedo, Angel; Santos, Sidney; Gusmão, Leonor

    2014-01-01

    Various strategies for analysing SNP markers and genotyping have been published with the goal of obtaining informative profiles from biological samples that contain only small amounts of template and/or degraded DNA. In this study, a multiplex assay of 52 autosomal single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) was used to analyse 438 individuals from urban populations from different regions of Colombia, as well as a sample of 50 Native American individuals of the Pastos ethnic group from Nariño. To determine if significant differences in these 52 SNPs exist between the distinct regions of Colombia, genetic distance and admixture analyses were performed based on the available data for 17 different Colombian population groups and for population groups from Africa, Europe and America. The results demonstrate significant differences between the populations from the Southwest Andean, Central-West Andean, Central-East Andean, Orinoquian and northern Colombian Pacific Coast regions. Most of the regions exhibited a European and Native American admixture. One exception is the population from the region of Chocó (on the northern Pacific Coast), which exhibits a high proportion of African admixture (54 %). From the observed genetic backgrounds, it is possible to conclude that a single reference database for the entire country would not be suitable for forensic purposes. The allele frequencies and the forensically relevant parameters were calculated for all of the markers in each Colombian region with significant values for the combined matching probability (power of discrimination ≥0.99999999999999990) and the combined probability of exclusion (≥0.9990) in trios that were obtained from all of the population groups.

  11. Plesionika sanctaecatalinae Wicksten, 1983 (Crustacea Decapoda Caridea Pandalidae) from off the west coast of Pacific Mexico.

    PubMed

    Hendrickx, Michel E

    2016-05-17

    A large series of specimens of Plesionika sanctaecatalinae was obtained during sampling operations off the west coast of the Baja California Peninsula in 2012 and 2014 (TALUD cruises). This material was examined and compared to the original description, the holotype and two paratypes. Although the fresh material fit well with the type material examined, some discrepancies were noted in the illustrations of the original description, particularly regarding scaphocerite and the telson, and new illustrations are provided. The series of sample available from the TALUD cruises allow to increase considerably the number of localities known for this species in the California Current area. A series of unpublished records corresponding to material examined in the original description but not listed in details, allows for further increase of the number of reported localities where P. sanctaecatalinae has been collected. Its vertical distribution in the water column, however, remains unclear due to the fact that no discrete samples are available for this species.

  12. Investigation of mercury deposition and potential sources at six sites from the Pacific Coast to the Great Basin, USA.

    PubMed

    Wright, Genine; Gustin, Mae Sexauer; Weiss-Penzias, Peter; Miller, Matthieu B

    2014-02-01

    The Western Airborne Contaminants Assessment Project showed that USA National Parks had fish mercury (Hg) concentrations above threshold concentrations set for wildlife. Since significant areas of the Western USA are arid, we hypothesized that dry deposition would be important. The primary question was whether sources of Hg were local and thus, easily addressed, or regional (from within the United States), or global (long range transport), and more difficult to address. To investigate this, surrogate surfaces and passive samplers for the measurement of GOM deposition and concentration, respectively, were deployed from the coast of California to the eastern edge of Nevada. Meteorological data, back trajectory modeling, and ozone concentrations were applied to better understand potential sources of Hg. Lowest seasonal mean Hg deposition (0.2 to 0.4 ng m(-2)h(-1)) was observed at low elevation (<100 m) Pacific Coast sites. Highest values were recorded at Lick Observatory, a high elevation coastal site (1,279 m), and Great Basin National Park (2,062 m) in rural eastern Nevada (1.5 to 2.4 ng m(-2)h(-1)). Intermediate values were recorded in Yosemite and Sequoia National Parks (0.9 to 1.2 ng m(-2)h(-1)). Results indicate that local, regional and global sources of air pollution, specifically oxidants, are contributing to observed deposition. At Great Basin National Park air chemistry was influenced by regional urban and agricultural emissions and free troposphere inputs. Dry deposition contributed ~2 times less Hg than wet deposition at the coastal locations, but 3 to 4 times more at the higher elevation sites. Based on the spatial trends, oxidation in the marine boundary layer or ocean sources contributed ~0.4 ng m(-2)h(-1) at the coastal locations. Regional pollution and long range transport contributed 1 to 2 ng m(-2)h(-1) to other locations, and the source of Hg is global and as such, all sources are important to consider. © 2013.

  13. Historic and ancient tsunamis uncovered on the Jalisco-Colima Pacific coast, the Mexican subduction zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramírez-Herrera, María Teresa; Bógalo, María Felicidad; Černý, Jan; Goguitchaichvili, Avto; Corona, Néstor; Machain, María Luisa; Edwards, Arturo Carranza; Sosa, Susana

    2016-04-01

    Research on extreme wave events such as tsunamis using the geological record in areas of infrequent and or small magnitude earthquakes can aid in extending the long-term history and recurrence intervals of large events. This information is valuable for risk management and community preparedness in coastal areas. Here we investigate tsunami deposits on the Jalisco coast of Mexico that overlies the subducting Rivera Plate under the North American plate, an area due for a large thrust earthquake and potential tsunami. Here, we apply a full battery of rock-magnetic analyses that also include a detailed AMS study and other typically applied proxies in tsunami deposits research. We present evidence to demonstrate that anomalous sand units with sharp basal contacts at La Manzanilla, Tenacatita Bay, and El Tecuán shore sites on the Jalisco coast may be the products of tsunamis generated by known historical (Ms 8.2 earthquake of 3 June 1932) and other earlier tsunamigenic earthquakes. A sandy unit with a sharp basal contact, flame structures at the base, rip-up clasts at La Manzanilla, and four sand units with sharp basal contact overlying buried soils at El Tecuán, together with other proxies, such as magnetic properties and others, suggest tsunami deposits. 210Pb dating of sediments slightly above the upper sand layer indicate an age A.D. 1935 ± 11 at El Tecuán. Historical accounts of tsunami inundation at both sites provide further evidence that this is most probably the result of the 3 June 1932 tsunami. Hence this study may provide the first evidence of a tsunami triggered by this earthquake and also of three probable predecessors. Further evidence of at least three earlier tsunamis that occurred since the fifteenth century is also evident in the stratigraphy. These events may correspond to events listed in historical archives, namely the 1563, 1816, and/or the 1818 events.

  14. Investigation on Preparation Process of the 2011off the Pacific Coast of Tohoku Earthquake (Mw 9.0) By GPS Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hattori, K.; Han, P.; Tsuruta, N.

    2014-12-01

    The dense continuous GPS Earth Observation Network of Japan (GEONET) of the Geospatial Information Authority of Japan (GSI) has been in practice since 1994. So far, the GEONET data have been widely used for precisely detecting co- and post-seismic deformations. In this paper, we have investigated the long-term surface motion prior to the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku earthquake (Mw 9.0). Long-term linear trends of precise daily coordinates of GEONET stations have been analyzed and clear changes of the deformation rate starting from about 1.4 year before the mega event have been detected. These changes of the surface deformation rate suggest those of stress accumulation. The spatial distributions of deformation rate have shown westward directional changes in a large area along the Pacific coast prior to the mega event.

  15. Relationship between the Southeast Pacific Anticyclone and the upwelling favorable winds along the west coast of South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguirre, C.

    2016-02-01

    The Eastern Boundary Upwelling Systems maintains high productive fisheries and marine ecosystems. In particular, the influence of the Southeast Pacific Anticyclone (SPA) results in predominantly southerly winds that sustain the Humboldt Upwelling System (HUS) along the west coast of South America. Under this classical picture, paleoclimatic reconstructions of winds using coastal marine sediments have often assumed that an increase in upwelling favorable winds equals to an intensified SPA through geostrophic adjustment. On the other hand, climate projections under warming scenarios show an increase of the upwelling intensity at the HUS south of 35ºS. Nevertheless, connection between changes in the SPA and upwelling favorable winds has not been considered in detail and Bakuńs hypothesis (i.e. alongshore winds intensified by strengthening the land-sea thermal difference in upwelling regions) has concentrated more attention. We use reanalysis data (CFSR), as well as historical and future simulations of 27 models of the CMIP5 project to investigate the relationship between the SPA and the upwelling favorable winds at several latitudes along the HUS during the upwelling season (Dec-Jan-Feb). Results show a significant relationship between the intensity of the SPA and the upwelling favorable winds south of 35ºS, but not further north. No significant relationship at lower latitudes is probably due to the frequent occurrence of a synoptic low-level jet, which is forced by an alongshore pressure gradient. Composite of the reanalysis data reveal that an increase of upwelling favorable winds at 30ºS is accompanied by an intensified SPA and an increment of the synoptic variability at the coast. In contrast, an increase of upwelling favorable winds at higher latitudes (south of 35ºS) is mainly due to a displacement of the SPA and a decrease of the synoptic variability at the coast is observed. The CMIP5 models show a positive tendency of the SPA intensity which produces an

  16. Migration and stopover strategies of individual Dunlin along the Pacific coast of North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Warnock, N.; Takekawa, John Y.; Bishop, M.A.

    2004-01-01

    We radio-marked 18 Dunlin, Calidris alpina (L., 1758), at San Francisco Bay, California, and 11 Dunlin at Grays Harbor, Washington, and relocated 90% of them along the 4200 km long coastline from north of San Francisco Bay to the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, Alaska. The Copper River Delta, Alaska, was the single most important stopover site, with 79% of the marked birds detected there. Our second most important site was the Willapa Bay and Grays Harbor complex of wetlands in Washington. The mean length of stay past banding sites ranged from 1.0 to 3.8 days. Controlling for date of departure, birds banded at San Francisco Bay had higher rates of travel to the Copper River Delta than those banded at Grays Harbor. The later a bird left a capture site, the faster it traveled to the Copper River Delta. Length of stay at the Copper River Delta was inversely related to arrival date. We did not find any effect of sex on travel rate or length of stay. Combining the results of this study with our previous work on Western Sandpipers, Calidris mauri (Cabanis, 1875), reveals variation of migration strategies used within and among shorebird species along the eastern Pacific Flyway. ?? 2004 NRC.

  17. Reproductive dynamics of Pacific sanddab, Citharichthys sordidus, off the central coast of California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lefebvre, Lyndsey S.; Payne, Amber M.; Field, John C.

    2016-01-01

    Female Pacific sanddab were collected from the Monterey Bay, California to describe their reproductive strategy and annual reproductive cycle, as well as to estimate length at maturity, fecundity, spawning fraction (SF), and spawning interval (SI). Captive females were held to examine degradation of spawning markers and confirmed the biological spawning capabilities of the species. The reproductive season extended from May through January, as determined through macroscopic and histological examination of ovaries. Oocyte development was asynchronous, and an indeterminate fecundity pattern was displayed. Absolute and relative batch fecundity values were variable (means = 6663 eggs and 54 eggs g- 1 somatic weight, respectively) and significantly related to maternal length. During the period of highest reproductive activity, SF ranged from 0.42 to 0.98, suggesting some females were spawning on a daily basis. Monthly SF and SI were related to length, with smaller females having a truncated season and lower SF compared to larger females. Lengths at 50% (119 mm) and 95% (149 mm) maturity showed a downward shift relative to the 1940s, though the magnitude and cause of this shift remain unknown. This study highlights the importance of considering demographic shifts and size-related dynamics when modeling a stock's reproductive potential.

  18. Seismic and aseismic fault slip before and during the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyazaki, S.; McGuire, J. J.; Segall, P.

    2011-07-01

    The March 11, 2011, off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake is the first great subduction zone earthquake to be recorded by a dense, modern network of geodetic quality Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers, and hence presents an unprecedented opportunity to study the evolution of fault slip during the time periods immediately before, during, and after a truly great earthquake. We utilized sub-daily GPS data to constrain the slip distribution in the March 9 Mw 7.3 foreshock, the 50-hour time period between the foreshock, and the coseismic slip during the Mw 9.0 mainshock. We find that the foreshock ruptured downdip from its hypocenter, that there was considerable (Mw ˜ 7.3) slip during the 50 hours between the foreshock and the mainshock, and that the peak mainshock slip was about 35 m. The mainshock's epicenter may have been triggered by afterslip that followed the foreshock. Additionally, the mainshock slip distribution was centered further updip than the peak interseismic coupling estimated from GPS data in the ten years before the earthquake.

  19. Epizootiology of Perkinsus marinus, parasite of the pleasure oyster Crassostrea corteziensis, in the Pacific coast of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Cáceres-Martínez, Jorge; Madero-López, Luis Humberto; Padilla-Lardizábal, Gloria; Vásquez-Yeomans, Rebeca

    2016-09-01

    The protozoan parasite Perkinsus marinus is the etiological agent of "dermo disease". This pathogen is considered by the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) as reportable due to the high mortalities that it produces in the eastern oyster Crassostrea virginica in the US. In 2006, this parasite was detected in the pleasure oyster Crassostrea corteziensis in Nayarit on the Pacific coast of Mexico, indicating a new host and an extension of its known distribution. Epizootiological data of P. marinus in the pleasure oyster are unknown. With the objective of determining the prevalence and intensity in relation with temperature and salinity throughout time, as well as for studying interactions of host size and sex with the parasite, a monthly sampling was carried out in two aquaculture sites of Nayarit from 2007 to 2014. A total of 7700 oysters were analyzed. In both localities, prevalence was low in winter (<6%) when temperature and salinity fluctuated around 24°C and 33, respectively; and the highest prevalence values occurred during summer (37%) when temperature and salinity were around 30°C and 20, respectively. Infection intensity increased in summer, but severe cases remained on average <10%. Larger oysters showed the highest prevalence and intensity, and higher prevalence were generally observed in females. No unusual mortalities directly related with P. marinus were observed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Metagenomic-based Surveillance of Pacific Coast tick Dermacentor occidentalis Identifies Two Novel Bunyaviruses and an Emerging Human Ricksettsial Pathogen.

    PubMed

    Bouquet, Jerome; Melgar, Michael; Swei, Andrea; Delwart, Eric; Lane, Robert S; Chiu, Charles Y

    2017-09-25

    An increasing number of emerging tick-borne diseases has been reported in the United States since the 1970s. Using metagenomic next generation sequencing, we detected nucleic acid sequences from 2 novel viruses in the family Bunyaviridae and an emerging human rickettsial pathogen, Rickettsia philipii, in a population of the Pacific Coast tick, Dermacentor occidentalis in Mendocino County sampled annually from 2011 to 2014. A total of 250 adults of this human-biting, generalist tick were collected from contiguous chaparral and grassland habitats, and RNA from each individually extracted tick was deep sequenced to an average depth of 7.3 million reads. We detected a Francisella endosymbiont in 174 ticks (70%), and Rickettsia spp. in 19 ticks (8%); Rickettsia-infected ticks contained R. rhipicephali (16 of 250, 6.4%) or R. philipii (3 of 250,1.2%), the agent of eschar-associated febrile illness in humans. The genomes of 2 novel bunyaviruses (>99% complete) in the genera Nairovirus and Phlebovirus were also identified and found to be present in 20-91% of ticks, depending on the year of collection. The high prevalence of these bunyaviruses in sampled Dermacentor ticks suggests that they may be viral endosymbionts, although further studies are needed to determine whether they are infectious for vertebrate hosts, especially humans, and their potential role in tick ecology.

  1. ANALYSIS OF TRAVEL BEHAVIOR OF THE COMMUTERS SUFFERED FROM THE 2011 OFF THE PACIFIC COAST OF TOHOKU EARTHQUAKE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takada, Kazuyuki; Sugiyama, Shigeki; Fujiu, Makoto

    Right after the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku earthquake, the railway system in Tokyo metropolitan area completely shut down so that a large number of people had difficulty in moving. So far, many expertise in disaster prevention have proposed that such people should keep staying same place where they encountered big earthquake for their safety. However, it was observed that after the earthquake a lot of people tried to go home on foot even though the trip distance was quite long. In order to revise the previous disaster prevention plan, it is significant to clarify the reason why people tried to move and to verify the result of the trial. Therefore, this study analyzes the behavior taken by the people having the difficulty in moving after the earthquake. Web based questionnaire survey was conducted to collect data. Respondents of the survey were limited to the people who had difficulty in going home on that day. The discrete choice model regarding move/stay decision model and also success/failure model were estimated using the survey data. As a result of parameter estimation of the stay/move decision model, the decision is influenced by some factors such as distance to his/her home, and unsuccess in confirming the safety of his/her family. Moreover, as a result of parameter estimation of the success/failure model, the result is influenced by some factors such as distance to his/her home, age, gender, and difficulty in obtaining evacuation route information.

  2. Trichomonas stableri n. sp., an agent of trichomonosis in Pacific Coast band-tailed pigeons (Patagioenas fasciata monilis)☆

    PubMed Central

    Girard, Yvette A.; Rogers, Krysta H.; Gerhold, Richard; Land, Kirkwood M.; Lenaghan, Scott C.; Woods, Leslie W.; Haberkern, Nathan; Hopper, Melissa; Cann, Jeff D.; Johnson, Christine K.

    2013-01-01

    Trichomonas gallinae is a ubiquitous flagellated protozoan parasite, and the most common etiologic agent of epidemic trichomonosis in columbid and passerine species. In this study, free-ranging Pacific Coast band-tailed pigeons (Patagioenas fasciata monilis) in California (USA) were found to be infected with trichomonad protozoa that were genetically and morphologically distinct from T. gallinae. In microscopic analysis, protozoa were significantly smaller in length and width than T. gallinae and were bimodal in morphology. Phylogenetic analysis of the ITS1/5.8S/ITS2, rpb1, and hydrogenosomal Fe-hydrogenase regions revealed that the protozoan shares an ancestor with Trichomonas vaginalis, the sexually-transmitted agent of trichomoniasis in humans. Clinical and pathologic features of infected birds were similar to infections with T. gallinae. Evidence presented here strongly support taxonomical distinction of this parasite, which we hereby name Trichomonas stableri n. sp. This work contributes to a growing body of evidence that T. gallinae is not the sole etiologic agent of avian trichomonosis, and that the incorporation of molecular tools is critical in the investigation of infectious causes of mortality in birds. PMID:24918075

  3. Crossover fluctuations of DFA-exponents of geoelectrical signals possibly linked to seismic activity in the South Pacific Mexican Coast.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reyes Ramirez, Israel; Guzman Vargas, Lev; Angulo Brown, Fernando; Ramirez Rojas, Alejandro

    2014-05-01

    Since the ends of 2012 we have continuously measured the electric self-potential of the ground at two sites in the south pacific Mexican coast. The two geoelectrical stations (16o21'33″N, 98o14'52″O in Oaxaca, and 17o29'29″N, 101o57'08″O in Guerrero, Mex.) are very near to the border of the Cocos and The north American tectonic plates. The registered signals are in the Ultra Low frequency (ULF) range and are analyzed by means of the Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (DFA). In the log-log DFA plane the analyzed signals typically shows two scaling regimes; one in the 'large' scales range with α ≡ 0.5 (white noise) and other in the 'low' scales range when α ≡ 1.5 (Brownian noise). However, in some cases the crossover disappears and α1 = α2 = α with α in the interval (0.7,1.3). Interestingly, in several occasions, specially when the collapsed exponent α is close to 1/f noise some few days after this, a seismic event with M ≥ 4.5 occurs inside a circle of around 100km centered in the station. Besides, we discuss some additional statistical features of the evolution of scaling exponents for almost 1-year period.

  4. Reproductive traits of the symbiotic pea crab Austinotheresangelicus (Crustacea, Pinnotheridae) living in Saccostreapalmula (Bivalvia, Ostreidae), Pacific coast of Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Salas-Moya, Carolina; Mena, Sebastián; Wehrtmann, Ingo S

    2014-01-01

    Pea crabs of the family Pinnotheridae exhibit a symbiotic life style and live associated with a variety of different marine organisms, especially bivalves. Despite the fact that pea crabs can cause serious problems in bivalve aquaculture, the available information about the ecology of these crabs from Central America is extremely limited. Therefore, the present study aimed to describe different reproductive features of the pinnotherid crab Austinotheresangelicus associated with the oyster Saccostreapalmula in the Golfo de Nicoya, Pacific coast of Costa Rica. Monthly sampling was conducted from April to December 2012. Average carapace width (CW) of the 47 analyzed ovigerous females was 7.62 mm. The species produced on average 2677 ± 1754 recently -extruded embryos with an average volume of 0.020 ± 0.003 mm(3); embryo volume increased during embryogenesis by 21%, but did not vary significantly between developmental stages. Brood mass volume varied greatly (between 11.7 and 236.7 mm(3)), and increased significantly with female CW. Females invested on average 76.7% (minimum: 21.7%; maximum: 162.8%) of their body weight in brood production, which confirms a substantially higher energy allocation for embryo production in pinnotherid crabs compared to free-living decapods.

  5. Do early growth dynamics explain recruitment success in Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus off the Pacific coast of northern Japan?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oshima, Masakane; Robert, Dominique; Kurita, Yutaka; Yoneda, Michio; Tominaga, Osamu; Tomiyama, Takeshi; Yamashita, Yoh; Uehara, Shinji

    2010-07-01

    We examined the relative importance of growth-related processes operating during the larval and early juvenile stage in explaining variability in year class success of Japanese flounder off the Pacific coast of northern Japan. Early growth trajectory of larvae and juveniles sampled in 2005 (strong year class) and in 2006 (weak year class) was estimated from the analysis of the lapillar otolith. The larval pelagic stage was characterized by lower growth and developmental rates, as well as high selection for fast growth in the metamorphosis/settlement period, during the strong recruitment event of 2005 relative to 2006. Growth appeared higher in 2005 only after settlement despite high density in the nursery, which likely reflected superior productivity during that year combined with an increased probability of cannibalism from early settlers on late settlers. This implies that larval growth dynamics did not play an important role in determining recruitment strength in the two years considered. The decreasing distance from the nursery areas of pelagic larvae through ontogeny in 2005, combined with low age at settlement, suggest that larvae benefited from positive transport conditions during the dominant year class. To the contrary, unfavorable hydrographic conditions likely prevailed in 2006 as distance from the nurseries increased with ontogeny and settlement occurred later than in 2005 despite faster growth potential and developmental rate. We conclude that transport conditions to the nursery grounds, rather than larval growth potential, represented the most important determinant of year class success in the two years considered.

  6. Prevalence of rabies and LPM paramyxovirus antibody in non-hematophagous bats captured in the Central Pacific coast of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Salas-Rojas, Mónica; Sánchez-Hernández, Cornelio; Romero-Almaraz Md, María de Lourdes; Schnell, Gary D; Schmid, Roberto Kretschmer; Aguilar-Setién, Alvaro

    2004-10-01

    To investigate if non-hematophagous bats play a role in outbreaks of rabies and blue eye disease (LPMV), we studied the seroprevalence against both agents in several species of non-hematophagous bats on the sub-tropical Pacific coast of the state of Colima, Mexico. The survey covered a predominantly agricultural area (disturbed), and an area dominated by semideciduous dry forest (undisturbed). A total of 151 non-hematophagous bats of 16 species were captured from the two areas. Fifty-six (37%) had antirabic antibodies (Ab) while 87 (58%) did not and 8 samples (5%) had to be discarded because of hemolysis. A much lower (P<0.05) prevalence of antirabic Ab was found in bats caught in disturbed areas (22.7%) compared with those from undisturbed areas (51.9%). The presence of antirabic Ab was not related to sex, genera or feeding habits. The higher prevalence found in bats in the undisturbed area may be the result of more frequent interspecies encounters. Of the 108 sera analyzed for antibodies against LPMV, only one was positive (a male Rhogeessa parvula major, captured in the undisturbed area). This suggests that bats in the surveyed localities do not play a role in the epidemiology of LPMV.

  7. Aphelochaeta (Polychaeta: Cirratulidae) from the Pacific coast of Costa Rica, with a description of five new species.

    PubMed

    Dean, Harlan K; Blake, James A

    2016-04-12

    Five new species of bitentaculate Cirratulidae belonging to the genus Aphelochaeta are herein described from the Pacific coast of Costa Rica, all from shallow subtidal depths. Aphelochaeta antelonga sp. nov. is characterized by a long biannulate peristomium and fibrillated capillary setae and is from 11-18 m in the Gulf of Nicoya. Aphelochaeta guimondi sp. nov., with a wide dorsal trough in the thorax and hirsute capillaries (visible using SEM), is described from 11-26 m in the Gulf of Nicoya. Aphelochaeta praeacuta sp. nov., with its first peristomial annulation extending as a dorsal crest over the second annulation and first setiger, was collected from 11-28 m in Bahia Culebra. Aphelochaeta striata sp. nov., collected from 11-28 m in the Gulf of Nicoya, is recognized by its narrow body and the transverse blue stripes across the venter of setigers 5-8 produced with methyl green stain. Aphelochaeta zebra sp. nov., collected from a coral reef in Golfo Dulce, is characterized by its expanded posterior end and the darkly staining intersegmental regions using methyl green stain. Additionally, A. glandaria Blake, 1996, a species reportedly with a widespread geographic distribution (Blake, 1996), was also encountered subtidally from the Gulf of Nicoya and Golfo Dulce.

  8. Dynamic population trends observed in the deep-living Pacific flatnose, Antimora microlepis, on the U.S. West Coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frey, Peter H.; Keller, Aimee A.; Simon, Victor

    2017-04-01

    As fisheries managers attempt to incorporate ecosystem-based considerations into decision making, it is important to understand the role that non-target species play in the ecosystems that support commercial fisheries. For some deep-water groundfishes, basic information on biology and population dynamics is extremely limited. This study presents findings on the spatial distribution, growth trends, and relative abundance of the Pacific flatnose, Antimora microlepis, using data collected from 2003 to 2015 by the Northwest Fisheries Science Center's West Coast Groundfish Bottom Trawl Survey (WCGBTS). We observed a 67% increase in mean fork-length over the study period reflecting the advancement of strong year-classes from the early 2000s that currently dominate the population as a whole. Catch-weighted depth increased significantly as these cohorts migrated to deeper waters of the continental slope. Although catch per unit effort remained relatively constant, this demographic shift suggests that episodic recruitment may affect the resilience of this stock to fishing mortality over time. A notable decrease in the percentage of females observed after 2012 seemed to indicate the movement of large, older females to depths beyond the 1280 m limit of the survey. Otolith weight provided a useful proxy for age in growth models for this species.

  9. Significant tsunami observed at ocean-bottom pressure gauges during the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maeda, Takuto; Furumura, Takashi; Sakai, Shin'ichi; Shinohara, Masanao

    2011-07-01

    The 2011 Tohoku Earthquake caused a devastating tsunami along the shoreline from the Tohoku to Kanto districts. Although many of the tide gauge stations along the Tohoku coast were saturated or damaged due to the tsunami, two cabled ocean-bottom tsunami sensors installed off Kamaishi successfully recorded the tsunami waveform just above the source rupture area. The records indicated a characteristic two-stage tsunami development sequence: a smoothly increasing tsunami amplitude from 0 to 2 m during the first 800 s from the earthquake origin time, and a short-period impulsive tsunami with a peak of more than 5 m in the following 200 s. Such observations strongly suggest the lack of any sea floor upheaval at the stations during the earthquake, and the occurrence of an extremely large slip in the shallow portion of the subducting Pacific Plate near the trench axis. The source model derived from the offshore tsunami records indicates that a very large slip of 57 m occurred off Miyagi near the trench axis, south of the rupture area of the 1896 Meiji Sanriku tsunami earthquake, and was the major source of the highly destructive tsunami that subsequently developed.

  10. PCB concentrations in sediments from the Gulf of Nicoya estuary, Pacific coast of Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Spongberg, Alison L

    2004-12-01

    Thirty-one sediment samples collected from 1996-2003 from the Gulf of Nicoya estuary on the northwestern coast of Costa Rica, have been obtained for PCB analyses. This is part of the first study to evaluate the PCB contamination in coastal Costa Rica. Overall, the concentrations are low, especially when compared to sediments from more temperate climates and/or sediments from more heavily industrialized areas. Values average less than 3 ng/g dw sediment, however, a few samples contained up to 7 ng/g dw sediment. Sediments with the highest concentrations were located in the Punta Morales area, where muds were sampled from among mangrove roots. The Puntarenas samples had surprisingly low PCB concentrations, likely due to their sandy lithology. The congener distribution within the majority of the samples showed signs of either recent sources or lack of degradation. However, a few sites, specifically some of the inter-gulf islands and more remote samples had congener distributions indicative of airborne contaminants and/or degradation. Considering the presence of airborne PCBs in the Gulf of Papagayo to the north, the lack of airborne PCBs and more varied congener distribution in the Gulf of Nicoya estuary was surprising.

  11. Migratory patterns of pelagic fishes and possible linkages between open ocean and coastal ecosystems off the Pacific coast of North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beamish, R. J.; McFarlane, G. A.; King, J. R.

    2005-03-01

    We review studies relevant to the migration of pelagic fishes between the coastal and open-ocean ecosystems off the subarctic coast of North America. We review the life history strategies of these migratory fish and to compare to the life history strategies of major coastal migrants. The oceanography in this region is dominated by north and south currents that provide a boundary between the offshore and coastal waters. Commercial fisheries off the west coast of North America are virtually all inshore of this oceanographic separation. Migrations for some species in these major fisheries are also north and south rather than east and west. However, exceptions occur for Pacific salmon, species associated with seamounts, and for transitional pelagic species such as tuna, squid and sharks. Three species of Pacific salmon, sockeye, pink and chum salmon, migrate along the coast in their first marine year and move off shore in the fall and winter in their first marine year. Three other species, coho salmon, chinook salmon, and steelhead trout, also migrate offshore, although they are less abundant and some stocks remain within the coastal regions. Pacific salmon species are a dominant daytime biomass in the surface waters in the offshore areas. It is known that albacore tuna and some sharks migrate between the offshore and coastal areas, but more research is needed to assess the relative importance of these migrations. Although the biomass of species on seamounts is small relative to coastal areas, the similarity in fauna is evidence that there is recruitment from coastal ecosystems.

  12. AMS analyses of I-129 from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident in the Pacific Ocean waters of the Coast La Jolla--San Diego, USA.

    PubMed

    Stan-Sion, C; Enachescu, M; Petre, A R

    2015-05-01

    This paper presents the results of an experimental study we performed by using the Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) method with iodine 129 (T1/2 = 15.7 My), to determine the increase of the radionuclide content in the USA West Pacific Coast waters, two years after the March 2011 Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident. The collection of the water samples took place between April and July 2013 at regular intervals of time, from the Pacific Ocean, at the cove of La Jolla, San Diego, USA. The results of the experiments showed a significant increase of the radionuclide concentration during the late spring of 2013. Compared to the isotopic ratio (129)I/(127)I, measured at a 40 km distance, offshore of Fukushima and immediately after the accident, our results show an increase on the USA West Coast that was more than a 2.5 factor higher. Also, compared with the pre-Fukushima background values, our results show an isotopic ratio of about two orders of magnitude higher. A distinct feature of the reconstructed radioactive plume was that it traveled with a speed of 12 cm s(-1), which we estimated and is consistent with the zonal speed in the Pacific. We coupled our (129)I results with the measurements from the June 2011 KOK cruise and we derived the levels of activity for (3)H and (137)Cs. On the USA West Coast, they did not exceed the international regulatory limits.

  13. Predicted radionuclide release from reactor-related unenclosed solid objects dumped in the Sea of Japan and the Pacific Ocean, east coast of Kamchatka

    SciTech Connect

    Mount, M.E.; Lynn, N.M.; Warden, J.M.

    1996-06-01

    Between 1978 and 1991 reactor-related solid radioactive waste was dumped by the former Soviet Union as unenclosed objects in the Pacific Ocean, east coast of Kamchatka, and the Sea of Japan. This paper presented estimates for the current (1994) inventory of activation and corrosion products contained in the reactor-related unenclosed solid objects. In addition, simple models derived for prediction of radionuclide release from marine reactors dumped in the Kara Sea are applied to certain of the dumped objects to provide estimates of radionuclide release to the Pacific Ocean, east coast of Kamchatka, and Sea of Japan environments. For the Pacific Ocean, east coast of Kamchatka, total release rates start below 0.01 GBq yr{sup -1} and over 1,000 years, fall to 100 Bq yr{sup -1}. In the Sea of Japan, the total release rate starts just above 1 GBq yr{sup - 1}, dropping off to a level less than 0.1 GBq yr{sup -1}, extending past the year 4,000.

  14. The Colombia Current: An Eastern Tropical Pacific Coastal Current, Early Oceanographic Characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez-Rubio, E.

    2007-05-01

    Newly gathered hydrographic data from the Colombia Pacific Ocean is combined with remote sensing data to reassess the properties of the costal current named Colombian Current by Wooster (1959). The Colombian Pacific Ocean is located between 84°-76°W and 1°30'-5°N (oceanic zone), 1°30'- 7°N (coastal zone): This area is well-known also like Panama Bight. New hydrographic data were occupied along the Colombian Pacific coast during March of 2006, making 41 stations with measurements of CTD until a maximum depth of 1200 m, depending on the depth of the marine bottom. On the other hand, sea surface temperatures (SST) were obtained from the MODIS-AQUA satellite and sea surface wind speed and wind direction stem from QuickScat, both averaged for March 2006. Hydrographic grid layers necessary to obtain dynamic topography variable were made with objective mapping calculating is not total dynamic height, but the dynamic height between consecutive levels or "thickness". The purpose of this methodology is that in very coastal campaigns it can have a substantial number of stations that do not arrive at the reference level. Finally geostrophic velocity was computed for the Colombian Current area at several layers. The coast was characterized by low salinities due to river runoff in the North zone. The sea surface temperature during the month of March of 2006 was especially low in the oceanic zone, reaching temperatures between 19°C and 24°C.The dynamic topography indicated the presence of a surface coastal current flowing towards the north and a crosscurrent to 400 m of depth never before described. The wind corresponded to the pattern of the wind jet of Panama. During March the ITCZ moves south, drawing the Panama jet across the Isthmus and over the Pacific. Upwelling curl associated with the left (southeast) flank of this jet generates a cyclonic eddy in the Panama Bight and SST cooling in its center. In the Panama Bight, the curl dipole produces a cyclonic circulation

  15. Historical ecology and the conservation of large, hermaphroditic fishes in Pacific Coast kelp forest ecosystems

    PubMed Central

    Braje, Todd J.; Rick, Torben C.; Szpak, Paul; Newsome, Seth D.; McCain, Joseph M.; Elliott Smith, Emma A.; Glassow, Michael; Hamilton, Scott L.

