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Sample records for colombian pacific coast

  1. [The red tide caused by the dinoflagellate Alexandrium tamarense in the Colombian Pacific coast (2001)].

    PubMed

    García-Hansen, Ingrid; Cortés-Altamirano, Roberto; Sierra-Beltrán, Arturo P

    2004-09-01

    From April 26th to May 15th 2001, a large algae bloom was observed off Tumaco Bay on the Pacific coast of Colombia. This was the first harmful algae bloom (HAB) reported in the region, and reached Gorgona Island, about 120 km north. A year later, starting March 2002, an offshore HAB developed from Cabo Corrientes North to Solano Bay. The typical abundance during the blooms reached 7.5 x 10(6) cells l(-1) for the 2001 event and 1.6 x 10(6) cells l(-1) for the 2002 event. During both events, low temperature and high salinity were recorded. Typical measurements in the area are 27-27.5 degrees C and 30-31.5 psu. Values observed during the two events were 24-24.6 degrees C and 33-34 psu; 3 degrees C below normal and more than 2.5 psu above average values. These conditions are indicative of local upwelling processes at the time of the events. On both occasions, cells corresponding to the Alexandrium catenella/fundeyense/tamarense complex represented 99-100% of the biomass. It was difficult to differentiate the cells from A. catenella, but the presence of short chains of only 4 cells (single cells represented most of the biomass) was suggestive of A. tamarense. Shape, dimensions, and detailed structure of the apical pore complex, first apical plate, posterior sulcal plate, and position of the ventral pore on plate 1' of cells were consistent with the description of A. tamarense, which has not been reported in the tropical East Pacific. The Control Center of Pacific Contamination of the Maritime General Direction of the Colombian Navy has been monitoring the area since 1994 without finding this species or HABs. This leads us to consider the two events as caused by recently introduced species, where local upwelling processes favor permanent and cyclic HABs. However, during these two events, there were no reports of effects on marine biota or of human poisoning, probably because the blooms occurred some distance offshore and far from exploited shellfish beds. PMID:17465118

  2. [The red tide caused by the dinoflagellate Alexandrium tamarense in the Colombian Pacific coast (2001)].

    PubMed

    García-Hansen, Ingrid; Cortés-Altamirano, Roberto; Sierra-Beltrán, Arturo P

    2004-09-01

    From April 26th to May 15th 2001, a large algae bloom was observed off Tumaco Bay on the Pacific coast of Colombia. This was the first harmful algae bloom (HAB) reported in the region, and reached Gorgona Island, about 120 km north. A year later, starting March 2002, an offshore HAB developed from Cabo Corrientes North to Solano Bay. The typical abundance during the blooms reached 7.5 x 10(6) cells l(-1) for the 2001 event and 1.6 x 10(6) cells l(-1) for the 2002 event. During both events, low temperature and high salinity were recorded. Typical measurements in the area are 27-27.5 degrees C and 30-31.5 psu. Values observed during the two events were 24-24.6 degrees C and 33-34 psu; 3 degrees C below normal and more than 2.5 psu above average values. These conditions are indicative of local upwelling processes at the time of the events. On both occasions, cells corresponding to the Alexandrium catenella/fundeyense/tamarense complex represented 99-100% of the biomass. It was difficult to differentiate the cells from A. catenella, but the presence of short chains of only 4 cells (single cells represented most of the biomass) was suggestive of A. tamarense. Shape, dimensions, and detailed structure of the apical pore complex, first apical plate, posterior sulcal plate, and position of the ventral pore on plate 1' of cells were consistent with the description of A. tamarense, which has not been reported in the tropical East Pacific. The Control Center of Pacific Contamination of the Maritime General Direction of the Colombian Navy has been monitoring the area since 1994 without finding this species or HABs. This leads us to consider the two events as caused by recently introduced species, where local upwelling processes favor permanent and cyclic HABs. However, during these two events, there were no reports of effects on marine biota or of human poisoning, probably because the blooms occurred some distance offshore and far from exploited shellfish beds.

  3. Unstable, low-level transmission of malaria on the Colombian Pacific Coast.

    PubMed

    González, J M; Olano, V; Vergara, J; Arévalo-Herrera, M; Carrasquilla, G; Herrera, S; López, J A

    1997-06-01

    The development of immune responses to malarial infection in inhabitants of endemic areas differs according to the level of exposure to the parasite. Adults living in a region where the level of malaria transmission is low (Colombia) have been shown to exhibit a similar response to each of the three regions of the circumsporozoite protein (the central repeated NANP region, and the flanking N- and C-termini). Conversely, donors exposed to a frequent sporozoite challenge in areas of high malaria transmission (Mali) exhibit antibodies predominantly to the NANP repeated domain. Malaria in the people of Zacarías, a community on the Pacific Coast of Colombia where malaria transmission is low and unstable, was the subject of the present study. Within a 9-year period, a negative correlation between rainfall and documented malaria cases was recorded for this area. Thick smears of blood samples of 319 individuals revealed that 8.5% had malarial infections. As most (67%) of the smear-positive cases were asymptomatic, it seems that, despite the low prevalence of malaria in this area, the establishment of clinical symptoms is attenuated, probably because of the acquisition of premunition. Within this region, the most commonly found Anopheles species (representing 61.1% of the mosquitoes caught) and that giving the highest monthly biting rate (4.0 bites/man) was An. neivai. Most (90%) of the human sera tested possessed antibodies to blood-stage forms of Plasmodium falciparum, and 18% had antibodies to sporozoites. More than half (58%) of the adults had been in contact with hepatitis B virus, 7.2% carried hepatitis B surface antigen, and syphilis was common but no subject was found to be seropositive for HIV. A better understanding of the dynamics of the different elements influencing malaria in areas of low, unstable transmission, such as the one described here, is essential for the design of new malaria-control strategies.

  4. Antibody response to Plasmodium vivax antigens in Fy-negative individuals from the Colombian Pacific coast.

    PubMed

    Herrera, Sócrates; Gómez, Andrés; Vera, Omaira; Vergara, Juana; Valderrama-Aguirre, Augusto; Maestre, Amanda; Méndez, Fabián; Wang, Ruobing; Chitnis, Chetan E; Yazdani, Syed S; Arévalo-Herrera, Myriam

    2005-11-01

    The Duffy antigen (Fy) is necessary for Plasmodium vivax invasion of human erythrocytes. Some populations have a highly prevalent Fy-negative phenotype; such persons are naturally protected from P. vivax blood infection but are expected to completely support the P. vivax pre-erythrocytic cycle, representing a valuable model for studying the immune response during these parasitic stages. We typed 214 individuals, mostly Afro-Colombians, from a P. vivax-endemic area for Fy expression and determined the antibody response to P. vivax pre-erythrocytic (sporozoites and CS) and blood-stage antigens (blood forms, P. vivax merozoite surface protein 1, and P. vivax Duffy binding protein [PvDBP]). Antibody titers to P. vivax circumsporozoite protein, P11, and N-terminal peptides and the number of responders were similar in Fy-negative and Fy-positive individuals. The number of responders to sporozoites, blood forms, and PvDBP were different between these groups. Thus, Fy-negative individuals from malaria-endemic areas can be used to study the immune response to the P. vivax liver phase without interference of the erythrocytic cycle.

  5. Multiple Distant Origins for Green Sea Turtles Aggregating off Gorgona Island in the Colombian Eastern Pacific

    PubMed Central

    Amorocho, Diego F.; Abreu-Grobois, F. Alberto; Dutton, Peter H.; Reina, Richard D.

    2012-01-01

    Mitochondrial DNA analyses have been useful for resolving maternal lineages and migratory behavior to foraging grounds (FG) in sea turtles. However, little is known about source rookeries and haplotype composition of foraging green turtle aggregations in the southeastern Pacific. We used mitochondrial DNA control region sequences to identify the haplotype composition of 55 green turtles, Chelonia mydas, captured in foraging grounds of Gorgona National Park in the Colombian Pacific. Amplified fragments of the control region (457 bp) revealed the presence of seven haplotypes, with haplotype (h) and nucleotide (π) diversities of h = 0.300±0.080 and π = 0.009±0.005 respectively. The most common haplotype was CMP4 observed in 83% of individuals, followed by CMP22 (5%). The genetic composition of the Gorgona foraging population primarily comprised haplotypes that have been found at eastern Pacific rookeries including Mexico and the Galapagos, as well as haplotypes of unknown stock origin that likely originated from more distant western Pacific rookeries. Mixed stock analysis suggests that the Gorgona FG population is comprised mostly of animals from the Galapagos rookery (80%). Lagrangian drifter data showed that movement of turtles along the eastern Pacific coast and eastward from distant western and central Pacific sites was possible through passive drift. Our results highlight the importance of this protected area for conservation management of green turtles recruited from distant sites along the eastern Pacific Ocean. PMID:22319635

  6. Multiple distant origins for green sea turtles aggregating off Gorgona Island in the Colombian eastern Pacific.

    PubMed

    Amorocho, Diego F; Abreu-Grobois, F Alberto; Dutton, Peter H; Reina, Richard D

    2012-01-01

    Mitochondrial DNA analyses have been useful for resolving maternal lineages and migratory behavior to foraging grounds (FG) in sea turtles. However, little is known about source rookeries and haplotype composition of foraging green turtle aggregations in the southeastern Pacific. We used mitochondrial DNA control region sequences to identify the haplotype composition of 55 green turtles, Chelonia mydas, captured in foraging grounds of Gorgona National Park in the Colombian Pacific. Amplified fragments of the control region (457 bp) revealed the presence of seven haplotypes, with haplotype (h) and nucleotide (π) diversities of h = 0.300±0.080 and π = 0.009±0.005 respectively. The most common haplotype was CMP4 observed in 83% of individuals, followed by CMP22 (5%). The genetic composition of the Gorgona foraging population primarily comprised haplotypes that have been found at eastern Pacific rookeries including Mexico and the Galapagos, as well as haplotypes of unknown stock origin that likely originated from more distant western Pacific rookeries. Mixed stock analysis suggests that the Gorgona FG population is comprised mostly of animals from the Galapagos rookery (80%). Lagrangian drifter data showed that movement of turtles along the eastern Pacific coast and eastward from distant western and central Pacific sites was possible through passive drift. Our results highlight the importance of this protected area for conservation management of green turtles recruited from distant sites along the eastern Pacific Ocean.

  7. Conservation Genetics of the Scalloped Hammerhead Shark in the Pacific Coast of Colombia.

    PubMed

    Quintanilla, Sonia; Gómez, Alberto; Mariño-Ramírez, Camila; Sorzano, Carolina; Bessudo, Sandra; Soler, German; Bernal, Jaime E; Caballero, Susana

    2015-01-01

    Previous investigations of the population genetics of the scalloped hammerhead sharks (Sphyrna lewini) in the Eastern Tropical Pacific have lacked information about nursery areas. Such areas are key to promoting conservation initiatives that can protect young sharks from threats such as overfishing. Here, we investigated the genetic diversity, phylogeography, and connectivity of S. lewini found in 3 areas of Colombia's Pacific coast: around Malpelo Island and in 2 National Natural Parks on the Colombian Pacific mainland (Sanquianga and Ensenada de Utría). We analyzed mtDNA control region (CR) sequences and genotyped 15 microsatellite loci in 137 samples of adults and juveniles. The mtDNA analyses showed haplotypes shared between the Colombian Pacific individuals sampled in this investigation and other areas in the Eastern Tropical Pacific, the Indo-Pacific, and with sequences previously reported in Colombia (Buenaventura Port), as well as 4 unique haplotypes. Population assignment and paternity analyses detected 3 parent-offspring pairs between Malpelo and Sanquianga and 1 between Malpelo and Utría. These results indicate high genetic connectivity between Malpelo Island and the Colombian Pacific coast, suggesting that these 2 areas are nurseries for S. lewini. This is, to our knowledge, the first evidence of nursery areas identified for the scalloped hammerhead shark anywhere in the world. Additional conservation planning may be required to protect these nursery habitats of this endangered shark species. PMID:26245780

  8. Conservation Genetics of the Scalloped Hammerhead Shark in the Pacific Coast of Colombia.

    PubMed

    Quintanilla, Sonia; Gómez, Alberto; Mariño-Ramírez, Camila; Sorzano, Carolina; Bessudo, Sandra; Soler, German; Bernal, Jaime E; Caballero, Susana

    2015-01-01

    Previous investigations of the population genetics of the scalloped hammerhead sharks (Sphyrna lewini) in the Eastern Tropical Pacific have lacked information about nursery areas. Such areas are key to promoting conservation initiatives that can protect young sharks from threats such as overfishing. Here, we investigated the genetic diversity, phylogeography, and connectivity of S. lewini found in 3 areas of Colombia's Pacific coast: around Malpelo Island and in 2 National Natural Parks on the Colombian Pacific mainland (Sanquianga and Ensenada de Utría). We analyzed mtDNA control region (CR) sequences and genotyped 15 microsatellite loci in 137 samples of adults and juveniles. The mtDNA analyses showed haplotypes shared between the Colombian Pacific individuals sampled in this investigation and other areas in the Eastern Tropical Pacific, the Indo-Pacific, and with sequences previously reported in Colombia (Buenaventura Port), as well as 4 unique haplotypes. Population assignment and paternity analyses detected 3 parent-offspring pairs between Malpelo and Sanquianga and 1 between Malpelo and Utría. These results indicate high genetic connectivity between Malpelo Island and the Colombian Pacific coast, suggesting that these 2 areas are nurseries for S. lewini. This is, to our knowledge, the first evidence of nursery areas identified for the scalloped hammerhead shark anywhere in the world. Additional conservation planning may be required to protect these nursery habitats of this endangered shark species.

  9. Malaria Vectors in Ecologically Heterogeneous Localities of the Colombian Pacific Region

    PubMed Central

    Naranjo-Díaz, Nelson; Altamiranda, Mariano; Luckhart, Shirley; Conn, Jan E.; Correa, Margarita M.

    2014-01-01

    The Colombian Pacific region is second nationally in number of malaria cases reported. This zone presents great ecological heterogeneity and Anopheles species diversity. However, little is known about the current spatial and temporal distribution of vector species. This study, conducted in three ecologically different localities of the Pacific region, aimed to evaluate the composition and distribution of Anopheles species and characterize transmission intensity. A total of 4,016 Anopheles mosquitoes were collected representing seven species. The composition and dominant species differed in each locality. Three species were infected with malaria parasites: Anopheles darlingi and An. calderoni were infected with Plasmodium falciparum and An. nuneztovari with Plasmodium vivax VK210 and VK247. Annual EIRs varied from 3.5–7.2 infective bites per year. These results confirm the importance of the primary vector An. nuneztovari in areas disturbed by human interventions, of An. darlingi in deforested margins of humid tropical rainforest and An. albimanus and the suspected vector An. calderoni in areas impacted by urbanization and large-scale palm oil agriculture close to the coast. This constitutes the first report in the Colombia Pacific region of naturally infected An. darlingi, and in Colombia of naturally infected An. calderoni. Further studies should evaluate the epidemiological importance of An. calderoni in the Pacific region. PMID:25090233

  10. Long term persistence of clonal malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum lineages in the Colombian Pacific region

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Resistance to chloroquine and antifolate drugs has evolved independently in South America, suggesting that genotype - phenotype studies aimed at understanding the genetic basis of resistance to these and other drugs should be conducted in this continent. This research was conducted to better understand the population structure of Colombian Plasmodium falciparum in preparation for such studies. Results A set of 384 SNPs were genotyped in blood spot DNA samples from 447 P. falciparum infected subjects collected over a ten year period from four provinces of the Colombian Pacific coast to evaluate clonality, population structure and linkage disequilibrium (LD). Most infections (81%) contained a single predominant clone. These clustered into 136 multilocus genotypes (MLGs), with 32% of MLGs recovered from multiple (2 – 28) independent subjects. We observed extremely low genotypic richness (R = 0.42) and long persistence of MLGs through time (median = 537 days, range = 1 – 2,997 days). There was a high probability (>5%) of sampling parasites from the same MLG in different subjects within 28 days, suggesting caution is needed when using genotyping methods to assess treatment success in clinical drug trials. Panmixia was rejected as four well differentiated subpopulations (FST = 0.084 - 0.279) were identified. These occurred sympatrically but varied in frequency within the four provinces. Linkage disequilibrium (LD) decayed more rapidly (r2 = 0.17 for markers <10 kb apart) than observed previously in South American samples. Conclusions We conclude that Colombian populations have several advantages for association studies, because multiple clone infections are uncommon and LD decays over the scale of one or a few genes. However, the extensive population structure and low genotype richness will need to be accounted for when designing and analyzing association studies. PMID:23294725

  11. [Taxonomic composition and distribution of the echinoderms associations in the littoral ecosystems from the Colombian Pacific].

    PubMed

    Neira, Raúl; Cantera, Jaime R

    2005-12-01

    This paper examines published information and gray literature about taxonomy and ecology of echinoderm species of the Colombian Pacific Coast. Unpublished collection data of specimens kept in the Marine Sciences Museum of the University of Valle are also considered. Sixty-six species are found in coastal ecosystems and shallow bottoms of ten geographical, coastal and insular localities of the Pacific coast of Colombia. Main habitats having echinoderms are: rocky cliffs and shores, coral reefs, sand beaches, mud substrates, mangroves, and shallow bottoms of mud, sand, gravel and rocks. Regular Echinoidea and Asteroidea are the most diverse and abundant groups, mainly in subtidal rocky shallow bottoms and coral reefs. Ophiuroidea are abundant below rocky boulders. Irregular Echinoidea are abundant on sand beaches. The relatively high number of species shows that this geographical area presents a high diversity of echinoderms compared with other tropical shallow and littoral zones of the world. Rocky substrates and coral reefs are the ecosystems with the highest numbers of echinoderm species and individuals. A conservation status assessment is difficult because the lack of periodical sampling and few data about deep zones. In general, the species reported in the last 25 years, have not experimented important changes in their populations, although in some specific places, populations may decrease because human activities in coastal areas increase sedimentation rates change some rocky substrates to mud or sand.

  12. Spectral wave conditions in the Colombian Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Portilla, Jesús; Caicedo, Ana Lucía; Padilla-Hernández, Roberto; Cavaleri, Luigi

    2015-08-01

    A comprehensive characterization of the wave conditions in the Colombian Pacific based on wave spectra is presented. The spectral approach offers a detailed description of the different wave regimes, their associated meteorological conditions and their variation in time and geographical space. To this end, two complementary data sources are used, the first is representative for the near-shore zone and comes from observations of the local monitoring network. The second comes from numerical wave model results that cover the open ocean. The measured data used are the first systematically collected spectral wave data in the Eastern Equatorial Pacific. Modelled spectra correspond to the ERA-Interim database of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts that spans 35 years. An indicator for statistical analysis of the wave spectra has been introduced which basically consists of the occurrence probability of spectral partitions. This indicator has proved to be skilful for the task of defining spectral wave systems of both model and, the more challenging, measured spectra. Following the spectral approach and using this new indicator, six main wave regimes are found in the study area. Two of these systems have well defined swell characteristics that are originated outside the study area in the northern and southern hemispheres. Other three wave systems are to a certain extent associated to the local winds, and in general may be classified as old wind-seas. These are found to flow northeastwards, westwards, and southwards. The sixth system is composed of locally generated wind waves of relatively low magnitude that propagate in several directions. The time variability of these wave systems is highly dependent on the boreal and austral winter storms and on the tropical conditions, in such a way that the wave energy propagation to the region is rather constant along the year, but their origin and characteristics vary significantly.

  13. Common Elements Treatment Approach based on a Cognitive Behavioral Intervention: implementation in the Colombian Pacific.

    PubMed

    Pacichana-Quinayáz, Sara Gabriela; Osorio-Cuéllar, Gisel Viviana; Bonilla-Escobar, Francisco Javier; Fandiño-Losada, Andrés; Gutiérrez-Martínez, María Isabel

    2016-06-01

    Due to the limited supply of mental health services for Afro-Colombian victims of violence, a Common Elements Treatment Approach (CETA) intervention has been implemented in the Colombian Pacific. Given the importance of improvement in mental health interventions for this population, it is necessary to characterize this process. This article seeks to describe the implementation of CETA for Afro-Colombian victims of violence in Buenaventura and Quibdó, Colombia through case studieswith individual in-depth interviews with Lay Psychosocial Community Workers (LPCW), supervisors, and coordinators responsible for implementing CETA. From this six core categories were obtained: 1. Effect of armed conflict and poverty 2. Trauma severity 3. Perceived changes with CETA 4. Characteristics and LPCW's performance 5. Afro-Colombian culturalapproach and 6. Strategies to promote users' well-being.Colombian Pacific's scenario implies several factors, such as the active armed conflict, economic crisis, and lack of mental health care resources, affecting the implementation process and the intervention effects. This implies the need to establish and strengthen partnerships between institutions in order to administer necessary mental health care for victims of violence in the Colombian Pacific. PMID:27276543

  14. 50 CFR 660.518 - Pacific Coast Treaty Indian Rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Pacific Coast Treaty Indian Rights. 660... ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OFF WEST COAST STATES Coastal Pelagics Fisheries § 660.518 Pacific Coast Treaty Indian Rights. (a) Pacific Coast treaty Indian...

  15. 50 CFR 660.518 - Pacific Coast Treaty Indian Rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Pacific Coast Treaty Indian Rights. 660... ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OFF WEST COAST STATES Coastal Pelagics Fisheries § 660.518 Pacific Coast Treaty Indian Rights. (a) Pacific Coast treaty Indian...

  16. 50 CFR 660.518 - Pacific Coast Treaty Indian Rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pacific Coast Treaty Indian Rights. 660... ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OFF WEST COAST STATES Coastal Pelagics Fisheries § 660.518 Pacific Coast Treaty Indian Rights. (a) Pacific Coast treaty Indian...

  17. 50 CFR 660.518 - Pacific Coast Treaty Indian Rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Pacific Coast Treaty Indian Rights. 660... ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OFF WEST COAST STATES Coastal Pelagics Fisheries § 660.518 Pacific Coast Treaty Indian Rights. (a) Pacific Coast treaty Indian...

  18. Diseases of Pacific Coast conifers. Agriculture handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Scharpf, R.F.

    1993-06-01

    The handbook provides basic information needed to identify the common diseases of Pacific Coast conifers. Hosts, distribution, disease cycles, and identifying characteristics are described for more than 150 diseases, including cankers, diebacks, galls, rusts, needle diseases, root diseases, mistletoes, and rots. Diseases in which abiotic factors are involved are also described. For some groups of diseases, a descriptive key to field identification is included.

  19. 78 FR 2254 - Fisheries Off West Coast States and in the Western Pacific; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-10

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC397 Fisheries Off West Coast States and in the Western Pacific; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; Application for an Exempted Fishing Permit AGENCY... INFORMATION: This action is authorized by the Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan (FMP) and...

  20. Changes on the coastline of buenaventura bay (colombian pacific) and its relationship with the climatic conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coca-Domínguez, Oswaldo; Ricaurte-Villota, Constanza; Andres Ordoñez, Silvio

    2016-04-01

    Some authors point out that the variability of a coastal system is the response of physical factors (climate, waves, currents, wind, etc.) or combination of some of them, for example long-term variations in the relationship between climate and supply of sedimentary material. For Colombian Pacific coast it has been said that the regimen of meso-tidal is one of the agents that contribute to changes in the morphology of the littoral zone. Between 2012-2015 was conducted a research in the mouth of Buenaventura Bay (Colombia Pacific coast), using two stations: Soldado point (southern point of the bay) and Bazan point (the northern point of the bay), for those stations the digital elevation model (DEM) was performed using a DGPS with technology GNSS the recent evolution of the coastline and changes in volume of sand from beaches for two scalar approaches were determined: annual and intra-annual. The use of ArcGIS 3D Analyst in the DEMs allowed to calculate the cubic area between the raised surfaces each month. Changes in the coastline were made using Digital Shoreline Analysis System (DSAS) an ARCGIS extension. We used zonal and meridional components of the wind data near the coast from WindSat, rainfall and sea level anomaly data from the database AVISO (Archiving, Validation and Interpretation of Satellite Oceanographic), and sea level pressure (SLP) from NCEP/NCAR (National Center for Environmental Prediction/ National Center for Atmospheric Research), in collaboration with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). Finally, climatic variables were correlated with the rates of coastal erosion and changes in sand volume of the beaches, because wind and precipitation are some of the factors in sediment transport. The study showed erosion rates with negative values in 2014 and 2015 that represent loss of land, the intra-annual variability in September and October were the highest loss of land, this coincides with the values of the highest tides of the

  1. Energy resources of Pacific Coast of Colombia

    SciTech Connect

    Bueno Salazar, R.

    1986-07-01

    Despite failure of modest exploration efforts to yield commercial hydrocarbon production in the Choco-Pacific coastal basin of Colombia, recent geophysical, geochemical, and surface geologic investigations indicate a potential for petroleum accumulations, which could be related to fields located on the western basins of Ecuador that in fact constitute an extension of the Colombian Pacific geologic scheme. The Choco-Pacific coastal basin of Colombia covers an area of approximately 70,000 km/sup 2/, of which 14,000 km/sup 2/ lies offshore. The structural style of this area corresponds to a convergent plate basin created over folded oceanic sediments and adjacent to the subduction zone. Such a framework could be conducive to an attractive array of potential hydrocarbon-bearing traps. Geochemical knowledge of potential source rocks of Cretaceous and early Tertiary age confers an added attraction to the area. Most evaluations reveal kerogen-rich, gas-prone organic matter. Nevertheless, the existence of oil seeps from Cretaceous outcrops could indicate sufficient thermal maturity for oil generation. Adequate reservoirs could be found in sandy or calcareous rocks of late Eocene to Oligocene age, predominantly of marine origin with an estimated thickness exceeding 20,000 ft. Colombia has been one of the leading world producers of gold and platinum, mostly derived from the vast alluvial cover of the onshore area of the basin. In rocks cropping out in the Western Cordillera (eastern margin of the basin), deposits of potentially commercial value of porphyry copper and molybdenum, as well as massive sulfur, manganese, and bauxite, have been found.

  2. Tsunami hazard assessment in the Colombian Caribbean Coast with a deterministic approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otero Diaz, L.; Correa, R.; Ortiz R, J. C.; Restrepo L, J. C.

    2014-12-01

    For the Caribbean Sea, we propose six potential tectonic sources of tsunami, defining for each source the worst credible earthquake from the analysis of historical seismicity, tectonics, pasts tsunami, and review of IRIS, PDE, NOAA, and CMT catalogs. The generation and propagation of tsunami waves in the selected sources were simulated with COMCOT 1.7, which is a numerical model that solves the linear and nonlinear long wave equations in finite differences in both Cartesian, and spherical coordinates. The results of the modeling are presented in maps of maximum displacement of the free surface for the Colombian Caribbean coast and the island areas, and they show that the event would produce greater impact is generated in the source of North Panama Deformed Belt (NPDB), where the first wave train reaches the central Colombian coast in 40 minutes, generating wave heights up to 3.7 m. In San Andrés and Providencia island, tsunami waves reach more than 4.5 m due effects of edge waves caused by interactions between waves and a barrier coral reef around of each island. The results obtained in this work are useful for planning systems and future regional and local warning systems and to identify priority areas to conduct detailed research to the tsunami threat.

  3. Ctenophores from the Oaxaca coast, including a checklist of species from the Pacific coast of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Escobar, Fernando; Valadez-Vargas, Diana K; Oliveira, Otto M P

    2015-03-20

    Ctenophores are poorly known in the tropical eastern Pacific, including the southern coast of Mexico. Previous records of ctenophores along the Pacific coast have been provided mainly from northern waters. For the coast of Oaxaca state, their occurrence has only been mentioned before at phylum level. In this paper, we provide the first three records of ctenophores for the Oaxacan coast, which represent new records of Beroe forskalii and Bolinopsis vitrea as well as the first record of Ocyropsis maculata in the tropical eastern Pacific. Descriptions of these three species, as well as a checklist of the ctenophores from the west coast of Mexico are provided.

  4. 75 FR 12729 - Fisheries Off West Coast States and in the Western Pacific; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XU95 Fisheries Off West Coast States and in the Western Pacific; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; Application for an Exempted Fishing Permit...

  5. Agents of coral mortality on reef formations of the Colombian Pacific.

    PubMed

    Navas-Camacho, Raúl; Rodríguez-Ramírez, Alberto; Reyes-Nivia, María Catalina

    2010-05-01

    The National Monitoring System for Coral Reefs of Colombia (SIMAC) monitors the impact of some of the most important agents of coral tissue loss (bleaching and/or disease) in the Colombian Pacific coral formations since 1998. Physiological bleaching is among the main results of stress in the area. Signs of coral diseases resembling bacterial bleaching such as White Plague and White Band, were observed in Malpelo and Gorgona islands. Damage to the Pacific gorgonian Pacifigorgia spp., similar to those produced by Aspergillosis in Caribbean corals, was detected in Utria Bay. The presence of tumors in colonies of massive corals was also recorded. Even though coral diseases are globally widespread, their occurrence in American Pacific reefs has been poorly documented to date.

  6. 75 FR 13081 - Fisheries off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; Trawl Rationalization Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-18

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XRO1 Fisheries off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; Trawl Rationalization Program AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... trawl rationalization program that would affect the limited entry trawl fishery of the Pacific...

  7. 76 FR 77415 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; 2012 Specifications and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-13

    ... States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; 2012 Specifications and Management Measures and Secretarial... specifications and management measures for certain groundfish species taken in the U.S. exclusive economic zone... Conservation and Management Act and the Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan (PCGFMP). This...

  8. The first report of a microdiverse anammox bacteria community in waters of Colombian Pacific, a transition area between prominent oxygen minimum zones of the eastern tropical Pacific.

    PubMed

    Castro-González, M; Molina, V; Rodríguez-Rubio, E; Ulloa, O

    2014-12-01

    Anaerobic ammonium oxidizers contribute to the removal of fixed nitrogen in oxygen-deficient marine ecosystems such as oxygen minimum zones (OMZ). Here we surveyed for the first time the occurrence and diversity of anammox bacteria in the Colombian Pacific, a transition area between the prominent South and North Pacific OMZs. Anammox bacteria were detected in the coastal and oceanic areas of the Colombian Pacific in low oxygen (< 22 μM), high nitrate (25–35 μM) and low nitrite (< 0.07 μM), and ammonium (< 1 μM) waters. In these waters, anammox bacteria were rich [∼ 7 operational taxonomic units (OTUs), 98% cut-off) and microdiverse (Shannon index H′ < 1.24), in comparison with the observed at the prominent OMZ of the Eastern Tropical South Pacific, Arabian Sea and Black Sea. Anammox bacteria-like sequences from the Colombian Pacific were grouped together with sequences retrieved from the distinct OMZ's marine subclusters (Peru, Northern Chile and Arabian Sea) within Candidatus ‘Scalindua spp’. Moreover, some anammox bacteria OTUs shared a low similarity with environmental phylotypes (86–94%). Our results indicated that a microdiverse anammox community inhabits the Colombian Pacific, generating new questions about the ecological and biogeochemical differences influencing its community structure. PMID:25756112

  9. The first report of a microdiverse anammox bacteria community in waters of Colombian Pacific, a transition area between prominent oxygen minimum zones of the eastern tropical Pacific.

    PubMed

    Castro-González, M; Molina, V; Rodríguez-Rubio, E; Ulloa, O

    2014-12-01

    Anaerobic ammonium oxidizers contribute to the removal of fixed nitrogen in oxygen-deficient marine ecosystems such as oxygen minimum zones (OMZ). Here we surveyed for the first time the occurrence and diversity of anammox bacteria in the Colombian Pacific, a transition area between the prominent South and North Pacific OMZs. Anammox bacteria were detected in the coastal and oceanic areas of the Colombian Pacific in low oxygen (< 22 μM), high nitrate (25–35 μM) and low nitrite (< 0.07 μM), and ammonium (< 1 μM) waters. In these waters, anammox bacteria were rich [∼ 7 operational taxonomic units (OTUs), 98% cut-off) and microdiverse (Shannon index H′ < 1.24), in comparison with the observed at the prominent OMZ of the Eastern Tropical South Pacific, Arabian Sea and Black Sea. Anammox bacteria-like sequences from the Colombian Pacific were grouped together with sequences retrieved from the distinct OMZ's marine subclusters (Peru, Northern Chile and Arabian Sea) within Candidatus ‘Scalindua spp’. Moreover, some anammox bacteria OTUs shared a low similarity with environmental phylotypes (86–94%). Our results indicated that a microdiverse anammox community inhabits the Colombian Pacific, generating new questions about the ecological and biogeochemical differences influencing its community structure.

  10. 75 FR 33196 - Fisheries off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; Suspension of the Primary...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-11

    ... States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; Suspension of the Primary Pacific Whiting Season for the Shore... announces the suspension of the Pacific whiting (whiting) fishery primary season for the shore-based sector... reinstated until 0001 hours June 15, 2010, at which time the primary season for the shore-based sector...

  11. Pacific Coast Torpedo Station, Keyport Industrial District, Both sides of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Pacific Coast Torpedo Station, Keyport Industrial District, Both sides of Second Street, between Dedrick Drive and Liberty Bay and one building west of Dedrick Drive and south of Second Street, Keyport, Kitsap County, WA

  12. REAR AND SIDE OF PACIFIC COAST GARRISON MONUMENT, SECTION ES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    REAR AND SIDE OF PACIFIC COAST GARRISON MONUMENT, SECTION ES (EAST SIDE), WITH ADMINISTRATION BUILDING AT RIGHT IN BACKGROUND. VIEW TO NORTH. - San Francisco National Cemetery, 1 Lincoln Boulevard, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  13. 50 CFR 660.518 - Pacific Coast Treaty Indian Rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Pacific Coast Treaty Indian Rights. 660.518 Section 660.518 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OFF WEST COAST STATES...

  14. 75 FR 11515 - Fisheries Off West Coast States and in the Western Pacific; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-11

    ... Western Pacific; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; Application for an Exempted Fishing Permit AGENCY... to retain prohibited species until offloading. EFPs are also needed to allow first receivers to... species catch until offloading. These activities are otherwise prohibited by regulations at 50 CFR...

  15. 75 FR 4684 - Fisheries off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; Data Collection for the Trawl...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-29

    ...' Northwest Fisheries Science Center's Pacific whiting observer data from NORPAC (a database of North Pacific... Commission's PacFIN database and NMFS' Northwest Fisheries Science Center's Pacific whiting observer data... West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; Data Collection for the Trawl...

  16. Adaptive capacity of fishing communities at marine protected areas: a case study from the Colombian Pacific.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Sánchez, Rocío del Pilar; Maldonado, Jorge Higinio

    2013-12-01

    Departing from a theoretical methodology, we estimate empirically an index of adaptive capacity (IAC) of a fishing community to the establishment of marine protected areas (MPAs). We carried out household surveys, designed to obtain information for indicators and sub-indicators, and calculated the IAC. Moreover, we performed a sensitivity analysis to check for robustness of the results. Our findings show that, despite being located between two MPAs, the fishing community of Bazán in the Colombian Pacific is highly vulnerable and that the socioeconomic dimension of the IAC constitutes the most binding dimension for building adaptive capacity. Bazán is characterized by extreme poverty, high dependence on resources, and lack of basic public infrastructure. Notwithstanding, social capital and local awareness about ecological conditions may act as enhancers of adaptive capacity. The establishment of MPAs should consider the development of strategies to confer adaptive capacity to local communities highly dependent on resource extraction. PMID:24213997

  17. 75 FR 38030 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-01

    ....gpoaccess.gov/fr/index.html . Background information and documents are available at the Pacific Fishery... for the Pacific Coast groundfish fishery (73 FR 80516). A final rule was published on March 6, 2009 (74 FR 9874), which codified the specifications and management measures in the CFR (50 CFR part...

  18. 75 FR 51684 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-23

    ....gpoaccess.gov/fr/index.html . Background information and documents are available at the Pacific Fishery... for the Pacific Coast groundfish fishery (73 FR 80516). The final rule to implement the 2009-2010... (74 FR 9874). This final rule was subsequently amended by inseason actions on April 27, 2009 (74...

  19. 77 FR 29955 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan; Trawl...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-21

    ... critical habitat: Sei whales (Balaenoptera borealis); North Pacific Right whales (Eubalaena japonica); Blue... rationalization program for the Pacific coast groundfish fishery's trawl fleet (see 75 FR 78344; Dec. 15, 2010... ANPR on April 4, 2012 (77 FR 20337) that, among other things, announced the court's order, the...

  20. 75 FR 41383 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-16

    ....gpoaccess.gov/fr/index.html . Background information and documents are available at the Pacific Fishery... for the Pacific Coast groundfish fishery (73 FR 80516). The final rule to implement the 2009-2010... (74 FR 9874). This final rule was subsequently amended by inseason actions on April 27, 2009 (74...

  1. 75 FR 39178 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-08

    ....gpoaccess.gov/fr/index.html . Background information and documents are available at the Pacific Fishery... for the Pacific Coast groundfish fishery (73 FR 80516), including, among other species, darkblotched rockfish, cowcod, and yelloweye rockfish. A final rule was published on March 6, 2009 (74 FR 9874),...

  2. 76 FR 68658 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Harvest Specifications and Management...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-07

    ... measures for most species (75 FR 27508, May 11, 2011), in part pursuant to NMFS' emergency authority under... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 660 RIN 0648-BA01 Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Harvest Specifications and Management Measures for the Remainder of...

  3. 75 FR 75449 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-03

    ...: The proposed rule that published on November 3, 2010 (75 FR 67810), establishes the 2011-2012 harvest... National Standard 1 Guidelines (74 FR 3178, January 16, 2009). The proposed rule published in the Federal... Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; Comment Period...

  4. [Distribution patterns and bioerosion of the sea urchin Centrostephanus coronatus (Diadematoida: Diadematidae), at the reef of Playa Blanca, Colombian Pacific].

    PubMed

    Toro-Farmer, Gerardo; Cantera, Jaime R; Londoño-Cruz, Edgardo; Orozco, Carlos; Neira, Raul

    2004-03-01

    Regular sea-urchins are one of the main bioeroding organisms affecting coral reefs around the world. The abundance, distribution and bioerosion rate of the sea-urchin Centrostephanus coronatus, were determined in different reef zones of Playa Blanca fringing reef (Gorgona Island, Colombian pacific coast) during 1997 and 1998. The erosion rates were determined calcinating the gut content of the sea-urchins to eliminate all organic components and preserve the inorganic portion of calcium carbonate. C. coronatus showed the highest densities towards the central zones of the reef (plain-crest and front) (12.4 ind/m2; range 0-48 ind/m2). The highest mean bioerosion rate was 0.103 kgCaCO3/m2/yr in the reef plain-crest (0-0.69 kgCaCO3/m2/yr). In the other zones, (back reef and reef front) the mean bioerosion rates were 0.071 (range 0-0.39) and 0.052 (range 0-0.31) kgCaCO3/m2/yr respectively. According to the present data, it can be seen that the destruction of coralline skeletons, produced in this reef by sea-urchins is rather low, compared with the abrasion caused by these organisms in other places of the world. However, the combined action of C. coronatus and other bioeroding organisms (borers and grazers). along with some adverse environmental factors to corals, can be causing a negative balance between normal processes of reef accretion-destruction in Gorgona Island reefs.

  5. [Distribution patterns and bioerosion of the sea urchin Centrostephanus coronatus (Diadematoida: Diadematidae), at the reef of Playa Blanca, Colombian Pacific].

    PubMed

    Toro-Farmer, Gerardo; Cantera, Jaime R; Londoño-Cruz, Edgardo; Orozco, Carlos; Neira, Raul

    2004-03-01

    Regular sea-urchins are one of the main bioeroding organisms affecting coral reefs around the world. The abundance, distribution and bioerosion rate of the sea-urchin Centrostephanus coronatus, were determined in different reef zones of Playa Blanca fringing reef (Gorgona Island, Colombian pacific coast) during 1997 and 1998. The erosion rates were determined calcinating the gut content of the sea-urchins to eliminate all organic components and preserve the inorganic portion of calcium carbonate. C. coronatus showed the highest densities towards the central zones of the reef (plain-crest and front) (12.4 ind/m2; range 0-48 ind/m2). The highest mean bioerosion rate was 0.103 kgCaCO3/m2/yr in the reef plain-crest (0-0.69 kgCaCO3/m2/yr). In the other zones, (back reef and reef front) the mean bioerosion rates were 0.071 (range 0-0.39) and 0.052 (range 0-0.31) kgCaCO3/m2/yr respectively. According to the present data, it can be seen that the destruction of coralline skeletons, produced in this reef by sea-urchins is rather low, compared with the abrasion caused by these organisms in other places of the world. However, the combined action of C. coronatus and other bioeroding organisms (borers and grazers). along with some adverse environmental factors to corals, can be causing a negative balance between normal processes of reef accretion-destruction in Gorgona Island reefs. PMID:17357401

  6. 50 CFR 660.50 - Pacific Coast treaty Indian fisheries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... issued pursuant to 25 CFR part 249, subpart A, is prima facie evidence that the holder is a member of the...) of this section. (1) Black rockfish. (i) Harvest guidelines for commercial harvests of black rockfish... measures. Pacific Coast treaty Indians fishing for black rockfish in these areas under these...

  7. 50 CFR 660.50 - Pacific Coast treaty Indian fisheries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... issued pursuant to 25 CFR part 249, subpart A, is prima facie evidence that the holder is a member of the...) of this section. (1) Black rockfish. (i) Harvest guidelines for commercial harvests of black rockfish... measures. Pacific Coast treaty Indians fishing for black rockfish in these areas under these...

  8. Language Change, Contact, and Koineization in Pacific Coast Athabaskan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spence, Justin David

    2013-01-01

    The Pacific Coast Athabaskan (PCA) languages are part of the Athabaskan language family, one of the most geographically widespread in North America. Over a millennium ago Athabaskan-speaking groups migrated into northwestern California and southwestern Oregon from a northern point of origin several hundred miles away, but even after several…

  9. 50 CFR 660.324 - Pacific Coast treaty Indian fisheries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... tribal consensus. (e) Identification. A valid treaty Indian identification card issued pursuant to 25 CFR... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pacific Coast treaty Indian fisheries. 660.324 Section 660.324 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC...

  10. 50 CFR 660.706 - Pacific Coast Treaty Indian rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...) (u&a grounds for groundfish); 50 CFR 300.64(i) (u&a grounds for halibut)). The u&a grounds recognized... valid treaty Indian identification card issued pursuant to 25 CFR part 249, subpart A, is prima facie... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Pacific Coast Treaty Indian rights....

  11. 50 CFR 660.706 - Pacific Coast Treaty Indian rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...) (u&a grounds for groundfish); 50 CFR 300.64(i) (u&a grounds for halibut)). The u&a grounds recognized... valid treaty Indian identification card issued pursuant to 25 CFR part 249, subpart A, is prima facie... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Pacific Coast Treaty Indian rights....

  12. 50 CFR 660.706 - Pacific Coast Treaty Indian rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...) (u&a grounds for groundfish); 50 CFR 300.64(i) (u&a grounds for halibut)). The u&a grounds recognized... valid treaty Indian identification card issued pursuant to 25 CFR part 249, subpart A, is prima facie... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Pacific Coast Treaty Indian rights....

  13. 50 CFR 660.706 - Pacific Coast Treaty Indian rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...) (u&a grounds for groundfish); 50 CFR 300.64(i) (u&a grounds for halibut)). The u&a grounds recognized... valid treaty Indian identification card issued pursuant to 25 CFR part 249, subpart A, is prima facie... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pacific Coast Treaty Indian rights....

  14. Marine diatom biostratigraphy in Pacific Coast neogene basins

    SciTech Connect

    Barron, J.A.

    1988-03-01

    Marine diatoms offer a powerful tool for correlation in the Monterey Formation and related fine-grained siliceous rocks deposited in Pacific Coast basins during the late early Miocene (18 Ma) to the earliest Pliocene (4 Ma). In offshore regions, their biostratigraphic usefulness extends to the late Pliocene and Quaternary. In contrast to other microfossil groups, diatoms are abundant and diverse in cold waters, such as those that have typified the US pacific coast since 14 m.y. (latest Luisian benthic foraminiferal stage). Miocene diatom zones can be readily correlated throughout the North Pacific. Correlations with standard tropical microfossil zonations are well established, and an age resolution approaching 200,000-300,000 years is possible. Diatom frustules, however, are readily destroyed by diagenesis, so they are absent in the porcelanite and chert that typify most lower units of the Monterey Formation. In such circumstances, diatoms are commonly preserved in primary dolomites (beds and concretions), and diatom biostratigraphy can be applied.

  15. Latitudinal gradients in tertiary molluscan faunas of the Pacific coast

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Addicott, W.O.

    1970-01-01

    Tertiary molluscan faunas of the middle latitudes of the marginal eastern North Pacific are characterized by warm-water taxa whose descendants now live in more southerly latitudes. A series of profiles in which cumulative percentages of warm-water faunal elements are plotted against latitude show progressive northward decreases in the percentage of these elements in the faunas of Pacific coast Tertiary stages. Systematic changes in the relative position of these latitudinal gradients during the Middle and Late Tertiary are related to climatic change in the Pacific Basin. Widespread tropical marine climate in the middle latitudes of the eastern North Pacific during the Eocene is indicated by widespread faunal units characterized by high levels of taxonomic diversity. Succeeding Early Oligocene faunas are less diverse, suggesting cooler climatic conditions. Unusually low representations of warm-water genera characterize the molluscan faunas of the Acila shumardi Zone in central California (latitude 34??-37??N). The anomalously cool-water aspect of these faunas may record the occurrence of upwelling along a bold linear segment of the Pacific coast. During the Late Oligocene or the Early Miocene, they are replaced by faunas of unusually warm-water aspect resulting in positive anomalies in Miocene latitudinal faunal gradients in central California. The Miocene anomalies seem to result from the development of an irregular Neogene coastline with extensive, newly established shallow-water embayments. ?? 1970.

  16. 76 FR 67092 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-31

    ... site at http://www.gpoaccess.gov/fr/index.html . Background information and documents are available at... measures for the Pacific Coast groundfish fishery (75 FR 67810). The final rule to implement the 2011-2012... May 11, 2011 (76 FR 27508). This final rule was subsequently amended by inseason actions on June...

  17. 76 FR 38313 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-30

    ... the Office of the Federal Register's Web site at http://www.gpoaccess.gov/fr/index.html . Background... specifications and management measures for the Pacific Coast groundfish fishery (75 FR 67810). The final rule to... Fishery was published on May 11, 2011 (76 FR 27508). These specifications and management measures...

  18. 75 FR 8820 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-26

    ... Federal Register's Web site at http://www.gpoaccess.gov/fr/index.html . Background information and... December 31, 2008, (73 FR 80516). The final rule to implement the 2009-2010 specifications and management measures for the Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery was published on March 6, 2009 (74 FR 9874). This...

  19. 75 FR 75417 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-03

    ... groundfish fishery (73 FR 80516). The final rule to implement the 2009-2010 specifications and management measures for the Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery was published on March 6, 2009 (74 FR 9874). This final... Internet at the Office of the Federal Register's Web site at...

  20. 76 FR 11381 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-02

    ... http://www.gpoaccess.gov/fr/index.html . Background information and documents are available at the... management measures for the Pacific Coast groundfish fishery (73 FR 80516). The final rule to implement the... on March 6, 2009 (74 FR 9874). The final rule was subsequently amended by inseason actions on...

  1. 76 FR 28897 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-19

    ... via the Internet at the Office of the Federal Register's Web site at http://www.gpoaccess.gov/fr/index... for the Pacific Coast groundfish fishery (75 FR 67810). A final rule was published on May 11, 2011 (76 FR 27508) that responded to public comments and codified the specifications and management...

  2. 76 FR 79122 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-21

    ... management measures for most species of the Pacific Coast groundfish fishery (75 FR 67810). The final rule to... Groundfish Fishery was published on May 11, 2011 (76 FR 27508). This final rule was subsequently amended by inseason actions on June 30, 2011 (76 FR 38313) and October 31, 2011 (76 FR 67092). Additional changes...

  3. 75 FR 61102 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-04

    ... specifications and management measures for the Pacific Coast groundfish fishery (73 FR 80516). The final rule to... Register's Web site at http://www.gpoaccess.gov/fr/index.html . Background information and documents are... published on March 6, 2009 (74 FR 9874). This final rule was subsequently amended by inseason actions...

  4. 75 FR 23620 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-04

    ... Coast groundfish fishery (73 FR 80516). A final rule was published on March 6, 2009 (74 FR 9874), which... via the Internet at the Office of the Federal Register's Web site at http://www.gpoaccess.gov/fr/index... allocation and management of the 2010 tribal Pacific whiting fishery (75 FR 11829). The comment period...

  5. 78 FR 43125 - Fisheries off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan; Commercial...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-19

    ... the Pacific coast groundfish fishery's trawl fleet (see 75 FR 78344; Dec. 15, 2010). The program was... participants in the Shorebased IFQ sector was approved under the original provisions of the program (see 75 FR... species with the exception of widow rockfish (see 77 FR 45508 and 78 FR 18879). By implementing...

  6. 76 FR 42588 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan; Amendments 20...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-19

    ... INFORMATION: On December 30, 2010, NMFS published a rule (75 FR 82296) that, among other actions, revised the... measures (May 11, 2011, 76 FR 27508), and are not related to the measures at issue in this notice. The... States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan; Amendments 20 and 21; Trawl...

  7. 76 FR 50449 - Fisheries off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan; Trawl...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-15

    ... Improvement and Enhancement; Amendment 21-1 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic... (Council) has submitted Amendment 21-1 to the Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan (FMP) for review by the Secretary of Commerce (Secretary). Amendment 21-1 would further revise the FMP to...

  8. Storms or cold fronts? What is really responsible for the extreme waves regime in the Colombian Caribbean coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otero, L. J.; Ortiz-Royero, J. C.; Ruiz-Merchan, J. K.; Higgins, A. E.; Henriquez, S. A.

    2015-05-01

    On Friday, 7 March 2009, a 200 m-long section of the tourist pier in Puerto Colombia collapsed under the impact of the waves generated by a cold front in the area. The aim of this study is to determine the contribution and importance of cold fronts and storms on extreme waves in different areas of the Colombian Caribbean to determine the degree of the threat posed by the flood processes to which these coastal populations are exposed and the actions to which coastal engineering constructions should be subject. In the calculation of maritime constructions, the most important parameter is the wave's height; therefore, it is necessary to definitively know the design wave height to which a coastal engineering structure should be resistant. This wave height varies according to the return period considered. Using Gumbel's extreme value methodology, the significant height values for the study area were calculated. The methodology was evaluated using data from the re-analysis of the spectral NOAA Wavewatch III (WW3) model for 15 points along the 1600 km of the Colombia Caribbean coast (continental and insular) of the last 15 years. The results demonstrated that the extreme waves caused by tropical cyclones and cold fronts have different effects along the Colombian Caribbean coast. Storms and hurricanes are of greater importance in the Guajira Peninsula (Alta Guajira). In the central area formed by Baja Guajira, Santa Marta, Barranquilla, and Cartagena, the strong influence of cold fronts on extreme waves is evident. On the other hand, in the southern region of the Colombian Caribbean coast, from the Gulf of Morrosquillo to the Gulf of Urabá, even though extreme waves are lower than in the previous regions, extreme waves are dominated mainly by the passage of cold fronts. Extreme waves in the San Andrés and Providencia insular region present a different dynamic from that in the continental area due to its geographic location. The wave heights in the extreme regime are

  9. [Potentially toxic and harmful phytoflagellates from the Mexican Pacific coasts].

    PubMed

    Bravo-Sierra, Ernesto

    2004-09-01

    The phytoflagellates are a heterogeneous group of autotrophic, heterotrophic and mixothrophic flagellates of trophic importance in several ecosystems. As in the rest of Latin America, the phytoflagellates that occur in the Mexican Pacific coasts are virtually unknown except for a few records. Their study require complicated collection and analysis methods, a probable cause for the scarce knowledge of this group in tropical and subtropical areas. Material recently collected from various localities along the Mexican Pacific coasts was used to study phytoflagellates, including toxic and potentially toxic species. Plankton samples were treated by gravity and pump filtration, using different methods for fixation and analysis. The phyla Euglenophyta, Heterokontophyta and Haptophyta were found. They occur as plankton in oceanic and shallow coastal waters.

  10. Transcontinental hydrometeorological extremes and streamflow generation in the Pacific Coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munoz-Arriola, F.; Lavado, W.; Oglesby, R. J.; Rowe, C. M.; Vazquez-Aguirre, J. L.

    2013-12-01

    Streamflow is a key integrative variable of the hydrologic cycle at the basin scale. In regions along the Pacific coast of the Americas, the role of streamflow varies according to varying physical, biological, and socioeconomical contexts. Improving our understanding of the relationships between those components is a key element to improving the predictability of water availability to sustain food and energy security. However, it is still unclear how large-scale phenomena such as El Niño - Southern Oscillation affect streamflow generation along the Pacific Coast. The present work aims (a) to understand the temporal variability and spatial distribution of hydrometeorological extremes in different basins along the Pacific Coast and (b) how hydrometeorological extreme events contribute to the water year. We hypothesize that hydrometeorologic extreme contributions are to some extent regulated by ENSO, increasing their effect on streamflow generation during extreme-wet and -dry years. Hydrometeorological extreme events are estimated through the use of percentiles of precipitation and streamflow based on a GEV distribution. We assess the Sacramento River Basin (USA), Yaqui and Grijalva River Basins (Mexico) and Chillon River Basin (Perú). Preliminary results show important effects of ENSO negative phase (La Niña) on large streamflow generation in the Grijalva River Basin (Mexico), while in the Sacramento River Basin (USA), the effect is more conspicuous during El Niño, affecting the sustainability of hydropower generation and agricultural activities.

  11. Distribution of Ochlerotatus togoi along the Pacific coast of Washington.

    PubMed

    Sames, William J; Herman, William E; Florin, David A; Maloney, Francis A

    2004-06-01

    Before this study, the mosquito Ochlerotatus (Finlaya) togoi (Theobald) had been reported from only 2 locations within the continental United States, both of which were documented in Washington State. This study used active and passive surveillance to determine the current distribution of Oc. togoi along the Pacific Coast of Washington. Results of the study show that small, but stable, populations of Oc. togoi exist in the northern San Juan Island region of Puget Sound. Geological formations in this region are conducive to rock holes and support populations of Oc. togoi. No members of Oc. togoi were found on the southwestern Washington coast, the coast of the Olympic Peninsula, or in the lower Puget Sound. PMID:15264615

  12. A survey of pig production systems in the rain forest of the Pacific coast Colombia.

    PubMed

    Ocampo, L M; Leterme, P; Buldgen, A

    2005-05-01

    A questionnaire-based survey was conducted in small-scale pig farms in the rain forest of the Colombian Pacific coast in order to study aspects of reproduction, nutrition and productivity. A total of 124 farmers was interviewed. They owned, on average, 13.6 pigs, including 2.3 sows, mainly of the Zungo breed. Pigs are reared in extensive systems and are allowed to wander freely in search of food. The sows produce, on average, 9.6 piglets/litter but, owing to poor sanitary conditions, 1.5 are born dead and only 6.3 are weaned alive. Two-thirds of the sows have five litters or more and the boars are also kept for a long time. This leads to high consanguinity rates within the herd and low productivity. Diets are based on maize, banana, tubers (taro, cassava) and fruits (peach palm, among others), and are rich in energy but poor in protein and minerals. The lack of protein and mineral sources appears to be the main limiting factor of these extensive production systems. Tree forages could partially solve the problem but are used by only 2% of the farmers. It is concluded that decreasing inbreeding, better piglet management and provision of balanced diets are areas that require immediate improvement. PMID:15934639

  13. A survey of pig production systems in the rain forest of the Pacific coast Colombia.

    PubMed

    Ocampo, L M; Leterme, P; Buldgen, A

    2005-05-01

    A questionnaire-based survey was conducted in small-scale pig farms in the rain forest of the Colombian Pacific coast in order to study aspects of reproduction, nutrition and productivity. A total of 124 farmers was interviewed. They owned, on average, 13.6 pigs, including 2.3 sows, mainly of the Zungo breed. Pigs are reared in extensive systems and are allowed to wander freely in search of food. The sows produce, on average, 9.6 piglets/litter but, owing to poor sanitary conditions, 1.5 are born dead and only 6.3 are weaned alive. Two-thirds of the sows have five litters or more and the boars are also kept for a long time. This leads to high consanguinity rates within the herd and low productivity. Diets are based on maize, banana, tubers (taro, cassava) and fruits (peach palm, among others), and are rich in energy but poor in protein and minerals. The lack of protein and mineral sources appears to be the main limiting factor of these extensive production systems. Tree forages could partially solve the problem but are used by only 2% of the farmers. It is concluded that decreasing inbreeding, better piglet management and provision of balanced diets are areas that require immediate improvement.

  14. Main factors determining bioerosion patterns on rocky cliffs in a drowned valley estuary in the Colombian Pacific (Eastern Tropical Pacific)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cobo-Viveros, Alba Marina; Cantera-Kintz, Jaime Ricardo

    2015-10-01

    Bioerosion is an important process that destroys coastal rocks in the tropics. However, the rates at which this process occurs, the organisms involved, and the dynamics of rocky cliffs in tropical latitudes have been less studied than in temperate and subtropical latitudes. To contribute to the knowledge of the bioerosion process in rocky cliffs on the Pacific coast of Colombia (Eastern Tropical Pacific) we compared: 1) boring volume, 2) grain size distribution of the rocks, and 3) rock porosity, across three tidal zones of two cliffs with different wave exposure; these factors were related to the bioeroding community found. We observed that cliffs that were not exposed to wave action (IC, internal cliffs) exhibited high percentages of clays in their grain size composition, and a greater porosity (47.62%) and perforation (15.86%) than exposed cliffs (EC, external cliffs). However, IC also exhibited less diversity and abundance of bioeroding species (22 species and 314 individuals, respectively) compared to the values found in EC (41.11%, 14.34%, 32 and 491, respectively). The most abundant bioeroders were Petrolisthes zacae in IC and Pachygrapsus transversus in EC. Our findings show that the tidal zone is the common factor controlling bioerosion on both cliffs; in addition to the abundance of bioeroders on IC and the number of bioeroding species on EC. The integration of geology, sedimentology, and biology allows us to obtain a more comprehensive view of the patterns and trends in the process of bioerosion.