    2017-01-01

    The intensive commercial exploitation of California sheephead (Semicossyphus pulcher) has become a complex, multimillion-dollar industry. The fishery is of concern because of high harvest levels and potential indirect impacts of sheephead removals on the structure and function of kelp forest ecosystems. California sheephead are protogynous hermaphrodites that, as predators of sea urchins and other invertebrates, are critical components of kelp forest ecosystems in the northeast Pacific. Overfishing can trigger trophic cascades and widespread ecological dysfunction when other urchin predators are also lost from the system. Little is known about the ecology and abundance of sheephead before commercial exploitation. Lack of a historical perspective creates a gap for evaluating fisheries management measures and marine reserves that seek to rebuild sheephead populations to historical baseline conditions. We use population abundance and size structure data from the zooarchaeological record, in concert with isotopic data, to evaluate the long-term health and viability of sheephead fisheries in southern California. Our results indicate that the importance of sheephead to the diet of native Chumash people varied spatially across the Channel Islands, reflecting modern biogeographic patterns. Comparing ancient (~10,000 calibrated years before the present to 1825 CE) and modern samples, we observed variability and significant declines in the relative abundance of sheephead, reductions in size frequency distributions, and shifts in the dietary niche between ancient and modern collections. These results highlight how size-selective fishing can alter the ecological role of key predators and how zooarchaeological data can inform fisheries management by establishing historical baselines that aid future conservation. PMID:28164155

  16. Historical ecology and the conservation of large, hermaphroditic fishes in Pacific Coast kelp forest ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Braje, Todd J; Rick, Torben C; Szpak, Paul; Newsome, Seth D; McCain, Joseph M; Elliott Smith, Emma A; Glassow, Michael; Hamilton, Scott L

    2017-02-01

    The intensive commercial exploitation of California sheephead (Semicossyphus pulcher) has become a complex, multimillion-dollar industry. The fishery is of concern because of high harvest levels and potential indirect impacts of sheephead removals on the structure and function of kelp forest ecosystems. California sheephead are protogynous hermaphrodites that, as predators of sea urchins and other invertebrates, are critical components of kelp forest ecosystems in the northeast Pacific. Overfishing can trigger trophic cascades and widespread ecological dysfunction when other urchin predators are also lost from the system. Little is known about the ecology and abundance of sheephead before commercial exploitation. Lack of a historical perspective creates a gap for evaluating fisheries management measures and marine reserves that seek to rebuild sheephead populations to historical baseline conditions. We use population abundance and size structure data from the zooarchaeological record, in concert with isotopic data, to evaluate the long-term health and viability of sheephead fisheries in southern California. Our results indicate that the importance of sheephead to the diet of native Chumash people varied spatially across the Channel Islands, reflecting modern biogeographic patterns. Comparing ancient (~10,000 calibrated years before the present to 1825 CE) and modern samples, we observed variability and significant declines in the relative abundance of sheephead, reductions in size frequency distributions, and shifts in the dietary niche between ancient and modern collections. These results highlight how size-selective fishing can alter the ecological role of key predators and how zooarchaeological data can inform fisheries management by establishing historical baselines that aid future conservation.

  17. Evidence for Younger Dryas-age cooling on the North Pacific coast of America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathewes, Rolf W.

    A review of the palynological evidence from the Olympic Peninsula of Washington State north to the Alaska Panhandle strongly supports the existence of a climatic oscillation similar in timing and effect to the Younger Dryas cooling (11-10 ka BP) of Europe and eastern North America. The evidence includes many late-glacial pollen peaks of mountain hemlock ( Tsuga mertensiana), an indicator of cool and moist climate, reversals from forest to non-arboreal vegetation, and paleoclimate analysis using pollen-climate transfer functions on the Queen Charlotte Islands. Evidence of cooler ocean waters, based on fossil foraminifera in cores from the continental shelf, also supports an interpretation of a Younger Dryas-age climatic reversal. On the other hand, geological evidence of glacier readvances during the Younger Dryas chronozone is weak and poorly dated. Although more and better-constrained (AMS) dates are needed to confirm the timing of the Pacific Northwest cold oscillation, results so far point to maximum cooling and increased moisture between ca. 10.7-10 ka BP, followed by rapid warming in the early Holocene. Additional late-glacial sites need to be investigated in detail to confirm the geographical pattern of vegetation and climate change during this interval, which is best expressed in hypermaritime and maritime climate regions, similar to the Younger Dryas event around the North Atlantic. These results suggest that the search for causal mechanisms to drive the Younger Dryas cooling cannot be limited to events in the North Atlantic region, but should focus on possible hemispheric or global processes.

  18. Phylogeography of Ostreopsis along West Pacific Coast, with Special Reference to a Novel Clade from Japan

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Shinya; Nishimura, Tomohiro; Uehara, Keita; Sakanari, Hiroshi; Tawong, Wittaya; Hariganeya, Naohito; Smith, Kirsty; Rhodes, Lesley; Yasumoto, Takeshi; Taira, Yosuke; Suda, Shoichiro; Yamaguchi, Haruo; Adachi, Masao

    2011-01-01

    Background A dinoflagellate genus Ostreopsis is known as a potential producer of Palytoxin derivatives. Palytoxin is the most potent non-proteinaceous compound reported so far. There has been a growing number of reports on palytoxin-like poisonings in southern areas of Japan; however, the distribution of Ostreopsis has not been investigated so far. Morphological plasticity of Ostreopsis makes reliable microscopic identification difficult so the employment of molecular tools was desirable. Methods/Principal Finding In total 223 clones were examined from samples mainly collected from southern areas of Japan. The D8–D10 region of the nuclear large subunit rDNA (D8–D10) was selected as a genetic marker and phylogenetic analyses were conducted. Although most of the clones were unable to be identified, there potentially 8 putative species established during this study. Among them, Ostreopsis sp. 1–5 did not belong to any known clade, and each of them formed its own clade. The dominant species was Ostreopsis sp. 1, which accounted for more than half of the clones and which was highly toxic and only distributed along the Japanese coast. Comparisons between the D8–D10 and the Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) region of the nuclear rDNA, which has widely been used for phylogenetic/phylogeographic studies in Ostreopsis, revealed that the D8–D10 was less variable than the ITS, making consistent and reliable phylogenetic reconstruction possible. Conclusions/Significance This study unveiled a surprisingly diverse and widespread distribution of Japanese Ostreopsis. Further study will be required to better understand the phylogeography of the genus. Our results posed the urgent need for the development of the early detection/warning systems for Ostreopsis, particularly for the widely distributed and strongly toxic Ostreopsis sp. 1. The D8–D10 marker will be suitable for these purposes. PMID:22164222

  19. The distribution of 4-nonylphenol in marine organisms of North American Pacific Coast estuaries.

    PubMed

    Diehl, Jennifer; Johnson, Sarah E; Xia, Kang; West, Amy; Tomanek, Lars

    2012-04-01

    One of the chemical breakdown products of nonylphenol ethoxylates, 4-nonylphenol (4-NP), accumulates in organisms and is of concern as an environmental pollutant due to its endocrine disrupting effects. We measured 4-NP levels in the seawater, sediment, and twelve organisms within the California estuary, Morro Bay, and examined biomagnification of 4-NP using stable isotope abundances (δ(15)N and δ(13)C) to quantify trophic position. 4-NP concentrations in organisms from Morro Bay included 25000±8600 ng g(-1) lw in liver of California sea lion, 14000±5600 ng g(-1) lw in liver of harbor porpoise, 138000±55000 ng g(-1) lw in liver of sea otters, 15700±3600 ng g(-1) lw in liver of seabirds, 36100±6100 ng g(-1) lw in arrow goby fish, 62800±28400 ng g(-1) lw in oysters, and 12700±1300 ng g(-1) lw in mussels. 4-NP levels generally showed a pattern of trophic dilution among organisms in Morro Bay, with exceptions of biomagnification observed between three trophic links: mussel to sea otter (BMF 10.9), oyster to sea otter (BMF 2.2), and arrow goby to staghorn sculpin (BMF 2.7). Our examination of other west coast estuaries of USA and Canada revealed that mean 4-NP concentrations in gobies and mussels from Morro Bay were significantly higher than those from a more urbanized estuary, San Francisco Bay (goby: 11100±3800 ng g(-1) lw) and from a remote estuary, Bamfield Inlet, Canada (goby: 9000±900 ng g(-1) lw, mussel: 6100±700 ng g(-1) lw). Relative to other estuaries worldwide, 4-NP levels in seawater (0.42±0.16 μg L(-1)) and sediment (53±14 ng g(-1) dw) of Morro Bay are low, but gobies and oysters have higher 4-NP levels than comparable fauna. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The National assessment of shoreline shange—A GIS compilation of vector shorelines and associated shoreline change data for the Pacific Northwest coast

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kratzmann, Meredith G.; Himmelstoss, Emily A.; Ruggiero, Peter; Thieler, E. Robert; Reid, David

    2013-01-01

    Sandy ocean beaches are a popular recreational destination and are often surrounded by communities that consist of valuable real estate. Development along sandy coastal areas is increasing despite the fact that coastal infrastructure may be repeatedly subjected to flooding and erosion. As a result, the demand for accurate information regarding past and present shoreline changes is increasing. Investigators with the U.S. Geological Survey's National Assessment of Shoreline Change Project have compiled a comprehensive database of digital vector shorelines and rates of shoreline change for the Pacific Northwest coast including the states of Washington and Oregon. No widely accepted standard for analyzing shoreline change currently exists. Current measurement and methods for calculating rates of change vary from study to study, precluding the combination of study results into statewide or regional assessments. The impetus behind the national assessment was to develop a standardized method that is consistent from coast to coast for measuring changes in shoreline position. The goal was to facilitate the process of periodically and systematically updating the measurements in an internally consistent manner. A detailed report on shoreline change for the Pacific Northwest coast that contains a discussion of the data presented here is available and cited in the Geospatial Data section of this report.

  1. [Leishmaniasis: knowledge and practice in populations of the Pacific coast of Colombia].

    PubMed

    Isaza, D M; Restrepo, B N; Arboleda, M; Casas, E; Hinestroza, H; Yurgaqui, T

    1999-09-01

    In 1997 a descriptive study with a qualitative emphasis was carried out in order to document, by gender, the knowledge and practices related to cutaneous leishmaniasis among inhabitants 14 years and older in seven communities of Colombia's Pacific coastal department of Chocó. Since the control activities carried out by the Chocó Sectional Health Services had not had the desired results, the residents of the region were at high risk of contracting leishmaniasis, which they called bejuco (liana) and yateví. Qualitative data were collected by directly involving each community in discussion workshops and by interviewing knowledgeable informants. Using these materials as a foundation, the researchers prepared a survey with 10 closed-ended questions, which they administered to all persons over 14 years of age in each randomly chosen home visited. The results indicate that 94% of the population knew that leishmaniasis appeared as a skin disease; those not knowing that were more often women than men. With respect to the mode of transmission, 35% of the respondents connected the disease to the bite of an insect, but they did not what the etiologic agent was and thought that the bite was inflicted by a worm that lives in the mountains. In the communities studied, the residents used a great variety of treatments to cure the disease. The treatments were based on plants, chemical substances, burning the lesions with a piece of heated metal, and, to a lesser degree, drugs. Despite being responsible for taking care of sick persons in the household, women were not acquainted with the traditional treatments used in the community. This gender difference in treatment knowledge was statistically significant, the only such statistically significant gender difference found in the research. Of the people surveyed, 45% did not know how to prevent the disease. This was more often true for women; 102 of the 155 respondents saying they did not know how to prevent the disease were women

  2. Paleoecological evaluation of Late Eocene biostratigraphic zonations of the Pacific Coast of North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McDougall, Kristin

    1980-01-01

    The late Eocene zonal criteria of the west coast of North America are to a large extent controlled by paleoecology and, therefore, the correlation of coeval but environmentally different benthic foraminiferal faunas cannot be achieved before paleoecological control of the biostratigraphy is understood. The faunal trends, morphology, characteristic occurrences and estimated upper depth limits of the benthic foraminifers and associated microfossils in the Oregon and Washington study sections lead to the recognition of paleoecologic facies. The interpretation of these late Eocene facies as bathymetric and low-oxygen facies is based on analogous late Eocene and Holocene assemblages. The paleoecologic facies criteria are often identical to the stage and zonal criteria. In the California zonal schemes, the Narizian zones are identified by lower and middle bathyal faunas whereas the Refugian zones are identified by outer neritic and upper bathyal faunas. The Washington late Eocene zones are identified by middle bathyal and transported neritic faunas. Modifications of the existing zonal schemes such that time and not paleoecology is the controlling factor results in a zonation that synthesizes the existing zonal schemes, recognizes regional stratigraphic ranges of diagnostic species, and removes paleoecologically controlled species occurrences. The late Narizian encompasses a bathyal and a neritic facies. The bathyal facies is correlative with a modified Bulimina corrugata Zone of California and the Uvigerina cf. U. yazooensis Zone of Washington. The neritic late Narizian facies corresponds to a modified Bulimina schencki-Plectofrondicularia cf. P. jenkinsi Zone of Washington and a modified Amphimorphina jenkinsi Zone of California. The Refugian can also be divided into a neritic and a bathyal facies. Although the early and late subdivisions of this stage are tentative, the early Refugian is equivalent to the modified versions of the Cibicides haydoni and the Uvigerina

  3. Spatial distribution of earthquakes off the east coast of the Kanto region along the Japan Trench deduced from ocean bottom seismographic observations and their relations with the aftershock sequence of the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Tomoaki; Nakahigashi, Kazuo; Kuwano, Asako; Mochizuki, Kimihiro; Sakai, Shin'ichi; Shinohara, Masanao; Hino, Ryota; Murai, Yoshio; Takanami, Tetsuo; Kanazawa, Toshihiko

    2011-07-01

    The 2011 Tohoku earthquake hit the forearc region of the Japan Trench on March 11, 2011. The rupture zone seemed to reach off the coast of the Kanto region. We had conducted ocean bottom seismographic observations off the coast of the Kanto in 2008 and estimated 851 hypocenter locations around the south part of the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake by using over 50 ocean bottom seismometers (OBSs) and routine data jointly. The hypocenters distributed some clusters, and we found a few seismic gaps at the boundary zones of the clusters. The most remarkable seismic gap was positioned at the edge of intervened Philippine Sea plate (PHS) between the North American plate (NA) and Pacific plate (PAC). We compare the epicenter distributions with the 2011 aftershock distribution determined by routine data. The aftershocks are segmented spatially and there are some seismic gaps among the segments. The remarkable low places are consistent with the boundary zones of each cluster we estimated from the 2008 data. We infer that those regions have strong heterogeneity resulting from strong deformations caused by various subduction processes, such as intervening PHS between NA and PAC, seamount chains and changes in physical properties.

  4. A Simple Model for the Vertical Crustal Movement Associated with the Earthquake Cycle Along the Pacific Coast of Northeast Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sagiya, T.

    2013-12-01

    Before the 2011 M9.0 Tohoku-oki earthquake, rapid subsidence more than 5mm/yr has been observed along the Pacific coast of the Tohoku area by leveling, tide gauges, and GPS (Kato, 1979, Kato and Tsumura, 1979, El-Fiky and Kato, 1999). On the other hand, Stage 5e (~125 ka) marine terraces are widely recognized along the same area, implying the area is uplifting in a long-term. Ikeda (1999) hypothesized that these deformation signals reflect accumulation of elastic strain at the plate interface and there is a possibility of a giant earthquake causing a coastal uplift. However, the coastal area subsided as large as 1m during the 2011 main shock. Though we observe significant postseismic uplift, it is not certain if the preseismic as well as coseismic subsidence will be recovered. We construct a simple model of earthquake deformation cycle to interpret the vertical movement along the Pacific coast of northeast Japan. The model consists of a 40 km thick elastic lithosphere overlying a Maxwell viscoelastic asthenospher with a viscosity of 10^19 Pa s. Plate boundary is modeled as two rectangular faults located in the lithosphere and connected each other. As for the kinematic conditions of these faults, we represent the temporal evolution of fault slip as a sum of the steady term and the perturbation term following Savage and Prescott (1978). The first steady term corresponds to the long-term plate subduction, which contributes to long-term geomorphic evolution such as the marine terraces (Hashimoto et al., 2004). The second perturbation term represent earthquake cycle effects. We evaluate this effect under assumptions that earthquake occurrence is perfectly periodic, plate interface is fully coupled during interseismic periods, and the slip deficit is fully released by earthquakes. If the earthquake recurrence interval is shorter than the relaxation time of the structure, interseismic movement is in the opposite direction to the coseismic ones and changes almost linearly

  5. Trophic structure and flows of energy in the Huizache-Caimanero lagoon complex on the Pacific coast of Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zetina-Rejón, Manuel J.; Arreguín-Sánchez, Francisco; Chávez, Ernesto A.

    2003-08-01

    The Huizache-Caimanero coastal lagoon complex on the Pacific coast of Mexico supports an important shrimp fishery and is one of the most productive systems in catch per unit area of this resource. Four other less important fish groups are also exploited. In this study, we integrated the available information of the system into a mass-balance trophic model to describe the ecosystem structure and flows of energy using the E COPATH approach. The model includes 26 functional groups consisting of 15 fish groups, seven invertebrate groups, macrophytes, phytoplankton, and a detritus group. The resulting model was consistent as indicated by the output parameters. According to the overall pedigree index (0.75), which measures the quality of the input data on a scale from 0 to 1, it is a high quality model. Results indicate that zooplankton, microcrustaceans, and polychaetes are the principal link between trophic level (TL) one (primary producers and detritus) and consumers of higher TLs. Most production from macrophytes flows to detritus, and phytoplankton production is incorporated into the food web by zooplankton. Half of the flow from TL one to the next level come from detritus, which is an important energy source not only for several groups in the ecosystem but also for fisheries, as shown by mixed trophic impacts. The Huizache-Caimanero complex has the typical structure of tropical coastal lagoons and estuaries. The TL of consumers ranges from 2.0 to 3.6 because most groups are composed of juveniles, which use the lagoons as a nursery or protection area. Most energy flows were found in the lower part of the trophic web.

  6. Diversity of mosquitoes and the aquatic insects associated with their oviposition sites along the Pacific coast of Mexico

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The abundance, richness and diversity of mosquitoes and aquatic insects associated with their oviposition sites were surveyed along eight states of the Pacific coast of Mexico. Diversity was estimated using the Shannon index (H’), similarity measures and cluster analysis. Methods Oviposition sites were sampled during 2–3 months per year, over a three year period. Field collected larvae and pupae were reared and identified to species following adult emergence. Aquatic insects present at oviposition sites were also collected, counted and identified to species or genus. Results In total, 15 genera and 74 species of mosquitoes were identified: Anopheles pseudopunctipennis, An. albimanus and Aedes aegypti were the most abundant and widely-distributed species, representing 47% of total mosquito individuals sampled. New species records for certain states are reported. Anopheline diversity was lowest in Sinaloa state (H’ = 0.54) and highest in Chiapas (H’ = 1.61) and Michoacán (H’ = 1.56), whereas culicid diversity was lowest in Michoacán (H’ = 1.93), Colima (H’ = 1.95), Sinaloa (H’ = 1.99) and Jalisco (H’ = 2.01) and highest in Chiapas (H’ = 2.66). In total, 10 orders, 57 families, 166 genera and 247 species of aquatic insects were identified in samples. Aquatic insect diversity was highest in Chiapas, Oaxaca and Michoacán (H’ = 3.60-3.75). Mosquito larval/pupal abundance was not correlated with that of predatory Coleoptera and Hemiptera. Conclusion This represents the first update on the diversity and geographic distribution of the mosquitoes and aquatic insects of Mexico in over five decades. This information has been cataloged in Mexico’s National Biodiversity Information System (SNIB-CONABIO) for public inspection. PMID:24450800

  7. Endosymbiont interference and microbial diversity of the Pacific coast tick, Dermacentor occidentalis, in San Diego County, California.

    PubMed

    Gurfield, Nikos; Grewal, Saran; Cua, Lynnie S; Torres, Pedro J; Kelley, Scott T

    2017-01-01

    The Pacific coast tick, Dermacentor occidentalis Marx, is found throughout California and can harbor agents that cause human diseases such as anaplasmosis, ehrlichiosis, tularemia, Rocky Mountain spotted fever and rickettsiosis 364D. Previous studies have demonstrated that nonpathogenic endosymbiotic bacteria can interfere with Rickettsia co-infections in other tick species. We hypothesized that within D. occidentalis ticks, interference may exist between different nonpathogenic endosymbiotic or nonendosymbiotic bacteria and Spotted Fever group Rickettsia (SFGR). Using PCR amplification and sequencing of the rompA gene and intergenic region we identified a cohort of SFGR-infected and non-infected D. occidentalis ticks collected from San Diego County. We then amplified a partial segment of the 16S rRNA gene and used next-generation sequencing to elucidate the microbiomes and levels of co-infection in the ticks. The SFGR R. philipii str. 364D and R. rhipicephali were detected in 2.3% and 8.2% of the ticks, respectively, via rompA sequencing. Interestingly, next generation sequencing revealed an inverse relationship between the number of Francisella-like endosymbiont (FLE) 16S rRNA sequences and Rickettsia 16S rRNA sequences within individual ticks that is consistent with partial interference between FLE and SFGR infecting ticks. After excluding the Rickettsia and FLE endosymbionts from the analysis, there was a small but significant difference in microbial community diversity and a pattern of geographic isolation by distance between collection locales. In addition, male ticks had a greater diversity of bacteria than female ticks and ticks that weren't infected with SFGR had similar microbiomes to canine skin microbiomes. Although experimental studies are required for confirmation, our findings are consistent with the hypothesis that FLEs and, to a lesser extent, other bacteria, interfere with the ability of D. occidentalis to be infected with certain SFGR. The

  8. Assessing the Age of Particulate Organic Matter Exported from a Temperate Rainforest Catchment of the North American Pacific Coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, E. E.; Ingalls, A. E.; Santos, G.; Keil, R. G.; Wefferling, L.; Jones, A.; Druffel, E. R. M.

    2015-12-01

    Although temperate rainforests of the North American Pacific Coast contain a small proportion of the world's forests, they contain some of the highest densities of biomass of any terrestrial system, and they store large quantities of carbon in soil. Understanding the residence time of organic carbon in these watersheds is of ecological significance. Given that rivers can mobilize sediment (and associated carbon) from across the catchment, carefully deciphering the organic signatures found within riverine particles can be a powerful tool to inform our understanding of carbon cycling catchment-wide. Here we examine the lignin phenol content (lignin is a biomarker unique to vascular plants) and the radiocarbon age (Δ14C) of fine particulate organic carbon (FPOC) exported by the Queets River of Washington State's Olympic Peninsula over the course of one year, targeting winter storm events. This mountainous catchment is one of the largest and most pristine found on the Olympic Peninsula. The Δ14C of FPOC was quantified for each of the twelve sampling events, whereas the Δ14C of the individual lignin phenols was determined during a late-winter storm event. Sediments were enriched in lignin phenols at the end of the summer dry season and into the first storm of the fall, suggesting that surface soils were transported early on. The Δ14C of individual lignin phenols ranged from -161 to 26‰, with biomarkers for non-woody vegetation being most depleted. These results suggest that particulate lignin exported from temperate catchments is considerably aged, especially relative to the tropics. These findings are consistent with cool temperatures and abundant moisture limiting microbial decomposition, increasing the residence time of plant-derived organic carbon in temperate rainforests. We will compare the Δ14C content of lignin phenols to that of bulk organic matter to partition riverine FPOC amongst possible organic matter sources.

  9. Are coastal managers ready for climate change? A case study from estuaries along the Pacific coast of the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thorne, Karen M.; Elliott-Fisk, Deborah L.; Freeman, Chase; Bui, Thuy-Vy D.; Powelson, Katherine; Janousek, Christopher; Buffington, Kevin J.; Takekawa, John Y.

    2017-01-01

    A key challenge for coastal resource managers is to plan and implement climate change adaptation strategies inlight of uncertainties and competing management priorities. In 2014, we held six workshops across estuaries along the Pacific coast of North America with over 150 participants to evaluate resource managers' perceived level of understanding of climate change science, where they obtain information, how they use this knowledge, and their preparedness for incorporating climate change into their management decisions. We found that most resource managers understood the types of climate change impacts likely to occur in their estuaries, but often lacked the scientific information to make decisions and plan effectively. Managers stated that time, money, and staff resources were the largest obstacles in their efforts. Managers identified that they learned most of their information from peers, scientific journals, and the Internet and indicated that sea-level rise was their greatest concern. There was, however, variation in managers' levels of readiness and perceived knowledge within and among workshop locations. The workshops revealed that some regions don't have the information they need or the planning capacity to effectively integrate climate change into their management, with eight out of fifteen site comparisons showing a significant difference between their level of preparedness (F5,26 = 6.852; p = 0.0003), and their willingness to formally plan (F5,26 = 12.84; p = 0.000002). We found that Urban estuaries were significantly different from Mixed Use and Rural estuaries, in having access to information and feeling more prepared to conduct climate change planning and implementation (F2,29 = 17.34; p = 0.00001). To facilitate climate change preparedness more comprehensive integration of science into management decisions is essential.

  10. Estimating Limit Reference Points for Western Pacific Leatherback Turtles (Dermochelys coriacea) in the U.S. West Coast EEZ.

    PubMed

    Curtis, K Alexandra; Moore, Jeffrey E; Benson, Scott R

    2015-01-01

    Biological limit reference points (LRPs) for fisheries catch represent upper bounds that avoid undesirable population states. LRPs can support consistent management evaluation among species and regions, and can advance ecosystem-based fisheries management. For transboundary species, LRPs prorated by local abundance can inform local management decisions when international coordination is lacking. We estimated LRPs for western Pacific leatherbacks in the U.S. West Coast Exclusive Economic Zone (WCEEZ) using three approaches with different types of information on local abundance. For the current application, the best-informed LRP used a local abundance estimate derived from nest counts, vital rate information, satellite tag data, and fishery observer data, and was calculated with a Potential Biological Removal estimator. Management strategy evaluation was used to set tuning parameters of the LRP estimators to satisfy risk tolerances for falling below population thresholds, and to evaluate sensitivity of population outcomes to bias in key inputs. We estimated local LRPs consistent with three hypothetical management objectives: allowing the population to rebuild to its maximum net productivity level (4.7 turtles per five years), limiting delay of population rebuilding (0.8 turtles per five years), or only preventing further decline (7.7 turtles per five years). These LRPs pertain to all human-caused removals and represent the WCEEZ contribution to meeting population management objectives within a broader international cooperative framework. We present multi-year estimates, because at low LRP values, annual assessments are prone to substantial error that can lead to volatile and costly management without providing further conservation benefit. The novel approach and the performance criteria used here are not a direct expression of the "jeopardy" standard of the U.S. Endangered Species Act, but they provide useful assessment information and could help guide international

  11. Estimating Limit Reference Points for Western Pacific Leatherback Turtles (Dermochelys coriacea) in the U.S. West Coast EEZ

    PubMed Central

    Curtis, K. Alexandra; Moore, Jeffrey E.; Benson, Scott R.

    2015-01-01

    Biological limit reference points (LRPs) for fisheries catch represent upper bounds that avoid undesirable population states. LRPs can support consistent management evaluation among species and regions, and can advance ecosystem-based fisheries management. For transboundary species, LRPs prorated by local abundance can inform local management decisions when international coordination is lacking. We estimated LRPs for western Pacific leatherbacks in the U.S. West Coast Exclusive Economic Zone (WCEEZ) using three approaches with different types of information on local abundance. For the current application, the best-informed LRP used a local abundance estimate derived from nest counts, vital rate information, satellite tag data, and fishery observer data, and was calculated with a Potential Biological Removal estimator. Management strategy evaluation was used to set tuning parameters of the LRP estimators to satisfy risk tolerances for falling below population thresholds, and to evaluate sensitivity of population outcomes to bias in key inputs. We estimated local LRPs consistent with three hypothetical management objectives: allowing the population to rebuild to its maximum net productivity level (4.7 turtles per five years), limiting delay of population rebuilding (0.8 turtles per five years), or only preventing further decline (7.7 turtles per five years). These LRPs pertain to all human-caused removals and represent the WCEEZ contribution to meeting population management objectives within a broader international cooperative framework. We present multi-year estimates, because at low LRP values, annual assessments are prone to substantial error that can lead to volatile and costly management without providing further conservation benefit. The novel approach and the performance criteria used here are not a direct expression of the “jeopardy” standard of the U.S. Endangered Species Act, but they provide useful assessment information and could help guide

  12. Molecular and histological identification of Marteilioides infection in Suminoe Oyster Crassostrea ariakensis, Manila Clam Ruditapes philippinarum and Pacific Oyster Crassostrea gigas on the south coast of Korea.

    PubMed

    Limpanont, Yanin; Yanin, Limpanont; Kang, Hyun-Sil; Hong, Hyun-Ki; Jeung, Hee-Do; Kim, Bong-Kyu; Le, Thanh Cuong; Kim, Young-Ok; Choi, Kwang-Sik

    2013-11-01

    The oyster ovarian parasite Marteilioides chungmuensis has been reported from Korea and Japan, damaging the oyster industries. Recently, Marteilioides-like organisms have been identified in other commercially important marine bivalves. In this study, we surveyed Marteilioides infection in the Manila clam Ruditapes philippinarum, Suminoe oyster Crassostrea ariakensis, and Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas, using histology and Marteilioides-specific small subunit (SSU) rDNA PCR. The SSU rDNA sequence of M. chungmuensis (1716 bp) isolated from C. gigas in Tongyoung bay was 99.9% similar to that of M. chungmuensis reported in Japan. Inclusions of multi-nucleated bodies in the oocytes, typical of Marteilioides infection, were identified for the first time in Suminoe oysters. The SSU rDNA sequence of a Marteilioides-like organism isolated from Suminoe oysters was 99.9% similar to that of M. chungmuensis. Marteilioides sp. was also observed from 7 Manila clams of 1840 individuals examined, and the DNA sequences of which were 98.2% similar to the known sequence of M. chungmuensis. Unlike Marteilioides infection of Pacific oysters, no remarkable pathological symptoms, such as large multiple lumps on the mantle, were observed in infected Suminoe oysters or Manila clams. Distribution of the infected Manila clams, Suminoe oysters and Pacific oysters was limited to small bays on the south coast, suggesting that the southern coast is the enzootic area of Marteilioides infection.

  13. RESISTANCE OF EARTH BANK AGAINST TSUNAMI AND STRUCTURE OF DUG POOL FORMED BY TSUNAMI IN THE 2011 OFF THE PACIFIC COAST OF TOHOKU EARTHQUAKE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tokida, Ken-Ichi; Tanimoto, Ryusuke

    In the 2011 Off the Pacific Coast of Tohoku Earthquake, very huge damages of civil engineering structures etc. occurred by tsunami strikes along the rias coast and plane coast of the Pacific Ocean. For the urgent repair and the future reconstruction of these structures, the fundamental damage characteristics of these structures should be clarified by the field surveys from which effective lessons can be expected. In this paper, several important lessons on the resistance characteristics of 13 earth structures such as river dykes and sand banks which are obtained from the field surveys conducted by the authors are indicated. Because many dug pools were formed by the tsunami overflow at the backside of earth embankments and sea walls in this earthquake, the fundamental characteristics of the 10 dug pools are investigated thorough the field survey to estimate the effects of the dug pools quantitatively in the future. Furthermore through the field survey conducted at the representative site named Idoura, the scale and waterbed conditions of the natural canals and the strength characteristics of the river dykes and the base ground neighboring the natural canals are measured in detail and discussed. These fundamental lessons and data on the earth banks and dug pools will be able to be used to simulate the effects of the dug pools and to discuss the artificial canals as one of the hard countermeasures to reduce the tsunami height and/or force.

  14. Observations of organic trace gases during ITCT: Characterization of sources, background, and long-range transport to the US West coast and eastern Pacific atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atlas, E.; Donnelly, S.; Stroud, V.; Schauffler, S.; Johnson, K.; Schwaller, N.; Hubler, G.; Parrish, D.; Holloway, J.; Trainer, M.

    2002-12-01

    The NOAA ITCT (Intercontinental Transport and Chemical Transformation) mission examined the processes that impact the chemical composition of the atmosphere in the eastern North Pacific Ocean and along the West Coast of the United States. The mission took place during April - May, 2002, when long-range transport to the US West Coast from downwind sources in Asia and beyond is most favorable. As part of the atmospheric chemistry payload on the NOAA P3 aircraft, whole air samples were collected for analysis of a variety of organic trace gases, including methane, NMHC, halocarbons, organic nitrates, and selected sulfur species. Mission flight tracks were designed to examine regions characteristic of the background atmosphere, and regions impacted by specific point sources, larger urban sources, and long-range transport. In this presentation we summarize the organic trace gas measurements and relationships from the whole air samples, characterize signatures of emissions from the west coast urban areas, and identify signatures of long-range trans-Pacific transport.

  15. First record of the polychaete Ficopomatus uschakovi (Pillai, 1960) (Annelida, Serpulidae) in the Colombian Caribbean, South America

    PubMed Central

    Arteaga-Flórez, Catalina; Fernández-Rodríguez, Vanessa; Londoño-Mesa, Mario H.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The genus Ficopomatus (Serpulidae) consists of sessile, tubicolous polychaete annelid worms that may colonize a diversity of substrata, and tolerate considerable variations in salinity. Thus, members of this genus, including Ficopomatus uschakovi, in some cases are exotic and maybe invasive. The purpose of our research was to collect and identify marine organisms associated with the submerged roots of mangrove trees in the Gulf of Urabá, Colombian Caribbean, South America. Within the Gulf, there is a well-developed forest of the Red Mangrove, Rhizophora mangle, along the margins of El Uno Bay. We sampled the roots of R. mangle from five stations of the bay, and we identified specimens of F. uschakovi from each of those stations. Ficopomatus uschakovi was found to be more abundant in regions of the bay that exhibit the lowest salinity. Based on a morphological comparison of the present specimens with the original species description, revised descriptions, and other records from the Indo-West Pacific, Mexican Pacific, and Venezuelan and Brazilian Caribbean, we suggest that F. uschakovi has a broader geographical distribution. Furthermore, because of this broad distribution, and the observed tolerance for low salinity in our study, we also suggest that F. uschakovi is a euryhaline species. It is also likely that F. uschakovi will be found in other localities in the Gulf of Urabá, and in other regions of the Colombian Caribbean. Thus, this record extends the distribution of the species to the Colombian Caribbean, giving the species a continuous distribution across the northern coast of South America. PMID:24493951

  16. First record of the polychaete Ficopomatus uschakovi (Pillai, 1960) (Annelida, Serpulidae) in the Colombian Caribbean, South America.

    PubMed

    Arteaga-Flórez, Catalina; Fernández-Rodríguez, Vanessa; Londoño-Mesa, Mario H

    2014-01-01

    The genus Ficopomatus (Serpulidae) consists of sessile, tubicolous polychaete annelid worms that may colonize a diversity of substrata, and tolerate considerable variations in salinity. Thus, members of this genus, including Ficopomatus uschakovi, in some cases are exotic and maybe invasive. The purpose of our research was to collect and identify marine organisms associated with the submerged roots of mangrove trees in the Gulf of Urabá, Colombian Caribbean, South America. Within the Gulf, there is a well-developed forest of the Red Mangrove, Rhizophora mangle, along the margins of El Uno Bay. We sampled the roots of R. mangle from five stations of the bay, and we identified specimens of F. uschakovi from each of those stations. Ficopomatus uschakovi was found to be more abundant in regions of the bay that exhibit the lowest salinity. Based on a morphological comparison of the present specimens with the original species description, revised descriptions, and other records from the Indo-West Pacific, Mexican Pacific, and Venezuelan and Brazilian Caribbean, we suggest that F. uschakovi has a broader geographical distribution. Furthermore, because of this broad distribution, and the observed tolerance for low salinity in our study, we also suggest that F. uschakovi is a euryhaline species. It is also likely that F. uschakovi will be found in other localities in the Gulf of Urabá, and in other regions of the Colombian Caribbean. Thus, this record extends the distribution of the species to the Colombian Caribbean, giving the species a continuous distribution across the northern coast of South America.

  17. Isopods of the genus Ligia as potential biomonitors of trace metals from the gulf of California and pacific coast of the Baja California peninsula.

    PubMed

    García-Hernández, Jaqueline; Hurtado, Luis A; Leyva-García, Germán; Güido-Moreno, Adrián; Aguilera-Márquez, Daniela; Mazzei, Veronica; Ferrante, Margherita

    2015-02-01

    Supralittoral and high intertidal coastal zones are exposed to pollution from both marine and terrestrial sources and undergo higher deposition rates than the subtidal zone. It is therefore important to identify organisms for this section of the coastal area that can be tolerant to contaminants. The aim of this study was to determine if supralittoral isopods of the genus Ligia can be used as biomonitors, since they are abundant and widely distributed. For this purpose, concentrations of trace elements were determined in Ligia isopods in toto from 26 locations across the Gulf of California and Pacific coast of the Baja California peninsula, which were collected during the summers of 2009 and 2010. The concentrations of trace elements followed the order of; Zn≥Cu>As>Cd>Pb>Hg. Elevated concentrations of copper (up to 1010 μg/g) were detected in Ligia from Santa Rosalía (SRo), a locality where industrial mining of copper has historically occurred. Industrial and municipal sewage discharges appear to have contributed to the high concentrations of zinc (326 μg/g) and lead (144 μg/g) found in organisms from Guaymas location. The high mercury concentration in organisms from Mazatlán (M) (2.01 μg/g) was associated with a thermoelectric plant. Natural sources of metals were also detected; coastal upwelling appears to be associated with high cadmium concentrations in Ligia from Punta Baja (PB) (256 μg/g) in the Pacific coast, whereas hydrothermal vents may have contributed to high concentrations of arsenic at Ensenada (E) (61 μg/g). Our results suggest that Ligia isopods reflect the natural and anthropogenic inputs of trace metals in the environment and could potentially be used as biomonitor organisms of the intertidal rocky shores of the Gulf of California and Pacific coast. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Continuous GPS observations in Tohoku University and recovery effort after the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demachi, T.; Miura, S.; Ohta, Y.; Tachibana, K.; Ueki, S.; Sato, T.; Ohzono, M.; Umino, N.

    2012-04-01

    The nation-wide GPS observation network which is named GPS Earth Observation Network System (GEONET) has been established by the Geospatial Information Authority of Japan (GSI) (Miyazaki et al., 1997). The network composed more than 1,200 stations with baseline length is about 20-25 km. Tohoku University has also conducted continuous GPS observations since 1987 in the Tohoku district, Northeastern Japan (Miura et al., 1993). Recently, to investigate short-length crustal deformations such as volcanic deformation, co- and post-seismic deformation of M6-7 class earthquakes and inter-seismic deformations, we have deployed continuous GPS observation stations to complement the location of GEONET stations (Miura et al. 2000, 2002, and 2004). We installed GPS receiver, PC for data logging (ALIX series, PC Engines GmbH) and re-booter (e.g., WATCH BOOT nino, Meikyo Electric Co., Ltd.) in each station. We have secure and stable online access to each station from our university (Sendai city, Japan) using IP-VPN over fixed telephone lines (FLET'S Office service, Nippon Telegraph and Telephone East Corp.). Through this network, the data are transferred to our university and we can restart the devices if the devices hang up. Since 2010, we have tried to use on-line system through internet by prepaid mobile data-communication (b-mobile3G and b-mobileSIM U300, Japan Communications Inc.) in eight observation stations. Compared with the FLET'S Office service, we can conveniently and inexpensively establish wherever the mobile phone service is provided. The two stations are located in volcanoes, we activate the network system for an hour in every day using motor time switch, because of these devices are operated by limited DC power supplies through solar cell. In other six stations, we can use commercial AC power supplies, so that data connections are always available. On March 11, 2011, the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake (Mw 9.0) occurred and a huge tsunami caused

  19. Change in groundwater environment caused by the 2011 off the Pacific Coast of Tohoku Earthquake in the southern part of Sendai Plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mori, Kazushi; Takahashi, Tomohiro; Okaniwa, Nobuyuki; Shibasaki, Naoaki; Ouchi, Takuya

    Southern part of Sendai Plain was extensively attacked by tsunami caused by the 2011 off the Pacific Coast of Tohoku Earthquake. Continuous observation since 2008 has revealed that the groundwater level rose instantaneously right after the earthquake, and then the tsunami, which occurred about an hour later, involved the succeeding drastic rise. Salinity of groundwater was increased from below 0.7 mS/cm to at most 3 mS/cm, and has not been restored to the state before the earthquake.

  20. Pacific Sardine Characteristics Affecting the Conduct of an Acoustic Clutter Experiment off the West Coast of the United States

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-15

    Pelagic Species include Pacific sardine, Pacific herring, northern anchovy, chub mackerel , jack mackerel , and bonito. Highly Migratory Species include...Chub Mackerel —Jack Mackerel —Bonito 2000 2005 Figure 1 - US catches of Coastal Pelagic Species —Tunas —Swordfish 1980 1985

  1. Effects of the 1991-92 El Niño on scleractinian corals of the Costa Rican central Pacific coast.

    PubMed

    Jiménez, C; Cortés, J

    2001-12-01

    Coral communities on the central Pacific coast of Costa Rica were affected during the 1991-92 El Niño warming event. More than 57% of all observed colonies at three localities (Parque Nacional Manuel Antonio, Punta Cambutal, and Parque Marino Ballena) were bleached. Mortality during this El Niño was much lower (approximately 9%) than in previous events. Psammocora spp. accounted for approximately 66% of dead corals, while massive (Porites lobota, Pavona spp.) and branching (Pocillopora spp.) for approximately 34%. Our results suggest that the observed bleaching in P. lobata was related to zooxanthellar densities and not to changes in pigment concentrations: only chlorophyll a varied between normally pigmented and bleached colonies at one locality (Ballena). Site differences in zooxanthellar densities or their pigment concentrations, may not be the result of the bleaching event itself, because a percentage of dead corals and zooxanthellar densities of bleached colonies seems to follow a trend with the exposure to tidal regimes and currents at each site. Local oceanographic conditions can be influencing the zooxanthellar densities and their response to the warming, together with intrinsic differences between colonies as well. The impact of this event can be considered serious given the short period of time that elapsed between El Niño related mortalities and the slow reefs recovery, the mode of reproduction of reef building species, and the anthropogenic-originated disturbances which affect the coral communities and reefs of the Costa Rican central Pacific coast.

  2. Determining bathymetric distributions of the eelgrass Zostera marina L. in three turbid estuaries of the eastern North Pacific coast

    EPA Science Inventory

    Improved methods for determining bathymetric distributions of dominant intertidal plants throughout their estuarine range are needed. Zostera marina is a seagrass native to estuaries of the northeastern Pacific and many other sectors of the world ocean. The technique described ...

  3. Determining bathymetric distributions of the eelgrass Zostera marina L. in three turbid estuaries of the eastern North Pacific coast

    EPA Science Inventory

    Improved methods for determining bathymetric distributions of dominant intertidal plants throughout their estuarine range are needed. Zostera marina is a seagrass native to estuaries of the northeastern Pacific and many other sectors of the world ocean. The technique described ...

  4. Uranium-Series Ages of Marine Terrace Corals from the Pacific Coast of North America and Implications for Last-Interglacial Sea Level History

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muhs, Daniel R.; Kennedy, George L.; Rockwell, Thomas K.

    1994-07-01

    Few of the marine terraces along the Pacific coast of North America have been dated using uranium-series techniques. Ten terrace sequences from southern Oregon to southern Baja California Sur have yielded fossil corals in quantities suitable for U-series dating by alpha spectrometry. U-series-dated terraces representing the ˜80,000 yr sea-level high stand are identified in five areas (Bandon, Oregon; Point Arena, San Nicolas Island, and Point Loma, California; and Punta Banda, Baja California); terraces representing the ˜125,000 yr sea-level high stand are identified in eight areas (Cayucos, San Luis Obispo Bay, San Nicolas Island, San Clemente Island, and Point Loma, California; Punta Bands and Isla Guadalupe, Baja California; and Cabo Pulmo, Baja California Sur). On San Nicolas Island, Point Loma, and Punta Bands, both the ˜80,000 and the ˜125,000 yr terraces are dated. Terraces that may represent the ˜105,000 sea-level high stand are rarely preserved and none has yielded corals for U-series dating. Similarity of coral ages from midlatitude, erosional marine terraces with coral ages from emergent, constructional reefs on tropical coastlines suggests a common forcing mechanism, namely glacioeustatically controlled fluctuations in sea level superimposed on steady tectonic uplift. The low marine terrace dated at ˜125,000 yr on Isla Guadalupe, Baja California, presumed to be tectonically stable, supports evidence from other localities for a +6-m sea level at that time. Data from the Pacific Coast and a compilation of data from other coasts indicate that sea levels at ˜80,000 and ˜105,000 yr may have been closer to present sea level (within a few meters) than previous studies have suggested.

  5. Uranium-Series Ages of Marine Terrace Corals from the Pacific Coast of North America and Implications for Last-Interglacial Sea Level History

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muhs, D.R.; Kennedy, G.L.; Rockwell, T.K.

    1994-01-01

    Few of the marine terraces along the Pacific coast of North America have been dated using uranium-series techniques. Ten terrace sequences from southern Oregon to southern Baja California Sur have yielded fossil corals in quantities suitable for U-series dating by alpha spectrometry. U-series-dated terraces representing the ???80,000 yr sea-level high stand are identified in five areas (Bandon, Oregon; Point Arena, San Nicolas Island, and Point Loma, California; and Punta Banda, Baja California); terraces representing the ???125,000 yr sea-level high stand are identified in eight areas (Cayucos, San Luis Obispo Bay, San Nicolas Island, San Clemente Island, and Point Loma, California; Punta Bands and Isla Guadalupe, Baja California; and Cabo Pulmo, Baja California Sur). On San Nicolas Island, Point Loma, and Punta Bands, both the ???80,000 and the ???125,000 yr terraces are dated. Terraces that may represent the ???105,000 sea-level high stand are rarely preserved and none has yielded corals for U-series dating. Similarity of coral ages from midlatitude, erosional marine terraces with coral ages from emergent, constructional reefs on tropical coastlines suggests a common forcing mechanism, namely glacioeustatically controlled fluctuations in sea level superimposed on steady tectonic uplift. The low marine terrace dated at ???125,000 yr on Isla Guadalupe, Baja California, presumed to be tectonically stable, supports evidence from other localities for a +6-m sea level at that time. Data from the Pacific Coast and a compilation of data from other coasts indicate that sea levels at ???80,000 and ???105,000 yr may have been closer to present sea level (within a few meters) than previous studies have suggested.

  6. Performance of JMA Earthquake Early Warning for the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake (Mw9.0)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoshiba, M.; Wakayama, A.; Ishigaki, Y.; Doi, K.

    2011-12-01

    This presentation outlines the Earthquake Early Warning of the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) for the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake (Mw9.0). EEW has been operational nationwide in Japan by JMA since October, 2007. For JMA EEW, the hypocenter is determined by a combination of several techniques, using approximately 1,100 stations from the JMA network and the Hi-net network of NIED; magnitude is mainly from maximum displacement amplitudes. JMA EEWs are updated as available data increases with elapsed time. Accordingly EEWs are issued repeatedly with improving accuracy for a single earthquake. JMA EEWs are divided into two grades depending on the expected intensities. The JMA intensity scale is based on instrumental measurements in which not only the amplitude but also the frequency and duration of the shaking are considered. The 10-degree JMA intensity scale rounds off the instrumental intensity value to the integer. Intensities of 5 and 6 are divided into two degrees, namely 5-lower, 5-upper, 6-lower and 6-upper, respectively. Intensity 1 corresponds to ground motion that people can barely detect, and 7 is the upper limit. JMA EEWs are announced to general public when intensity 5-lower (or greater) is expected. The JMA EEW system was triggered for the Mw 9.0 earthquake when station OURI (138km from the epicenter) detected the initial P wave at 14:46:40.2 (Japan Standard Time). The first EEW, the first of 15 announcements, was issued 5.4 s later. The waveform started with small amplitude, which was comparable to noise level for displacement. The small amplitude does not indicate that the initial rupture of the Mw 9.0 event is large, and does not suggest a large magnitude event. By the fourth EEW, 8.6 s after the first trigger, the expected intensity exceeded the criteria of the warning to the general public. JMA issued the fourth EEW announcements to the general public of the Tohoku district, and then the warning was automatically broadcast

  7. Correlation of Neogene continental, onshore-marine, and deep-ocean basins by means of tephra layers, Pacific coast margin of conterminous United States

    SciTech Connect

    Sarna-Wojcicki, A.M.

    1988-03-01

    Chemical fingerprinting, petrography, and stratigraphic sequences of tephra layers are making correlations possible among Neogene basins of the northeastern Pacific margin (Pacific Coast of the conterminous US) with greater precision than previously. Until recently, it has been difficult to make biostratigraphic temporal correlations among continental, onshore-marine, and deep-ocean basins because different fossil assemblages occur within the sediments of these three basin types. Moreover, variations in grain size, bioturbation, and other problems of signal preservation have made age determinations by magnetostratigraphy difficult or impossible in many places. Tephra layers are present in all three types of basins, however, and many of these have been dated by isotopic or other methods. Some well-dated, widespread tephra layers have been identified in all three types of basins; among these are the Wilson Grove (6.0 Ma), Alturas (4.8 Ma), Huckleberry Ridge (2.0 Ma), Bishop (0.74 M Ma), and Loleta (about 0.35 Ma). About 20 major widespread , dated tephra layers, ranging in age from 6 Ma to recent, have been identified along the northeastern Pacific margin, together with several tens of tephra layers that have more limited areal distribution. In addition to complementing existing biostratigraphic and magneto-stratigraphic data within individual basins, tephra correlations make it possible to compare and reconcile provincial biostratigraphic chronologies with worldwide chronologies, such as the magnetostratigraphic and oxygen-isotope time scales. Tephra layers also provide checks on numerical datum levels derived by other geochronologic techniques. Current work is extending some tephrochronologic correlations along the northeastern Pacific margin to about 12 Ma.

  8. Recent advances in understanding Colombian mangroves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polanía, J.; Urrego, L. E.; Agudelo, C. M.

    2015-02-01

    Throughout the last 15 years, researchers at the National University of Colombia at Medellin have studied Colombian mangroves. Remote sensing, pollen analysis of superficial and deep sediments, Holocene coastal vegetation dynamics, sediment dating using 14C and 210Pb, sampling in temporary plots, sampling in temporary and permanent plots, and other techniques have been applied to elucidate long- and short-term mangrove community dynamics. The studied root fouling community is structured by several regulatory mechanisms; habitat heterogeneity increases species richness and abundance. Fringe mangroves were related to Ca concentration in the soil and the increased dominance of Laguncularia racemosa and other nonmangrove tree species, while the riverine mangroves were associated with Mg concentration and the dominance of Rhizophora mangle. The seedling and mangrove tree distributions are determined by a complex gradient of natural and anthropogenic disturbances. Mangrove pollen from surface sediments and the existing vegetation and geomorphology are close interrelated. Plant pollen of mangrove and salt marsh reflects environmental and disturbance conditions, and also reveals forest types. Forest dynamics in both coasts and their sensitivity of to anthropogenic processes are well documented in the Late Quaternary fossil record. Our studies of short and long term allow us to predict the dynamics of mangroves under different scenarios of climate change and anthropogenic stress factors that are operating in Colombian coasts. Future research arises from these results on mangrove forests dynamics, sea-level rise at a fine scale using palynology, conservation biology, and carbon dynamics.

  9. New taxa and revisionary systematics of alcyonacean octocorals from the Pacific coast of North America (Cnidaria, Anthozoa)

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Gary C.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract A taxonomic assessment of four species of octocorals from the northeastern Pacific Ocean (British Columbia to California) is provided. Included here are a new species of clavulariid stolonifieran Cryptophyton, a new species of the nephtheid soft coral Gersemia, an undetermined species of soft coral in the genus Alcyonium that has been referred in the literature by several other names, and a new genus is named for a plexaurid sea fan originally described in the Indo-Pacific genus Euplexaura. Discussions are included that compare the species to related taxa, or provide revisionary assessments. PMID:23794840

  10. New taxa and revisionary systematics of alcyonacean octocorals from the Pacific coast of North America (Cnidaria, Anthozoa).

    PubMed

    Williams, Gary C

    2013-01-01

    A taxonomic assessment of four species of octocorals from the northeastern Pacific Ocean (British Columbia to California) is provided. Included here are a new species of clavulariid stolonifieran Cryptophyton, a new species of the nephtheid soft coral Gersemia, an undetermined species of soft coral in the genus Alcyonium that has been referred in the literature by several other names, and a new genus is named for a plexaurid sea fan originally described in the Indo-Pacific genus Euplexaura. Discussions are included that compare the species to related taxa, or provide revisionary assessments.

  11. Colombian export oil pipeline

    SciTech Connect

    Duncan, K. ); Enright, B. )

    1989-06-01

    The authors discuss how bringing crude oil to market often requires extraordinary determination and effort to overcome the obstacles of terrain and time. They describe a pipeline project on a 53-week suicide schedule to get oil across the Colombian Andes. After confronting setbacks, they completed a job that included 304 miles of pipeline, 497 miles of telecommunications and a major offshore terminal in only 47 weeks.

  12. Neothalassius, a new genus of Parathalassiinae (Diptera: Dolichopodidae s.lat.) from the Pacific coast of South America.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Scott E; Cumming, Jeffrey M

    2016-01-15

    A new genus, Neothalassius gen. nov., and two new species, Neothalassius triton sp. nov. and Neothalassius villosus sp. nov., are described from rocky shorelines along the Pacific seacoast of South America. The phylogenetic placement of Neothalassius within the subfamily Parathalassiinae is discussed.

  13. National Benthic Surveillance Project: Pacific Coast, Part 1. Summary and overview of the results for cycles 1 to 3 (1984-86). Technical memo

    SciTech Connect

    Varanasi, U.; Chan, S.L.; McCain, B.B.; Schiewe, M.H.; Clark, R.C.

    1988-12-01

    This report summarizes and interprets the results of the first 3 years of the Pacific Coast phase of the National Benthic Surveillance Project (NBSP), a component of NOAA's National Status and Trends Program. A comprehensive data base was developed, which includes detailed information on the distribution of a variety of chemical contaminants. These contaminants include selected aromatic hydrocarbons, PCBs, organochlorine insecticides and metals in surficial sediments and in liver tissue, bile, and stomach contents of selected bottom-feeding fish. The overall finding from the NBSP for the years 1984-86 indicated that the highest concentrations of most sediment-associated contaminants were present in the highly urbanized areas, and that contaminants were bioavailable to indigenous marine species.

  14. [Management of the operating room at the time of emergency outbreak--the experience of the 2011 Off the Pacific Coast of Tohoku Earthquake].

    PubMed

    Isosu, Tsuyoshi; Murakawa, Masahiro

    2012-03-01

    This article introduces the operating room disaster manual of our hospital. When "The 2011 Off the Pacific Coast of Tohoku Earthquake of magnitude 9" occurred, the 9 operations were being performed in our hospital. Among these, general and regional anesthesia had been induced in 8 cases, and as for one, patient was just leaving the operation room. General anesthesia was stopped in 6 cases. In our manual, all operations should be stopped, and then immediately finished if it is possible. There was no patient injured in our hospital. This was the first time we experienced such a large scale earthquake. It seemed closer cooperation between anesthesiologists, surgeons and the other co-medical staffs are very important to manage the unusual situation.

  15. Extreme long-period ground motions locally amplified in the Kanto Basin, by recording data of the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuno, S.; Yamanaka, H.; Midorikawa, S.; Sakai, S.; Hirata, N.; Miyake, H.; Koketsu, K.

    2013-12-01

    We evaluated long-period ground motions locally amplified in the Kanto Basin, during the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku earthquake (Mw 9.0). At first, in this study, we collected recording data of more than 1000 for the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku earthquake. As a result, the complex distributions of earthquake ground motions by PGA and PGV in the Tokyo Metropolitan Area were shown. Especially, the pseudo velocity responses for periods of 2 and 3 seconds in Kawasaki to Shinagawa, Tokyo and Odawara, Kanagawa have significantly large amplitudes of more than 100 cm/s. To comprehend the wave part in which ground motions for periods of 2 and 3 seconds were excited, we applied the time-frequency analysis to the seismic records in Shinagawa and Odawara. Ground motions in Shinagawa were dominated at periods of 1.5 to 3.5 seconds in the main phase. On the other hand, ground motions in Odawara were dominated at periods of 2 to 3 seconds in the main phase. In the Ashigara Valley (Odawara), the seismic records in the bed rock are obtained. Also, the S-wave velocity structure at the central area of the Ashigara Valley is already estimated by the previous study. Therefore, we evaluated the strong ground motion at the central area, using the multi-reflection method by the S-wave velocity structure. The velocity at the bed rock (Vs 2.8km/sec), which was calculated using the seismic records obtained on the surface at the central area, reproduced well the velocity observed in the bed rock. We concluded that the large velocity response for 2 and 3 seconds observed at the central area in Odawara is caused by the local site effect excited in the deep sedimentary basin.

  16. Hydroids of the genus Sertularella (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa: Sertulariidae) from the Pacific coast of Canada in the collection of the Royal Ontario Museum, with descriptions of four new species.

    PubMed

    Choong, Henry H C

    2015-03-02

    Examination of the hydroid fauna of the Canadian Pacific coast in the collections of the Royal Ontario Museum collected between 1934 and 1985 indicates that the genus Sertularella Gray, 1848 from the infralittoral zone in the region remains poorly enumerated. The present study shows that several European or northeast Atlantic hydroid species, Sertularella conica Allman, 1877, Sertularella rugosa (Linnaeus, 1758), Sertularella tenella Alder, 1856, Sertularella polyzonias (Linnaeus, 1758), and Sertularella fusiformis (Hincks, 1861) have been incorrectly reported from the west coast of North America and suggests that assumptions of cosmopolitanism of some species require verification by continuing refinement of regional species-level taxonomy. Four new species, Sertularella cervicula, S. coronata, S. sacciformis, and S. pacifica are recognized and described in this paper. Sertularella gigantea Hincks, 1874 is recognized for the first time from the Pacific coast of North America.

  17. Anisakis Dujardin, 1845 infection (Nematoda: Anisakidae) in Pygmy Sperm Whale Kogia breviceps Blainville, 1838 from west Pacific region off the coast of Philippine archipelago.

    PubMed

    Quiazon, Karl Marx A

    2016-09-01

    Cetaceans are definitive hosts of anisakid nematodes known to cause human anisakidosis. Despite the reported strandings of different cetaceans in the Philippines, studies on anisakids from these definitive hosts are limited. Here, the morphologically and molecularly identified anisakid species, specifically those of the genus Anisakis Dujardin, 1845 in stranded Pygmy Sperm Whale Kogia breviceps Blainville, 1838 in the west Pacific region off Philippine waters are presented. Morphological data using SEM and LM revealed multi-infections with different Anisakis species belonging to Anisakis type I and type II groups. Molecularly, PCR-RFLP on the ITS rDNA and sequence data analyses of both ITS rDNA and mtDNA cox2 regions identified those from Anisakis type I group as A. typica (Diesing, 1860), whereas those from type II group as A. brevispiculata Dollfus, 1968, and A. paggiae Mattiucci et al. (Syst Parasitol 61:157-171, 2005). This is the first record of Anisakis infection from this host stranded in the west Pacific region off the coast of Philippine waters and new geographical record for A. paggiae.

  18. Normalizing rainfall/debris-flow thresholds along the U.S. Pacific coast for long-term variations in precipitation climate

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, Raymond C.

    1997-01-01

    Broad-scale variations in long-term precipitation climate may influence rainfall/debris-flow threshold values along the U.S. Pacific coast, where both the mean annual precipitation (MAP) and the number of rainfall days (#RDs) are controlled by topography, distance from the coastline, and geographic latitude. Previous authors have proposed that rainfall thresholds are directly proportional to MAP, but this appears to hold only within limited areas (< 1?? latitude), where rainfall frequency (#RDs) is nearly constant. MAP-normalized thresholds underestimate the critical rainfall when applied to areas to the south, where the #RDs decrease, and overestimate threshold rainfall when applied to areas to the north, where the #RDs increase. For normalization between climates where both MAP and #RDs vary significantly, thresholds may best be described as multiples of the rainy-day normal, RDN = MAP/#RDs. Using data from several storms that triggered significant debris-flow activity in southern California, the San Francisco Bay region, and the Pacific Northwest, peak 24-hour rainfalls were plotted against RDN values, displaying a linear relationship with a lower bound at about 14 RDN. RDN ratios in this range may provide a threshold for broad-scale regional forecasting of debris-flow activity.

  19. Echinocephalus janzeni n. sp. (Nematoda: Gnathostomatidae) in Himantura pacifica (Chondrichthyes: Myliobatiformes) from the Pacific coast of Costa Rica and Mexico, with historical biogeographic analysis of the genus.

    PubMed

    Hoberg, E P; Brooks, D R; Molina-Ureña, H; Erbe, E

    1998-06-01

    Echinocephalus janzeni n. sp. in the stingray, Himantura pacifica, is described from the eastern Pacific Ocean off the coasts of Costa Rica and southern Mexico. On the basis of the presence of 6 postanal caudal papillae, and modified annules anterior to the caudal alae in males, E. janzeni is most similar to Echinocephalus daileyi and Echinocephalus diazi. Specimens of E. janzeni are distinguished from those of E. daileyi by bilobed caudal alae and long cervical sacs that extend up to 65% of the length of the esophagus; E. janzeni is differentiated from E. diazi by the number of rows of cephalic spines (30-38 vs. 26-27), arrangement of the postanal caudal papillae, 3 rather than 2 preanal papillae, relative position and distance between the anus and vulva (395-460 microm vs. 70 microm), the digitiform female tail with a terminal cuticular fold, and the length of the female tail (450-480 microm vs. 270 microm). Cladistic analysis of the 10 Echinocephalus spp. resulted in a single most parsimonious tree (consistency index=0.893) and placed E. janzeni in a highly derived subclade where E. daileyi is the sister species of E. diazi + E. janzeni. Historical biogeographic analysis of hosts and parasites provides support for origins in the Pacific rather than the Atlantic for the potamotrygonid stingrays.

  20. Optimum Orientation of the Atmospheric River (AR) for Extreme Storms in Feather, Yuba, and American River Watersheds in the Pacific Coast of the US

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohara, N.; Kavvas, M. L.; Anderson, M.; Chen, Z. Q.; Ishida, K.

    2016-12-01

    This study investigated physical maximum precipitation rates for the next generation of flood management strategies under evolving climate conditions using a regional atmospheric model. The model experiments using a non-hydrostatic atmospheric models, MM5, revealed the precipitation mechanism affected by topography and non-linear dynamics of the atmosphere in the Pacific Coast of the US during the Atmospheric River (AR) events. Significant historical storm events were identified based on the continuous weather simulations for the Feather, Yuba, and American river watersheds in California. For these historical storms, the basin precipitations were maximized by setting fully saturated atmospheric layers at the boundary of the outer nesting domain. It was found that maximizing the atmospheric moisture supply at the model boundary does not always increase the precipitation in Feather and Yuba River basins. The pattern of the precipitation increase and decrease by the maximization suggested the rain shadow effect of the Coast Range causing this unexpected precipitation reduction by the moisture maximization. The ground precipitation seems to be controlled by the AR orientation to the topography as well as the precipitable water. Finally, the steady-state precipitation experiments were performed to find an optimum AR orientation to yield the most significant continuous precipitation rate in the Feather, Yuba, and American River basins. This physically-based numerical experiment can potentially incorporate the climate change effects, explicitly.

  1. Tsunami run-up associated with co-seismic thrust slip produced by the 2011 Mw 9.0 Off Pacific Coast of Tohoku earthquake, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Aiming; Ikuta, Ryoya; Rao, Gang

    2012-07-01

    The 2011 Mw 9.0 Off Pacific Coast of Tohoku (Japan) earthquake generated a violent tsunami and unexpected high tsunami wave that caused great substantial damage and ˜18,940 fatalities along the east-northeast coast of Honshu Island of Japan. Analyses of high-resolution remote sensing imagery data acquired before and after the earthquake, combined with the results of field investigations, reveal that (i) run-up height of the tsunami (i.e., the inland limit of tsunami) was spatially variable, ranging from <3 m to ˜35 m, and (ii) large run-up heights occurred mainly in the areas between Ishinomaki (˜38.2°N) and Miyako city (˜40.2°N), close to the epicenter of 2011 Mw 9.0 earthquake, and showed a gradual decrease away from this region. Combined with the ground motion direction revealed by GPS and seismic data, the distribution of run-up height is consistent with that of ground displacement (calculated from GPS observations) and that of co-seismic thrusting slip on the source fault plane along the plate boundary (calculated from the seismic inversion). The results of numerical simulation of tsunami propagation show that (i) the distributions of tsunami height along the northeast Honshu coastline are constrained mainly by thrusting slip on the source fault plane; and (ii) the height of tsunami wave in special areas was strongly affected by the sawtooth geometry of the coastline.

  2. Historical evidence in the reconstruction and characterization of tsunami generation - the example of the great tsunami of 22 June 1932, the Pacific coast of Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corona, N.; Ramírez Herrera, M.

    2012-12-01

    The magnitude of the damage caused by tsunamis in the past decade has induced the need to expand our knowledge about tsunami dynamics and behavior, and to apply this knowledge in hazard assessment. This study proposes the application of multidisciplinary analysis, including historical and ethnographic techniques, in the reconstruction and characterization of tsunamis with no instrumental record. This study uses the case study of the 22 June 1932 tsunami, the second most destructive recorded in the Pacific Coast of Mexico, which reached wave heights of up to 12 m and devastated several coastal communities. The tsunami generation mechanisms have not yet been defined; two hypotheses about their origin are proposed: 1) seismic, and 2) by a submarine landslide. By screening historical archives, conducting interviews with local witnesses, and applying GIS mapping, we identified four key components of the tsunami dynamics that point out to tsunami generation mechanisms: time of arrival, directivity, affected area, and maximum wave heights at the coast. Based on the compiled historical data, we applied numerical models, using the GEOWAVE and FUNWAVE codes, and two possible mechanisms of tsunami generation, seismic slip and a submarine landslide. The results showed that given the location of the tsunamigenic source, the time of arrival to the coast, directivity, affected area, and maximum tsunami wave heights at the coastline, a submarine landslide best fits with the observed and documented tsunami behavior of the June 22, 1932 tsunami. We demonstrate here that the use of historical and ethnographic technics contributes and complements the modeling of events not recorded by instrumental methods, and aids in reveling their origin.