  15. Draft Genome Sequence of Bacillus licheniformis CG-B52, a Highly Virulent Bacterium of Pacific White Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei), Isolated from a Colombian Caribbean Aquaculture Outbreak

    PubMed Central

    Gálvez, Eric J. C.; Carrillo-Castro, Katerine; Zárate, Lina; Güiza, Linda; Pieper, Dietmar H.; García-Bonilla, Erika; Salazar, Marcela

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus licheniformis strain CG-B52 was isolated as the etiological agent producing a self-limited outbreak of high mortalities in commercial Litopenaeus vannamei culture ponds on the Colombian Caribbean coast in 2005. Here, we report its draft genome and three novel extrachromosomal elements that it harbors. PMID:27174263

  16. Antifouling activities against colonizer marine bacteria of extracts from marine invertebrates collected in the Colombian Caribbean Sea and on the Brazilian coast (Santa Catarina).

    PubMed

    Mora-Cristancho, Jennyfer A; Arévalo-Ferro, Catalina; Ramos, Freddy A; Tello, Edisson; Duque, Carmenza; Lhullier, Cintia; Falkenberg, Miriam; Schenkel, Eloir Paulo

    2011-01-01

    The growth inhibition of 12 native marine bacteria isolated from Aplysina sponge surfaces, the shell of a bivalve, and Phytagel immersed for 48 h in sea water were used as indicator of the antifouling activity of the extracts of 39 marine organisms (octocorals, sponges, algae, and zoanthid) collected in the Colombian Caribbean Sea and on the Brazilian coast (Santa Catarina). Gram-negative bacteria represented 75% of the isolates; identified strains belonged to Oceanobacillus iheyensis, Ochrobactrum pseudogrignonense, Vibrio campbellii, Vibrio harveyi, and Bacillus megaterium species and seven strains were classified at genus level by the 16S rRNA sequencing method. The extracts of the octocorals Pseudopterogorgia elisabethae, four Eunicea octocorals, and the sponges Topsentia ophiraphidites, Agelas citrina, Neopetrosia carbonaria, Monanchora arbuscula, Cliona tenuis, Iotrochota imminuta, and Ptilocaulis walpersii were the most active, thus suggesting those species as antifoulant producers. This is the first study of natural antifoulants from marine organisms collected on the Colombian and Brazilian coasts.

  17. Evolving Shoreline Change Rates Along the US Pacific Northwest Coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, D. L.; Ruggiero, P.; Allan, J. C.

    2013-12-01

    Coastal change hazards are increasingly affecting economically important areas, including those used for infrastructure, commerce, and public recreation. Quantifying shoreline change rates and understanding the contributing factors is crucial to protect these areas and to assist federal, state, and local agencies in developing long-term management plans. A recent study by the USGS National Assessment of Shoreline Change project analyzed the historical shoreline record along the U.S. Pacific Northwest with emphasis on both century-scale (1800s--2002) and decadal-scale (1960-80s--2002) change rates (Ruggiero, P., Kratzmann, M.A., Himmelstoss, E.G., Reid, D., Allan, J., and Kaminsky, G., 2013: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2012-1007, 55 p.). The study was the first consistent state-wide coastal change assessment for Oregon and revealed a significant increase in erosion hazards in the near-term. The coastal landscape in Oregon is particularly dynamic and includes beaches that are backed by both cliffs and dunes, and range in texture from sand to cobble. The high wave energy in the Pacific Northwest results in a morphology with primarily intermediate to dissipative beaches. Resistant rocky headlands separate the Oregon coast into 18 distinct littoral cells, greatly influencing how the shoreline changes with time. While the century-scale average of all 560 km of Oregon coastline suggests the shore is prograding at 0.4 m/yr, the decadal-scale record indicates that 13 of the 18 littoral cells either are accreting at a slower rate, have changed from accretional to erosional, or are eroding at a faster rate. This apparent increase in erosion-affected coasts may be caused by several factors including sea-level rise, increasing storm wave heights, tectonic uplift, and climatic events (eg., El Niño), but overall it indicates a shifting trend in shoreline change rates. In the present study, we quantify shoreline change rates on a third timescale, seasonal to

  18. NAT2 gene polymorphisms in three indigenous groups in the Colombian Caribbean Coast region

    PubMed Central

    Arias, Isis; Lecompte, Nelly; Visbal, Lila; Curiel, Iliana; Hernández, Enio; Garavito, Pilar

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To study the NAT2 gene polymorphisms 481T, 590A and 857A in the Chimila, Wiwa and Wayuu indigenous groups of the Colombian Caribbean to determine the frequencies of the alleles NAT2*4, NAT2*5, NAT2*6, and NAT2*7 and to determine the types of acetylators present in these populations. Methods: A total of 202 subjects were studied: 47 Chimila, 55 Wiwa, and 100 Wayuu. The polymorphisms were identified using a real-time PCR method for allelic discrimination designed using Taqman of Applied Biosystems. Results: The following alleles were found at the highest frequency in the following groups: the NAT2*4 allele (wild type) in the Wayuu group (55.3%), the NAT2*5 allele in the Wiwa group (34.5%), and the NAT2*7 allele in the Chimila group (24.2%). A higher frequency of the rapid acetylator status was found in the Wayuu group (31.3%) and Chimila group (29.5%) compared with the Wiwa group (12.7%). The intermediate acetylator status distribution was very similar in all three groups, and the frequency of the slow acetylator status was higher in the Wiwa group (32.7%) compared with the Chimila and Wayuu groups (20.5% and 21.2%, respectively). Conclusion: The results demonstrated the allelic distribution and pharmacogenetic differences of the three groups studied and revealed the most frequent acetylator status and phenotype. Because of the high prevalence of slow acetylators, a greater incidence of tuberculosis (TB) drug-induced hepatotoxicity is predicted in these populations, with a higher frequency in the Wiwa group. PMID:25767302

  19. 40 CFR 408.250 - Applicability; description of the Pacific Coast hand-shucked oyster processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Pacific Coast hand-shucked oyster processing subcategory. 408.250 Section 408.250 Protection of... SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Pacific Coast Hand-Shucked Oyster Processing Subcategory § 408.250 Applicability; description of the Pacific Coast hand-shucked oyster processing subcategory....

  20. 40 CFR 408.250 - Applicability; description of the Pacific Coast hand-shucked oyster processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Pacific Coast hand-shucked oyster processing subcategory. 408.250 Section 408.250 Protection of... SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Pacific Coast Hand-Shucked Oyster Processing Subcategory § 408.250 Applicability; description of the Pacific Coast hand-shucked oyster processing subcategory....

  1. 40 CFR 408.250 - Applicability; description of the Pacific Coast hand-shucked oyster processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Pacific Coast hand-shucked oyster processing subcategory. 408.250 Section 408.250 Protection of... SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Pacific Coast Hand-Shucked Oyster Processing Subcategory § 408.250 Applicability; description of the Pacific Coast hand-shucked oyster processing subcategory....

  2. 40 CFR 408.250 - Applicability; description of the Pacific Coast hand-shucked oyster processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Pacific Coast hand-shucked oyster processing subcategory. 408.250 Section 408.250 Protection of... SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Pacific Coast Hand-Shucked Oyster Processing Subcategory § 408.250 Applicability; description of the Pacific Coast hand-shucked oyster processing subcategory....

  3. 40 CFR 408.250 - Applicability; description of the Pacific Coast hand-shucked oyster processing subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Pacific Coast hand-shucked oyster processing subcategory. 408.250 Section 408.250 Protection of... SEAFOOD PROCESSING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Pacific Coast Hand-Shucked Oyster Processing Subcategory § 408.250 Applicability; description of the Pacific Coast hand-shucked oyster processing subcategory....

  4. Coastal dynamics studies for evaluation of hazard and vulnerability for coastal erosion. case study the town La Bocana, Buenaventura, colombian pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coca-Domínguez, Oswaldo; Ricaurte-Villota, Constanza

    2015-04-01

    The analysis of the hazard and vulnerability in coastal areas caused for erosion is based on studies of coastal dynamics since that allows having a better information detail that is useful for decision-making in aspects like prevention, mitigation, disaster reduction and integrated risk management. The Town of La Bocana, located in Buenaventura (Colombian Pacific) was selected to carry out the threat assessment for coastal erosion based on three components: i) magnitude, ii) occurrence and iii) susceptibility. Vulnerability meanwhile, is also composed of three main components for its evaluation: i) exposure ii) fragility and iii) resilience, which in turn are evaluated in 6 dimensions of vulnerability: physical, social, economic, ecological, institutional and cultural. The hazard analysis performed used a semi-quantitative approach, and an index of variables such as type of geomorphological unit, type of beach, exposure of the surfing coast, occurrence, among others. Quantitative data of coastal retreat was measured through the use of DSAS (Digital Shoreline Analysis System) an application of ArcGIS, as well as the development of digital elevation models from the beach and 6 beach profiles strategically located on the coast obtained with GNSS technology. Sediment samples collected from these beaches, medium height and wave direction were used as complementary data. The information was integrated across the coast line into segments of 250 x 250 meters. 4 sectors are part of the coastal area of La Bocana: Pianguita, Vistahermosa, Donwtown and Shangay. 6 vulnerability dimensions units were taken from these population, as well as its density for exposure, wich was analyzed through a multi-array method that include variables such as, land use, population, type of structure, education, basic services, among others, to measure frailty, and their respective indicator of resilience. The hazard analysis results indicate that Vistahermosa is in very high threat, while

  5. Anglers' Guide to the United States Pacific Coast: Marine Fish, Fishing Grounds & Facilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Squire, James L., Jr.; Smith, Susan E.

    The purpose of this guide is to provide a general source of information on areas of the Pacific coast that are more frequently fished and the species of fish that are commonly taken. The guide covers the marine and estuarine waters along the coasts of California, Oregon, Washington, Alaska, Hawaii, American Samoa, and Guam. It is arranged in five…

  6. 33 CFR 334.920 - Pacific Ocean off the east coast of San Clemente Island, Calif.; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pacific Ocean off the east coast... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.920 Pacific Ocean off the east coast of San Clemente Island, Calif.; naval restricted area. (a) The area. The waters of the Pacific Ocean within an area extending easterly from...

  7. 33 CFR 334.920 - Pacific Ocean off the east coast of San Clemente Island, Calif.; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pacific Ocean off the east coast... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.920 Pacific Ocean off the east coast of San Clemente Island, Calif.; naval restricted area. (a) The area. The waters of the Pacific Ocean within an area extending easterly from...

  8. 33 CFR 334.920 - Pacific Ocean off the east coast of San Clemente Island, Calif.; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Pacific Ocean off the east coast... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.920 Pacific Ocean off the east coast of San Clemente Island, Calif.; naval restricted area. (a) The area. The waters of the Pacific Ocean within an area extending easterly from...

  9. 33 CFR 334.920 - Pacific Ocean off the east coast of San Clemente Island, Calif.; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pacific Ocean off the east coast... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.920 Pacific Ocean off the east coast of San Clemente Island, Calif.; naval restricted area. (a) The area. The waters of the Pacific Ocean within an area extending easterly from...

  10. 33 CFR 334.920 - Pacific Ocean off the east coast of San Clemente Island, Calif.; naval restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Pacific Ocean off the east coast... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.920 Pacific Ocean off the east coast of San Clemente Island, Calif.; naval restricted area. (a) The area. The waters of the Pacific Ocean within an area extending easterly from...

  11. Holocene Tsunami deposits associated with earthquakes along Pacific coast, northeast Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, H.; Imaizumi, T.; Ishiyama, T.; Miyauchi, T.; Kagohara, K.; Haraguchi, T.; Marushima, N.; Omachi, T.

    2009-12-01

    We investigated Holocene tsumami deposits along the Pacific coast of northeast Japan in order to define the ages and source areas of earthquakes generating large tsunamis. Sediment cores were collected by using geoslicers and hand augers at alluvial lowlands interpreted by aerial photographs, and ages of deposits were dated by radiocarbon methods and tephrochronology. Pacific coast of northeast Japan faces the Japan trench where Pacific plate subducts beneath the Eurasian plate, so that the coast has repeatedly experienced some large tsunamis following historical interplate earthquakes (the 1896 Meiji Sanriku Tsunami, the 1793 Kansei Tsunami, the 1611 Keicho Sanriku Tsunami and the 869 Jogan Tsunami). While the southern part along the Pacific coast (from the Sendai Plain to the Joban coastal region) has nearly straight shorelines and well developed coastal lowlands, the northern part (the Sanriku coastal region) has typical ria shorelines and poorly developed coastal lowlands. Multiple sand layers are identified between muddy or peaty sediments in drilled core samples to a depth of 1-5.5 m at several coastal areas, which is located at backlands of beach ridges and natural levees. In the southern part along the Pacific coast, sand layers corresponding to the 869 Jogan Tsunami are identified, and the older sand layers suggest that tsunamis which are as large as the 869 tsunami have occurred at few hundred years intervals over the past 5000 years. On the other hand, in the northern part along the Pacific coast, multiple sand layers which indicate the arrival of large tsunamis are also found at the similar intervals to the southern coast during 6000-2000 years ago, but most of the depositional ages of the sand layers do not coincide with those of the southern coast. We suggest that earthquakes generating large tsunamis along northern and southern Pacific coast of northeast Japan have both occurred at few hundred years intervals during the late Holocene, but in most

  12. Hurricane Celia off the Pacific Coast of Mexico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1: July 19 Daylight Snapshot for PIA00438 Figure 2: July 21 Daylight Snapshot for PIA00438 Hurricane Celia as observed by NASA's spaceborne Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS). This image shows Celia on July 23 in visible light, as you would perceive it from space. Located in the eastern north Pacific Ocean off the coast of Mexico, Celia's winds have now dissipated to highs of 40 mph. Celia was the first hurricane of the eastern north Pacific season. Figure 1 is a daylight snapshot taken on July 19; Celia as tropical storm, winds at 50mph. Figure 2 is a daylight snapshot taken on July 21; Celia has a small eye with an 80-90% closed eyewall; sustained winds at 75mph with gusts reaching 92mph; Celia is upgraded to hurricane status.

    The major contribution to radiation (infrared light) that AIRS channels sense comes from different levels in the atmosphere, depending upon the channel wavelength. To create the movies, a set of AIRS channels were selected which probe the atmosphere at progressively deeper levels. If there were no clouds, the color in each frame would be nearly uniform until the Earth's surface is encountered. The tropospheric air temperature warms at a rate of 6 K (about 11 F) for each kilometer of descent toward the surface. Thus the colors would gradually change from cold to warm as the movie progresses.

    Clouds block the infrared radiation. Thus wherever there are clouds we can penetrate no deeper in infrared. The color remains fixed as the movie progresses, for that area of the image is 'stuck' to the cloud top temperature. The coldest temperatures around 220 K (about -65 F) come from altitudes of about 10 miles.

    We therefore see in a 'surface channel' at the end of the movie, signals from clouds as cold as 220 K and from Earth's surface at 310 K (about 100 F). The very coldest clouds are seen in deep convection thunderstorms over

  13. 77 FR 2655 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-19

    ....5 mt of Pacific Ocean Perch, 3.3 mt of Canary rockfish, and 48.3 mt of Widow rockfish allocated to.... This notice announces the reapportionment of 4.3 mt of Darkblotched rockfish, 6.5 mt of Pacific Ocean..., mothership sector; Pacific Ocean Perch, 16.7 mt, catcher/processor sector, 0.66 mt, mothership sector;...

  14. Genes, Diversity, and Geologic Process on the Pacific Coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, David K.

    2004-05-01

    We examine the genetics of marine diversification along the West Coast of North America in relation to the Late Neogene geology and climate of the region. Trophically important components of the diverse West Coast fauna, including kelp, alcid birds (e.g., auks, puffins), salmon, rockfish, abalone, and Cancer crabs, appear to have radiated during peaks of upwelling primarily in the Late Miocene and in some cases secondarily in the Pleistocene. Phylogeographic barriers associated with Mio-Pliocene estuaries of the mid-California coast, the Pliocene opening of the Gulf of California, tectonic and eustatic evolution of the California Bight, as well as the influence of Pleistocene and Holocene climate change on genetic structure are assessed in a geologic context. Comparisons to East Coast and western freshwater systems, as well as upwelling systems around the globe, provide perspective for the survey.

  15. 78 FR 76570 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-18

    ...-Whiting Allocations; Pacific Whiting Seasons AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National... available fish during the remainder of the fishing season. Reapportioning as quickly as possible...

  16. Characterization and effects of cold fronts in the Colombian Caribbean Coast and their relationship to extreme wave events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortiz-Royero, J. C.; Otero, L. J.; Restrepo, J. C.; Ruiz, J.; Cadena, M.

    2013-07-01

    Extreme ocean waves in the Caribbean Sea are commonly related to the effects of storms and hurricanes during the months of June through November. The collapse of 200 m of the Puerto Colombia pier in March 2009 revealed the effects of meteorological phenomena other than storms and hurricanes that may be influencing the extreme wave regime in the Colombian Caribbean. The marked seasonality of these atmospheric fronts was established by analyzing the meteorological-marine reports of Instituto de Hidrología, Meteorología y Estudios Ambientales of Colombia (IDEAM, based on its initials in Spanish) and Centro de Investigación en Oceanografía y Meteorología of Colombia (CIOH, based on its initials in Spanish). The highest occurrences were observed during the months of January, February, and March, with 6 fronts occurring per year. An annual trend was not observed, although the highest number of fronts occurred in 2010 (20 in total). An annual strong relationship between the maximum average wave values and the cold fronts, in the central zone of the Colombian Caribbean during the first three months of the year was established. In addition, the maximum values of the significant height produced by the passage of cold fronts during the last 16 yr were identified. Although the Colombian Caribbean has been affected by storms and hurricanes in the past, this research allows us to conclude that, there is a strong relationship between cold fronts and the largest waves in the Colombian Caribbean during the last 16 yr, which have caused damage to coastal infrastructure. We verified that the passage of a cold front corresponded to the most significant extreme wave event of the last two decades in the Colombian Caribbean, which caused the structural collapse of the Puerto Colombia pier, located near the city of Barranquilla, between 5 and 10 March 2009. This information is invaluable when evaluating average and extreme wave regimes for the purpose of informing the design of

  17. Feeding ecology of elasmobranch fishes in coastal waters of the Colombian Eastern Tropical Pacific

    PubMed Central

    Navia, Andrés F; Mejía-Falla, Paola A; Giraldo, Alan

    2007-01-01

    Background Stomach contents of 131 specimens of five elasmobranch species (Mustelus lunulatus, Dasyatis longa, Rhinobatos leucorhynchus, Raja velezi and Zapteryx xyster) caught in the central fishing zone in the Pacific Ocean of Colombia were counted and weighed to describe feeding habits and dietary overlaps. Results Twenty-one prey items belonging to four major groups (stomatopods, decapods, mollusks and fish) were identified. Decapod crustaceans were the most abundant prey found in stomachs. The mantis shrimp Squilla panamensis was the main prey item in the diet of M. lunulatus; tiger shrimp Trachypenaeus sp. was the main prey item in the diet of Rhinobatos leucorhynchus and Raja velezi, and Penaeidae shrimp were the main prey items in the diet of Z. xyster. Furthermore, fish were important in the diet of Raja velezi, Z. xyster and D. longa. The greatest diet breadth corresponded to Z. xyster whereas M. lunulatus was the most specialized predator. Finally, four significant diet overlaps between the five species were found, attributable mainly to Squillidae, Penaeidae and Fish. Conclusion Shrimps (Penaeidae and stomatopods) and benthic fishes were the most important food types in the diet of the elasmobranch species studied. Diet breadth and overlap were relatively low. Determination of food resource partitioning among the batoid species studied was not possible. However, we identified partitions in other niche axes (time of feeding activity and habitat utilization). It is possible to assume that diffuse competition could be exceeding the biunivocal competition among the studied species. Therefore, this assemblage would have a strong tendency to trophic guild formation. PMID:17877796

  18. 50 CFR 660.706 - Pacific Coast Treaty Indian rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ....706 Section 660.706 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OFF WEST COAST STATES Highly...) (u&a grounds for groundfish); 50 CFR 300.64(i) (u&a grounds for halibut)). The u&a grounds...

  19. EstuRe Project: U.S. Pacific Coast Estuary/Watershed Data and R Tools

    EPA Science Inventory

    The EstuRe Project is a collaborative effort of the U.S. EPA and USGS to standardize and improve the accessibility of data for U.S. Pacific Coast estuaries and their corresponding watersheds. We are presenting a preview of the datasets and tools that will soon be available from ...

  20. WestuRe: U.S. Pacific Coast estuary/watershed data and R tools

    EPA Science Inventory

    There are about 350 estuaries along the U.S. Pacific Coast. Basic descriptive data for these estuaries, such as their size and watershed area, are important for coastal-scale research and conservation planning. However, this information is spread among many sources and can be dif...

  1. 77 FR 31587 - Fishing Capacity Reduction Program for the Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-29

    ..., NMFS published a Federal Register document (69 FR 67100) proposing regulations to implement an industry fee system for repaying the reduction loan. The final rule was published July 13, 2005 (70 FR 40225... Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic...

  2. Assessment of tsunami hazard for the American Pacific coast from southern Mexico to northern Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brizuela, B.; Armigliato, A.; Tinti, S.

    2013-06-01

    Central America has been struck by at least 49 tsunamis between 1539 and 1996. As many as 37 of these events occurred at the Pacific Coast, and 31 were generated by earthquakes. Some of the events have been destructive, but despite this, tsunamis are an underrated hazard in Central America: people are not aware that they are at risk and even recent tsunami events have been forgotten. Recent studies, following the destructive tsunami occurred in Nicaragua in 1992, have revealed that Central America is a moderately tsunamigenic zone that is mainly affected by tsunamis triggered by earthquakes, especially at the Pacific coast where the Middle American Trench runs parallel to the coast. In this study, a statistical first and then a deterministic analysis for the Pacific coast of Central America has been carried out. The statistical approach aims to estimate the Gutenberg-Richter coefficients of the main seismic tsunamigenic regions of the area in order to assess the annual rate of occurrence of tsunamigenic earthquakes and their corresponding return period. A deterministic approach is then used to compute the tsunami run-up distribution along the coast corresponding to a given annual rate of occurrence of tsunamigenic earthquakes.

  3. 77 FR 45508 - Fisheries off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan; Trawl...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-01

    ...); North Pacific Right whales (Eubalaena japonica); Blue whales (Balaenoptera musculus); Fin whales... rule, published on May 21, 2012 (77 FR 29955), and is not repeated here. This action: (1) Delays the... reallocation rulemaking. Comments and Responses NMFS solicited public comment on the proposed rule (77 FR...

  4. 78 FR 3848 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; Trawl Rationalization Program...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-17

    ... Pacific right whales, blue whales, fin whales, sperm whales, Southern Resident killer whales, Guadalupe... temporary rule published August 1, 2012 (77 FR 45508) is extended from January 28, 2013, through July 22... provided in the proposed rule, published on May 21, 2012 (77 FR 29955), and in the final rule, published...

  5. 78 FR 14259 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-05

    ... Pacific right whales, blue whales, fin whales, sperm whales, Southern Resident killer whales, Guadalupe... to jeopardize the continued existence of any of the affected ESUs. Lower Columbia River coho (70 FR 37160, June 28, 2005) and Oregon Coastal coho (73 FR 7816, February 11, 2008) were recently relisted...

  6. 78 FR 26526 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-07

    ... Pacific right whales, blue whales, fin whales, sperm whales, Southern Resident killer whales, Guadalupe... fishery on March 5, 2013 (78 FR 14259). This action finalizes the allocation and management measures... 5, 2013 (78 FR 14259) for two reasons related to timing and process. First, a recommendation on...

  7. 75 FR 53379 - Fisheries off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan; Amendments 20...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-31

    ... the Internet at the Office of the Federal Register's Web site at http://www.gpoaccess.gov/fr/index... Amendment 20 and Amendment 21, are available at the Pacific Fishery Management Council's Web site at http...) trawl participants. On May 12, 2010 (75 FR 26702), NMFS published a notice of availability of...

  8. 78 FR 72 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan; Trawl...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-02

    ... coast groundfish fishery's trawl fleet (see 75 FR 78344; Dec. 15, 2010). The program was adopted in 2010... follow. NMFS published the ANPR on April 4, 2012 (77 FR 20337), which, among other things, announced the... 21, 2012 (77 FR 29955), with the final rule published on August 1, 2012 (77 FR 45508). RAW 1...

  9. 76 FR 34910 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-15

    ... Distinct Population Segment (DPS) of green sturgeon was listed as threatened under the ESA (71 FR 17757... the ESA (75 FR 13012). NMFS has reinitiated consultation on the fishery, including impacts on green... management measures for that fishery off the coasts of Washington, Oregon, and California (76 FR 27508)....

  10. Avian influenza virus antibodies in Pacific Coast Red Knots (Calidris canutus rufa)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, James A.; DeCicco, Lucas H.; Ruthrauff, Daniel R.; Krauss, Scott; Hall, Jeffrey S.

    2014-01-01

    Prevalence of avian influenza virus (AIV) antibodies in the western Atlantic subspecies of Red Knot (Calidris canutus rufa) is among the highest for any shorebird. To assess whether the frequency of detection of AIV antibodies is high for the species in general or restricted only to C. c. rufa, we sampled the northeastern Pacific Coast subspecies of Red Knot (Calidris canutus roselaari) breeding in northwestern Alaska. Antibodies were detected in 90% of adults and none of the chicks sampled. Viral shedding was not detected in adults or chicks. These results suggest a predisposition of Red Knots to AIV infection. High antibody titers to subtypes H3 and H4 were detected, whereas low to intermediate antibody levels were found for subtypes H10 and H11. These four subtypes have previously been detected in shorebirds at Delaware Bay (at the border of New Jersey and Delaware) and in waterfowl along the Pacific Coast of North America.

  11. Application of Nimbus-6 microwave data to problems in precipitation prediction for the Pacific west coast

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Viezee, W.; Shigeishi, H.; Chang, A. T. C.

    1979-01-01

    The preliminary results of a research study that emphasizes the analysis and interpretation of data related to total precipitable water and nonprecipitating cloud liquid water obtained from NIMBUS-6 SCAMS are reported. Sixteen cyclonic storm situations in the northeastern Pacific Ocean that resulted in significant rainfall along the west coast of the United States during the winter season October 1975 through February 1976 are analyzed in terms of their distributions and amounts of total water vapor and liquid water, as obtained from SCAMS data. The water-substance analyses for each storm case are related to the distribution and amount of coastal precipitation observed during the subsequent time period when the storm system crosses the coastline. Concomitant precipitation predictions from the LFM are also incorporated. Techniques by which satellite microwave data over the ocean can be used to improve precipitation prediction for the Pacific West Coast are emphasized.

  12. Aminostratigraphy and faunal correlations of late Quaternary marine terraces, Pacific Coast, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kennedy, G.L.; Lajoie, K.R.; Wehmiller, J. F.

    1982-01-01

    Recent studies using the extent of racemization of amino acids to date fossil mollusc shells in the Arctic1, the British Isles2 and on the Atlantic3,4 and Pacific5-13 coasts of North America have relied mainly on theoretical kinetic models of racemization. Ages generated in this fashion are highly model dependent and require estimates of integrated long-term diagenetic temperatures. We present here an alternative, empirical approach to aminostratigraphy in which we plot amino acid enantiomeric ratios versus latitude (for localities along the Pacific coast of the United States), and generate isochronal correlations by connecting data points of geographically proximal localities that have similar D:L ratios and zoogeographic aspect. Isochrons are calibrated at a few localities by independent radiometric dates. The diagenetic temperature effect on racemization is reflected in the slope of the isochrons, but the need to quantify temperature is eliminated. ?? 1982 Nature Publishing Group.

  13. Avian influenza virus antibodies in Pacific Coast Red Knots (Calidris canutus roselaari).

    PubMed

    Johnson, James A; DeCicco, Lucas H; Ruthrauff, Daniel R; Krauss, Scott; Hall, Jeffrey S

    2014-07-01

    Prevalence of avian influenza virus (AIV) antibodies in the western Atlantic subspecies of Red Knot (Calidris canutus rufa) is among the highest for any shorebird. To assess whether the frequency of detection of AIV antibodies is high for the species in general or restricted only to C. c. rufa, we sampled the northeastern Pacific Coast subspecies of Red Knot (Calidris canutus roselaari) breeding in northwestern Alaska. Antibodies were detected in 90% of adults and none of the chicks sampled. Viral shedding was not detected in adults or chicks. These results suggest a predisposition of Red Knots to AIV infection. High antibody titers to subtypes H3 and H4 were detected, whereas low to intermediate antibody levels were found for subtypes H10 and H11. These four subtypes have previously been detected in shorebirds at Delaware Bay (at the border of New Jersey and Delaware) and in waterfowl along the Pacific Coast of North America.

  14. Metamorphic waters from the pacific tectonic belt of the west coast of the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barnes, I.

    1970-01-01

    Waters unusually rich in ammonia, boron, carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulfide, and hydrocarbons are found in more than 100 localities along the Pacific coast of the United States. The waters are believed to be products of low-grade metamorphism of marine sediments. The marine sedimentary rocks would have to be tectonically emplaced below crystalline rocks in many places. Mercury are deposits are probably also products of the low-grade metamorphism.

  15. Metamorphic waters from the pacific tectonic belt of the west coast of the United States.

    PubMed

    Barnes, I

    1970-05-22

    Waters unusually rich in ammonia, boron, carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulfide, and hydrocarbons are found in more than 100 localities along the Pacific coast of the United States. The waters are believed to be products of low-grade metamorphism of marine sediments. The marine sedimentary rocks would have to be tectonically emplaced below crystalline rocks in many places. Mercury ore deposits are probably also products of the low-grade metamorphism.

  16. Cytotoxic prodigiosin family pigments from Pseudoalteromonas sp. 1020R isolated from the Pacific coast of Japan.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi; Nakajima, Aya; Hosokawa, Kakushi; Soliev, Azamjon B; Osaka, Issey; Arakawa, Ryuichi; Enomoto, Keiichi

    2012-01-01

    Pseudoalteromonas sp. 1020R, isolated from the Pacific coast of Japan, produces prodigiosin family pigments. Structural analysis indicated that these are prodigiosin (2-methyl-3-pentyl-prodiginine) and three other prodigiosin congeners which differ only in the lengths of the alkyl side chains. These compounds exhibited different extents of cytotoxicity against U937 leukemia cells, and cell death was accompanied by typical features of apoptosis.

  17. Marine biodiversity in the Atlantic and Pacific coasts of South America: knowledge and gaps.

    PubMed

    Miloslavich, Patricia; Klein, Eduardo; Díaz, Juan M; Hernández, Cristián E; Bigatti, Gregorio; Campos, Lucia; Artigas, Felipe; Castillo, Julio; Penchaszadeh, Pablo E; Neill, Paula E; Carranza, Alvar; Retana, María V; Díaz de Astarloa, Juan M; Lewis, Mirtha; Yorio, Pablo; Piriz, María L; Rodríguez, Diego; Yoneshigue-Valentin, Yocie; Gamboa, Luiz; Martín, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    The marine areas of South America (SA) include almost 30,000 km of coastline and encompass three different oceanic domains--the Caribbean, the Pacific, and the Atlantic--ranging in latitude from 12∘N to 55∘S. The 10 countries that border these coasts have different research capabilities and taxonomic traditions that affect taxonomic knowledge. This paper analyzes the status of knowledge of marine biodiversity in five subregions along the Atlantic and Pacific coasts of South America (SA): the Tropical East Pacific, the Humboldt Current,the Patagonian Shelf, the Brazilian Shelves, and the Tropical West Atlantic, and it provides a review of ecosystem threats and regional marine conservation strategies. South American marine biodiversity is least well known in the tropical subregions (with the exception of Costa Rica and Panama). Differences in total biodiversity were observed between the Atlantic and Pacific oceans at the same latitude. In the north of the continent, the Tropical East Pacific is richer in species than the Tropical West Atlantic, however, when standardized by coastal length, there is very little difference among them. In the south, the Humboldt Current system is much richer than the Patagonian Shelf. An analysis of endemism shows that 75% of the species are reported within only one of the SA regions, while about 22% of the species of SA are not reported elsewhere in the world. National and regional initiatives focusing on new exploration, especially to unknown areas and ecosystems, as well as collaboration among countries are fundamental to achieving the goal of completing inventories of species diversity and distribution.These inventories will allow accurate interpretation of the biogeography of its two oceanic coasts and latitudinal trends,and will also provide relevant information for science based policies. PMID:21304960

  18. PCEIS - THE PACIFIC COAST ECOSYSTEM INFORMATION SYSTEM, CHANGING THE WAY SCIENTISTS VIEW THE NATURAL HISTORY OF SPECIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Pacific Coast Ecosystem Information System (PCEIS) is a database that provides biological, ecological and geospatial information for over 8100 species from Alaska to Baja. PCEIS goes beyond capturing species’ taxonomic information by integrating monitoring information from Co...

  19. Radiostrontium monitoring of bivalves from the Pacific coast of eastern Japan.

    PubMed

    Karube, Zin'ichi; Inuzuka, Yoko; Tanaka, Atsushi; Kurishima, Katsuaki; Kihou, Nobuharu; Shibata, Yasuyuki

    2016-09-01

    In early April 2011, radiostrontium was accidentally released from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant to the Pacific coast of eastern Japan. We developed a simple procedure to analyze radiostrontium levels in marine mussels (Septifer virgatus) and seawater using crown ether (Sr Resin; Eichrom). Then, we used our method to describe the spatial and temporal distribution of radiostrontium in mussels and seawater on the Pacific coast of eastern Japan from 2011 to 2013 and for 2015. Activity of (90)Sr in mussels and seawater decreased with distance from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant and between 2011 and 2013 tended to be higher in areas south of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant than to the north of it. Activity in mussels and seawater also tended to decrease from 2011 to 2013 and by 2015 had reached levels experienced prior to the Fukushima accident. Our results suggest that radiostrontium discharged from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant was dispersed by coastal currents in a southerly direction along the Pacific coast of eastern Japan from 2011 to 2013, following which its activity decreased to background levels by 2015. PMID:27211094

  20. Radiostrontium monitoring of bivalves from the Pacific coast of eastern Japan.

    PubMed

    Karube, Zin'ichi; Inuzuka, Yoko; Tanaka, Atsushi; Kurishima, Katsuaki; Kihou, Nobuharu; Shibata, Yasuyuki

    2016-09-01

    In early April 2011, radiostrontium was accidentally released from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant to the Pacific coast of eastern Japan. We developed a simple procedure to analyze radiostrontium levels in marine mussels (Septifer virgatus) and seawater using crown ether (Sr Resin; Eichrom). Then, we used our method to describe the spatial and temporal distribution of radiostrontium in mussels and seawater on the Pacific coast of eastern Japan from 2011 to 2013 and for 2015. Activity of (90)Sr in mussels and seawater decreased with distance from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant and between 2011 and 2013 tended to be higher in areas south of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant than to the north of it. Activity in mussels and seawater also tended to decrease from 2011 to 2013 and by 2015 had reached levels experienced prior to the Fukushima accident. Our results suggest that radiostrontium discharged from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant was dispersed by coastal currents in a southerly direction along the Pacific coast of eastern Japan from 2011 to 2013, following which its activity decreased to background levels by 2015.

  1. Assessment of tsunami hazards for the Central American Pacific coast from southern Mexico to northern Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brizuela, B.; Armigliato, A.; Tinti, S.

    2014-07-01

    Central America (CA), from Guatemala to Panama, has been struck by at least 52 tsunamis between 1539 and 2013, and in the extended region from Mexico to northern Peru (denoted as ECA, Extended Central America in this paper) the number of recorded tsunamis in the same time span is more than 100, most of which were triggered by earthquakes located in the Middle American Trench that runs parallel to the Pacific coast. The most severe event in the catalogue is the tsunami that occurred on 2 September 1992 off Nicaragua, with run-up measured in the range of 5-10 m in several places along the Nicaraguan coast. The aim of this paper is to assess the tsunami hazard on the Pacific coast of this extended region, and to this purpose a hybrid probabilistic-deterministic analysis is performed, that is adequate for tsunamis generated by earthquakes. More specifically, the probabilistic approach is used to compute the Gutenberg-Richter coefficients of the main seismic tsunamigenic zones of the area and to estimate the annual rate of occurrence of tsunamigenic earthquakes and their corresponding return period. The output of the probabilistic part of the method is taken as input by the deterministic part, which is applied to calculate the tsunami run-up distribution along the coast.

  2. Hurricane Darby off the Pacific Coast of Mexico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1: AIRS VIS Daylight Snapshot July 26Figure 2: AIRS Infrared Image July 28

    Hurricane Darby as observed by NASA's spaceborne Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS). This daylight image of Hurricane Darby on July 28 was made with the visible sensor in the AIRS instrument suite. After reaching sustained winds on July 27 of 100 knots (115 mph) with gusts to 120 knots (138 mph), the intensity of the storm is now lowered to 75 knots (86 mph). Located in the eastern north Pacific Ocean located about 1,165 miles west-southwest of the southern tip of Baja California, the storm continues its west/northwest path at 14 knots (16mph). Figure 1 is a daylight snapshot from AIRS visible/near-infrared sensor before Darby became a tropical storm. Darby is in the upper right-hand corner. Circulation is not apparent because the storm was not organized sufficiently to allow the nascent eye to appear. At this time, winds were approximately 35 mph. Figure 2 is an AIRS infrared image. Darby falls on the edge of two AIRS data granules, which have been 'stitched' together in this image. Storm intensity is lowered to 75 knots (86 mph), down from 100 knots (115 mph).

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Frame from July 27 movie, slicing down the atmosphere with the AIRS infrared sensor

    The major contribution to radiation (infrared light) that AIRS infrared channels sense comes from different levels in the atmosphere, depending upon the channel wavelength. To create the movies, a set of AIRS infrared channels were selected which probe the atmosphere at progressively deeper levels. If there were no clouds, the color in each frame would be nearly uniform until the Earth's surface is encountered. The tropospheric air temperature warms at a rate of 6 K (about 11 F) for each kilometer of descent toward the surface. Thus the colors would gradually change from cold to

  3. Quantification of tsunami hazard on Canada's Pacific Coast; implications for risk assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Stephen G.; Delaney, Keith B.

    2015-04-01

    Our assessment of tsunami hazard on Canada's Pacific Coast (i.e., the coast of British Columbia) begins with a review of the 1964 tsunami generated by The Great Alaska Earthquake (M9.2) that resulted in significant damage to coastal communities and infrastructure. In particular, the tsunami waves swept up inlets on the west coast of Vancouver Island and damaged several communities; Port Alberni suffered upwards of 5M worth of damage. At Port Alberni, the maximum tsunami wave height was estimated at 8.2 m above mean sea level and was recorded on the stream gauge on the Somass River located at about 7 m a.s.l, 6 km upstream from its mouth. The highest wave (9.75 m above tidal datum) was reported from Shields Bay, Graham Island, Queen Charlotte Islands (Haida Gwaii). In addition, the 1964 tsunami was recorded on tide gauges at a number of locations on the BC coast. The 1964 signal and the magnitude and frequency of traces of other historical Pacific tsunamis (both far-field and local) are analysed in the Tofino tide gauge records and compared to tsunami traces in other tide gauges in the Pacific Basin (e.g., Miyako, Japan). Together with a review of the geological evidence for tsunami occurrence along Vancouver Island's west coast, we use this tide gauge data to develop a quantitative framework for tsunami hazard on Canada's Pacific coast. In larger time scales, tsunamis are a major component of the hazard from Cascadia megathrust events. From sedimentological evidence and seismological considerations, the recurrence interval of megathrust events on the Cascadia Subduction Zone has been estimated by others at roughly 500 years. We assume that the hazard associated with a high-magnitude destructive tsunami thus has an annual frequency of roughly 1/500. Compared to other major natural hazards in western Canada this represents a very high annual probability of potentially destructive hazard that, in some coastal communities, translates into high levels of local risk

  4. Morphological differences in Pacific Coast populations of greater white-fronted geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Orthmeyer, D.L.; Takekawa, J.Y.; Ely, C.R.; Wege, M.; Newton, W.E.

    1995-01-01

    We examined morphological relationships of three Pacific coast populations of Greater White-fronted Geese (Anser albifrons). Adult geese were captured and measured at three breeding areas in Alaska and two wintering areas in California, 1980-1991. A two-step discriminant function analysis examined morphological differences among the three populations. Stepwise discriminant function procedures created the simplest measurement models. Each sex was analyzed separately since multivariate analysis of variance indicated that males were significantly larger than females for all three populations. Tule Greater White-fronted Geese (A. a. gambelli) were significantly larger than Pacific Greater White-fronted Geese (A. a. frontalis), hereafter Pacific Geese. The first step of discriminant function analysis created models to differentiate Tule Geese from the Pacific Geese. Bivariate stepwise discriminant function models consisting of only two measurements correctly classified 92% of males (bill height, bill width) and 96% of females (bill height, culmen) of these subspecies. The second step of discriminant function analysis compared a small population of Pacific Geese from the Bristol Bay Lowlands (BBL) of southwestern Alaska with the large population of Pacific Geese that breed on the Yukon-Kuskokwim River Delta (YKD) of westcentral Alaska. We developed models with three (culmen, diagonal tarsus, midtoe) and five (culmen, diagonal tarsus, midtoe, total tarsus, bill height) measurements from stepwise discriminant function analyses to correctly classify 72% of males and 74% of females of these populations. Thus, morphology of Tule Geese differed highly significantly from Pacific Geese, as expected but differences between populations from the BBL and YKD areas were also significant. Morphometric analyses as these provided supporting evidence for clinal variation in populations of Greater White-fronted Geese. They also underscore a need for further studies of differences among

  5. The last interglacial period on the Pacific Coast of North America: Timing and paleoclimate

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muhs, D.R.; Simmons, K.R.; Kennedy, G.L.; Rockwell, T.K.

    2002-01-01

    New, high-precision U-series ages of solitary corals (Balanophyllia elegans) coupled with molluscan faunal data from marine terraces on the Pacific Coast of North America yield information about the timing and warmth of the last interglacial sea-level highstand. Balanophyllia elegans takes up U in isotopic equilibrium with seawater during growth and shortly after death. Corals from the second terrace on San Clemente Island (offshore southern California), the third terrace on Punta Banda (on the Pacific Coast of northern Baja California), and the Discovery Point Formation on Isla de Guadalupe (in the Pacific Ocean offshore Baja California) date to the peak of the last interglacial period and have U-series ages ranging from ca. 123 to 114 ka. The first terrace on Punta Banda has corals with ages ranging from ca. 83 to 80 ka, which corresponds to a sea-level highstand formed in the late last interglacial period. U-series analyses of corals from the Cayucos terrace (central California) and the Nestor terrace at Point Loma (southern California) show that these fossils have evidence of open-system history, similar to what has been reported by other workers for the same localities. Nevertheless, a model of continuous, secondary U and Th uptake shows that two ages of corals are likely present at these localities, representing the ca. 105 and ca. 120 ka sea-level highstands reported elsewhere. U-series ages of last interglacial corals from the Pacific Coast overlap with, but are on average younger than the ages of corals from Barbados, the Bahamas, and Hawaii. This age difference is explained by the nature of the geomorphic response to sea-level change: fringing or barrier reefs on low-latitude coastlines have an accretionary growth style that keeps pace with rising sea level, whether on a tectonically rising or stable coastline. In contrast, midlatitude, high-energy coastlines are sites of platform cutting during the early part of a sea-level high stand and terrace

  6. Discharge diversion in the Patía River delta, the Colombian Pacific: Geomorphic and ecological consequences for mangrove ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Restrepo, Juan D.; Cantera, Jaime R.

    2013-10-01

    In the Patía River delta, the best-developed delta on the western margin of South America, a major water diversion started in 1972. The diversion of the Patía flow to the Sanquianga River, the latter a small stream draining internal lakes from the Pacific lowlands, shifted the active delta plain from the south to the north and changed the northern estuarine system into an active delta plain. The Sanquianga Mangrove National Park, a mangrove reserve measuring 800 km2, lies in this former estuary, where major hydrologic and sedimentation changes are occurring. Overall, major environmental consequences of this discharge diversion in terms of geomorphic changes along distributary channels and ecological impacts on mangrove ecosystems are evidenced by: (1) distributary channel accretion by operating processes such as sedimentation, overbank flow, increasing width of levees, sedimentation in crevasses, interdistributary channel fill, and colonization of pioneer mangrove; (2) freshening conditions in the Sanquianga distributary channel, a hydrologic change that has shifted the upper estuarine region (salinity <1%) downstream; (3) downstream advance of freshwater vegetation, which is invading channel banks in the lower and mixing estuarine zones; (4) die-off of approximately 5200 ha of mangrove near the delta apex at Bocas de Satinga, where the highest sediment accumulation rates occur; and (5) recurrent periods of mangrove defoliation due to a worm plague. Further analyses indicate strong mangrove erosion along transgressive barrier islands on the former delta plain. Here tectonic-induced subsidence, relative sea-level rise, and sediment starving conditions due to the channel diversion, are the main causes of the observed retreating conditions of mangrove communities. Our data also indicate that the Patía River has the highest sediment load (27 × 106 t yr-1) and basin-wide sediment yield (1500 t km-2 yr-1) on the west coast of South America. Erosion rates from the Pat

  7. Stable isotope signatures of seasonal precipitation on the Pacific coast of central Panama.

    PubMed

    Kern, Zoltán; Harmon, Russell S; Fórizs, István

    2016-01-01

    As calculated from data archived in the IAEA-WMO Global Network of Isotopes in Precipitation programme, the amount-weighted local meteoric water line for the Pacific coast of central Panama is: δ(2)H = 7.63(±0.08) × δ(18)O + 6.51(±0.49). Amount-weighted mean isotopic values were regressed against the sea surface temperature (SST) fields of the adjacent tropical oceans. A negative correlation of precipitation isotope composition with Caribbean SSTs is observed only for the early wet season (May-June), whilst the mid-summer dry period is characterized by positive correlation with eastern Pacific SSTs, similar to the late wet season (October-November). The negative response of May-June rainfall isotopic composition to Caribbean SSTs is explained by a SST-mediated change in stratiform rain fraction from organized convective systems proximal to the Inter Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ). The positive correlation for the rest of the wet season, when the organized convective zone of ITCZ and its attached stratiform belt are distant from the Pacific coast of Panama, is interpreted as simple evaporative temperature effect on isotopic fractionation. PMID:25761056

  8. Stable isotope signatures of seasonal precipitation on the Pacific coast of central Panama.

    PubMed

    Kern, Zoltán; Harmon, Russell S; Fórizs, István

    2016-01-01

    As calculated from data archived in the IAEA-WMO Global Network of Isotopes in Precipitation programme, the amount-weighted local meteoric water line for the Pacific coast of central Panama is: δ(2)H = 7.63(±0.08) × δ(18)O + 6.51(±0.49). Amount-weighted mean isotopic values were regressed against the sea surface temperature (SST) fields of the adjacent tropical oceans. A negative correlation of precipitation isotope composition with Caribbean SSTs is observed only for the early wet season (May-June), whilst the mid-summer dry period is characterized by positive correlation with eastern Pacific SSTs, similar to the late wet season (October-November). The negative response of May-June rainfall isotopic composition to Caribbean SSTs is explained by a SST-mediated change in stratiform rain fraction from organized convective systems proximal to the Inter Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ). The positive correlation for the rest of the wet season, when the organized convective zone of ITCZ and its attached stratiform belt are distant from the Pacific coast of Panama, is interpreted as simple evaporative temperature effect on isotopic fractionation.

  9. Rapid, climate-driven changes in outlet glaciers on the Pacific coast of East Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Miles, B W J; Stokes, C R; Vieli, A; Cox, N J

    2013-08-29

    Observations of ocean-terminating outlet glaciers in Greenland and West Antarctica indicate that their contribution to sea level is accelerating as a result of increased velocity, thinning and retreat. Thinning has also been reported along the margin of the much larger East Antarctic ice sheet, but whether glaciers are advancing or retreating there is largely unknown, and there has been no attempt to place such changes in the context of localized mass loss or climatic or oceanic forcing. Here we present multidecadal trends in the terminus position of 175 ocean-terminating outlet glaciers along 5,400 kilometres of the margin of the East Antarctic ice sheet, and reveal widespread and synchronous changes. Despite large fluctuations between glaciers--linked to their size--three epochal patterns emerged: 63 per cent of glaciers retreated from 1974 to 1990, 72 per cent advanced from 1990 to 2000, and 58 per cent advanced from 2000 to 2010. These trends were most pronounced along the warmer western South Pacific coast, whereas glaciers along the cooler Ross Sea coast experienced no significant changes. We find that glacier change along the Pacific coast is consistent with a rapid and coherent response to air temperature and sea-ice trends, linked through the dominant mode of atmospheric variability (the Southern Annular Mode). We conclude that parts of the world's largest ice sheet may be more vulnerable to external forcing than recognized previously.

  10. Spectral analysis of Chilean tsunami (February 27, 2010) records on the Pacific coast of Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivelskaya, Tatiana; Shevchenko, George; Korolyov, Pavel

    2010-05-01

    Russian Tsunami Warning Service was developed considerably with the installation of group of telemetric bottom pressure gauges on the Pacific coast in the late 2009. The most important information was obtained from the gauges which were installed on the Pacific coast of Russia: Bering Island (Nikolskoe), in the Avachinsaya Guba Bay (Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky), on south-eastern coast of Kamchatka (Vodopadnaya) and on the coast of Paramushir Island (Severo-Kurilsk). Three stations were installed on the southeastern coast of Sakhalin (Poronaisk, Starodubskoe, Korsakov) and four on the coasts of Sea of Japan (Vladivostok, Preobrazhenia Bay, Rudnaya Pristan and Kholmsk). We received a tidal gauge tape with Chili tsunami records from Malokurilskoe (Shikotsn Island). The tape records were digitized and used for analysis too. We used data of several gauges which located on the coast of Hokkaido and Honshu Islands (Hanasaki, Ofunato and others). These data we found on the NOAA website http://wcatwc.arh.noaa.gov/about/tsunamimain.php. The tsunami heights were more than 1 meter on the Pacific coast of Russia in spite of the large distance from the source. The maximal heights (from the trough to the crest) were recorded by the Severo-Kurilsk (228 cm), Vodopadnaya (120 cm) and Malokurilskoe gauges (110 cm). As opposed to these stations, the tsunami heights in Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky (16 cm) and Nikolskoe (19 cm) were significantly smaller. The narrow channel which connected the Pacific Ocean and Avachinskaya Guba Bay is probably a cause of tsunami weakening at Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky. The cause of tsunami weakening in the area adjacent to the Bering Island is difficult to explain. To examine spectral properties of long wave oscillations for each gauge, we calculated wave spectra using two different data segments (both of two day long because of very long tsunami-caused oscillations): The period from 00:00 of February 26 to 24:00 of February 27 (UTC), preceding the tsunami

  11. Perkinsus marinus in pleasure oyster Crassostrea corteziensis from Nayarit, Pacific coast of México.

    PubMed

    Cáceres-Martínez, J; Vásquez-Yeomans, R; Padilla-Lardizábal, G; del Río Portilla, M A

    2008-09-01

    Culture of the pleasure oyster Crassostrea corteziensis is emerging as an alternative to the Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) for oyster producers, who face severe mortalities since 1997 in Northwest México. For determining the health status of this species, we conducted a histopathological analysis of cultured populations from two estuaries in the Pacific coast of México. Macroscopical analysis revealed animals with transparent and retracted mantle. Histopathological analysis of these specimens showed tissue alterations and parasitic forms consistent with Perkinsus sp. infection. Stages of the parasite identified included tomont and trophozoites with an eccentric vacuole characteristic of Perkinsus spp. Pieces of tissues of infected oysters were incubated in Fluid Thioglycollate Medium (FTM) resulting in blue-black hypnospores after incubation. The identity of the parasite was confirmed by species specific PCR-based assay in DNA samples from oysters, tissue fractions from FTM cultures, and deparaffined samples with Perkinsus-like parasite detected by histology. Sequencing of positive amplified fragments (307bp) showed a sequence similar to Perkinsus marinus strain TXsc NTS ribosomal RNA gene (100% coverage and 98% identity, GenBank Accession No. AF497479.1) and to P. marinus, Genomic DNA, (100% coverage and 97% identity, GenBank Accession No. S78416.1). The prevalence of P. marinus varied from 1 to 5% in Boca del Camichín and from 1 to 6% in Pozo Chino. In general, the intensity of infection was moderate. The infection was observed in oysters from 31 to 110mm of shell length. This is the first record of P. marinus in oysters from the North America Pacific coast and the first record in C. corteziensis. The origin of this parasite in the area is unknown, but it may be associated to introductions of Crassostrea virginica from the East coast of United States of America or Gulf of México.

  12. Frequent non-storm washover of barrier islands, Pacific coast of Colombia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morton, R.A.; Gonzalez, J.L.; Lopez, G.I.; Correa, I.D.

    2000-01-01

    Barrier islands of the Pacific coast of Colombia repeatedly experience severe washover even when breaking waves in the eastern Pacific are low and onshore winds are calm. On the barrier island of El Choncho, recent non-storm washover events have breached a new inlet, caused rapid beach retreat, destroyed a shoreline protection structure, and flooded a small village of indigenous people so frequently that it had to be relocated. Barrier washover may be augmented by lowered land elevations associated with earthquake-induced subsidence or long-term beach retreat, but temporally it is most closely associated with a 20 to 30 cm regional increase in sea level caused by El Nino. The contradiction of a tranquil tropical island scene simultaneously disturbed by hostile turbulent washover may be unique at present, but it exemplifies how coastal plains throughout the world would be affected if sea level were to rise rapidly as a result of global warming.

  13. Movement of the 2011 Off the Pacific Coast of Tohoku Earthquake Detected by VERA Geophysical Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jike, T.; Manabe, S.; Tamura, Y.; Shizugami, M.

    2012-12-01

    The VERA project is carrying out daily GPS observations in parallel with geodetic VLBI observations, in order to monitor motion of the position of the VERA antenna stations. And continuous measurement of gravity is performed as co-location or a station of GGP in Kamioka mine and Mizusawa. These geophysical observations caught co-seismic or post-seismic phenomena, crustal movement, change of the atmospheric pressure by tsunami, post-seismic creeping, and free oscillation of the Earth, accompanying the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake.

  14. Hindcasts of potential harmful algal bloom transport pathways on the Pacific Northwest coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giddings, S. N.; MacCready, P.; Hickey, B. M.; Banas, N. S.; Davis, K. A.; Siedlecki, S. A.; Trainer, V. L.; Kudela, R. M.; Pelland, N. A.; Connolly, T. P.

    2014-04-01

    Harmful algal blooms (HABs) pose a significant threat to human and marine organism health, and negatively impact coastal economies around the world. An improved understanding of HAB formation and transport is required to improve forecasting skill. A realistic numerical simulation of the US Pacific Northwest region is used to investigate transport pathways from known HAB formation hot spots, specifically for Pseudo-nitzschia (Pn), to the coast. We show that transport pathways are seasonal, with transport to the Washington (WA) coast from a northern source (the Juan de Fuca Eddy) during the summer/fall upwelling season and from a southern source (Heceta Bank) during the winter/early spring due to the predominant wind-driven currents. Interannual variability in transport from the northern source is related to the degree of wind intermittency with more transport during years with more frequent relaxation/downwelling events. The Columbia River plume acts to mitigate transport to the coast as the plume front blocks onshore transport. The plume's influence on alongshore transport is variable although critical in aiding transport from the southern source to the WA coast via plume entrainment. Overall transport from our simulations captures most observed Pn HAB beach events from 2004 to 2007 (characterized by Pseudo-nitzschia cell abundance); however, numerous false positives occur. We show that incorporating phytoplankton biomass results from a coupled biogeochemical model reduces the number of false positives significantly and thus improves our Pn HAB predictions.

  15. Records of chimaeroid fishes (Holocephali: Chimaeriformes) from the Pacific coast of Costa Rica, with the description of a new species of Chimera (Chimaeridae) from the eastern Pacific Ocean.

    PubMed

    Angulo, Arturo; López, Myrna I; Bussing, William A; Murase, Atsunobu

    2014-09-18

    A new species of Chimaera Linnaeus 1758 is described from three specimens collected from off the Pacific coasts of Costa Rica and Peru. Chimaera orientalis n. sp., the first species of the genus described from the eastern Pacific Ocean, is distinguished from its other congeners by a combination of coloration and morphology. Additionally, new records of occurrence for another four species of chimaeroid fishes (Harriotta raleighana (Goode & Bean 1895), Rhinochimaera africana Compagno, Stehmann & Ebert 1990, Hydrolagus colliei Lay & Bennett 1839, and H. macrophthalmus de Buen 1959) previously unknown for the continental shelf of the Pacific coast of Costa Rica and Central America are reported. A key to the eastern Pacific species of the order Chimaeriformes is also presented.

  16. Historical Earthquakes And Their Geologic Signature On The Guerrero, Mexican Pacific Coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramírez Herrera, M.; Rangel, V.; Kostoglodov, V.; Ruíz-Fernández, A.; Machain, M.; Caballero, M.; Goguitchaichrili, A.

    2012-12-01

    Historical, ethnographic and instrumental data show that the Pacific coast of Mexico has been exposed to destructive tsunamis over at least the past 500 years. This coast parallels the active Mexican subduction zone, where earthquakes M > 8 have been registered and are known to have triggered tsunamis. The purpose of our study was two-fold, a) to determine whether we could distinguish the geologic signature of historical earthquakes, and b) whether tsunami deposits are preserved in the tropical environments of the Barra de Potosí Bay, Guerrero coast. Multiple sites were dug and cores recovered to determine the presence, continuity and extension of a sharp basal contact between a clayish silt unit and a sand unit. The trench, pit, and monolith at Barra de Potosí yield a similar stratigraphy. Several lines of evidence using a multi-proxy approach (historical studies, interviews with local witnesses, geomorphological and geological surveys, coring and trenching, and laboratory analyses including grain size, micropaleontology, geochemistry, magnetic susceptibility and radiometric dating - Pb-210 and C-14) indicate the occurrence of two earthquakes that we link to local events: the 1985 (M 8.1) Mexico and possibly the 1907 (M 8.3) earthquake. No conclusive evidence of tsunami deposits were recognized, however an anomalous sand layer with incorporated mud clasts, shallow marine foraminifera, and the presence of organic debris in this sand bed suggests a mixture of terrestrial influence associated with the inland transport of high-energy marine material most likely from a nearshore beach environment. The radiocarbon dates provide a minimum age i.e. the maximum estimate for the period of burial of the plant material in the lower observed sand layer of ca. 2320-2050 cal yr BP (Cal BC 370 to 100). We thereby provide onshore geological evidence of historical coseismic deformation and possibly a tsunami on the Pacific coast of Mexico.