  3. Survey of levels of cadmium in oysters, mussels, clams and scallops from the Pacific Northwest coast of Canada.

    PubMed

    Bendell, L I

    2009-01-01

    Field and retail collections of bivalves from the Pacific Northwest, Canada, were analysed for cadmium concentrations by atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS). Both collections of varnish (Nuttallia obscurata) and manila (Venerupis philippinarum) clams contained cadmium concentrations of less than 0.5 µg g(-1), well below international safety guidelines of 1 and 2 µg g(-1) wet weight cadmium for the European and Hong Kong markets, respectively, as well as the 2 µg g(-1) safety guideline set by the Codex Alimentarius Commission (CAC). Cadmium concentrations in retail collections of the Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas, were generally above 2 µg g(-1) wet weight (range = 1.5-3.56 µg g(-1)). Retail collections of the mussel, Mytilus spp., contained cadmium concentrations below the 2 µg g(-1) wet weight guideline, but not always the 1 µg g(-1) limit (range = 0.15-1.8 µg g(-1)). However, field collections of Mytilus spp. contained cadmium concentrations between 0.35 and 4.00 µg g(-1) wet weight, and depending on sampling location, concentrations exceeded the CAC guidelines by more than two-fold. Locations where mussels had high cadmium concentrations correlated with regions that had previously reported high values for cadmium in Pacific oysters (r = 0.65; p < 0.05). Of the various shellfish analysed, the four species of scallops, Chlamys hastata, C. rubida, Crassadoma gigantea, and Patinopecten yessoensis, contained the greatest concentrations of cadmium, in excess of 5 µg g(-1) wet weight (range = 4.97-8.98 µg g(-1)) with the greatest concentrations determined for C. gigantea. Cadmium concentrations in shellfish from the Pacific Northwest are greater than values reported for shellfish from other regions of the world and consumers need be aware of Health Canada consumption guidelines for shellfish from this region.

  4. Health risk assessment from mercury levels in bycatch fish species from the coasts of Guerrero, Mexico (Eastern Pacific).

    PubMed

    Spanopoulos-Zarco, P; Ruelas-Inzunza, J; Meza-Montenegro, M; Osuna-Sánchez, K; Amezcua-Martínez, F

    2014-09-01

    With the aim of determining Hg distribution in muscle and liver of bycatch fish from Guerrero state in the Eastern Pacific Ocean and assess the potential risk to consumer, Hg was quantified in 14 species of bycatch fish. For the majority of fish the order of Hg levels was liver > muscle. The highest concentration corresponded to the liver of Isopisthus remifer (2.05 µg g(-1)) and the lowest (0.02 µg g(-1)) was detected in muscle of Prionotus sp. The highest hazard quotient (0.75) was found in the Mexican milkfish Micropogonias ectenes; considering all the individuals, mean hazard quotient was 0.336.

  5. Phylogeographic Structure in Benthic Marine Invertebrates of the Southeast Pacific Coast of Chile with Differing Dispersal Potential

    PubMed Central

    Haye, Pilar A.; Segovia, Nicolás I.; Muñoz-Herrera, Natalia C.; Gálvez, Francisca E.; Martínez, Andrea; Meynard, Andrés; Pardo-Gandarillas, María C.; Poulin, Elie; Faugeron, Sylvain

    2014-01-01

    The role of dispersal potential on phylogeographic structure, evidenced by the degree of genetic structure and the presence of coincident genetic and biogeographic breaks, was evaluated in a macrogeographic comparative approach along the north-central coast of Chile, across the biogeographic transition zone at 30°S. Using 2,217 partial sequences of the mitochondrial Cytochrome Oxidase I gene of eight benthic invertebrate species along ca. 2,600 km of coast, we contrasted dispersal potential with genetic structure and determined the concordance between genetic divergence between biogeographic regions and the biogeographic transition zone at 30°S. Genetic diversity and differentiation highly differed between species with high and low dispersal potential. Dispersal potential, sometimes together with biogeographic region, was the factor that best explained the genetic structure of the eight species. The three low dispersal species, and one species assigned to the high dispersal category, had a phylogeographic discontinuity coincident with the biogeographic transition zone at 30°S. Furthermore, coalescent analyses based on the isolation-with-migration model validate that the split between biogeographic regions north and south of 30°S has a historic origin. The signatures of the historic break in high dispersers is parsimoniously explained by the homogenizing effects of gene flow that have erased the genetic signatures, if ever existed, in high dispersers. Of the four species with structure across the break, only two had significant albeit very low levels of asymmetric migration across the transition zone. Historic processes have led to the current biogeographic and phylogeographic structure of marine species with limited dispersal along the north-central coast of Chile, with a strong lasting impact in their genetic structure. PMID:24586356

  6. Engineered feature used to enhance gardening at a 3800-year-old site on the Pacific Northwest Coast.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Tanja; Lyons, Natasha; Miller, Debbie; Diaz, Alejandra; Homan, Amy; Huddlestan, Stephanie; Leon, Roma

    2016-12-01

    Humans use a variety of deliberate means to modify biologically rich environs in pursuit of resource stability and predictability. Empirical evidence suggests that ancient hunter-gatherer populations engineered ecological niches to enhance the productivity and availability of economically significant resources. An archaeological excavation of a 3800-year-old wetland garden in British Columbia, Canada, provides the first direct evidence of an engineered feature designed to facilitate wild plant food production among mid-to-late Holocene era complex fisher-hunter-gatherers of the Northwest Coast. This finding provides an example of environmental, economic, and sociopolitical coevolutionary relationships that are triggered when humans manipulate niche environs.

  7. Engineered feature used to enhance gardening at a 3800-year-old site on the Pacific Northwest Coast

    PubMed Central

    Hoffmann, Tanja; Lyons, Natasha; Miller, Debbie; Diaz, Alejandra; Homan, Amy; Huddlestan, Stephanie; Leon, Roma

    2016-01-01

    Humans use a variety of deliberate means to modify biologically rich environs in pursuit of resource stability and predictability. Empirical evidence suggests that ancient hunter-gatherer populations engineered ecological niches to enhance the productivity and availability of economically significant resources. An archaeological excavation of a 3800-year-old wetland garden in British Columbia, Canada, provides the first direct evidence of an engineered feature designed to facilitate wild plant food production among mid-to-late Holocene era complex fisher-hunter-gatherers of the Northwest Coast. This finding provides an example of environmental, economic, and sociopolitical coevolutionary relationships that are triggered when humans manipulate niche environs. PMID:28028536

  8. The Structure of Genetic Diversity in Eelgrass (Zostera marina L.) along the North Pacific and Bering Sea Coasts of Alaska.

    PubMed

    Talbot, Sandra L; Sage, George K; Rearick, Jolene R; Fowler, Meg C; Muñiz-Salazar, Raquel; Baibak, Bethany; Wyllie-Echeverria, Sandy; Cabello-Pasini, Alejandro; Ward, David H

    2016-01-01

    Eelgrass (Zostera marina) populations occupying coastal waters of Alaska are separated by a peninsula and island archipelago into two Large Marine Ecosystems (LMEs). From populations in both LMEs, we characterize genetic diversity, population structure, and polarity in gene flow using nuclear microsatellite fragment and chloroplast and nuclear sequence data. An inverse relationship between genetic diversity and latitude was observed (heterozygosity: R2 = 0.738, P < 0.001; allelic richness: R2 = 0.327, P = 0.047), as was significant genetic partitioning across most sampling sites (θ = 0.302, P < 0.0001). Variance in allele frequency was significantly partitioned by region only in cases when a population geographically in the Gulf of Alaska LME (Kinzarof Lagoon) was instead included with populations in the Eastern Bering Sea LME (θp = 0.128-0.172; P < 0.003), suggesting gene flow between the two LMEs in this region. Gene flow among locales was rarely symmetrical, with notable exceptions generally following net coastal ocean current direction. Genetic data failed to support recent proposals that multiple Zostera species (i.e. Z. japonica and Z. angustifolia) are codistributed with Z. marina in Alaska. Comparative analyses also failed to support the hypothesis that eelgrass populations in the North Atlantic derived from eelgrass retained in northeastern Pacific Last Glacial Maximum refugia. These data suggest northeastern Pacific populations are derived from populations expanding northward from temperate populations following climate amelioration at the terminus of the last Pleistocene glaciation.

  9. The Structure of Genetic Diversity in Eelgrass (Zostera marina L.) along the North Pacific and Bering Sea Coasts of Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Talbot, Sandra; Sage, Kevin; Rearick, Jolene; Fowler, Megan C.; Muñiz-Salazar, Raquel; Baibak, Bethany; Wyllie-Echeverria, Sandy; Cabello-Pasini, Alehandro; Ward, David H.

    2016-01-01

    Eelgrass (Zostera marina) populations occupying coastal waters of Alaska are separated by a peninsula and island archipelago into two Large Marine Ecosystems (LMEs). From populations in both LMEs, we characterize genetic diversity, population structure, and polarity in gene flow using nuclear microsatellite fragment and chloroplast and nuclear sequence data. An inverse relationship between genetic diversity and latitude was observed (heterozygosity: R2 = 0.738, P < 0.001; allelic richness: R2 = 0.327, P = 0.047), as was significant genetic partitioning across most sampling sites (θ = 0.302, P < 0.0001). Variance in allele frequency was significantly partitioned by region only in cases when a population geographically in the Gulf of Alaska LME (Kinzarof Lagoon) was instead included with populations in the Eastern Bering Sea LME (θp = 0.128–0.172; P < 0.003), suggesting gene flow between the two LMEs in this region. Gene flow among locales was rarely symmetrical, with notable exceptions generally following net coastal ocean current direction. Genetic data failed to support recent proposals that multiple Zostera species (i.e. Z. japonica and Z. angustifolia) are codistributed with Z. marina in Alaska. Comparative analyses also failed to support the hypothesis that eelgrass populations in the North Atlantic derived from eelgrass retained in northeastern Pacific Last Glacial Maximum refugia. These data suggest northeastern Pacific populations are derived from populations expanding northward from temperate populations following climate amelioration at the terminus of the last Pleistocene glaciation.

  10. The Structure of Genetic Diversity in Eelgrass (Zostera marina L.) along the North Pacific and Bering Sea Coasts of Alaska

    PubMed Central

    Talbot, Sandra L.; Sage, George K; Rearick, Jolene R.; Fowler, Meg C.; Muñiz-Salazar, Raquel; Baibak, Bethany; Wyllie-Echeverria, Sandy; Cabello-Pasini, Alejandro; Ward, David H.

    2016-01-01

    Eelgrass (Zostera marina) populations occupying coastal waters of Alaska are separated by a peninsula and island archipelago into two Large Marine Ecosystems (LMEs). From populations in both LMEs, we characterize genetic diversity, population structure, and polarity in gene flow using nuclear microsatellite fragment and chloroplast and nuclear sequence data. An inverse relationship between genetic diversity and latitude was observed (heterozygosity: R2 = 0.738, P < 0.001; allelic richness: R2 = 0.327, P = 0.047), as was significant genetic partitioning across most sampling sites (θ = 0.302, P < 0.0001). Variance in allele frequency was significantly partitioned by region only in cases when a population geographically in the Gulf of Alaska LME (Kinzarof Lagoon) was instead included with populations in the Eastern Bering Sea LME (θp = 0.128–0.172; P < 0.003), suggesting gene flow between the two LMEs in this region. Gene flow among locales was rarely symmetrical, with notable exceptions generally following net coastal ocean current direction. Genetic data failed to support recent proposals that multiple Zostera species (i.e. Z. japonica and Z. angustifolia) are codistributed with Z. marina in Alaska. Comparative analyses also failed to support the hypothesis that eelgrass populations in the North Atlantic derived from eelgrass retained in northeastern Pacific Last Glacial Maximum refugia. These data suggest northeastern Pacific populations are derived from populations expanding northward from temperate populations following climate amelioration at the terminus of the last Pleistocene glaciation. PMID:27104836

  11. Outlining the Ancestry Landscape of Colombian Admixed Populations

    PubMed Central

    Ossa, Humberto; Aquino, Juliana; Pereira, Rui; Ibarra, Adriana; Ossa, Rafael H; Pérez, Luz Adriana; Granda, Juan David; Lattig, Maria Claudia; Groot, Helena; Fagundes de Carvalho, Elizeu; Gusmão, Leonor

    2016-01-01

    The ancestry of the Colombian population comprises a large number of well differentiated Native communities belonging to diverse linguistic groups. In the late fifteenth century, a process of admixture was initiated with the arrival of the Europeans, and several years later, Africans also became part of the Colombian population. Therefore, the genepool of the current Colombian population results from the admixture of Native Americans, Europeans and Africans. This admixture occurred differently in each region of the country, producing a clearly stratified population. Considering the importance of population substructure in both clinical and forensic genetics, we sought to investigate and compare patterns of genetic ancestry in Colombia by studying samples from Native and non-Native populations living in its 5 continental regions: the Andes, Caribe, Amazonia, Orinoquía, and Pacific regions. For this purpose, 46 AIM-Indels were genotyped in 761 non-related individuals from current populations. Previously published genotype data from 214 Colombian Natives from five communities were used for population comparisons. Significant differences were observed between Native and non-Native populations, among non-Native populations from different regions and among Native populations from different ethnic groups. The Pacific was the region with the highest African ancestry, Amazonia harboured the highest Native ancestry and the Andean and Orinoquían regions showed the highest proportion of European ancestry. The Andean region was further sub-divided into 6 sub-regions: North East, Central West, Central East, West, South West and South East. Among these regions, the South West region showed a significantly lower European admixture than the other regions. Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and variance values of ancestry among individuals within populations showed a potential stratification of the Pacific population. PMID:27736937

  12. Outlining the Ancestry Landscape of Colombian Admixed Populations.

    PubMed

    Ossa, Humberto; Aquino, Juliana; Pereira, Rui; Ibarra, Adriana; Ossa, Rafael H; Pérez, Luz Adriana; Granda, Juan David; Lattig, Maria Claudia; Groot, Helena; Fagundes de Carvalho, Elizeu; Gusmão, Leonor

    2016-01-01

    The ancestry of the Colombian population comprises a large number of well differentiated Native communities belonging to diverse linguistic groups. In the late fifteenth century, a process of admixture was initiated with the arrival of the Europeans, and several years later, Africans also became part of the Colombian population. Therefore, the genepool of the current Colombian population results from the admixture of Native Americans, Europeans and Africans. This admixture occurred differently in each region of the country, producing a clearly stratified population. Considering the importance of population substructure in both clinical and forensic genetics, we sought to investigate and compare patterns of genetic ancestry in Colombia by studying samples from Native and non-Native populations living in its 5 continental regions: the Andes, Caribe, Amazonia, Orinoquía, and Pacific regions. For this purpose, 46 AIM-Indels were genotyped in 761 non-related individuals from current populations. Previously published genotype data from 214 Colombian Natives from five communities were used for population comparisons. Significant differences were observed between Native and non-Native populations, among non-Native populations from different regions and among Native populations from different ethnic groups. The Pacific was the region with the highest African ancestry, Amazonia harboured the highest Native ancestry and the Andean and Orinoquían regions showed the highest proportion of European ancestry. The Andean region was further sub-divided into 6 sub-regions: North East, Central West, Central East, West, South West and South East. Among these regions, the South West region showed a significantly lower European admixture than the other regions. Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and variance values of ancestry among individuals within populations showed a potential stratification of the Pacific population.

  13. Molecular identification of Anisakis and Hysterothylacium larvae in marine fishes from the East China Sea and the Pacific coast of central Japan.

    PubMed

    Kong, Qingming; Fan, Lanfen; Zhang, Junhe; Akao, Nobuaki; Dong, Kewei; Lou, Di; Ding, Jianzu; Tong, Qunbo; Zheng, Bin; Chen, Rui; Ohta, Nobuo; Lu, Shaohong

    2015-04-16

    Anisakiasis is a human disease caused by the accidental ingestion of larvae belonging to the family Anisakidae. Three fish species, the small yellow croaker Pseudosciaena polyactis, the mackerel Pneumatophorus japonicus and the hairtail Trichiurus haumela are important source for food products in the East China Sea. The prevalence and the identification of Anisakidae larvae in these fishes will benefit the prevention and control of anisakiasis. In this study, fish samples were obtained from fish markers in the East China Sea and the Pacific coast of central Japan during April 2011 and July 2013. For species identification, the PCR-based restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis of the entire ITS region (ITS1, 5.8 S and ITS2) of nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA) was performed. In total, 2004 larvae were collected from 80 hairtail fish, 20 small yellow croaker, and 27 mackerel from the East China Sea and the Pacific coast of central Japan. High prevalence of Anisakidae larvae infection (116/122, 95.1%) was detected in the East China Sea. Seven species were identified belonging to the genera Anisakis (Nematoda: Anisakidae) and Hysterothylacium (Nematoda: Anisakidae). Anisakis pegreffii was the predominant species accounting for 84.8% of all larvae examined in East China Sea, while all Anisakidae larvae isolated from Japan were identified as Anisakis simplex sensu stricto (s.s.). In the East China Sea, A. simplex s.s. and Anisakis typica were 0.6% (4/619) and 1.5% (9/619) of the identified nematodes, respectively. Interestingly, one larva was identified as a recombinant genotype of A. simplex s.s. and A. pegreffii. In addition, four species of the genus Hysterothylacium, namely, Hysterothylacium amoyense (31/619, 5.0%), Hysterothylacium aduncum (10/619, 1.6%), Hysterothylacium fabri (21/619, 3.4%) and Hysterothylacium spp. (18/619, 2.9%) were also identified in the present study. This is a comprehensive epidemiological dataset for the family Anisakidae in

  14. Spatial distributions of Anopheles species in relation to malaria incidence at 70 localities in the highly endemic Northwest and South Pacific coast regions of Colombia.

    PubMed

    Ahumada, Martha L; Orjuela, Lorena I; Pareja, Paula X; Conde, Marcela; Cabarcas, Diana M; Cubillos, Eliana F G; Lopez, Jorge A; Beier, John C; Herrera, Sócrates; Quiñones, Martha L

    2016-08-11

    A proper identification of malaria vectors is essential for any attempt to control this disease. Between 40 and 47 Anopheles species have been recorded in Colombia, and eight species complexes have been identified in the last decade. An update of Anopheles species distribution and its relationship with malaria is required, particularly for newly identified members of species complexes. A cross-sectional entomological study was conducted at 70 localities in the highest malaria transmission areas in Colombia. In each locality, immature and adult mosquitoes were collected. All specimens were determined using morphological characters and confirmed used restriction profiles of Internal Transcribed Spacer 2 (PCR-RFLP-ITS2), and Cytochrome c Oxidase I (COI) sequence gene. To detect natural Plasmodium infections, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and nested PCR analysis were used. Distribution of Anopheles species was spatially associated with malaria incidence. A total of 1736 larvae and 12,052 adult mosquitoes were determined in the 70 localities. Thirteen Anopheles species were identified. COI sequence analysis suggested 4 new lineages for Colombia: for Anopheles albimanus (An. albimanus B), Anopheles pseudopunctipennis s.l., Anopheles neivai (An. neivai nr. neivai 4), and Anopheles apicimacula. Two members of species complexes were identified, as: Anopheles nuneztovari C, and Anopheles albitarsis I. Another seven species were confirmed. Four mosquitoes were infected with Plasmodium species, An. albimanus B and An. nuneztovari C. In Northwest of Colombia, An. nuneztovari C, An. albimanus, and Anopheles darlingi were present in the municipalities with highest annual parasitic index (API) (>35 cases/1000 inhabitants). In the north of South Pacific coast, with a similar API, An. nuneztovari C were widely distributed inland, and the main species in coastal regions were An. albimanus B and An. neivai s.l. In the South Pacific coast bordering with Ecuador, 3 Anopheles species

  15. El Niño 1997-1998 impact on the plankton dynamics in the Gulf of Nicoya, Pacific coast of Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Morales-Ramírez, A; Brugnoli-Olivera, E

    2001-12-01

    The impact of the El Niño 1997-1998 phenomenom on plankton dynamics was studied during 1997 at the Punta Morales estuary, Gulf of Nicoya, Pacific coast of Costa Rica. The study covered dry season/transition and the rainy season. Phytoplankton (microphytoplankton > 30 microm and nanophytoplankton) were collected at two depths (50 and 10% light incidence) using a 5 L Niskin bottle, and samples taken to determine chlorophyll a. Temperature, salinity, oxygen, and Secchi depth were measured. Horizontal sub-surface zooplankton hauls were conducted with a conic zooplankton net of 0.49 m diameter and 280 microm mesh width, supplied with a flowmeter. Surface sea water temperature average was 29.9 +/- 0.9 degrees C, with a maximum of 31.5 degrees C in April and a minimun of 28 degrees C in March and October. Chlorophyll a concentration (phytoplankton net) averaged 3.1 +/- 1.7 mg/m3, with higher values during the rainy season and lower values during the transition. Nanophytoplankton chlorophyll a concentration averaged 2.5 +/- 1.2 mg/m3, with a maximum during the transition season. For both fractions there were significant differences between transition and rainy seasons, and for nanophytoplankton between dry and transition seasons (p < 0.05). In the last case, differences were explained by temperature. Herbivorous copepods dominated the abundance and biomass of zooplankton, with a biomass maximun of 167.3 in October and a minimun of 7.1 mg DW/m3 in December. These values are higher than those found some years ago in the same zone and those reported for some places in the Caribbean. The El Niño 1997-1998 phenomenon in the plankton dynamics appears to have produced a change in the phytoplankton structure. This is the first attempt to evaluate the possible impact of El Niño on the plankton dynamics of the Pacific coast of Central America.

  16. A pandemic Vibrio parahaemolyticus O3:K6 clone causing most associated diarrhea cases in the Pacific Northwest coast of Mexico

    PubMed Central

    de Jesús Hernández-Díaz, Lucio; Leon-Sicairos, Nidia; Velazquez-Roman, Jorge; Flores-Villaseñor, Héctor; Guadron-Llanos, Alma M.; Martinez-Garcia, J. Javier; Vidal, Jorge E.; Canizalez-Roman, Adrián

    2015-01-01

    Between September and October of 2004, more than 1230 cases of gastroenteritis due to pandemic O3:K6 strains of Vibrio parahaemolyticus (V. parahaemolyticus) were reported in the relatively small geographical area of Southern Sinaloa, a state located in Northwest Mexico. Since then, V. parahaemolyticus-associated gastroenteritis cases have gradually increased in prevalence spreading from south to north. The present study conducted an epidemiological surveillance of V. parahaemolyticus strains in both environmental and clinical samples along the Pacific coast of Sinaloa from 2011 to 2013. The genetic relatedness, serotype dominance and antibiotic resistance of isolates were investigated. A total of 46 strains were isolated from environmental samples (e.g., sediment, seawater and shrimp), whereas 249 strains were obtained from stools of patients with gastroenteritis. Nine different O serogroups and 16 serovars were identified. Serovars O3:K6 and O6:K46 were identified in both environmental and clinical strains. Whereas most environmental isolates carried the tdh gene (71.74%, 33/46), only three (6.52%) belonged to pandemic clones (O3:K6, O3:KUT and OUT:KUT). In contrast, 81.1% (202/249) of clinical isolates belonged to pandemic serotypes, with O3:K6 (tdh, toxRS/new, and/or orf8) representing the predominant serovar (97%, 196/202). This prevalence of pathogenic (tdh and/or trh positive) and O3:K6 pandemic V. parahaemolyticus isolates in this study were similar to those found from 2004 to 2010. As investigated by REP-PCR, genetic lineages of selected O3:K6 strains isolated in this study and some isolated earlier were nearly identical. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing showed that most strains (93.8%) were resistant to ampicillin but sensitive to chloramphenicol (98.8%). Multidrug resistance significantly increased from 8.6% (2004–2010) to 22.93% (2011–2013; p < 0.05). Our data indicate that pandemic O3:K6 clone has endemically established in the Pacific Coast of

  17. Effect of temperature on growth and paralytic toxin profiles in isolates of Gymnodinium catenatum (Dinophyceae) from the Pacific coast of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Band-Schmidt, Christine J; Bustillos-Guzmán, José J; Hernández-Sandoval, Francisco E; Núñez-Vázquez, Erick J; López-Cortés, David J

    2014-11-01

    The effects of temperature on growth, cell toxicity, toxin content, and profile of paralytic shellfish toxins was determined in eight isolates of Gymnodinium catenatum from several localities along the Pacific Coast of Mexico. The isolates were cultivated in modified f/2 media with Se (10(-8) M), and a reduced concentration of Cu (10(-8) M), under a 12 h:12 h day-night cycle with an irradiance of 150 μE m(-2) s(-1). Isolates were progressively adapted for three generations to each of the temperatures (16, 19, 22, 24, 27, 30, and 33 °C). The cultures were grown in 125 mL Erlenmeyer flasks with 60 mL of media and harvested by filtration in late exponential growth. Toxins were analyzed by HPLC with a post-column oxidation and fluorescent detection (FLD). G. catenatum isolates tolerate temperatures between 16 and 33 °C, with maximum growth rates of 0.32 and 0.39 div day(-1) at 21 °C and 24 °C, respectively; maximum cell densities of 4700 and 5500 cells mL(-1) were obtained at 27 and 21 °C, respectively. No effect of toxicity per cell with temperature was observed, varying between 10.10 and 28.19 pgSXTeq cell(-1). Ten saxitoxin analogues were detected in all isolates, observing changes in the toxin profile with temperature. C1/2 toxins decreased from 80% mol at 16 °C to 20% mol at 33 °C, B1/2 toxins increased from 19% mol at 16 °C to 42% mol at 33 °C, and decarbamoyl toxins were more abundant at 21 °C. These results show that G. catenatum isolates from different regions of the Pacific coast of Mexico have a similar response to temperature and that this parameter can modify growth rate, cell density, and toxin profile of the species, particularly the decarbamoyl and sulfocarbamoyl toxins. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. [Establishment and development of Tabebuia rosea (Bignoniaceae) seedlings in a semideciduous tropical forest under management, Pacific coast of Mexico].

    PubMed

    Santacruz, Antonio Mora; Valdez Herández, Juan Ignacio; Angeles Pérez, Gregorio; Musálem Santiago, Miguel Angel; Vaquera Huerta, Humberto

    2006-12-01

    We evaluated the effect of soil "scarification" and vegetation clearing treatments on the natural regeneration and initial development of Tabebuia rosea (Bertold) DC. seedlings in a moderate sized semideciduous tropical forest subjected to wood harvesting on the coast of Jalisco, Mexico. The treatments were applied under "seed" trees, and the number of germinated seedlings and their development were evaluated for nine months. Soil "scarification" promoted seed germination and initial seedling development, while the control of the competing vegetation increased the seedling growth and reduced their mortality. These results should be taken into account for the natural regeneration of this species, after clearing, to improve wood production, and should be incorporated into the silvicultural techniques currently developed in the region.

  19. Activity history of giant earthquakes bring crustal movements and huge tsunamis -A case of the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake (M 9)-

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haraguchi, T.; Shimoyma, S.; Yamanaka, T.; Yoshinaga, Y.; Takahashi, T.

    2016-12-01

    Remarkable crustal movements (subsidence of 1.4 m in maximum) according by the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake (M 9) involved huge tsunami waves were observed in the wide area of Sanriku Coast in northeast Japan. Purpose of this study is to reconstruct the history of such giant earthquakes from preserved evidence in a sediment core using several paleoenvironmental proxies. Drilling was carried out at a salt marsh behind the beach ridge. The reconstructed paleoenvironment suggests that the marine top was at 7.7 m below present sea level. Stable sulfur isotopic compositions of the sedimentary sulfur (mainly pyrite) in the core sediments reflect the extent of seawater contribution, therefore, it also support the above suggestion. As a result of weighing of the gravel fractions (>2 mm in size) recovered from the sediments , several sharp peaks in weight were detected. 11 peaks were recognized between ground surface and 9.2 m below present sea level of the sediment core. The top peak is considered corresponding to the last tsunami deposit in 2011, therefore these 11 peaks are plausible tsunami events. Many 14C age data were obtained from the sediment core. As a result, age of the marine top (7.7 m below present sea level) is estimated ca. 7,000 cal yBP. Relative sea level in Sanriku Coast including Kukunaki Beach (study area) about 7,000 years ago was estimated approximately same level at the present. The subsidence of 7.7 m is equal to quantity of accumulation of 11 times of vertical crustal movements including the 2011 event when the amount of subsidence with the crustal movement caused by one earthquake is ca. 0.7m. Peaks of the gravel-rich layers also indicate 11 tsunami events for past 7,000 years. It leads that the average recurrence interval of the giant earthquake with huge tsunami is about 700 years and the average subsidence rate is ca. 0.7 m per 1,000 years (a perpendicular component).

  20. Piscine reovirus: Genomic and molecular phylogenetic analysis from farmed and wild salmonids collected on the Canada/US Pacific Coast

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Siah, Ahmed; Morrison, Diane B.; Fringuelli, Elena; Savage, Paul S.; Richmond, Zina; Purcell, Maureen K.; Johns, Robert; Johnson, Stewart C.; Sakasida, Sonja M.

    2015-01-01

    Piscine reovirus (PRV) is a double stranded non-enveloped RNA virus detected in farmed and wild salmonids. This study examined the phylogenetic relationships among different PRV sequence types present in samples from salmonids in Western Canada and the US, including Alaska (US), British Columbia (Canada) and Washington State (US). Tissues testing positive for PRV were partially sequenced for segment S1, producing 71 sequences that grouped into 10 unique sequence types. Sequence analysis revealed no identifiable geographical or temporal variation among the sequence types. Identical sequence types were found in fish sampled in 2001, 2005 and 2014. In addition, PRV positive samples from fish derived from Alaska, British Columbia and Washington State share identical sequence types. Comparative analysis of the phylogenetic tree indicated that Canada/US Pacific Northwest sequences formed a subgroup with some Norwegian sequence types (group II), distinct from other Norwegian and Chilean sequences (groups I, III and IV). Representative PRV positive samples from farmed and wild fish in British Columbia and Washington State were subjected to genome sequencing using next generation sequencing methods. Individual analysis of each of the 10 partial segments indicated that the Canadian and US PRV sequence types clustered separately from available whole genome sequences of some Norwegian and Chilean sequences for all segments except the segment S4. In summary, PRV was genetically homogenous over a large geographic distance (Alaska to Washington State), and the sequence types were relatively stable over a 13 year period.

  1. Piscine Reovirus: Genomic and Molecular Phylogenetic Analysis from Farmed and Wild Salmonids Collected on the Canada/US Pacific Coast

    PubMed Central

    Siah, Ahmed; Morrison, Diane B.; Fringuelli, Elena; Savage, Paul; Richmond, Zina; Johns, Robert; Purcell, Maureen K.; Johnson, Stewart C.; Saksida, Sonja M.

    2015-01-01

    Piscine reovirus (PRV) is a double stranded non-enveloped RNA virus detected in farmed and wild salmonids. This study examined the phylogenetic relationships among different PRV sequence types present in samples from salmonids in Western Canada and the US, including Alaska (US), British Columbia (Canada) and Washington State (US). Tissues testing positive for PRV were partially sequenced for segment S1, producing 71 sequences that grouped into 10 unique sequence types. Sequence analysis revealed no identifiable geographical or temporal variation among the sequence types. Identical sequence types were found in fish sampled in 2001, 2005 and 2014. In addition, PRV positive samples from fish derived from Alaska, British Columbia and Washington State share identical sequence types. Comparative analysis of the phylogenetic tree indicated that Canada/US Pacific Northwest sequences formed a subgroup with some Norwegian sequence types (group II), distinct from other Norwegian and Chilean sequences (groups I, III and IV). Representative PRV positive samples from farmed and wild fish in British Columbia and Washington State were subjected to genome sequencing using next generation sequencing methods. Individual analysis of each of the 10 partial segments indicated that the Canadian and US PRV sequence types clustered separately from available whole genome sequences of some Norwegian and Chilean sequences for all segments except the segment S4. In summary, PRV was genetically homogenous over a large geographic distance (Alaska to Washington State), and the sequence types were relatively stable over a 13 year period. PMID:26536673

  2. The evolutionary history of steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) along the US Pacific Coast: Developing a conservation strategy using genetic diversity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nielsen, J.L.

    1999-01-01

    Changes in genetic variation across a species range may indicate patterns of population structure resulting from past ecological and demographic events that are otherwise difficult to infer and thus provide insight into evolutionary development. Genetic data is used, drawn from 11 microsatellite loci amplified from anadromous steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) sampled throughout its range in the eastern Pacific Ocean, to explore population structure at the southern edge in California. Steelhead populations in this region represent less than 10% of their reported historic abundance and survive in very small populations found in fragmented habitats. Genetic data derived from three independent molecular systems (allozymes, mtDNA, and microsatellites) have shown that the southernmost populations are characterized by a relatively high genetic diversity. Two hypothetical models supporting genetic population substructure such as observed were considered: (1) range expansion with founder-flush effects and subsequent population decline; (2) a second Pleistocene radiation from the Gulf of California. Using genetic and climatic data, a second Pleistocene refugium contributing to a southern ecotone seems more feasible. These data support strong conservation measures based on genetic diversity be developed to ensure the survival of this uniquely diverse gene pool.

  3. Oceanic adults, coastal juveniles: tracking the habitat use of whale sharks off the Pacific coast of Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Pierce, Simon J.; Humphries, Nicolas E.; Sims, David W.

    2017-01-01

    Eight whale sharks tagged with pop-up satellite archival tags off the Gulf of California, Mexico, were tracked for periods of 14–134 days. Five of these sharks were adults, with four females visually assessed to be pregnant. At least for the periods they were tracked, juveniles remained in the Gulf of California while adults moved offshore into the eastern Pacific Ocean. We propose that parturition occurs in these offshore waters. Excluding two juveniles that remained in the shallow tagging area for the duration of tracking, all sharks spent 65 ± 20.7% (SD) of their time near the surface, even over deep water, often in association with frontal zones characterized by cool-water upwelling. While these six sharks all made dives into the meso- or bathypelagic zones, with two sharks reaching the maximum depth recordable by the tags (1285.8 m), time spent at these depths represented a small proportion of the overall tracks. Most deep dives (72.7%) took place during the day, particularly during the early morning and late afternoon. Pronounced habitat differences by ontogenetic stage suggest that adult whale sharks are less likely to frequent coastal waters after the onset of maturity. PMID:28484673

  4. Prevalence, intensity, and differential development of Pseudodelphis oligocotti (Nematoda: Dracunculoidea) in sympatric fish hosts of the northeastern Pacific coast.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Shannon N; Adamson, Martin L

    2004-08-01

    Counter to expectations of coevolved parasite-host relationships, parasites frequently infect hosts that never contribute to their reproduction, making the identification of a parasite's true host-specificity problematic. Pseudodelphis oligocotti (Nematoda: Dracunculoidea) infects several coastal Pacific fishes, but its course of development appears highly variable, suggesting that incidence does not reflect effective host range. To determine the host range of P. oligocotti and describe its relationship to various potential hosts, 24 fish species were examined from several British Columbia localities for prevalence, intensity, and extent and tissue location of parasite development. Pseudodelphis oligocotti infects 9 species of fishes from 5 orders, of which penpoint gunnel, Apodichthys flavidus, showed the highest prevalence and intensity, up to 80% and 19 (+/- 17.1 SD) worms per host, respectively. Although subadult and adult P. oligocotti occurred in all 9 fishes, larvigerous P. oligocotti only occurred in A. flavidus and rarely in the northern clingfish, Gobiesox maeandricus. Infective first-stage larvae were recovered from gill tissue of A. flavidus. Thus, at most only 2 of the 9 host species infected by P. oligocotti actually contribute to its transmission. The occurrence of P. oligocotti in diverse hosts may be accounted for by the parasite's indiscriminant mode of transmission via ingestion of free-living intermediate copepod hosts, where highly exposed or more suitable fishes (or both) are closely related by diet and microhabitat. This study demonstrates how parasite transmission and host ecology can greatly affect observed host range and ultimately its potential for expansion.

  5. Reproductive traits of the symbiotic pea crab Austinotheres angelicus (Crustacea, Pinnotheridae) living in Saccostrea palmula (Bivalvia, Ostreidae), Pacific coast of Costa Rica

    PubMed Central

    Salas-Moya, Carolina; Mena, Sebastián; Wehrtmann, Ingo S.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Pea crabs of the family Pinnotheridae exhibit a symbiotic life style and live associated with a variety of different marine organisms, especially bivalves. Despite the fact that pea crabs can cause serious problems in bivalve aquaculture, the available information about the ecology of these crabs from Central America is extremely limited. Therefore, the present study aimed to describe different reproductive features of the pinnotherid crab Austinotheres angelicus associated with the oyster Saccostrea palmula in the Golfo de Nicoya, Pacific coast of Costa Rica. Monthly sampling was conducted from April to December 2012. Average carapace width (CW) of the 47 analyzed ovigerous females was 7.62 mm. The species produced on average 2677 ± 1754 recently -extruded embryos with an average volume of 0.020 ± 0.003 mm3; embryo volume increased during embryogenesis by 21%, but did not vary significantly between developmental stages. Brood mass volume varied greatly (between 11.7 and 236.7 mm3), and increased significantly with female CW. Females invested on average 76.7% (minimum: 21.7%; maximum: 162.8%) of their body weight in brood production, which confirms a substantially higher energy allocation for embryo production in pinnotherid crabs compared to free-living decapods. PMID:25561840

  6. Re-Evaluating the Geological Evidence for Late Holocene Marine Incursion Events along the Guerrero Seismic Gap on the Pacific Coast of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Bianchette, Thomas A; McCloskey, Terrence A; Liu, Kam-Biu

    2016-01-01

    Despite the large number of tsunamis that impact Mexico's Pacific coast, stratigraphic studies focusing on geological impacts are scanty, making it difficult to assess the long-term risks for this vulnerable region. Surface samples and six cores were taken from Laguna Mitla near Acapulco to examine sedimentological and geochemical evidence for marine incursion events. Sediment cores collected from behind the beach barrier are dominated by intercalated layers of peat and inorganic sediments, mostly silt and clay, with little or no sand. Sand- and shell-rich clastic layers with high levels of sulfur, calcium, and strontium only occur adjacent to the relict beach ridge remnants near the center of the lagoon. With the exception of one thin fine sand layer, the absence of sand in the near-shore cores and the predominance of the terrigenous element titanium in the inorganic layers, evidently eroded from the surrounding hillslopes, suggests that these large-grained intervals do not represent episodic marine incursions, but rather were likely formed by the erosion and redeposition of older marine deposits derived from the beach ridge remnants when water levels were high. These results do not support the occurrence of a large tsunami event at Laguna Mitla during the Late Holocene.

  7. Re-Evaluating the Geological Evidence for Late Holocene Marine Incursion Events along the Guerrero Seismic Gap on the Pacific Coast of Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Bianchette, Thomas A.

    2016-01-01

    Despite the large number of tsunamis that impact Mexico’s Pacific coast, stratigraphic studies focusing on geological impacts are scanty, making it difficult to assess the long-term risks for this vulnerable region. Surface samples and six cores were taken from Laguna Mitla near Acapulco to examine sedimentological and geochemical evidence for marine incursion events. Sediment cores collected from behind the beach barrier are dominated by intercalated layers of peat and inorganic sediments, mostly silt and clay, with little or no sand. Sand- and shell-rich clastic layers with high levels of sulfur, calcium, and strontium only occur adjacent to the relict beach ridge remnants near the center of the lagoon. With the exception of one thin fine sand layer, the absence of sand in the near-shore cores and the predominance of the terrigenous element titanium in the inorganic layers, evidently eroded from the surrounding hillslopes, suggests that these large-grained intervals do not represent episodic marine incursions, but rather were likely formed by the erosion and redeposition of older marine deposits derived from the beach ridge remnants when water levels were high. These results do not support the occurrence of a large tsunami event at Laguna Mitla during the Late Holocene. PMID:27571270

  8. Changes in abundance and composition of anthropogenic marine debris on the continental slope off the Pacific coast of northern Japan, after the March 2011 Tohoku earthquake.

    PubMed

    Goto, Tomoaki; Shibata, Haruka

    2015-06-15

    Abundance and composition of anthropogenic marine debris were assessed on the basis of six bottom trawl surveys conducted on the continental slope off Iwate Prefecture, Pacific coast of northern Japan, in 2003, 2004 and 2011, and the temporal changes due to the Tohoku earthquake and tsunami in March 2011 evaluated. In 2003 and 2004, 54-94 items km(-2) of marine debris, dominated by sea-base sourced items mainly comprising fishing gear and related items from adjacent fishing grounds on the continental shelf, were quantified. In the post-earthquake period, the density increased drastically to 233-332 items km(-2), due to an increase in land-base sourced items generated by the tsunami. However, a major increase in abundance after the disaster, compared to the total amount of tsunami debris swept into the sea, was not found. Additional sources of land-based debris from the adjacent continental shelf are suggested in the present waters. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Possible large near-trench slip during the 2011 M w 9.0 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lay, Thorne; Ammon, Charles J.; Kanamori, Hiroo; Xue, Lian; Kim, Marina J.

    2011-07-01

    The 11 March 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku ( M w 9.0) Earthquake ruptured a 200 km wide megathrust fault, with average displacements of ~15-20 m. Early estimates of the co-seismic slip distribution using seismic, geodetic and tsunami observations vary significantly in the placement of slip, particularly in the vicinity of the trench. All methods have difficulty resolving the up-dip extent of rupture; onshore geodetic inversions have limited sensitivity to slip far offshore, seismic inversions have instabilities in seismic moment estimation as subfault segments get very shallow, and tsunami inversions average over the total region of ocean bottom uplift. Seismic wave estimates depend strongly on the velocity structure used in the model, which affects both seismic moment estimation and inferred mapping to slip. We explore these ideas using a least-squares inversion of teleseismic P-waves that yields surprisingly large fault displacements (up to ~60 m) at shallow depth under a protrusion of the upper plate into the trench. This model provides good prediction of GPS static displacements on Honshu. We emphasize the importance of poorly-constrained rigidity variations with depth for estimating fault displacement near the trench. The possibility of large slip at very shallow depth holds implications for up-dip strain accumulation and tsunamigenic earthquake potential of megathrusts elsewhere.

  10. The phylogeny and life cycle of two species of Profilicollis (Acanthocephala: Polymorphidae) in marine hosts off the Pacific coast of Chile.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, S M; D'Elía, G; Valdivia, N

    2017-09-01

    Resolving complex life cycles of parasites is a major goal of parasitological research. The aim of this study was to analyse the life cycle of two species of the genus Profilicollis, the taxonomy of which is still unstable and life cycles unclear. We extracted individuals of Profilicollis from two species of crustaceans (intermediate hosts) and four species of seagulls (definitive hosts) from sandy-shore and estuarine habitats along the south-east Pacific coast of Chile. Mitochondrial DNA analyses showed that two species of Profilicollis infected intermediate hosts from segregated habitats: while P. altmani larvae infected exclusively molecrabs of the genus Emerita from fully marine habitats, P. antarcticus larvae infected the crab Hemigrapsus crenulatus from estuarine habitats. Moreover, P. altmani completed its life cycle in four seagulls, Chroicocephalus maculipennis, Leucopheus pipixcan, Larus modestus and L. dominicanus, while P. antarcticus, on the other hand, completed its life cycle in the kelp gull L. dominicanus. Accordingly, our results show that two congeneric parasites use different and spatially segregated species as intermediate hosts, and both are capable of infecting one species of definitive hosts. As such, our analyses allow us to shed light on a complex interaction network.

  11. Application of the positive matrix factorization approach to identify heavy metal sources in sediments. A case study on the Mexican Pacific Coast.

    PubMed

    González-Macías, C; Sánchez-Reyna, G; Salazar-Coria, L; Schifter, I

    2014-01-01

    During the last two decades, sediments collected in different sources of water bodies of the Tehuantepec Basin, located in the southeast of the Mexican Pacific Coast, showed that concentrations of heavy metals may pose a risk to the environment and human health. The extractable organic matter, geoaccumulation index, and enrichment factors were quantified for arsenic, cadmium, copper, chromium, nickel, lead, vanadium, zinc, and the fine-grained sediment fraction. The non-parametric SiZer method was applied to assess the statistical significance of the reconstructed metal variation along time. This inference method appears to be particularly natural and well suited to temperature and other environmental reconstructions. In this approach, a collection of smooth of the reconstructed metal concentrations is considered simultaneously, and inferences about the significance of the metal trends can be made with respect to time. Hence, the database represents a consolidated set of available and validated water and sediment data of an urban industrialized area, which is very useful as case study site. The positive matrix factorization approach was used in identification and source apportionment of the anthropogenic heavy metals in the sediments. Regionally, metals and organic matter are depleted relative to crustal abundance in a range of 45-55 %, while there is an inorganic enrichment from lithogenous/anthropogenic sources of around 40 %. Only extractable organic matter, Pb, As, and Cd can be related with non-crustal sources, suggesting that additional input cannot be explained by local runoff or erosion processes.

  12. Diet composition and diel feeding behaviour of the banded guitarfish Zapteryx xyster along the Pacific coast of Costa Rica, Central America.

    PubMed

    Espinoza, M; Clarke, T M; Villalobos-Rojas, F; Wehrtmann, I S

    2013-01-01

    The diet and diel feeding behaviour of the banded guitarfish Zapteryx xyster were examined along the Pacific coast of Costa Rica. A sample of 235 stomachs was collected between March 2010 and December 2011 as part of an ongoing shrimp-trawl by-catch monitoring programme. Samples from multiple day and night periods allowed testing the hypothesis that Z. xyster is more active at night, thus increasing the amount of food intake during night-time. Overall, shrimps (52·3% prey-specific index of relative importance, P(SIRIi) ) and teleosts (27·2% P(SIRIi) ) were the most important prey categories. Juveniles fed primarily on smaller shrimps (Solenocera spp.), while adults shifted to larger prey. The amount of food consumed (as % of bodymass) by juvenile and adult Z. xyster increased significantly between 0400 and 1200 hours, while the proportion of empty stomachs decreased during the same time interval. These findings contradict the hypothesis that Z. xyster is more active and feeds at night. The study also revealed that Z. xyster, particularly juveniles, forage on several shrimp species and overlap spatially with the Costa Rican bottom-trawl fisheries. This has important management and conservation implications as Z. xyster may be experiencing high by-catch rates, and because of their life history is presumed to be vulnerable to intense levels of exploitation. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Fish Biology © 2012 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  13. Evidence that the Migration of the Northern Subpopulation of Pacific Sardine (Sardinops sagax) off the West Coast of the United States Is Age-Based

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Analysis of fish movements has been an important area of study for fisheries ecology and population dynamics for decades. Pacific sardine, Sardinops sagax, along the west coast of the United States exhibit a well-defined large-scale seasonal migration. Larger and older fish are found in the northern reaches of their range during summer and contract to southerly offshore areas for spawning during spring. Because of the close correlation between fish size and age it has not yet been determined if movements are size- or age-based. Measuring spatial changes in the age structure conditioned on individual lengths was used to determine the roles of age versus length in the seasonal migration. S. sagax have a pattern of increasing age-at-length with seasonal northward movements and offshore movements for spawning. The pattern of increasing age-at-length with distance from the origin eliminates a solely length-based process of movement and supports age-based movement. Patterns in the size and age when fish first show migratory behaviors, coupled with the patterns observed during the spawning season, support a hypothesis that migratory behaviors are linked to age-based ontogenetic changes associated with maturation. PMID:27851805

  14. Outline of the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake ( M w 9.0) —Earthquake Early Warning and observed seismic intensity—

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoshiba, Mitsuyuki; Iwakiri, Kazuhiro; Hayashimoto, Naoki; Shimoyama, Toshihiro; Hirano, Kazuyuki; Yamada, Yasuyuki; Ishigaki, Yuzo; Kikuta, Haruyuki

    2011-07-01

    The 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake ( M w 9.0) that occurred on March 11, 2011, caused strong ground motion around northeastern Japan. Before the strong ground motion hit cities, the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) issued Earthquake Early Warning (EEW) announcements to the general public of the Tohoku district and then the warning was automatically broadcast through TV, radios and cellular phone mails. The EEW was earlier than the S wave arrival and more than 15 s earlier than the strong ground motion (intensity 5-lower or greater on the JMA scale) everywhere in the district. Seismic intensity 7 was observed for only the second time since JMA introduced instrument-based observation for intensity measurements in 1996. Intensities of 6-upper and 6-lower were widely observed at many stations in the Tohoku and Kanto districts, over an area of approximately 400 km × 100 km. The duration of strong ground motions was quite long. For the Tokyo region, JMA EEW expected intensities of 4, which was an underestimation of the observed intensity (5-upper). This underestimation can probably be attributed to the large extent of the fault rupture.

  15. Geomagnetic Diurnal Variations - Analysis in Space and Time Associated with the 2011 off the Pacific Coast of Tohoku Earthquake (Mw9.0)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hattori, Katsumi; Han, Peng

    2017-04-01

    Recent studies have reported unusual behaviors of geomagnetic diurnal variation (GDV) in the vertical component prior to the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku earthquake (Mw 9.0). To make a better understanding of this phenomenon, time-spatial analysis of GDV has been applied in this study. Geomagnetic data of long term observations at 17 stations in Japan have been analyzed using the same method in Han et al. 2015. Ratios of diurnal variation range between the target station and the reference station KAK have been computed. After removing seasonal variations revealed by wavelet transform analysis, the 15-day mean values of the ratios in the vertical component shows a clear anomaly exceeding the statistical threshold about 2 months before the mega event in both ESA and MIZ stations in the Tohoku Region. Similar results could not be found in other regions of Japan. Spatial distributions of the ratios show a good agreement between the location of the anomalies and the epicenter of Mw 9.0 earthquake. These time-spatial results seem to be consistent with independent results obtained from other observations such as radon density, seismicity, and GPS displacements, which suggest the geomagnetic data might be useful in earthquake monitoring and disaster mitigation.

  16. Population Subdivision of Japanese Flounder Paralichthys olivaceus in the Pacific Coast of Tohoku Japan Detected by Means of Mitochondrial Phylogenetic Information

    PubMed Central

    Shigenobu, Yuya; Yoneda, Michio; Kurita, Yutaka; Ambe, Daisuke; Saitoh, Kenji

    2013-01-01

    This study deals with mitochondrial phylogenetic information of Japanese flounder in the Pacific coast of Tohoku Japan to estimate the genetic population subdivision that was undetectable by conventional population statistics. We determined complete sequences of mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase subunit-2 (ND2) and subunit-5 (ND5) genes for 151 individuals from northern (Aomori and Iwate prefectures, 40–41°N) and southern (Miyagi and Fukushima prefectures, 37–38°N) waters. Samples from both waters showed high genetic diversity, including 126 haplotypes. These haplotypes were located at mixed and nested positions on an inferred phylogenetic tree, and traditional F-statistics indicated no significant population divergence (ϕST = −0.00335, p > 0.05), corroborating our previous study. Three variable sites, however, showed significant base composition heterogeneity between samples from the northern and southern waters (Fisher’s exact-test, p < 0.01). Nucleotide substitutions at the three sites converged on an apical clade, which consisted of the five southern individuals, whereas its sister clade consisted only of the three northern individuals. This phylogenetic information corroborates previous ecological studies indicating the presence of separate stocks in the northern and southern waters. PMID:23296272

  17. Hemocyte parameters of the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas a year after the Hebei Spirit oil spill off the west coast of Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donaghy, Ludovic; Hong, Hyun-Ki; Lee, Hee-Jung; Jun, Je-Cheon; Park, Young-Je; Choi, Kwang-Sik

    2010-12-01

    In marine bivalves, hemocytes support various physiological functions, including immune defense, nutrient transport, shell repair, and homeostatic maintenance. Although the effects of marine contaminants on the immunological functions of bivalves have been extensively investigated, the impacts of oil spills are not well understood. Therefore, we investigated hemocyte parameters in the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas 13 months after the Hebei Spirit oil spill (December 2007) off the west coast of Korea. The parameters studied included hemocyte concentration and mortality, relative proportion of hemocyte populations, and immunological functions such as phagocytosis and oxidative activity using flow cytometry. These immune-related parameters in oysters damaged by the oil spill were also compared to control oysters that were collected from an area unaffected by the spill. The flow cytometry study indicated that granulocyte population, phagocytic capacity, and reactive oxygen species production in oysters exposed to crude oil 13 months prior were depressed compared to the unexposed control oysters. Our data suggest that immunocompetence in oysters affected by the oil spill had not fully recovered 1 year after the accident, although more detailed studies on the physiology and disease resistance should be performed.

  18. Highly Connected Populations and Temporal Stability in Allelic Frequencies of a Harvested Crab from the Southern Pacific Coast

    PubMed Central

    Rojas-Hernandez, Noemi; Veliz, David; Riveros, Marcela P; Fuentes, Juan P.; Pardo, Luis M.

    2016-01-01

    For marine invertebrates with a benthic adult form and a planktonic larva phase, the connectivity among populations is mainly based on larval dispersal. While an extended larval phase will promote gene flow, other factors such as an intensive fishery and geographical barriers could lead to changes in genetic variability. In this study, the population genetic structure of the commercial crab Metacarcinus edwardsii was analyzed along 700 km of the Chilean coast. The analysis, based on eight microsatellite loci genotyped from megalopae and adult crabs, considered temporal and spatial patterns of genetic variation. The results showed no evidence of spatial patterns in genetic structure, suggesting high connectivity among the sampling sites. The temporal analysis showed no evidence of changes in allele frequencies and no evidence of a recent bottleneck. The lack of spatial structure and allele variation over time could be explained by the interaction of factors such as i) low reproductive variance due to the capability of females to store sperm in the seminal receptacle, which can be used for successive broods, ii) high larval dispersal and iii) high individual reproductive output. Using our data as priors, a genetic modelling approach coincided, predicting this temporal and spatial stability. The same analysis showed that a reduction in population size leads to the loss of genetic variability in populations, as well as of the genetic cohesiveness between populations, pointing out the importance management for species under exploitation, such as M. edwardsii. PMID:27814382

  19. Highly Connected Populations and Temporal Stability in Allelic Frequencies of a Harvested Crab from the Southern Pacific Coast.

    PubMed

    Rojas-Hernandez, Noemi; Veliz, David; Riveros, Marcela P; Fuentes, Juan P; Pardo, Luis M

    2016-01-01

    For marine invertebrates with a benthic adult form and a planktonic larva phase, the connectivity among populations is mainly based on larval dispersal. While an extended larval phase will promote gene flow, other factors such as an intensive fishery and geographical barriers could lead to changes in genetic variability. In this study, the population genetic structure of the commercial crab Metacarcinus edwardsii was analyzed along 700 km of the Chilean coast. The analysis, based on eight microsatellite loci genotyped from megalopae and adult crabs, considered temporal and spatial patterns of genetic variation. The results showed no evidence of spatial patterns in genetic structure, suggesting high connectivity among the sampling sites. The temporal analysis showed no evidence of changes in allele frequencies and no evidence of a recent bottleneck. The lack of spatial structure and allele variation over time could be explained by the interaction of factors such as i) low reproductive variance due to the capability of females to store sperm in the seminal receptacle, which can be used for successive broods, ii) high larval dispersal and iii) high individual reproductive output. Using our data as priors, a genetic modelling approach coincided, predicting this temporal and spatial stability. The same analysis showed that a reduction in population size leads to the loss of genetic variability in populations, as well as of the genetic cohesiveness between populations, pointing out the importance management for species under exploitation, such as M. edwardsii.

  20. Regional monitoring programs in the United States: Synthesis of four case studies from Pacific, Atlantic, and Gulf Coasts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tango, Peter J.; Schiff, K.; Trowbridge, P.R.; Sherwood, E.T.; Batiuk, R.A.

    2016-01-01

    Water quality monitoring is a cornerstone of environmental protection and ambient monitoring provides managers with the critical data they need to take informed action. Unlike site-specific monitoring that is at the heart of regulatory permit compliance, regional monitoring can provide an integrated, holistic view of the environment, allowing managers to obtain a more complete picture of natural variability and cumulative impacts, and more effectively prioritize management actions. By reviewing four long-standing regional monitoring programs that cover portions of all three coasts in the United States – Chesapeake Bay, Tampa Bay, Southern California Bight, and San Francisco Bay – important insights can be gleaned about the benefits that regional monitoring provides to managers. These insights include the underlying reasons that make regional monitoring programs successful, the challenges to maintain relevance and viability in the face of ever-changing technology, competing demands and shifting management priorities. The lessons learned can help other managers achieve similar successes as they seek to establish and reinvigorate their own monitoring programs.

  1. Rapid Source Characterization of the 2011 Mw 9.0 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hayes, Gavin P.

    2011-01-01

    On March 11th, 2011, a moment magnitude 9.0 earthquake struck off the coast of northeast Honshu, Japan, generating what may well turn out to be the most costly natural disaster ever. In the hours following the event, the U.S. Geological Survey National Earthquake Information Center led a rapid response to characterize the earthquake in terms of its location, size, faulting source, shaking and slip distributions, and population exposure, in order to place the disaster in a framework necessary for timely humanitarian response. As part of this effort, fast finite-fault inversions using globally distributed body- and surface-wave data were used to estimate the slip distribution of the earthquake rupture. Models generated within 7 hours of the earthquake origin time indicated that the event ruptured a fault up to 300 km long, roughly centered on the earthquake hypocenter, and involved peak slips of 20 m or more. Updates since this preliminary solution improve the details of this inversion solution and thus our understanding of the rupture process. However, significant observations such as the up-dip nature of rupture propagation and the along-strike length of faulting did not significantly change, demonstrating the usefulness of rapid source characterization for understanding the first order characteristics of major earthquakes.

  2. Checklist of copepods from Gulf of Nicoya, Coronado Bay and Golfo Dulce, Pacific coast of Costa Rica, with comments on their distribution.

    PubMed

    Morales-Ramírez, A

    1996-12-01

    A list of 54 copepod species (Crustacea) in 23 families is presented for the Pacific coast of Costa Rica. Identifications are from zooplankton samples of the Victor Hensen Expedition during December 1993 and February 1994. Samples were taken with a Bongo net (0.60 m net opening, 2.50 m net length) with 200 microns mesh size. Oblique hauls were done from the surface to the ground at a towing speed of aprox. 1 knot. 37 species (68.5%) were found in the Gulf of Nicoya, 36 in Golfo Dulce (66.6%) and 17 (31.4%) species were common to both gulfs, while only twelve species (22.2%) were found in Coronado Bay. Four species (7.4%) were distributed along the coast and were common to the three regions: Paracalanus parvus, Euchaeta sp., Oithona plumifera and O. similis. Eleven species of calanoids found normally in the Costa Rica Dome show the influence of typical oceanic waters principally at the mouth of Gulf of Nicoya. Differences were observed in the composition and presence of the copepod species when the inner and outer (upper and lower) parts of both gulfs were compared. Gulf of Nicoya was dominated in its upper part by typical neritic estuarine species like Acartia lilljenborgii, Paracalanus parvus and, Hemyciclops thalassius as well as species of Pseudodiaptomus. On the other hand a more oceanic composition of copepods was observed in the lower part of the gulf. Both small species, like Oncaea venusta, as well as larger species, such as Pleuromamma robusta, Eucalanus attenuatus, E. elongatus and Rhincalanus nasutus, were typical of these waters. Oithona plumifera and O. similis were found in the lower part too; and both species are typical from oceanic water. Coronado Bay was characterized by the presence of typical oceanic species like Neocalanus gracilis, Euchaeta longicornis, Eucalanus attenuatus and Haloptilus ornatus with more transitional species like Clausocalanus pergens and C. furcatus near the coast. In the Golfo Dulce differences in copepod composition were

  3. Plutonium isotopes concentration in seawater and bottom sediment off the Pacific coast of Aomori sea area during 1991-2005.

    PubMed

    Oikawa, Shinji; Watabe, Teruhisa; Inatomi, Naohiko; Isoyama, Naohiko; Misonoo, Jun; Suzuki, Chiyoshi; Nakahara, Motokazu; Nakamura, Ryoichi; Morizono, Shigemitsu; Fujii, Seiji; Hara, Takeya; Kido, Katsutoshi

    2011-03-01

    A radioactivity survey was launched in 1991 to determine the background levels of ²³⁹+²⁴⁰Pu in the marine environment off a commercial spent nuclear fuel reprocessing plant before full operation of the facility. Particular attention was focused on the ²⁴⁰Pu/²³⁹Pu atom ratio in seawater and bottom sediment to identify the origins of Pu isotopes. The concentration of ²³⁹+²⁴⁰Pu was almost uniform in surface water, decreasing slowly over time. Conversely, the ²³⁹+²⁴⁰Pu concentration varied markedly in the bottom water and was dependent upon the sampling point, with higher concentrations of ²³⁹+²⁴⁰Pu observed in the bottom water sample at sampling points having greater depth. The ²⁴⁰Pu/²³⁹Pu atom ratio in the seawater and sediment samples was higher than that of global fallout Pu, and comparable with the data in the other sea area around Japan which has likely been affected by close-in fallout Pu originating from the Pacific Proving Grounds. The ²⁴⁰Pu/²³⁹Pu atom ratio in bottom sediment samples decreased with sea depth. The land-originated Pu is not considered as the reason of the increasing ²³⁹+²⁴⁰Pu concentration and also decreasing the ²⁴⁰Pu/²³⁹Pu atom ratio with sea depth, and further study is required to clarify it.

  4. Chlorinated hydrocarbon contaminants in feces of river otters from the southern Pacific coast of Canada, 1998-2004.

    PubMed

    Elliott, John E; Guertin, Daniel A; Balke, Jennifer M E

    2008-07-01

    Chlorinated hydrocarbon contaminants in coastal river otters (Lontra canadensis) were evaluated by sampling feces (scats) collected on the south coast of British Columbia, Canada. A broad survey of industrialized areas of the Strait of Georgia region was conducted in 1998, and a subsequent survey of working harbours in 2004. Samples from 1998 were analyzed for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine (OC) pesticides, and polychlorinated dioxins (PCDDs) and furans (PCDFs), while in 2004, chemistry was confined to summation operatorPCBs and OC pesticides. Concentrations of OC pesticides were low in both years, with only dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE; range: 0.01-2.12 mg/kg lw) and hexachlorocyclobenzene (HCB; range: 0.003-0.25 mg/kg lw) detected in all samples. In 1998, octachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (OCDD) and other higher chlorinated PCDD/Fs were found in most samples, with OCDD ranging from 120 ng/kg lw in Clayoquot Sound to 19,100 ng/kg lw in a pooled sample from two latrines in Nanaimo. PCBs were present in all samples. In 1998 geometric mean concentrations of the sum of 59 PCB congeners ranged from 0.49 mg/kg lw in Nanaimo to 12.3 mg/kg lw in Victoria Harbour. Six years later, mean summation operatorPCBs remained elevated (geometric mean 9.5 mg/kg lw) in Victoria Harbour. Geometric mean concentrations of summation operatorPCBs from Victoria Harbour in 1998 and 2004 were >9 mg/kg lw, a published adverse effect level for reproduction. At some latrines in both Victoria and Esquimalt Harbours, concentrations of TCDD-toxic equivalents exceeded 1500 ng/kg lw, a value for health effects in otters that we derived using published information. As shown in previous studies, analysis of scats provides an efficient and non-intrusive approach to assessing contaminant threats to otter populations, and to documenting spatial trends in residues.

  5. The MeSO-net (Metropolitan Seismic Observation network) confronts the Pacific Coast of Tohoku Earthquake, Japan (Mw 9.0)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasahara, K.; Nakagawa, S.; Sakai, S.; Nanjo, K.; Panayotopoulos, Y.; Morita, Y.; Tsuruoka, H.; Kurashimo, E.; Obara, K.; Hirata, N.; Aketagawa, T.; Kimura, H.

    2011-12-01

    On April 2007, we have launched the special project for earthquake disaster mitigation in the Tokyo Metropolitan area (Fiscal 2007-2011). As a part of this project, construction of the MeSO-net (Metropolitan Seismic Observation network) has been completed, with about 300 stations deployed at mainly elementary and junior-high schools with an interval of about 5 km in space. This results in a highly dense network that covers the metropolitan area. To achieve stable seismic observation with lower surface ground noise, relative to a measurement on the surface, sensors of all stations were installed in boreholes at a depth of about 20m. The sensors have a wide dynamic range (135dB) and a wide frequency band (DC to 80Hz). Data are digitized with 200Hz sampling and telemetered to the Earthquake Research Institute, University of Tokyo. The MeSO-net that can detect and locate most earthquakes with magnitudes above 2.5 provides a unique baseline in scientific and engineering researches on the Tokyo metropolitan area, as follows. One of the main contributions is to greatly improve the image of the Philippine Sea plate (PSP) (Nakagawa et al., 2010) and provides an accurate estimation of the plate boundaries between the PSP and the Pacific plate, allowing us to possibly discuss clear understanding of the relation between the PSP deformation and M7+ intra-slab earthquake generation. Also, the latest version of the plate model in the metropolitan area, proposed by our project, attracts various researchers, comparing with highly-accurate solutions of fault mechanism, repeating earthquakes, etc. Moreover, long-periods ground motions generated by the 2011 earthquake off the Pacific coast of Tohoku earthquake (Mw 9.0) were observed by the MeSO-net and analyzed to obtain the Array Back-Projection Imaging of this event (Honda et al., 2011). As a result, the overall pattern of the imaged asperities coincides well with the slip distribution determined based on other waveform inversion

  6. Seismicity near the hypocenter of the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku earthquake deduced by using Ocean Bottom Seismographic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, K.; Hino, R.; Ito, Y.; Suzuki, S.; Inazu, D.; Iinuma, T.; Fujimoto, H.; Shinohara, M.; Kaneda, Y.

    2011-12-01

    A megathrust earthquake (M9.0), the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku earthquake (the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake), occurred on Mar. 11, 2011 along the Japan Trench subduction zone. Its hypocenter and the area of major moment release are located in the Miyagi-Oki region, middle part of the Japan Trench area, where large interplate earthquake (~M7.5) have repeatedly occurred at about 40 years intervals. Since 2002, we have repeatedly deployed and retrieved pop-up type Ocean Bottom Seismometers (OBSs) to monitor the seismicity in the region. By this OBS network, we could observe a sequence of the foreshocks, the mainshock and aftershocks of the 2011 Tohoku-Oki earthquake in their close vicinity. When the mainshock occurred, 23 OBSs were in place and we used the data from 15 OBSs successfully recovered from the seafloor of the focal area of the M9 earthquake. This observation provides us improved hypocenter distribution allowing detailed discussion on its temporal-spatial variation as well as its relation to the crustal structure. The seismicity of the region became active about 25 days before the mainshock along the up-dip limit of the background seismicity defined by our repeated OBS observation result. On Mar. 9, two days before the mainshock, an interplate earthquake of M 7.3 occurred slightly landward of the up-dip limit, followed by swarm-like activity including a number of moderate sized (M 5 - 6) events. This activity, interpreted as the foreshocks of the M 9.0 earthquake, seems to have expanded toward the hypocenter of the mainshock, located 40 km to the southwest of the hypocenter of the M 7.3 foreshock. It seems that this migration of the seismicity is caused by expansion of aseismic slip along the plate interface toward the hypocenter of the M9 mainshock. By comparing the obtained hypocenters with the P-wave velocity structure model by the seismic survey (Ito et al., 2004), it turns out that the mainshock hypocenter coincides with the intersection of the

  7. Geochemistry of soils along a transect from Central Mexico to the Pacific Coast: a pilot study for continental-scale geochemical mapping

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chiprés, J.A.; de la Calleja,; Tellez, J.I.; Jiménez, F.; Cruz, Carlos; Guerrero, E.G.; Castro, J.; Monroy, M.G.; Salinas, J.C.