  17. The influence of atmospheric conditions on the leakage current of ceramic insulators on the Colombian Caribbean coast.

    PubMed

    Castillo Sierra, Rafael; Oviedo-Trespalacios, Oscar; Candelo, John E; Soto, Jose D

    2015-02-01

    The contamination of electrical insulators is one of the major contributors to the risk of operation outages in electrical substations, especially in coastal zones with high salinity levels and atmospheric pollution. By using the measurement of leakage-currents, which is one of the main indicators of contamination in insulators, this work seeks to the determine the correlation with climatic variables, such as ambient temperature, relative humidity, solar irradiance, atmospheric pressure and wind speed and direction. The results obtained provide an input to the behaviour of the leakage current under atmospheric conditions that are particular to the Caribbean coast of Colombia. Spearman's rank correlation coefficients and principal component analysis are utilised to determine the significant relationships among the different variables under consideration. The necessary information for the study was obtained via historical databases of both atmospheric variables and the leakage current measured in over a period of 1 year in a 220-kV potential transformer insulator. We identified the influencing factors of temperature, humidity, radiation, wind speed and direction on the magnitude of the leakage current as the most relevant.

  18. The influence of atmospheric conditions on the leakage current of ceramic insulators on the Colombian Caribbean coast.

    PubMed

    Castillo Sierra, Rafael; Oviedo-Trespalacios, Oscar; Candelo, John E; Soto, Jose D

    2015-02-01

    The contamination of electrical insulators is one of the major contributors to the risk of operation outages in electrical substations, especially in coastal zones with high salinity levels and atmospheric pollution. By using the measurement of leakage-currents, which is one of the main indicators of contamination in insulators, this work seeks to the determine the correlation with climatic variables, such as ambient temperature, relative humidity, solar irradiance, atmospheric pressure and wind speed and direction. The results obtained provide an input to the behaviour of the leakage current under atmospheric conditions that are particular to the Caribbean coast of Colombia. Spearman's rank correlation coefficients and principal component analysis are utilised to determine the significant relationships among the different variables under consideration. The necessary information for the study was obtained via historical databases of both atmospheric variables and the leakage current measured in over a period of 1 year in a 220-kV potential transformer insulator. We identified the influencing factors of temperature, humidity, radiation, wind speed and direction on the magnitude of the leakage current as the most relevant. PMID:25339532

  19. Parasites of cetaceans stranded on the Pacific coast of Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, J B; Morales, J A; González-Barrientos, R C; Hernández-Gamboa, J; Hernández-Mora, G

    2011-12-15

    Information regarding parasitic fauna of cetaceans from Costa Rica is provided for the first time. A total of 25 stranded dolphins and whales were examined between 2001 and 2009, including striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba) (n=19), pantropical spotted dolphin (S. attenuata) (n=2), spinner dolphin (S. longirostris) (n=1), bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) (n=1), dwarf sperm whale (Kogia sima) (n=1) and Cuvier's beaked whale (Ziphius cavirostris) (n=1). Pathological findings associated with the parasites are also presented. In the most representative dolphin species, S. coeruleoalba, the prevalence of parasites was 89.5%; moreover, all examined specimens of S. attenuata, S. longirostris, T. truncatus and Z. cavirostris presented parasites. No parasites were recovered from K. sima. Fourteen helminth taxa were identified, including six species of cestodes (Strobilocephalus triangularis, Tetrabothrius forsteri, Trigonocotyle sp., Phyllobothrium delphini, Monorygma grimaldi, Tetraphyllidea gen. sp. plerocercoid), four digeneans (Nasitrema globicephalae, Brachycladium palliatum, B. pacificum and Oschmarinella albamarina) and four nematodes (Anisakis spp., Halocercus lagenorhynchi, Halocercus sp. and Crassicauda anthonyi). A commensal crustacean, Xenobalanus globicipitis, was also identified. All identified parasites representing new geographic records for the Pacific coast of Central America and new host records are presented. Parasitological information is valuable for conservation of cetaceans in Pacific coast of Costa Rica. PMID:21665367

  20. Seasonal Levels of the Vibrio Predator Bacteriovorax in Atlantic, Pacific, and Gulf Coast Seawater

    PubMed Central

    Richards, Gary P.; Watson, Michael A.; Boyd, E. Fidelma; Burkhardt, William; Lau, Ronald; Uknalis, Joseph; Fay, Johnna P.

    2013-01-01

    Bacteriovorax were quantified in US Atlantic, Gulf, and Pacific seawater to determine baseline levels of these predatory bacteria and possible seasonal fluctuations in levels. Surface seawater was analyzed monthly for 1 year from Kailua-Kona, Hawaii; the Gulf Coast of Alabama; and four sites along the Delaware Bay. Screening for Bacteriovorax was performed on lawns of V. parahaemolyticus host cells. Direct testing of 7.5 mL portions of seawater from the Atlantic, Pacific, and Gulf coasts gave mean annual counts ≤12.2 PFU. Spikes in counts were observed at 3 out of 4 sites along the Delaware Bay 1 week after Hurricane Sandy. A comparison of summer versus winter counts showed significantly more Bacteriovorax (P ≤ 0.0001) in the Delaware Bay during the summer and significantly more (P ≤ 0.0001) in the Gulf during the winter, but no significant seasonal differences (P > 0.05) for Hawaiian seawater. Bacteriovorax counts only correlated with seawater salinity and temperature at one Delaware site (r = 0.79 and r = 0.65, resp.). There was a relatively strong negative correlation between temperature and Bacteriovorax levels (r = −0.585) for Gulf seawater. Selected isolates were sequenced and identified by phylogenetic analysis as Bacteriovorax clusters IX, X, XI, and XII. PMID:24454382

  1. The Eco-epidemiology of Pacific Coast Tick Fever in California

    PubMed Central

    Bonilla, Denise; Eremeeva, Marina E.; Glaser, Carol; Lane, Robert S.; Porse, Charsey Cole; Castro, Martin B.; Messenger, Sharon; Espinosa, Alex; Hacker, Jill; Kjemtrup, Anne; Ryan, Bonnie; Scott, Jamesina J.; Hu, Renjie; Yoshimizu, Melissa Hardstone; Dasch, Gregory A.; Kramer, Vicki

    2016-01-01

    Rickettsia philipii (type strain “Rickettsia 364D”), the etiologic agent of Pacific Coast tick fever (PCTF), is transmitted to people by the Pacific Coast tick, Dermacentor occidentalis. Following the first confirmed human case of PCTF in 2008, 13 additional human cases have been reported in California, more than half of which were pediatric cases. The most common features of PCTF are the presence of at least one necrotic lesion known as an eschar (100%), fever (85%), and headache (79%); four case-patients required hospitalization and four had multiple eschars. Findings presented here implicate the nymphal or larval stages of D. occidentalis as the primary vectors of R. philipii to people. Peak transmission risk from ticks to people occurs in late summer. Rickettsia philipii DNA was detected in D. occidentalis ticks from 15 of 37 California counties. Similarly, non-pathogenic Rickettsia rhipicephali DNA was detected in D. occidentalis in 29 of 38 counties with an average prevalence of 12.0% in adult ticks. In total, 5,601 ticks tested from 2009 through 2015 yielded an overall R. philipii infection prevalence of 2.1% in adults, 0.9% in nymphs and a minimum infection prevalence of 0.4% in larval pools. Although most human cases of PCTF have been reported from northern California, acarological surveillance suggests that R. philipii may occur throughout the distribution range of D. occidentalis. PMID:27706171

  2. Parasites of cetaceans stranded on the Pacific coast of Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, J B; Morales, J A; González-Barrientos, R C; Hernández-Gamboa, J; Hernández-Mora, G

    2011-12-15

    Information regarding parasitic fauna of cetaceans from Costa Rica is provided for the first time. A total of 25 stranded dolphins and whales were examined between 2001 and 2009, including striped dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba) (n=19), pantropical spotted dolphin (S. attenuata) (n=2), spinner dolphin (S. longirostris) (n=1), bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) (n=1), dwarf sperm whale (Kogia sima) (n=1) and Cuvier's beaked whale (Ziphius cavirostris) (n=1). Pathological findings associated with the parasites are also presented. In the most representative dolphin species, S. coeruleoalba, the prevalence of parasites was 89.5%; moreover, all examined specimens of S. attenuata, S. longirostris, T. truncatus and Z. cavirostris presented parasites. No parasites were recovered from K. sima. Fourteen helminth taxa were identified, including six species of cestodes (Strobilocephalus triangularis, Tetrabothrius forsteri, Trigonocotyle sp., Phyllobothrium delphini, Monorygma grimaldi, Tetraphyllidea gen. sp. plerocercoid), four digeneans (Nasitrema globicephalae, Brachycladium palliatum, B. pacificum and Oschmarinella albamarina) and four nematodes (Anisakis spp., Halocercus lagenorhynchi, Halocercus sp. and Crassicauda anthonyi). A commensal crustacean, Xenobalanus globicipitis, was also identified. All identified parasites representing new geographic records for the Pacific coast of Central America and new host records are presented. Parasitological information is valuable for conservation of cetaceans in Pacific coast of Costa Rica.

  3. Did an underwater landslide trigger the June 22, 1932 tsunami off the Pacific coast of Mexico?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corona, Néstor; Ramírez-Herrera, María-Teresa

    2015-12-01

    On June 22, 1932, a 10- to 12-m-high tsunami wave struck ~60 km off the Mexican Pacific coast. The associated earthquake that apparently produced this tsunami is questionable because of its relatively small magnitude ( M s = 6.9) to produce such tsunami heights. Historical documents, survivor testimony, tsunami catalogs, a post-tsunami survey report, together with geomorphological interpretation of the continental shelf and slope, and numerical modeling were combined to characterize the tsunami parameters. Our results suggest that recorded maximum tsunami wave height, horizontal inundation, arrival time, directivity, effects, and damage are compatible with those characteristics related to an underwater landslide tsunami. The associated landslide (slump) is 4.2 km long, 3.9 km wide, 0.448 km thick, and is located in the upper continental shelf of the Armería Canyon. Elucidating the cause and mechanisms of the near-field 1932 tsunami would aid in considering a wider spectrum of tsunami sources in hazard mitigation programs of the Mexican Pacific coast.

  4. Post-glacial sea-level change along the Pacific coast of North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shugar, Dan H.; Walker, Ian J.; Lian, Olav B.; Eamer, Jordan B. R.; Neudorf, Christina; McLaren, Duncan; Fedje, Daryl

    2014-08-01

    Sea-level history since the Last Glacial Maximum on the Pacific margin of North America is complex and heterogeneous owing to regional differences in crustal deformation (neotectonics), changes in global ocean volumes (eustasy) and the depression and rebound of the Earth's crust in response to ice sheets on land (isostasy). At the Last Glacial Maximum, the Cordilleran Ice Sheet depressed the crust over which it formed and created a raised forebulge along peripheral areas offshore. This, combined with different tectonic settings along the coast, resulted in divergent relative sea-level responses during the Holocene. For example, sea level was up to 200 m higher than present in the lower Fraser Valley region of southwest British Columbia, due largely to isostatic depression. At the same time, sea level was 150 m lower than present in Haida Gwaii, on the northern coast of British Columbia, due to the combined effects of the forebulge raising the land and lower eustatic sea level. A forebulge also developed in parts of southeast Alaska resulting in post-glacial sea levels at least 122 m lower than present and possibly as low as 165 m. On the coasts of Washington and Oregon, as well as south-central Alaska, neotectonics and eustasy seem to have played larger roles than isostatic adjustments in controlling relative sea-level changes.

  5. The potential effects of global climate change on the distribution of native and introduced Zostera seagrasses on the Pacific Coast of North America

    EPA Science Inventory

    At least two seagrass species in the genus Zostera occur on the Pacific coast of North America: the native species Zostera marina L., and an introduced species, Z. japonica Ascher. & Graeb. Z. marina occurs along the entire Pacific coast of the United States and Canada. Zos...

  6. Tsunamis on the Pacific Coast of Canada Recorded in 1994-2007

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephenson, Frederick E.; Rabinovich, Alexander B.

    2009-02-01

    In the last 15 years there have been 16 tsunami events recorded at tide stations on the Pacific Coast of Canada. Eleven of these events were from distant sources covering almost all regions of the Pacific, as well as the December 26, 2004 Sumatra tsunami in the Indian Ocean. Three tsunamis were generated by local or regional earthquakes and two were meteorological tsunamis. The earliest four events, which occurred in the period 1994-1996, were recorded on analogue recorders; these tsunami records were recently re-examined, digitized and thoroughly analysed. The other 12 tsunami events were recorded using digital high-quality instruments, with 1-min sampling interval, installed on the coast of British Columbia (B.C.) in 1998. All 16 tsunami events were recorded at Tofino on the outer B.C. coast, and some of the tsunamis were recorded at eight or more stations. The tide station at Tofino has been in operation for 100 years and these recent observations add to the dataset of tsunami events compiled previously by S.O. W igen (1983) for the period 1906-1980. For each of the tsunami records statistical analysis was carried out to determine essential tsunami characteristics for all events (arrival times, maximum amplitudes, frequencies and wave-train structure). The analysis of the records indicated that significant background noise at Langara, a key northern B.C. Tsunami Warning station located near the northern end of the Queen Charlotte Islands, creates serious problems in detecting tsunami waves. That station has now been moved to a new location with better tsunami response. The number of tsunami events observed in the past 15 years also justified re-establishing a tide gauge at Port Alberni, where large tsunami wave amplitudes were measured in March 1964. The two meteorological events are the first ever recorded on the B.C. coast. Also, there have been landslide generated tsunami events which, although not recorded on any coastal tide gauges, demonstrate, along with

  7. Liquefied Natural Gas Terminal Siting in a Highly Seismic Region on the Mexican Pacific Coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaczek, Yannick; Lambert, Nicolas

    A new LNG terminal should be built on the Pacific coast of Mexico, one of the most seismic regions in the world. According to International codes, a siting process must be carried out to insure the feasibility of the project, which involves, in a first step, a data collection of all existing documents related to geology, seismicity, and geotechnics. As a second step, a seismo-tectonic study has been performed, with localisation of active faults on or close to the site (aerial and satellite imagery, geophysical investigations) and determination of OBE & SSE levels. Afterwards, the site was globally characterised, with a first geotechnical report, dealing with liquefaction risks, typical soil layers, and general foundation methodology. The general site layout, the general stability of buildings, the detailed soil investigations, and the detailed foundation design are performed in the phases as described in this paper.

  8. Large genetic distances among Aedes aegypti populations along the South Pacific coast of Mexico.

    PubMed

    García-Franco, Francisco; Muńoz, Maria De Lourdes; Lozano-Fuentes, Saul; Fernandez-Salas, Ildefonso; Garcia-Rejon, Julian; Beaty, Barry J; Black, William C

    2002-05-01

    A population genetic analysis was conducted among 20 Aedes aegypti collections from 19 cities along the south Pacific coast in the Mexican states of Guerrero, Oaxaca, and Chiapas and in Coatepeque, Guatemala. Genetic variation was scored at 131 random amplified polymorphic DNA loci. The amount of genetic differentiation among collections was approximately 3 times as great as detected among collections in an earlier study in northeastern Mexico. Regression analysis of linear or road distances on linearized F(ST) indicated that collections are genetically isolated by distance. Cluster analysis failed to group collections in geographic proximity, and there was as much genetic variation among collections 60 km apart as there was among all collections (approximately 900-km range). The large genetic differentiation in southern Mexico reflects reduced gene flow among mosquitoes arising in a greater diversity of habitats and altitudes than exists among northeastern collections. It is likely that dispersal via human commerce in the northeast confounds patterns of natural gene flow.

  9. Clinical and molecular characterisation of two siblings with fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva, from the Colombian Pacific coast (South America).

    PubMed

    Pachajoa, Harry; Botero, Andres Felipe Ramirez

    2015-06-08

    Fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP, MIM 135 100) is an uncommon genetic disease with a dominant autosomal germline transmission pattern; however, most cases are products of spontaneous individual mutations. It is a disabling condition that affects connective tissue, and it is distinguished by progressive heterotopic ossifications and congenital malformations of the great toes. The case of 2 brothers with progressive osseous deformation, along with ankylosis of the jaw, scoliosis and mental retardation, is presented. Blood samples were taken from each patient identifying in both of them a heterozygote mutation in exon 6 of the gene ACVR1 (c.617G>A p.Arg206His), which diagnoses the 'classic' form of FOP. The current medical treatment of this disease is early detection to avoid trauma and aggravating factors, prophylactic measures against infections and respiratory decline, symptomatic relief and physical therapy. There is currently no cure for the disease.

  10. usSEABED: Pacific coast (California, Oregon, Washington) offshore surficial-sediment data release

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reid, Jane A.; Reid, Jamey M.; Jenkins, Chris J.; Zimmermann, Mark; Williams, S. Jeffress; Field, Michael E.

    2006-01-01

    Over the past 50 years there has been an explosion in scientific interest, research effort, and information gathered on the geologic sedimentary character of the continental margin of the United States. Data and information from thousands of publications have greatly increased our scientific understanding of the geologic origins of the margin surface but rarely have those data been combined and integrated. This publication is the first release of the Pacific coast data from the usSEABED database. The report contains a compilation of published and unpublished sediment texture and other geologic data about the sea floor from diverse sources. usSEABED is an innovative database system developed to unify assorted data, with the data processed by the dbSEABED system. Examples of maps displaying attributes such as grain size and sediment color are included. This database contains information that is a scientific foundation for the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Sea floor Mapping and Benthic Habitats project and the Marine Aggregate Resources and Processes assessment project, and will be useful to the marine science community for other studies of the Pacific coast continental margin. The publication is divided into 10 sections: Home, Introduction, Content, usSEABED (data), dbSEABED (processing), Data Catalog, References, Contacts, Acknowledgments, and Frequently Asked Questions. Use the navigation bar on the left to navigate to specific sections of this report. Underlined topics throughout the publication are links to more information. Links to specific and detailed information on processing and to those to pages outside this report will open in a new browser window.

  11. Phylogeography and biogeography concordance in the marine gastropod Crepipatella dilatata (Calyptraeidae) along the southeastern Pacific coast.

    PubMed

    Brante, Antonio; Fernández, Miriam; Viard, Frédérique

    2012-01-01

    The biogeography and phylogeography concordance hypothesis suggests that the same factors, for instance physical barriers or environmental gradients, shape both species assemblages and intraspecific genetic structure. In the marine realm, previous studies have however suggested that phylogeographic patterns are also explained by the life-history strategy of the species. However, evidence is contradictory and comes mainly from the northern hemisphere, which is characterized by specific environmental conditions and evolutionary histories of species. In this work, we evaluated the concordance hypothesis in the southern Pacific using the marine gastropod Crepipatella dilatata as a case study. This intertidal species with direct development exhibited a restricted dispersal potential, a feature that contrasts with previous species studied in the same area. Using the gene cytochrome oxidase I, we analyzed 253 individuals sampled at 10 locations covering 543 km of the coast of Chile. The study sites also incorporated 2 biogeographic regions separated by a well-studied biogeographic break (at 30°S). Populations of C. dilatata displayed a high degree of genetic structure and a perfect match between phylogeographic and biogeographic breaks at 30°S. When comparing our data with previous research over the same geographic range, life history traits related to dispersal ability seem to be a good proxy for explaining the concordance between biogeography and phylogeography along the southeastern pacific coast. In addition, in this and other marine invertebrate species, gene flow limitations across both sides of the 30°S break may act as a driver of the speciation process. PMID:22573790

  12. Trends in Marine Debris along the U.S. Pacific Coast and Hawai’i 1998-2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ribic, Christine; Seba B. Sheavly,; Rugg, David J.; Erdmann, Eric S.

    2012-01-01

    We assessed amounts, composition, and trends of marine debris for the U.S. Pacific Coast and Hawai’i using National Marine Debris Monitoring Program data. Hawai’i had the highest debris loads; the North Pacific Coast region had the lowest debris loads. The Southern California Bight region had the highest land-based debris loads. Debris loads decreased over time for all source categories in all regions except for land-based and general-source loads in the North Pacific Coast region, which were unchanged. General-source debris comprised 30–40% of the items in all regions. Larger local populations were associated with higher land-based debris loads across regions; the effect declined at higher population levels. Upwelling affected deposition of ocean-based and general-source debris loads but not land-based loads along the Pacific Coast. LNSO decreased debris loads for both land-based and ocean-based debris but not general-source debris in Hawai’i, a more complex climate-ocean effect than had previously been found.

  13. Trends in marine debris along the U.S. Pacific Coast and Hawai'i 1998-2007.

    PubMed

    Ribic, Christine A; Sheavly, Seba B; Rugg, David J; Erdmann, Eric S

    2012-05-01

    We assessed amounts, composition, and trends of marine debris for the U.S. Pacific Coast and Hawai'i using National Marine Debris Monitoring Program data. Hawai'i had the highest debris loads; the North Pacific Coast region had the lowest debris loads. The Southern California Bight region had the highest land-based debris loads. Debris loads decreased over time for all source categories in all regions except for land-based and general-source loads in the North Pacific Coast region, which were unchanged. General-source debris comprised 30-40% of the items in all regions. Larger local populations were associated with higher land-based debris loads across regions; the effect declined at higher population levels. Upwelling affected deposition of ocean-based and general-source debris loads but not land-based loads along the Pacific Coast. LNSO decreased debris loads for both land-based and ocean-based debris but not general-source debris in Hawai'i, a more complex climate-ocean effect than had previously been found.

  14. Spring migration routes and chronology of surf scoters (Melanitta perspicillata): a synthesis of Pacific coast studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    de la Cruz, S.E.W.; Takekawa, J.Y.; Wilson, M.T.; Nysewander, D.R.; Evenson, J.R.; Esler, Daniel; Boyd, W.S.; Ward, D.H.

    2009-01-01

    Understanding interconnectivity among wintering, stopover, and breeding areas of migratory birds is pivotal to discerning how events occurring in each might have a cross-seasonal effect on another. Such information can guide the location and timing of conservation efforts. Thus, we examined spring migration routes, chronology, and stopover use of 85 surf scoters (Melanitta perspicillata (L., 1758)) marked with satellite transmitters at four Pacific Flyway wintering sites: San Quintin Bay, Baja California; San Francisco Bay, California; Puget Sound, Washington; and Strait of Georgia, British Columbia. Eighty-three percent of marked scoters followed two main routes to the breeding area: a Southern Inland route involving staging in Puget Sound and Strait of Georgia and protracted inland migration, or a Northern Coastal route characterized by short movements along the Pacific coast of British Columbia and southeast Alaska with inland migration initiating from Lynn Canal and surrounding areas. Route choice was related to nesting site latitude in the Canadian Northern Boreal Forest. Data from birds tracked over 2 years indicated strong migration route fidelity, but altered chronology and stopover locations between years. Departure date varied by wintering site, but arrival and apparent settling dates were synchronous, suggesting individuals adjusted migration timing to meet an optimized reproductive schedule.

  15. The first dinosaur from Washington State and a review of Pacific coast dinosaurs from North America.

    PubMed

    Peecook, Brandon R; Sidor, Christian A

    2015-01-01

    We describe the first diagnostic dinosaur fossil from Washington State. The specimen, which consists of a proximal left femur, was recovered from the shallow marine rocks of the Upper Cretaceous (Campanian) Cedar District Formation (Nanaimo Group) and is interpreted as pertaining to a large theropod on the basis of its hollow medullary cavity and proximally placed fourth trochanter. The Washington theropod represents one of the northernmost occurrences of a Mesozoic dinosaur on the west coast of the United States and one of only a handful from the Pacific coast of Laramidia during the Cretaceous. Its isolated nature and preservation in marine rocks suggest that the element was washed in from a nearby fluvial system. If the femur pertains to a tyrannosauroid, which seems likely given its size and the widespread occurrence of the group across Laramidia during Late Cretaceous times, then it would represent an earlier occurrence of large body size than previously recognized (complete femur length estimated at 1.2 meters). Uncertainty surrounding the latitude of deposition of the Nanaimo Group (i.e., the Baja-British Columbia hypothesis) precludes assigning the Washington theropod to either of the putative northern or southern biogeographic provinces of Laramidia.

  16. NOAA/West Coast and Alaska Tsunami Warning Center Pacific Ocean response criteria

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Whitmore, P.; Benz, H.; Bolton, M.; Crawford, G.; Dengler, L.; Fryer, G.; Goltz, J.; Hansen, R.; Kryzanowski, K.; Malone, S.; Oppenheimer, D.; Petty, E.; Rogers, G.; Wilson, Jim

    2008-01-01

    New West Coast/Alaska Tsunami Warning Center (WCATWC) response criteria for earthquakes occurring in the Pacific basin are presented. Initial warning decisions are based on earthquake location, magnitude, depth, and - dependent on magnitude - either distance from source or precomputed threat estimates generated from tsunami models. The new criteria will help limit the geographical extent of warnings and advisories to threatened regions, and complement the new operational tsunami product suite. Changes to the previous criteria include: adding hypocentral depth dependence, reducing geographical warning extent for the lower magnitude ranges, setting special criteria for areas not well-connected to the open ocean, basing warning extent on pre-computed threat levels versus tsunami travel time for very large events, including the new advisory product, using the advisory product for far-offshore events in the lower magnitude ranges, and specifying distances from the coast for on-shore events which may be tsunamigenic. This report sets a baseline for response criteria used by the WCATWC considering its processing and observational data capabilities as well as its organizational requirements. Criteria are set for tsunamis generated by earthquakes, which are by far the main cause of tsunami generation (either directly through sea floor displacement or indirectly by triggering of slumps). As further research and development provides better tsunami source definition, observational data streams, and improved analysis tools, the criteria will continue to adjust. Future lines of research and development capable of providing operational tsunami warning centers with better tools are discussed.

  17. The First Dinosaur from Washington State and a Review of Pacific Coast Dinosaurs from North America

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    We describe the first diagnostic dinosaur fossil from Washington State. The specimen, which consists of a proximal left femur, was recovered from the shallow marine rocks of the Upper Cretaceous (Campanian) Cedar District Formation (Nanaimo Group) and is interpreted as pertaining to a large theropod on the basis of its hollow medullary cavity and proximally placed fourth trochanter. The Washington theropod represents one of the northernmost occurrences of a Mesozoic dinosaur on the west coast of the United States and one of only a handful from the Pacific coast of Laramidia during the Cretaceous. Its isolated nature and preservation in marine rocks suggest that the element was washed in from a nearby fluvial system. If the femur pertains to a tyrannosauroid, which seems likely given its size and the widespread occurrence of the group across Laramidia during Late Cretaceous times, then it would represent an earlier occurrence of large body size than previously recognized (complete femur length estimated at 1.2 meters). Uncertainty surrounding the latitude of deposition of the Nanaimo Group (i.e., the Baja-British Columbia hypothesis) precludes assigning the Washington theropod to either of the putative northern or southern biogeographic provinces of Laramidia. PMID:25993090

  18. Population genetic structure of annual and perennial populations of Zostera marina L. along the Pacific coast of Baja California and the Gulf of California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Munoz-Salazar, R.; Talbot, S.L.; Sage, G.K.; Ward, D.H.; Cabello-Pasini, Alejandro

    2005-01-01

    The Baja California peninsula represents a biogeographical boundary contributing to regional differentiation among populations of marine animals. We investigated the genetic characteristics of perennial and annual populations of the marine angiosperm, Zostera marina, along the Pacific coast of Baja California and in the Gulf of California, respectively. Populations of Z. marina from five coastal lagoons along the Pacific coast and four sites in the Gulf of California were studied using nine microsatellite loci. Analyses of variance revealed significant interregional differentiation, but no subregional differentiation. Significant spatial differentiation, assessed using θ values, was observed among all populations within the two regions. Z. marina populations along the Pacific coast are separated by more than 220 km and had the greatest θ (0.13-0.28) values, suggesting restricted gene flow. In contrast, lower but still significant genetic differentiation was observed among populations within the Gulf of California (θ = 0.04-0.18), even though populations are separated by more than 250 km. This suggests higher levels of gene flow among Gulf of California populations relative to Pacific coast populations. Direction of gene flow was predominantly southward among Pacific coast populations, whereas no dominant polarity in the Gulf of California populations was observed. The test for isolation by distance (IBD) showed a significant correlation between genetic and geographical distances in Gulf of California populations, but not in Pacific coast populations, perhaps because of shifts in currents during El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events along the Pacific coast.

  19. Population genetic structure of annual and perennial populations of Zostera marina L. along the Pacific coast of Baja California and the Gulf of California.

    PubMed

    Muñiz-Salazar, Raquel; Talbot, Sandra L; Sage, George K; Ward, David H; Cabello-Pasini, Alejandro

    2005-03-01

    The Baja California peninsula represents a biogeographical boundary contributing to regional differentiation among populations of marine animals. We investigated the genetic characteristics of perennial and annual populations of the marine angiosperm, Zostera marina, along the Pacific coast of Baja California and in the Gulf of California, respectively. Populations of Z. marina from five coastal lagoons along the Pacific coast and four sites in the Gulf of California were studied using nine microsatellite loci. Analyses of variance revealed significant interregional differentiation, but no subregional differentiation. Significant spatial differentiation, assessed using theta(ST) values, was observed among all populations within the two regions. Z. marina populations along the Pacific coast are separated by more than 220 km and had the greatest theta(ST) (0.13-0.28) values, suggesting restricted gene flow. In contrast, lower but still significant genetic differentiation was observed among populations within the Gulf of California (theta(ST) = 0.04-0.18), even though populations are separated by more than 250 km. This suggests higher levels of gene flow among Gulf of California populations relative to Pacific coast populations. Direction of gene flow was predominantly southward among Pacific coast populations, whereas no dominant polarity in the Gulf of California populations was observed. The test for isolation by distance (IBD) showed a significant correlation between genetic and geographical distances in Gulf of California populations, but not in Pacific coast populations, perhaps because of shifts in currents during El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events along the Pacific coast.

  20. Biomass Carbon in the South Mexican Pacific Coast: Exploring Mangrove Potential to REDD+ Mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bejarano, M.; Amezcua-Torrijos, I.

    2014-12-01

    Mangroves have the highest carbon stocks amongst tropical forests. In Mexico, however, little is known about their potential to mitigate climate change. In this work, we estimated biomass carbon stocks in the Southern Mexican Pacific Coast (~69,000 ha). We quantified above and belowground biomass carbon stocks at (1) the regional scale along two environmental strata (i.e. dry and wet), and (2) at the local scale along three geomorphological types of mangroves (i.e. fringe, estuarine and basin). Regional strata were defined using intensity and influence of rivers and, the mean annual precipitation and evapotranspiration ratio (i.e., wet < 1 > dry). By lowering the stressing environmental conditions (e.g., low salinity and high sediment accumulation), we expected the highest stocks in mangroves growing in wet and estuarine strata at the regional scale and local scale, respectively. Quantifications were carried out in sixty-six sites chosen through stratified randomized design in which six strata were obtained by a full combination of regional and local strata. In all strata, aboveground carbon represents 64-67% of total carbon. Total biomass carbon was higher in wet than dry stratum (W: 87.3 ± 6.9, D: 47.0 ± 5.0, p<0.001). While at local scale, total biomass carbon was high in estuarine mangroves of both wet and dry regions (W: 91.6 ± 7.8, D: 77.6 ± 14.8, p<0.001), and these were statistically similar to fringe wet mangroves (110.9 ± 24.2, p<0.001), the stratum with the highest total carbon. Following a conservative approach, the Mexican Southern Pacific Coast is storing near 20,344 Gg CO2e. If the historical annual deforestation rate of 0.54% continues, this region could emit between 0.03 and 14.4 Gg of CO2e ha/year, out of which wet estuarine mangroves would have the highest emission values. Evidence suggests that these mangroves are the most important strata in which REDD+ mechanisms could be implemented due to (1) their carbon stocks, and (2) their highest

  1. Population genetics of the invasive cryptogenic anemone, Anemonia alicemartinae, along the southeastern Pacific coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canales-Aguirre, C. B.; Quiñones, A.; Hernández, C. E.; Neill, P. E.; Brante, A.

    2015-08-01

    One of the most important issues in biological invasions is understanding the factors and mechanisms determining the invasion success of non-native species. Theoretical and empirical works have shown that genetic diversity is a determinant of invasion success; thus, studying spatial patterns of genetic diversity, and exploring how biological and physical factors shape this population trait, are fundamental for understanding this phenomenon. Coastal marine ecosystems are one of the most susceptible habitats to invasion given the complex network of maritime transport. In this work we study the cryptogenic anemone, Anemonia alicemartinae, which has rapidly increased its geographical range southward during the last 50 years (approx. 2000 km) along the southeastern Pacific coast. Based on COI mtDNA sequences we evaluated three main hypotheses: a) the genetic diversity of A. alicemartinae decreases according to the direction of invasion (from north to south); b) there is biogeographic-phylogeographic concordance at the 30°S biogeographic break; and c) the demographic history is coherent with a recent geographic expansion. A total of 161 individual samples of A. alicemartinae were collected along the southeastern Pacific coast range of distribution, covering more than 2000 km, including samples along the 30°S biogeographical break. Results showed low genetic diversity (Hd = 0.253; π = 0.08) and a lack of geographic population genetic structure (FST = - 0.009, p-value = 0.656). The highest genetic diversity was observed in Peru (Chero and Mesas) and at localities close to the main Chilean seaports. We did not observe concordance between biogeographic and phylogeographic patterns or isolation by distance. Demographic indices (D = - 2.604, p < 0.001; Fu's = - 26.619, p < 0.001), as well as a star-like configuration of the haplotype network support recent population expansion of this species. Our results, together with historical field observations, support the idea that

  2. Species composition and bathymetric distribution of gorgonians (Anthozoa: Octocorallia) on the Southern Mexican Pacific coast.

    PubMed

    Abeytia, Rosalinda; Guzmán, Hector M; Breedy, Odalisca

    2013-09-01

    Gorgonians are important components of coastal ecosystems, as they provide niches, natural compounds with medical applications and are used as bioindicators. Species composition and assemblage structure of gorgonians (Anthozoa: Octocorallia) were studied along a bathymetric profile in the Southern Mexican Pacific coast. Species composition was based on specimens collected within a depth range of 0-70 m in 15 sites. The relative abundance of species was determined in six sites at four depths (5, 10, 20 and 25 m) using three 10 m2 transects at each depth level. Twenty-seven species of gorgonians belonging to six genera and three families were registered. The species composition varied with depth: 11 species were distributed between 0-25m depth, while 17 species were found between 40-70 m depth interval. The shallow zone is characterized by a relatively large abundance of gorgonians, dominated by colonies of Leptogorgia cuspidata and L. ena. In contrast, the deepest zone was characterized by relatively low abundance of gorgonians, dominated by L. alba, the only species observed in both depth intervals. The similarity analysis showed differences in the composition and abundance of species by depth and site, suggesting that the main factor in determining the assemblage structure is depth. Results of this study suggest that the highest richness of gorgonian species in the study area may be located at depths of 40-70 m, whereas the highest abundances are found between 5 and 10 m depth. This study represents a contribution to the poorly known eastern Pacific gorgonian biota.

  3. Divergent ecological effects of oceanographic anomalies on terrestrial ecosystems of the Mexican Pacific coast.

    PubMed

    Caso, Margarita; González-Abraham, Charlotte; Ezcurra, Exequiel

    2007-06-19

    Precipitation pulses are essential for the regeneration of drylands and have been shown to be related to oceanographic anomalies. However, whereas some studies report increased precipitation in drylands in northern Mexico during El Niño years, others report increased drought in the southern drylands. To elucidate the effect of oceanographic/atmospheric anomalies on moisture pulses along the whole Pacific coast of Mexico, we correlated the average Southern Oscillation Index values with total annual precipitation for 117 weather stations. We also analyzed this relationship for three separate rainfall signals: winter-spring, summer monsoon, and fall precipitation. The results showed a distinct but divergent seasonal pattern: El Niño events tend to bring increased rainfall in the Mexican northwest but tend to increase aridity in the ecosystems of the southern tropical Pacific slope. The analysis for the separated rainfall seasons showed that El Niño conditions produce a marked increase in winter rainfall above 22 degrees latitude, whereas La Niña conditions tend to produce an increase in the summer monsoon-type rainfall that predominates in the tropical south. Because these dryland ecosystems are dependent on rainfall pulses for their renewal, understanding the complex effect of ocean conditions may be critical for their management in the future. Restoration ecology, grazing regimes, carrying capacities, fire risks, and continental runoff into the oceans could be predicted from oceanographic conditions. Monitoring the coupled atmosphere-ocean system may prove to be important in managing and mitigating the effects of large-scale climatic change on coastal drylands in the future.

  4. Divergent ecological effects of oceanographic anomalies on terrestrial ecosystems of the Mexican Pacific coast

    PubMed Central

    Caso, Margarita; González-Abraham, Charlotte; Ezcurra, Exequiel

    2007-01-01

    Precipitation pulses are essential for the regeneration of drylands and have been shown to be related to oceanographic anomalies. However, whereas some studies report increased precipitation in drylands in northern Mexico during El Niño years, others report increased drought in the southern drylands. To elucidate the effect of oceanographic/atmospheric anomalies on moisture pulses along the whole Pacific coast of Mexico, we correlated the average Southern Oscillation Index values with total annual precipitation for 117 weather stations. We also analyzed this relationship for three separate rainfall signals: winter-spring, summer monsoon, and fall precipitation. The results showed a distinct but divergent seasonal pattern: El Niño events tend to bring increased rainfall in the Mexican northwest but tend to increase aridity in the ecosystems of the southern tropical Pacific slope. The analysis for the separated rainfall seasons showed that El Niño conditions produce a marked increase in winter rainfall above 22° latitude, whereas La Niña conditions tend to produce an increase in the summer monsoon-type rainfall that predominates in the tropical south. Because these dryland ecosystems are dependent on rainfall pulses for their renewal, understanding the complex effect of ocean conditions may be critical for their management in the future. Restoration ecology, grazing regimes, carrying capacities, fire risks, and continental runoff into the oceans could be predicted from oceanographic conditions. Monitoring the coupled atmosphere–ocean system may prove to be important in managing and mitigating the effects of large-scale climatic change on coastal drylands in the future. PMID:17563355

  5. 77 FR 65639 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off the West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-30

    ...- Whiting Allocations; Pacific Whiting Seasons AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National... implemented in order to allow fishers access to the available fish during the remainder of the fishing...

  6. [Inshore cetaceans from the North and South Pacific coast of Costa Rica].

    PubMed

    Martínez-Fernández, Damián; Montero-Cordero, Andrea; May-Collado, Laura

    2011-03-01

    Twenty nine cetacean species occur in Costa Rican waters but extensive research has been conducted only for three species. The latter shows there is a lack of general and local information about these mammals, even when the country, has shown a remarkable growth in whale watching activities. The increasing use of marine resources in coastal areas has also developed the need to determine the occurrence of cetaceans in areas showing high tourist presence, in order to propose sound conservation measures. In this study, environmental variables were determined and subsequently related to the presence of the species recorded, out of 166 sightings, between 2005 and 2006. The species with highest proportion of sightings were Stenella attenuata (68%), followed by Megaptera novaeangliae (13%) and Tursiops truncatus (10%). The presence of spotted dolphins is related to changes in salinity and water transparency, while that of the humpback whale was related to wave height (Beaufort scale) and water temperature. The presence of seven species of cetaceans was confirmed in two coastal areas of the Pacific coast of Costa Rica, from which three are present throughout the year. Environmental variables were found related to the presence of at least two species. PMID:21516651

  7. Differential recruitment of introduced Pacific oysters and native mussels at the North Sea coast: coexistence possible?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diederich, Susanne

    2005-04-01

    Pacific oysters ( Crassostrea gigas Thunberg 1793) have been introduced into the Wadden Sea (North Sea), where they settle on native mussel beds ( Mytilus edulis L.), which represent the only extensive insular hard substrata in this soft-sediment environment. As abundances of C. gigas rose, some mussel beds became increasingly overgrown with oysters, whereas others did not. Field experiments revealed that recruitment of C. gigas was higher in the lower intertidal than in the upper subtidal zone, that it was higher on conspecifics than on mussels, and that it was not affected by barnacle epigrowth except when settling on mussels. Mussel recruitment is known from inter- and subtidal zones. It occurred equally on oyster and mussel shells but showed a clear preference for barnacle epigrowth over clean shells. Assuming that settlement and recruitment are key processes for species abundances on the North Sea coast, it is predicted that the positive feedback in oyster settlement will lead to rapid reef formation of this invader at the expense of mussel beds. Mussels, however, may escape competitive exclusion by settling between or on the larger oysters especially when barnacles are abundant. Experimental patches with mussels were more often covered by fucoid algae ( Fucus vesiculosus forma mytili Nienburg) than patches with oysters, and oyster recruitment was poor underneath such algal canopies. Thus, fucoids may provide the native mussels with a refuge from the invading oysters and the two bivalves may coexist, provided food is not limiting.

  8. Hydrology Affects Environmental and Spatial Structuring of Microalgal Metacommunities in Tropical Pacific Coast Wetlands

    PubMed Central

    Rojo, Carmen; Mesquita-Joanes, Francesc; Monrós, Juan S.; Armengol, Javier; Sasa, Mahmood; Bonilla, Fabián; Rueda, Ricardo; Benavent-Corai, José; Piculo, Rubén; Segura, M. Matilde

    2016-01-01

    The alternating climate between wet and dry periods has important effects on the hydrology and therefore on niche-based processes of water bodies in tropical areas. Additionally, assemblages of microorganism can show spatial patterns, in the form of a distance decay relationship due to their size or life form. We aimed to test spatial and environmental effects, modulated by a seasonal flooding climatic pattern, on the distribution of microalgae in 30 wetlands of a tropical dry forest region: the Pacific coast of Costa Rica and Nicaragua. Three surveys were conducted corresponding to the beginning, the highest peak, and the end of the hydrological year during the wet season, and species abundance and composition of planktonic and benthic microalgae was determined. Variation partitioning analysis (as explained by spatial distance or environmental factors) was applied to each seasonal dataset by means of partial redundancy analysis. Our results show that microalgal assemblages were structured by spatial and environmental factors depending on the hydrological period of the year. At the onset of hydroperiod and during flooding, neutral effects dominated community dynamics, but niche-based local effects resulted in more structured algal communities at the final periods of desiccating water bodies. Results suggest that climate-mediated effects on hydrology can influence the relative role of spatial and environmental factors on metacommunities of microalgae. Such variability needs to be accounted in order to describe accurately community dynamics in tropical coastal wetlands. PMID:26900916

  9. Frequency Domain Response at Pacific Coast Harbors to Major Tsunamis of 2005-2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, Xiuying; Kou, Zhiqing; Huang, Ziyi; Lee, Jiin-Jen

    2013-06-01

    Tsunamis waves caused by submarine earthquake or landslide might contain large wave energy, which could cause significant human loss and property damage locally as well as in distant region. The response of three harbors located at the Pacific coast (i.e. Crescent City Harbor, Los Angeles/Long Beach Port, and San Diego Harbor) to six well-known tsunamis events generated (both near-field and far-field) between 2005 and 2011 are examined and simulated using a hybrid finite element numerical model in frequency domain. The model incorporated the effects of wave refraction, wave diffraction, partial wave reflection from boundaries, entrance and bottom energy dissipation. It can be applied to harbor regions with arbitrary shapes and variable water depth. The computed resonant periods or modes of oscillation for three harbors are in good agreement with the energy spectral analysis of the time series of water surface elevations recorded at tide gauge stations inside three harbors during the six tsunamis events. The computed wave induced currents based on the present model are also in qualitative agreement with some of the reported eye-witness accounts absence of reliable current data. The simulated results show that each harbor responded differently and significantly amplified certain wave period(s) of incident wave trains according to the shape, topography, characteristic dimensions and water depth of the harbor basins.

  10. Modern sedimentary facies of the open Pacific coast and Pleistocene analogs from Montery Bay, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dupre, W.R.; Clifton, H.E.; Hunter, R.E.; Field, Michael E.; Field, Michael E.; ,

    1980-01-01

    Depositional processes and sedimentary structures of wave-dominated Pacific coastal environments vary systematically with water depth. The depth-limited open-coast facies identifiable by their sedimentary structures are the inner shelf, barred or nonbarred nearshore, beach, and coastal dune facies. These facies are most commonly preserved in shallowing-upward progradational sequences. The vertical sequence of sedimentary structures preserved in marine terrace deposits in the northern Monterey Bay region is very similar to that predicted on the basis of the modern facies. Few marine sediments deposited during the marine transgression that accompanied rising sea level were preserved. Most of the the marine and eolian sediments form a progradational sequence deposited mainly during intervals of falling sea level. In contrast, the sediments that form the adjacent fluvial terraces were deposited mainly during periods of rising sea level and became entrenched during the subsequent lowering of sea level. In combination, these fluvial, marine, and eolian deposits provide a record of a complete eustatic cycle. The recognition of the role of changing sea level in controlling patterns of coastal sedimentation and landform development during the Quaternary allows the development of a generalized model for Quaternary sedimentation along a wave-dominated coastline. The application of this model has aided in the interpretation of older Pleistocene sediments in the region (e.g. the Aromas Sand). It also has resulted in the recognition of at least eleven glacio-eustatic cycles preserved in the stratigraphic record of the Monterey Bay area during the Quaternary.

  11. Untangling cultural inheritance: language diversity and long-house architecture on the Pacific northwest coast.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Peter; O'Neill, Sean

    2010-12-12

    Many recent studies of cultural inheritance have focused on small-scale craft traditions practised by single individuals, which do not require coordinated participation by larger social collectives. In this paper, we address this gap in the cultural transmission literature by investigating diversity in the vernacular architecture of the Pacific northwest coast, where communities of hunter-fisher-gatherers constructed immense wooden long-houses at their main winter villages. Quantitative analyses of long-house styles along the coastline draw on a range of models and methods from the biological sciences and are employed to test hypotheses relating to basic patterns of macro-scale cultural diversification, and the degree to which the transmission of housing traits has been constrained by the region's numerous linguistic boundaries. The results indicate relatively strong branching patterns of cultural inheritance and also close associations between regional language history and housing styles, pointing to the potentially crucial role played by language boundaries in structuring large-scale patterns of cultural diversification, especially in relation to 'collective' cultural traditions like housing that require substantial inputs of coordinated labour.

  12. Hydrology Affects Environmental and Spatial Structuring of Microalgal Metacommunities in Tropical Pacific Coast Wetlands.

    PubMed

    Rojo, Carmen; Mesquita-Joanes, Francesc; Monrós, Juan S; Armengol, Javier; Sasa, Mahmood; Bonilla, Fabián; Rueda, Ricardo; Benavent-Corai, José; Piculo, Rubén; Segura, M Matilde

    2016-01-01

    The alternating climate between wet and dry periods has important effects on the hydrology and therefore on niche-based processes of water bodies in tropical areas. Additionally, assemblages of microorganism can show spatial patterns, in the form of a distance decay relationship due to their size or life form. We aimed to test spatial and environmental effects, modulated by a seasonal flooding climatic pattern, on the distribution of microalgae in 30 wetlands of a tropical dry forest region: the Pacific coast of Costa Rica and Nicaragua. Three surveys were conducted corresponding to the beginning, the highest peak, and the end of the hydrological year during the wet season, and species abundance and composition of planktonic and benthic microalgae was determined. Variation partitioning analysis (as explained by spatial distance or environmental factors) was applied to each seasonal dataset by means of partial redundancy analysis. Our results show that microalgal assemblages were structured by spatial and environmental factors depending on the hydrological period of the year. At the onset of hydroperiod and during flooding, neutral effects dominated community dynamics, but niche-based local effects resulted in more structured algal communities at the final periods of desiccating water bodies. Results suggest that climate-mediated effects on hydrology can influence the relative role of spatial and environmental factors on metacommunities of microalgae. Such variability needs to be accounted in order to describe accurately community dynamics in tropical coastal wetlands.

  13. Particulate matter mass and chemical component concentrations over four Chinese cities along the western Pacific coast.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hong; Bi, Xiao-Hui; Zheng, Wei-Wei; Wu, Jian-Hui; Feng, Yin-Chang

    2015-02-01

    China has witnessed rapid economic growth in the past three decades, especially in coastal areas. Particulate matter (PM) pollution is becoming increasingly serious in China's cities along the western Pacific coast with the rapid development of China's society and economy. This study analyzed PM (PM10 and PM2.5) in terms of their mass and chemical composition in four coastal Chinese cities. The goal was to study the spatial variation and characteristics of PM pollution in sites under different levels of economic development and in diverse natural environments. A distinct trend for concentrations of PM and related chemical species was observed and increased from south to north in Haikou, Ningbo, Qingdao, and Tianjin. Secondary inorganic aerosols, crustal materials, and organic matter dominated the composition of both PM10 and PM2.5. Crustal materials were the most abundant species in the northern coastal areas because these areas have less vegetation cover and lower humidity than southern coastal areas. The presence of high SO4 (2-)/nitrate (NO3 (-)) concentrations indicated that the burning of coals gives significant contributions to PM10 and PM2.5. The differences observed in the characteristics of PM pollution in these coastal cities are probably caused by different levels of industrial and urban development.

  14. Geographical variation of shell thickness in the mussel Perumytilus purpuratus along the southeast Pacific coast.

    PubMed

    Briones, Carolina; Rivadeneira, Marcelo M; Fernández, Miriam; Guiñez, Ricardo

    2014-12-01

    At broad geographical scales, the variation in bivalve shell thickness can be modulated by environmental factors that vary with latitude, such as sea surface temperature (SST), seawater pH, or calcium carbonate availability. Mussels usually form multilayered beds, and shell thickness is also expected to be affected by density and layering due to intraspecific competition. In this work, we explored the geographical variation of shell thickness in the intertidal mussel Perumytilus purpuratus between 18° and 42°S along the southeastern Pacific coast. We tested the hypothesis that there was a positive relationship between shell thickness and SST, and then we explored other variables that could have an effect on thickness, such as density, number of layers, and others environmental variables (pH and calcite concentration). The expected positive linear relationship between shell thickness and sea surface temperature was not found, but when the other population variables were included in the analysis, an unexpected inverse SST-thickness relationships appeared as significant, probably because this species could be adapted to colder and more acid seawater as are those of the tips of South America. Thickness was also negatively affected by density, which was expected for a gregarious species showing high intraspecific competition. Finally, our results highlight the importance of including density and crowding effects when macroscale patterns are explored, particularly in gregarious species, since these patterns could also be modulated by density-dependent processes, which might then override latitudinal trends of shell thickness when they are not included in the analyses.

  15. Tsunami source of the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujii, Yushiro; Satake, Kenji; Sakai, Shin'ichi; Shinohara, Masanao; Kanazawa, Toshihiko

    2011-07-01

    Tsunami waveform inversion for the 11 March, 2011, off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake ( M 9.0) indicates that the source of the largest tsunami was located near the axis of the Japan trench. Ocean-bottom pressure, and GPS wave, gauges recorded two-step tsunami waveforms: a gradual increase of sea level (~2 m) followed by an impulsive tsunami wave (3 to 5 m). The slip distribution estimated from 33 coastal tide gauges, offshore GPS wave gauges and bottom-pressure gauges show that the large slip, more than 40 m, was located along the trench axis. This offshore slip, similar but much larger than the 1896 Sanriku "tsunami earthquake," is responsible for the recorded large impulsive peak. Large slip on the plate interface at southern Sanriku-oki (~30 m) and Miyagi-oki (~17 m) around the epicenter, a similar location with larger slip than the previously proposed fault model of the 869 Jogan earthquake, is responsible for the initial water-level rise and, presumably, the large tsunami inundation in Sendai plain. The interplate slip is ~10 m in Fukushima-oki, and less than 3 m in the Ibaraki-oki region. The total seismic moment is estimated as 3.8 × 1022 N m ( M w = 9.0).

  16. Hydrology Affects Environmental and Spatial Structuring of Microalgal Metacommunities in Tropical Pacific Coast Wetlands.

    PubMed

    Rojo, Carmen; Mesquita-Joanes, Francesc; Monrós, Juan S; Armengol, Javier; Sasa, Mahmood; Bonilla, Fabián; Rueda, Ricardo; Benavent-Corai, José; Piculo, Rubén; Segura, M Matilde

    2016-01-01

    The alternating climate between wet and dry periods has important effects on the hydrology and therefore on niche-based processes of water bodies in tropical areas. Additionally, assemblages of microorganism can show spatial patterns, in the form of a distance decay relationship due to their size or life form. We aimed to test spatial and environmental effects, modulated by a seasonal flooding climatic pattern, on the distribution of microalgae in 30 wetlands of a tropical dry forest region: the Pacific coast of Costa Rica and Nicaragua. Three surveys were conducted corresponding to the beginning, the highest peak, and the end of the hydrological year during the wet season, and species abundance and composition of planktonic and benthic microalgae was determined. Variation partitioning analysis (as explained by spatial distance or environmental factors) was applied to each seasonal dataset by means of partial redundancy analysis. Our results show that microalgal assemblages were structured by spatial and environmental factors depending on the hydrological period of the year. At the onset of hydroperiod and during flooding, neutral effects dominated community dynamics, but niche-based local effects resulted in more structured algal communities at the final periods of desiccating water bodies. Results suggest that climate-mediated effects on hydrology can influence the relative role of spatial and environmental factors on metacommunities of microalgae. Such variability needs to be accounted in order to describe accurately community dynamics in tropical coastal wetlands. PMID:26900916

  17. Genetic diversity in two introduced biofouling amphipods (Amphipods valida and Jassa marmorata) along the Pacific North American coast: investigation into molecular identification and cryptic diversity

    EPA Science Inventory

    We investigated patterns of genetic diversity among invasive populations of A. valida and J. marmorata from the Pacific North American coast to assess the accuracy of morphological identification and determine whether or not cryptic diversity and multiple introductions contribute...

  18. Regional variations in tectonic geomorphology along a segmented convergent plate boundary pacific coast of Costa Rica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wells, S. G.; Bullard, T. F.; Menges, C. M.; Drake, P. G.; Karas, P. A.; Kelson, K. I.; Ritter, J. B.; Wesling, J. R.

    1988-09-01

    Pacific coastal mountain/piedmont landforms of Costa Rica extend across the tectonic boundary between the forearc and magnetic arc region of an active convergent margin. This plate boundary became segmented circa 1 million years ago when the aseismic Cocos Ridge impinged upon the Middle America Trench offshore from the southernmost coastal area of Costa Rica. Morphometric analyses of 100 mountain fronts and numerous river long-profiles, radiometric dating, and field studies were conducted in two study areas located arcward from the plate boundary where oceanic lithosphere of the Cocos plate is being subducted beneath the Caribbean plate (region I) and the partially subducted aseismic ridge is uplifting the plate margin by isostatic and collisional processes (region II). Values of tectonic geomorphic parameters [mountain front sinuosity ( S), percent dissected facets ( Ffd), river concavity ( K)] are not only different statistically in regions I and II but are also different in the areas experiencing isostatic and collisional responses to the subducting aseismic ridge. In the area experiencing collisional responses, mountain fronts, developed along NE-dipping imbricate thrust and high-angle reverse faults, step upward and inland from the coast; morphometric data along with the divergence of river-terrace profiles from the coast piedmont inland toward the mountains indicates higher uplift rates along interior-range mountain fronts. Isostatic uplift in the outer forearc area in region II produces a distinctly different morphologic and neotectonic style characterized by regional uplift distributed across a number of blocks bounded by normal faults. Geomorphic analyses indicate a general southward trend of increasing tectonic uplift from region I into region II where the highest frequency of mountain fronts with low values of S and Ffd, as well as rivers with the highest values of K, occur over the crest of the subducted ridge. Field and historical seismic data for

  19. Comparative ultrastructural study of spermatozoa in some oyster species from the Asian-Pacific Coast.

    PubMed

    Yurchenko, Olga V

    2012-02-01

    Sperm organization in the oysters Crassostrea gigas, Crassostrea nippona, Crassostrea cf. rivularis and Saccostrea cf. mordax inhabiting Asian Pacific coast was studied. The spermatozoa of all studied species had a number of common morphological characters such as a cup-like acrosome with heterogeneous matrix on its top, an axial rod in the subacrosomal space, a barrel-shaped nucleus, four mitochondria in the midpiece, pericentriolar complexes, and a 9+2-organized flagellum. The spermatozoa of C. cf. rivularis differed from the other species by having cytoplasm processes in the midpiece region. Such structures have never been described in the Ostreidae. Additionally, each species could be identified by the shape and size of sperm compartments (acrosome, nucleus, anterior nuclear fossa). The most significant interspecific difference was found in the size of an anterior nuclear fossa. The smallest anterior nuclear fossa was found in C. cf. rivularis (about 0.24 μm in length reaching about 22% of the nuclear length) while the biggest in C. gigas from the Sea of Japan (about 0.53 μm in length reaching about 46% of the nuclear length). The spermatozoa of C. gigas collected from the Sea of Japan and Taiwan Strait differed significantly in almost all the studied parameters. Since sperm morphology has been successfully used for species differentiation, this suggests the existence of two species rather than two populations. The data obtained indicate the species-specific difference in the sperm ultrastructure within the Ostreidae, which may be identified both ultrastructurally and morphometrically. PMID:22019496

  20. Low prevalence of avian influenza virus in shorebirds on the Pacific coast of North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Iverson, Samuel A.; Takekawa, John Y.; Schwarzbach, Steven; Cardona, Carol J.; Warnock, Nils; Bishop, Mary Anne; Schirato, Greg A.; Paroulek, Sara; Ackerman, Joshua T.; Ip, Hon; Boyce, Walter M.