    2009-01-01

    The Mexican Geological Survey (SGM), the National Institute of Statistics, Geography and Informatics (INEGI) and the Autonomous University of San Luis Potosi (UASLP) have established a multidisciplinary team with the objective of creating a national program of geochemical mapping of soils in Mexico. This is being done as part of the North American Soil Geochemical Landscapes Project in partnership with the US Geological Survey and the Geological Survey of Canada. As the first step, a pilot study was conducted over a transect that extends from the Mexico–US border near Ciudad Juarez in the north to the Pacific Ocean in the south. This pilot transect was conducted in two phases, and this paper presents results from the first phase, which sampled soils at about a 40-km spacing along a 730-km transect beginning in Central Mexico and ending at the Pacific Coast. Samples were collected from the A and C horizons at each site and 60 elements were analyzed. This pilot study demonstrates that geochemical mapping based on a 40-km spacing is adequate to identify broad-scale geochemical patterns. Geologic influence (i.e., soil parent material) was the most important factor influencing the distribution of elements along the transect, followed by the influence of regional mineralization. The study also showed that influence by human activities over the transect is minimal except possibly in large mining districts. A comparison of element abundance in the A horizon with the environmental soil guidelines in Mexico showed that the natural concentrations of the studied soils were lower than the established threshold for soil restoration with the exception of V and As. The former had a median value (75 mg/kg) approximately equal to the value established in Mexico for soil restoration in agricultural and residential lands (78 mg/kg), and the latter had three values higher than the 22 mg/kg threshold for soil restoration in agricultural and residential lands. These cases demonstrate

  8. Dynamics in benthic community composition and influencing factors in an upwelling-exposed coral reef on the Pacific coast of Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Stuhldreier, Ines; Sánchez-Noguera, Celeste; Roth, Florian; Jiménez, Carlos; Rixen, Tim; Cortés, Jorge; Wild, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Seasonal upwelling at the northern Pacific coast of Costa Rica offers the opportunity to investigate the effects of pronounced changes in key water parameters on fine-scale dynamics of local coral reef communities. This study monitored benthic community composition at Matapalo reef (10.539°N, 85.766°W) by weekly observations of permanent benthic quadrats from April 2013 to April 2014. Monitoring was accompanied by surveys of herbivore abundance and biomass and measurements of water temperature and inorganic nutrient concentrations. Findings revealed that the reef-building corals Pocillopora spp. exhibited an exceptional rapid increase from 22 to 51% relative benthic cover. By contrast, turf algae cover decreased from 63 to 24%, resulting in a corresponding increase in crustose coralline algae cover. The macroalga Caulerpa sertularioides covered up to 15% of the reef in April 2013, disappeared after synchronized gamete release in May, and subsequently exhibited slow regrowth. Parallel monitoring of influencing factors suggest that C. sertularioides cover was mainly regulated by their reproductive cycle, while that of turf algae was likely controlled by high abundances of herbivores. Upwelling events in February and March 2014 decreased mean daily seawater temperatures by up to 7 °C and increased nutrient concentrations up to 5- (phosphate) and 16-fold (nitrate) compared to mean values during the rest of the year. Changes in benthic community composition did not appear to correspond to the strong environmental changes, but rather shifted from turf algae to hard coral dominance over the entire year of observation. The exceptional high dynamic over the annual observation period encourages further research on the adaptation potential of coral reefs to environmental variability.

  9. In situ filtering rate variability in egg and larval surveys off the Pacific coast of Japan: Do plankton nets clog or over-filter in the sea?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takasuka, Akinori; Tadokoro, Kazuaki; Okazaki, Yuji; Ichikawa, Tadafumi; Sugisaki, Hiroya; Kuroda, Hiroshi; Oozeki, Yoshioki

    2017-02-01

    In situ filtering rate variability was examined for vertical tows of plankton nets in egg and larval surveys off the Pacific coast of Japan, based on a data set pooled over large spatial and temporal scales (76,444 sampling tows from 1978 to 2013). The filtering rate showed unimodal distributions and was highly variable for the four net types: Long NORPAC (LNP), NORPAC (NOR), Maru-toku B (MTB), and Maru-naka (MNK). Despite the high variability at the individual tow level, the median values of the filtering rate for the overall data approximated the theoretical value of 1.0, in particular, for LNP, although the median values differed among the net types. For LNP, the differences in the median values among the 26 years, the 12 months, and the 4 regions were small relative to the overall variability at the individual level. The present study quantified the extent of underestimation/overestimation when the theoretical value of 1.0 is used due to the lack of the actual filtering rate data. The filtering rate was almost on a balance of resistance effect of net and cod-end, clogging effect of collected organisms, and over-inflow effect of currents over large scales. The present analysis implies that the filtering rate is mainly influenced by small-scale transient variability of ocean conditions such as wind speed, current intensity, rolling, turbulence, and mixing rather than large-scale variability related to climate regime, seasonality, or water masses. The results will allow the utilization of historical data lacking flow-meter data for large-scale comparative analyses.

  10. National benthic surveillance project: Pacific coast. Fish histopathology and relationships between toxicopathic lesions and exposure to chemical contaminants for cycles 1 to 5 (1984-88). Technical memo

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, M.S.; Stehr, C.M.; Olson, O.P.; Johnson, L.L.; McCain, B.B.

    1993-02-01

    The report presents and interprets the results of histopathology studies conducted on 17 species of bottomfish captured at 45 sites between 1984 and 1988 as part of the Pacific Coast portion of the National Benthic Surveillance Program (NBSP) in conjunction with NOAA's National Status and Trends Program (NS T). The location of sampling sites ranged from Prudhoe Bay in Alaska to San Diego Bay in California, and incorporated sites. Twenty-three were located in or near urban embayments, and the 22 remaining sites were in nonurban embayments, five of which served as comparison or reference sites on the basis of minimal levels of sediment contaminants detected (Kamishak Bay, AK; Nisqually Reach, WA; and Bodega Bay, Dana Point, and outer Mission Bay, CA). These comparison sites were selected so that the same fish species could be collected from minimally contaminated environments as opposed to those obtained at urban or more contaminated sites. Six primary target species were identified for statistical analyses that examined the relationships between occurrence of particular toxicopathic diseases or lesions in the liver and kidney and levels of potential or actual exposure to contaminants. These species were selected because they were broadly distributed geographically and were abundant among the sampling sites, they had previously documented significant prevalences of contaminant-associated diseases, or the geographic distribution of similar diseases among the sites suggested an association with contaminant exposure. These primary target species were flathead sole, English sole, starry flounder, hornyhead turbot, white croaker, and black croaker. All specimens were examined for the presence of necrotic, sclerotic and proliferative lesions in the kidney, as well as lesions.

  11. Radiation measurements at the campus of Fukushima Medical University through the 2011 off the Pacific Coast of Tohoku earthquake and subsequent nuclear power plant crisis.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Tsuneo

    2011-01-01

    An earthquake, Tohoku region Pacific Coast earthquake, occurred on the 11th of March, 2011, and subsequent Fukushima nuclear power plant accidents have been stirring natural radiation around the author's office in Fukushima Medical University (FMU). FMU is located in Fukushima city, and is 57 km (35 miles) away from northwest of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant. This paper presents three types of radiation survey undertaken through the unprecedented accidents at the campus and the hospital of FMU. First, a group of interested people immediately began radiation surveillance; the group members were assembled from the faculty members of " Life Sciences and Social Medicine" and " Human and Natural Sciences." Second, the present author, regardless of the earthquake, had serially observed natural radiations such as gamma radiation in air with NaI scintillation counter, atmospheric radon with Lucas cell, and second cosmic rays with NaI scintillation. Gamma radiation indicated most drastic change, i.e., peak value (9.3 times usual level) appeared on March 16, and decreased to 1.7 times usual level after two months. A nonlinear least squares regression to this decreasing data gave short half-life of 3.6 days and long half-life of 181 days. These two apparent half-lives are attributed to two groups of radioisotopes, i.e., short half-life one of I-131 and long half-life ones of Cs-134, Cs-137 and Sr-90. Also, atmospheric radon concentration became high since a stop of ventilation, while second cosmic rays did not show any response. Third, late April, 2011, a team of radiation dosimetry under the direct control of Dean, School of Medicine, was established for the continuation of radiation survey in the campus and the hospital of Fukushima Medical University.

  12. Dynamics in benthic community composition and influencing factors in an upwelling-exposed coral reef on the Pacific coast of Costa Rica

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Noguera, Celeste; Roth, Florian; Jiménez, Carlos; Rixen, Tim; Cortés, Jorge; Wild, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Seasonal upwelling at the northern Pacific coast of Costa Rica offers the opportunity to investigate the effects of pronounced changes in key water parameters on fine-scale dynamics of local coral reef communities. This study monitored benthic community composition at Matapalo reef (10.539°N, 85.766°W) by weekly observations of permanent benthic quadrats from April 2013 to April 2014. Monitoring was accompanied by surveys of herbivore abundance and biomass and measurements of water temperature and inorganic nutrient concentrations. Findings revealed that the reef-building corals Pocillopora spp. exhibited an exceptional rapid increase from 22 to 51% relative benthic cover. By contrast, turf algae cover decreased from 63 to 24%, resulting in a corresponding increase in crustose coralline algae cover. The macroalga Caulerpa sertularioides covered up to 15% of the reef in April 2013, disappeared after synchronized gamete release in May, and subsequently exhibited slow regrowth. Parallel monitoring of influencing factors suggest that C. sertularioides cover was mainly regulated by their reproductive cycle, while that of turf algae was likely controlled by high abundances of herbivores. Upwelling events in February and March 2014 decreased mean daily seawater temperatures by up to 7 °C and increased nutrient concentrations up to 5- (phosphate) and 16-fold (nitrate) compared to mean values during the rest of the year. Changes in benthic community composition did not appear to correspond to the strong environmental changes, but rather shifted from turf algae to hard coral dominance over the entire year of observation. The exceptional high dynamic over the annual observation period encourages further research on the adaptation potential of coral reefs to environmental variability. PMID:26623190

  13. Observation signals of Earth's magnetic field: The 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake of M 9.0, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okubo, K.; Suyama, Y.; Takeuchi, A.; Murai, T.; Nagao, T.; Sasai, Y.; Takeuchi, N.

    2011-12-01

    Earth's electric and magnetic changes associated with earthquakes have been investigated for a long time. However, changes of these fields simultaneously detected at multiple observation sites near the epicenter of tremendously huge earthquakes are rarely reported. One of our observation sites is situated at an epicentral distance of a few hundred km from the 2011 Off the Pacific Coast of Tohoku Earthquake (the so-called Tohoku Earthquake) of Mw 9.0, which occurred at 14:46:18 JST on March 11, 2011. In this study, we show successful detections of changes of the geomagnetic field accompanied with the huge earthquake phenomena and the induced tsunami. The details of the observation system are as followed: Our two observation sites are located at (1) Hosokura, Miyagi prefecture in NE Japan and (2) Okutama in Tokyo. Their systems consist of a fluxgate magnetometer, GPS clock and recorder with 0.03 or 0.01 nT resolution. A vertical component accelerometer is also installed at Hosokura observatory. Since March 2004, we have observed 3 components of the geomagnetic field using a pair of fluxgate magnetometers at Hosokura mine in NE Japan. One of them has been placed at the main gallery about 70m below the ground surface and another in a hole 1m bellow. The sampling interval of the lower magnetometer is 0.5 sec and the upper 1 sec. The observation clock has been synchronized by use of GPS signals. At Okutama station, we have also observed 3 components of the geomagnetic field using a fluxgate magnetometer with GPS clock at 32 Hz sampling since December 2003. The sensor is placed in a hole 1m below the ground surface near a mountain stream.

  14. He and N isotopes in thermal springs of the Mexican Pacific coast: subducting slab, continental crust and mantle contributions to fluids of a forearc zone.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taran, Yuri; Inguaggiato, Salvatore; Varley, Nicholas; Ramirez Guzman, Alejandro

    2010-05-01

    Two oceanic plates are subducting beneath the continent along the Mexican Pacific coast: Cocos Plate south of Colima graben (~19°N) and a young Rivera Plate to the north of Colima graben. The trench is situated ~ 70 km from the shore line which is very close comparing with other continental margins. There are 26 groups of thermal springs between 16°N and 21°N, in a 30 km-wide zone along the coast. The temperature and salinity ranges are 40-90°C and 100-20,000 ppm, respectively. The springs are mainly of a low salinity (< 1000 ppm), high pH (8-10) and temperatures of 37-50°C. Almost all springs discharge bubbling gas with N2 as a predominant component and have He content between 400 and 1500 ppmV. Two groups of springs are methane-rich (70 and 10 vol%). The CO2-rich springs and high-HCO3 waters are absent. All springs to the south of the Michoacan-Guerrero boarder (~ 18°N) are characterized by N2/Ar ≈ 100, δ15N ≈0 and 3He/4He ratios lower than 0.2Ra (where Ra=1.4x10-6, the air ratio) except the Paso Real springs (0.9Ra) located within a Coyuca seismogenic fracture zone. Springs along the Michoacan coast, the northern part of the Cocos Plate subduction, discharge gases with 1.5Ra < 3He/4He <2.5Ra but still low, close to the atmospheric N2/Ar and δ15N ≈0. All springs located within the Colima graben have high 3He/4He (up to 4.5Ra) and elevated N2/Ar and δ15N. The El Salitre (La Tuna) springs located within the southern board of the Colima graben discharge saline Na-Ca-Cl water (46°C, Cl=15,000 ppm) with N2/Ar > 400, δ15N = +4.6‰, almost no CH4 (<0.1 %) and 3He/4He = 2.3Ra. The only group of hot springs within the Jalisco Block and close to the shore line, Rio Purificacion, discharge hot, saline Na-Cl water (80°C, 12,000 ppm of Cl), with N2/Ar > 300, δ15N = +5‰ and 3He/4He = 0.4Ra. A number of hot and warm springs associated with Puerto Vallarta graben are characterized by high 3He/4He up to 4.5Ra, elevated N2/Ar and δ15N. The last group, Punta

  15. [First Report of Lutzomyia França in the department of Guainía, Amazonian Colombia, and of Brumptomyia mesai Sherlock (Diptera: Psychodidae) in the Colombian Caribbean Coast].

    PubMed

    Bejarano, Eduar E; Castro, Mirley; Pérez-Doria, Alveiro; Hernández-Oviedo, Ela; Vélez, Andrés; Vélez, Iván D

    2007-01-01

    This is the first record of the presence of the medically important genus Lutzomyia França in the Department of Guainía, Colombia. Sand flies were collected biting humans in the surroundings of the urban area of the Municipality of Inírida. Three Lutzomyia species were taxonomically identified as L. davisi (Root), L. olmeca bicolor Fairchild & Theodor, and L. antunesi (Coutinho). Additionally, Brumptomyia mesai Sherlock is cited for the first time in the Caribbean Coast of Colombia based on specimens collected with a modified CDC light trap in the Reserva Forestal Protectora Serranía de Coraza y Montes de María, Department of Sucre.

  16. Properties of seven Colombian woods

    Treesearch

    B. A. Bendtsen; M. Chudnoff

    1981-01-01

    Woods from abroad are an important raw material to the forest products industries in the United States. A major concern in effective utilization of this resource is the lack of technical information on many species. This report presents the results of an evaluation of the mechanical properties of small, clear specimens of seven Colombian woods. These results are...

  17. National status and trends program for National Benthic Surveillance Project: Pacific coast. Fish histopathology and relationships between toxicopathic lesions and exposure to chemical contaminants for cycles I to V (1984-88). Technical memo

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, M.S.; Stehr, C.M.; Olson, O.P.; Johnson, L.L.; McCain, B.B.

    1993-02-01

    The report presents and interprets the results of histopathology studies conducted on 17 species of bottomfish captured at 45 sites between 1984 and 1988 as part of the Pacific Coast portion of the National Benthic Surveillance Program (NBSP) in conjunction with NOAA's National Status and Trends Program (NS T). The species examined histopathologically for potentially contaminant-induced (toxicopathic) lesions in the liver and kidney were fourhorn sculpin (Myoxocephalus quadricornis), Arctic flounder (Pleuronectes glacialis), flathead sole (Hippoglossoides elassodon), yellowfin sole (Pleuronectes asper), Pacific staghorn sculpin (Leptocottus armatus), English sole (Pleuronectes vetulus), starry flounder (Platichthys stellatus), white croaker (Genyonemus lineatus), hornyhead turbot (Pleuronichthys verticalis), barred sand bass (Paralabrax nebulifer), spotted sand bass (Paralabrax maculatofasciatus), spotted turbot (Pleuronichthys ritteri), diamond turbot (Hysopsetta guttulata), California tonguefish (Symphurus atricauda), black croaker (Cheilotrema saturnum), and California halibut (Paralichthys californicus). In all, over 5,250 individual fish among these species were examined.

  18. Crustal structure and configuration of the subducting Philippine Sea plate beneath the Pacific coast industrial zone in Japan inferred from receiver function analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Igarashi, T.; Iidaka, T.; Sakai, S.; Hirata, N.

    2012-12-01

    We apply receiver function (RF) analyses to estimate the crustal structure and configuration of the subducting Philippine Sea (PHS) plate beneath the Pacific coast industrial zone stretching from Tokyo to Fukuoka in Japan. Destructive earthquakes often occurred at the plate interface of the PHS plate, and seismic activities increase after the 2011 Tohoku earthquake (Mw9.0) around the Tokyo metropolitan area. Investigation on the crustal structure is the key to understanding the stress concentration and strain accumulation process, and information on configuration of the subducting plate is important to mitigate future earthquake disasters. In this study, we searched for the best-correlated velocity structure model between an observed receiver function at each station and synthetic ones by using a grid search method. Synthetic RFs were calculated from many assumed one-dimensional velocity structures that consist of four layers with positive velocity steps. Observed receiver functions were stacked without considering back azimuth or epicentral distance. We further constructed the vertical cross-sections of depth-converted RF images transformed the lapse time of time series to depth by using the estimated structure models. Telemetric seismographic network data covered on the Japanese Islands including the Metropolitan Seismic Observation network, which constructed under the Special Project for Earthquake Disaster Mitigation in the Tokyo Metropolitan area and maintained by Special Project for Reducing Vulnerability for Urban Mega Earthquake Disasters, are used. We selected events with magnitudes greater or equal to 5.0 and epicentral distance between 30 and 90 degrees based on USGS catalogues. As a result, we clarify spatial distributions of the crustal S-wave velocities. Estimated average one-dimensional S-wave velocity structure is approximately equal to the JMA2011 structural model although the velocity from the ground surface to 5 km in depth is slow. In particular

  19. Molecular diversity of denitrifying genes in continental margin sediments within the oxygen-deficient zone off the Pacific coast of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xueduan; Tiquia, Sonia M; Holguin, Gina; Wu, Liyou; Nold, Stephen C; Devol, Allan H; Luo, Kuan; Palumbo, Anthony V; Tiedje, James M; Zhou, Jizhong

    2003-06-01

    To understand the composition and structure of denitrifying communities in the oxygen-deficient zone off the Pacific coast of Mexico, the molecular diversity of nir genes from sediments obtained at four stations was examined by using a PCR-based cloning approach. A total of 50 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) for nirK and 82 OTUs for nirS were obtained from all samples. Forty-four of the nirS clones and 31 of the nirK clones were sequenced; the levels of similarity of the nirS clones were 52 to 92%, and the levels of similarity of the nirS clones were 50 to 99%. The percentages of overlapping OTUs between stations were 18 to 30% for nirS and 5 to 8% for nirK. Sequence analysis revealed that 26% of the nirS clones were related to the nirS genes of Alcaligenes faecalis (80 to 94% similar) and Pseudomonas stutzeri (80 to 99%), whereas 3 to 31% of the nirK clones were closely related to the nirK genes of Pseudomonas sp. strain G-179 (98 to 99%), Bradyrhizobium japonicum (91%), Blastobacter denitrificans (83%), and Alcaligenes xylosoxidans (96%). The rest of the clones, however, were less than 80% similar to nirS and nirK sequences available in sequence databases. The results of a principal-component analysis (PCA) based on the percentage of OTUs and biogeochemical data indicated that the nitrate concentration and oxygen have an effect on the denitrifying communities. The communities at the stations in oxygen-deficient zones were more similar than the communities at the stations in the oxygenated zone. The denitrifying communities were more similar at the stations that were closer together and had similar nitrate levels. Also, the results of PCA based on biogeochemical properties suggest that geographic location and biogeochemical conditions, especially the nitrate and oxygen levels, appear to be the key factors that control the structure of denitrifying communities.

  20. Comparative biomass spectra and species composition of the zooplankton communities in Golfo Dulce and Golfo de Nicoya, Pacific coast of Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    von Wangelin, M; Wolff, M

    1996-12-01

    This study is based on a subset of plankton samples obtained during an expedition of the German RV Victor Hensen to the Pacific coast of Costa Rica in 1993/94. It aims at the identification of the main plankton taxa for a general description and comparison of the plankton communities of the gulf systems Golfo de Nicoya (GN) and Golfo Dulce (GD) and the analysis of biomass spectra at inshore and offshore stations at the end of the rainy season and during the dry season. Inshore plankton biomass was significantly higher in GN than GD and exceeded offshore biomass several times, while in the GD area the reverse was found. In the rainy season, inshore biomass spectra of GN and GD were discontinuous with biomass concentrations at small sizes (around 0.06 mg) suggesting little developed communities, with highest production and energy use occurring in the small organisms. From the rainy to the dry season inshore species richness increased in both gulf systems and a shift was observed towards the larger size groups resulting in more continuous biomass spectra. In GN, bivalve larvae, foraminifers, ostracods, mysids and nauplii increase heavily in abundance and some gelatinous specimens occur. In GD, gelatinous zooplankton appears in enormous abundance and dominate the community biomass, followed by large chaetognaths and ostracods. In GD, inshore plankton has neritic and oceanic elements and differs less from the offshore plankton, whereas in GN, inshore plankton in largely neritic. The high abundance of fish eggs and invertebrate larvae suggest that this area is an important spawning ground. While in the rainy season inshore biomass was about 15 times higher in GN compared to GD, this difference was reduced to 3-4 times in the dry season due to the appearance of the large predators mentioned above. The changes from the rainy to the dry season at the offshore stations of both gulf systems are less pronounced in terms of total biomass, shape of the biomass spectra and

  1. Seismicity-induced groundwater level changes in boreholes around Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory (MIU), Japan: Effect of the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niwa, M.; Takeuchi, R.; Onoe, H.; Asamori, K.; Umeda, K.; Sugihara, K.

    2011-12-01

    For improving the scientific basis for geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste, multidisciplinary researches are approached in the MIU, in which two vertical shafts are excavated in the crystalline rock mass. Groundwater levels are continuously logged in multiple boreholes, for understanding the regional groundwater flow around the MIU site. Soon after the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake, groundwater level changes were observed in the almost boreholes. All boreholes arranged away from the MIU (approximately 1 to 5 km) showed drawdown ranging from 1 to 5 m. Several studies (e.g. Wang, 1997, JGR; Ge and Stover, 2000, JGR; Hamiel et al., 2005, EPSL) suggest that coseismic changes of groundwater level correspond to static volumetric strain changes induced by earthquakes, i.e., drawdown/elevation of groundwater level is reflected by crustal dilatation/constriction. We calculated volumetric strain changes due to the Tohoku earthquake based on the previously-reported fault models (slip models estimated by teleseismic source inversion; Yagi and Nishimura, Univ. of Tsukuba; Poiata et al., ERI, Univ. of Tokyo). We determined crustal deformation and stress change using the program Coulomb 3.0 (Lin and Stein, 2004, JGR; Toda et al., 2005, JGR). The calculation outputs approximately 2.3E-7 strain of dilatation around the MIU. Thus the drawdown observed in the boreholes arranged away from the MIU is consistent with the volumetric strain changes associated with the Tohoku earthquake. In contrast, groundwater levels were elevated up to 15 m in the boreholes localized in the vicinity of the MIU (within 600 m). These boreholes had shown successive drawdown since the shaft excavations started in the MIU, while voluminous sump water had been released successively from the shafts. Soon after the Tohoku earthquake, volume of the sump water increased approximately ten percent. Irregular elevation of water level soon after an earthquake like the case of the MIU

  2. Diversity of A-conotoxins of three worm-hunting cone snails (Conus brunneus, Conus nux, and Conus princeps) from the Mexican Pacific coast.

    PubMed

    Morales-González, Daniel; Flores-Martínez, Ernesto; Zamora-Bustillos, Roberto; Rivera-Reyes, Reginaldo; Michel-Morfín, Jesús Emilio; Landa-Jaime, Víctor; Falcón, Andrés; Aguilar, Manuel B

    2015-06-01

    Conus marine snails (∼500 species) are tropical predators that use venoms mainly to capture prey and defend themselves from predators. The principal components of these venoms are peptides that are known as "conotoxins" and generally comprise 7-40 amino acid residues, including 0-5 disulfide bridges and distinct posttranslational modifications. The most common molecular targets of conotoxins are voltage- and ligand-gated ion channels, G protein-coupled receptors, and neurotransmitter transporters, to which they bind, typically, with high affinity and specificity. Due to these properties, several conotoxins have become molecular probes, medicines, and leads for drug design. Conotoxins have been classified into genetic superfamilies based on the signal sequence of their precursors, and into pharmacological families according to their molecular targets. The objective of this work was to identify and analyze partial cDNAs encoding conotoxin precursors belonging to the A superfamily from Conus brunneus, Conus nux, and Conus princeps. These are vermivorous species of the Mexican Pacific coast from which only one A-conotoxin, and few O- and I2-conotoxins have been reported. Employing RT-PCR, we identified 30 distinct precursors that contain 13 different predicted mature toxins. With the exception of two groups of four highly similar peptides, these toxins are diverse at both the sequence and the physicochemical levels, and they belong to the 4/3, 4/4, 4/5, 4/6, and 4/7 structural subfamilies. These toxins are predicted to target diverse nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subtypes: nx1d, muscle; pi1a-pi1d, α3β2, α7, and/or α9α10; br1a, muscle, α3β4, and/or α4β2; and nx1a-nx1c/pi1g and pi1h, α3β2, α3β4, α9β10, and/or α7. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. A Comparative Analysis of Genetic Ancestry and Admixture in the Colombian Populations of Chocó and Medellín.

    PubMed

    Conley, Andrew B; Rishishwar, Lavanya; Norris, Emily T; Valderrama-Aguirre, Augusto; Mariño-Ramírez, Leonardo; Medina-Rivas, Miguel A; Jordan, I King

    2017-09-06

    At least twenty percent of Colombians identify as having African ancestry, yielding the second largest population of Afro-descendants in Latin America. To date, there have been relatively few studies focused on the genetic ancestry of Afro-Latino populations. We report a comparative analysis of the genetic ancestry of Chocó, a state located on Colombia's Pacific coast with a population that is >80% Afro-Colombian. We compared genome-wide patterns of genetic ancestry and admixture for Chocó to six other admixed American populations, with an emphasis on a Mestizo population from the nearby Colombian city of Medellín. One hundred sample donors from Chocó were genotyped across 610,545 genomic sites and compared to 94 publicly available whole genome sequences from Medellín. At the continental level, Chocó shows mostly African genetic ancestry (76%) with a nearly even split between European (13%) and Native American (11%) fractions, whereas Medellín has primarily European ancestry (75%), followed by Native American (18%) and African (7%). Sample donors from Chocó self-identify as having more African ancestry, and conversely less European and Native American ancestry, than can be genetically inferred, as opposed to what we previously found for Medellín, where individuals tend to over-estimate levels of European ancestry. We developed a novel approach for subcontinental ancestry assignment, which allowed us to characterize subcontinental source populations for each of the three distinct continental ancestry fractions separately. Despite the clear differences between Chocó and Medellín at the level of continental ancestry, the two populations show overall patterns of subcontinental ancestry that are highly similar. Their African subcontinental ancestries are only slightly different, with Chocó showing more exclusive shared ancestry with the modern Yoruba (Nigerian) population and Medellín having relatively more shared ancestry with West African populations in

  4. Holocene ENSO Variability in the Equatorial Pacific From D/H Ratios in Alkenones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pahnke, K.; Sachs, J.; Keigwin, L.

    2005-12-01

    In the equatorial west Pacific and the tropics of northwestern South America, extreme phases of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) are associated with a coherent pattern of hydrological anomalies. While El Niño leads to reduced rainfall and river runoff, La Niña causes extreme maxima in precipitation and river discharge to the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans. Paleo-records of rainfall and runoff variations from these areas will therefore aid understanding of past ENSO behavior. In a novel approach, we utilize the hydrogen isotopic (D/H) signature of alkenones from equatorial Pacific Ocean margin sites that reflects variations in isotopically depleted runoff to the Pacific Ocean to reconstruct past ENSO variability. We observe maximum D/H changes off the Colombian coast of around 18‰ ( vs. VSMOW) over the past three centuries with a marked increase from the mid-1960s to the 1980s, suggesting a decrease in river runoff and hence more frequent or more intense El Niño conditions. A subsequent drop to more depleted D/H values implies an increase in precipitation and freshwater influx into the ocean, reminiscent of conditions typical for La Niña phases. These patterns are consistent with instrumental records of ENSO variability and confirm this new proxy as highly valuable tool for the reconstruction of past changes in tropical climate.

  5. [Occupational leptospirosis in a Colombian Caribbean area].

    PubMed

    Nájera, Saholeth; Alvis, Nelson; Babilonia, David; Alvarez, Ligia; Máttar, Salim

    2005-01-01

    To establish the seroprevalence of infection by Leptospira in an occupational setting in Cordoba. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 334 farmworkers, butchers, and garbage collectors, to identify the presence of anti-leptospira IgM antibodies, in the Department of Cordoba, Colombia. Stratified sampling proportional to the number of inhabitants and occupation was used to select the sample population (confidence level 99.9%, error 0.5%, prevalence 72%). The SPSS software 11.0 version was used to perform non parametric tests with p < 0.05, as well as odds ratios with confidence intervals. The prevalence of previous infection by Leptospira was high (13.1%). No differences among areas were found, however, higher infection was associated with living in Cienaga de Oro municipality (OR = 3.52 Cl 1.70-7.26) (p = 0,00283). Being a farmer was also a risk factor for infection (OR = 2.04 Cl 1.080-3.85) (p = 0.025), as well as drinking water from a dam (OR = 2.4 CI 1.24-4.70) (p = 0.00787). The rate of infection is important and a significant public health problem in this area of the Colombian Caribbean coast.

  6. Demersal crustacean assemblages along the Pacific coast of Costa Rica: a quantitative and multivariate assessment based on the Victor Hensen Costa Rica expedition (1993/1994).

    PubMed

    Jesse, S

    1996-12-01

    During the first cruise leg with the RV Victor Hensen to the Pacific coast of Costa Rica in December 1993 (end of the rainy season) the crustacean fauna found in the demersal collections revealed an unexpected species richness and biomass. The Crustacea collections were analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively during the fourth leg (February 1994, dry season) in the three study areas Golfo Dulce (GD), Bahía Coronado in the Sierpe-Térraba-estuary (ST) and Golfo de Nicoya (GN). Qualitative data were available for comparison from the first leg in december 1993. A total of 24 beamtrawl and ten ottertrawl sample collections were done on an area of 860.000 m2 yielding a total of 119 species with a biomass of 37.8 kg (10275 specimens). Despite the smaller area covered by the beamtrawl, it collected a higher number of species and more biomass than the ottertrawl due to the smaller mesh size (0.8 cm). Judging from the shape of the species -per-area-curves, the crustacean fauna appeared as representatively sampled for the study area. As compared with the GN (biomass 0.36 g +/- 0.26, SR = 97) and the ST (0.41 g +/- 0.27, SR = 59) and according to the results of the log-series-plots constructed from the abundance data, the GD seems to be a depauperated area with significantly lower biomass (0.05 g +/- 0.07) and species richness (45 sp.). No crustaceans were found in the center of the deep basin of the GD put parts of the interior gulf with adjacent mangrove areas seem to be important as nursery area for some commercially important penaeid shrimp species. The ST-estuary revealed the highest mean species number per station in the whole study area, but the GN had the highest total number of species. Biomass seems to be regularly distributed and not depth-depending within the GN, while species abundance varies clearly, confirming previous results. In contrast, abundance and biomass correlated well in the ST. Based on the results of the multivariate analysis, seven station

  7. Seismic activities of earthquake clusters and small repeating earthquakes in Japan before and after the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Igarashi, T.

    2011-12-01

    The 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku earthquake (M9.0) had a great effect on seismic activities over vast areas. In this study, we investigated spatio-temporal changes of seismic activities of earthquake clusters and small repeating earthquakes before and after the main shock. We have already reported many small repeating earthquakes occur at the upper boundary of the subducting plates in Japan. From these sequences, we can estimate the space-time characteristics of the inter-plate slip. In the 21st century, the resultant slip-rates correspond to relative plate motion in the Ryukyu-arc. In contrast, the shallow part and the southern part of the northeastern Japan arc indicated slip deficits. There were few after-slips following the 2005 off Miyagi earthquake (M7.2), which located near the hypocenter of the 2011 main shock. On the other hand, slip deficits of the southern shallow part were slightly decreased by after-slips following the 2003 and 2008 M7 class earthquakes. We also identified quasi-static slips associated with foreshocks off Miyagi that started from February 2011. After the main shock, we detect many small repeating earthquakes in the aftershocks. The distributions suggest after-slips near the trench of the southeastern part as well as in the deep part of the source region estimated by GPS data analysis. However, some of them are burst-type repeating sequences which occurred only after the main shock. Many continual-type repeating sequences are distributed in the southern part of the source region, and it is difficult to estimate slip-rates in the northern part at present. This uneven distribution may have been caused because observed seismograms are distorted by the multiplicity of the waves to come from various locations, the seismic velocity changes at the propagation path or site, or changes of physical properties at the plate interface. Furthermore, we automatically extracted earthquake clusters by using the unified JMA hypocenter catalogue

  8. Satellite sea surface temperatures along the West Coast of the United States during the 2014-2016 northeast Pacific marine heat wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gentemann, Chelle L.; Fewings, Melanie R.; García-Reyes, Marisol

    2017-01-01

    From January 2014 to August 2016, sea surface temperatures (SSTs) along the Washington, Oregon, and California coasts were significantly warmer than usual, reaching a maximum SST anomaly of 6.2°C off Southern California. This marine heat wave occurred alongside the Gulf of Alaska marine heat wave and resulted in major disturbances in the California Current ecosystem and massive economic impacts. Here we use satellite and blended reanalysis products to report the magnitude, extent, duration, and evolution of SSTs and wind stress anomalies along the West Coast of the continental United States during this event. Nearshore SST anomalies along the entire coast were persistent during the marine heat wave, and only abated seasonally, during spring upwelling-favorable wind stress. The coastal marine heat wave weakened in July 2016 and disappeared by September 2016.

  9. A Case for National Security: Using the Might Tuna to Frame U.S. Coast Guard’s Role in the Strategic Shift to the Pacific

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-13

    treaties to protect the world’s fish stocks from overfishing . The wide expanse of ocean in the Asia-Pacific region constitutes 50 percent of the earth’s......practices can lead to overfishing and the eventual collapse of a species. History demonstrates a collapse of wild fish may take years to recover, or prove

  10. DAMAGE ASSESSMENT ON WATER SUPPLY SYSTEM AND SEWERAGE SYSTEM AT THE 2011 OFF THE PACIFIC COAST OF TOHOKU EARTHQUAKE - CASE STUDY FOR THE DATA AT IBARAKI AND CHIBA PREFECTURES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naba, Satoshi; Tsukiji, Takuya; Shoji, Gaku; Nagata, Shigeru

    We evaluate the dependency of damage and restoration of water supply systems and sewerage system on the seismic hazards in the 2011 off the Pacific Coast of Tohoku earthquake focusing on the damage at Ibaraki and Chiba prefectures. We use the damage data of the systems by carrying out field survey, interviews for related local government sectors and surveying the information in web sites. We quantify two damage ratios defined by the ratio of number of physical damage points Np with the related pipeline lengths L and that of disrupted lengths Ld with L. In addition, we discuss relation between restoration periods with the seismic hazards. Finally, we verify the fitting of the damage data with previous seismic fragility curves on sewerage pipelines.

  11. Revision of the amphiamerican Neotetraonchus Bravo-Hollis, 1968 (Monogenoidea: Dactylogyridae), with a description of N. vegrandis n. sp. from the gill lamellae of the blue sea catfish Ariopsis guatemalensis (Siluriformes: Ariidae) off the Pacific Coast of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Kritsky, Delane C; Mendoza-Franco, Edgar F; Bullard, Stephen A; Vidal-Martínez, Victor M

    2009-09-01

    Neotetraonchus Bravo-Hollis, 1968 is revised and reassigned to the Dactylogyridae Bychowsky, 1933 based on examinations of specimens representing four species from the gill lamellae of sea catfishes (Ariidae). The monotypic Neotetraonchidae Bravo-Hollis, 1968 is placed in synonymy with the Dactylogyridae. Neotetraonchus bychowskyi Bravo-Hollis, 1968 (type-species), is redescribed from the tete sea catfish Ariopsis seemanni (Günther) (type-host) in the eastern Pacific Ocean off Panama (new geographical record). Neotetraonchus vegrandis n. sp. is described from the blue sea catfish A. guatemalensis (Günther) off the Pacific Coast of Mexico. Neotetraonchus bravohollisae Paperna, 1977 is redescribed from the hardhead sea catfish A. felis (L.) in the Gulf of Mexico off the Yucatan Peninsula. Neotetraonchus felis (Hargis, 1955) Paperna, 1977 is redescribed from A. felis in the Gulf of Mexico off Mississippi and the Yucatan Peninsula (new geographical record). Morphological similarities between species of Neotetraonchus suggest the likely presence of geminate species pairs flanking the Isthmus of Panama.

  12. 33 CFR 165.2030 - Pacific Area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... of the United States within the boundaries of the U.S. Coast Guard Pacific Area, which includes the... boundaries of the U.S. Coast Guard Pacific Area and the Eleventh, Thirteenth, Fourteenth, and Seventeenth U.S... defensive sea area. (c) The Navigation Rules shall apply at all times within a naval vessel protection...

  13. 33 CFR 165.2030 - Pacific Area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... of the United States within the boundaries of the U.S. Coast Guard Pacific Area, which includes the... boundaries of the U.S. Coast Guard Pacific Area and the Eleventh, Thirteenth, Fourteenth, and Seventeenth U.S... defensive sea area. (c) The Navigation Rules shall apply at all times within a naval vessel protection...

  14. 33 CFR 165.2030 - Pacific Area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... of the United States within the boundaries of the U.S. Coast Guard Pacific Area, which includes the... boundaries of the U.S. Coast Guard Pacific Area and the Eleventh, Thirteenth, Fourteenth, and Seventeenth U.S... defensive sea area. (c) The Navigation Rules shall apply at all times within a naval vessel protection...

  15. 33 CFR 165.2030 - Pacific Area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... of the United States within the boundaries of the U.S. Coast Guard Pacific Area, which includes the... boundaries of the U.S. Coast Guard Pacific Area and the Eleventh, Thirteenth, Fourteenth, and Seventeenth U.S... defensive sea area. (c) The Navigation Rules shall apply at all times within a naval vessel protection...

  16. Guillermo Vargas Paredes: father of Colombian dentistry.

    PubMed

    Castro Núñez, Jaime

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a short biography of dentist Guillermo Vargas Paredes, honored by the Federación Odontológica Colombiana (Colombian Dental Federation) as the Father of Colombian Dentistry. Dr. Vargas was born in the city of Bucaramanga and graduated from the New York Dental School. In 1887, he and several colleagues founded the Sociedad Dental Colombiana (Colombian Dental Society). A year later, he founded the Colegio Dental de Bogotá (Dental School of Bogotá), which was the first dental school in South America. In 1988, at the Colombian Dental Federation's centennial commemoration of the establishment of the first dental school in that country, Dr. Vargas was honored for his numerous and unselfish efforts towards the advancement of the dental profession in Colombia.

  17. Population and the Colombian economy.

    PubMed

    Sanders, T G

    1983-01-01

    Colombia is the only one of the 6 most populous Latin American countries that is currently free of major economic crisis requiring an agreement with the International Monetary Fund. The difference in the economic performances of these countries is relative, since the rate of growth in the Colombian economy was only 1.5% in 1982. Yet, Colombia seems to have weathered the international recession better than most. The crisis atmosphere in the rest of Latin America, triggered by overall economic decline, high rates of inflation, and an indebtedness that soaks up much of export earnings to service it, is lacking in Colombia or present in lesser degree. If Colombia can strengthen its political performance and tighten national unity, it could move through the 1980s with considerable confidence and success in economic development. Colombia differs little from other major Latin American countries with regard to traditionalism and modernization. Most Colombians are secularized. Colombia is far ahead of most comparable Latin American countries in fertility control. The lower rate of population increase defines the extent to which the economy must provide education, health, food, and jobs. 2 other factors are essential for understanding the current situation in Colombia and its prospects for the 1980s. Government policy in the 1970s opted for an austerity program while the other countries were growing rapidly, in large part through borrowed resources. A 2nd factor is the prospect of attaining autonomy in energy production. These special characteristics--population, public policy, and energy--are discussed. Since the mid 1960s Colombia has functioned with 3 family planning programs. Their existence makes contraception easily available to the population generally. In 1960 Colombia had a higher total fertility rate (TFR) 7.0, than either Venezuela (6.6) or Brazil (5.3), but by 1976 its TFR was down to 4.1, while Venezuela's (4.8) and Brazil's (4.3) were now higher. On balance

  18. Hydrochemical aspects of major Pacific and caribbean rivers of colombia hydrochemical aspects of major Pacific and caribbean rivers of colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Restrepo, J. D.

    2003-04-01

    Although the South American continent includes three of the largest river basins of the world, the Amazon, the Orinoco, and the Paraná, with some of the highest discharges and sediment loads, a number of comparatively smaller systems in Colombia carry a significant share of sediment and dissolved loads from the continent. Fifteen rivers west of the Cordilleras in South America discharge a combined 254 km3 yr-1 or 8020 m3 s-1 of water into the Pacific. The San Juan River has the highest water discharge (2550 m3 s-1), sediment load (16 x 106 t yr-1), and basin-wide sediment yield (1150 t km-2 yr-1) on the entire west coast of South America. The best estimate of total sediment load into the Pacific Ocean from both gauged and ungauged rivers is 96 x 106 t yr-1. These results in a sediment yield estimate of 1,260 t km-2 yr-1. Analysis of 22 rivers draining into the Caribbean Sea indicate that the combined water discharge and sediment load are 338 km3 yr-1 and 168 x 106 t yr-1, respectively, corresponding to a sediment yield for the Colombia Caribbean drainage basins of 541 t km-2 yr-1, or approximately half of the yield for the Pacific basins of Colombia. The Magdalena River, the largest river system in Colombia, has an annual discharge of 7,232 m3 s-1. Load measurements during the 21 year period yielded an annual sediment load of 144 x 106 t yr-1. The Magdalena has the highest sediment yield (559 t km-2 yr-1) of any medium-sized or large river along the entire east coast of South America and contributes 9% of the total sediment load discharged into the Atlantic Ocean from eastern South America. The concentrations of major dissolved constituents and mass transport rates for major Colombian rivers were based on averages calculated from monthly samples from 1990-1993. Ca2+ and Mg2+ are the dominant ions, indicating that the water corresponds to the rock-dominated type. Dissolved inorganic carbon, present mostly as bicarbonate ions, constitutes almost 50% of the total

  19. Arbutus menziesii Pursh. Pacific madrone

    Treesearch

    Philip M. McDonald

    1990-01-01

    Pacific madrone (Arbutus menziesii) is one of the most widely distributed tree species native to the Pacific coast. Named for its discoverer, Archibald Menzies, a 19th century Scottish physician and naturalist, the species is called arbutus in Canada, and madrone, madroña, or madroño in the United States. The latter name is...

  20. [Colombians in Venezuela: myth and reality].

    PubMed

    Bidegain Greising, G; Freitez Landaeta, A

    1988-08-01

    Figures of Colombian immigrants in Venezuela in the period 1981-1986 as well as the development of their socio-demographic profile and their integration into the labor market are analyzed by means of ad hoc tables drawn from a Sample Home Survey by the Oficina Central de Estadisticas e Informatica and information from the civil record office. It is estimated that in 1987 there are only half a million Colombians in Venezuela and, contrary to what is generally assumed, not only has the afflux decreased (3/4 of the Colombians entered before 1981), but also a return migration can be observed. Colombian immigration is not homogeneous, but is made up of different groups as far as their professional skills and occupations are concerned. The number of Colombians engaged in household service and those living in rural areas has decreased, but not the number of active farm workers. A greater proportion of Colombians engaged in trade and sales activities is observed, but artisans and skilled labor are still the majority.

  1. Six new and one previously described species of Pseudorhabdosynochus (Monogenoidea, Diplectanidae) infecting the gills of groupers (Perciformes, Serranidae) from the Pacific coasts of Mexico and Panama.

    PubMed

    Mendoza-Franco, Edgar F; Violante-González, Juan; Rojas Herrera, Agustín A

    2011-02-01

    Six new and 1 previously described species of Pseudorhabdosynochus (Diplectanidae) are described and/or reported from the gill lamellae of 5 serranid (Perciformes) fish species from the Pacific waters in Guerrero State of Mexico and Panama City, Panama. These species are Pseudorhabdosynochus guerreroensis n. sp. from the Pacific mutton hamlet Alphestes inmaculatus Breder (type host), rivulated mutton hamlet Alphestes multiguttatus (Günther), and spotted grouper Epinephelus analogus Gill from Mexico; Pseudorhabdosynochus urceolus n. sp. from the Pacific graysby Cephalopholis panamensis (Steindachner) from Taboga Island in Panama; Pseudorhabdosynochus spirani n. sp. from the starry grouper Epinephelus labriformis (Jenyns) from Mexico and the Perlas Archipelago and Taboga Island in Panama; Pseudorhabdosynochus fulgidus n. sp. from E. labriformis from Mexico and the Perlas Archipelago and Taboga Island (type locality) in Panama; Pseudorhabdosynochus tabogaensis n. sp. from E. labriformis from Mexico and the Perlas Archipelago and Taboga Island (type locality) in Panama; Pseudorhabdosynochus anulus n. sp. from E. labriformis from Mexico and Taboga Island (type locality) in Panama; and Pseudorhabdosynochus amplidiscatum (Bravo-Hollis, 1954) Kritsky and Beverley-Burton, 1986 from E. analogus and E. labriformis from Mexico and the Perlas Archipelago and Taboga Island in Panama. All new species are mainly distinguished from other species of the genus by the shape and size of the sclerotized vagina and haptoral structures. The present specimens of Alphestes, Cephalopholis, and Epinephelus spp. represent new host records and Panama represents a new geographic record for species of Pseudorhabdosynochus. The apparent common feature supporting a close similarity of these diplectanids is a single, secondary ejaculatory bulb with thickened wall.

  2. Resource inventory of marine and estuarine fishes of the West Coast and Alaska: A checklist of North Pacific and Arctic Ocean species from Baja California to the Alaska - Yukon border

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Love, Milton S.; Mecklenburg, Catherine W.; Mecklenburg, T. Anthony; Thorsteinson, Lyman K.

    2005-01-01

    This is a comprehensive inventory of the fish species recorded in marine and estuarine waters between the Alaska–Yukon Territory border in the Beaufort Sea and Cabo San Lucas at the southern end of Baja California and out about 300 miles from shore. Our westernmost range includes the eastern Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands. In addition, we have also included our best impressions of the species that might reasonably be expected to be members of the West Coast ichthyofauna but have not yet been captured or reported within our study area. These species are marked with an asterisk (*) and have been reported (1) in the western Bering Sea; (2) off Canada’s Yukon Territory and adjacent portions of the Northwest Territories; (3) along the southern-eastern tip (non-Pacific side) of Baja California; and (4) in waters somewhat beyond 300 miles from shore. Although the term West Coast usually refers to the coast of the continuous western states, our usage herein means the entire study area. The West Coast inventory within this range encompasses fish fauna from 44 orders, 232 families, and a minimum of 1,450 species. Please note that introduced and invasive fish species are marked by double asterisks (**) and that their scientific names are highlighted in gray. We have compiled this document because the most geographically inclusive previous inventories (Jordan and Evermann 1896a, Jordan et al. 1930) are largely of historical interest and are out of date. More recent lists and compilations have either focused on relatively narrow taxonomic groups (e. g., Kramer et al. 1995, Love et al. 2002), are regional in scope (e. g., Hart 1973, Hubbs et al. 1979, Mecklenburg et al. 2002), or focus on commonly observed species (e. g., Miller and Lea 1972, Eschmeyer and Herald 1983). With the explosion of coastal research and environmental assessments, beginning in the 1970s, and more recently, renewed scientific interest in biodiversity (e.g., effects of global climate change), our own

  3. The land crab Johngarthia planata (Stimpson, 1860) (Crustacea, Brachyura, Gecarcinidae) colonizes human-dominated ecosystems in the continental mainland coast of Mexico

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The land crab Johngarthia planata (Stimpson, 1860) has been reported from the Baja California Peninsula and several oceanic islands in the Eastern Pacific as well as inshore islands of the Mexican, Costa Rican and Colombian coast. However, the species has not been observed on the continental mainland, as it is likely that the high diversity of terrestrial predators/competitors make the establishment of mainland populations nearly impossible. In this contribution, several new records of this species that have been observed in urban areas along the continental Pacific coast of Mexico are reported. These records demonstrate that the presence of humans does not necessarily have a negative impact on land crab species. Indeed, the presence of humans may actually discourage the presence of native crab predators/competitors and hence increase the likelihood of a successful mainland settlement of land crab species that are otherwise island and peninsula restricted. The presence of Johngarthia planata is ecologically relevant for coastal forests because gecarcinid crabs significantly influence plant recruitment and Johngarthia planata is considerably larger than the mainland species Gecarcinus quadratus. PMID:25057257

  4. The land crab Johngarthiaplanata (Stimpson, 1860) (Crustacea, Brachyura, Gecarcinidae) colonizes human-dominated ecosystems in the continental mainland coast of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Perger, Robert

    2014-01-01

    The land crab Johngarthiaplanata (Stimpson, 1860) has been reported from the Baja California Peninsula and several oceanic islands in the Eastern Pacific as well as inshore islands of the Mexican, Costa Rican and Colombian coast. However, the species has not been observed on the continental mainland, as it is likely that the high diversity of terrestrial predators/competitors make the establishment of mainland populations nearly impossible. In this contribution, several new records of this species that have been observed in urban areas along the continental Pacific coast of Mexico are reported. These records demonstrate that the presence of humans does not necessarily have a negative impact on land crab species. Indeed, the presence of humans may actually discourage the presence of native crab predators/competitors and hence increase the likelihood of a successful mainland settlement of land crab species that are otherwise island and peninsula restricted. The presence of Johngarthiaplanata is ecologically relevant for coastal forests because gecarcinid crabs significantly influence plant recruitment and Johngarthiaplanata is considerably larger than the mainland species Gecarcinusquadratus.

  5. Colombian Creole horse breeds: Same origin but different diversity.

    PubMed

    Jimenez, Ligia Mercedes; Mendez, Susy; Dunner, Susana; Cañón, Javier; Cortés, Oscar

    2012-12-01

    In order to understand the genetic ancestry and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) diversity of current Colombian horse breeds we sequenced a 364-bp fragment of the mitocondrial DNA D-loop in 116 animals belonging to five Spanish horse breeds and the Colombian Paso Fino and Colombian Creole cattle horse breeds. Among Colombian horse breeds, haplogroup D had the highest frequency (53%), followed by haplogroups A (19%), C (8%) and F (6%). The higher frequency of haplogroup D in Colombian horse breeds supports the theory of an ancestral Iberian origin for these breeds. These results also indicate that different selective pressures among the Colombian breeds could explain the relatively higher genetic diversity found in the Colombian Creole cattle horse when compared with the Colombian Paso Fino.

  6. Colombian Creole horse breeds: Same origin but different diversity

    PubMed Central

    Jimenez, Ligia Mercedes; Mendez, Susy; Dunner, Susana; Cañón, Javier; Cortés, Óscar

    2012-01-01

    In order to understand the genetic ancestry and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) diversity of current Colombian horse breeds we sequenced a 364-bp fragment of the mitocondrial DNA D-loop in 116 animals belonging to five Spanish horse breeds and the Colombian Paso Fino and Colombian Creole cattle horse breeds. Among Colombian horse breeds, haplogroup D had the highest frequency (53%), followed by haplogroups A (19%), C (8%) and F (6%). The higher frequency of haplogroup D in Colombian horse breeds supports the theory of an ancestral Iberian origin for these breeds. These results also indicate that different selective pressures among the Colombian breeds could explain the relatively higher genetic diversity found in the Colombian Creole cattle horse when compared with the Colombian Paso Fino. PMID:23271940

  7. Updated Colombian Seismic Hazard Map

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eraso, J.; Arcila, M.; Romero, J.; Dimate, C.; Bermúdez, M. L.; Alvarado, C.

    2013-05-01

    The Colombian seismic hazard map used by the National Building Code (NSR-98) in effect until 2009 was developed in 1996. Since then, the National Seismological Network of Colombia has improved in both coverage and technology providing fifteen years of additional seismic records. These improvements have allowed a better understanding of the regional geology and tectonics which in addition to the seismic activity in Colombia with destructive effects has motivated the interest and the need to develop a new seismic hazard assessment in this country. Taking advantage of new instrumental information sources such as new broad band stations of the National Seismological Network, new historical seismicity data, standardized global databases availability, and in general, of advances in models and techniques, a new Colombian seismic hazard map was developed. A PSHA model was applied. The use of the PSHA model is because it incorporates the effects of all seismic sources that may affect a particular site solving the uncertainties caused by the parameters and assumptions defined in this kind of studies. First, the seismic sources geometry and a complete and homogeneous seismic catalog were defined; the parameters of seismic rate of each one of the seismic sources occurrence were calculated establishing a national seismotectonic model. Several of attenuation-distance relationships were selected depending on the type of seismicity considered. The seismic hazard was estimated using the CRISIS2007 software created by the Engineering Institute of the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México -UNAM (National Autonomous University of Mexico). A uniformly spaced grid each 0.1° was used to calculate the peak ground acceleration (PGA) and response spectral values at 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.5, 0.75, 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5 and 3.0 seconds with return periods of 75, 225, 475, 975 and 2475 years. For each site, a uniform hazard spectrum and exceedance rate curves were calculated. With the results, it is

  8. Organchlorine content and shell thickness in brown booby (Sula leucogaster) eggs in the Gulf of California and the southern Pacific coast of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Mellink, Eric; Riojas-López, Mónica E; Luévano-Esparza, Jaime

    2009-07-01

    We determined egg concentrations of organochlorines and thickness of eggshells from brown boobies at eight colonies ranging from the northern Gulf of California to southern Mexico. The only common residue was that of DDE, which was found in almost all eggs. DDE content apparently reflected pre-1990 DDT use in nearby agricultural areas and, at one site, intensive mosquito control for high-end tourism development. There were no inter-colony differences in eggshell thickness, and variation in this variable likely reflected individual bird characteristics and/or individual feeding source. This variable was not a good proxy to DDE exposure of brown boobies, under current DDE levels in the brown booby trophic chain. In the northern Gulf of California, eggshell thickness has recovered to pre-DDT conditions. Our data indicate that the Gulf of California and southwestern coast of Mexico have a healthy near-shore marine environment, as far as organochlorines are concerned.

  9. Oxidative stress indicators and trace elements in the blue shark (Prionace glauca) off the east coast of the Mexican Pacific Ocean.

    PubMed

    Barrera-García, Angélica; O'Hara, Todd; Galván-Magaña, Felipe; Méndez-Rodríguez, Lía C; Castellini, J Margaret; Zenteno-Savín, Tania

    2012-08-01

    Trace element concentrations and oxidative stress indicators (including production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), antioxidant enzyme activities and oxidative damage) were measured in muscle of blue sharks collected along the west coast of Baja California Sur to determine potential differences by sex and maturity cohorts. Mercury (Hg) concentration in muscle samples from larger sharks (>200 cm LT) exceeded the permissible limit (>1 ppm wet weight) for human consumption set by numerous international agencies. Significant differences were found in Hg concentrations (mature>immature; males>females), and in protein carbonyl concentrations (male>female); however, except for carbonyl protein levels, no significant differences by sex or maturity stage were found in the oxidative stress indicators. Differences between sexes and maturity stages in trace element concentration and carbonyl protein levels in blue shark muscle may be related to variations in diet within different cohorts. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Recovery of wild Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas in terms of reproduction and gametogenesis two-years after the Hebei Spirit Oil Spill Accident off the West Coast of Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mondol, Mostafizur Rahman; Keshavmurthy, Shashank; Lee, Hee-Jung; Hong, Hyun-Ki; Park, Heung-Sik; Park, Sang-Rul; Kang, Chang-Keun; Choi, Kwang-Sik

    2015-12-01

    The Hebei Spirit oil spill in December 2007 at Taean off the west coast of Korea was the largest oil tanker accident in Korea. However, the impact of the spill on physiology of benthic animals remains largely unknown. Two-years after the accident, we compared reproductive effort and annual gametogenesis of the wild Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas, residing at oil spill site with a control oyster population in Incheon Bay, North-West coast of Korea. Results showed that the oyster sampled from the oil spill site showed a significantly higher (279.0 mg standard animal-1, P<0.05) growth by tissue dry weight to that of the control population (228.0 mg standard animal-1, P<0.05). Histology revealed that there was no significant difference in the annual gametogenic pattern between the two populations, and most of the females of both populations spawned between August and September. During spawning season, egg mass of oysters determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA) in the oil spill area was significantly higher (136.3 mg standard animal-1, P<0.05) than the control population (120.5 mg standard animal-1, P<0.05). The tissue protein level in the oysters at the contaminated area was significantly higher (102.6 mg standard animal-1, P<0.05) than the level measured from the control oysters (81.4 mg standard animal-1, P<0.05). The observed better biological performances of oysters at the contaminated site suggested their recovery of the physiological status to normal level after two years of the oil spill accident.

  11. Plankton biomass and larval fish abundance prior to and during the El Niño period of 1997 1998 along the central Pacific coast of México

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    C. Franco-Gordo; Godínez-Domínguez, E.; Filonov, A. E.; Tereshchenko, I. E.; Freire, J.

    2004-11-01

    The temporal and spatial distributions of zooplankton biomass and larval fish recorded during 27 months (December 1995-December 1998) off the Pacific coast of central México are analyzed. A total of 316 samples were obtained by surface (from 40-68 to 0 m) oblique hauls at 12 sampling sites using a Bongo net. Two well-defined periods were observed: a pre-ENSO period (December 1995-march 1997) and an ENSO event (July 1997-September 1998) characterized by impoverishment of the pelagic habitat. The highest biomass concentrations occurred at coastal stations during the pre-ENSO period. During the El Niño period no spatial patterns were found in coastal waters. The months with highest biomass were those in which the lowest sea surface temperature (SST) occurred (January-May), and this pattern was also observed during the ENSO period. A typical, although attenuated, seasonal environmental pattern with enhanced phytoplankton (diatoms and dinoflagellates) was prevalent during the El Niño event in nearshore waters. During the El Niño period the phytoplankton was mainly small diatoms (microphytoplankton), while dinoflagellates were practically absent. The most parsimonious generalized linear models explaining spatial and temporal distribution of larval fish species included the ENSO index (MEI), upwelling index (UI) and distance to the coast. The environmental variability defined on an interannual time-scale by the ENSO event and the seasonal hydroclimatic pattern defined by the UI (intra-annual-scale) controlled the ecosystem productivity patterns. The small-scale distribution patterns (defined by a cross-shore gradient) of plankton were related to the hydroclimatic seasonality and modulated by interannual anomalies.

  12. A multi-proxy approach to tsunami deposit characterization: searching wetlands and lagoons at the Mexican Pacific coast for a record of tsunami inundations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramirez-Herrera, M.; Cundy, A.; Kostoglodov, V.; Carranza-Edwards, A.; Morales, E.; Metcalfe, S.

    2007-05-01

    It is extremely important to integrate historic accounts with geologic evidence of past tsunamis to fully understand hazards to the highly populated Mexican coast. We aim to complete a record of tsunami events using a multi- proxy approach to identify tsunami deposits recovered from marsh lagoonal sediments on the Guerrero coast of Mexico. Core samples from nine study sites on tropical wetlands show distinct stratigraphic changes with depth, indicating clear rapid change in depositional environments over time. Core sequences recovered include evidence of land level changes and three probable tsunamis based on stratigraphic, granulometric, geochemical, and microfossil analysis (diatoms and pollen) of marsh sediments. Radiocarbon data indicate that the sediment units cored are up to ca. 6161+/- 53 yr BP. A probable tsunami event and coseismic subsidence dates back at 3800 yr BP. Discrete sand units fining up show sharp erosional contacts at the base, medium to poor sorting, fine to coarse sand, with clay/mud rip-up clasts. However, traces of these apparent tsunami deposits are not extensive over a large area and we could not correlate them from one site to another. We hypothesize that the distribution and preservation of tsunami deposits in these tropical lagoonal marshes and wetlands might be controlled by mangrove vegetation fringing coastal lagoons and estuaries. Recent observations after the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami showed that mangroves may dissipate tsunami energy and result in flumed-shape sediment deposition. If this is the case, finding tsunami deposits over extensive areas in mangrove marshes and wetlands would prove very challenging.

  13. Potential predictability of a Colombian river flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Córdoba-Machado, Samir; Palomino-Lemus, Reiner; Quishpe-Vásquez, César; García-Valdecasas-Ojeda, Matilde; Raquel Gámiz-Fortis, Sonia; Castro-Díez, Yolanda; Jesús Esteban-Parra, María

    2017-04-01

    In this study the predictability of an important Colombian river (Cauca) has been analysed based on the use of climatic variables as potential predictors. Cauca River is considered one of the most important rivers of Colombia because its basin supports important productive activities related with the agriculture, such as the production of coffee or sugar. Potential relationships between the Cauca River seasonal streamflow anomalies and different climatic variables such as sea surface temperature (SST), precipitation (Pt), temperature over land (Tm) and soil water (Sw) have been analysed for the period 1949-2009. For this end, moving correlation analysis of 30 years have been carried out for lags from one to four seasons for the global SST, and from one to two seasons for South America Pt, Tm and Sw. Also, the stability of the significant correlations have been also studied, identifying the regions used as potential predictors of streamflow. Finally, in order to establish a prediction scheme based on the previous stable correlations, a Principal Component Analysis (PCA) applied on the potential predictor regions has been carried out in order to obtain a representative time series for each predictor field. Significant and stable correlations between the seasonal streamflow and the tropical Pacific SST (El Niño region) are found for lags from one to four (one-year) season. Additionally, some regions in the Indian and Atlantic Oceans also show significant and stable correlations at different lags, highlighting the importance that exerts the Atlantic SST on the hydrology of Colombia. Also significant and stable correlations are found with the Pt, Tm and Sw for some regions over South America, at lags of one and two seasons. The prediction of Cauca seasonal streamflow based on this scheme shows an acceptable skill and represents a relative improvement compared with the predictability obtained using the teleconnection indices associated with El Niño. Keywords

  14. Phylogenomics of Colombian Helicobacter pylori isolates.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Escobar, Andrés Julián; Trujillo, Esperanza; Acevedo, Orlando; Bravo, María Mercedes

    2017-01-01

    During the Spanish colonisation of South America, African slaves and Europeans arrived in the continent with their corresponding load of pathogens, including Helicobacter pylori. Colombian strains have been clustered with the hpEurope population and with the hspWestAfrica subpopulation in multilocus sequence typing (MLST) studies. However, ancestry studies have revealed the presence of population components specific to H. pylori in Colombia. The aim of this study was to perform a thorough phylogenomic analysis to describe the evolution of the Colombian urban H. pylori isolates. A total of 115 genomes of H. pylori were sequenced with Illumina technology from H. pylori isolates obtained in Colombia in a region of high risk for gastric cancer. The genomes were assembled, annotated and underwent phylogenomic analysis with 36 reference strains. Additionally, population differentiation analyses were performed for two bacterial genes. The phylogenetic tree revealed clustering of the Colombian strains with hspWestAfrica and hpEurope, along with three clades formed exclusively by Colombian strains, suggesting the presence of independent evolutionary lines for Colombia. Additionally, the nucleotide diversity of horB and vacA genes from Colombian isolates was lower than in the reference strains and showed a significant genetic differentiation supporting the hypothesis of independent clades with recent evolution. The presence of specific lineages suggest the existence of an hspColombia subtype that emerged from a small and relatively isolated ancestral population that accompanied crossbreeding of human population in Colombia.

  15. Echinococcus infections in Colombian animals.

    PubMed

    D'Alessandro, A; Rausch, R L; Morales, G A; Collet, S; Angel, D

    1981-11-01

    The results of a survey involving more than 4,000 Colombian mammals, carried out to detect Echinococcus infections, are presented. Adult worms were found in 5 of 121 carnivores: E. oligarthrus in 1 of 11 ocelots, 2 of 9 jaguarundi cats and single puma; and E. vogeli in 1 of 15 domestic dogs. Although bush dogs were present, none could be examined. Polycystic larvae were found in 96 of 325 pacas (29.5%) and in 6 of 1,168 (0.5%) spiny rats, Proechimys spp. None of the 118 agouti showed hydatids but an infected heart was provided by hunters. The paca's infection rate increased with age but was not related to sex or geographic region. In 73 of 96 pacas the infection was due to E. vogeli, and the cysts were located in the liver. In 3 it was due to E. oligarthrus and the hydatids were extrahepatic, mainly attached to muscles. In the remaining 20, the species involved could not be determined. The parasites in two of the spiny rats, and in the agouti heart were E. oligarthrus. Although most of the infected animals were collected in the eastern plains, other records and verbal information indicate that, at least in Colombia where man has not exterminated pacas, agoutis, wild canids and felids, one still can find enzootic neotropical Echinococcus infection. The cycle of E. vogeli involves the bush dog and paca as hosts, and that of E. oligarthrus, the paca, agouti, spiny rat, and several species of wild felids.

  16. Improving Estimates of Vertical Motion Over the Past Century Along the Pacific Coast of the U.S. Using Tide Gauges and Repeated Leveling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgette, R. J.; Weldon, R. J.

    2013-12-01

    Historic to modern observations of relative sea level at tide gauges and relative vertical positions of benchmarks from differential leveling provide a rich dataset for constraining crustal uplift and subsidence. These terrestrial techniques offer independent estimates of rates of vertical motion that provide a precise and important complement to estimates derived from space-based geodetic methods. Inter-site variations in rates of relative sea level change provide highly precise estimates of relative vertical crustal motion over spatial scales where rates of geocentric sea level rise are constant or nearly so. Absolute rates of uplift can be obtained with an estimate of sea level rise in a geocentric reference frame. Along the west coast of the U.S., there are tide gauges with records long enough (> 60 yr) to obtain < 0.5 mm/yr precision (considering time-correlated noise) spaced approximately 100-200 km along the coast. Repeated leveling (generally from the 1920s to 1980s) along highway routes provides estimates of rates of vertical position change along a network of benchmarks that are denser than most current GNSS networks. Our analysis along the western U.S. suggests that many of the first order leveling lines are precise at the expected level. However, in some areas, first order lines show discrepancies at levels much higher than that expected from random error. Such systematic errors may be identified and corrected along routes with multiple epochs of precise leveling with tide gauges on each end, or in areas of relatively short (< 100 km) closed loops. In this contribution we will show our analysis methodology for combining leveling and sea level data to yield estimates of absolute uplift rates and associated uncertainties. Based on our experiences applying this technique over much of the route between the Canadian and Mexican borders of the western U.S., we will assess the accuracy of these terrestrial techniques and compare available spaceborne estimates

  17. Anisakis species (Nematoda: Anisakidae) of Dwarf Sperm Whale Kogia sima (Owen, 1866) stranded off the Pacific coast of southern Philippine archipelago.

    PubMed

    Quiazon, Karl Marx A; Santos, Mudjekeewis D; Yoshinaga, Tomoyoshi

    2013-10-18

    Anisakid nematodes in the Pacific region of the Philippine archipelago still remain unexplored. This study was carried out to identify anisakid species from one of their final hosts, the Kogiid whale (Dwarf Sperm Whale, Kogia sima) stranded off the southern part (Davao Gulf) of the Philippine archipelago. Anisakid worms were initially identified morphologically using light and scanning electron microscopy, whereas identification to species level was carried out molecularly using PCR-RFLP and sequencing of the ITS (ITS1-5.8s rRNA-ITS2) and mtDNA cox2 regions. Parasitological study revealed new geographical records for the presence of two Anisakis species (A. brevispiculata and A. typica) and two unknown Anisakis species that are genetically close, at mtDNA cox2 region, to A. paggiae and A. ziphidarum. Based on the molecular data on both genes, the current findings suggest possible occurrence of local variations or sibling species of A. paggiae and A. ziphidarum in the region. Given that Anisakis species have not been reported in the Philippine archipelago, their presence in the Dwarf Sperm Whale inhabiting this region indicates high possibility of Anisakis infections in the marine fishes, cephalopods and other intermediate hosts within the Philippine waters. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Ecophysiological adaptations to variable salinity environments in the crab Hemigrapsus crenulatus from the Southeastern Pacific coast: Sodium regulation, respiration and excretion.