    2008-01-01

    The emergence of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 has elevated concerns about wild birds as virus hosts; however, little is known about the ecological and epidemiological factors of transmission by shorebirds. Here we summarize results for 2,773 shorebirds that were live-trapped on the Pacific coast of the United States during 2006-2007 and tested for avian influenza virus using real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and virus isolation. As was the case throughout North America, HPAI H5N1 was not detected in shorebirds during this interval. Contrary to other wild bird groups, most notably waterfowl, the prevalence of even low pathogenicity virus among shorebirds in our study areas in California, Washington, and Alaska was extremely low (0.5%). Virus was detected by RT-PCR from four different species, including, Dunlin (Calidris alpina; N = 3), Western Sandpiper (C. mauri; N = 8), Long-billed Dowitcher (Limnodromus scolopaceus; N = 1), and American Avocet (Recurvirostra americana; N = 1), with the detections in the latter three constituting the first published records for these birds. Based on studies in the eastern United States, we expected, but did not detect (H1 = 1.6, P = 0.21) elevated avian influenza prevalence among shorebirds during spring migration. Diagnostic tests, which were designed to evaluate testing and sampling methods, indicated poor functioning of traditional virus isolation methods and no improvement in detection likelihood by collecting oropharyngeal swabs in addition to cloacal swab samples for low pathogenicity viruses (Z1 = 0.7, P = 0.48).

  1. Anthropophilic biting behaviour of Anopheles (Kerteszia) neivai Howard, Dyar & Knab associated with Fishermen’s activities in a malaria-endemic area in the Colombian Pacific

    PubMed Central

    Escovar, Jesús Eduardo; González, Ranulfo; Quiñones, Martha Lucía

    2013-01-01

    On the southwest Pacific Coast of Colombia, a field study was initiated to determine the human-vector association between Anopheles (Kerteszia) neivai and fishermen, including their nearby houses. Mosquitoes were collected over 24-h periods from mangrove swamps, marshlands and fishing vessels in three locations, as well as in and around the houses of fishermen. A total of 6,382 mosquitoes were collected. An. neivai was most abundant in mangroves and fishing canoes (90.8%), while Anopheles albimanus was found indoors (82%) and outdoors (73%). One An. neivai and one An. albimanus collected during fishing activities in canoes were positive for Plasmodium vivax , whereas one female An. neivai collected in a mangrove was positive for P. vivax . In the mangroves and fishing canoes, An. neivai demonstrated biting activity throughout the day, peaking between 06:00 pm-07:00 pm and there were two minor peaks at dusk and dawn. These peaks coincided with fishing activities in the marshlands and mangroves, a situation that places the fishermen at risk of contracting malaria when they are performing their daily activities. It is recommended that protective measures be implemented to reduce the risk that fishermen will contract malaria. PMID:24402159

  2. Comparative health assessment of western Pacific leatherback turtles (Dermochelys coriacea) foraging off the coast of California, 2005-2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harris, Heather S.; Benson, Scott R.; Gilardi, Kirsten V.; Poppenga, Robert H.; Work, Thierry M.; Dutton, Peter H.; Mazet, Jonna A.K.

    2011-01-01

    Leatherback turtles (Dermochelys coriacea) are critically endangered, primarily threatened by the overharvesting of eggs, fisheries entanglement, and coastal development. The Pacific leatherback population has experienced a catastrophic decline over the past two decades. Leatherbacks foraging off the coast of California are part of a distinct Western Pacific breeding stock that nests on beaches in Indonesia, Papua New Guinea, and the Solomon Islands. Although it has been proposed that the rapid decline of Pacific leatherback turtles is due to increased adult mortality, little is known about the health of this population. Health assessments in leatherbacks have examined females on nesting beaches, which provides valuable biological information, but might have limited applicability to the population as a whole. During September 2005 and 2007, we conducted physical examinations on 19 foraging Pacific leatherback turtles and measured normal physiologic parameters, baseline hematologic and plasma biochemistry values, and exposure to heavy metals (cadmium, lead, and mercury), organochlorine contaminants, and domoic acid. We compared hematologic values of foraging Pacific leatherbacks with their nesting counterparts in Papua New Guinea (n=11) and with other nesting populations in the Eastern Pacific in Costa Rica (n=8) and in the Atlantic in St. Croix (n=12). This study provides the most comprehensive assessment to date of the health status of leatherbacks in the Pacific. We found significant differences in blood values between foraging and nesting leatherbacks, which suggests that health assessment studies conducted only on nesting females might not accurately represent the whole population. The establishment of baseline physiologic data and blood values for healthy foraging leatherback turtles, including males, provides valuable data for long-term health monitoring and comparative studies of this endangered population.

  3. Comparative health assessment of Western Pacific leatherback turtles (Dermochelys coriacea) foraging off the coast of California, 2005-2007.

    PubMed

    Harris, Heather S; Benson, Scott R; Gilardi, Kirsten V; Poppenga, Robert H; Work, Thierry M; Dutton, Peter H; Mazet, Jonna A K

    2011-04-01

    Leatherback turtles (Dermochelys coriacea) are critically endangered, primarily threatened by the overharvesting of eggs, fisheries entanglement, and coastal development. The Pacific leatherback population has experienced a catastrophic decline over the past two decades. Leatherbacks foraging off the coast of California are part of a distinct Western Pacific breeding stock that nests on beaches in Indonesia, Papua New Guinea, and the Solomon Islands. Although it has been proposed that the rapid decline of Pacific leatherback turtles is due to increased adult mortality, little is known about the health of this population. Health assessments in leatherbacks have examined females on nesting beaches, which provides valuable biological information, but might have limited applicability to the population as a whole. During September 2005 and 2007, we conducted physical examinations on 19 foraging Pacific leatherback turtles and measured normal physiologic parameters, baseline hematologic and plasma biochemistry values, and exposure to heavy metals (cadmium, lead, and mercury), organochlorine contaminants, and domoic acid. We compared hematologic values of foraging Pacific leatherbacks with their nesting counterparts in Papua New Guinea (n=11) and with other nesting populations in the Eastern Pacific in Costa Rica (n=8) and in the Atlantic in St. Croix (n=12). This study provides the most comprehensive assessment to date of the health status of leatherbacks in the Pacific. We found significant differences in blood values between foraging and nesting leatherbacks, which suggests that health assessment studies conducted only on nesting females might not accurately represent the whole population. The establishment of baseline physiologic data and blood values for healthy foraging leatherback turtles, including males, provides valuable data for long-term health monitoring and comparative studies of this endangered population. PMID:21441185

  4. Comparative health assessment of Western Pacific leatherback turtles (Dermochelys coriacea) foraging off the coast of California, 2005-2007.

    PubMed

    Harris, Heather S; Benson, Scott R; Gilardi, Kirsten V; Poppenga, Robert H; Work, Thierry M; Dutton, Peter H; Mazet, Jonna A K

    2011-04-01

    Leatherback turtles (Dermochelys coriacea) are critically endangered, primarily threatened by the overharvesting of eggs, fisheries entanglement, and coastal development. The Pacific leatherback population has experienced a catastrophic decline over the past two decades. Leatherbacks foraging off the coast of California are part of a distinct Western Pacific breeding stock that nests on beaches in Indonesia, Papua New Guinea, and the Solomon Islands. Although it has been proposed that the rapid decline of Pacific leatherback turtles is due to increased adult mortality, little is known about the health of this population. Health assessments in leatherbacks have examined females on nesting beaches, which provides valuable biological information, but might have limited applicability to the population as a whole. During September 2005 and 2007, we conducted physical examinations on 19 foraging Pacific leatherback turtles and measured normal physiologic parameters, baseline hematologic and plasma biochemistry values, and exposure to heavy metals (cadmium, lead, and mercury), organochlorine contaminants, and domoic acid. We compared hematologic values of foraging Pacific leatherbacks with their nesting counterparts in Papua New Guinea (n=11) and with other nesting populations in the Eastern Pacific in Costa Rica (n=8) and in the Atlantic in St. Croix (n=12). This study provides the most comprehensive assessment to date of the health status of leatherbacks in the Pacific. We found significant differences in blood values between foraging and nesting leatherbacks, which suggests that health assessment studies conducted only on nesting females might not accurately represent the whole population. The establishment of baseline physiologic data and blood values for healthy foraging leatherback turtles, including males, provides valuable data for long-term health monitoring and comparative studies of this endangered population.

  5. National assessment of shoreline change: historical shoreline change along the Pacific Northwest coast

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ruggerio, Peter; Kratzmann, Meredith G.; Himmelstoss, Emily A.; Reid, David; Allan, Jonathan; Kaminsky, George

    2013-01-01

    Beach erosion is a chronic problem along most open ocean shores of the United States. As coastal populations continue to increase and infrastructure is threatened by erosion, there is increased demand for accurate information regarding past and present trends and rates of shoreline movement. There is also a need for a comprehensive analysis of shoreline movement that is consistent from one coastal region to another. To meet these national needs, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is conducting an analysis of historical shoreline changes along the open-ocean sandy shores of the conterminous United States and parts of Hawaii, Alaska, and the Great Lakes. One purpose of this work is to develop standard, repeatable methods for mapping and analyzing shoreline movement so that periodic, systematic, and internally consistent updates regarding coastal erosion and land loss can be made nationally. In the case of the analysis of shoreline change in the Pacific Northwest (PNW), the shoreline is the interpreted boundary between the ocean water surface and the sandy beach. This report on the PNW coasts of Oregon and Washington is the seventh in a series of regionally focused reports on historical shoreline change. Previous investigations include analyses and descriptive reports of the U.S. Gulf of Mexico (Morton and others, 2004), the southeastern Atlantic (Morton and Miller, 2005), the sandy shorelines (Hapke and others, 2006) and coastal cliffs (Hapke and Reid, 2007) of California, the New England and mid-Atlantic coasts (Hapke and others, 2011), and parts of the Hawaii coast (Fletcher and others, 2012). Like the earlier reports in this series, this report summarizes the methods of analysis, interprets the results of the analysis, provides explanations regarding long- and short-term trends and rates of shoreline change, and describes how different coastal communities are responding to coastal erosion. This report differs from the early USGS reports in the series in that those

  6. Tthe Non-Linear Characterization of the 22 Years Seismic Series Occurred Along the Mexican South Pacific Coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores-Marquez, L. E.; Valverde-Esparza, S. M.; Ramírez-Rojas, A.

    2011-12-01

    In order to make a non-linear characterization of the seismicity occurred along the Mexican South Pacific coast, two approaches were followed: the first analysis, the power-law statistics, is used to describe a fractal stochastic point processes, and therefore, are suited to model the time-occurrence sequence of seismic events, that are generally characterized by a time-clustering phenomenon. Then, the measure of the temporal clustering in earthquake sequences, by means of the Fano factor (FF) can be used to reveal the fractality of such processes. This method has shown the presence of temporal clusterization and variations in values linked to the occurrence of high magnitude events. The second analysis is to characterize the earthquakes by their magnitude. This non-extensivity approach, based in the Tsallis entropy has been show effectively into characterizes seismic processes around the world. In this work we analyze the seismicity occurred within the period of 1988-2010 along the Mexican South Pacific coast using this approach. To make the analysis we distinguish four regions along the coast and comprising the subduction zone, because previous works found different subduction patterns for those regions. Our results indicate a possible relationship between the obtained parameters with the seismicity pattern associated to the inclination angle of each subduction region studied. The obtained parameters depict different q-values and FF in the already mentioned regions, that show the statistical parameters also present each region having different dynamic pattern too.

  7. National assessment of shoreline change: historical shoreline change along the Pacific Northwest coast

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ruggerio, Peter; Kratzmann, Meredith G.; Himmelstoss, Emily A.; Reid, David; Allan, Jonathan; Kaminsky, George

    2013-01-01

    Beach erosion is a chronic problem along most open ocean shores of the United States. As coastal populations continue to increase and infrastructure is threatened by erosion, there is increased demand for accurate information regarding past and present trends and rates of shoreline movement. There is also a need for a comprehensive analysis of shoreline movement that is consistent from one coastal region to another. To meet these national needs, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is conducting an analysis of historical shoreline changes along the open-ocean sandy shores of the conterminous United States and parts of Hawaii, Alaska, and the Great Lakes. One purpose of this work is to develop standard, repeatable methods for mapping and analyzing shoreline movement so that periodic, systematic, and internally consistent updates regarding coastal erosion and land loss can be made nationally. In the case of the analysis of shoreline change in the Pacific Northwest (PNW), the shoreline is the interpreted boundary between the ocean water surface and the sandy beach. This report on the PNW coasts of Oregon and Washington is the seventh in a series of regionally focused reports on historical shoreline change. Previous investigations include analyses and descriptive reports of the U.S. Gulf of Mexico (Morton and others, 2004), the southeastern Atlantic (Morton and Miller, 2005), the sandy shorelines (Hapke and others, 2006) and coastal cliffs (Hapke and Reid, 2007) of California, the New England and mid-Atlantic coasts (Hapke and others, 2011), and parts of the Hawaii coast (Fletcher and others, 2012). Like the earlier reports in this series, this report summarizes the methods of analysis, interprets the results of the analysis, provides explanations regarding long- and short-term trends and rates of shoreline change, and describes how different coastal communities are responding to coastal erosion. This report differs from the early USGS reports in the series in that those

  8. Genetic characterization of Zostera asiatica on the Pacific Coast of North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Talbot, S.L.; Wyllie-Echeverria, S.; Ward, D.H.; Rearick, J.R.; Sage, G.K.; Chesney, B.; Phillips, R.C.

    2006-01-01

    We gathered sequence information from the nuclear 5.8S rDNA gene and associated internal transcribed spacers, ITS-1 and ITS-2 (5.8S rDNA/ITS), and the chloroplast maturase K (matK) gene, from Zostera samples collected from subtidal habitats in Monterey and Santa Barbara (Isla Vista) bays, California, to test the hypothesis that these plants are conspecific with Z. asiatica Miki of Asia. Sequences from approximately 520 base pairs of the nuclear 5.8S rDNA/ITS obtained from the subtidal Monterey and Isla Vista Zostera samples were identical to homologous sequences obtained from Z. marina collected from intertidal habitats in Japan, Alaska, Oregon and California. Similarly, sequences from the matK gene from the subtidal Zostera samples were identical to matK sequences obtained from Z. marina collected from intertidal habitats in Japan, Alaska, Oregon and California, but differed from Z. asiatica sequences accessioned into GenBank. This suggests the subtidal plants are conspecific with Z. marina, not Z. asiatica. However, we found that herbarium samples accessioned into the Kyoto University Herbarium, determined to be Z. asiatica, yielded 5.8S rDNA/ITS sequences consistent with either Z. japonica, in two cases, or Z. marina, in one case. Similar results were observed for the chloroplast matK gene; we found haplotypes that were inconsistent with published matK sequences from Z. asiatica collected from Japan. These results underscore the need for closer examination of the relationship between Z. marina along the Pacific Coast of North America, and Z. asiatica of Asia, for the retention and verification of specimens examined in scientific studies, and for assessment of the usefulness of morphological characters in the determination of taxonomic relationships within Zosteraceae.

  9. Compiling Multibeam Sonar data for the U.S. Pacific West Coast Extended Continental Shelf Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, E.; Gardner, J. V.; Henderson, J. F.

    2011-12-01

    The United States Extended Continental Shelf (ECS) Project is a multi-agency collaboration whose goals are to determine and define a potential extension of the U.S. continental shelf beyond 200 nautical miles (nmi). Under international law as reflected in the 1982 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS), every coastal state is entitled to a continental shelf out to 200 nmi (the Exclusive Economic Zone) from its coastal baseline or out to a maritime boundary with another coastal country. The extended continental shelf (ECS) is the area that lies beyond this 200 nm limit where a country could gain sovereign rights to the resources of the seafloor and sub-seafloor. In 2007, the U.S. ECS Task Force designated NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) as the Data Management lead for the U.S. ECS Project and the data stewards and archival location for all data related to this project. The process to determine the outer limits of the ECS requires the collection and analysis of data that describe the depth, shape, and geophysical characteristics of the seafloor and sub-seafloor, as well as the thickness of the underlying sediments. The specific types of data that need to be collected include bathymetric data, seismic profiles, magnetic and gravity data, and other geophysical data. NGDC maintains several global geophysical databases, including bathymetric, seismic and geological data, all critical for supporting ECS analysis. Multibeam bathymetry is a primary dataset used for ECS analysis. Since 2003, the U.S. has collected more than 1.65 million square kilometers of multibeam bathymetric data from 18 cruises. One area where new data has been collected and where the U.S. may have an extended continental shelf is off the U.S. Pacific West Coast. New and old multibeam bathymetry archived at and delivered by NGDC were individually gridded by survey for an area within 48-30 degrees north latitude and -140 and -115 west longitude at a resolution of 210

  10. Population assessment of the American crocodile, Crocodylus acutus (Crocodilia: Crocodylidae) on the Pacific coast of Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Mauger, Laurie A; Velez, Elizabeth; Cherkiss, Michael S; Brien, Matthew L; Boston, Michael; Mazzotti, Frank J; Spotila, James R

    2012-12-01

    The American crocodile, Crocodylus acutus, is widely distributed in the American neotropics. It is endangered throughout most of its range and is listed as vulnerable by the International Union for the Conservation of Natural Fauna and Flora (IUCN) and on Appendix I of the Convention for the International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Flora and Fauna (CITES). Despite this listing, there are few published reports on population status throughout most of its range. We investigated the status of the C. acutus, at several locations along the Pacific coast of Costa Rica. We carried out spotlight and nesting surveys from 2007-2009 along the Costa Rican Pacific coast in four distinct areas, coastal areas of Las Baulas (N=40) and Santa Rosa (N=9) National Parks and the Osa Conservation Area (N=13), and upriver in Palo Verde National Park (N=11). We recorded crocodile locations and standard environmental data at each observation. Encounter rates, population structure, distribution within each area and data on successful nesting (presence of hatchlings, nests, etc) were determined. We attempted to capture all crocodiles to record standard morphometrics. A total of 586 crocodiles were observed along 185.8km of survey route. The majority of animals encountered (54.9%) were either hatchlings (<0.5m) or juveniles (0.5-1.25m). The average non-hatchling encounter rate per survey for the Pacific coast was 3.1 crocodiles/km, with individual encounter rates ranging from 1.2 crocodiles/km to 4.3 crocodiles/ km in Las Baulas National Park and the Osa Conservation Area respectively. Distribution of size classes within the individual locations did not differ with the exception of Santa Rosa and Las Baulas National Parks, where hatchlings were found in water with lower salinities. These were the first systematic surveys in several of the areas studied and additional work is needed to further characterize the American crocodile population in Costa Rica.

  11. Distribution of trace metals in the Pacific Oyster, Crassostrea gigas, and crabs from the east coast of Kyushu Island, Japan

    SciTech Connect

    Szefer, P.; Frelek, K.; Geldon, J.

    1997-01-01

    Oysters are known to be exceptional accumulators of Zn and Cu, and their tissue concentrations appear to reflect contamination of metals. According to Lauenstein and Dolvin, oysters clearly have a greater affinity for Ag, Cu and Zn than do mussels, while mussels have greater affinity for Cr and Pb. Oysters have been considered to be potential bioindicators for monitoring metallic pollution in marine environments. Extensive investigations of oysters from the east coast of Kyushu Island, Japan, have been performed. The aim of the study was to examine spatial differences in metal concentrations in soft tissues of the Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas) and whole bodies (soft tissues with shells) of the crabs Goetice depressa and Leptodius exaratus inhabiting the Japanese coastal region of the Pacific. 18 refs., 3 figs.

  12. PRECISION OF REAL-TIME ESTIMATION OF LIQUEFACTION POTENCIALS DURING THE 2011 OFF THE PACIFIC COAST OF TOHOKU EARTHQUAKE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishida, Eisuke; Suetomi, Iwao; Tsukamoto, Hiroyuki; Inomata, Wataru; Hamanaka, Ryo; Norito, Yuuki; Yasuda, Susumu

    The coast area in Tokyo-wan which is far from the earthquake fault, were heavily liquefied during the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku earthquake. It is very important to predict the occurence and degree of liquafaction, because the liquafaction affects the safety of underground pipilines and facilities of roads and ports. The real-time disaster prevention system "SUPREME" is established and used by Tokyo Gas supply system in order to secure the safety. The system collected the SI value from 4,000 sensor, calculated the distribution of SI value, liquafaction potencial, damages of pipelines for about 20 minutes after the earthquake. In this paper, it is shown that estimated liquafaction area corresponds actual liquafaction area very well, and the reason is that "SUPREME" uses very dense SPT data and SI sensors and the estimate method of liquafaction considers the effect of duration time of earthqauke groun motion.

  13. A new species of antipatharian coral (Cnidaria: Anthozoa: Antipatharia: Schizopathidae) from the Pacific coast of Costa Rica

    SciTech Connect

    Opresko, Dennis M; Breedy, Odalisca

    2010-09-01

    A new species of black coral, Aphanipathes colombiana (Cnidaria:Antipatharia) from the Caribbean coast of Colombia is described. The species forms small flabellate colonies with anisomorphic polypar spines. It is morphologically similar to the western Atlantic species A. thyoides (Pourtales) but its hypostomal polypar spines are not reduced in size. The new species also resembles the Indo-Pacific species A. reticulata van Pesch but it has smooth-surfaced polypar spines, whereas in A. reticulata these spines have small tubercles on their surface

  14. 78 FR 9886 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Pacific Coast Groundfish Rationalization...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-12

    ... Coast Groundfish Rationalization Sociocultural Study AGENCY: National Oceanic and Atmospheric... individuals who fish--is a requirement under several federal laws. Laws such as the National Environmental... Coast Groundfish limited entry trawl fishery in January 2011. This research aims to continue to...

  15. Colombian coal ahead of schedule

    SciTech Connect

    Kern, K.D.

    1985-01-01

    The north block zone of the Cerrejon mine is estimated to contain from 16 to 40 billion metric tons of coal in the 94,000 acres under development. The Cerrejon project is so rich, potentially, that it warranted Exxon and the Colombian government to construct a 90-mile railroad to haul the coal to the coast, and to expand the harbor to accommodate coal carriers up to 150,000 deadweight tons. This paper briefly discusses to the potential effect of Cerrejon coal on the world market and marketing plans of the company.

  16. Redistribution and growth of the Caspian Tern population in the Pacific Coast region of north America, 1981-2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Suryan, R.M.; Craig, D.P.; Roby, D.D.; Chelgren, N.D.; Collis, K.; Shuford, W.D.; Lyons, Donald E.

    2004-01-01

    We examined nesting distribution and demography of the Pacific Coast population of Caspian Terns (Sterna caspia) using breeding records and band recoveries spanning two decades since the first population assessment. Since 1980, population size has more than doubled to about 12 900 pairs, yet the proportion of the population nesting at inland (18%) versus coastal sites (82%) has remained constant. Although the breeding range of the Pacific Coast population has expanded northward into Alaska and farther south in Mexico, there was no net latitudinal shift in the distribution of breeding pairs or new colonies. The distribution of breeding birds among areas changed dramatically, however, with 69% of breeding terns now nesting in Oregon (primarily in the Columbia River estuary) versus 4% during the late 1970s. During the past 20 years, there has continued to be a greater proportion of Caspian Terns breeding at anthropogenic sites compared to natural sites. Estimated annual survival rates for hatch-year and after-third-year birds during 1981-1998 were greater than during 1955-1980, consistent with the higher rate of population increase in recent decades. Fecundity required to maintain a stable population (?? = 1) was estimated at 0.32-0.74 fledglings pair-1, depending on band recovery probabilities for sub-adults. Caspian Terns readily moved among breeding sites and rapidly colonized new areas; however, a greater concentration of breeding Caspian Terns among fewer colonies in response to anthropogenic factors is an important conservation concern for this species.

  17. Shallow very low frequency earthquakes off the Pacific coast of Tohoku, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuzawa, T.; Asano, Y.; Obara, K.

    2012-12-01

    Activities of shallow very low frequency earthquakes (VLFEs) have been reported around the trench axis of the off-Tokachi region, and the Nankai and the Ryukyu subduction zone around the Japan Islands (e.g., Obara and Ito, 2005; Asano et al., 2008; Ando et al., 2012). In NIED, epicenters of seismic sources including VLFEs are routinely located by an array analysis technique using Hi-net high-sensitivity accelerometers (Asano et al., 2008). Some of the epicenters are also located off the Pacific coast of Tohoku, Japan. However, these events are not fully examined, as most of these sources have been thought to arise from regular earthquakes and microseisms, and the number of events is much smaller than those in the previously reported region. In this study, we aim to detect VLFEs in the off-Tohoku region with a waveform correlation analysis. We examined waveforms of the events detected by the array analysis in the off-Tohoku region. Some of events are very similar to pre-known shallow VLFEs, which are dominant around the frequency of 0.05 Hz and have no clear signals in the high frequency band (above 1 Hz). We successfully estimated CMT solutions of some of these events, using F-net broadband seismometers and Hi-net high-sensitivity accelerometers. The result shows that these events are reverse-fault-type Mw~3.5 earthquakes, and located around the depth of the subducting plate interface. As a typical dominant frequency of regular earthquakes with similar magnitude and close hypocenter is several Hz, these events are considered as shallow VLFEs. To reveal the activity of the off-Tohoku VLFEs, other VLFEs were detected by a waveform correlation analysis using a template event. We selected two VLFEs as template events in the central and southern off-Tohoku region. Averaged cross correlation values for template events were calculated using broadband seismograms at surrounding F-net stations which are bandpass-filtered between 0.02 to 0.1 Hz. Finally, we visually checked

  18. Shifts in condition and distribution of eastern North Pacific flatfish along the U.S. west coast (2003-2010)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, Aimee A.; Bradburn, Mark J.; Simon, Victor H.

    2013-07-01

    Flatfish condition indices and distribution were examined along the U.S. west coast (55-1280 m) in relation to environmental variability and biomass using data from ten frequently occurring species collected in annual groundfish surveys from 2003 to 2010. The study was conducted during a period characterized by a cooling trend in the northern California Current system and by declining biomass for flatfish in general. Annual condition indices for six species (arrowtooth flounder, Dover sole, English sole, Pacific sanddab, petrale sole, and rex sole) were significantly related either to large-scale climatic indices (Pacific Decadal Oscillation, Multivariate El Niño-Southern Oscillation Index, North Pacific Gyre Oscillation) and/or annual biomass levels. Condition was most closely related to environmental effects rather than either biomass alone or both variables, with condition typically higher during cool climatic conditions. A similar analysis revealed that changes in distribution (measured as variation in annual catch-weighted mean latitude, longitude, depth and temperature) tended to be best described by models incorporating environmental effects and biomass rather than either variable alone. Linear trends in the center of distribution along a southeast-northwest axis were significant for seven species (arrowtooth flounder, deepsea sole, Dover sole, flathead sole, Pacific sanddab, petrale sole, and slender sole) with a tendency for flatfish to be displaced towards the southeast as environmental conditions shifted from warm to cooler conditions and biomass declined. A spatial distribution analysis indicated that for the majority of species (80%) the greatest magnitude of displacement (km) occurred when the centers of biomass were compared between environmental phases (average annual displacement 34 km) rather than changing biomass levels (average displacement 24 km). Taken together both approaches revealed that environmental changes and variation in biomass play

  19. Late-Quaternary climatic change on the American North Pacific Coast

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heusser, C. J.; Heusser, L. E.; Peteet, D. M.

    1985-01-01

    The late Quaternary climate of the North Pacific, where according to modelling the solar radiation in the early Holocene at the time of the summer solstice is high and in the late Holocene is relatively low, is investigated. Quantitative temperature and precipitation estimates from southern Alaska are compared with estimates from western Washington and British Columbia. Data extending over more than 10,000 years show a broadly consistent pattern of climatic change in general agreement with predicted variations in solar radiation and their effect on atmospheric circulation and seasonal duration of pressure systems over the North Pacific Ocean. In the early Holocene, the subtropical North Pacific anticyclone annually regulated climate for a longer period at higher latitudes than at present, so that warmth and dryness increased in southern Alaska. The Aleutian low-pressure center intensified during the late Holocene, resulting in colder and more humid coastal climate and increased frequency of glacier growth in the cordillera.

  20. Coral-associated decapods (Crustacea) from the Mexican Tropical Pacific coast.

    PubMed

    Hernández, Luis; Ortiz, Georgina Ramírez; Reyes-Bonilla, Héctor

    2013-01-01

    Our study provides a checklist of 36 crustacean decapods from the Mexican tropical Pacific coastline. Most of the species were previously recorded from coral communities in the Gulf of California. Data were obtained by visual censuses of coral communities and some specimens were collected by extractions of coral branches (approximately eight liters of coral volume). We found new geographic records for three species from the Eastern Pacific and seven species that have extended ranges into Mexican waters. Only one species is documented with a northerly range from Central America to Mexican waters. PMID:24699609

  1. Coral-associated decapods (Crustacea) from the Mexican Tropical Pacific coast.

    PubMed

    Hernández, Luis; Ortiz, Georgina Ramírez; Reyes-Bonilla, Héctor

    2013-02-01

    Our study provides a checklist of 36 crustacean decapods from the Mexican tropical Pacific coastline. Most of the species were previously recorded from coral communities in the Gulf of California. Data were obtained by visual censuses of coral communities and some specimens were collected by extractions of coral branches (approximately eight liters of coral volume). We found new geographic records for three species from the Eastern Pacific and seven species that have extended ranges into Mexican waters. Only one species is documented with a northerly range from Central America to Mexican waters.

  2. A new species of Peltidium Philippi, 1839 (Crustacea, Copepoda, Harpacticoida) from the Pacific coast of Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Suárez-Morales, Eduardo; Jarquín-González, Jani

    2013-01-01

    Abstract During the analysis of phytal meiobenthic samples collected from a rocky-sandy beach in the state of Nayarit, in the Mexican Pacific, several specimens of harpacticoid copepods were obtained and taxonomically examined. These specimens were found to represent an undescribed species of the peltidiid genus Peltidium Philippi, 1839. The new species, Peltidium nayarit sp. n. is described herein. It resembles Peltidium nichollsi Geddes and Peltidium lerneri Geddes from Bahamas but also the widespread Peltidium speciosum Thompson & Scott and Peltidium purpureum Philippi. The new species from the Mexican Pacific differs from its known congeners by its possession of a unique combination of characters, including a modified pectinate seta on the antennary exopod, three terminal setae on the second endopodal segment of leg 1, third exopodal segment of leg 1 with three elements, inner terminal claw twice as long as outer claw, female fifth leg with 5 exopodal setae, exopodal setae I-III stout, spinulose and seta IV being as long as seta V. This is the second species of the family known to be distributed in the Eastern Tropical Pacific and in Mexico. Pending additional data, the distribution of this species appears to be restricted to this area of the Mexican Pacific. PMID:24003319

  3. Measuring nutrient flux in Pacific Coast salt marshes using fluctuating water-level chambers

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nutrient removal from the water column is an important ecosystem function that contributes to the production of clean water, a final valued ecosystem service of wetlands. However, little data is currently available for nutrient exchange in Pacific Northwest tidal ecosystems. We h...

  4. Techno-Arrogance and Halfway Technologies: Salmon Hatcheries on the Pacific Coast of North America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meffe, Gary K.

    1993-01-01

    Discusses an attempt to recover Pacific salmonid fisheries with hatcheries as an example of a human attitude toward nature that places technological mastery over nature at the forefront of our approach to many environmental problems. Points out how this approach addresses the symptoms but not the causes of the salmon population decline. Suggests…

  5. A new species of Peltidium Philippi, 1839 (Crustacea, Copepoda, Harpacticoida) from the Pacific coast of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Suárez-Morales, Eduardo; Jarquín-González, Jani

    2013-01-01

    During the analysis of phytal meiobenthic samples collected from a rocky-sandy beach in the state of Nayarit, in the Mexican Pacific, several specimens of harpacticoid copepods were obtained and taxonomically examined. These specimens were found to represent an undescribed species of the peltidiid genus Peltidium Philippi, 1839. The new species, Peltidium nayarit sp. n. is described herein. It resembles Peltidium nichollsi Geddes and Peltidium lerneri Geddes from Bahamas but also the widespread Peltidium speciosum Thompson & Scott and Peltidium purpureum Philippi. The new species from the Mexican Pacific differs from its known congeners by its possession of a unique combination of characters, including a modified pectinate seta on the antennary exopod, three terminal setae on the second endopodal segment of leg 1, third exopodal segment of leg 1 with three elements, inner terminal claw twice as long as outer claw, female fifth leg with 5 exopodal setae, exopodal setae I-III stout, spinulose and seta IV being as long as seta V. This is the second species of the family known to be distributed in the Eastern Tropical Pacific and in Mexico. Pending additional data, the distribution of this species appears to be restricted to this area of the Mexican Pacific.

  6. Stable Isotope Identification of Nitrogen Sources for United States (U.S.) Pacific Coast Estuaries

    EPA Science Inventory

    We used natural abundance stable isotope data to evaluate nitrogen sources to U.S. west coast estuaries. We collected δ15N of macroalgae data and supplemented this with available data from the literature for estuaries from Mexico to Alaska. Stable isotope ratios of green m...

  7. SEISMIC SEICHE OCCURRED AT SAIKO LAKE DUE TO THE 2011 OFF THE PACIFIC COAST OF TOHOKU EARTHQUAKE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Takeyasu

    A phenomenon similar to a tsunami was observed by anglers and inhabitants at Saiko Lake, which is one of the five lakes located on the foot of Mt. Fuji, during the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku earthquake. In order to clarify the mechanism of this phenomenon, the author interviewed with the witnesses. The author also examined earthquake ground motions observed near the lake. As a result, surface wave exhibiting the nature of Rayleigh wave with the predominant period around 60 seconds in the observed motion which is coincident with a resonant period of the closed water body of Saiko Lake. A shaking experiment was conducted using a Saiko Lake model. It clearly explained the mechanism of a seismic seiche of Saiko Lake, which means that a resonant oscillation in the short side of the rectangular shape of the lake makes the shift to that in the long side. Then, the author concluded that the phenomenon was caused by a seismic seiche.

  8. Study of the diversity of culturable actinomycetes in the North Pacific and Caribbean coasts of Costa Rica

    PubMed Central

    Solano, Godofredo; Rojas-Jiménez, Keilor; Jaspars, Marcel

    2011-01-01

    In this study, 137 actinomycetes were isolated from subtidal marine sediments in the North Pacific and Caribbean coasts of Costa Rica. Bioinformatics analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequences assigned the isolates to 15 families and 21 genera. Streptomyces was the dominant genus while the remaining 20 genera were poorly represented. Nearly 70% of the phylotypes presented a coastal-restricted distribution whereas the other 30% were common inhabitants of both shores. The coastal tropical waters of Costa Rica showed a high diversity of actinomycetes, both in terms of the number of species and phylogenetic composition, although significant differences were observed between and within shores. The observed pattern of species distribution might be the result of several factors including the characteristics of the ecosystems, presence of endemic species and the influence of terrestrial runoff. PMID:19365710

  9. Tsunami records due to the 2010 Chile Earthquake observed by GPS buoys established along the Pacific coast of Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, T.; Terada, Y.; Nagai, T.; Koshimura, S.

    2010-12-01

    The twelve GPS buoys that have been established along the Pacific coast of Japan succeeded to record the tsunami due to the 2010 Central Chile Earthquake (Mw8.8) that occurred on 06:34:14, 27th of February 2010 (UTC) according to USGS, which is on 15:34:14 of the same day by the Japanese Standard Time (JST). We have developed GPS buoy for detecting tsunami for over 12 years, considering that early detection of tsunami serves for mitigating tsunami disaster. The current GPS buoy is now operational at about 10km west of Cape Muroto, southwest Japan. The Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism has implemented the similar system with eleven GPS buoys along the Pacific coast of Japan as a part of the Nationwide Ocean Wave information network for Ports and HArbourS (NOWPHAS) system. All of these GPS buoys are located within 20km from the coast. The 2010 Central Chile earthquake generated significant tsunami. The tsunami travelled across the Pacific Ocean and reached the Japanese coasts in about one day. We present the records of tsunamis that have been registered at these GPS buoys. The presentation tries to compare the records with numerically simulated data. The record of experimental GPS buoy operated nearby Muroto is low-pass filtered with 120seconds of cut-off to segregate the long wave length tsunami from higher frequency wind waves. The effect of tide is also removed from the filtered record. The obtained record is visualized through internet facility (http://www.tsunamigps.com/gpsreal.php). The tsunami due to the Chile earthquake arrived at the GPS buoy at around 3:22PM of 28th February (JST), which is nearly one day after the earthquake. The first peak of tsunami is about 12 centimeter above the mean sea surface height. The second peak arrives about one hour and 46 minutes later with about 20cm height, which is the highest peak among the series of the tsunami waves. The later phases of recognizable tsunami waves continued about one day after the

  10. Impact and Recovery Pattern of a Spring Fire on a Pacific Coast Marsh - Observations and Implications for Endangered Species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, L. N.; Willis, K. S.; Ambrose, R. F.; MacDonald, G. M.

    2015-12-01

    The flammability of California coastal marsh vegetation is highest in winter and spring when dominant high marsh plants such as Sarcocornia pacifica are dormant. With climate change the number of cool-season fires are increasing in the state, and marsh systems are becoming more vulnerable to fire disturbance. Very little information exists in peer-reviewed or grey literature on the presence of fire in Pacific Coast tidal marshes. In 1993, the Green Meadows fire in Ventura County, California burned a small portion of tidally influenced Sarcocornia­-dominated marsh at Point Mugu. After the May 2013 Springs Fire burned a similar portion of the salt marsh vegetation, we conducted a two-year vegetation recovery survey using transects of surface vegetation plots and MODIS derived NDVI remote sensing monitoring. Recovery during the first year was limited. Sixteen months into the recovery period, percent plant coverage reached an average of approximately 60% for all plots in the burned area, as opposed to an average of 100% in control plots, and remained at that level for the duration of the study. NDVI did not approach near pre-fire conditions until 19 months after the fire. While recovery may have been influenced by California's current extreme drought conditions, the recurrence of fire and rate of recovery raise many important questions as to the role of fire in Pacific coast tidal marshes. For example, the lack of Salicornia cover over more than an entire breeding season would be detrimental to protected species such as Rallus obsoletus. Fire adds new vulnerabilities on critical tidal marsh habitat already taxed by the threat of sea-level rise, coastal squeeze and invasive species.

  11. Three Cultures: The Hopi Indians of the Southwest Desert, the Indians of the Northwest Pacific Coast, and the People of Midwest U.S.A. An Anthropological Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marksberry, Mary Lee

    Intended to acquaint fifth-, sixth-, and seventh-grade children with the concept of culture, this anthropology unit focuses on two groups of Indians who lived in prehistoric times and present-day non-Indian families living in the Midwest. Objectives are to help students understand the behavior of the Northwest Pacific Coast Indians, the Hopi…

  12. Regional variations of heavy metal concentrations in tissues of barnacles from the subtropical Pacific Coast of Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Paez-Osuna, F.; Bojorquez-Leyva, H.; Ruelas-Inzunza, J.

    1999-07-01

    Concentrations of Cd, Cu, Cr, Fe, Mn, Ni, Ag, Pb, and Zn in soft and hard tissues of barnacles from eight sampling sites in six harbors on the subtropical Pacific Coast of Mexico were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Some inter-regional differences in metal concentrations, especially concerning Zn, Mn, Fe, Cd, and Pb, were identified. The lowest concentrations of Cu, Cr, Fe, and Ag were observed in the barnacle populations from Ceuta Lagoon, an uncontaminated site with rural agriculture and semi-intensive shrimp farms in the surroundings. Conversely, the highest concentrations of: (1) Zn, Cu, and Ag were found in the soft tissues of Balanus eburneus from Mazatlan piers; (2) Pb, Ni, and Cd in the soft tissue of Megabalanus coccopoma from Puerto Vallarta; (3) Fe in the hard tissue of Balanus sp. from Guaymas Harbour; and (4) Mn in the hard tissue of M. coccopoma from Mazatlan Harbour. Inter-comparison of the present data indicates that the soft (mainly Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn) and the hard (mainly for Fe and Mn) tissues are useful in detecting areas of selected metallic contaminants. Barnacles such as B. eburneus, M. coccopoma, and Fistulobalanus dentivarians appear to be convenient biomonitors for identification of coastal waters exposed to Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn, Ni, Mn, Fe, and Ag in the American region of the subtropical Pacific.

  13. Relocation of the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku earthquake sequence and fault planes of M ≥ 7 earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurukawa, Nobuo

    2011-07-01

    We relocated foreshocks, mainshock, and aftershocks of the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake ( M w 9.1) using the modified joint hypocenter determination (MJHD) method in order to obtain their precise hypocenters and to identify fault planes of larger earthquakes. We used P-wave arrival times at stations worldwide reported by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). We confirmed by relocated hypocenters that the mainshock and aftershocks had occurred along the plate boundary between the North American and Pacific plates. We also confirmed that the M w 7.5 foreshock, which occurred two days before the mainshock, and the largest aftershock ( M w 7.9), which occurred half an hour after the mainshock, were thrust earthquakes along the plate boundary. The second largest aftershock ( M w 7.6), which was a normal-faulting earthquake and was a bending-stress intra-plate event caused by the strain reduction on the subduction thrust, occurred at the outer rise of the Japan Trench and was well relocated with its aftershocks. We found that its fault plane dipped westward and it bounded the aftershock distribution on the seaward side. This implies that the western side of the fault plane had subsided, corresponding with the westward plate subduction.

  14. Hydrological and geomorphological controls on a mangrove forest maintenance during the dry season in the Pacific Coast of Nicaragua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calderon, Heyddy; Weeda, Ruben; Uhlenbrook, Stefan

    2014-05-01

    Hydrological and geomorphological processes are key to mangrove forest growth and development. However, very few studies have been carried out in Central American mangroves to understand their hydrological functioning. Here, a small mangrove forest (0.2 km2) in the South Pacific coast of Nicaragua was investigated to determine sources of freshwater inputs and fluxes of water and nutrients to the sea during the dry season. The general groundwater flow direction is from NE to SW towards the sea. The aquifer is composed of clay and alluvial deposits overlying a fractured shale unit. Shallow groundwater is influenced by a nearby town through infiltration of grey water and pit latrines. Groundwater from the mangrove showed Mn2+ and Fe2+ presence indicating occurrence of denitrification and the role of the mangrove as a nutrient sink. Also, refreshening and salinization processes were identified near the river, indicated by different water facies. Freshwater inputs from precipitation and groundwater discharge maintain adequate salt gradients. The water balance showed an increase of around 619 m3 d-1 in storage during a 22 study period during the dry season, which is reflected by increased hydraulic heads and river stage. Water storage is fostered by low conductivity soil materials and beach ridges parallel to the coast line, whereby the latter occassionally breach due to overtopping of surface water. These conditions favor forest subsistence during the dry season, allowing the mangrove to continue to provide ecological and economic benefits in terms of protection against flooding, habitat for numerous species and tourist attraction.

  15. The Contribution of Trans-Pacific Submicron Aerosols and Local Particle Nucleation Bursts to California's Air Quality as Seen from the Pacific Coast Mountain Range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asher, E. C. C.; Christensen, J. N.; Post, A.; Faloona, I. C.

    2015-12-01

    The long-range transport of dust and anthropogenic aerosols to the Western US has received considerable attention due to the growing disparity between North American and Asian air quality. Using MODIS and space-borne LIDAR measurements some have argued that the transcontinental transport of dust from Asia, Africa, and Europe outweighs that of locally produced combustion aerosols (Yu et al. 2012). This study seeks to compare the aerosol composition, number, and size distribution of locally derived submicron aerosols (including particle nucleation events) vs. long-range transported aerosols observed at a remote mountain site near the Pacific Coast. Toward this aim, rotating drum impactor (RDI) and scanning mobility particle size (SMPS) measurements of size-segregated elemental compositions and size spectra were collected from February to November of 2012 at Chews Ridge (elevation 1450 m) in Monterey County, California. This mountaintop site experiences two main wind modes. The main mode is ohshore-directed winds from the southwest, which are most likely to bring trans-Pacific aerosols to the site; and offshore-directed, northeasterly winds that bring continental aerosols to the site from the interior of California. Elemental ratios (normalized to Al), matrix factorization, and a k-cluster analysis of these data suggest distinct crustal, combustion, and marine sources with considerable seasonal as well as short-term variability. HYSPLIT model back trajectories support the hypothesized sources of these submicron aerosols. Locally, SMPS data reveal consistent nucleation bursts and subsequent growth in the 20-60 nm range during the afternoons. A distinct but weaker diel cycle was observed in the 70 - 100 nm range, corresponding to the smallest RDI impactor stage. Finally, the Pb isotopic composition (206Pb/207Pb and 208Pb/207Pb) of aerosol samples from selected dates will be measured by MC-ICPMS to further identify aerosol origins (e.g. Ewing et al. 2010).

  16. The Pacific Coast Fog Project: A Multi-disciplinary Effort to Provide Web-based Climate Products for Ecologists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torregrosa, A.; Combs, C.; Ellrod, G. P.; Faloona, I. C.; Gultepe, I.

    2012-12-01

    The Pacific Coast Fog Project is an effort to pool the expertise from multiple science disciplines to provide regional and local climate information on the frequency and character of fog for effective management of coastal California natural resources. Marine stratocumulus (fog) is a major modifier of the climatic condition along the Pacific coast and has significant effects on the hydrologic cycle and thermodynamic balance in coastal ecological, biological, and economic systems. For example fog is the major source of moisture during summer months for redwood forests, a treasured natural resource. Fog also modulates shallow stream temperatures to reduce the mortality rate of young salmon during their freshwater life stages and adults returning from the ocean to spawn. Fog induced cooling reduces summer energy costs along the Pacific Coast and reduces sun burn on crops such as grapes that are important to the local economy. Furthermore, disruptions in fog distribution or frequency resulting from future climate change would change evapotranspiration rates impacting California water supply and use. Coastal fog is a complex phenomenon with many measurable parameters including extent, frequency, and duration of cloud cover; cloud deck thickness, liquid water content, base height above land, density, heterogeneity, and thermal properties. Variations in fog are a result of processes acting at multiple scales across ocean-land-atmosphere boundaries. Factors that drive the occurrence, duration, and type of fog events along the coast include dynamics of atmospheric summertime inversions, synoptic weather patterns, ocean upwelling, topography, aerosol-cloud dynamics, and differences in temperature between inland valleys and the littoral ocean areas. Estimating the distribution, frequency and characteristics of coastal fog and stratus and evaluating the resulting ecosystem responses require a diverse array of measurements and models that link processes at multiple scales. The

  17. A Capture to Remember: Monitoring the Health of Avian Scavengers on the Pacific Coast.

    PubMed

    Varland, Daniel E

    2015-09-01

    Because of concern over risks to the health of avian communities on the Washington and Oregon coasts, the nonprofit Coastal Raptors and other partners initiated a study where, to date, Coastal Raptors has live-captured and sampled 27 bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus), 27 turkey vultures (Cathartes aura), and 6 common ravens (Corvus corax) for contaminants and disease study. In this article, the author highlights the events of one of the nearly 100 days on which trapping has occurred. An adult bald eagle was captured north of Ocean Shores, WA, USA, and the trapping team was visited by Quinault Indian Nation members.

  18. A Capture to Remember: Monitoring the Health of Avian Scavengers on the Pacific Coast.

    PubMed

    Varland, Daniel E

    2015-09-01

    Because of concern over risks to the health of avian communities on the Washington and Oregon coasts, the nonprofit Coastal Raptors and other partners initiated a study where, to date, Coastal Raptors has live-captured and sampled 27 bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus), 27 turkey vultures (Cathartes aura), and 6 common ravens (Corvus corax) for contaminants and disease study. In this article, the author highlights the events of one of the nearly 100 days on which trapping has occurred. An adult bald eagle was captured north of Ocean Shores, WA, USA, and the trapping team was visited by Quinault Indian Nation members. PMID:26378672

  19. Comparison of the genetic background of different Colombian populations using the SNPforID 52plex identification panel.

    PubMed

    Ibarra, Adriana; Freire-Aradas, Ana; Martínez, Martha; Fondevila, Manuel; Burgos, German; Camacho, Mauricio; Ostos, Henry; Suarez, Zuleyma; Carracedo, Angel; Santos, Sidney; Gusmão, Leonor

    2014-01-01

    Various strategies for analysing SNP markers and genotyping have been published with the goal of obtaining informative profiles from biological samples that contain only small amounts of template and/or degraded DNA. In this study, a multiplex assay of 52 autosomal single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) was used to analyse 438 individuals from urban populations from different regions of Colombia, as well as a sample of 50 Native American individuals of the Pastos ethnic group from Nariño. To determine if significant differences in these 52 SNPs exist between the distinct regions of Colombia, genetic distance and admixture analyses were performed based on the available data for 17 different Colombian population groups and for population groups from Africa, Europe and America. The results demonstrate significant differences between the populations from the Southwest Andean, Central-West Andean, Central-East Andean, Orinoquian and northern Colombian Pacific Coast regions. Most of the regions exhibited a European and Native American admixture. One exception is the population from the region of Chocó (on the northern Pacific Coast), which exhibits a high proportion of African admixture (54 %). From the observed genetic backgrounds, it is possible to conclude that a single reference database for the entire country would not be suitable for forensic purposes. The allele frequencies and the forensically relevant parameters were calculated for all of the markers in each Colombian region with significant values for the combined matching probability (power of discrimination ≥0.99999999999999990) and the combined probability of exclusion (≥0.9990) in trios that were obtained from all of the population groups. PMID:23665814

  20. Time-space distribution of tsunamigenic earthquakes along the Pacific and Bering coasts of Kamchatka: insight from paleotsunami deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinegina, Tatiana

    2014-05-01

    Kamchatka and Kurile islands are the most seismically active regions of our planet. Strong earthquakes along Kuril-Kamchatka subduction and the west margin of Bering Sea usually generate tsunami. All intensive tsunami leave the geological traces at the coasts. Data about past tsunami, obtained during last ~20 yr, extend significantly the short historical catalogue of such events. Basing on the distribution of tsunami deposits the runup height and inundation distance for historical tsunami and paleotsunami were estimated, as well as sources and magnitudes of tsunamigenic earthquakes for the past ~2000 years. In excavations along the Bering Sea coast 10 layers of tsunami deposits within this period of time were identified. Earthquakes magnitudes (Mt) calculated from tsunami height at the nearest coasts by Abe relation (Abe, 1999) vary between 7.0 and 8.3, and their recurrence interval is 175 to 250 years. In sections along the Kamchatsky Bay coast 15 layers with tsunami deposits for the past ~2000 years were identified. Average recurrence interval of strong tsunami (with runup >3-4 m) there is 125-145 year, and estimated Mt vary between 7.6 and 8.4. Two earthquakes, which took place in the Kamchatsky Bay during the past ~2000 year, caused 1 to 2 m of coseismic subsidence of the coast. At the Kronotsky Bay coast for the past ~2000 years average recurrence interval of tsunami with runup >3-5 m is ~100 year. At the Avachinsky Bay coast the average recurrence interval of all detected tsunami (for the past ~2000 years) is about 100 years. At the southern Kamchatka and northern Kurile Island it lowers to 70-80 years, and calculated magnitudes Mt of tsunamigenic earthquakes fall in an interval from 6.7 to 8.7. Average recurrence of tsunami with runup >5 m at the open bays and >2 m at the closed bays from Avachinsky Bay to northern Kuriles is 130-150 year. Three tsunamigenic earthquakes (1952 AD, 1737 AD, ~600 AD) were accompanied by coastal coseismic subsidence. Each of

  1. Variability and trends in the summer climate of the U.S. Pacific coast (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnstone, J. A.

    2010-12-01

    The summer climate of the U.S. Pacific coastline is characterized by relatively cool and humid conditions, in contrast to the hot, dry subtropical surroundings of the continental interior. This coastal climatic ‘refuge’ is provided by a combination of dynamic factors, including persistent northerly winds, wind-driven upwelling, a capping inversion that focuses marine conditions along the low-elevation coastline, and persistent stratus cloud that comes into direct contact with the coastal landscape. These elements make the summer climate suitable for endemic moisture-dependent plant and animal species, and comfortable for human habitation. Ocean and atmospheric evidence indicates that these factors covary strongly with one another, largely in response to changes in the position of the North Pacific High. Circulation data extending back to ~1950 shows moderate declines in stratus frequency, with strong multi-decadal variations related to the PDO. Century-long marine and terrestrial temperature records present a consistent picture of greater reductions (i.e. coastal warming relative to the interior) since ~1930. These results indicate strong dynamical control on coastal climate variability and change, and suggest different climate change trajectories within small elevational distances on coastal mountain slopes. Low elevation sites show warming (and possibly drying) in conjunction with reduced stratus coverage and marine temperature changes. An inferred weakening of the coastal temperature inversion, however suggests that coastal upland sites have warmed less, and perhaps cooled over the past century.

  2. Cryptic species and historical biogeography of eel gobies (Gobioidei: Odontamblyopus) along the northwestern Pacific coast.

    PubMed

    Tang, Weixing; Lshimatsu, Atsushi; Fu, Cuizhang; Yin, Wei; Li, Guo; Chen, Hui; Wu, Qianhong; Li, Bo

    2010-01-01

    Cryptic species are common in gobioid fishes, as revealed by recent molecular studies. This study collected molecular and morphological data to delimit species boundaries and to reveal the historical biogeography of Odontamblyopus lacepedii sensu lato by sampling 87 specimens from 16 locations in the northwestern Pacific. Phylogenetic trees based on mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase subunit 5 sequences identified three major clades. Clear morphological separations among these clades were detected by examining morphological characters used in taxonomic diagnosis. Therefore, these clades were delineated as three separate species: O. lacepedii sensu stricto (in the East China Sea, Yellow Sea, Gulf of Bohai, and Ariake Bay); O. sp. (in the southern East China Sea and southern Yellow Sea); and O. rebecca (in the Gulf of Tonkin, northern South China Sea, and southern East China Sea). Estimated divergence times were 0.61 +/- 0.15 Ma between O. lacepedii and O. sp., and 2.31+/-0.36 Ma between O. rebecca and O. lacepedii+O. sp. These findings indicate that isolation of marginal seas and habitat fragmentation during major falls in sea level in the late Pliocene and Pleistocene may have been responsible for genetic breaks among Odontamblyopus species in the northwestern Pacific.

  3. [Community structure of zooxanthellate corals (Anthozoa: Scleractinia) in Carrizales coral reef, Pacific coast, Mexico].

    PubMed

    Reyes-Bonilla, Hector; Escobosa-González, Laura Elena; Cupul-Magaña, Amilcar L; Medina-Rosas, Pedro; Calderón-Aguilera, Luis E

    2013-06-01

    Coral reefs in the Mexican Pacific and notably those of the continental coastline of Colima state are still poorly studied. Fortunately, recent efforts have been carried out by researchers from different Mexican institutions to fill up these information gaps. The aim of this study was to determine the ecological structure of the rich and undisturbed coral building communities of Carrizales by using the point transect interception method (25m-long). For this, three survey expeditions were conducted between June and October 2005 and September 2006; and for comparison purposes, the reef was subdivided according to its position in the bay, and depth (0 to 5 m, and 6 to 10 m). Thirteen coral species were observed in the area, with Pocillopora verrucosa as the most abundant, contributing up to 32.8% of total cover, followed by Porites panamensis and Pocillopora capitata with 11% and 7%, respectively. Other species, Pocillopora damicornis, Pavona gigantea, Pocillopora eydouxi and Pocillopora inflata accounted for 1.5% to 2% of coral cover whereas the remaining five species had cover of less than 1%. Seven of the observed species represented new records for Colima state coastline: Pocillopora eydouxi, P inflata, P meandrina, Pavona duerdeni, P varians, Psammocora stellata and P contigua. This last species is a relevant record, because it has never been observed before in the Eastern Pacific. Although there was no significant difference (ANOVA, p = 0.478) neither in the abundance between the sides of the bay, nor between the depths considered, and the shallow zone observed the higher coral cover. Live coral cover was up to 61%, one of the highest ever reported for the Mexican Pacific, including the Gulf of California. The observed values of diversity (H' = 0.44 +/- 0.02), uniformity (J' = 0.76 +/- 0.02), and taxonomic distinctness index (delta* = 45.87 +/- 3.16), showed that currently this is the most important coral reef of Colima coastline. Currently, this region does not

  4. Coseismic Slip Distribution of the 2011 off the Pacific Coast of Tohoku Earthquake Deduced from Land and Seafloor Geodesy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iinuma, T.; Kido, M.; Osada, Y.; Inazu, D.; Ohzono, M.; Tsushima, H.; Hino, R.; Ohta, Y.; Suzuki, S.; Fujimoto, H.; Miura, S.; Shinohara, M.

    2011-12-01

    The 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake (M9.0) occurred on 11 March 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku district, northeastern Japan, where the Pacific plate is subducting beneath the overriding continental plate. A number of models of the coseismic slip distribution of this earthquake have been already proposed based on seismological, geodetic, and tsunami data. Here, we present comprehensive coseismic slip distribution model based not only on land GPS data but also on seafloor geodetic observations, which are obtained through recent observation cruises. We combined displacements at seafloor sites that are deduced from two different types of seafloor observations with the displacements at land GPS stations. One is the seafloor crustal deformation observation with GPS/Acoustic ranging (GPS/A). Horizontal displacements associated with the 2011 Tohoku earthquake at 2 GPS/A stations are estimated by comparing the station positions deduced from the observations before and after the earthquake. Another type of the seafloor data is seafloor water pressure that is observed by means of ocean bottom pressure gauge (OBP). We analyzed OBP data observed at 2 cabled and 4 self pop-up stations, and estimated vertical displacements due to the main shock. Displacements at 5 GPS/A stations of Japan Coast Guard [Sato et al., 2011, science] are also included to estimate the coseismic slip distribution of the earthquake. Estimated slip distribution of the 2011 Tohoku Earthquake shows following features. 1) The area of large slip ( > 20 m) is about 100 km x 200 km on the plate interface shallower than 30 km in depth. 2) There is no large slip occurred off southern Iwate prefecture on the plate interface throughout shallow to deep. 3) The latitudinal range of the area of large slip almost corresponds to the one of the area of strong interplate coupling zone off Miyagi prefecture. 4) Significant slip is estimated around the rupture area of 1978 M7.4 Miyagi-oki earthquake (40

  5. A new species of Leptoderma Vaillant, 1886 (Osmeriformes: Alepocephalidae) from the Pacific coast of Central America.

    PubMed

    Angulo, Arturo; Baldwin, Carole C; Robertson, D Ross

    2016-01-01

    A new species of Leptoderma Vaillant, 1886 is described from a single specimen trawled at 1368-1406 m depth off El Salvador, Central America, tropical eastern Pacific. Leptoderma ospesca n. sp. can be readily distinguished from its congeners by the following combination of characters: dermal papillae absent along the lateral line, pectoral-fin rays 6, pelvic-fin rays 5, pre-dorsal length 54.9% of SL, both dorsal and anal fins separated from the caudal fin, dorsal- and anal-fin rays long, procurrent caudal-fin rays numerous and extending far forward on caudal peduncle, caudal-fin rays 16, and total pre-ural vertebrae 60. A key to the species of the genus is presented. PMID:27395850

  6. Chlorinated hydrocarbons in coastal lagoons of the pacific coast of Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, F P; Montenegro-Guillen, S; Villeneuve, J; Cattini, C; Bartocci, J; Lacayo, M; Cruz, A

    1999-02-01

    A screening for persistent chlorinated hydrocarbons was carried out in December 1995 in the main coastal lagoons on the Pacific side of Nicaragua, where most of the country's agriculture and pesticide use has been taking place for decades. Results for a wide range of organochlorine pesticides in lagoon sediments show levels that generally were very low in Estero Real, Estero Padre Ramos, and estuary of San Juan del Sur. For example, total DDTs in these lagoons averaged 4.5 +/- 3.4 ng g-1 dry weight, which may be considered a baseline level for the region. Other compounds such as HCHs, BHC, endosulfan, heptachlor, endrin, toxaphene, and aroclors were present in concentrations even lower, generally below 1 ng g-1 dry weight. However, sediments of the Esteros Naranjo-Paso Caballos system at Chinandega district contained pesticide residues in much higher levels, attaining maximum values of 1,420 ng g-1 and 270 ng g-1 dry weight, respectively, for toxaphene and total DDTs. Other compounds such as aroclors, chlordane, endosulfan, and dieldrin were also present in the sediments of this lagoon system, but in lower concentrations. The very high concentrations of toxaphene and DDTs in this lagoon are a result of the intensive use of these pesticides in cotton growing in the district of Chinandega. Due to the long environmental half-lives of these compounds (t(1/2) > 10 years in temperate soils), their concentrations in lagoon sediments will likely remain high for years to come. Based on these results, the development of the new shrimp farming activities in the Pacific coastal lagoons should be restricted to selected areas.

  7. Plesionika sanctaecatalinae Wicksten, 1983 (Crustacea Decapoda Caridea Pandalidae) from off the west coast of Pacific Mexico.

    PubMed

    Hendrickx, Michel E

    2016-01-01

    A large series of specimens of Plesionika sanctaecatalinae was obtained during sampling operations off the west coast of the Baja California Peninsula in 2012 and 2014 (TALUD cruises). This material was examined and compared to the original description, the holotype and two paratypes. Although the fresh material fit well with the type material examined, some discrepancies were noted in the illustrations of the original description, particularly regarding scaphocerite and the telson, and new illustrations are provided. The series of sample available from the TALUD cruises allow to increase considerably the number of localities known for this species in the California Current area. A series of unpublished records corresponding to material examined in the original description but not listed in details, allows for further increase of the number of reported localities where P. sanctaecatalinae has been collected. Its vertical distribution in the water column, however, remains unclear due to the fact that no discrete samples are available for this species. PMID:27395100

  8. Plesionika sanctaecatalinae Wicksten, 1983 (Crustacea Decapoda Caridea Pandalidae) from off the west coast of Pacific Mexico.

    PubMed

    Hendrickx, Michel E

    2016-05-17

    A large series of specimens of Plesionika sanctaecatalinae was obtained during sampling operations off the west coast of the Baja California Peninsula in 2012 and 2014 (TALUD cruises). This material was examined and compared to the original description, the holotype and two paratypes. Although the fresh material fit well with the type material examined, some discrepancies were noted in the illustrations of the original description, particularly regarding scaphocerite and the telson, and new illustrations are provided. The series of sample available from the TALUD cruises allow to increase considerably the number of localities known for this species in the California Current area. A series of unpublished records corresponding to material examined in the original description but not listed in details, allows for further increase of the number of reported localities where P. sanctaecatalinae has been collected. Its vertical distribution in the water column, however, remains unclear due to the fact that no discrete samples are available for this species.

  9. Historic and ancient tsunamis uncovered on the Jalisco-Colima Pacific coast, the Mexican subduction zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramírez-Herrera, María Teresa; Bógalo, María Felicidad; Černý, Jan; Goguitchaichvili, Avto; Corona, Néstor; Machain, María Luisa; Edwards, Arturo Carranza; Sosa, Susana

    2016-04-01

    Research on extreme wave events such as tsunamis using the geological record in areas of infrequent and or small magnitude earthquakes can aid in extending the long-term history and recurrence intervals of large events. This information is valuable for risk management and community preparedness in coastal areas. Here we investigate tsunami deposits on the Jalisco coast of Mexico that overlies the subducting Rivera Plate under the North American plate, an area due for a large thrust earthquake and potential tsunami. Here, we apply a full battery of rock-magnetic analyses that also include a detailed AMS study and other typically applied proxies in tsunami deposits research. We present evidence to demonstrate that anomalous sand units with sharp basal contacts at La Manzanilla, Tenacatita Bay, and El Tecuán shore sites on the Jalisco coast may be the products of tsunamis generated by known historical (Ms 8.2 earthquake of 3 June 1932) and other earlier tsunamigenic earthquakes. A sandy unit with a sharp basal contact, flame structures at the base, rip-up clasts at La Manzanilla, and four sand units with sharp basal contact overlying buried soils at El Tecuán, together with other proxies, such as magnetic properties and others, suggest tsunami deposits. 210Pb dating of sediments slightly above the upper sand layer indicate an age A.D. 1935 ± 11 at El Tecuán. Historical accounts of tsunami inundation at both sites provide further evidence that this is most probably the result of the 3 June 1932 tsunami. Hence this study may provide the first evidence of a tsunami triggered by this earthquake and also of three probable predecessors. Further evidence of at least three earlier tsunamis that occurred since the fifteenth century is also evident in the stratigraphy. These events may correspond to events listed in historical archives, namely the 1563, 1816, and/or the 1818 events.

  10. Rapid estimation of the moment magnitude of the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku earthquake from coseismic strain steps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itaba, S.; Matsumoto, N.; Kitagawa, Y.; Koizumi, N.

    2012-12-01

    The 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku earthquake, of moment magnitude (Mw) 9.0, occurred at 14:46 Japan Standard Time (JST) on March 11, 2011. The coseismic strain steps caused by the fault slip of this earthquake were observed in the Tokai, Kii Peninsula and Shikoku by the borehole strainmeters which were carefully set by Geological Survey of Japan, AIST. Using these strain steps, we estimated a fault model for the earthquake on the boundary between the Pacific and North American plates. Our model, which is estimated only from several minutes' strain data, is largely consistent with the final fault models estimated from GPS and seismic wave data. The moment magnitude can be estimated about 6 minutes after the origin time, and 4 minutes after wave arrival. According to the fault model, the moment magnitude of the earthquake is 8.7. On the other hand, based on the seismic wave, the prompt report of the magnitude which the Japan Meteorological Agency announced just after earthquake occurrence was 7.9. Generally coseismic strain steps are considered to be less reliable than seismic waves and GPS data. However our results show that the coseismic strain steps observed by the borehole strainmeters, which were carefully set and monitored, can be relied enough to decide the earthquake magnitude precisely and rapidly. In order to grasp the magnitude of a great earthquake earlier, several methods are now being suggested to reduce the earthquake disasters including tsunami. Our simple method of using strain steps is one of the strong methods for rapid estimation of the magnitude of great earthquakes.

  11. Investigation of mercury deposition and potential sources at six sites from the Pacific Coast to the Great Basin, USA.

    PubMed

    Wright, Genine; Gustin, Mae Sexauer; Weiss-Penzias, Peter; Miller, Matthieu B

    2014-02-01

    The Western Airborne Contaminants Assessment Project showed that USA National Parks had fish mercury (Hg) concentrations above threshold concentrations set for wildlife. Since significant areas of the Western USA are arid, we hypothesized that dry deposition would be important. The primary question was whether sources of Hg were local and thus, easily addressed, or regional (from within the United States), or global (long range transport), and more difficult to address. To investigate this, surrogate surfaces and passive samplers for the measurement of GOM deposition and concentration, respectively, were deployed from the coast of California to the eastern edge of Nevada. Meteorological data, back trajectory modeling, and ozone concentrations were applied to better understand potential sources of Hg. Lowest seasonal mean Hg deposition (0.2 to 0.4 ng m(-2)h(-1)) was observed at low elevation (<100 m) Pacific Coast sites. Highest values were recorded at Lick Observatory, a high elevation coastal site (1,279 m), and Great Basin National Park (2,062 m) in rural eastern Nevada (1.5 to 2.4 ng m(-2)h(-1)). Intermediate values were recorded in Yosemite and Sequoia National Parks (0.9 to 1.2 ng m(-2)h(-1)). Results indicate that local, regional and global sources of air pollution, specifically oxidants, are contributing to observed deposition. At Great Basin National Park air chemistry was influenced by regional urban and agricultural emissions and free troposphere inputs. Dry deposition contributed ~2 times less Hg than wet deposition at the coastal locations, but 3 to 4 times more at the higher elevation sites. Based on the spatial trends, oxidation in the marine boundary layer or ocean sources contributed ~0.4 ng m(-2)h(-1) at the coastal locations. Regional pollution and long range transport contributed 1 to 2 ng m(-2)h(-1) to other locations, and the source of Hg is global and as such, all sources are important to consider.

  12. Investigation of mercury deposition and potential sources at six sites from the Pacific Coast to the Great Basin, USA.

    PubMed

    Wright, Genine; Gustin, Mae Sexauer; Weiss-Penzias, Peter; Miller, Matthieu B

    2014-02-01

    The Western Airborne Contaminants Assessment Project showed that USA National Parks had fish mercury (Hg) concentrations above threshold concentrations set for wildlife. Since significant areas of the Western USA are arid, we hypothesized that dry deposition would be important. The primary question was whether sources of Hg were local and thus, easily addressed, or regional (from within the United States), or global (long range transport), and more difficult to address. To investigate this, surrogate surfaces and passive samplers for the measurement of GOM deposition and concentration, respectively, were deployed from the coast of California to the eastern edge of Nevada. Meteorological data, back trajectory modeling, and ozone concentrations were applied to better understand potential sources of Hg. Lowest seasonal mean Hg deposition (0.2 to 0.4 ng m(-2)h(-1)) was observed at low elevation (<100 m) Pacific Coast sites. Highest values were recorded at Lick Observatory, a high elevation coastal site (1,279 m), and Great Basin National Park (2,062 m) in rural eastern Nevada (1.5 to 2.4 ng m(-2)h(-1)). Intermediate values were recorded in Yosemite and Sequoia National Parks (0.9 to 1.2 ng m(-2)h(-1)). Results indicate that local, regional and global sources of air pollution, specifically oxidants, are contributing to observed deposition. At Great Basin National Park air chemistry was influenced by regional urban and agricultural emissions and free troposphere inputs. Dry deposition contributed ~2 times less Hg than wet deposition at the coastal locations, but 3 to 4 times more at the higher elevation sites. Based on the spatial trends, oxidation in the marine boundary layer or ocean sources contributed ~0.4 ng m(-2)h(-1) at the coastal locations. Regional pollution and long range transport contributed 1 to 2 ng m(-2)h(-1) to other locations, and the source of Hg is global and as such, all sources are important to consider. PMID:24252197

  13. Migration and stopover strategies of individual Dunlin along the Pacific coast of North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Warnock, N.; Takekawa, J.Y.; Bishop, M.A.

    2004-01-01

    We radio-marked 18 Dunlin, Calidris alpina (L., 1758), at San Francisco Bay, California, and 11 Dunlin at Grays Harbor, Washington, and relocated 90% of them along the 4200 km long coastline from north of San Francisco Bay to the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, Alaska. The Copper River Delta, Alaska, was the single most important stopover site, with 79% of the marked birds detected there. Our second most important site was the Willapa Bay and Grays Harbor complex of wetlands in Washington. The mean length of stay past banding sites ranged from 1.0 to 3.8 days. Controlling for date of departure, birds banded at San Francisco Bay had higher rates of travel to the Copper River Delta than those banded at Grays Harbor. The later a bird left a capture site, the faster it traveled to the Copper River Delta. Length of stay at the Copper River Delta was inversely related to arrival date. We did not find any effect of sex on travel rate or length of stay. Combining the results of this study with our previous work on Western Sandpipers, Calidris mauri (Cabanis, 1875), reveals variation of migration strategies used within and among shorebird species along the eastern Pacific Flyway. ?? 2004 NRC.

  14. Reproductive dynamics of Pacific sanddab, Citharichthys sordidus, off the central coast of California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lefebvre, Lyndsey S.; Payne, Amber M.; Field, John C.

    2016-01-01

    Female Pacific sanddab were collected from the Monterey Bay, California to describe their reproductive strategy and annual reproductive cycle, as well as to estimate length at maturity, fecundity, spawning fraction (SF), and spawning interval (SI). Captive females were held to examine degradation of spawning markers and confirmed the biological spawning capabilities of the species. The reproductive season extended from May through January, as determined through macroscopic and histological examination of ovaries. Oocyte development was asynchronous, and an indeterminate fecundity pattern was displayed. Absolute and relative batch fecundity values were variable (means = 6663 eggs and 54 eggs g- 1 somatic weight, respectively) and significantly related to maternal length. During the period of highest reproductive activity, SF ranged from 0.42 to 0.98, suggesting some females were spawning on a daily basis. Monthly SF and SI were related to length, with smaller females having a truncated season and lower SF compared to larger females. Lengths at 50% (119 mm) and 95% (149 mm) maturity showed a downward shift relative to the 1940s, though the magnitude and cause of this shift remain unknown. This study highlights the importance of considering demographic shifts and size-related dynamics when modeling a stock's reproductive potential.

  15. PCB concentrations in sediments from the Gulf of Nicoya estuary, Pacific coast of Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Spongberg, Alison L

    2004-12-01

    Thirty-one sediment samples collected from 1996-2003 from the Gulf of Nicoya estuary on the northwestern coast of Costa Rica, have been obtained for PCB analyses. This is part of the first study to evaluate the PCB contamination in coastal Costa Rica. Overall, the concentrations are low, especially when compared to sediments from more temperate climates and/or sediments from more heavily industrialized areas. Values average less than 3 ng/g dw sediment, however, a few samples contained up to 7 ng/g dw sediment. Sediments with the highest concentrations were located in the Punta Morales area, where muds were sampled from among mangrove roots. The Puntarenas samples had surprisingly low PCB concentrations, likely due to their sandy lithology. The congener distribution within the majority of the samples showed signs of either recent sources or lack of degradation. However, a few sites, specifically some of the inter-gulf islands and more remote samples had congener distributions indicative of airborne contaminants and/or degradation. Considering the presence of airborne PCBs in the Gulf of Papagayo to the north, the lack of airborne PCBs and more varied congener distribution in the Gulf of Nicoya estuary was surprising.

  16. PCB concentrations in sediments from the Gulf of Nicoya estuary, Pacific coast of Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Spongberg, Alison L

    2004-12-01

    Thirty-one sediment samples collected from 1996-2003 from the Gulf of Nicoya estuary on the northwestern coast of Costa Rica, have been obtained for PCB analyses. This is part of the first study to evaluate the PCB contamination in coastal Costa Rica. Overall, the concentrations are low, especially when compared to sediments from more temperate climates and/or sediments from more heavily industrialized areas. Values average less than 3 ng/g dw sediment, however, a few samples contained up to 7 ng/g dw sediment. Sediments with the highest concentrations were located in the Punta Morales area, where muds were sampled from among mangrove roots. The Puntarenas samples had surprisingly low PCB concentrations, likely due to their sandy lithology. The congener distribution within the majority of the samples showed signs of either recent sources or lack of degradation. However, a few sites, specifically some of the inter-gulf islands and more remote samples had congener distributions indicative of airborne contaminants and/or degradation. Considering the presence of airborne PCBs in the Gulf of Papagayo to the north, the lack of airborne PCBs and more varied congener distribution in the Gulf of Nicoya estuary was surprising. PMID:17465128

  17. Trichomonas stableri n. sp., an agent of trichomonosis in Pacific Coast band-tailed pigeons (Patagioenas fasciata monilis).

    PubMed

    Girard, Yvette A; Rogers, Krysta H; Gerhold, Richard; Land, Kirkwood M; Lenaghan, Scott C; Woods, Leslie W; Haberkern, Nathan; Hopper, Melissa; Cann, Jeff D; Johnson, Christine K

    2014-04-01

    Trichomonas gallinae is a ubiquitous flagellated protozoan parasite, and the most common etiologic agent of epidemic trichomonosis in columbid and passerine species. In this study, free-ranging Pacific Coast band-tailed pigeons (Patagioenas fasciata monilis) in California (USA) were found to be infected with trichomonad protozoa that were genetically and morphologically distinct from T. gallinae. In microscopic analysis, protozoa were significantly smaller in length and width than T. gallinae and were bimodal in morphology. Phylogenetic analysis of the ITS1/5.8S/ITS2, rpb1, and hydrogenosomal Fe-hydrogenase regions revealed that the protozoan shares an ancestor with Trichomonas vaginalis, the sexually-transmitted agent of trichomoniasis in humans. Clinical and pathologic features of infected birds were similar to infections with T. gallinae. Evidence presented here strongly support taxonomical distinction of this parasite, which we hereby name Trichomonas stableri n. sp. This work contributes to a growing body of evidence that T. gallinae is not the sole etiologic agent of avian trichomonosis, and that the incorporation of molecular tools is critical in the investigation of infectious causes of mortality in birds. PMID:24918075

  18. Epizootiology of Perkinsus marinus, parasite of the pleasure oyster Crassostrea corteziensis, in the Pacific coast of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Cáceres-Martínez, Jorge; Madero-López, Luis Humberto; Padilla-Lardizábal, Gloria; Vásquez-Yeomans, Rebeca

    2016-09-01

    The protozoan parasite Perkinsus marinus is the etiological agent of "dermo disease". This pathogen is considered by the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) as reportable due to the high mortalities that it produces in the eastern oyster Crassostrea virginica in the US. In 2006, this parasite was detected in the pleasure oyster Crassostrea corteziensis in Nayarit on the Pacific coast of Mexico, indicating a new host and an extension of its known distribution. Epizootiological data of P. marinus in the pleasure oyster are unknown. With the objective of determining the prevalence and intensity in relation with temperature and salinity throughout time, as well as for studying interactions of host size and sex with the parasite, a monthly sampling was carried out in two aquaculture sites of Nayarit from 2007 to 2014. A total of 7700 oysters were analyzed. In both localities, prevalence was low in winter (<6%) when temperature and salinity fluctuated around 24°C and 33, respectively; and the highest prevalence values occurred during summer (37%) when temperature and salinity were around 30°C and 20, respectively. Infection intensity increased in summer, but severe cases remained on average <10%. Larger oysters showed the highest prevalence and intensity, and higher prevalence were generally observed in females. No unusual mortalities directly related with P. marinus were observed.

  19. Prevalence of rabies and LPM paramyxovirus antibody in non-hematophagous bats captured in the Central Pacific coast of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Salas-Rojas, Mónica; Sánchez-Hernández, Cornelio; Romero-Almaraz Md, María de Lourdes; Schnell, Gary D; Schmid, Roberto Kretschmer; Aguilar-Setién, Alvaro

    2004-10-01

    To investigate if non-hematophagous bats play a role in outbreaks of rabies and blue eye disease (LPMV), we studied the seroprevalence against both agents in several species of non-hematophagous bats on the sub-tropical Pacific coast of the state of Colima, Mexico. The survey covered a predominantly agricultural area (disturbed), and an area dominated by semideciduous dry forest (undisturbed). A total of 151 non-hematophagous bats of 16 species were captured from the two areas. Fifty-six (37%) had antirabic antibodies (Ab) while 87 (58%) did not and 8 samples (5%) had to be discarded because of hemolysis. A much lower (P<0.05) prevalence of antirabic Ab was found in bats caught in disturbed areas (22.7%) compared with those from undisturbed areas (51.9%). The presence of antirabic Ab was not related to sex, genera or feeding habits. The higher prevalence found in bats in the undisturbed area may be the result of more frequent interspecies encounters. Of the 108 sera analyzed for antibodies against LPMV, only one was positive (a male Rhogeessa parvula major, captured in the undisturbed area). This suggests that bats in the surveyed localities do not play a role in the epidemiology of LPMV.

  20. A transboundary study of urban sprawl in the Pacific Coast region of North America: The benefits of multiple measurement methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Chris; Schaub, Tim

    2005-12-01

    Sprawling urban development has emerged as a primary concern of policy makers, land preservationists and both urban and rural communities in developing regions across the globe. For the first time in history, more global residents lived in urban areas than not and the trend to urbanization is in full force at the start of the 21st century. An understanding of the nature and character of urban sprawl is complicated by a failure to satisfactorily define it and by the limitations of measurement techniques designed to characterize complex landscape forms. Like other landscape patterns, the quantification of urban sprawl is highly spatially and temporally scale-dependent. This paper summarizes a recent project to measure urban sprawl in the transboundary region of the Pacific Coast of North America. The metropolitan centers of Portland, OR, Seattle, WA and Vancouver, BC, span two nations, three state/provincial governments and dozens of cities. As a region, this was a global leader in population growth in the 1990s. The study relied on three separate methods - an impervious surface metric, a neighborhood density metric and a building permit metric - for quantifying urban growth. The results provide insight on the strengths and shortcomings of different methods with respect to the challenges posed by data availability and format. Taken together they demonstrate the richer understanding that combined methods may offer in characterizing phenomena as difficult to communicate and agree upon as urban sprawl.

  1. The Impact of the 2011 Off the Pacific Coast of Tohoku Earthquake on the Tsukuba 32-m VLBI Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurihara, S.; Kokado, K.; Kuroda, J.; Ishihara, M.; Kawabata, R.

    2012-12-01

    A 9.0-magnitude earthquake named "the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake" hit eastern areas of Japan on March 11. The gear wheel for the elevation drive of the Tsukuba 32-m VLBI antenna swayed due to the earthquake, but there was no critical damage to the antenna or other equipment. Many aftershocks followed in the few weeks afterwards. Tsukuba 32-m returned to IVS VLBI observing on April 4. The observed VLBI sessions produced VLBI positions for Tsukuba, and co-seismic and post-seismic displacements were detected by VLBI. By the way, GSI has installed and maintains over 1,200 GNSS-based control stations, a large number of triangulation points, and benchmarks throughout Japan. Since the crustal displacement was widespread and its magnitude was very large, we needed to revise the coordinates of many control points. This revision covered the eastern half of Honshu Island with 438 GNSS-based control stations, approximately 43,000 triangulation points, and approximately 1,400 benchmarks. New coordinates, except for these benchmarks, were calculated based on the amount of displacement detected by VLBI on May 10.

  2. Do early growth dynamics explain recruitment success in Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus off the Pacific coast of northern Japan?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oshima, Masakane; Robert, Dominique; Kurita, Yutaka; Yoneda, Michio; Tominaga, Osamu; Tomiyama, Takeshi; Yamashita, Yoh; Uehara, Shinji

    2010-07-01

    We examined the relative importance of growth-related processes operating during the larval and early juvenile stage in explaining variability in year class success of Japanese flounder off the Pacific coast of northern Japan. Early growth trajectory of larvae and juveniles sampled in 2005 (strong year class) and in 2006 (weak year class) was estimated from the analysis of the lapillar otolith. The larval pelagic stage was characterized by lower growth and developmental rates, as well as high selection for fast growth in the metamorphosis/settlement period, during the strong recruitment event of 2005 relative to 2006. Growth appeared higher in 2005 only after settlement despite high density in the nursery, which likely reflected superior productivity during that year combined with an increased probability of cannibalism from early settlers on late settlers. This implies that larval growth dynamics did not play an important role in determining recruitment strength in the two years considered. The decreasing distance from the nursery areas of pelagic larvae through ontogeny in 2005, combined with low age at settlement, suggest that larvae benefited from positive transport conditions during the dominant year class. To the contrary, unfavorable hydrographic conditions likely prevailed in 2006 as distance from the nurseries increased with ontogeny and settlement occurred later than in 2005 despite faster growth potential and developmental rate. We conclude that transport conditions to the nursery grounds, rather than larval growth potential, represented the most important determinant of year class success in the two years considered.

  3. [Spatial-temporal dynamics of red tide precursor organisms at the Pacific coast of North and Central America].

    PubMed

    Sierra-Beltrán, A P; Lluch-Cota, D B; Lluch-Cota, S E; Cortés-Altamirano, R; Cortés-Lara, M C; Castillo-Chávez, M; Carrillo, L; Pacas, L; Víquez, R; García-Hansen, I

    2004-09-01

    The Pacific coast of Central and North America has long been and still is impacted by the flourishing of microalgal populations known as Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs). The organisms that have caused recent HABs episodes in the region are among others, Gymnodinium catenatum, Pyrodinium bahamense var. compressum, and recently Cochlodinium cf. catenatum. In spite of the accumulated effects on the human health, the economic activities and the environment, scarce information is available on the subject. The augmented use of coastal zones for human activities is also paralleled by increased awareness of global climate changes. Thus, it is not an easy task to discriminate anthropogenic or natural phenomena, or both, as the major driving forces. The long-term data sets available for limited regions, as well as some sporadic observations during notorious blooms, allowed us to discriminate major changes in the biodiversity and biogeography of HAB organisms. Main changes refer to number of events, covered area, duration and frequency, number of blooming species and appearance of not previously reported harmful taxa. The variables more clearly related to these dynamic phenomena, seems to be sea surface temperature and wind force, but it is not yet possible to weight their contributions. The participation of rain is not fully evaluated to date. The collaborative communication among small-budget monitoring operations in the region allowed to "pass the voice" about peaking concentrations of HAB organisms, diminishing the risk of poisoning. PMID:17465122

  4. Epizootiology of Perkinsus marinus, parasite of the pleasure oyster Crassostrea corteziensis, in the Pacific coast of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Cáceres-Martínez, Jorge; Madero-López, Luis Humberto; Padilla-Lardizábal, Gloria; Vásquez-Yeomans, Rebeca

    2016-09-01

    The protozoan parasite Perkinsus marinus is the etiological agent of "dermo disease". This pathogen is considered by the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) as reportable due to the high mortalities that it produces in the eastern oyster Crassostrea virginica in the US. In 2006, this parasite was detected in the pleasure oyster Crassostrea corteziensis in Nayarit on the Pacific coast of Mexico, indicating a new host and an extension of its known distribution. Epizootiological data of P. marinus in the pleasure oyster are unknown. With the objective of determining the prevalence and intensity in relation with temperature and salinity throughout time, as well as for studying interactions of host size and sex with the parasite, a monthly sampling was carried out in two aquaculture sites of Nayarit from 2007 to 2014. A total of 7700 oysters were analyzed. In both localities, prevalence was low in winter (<6%) when temperature and salinity fluctuated around 24°C and 33, respectively; and the highest prevalence values occurred during summer (37%) when temperature and salinity were around 30°C and 20, respectively. Infection intensity increased in summer, but severe cases remained on average <10%. Larger oysters showed the highest prevalence and intensity, and higher prevalence were generally observed in females. No unusual mortalities directly related with P. marinus were observed. PMID:27403560

  5. Aphelochaeta (Polychaeta: Cirratulidae) from the Pacific coast of Costa Rica, with a description of five new species.

    PubMed

    Dean, Harlan K; Blake, James A

    2016-01-01

    Five new species of bitentaculate Cirratulidae belonging to the genus Aphelochaeta are herein described from the Pacific coast of Costa Rica, all from shallow subtidal depths. Aphelochaeta antelonga sp. nov. is characterized by a long biannulate peristomium and fibrillated capillary setae and is from 11-18 m in the Gulf of Nicoya. Aphelochaeta guimondi sp. nov., with a wide dorsal trough in the thorax and hirsute capillaries (visible using SEM), is described from 11-26 m in the Gulf of Nicoya. Aphelochaeta praeacuta sp. nov., with its first peristomial annulation extending as a dorsal crest over the second annulation and first setiger, was collected from 11-28 m in Bahia Culebra. Aphelochaeta striata sp. nov., collected from 11-28 m in the Gulf of Nicoya, is recognized by its narrow body and the transverse blue stripes across the venter of setigers 5-8 produced with methyl green stain. Aphelochaeta zebra sp. nov., collected from a coral reef in Golfo Dulce, is characterized by its expanded posterior end and the darkly staining intersegmental regions using methyl green stain. Additionally, A. glandaria Blake, 1996, a species reportedly with a widespread geographic distribution (Blake, 1996), was also encountered subtidally from the Gulf of Nicoya and Golfo Dulce. PMID:27394621

  6. Growth of the Pacific jack Caranx caninus (Pisces: Carangidae) from the coast of Colima, México.

    PubMed

    Barr, Elaine Espino; Cabello, Manuel Gallardo; Solis, Esther Guadalupe Cabral; Boa, Arturo Garcia; Gómez, Marcos Puente

    2008-03-01

    The Pacific jack Caranx caninus is a common species fished by artisanal fishermen off the coast of Colima, México. During 2002, monthly samples of morphometric data and otoliths were taken to determine age and growth. Seven age groups were identified. The highest growth, 14.4 cm, takes place during the first year of life. During the second year, C caninus grows 11.76 cm; the third year 9.61 cm; the fourth 7.85 cm; the fifth 6.41 cm and sixth year 5.24 cm. The constants of von Bertalanffy's growth equation were: L(infinity) = 83.26 cm, W(infinity) = 18.138 g, K = 0.202, t(0) = -0.283 and A(0.95) = 15 years. Growth curves of other species of the same genus were calculated in order to compare them with the one obtained in the present work. The gonadosomatic index presented higher values during November and May. The periods of more intensive feeding are from August to February.

  7. Trichomonas stableri n. sp., an agent of trichomonosis in Pacific Coast band-tailed pigeons (Patagioenas fasciata monilis)☆

    PubMed Central

    Girard, Yvette A.; Rogers, Krysta H.; Gerhold, Richard; Land, Kirkwood M.; Lenaghan, Scott C.; Woods, Leslie W.; Haberkern, Nathan; Hopper, Melissa; Cann, Jeff D.; Johnson, Christine K.

    2013-01-01

    Trichomonas gallinae is a ubiquitous flagellated protozoan parasite, and the most common etiologic agent of epidemic trichomonosis in columbid and passerine species. In this study, free-ranging Pacific Coast band-tailed pigeons (Patagioenas fasciata monilis) in California (USA) were found to be infected with trichomonad protozoa that were genetically and morphologically distinct from T. gallinae. In microscopic analysis, protozoa were significantly smaller in length and width than T. gallinae and were bimodal in morphology. Phylogenetic analysis of the ITS1/5.8S/ITS2, rpb1, and hydrogenosomal Fe-hydrogenase regions revealed that the protozoan shares an ancestor with Trichomonas vaginalis, the sexually-transmitted agent of trichomoniasis in humans. Clinical and pathologic features of infected birds were similar to infections with T. gallinae. Evidence presented here strongly support taxonomical distinction of this parasite, which we hereby name Trichomonas stableri n. sp. This work contributes to a growing body of evidence that T. gallinae is not the sole etiologic agent of avian trichomonosis, and that the incorporation of molecular tools is critical in the investigation of infectious causes of mortality in birds. PMID:24918075

  8. The distribution of 4-nonylphenol in marine organisms of North American Pacific Coast estuaries.

    PubMed

    Diehl, Jennifer; Johnson, Sarah E; Xia, Kang; West, Amy; Tomanek, Lars

    2012-04-01

    One of the chemical breakdown products of nonylphenol ethoxylates, 4-nonylphenol (4-NP), accumulates in organisms and is of concern as an environmental pollutant due to its endocrine disrupting effects. We measured 4-NP levels in the seawater, sediment, and twelve organisms within the California estuary, Morro Bay, and examined biomagnification of 4-NP using stable isotope abundances (δ(15)N and δ(13)C) to quantify trophic position. 4-NP concentrations in organisms from Morro Bay included 25000±8600 ng g(-1) lw in liver of California sea lion, 14000±5600 ng g(-1) lw in liver of harbor porpoise, 138000±55000 ng g(-1) lw in liver of sea otters, 15700±3600 ng g(-1) lw in liver of seabirds, 36100±6100 ng g(-1) lw in arrow goby fish, 62800±28400 ng g(-1) lw in oysters, and 12700±1300 ng g(-1) lw in mussels. 4-NP levels generally showed a pattern of trophic dilution among organisms in Morro Bay, with exceptions of biomagnification observed between three trophic links: mussel to sea otter (BMF 10.9), oyster to sea otter (BMF 2.2), and arrow goby to staghorn sculpin (BMF 2.7). Our examination of other west coast estuaries of USA and Canada revealed that mean 4-NP concentrations in gobies and mussels from Morro Bay were significantly higher than those from a more urbanized estuary, San Francisco Bay (goby: 11100±3800 ng g(-1) lw) and from a remote estuary, Bamfield Inlet, Canada (goby: 9000±900 ng g(-1) lw, mussel: 6100±700 ng g(-1) lw). Relative to other estuaries worldwide, 4-NP levels in seawater (0.42±0.16 μg L(-1)) and sediment (53±14 ng g(-1) dw) of Morro Bay are low, but gobies and oysters have higher 4-NP levels than comparable fauna. PMID:22257992

  9. Predicted radionuclide release from reactor-related unenclosed solid objects dumped in the Sea of Japan and the Pacific Ocean, east coast of Kamchatka

    SciTech Connect

    Mount, M.E.; Lynn, N.M.; Warden, J.M.

    1996-06-01

    Between 1978 and 1991 reactor-related solid radioactive waste was dumped by the former Soviet Union as unenclosed objects in the Pacific Ocean, east coast of Kamchatka, and the Sea of Japan. This paper presented estimates for the current (1994) inventory of activation and corrosion products contained in the reactor-related unenclosed solid objects. In addition, simple models derived for prediction of radionuclide release from marine reactors dumped in the Kara Sea are applied to certain of the dumped objects to provide estimates of radionuclide release to the Pacific Ocean, east coast of Kamchatka, and Sea of Japan environments. For the Pacific Ocean, east coast of Kamchatka, total release rates start below 0.01 GBq yr{sup -1} and over 1,000 years, fall to 100 Bq yr{sup -1}. In the Sea of Japan, the total release rate starts just above 1 GBq yr{sup - 1}, dropping off to a level less than 0.1 GBq yr{sup -1}, extending past the year 4,000.

  10. AMS analyses of I-129 from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident in the Pacific Ocean waters of the Coast La Jolla--San Diego, USA.

    PubMed

    Stan-Sion, C; Enachescu, M; Petre, A R

    2015-05-01

    This paper presents the results of an experimental study we performed by using the Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) method with iodine 129 (T1/2 = 15.7 My), to determine the increase of the radionuclide content in the USA West Pacific Coast waters, two years after the March 2011 Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident. The collection of the water samples took place between April and July 2013 at regular intervals of time, from the Pacific Ocean, at the cove of La Jolla, San Diego, USA. The results of the experiments showed a significant increase of the radionuclide concentration during the late spring of 2013. Compared to the isotopic ratio (129)I/(127)I, measured at a 40 km distance, offshore of Fukushima and immediately after the accident, our results show an increase on the USA West Coast that was more than a 2.5 factor higher. Also, compared with the pre-Fukushima background values, our results show an isotopic ratio of about two orders of magnitude higher. A distinct feature of the reconstructed radioactive plume was that it traveled with a speed of 12 cm s(-1), which we estimated and is consistent with the zonal speed in the Pacific. We coupled our (129)I results with the measurements from the June 2011 KOK cruise and we derived the levels of activity for (3)H and (137)Cs. On the USA West Coast, they did not exceed the international regulatory limits.

  11. AMS analyses of I-129 from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident in the Pacific Ocean waters of the Coast La Jolla--San Diego, USA.

    PubMed

    Stan-Sion, C; Enachescu, M; Petre, A R

    2015-05-01

    This paper presents the results of an experimental study we performed by using the Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) method with iodine 129 (T1/2 = 15.7 My), to determine the increase of the radionuclide content in the USA West Pacific Coast waters, two years after the March 2011 Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident. The collection of the water samples took place between April and July 2013 at regular intervals of time, from the Pacific Ocean, at the cove of La Jolla, San Diego, USA. The results of the experiments showed a significant increase of the radionuclide concentration during the late spring of 2013. Compared to the isotopic ratio (129)I/(127)I, measured at a 40 km distance, offshore of Fukushima and immediately after the accident, our results show an increase on the USA West Coast that was more than a 2.5 factor higher. Also, compared with the pre-Fukushima background values, our results show an isotopic ratio of about two orders of magnitude higher. A distinct feature of the reconstructed radioactive plume was that it traveled with a speed of 12 cm s(-1), which we estimated and is consistent with the zonal speed in the Pacific. We coupled our (129)I results with the measurements from the June 2011 KOK cruise and we derived the levels of activity for (3)H and (137)Cs. On the USA West Coast, they did not exceed the international regulatory limits. PMID:25901961

  12. Migratory patterns of pelagic fishes and possible linkages between open ocean and coastal ecosystems off the Pacific coast of North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beamish, R. J.; McFarlane, G. A.; King, J. R.

    2005-03-01

    We review studies relevant to the migration of pelagic fishes between the coastal and open-ocean ecosystems off the subarctic coast of North America. We review the life history strategies of these migratory fish and to compare to the life history strategies of major coastal migrants. The oceanography in this region is dominated by north and south currents that provide a boundary between the offshore and coastal waters. Commercial fisheries off the west coast of North America are virtually all inshore of this oceanographic separation. Migrations for some species in these major fisheries are also north and south rather than east and west. However, exceptions occur for Pacific salmon, species associated with seamounts, and for transitional pelagic species such as tuna, squid and sharks. Three species of Pacific salmon, sockeye, pink and chum salmon, migrate along the coast in their first marine year and move off shore in the fall and winter in their first marine year. Three other species, coho salmon, chinook salmon, and steelhead trout, also migrate offshore, although they are less abundant and some stocks remain within the coastal regions. Pacific salmon species are a dominant daytime biomass in the surface waters in the offshore areas. It is known that albacore tuna and some sharks migrate between the offshore and coastal areas, but more research is needed to assess the relative importance of these migrations. Although the biomass of species on seamounts is small relative to coastal areas, the similarity in fauna is evidence that there is recruitment from coastal ecosystems.

  13. The National assessment of shoreline shange—A GIS compilation of vector shorelines and associated shoreline change data for the Pacific Northwest coast

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kratzmann, Meredith G.; Himmelstoss, Emily A.; Ruggiero, Peter; Thieler, E. Robert; Reid, David

    2013-01-01

    Sandy ocean beaches are a popular recreational destination and are often surrounded by communities that consist of valuable real estate. Development along sandy coastal areas is increasing despite the fact that coastal infrastructure may be repeatedly subjected to flooding and erosion. As a result, the demand for accurate information regarding past and present shoreline changes is increasing. Investigators with the U.S. Geological Survey's National Assessment of Shoreline Change Project have compiled a comprehensive database of digital vector shorelines and rates of shoreline change for the Pacific Northwest coast including the states of Washington and Oregon. No widely accepted standard for analyzing shoreline change currently exists. Current measurement and methods for calculating rates of change vary from study to study, precluding the combination of study results into statewide or regional assessments. The impetus behind the national assessment was to develop a standardized method that is consistent from coast to coast for measuring changes in shoreline position. The goal was to facilitate the process of periodically and systematically updating the measurements in an internally consistent manner. A detailed report on shoreline change for the Pacific Northwest coast that contains a discussion of the data presented here is available and cited in the Geospatial Data section of this report.

  14. Synoptic View of a Swell Field in the Pacific: from Spaceborne SAR Measurements to Seismic Noise on the Coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Husson, R.; Collard, F.; Ardhuin, F.; Stutzmann, E.; Balanche, A.

    2010-12-01

    . Hereby, our approach confirms that the observed micro-seismic activity in the Pacific has a strong contribution from swell, probably due to the reflection to the coast. This result emphasizes the possibility to use the energy of the swell signal measured by the seismic noise to validate the energy dynamic of the synthetic swell field, taking advantage of numerous seismic stations. Additionally, the estimation of transfer functions from the seismic noise to the swell energy would be a unique opportunity to revisit world-wide swell energy of the last 60 years given the historical seismic data available.

  15. A Simple Model for the Vertical Crustal Movement Associated with the Earthquake Cycle Along the Pacific Coast of Northeast Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sagiya, T.

    2013-12-01

    Before the 2011 M9.0 Tohoku-oki earthquake, rapid subsidence more than 5mm/yr has been observed along the Pacific coast of the Tohoku area by leveling, tide gauges, and GPS (Kato, 1979, Kato and Tsumura, 1979, El-Fiky and Kato, 1999). On the other hand, Stage 5e (~125 ka) marine terraces are widely recognized along the same area, implying the area is uplifting in a long-term. Ikeda (1999) hypothesized that these deformation signals reflect accumulation of elastic strain at the plate interface and there is a possibility of a giant earthquake causing a coastal uplift. However, the coastal area subsided as large as 1m during the 2011 main shock. Though we observe significant postseismic uplift, it is not certain if the preseismic as well as coseismic subsidence will be recovered. We construct a simple model of earthquake deformation cycle to interpret the vertical movement along the Pacific coast of northeast Japan. The model consists of a 40 km thick elastic lithosphere overlying a Maxwell viscoelastic asthenospher with a viscosity of 10^19 Pa s. Plate boundary is modeled as two rectangular faults located in the lithosphere and connected each other. As for the kinematic conditions of these faults, we represent the temporal evolution of fault slip as a sum of the steady term and the perturbation term following Savage and Prescott (1978). The first steady term corresponds to the long-term plate subduction, which contributes to long-term geomorphic evolution such as the marine terraces (Hashimoto et al., 2004). The second perturbation term represent earthquake cycle effects. We evaluate this effect under assumptions that earthquake occurrence is perfectly periodic, plate interface is fully coupled during interseismic periods, and the slip deficit is fully released by earthquakes. If the earthquake recurrence interval is shorter than the relaxation time of the structure, interseismic movement is in the opposite direction to the coseismic ones and changes almost linearly

  16. Estimating Limit Reference Points for Western Pacific Leatherback Turtles (Dermochelys coriacea) in the U.S. West Coast EEZ.

    PubMed

    Curtis, K Alexandra; Moore, Jeffrey E; Benson, Scott R

    2015-01-01

    Biological limit reference points (LRPs) for fisheries catch represent upper bounds that avoid undesirable population states. LRPs can support consistent management evaluation among species and regions, and can advance ecosystem-based fisheries management. For transboundary species, LRPs prorated by local abundance can inform local management decisions when international coordination is lacking. We estimated LRPs for western Pacific leatherbacks in the U.S. West Coast Exclusive Economic Zone (WCEEZ) using three approaches with different types of information on local abundance. For the current application, the best-informed LRP used a local abundance estimate derived from nest counts, vital rate information, satellite tag data, and fishery observer data, and was calculated with a Potential Biological Removal estimator. Management strategy evaluation was used to set tuning parameters of the LRP estimators to satisfy risk tolerances for falling below population thresholds, and to evaluate sensitivity of population outcomes to bias in key inputs. We estimated local LRPs consistent with three hypothetical management objectives: allowing the population to rebuild to its maximum net productivity level (4.7 turtles per five years), limiting delay of population rebuilding (0.8 turtles per five years), or only preventing further decline (7.7 turtles per five years). These LRPs pertain to all human-caused removals and represent the WCEEZ contribution to meeting population management objectives within a broader international cooperative framework. We present multi-year estimates, because at low LRP values, annual assessments are prone to substantial error that can lead to volatile and costly management without providing further conservation benefit. The novel approach and the performance criteria used here are not a direct expression of the "jeopardy" standard of the U.S. Endangered Species Act, but they provide useful assessment information and could help guide international

  17. Trophic structure and flows of energy in the Huizache-Caimanero lagoon complex on the Pacific coast of Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zetina-Rejón, Manuel J.; Arreguín-Sánchez, Francisco; Chávez, Ernesto A.

    2003-08-01

    The Huizache-Caimanero coastal lagoon complex on the Pacific coast of Mexico supports an important shrimp fishery and is one of the most productive systems in catch per unit area of this resource. Four other less important fish groups are also exploited. In this study, we integrated the available information of the system into a mass-balance trophic model to describe the ecosystem structure and flows of energy using the E COPATH approach. The model includes 26 functional groups consisting of 15 fish groups, seven invertebrate groups, macrophytes, phytoplankton, and a detritus group. The resulting model was consistent as indicated by the output parameters. According to the overall pedigree index (0.75), which measures the quality of the input data on a scale from 0 to 1, it is a high quality model. Results indicate that zooplankton, microcrustaceans, and polychaetes are the principal link between trophic level (TL) one (primary producers and detritus) and consumers of higher TLs. Most production from macrophytes flows to detritus, and phytoplankton production is incorporated into the food web by zooplankton. Half of the flow from TL one to the next level come from detritus, which is an important energy source not only for several groups in the ecosystem but also for fisheries, as shown by mixed trophic impacts. The Huizache-Caimanero complex has the typical structure of tropical coastal lagoons and estuaries. The TL of consumers ranges from 2.0 to 3.6 because most groups are composed of juveniles, which use the lagoons as a nursery or protection area. Most energy flows were found in the lower part of the trophic web.

  18. Diversity of mosquitoes and the aquatic insects associated with their oviposition sites along the Pacific coast of Mexico

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The abundance, richness and diversity of mosquitoes and aquatic insects associated with their oviposition sites were surveyed along eight states of the Pacific coast of Mexico. Diversity was estimated using the Shannon index (H’), similarity measures and cluster analysis. Methods Oviposition sites were sampled during 2–3 months per year, over a three year period. Field collected larvae and pupae were reared and identified to species following adult emergence. Aquatic insects present at oviposition sites were also collected, counted and identified to species or genus. Results In total, 15 genera and 74 species of mosquitoes were identified: Anopheles pseudopunctipennis, An. albimanus and Aedes aegypti were the most abundant and widely-distributed species, representing 47% of total mosquito individuals sampled. New species records for certain states are reported. Anopheline diversity was lowest in Sinaloa state (H’ = 0.54) and highest in Chiapas (H’ = 1.61) and Michoacán (H’ = 1.56), whereas culicid diversity was lowest in Michoacán (H’ = 1.93), Colima (H’ = 1.95), Sinaloa (H’ = 1.99) and Jalisco (H’ = 2.01) and highest in Chiapas (H’ = 2.66). In total, 10 orders, 57 families, 166 genera and 247 species of aquatic insects were identified in samples. Aquatic insect diversity was highest in Chiapas, Oaxaca and Michoacán (H’ = 3.60-3.75). Mosquito larval/pupal abundance was not correlated with that of predatory Coleoptera and Hemiptera. Conclusion This represents the first update on the diversity and geographic distribution of the mosquitoes and aquatic insects of Mexico in over five decades. This information has been cataloged in Mexico’s National Biodiversity Information System (SNIB-CONABIO) for public inspection. PMID:24450800

  19. Assessing the Age of Particulate Organic Matter Exported from a Temperate Rainforest Catchment of the North American Pacific Coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, E. E.; Ingalls, A. E.; Santos, G.; Keil, R. G.; Wefferling, L.; Jones, A.; Druffel, E. R. M.

    2015-12-01

    Although temperate rainforests of the North American Pacific Coast contain a small proportion of the world's forests, they contain some of the highest densities of biomass of any terrestrial system, and they store large quantities of carbon in soil. Understanding the residence time of organic carbon in these watersheds is of ecological significance. Given that rivers can mobilize sediment (and associated carbon) from across the catchment, carefully deciphering the organic signatures found within riverine particles can be a powerful tool to inform our understanding of carbon cycling catchment-wide. Here we examine the lignin phenol content (lignin is a biomarker unique to vascular plants) and the radiocarbon age (Δ14C) of fine particulate organic carbon (FPOC) exported by the Queets River of Washington State's Olympic Peninsula over the course of one year, targeting winter storm events. This mountainous catchment is one of the largest and most pristine found on the Olympic Peninsula. The Δ14C of FPOC was quantified for each of the twelve sampling events, whereas the Δ14C of the individual lignin phenols was determined during a late-winter storm event. Sediments were enriched in lignin phenols at the end of the summer dry season and into the first storm of the fall, suggesting that surface soils were transported early on. The Δ14C of individual lignin phenols ranged from -161 to 26‰, with biomarkers for non-woody vegetation being most depleted. These results suggest that particulate lignin exported from temperate catchments is considerably aged, especially relative to the tropics. These findings are consistent with cool temperatures and abundant moisture limiting microbial decomposition, increasing the residence time of plant-derived organic carbon in temperate rainforests. We will compare the Δ14C content of lignin phenols to that of bulk organic matter to partition riverine FPOC amongst possible organic matter sources.

  20. Estimating Limit Reference Points for Western Pacific Leatherback Turtles (Dermochelys coriacea) in the U.S. West Coast EEZ

    PubMed Central

    Curtis, K. Alexandra; Moore, Jeffrey E.; Benson, Scott R.

    2015-01-01

    Biological limit reference points (LRPs) for fisheries catch represent upper bounds that avoid undesirable population states. LRPs can support consistent management evaluation among species and regions, and can advance ecosystem-based fisheries management. For transboundary species, LRPs prorated by local abundance can inform local management decisions when international coordination is lacking. We estimated LRPs for western Pacific leatherbacks in the U.S. West Coast Exclusive Economic Zone (WCEEZ) using three approaches with different types of information on local abundance. For the current application, the best-informed LRP used a local abundance estimate derived from nest counts, vital rate information, satellite tag data, and fishery observer data, and was calculated with a Potential Biological Removal estimator. Management strategy evaluation was used to set tuning parameters of the LRP estimators to satisfy risk tolerances for falling below population thresholds, and to evaluate sensitivity of population outcomes to bias in key inputs. We estimated local LRPs consistent with three hypothetical management objectives: allowing the population to rebuild to its maximum net productivity level (4.7 turtles per five years), limiting delay of population rebuilding (0.8 turtles per five years), or only preventing further decline (7.7 turtles per five years). These LRPs pertain to all human-caused removals and represent the WCEEZ contribution to meeting population management objectives within a broader international cooperative framework. We present multi-year estimates, because at low LRP values, annual assessments are prone to substantial error that can lead to volatile and costly management without providing further conservation benefit. The novel approach and the performance criteria used here are not a direct expression of the “jeopardy” standard of the U.S. Endangered Species Act, but they provide useful assessment information and could help guide

  1. Estimating Limit Reference Points for Western Pacific Leatherback Turtles (Dermochelys coriacea) in the U.S. West Coast EEZ.

    PubMed

    Curtis, K Alexandra; Moore, Jeffrey E; Benson, Scott R

    2015-01-01

    Biological limit reference points (LRPs) for fisheries catch represent upper bounds that avoid undesirable population states. LRPs can support consistent management evaluation among species and regions, and can advance ecosystem-based fisheries management. For transboundary species, LRPs prorated by local abundance can inform local management decisions when international coordination is lacking. We estimated LRPs for western Pacific leatherbacks in the U.S. West Coast Exclusive Economic Zone (WCEEZ) using three approaches with different types of information on local abundance. For the current application, the best-informed LRP used a local abundance estimate derived from nest counts, vital rate information, satellite tag data, and fishery observer data, and was calculated with a Potential Biological Removal estimator. Management strategy evaluation was used to set tuning parameters of the LRP estimators to satisfy risk tolerances for falling below population thresholds, and to evaluate sensitivity of population outcomes to bias in key inputs. We estimated local LRPs consistent with three hypothetical management objectives: allowing the population to rebuild to its maximum net productivity level (4.7 turtles per five years), limiting delay of population rebuilding (0.8 turtles per five years), or only preventing further decline (7.7 turtles per five years). These LRPs pertain to all human-caused removals and represent the WCEEZ contribution to meeting population management objectives within a broader international cooperative framework. We present multi-year estimates, because at low LRP values, annual assessments are prone to substantial error that can lead to volatile and costly management without providing further conservation benefit. The novel approach and the performance criteria used here are not a direct expression of the "jeopardy" standard of the U.S. Endangered Species Act, but they provide useful assessment information and could help guide international

  2. First record of the polychaete Ficopomatus uschakovi (Pillai, 1960) (Annelida, Serpulidae) in the Colombian Caribbean, South America

    PubMed Central

    Arteaga-Flórez, Catalina; Fernández-Rodríguez, Vanessa; Londoño-Mesa, Mario H.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The genus Ficopomatus (Serpulidae) consists of sessile, tubicolous polychaete annelid worms that may colonize a diversity of substrata, and tolerate considerable variations in salinity. Thus, members of this genus, including Ficopomatus uschakovi, in some cases are exotic and maybe invasive. The purpose of our research was to collect and identify marine organisms associated with the submerged roots of mangrove trees in the Gulf of Urabá, Colombian Caribbean, South America. Within the Gulf, there is a well-developed forest of the Red Mangrove, Rhizophora mangle, along the margins of El Uno Bay. We sampled the roots of R. mangle from five stations of the bay, and we identified specimens of F. uschakovi from each of those stations. Ficopomatus uschakovi was found to be more abundant in regions of the bay that exhibit the lowest salinity. Based on a morphological comparison of the present specimens with the original species description, revised descriptions, and other records from the Indo-West Pacific, Mexican Pacific, and Venezuelan and Brazilian Caribbean, we suggest that F. uschakovi has a broader geographical distribution. Furthermore, because of this broad distribution, and the observed tolerance for low salinity in our study, we also suggest that F. uschakovi is a euryhaline species. It is also likely that F. uschakovi will be found in other localities in the Gulf of Urabá, and in other regions of the Colombian Caribbean. Thus, this record extends the distribution of the species to the Colombian Caribbean, giving the species a continuous distribution across the northern coast of South America. PMID:24493951

  3. First record of the polychaete Ficopomatus uschakovi (Pillai, 1960) (Annelida, Serpulidae) in the Colombian Caribbean, South America.

    PubMed

    Arteaga-Flórez, Catalina; Fernández-Rodríguez, Vanessa; Londoño-Mesa, Mario H

    2014-01-01

    The genus Ficopomatus (Serpulidae) consists of sessile, tubicolous polychaete annelid worms that may colonize a diversity of substrata, and tolerate considerable variations in salinity. Thus, members of this genus, including Ficopomatus uschakovi, in some cases are exotic and maybe invasive. The purpose of our research was to collect and identify marine organisms associated with the submerged roots of mangrove trees in the Gulf of Urabá, Colombian Caribbean, South America. Within the Gulf, there is a well-developed forest of the Red Mangrove, Rhizophora mangle, along the margins of El Uno Bay. We sampled the roots of R. mangle from five stations of the bay, and we identified specimens of F. uschakovi from each of those stations. Ficopomatus uschakovi was found to be more abundant in regions of the bay that exhibit the lowest salinity. Based on a morphological comparison of the present specimens with the original species description, revised descriptions, and other records from the Indo-West Pacific, Mexican Pacific, and Venezuelan and Brazilian Caribbean, we suggest that F. uschakovi has a broader geographical distribution. Furthermore, because of this broad distribution, and the observed tolerance for low salinity in our study, we also suggest that F. uschakovi is a euryhaline species. It is also likely that F. uschakovi will be found in other localities in the Gulf of Urabá, and in other regions of the Colombian Caribbean. Thus, this record extends the distribution of the species to the Colombian Caribbean, giving the species a continuous distribution across the northern coast of South America. PMID:24493951

  4. First record of the polychaete Ficopomatus uschakovi (Pillai, 1960) (Annelida, Serpulidae) in the Colombian Caribbean, South America.

    PubMed

    Arteaga-Flórez, Catalina; Fernández-Rodríguez, Vanessa; Londoño-Mesa, Mario H

    2014-01-01

    The genus Ficopomatus (Serpulidae) consists of sessile, tubicolous polychaete annelid worms that may colonize a diversity of substrata, and tolerate considerable variations in salinity. Thus, members of this genus, including Ficopomatus uschakovi, in some cases are exotic and maybe invasive. The purpose of our research was to collect and identify marine organisms associated with the submerged roots of mangrove trees in the Gulf of Urabá, Colombian Caribbean, South America. Within the Gulf, there is a well-developed forest of the Red Mangrove, Rhizophora mangle, along the margins of El Uno Bay. We sampled the roots of R. mangle from five stations of the bay, and we identified specimens of F. uschakovi from each of those stations. Ficopomatus uschakovi was found to be more abundant in regions of the bay that exhibit the lowest salinity. Based on a morphological comparison of the present specimens with the original species description, revised descriptions, and other records from the Indo-West Pacific, Mexican Pacific, and Venezuelan and Brazilian Caribbean, we suggest that F. uschakovi has a broader geographical distribution. Furthermore, because of this broad distribution, and the observed tolerance for low salinity in our study, we also suggest that F. uschakovi is a euryhaline species. It is also likely that F. uschakovi will be found in other localities in the Gulf of Urabá, and in other regions of the Colombian Caribbean. Thus, this record extends the distribution of the species to the Colombian Caribbean, giving the species a continuous distribution across the northern coast of South America.

  5. Measuring the Ice Floe Sizes of the Lake Akkeshi Broken by 2011 Tohoku Pacific-Coast Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abe, T.; Yoshikawa, Y.