    PubMed

    Urzúa, Ángel; Urbina, Mauricio A

    2017-08-01

    The estuarine crab Hemigrapsus crenulatus is a key benthic species of estuarine and intertidal ecosystems of the South Pacific, habitats that experience wide fluctuations in salinity. The physiological strategies that allow this crab to thrive under variable salinities, and how they change during the benthic stages of their life cycle, were evaluated under laboratory conditions. Oxygen consumption, ammonia excretion and the regulatory capacity of Na(+) through the normal range of environmental salinities (i.e. 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30) were evaluated in three size classes, ranging from juveniles to adults. In all sizes, the oxygen consumption, ammonia excretion and regulatory capacity of Na(+) decreased as salinity increased, with the highest values at 5 and the lowest values at 30 salinity. Bigger crabs showed a higher capacity to regulate Na(+), as well as higher respiration and excretion rates compared to smaller crabs, suggesting that they are better equipped to exploit areas of the estuary with low salinity. Regardless of its size, H. crenulatus is a strong hyper regulator in diluted media (i.e. 5-20) while a conformer at salinities higher than 20. The regulatory capacity of Na(+) was positively related with oxygen consumption and ammonia excretion rates. These relationships between sodium regulation, respiration and excretion are interpreted as adaptive physiological mechanisms that allow H. crenulatus to maintain the osmotic and bioenergetic balance over a wide range of environmental salinities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. A Systematic Health Assessment of Indian Ocean Bottlenose (Tursiops aduncus) and Indo-Pacific Humpback (Sousa plumbea) Dolphins Incidentally Caught in Shark Nets off the KwaZulu-Natal Coast, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Lane, Emily P.; de Wet, Morné; Thompson, Peter; Siebert, Ursula; Wohlsein, Peter; Plön, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    Coastal dolphins are regarded as indicators of changes in coastal marine ecosystem health that could impact humans utilizing the marine environment for food or recreation. Necropsy and histology examinations were performed on 35 Indian Ocean bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops aduncus) and five Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins (Sousa plumbea) incidentally caught in shark nets off the KwaZulu-Natal coast, South Africa, between 2010 and 2012. Parasitic lesions included pneumonia (85%), abdominal and thoracic serositis (75%), gastroenteritis (70%), hepatitis (62%), and endometritis (42%). Parasitic species identified were Halocercus sp. (lung), Crassicauda sp. (skeletal muscle) and Xenobalanus globicipitis (skin). Additional findings included bronchiolar epithelial mineralisation (83%), splenic filamentous tags (45%), non-suppurative meningoencephalitis (39%), and myocardial fibrosis (26%). No immunohistochemically positive reaction was present in lesions suggestive of dolphin morbillivirus, Toxoplasma gondii and Brucella spp. The first confirmed cases of lobomycosis and sarcocystosis in South African dolphins were documented. Most lesions were mild, and all animals were considered to be in good nutritional condition, based on blubber thickness and muscle mass. Apparent temporal changes in parasitic disease prevalence may indicate a change in the host/parasite interface. This study provided valuable baseline information on conditions affecting coastal dolphin populations in South Africa and, to our knowledge, constitutes the first reported systematic health assessment in incidentally caught dolphins in the Southern Hemisphere. Further research on temporal disease trends as well as disease pathophysiology and anthropogenic factors affecting these populations is needed. PMID:25203143

  20. A systematic health assessment of indian ocean bottlenose (Tursiops aduncus) and indo-pacific humpback (Sousa plumbea) dolphins incidentally caught in shark nets off the KwaZulu-Natal Coast, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Lane, Emily P; de Wet, Morné; Thompson, Peter; Siebert, Ursula; Wohlsein, Peter; Plön, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    Coastal dolphins are regarded as indicators of changes in coastal marine ecosystem health that could impact humans utilizing the marine environment for food or recreation. Necropsy and histology examinations were performed on 35 Indian Ocean bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops aduncus) and five Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins (Sousa plumbea) incidentally caught in shark nets off the KwaZulu-Natal coast, South Africa, between 2010 and 2012. Parasitic lesions included pneumonia (85%), abdominal and thoracic serositis (75%), gastroenteritis (70%), hepatitis (62%), and endometritis (42%). Parasitic species identified were Halocercus sp. (lung), Crassicauda sp. (skeletal muscle) and Xenobalanus globicipitis (skin). Additional findings included bronchiolar epithelial mineralisation (83%), splenic filamentous tags (45%), non-suppurative meningoencephalitis (39%), and myocardial fibrosis (26%). No immunohistochemically positive reaction was present in lesions suggestive of dolphin morbillivirus, Toxoplasma gondii and Brucella spp. The first confirmed cases of lobomycosis and sarcocystosis in South African dolphins were documented. Most lesions were mild, and all animals were considered to be in good nutritional condition, based on blubber thickness and muscle mass. Apparent temporal changes in parasitic disease prevalence may indicate a change in the host/parasite interface. This study provided valuable baseline information on conditions affecting coastal dolphin populations in South Africa and, to our knowledge, constitutes the first reported systematic health assessment in incidentally caught dolphins in the Southern Hemisphere. Further research on temporal disease trends as well as disease pathophysiology and anthropogenic factors affecting these populations is needed.

  1. Temporal trends of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) in eggs of coastal and offshore birds: Increasing PFAS levels associated with offshore bird species breeding on the Pacific coast of Canada and wintering near Asia.

    PubMed

    Miller, Aroha; Elliott, John E; Elliott, Kyle H; Lee, Sandi; Cyr, Francois

    2015-08-01

    Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) such as perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs) and perfluoroalkyl sulfonates (PFSAs) have become virtually ubiquitous throughout the environment, and, based on laboratory studies, have known toxicological consequences. Various national and international voluntary phase-outs and restrictions on these compounds have been implemented over the last 10 to 15 years. In the present study, we examine trends (1990/1991-2010/2011) in aquatic birds (ancient murrelet, Synthliboramphus antiquus [2009 only]; Leach's storm-petrels, Oceanodroma leucorhoa; rhinoceros auklets, Cerorhinca monocerata; double-crested cormorants, Phalacrocorax auritus; and great blue herons, Ardea herodias). The PFCA, PFSA, and stable isotope (δ(15) N and δ(13) C) data collected from these species from the Pacific coast of Canada, ranging over 20 to 30 years, were used to investigate temporal changes in PFAS coupled to dietary changes. Perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), the dominant PFSA compound in all 4 species, increased and subsequently decreased in auklet and cormorant eggs in line with the manufacturing phase-out of PFOS and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), but concentrations continuously increased in petrel eggs and remained largely unchanged in heron eggs. Dominant PFCA compounds varied between the offshore and coastal species, with increases seen in the offshore species and little or variable changes seen in the coastal species. Little temporal change was seen in stable isotope values, indicating that diet alone is not driving observed PFAS concentrations. © 2015 SETAC.

  2. A new species of Leptalpheus Williams, 1965 and new records of L. mexicanus Ríos & Carvacho, 1983 and L. hendrickxi Anker, 2011 (Crustacea: Decapoda: Alpheidae) from the Pacific coast of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Salgado-Barragán, José; Ayón-Parente, Manuel; Hendrickx, Michel E

    2014-07-14

    A new species of Leptalpheus is described from Estero Pérula, Jalisco, on the Pacific coast of Mexico. Leptalpheus corderoae sp. nov. is most similar to Leptalpheus azuero Anker, 2011 from Panama and Leptalpheus axianassae Dworschak & Coelho, 1999 from Brazil, differing from both of them by a combination of morphological characters, especially the presence of tubercles on the ventral surface of the major chela palm and pollex. The most common host of L. corderoae sp. nov. at the type locality is the callianassid ghost shrimp Lepidophthalmus bocourti (A. Milne Edwards, 1870). Additional specimens of Leptalpheus mexicanus Ríos & Carvacho, 1983, from Estero de Urías, Sinaloa, are reported and compared to the type material from Río Mulegé, as well as to Leptalpheus bicristatus Anker, 2011 from Panama. Finally, Leptalpheus hendrickxi Anker, 2011 is reported from Mexico for the first time, representing a significant northward range extension of the species. In Estero Pérula, L. hendrickxi lives in burrows of Lepidophthalmus bocourti, sometimes together with L. corderoae sp. nov. 

  3. Accumulation and mother-to-calf transfer of anthropogenic and natural organohalogens in killer whales (Orcinus orca) stranded on the Pacific coast of Japan.

    PubMed

    Haraguchi, Koichi; Hisamichi, Yohsuke; Endo, Tetsuya

    2009-04-01

    Blubber samples were analyzed for anthropogenic and natural persistent organohalogens in nine killer whales (Orcinus orca) stranded on the northern coast of Japan in 2005. Anthropogenic organohalogens were dominated by DDTs (40-240 microg/g lipid weight (lw)), PCBs (19-68 microg/g lw), and chlordanes (trans-nonachlor, 15-80 microg/g lw). Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were detected at a range of 0.22-0.64 microg/g lw (BDE-47, 42-74% of SigmaPBDE). For natural organohalogens, mixed halogenated dimethylbipyrroles (Br4Cl2-DBP, 6.4-26 microg/g lw), heptachlorinated methylbipyrrole (Cl7-MBP, 0.5-1.9 microg/g lw), two methoxylated tetrabromodiphenyl ethers (6-MeO-BDE47, 0.11-0.58 microg/g lw; 2'-MeO-BDE68, 0.02-0.06 microg/g lw), and dimethoxylated tetrabromobiphenyl (2,2'-diMeO-BB80, 0.06-0.20 microg/g lw) were present. These concentrations in the blubber were higher in calves than in lactating females, indicating that large quantities of the persistent organohalogens transferred from the mother to the calf through lactation. The mother-to-calf transfer ratios of PCBs and PBDEs were significantly decreased with increasing number of halogen substituents, suggesting that higher halogenated congeners are less transferable.

  4. Trophic Interactions Between Insects and Stream-Associated Amphibians in Steep, Cobble-Bottom Streams of the Pacific Coast of North America

    PubMed Central

    Atwood, Trisha; Richardson, John S.

    2012-01-01

    Two native, stream-associated amphibians are found in coastal streams of the west coast of North America, the tailed frog and the coastal giant salamander, and each interacts with stream insects in contrasting ways. For tailed frogs, their tadpoles are the primary life stage found in steep streams and they consume biofilm from rock surfaces, which can have trophic and non-trophic effects on stream insects. By virtue of their size the tadpoles are relatively insensitive to stream insect larvae, and tadpoles are capable of depleting biofilm levels directly (exploitative competition), and may also “bulldoze” insect larvae from the surfaces of stones (interference competition). Coastal giant salamander larvae, and sometimes adults, are found in small streams where they prey primarily on stream insects, as well as other small prey. This predator-prey interaction with stream insects does not appear to result in differences in the stream invertebrate community between streams with and without salamander larvae. These two examples illustrate the potential for trophic and non-trophic interactions between stream-associated amphibians and stream insects, and also highlights the need for further research in these systems. PMID:26466536

  5. Trophic Interactions Between Insects and Stream-Associated Amphibians in Steep, Cobble-Bottom Streams of the Pacific Coast of North America.

    PubMed

    Atwood, Trisha; Richardson, John S

    2012-04-10

    Two native, stream-associated amphibians are found in coastal streams of the west coast of North America, the tailed frog and the coastal giant salamander, and each interacts with stream insects in contrasting ways. For tailed frogs, their tadpoles are the primary life stage found in steep streams and they consume biofilm from rock surfaces, which can have trophic and non-trophic effects on stream insects. By virtue of their size the tadpoles are relatively insensitive to stream insect larvae, and tadpoles are capable of depleting biofilm levels directly (exploitative competition), and may also "bulldoze" insect larvae from the surfaces of stones (interference competition). Coastal giant salamander larvae, and sometimes adults, are found in small streams where they prey primarily on stream insects, as well as other small prey. This predator-prey interaction with stream insects does not appear to result in differences in the stream invertebrate community between streams with and without salamander larvae. These two examples illustrate the potential for trophic and non-trophic interactions between stream-associated amphibians and stream insects, and also highlights the need for further research in these systems.

  6. A 14,000 year vegetation history of a hypermaritime island on the outer Pacific coast of Canada based on fossil pollen, spores and conifer stomata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacourse, Terri; Delepine, J. Michelle; Hoffman, Elizabeth H.; Mathewes, Rolf W.

    2012-11-01

    Pollen and conifer stomata analyses of lake sediments from Hippa Island on the north coast of British Columbia were used to reconstruct the vegetation history of this small hypermaritime island. Between 14,000 and 13,230 cal yr BP, the island supported diverse herb-shrub communities dominated by Cyperaceae, Artemisia and Salix. Pinus contorta and Picea sitchensis stomata indicate that these conifers were present among the herb-shrub communities, likely as scattered individuals. Transition to open P. contorta woodland by 13,000 cal yr BP was followed by increases in Alnus viridis, Alnus rubra and P. sitchensis. After 12,000 cal yr BP, Pinus-dominated communities were replaced by dense P. sitchensis and Tsuga heterophylla forest with Lysichiton americanus and fern understory. Thuja plicata stomata indicate that this species was present by 8700 cal yr BP, but the pollen record suggests that its populations did not expand to dominate regional rainforests, along with Tsuga and Picea, until after 6600 cal yr BP. Conifer stomata indicate that species may be locally present for hundreds to thousands of years before pollen exceed thresholds routinely used to infer local species arrival. When combined, pollen and conifer stomata can provide a more accurate record of paleovegetation than either when used alone.

  7. Amberstripe scad Decapterus muroadsi (Carangidae) fish ingest blue microplastics resembling their copepod prey along the coast of Rapa Nui (Easter Island) in the South Pacific subtropical gyre.

    PubMed

    Ory, Nicolas Christian; Sobral, Paula; Ferreira, Joana Lia; Thiel, Martin

    2017-05-15

    An increasing number of studies have described the presence of microplastics (≤5mm) in many different fish species, raising ecological concerns. The factors influencing the ingestion of microplastics by fish remain unclear despite their importance to a better understanding of the routes of microplastics through marine food webs. Here, we compare microplastics and planktonic organisms in surface waters and as food items of 20 Amberstripe scads (Decapterus muroadsi) captured along the coast of Rapa Nui (Easter Island) to assess the hypothesis that fish ingest microplastics resembling their natural prey. Sixteen (80%) of the scad had ingested one to five microplastics, mainly blue polyethylene fragments that were similar in colour and size to blue copepod species consumed by the same fish. These results suggest that planktivorous fish, as a consequence of their feeding behaviour as visual predators, are directly exposed to floating microplastics. This threat may be exacerbated in the clear oceanic waters of the subtropical gyres, where anthropogenic litter accumulates in great quantity. Our study highlights the menace of microplastic contamination on the integrity of fragile remote ecosystems and the urgent need for efficient plastic waste management. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. 75 FR 59156 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Coastal Pelagic Species Fisheries; Closure

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-27

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 660 RIN 0648-XY79 Fisheries Off West Coast...: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for Pacific sardine off the coasts of Washington, Oregon and... fishery in the U.S. exclusive economic zone (EEZ) off the Pacific coast (California, Oregon, and...

  9. 76 FR 40836 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Coastal Pelagic Species Fisheries; Closure

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-12

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 660 RIN 0648-XA554 Fisheries Off West Coast...: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for Pacific sardine off the coasts of Washington, Oregon and... fishery in the U.S. exclusive economic zone (EEZ) off the Pacific coast (California, Oregon, and...

  10. 75 FR 33733 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Coastal Pelagic Species Fisheries; Closure

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-15

    ... Fisheries Off West Coast States; Coastal Pelagic Species Fisheries; Closure AGENCY: National Marine...: Temporary rule; closure. SUMMARY: NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for Pacific sardine off the coasts of... the U.S. exclusive economic zone (EEZ) off the Pacific coast (California, Oregon, and Washington) in...

  11. Status of (137)Cs contamination in marine biota along the Pacific coast of eastern Japan derived from a dynamic biological model two years simulation following the Fukushima accident.

    PubMed

    Tateda, Yutaka; Tsumune, Daisuke; Tsubono, Takaki; Misumi, Kazuhiro; Yamada, Masatoshi; Kanda, Jota; Ishimaru, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    Radiocesium ((134)Cs and (137)Cs) released into the Fukushima coastal environment was transferred to marine biota inhabiting the Pacific Ocean coastal waters of eastern Japan. Though the levels in most of the edible marine species decreased overtime, radiocesium concentrations in some fishes were still remained higher than the Japanese regulatory limit for seafood products. In this study, a dynamic food chain transfer model was applied to reconstruct (137)Cs levels in olive flounder by adopting the radiocesium concentrations in small demersal fish which constitute an important fraction of the diet of the olive flounder particularly inhabiting area near Fukushima. In addition, (137)Cs levels in slime flounder were also simulated using reported radiocesium concentrations in some prey organisms. The simulated results from Onahama on the southern border of the Fukushima coastline, and at Choshi the southernmost point where the contaminated water mass was transported by the Oyashio current, were assessed in order to identify what can be explained from present information, and what remains to be clarified three years after the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant (1FNPP) accident. As a result, the observed (137)Cs concentrations in planktivorous fish and their predator fish could be explained by the theoretically-derived simulated levels. On the other hand, the slow (137)Cs depuration in slime flounder can be attributed to uptake from unknown sources for which the uptake fluxes were of a similar magnitude as the excretion fluxes. Since the reported (137)Cs concentrations in benthic invertebrates off Onahama were higher than the simulated values, radiocesium transfer from these benthic detritivorous invertebrates to slime flounder via ingestion was suggested as a cause for the observed slow depuration of (137)Cs in demersal fish off southern Fukushima. Furthermore, the slower depuration in the demersal fish likely required an additional source of (137)Cs, i

  12. Eastern tropical Pacific hydrologic changes during the past 27,000 years from D/H ratios in alkenones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pahnke, Katharina; Sachs, Julian P.; Keigwin, Lloyd; Timmermann, Axel; Xie, Shang-Ping

    2007-12-01

    The tropical Pacific plays a central role in the climate system by providing large diabatic heating that drives the global atmospheric circulation. Quantifying the role of the tropics in late Pleistocene climate change has been hampered by the paucity of paleoclimate records from this region and the lack of realistic transient climate model simulations covering this period. Here we present records of hydrogen isotope ratios (δD) of alkenones from the Panama Basin off the Colombian coast that document hydrologic changes in equatorial South America and the eastern tropical Pacific over the past 27,000 years (a) and the past 3 centuries in detail. Comparison of alkenone δD values with instrumental records of precipitation over the past ˜100 a suggests that δD can be used as a hydrologic proxy. On long timescales our records indicate reduced rainfall during the last glacial period that can be explained by a southward shift of the mean position of the Intertropical Convergence Zone and an associated reduction of Pacific moisture transport into Colombia. Precipitation increases at ˜17 ka in concert with sea surface temperature (SST) cooling in the North Atlantic and the eastern tropical Pacific. A regional coupled model, forced by negative SST anomalies in the Caribbean, simulates an intensification of northeasterly trade winds across Central America, increased evaporative cooling, and a band of increased rainfall in the northeastern tropical Pacific. These results are consistent with the alkenone SST and δD reconstructions that suggest increasing precipitation and SST cooling at the time of Heinrich event 1.

  13. 76 FR 65673 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; Amendment 16 to the Salmon Fishery...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-24

    ... States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; Amendment 16 to the Salmon Fishery Management Plan AGENCY: National...: NMFS proposes regulations to implement Amendment 16 to the Pacific Coast Salmon Fishery Management Plan for Commercial and Recreational Salmon Fisheries off the Coasts of Washington, Oregon, and...

  14. 76 FR 81851 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; Amendment 16 to the Salmon Fishery...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-29

    ... States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; Amendment 16 to the Salmon Fishery Management Plan AGENCY: National... Conservation and Management Act (MSA) to implement Amendment 16 to the Pacific Coast Salmon Fishery Management Plan for Commercial and Recreational Salmon Fisheries off the Coasts of Washington, Oregon,...

  15. Distribution of the Fukushima-derived radionuclides in seawater in the Pacific off the coast of Miyagi, Fukushima, and Ibaraki Prefectures, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oikawa, S.; Takata, H.; Watabe, T.; Misonoo, J.; Kusakabe, M.

    2013-07-01

    The activities of artificial radionuclides in seawater samples collected off the coast of Miyagi, Fukushima, and Ibaraki Prefectures were measured as part of a monitoring program initiated by the Japanese Ministry of Education, Sports, Science and Technology immediately after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. The spatial and temporal distributions of those activities are summarized herein. The activities of strontium-90, iodine-131, cesium-134 and -137 (i.e. 90Sr, 131I, 134Cs, and 137Cs) derived from the accident were detected in seawater samples taken from areas of the coastal ocean adjacent to the power plant. No 131I was detected in surface waters (≤ 5 m depth) or in intermediate and bottom waters after 30 April 2011. Strontium-90 was found in surface waters collected from a few sampling stations in mid-August 2011 to mid-December 2011. Temporal changes of 90Sr activity in surface waters were evident, although the 90Sr activity at a given time varied widely between sampling stations. The activity of 90Sr in surface waters decreased slowly over time, and by the end of December 2011 had reached background levels recorded before the accident. Radiocesium, 134Cs and 137Cs, was found in seawater samples immediately after the accident. There was a remarkable change in radiocesium activities in surface waters during the first 7 months (March through September 2011) after the accident; the activity reached a maximum in the middle of April and thereafter decreased exponentially with time. Qualitatively, the distribution patterns in surface waters suggested that in early May radiocesium-polluted water was advected northward; some of the water then detached and was transported to the south. Two water cores with high 137Cs activity persisted at least until July 2011. In subsurface waters radiocesium activity was first detected in the beginning of April 2011, and the water masses were characterized by σt (an indicator of density) values of 25

  16. Distribution of the Fukushima-derived radionuclides in seawater in the Pacific off the coast of Miyagi, Fukushima, and Ibaraki Prefectures, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oikawa, S.; Takata, H.; Watabe, T.; Misonoo, J.; Kusakabe, M.

    2013-03-01

    The activities of artificial radionuclides in seawater samples collected off the coast of Miyagi, Fukushima, and Ibaraki Prefectures were measured as part of a monitoring program initiated by the Japanese government Ministry of Education, Sports, Science and Technology immediately after the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident. The spatial and temporal distributions of those activities are summarized herein. The activities of strontium-90, iodine-131, cesium-134 and -137 (i.e. 90Sr, 131I, 134Cs, and 137Cs) derived from the accident were detected in seawater samples taken from areas of the coastal ocean adjacent to the power plant. No 131I was detected in surface waters (≤ 5 m depth) or in intermediate and bottom waters after 30 April 2011. Strontium-90 was found in surface waters collected from a few sampling stations in mid-August 2011 to mid-December 2011. Temporal changes of 90Sr activity in surface waters were evident, although the 90Sr activity at a given time varied widely between sampling stations. The activity of 90Sr in surface waters decreased slowly over time, and by the end of December 2011 had reached background levels recorded before the accident. Radiocesium, 134Cs and 137Cs, was found in seawater samples immediately after the accident. There was a remarkable change in 137Cs activities in surface waters during the first 7 months (March through September 2011) after the accident; the activity reached a maximum in the middle of April and thereafter decreased exponentially with time. Qualitatively, the distribution patterns in surface waters suggested that in early May 137Cs-polluted water was advected northward; some of the water then detached and was transported to the south. Two cores of the water with high 137Cs activity persisted at least until July 2011. In subsurface waters 137Cs activity was first detected in the beginning of April 2011, and the water masses were characterized by σt (an indicator of density) values of 25

  17. Transparency and Its Determinants at Colombian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flórez-Parra, Jesús Mauricio; López-Pérez, María Victoria; López-Hernández, Antonio Manuel

    2017-01-01

    Over the past decade, one of the demands upon public institutions, among which we find universities, has been for transparency and improvement of accountability. In this context, Colombian universities are introducing different methods of management and governance aimed at addressing the demands of society generally in relation to transparency and…

  18. The Colombian National Apprenticeship Service (SENA)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Negri, Armando N. L.

    1976-01-01

    Described are an urban and rural vocational training program in Colombia and the Colombian national program of advisory services for business enterprises. The author discusses the objectives and methodology of a new plan which will utilize both permanent urban centres and mobile program in the rural sectors in an attempt to assist the unemployed…

  19. The "Developing" Achievement Gap: Colombian Voucher Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stern, Jonathan M. B.

    2014-01-01

    The achievement gap in many developing countries is defined in terms of rich/poor and public/private. The prevailing explanation for the "developing" achievement gap is an underfunded, inefficient, and/or inadequately supplied public school sector. Via an analysis of a Colombian voucher experiment, this article examines the extent to…

  20. The "Developing" Achievement Gap: Colombian Voucher Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stern, Jonathan M. B.

    2014-01-01

    The achievement gap in many developing countries is defined in terms of rich/poor and public/private. The prevailing explanation for the "developing" achievement gap is an underfunded, inefficient, and/or inadequately supplied public school sector. Via an analysis of a Colombian voucher experiment, this article examines the extent to…

  1. 76 FR 57945 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; Notice of Availability for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-19

    ... States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; Notice of Availability for Amendment 16 to the Salmon Fishery... Amendment 16 to the Pacific Coast Salmon Fishery Management Plan (FMP) for Secretarial review. Amendment 16... Taylor at 562-980-4039. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The ocean salmon fisheries in the exclusive...

  2. AfroColombian ethnicity, a paradoxical protective factor against Dengue

    PubMed Central

    Alzate, Alberto; Martínez Romero, Héctor Jairo; Concha-Eastman, Alberto Ignacio

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Dengue is a priority public health problem. During epidemics in Cuba and Haiti, ethnic African descendant population had lower risk of dengue, and the ethnic factor was proposed as a protective one. Objective: To determine the relation between the Dengue's cumulative incidence and the Afro-Colombian proportion in communities of Cali, during the epidemic of 2013. Methods: This study was conducted in Cali, Colombia. The design was ecological, using information from the National Census 2005 projected to 2013, from the National Administrative Department of Statistics (DANE), and the National Epidemiological Surveillance System. It was obtained the Pearson´s correlation coefficient between cumulative incidence and the proportion of Afro-Colombian population by communities. Additionally, the cumulative incidences of dengue were evaluated in two zones with different proportion of Afro-Colombian population. The association was also evaluated for aggregation bias, confounding by social variables, and interaction by area of ​​residence. Results: Dengue´s cumulative incidence was significantly lower for Afro-Colombians regardless of the proportion of Afro-Colombian population in the area of residence. The relative risk of dengue between non-Afro-Colombians and Afro-Colombians was 9.4 (95% CI=8.4-10.6) in zones with high proportion of Afro-Colombian population, while the relative risk of dengue was 4.0 (95% CI :3.6 - 4.4) in the zone with lower proportion of Afro-Colombian population. There was no evidence of aggregation bias or confounding in the association by social variables. Conclusions: The Afro-Colombian population had a significantly lower risk of getting dengue and its complications, compared with the non-Afro-Colombian population. The non-Afro-Colombian populations living in areas with a high proportion of Afro-Colombians increase their risk of dengue more than double, suggesting an asymptomatic viremic environment. PMID:27821892

  3. AfroColombian ethnicity, a paradoxical protective factor against Dengue.

    PubMed

    Rojas Palacios, Jorge Humberto; Alzate, Alberto; Martínez Romero, Héctor Jairo; Concha-Eastman, Alberto Ignacio

    2016-09-30

    Dengue is a priority public health problem. During epidemics in Cuba and Haiti, ethnic African descendant population had lower risk of dengue, and the ethnic factor was proposed as a protective one. To determine the relation between the Dengue's cumulative incidence and the Afro-Colombian proportion in communities of Cali, during the epidemic of 2013. This study was conducted in Cali, Colombia. The design was ecological, using information from the National Census 2005 projected to 2013, from the National Administrative Department of Statistics (DANE), and the National Epidemiological Surveillance System. It was obtained the Pearson´s correlation coefficient between cumulative incidence and the proportion of Afro-Colombian population by communities. Additionally, the cumulative incidences of dengue were evaluated in two zones with different proportion of Afro-Colombian population. The association was also evaluated for aggregation bias, confounding by social variables, and interaction by area of ​​residence. Dengue´s cumulative incidence was significantly lower for Afro-Colombians regardless of the proportion of Afro-Colombian population in the area of residence. The relative risk of dengue between non-Afro-Colombians and Afro-Colombians was 9.4 (95% CI=8.4-10.6) in zones with high proportion of Afro-Colombian population, while the relative risk of dengue was 4.0 (95% CI :3.6 - 4.4) in the zone with lower proportion of Afro-Colombian population. There was no evidence of aggregation bias or confounding in the association by social variables. The Afro-Colombian population had a significantly lower risk of getting dengue and its complications, compared with the non-Afro-Colombian population. The non-Afro-Colombian populations living in areas with a high proportion of Afro-Colombians increase their risk of dengue more than double, suggesting an asymptomatic viremic environment.

  4. Tropical Storm Gilma in Eastern Pacific

    NASA Image and Video Library

    An animation of satellite observations shows the progression of Tropical Storm Gilma from August 7-10, 2012, along the coast of the Eastern Pacific Ocean. This visualization was created by the NASA...

  5. Long-term Hydroclimate and Pacific Salmon Population Linkages Across a Headwater-to-Coast Continuum in Northern British Columbia, Canada: A Perspective From Multiple Tree-Ring Proxy Records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welsh, C.; Smith, D. J.; Edwards, T.; Prowse, T.

    2016-12-01

    Ongoing climate change is expected to have lasting impacts on the runoff behaviour of rivers in northern British Columbia, Canada. Of particular concern is the loss of mountain snowpack and greater rainfall totals altering hydrograph characteristics. Sustained deviations in seasonal streamflow will pose significant challenges for effective watershed management. These ongoing changes highlight the importance of improving our understanding of the long-term biophysical linkages between the storage and release of water and downstream freshwater ecosystems. Such integrated research is particularly relevant to fisheries management as fluctuations in populations of Pacific salmon represent a complex and management-relevant biophysical issue in northern Canada. Unfortunately, hydroclimate and salmon productivity records in this region are sparse and of short duration, constraining our understanding of the impact of climate-induced hydrologic changes and biological responses to the last century. Proxy records derived from tree-rings provide annually or seasonally resolved data and have played a prominent role in attempts to establish how hydroclimate has varied in the past. The objective of my doctoral research is to reconstruct the prehistoric hydroclimate and salmon population trends in the Skeena, Nass and Stikine Watersheds using multiple tree-ring proxies to investigate the long-term biophysical linkages extending across a headwater-to-coast continuum in northern British Columbia, Canada. Ring-width, wood density and stable isotope chronologies using a number of mid-to high-elevation tree species will be constructed across each basin and sub-basin area for the purposes of reconstrucing the predominent temperature and precipiation signature that influence streamflow. Preliminary tree-ring δ18O and δ13C-isotope results indicate a strong negative association with mean monthly relative humidity values, suggesting a physiological control by moisture loss. The results of

  6. Relationships between toxicopathic hepatic lesions and exposure to chemical contaminants in English sole (Pleuronectes vetulus), starry flounder (Platichthys stellatus), and white croaker (Genyonemus lineatus) from selected marine sites on the Pacific Coast, USA.

    PubMed Central

    Myers, M S; Stehr, C M; Olson, O P; Johnson, L L; McCain, B B; Chan, S L; Varanasi, U

    1994-01-01

    Relationships between hepatic lesions and chemical contaminant concentrations in sediments, stomach contents, liver tissue, and bile were statistically evaluated in three species of bottomfish, English sole (Pleuronectes vetulus), starry flounder (Platichthys stellatus), and white croaker (Genyonemus lineatus), captured from 27 urban and nonurban sites on the Pacific Coast from Alaska to southern California. Lesions detected were neoplasms, preneoplastic foci of cellular alteration, nonneoplastic proliferative lesions, unique or specific degenerative/necrotic lesions, nonspecific degenerative/necrotic lesions, and hydropic vacuolation of biliary epithelial cells and hepatocytes. In general, lesion prevalences were significantly higher in all three species captured at chemically contaminated urban sites, and certain lesions had significantly higher relative risks of occurrence at urban sites in Puget Sound, San Francisco Bay, the vicinity of Los Angeles, and San Diego Bay. Concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, DDT and its derivatives, and chlordanes and dieldrin in sediment, stomach contents, liver, and fluorescent aromatic compounds in bile were significant risk factors for the occurrence of neoplastic, preneoplastic, nonneoplastic proliferative, and specific degenerative/necrotic lesions, as well as hydropic vacuolation. Fish age also had a significant influence on occurrence of several hepatic lesions, but gender was rarely a significant risk factor. These relationships provide strong evidence for the involvement of environmental contaminants in the etiology of hepatic lesions in several marine bottomfish species and clearly indicate the utility of these lesions as biomarkers of contaminant-induced effects in wild fish. Images Figure 2. A Figure 2. B Figure 3. Figure 4. A Figure 4. B PMID:8033852

  7. 77 FR 36192 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Coastal Pelagic Species Fisheries; Annual Specifications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-18

    ... Pelagic Species (CPS) Fishery Management Plan (FMP) for Pacific mackerel off the Pacific coast. The ACL...-aside for incidental landings in other CPS fisheries. This final rule is intended to conserve and manage... the estimated biomass for Pacific mackerel to the Pacific Fishery Management Council's (Council)...

  8. 77 FR 47322 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Biennial Specifications and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-08

    ... Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Biennial Specifications and Management Measures; Inseason... (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Final rule; inseason adjustments to biennial groundfish management measures. SUMMARY: This final rule announces inseason changes to management measures in the Pacific Coast</