    2012-12-01

    Water level fluctuations in an open sea can sometimes cause large oscillations of water level in partially enclosed bodies of water such as lakes and bays. In cold and snowy regions, flooding caused by water level fluctuation and scattering of ice floes can occur due to these secondary undulation of tide, which little studies have assessed. The tsunami caused by 2011 Tohoku Pacific-Coast Earthquake reached the coast of Hokkaido, Japan. This tsunami broke up the ice on an unprecedented scale in the Lake Akkeshi, which is connected with Akkeshi Bay. Also, the intermittent tsunami intrusion caused a serious damage to local oyster fishery. On the other hand, lake ice was not broken in other lakes near the coast lines unconnected to the open sea. Therefore, in the Lake Akkeshi, the main cause of the ice breakup is thought to have been the tsunami intrusion. In this study, the sizes of floating lake ice were measured to clarify the effect of the tsunami and the water level fluctuation on lake ice. We used satellite images by WorldView-2 sensor obtained on March 9 and March 12, 2011. We measured the sizes and areas of lake ice by GIS analysis to compare these with the results from other sea ice size measurement and then attempted to clarify the difference in sizes from ice formed in sea ice zones. Firstly, we measured the area of lake ice formed before the tsunami intrusions. From the photograph obtained on March 12, we extracted the contours of ice floes formed by the tsunami. Based on the contours, we measured the areas and diameter d of floes. In the photograph obtained on March 9, the area of lake ice was estimated as about 15 km2. The figure shows a cumulative number distribution of floe diameter d on March 12. It is noticed from the figure that the graph is almost linear for the d between 8m and 20m. In other words, this means for this range N(d) behaves like d-α; that is, the floe size distribution is basically self-similar. Note that the value α=3.0 is

  6. High-resolution seismic stratigraphy of the late Neogene of the central sector of the Colombian Pacific continental shelf: A seismic expression of an active continental margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez, Jaime Orlando; López Ramos, Eduardo

    2011-02-01

    The sedimentary prism of the central Pacific continental shelf of Colombia was affected by regional folding and faulting, and probably later mud diapirism, from the Late Miocene to the Holocene. Interpretation of high-resolution seismic lines (2 s/dt) revealed that the prism consists of 13 high-resolution seismic units, that can be separated into 5 seismic groups. Deposition of the prism and the associated stacking pattern, are probably the response to variable uplift and subsidence in a fore-arc basin that underwent important tectonic events by the end of the Miocene. Throughout the Pliocene, the continental shelf sedimentation was affected by the growing of a dome structure probable due to mud diapirism. This fact caused peripheral faults both normal and reverse that controlled the distribution of some of the seismic units. During the Late Pleistocene (Wisconsin stage?) a eustatic sea level fall caused the shoreline to advance about 50 km westward of its present position. Because of this eustatic sea level change, a strong fluvial dissection took place and is interpreted as the probable extension of the San Juan River to the south of the present day river mouth. Within this framework it is believed that the Malaga and Buenaventura Bays were the passageways of branches of the old drainage system of the San Juan River. The inner branch circulated through the present Buenaventura Bay and runs southward leaving the mark of an apparent valley identified in the seismic information in the eastern sector of the study area. This old fluvial valley and its filling material located in the present day inner continental shelf front of Buenaventura are postulated as important targets to find placer minerals such as gold and platinum.

  7. Molecular and histological identification of Marteilioides infection in Suminoe Oyster Crassostrea ariakensis, Manila Clam Ruditapes philippinarum and Pacific Oyster Crassostrea gigas on the south coast of Korea.

    PubMed

    Limpanont, Yanin; Yanin, Limpanont; Kang, Hyun-Sil; Hong, Hyun-Ki; Jeung, Hee-Do; Kim, Bong-Kyu; Le, Thanh Cuong; Kim, Young-Ok; Choi, Kwang-Sik

    2013-11-01

    The oyster ovarian parasite Marteilioides chungmuensis has been reported from Korea and Japan, damaging the oyster industries. Recently, Marteilioides-like organisms have been identified in other commercially important marine bivalves. In this study, we surveyed Marteilioides infection in the Manila clam Ruditapes philippinarum, Suminoe oyster Crassostrea ariakensis, and Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas, using histology and Marteilioides-specific small subunit (SSU) rDNA PCR. The SSU rDNA sequence of M. chungmuensis (1716 bp) isolated from C. gigas in Tongyoung bay was 99.9% similar to that of M. chungmuensis reported in Japan. Inclusions of multi-nucleated bodies in the oocytes, typical of Marteilioides infection, were identified for the first time in Suminoe oysters. The SSU rDNA sequence of a Marteilioides-like organism isolated from Suminoe oysters was 99.9% similar to that of M. chungmuensis. Marteilioides sp. was also observed from 7 Manila clams of 1840 individuals examined, and the DNA sequences of which were 98.2% similar to the known sequence of M. chungmuensis. Unlike Marteilioides infection of Pacific oysters, no remarkable pathological symptoms, such as large multiple lumps on the mantle, were observed in infected Suminoe oysters or Manila clams. Distribution of the infected Manila clams, Suminoe oysters and Pacific oysters was limited to small bays on the south coast, suggesting that the southern coast is the enzootic area of Marteilioides infection.

  8. Continuous GPS observations in Tohoku University and recovery effort after the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demachi, T.; Miura, S.; Ohta, Y.; Tachibana, K.; Ueki, S.; Sato, T.; Ohzono, M.; Umino, N.

    2012-04-01

    The nation-wide GPS observation network which is named GPS Earth Observation Network System (GEONET) has been established by the Geospatial Information Authority of Japan (GSI) (Miyazaki et al., 1997). The network composed more than 1,200 stations with baseline length is about 20-25 km. Tohoku University has also conducted continuous GPS observations since 1987 in the Tohoku district, Northeastern Japan (Miura et al., 1993). Recently, to investigate short-length crustal deformations such as volcanic deformation, co- and post-seismic deformation of M6-7 class earthquakes and inter-seismic deformations, we have deployed continuous GPS observation stations to complement the location of GEONET stations (Miura et al. 2000, 2002, and 2004). We installed GPS receiver, PC for data logging (ALIX series, PC Engines GmbH) and re-booter (e.g., WATCH BOOT nino, Meikyo Electric Co., Ltd.) in each station. We have secure and stable online access to each station from our university (Sendai city, Japan) using IP-VPN over fixed telephone lines (FLET'S Office service, Nippon Telegraph and Telephone East Corp.). Through this network, the data are transferred to our university and we can restart the devices if the devices hang up. Since 2010, we have tried to use on-line system through internet by prepaid mobile data-communication (b-mobile3G and b-mobileSIM U300, Japan Communications Inc.) in eight observation stations. Compared with the FLET'S Office service, we can conveniently and inexpensively establish wherever the mobile phone service is provided. The two stations are located in volcanoes, we activate the network system for an hour in every day using motor time switch, because of these devices are operated by limited DC power supplies through solar cell. In other six stations, we can use commercial AC power supplies, so that data connections are always available. On March 11, 2011, the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake (Mw 9.0) occurred and a huge tsunami caused

  9. Isopods of the genus Ligia as potential biomonitors of trace metals from the gulf of California and pacific coast of the Baja California peninsula.

    PubMed

    García-Hernández, Jaqueline; Hurtado, Luis A; Leyva-García, Germán; Güido-Moreno, Adrián; Aguilera-Márquez, Daniela; Mazzei, Veronica; Ferrante, Margherita

    2015-02-01

    Supralittoral and high intertidal coastal zones are exposed to pollution from both marine and terrestrial sources and undergo higher deposition rates than the subtidal zone. It is therefore important to identify organisms for this section of the coastal area that can be tolerant to contaminants. The aim of this study was to determine if supralittoral isopods of the genus Ligia can be used as biomonitors, since they are abundant and widely distributed. For this purpose, concentrations of trace elements were determined in Ligia isopods in toto from 26 locations across the Gulf of California and Pacific coast of the Baja California peninsula, which were collected during the summers of 2009 and 2010. The concentrations of trace elements followed the order of; Zn≥Cu>As>Cd>Pb>Hg. Elevated concentrations of copper (up to 1010 μg/g) were detected in Ligia from Santa Rosalía (SRo), a locality where industrial mining of copper has historically occurred. Industrial and municipal sewage discharges appear to have contributed to the high concentrations of zinc (326 μg/g) and lead (144 μg/g) found in organisms from Guaymas location. The high mercury concentration in organisms from Mazatlán (M) (2.01 μg/g) was associated with a thermoelectric plant. Natural sources of metals were also detected; coastal upwelling appears to be associated with high cadmium concentrations in Ligia from Punta Baja (PB) (256 μg/g) in the Pacific coast, whereas hydrothermal vents may have contributed to high concentrations of arsenic at Ensenada (E) (61 μg/g). Our results suggest that Ligia isopods reflect the natural and anthropogenic inputs of trace metals in the environment and could potentially be used as biomonitor organisms of the intertidal rocky shores of the Gulf of California and Pacific coast. PMID:25463869

  10. Isopods of the genus Ligia as potential biomonitors of trace metals from the gulf of California and pacific coast of the Baja California peninsula.

    PubMed

    García-Hernández, Jaqueline; Hurtado, Luis A; Leyva-García, Germán; Güido-Moreno, Adrián; Aguilera-Márquez, Daniela; Mazzei, Veronica; Ferrante, Margherita

    2015-02-01

    Supralittoral and high intertidal coastal zones are exposed to pollution from both marine and terrestrial sources and undergo higher deposition rates than the subtidal zone. It is therefore important to identify organisms for this section of the coastal area that can be tolerant to contaminants. The aim of this study was to determine if supralittoral isopods of the genus Ligia can be used as biomonitors, since they are abundant and widely distributed. For this purpose, concentrations of trace elements were determined in Ligia isopods in toto from 26 locations across the Gulf of California and Pacific coast of the Baja California peninsula, which were collected during the summers of 2009 and 2010. The concentrations of trace elements followed the order of; Zn≥Cu>As>Cd>Pb>Hg. Elevated concentrations of copper (up to 1010 μg/g) were detected in Ligia from Santa Rosalía (SRo), a locality where industrial mining of copper has historically occurred. Industrial and municipal sewage discharges appear to have contributed to the high concentrations of zinc (326 μg/g) and lead (144 μg/g) found in organisms from Guaymas location. The high mercury concentration in organisms from Mazatlán (M) (2.01 μg/g) was associated with a thermoelectric plant. Natural sources of metals were also detected; coastal upwelling appears to be associated with high cadmium concentrations in Ligia from Punta Baja (PB) (256 μg/g) in the Pacific coast, whereas hydrothermal vents may have contributed to high concentrations of arsenic at Ensenada (E) (61 μg/g). Our results suggest that Ligia isopods reflect the natural and anthropogenic inputs of trace metals in the environment and could potentially be used as biomonitor organisms of the intertidal rocky shores of the Gulf of California and Pacific coast.

  11. Benthic foraminiferal evidence on origin of possible submarine tsunami deposit formed by the 2011 off the Pacific Coast of Tohoku earthquake tsunami

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usami, K.; Ikehara, K.; Jenkins, R.; Ashi, J.

    2012-12-01

    Tsunami by the 2011 off the Pacific Coast of Tohoku Earthquake brought significant damage along the northeastern Japan coast. After events, we conducted marine survey to clarify the influence of earthquake/tsunami to sea bottom environments. As the results, we found the 2011 earthquake- and/or tsunami-induced turbidites at 13 sites from outer shelf (122 m in water depth) to trench slope (5522 m) off Sanriku. At two sites from slope (893 m and 1446 m), the turbidites have sharp erosional bases, and upward-fining graded structures started from v.f.s-c.silt. Basal sands include abundant benthic foraminifera. In our preliminary investigation, a meaningful occurrence of species inhabiting the outer shelf areas have recognized, suggesting transport of sediment from outer shelf by tsunami-induced turbidity currents. Increasing of friction velocity by tsunami in the shelf area is most probable mechanism on the sediment resuspension including benthic foraminiferal tests.

  12. Colombian export oil pipeline

    SciTech Connect

    Duncan, K. ); Enright, B. )

    1989-06-01

    The authors discuss how bringing crude oil to market often requires extraordinary determination and effort to overcome the obstacles of terrain and time. They describe a pipeline project on a 53-week suicide schedule to get oil across the Colombian Andes. After confronting setbacks, they completed a job that included 304 miles of pipeline, 497 miles of telecommunications and a major offshore terminal in only 47 weeks.

  13. Recent advances in understanding Colombian mangroves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polanía, J.; Urrego, L. E.; Agudelo, C. M.

    2015-02-01

    Throughout the last 15 years, researchers at the National University of Colombia at Medellin have studied Colombian mangroves. Remote sensing, pollen analysis of superficial and deep sediments, Holocene coastal vegetation dynamics, sediment dating using 14C and 210Pb, sampling in temporary plots, sampling in temporary and permanent plots, and other techniques have been applied to elucidate long- and short-term mangrove community dynamics. The studied root fouling community is structured by several regulatory mechanisms; habitat heterogeneity increases species richness and abundance. Fringe mangroves were related to Ca concentration in the soil and the increased dominance of Laguncularia racemosa and other nonmangrove tree species, while the riverine mangroves were associated with Mg concentration and the dominance of Rhizophora mangle. The seedling and mangrove tree distributions are determined by a complex gradient of natural and anthropogenic disturbances. Mangrove pollen from surface sediments and the existing vegetation and geomorphology are close interrelated. Plant pollen of mangrove and salt marsh reflects environmental and disturbance conditions, and also reveals forest types. Forest dynamics in both coasts and their sensitivity of to anthropogenic processes are well documented in the Late Quaternary fossil record. Our studies of short and long term allow us to predict the dynamics of mangroves under different scenarios of climate change and anthropogenic stress factors that are operating in Colombian coasts. Future research arises from these results on mangrove forests dynamics, sea-level rise at a fine scale using palynology, conservation biology, and carbon dynamics.

  14. Determining bathymetric distributions of the eelgrass Zostera marina L. in three turbid estuaries of the eastern North Pacific coast

    EPA Science Inventory

    Improved methods for determining bathymetric distributions of dominant intertidal plants throughout their estuarine range are needed. Zostera marina is a seagrass native to estuaries of the northeastern Pacific and many other sectors of the world ocean. The technique described ...

  15. Performance of JMA Earthquake Early Warning for the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake (Mw9.0)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoshiba, M.; Wakayama, A.; Ishigaki, Y.; Doi, K.

    2011-12-01

    This presentation outlines the Earthquake Early Warning of the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) for the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake (Mw9.0). EEW has been operational nationwide in Japan by JMA since October, 2007. For JMA EEW, the hypocenter is determined by a combination of several techniques, using approximately 1,100 stations from the JMA network and the Hi-net network of NIED; magnitude is mainly from maximum displacement amplitudes. JMA EEWs are updated as available data increases with elapsed time. Accordingly EEWs are issued repeatedly with improving accuracy for a single earthquake. JMA EEWs are divided into two grades depending on the expected intensities. The JMA intensity scale is based on instrumental measurements in which not only the amplitude but also the frequency and duration of the shaking are considered. The 10-degree JMA intensity scale rounds off the instrumental intensity value to the integer. Intensities of 5 and 6 are divided into two degrees, namely 5-lower, 5-upper, 6-lower and 6-upper, respectively. Intensity 1 corresponds to ground motion that people can barely detect, and 7 is the upper limit. JMA EEWs are announced to general public when intensity 5-lower (or greater) is expected. The JMA EEW system was triggered for the Mw 9.0 earthquake when station OURI (138km from the epicenter) detected the initial P wave at 14:46:40.2 (Japan Standard Time). The first EEW, the first of 15 announcements, was issued 5.4 s later. The waveform started with small amplitude, which was comparable to noise level for displacement. The small amplitude does not indicate that the initial rupture of the Mw 9.0 event is large, and does not suggest a large magnitude event. By the fourth EEW, 8.6 s after the first trigger, the expected intensity exceeded the criteria of the warning to the general public. JMA issued the fourth EEW announcements to the general public of the Tohoku district, and then the warning was automatically broadcast

  16. Uranium-Series Ages of Marine Terrace Corals from the Pacific Coast of North America and Implications for Last-Interglacial Sea Level History

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muhs, D.R.; Kennedy, G.L.; Rockwell, T.K.

    1994-01-01

    Few of the marine terraces along the Pacific coast of North America have been dated using uranium-series techniques. Ten terrace sequences from southern Oregon to southern Baja California Sur have yielded fossil corals in quantities suitable for U-series dating by alpha spectrometry. U-series-dated terraces representing the ???80,000 yr sea-level high stand are identified in five areas (Bandon, Oregon; Point Arena, San Nicolas Island, and Point Loma, California; and Punta Banda, Baja California); terraces representing the ???125,000 yr sea-level high stand are identified in eight areas (Cayucos, San Luis Obispo Bay, San Nicolas Island, San Clemente Island, and Point Loma, California; Punta Bands and Isla Guadalupe, Baja California; and Cabo Pulmo, Baja California Sur). On San Nicolas Island, Point Loma, and Punta Bands, both the ???80,000 and the ???125,000 yr terraces are dated. Terraces that may represent the ???105,000 sea-level high stand are rarely preserved and none has yielded corals for U-series dating. Similarity of coral ages from midlatitude, erosional marine terraces with coral ages from emergent, constructional reefs on tropical coastlines suggests a common forcing mechanism, namely glacioeustatically controlled fluctuations in sea level superimposed on steady tectonic uplift. The low marine terrace dated at ???125,000 yr on Isla Guadalupe, Baja California, presumed to be tectonically stable, supports evidence from other localities for a +6-m sea level at that time. Data from the Pacific Coast and a compilation of data from other coasts indicate that sea levels at ???80,000 and ???105,000 yr may have been closer to present sea level (within a few meters) than previous studies have suggested.

  17. Three new species of Ammonicera from the Eastern Pacific coast of North America, with redescriptions and comments on other species of Omalogyridae (Gastropoda, Heterobranchia).

    PubMed

    Sartori, André F; Bieler, Rüdiger

    2014-01-01

    The family Omalogyridae comprises some of the smallest known marine snails. Like all micromolluscs, they have been historically neglected and are underrepresented in faunistic surveys. Based on a few focused studies of the family, 15 valid omalogyrid species were previously recognised in the Indian and Pacific Oceans. To these, we add 3 new species based on a morphological analysis of material in the dry collection of the Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County, applying light and scanning electron microscopies. The new species, Ammonicera mcleani, A. mexicana and A. sleursi, are the first omalogyrid species described from the Eastern Pacific coast of North America. Redescriptions of the Australian omalogyrids Ammonicera sucina (Laseron, 1954) and Omalogyra liliputia (Laseron, 1954) are also presented, detailing for the first time ultrastructural aspects of their shell morphology. Additionally, we present here the first record of Ammonicera binodosa Sleurs, 1985b in Sri Lanka, introduce the new combination Ammonicera vangoethemi (Sleurs, 1985c) for Omalogyra vangoethemi, and formally remove Transomalogyra Palazzi & Gaglini, 1979 from Omalogyridae by fixing its type species as Homalogyra densicostata Jeffreys, 1884. Finally, we present lists, geographic records and a bibliography of all currently recognised omalogyrid species in the Indian, Pacific and Antarctic Oceans, as well as an update to a previously published compilation of the Atlantic and Mediterranean representatives of the family. PMID:25544067

  18. 78 FR 77413 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Coastal Pelagic Species Fisheries; Change to Start of Pacific...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-23

    ... will remain as specified in the FMP; as would the current quota roll-over provisions. The purpose of... Microsoft Word, Excel, or Adobe PDF file formats only. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Joshua Lindsay... timing of stock assessments. The process for setting the annual Pacific sardine quotas begins with...

  19. Neothalassius, a new genus of Parathalassiinae (Diptera: Dolichopodidae s.lat.) from the Pacific coast of South America.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Scott E; Cumming, Jeffrey M

    2016-01-01

    A new genus, Neothalassius gen. nov., and two new species, Neothalassius triton sp. nov. and Neothalassius villosus sp. nov., are described from rocky shorelines along the Pacific seacoast of South America. The phylogenetic placement of Neothalassius within the subfamily Parathalassiinae is discussed. PMID:27395554

  20. Changes in abundance and composition of anthropogenic marine debris on the continental slope off the Pacific coast of northern Japan, after the March 2011 Tohoku earthquake.

    PubMed

    Goto, Tomoaki; Shibata, Haruka

    2015-06-15

    Abundance and composition of anthropogenic marine debris were assessed on the basis of six bottom trawl surveys conducted on the continental slope off Iwate Prefecture, Pacific coast of northern Japan, in 2003, 2004 and 2011, and the temporal changes due to the Tohoku earthquake and tsunami in March 2011 evaluated. In 2003 and 2004, 54-94 items km(-2) of marine debris, dominated by sea-base sourced items mainly comprising fishing gear and related items from adjacent fishing grounds on the continental shelf, were quantified. In the post-earthquake period, the density increased drastically to 233-332 items km(-2), due to an increase in land-base sourced items generated by the tsunami. However, a major increase in abundance after the disaster, compared to the total amount of tsunami debris swept into the sea, was not found. Additional sources of land-based debris from the adjacent continental shelf are suggested in the present waters.

  1. Dynamic rupture simulation of the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake: Multi-event generation within dozens of seconds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goto, Hiroyuki; Yamamoto, Yojiro; Kita, Saeko

    2012-12-01

    We focus on a complex rupture process, namely, multi-event generation within about 50 seconds during the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake ( M w 9.0). We perform a 2D dynamic rupture simulation in order to explain physically the rupture process along the cross-section passing through the hypocenter. Realistic velocity structures are introduced into the simulation model. The dynamic parameters are selected by referring to kinematic source inversion results. The first significant event is generated on the deeper side of the fault. The scattered waves, mainly from the free surface, generate a stick-slip around the hypocenter, and then a second significant event is triggered. The synthetic waveforms consist of two major wave groups that are consistent with the observed ground motions.

  2. Cyathura odaliscae, a new species of anthurid isopod (Crustacea: Peracarida) from a brackish habitat on the Pacific coast of Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Heard, Richard W; Vargas, Rita

    2015-01-01

    During a preliminary survey of a brackish mangrove habitat in the Terraba River delta on the Pacific coast of Costa Rica, several adult and subadult specimens of a new anthurid isopod, Cyathura odaliscae n. sp. were discovered. The specimens were collected from decaying wood in low salinity conditions (<5‰). The unique shape and complexity of the male copulatory stylet of C. odaliscae distinguishes it from the other 22 species for which males have been described. A combination of other characters (e.g., morphology of the mouth parts, body setation, shape of telson and first pereopod) is used to distinguish the female from the others within the genus. Illustrations of the known male copulatory stylets for the genus and a table listing diagnostic information, depth ranges, and general distribution for the 32 currently recognized species of Cyathura are provided.  PMID:25662134

  3. Changes in abundance and composition of anthropogenic marine debris on the continental slope off the Pacific coast of northern Japan, after the March 2011 Tohoku earthquake.

    PubMed

    Goto, Tomoaki; Shibata, Haruka

    2015-06-15

    Abundance and composition of anthropogenic marine debris were assessed on the basis of six bottom trawl surveys conducted on the continental slope off Iwate Prefecture, Pacific coast of northern Japan, in 2003, 2004 and 2011, and the temporal changes due to the Tohoku earthquake and tsunami in March 2011 evaluated. In 2003 and 2004, 54-94 items km(-2) of marine debris, dominated by sea-base sourced items mainly comprising fishing gear and related items from adjacent fishing grounds on the continental shelf, were quantified. In the post-earthquake period, the density increased drastically to 233-332 items km(-2), due to an increase in land-base sourced items generated by the tsunami. However, a major increase in abundance after the disaster, compared to the total amount of tsunami debris swept into the sea, was not found. Additional sources of land-based debris from the adjacent continental shelf are suggested in the present waters. PMID:25921637

  4. Detailed stress fields in the focal region of the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake—Implication for the distribution of moment release—

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiba, Keita; Iio, Yoshihisa; Fukahata, Yukitoshi

    2012-12-01

    We have examined the focal mechanism distributions in the source region of the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake, before and after the mainshock, using F-net data, and then performed a stress tensor inversion by using the multiple inverse method. It is found that earthquakes were mainly reverse fault type events all over the source region before the main shock, whereas, after the main shock, many normal fault type events occurred in the hanging wall but focal mechanisms did not change in the deepest part in the source region. It is inferred from the stress tensor inversion that the stress state is a reverse fault type in the deepest part before, and after, the mainshock but that, in the central part, the stress state changed from reverse fault type before the mainshock to normal fault type after the mainshock. These results suggest that the absolute shear stress on the plate boundary fault in this region was almost completely released by the mainshock. Furthermore, we examined, in detail, the focal mechanism distributions and stress states in the shallower part near the trench axis off the Miyagi Prefecture and found that strike-slip events with the P-axis in the NS direction occurred in the footwall east of the mainshock hypocenter. This finding can be well explained by a slip model with a large moment release near the hypocenter. Our analysis constrains the spatial distribution of the moment release of the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake around the mainshock hypocenter rather than in the vicinity of the trench axis.

  5. The Influence of Oxygen, Temperature, and Salinity on Ostracod Body Size in the Gulf of California and the Pacific Coast of North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, N.; Weber, M.; Heim, N.; Payne, J.

    2014-12-01

    The study of body size and its evolution is important to paleontological understanding of ecological niches that different organisms have occupied. Ostracods, with frequent occurrences throughout the geological record beginning in the Ordovician, are useful in analyzing how body size has changed. Therefore, understanding the impact of environmental variables is crucial to understanding patterns of body size evolution in extinct ostracods. In order to further investigate this question, ostracod populations in the Gulf of California and the Pacific Coast of North America were studied. By compiling data from Ostracoda from the Gulf of California (Swain, 1967), Marine Holocene Ostracoda from the Pacific Coast of North and Central America (Swain and Gilby, 1974), and the National Oceanographic Data Center, we compare environmental factors, including oxygen levels, temperature, salinity, and depth with anteroposterior length measurements of about 180 recent ostracod species in order to determine the impact of these variables. Using R, we constructed graphs of oxygen levels, temperature, and salinity versus average body size. Using a correlation test, the correlation coefficient for oxygen is -0.193, temperature is -0.398, and salinity is -0.322, with the corresponding p-values of 0.067, 9.196 x 10-5, and 0.002; only the latter two p-values are significant at the alpha = 0.05 level. The correlation test for depth was calculated but showed no trends. The statistically significant correlation coefficient between temperature and body size suggests a strong negative correlation. Because oxygen levels and salinity levels are, to some extent, dependent upon temperature, this may explain the smaller, yet still statistically significant, correlation between body size and salinity. Relationships between ostracod body size and temperature may be relevant to our understanding of the impacts on ecological structure as the ocean temperatures fluctuate in the future.

  6. Outlining the Ancestry Landscape of Colombian Admixed Populations

    PubMed Central

    Ossa, Humberto; Aquino, Juliana; Pereira, Rui; Ibarra, Adriana; Ossa, Rafael H; Pérez, Luz Adriana; Granda, Juan David; Lattig, Maria Claudia; Groot, Helena; Fagundes de Carvalho, Elizeu; Gusmão, Leonor

    2016-01-01

    The ancestry of the Colombian population comprises a large number of well differentiated Native communities belonging to diverse linguistic groups. In the late fifteenth century, a process of admixture was initiated with the arrival of the Europeans, and several years later, Africans also became part of the Colombian population. Therefore, the genepool of the current Colombian population results from the admixture of Native Americans, Europeans and Africans. This admixture occurred differently in each region of the country, producing a clearly stratified population. Considering the importance of population substructure in both clinical and forensic genetics, we sought to investigate and compare patterns of genetic ancestry in Colombia by studying samples from Native and non-Native populations living in its 5 continental regions: the Andes, Caribe, Amazonia, Orinoquía, and Pacific regions. For this purpose, 46 AIM-Indels were genotyped in 761 non-related individuals from current populations. Previously published genotype data from 214 Colombian Natives from five communities were used for population comparisons. Significant differences were observed between Native and non-Native populations, among non-Native populations from different regions and among Native populations from different ethnic groups. The Pacific was the region with the highest African ancestry, Amazonia harboured the highest Native ancestry and the Andean and Orinoquían regions showed the highest proportion of European ancestry. The Andean region was further sub-divided into 6 sub-regions: North East, Central West, Central East, West, South West and South East. Among these regions, the South West region showed a significantly lower European admixture than the other regions. Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and variance values of ancestry among individuals within populations showed a potential stratification of the Pacific population. PMID:27736937

  7. Seismicity near the hypocenter of the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku earthquake deduced by using ocean bottom seismographic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Kensuke; Hino, Ryota; Ito, Yoshihiro; Yamamoto, Yojiro; Suzuki, Syuichi; Fujimoto, Hiromi; Shinohara, Masanao; Abe, Masao; Kawaharada, Yoshiharu; Hasegawa, Yohei; Kaneda, Yoshiyuki

    2012-12-01

    We relocated hypocenters of the foreshock, mainshock, and aftershocks of the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku earthquake ( M 9.0) in the middle part of the Japan Trench where the earthquake rupture initiated. Ocean Bottom Seismographs (OBSs), deployed in the area, recorded the earthquakes and these data provide improved images of the hypocenter distribution. The mainshock hypocenter was relocated slightly westward from that reported by Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA), placing it near the intersection between the plate boundary and the Moho of the overriding plate. The foreshock seismicity mainly occurred on the trenchward side of the mainshock hypocenter, where the Pacific slab contacts the island arc crust. The foreshocks were initially activated at the up-dip limit of the seismogenic zone ~30 km trenchward of the largest foreshock ( M 7.3, two days before the mainshock). After the M-7.3 earthquake, intense interplate seismicity, accompanied by epicenters migrating toward the mainshock hypocenter, was observed. The focal depth distribution changed significantly in response to the M-9 mainshock. Earthquakes along the plate boundary were almost non-existent in the area of huge coseismic slip, whereas earthquakes off the boundary increased in numbers in both the upper and the lower plates.

  8. Precise aftershock distribution of the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake revealed by an ocean-bottom seismometer network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinohara, Masanao; Machida, Yuya; Yamada, Tomoaki; Nakahigashi, Kazuo; Shinbo, Takashi; Mochizuki, Kimihiro; Murai, Yoshio; Hino, Ryota; Ito, Yoshihiro; Sato, Toshinori; Shiobara, Hajime; Uehira, Kenji; Yakiwara, Hiroshi; Obana, Koichiro; Takahashi, Narumi; Kodaira, Shuichi; Hirata, Kenji; Tsushima, Hiroaki; Iwasaki, Takaya

    2012-12-01

    The 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake occurred at the plate boundary between the Pacific plate and the landward plate on March 11, 2011, and had a magnitude of 9. Many aftershocks occurred following the mainshock. Obtaining a precise aftershock distribution is important for understanding the mechanism of earthquake generation. In order to study the aftershock activity of this event, we carried out extensive sea-floor aftershock observations using more than 100 ocean-bottom seismometers just after the mainshock. A precise aftershock distribution for approximately three months over the whole source area was obtained from the observations. The aftershocks form a plane dipping landward over the whole area, nevertheless the epicenter distribution is not uniform. Comparing seismic velocity structures, there is no aftershock along the plate boundary where a large slip during the mainshock is estimated. Activity of aftershocks in the landward plate in the source region was high and normal fault-type, and strike-slip-type, mechanisms are dominant. Within the subducting oceanic plate, most earthquakes have also a normal fault-type, or strike-slip-type, mechanism. The stress fields in and around the source region change as a result of the mainshock.

  9. Anisakis Dujardin, 1845 infection (Nematoda: Anisakidae) in Pygmy Sperm Whale Kogia breviceps Blainville, 1838 from west Pacific region off the coast of Philippine archipelago.

    PubMed

    Quiazon, Karl Marx A

    2016-09-01

    Cetaceans are definitive hosts of anisakid nematodes known to cause human anisakidosis. Despite the reported strandings of different cetaceans in the Philippines, studies on anisakids from these definitive hosts are limited. Here, the morphologically and molecularly identified anisakid species, specifically those of the genus Anisakis Dujardin, 1845 in stranded Pygmy Sperm Whale Kogia breviceps Blainville, 1838 in the west Pacific region off Philippine waters are presented. Morphological data using SEM and LM revealed multi-infections with different Anisakis species belonging to Anisakis type I and type II groups. Molecularly, PCR-RFLP on the ITS rDNA and sequence data analyses of both ITS rDNA and mtDNA cox2 regions identified those from Anisakis type I group as A. typica (Diesing, 1860), whereas those from type II group as A. brevispiculata Dollfus, 1968, and A. paggiae Mattiucci et al. (Syst Parasitol 61:157-171, 2005). This is the first record of Anisakis infection from this host stranded in the west Pacific region off the coast of Philippine waters and new geographical record for A. paggiae.

  10. Anisakis Dujardin, 1845 infection (Nematoda: Anisakidae) in Pygmy Sperm Whale Kogia breviceps Blainville, 1838 from west Pacific region off the coast of Philippine archipelago.

    PubMed

    Quiazon, Karl Marx A

    2016-09-01

    Cetaceans are definitive hosts of anisakid nematodes known to cause human anisakidosis. Despite the reported strandings of different cetaceans in the Philippines, studies on anisakids from these definitive hosts are limited. Here, the morphologically and molecularly identified anisakid species, specifically those of the genus Anisakis Dujardin, 1845 in stranded Pygmy Sperm Whale Kogia breviceps Blainville, 1838 in the west Pacific region off Philippine waters are presented. Morphological data using SEM and LM revealed multi-infections with different Anisakis species belonging to Anisakis type I and type II groups. Molecularly, PCR-RFLP on the ITS rDNA and sequence data analyses of both ITS rDNA and mtDNA cox2 regions identified those from Anisakis type I group as A. typica (Diesing, 1860), whereas those from type II group as A. brevispiculata Dollfus, 1968, and A. paggiae Mattiucci et al. (Syst Parasitol 61:157-171, 2005). This is the first record of Anisakis infection from this host stranded in the west Pacific region off the coast of Philippine waters and new geographical record for A. paggiae. PMID:27300704

  11. A new genus of mellitid sand dollar (Echinoidea: Mellitidae) from the eastern Pacific coast of the Americas.

    PubMed

    Coppard, Simon E

    2016-01-01

    Lanthonia gen. nov. Coppard 2016 is a genus of clypeasteroid sand dollar whose members inhabit shallow, sandy waters from Mexico (including the Gulf of California) to Colombia in the tropical and subtropical eastern Pacific. Lanthonia includes Lanthonia longifissa (Michelin, 1858) and Lanthonia grantii (Mortensen, 1948), with L. longifissa hereby designated as the type species. Both L. longifissa and L. grantii were previously placed in the genus Mellita (L. Agassiz, 1841). However, levels of genetic divergence between a lineage containing L. longifissa and L. grantii and a lineage containing all other species of Mellita, including the type species M. quinquiesperforata (Leske, 1778), indicate genus level differentiation. The systematic interpretation of this group also supports the designation of this new genus as it allows the tree topology to be recovered from the nomenclature and clarifies the historical biogeography of these clades. This has resulted in members of both lineages today being sympatric in the eastern Pacific. Members of Lanthonia are morphologically differentiated from the type species of Mellita and all Pacific Mellita in having very narrow ambulacral regions between the food grooves and the ambulacral lunules on the oral surface, these being very broad in both M. quinquiesperforata and M. notabilis. The dentation of the bidentate pedicellariae also differentiate these genera, with small peripheral teeth present along the edge of the blade in species of Lanthonia and one to three enlarged intersecting teeth present distally in all species of Mellita. PMID:27394905

  12. Historical evidence in the reconstruction and characterization of tsunami generation - the example of the great tsunami of 22 June 1932, the Pacific coast of Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corona, N.; Ramírez Herrera, M.

    2012-12-01

    The magnitude of the damage caused by tsunamis in the past decade has induced the need to expand our knowledge about tsunami dynamics and behavior, and to apply this knowledge in hazard assessment. This study proposes the application of multidisciplinary analysis, including historical and ethnographic techniques, in the reconstruction and characterization of tsunamis with no instrumental record. This study uses the case study of the 22 June 1932 tsunami, the second most destructive recorded in the Pacific Coast of Mexico, which reached wave heights of up to 12 m and devastated several coastal communities. The tsunami generation mechanisms have not yet been defined; two hypotheses about their origin are proposed: 1) seismic, and 2) by a submarine landslide. By screening historical archives, conducting interviews with local witnesses, and applying GIS mapping, we identified four key components of the tsunami dynamics that point out to tsunami generation mechanisms: time of arrival, directivity, affected area, and maximum wave heights at the coast. Based on the compiled historical data, we applied numerical models, using the GEOWAVE and FUNWAVE codes, and two possible mechanisms of tsunami generation, seismic slip and a submarine landslide. The results showed that given the location of the tsunamigenic source, the time of arrival to the coast, directivity, affected area, and maximum tsunami wave heights at the coastline, a submarine landslide best fits with the observed and documented tsunami behavior of the June 22, 1932 tsunami. We demonstrate here that the use of historical and ethnographic technics contributes and complements the modeling of events not recorded by instrumental methods, and aids in reveling their origin.

  13. Phylogeographic Structure in Benthic Marine Invertebrates of the Southeast Pacific Coast of Chile with Differing Dispersal Potential

    PubMed Central

    Haye, Pilar A.; Segovia, Nicolás I.; Muñoz-Herrera, Natalia C.; Gálvez, Francisca E.; Martínez, Andrea; Meynard, Andrés; Pardo-Gandarillas, María C.; Poulin, Elie; Faugeron, Sylvain

    2014-01-01

    The role of dispersal potential on phylogeographic structure, evidenced by the degree of genetic structure and the presence of coincident genetic and biogeographic breaks, was evaluated in a macrogeographic comparative approach along the north-central coast of Chile, across the biogeographic transition zone at 30°S. Using 2,217 partial sequences of the mitochondrial Cytochrome Oxidase I gene of eight benthic invertebrate species along ca. 2,600 km of coast, we contrasted dispersal potential with genetic structure and determined the concordance between genetic divergence between biogeographic regions and the biogeographic transition zone at 30°S. Genetic diversity and differentiation highly differed between species with high and low dispersal potential. Dispersal potential, sometimes together with biogeographic region, was the factor that best explained the genetic structure of the eight species. The three low dispersal species, and one species assigned to the high dispersal category, had a phylogeographic discontinuity coincident with the biogeographic transition zone at 30°S. Furthermore, coalescent analyses based on the isolation-with-migration model validate that the split between biogeographic regions north and south of 30°S has a historic origin. The signatures of the historic break in high dispersers is parsimoniously explained by the homogenizing effects of gene flow that have erased the genetic signatures, if ever existed, in high dispersers. Of the four species with structure across the break, only two had significant albeit very low levels of asymmetric migration across the transition zone. Historic processes have led to the current biogeographic and phylogeographic structure of marine species with limited dispersal along the north-central coast of Chile, with a strong lasting impact in their genetic structure. PMID:24586356

  14. Phylogeographic structure in benthic marine invertebrates of the southeast Pacific coast of Chile with differing dispersal potential.

    PubMed

    Haye, Pilar A; Segovia, Nicolás I; Muñoz-Herrera, Natalia C; Gálvez, Francisca E; Martínez, Andrea; Meynard, Andrés; Pardo-Gandarillas, María C; Poulin, Elie; Faugeron, Sylvain

    2014-01-01

    The role of dispersal potential on phylogeographic structure, evidenced by the degree of genetic structure and the presence of coincident genetic and biogeographic breaks, was evaluated in a macrogeographic comparative approach along the north-central coast of Chile, across the biogeographic transition zone at 30°S. Using 2,217 partial sequences of the mitochondrial Cytochrome Oxidase I gene of eight benthic invertebrate species along ca. 2,600 km of coast, we contrasted dispersal potential with genetic structure and determined the concordance between genetic divergence between biogeographic regions and the biogeographic transition zone at 30°S. Genetic diversity and differentiation highly differed between species with high and low dispersal potential. Dispersal potential, sometimes together with biogeographic region, was the factor that best explained the genetic structure of the eight species. The three low dispersal species, and one species assigned to the high dispersal category, had a phylogeographic discontinuity coincident with the biogeographic transition zone at 30°S. Furthermore, coalescent analyses based on the isolation-with-migration model validate that the split between biogeographic regions north and south of 30°S has a historic origin. The signatures of the historic break in high dispersers is parsimoniously explained by the homogenizing effects of gene flow that have erased the genetic signatures, if ever existed, in high dispersers. Of the four species with structure across the break, only two had significant albeit very low levels of asymmetric migration across the transition zone. Historic processes have led to the current biogeographic and phylogeographic structure of marine species with limited dispersal along the north-central coast of Chile, with a strong lasting impact in their genetic structure. PMID:24586356

  15. The Structure of Genetic Diversity in Eelgrass (Zostera marina L.) along the North Pacific and Bering Sea Coasts of Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Talbot, Sandra; Sage, Kevin; Rearick, Jolene; Fowler, Megan C.; Muñiz-Salazar, Raquel; Baibak, Bethany; Wyllie-Echeverria, Sandy; Cabello-Pasini, Alehandro; Ward, David H.

    2016-01-01

    Eelgrass (Zostera marina) populations occupying coastal waters of Alaska are separated by a peninsula and island archipelago into two Large Marine Ecosystems (LMEs). From populations in both LMEs, we characterize genetic diversity, population structure, and polarity in gene flow using nuclear microsatellite fragment and chloroplast and nuclear sequence data. An inverse relationship between genetic diversity and latitude was observed (heterozygosity: R2 = 0.738, P < 0.001; allelic richness: R2 = 0.327, P = 0.047), as was significant genetic partitioning across most sampling sites (θ = 0.302, P < 0.0001). Variance in allele frequency was significantly partitioned by region only in cases when a population geographically in the Gulf of Alaska LME (Kinzarof Lagoon) was instead included with populations in the Eastern Bering Sea LME (θp = 0.128–0.172; P < 0.003), suggesting gene flow between the two LMEs in this region. Gene flow among locales was rarely symmetrical, with notable exceptions generally following net coastal ocean current direction. Genetic data failed to support recent proposals that multiple Zostera species (i.e. Z. japonica and Z. angustifolia) are codistributed with Z. marina in Alaska. Comparative analyses also failed to support the hypothesis that eelgrass populations in the North Atlantic derived from eelgrass retained in northeastern Pacific Last Glacial Maximum refugia. These data suggest northeastern Pacific populations are derived from populations expanding northward from temperate populations following climate amelioration at the terminus of the last Pleistocene glaciation.

  16. The Structure of Genetic Diversity in Eelgrass (Zostera marina L.) along the North Pacific and Bering Sea Coasts of Alaska

    PubMed Central

    Talbot, Sandra L.; Sage, George K; Rearick, Jolene R.; Fowler, Meg C.; Muñiz-Salazar, Raquel; Baibak, Bethany; Wyllie-Echeverria, Sandy; Cabello-Pasini, Alejandro; Ward, David H.

    2016-01-01

    Eelgrass (Zostera marina) populations occupying coastal waters of Alaska are separated by a peninsula and island archipelago into two Large Marine Ecosystems (LMEs). From populations in both LMEs, we characterize genetic diversity, population structure, and polarity in gene flow using nuclear microsatellite fragment and chloroplast and nuclear sequence data. An inverse relationship between genetic diversity and latitude was observed (heterozygosity: R2 = 0.738, P < 0.001; allelic richness: R2 = 0.327, P = 0.047), as was significant genetic partitioning across most sampling sites (θ = 0.302, P < 0.0001). Variance in allele frequency was significantly partitioned by region only in cases when a population geographically in the Gulf of Alaska LME (Kinzarof Lagoon) was instead included with populations in the Eastern Bering Sea LME (θp = 0.128–0.172; P < 0.003), suggesting gene flow between the two LMEs in this region. Gene flow among locales was rarely symmetrical, with notable exceptions generally following net coastal ocean current direction. Genetic data failed to support recent proposals that multiple Zostera species (i.e. Z. japonica and Z. angustifolia) are codistributed with Z. marina in Alaska. Comparative analyses also failed to support the hypothesis that eelgrass populations in the North Atlantic derived from eelgrass retained in northeastern Pacific Last Glacial Maximum refugia. These data suggest northeastern Pacific populations are derived from populations expanding northward from temperate populations following climate amelioration at the terminus of the last Pleistocene glaciation. PMID:27104836

  17. The Structure of Genetic Diversity in Eelgrass (Zostera marina L.) along the North Pacific and Bering Sea Coasts of Alaska.

    PubMed

    Talbot, Sandra L; Sage, George K; Rearick, Jolene R; Fowler, Meg C; Muñiz-Salazar, Raquel; Baibak, Bethany; Wyllie-Echeverria, Sandy; Cabello-Pasini, Alejandro; Ward, David H

    2016-01-01

    Eelgrass (Zostera marina) populations occupying coastal waters of Alaska are separated by a peninsula and island archipelago into two Large Marine Ecosystems (LMEs). From populations in both LMEs, we characterize genetic diversity, population structure, and polarity in gene flow using nuclear microsatellite fragment and chloroplast and nuclear sequence data. An inverse relationship between genetic diversity and latitude was observed (heterozygosity: R2 = 0.738, P < 0.001; allelic richness: R2 = 0.327, P = 0.047), as was significant genetic partitioning across most sampling sites (θ = 0.302, P < 0.0001). Variance in allele frequency was significantly partitioned by region only in cases when a population geographically in the Gulf of Alaska LME (Kinzarof Lagoon) was instead included with populations in the Eastern Bering Sea LME (θp = 0.128-0.172; P < 0.003), suggesting gene flow between the two LMEs in this region. Gene flow among locales was rarely symmetrical, with notable exceptions generally following net coastal ocean current direction. Genetic data failed to support recent proposals that multiple Zostera species (i.e. Z. japonica and Z. angustifolia) are codistributed with Z. marina in Alaska. Comparative analyses also failed to support the hypothesis that eelgrass populations in the North Atlantic derived from eelgrass retained in northeastern Pacific Last Glacial Maximum refugia. These data suggest northeastern Pacific populations are derived from populations expanding northward from temperate populations following climate amelioration at the terminus of the last Pleistocene glaciation.

  18. Effect of temperature on growth and paralytic toxin profiles in isolates of Gymnodinium catenatum (Dinophyceae) from the Pacific coast of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Band-Schmidt, Christine J; Bustillos-Guzmán, José J; Hernández-Sandoval, Francisco E; Núñez-Vázquez, Erick J; López-Cortés, David J

    2014-11-01

    The effects of temperature on growth, cell toxicity, toxin content, and profile of paralytic shellfish toxins was determined in eight isolates of Gymnodinium catenatum from several localities along the Pacific Coast of Mexico. The isolates were cultivated in modified f/2 media with Se (10(-8) M), and a reduced concentration of Cu (10(-8) M), under a 12 h:12 h day-night cycle with an irradiance of 150 μE m(-2) s(-1). Isolates were progressively adapted for three generations to each of the temperatures (16, 19, 22, 24, 27, 30, and 33 °C). The cultures were grown in 125 mL Erlenmeyer flasks with 60 mL of media and harvested by filtration in late exponential growth. Toxins were analyzed by HPLC with a post-column oxidation and fluorescent detection (FLD). G. catenatum isolates tolerate temperatures between 16 and 33 °C, with maximum growth rates of 0.32 and 0.39 div day(-1) at 21 °C and 24 °C, respectively; maximum cell densities of 4700 and 5500 cells mL(-1) were obtained at 27 and 21 °C, respectively. No effect of toxicity per cell with temperature was observed, varying between 10.10 and 28.19 pgSXTeq cell(-1). Ten saxitoxin analogues were detected in all isolates, observing changes in the toxin profile with temperature. C1/2 toxins decreased from 80% mol at 16 °C to 20% mol at 33 °C, B1/2 toxins increased from 19% mol at 16 °C to 42% mol at 33 °C, and decarbamoyl toxins were more abundant at 21 °C. These results show that G. catenatum isolates from different regions of the Pacific coast of Mexico have a similar response to temperature and that this parameter can modify growth rate, cell density, and toxin profile of the species, particularly the decarbamoyl and sulfocarbamoyl toxins. PMID:25151371

  19. Molecular identification of Anisakis and Hysterothylacium larvae in marine fishes from the East China Sea and the Pacific coast of central Japan.

    PubMed

    Kong, Qingming; Fan, Lanfen; Zhang, Junhe; Akao, Nobuaki; Dong, Kewei; Lou, Di; Ding, Jianzu; Tong, Qunbo; Zheng, Bin; Chen, Rui; Ohta, Nobuo; Lu, Shaohong

    2015-04-16

    Anisakiasis is a human disease caused by the accidental ingestion of larvae belonging to the family Anisakidae. Three fish species, the small yellow croaker Pseudosciaena polyactis, the mackerel Pneumatophorus japonicus and the hairtail Trichiurus haumela are important source for food products in the East China Sea. The prevalence and the identification of Anisakidae larvae in these fishes will benefit the prevention and control of anisakiasis. In this study, fish samples were obtained from fish markers in the East China Sea and the Pacific coast of central Japan during April 2011 and July 2013. For species identification, the PCR-based restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis of the entire ITS region (ITS1, 5.8 S and ITS2) of nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA) was performed. In total, 2004 larvae were collected from 80 hairtail fish, 20 small yellow croaker, and 27 mackerel from the East China Sea and the Pacific coast of central Japan. High prevalence of Anisakidae larvae infection (116/122, 95.1%) was detected in the East China Sea. Seven species were identified belonging to the genera Anisakis (Nematoda: Anisakidae) and Hysterothylacium (Nematoda: Anisakidae). Anisakis pegreffii was the predominant species accounting for 84.8% of all larvae examined in East China Sea, while all Anisakidae larvae isolated from Japan were identified as Anisakis simplex sensu stricto (s.s.). In the East China Sea, A. simplex s.s. and Anisakis typica were 0.6% (4/619) and 1.5% (9/619) of the identified nematodes, respectively. Interestingly, one larva was identified as a recombinant genotype of A. simplex s.s. and A. pegreffii. In addition, four species of the genus Hysterothylacium, namely, Hysterothylacium amoyense (31/619, 5.0%), Hysterothylacium aduncum (10/619, 1.6%), Hysterothylacium fabri (21/619, 3.4%) and Hysterothylacium spp. (18/619, 2.9%) were also identified in the present study. This is a comprehensive epidemiological dataset for the family Anisakidae in

  20. Molecular identification of Anisakis and Hysterothylacium larvae in marine fishes from the East China Sea and the Pacific coast of central Japan.

    PubMed

    Kong, Qingming; Fan, Lanfen; Zhang, Junhe; Akao, Nobuaki; Dong, Kewei; Lou, Di; Ding, Jianzu; Tong, Qunbo; Zheng, Bin; Chen, Rui; Ohta, Nobuo; Lu, Shaohong

    2015-04-16

    Anisakiasis is a human disease caused by the accidental ingestion of larvae belonging to the family Anisakidae. Three fish species, the small yellow croaker Pseudosciaena polyactis, the mackerel Pneumatophorus japonicus and the hairtail Trichiurus haumela are important source for food products in the East China Sea. The prevalence and the identification of Anisakidae larvae in these fishes will benefit the prevention and control of anisakiasis. In this study, fish samples were obtained from fish markers in the East China Sea and the Pacific coast of central Japan during April 2011 and July 2013. For species identification, the PCR-based restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis of the entire ITS region (ITS1, 5.8 S and ITS2) of nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA) was performed. In total, 2004 larvae were collected from 80 hairtail fish, 20 small yellow croaker, and 27 mackerel from the East China Sea and the Pacific coast of central Japan. High prevalence of Anisakidae larvae infection (116/122, 95.1%) was detected in the East China Sea. Seven species were identified belonging to the genera Anisakis (Nematoda: Anisakidae) and Hysterothylacium (Nematoda: Anisakidae). Anisakis pegreffii was the predominant species accounting for 84.8% of all larvae examined in East China Sea, while all Anisakidae larvae isolated from Japan were identified as Anisakis simplex sensu stricto (s.s.). In the East China Sea, A. simplex s.s. and Anisakis typica were 0.6% (4/619) and 1.5% (9/619) of the identified nematodes, respectively. Interestingly, one larva was identified as a recombinant genotype of A. simplex s.s. and A. pegreffii. In addition, four species of the genus Hysterothylacium, namely, Hysterothylacium amoyense (31/619, 5.0%), Hysterothylacium aduncum (10/619, 1.6%), Hysterothylacium fabri (21/619, 3.4%) and Hysterothylacium spp. (18/619, 2.9%) were also identified in the present study. This is a comprehensive epidemiological dataset for the family Anisakidae in

  1. A pandemic Vibrio parahaemolyticus O3:K6 clone causing most associated diarrhea cases in the Pacific Northwest coast of Mexico

    PubMed Central

    de Jesús Hernández-Díaz, Lucio; Leon-Sicairos, Nidia; Velazquez-Roman, Jorge; Flores-Villaseñor, Héctor; Guadron-Llanos, Alma M.; Martinez-Garcia, J. Javier; Vidal, Jorge E.; Canizalez-Roman, Adrián

    2015-01-01

    Between September and October of 2004, more than 1230 cases of gastroenteritis due to pandemic O3:K6 strains of Vibrio parahaemolyticus (V. parahaemolyticus) were reported in the relatively small geographical area of Southern Sinaloa, a state located in Northwest Mexico. Since then, V. parahaemolyticus-associated gastroenteritis cases have gradually increased in prevalence spreading from south to north. The present study conducted an epidemiological surveillance of V. parahaemolyticus strains in both environmental and clinical samples along the Pacific coast of Sinaloa from 2011 to 2013. The genetic relatedness, serotype dominance and antibiotic resistance of isolates were investigated. A total of 46 strains were isolated from environmental samples (e.g., sediment, seawater and shrimp), whereas 249 strains were obtained from stools of patients with gastroenteritis. Nine different O serogroups and 16 serovars were identified. Serovars O3:K6 and O6:K46 were identified in both environmental and clinical strains. Whereas most environmental isolates carried the tdh gene (71.74%, 33/46), only three (6.52%) belonged to pandemic clones (O3:K6, O3:KUT and OUT:KUT). In contrast, 81.1% (202/249) of clinical isolates belonged to pandemic serotypes, with O3:K6 (tdh, toxRS/new, and/or orf8) representing the predominant serovar (97%, 196/202). This prevalence of pathogenic (tdh and/or trh positive) and O3:K6 pandemic V. parahaemolyticus isolates in this study were similar to those found from 2004 to 2010. As investigated by REP-PCR, genetic lineages of selected O3:K6 strains isolated in this study and some isolated earlier were nearly identical. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing showed that most strains (93.8%) were resistant to ampicillin but sensitive to chloramphenicol (98.8%). Multidrug resistance significantly increased from 8.6% (2004–2010) to 22.93% (2011–2013; p < 0.05). Our data indicate that pandemic O3:K6 clone has endemically established in the Pacific Coast of

  2. Nested patterns in parasite component communities of a marine fish along its latitudinal range on the Pacific coast of South America.

    PubMed

    González, M T; Poulin, R

    2005-10-01

    A major goal of community ecology is to identify and explain non-random patterns of species composition. To date, the search for nested patterns in parasite component communities of the same fish host species has not been attempted, despite the fact that this higher hierarchical level is more relevant to nestedness analyses. The aims of this study are first, to determine the structure of component communities--considering ectoparasites and endoparasites separately--of a marine fish (Sebastes capensis) with an extended geographical distribution along the southeastern Pacific and, second, to explain these patterns by taking into account the extrinsic factors associated with the distribution of this host fish. From April to September 2003 and from April to August 2004, 537 fish were captured from different latitudes along the southeastern Pacific. The component communities of both ectoparasites and endoparasites of this fish host showed significant nested subset patterns. However, the type of nestedness pattern differed between ectoparasites and endoparasites. Ectoparasite component communities of S. capensis show higher species richness between latitude 30 degrees S and 40 degrees S, whereas endoparasite component communities show higher species richness between 40 degrees S and 52 degrees S. A nested pattern in ectoparasite component communities of S. capensis result from the gradual loss of some ectoparasites species southward and northward of the central part of their latitudinal distribution, which can be explained by the interaction of S. capensis with other host fish species from the central Chilean coast. Nestedness in endoparasite component communities of S. capensis is produced by the gains and losses of species toward the south of their latitudinal distribution, caused by changes in their prey-items (intermediate hosts) along their latitudinal distributional range.

  3. A trans-Pacific Asian dust episode and its impacts to air quality in the east coast of U.S.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yonghua; Han, Zaw; Nazmi, Chowdhury; Gross, Barry; Moshary, Fred

    2015-04-01

    The transport of an intense trans-Pacific Asian dust episode to the Northeast United States (U.S.) is studied using a synergistic suite of observations and models including a ground-based lidar, AERONET-sunphotometer, satellite measurements and global aerosol transport model for New York City (40.821°N, 73.949°W). During the dust intrusion on March 17-19, 2010, the multi-wavelength lidar observations indicate dense dust plumes (∼80% of total column AOD) located between 3 and 9 km altitudes with the lower layer mixing toward the planetary boundary layer (PBL). The column AOD shows a significant increase from 0.08 to 0.38 at 532-nm while the Angstrom exponent indicates a decrease from 1.3 to 0.7. The linear particle depolarization ratio is estimated to be 0.1-0.15 and the single-scattering-albedo shows the dust-like spectral dependence with the value of 0.9-0.95 at 440-nm. The NOAA-NCEP reanalysis and HYSPLIT model indicate that this long-range transport is driven by the strong western jets and travels for 6 days to arrive the U.S. east coast versus the western and northern U.S. Both the NAAPS aerosol transport model and satellite CALIPSO observations for multiple orbits clearly illustrate the dust-dominated aerosol along the transport path. In addition, coincident increase of both particulate matter (PM) and fine soil concentrations indicate the potential impact of transported dust on the air quality that is found to be associated with a large area of sinking air along the U.S. east coast.

  4. Spatial and temporal trends in brominated flame retardants in seabirds from the Pacific coast of Canada.

    PubMed

    Miller, Aroha; Elliott, John E; Elliott, Kyle H; Guigueno, Mélanie F; Wilson, Laurie K; Lee, Sandi; Idrissi, Abde

    2014-12-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and hexabromocyclododecane (HBCDD) are bioaccumulative flame retardants. PBDEs increased in many ecosystems during the late 20th century, but recently have declined in some environments. To examine trends in the northern Pacific, we analysed PBDEs, HBCDD and carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes (δ13C and δ15N) to account for dietary effects in archived eggs of three seabird species from British Columbia, Canada, 1990-2011 (rhinoceros auklets, Cerorhinca monocerata; Leach's storm-petrels, Oceanodroma leucorhoa; ancient murrelets, Synthliboramphus antiquus, 2009 only). PBDEs increased until approximately 2000 and then decreased, while HBCDD increased exponentially throughout the examined period. No significant changes in dietary tracers were observed. HBCDD and ΣPBDE levels varied among species; ΣPBDE also varied among sites. Temporal changes in contaminant concentrations are unlikely to have been caused by dietary changes, and likely reflect the build-up followed by decreases associated with voluntary phase-outs and regulations implemented in North America to control PBDEs. PMID:25194271

  5. Piscine reovirus: Genomic and molecular phylogenetic analysis from farmed and wild salmonids collected on the Canada/US Pacific Coast

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Siah, Ahmed; Morrison, Diane B.; Fringuelli, Elena; Savage, Paul S.; Richmond, Zina; Purcell, Maureen K.; Johns, Robert; Johnson, Stewart C.; Sakasida, Sonja M.

    2015-01-01

    Piscine reovirus (PRV) is a double stranded non-enveloped RNA virus detected in farmed and wild salmonids. This study examined the phylogenetic relationships among different PRV sequence types present in samples from salmonids in Western Canada and the US, including Alaska (US), British Columbia (Canada) and Washington State (US). Tissues testing positive for PRV were partially sequenced for segment S1, producing 71 sequences that grouped into 10 unique sequence types. Sequence analysis revealed no identifiable geographical or temporal variation among the sequence types. Identical sequence types were found in fish sampled in 2001, 2005 and 2014. In addition, PRV positive samples from fish derived from Alaska, British Columbia and Washington State share identical sequence types. Comparative analysis of the phylogenetic tree indicated that Canada/US Pacific Northwest sequences formed a subgroup with some Norwegian sequence types (group II), distinct from other Norwegian and Chilean sequences (groups I, III and IV). Representative PRV positive samples from farmed and wild fish in British Columbia and Washington State were subjected to genome sequencing using next generation sequencing methods. Individual analysis of each of the 10 partial segments indicated that the Canadian and US PRV sequence types clustered separately from available whole genome sequences of some Norwegian and Chilean sequences for all segments except the segment S4. In summary, PRV was genetically homogenous over a large geographic distance (Alaska to Washington State), and the sequence types were relatively stable over a 13 year period.

  6. Piscine Reovirus: Genomic and Molecular Phylogenetic Analysis from Farmed and Wild Salmonids Collected on the Canada/US Pacific Coast

    PubMed Central

    Siah, Ahmed; Morrison, Diane B.; Fringuelli, Elena; Savage, Paul; Richmond, Zina; Johns, Robert; Purcell, Maureen K.; Johnson, Stewart C.; Saksida, Sonja M.

    2015-01-01

    Piscine reovirus (PRV) is a double stranded non-enveloped RNA virus detected in farmed and wild salmonids. This study examined the phylogenetic relationships among different PRV sequence types present in samples from salmonids in Western Canada and the US, including Alaska (US), British Columbia (Canada) and Washington State (US). Tissues testing positive for PRV were partially sequenced for segment S1, producing 71 sequences that grouped into 10 unique sequence types. Sequence analysis revealed no identifiable geographical or temporal variation among the sequence types. Identical sequence types were found in fish sampled in 2001, 2005 and 2014. In addition, PRV positive samples from fish derived from Alaska, British Columbia and Washington State share identical sequence types. Comparative analysis of the phylogenetic tree indicated that Canada/US Pacific Northwest sequences formed a subgroup with some Norwegian sequence types (group II), distinct from other Norwegian and Chilean sequences (groups I, III and IV). Representative PRV positive samples from farmed and wild fish in British Columbia and Washington State were subjected to genome sequencing using next generation sequencing methods. Individual analysis of each of the 10 partial segments indicated that the Canadian and US PRV sequence types clustered separately from available whole genome sequences of some Norwegian and Chilean sequences for all segments except the segment S4. In summary, PRV was genetically homogenous over a large geographic distance (Alaska to Washington State), and the sequence types were relatively stable over a 13 year period. PMID:26536673

  7. The evolutionary history of steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) along the US Pacific Coast: Developing a conservation strategy using genetic diversity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nielsen, J.L.

    1999-01-01

    Changes in genetic variation across a species range may indicate patterns of population structure resulting from past ecological and demographic events that are otherwise difficult to infer and thus provide insight into evolutionary development. Genetic data is used, drawn from 11 microsatellite loci amplified from anadromous steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) sampled throughout its range in the eastern Pacific Ocean, to explore population structure at the southern edge in California. Steelhead populations in this region represent less than 10% of their reported historic abundance and survive in very small populations found in fragmented habitats. Genetic data derived from three independent molecular systems (allozymes, mtDNA, and microsatellites) have shown that the southernmost populations are characterized by a relatively high genetic diversity. Two hypothetical models supporting genetic population substructure such as observed were considered: (1) range expansion with founder-flush effects and subsequent population decline; (2) a second Pleistocene radiation from the Gulf of California. Using genetic and climatic data, a second Pleistocene refugium contributing to a southern ecotone seems more feasible. These data support strong conservation measures based on genetic diversity be developed to ensure the survival of this uniquely diverse gene pool.

  8. Spatial and temporal trends in brominated flame retardants in seabirds from the Pacific coast of Canada.

    PubMed

    Miller, Aroha; Elliott, John E; Elliott, Kyle H; Guigueno, Mélanie F; Wilson, Laurie K; Lee, Sandi; Idrissi, Abde

    2014-12-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and hexabromocyclododecane (HBCDD) are bioaccumulative flame retardants. PBDEs increased in many ecosystems during the late 20th century, but recently have declined in some environments. To examine trends in the northern Pacific, we analysed PBDEs, HBCDD and carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes (δ13C and δ15N) to account for dietary effects in archived eggs of three seabird species from British Columbia, Canada, 1990-2011 (rhinoceros auklets, Cerorhinca monocerata; Leach's storm-petrels, Oceanodroma leucorhoa; ancient murrelets, Synthliboramphus antiquus, 2009 only). PBDEs increased until approximately 2000 and then decreased, while HBCDD increased exponentially throughout the examined period. No significant changes in dietary tracers were observed. HBCDD and ΣPBDE levels varied among species; ΣPBDE also varied among sites. Temporal changes in contaminant concentrations are unlikely to have been caused by dietary changes, and likely reflect the build-up followed by decreases associated with voluntary phase-outs and regulations implemented in North America to control PBDEs.

  9. Regional monitoring programs in the United States: Synthesis of four case studies from Pacific, Atlantic, and Gulf Coasts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tango, Peter J.; Schiff, K.; Trowbridge, P.R.; Sherwood, E.T.; Batiuk, R.A.

    2016-01-01

    Water quality monitoring is a cornerstone of environmental protection and ambient monitoring provides managers with the critical data they need to take informed action. Unlike site-specific monitoring that is at the heart of regulatory permit compliance, regional monitoring can provide an integrated, holistic view of the environment, allowing managers to obtain a more complete picture of natural variability and cumulative impacts, and more effectively prioritize management actions. By reviewing four long-standing regional monitoring programs that cover portions of all three coasts in the United States – Chesapeake Bay, Tampa Bay, Southern California Bight, and San Francisco Bay – important insights can be gleaned about the benefits that regional monitoring provides to managers. These insights include the underlying reasons that make regional monitoring programs successful, the challenges to maintain relevance and viability in the face of ever-changing technology, competing demands and shifting management priorities. The lessons learned can help other managers achieve similar successes as they seek to establish and reinvigorate their own monitoring programs.

  10. Rapid Source Characterization of the 2011 Mw 9.0 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hayes, Gavin P.

    2011-01-01

    On March 11th, 2011, a moment magnitude 9.0 earthquake struck off the coast of northeast Honshu, Japan, generating what may well turn out to be the most costly natural disaster ever. In the hours following the event, the U.S. Geological Survey National Earthquake Information Center led a rapid response to characterize the earthquake in terms of its location, size, faulting source, shaking and slip distributions, and population exposure, in order to place the disaster in a framework necessary for timely humanitarian response. As part of this effort, fast finite-fault inversions using globally distributed body- and surface-wave data were used to estimate the slip distribution of the earthquake rupture. Models generated within 7 hours of the earthquake origin time indicated that the event ruptured a fault up to 300 km long, roughly centered on the earthquake hypocenter, and involved peak slips of 20 m or more. Updates since this preliminary solution improve the details of this inversion solution and thus our understanding of the rupture process. However, significant observations such as the up-dip nature of rupture propagation and the along-strike length of faulting did not significantly change, demonstrating the usefulness of rapid source characterization for understanding the first order characteristics of major earthquakes.

  11. Re-Evaluating the Geological Evidence for Late Holocene Marine Incursion Events along the Guerrero Seismic Gap on the Pacific Coast of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Bianchette, Thomas A; McCloskey, Terrence A; Liu, Kam-Biu

    2016-01-01

    Despite the large number of tsunamis that impact Mexico's Pacific coast, stratigraphic studies focusing on geological impacts are scanty, making it difficult to assess the long-term risks for this vulnerable region. Surface samples and six cores were taken from Laguna Mitla near Acapulco to examine sedimentological and geochemical evidence for marine incursion events. Sediment cores collected from behind the beach barrier are dominated by intercalated layers of peat and inorganic sediments, mostly silt and clay, with little or no sand. Sand- and shell-rich clastic layers with high levels of sulfur, calcium, and strontium only occur adjacent to the relict beach ridge remnants near the center of the lagoon. With the exception of one thin fine sand layer, the absence of sand in the near-shore cores and the predominance of the terrigenous element titanium in the inorganic layers, evidently eroded from the surrounding hillslopes, suggests that these large-grained intervals do not represent episodic marine incursions, but rather were likely formed by the erosion and redeposition of older marine deposits derived from the beach ridge remnants when water levels were high. These results do not support the occurrence of a large tsunami event at Laguna Mitla during the Late Holocene.

  12. Coseismic and early postseismic slips associated with the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake sequence: EOF analysis of GPS kinematic time series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munekane, Hiroshi

    2012-12-01

    GPS kinematic time series are analyzed to estimate slip distributions for the M w 9.0 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake sequence. Empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis is employed to enhance the signal-to-noise ratio of the original time series. The coseismic, and subsequent postseismic, deformations of the foreshock can be described by a single mode, suggesting that the extent of the source for both events must be similar. The total moment magnitude of the afterslip following the foreshock is estimated to be M w 7.1 with a decay time of 0.63 days. The magnitude of the afterslip was larger for its duration than was anticipated by the scaling law for a typical slow earthquake, although two previous earthquakes in adjacent regions showed the same tendency as that in the present case. The pattern of slip of the mainshock and the subsequent afterslips and aftershocks indicates that each slip occurs in a region adjacent to that of the previous slips in a complementary manner. Finally, in the course of the EOF analysis, the modes representing the thermal expansion of the GPS pillars are clearly identified.

  13. Application of the positive matrix factorization approach to identify heavy metal sources in sediments. A case study on the Mexican Pacific Coast.

    PubMed

    González-Macías, C; Sánchez-Reyna, G; Salazar-Coria, L; Schifter, I

    2014-01-01

    During the last two decades, sediments collected in different sources of water bodies of the Tehuantepec Basin, located in the southeast of the Mexican Pacific Coast, showed that concentrations of heavy metals may pose a risk to the environment and human health. The extractable organic matter, geoaccumulation index, and enrichment factors were quantified for arsenic, cadmium, copper, chromium, nickel, lead, vanadium, zinc, and the fine-grained sediment fraction. The non-parametric SiZer method was applied to assess the statistical significance of the reconstructed metal variation along time. This inference method appears to be particularly natural and well suited to temperature and other environmental reconstructions. In this approach, a collection of smooth of the reconstructed metal concentrations is considered simultaneously, and inferences about the significance of the metal trends can be made with respect to time. Hence, the database represents a consolidated set of available and validated water and sediment data of an urban industrialized area, which is very useful as case study site. The positive matrix factorization approach was used in identification and source apportionment of the anthropogenic heavy metals in the sediments. Regionally, metals and organic matter are depleted relative to crustal abundance in a range of 45-55 %, while there is an inorganic enrichment from lithogenous/anthropogenic sources of around 40 %. Only extractable organic matter, Pb, As, and Cd can be related with non-crustal sources, suggesting that additional input cannot be explained by local runoff or erosion processes.

  14. Re-Evaluating the Geological Evidence for Late Holocene Marine Incursion Events along the Guerrero Seismic Gap on the Pacific Coast of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Bianchette, Thomas A; McCloskey, Terrence A; Liu, Kam-Biu

    2016-01-01

    Despite the large number of tsunamis that impact Mexico's Pacific coast, stratigraphic studies focusing on geological impacts are scanty, making it difficult to assess the long-term risks for this vulnerable region. Surface samples and six cores were taken from Laguna Mitla near Acapulco to examine sedimentological and geochemical evidence for marine incursion events. Sediment cores collected from behind the beach barrier are dominated by intercalated layers of peat and inorganic sediments, mostly silt and clay, with little or no sand. Sand- and shell-rich clastic layers with high levels of sulfur, calcium, and strontium only occur adjacent to the relict beach ridge remnants near the center of the lagoon. With the exception of one thin fine sand layer, the absence of sand in the near-shore cores and the predominance of the terrigenous element titanium in the inorganic layers, evidently eroded from the surrounding hillslopes, suggests that these large-grained intervals do not represent episodic marine incursions, but rather were likely formed by the erosion and redeposition of older marine deposits derived from the beach ridge remnants when water levels were high. These results do not support the occurrence of a large tsunami event at Laguna Mitla during the Late Holocene. PMID:27571270

  15. Re-Evaluating the Geological Evidence for Late Holocene Marine Incursion Events along the Guerrero Seismic Gap on the Pacific Coast of Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Bianchette, Thomas A.

    2016-01-01

    Despite the large number of tsunamis that impact Mexico’s Pacific coast, stratigraphic studies focusing on geological impacts are scanty, making it difficult to assess the long-term risks for this vulnerable region. Surface samples and six cores were taken from Laguna Mitla near Acapulco to examine sedimentological and geochemical evidence for marine incursion events. Sediment cores collected from behind the beach barrier are dominated by intercalated layers of peat and inorganic sediments, mostly silt and clay, with little or no sand. Sand- and shell-rich clastic layers with high levels of sulfur, calcium, and strontium only occur adjacent to the relict beach ridge remnants near the center of the lagoon. With the exception of one thin fine sand layer, the absence of sand in the near-shore cores and the predominance of the terrigenous element titanium in the inorganic layers, evidently eroded from the surrounding hillslopes, suggests that these large-grained intervals do not represent episodic marine incursions, but rather were likely formed by the erosion and redeposition of older marine deposits derived from the beach ridge remnants when water levels were high. These results do not support the occurrence of a large tsunami event at Laguna Mitla during the Late Holocene. PMID:27571270

  16. Hemocyte parameters of the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas a year after the Hebei Spirit oil spill off the west coast of Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donaghy, Ludovic; Hong, Hyun-Ki; Lee, Hee-Jung; Jun, Je-Cheon; Park, Young-Je; Choi, Kwang-Sik

    2010-12-01

    In marine bivalves, hemocytes support various physiological functions, including immune defense, nutrient transport, shell repair, and homeostatic maintenance. Although the effects of marine contaminants on the immunological functions of bivalves have been extensively investigated, the impacts of oil spills are not well understood. Therefore, we investigated hemocyte parameters in the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas 13 months after the Hebei Spirit oil spill (December 2007) off the west coast of Korea. The parameters studied included hemocyte concentration and mortality, relative proportion of hemocyte populations, and immunological functions such as phagocytosis and oxidative activity using flow cytometry. These immune-related parameters in oysters damaged by the oil spill were also compared to control oysters that were collected from an area unaffected by the spill. The flow cytometry study indicated that granulocyte population, phagocytic capacity, and reactive oxygen species production in oysters exposed to crude oil 13 months prior were depressed compared to the unexposed control oysters. Our data suggest that immunocompetence in oysters affected by the oil spill had not fully recovered 1 year after the accident, although more detailed studies on the physiology and disease resistance should be performed.

  17. Magnetic properties of surficial sediments in Lake Ogawara on the Pacific coast of northeastern Japan: spatial variability and correlation with brackish water stratification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashida, Akira; Nakano, Ryoma; Nagashima, Aya; Seto, Koji; Yamada, Kazuyoshi; Yonenobu, Hitoshi

    2015-10-01

    To examine limnological conditions in Lake Ogawara on the Pacific coast of northwestern Japan, we investigated the magnetic properties of dredged bottom sediment originally collected from the lake in the summer of 2011. We used non-destructive methods to measure the low-field magnetic susceptibility shortly after sampling, and anhysteretic remanent magnetization (ARM) was assessed in 2012 and 2015. The ARM acquisition and demagnetization curves from littoral sites showed several patterns that reflect the provenance of the sediments. At water depths below 10 m, the magnetic susceptibility and ARM of greenish black mud with high organic content decreased considerably with the increase in water depth, but ARM increased slightly at water depths greater than 16 m. We also found that the magnetic concentrations of mud samples were reduced markedly during a period of storage for about 3 years. We attributed these reductions to diagenetic loss of magnetic minerals, which had been enhanced at deeper sites. It is possible that the ARM carriers in deeper areas were derived from authigenic formation of iron sulfide or from deposition of suspended matter in the hypolimnion water. We propose that the magnetic properties of surficial sediments are controlled by limnological stratification of the brackish lake water, thus possibly providing an analog for down-core variations of magnetic parameters associated with the modification of magnetic minerals during reductive diagenesis.

  18. Population subdivision of Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus in the Pacific Coast of Tohoku Japan detected by means of mitochondrial phylogenetic information.

    PubMed

    Shigenobu, Yuya; Yoneda, Michio; Kurita, Yutaka; Ambe, Daisuke; Saitoh, Kenji

    2013-01-07

    This study deals with mitochondrial phylogenetic information of Japanese flounder in the Pacific coast of Tohoku Japan to estimate the genetic population subdivision that was undetectable by conventional population statistics. We determined complete sequences of mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase subunit-2 (ND2) and subunit-5 (ND5) genes for 151 individuals from northern (Aomori and Iwate prefectures, 40-41°N) and southern (Miyagi and Fukushima prefectures, 37-38°N) waters. Samples from both waters showed high genetic diversity, including 126 haplotypes. These haplotypes were located at mixed and nested positions on an inferred phylogenetic tree, and traditional F-statistics indicated no significant population divergence (φ(ST) = -0.00335, p > 0.05), corroborating our previous study. Three variable sites, however, showed significant base composition heterogeneity between samples from the northern and southern waters (Fisher's exact-test, p < 0.01). Nucleotide substitutions at the three sites converged on an apical clade, which consisted of the five southern individuals, whereas its sister clade consisted only of the three northern individuals. This phylogenetic information corroborates previous ecological studies indicating the presence of separate stocks in the northern and southern waters.

  19. Outline of the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake ( M w 9.0) —Earthquake Early Warning and observed seismic intensity—

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoshiba, Mitsuyuki; Iwakiri, Kazuhiro; Hayashimoto, Naoki; Shimoyama, Toshihiro; Hirano, Kazuyuki; Yamada, Yasuyuki; Ishigaki, Yuzo; Kikuta, Haruyuki

    2011-07-01

    The 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake ( M w 9.0) that occurred on March 11, 2011, caused strong ground motion around northeastern Japan. Before the strong ground motion hit cities, the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) issued Earthquake Early Warning (EEW) announcements to the general public of the Tohoku district and then the warning was automatically broadcast through TV, radios and cellular phone mails. The EEW was earlier than the S wave arrival and more than 15 s earlier than the strong ground motion (intensity 5-lower or greater on the JMA scale) everywhere in the district. Seismic intensity 7 was observed for only the second time since JMA introduced instrument-based observation for intensity measurements in 1996. Intensities of 6-upper and 6-lower were widely observed at many stations in the Tohoku and Kanto districts, over an area of approximately 400 km × 100 km. The duration of strong ground motions was quite long. For the Tokyo region, JMA EEW expected intensities of 4, which was an underestimation of the observed intensity (5-upper). This underestimation can probably be attributed to the large extent of the fault rupture.

  20. Reproductive traits of the symbiotic pea crab Austinotheres angelicus (Crustacea, Pinnotheridae) living in Saccostrea palmula (Bivalvia, Ostreidae), Pacific coast of Costa Rica

    PubMed Central

    Salas-Moya, Carolina; Mena, Sebastián; Wehrtmann, Ingo S.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Pea crabs of the family Pinnotheridae exhibit a symbiotic life style and live associated with a variety of different marine organisms, especially bivalves. Despite the fact that pea crabs can cause serious problems in bivalve aquaculture, the available information about the ecology of these crabs from Central America is extremely limited. Therefore, the present study aimed to describe different reproductive features of the pinnotherid crab Austinotheres angelicus associated with the oyster Saccostrea palmula in the Golfo de Nicoya, Pacific coast of Costa Rica. Monthly sampling was conducted from April to December 2012. Average carapace width (CW) of the 47 analyzed ovigerous females was 7.62 mm. The species produced on average 2677 ± 1754 recently -extruded embryos with an average volume of 0.020 ± 0.003 mm3; embryo volume increased during embryogenesis by 21%, but did not vary significantly between developmental stages. Brood mass volume varied greatly (between 11.7 and 236.7 mm3), and increased significantly with female CW. Females invested on average 76.7% (minimum: 21.7%; maximum: 162.8%) of their body weight in brood production, which confirms a substantially higher energy allocation for embryo production in pinnotherid crabs compared to free-living decapods. PMID:25561840

  1. Population subdivision of Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus in the Pacific Coast of Tohoku Japan detected by means of mitochondrial phylogenetic information.

    PubMed

    Shigenobu, Yuya; Yoneda, Michio; Kurita, Yutaka; Ambe, Daisuke; Saitoh, Kenji

    2013-01-01

    This study deals with mitochondrial phylogenetic information of Japanese flounder in the Pacific coast of Tohoku Japan to estimate the genetic population subdivision that was undetectable by conventional population statistics. We determined complete sequences of mitochondrial NADH dehydrogenase subunit-2 (ND2) and subunit-5 (ND5) genes for 151 individuals from northern (Aomori and Iwate prefectures, 40-41°N) and southern (Miyagi and Fukushima prefectures, 37-38°N) waters. Samples from both waters showed high genetic diversity, including 126 haplotypes. These haplotypes were located at mixed and nested positions on an inferred phylogenetic tree, and traditional F-statistics indicated no significant population divergence (φ(ST) = -0.00335, p > 0.05), corroborating our previous study. Three variable sites, however, showed significant base composition heterogeneity between samples from the northern and southern waters (Fisher's exact-test, p < 0.01). Nucleotide substitutions at the three sites converged on an apical clade, which consisted of the five southern individuals, whereas its sister clade consisted only of the three northern individuals. This phylogenetic information corroborates previous ecological studies indicating the presence of separate stocks in the northern and southern waters. PMID:23296272

  2. Chlorinated hydrocarbon contaminants in feces of river otters from the southern Pacific coast of Canada, 1998-2004.

    PubMed

    Elliott, John E; Guertin, Daniel A; Balke, Jennifer M E

    2008-07-01

    Chlorinated hydrocarbon contaminants in coastal river otters (Lontra canadensis) were evaluated by sampling feces (scats) collected on the south coast of British Columbia, Canada. A broad survey of industrialized areas of the Strait of Georgia region was conducted in 1998, and a subsequent survey of working harbours in 2004. Samples from 1998 were analyzed for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine (OC) pesticides, and polychlorinated dioxins (PCDDs) and furans (PCDFs), while in 2004, chemistry was confined to summation operatorPCBs and OC pesticides. Concentrations of OC pesticides were low in both years, with only dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE; range: 0.01-2.12 mg/kg lw) and hexachlorocyclobenzene (HCB; range: 0.003-0.25 mg/kg lw) detected in all samples. In 1998, octachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (OCDD) and other higher chlorinated PCDD/Fs were found in most samples, with OCDD ranging from 120 ng/kg lw in Clayoquot Sound to 19,100 ng/kg lw in a pooled sample from two latrines in Nanaimo. PCBs were present in all samples. In 1998 geometric mean concentrations of the sum of 59 PCB congeners ranged from 0.49 mg/kg lw in Nanaimo to 12.3 mg/kg lw in Victoria Harbour. Six years later, mean summation operatorPCBs remained elevated (geometric mean 9.5 mg/kg lw) in Victoria Harbour. Geometric mean concentrations of summation operatorPCBs from Victoria Harbour in 1998 and 2004 were >9 mg/kg lw, a published adverse effect level for reproduction. At some latrines in both Victoria and Esquimalt Harbours, concentrations of TCDD-toxic equivalents exceeded 1500 ng/kg lw, a value for health effects in otters that we derived using published information. As shown in previous studies, analysis of scats provides an efficient and non-intrusive approach to assessing contaminant threats to otter populations, and to documenting spatial trends in residues.

  3. Geochemistry of soils along a transect from Central Mexico to the Pacific Coast: a pilot study for continental-scale geochemical mapping

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chiprés, J.A.; de la Calleja,; Tellez, J.I.; Jiménez, F.; Cruz, Carlos; Guerrero, E.G.; Castro, J.; Monroy, M.G.; Salinas, J.C.

    2009-01-01

    The Mexican Geological Survey (SGM), the National Institute of Statistics, Geography and Informatics (INEGI) and the Autonomous University of San Luis Potosi (UASLP) have established a multidisciplinary team with the objective of creating a national program of geochemical mapping of soils in Mexico. This is being done as part of the North American Soil Geochemical Landscapes Project in partnership with the US Geological Survey and the Geological Survey of Canada. As the first step, a pilot study was conducted over a transect that extends from the Mexico–US border near Ciudad Juarez in the north to the Pacific Ocean in the south. This pilot transect was conducted in two phases, and this paper presents results from the first phase, which sampled soils at about a 40-km spacing along a 730-km transect beginning in Central Mexico and ending at the Pacific Coast. Samples were collected from the A and C horizons at each site and 60 elements were analyzed. This pilot study demonstrates that geochemical mapping based on a 40-km spacing is adequate to identify broad-scale geochemical patterns. Geologic influence (i.e., soil parent material) was the most important factor influencing the distribution of elements along the transect, followed by the influence of regional mineralization. The study also showed that influence by human activities over the transect is minimal except possibly in large mining districts. A comparison of element abundance in the A horizon with the environmental soil guidelines in Mexico showed that the natural concentrations of the studied soils were lower than the established threshold for soil restoration with the exception of V and As. The former had a median value (75 mg/kg) approximately equal to the value established in Mexico for soil restoration in agricultural and residential lands (78 mg/kg), and the latter had three values higher than the 22 mg/kg threshold for soil restoration in agricultural and residential lands. These cases demonstrate

  4. Aftershock and induced seismic activity of the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake in the northern part of Tohoku district, NE Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosuga, M.; Watanabe, K.

    2011-12-01

    We investigated the seismic activity around the northern neighbor of the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake (Mw 9.0) with special attention to a potential large aftershock in the area. We obtained a combined data set by adding our manually-picked locations to the catalog locations by the Japan Meteorological Agency. The hypocenter distribution delineates active and inactive bands of seismicity. The band of low seismicity corresponds to a zone of a large seismic slip, indicating that aftershocks occurred in peripheral neighbors of the mainshock asperity. The broad band of active seismicity along the coast corresponds to the zone of a large postseismic slip, suggesting the enhancement of the aftershock activity by the slip. Although the northern neighbor of the mainshock fault is a favored region of increased seismicity, as shown from a Coulomb stress calculation, no significant seismic activity is observed within the potential source area except along the Japan Trench and the SW corner. This implies that the zone of interplate moment release by previous large earthquakes and the subsequent slow slip acted as a barrier to the migration of both the mainshock rupture and aftershock activity. However, an aftershock area in the zone may reflect inhomogeneous moment release by past seismic and aseismic sequences. Induced inland seismicity is quite high in the Akita Prefecture on the Japan Sea side apart more than 100 km from the mainshock fault. There are some active clusters including moderate earthquakes with magnitude greater than 5. They are newly formed clusters after the mainshock, while the seismicity of previously active areas decreased significantly. Focal mechanism solutions of earthquakes in the new clusters show the types of strike-slip with consistently NW-SE trending T-axes. The predominant type of focal mechanisms in the Akita area before the mainshock was E-W compressional reverse faulting. Thus the stress field in the area has changed

  5. Dynamics in benthic community composition and influencing factors in an upwelling-exposed coral reef on the Pacific coast of Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Stuhldreier, Ines; Sánchez-Noguera, Celeste; Roth, Florian; Jiménez, Carlos; Rixen, Tim; Cortés, Jorge; Wild, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Seasonal upwelling at the northern Pacific coast of Costa Rica offers the opportunity to investigate the effects of pronounced changes in key water parameters on fine-scale dynamics of local coral reef communities. This study monitored benthic community composition at Matapalo reef (10.539°N, 85.766°W) by weekly observations of permanent benthic quadrats from April 2013 to April 2014. Monitoring was accompanied by surveys of herbivore abundance and biomass and measurements of water temperature and inorganic nutrient concentrations. Findings revealed that the reef-building corals Pocillopora spp. exhibited an exceptional rapid increase from 22 to 51% relative benthic cover. By contrast, turf algae cover decreased from 63 to 24%, resulting in a corresponding increase in crustose coralline algae cover. The macroalga Caulerpa sertularioides covered up to 15% of the reef in April 2013, disappeared after synchronized gamete release in May, and subsequently exhibited slow regrowth. Parallel monitoring of influencing factors suggest that C. sertularioides cover was mainly regulated by their reproductive cycle, while that of turf algae was likely controlled by high abundances of herbivores. Upwelling events in February and March 2014 decreased mean daily seawater temperatures by up to 7 °C and increased nutrient concentrations up to 5- (phosphate) and 16-fold (nitrate) compared to mean values during the rest of the year. Changes in benthic community composition did not appear to correspond to the strong environmental changes, but rather shifted from turf algae to hard coral dominance over the entire year of observation. The exceptional high dynamic over the annual observation period encourages further research on the adaptation potential of coral reefs to environmental variability. PMID:26623190

  6. Dynamics in benthic community composition and influencing factors in an upwelling-exposed coral reef on the Pacific coast of Costa Rica

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Noguera, Celeste; Roth, Florian; Jiménez, Carlos; Rixen, Tim; Cortés, Jorge; Wild, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Seasonal upwelling at the northern Pacific coast of Costa Rica offers the opportunity to investigate the effects of pronounced changes in key water parameters on fine-scale dynamics of local coral reef communities. This study monitored benthic community composition at Matapalo reef (10.539°N, 85.766°W) by weekly observations of permanent benthic quadrats from April 2013 to April 2014. Monitoring was accompanied by surveys of herbivore abundance and biomass and measurements of water temperature and inorganic nutrient concentrations. Findings revealed that the reef-building corals Pocillopora spp. exhibited an exceptional rapid increase from 22 to 51% relative benthic cover. By contrast, turf algae cover decreased from 63 to 24%, resulting in a corresponding increase in crustose coralline algae cover. The macroalga Caulerpa sertularioides covered up to 15% of the reef in April 2013, disappeared after synchronized gamete release in May, and subsequently exhibited slow regrowth. Parallel monitoring of influencing factors suggest that C. sertularioides cover was mainly regulated by their reproductive cycle, while that of turf algae was likely controlled by high abundances of herbivores. Upwelling events in February and March 2014 decreased mean daily seawater temperatures by up to 7 °C and increased nutrient concentrations up to 5- (phosphate) and 16-fold (nitrate) compared to mean values during the rest of the year. Changes in benthic community composition did not appear to correspond to the strong environmental changes, but rather shifted from turf algae to hard coral dominance over the entire year of observation. The exceptional high dynamic over the annual observation period encourages further research on the adaptation potential of coral reefs to environmental variability. PMID:26623190

  7. Radiation measurements at the campus of Fukushima Medical University through the 2011 off the Pacific Coast of Tohoku earthquake and subsequent nuclear power plant crisis.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Tsuneo

    2011-01-01

    An earthquake, Tohoku region Pacific Coast earthquake, occurred on the 11th of March, 2011, and subsequent Fukushima nuclear power plant accidents have been stirring natural radiation around the author's office in Fukushima Medical University (FMU). FMU is located in Fukushima city, and is 57 km (35 miles) away from northwest of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant. This paper presents three types of radiation survey undertaken through the unprecedented accidents at the campus and the hospital of FMU. First, a group of interested people immediately began radiation surveillance; the group members were assembled from the faculty members of " Life Sciences and Social Medicine" and " Human and Natural Sciences." Second, the present author, regardless of the earthquake, had serially observed natural radiations such as gamma radiation in air with NaI scintillation counter, atmospheric radon with Lucas cell, and second cosmic rays with NaI scintillation. Gamma radiation indicated most drastic change, i.e., peak value (9.3 times usual level) appeared on March 16, and decreased to 1.7 times usual level after two months. A nonlinear least squares regression to this decreasing data gave short half-life of 3.6 days and long half-life of 181 days. These two apparent half-lives are attributed to two groups of radioisotopes, i.e., short half-life one of I-131 and long half-life ones of Cs-134, Cs-137 and Sr-90. Also, atmospheric radon concentration became high since a stop of ventilation, while second cosmic rays did not show any response. Third, late April, 2011, a team of radiation dosimetry under the direct control of Dean, School of Medicine, was established for the continuation of radiation survey in the campus and the hospital of Fukushima Medical University.

  8. Possible submarine tsunami deposit formed by the 2011 off the Pacific Coast of Tohoku earthquake tsunami found on the outer shelf of Sendai Bay, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikehara, K.; Usami, K.; Irino, T.; Jenkins, R. G.; Omura, A.; Ashi, J.

    2012-12-01

    Huge tsunami by the 2011 off the Pacific Coast of Tohoku Earthquake inundated a large coastal area of northeastern Japan. Because friction velocity at sea floor by the tsunami wave became larger at shelf, the tsunami might agitate and resuspend muddy shelf sediments in the northern Sendai Bay. However, we have only a little knowledge on characteristics of the shallow marine tsunami-related deposit. We found a two-storied muddy turbidite unit at the outer shelf of Sendai Bay. The unit has a sharp erosional base, and upward-fining graded structure started from parallel- and cross-laminated sand and covered by massive mud. Geochemical properties of the turbidite mud suggested that mud was marine-origin. Clear deformation structure in hemipelagic mud below the turbidite might be formed by the strong ground motion by the earthquake. Lower part of the turbidite does not contain 134-Cs suggesting that lower part might deposit before Fukushima event. Tsunami-induced resuspension of the shelf mud might generated turbidity currents, and formed the lower part. On the other hand, upper part contains 134-Cs suggesting the deposits after Fukushima event. Aftershock shaking is a possible mechanism of generation of second turbidity currents, although water density increasing by settlement of fine-grained particles in shelf water might influence to collapse the dense water and to form second turbidity currents. Therefore, this core recorded the sequential events of the 2011 earthquake and tsunami. Tsunami-induced sediment resuspension seems to be very important for generation of turbidity currents and long-distance transport of sediment.

  9. Diversity of A-conotoxins of three worm-hunting cone snails (Conus brunneus, Conus nux, and Conus princeps) from the Mexican Pacific coast.

    PubMed

    Morales-González, Daniel; Flores-Martínez, Ernesto; Zamora-Bustillos, Roberto; Rivera-Reyes, Reginaldo; Michel-Morfín, Jesús Emilio; Landa-Jaime, Víctor; Falcón, Andrés; Aguilar, Manuel B

    2015-06-01

    Conus marine snails (∼500 species) are tropical predators that use venoms mainly to capture prey and defend themselves from predators. The principal components of these venoms are peptides that are known as "conotoxins" and generally comprise 7-40 amino acid residues, including 0-5 disulfide bridges and distinct posttranslational modifications. The most common molecular targets of conotoxins are voltage- and ligand-gated ion channels, G protein-coupled receptors, and neurotransmitter transporters, to which they bind, typically, with high affinity and specificity. Due to these properties, several conotoxins have become molecular probes, medicines, and leads for drug design. Conotoxins have been classified into genetic superfamilies based on the signal sequence of their precursors, and into pharmacological families according to their molecular targets. The objective of this work was to identify and analyze partial cDNAs encoding conotoxin precursors belonging to the A superfamily from Conus brunneus, Conus nux, and Conus princeps. These are vermivorous species of the Mexican Pacific coast from which only one A-conotoxin, and few O- and I2-conotoxins have been reported. Employing RT-PCR, we identified 30 distinct precursors that contain 13 different predicted mature toxins. With the exception of two groups of four highly similar peptides, these toxins are diverse at both the sequence and the physicochemical levels, and they belong to the 4/3, 4/4, 4/5, 4/6, and 4/7 structural subfamilies. These toxins are predicted to target diverse nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subtypes: nx1d, muscle; pi1a-pi1d, α3β2, α7, and/or α9α10; br1a, muscle, α3β4, and/or α4β2; and nx1a-nx1c/pi1g and pi1h, α3β2, α3β4, α9β10, and/or α7.

  10. Diversity of A-conotoxins of three worm-hunting cone snails (Conus brunneus, Conus nux, and Conus princeps) from the Mexican Pacific coast.

    PubMed

    Morales-González, Daniel; Flores-Martínez, Ernesto; Zamora-Bustillos, Roberto; Rivera-Reyes, Reginaldo; Michel-Morfín, Jesús Emilio; Landa-Jaime, Víctor; Falcón, Andrés; Aguilar, Manuel B

    2015-06-01

    Conus marine snails (∼500 species) are tropical predators that use venoms mainly to capture prey and defend themselves from predators. The principal components of these venoms are peptides that are known as "conotoxins" and generally comprise 7-40 amino acid residues, including 0-5 disulfide bridges and distinct posttranslational modifications. The most common molecular targets of conotoxins are voltage- and ligand-gated ion channels, G protein-coupled receptors, and neurotransmitter transporters, to which they bind, typically, with high affinity and specificity. Due to these properties, several conotoxins have become molecular probes, medicines, and leads for drug design. Conotoxins have been classified into genetic superfamilies based on the signal sequence of their precursors, and into pharmacological families according to their molecular targets. The objective of this work was to identify and analyze partial cDNAs encoding conotoxin precursors belonging to the A superfamily from Conus brunneus, Conus nux, and Conus princeps. These are vermivorous species of the Mexican Pacific coast from which only one A-conotoxin, and few O- and I2-conotoxins have been reported. Employing RT-PCR, we identified 30 distinct precursors that contain 13 different predicted mature toxins. With the exception of two groups of four highly similar peptides, these toxins are diverse at both the sequence and the physicochemical levels, and they belong to the 4/3, 4/4, 4/5, 4/6, and 4/7 structural subfamilies. These toxins are predicted to target diverse nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) subtypes: nx1d, muscle; pi1a-pi1d, α3β2, α7, and/or α9α10; br1a, muscle, α3β4, and/or α4β2; and nx1a-nx1c/pi1g and pi1h, α3β2, α3β4, α9β10, and/or α7. PMID:25703301

  11. Small repeating earthquakes and inter-plate aseismic slip in and around the Kanto district after the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Igarashi, T.; Iidaka, T.; Sakai, S.; Obara, K.; Hirata, N.

    2013-12-01

    The 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku earthquake (Mw9.0) was the largest earthquake in recorded history in Japan. For the stress changes by this earthquake, the seismic activities around the Kanto district including Tokyo metropolitan area have changed significantly. We detect many small repeating earthquakes beneath this area. They may suggest induced interplate aseismic slips at the subducting Philippine Sea (PHS) plate and the subducting Pacific (PAC) plate. The upper boundary of the PAC plate contacts the PHS plate beneath this area, but the northeastern limit of the PHS plate remains poorly understood. In this study, we first estimate the configuration of the subducting PHS plate and PAC plate and the limit of PHS plate beneath the Kanto district by applying receiver function (RF) analysis. Thereafter, we investigate the space-time characteristics of the inter-plate aseismic slips from sequences of small repeating earthquakes beneath the Kanto district after the 2011 Tohoku earthquake. We made many vertical cross-sections of depth-converted RF images to investigate plate configurations. Telemetric seismographic network data covered on the Kanto district including the Metropolitan Seismic Observation network, which constructed under the Special Project for Earthquake Disaster Mitigation in the Tokyo Metropolitan area and maintained by Special Project for Reducing Vulnerability for Urban Mega Earthquake Disasters, are used. We selected events with a good S/N and epicentral distance between 30 and 90 degrees based on USGS catalogues. As a result, we elucidated the configuration of PHS plate and PAC plate beneath the Kanto district. The PHS plate subducts to the northwest and the direction coincides with plate motion. The northeastern limit of PHS plate is estimated from the change of plate thickness, which gradually decreases to the northeast after contact with the underlying PAC plate beneath the Tokyo metropolitan area. There is little seismic activity from

  12. Crustal structure and configuration of the subducting Philippine Sea plate beneath the Pacific coast industrial zone in Japan inferred from receiver function analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Igarashi, T.; Iidaka, T.; Sakai, S.; Hirata, N.

    2012-12-01

    We apply receiver function (RF) analyses to estimate the crustal structure and configuration of the subducting Philippine Sea (PHS) plate beneath the Pacific coast industrial zone stretching from Tokyo to Fukuoka in Japan. Destructive earthquakes often occurred at the plate interface of the PHS plate, and seismic activities increase after the 2011 Tohoku earthquake (Mw9.0) around the Tokyo metropolitan area. Investigation on the crustal structure is the key to understanding the stress concentration and strain accumulation process, and information on configuration of the subducting plate is important to mitigate future earthquake disasters. In this study, we searched for the best-correlated velocity structure model between an observed receiver function at each station and synthetic ones by using a grid search method. Synthetic RFs were calculated from many assumed one-dimensional velocity structures that consist of four layers with positive velocity steps. Observed receiver functions were stacked without considering back azimuth or epicentral distance. We further constructed the vertical cross-sections of depth-converted RF images transformed the lapse time of time series to depth by using the estimated structure models. Telemetric seismographic network data covered on the Japanese Islands including the Metropolitan Seismic Observation network, which constructed under the Special Project for Earthquake Disaster Mitigation in the Tokyo Metropolitan area and maintained by Special Project for Reducing Vulnerability for Urban Mega Earthquake Disasters, are used. We selected events with magnitudes greater or equal to 5.0 and epicentral distance between 30 and 90 degrees based on USGS catalogues. As a result, we clarify spatial distributions of the crustal S-wave velocities. Estimated average one-dimensional S-wave velocity structure is approximately equal to the JMA2011 structural model although the velocity from the ground surface to 5 km in depth is slow. In particular

  13. Empirical Tsunami Hazard Assessment of Near-Field Plate-Boundary and Crustal Fault Sources Demonstrated for the Pacific Coast of Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonard, L. J.; Rogers, G. C.

    2015-12-01

    We demonstrate an empirical method for preliminary tsunami hazard assessment of near-field fault sources that lack long historic records, paleoseismic/paleotsunami data and/or adequate tsunami modelling studies. Along the Pacific coast of Canada, the North America plate boundary is characterized by varying degrees of convergence with adjacent oceanic plates and microplates. The 1700 M~9 Cascadia earthquake ruptured at least the full extent of Juan de Fuca plate subduction as far north as central Vancouver Island; paleoseismic data show that similar events have occurred approximately every 500 years throughout the Holocene, accompanied by large tsunamis. Further north along the margin, the paleoseismic and paleotsunami histories of the Explorer, Winona, and Haida Gwaii segments of the margin are unknown. The Explorer plate is subducting beneath Vancouver Island at about half the rate of the Juan de Fuca plate; this locked segment may rupture independently or it may slip concurrently with the rest of the Cascadia subduction zone system to the south. The tsunamigenic potential of the Winona segment off northern Vancouver Island is poorly understood. The occurrence of the 2012 M7.8 thrust earthquake off southern Haida Gwaii confirmed the tsunamigenic nature of partitioned convergent slip on this dominantly transform margin segment. Parts of the coastline face additional tsunami hazard from submarine crustal faults. For potentially tsunamigenic faults with unknown history, we use (1) geophysical data to constrain fault rupture area, (2) empirical relations to estimate earthquake magnitude from the rupture area, (3) plate motion models and geodetic data to constrain convergence and thrust earthquake recurrence rates, and (4) empirical relations to estimate near-field tsunami runup at coastal sites, given distance from the rupture. The success of this approach is demonstrated by general agreement between expected and observed earthquake magnitude and near-field tsunami

  14. Molecular Diversity of Denitrifying Genes in Continental Margin Sediments within the Oxygen-Deficient Zone off the Pacific Coast of Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xueduan; Tiquia, Sonia M.; Holguin, Gina; Wu, Liyou; Nold, Stephen C.; Devol, Allan H.; Luo, Kuan; Palumbo, Anthony V.; Tiedje, James M.; Zhou, Jizhong

    2003-01-01

    To understand the composition and structure of denitrifying communities in the oxygen-deficient zone off the Pacific coast of Mexico, the molecular diversity of nir genes from sediments obtained at four stations was examined by using a PCR-based cloning approach. A total of 50 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) for nirK and 82 OTUs for nirS were obtained from all samples. Forty-four of the nirS clones and 31 of the nirK clones were sequenced; the levels of similarity of the nirS clones were 52 to 92%, and the levels of similarity of the nirS clones were 50 to 99%. The percentages of overlapping OTUs between stations were 18 to 30% for nirS and 5 to 8% for nirK. Sequence analysis revealed that 26% of the nirS clones were related to the nirS genes of Alcaligenes faecalis (80 to 94% similar) and Pseudomonas stutzeri (80 to 99%), whereas 3 to 31% of the nirK clones were closely related to the nirK genes of Pseudomonas sp. strain G-179 (98 to 99%), Bradyrhizobium japonicum (91%), Blastobacter denitrificans (83%), and Alcaligenes xylosoxidans (96%). The rest of the clones, however, were less than 80% similar to nirS and nirK sequences available in sequence databases. The results of a principal-component analysis (PCA) based on the percentage of OTUs and biogeochemical data indicated that the nitrate concentration and oxygen have an effect on the denitrifying communities. The communities at the stations in oxygen-deficient zones were more similar than the communities at the stations in the oxygenated zone. The denitrifying communities were more similar at the stations that were closer together and had similar nitrate levels. Also, the results of PCA based on biogeochemical properties suggest that geographic location and biogeochemical conditions, especially the nitrate and oxygen levels, appear to be the key factors that control the structure of denitrifying communities. PMID:12788762

  15. Seismicity-induced groundwater level changes in boreholes around Mizunami Underground Research Laboratory (MIU), Japan: Effect of the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niwa, M.; Takeuchi, R.; Onoe, H.; Asamori, K.; Umeda, K.; Sugihara, K.

    2011-12-01

    For improving the scientific basis for geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste, multidisciplinary researches are approached in the MIU, in which two vertical shafts are excavated in the crystalline rock mass. Groundwater levels are continuously logged in multiple boreholes, for understanding the regional groundwater flow around the MIU site. Soon after the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake, groundwater level changes were observed in the almost boreholes. All boreholes arranged away from the MIU (approximately 1 to 5 km) showed drawdown ranging from 1 to 5 m. Several studies (e.g. Wang, 1997, JGR; Ge and Stover, 2000, JGR; Hamiel et al., 2005, EPSL) suggest that coseismic changes of groundwater level correspond to static volumetric strain changes induced by earthquakes, i.e., drawdown/elevation of groundwater level is reflected by crustal dilatation/constriction. We calculated volumetric strain changes due to the Tohoku earthquake based on the previously-reported fault models (slip models estimated by teleseismic source inversion; Yagi and Nishimura, Univ. of Tsukuba; Poiata et al., ERI, Univ. of Tokyo). We determined crustal deformation and stress change using the program Coulomb 3.0 (Lin and Stein, 2004, JGR; Toda et al., 2005, JGR). The calculation outputs approximately 2.3E-7 strain of dilatation around the MIU. Thus the drawdown observed in the boreholes arranged away from the MIU is consistent with the volumetric strain changes associated with the Tohoku earthquake. In contrast, groundwater levels were elevated up to 15 m in the boreholes localized in the vicinity of the MIU (within 600 m). These boreholes had shown successive drawdown since the shaft excavations started in the MIU, while voluminous sump water had been released successively from the shafts. Soon after the Tohoku earthquake, volume of the sump water increased approximately ten percent. Irregular elevation of water level soon after an earthquake like the case of the MIU

  16. Molecular diversity of denitrifying genes in continental margin sediments within the oxygen-deficient zone off the Pacific coast of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xueduan; Tiquia, Sonia M; Holguin, Gina; Wu, Liyou; Nold, Stephen C; Devol, Allan H; Luo, Kuan; Palumbo, Anthony V; Tiedje, James M; Zhou, Jizhong

    2003-06-01

    To understand the composition and structure of denitrifying communities in the oxygen-deficient zone off the Pacific coast of Mexico, the molecular diversity of nir genes from sediments obtained at four stations was examined by using a PCR-based cloning approach. A total of 50 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) for nirK and 82 OTUs for nirS were obtained from all samples. Forty-four of the nirS clones and 31 of the nirK clones were sequenced; the levels of similarity of the nirS clones were 52 to 92%, and the levels of similarity of the nirS clones were 50 to 99%. The percentages of overlapping OTUs between stations were 18 to 30% for nirS and 5 to 8% for nirK. Sequence analysis revealed that 26% of the nirS clones were related to the nirS genes of Alcaligenes faecalis (80 to 94% similar) and Pseudomonas stutzeri (80 to 99%), whereas 3 to 31% of the nirK clones were closely related to the nirK genes of Pseudomonas sp. strain G-179 (98 to 99%), Bradyrhizobium japonicum (91%), Blastobacter denitrificans (83%), and Alcaligenes xylosoxidans (96%). The rest of the clones, however, were less than 80% similar to nirS and nirK sequences available in sequence databases. The results of a principal-component analysis (PCA) based on the percentage of OTUs and biogeochemical data indicated that the nitrate concentration and oxygen have an effect on the denitrifying communities. The communities at the stations in oxygen-deficient zones were more similar than the communities at the stations in the oxygenated zone. The denitrifying communities were more similar at the stations that were closer together and had similar nitrate levels. Also, the results of PCA based on biogeochemical properties suggest that geographic location and biogeochemical conditions, especially the nitrate and oxygen levels, appear to be the key factors that control the structure of denitrifying communities.

  17. Huge seafloor movements associated with the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake observed by GPS/acoustic combination technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishikawa, T.; Sato, M.; Ujihara, N.; Watanabe, S.; Fujita, M.; Mochizuki, M.; Asada, A.

    2011-12-01

    The Hydrographic and Oceanographic Department, Japan Coast Guard, have been developing precise seafloor positioning systems using the GPS/acoustic combination technique under technical cooperation with the Institute of Industrial Science, the University of Tokyo and carrying out campaign observations along the major trenches in the Pacific Ocean, such as the Japan Trench and the Nankai Trough. The primary purpose of these observations is to detect and monitor the crustal deformation caused by the subduction of the oceanic plate near the plate boundary where huge earthquakes repeatedly occur. On 11 March 2011, a large interplate earthquake [Mw = 9.0] occurred at the plate boundary off Miyagi Prefecture, northeastern Japan. Various studies have been under way to understand the mechanism of occurrence of this earthquake. For example, the Geospatial Information Authority of Japan (GSI) has reported coseismic displacements on land, on the basis of the dense GPS network. The largest displacement has been detected at the Oshika peninsula, amounting to about 5 m toward ESE and about 1 m downward. Because the Oshika peninsula is located about 130 km away from the epicenter of the earthquake, it is preferable to measure crustal movements closer to the focal regions, that is, on the seafloor, to better constrain the focal mechanism of the event. In order to monitor crustal movements offshore, we have been carrying out seafloor geodetic observations. Five sea-floor reference points were installed off the Tohoku region between 2000 and 2004 with campaign observations carried out three times a year on average. After the event, we conducted observations at these sites. Comparison between before and after the event yielded coseismic displacements of 5 to 24 m toward ESE and -0.8 to 3 m upward. In particular, at reference point near the epicenter, we detected a huge coseismic displacement of about 24 m toward ESE and about 3 m upward. This is more than four times larger than that

  18. A Case Study for Salt Injury on Paddy Rice due to Ground Liquefaction Caused by the 2011 off the Pacific Coast of Tohoku Earthquake in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zukemura, C.; Kitagawa, I.; Wakasugi, K.; Haraguchi, N.

    2012-12-01

    About 24000 ha of farmlands were heavily damaged by the 2011 off the Pacific Coast of Tohoku Earthquake in the following two patterns; (i) an invasion of the sea water caused by tsunami in the coastal agricultural areas, (ii) a ground liquefaction around inland rivers. In the past case, ground liquefaction caused damage, for example, cracks or mixing sand boil into topsoil. This is the first report on a case of salt injury to paddy rice due to ground liquefaction. Rice paddies along the downstream of the Tone River were suffered from a large amount of sand boils due to the ground liquefaction. At one paddy fields at 50 km from mouth of the Tone River, farmers temporarily repaired their paddy fields and planted rice in may, 2011. The surface of the rice paddy field was speckled with sand boils. A week after planting, the authors incidentally found salt injury on the growth of rice plant at the paddy fields. Sand boil contained much more chlorine ion, sodium, sulfide ion than preexisting top soil. This data suggested that sand boil contained salt moved from underground to the surface of paddy fields. During May and September in 2011, the salt injury paddy fields was supplied irrigation water pumping from drainage canal, because irrigation facilities was destroyed by ground liquefaction. The electrical conductivity (EC) of water in the drainage canal ranged from 2 to 8, much higher than the salt-tolerant limit for rice. Consequently, the yield of the rice in the salt injury rice field due to ground liquefaction ranged from 55 to 107 kg/10a, much lower than the usual (about 450 kg/10a). The result of the yield was 55 kg/10a got around sand boil, on the other hand, the yield was 107 kg/10a got preexisting top soil area using drainage water contained salt. The yield of the whole paddy fields which size was 50 a was bad, but the yield around sand boil area was much worse. This case reported that chemical components in the boiled materials should be paid more attention if

  19. Patterns, trends, and toxicological significance of chlorinated hydrocarbon and mercury contaminants in bald eagle eggs from the Pacific coast of Canada, 1990-1994.

    PubMed

    Elliott, J E; Norstrom, R J; Smith, G E

    1996-10-01

    Bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) eggs were collected during incubation, 1990-1992, from 16 nests near three bleached-kraft pulp mills, from six nests in the Fraser River estuary and from seven nests at a reference site on the Pacific coast of Canada. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) were present in all eggs in a qualitatively similar pattern among sites. Mean concentrations of 2,3,7, 8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) were significantly higher in eggs collected from near three kraft pulp mill sites in the Strait of Georgia (44, 45, 84 ng/kg) than from the reference area in Johnstone Strait (15 ng/kg). There were few differences among sites in mean organochlorine pesticide levels, indicating the diffuse distribution of those chemicals and the domination of atmospheric inputs. Mean concentrations of total polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were highest in eggs from the Strait of Georgia (4.86 mg/kg) and the PCB congener pattern was significantly different between that area and both the lower Fraser valley and Johnstone Strait. Mean mercury concentrations, which were mainly methyl-mercury, were significantly higher in eggs collected from the lower Fraser Valley (0.258 mg/kg) and Johnstone Strait (0.294 mg/kg) compared to the Strait of Georgia (0.188 mg/kg). Individual and regional variation in concentrations of organochlorine pesticides, PCBs and mercury in eagle eggs were thought to be influenced mainly by dietary differences. Toxicologically, in 1990, mean TCDD-toxic equivalents (TEQs) in bald eagle eggs were about two-fold greater than a lowest-observed-effect level, suggested elsewhere for this species, of 210 ng/kg TEQs. In the Strait of Georgia, PCCDs and PCDFs made a greater contribution to TEQs than non-ortho and mono-ortho PCBs, whereas the reverse was true for eggs outside the strait. Mean eggshell thickness was less than the pre-1947 value at all sites, although there was no significant relationship

  20. Seismic activities of earthquake clusters and small repeating earthquakes in Japan before and after the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Igarashi, T.

    2011-12-01

    The 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku earthquake (M9.0) had a great effect on seismic activities over vast areas. In this study, we investigated spatio-temporal changes of seismic activities of earthquake clusters and small repeating earthquakes before and after the main shock. We have already reported many small repeating earthquakes occur at the upper boundary of the subducting plates in Japan. From these sequences, we can estimate the space-time characteristics of the inter-plate slip. In the 21st century, the resultant slip-rates correspond to relative plate motion in the Ryukyu-arc. In contrast, the shallow part and the southern part of the northeastern Japan arc indicated slip deficits. There were few after-slips following the 2005 off Miyagi earthquake (M7.2), which located near the hypocenter of the 2011 main shock. On the other hand, slip deficits of the southern shallow part were slightly decreased by after-slips following the 2003 and 2008 M7 class earthquakes. We also identified quasi-static slips associated with foreshocks off Miyagi that started from February 2011. After the main shock, we detect many small repeating earthquakes in the aftershocks. The distributions suggest after-slips near the trench of the southeastern part as well as in the deep part of the source region estimated by GPS data analysis. However, some of them are burst-type repeating sequences which occurred only after the main shock. Many continual-type repeating sequences are distributed in the southern part of the source region, and it is difficult to estimate slip-rates in the northern part at present. This uneven distribution may have been caused because observed seismograms are distorted by the multiplicity of the waves to come from various locations, the seismic velocity changes at the propagation path or site, or changes of physical properties at the plate interface. Furthermore, we automatically extracted earthquake clusters by using the unified JMA hypocenter catalogue

  1. Estimating the tsunami source model from the deposits: Testing the reliability of the method following the 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashimoto, K.; Goto, K.; Sugawara, D.; Abe, T.; Imamura, F.

    2012-12-01

    Information on the magnitude of past tsunamis is essential for evaluating the risks from the low-frequency large-scale earthquakes and tsunamis. Numerical simulation technique is used to reproduce propagation and inundation by modern tsunamis and to estimate the nature of the wave source, as represented by the earthquake magnitude and focal mechanism. The simulated results are validated based on various kinds of tsunami records. In the same way, numerical simulations of historical tsunamis are based on the available historical records on the tsunami event. However, historical records are sometimes too sparse and too abstract as well to quantify the run-up heights and inundation distances. To date, tsunami deposits are widely used for physical evidence to compensate the historical accounts. Insights to the heights and inundation distances, as well as the waveforms, are derived from tsunami deposits. The fault parameters of the past earthquake, such as strike, dip, and slip, are determined under the assumption that the distribution of tsunami deposits can closely represents the actual inundation distance. An important question arise here that whether these fault parameters can be determined accurately by the distribution of tsunami deposits. The answer to the question can be derived from the application of the methodology to modern examples. The 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake Tsunami deposited enormous volume of the sediments on the coastal plains. It is reported that the focal mechanism and the magnitude of the 2011 event was unusual; Based on instrumental observation data, the amount of maximum fault slip is estimated at about 30 m [JMA, 2011] or even 56 m [Geographical Information Authority of Japan, 2011], the latter is being derived from the seafloor and on-land geodetic observation data from numbers of GPS stations. This is considerably beyond the empirical formula of the relationship between the slip amount and earthquake magnitude. In the

  2. Population and the Colombian economy.

    PubMed

    Sanders, T G

    1983-01-01

    Colombia is the only one of the 6 most populous Latin American countries that is currently free of major economic crisis requiring an agreement with the International Monetary Fund. The difference in the economic performances of these countries is relative, since the rate of growth in the Colombian economy was only 1.5% in 1982. Yet, Colombia seems to have weathered the international recession better than most. The crisis atmosphere in the rest of Latin America, triggered by overall economic decline, high rates of inflation, and an indebtedness that soaks up much of export earnings to service it, is lacking in Colombia or present in lesser degree. If Colombia can strengthen its political performance and tighten national unity, it could move through the 1980s with considerable confidence and success in economic development. Colombia differs little from other major Latin American countries with regard to traditionalism and modernization. Most Colombians are secularized. Colombia is far ahead of most comparable Latin American countries in fertility control. The lower rate of population increase defines the extent to which the economy must provide education, health, food, and jobs. 2 other factors are essential for understanding the current situation in Colombia and its prospects for the 1980s. Government policy in the 1970s opted for an austerity program while the other countries were growing rapidly, in large part through borrowed resources. A 2nd factor is the prospect of attaining autonomy in energy production. These special characteristics--population, public policy, and energy--are discussed. Since the mid 1960s Colombia has functioned with 3 family planning programs. Their existence makes contraception easily available to the population generally. In 1960 Colombia had a higher total fertility rate (TFR) 7.0, than either Venezuela (6.6) or Brazil (5.3), but by 1976 its TFR was down to 4.1, while Venezuela's (4.8) and Brazil's (4.3) were now higher. On balance

  3. Population and the Colombian economy.

    PubMed

    Sanders, T G

    1983-01-01

    Colombia is the only one of the 6 most populous Latin American countries that is currently free of major economic crisis requiring an agreement with the International Monetary Fund. The difference in the economic performances of these countries is relative, since the rate of growth in the Colombian economy was only 1.5% in 1982. Yet, Colombia seems to have weathered the international recession better than most. The crisis atmosphere in the rest of Latin America, triggered by overall economic decline, high rates of inflation, and an indebtedness that soaks up much of export earnings to service it, is lacking in Colombia or present in lesser degree. If Colombia can strengthen its political performance and tighten national unity, it could move through the 1980s with considerable confidence and success in economic development. Colombia differs little from other major Latin American countries with regard to traditionalism and modernization. Most Colombians are secularized. Colombia is far ahead of most comparable Latin American countries in fertility control. The lower rate of population increase defines the extent to which the economy must provide education, health, food, and jobs. 2 other factors are essential for understanding the current situation in Colombia and its prospects for the 1980s. Government policy in the 1970s opted for an austerity program while the other countries were growing rapidly, in large part through borrowed resources. A 2nd factor is the prospect of attaining autonomy in energy production. These special characteristics--population, public policy, and energy--are discussed. Since the mid 1960s Colombia has functioned with 3 family planning programs. Their existence makes contraception easily available to the population generally. In 1960 Colombia had a higher total fertility rate (TFR) 7.0, than either Venezuela (6.6) or Brazil (5.3), but by 1976 its TFR was down to 4.1, while Venezuela's (4.8) and Brazil's (4.3) were now higher. On balance

  4. International dimensions of Colombian violence.

    PubMed

    Franco, S

    2000-01-01

    Violence is the main public health problem in Colombia, as demonstrated by current homicide rates (the highest in the world), the strong effect of violence on the health care sector, and the forceful displacement of citizens, among other factors. This violence has international dimensions and consequences: inequity resulting from the political-economic system and increased by the neoliberal adjustments; the international traffic of drugs and weapons; exile and forceful displacement of persons into bordering countries; and frequent violations of human rights and humanitarian international rights. The international community can play a role in the search for a solution to this problem, as the author discusses in terms of contributions made in the past and those that could be made in the near future. Colombian violence can be viewed as a problem, a message, and a challenge for international public health, and the author suggests specific areas in which international public health could contribute to the study and solution of this complex situation.

  5. [Colombians in Venezuela: myth and reality].

    PubMed

    Bidegain Greising, G; Freitez Landaeta, A

    1988-08-01

    Figures of Colombian immigrants in Venezuela in the period 1981-1986 as well as the development of their socio-demographic profile and their integration into the labor market are analyzed by means of ad hoc tables drawn from a Sample Home Survey by the Oficina Central de Estadisticas e Informatica and information from the civil record office. It is estimated that in 1987 there are only half a million Colombians in Venezuela and, contrary to what is generally assumed, not only has the afflux decreased (3/4 of the Colombians entered before 1981), but also a return migration can be observed. Colombian immigration is not homogeneous, but is made up of different groups as far as their professional skills and occupations are concerned. The number of Colombians engaged in household service and those living in rural areas has decreased, but not the number of active farm workers. A greater proportion of Colombians engaged in trade and sales activities is observed, but artisans and skilled labor are still the majority.

  6. DAMAGE ASSESSMENT ON WATER SUPPLY SYSTEM AND SEWERAGE SYSTEM AT THE 2011 OFF THE PACIFIC COAST OF TOHOKU EARTHQUAKE - CASE STUDY FOR THE DATA AT IBARAKI AND CHIBA PREFECTURES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naba, Satoshi; Tsukiji, Takuya; Shoji, Gaku; Nagata, Shigeru

    We evaluate the dependency of damage and restoration of water supply systems and sewerage system on the seismic hazards in the 2011 off the Pacific Coast of Tohoku earthquake focusing on the damage at Ibaraki and Chiba prefectures. We use the damage data of the systems by carrying out field survey, interviews for related local government sectors and surveying the information in web sites. We quantify two damage ratios defined by the ratio of number of physical damage points Np with the related pipeline lengths L and that of disrupted lengths Ld with L. In addition, we discuss relation between restoration periods with the seismic hazards. Finally, we verify the fitting of the damage data with previous seismic fragility curves on sewerage pipelines.

  7. Colombian Creole horse breeds: Same origin but different diversity

    PubMed Central

    Jimenez, Ligia Mercedes; Mendez, Susy; Dunner, Susana; Cañón, Javier; Cortés, Óscar

    2012-01-01

    In order to understand the genetic ancestry and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) diversity of current Colombian horse breeds we sequenced a 364-bp fragment of the mitocondrial DNA D-loop in 116 animals belonging to five Spanish horse breeds and the Colombian Paso Fino and Colombian Creole cattle horse breeds. Among Colombian horse breeds, haplogroup D had the highest frequency (53%), followed by haplogroups A (19%), C (8%) and F (6%). The higher frequency of haplogroup D in Colombian horse breeds supports the theory of an ancestral Iberian origin for these breeds. These results also indicate that different selective pressures among the Colombian breeds could explain the relatively higher genetic diversity found in the Colombian Creole cattle horse when compared with the Colombian Paso Fino. PMID:23271940

  8. Updated Colombian Seismic Hazard Map

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eraso, J.; Arcila, M.; Romero, J.; Dimate, C.; Bermúdez, M. L.; Alvarado, C.

    2013-05-01

    The Colombian seismic hazard map used by the National Building Code (NSR-98) in effect until 2009 was developed in 1996. Since then, the National Seismological Network of Colombia has improved in both coverage and technology providing fifteen years of additional seismic records. These improvements have allowed a better understanding of the regional geology and tectonics which in addition to the seismic activity in Colombia with destructive effects has motivated the interest and the need to develop a new seismic hazard assessment in this country. Taking advantage of new instrumental information sources such as new broad band stations of the National Seismological Network, new historical seismicity data, standardized global databases availability, and in general, of advances in models and techniques, a new Colombian seismic hazard map was developed. A PSHA model was applied. The use of the PSHA model is because it incorporates the effects of all seismic sources that may affect a particular site solving the uncertainties caused by the parameters and assumptions defined in this kind of studies. First, the seismic sources geometry and a complete and homogeneous seismic catalog were defined; the parameters of seismic rate of each one of the seismic sources occurrence were calculated establishing a national seismotectonic model. Several of attenuation-distance relationships were selected depending on the type of seismicity considered. The seismic hazard was estimated using the CRISIS2007 software created by the Engineering Institute of the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México -UNAM (National Autonomous University of Mexico). A uniformly spaced grid each 0.1° was used to calculate the peak ground acceleration (PGA) and response spectral values at 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.5, 0.75, 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5 and 3.0 seconds with return periods of 75, 225, 475, 975 and 2475 years. For each site, a uniform hazard spectrum and exceedance rate curves were calculated. With the results, it is

  9. 50 CFR 660.339 - Limited entry permit and Pacific whiting vessel license fees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OFF WEST COAST STATES West Coast Groundfish Fisheries § 660.339 Limited entry permit and Pacific whiting...

  10. Hydrochemical aspects of major Pacific and caribbean rivers of colombia hydrochemical aspects of major Pacific and caribbean rivers of colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Restrepo, J. D.

    2003-04-01

    Although the South American continent includes three of the largest river basins of the world, the Amazon, the Orinoco, and the Paraná, with some of the highest discharges and sediment loads, a number of comparatively smaller systems in Colombia carry a significant share of sediment and dissolved loads from the continent. Fifteen rivers west of the Cordilleras in South America discharge a combined 254 km3 yr-1 or 8020 m3 s-1 of water into the Pacific. The San Juan River has the highest water discharge (2550 m3 s-1), sediment load (16 x 106 t yr-1), and basin-wide sediment yield (1150 t km-2 yr-1) on the entire west coast of South America. The best estimate of total sediment load into the Pacific Ocean from both gauged and ungauged rivers is 96 x 106 t yr-1. These results in a sediment yield estimate of 1,260 t km-2 yr-1. Analysis of 22 rivers draining into the Caribbean Sea indicate that the combined water discharge and sediment load are 338 km3 yr-1 and 168 x 106 t yr-1, respectively, corresponding to a sediment yield for the Colombia Caribbean drainage basins of 541 t km-2 yr-1, or approximately half of the yield for the Pacific basins of Colombia. The Magdalena River, the largest river system in Colombia, has an annual discharge of 7,232 m3 s-1. Load measurements during the 21 year period yielded an annual sediment load of 144 x 106 t yr-1. The Magdalena has the highest sediment yield (559 t km-2 yr-1) of any medium-sized or large river along the entire east coast of South America and contributes 9% of the total sediment load discharged into the Atlantic Ocean from eastern South America. The concentrations of major dissolved constituents and mass transport rates for major Colombian rivers were based on averages calculated from monthly samples from 1990-1993. Ca2+ and Mg2+ are the dominant ions, indicating that the water corresponds to the rock-dominated type. Dissolved inorganic carbon, present mostly as bicarbonate ions, constitutes almost 50% of the total

  11. The land crab Johngarthiaplanata (Stimpson, 1860) (Crustacea, Brachyura, Gecarcinidae) colonizes human-dominated ecosystems in the continental mainland coast of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Perger, Robert

    2014-01-01

    The land crab Johngarthiaplanata (Stimpson, 1860) has been reported from the Baja California Peninsula and several oceanic islands in the Eastern Pacific as well as inshore islands of the Mexican, Costa Rican and Colombian coast. However, the species has not been observed on the continental mainland, as it is likely that the high diversity of terrestrial predators/competitors make the establishment of mainland populations nearly impossible. In this contribution, several new records of this species that have been observed in urban areas along the continental Pacific coast of Mexico are reported. These records demonstrate that the presence of humans does not necessarily have a negative impact on land crab species. Indeed, the presence of humans may actually discourage the presence of native crab predators/competitors and hence increase the likelihood of a successful mainland settlement of land crab species that are otherwise island and peninsula restricted. The presence of Johngarthiaplanata is ecologically relevant for coastal forests because gecarcinid crabs significantly influence plant recruitment and Johngarthiaplanata is considerably larger than the mainland species Gecarcinusquadratus.

  12. The land crab Johngarthia planata (Stimpson, 1860) (Crustacea, Brachyura, Gecarcinidae) colonizes human-dominated ecosystems in the continental mainland coast of Mexico

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The land crab Johngarthia planata (Stimpson, 1860) has been reported from the Baja California Peninsula and several oceanic islands in the Eastern Pacific as well as inshore islands of the Mexican, Costa Rican and Colombian coast. However, the species has not been observed on the continental mainland, as it is likely that the high diversity of terrestrial predators/competitors make the establishment of mainland populations nearly impossible. In this contribution, several new records of this species that have been observed in urban areas along the continental Pacific coast of Mexico are reported. These records demonstrate that the presence of humans does not necessarily have a negative impact on land crab species. Indeed, the presence of humans may actually discourage the presence of native crab predators/competitors and hence increase the likelihood of a successful mainland settlement of land crab species that are otherwise island and peninsula restricted. The presence of Johngarthia planata is ecologically relevant for coastal forests because gecarcinid crabs significantly influence plant recruitment and Johngarthia planata is considerably larger than the mainland species Gecarcinus quadratus. PMID:25057257

  13. Organchlorine content and shell thickness in brown booby (Sula leucogaster) eggs in the Gulf of California and the southern Pacific coast of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Mellink, Eric; Riojas-López, Mónica E; Luévano-Esparza, Jaime

    2009-07-01

    We determined egg concentrations of organochlorines and thickness of eggshells from brown boobies at eight colonies ranging from the northern Gulf of California to southern Mexico. The only common residue was that of DDE, which was found in almost all eggs. DDE content apparently reflected pre-1990 DDT use in nearby agricultural areas and, at one site, intensive mosquito control for high-end tourism development. There were no inter-colony differences in eggshell thickness, and variation in this variable likely reflected individual bird characteristics and/or individual feeding source. This variable was not a good proxy to DDE exposure of brown boobies, under current DDE levels in the brown booby trophic chain. In the northern Gulf of California, eggshell thickness has recovered to pre-DDT conditions. Our data indicate that the Gulf of California and southwestern coast of Mexico have a healthy near-shore marine environment, as far as organochlorines are concerned.

  14. Organchlorine content and shell thickness in brown booby (Sula leucogaster) eggs in the Gulf of California and the southern Pacific coast of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Mellink, Eric; Riojas-López, Mónica E; Luévano-Esparza, Jaime

    2009-07-01

    We determined egg concentrations of organochlorines and thickness of eggshells from brown boobies at eight colonies ranging from the northern Gulf of California to southern Mexico. The only common residue was that of DDE, which was found in almost all eggs. DDE content apparently reflected pre-1990 DDT use in nearby agricultural areas and, at one site, intensive mosquito control for high-end tourism development. There were no inter-colony differences in eggshell thickness, and variation in this variable likely reflected individual bird characteristics and/or individual feeding source. This variable was not a good proxy to DDE exposure of brown boobies, under current DDE levels in the brown booby trophic chain. In the northern Gulf of California, eggshell thickness has recovered to pre-DDT conditions. Our data indicate that the Gulf of California and southwestern coast of Mexico have a healthy near-shore marine environment, as far as organochlorines are concerned. PMID:19356832

  15. Oxidative stress indicators and trace elements in the blue shark (Prionace glauca) off the east coast of the Mexican Pacific Ocean.

    PubMed

    Barrera-García, Angélica; O'Hara, Todd; Galván-Magaña, Felipe; Méndez-Rodríguez, Lía C; Castellini, J Margaret; Zenteno-Savín, Tania

    2012-08-01

    Trace element concentrations and oxidative stress indicators (including production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), antioxidant enzyme activities and oxidative damage) were measured in muscle of blue sharks collected along the west coast of Baja California Sur to determine potential differences by sex and maturity cohorts. Mercury (Hg) concentration in muscle samples from larger sharks (>200 cm LT) exceeded the permissible limit (>1 ppm wet weight) for human consumption set by numerous international agencies. Significant differences were found in Hg concentrations (mature>immature; males>females), and in protein carbonyl concentrations (male>female); however, except for carbonyl protein levels, no significant differences by sex or maturity stage were found in the oxidative stress indicators. Differences between sexes and maturity stages in trace element concentration and carbonyl protein levels in blue shark muscle may be related to variations in diet within different cohorts.

  16. A multi-proxy approach to tsunami deposit characterization: searching wetlands and lagoons at the Mexican Pacific coast for a record of tsunami inundations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramirez-Herrera, M.; Cundy, A.; Kostoglodov, V.; Carranza-Edwards, A.; Morales, E.; Metcalfe, S.

    2007-05-01

    It is extremely important to integrate historic accounts with geologic evidence of past tsunamis to fully understand hazards to the highly populated Mexican coast. We aim to complete a record of tsunami events using a multi- proxy approach to identify tsunami deposits recovered from marsh lagoonal sediments on the Guerrero coast of Mexico. Core samples from nine study sites on tropical wetlands show distinct stratigraphic changes with depth, indicating clear rapid change in depositional environments over time. Core sequences recovered include evidence of land level changes and three probable tsunamis based on stratigraphic, granulometric, geochemical, and microfossil analysis (diatoms and pollen) of marsh sediments. Radiocarbon data indicate that the sediment units cored are up to ca. 6161+/- 53 yr BP. A probable tsunami event and coseismic subsidence dates back at 3800 yr BP. Discrete sand units fining up show sharp erosional contacts at the base, medium to poor sorting, fine to coarse sand, with clay/mud rip-up clasts. However, traces of these apparent tsunami deposits are not extensive over a large area and we could not correlate them from one site to another. We hypothesize that the distribution and preservation of tsunami deposits in these tropical lagoonal marshes and wetlands might be controlled by mangrove vegetation fringing coastal lagoons and estuaries. Recent observations after the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami showed that mangroves may dissipate tsunami energy and result in flumed-shape sediment deposition. If this is the case, finding tsunami deposits over extensive areas in mangrove marshes and wetlands would prove very challenging.

  17. The "Developing" Achievement Gap: Colombian Voucher Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stern, Jonathan M. B.

    2014-01-01

    The achievement gap in many developing countries is defined in terms of rich/poor and public/private. The prevailing explanation for the "developing" achievement gap is an underfunded, inefficient, and/or inadequately supplied public school sector. Via an analysis of a Colombian voucher experiment, this article examines the extent to…

  18. The Colombian National Apprenticeship Service (SENA)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Negri, Armando N. L.

    1976-01-01

    Described are an urban and rural vocational training program in Colombia and the Colombian national program of advisory services for business enterprises. The author discusses the objectives and methodology of a new plan which will utilize both permanent urban centres and mobile program in the rural sectors in an attempt to assist the unemployed…

  19. Identification and Frequency of Holocene Earthquakes from the Marine Sedimentary Records of Effingham Inlet and Other Pacific Ocean Fjords Along the West Coast of Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dallimore, A.; Enkin, R. J.; Rogers, G. C.; Cassidy, J.

    2012-12-01

    The paleoseismic record preserved in fjords along the northern part of the Cascadia subduction zone, on the west coast of Vancouver Island (British Columbia, Canada), will be a complement to the known turbidite chronology related to past great earthquakes, interpreted from the paleoseismic interpretation from offshore canyons along the central and southern Cascadia margin. These new paleoseismic marine sedimentary records will facilitate a regional interpretation of the paleoseismic record of the entire Cascadia subduction zone. At the primary coastal B.C. paleoseismic study site investigated to date, laminated sediments preserved in the anoxic inner basin of Effingham Inlet on the Pacific coast of Vancouver Island, B.C., yield a high-resolution 40 m long sediment deposition record spanning about 14ka 14C BP (17ka cal BP). Sedimentary, physical properties and geochemical criteria are used to interpret seismically triggered mass wasting events (seismites) intercalated within theannually laminated lithofacies. The high resolution age model is based on 68 radio-carbon dates from plant material, complemented with the presence of the Mazama Ash and varve counting, fit on a modified depth scale from which the instantaneous seismites have been removed. A Poisson-process deposition model is used, applying new methodology to choose the most realistic "k parameter". Bayesian analysis produces remarkably well constrained ages of the seismites (median sigma = 30 years). In total, 21 seismites are recognized back to 11 ka (cal years BP), which provide accurate correlations to some of the paleoseismic events observed in complementary offshore turbidite paleoseismic records. A Canadian research cruise in July 2012 collected marine sediment cores from four previously unstudied B.C. coastal fjords located to the north of Effingham Inlet, yielding the potential for a paleoseismic marine sedimentary record spanning the full length of the northern part of the Cascadia subduction zone.

  20. Recovery of wild Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas in terms of reproduction and gametogenesis two-years after the Hebei Spirit Oil Spill Accident off the West Coast of Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mondol, Mostafizur Rahman; Keshavmurthy, Shashank; Lee, Hee-Jung; Hong, Hyun-Ki; Park, Heung-Sik; Park, Sang-Rul; Kang, Chang-Keun; Choi, Kwang-Sik

    2015-12-01

    The Hebei Spirit oil spill in December 2007 at Taean off the west coast of Korea was the largest oil tanker accident in Korea. However, the impact of the spill on physiology of benthic animals remains largely unknown. Two-years after the accident, we compared reproductive effort and annual gametogenesis of the wild Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas, residing at oil spill site with a control oyster population in Incheon Bay, North-West coast of Korea. Results showed that the oyster sampled from the oil spill site showed a significantly higher (279.0 mg standard animal-1, P<0.05) growth by tissue dry weight to that of the control population (228.0 mg standard animal-1, P<0.05). Histology revealed that there was no significant difference in the annual gametogenic pattern between the two populations, and most of the females of both populations spawned between August and September. During spawning season, egg mass of oysters determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA) in the oil spill area was significantly higher (136.3 mg standard animal-1, P<0.05) than the control population (120.5 mg standard animal-1, P<0.05). The tissue protein level in the oysters at the contaminated area was significantly higher (102.6 mg standard animal-1, P<0.05) than the level measured from the control oysters (81.4 mg standard animal-1, P<0.05). The observed better biological performances of oysters at the contaminated site suggested their recovery of the physiological status to normal level after two years of the oil spill accident.

  1. Improving Estimates of Vertical Motion Over the Past Century Along the Pacific Coast of the U.S. Using Tide Gauges and Repeated Leveling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgette, R. J.; Weldon, R. J.

    2013-12-01

    Historic to modern observations of relative sea level at tide gauges and relative vertical positions of benchmarks from differential leveling provide a rich dataset for constraining crustal uplift and subsidence. These terrestrial techniques offer independent estimates of rates of vertical motion that provide a precise and important complement to estimates derived from space-based geodetic methods. Inter-site variations in rates of relative sea level change provide highly precise estimates of relative vertical crustal motion over spatial scales where rates of geocentric sea level rise are constant or nearly so. Absolute rates of uplift can be obtained with an estimate of sea level rise in a geocentric reference frame. Along the west coast of the U.S., there are tide gauges with records long enough (> 60 yr) to obtain < 0.5 mm/yr precision (considering time-correlated noise) spaced approximately 100-200 km along the coast. Repeated leveling (generally from the 1920s to 1980s) along highway routes provides estimates of rates of vertical position change along a network of benchmarks that are denser than most current GNSS networks. Our analysis along the western U.S. suggests that many of the first order leveling lines are precise at the expected level. However, in some areas, first order lines show discrepancies at levels much higher than that expected from random error. Such systematic errors may be identified and corrected along routes with multiple epochs of precise leveling with tide gauges on each end, or in areas of relatively short (< 100 km) closed loops. In this contribution we will show our analysis methodology for combining leveling and sea level data to yield estimates of absolute uplift rates and associated uncertainties. Based on our experiences applying this technique over much of the route between the Canadian and Mexican borders of the western U.S., we will assess the accuracy of these terrestrial techniques and compare available spaceborne estimates

  2. Anisakis species (Nematoda: Anisakidae) of Dwarf Sperm Whale Kogia sima (Owen, 1866) stranded off the Pacific coast of southern Philippine archipelago.

    PubMed

    Quiazon, Karl Marx A; Santos, Mudjekeewis D; Yoshinaga, Tomoyoshi

    2013-10-18

    Anisakid nematodes in the Pacific region of the Philippine archipelago still remain unexplored. This study was carried out to identify anisakid species from one of their final hosts, the Kogiid whale (Dwarf Sperm Whale, Kogia sima) stranded off the southern part (Davao Gulf) of the Philippine archipelago. Anisakid worms were initially identified morphologically using light and scanning electron microscopy, whereas identification to species level was carried out molecularly using PCR-RFLP and sequencing of the ITS (ITS1-5.8s rRNA-ITS2) and mtDNA cox2 regions. Parasitological study revealed new geographical records for the presence of two Anisakis species (A. brevispiculata and A. typica) and two unknown Anisakis species that are genetically close, at mtDNA cox2 region, to A. paggiae and A. ziphidarum. Based on the molecular data on both genes, the current findings suggest possible occurrence of local variations or sibling species of A. paggiae and A. ziphidarum in the region. Given that Anisakis species have not been reported in the Philippine archipelago, their presence in the Dwarf Sperm Whale inhabiting this region indicates high possibility of Anisakis infections in the marine fishes, cephalopods and other intermediate hosts within the Philippine waters.

  3. Increased rainfall remarkably freshens estuarine and coastal waters on the Pacific coast of Panama: Magnitude and likely effects on upwelling and nutrient supply

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valiela, Ivan; Camilli, Luis; Stone, Thomas; Giblin, Anne; Crusius, John; Fox, Sophia; Barth-Jensen, Coralie; Monteiro, Rita Oliveira; Tucker, Jane; Martinetto, Paulina; Harris, Carolynn

    2012-07-01

    Increased intensity of rainfall events during late 2010 led to a remarkable freshening of estuarine, near- and off-shore waters in coastal Pacific Panama. The increased rain intensity during the wet season of 2010 lowered salinity of estuarine and coastal waters to levels unprecedented in previous years. Fresher conditions were most marked within estuaries, but even at 6 km from shore, salinities were 8-13‰ lower during the 2010 wet season, compared to a lowering of up to 2‰ during previous wet seasons. Freshwater added to surface waters by rain had major biological, hydrodynamic, and biogeochemical consequences, increasing stream erosion, uprooting stream-edge terrestrial and mangrove trees, increasing mortality of benthic fauna, damping upwelling of denser, nutrient-rich water that was expected given the contemporaneous most intense La Niña in decades, as well as by enriching surface seawater by direct deposition and by horizontal advection of nutrients from land. It appears that wet season rainfall is slowly increasing in the region, and if the level of rainfall reported here is a harbinger of future climate change effects on land-sea couplings in tropical coastal ecosystems, the resulting freshening could significantly shift biogeochemistry and coastal food webs in the region and elsewhere.

  4. Trophic Interactions Between Insects and Stream-Associated Amphibians in Steep, Cobble-Bottom Streams of the Pacific Coast of North America

    PubMed Central

    Atwood, Trisha; Richardson, John S.

    2012-01-01

    Two native, stream-associated amphibians are found in coastal streams of the west coast of North America, the tailed frog and the coastal giant salamander, and each interacts with stream insects in contrasting ways. For tailed frogs, their tadpoles are the primary life stage found in steep streams and they consume biofilm from rock surfaces, which can have trophic and non-trophic effects on stream insects. By virtue of their size the tadpoles are relatively insensitive to stream insect larvae, and tadpoles are capable of depleting biofilm levels directly (exploitative competition), and may also “bulldoze” insect larvae from the surfaces of stones (interference competition). Coastal giant salamander larvae, and sometimes adults, are found in small streams where they prey primarily on stream insects, as well as other small prey. This predator-prey interaction with stream insects does not appear to result in differences in the stream invertebrate community between streams with and without salamander larvae. These two examples illustrate the potential for trophic and non-trophic interactions between stream-associated amphibians and stream insects, and also highlights the need for further research in these systems. PMID:26466536

  5. A 14,000 year vegetation history of a hypermaritime island on the outer Pacific coast of Canada based on fossil pollen, spores and conifer stomata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacourse, Terri; Delepine, J. Michelle; Hoffman, Elizabeth H.; Mathewes, Rolf W.

    2012-11-01

    Pollen and conifer stomata analyses of lake sediments from Hippa Island on the north coast of British Columbia were used to reconstruct the vegetation history of this small hypermaritime island. Between 14,000 and 13,230 cal yr BP, the island supported diverse herb-shrub communities dominated by Cyperaceae, Artemisia and Salix. Pinus contorta and Picea sitchensis stomata indicate that these conifers were present among the herb-shrub communities, likely as scattered individuals. Transition to open P. contorta woodland by 13,000 cal yr BP was followed by increases in Alnus viridis, Alnus rubra and P. sitchensis. After 12,000 cal yr BP, Pinus-dominated communities were replaced by dense P. sitchensis and Tsuga heterophylla forest with Lysichiton americanus and fern understory. Thuja plicata stomata indicate that this species was present by 8700 cal yr BP, but the pollen record suggests that its populations did not expand to dominate regional rainforests, along with Tsuga and Picea, until after 6600 cal yr BP. Conifer stomata indicate that species may be locally present for hundreds to thousands of years before pollen exceed thresholds routinely used to infer local species arrival. When combined, pollen and conifer stomata can provide a more accurate record of paleovegetation than either when used alone.

  6. Trophic Interactions Between Insects and Stream-Associated Amphibians in Steep, Cobble-Bottom Streams of the Pacific Coast of North America.

    PubMed

    Atwood, Trisha; Richardson, John S

    2012-04-10

    Two native, stream-associated amphibians are found in coastal streams of the west coast of North America, the tailed frog and the coastal giant salamander, and each interacts with stream insects in contrasting ways. For tailed frogs, their tadpoles are the primary life stage found in steep streams and they consume biofilm from rock surfaces, which can have trophic and non-trophic effects on stream insects. By virtue of their size the tadpoles are relatively insensitive to stream insect larvae, and tadpoles are capable of depleting biofilm levels directly (exploitative competition), and may also "bulldoze" insect larvae from the surfaces of stones (interference competition). Coastal giant salamander larvae, and sometimes adults, are found in small streams where they prey primarily on stream insects, as well as other small prey. This predator-prey interaction with stream insects does not appear to result in differences in the stream invertebrate community between streams with and without salamander larvae. These two examples illustrate the potential for trophic and non-trophic interactions between stream-associated amphibians and stream insects, and also highlights the need for further research in these systems.

  7. A new species of Leptalpheus Williams, 1965 and new records of L. mexicanus Ríos & Carvacho, 1983 and L. hendrickxi Anker, 2011 (Crustacea: Decapoda: Alpheidae) from the Pacific coast of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Salgado-Barragán, José; Ayón-Parente, Manuel; Hendrickx, Michel E

    2014-01-01

    A new species of Leptalpheus is described from Estero Pérula, Jalisco, on the Pacific coast of Mexico. Leptalpheus corderoae sp. nov. is most similar to Leptalpheus azuero Anker, 2011 from Panama and Leptalpheus axianassae Dworschak & Coelho, 1999 from Brazil, differing from both of them by a combination of morphological characters, especially the presence of tubercles on the ventral surface of the major chela palm and pollex. The most common host of L. corderoae sp. nov. at the type locality is the callianassid ghost shrimp Lepidophthalmus bocourti (A. Milne Edwards, 1870). Additional specimens of Leptalpheus mexicanus Ríos & Carvacho, 1983, from Estero de Urías, Sinaloa, are reported and compared to the type material from Río Mulegé, as well as to Leptalpheus bicristatus Anker, 2011 from Panama. Finally, Leptalpheus hendrickxi Anker, 2011 is reported from Mexico for the first time, representing a significant northward range extension of the species. In Estero Pérula, L. hendrickxi lives in burrows of Lepidophthalmus bocourti, sometimes together with L. corderoae sp. nov.  PMID:25081471

  8. Temporal trends of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) in eggs of coastal and offshore birds: Increasing PFAS levels associated with offshore bird species breeding on the Pacific coast of Canada and wintering near Asia.

    PubMed

    Miller, Aroha; Elliott, John E; Elliott, Kyle H; Lee, Sandi; Cyr, Francois

    2015-08-01

    Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) such as perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs) and perfluoroalkyl sulfonates (PFSAs) have become virtually ubiquitous throughout the environment, and, based on laboratory studies, have known toxicological consequences. Various national and international voluntary phase-outs and restrictions on these compounds have been implemented over the last 10 to 15 years. In the present study, we examine trends (1990/1991-2010/2011) in aquatic birds (ancient murrelet, Synthliboramphus antiquus [2009 only]; Leach's storm-petrels, Oceanodroma leucorhoa; rhinoceros auklets, Cerorhinca monocerata; double-crested cormorants, Phalacrocorax auritus; and great blue herons, Ardea herodias). The PFCA, PFSA, and stable isotope (δ(15) N and δ(13) C) data collected from these species from the Pacific coast of Canada, ranging over 20 to 30 years, were used to investigate temporal changes in PFAS coupled to dietary changes. Perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), the dominant PFSA compound in all 4 species, increased and subsequently decreased in auklet and cormorant eggs in line with the manufacturing phase-out of PFOS and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), but concentrations continuously increased in petrel eggs and remained largely unchanged in heron eggs. Dominant PFCA compounds varied between the offshore and coastal species, with increases seen in the offshore species and little or variable changes seen in the coastal species. Little temporal change was seen in stable isotope values, indicating that diet alone is not driving observed PFAS concentrations. PMID:25989421

  9. A Systematic Health Assessment of Indian Ocean Bottlenose (Tursiops aduncus) and Indo-Pacific Humpback (Sousa plumbea) Dolphins Incidentally Caught in Shark Nets off the KwaZulu-Natal Coast, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Lane, Emily P.; de Wet, Morné; Thompson, Peter; Siebert, Ursula; Wohlsein, Peter; Plön, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    Coastal dolphins are regarded as indicators of changes in coastal marine ecosystem health that could impact humans utilizing the marine environment for food or recreation. Necropsy and histology examinations were performed on 35 Indian Ocean bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops aduncus) and five Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins (Sousa plumbea) incidentally caught in shark nets off the KwaZulu-Natal coast, South Africa, between 2010 and 2012. Parasitic lesions included pneumonia (85%), abdominal and thoracic serositis (75%), gastroenteritis (70%), hepatitis (62%), and endometritis (42%). Parasitic species identified were Halocercus sp. (lung), Crassicauda sp. (skeletal muscle) and Xenobalanus globicipitis (skin). Additional findings included bronchiolar epithelial mineralisation (83%), splenic filamentous tags (45%), non-suppurative meningoencephalitis (39%), and myocardial fibrosis (26%). No immunohistochemically positive reaction was present in lesions suggestive of dolphin morbillivirus, Toxoplasma gondii and Brucella spp. The first confirmed cases of lobomycosis and sarcocystosis in South African dolphins were documented. Most lesions were mild, and all animals were considered to be in good nutritional condition, based on blubber thickness and muscle mass. Apparent temporal changes in parasitic disease prevalence may indicate a change in the host/parasite interface. This study provided valuable baseline information on conditions affecting coastal dolphin populations in South Africa and, to our knowledge, constitutes the first reported systematic health assessment in incidentally caught dolphins in the Southern Hemisphere. Further research on temporal disease trends as well as disease pathophysiology and anthropogenic factors affecting these populations is needed. PMID:25203143

  10. Diversity of sea lice (Copepoda: Caligidae) parasitic on marine fishes with commercial and aquaculture importance in Chamela Bay, Pacific coast of Mexico by using morphology and DNA barcoding, with description of a new species of Caligus.

    PubMed

    Morales-Serna, Francisco Neptalí; Pinacho-Pinacho, Carlos Daniel; Gómez, Samuel; de León, Gerardo Pérez-Ponce

    2014-02-01

    The occurrence of parasitic copepods of the family Caligidae on wild and cultured marine fishes from Chamela Bay, on the Pacific coast of Mexico, is reported. A total of 16 species of Caligus and 1 species of Lepeophtheirus were found on 19 wild fish species. The description of Caligus chamelensis n. sp. parasitizing Kyphosus elegans is presented. Among the species of Caligus reported here, Caligus serratus is the most common since it was found infecting 11 fish species. On cultured fish, Lutjanus gutattus and L. peru, only one species of Caligus, C. sclerotinosus was collected. DNA barcodes [mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene sequences] were obtained for the majority of the sea lice species herein reported. The molecular analyses support the recognition of the new species and suggest that neither Caligus nor Lepeophtheirus are monophyletic. COI is shown to be a good candidate for parasitic copepod species identification, although a more robust reference database is needed to expand our ability to accomplish a molecular identification.

  11. Subsidence by liquefaction-fluidization in man-made strata around Tokyo bay, Japan: from geological survey on damaged part at the 2011 off the Pacific Coast of Tohoku Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazaoka, O.; Kameyama, S.; Shigeno, K.; Suzuki, Y.; Morisaki, M.; Kagawa, A.; Yoshida, T.; Kimura, M.; Sakai, Y.; Ogura, T.; Kusuda, T.; Furuno, K.

    2015-11-01

    Geological disaster by liquefaction-fluidization happened on southern part of the Quaternary Paleo-Kanto submarine basin at the 2011 Earthquake off the Pacific Coast of Tohoku. Liquefaction-fluidization phenomena occurred mainly in man-made strata over shaking 5+ intensity of Japan Meteorological Agency scale. Many subsided spots, 10-50 m width, 20-100 m length and less than 1 m depth, by liquefaction-fluidization distributed on reclaimed land around northern Tokyo bay. Large amount of sand and groundwater spouted out in the terrible subsided parts. But there are little subsidence and no jetted sand outside the terrible subsided part. Liquefaction-fluidization damaged part at the 1987 earthquake east off Chiba prefecture re-liquefied and fluidized in these parts at the 2011 great earthquake. The damaged area were more wide on the 2011 earthquake than the 1987 quake. Detailed classification maps of subsidence by liquefaction-fluidization on the 2011 grate earthquake were made by fieldwork in Chiba city around Tokyo bay. A mechanism of subsidence by liquefaction-fluidization in man-made strata was solved by geological survey with continuous large box cores on the ACE Liner and large relief peals of the cores at a typical subsided part.

  12. A systematic health assessment of indian ocean bottlenose (Tursiops aduncus) and indo-pacific humpback (Sousa plumbea) dolphins incidentally caught in shark nets off the KwaZulu-Natal Coast, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Lane, Emily P; de Wet, Morné; Thompson, Peter; Siebert, Ursula; Wohlsein, Peter; Plön, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    Coastal dolphins are regarded as indicators of changes in coastal marine ecosystem health that could impact humans utilizing the marine environment for food or recreation. Necropsy and histology examinations were performed on 35 Indian Ocean bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops aduncus) and five Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins (Sousa plumbea) incidentally caught in shark nets off the KwaZulu-Natal coast, South Africa, between 2010 and 2012. Parasitic lesions included pneumonia (85%), abdominal and thoracic serositis (75%), gastroenteritis (70%), hepatitis (62%), and endometritis (42%). Parasitic species identified were Halocercus sp. (lung), Crassicauda sp. (skeletal muscle) and Xenobalanus globicipitis (skin). Additional findings included bronchiolar epithelial mineralisation (83%), splenic filamentous tags (45%), non-suppurative meningoencephalitis (39%), and myocardial fibrosis (26%). No immunohistochemically positive reaction was present in lesions suggestive of dolphin morbillivirus, Toxoplasma gondii and Brucella spp. The first confirmed cases of lobomycosis and sarcocystosis in South African dolphins were documented. Most lesions were mild, and all animals were considered to be in good nutritional condition, based on blubber thickness and muscle mass. Apparent temporal changes in parasitic disease prevalence may indicate a change in the host/parasite interface. This study provided valuable baseline information on conditions affecting coastal dolphin populations in South Africa and, to our knowledge, constitutes the first reported systematic health assessment in incidentally caught dolphins in the Southern Hemisphere. Further research on temporal disease trends as well as disease pathophysiology and anthropogenic factors affecting these populations is needed.

  13. A new species of Leptalpheus Williams, 1965 and new records of L. mexicanus Ríos & Carvacho, 1983 and L. hendrickxi Anker, 2011 (Crustacea: Decapoda: Alpheidae) from the Pacific coast of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Salgado-Barragán, José; Ayón-Parente, Manuel; Hendrickx, Michel E

    2014-07-14

    A new species of Leptalpheus is described from Estero Pérula, Jalisco, on the Pacific coast of Mexico. Leptalpheus corderoae sp. nov. is most similar to Leptalpheus azuero Anker, 2011 from Panama and Leptalpheus axianassae Dworschak & Coelho, 1999 from Brazil, differing from both of them by a combination of morphological characters, especially the presence of tubercles on the ventral surface of the major chela palm and pollex. The most common host of L. corderoae sp. nov. at the type locality is the callianassid ghost shrimp Lepidophthalmus bocourti (A. Milne Edwards, 1870). Additional specimens of Leptalpheus mexicanus Ríos & Carvacho, 1983, from Estero de Urías, Sinaloa, are reported and compared to the type material from Río Mulegé, as well as to Leptalpheus bicristatus Anker, 2011 from Panama. Finally, Leptalpheus hendrickxi Anker, 2011 is reported from Mexico for the first time, representing a significant northward range extension of the species. In Estero Pérula, L. hendrickxi lives in burrows of Lepidophthalmus bocourti, sometimes together with L. corderoae sp. nov. 

  14. Temporal trends of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) in eggs of coastal and offshore birds: Increasing PFAS levels associated with offshore bird species breeding on the Pacific coast of Canada and wintering near Asia.

    PubMed

    Miller, Aroha; Elliott, John E; Elliott, Kyle H; Lee, Sandi; Cyr, Francois

    2015-08-01

    Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) such as perfluoroalkyl carboxylates (PFCAs) and perfluoroalkyl sulfonates (PFSAs) have become virtually ubiquitous throughout the environment, and, based on laboratory studies, have known toxicological consequences. Various national and international voluntary phase-outs and restrictions on these compounds have been implemented over the last 10 to 15 years. In the present study, we examine trends (1990/1991-2010/2011) in aquatic birds (ancient murrelet, Synthliboramphus antiquus [2009 only]; Leach's storm-petrels, Oceanodroma leucorhoa; rhinoceros auklets, Cerorhinca monocerata; double-crested cormorants, Phalacrocorax auritus; and great blue herons, Ardea herodias). The PFCA, PFSA, and stable isotope (δ(15) N and δ(13) C) data collected from these species from the Pacific coast of Canada, ranging over 20 to 30 years, were used to investigate temporal changes in PFAS coupled to dietary changes. Perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS), the dominant PFSA compound in all 4 species, increased and subsequently decreased in auklet and cormorant eggs in line with the manufacturing phase-out of PFOS and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), but concentrations continuously increased in petrel eggs and remained largely unchanged in heron eggs. Dominant PFCA compounds varied between the offshore and coastal species, with increases seen in the offshore species and little or variable changes seen in the coastal species. Little temporal change was seen in stable isotope values, indicating that diet alone is not driving observed PFAS concentrations.

  15. Status of (137)Cs contamination in marine biota along the Pacific coast of eastern Japan derived from a dynamic biological model two years simulation following the Fukushima accident.

    PubMed

    Tateda, Yutaka; Tsumune, Daisuke; Tsubono, Takaki; Misumi, Kazuhiro; Yamada, Masatoshi; Kanda, Jota; Ishimaru, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    Radiocesium ((134)Cs and (137)Cs) released into the Fukushima coastal environment was transferred to marine biota inhabiting the Pacific Ocean coastal waters of eastern Japan. Though the levels in most of the edible marine species decreased overtime, radiocesium concentrations in some fishes were still remained higher than the Japanese regulatory limit for seafood products. In this study, a dynamic food chain transfer model was applied to reconstruct (137)Cs levels in olive flounder by adopting the radiocesium concentrations in small demersal fish which constitute an important fraction of the diet of the olive flounder particularly inhabiting area near Fukushima. In addition, (137)Cs levels in slime flounder were also simulated using reported radiocesium concentrations in some prey organisms. The simulated results from Onahama on the southern border of the Fukushima coastline, and at Choshi the southernmost point where the contaminated water mass was transported by the Oyashio current, were assessed in order to identify what can be explained from present information, and what remains to be clarified three years after the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant (1FNPP) accident. As a result, the observed (137)Cs concentrations in planktivorous fish and their predator fish could be explained by the theoretically-derived simulated levels. On the other hand, the slow (137)Cs depuration in slime flounder can be attributed to uptake from unknown sources for which the uptake fluxes were of a similar magnitude as the excretion fluxes. Since the reported (137)Cs concentrations in benthic invertebrates off Onahama were higher than the simulated values, radiocesium transfer from these benthic detritivorous invertebrates to slime flounder via ingestion was suggested as a cause for the observed slow depuration of (137)Cs in demersal fish off southern Fukushima. Furthermore, the slower depuration in the demersal fish likely required an additional source of (137)Cs, i

  16. Phylogenetic diversity of ultraplankton plastid small-subunit rRNA genes recovered in environmental nucleic acid samples from the Pacific and Atlantic coasts of the United States.

    PubMed

    Rappé, M S; Suzuki, M T; Vergin, K L; Giovannoni, S J

    1998-01-01

    The scope of marine phytoplankton diversity is uncertain in many respects because, like bacteria, these organisms sometimes lack defining morphological characteristics and can be a challenge to grow in culture. Here, we report the recovery of phylogenetically diverse plastid small-subunit (SSU) rRNA gene (rDNA) clones from natural plankton populations collected in the Pacific Ocean off the mouth of Yaquina Bay, Oreg. (OCS clones), and from the eastern continental shelf of the United States off Cape Hatteras, N.C. (OM clones). SSU rRNA gene clone libraries were prepared by amplifying rDNAs from nucleic acids isolated from plankton samples and cloning them into plasmid vectors. The PCR primers used for amplification reactions were designed to be specific for bacterial SSU rRNA genes; however, plastid genes have a common phylogenetic origin with bacteria and were common in both SSU rRNA gene clone libraries. A combination of restriction fragment length polymorphism analyses, nucleic acid sequencing, and taxon-specific oligonucleotide probe hybridizations revealed that 54 of the 116 OCS gene clones were of plastid origin. Collectively, clones from the OCS and OM libraries formed at least eight unique lineages within the plastid radiation, including gene lineages related to the classes Bacillariophyceae, Cryptophyceae, Prymnesiophyceae, Chrysophyceae, and Prasinophyceae; for a number of unique clones, no close phylogenetic neighbors could be identified with confidence. Only a group of two OCS rRNA gene clones showed close identity to the plastid SSU rRNA gene sequence of a cultured organism [Emiliania huxleyi (Lohmann) Hay and Mohler; 99.8% similar]. The remaining clones could not be identified to the genus or species level. Although cryptic species are not as prevalent among phytoplankton as they are among their bacterial counterparts, this genetic survey nonetheless uncovered significant new information about phytoplankton diversity. PMID:9435081

  17. 33 CFR 3.04-3 - Pacific Area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ....04-3 Pacific Area. (a) The Area Office is in Alameda, CA. (b) The Pacific Area is comprised of the.... longitude to the North American land mass; thence along the west coast of the North, Central, and...

  18. California Coast

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    ... of the cloud bank is San Nicolas Island, and further up the coast are the Channel Islands. The Los Angeles basin is just south of center; ... Mar 14, 2000 Images:  California Coast location:  United States region:  ...

  19. Distribution of the Fukushima-derived radionuclides in seawater in the Pacific off the coast of Miyagi, Fukushima, and Ibaraki Prefectures, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oikawa, S.; Takata, H.; Watabe, T.; Misonoo, J.; Kusakabe, M.

    2013-03-01

    The activities of artificial radionuclides in seawater samples collected off the coast of Miyagi, Fukushima, and Ibaraki Prefectures were measured as part of a monitoring program initiated by the Japanese government Ministry of Education, Sports, Science and Technology immediately after the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident. The spatial and temporal distributions of those activities are summarized herein. The activities of strontium-90, iodine-131, cesium-134 and -137 (i.e. 90Sr, 131I, 134Cs, and 137Cs) derived from the accident were detected in seawater samples taken from areas of the coastal ocean adjacent to the power plant. No 131I was detected in surface waters (≤ 5 m depth) or in intermediate and bottom waters after 30 April 2011. Strontium-90 was found in surface waters collected from a few sampling stations in mid-August 2011 to mid-December 2011. Temporal changes of 90Sr activity in surface waters were evident, although the 90Sr activity at a given time varied widely between sampling stations. The activity of 90Sr in surface waters decreased slowly over time, and by the end of December 2011 had reached background levels recorded before the accident. Radiocesium, 134Cs and 137Cs, was found in seawater samples immediately after the accident. There was a remarkable change in 137Cs activities in surface waters during the first 7 months (March through September 2011) after the accident; the activity reached a maximum in the middle of April and thereafter decreased exponentially with time. Qualitatively, the distribution patterns in surface waters suggested that in early May 137Cs-polluted water was advected northward; some of the water then detached and was transported to the south. Two cores of the water with high 137Cs activity persisted at least until July 2011. In subsurface waters 137Cs activity was first detected in the beginning of April 2011, and the water masses were characterized by σt (an indicator of density) values of 25

  20. Distribution of the Fukushima-derived radionuclides in seawater in the Pacific off the coast of Miyagi, Fukushima, and Ibaraki Prefectures, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oikawa, S.; Takata, H.; Watabe, T.; Misonoo, J.; Kusakabe, M.

    2013-07-01

    The activities of artificial radionuclides in seawater samples collected off the coast of Miyagi, Fukushima, and Ibaraki Prefectures were measured as part of a monitoring program initiated by the Japanese Ministry of Education, Sports, Science and Technology immediately after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. The spatial and temporal distributions of those activities are summarized herein. The activities of strontium-90, iodine-131, cesium-134 and -137 (i.e. 90Sr, 131I, 134Cs, and 137Cs) derived from the accident were detected in seawater samples taken from areas of the coastal ocean adjacent to the power plant. No 131I was detected in surface waters (≤ 5 m depth) or in intermediate and bottom waters after 30 April 2011. Strontium-90 was found in surface waters collected from a few sampling stations in mid-August 2011 to mid-December 2011. Temporal changes of 90Sr activity in surface waters were evident, although the 90Sr activity at a given time varied widely between sampling stations. The activity of 90Sr in surface waters decreased slowly over time, and by the end of December 2011 had reached background levels recorded before the accident. Radiocesium, 134Cs and 137Cs, was found in seawater samples immediately after the accident. There was a remarkable change in radiocesium activities in surface waters during the first 7 months (March through September 2011) after the accident; the activity reached a maximum in the middle of April and thereafter decreased exponentially with time. Qualitatively, the distribution patterns in surface waters suggested that in early May radiocesium-polluted water was advected northward; some of the water then detached and was transported to the south. Two water cores with high 137Cs activity persisted at least until July 2011. In subsurface waters radiocesium activity was first detected in the beginning of April 2011, and the water masses were characterized by σt (an indicator of density) values of 25

  1. The Entry of Colombian-Sourced Heroin into the US Market: The Relationship between Competition, Price, and Purity

    PubMed Central

    Rosenblum, Daniel; Unick, Jay; Ciccarone, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    There have been large structural changes in the US heroin market over the past 20 years. Colombian-sourced heroin entered the market in the mid-1990s, followed by a large fall in the price per pure gram and the exit of Asian heroin. By the 2000s, Colombian-sourced heroin had become a monopoly on the east coast and Mexican-sourced heroin a monopoly on the west coast with competition between the two in the middle. We estimate the relationship between these changes in competitive market structure on retail-level heroin price and purity. We find that the entry of Colombian-sourced heroin is associated with less competition and a lower price per pure gram of heroin at the national level. However, there is wide variation in changes in market concentration across the US. Controlling for the national fall in the heroin price, more competition in a region or city is associated with a lower price per pure gram. PMID:24211155

  2. The entry of Colombian-sourced heroin into the US market: the relationship between competition, price, and purity.

    PubMed

    Rosenblum, Daniel; Unick, George Jay; Ciccarone, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    There have been large structural changes in the US heroin market over the past 20 years. Colombian-sourced heroin entered the market in the mid-1990s, followed by a large fall in the price per pure gram and the exit of Asian heroin. By the 2000s, Colombian-sourced heroin had become a monopoly on the east coast and Mexican-sourced heroin a monopoly on the west coast with competition between the two in the middle. We estimate the relationship between these changes in competitive market structure on retail-level heroin price and purity. We find that the entry of Colombian-sourced heroin is associated with less competition and a lower price per pure gram of heroin at the national level. However, there is wide variation in changes in market concentration across the US. Controlling for the national fall in the heroin price, more competition in a region or city is associated with a lower price per pure gram.

  3. Coast Guard

    SciTech Connect

    Meed, R.M.

    1991-10-01

    This paper testifies that water pollution by oil remains significant, and noncompliance with federal regulations to prevent oil pollution continues to be great in the four ports GAO visited. Additionally, the impact of the Coast Guard's efforts to reduce oil spill in unknown because the agency does not compile and analyze inspection and spill data needed to make this determination. Further, the Coast Guard has not been inspecting portions of pipes that transport oil between docks and storage tanks. Coast Guard officials now acknowledge this responsibility.

  4. Relationships between toxicopathic hepatic lesions and exposure to chemical contaminants in English sole (Pleuronectes vetulus), starry flounder (Platichthys stellatus), and white croaker (Genyonemus lineatus) from selected marine sites on the Pacific Coast, USA.

    PubMed Central

    Myers, M S; Stehr, C M; Olson, O P; Johnson, L L; McCain, B B; Chan, S L; Varanasi, U

    1994-01-01

    Relationships between hepatic lesions and chemical contaminant concentrations in sediments, stomach contents, liver tissue, and bile were statistically evaluated in three species of bottomfish, English sole (Pleuronectes vetulus), starry flounder (Platichthys stellatus), and white croaker (Genyonemus lineatus), captured from 27 urban and nonurban sites on the Pacific Coast from Alaska to southern California. Lesions detected were neoplasms, preneoplastic foci of cellular alteration, nonneoplastic proliferative lesions, unique or specific degenerative/necrotic lesions, nonspecific degenerative/necrotic lesions, and hydropic vacuolation of biliary epithelial cells and hepatocytes. In general, lesion prevalences were significantly higher in all three species captured at chemically contaminated urban sites, and certain lesions had significantly higher relative risks of occurrence at urban sites in Puget Sound, San Francisco Bay, the vicinity of Los Angeles, and San Diego Bay. Concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, DDT and its derivatives, and chlordanes and dieldrin in sediment, stomach contents, liver, and fluorescent aromatic compounds in bile were significant risk factors for the occurrence of neoplastic, preneoplastic, nonneoplastic proliferative, and specific degenerative/necrotic lesions, as well as hydropic vacuolation. Fish age also had a significant influence on occurrence of several hepatic lesions, but gender was rarely a significant risk factor. These relationships provide strong evidence for the involvement of environmental contaminants in the etiology of hepatic lesions in several marine bottomfish species and clearly indicate the utility of these lesions as biomarkers of contaminant-induced effects in wild fish. Images Figure 2. A Figure 2. B Figure 3. Figure 4. A Figure 4. B PMID:8033852

  5. The Historical-Comparative Classification of Colombian Inga (Quechua).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parks, Roger

    1990-01-01

    Colombian Inga is of particular interest to the Quechuanist because it is the northernmost member of the Quechuan language family spoken in modern times. In the present work, the relationship of Colombian Inga to other varieties of Quechua is examined. The affiliation of Inga with the Ecuadorian group of Parker's (1969a) Quechua A branch of the…

  6. Tropical Storm Gilma in Eastern Pacific

    NASA Video Gallery

    An animation of satellite observations shows the progression of Tropical Storm Gilma from August 7-10, 2012, along the coast of the Eastern Pacific Ocean. This visualization was created by the NASA...

  7. Ancestry, admixture and fitness in Colombian genomes

    PubMed Central

    Rishishwar, Lavanya; Conley, Andrew B.; Wigington, Charles H.; Wang, Lu; Valderrama-Aguirre, Augusto; King Jordan, I.

    2015-01-01

    The human dimension of the Columbian Exchange entailed substantial genetic admixture between ancestral source populations from Africa, the Americas and Europe, which had evolved separately for many thousands of years. We sought to address the implications of the creation of admixed American genomes, containing novel allelic combinations, for human health and fitness via analysis of an admixed Colombian population from Medellin. Colombian genomes from Medellin show a wide range of three-way admixture contributions from ancestral source populations. The primary ancestry component for the population is European (average = 74.6%, range = 45.0%–96.7%), followed by Native American (average = 18.1%, range = 2.1%–33.3%) and African (average = 7.3%, range = 0.2%–38.6%). Locus-specific patterns of ancestry were evaluated to search for genomic regions that are enriched across the population for particular ancestry contributions. Adaptive and innate immune system related genes and pathways are particularly over-represented among ancestry-enriched segments, including genes (HLA-B and MAPK10) that are involved in defense against endemic pathogens such as malaria. Genes that encode functions related to skin pigmentation (SCL4A5) and cutaneous glands (EDAR) are also found in regions with anomalous ancestry patterns. These results suggest the possibility that ancestry-specific loci were differentially retained in the modern admixed Colombian population based on their utility in the New World environment. PMID:26197429

  8. Coast Guard

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-02-01

    GAO found the situation in the Philadelphia and New York ports similar to that in Prince William Sound-neither industry nor the Coast Guard are prepared to respond to major oil spills. This report discusses how this unpreparedness is due to a lack of specificity in the industry and Coast Guard's plan on how to deal with spills of various sizes and Coast Guard authority to require ship owners and operators to have contingency plans or to require changes in existing plans. On the basic of recent experiences, GAO believes that prevention of oil spills rather than responding to them should be the main priority. Experiences in Price William Sound and in Philadelphia, however, show that much needs to be done to improve prevention measures like monitoring and guiding ship movements and using harbor pilots or vessel escorts.

  9. Coast Guard

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-01

    The 11-million gallon Exxon Valdez oil spill highlighted deficiencies in the nation's ability to contain and recover spilled oil. The Oil Pollution Act of 1990 represents a major effort by Congress to address these deficiencies and to clarify the roles and responsibilities of the private sector and the federal government in preventing, preparing for, and responding to oil spills. This report examines the Coast Guard's efforts to avoid unnecessary and wasteful duplication by coordinating with the private sector and others, including federal and state agencies, its plans to buy oil spill response equipment and the new responsibilities the act places on the private sector and the Coast Guard and if these responsibilities call for a shift in emphasis in Coast Guard oil spill response activities.

  10. Acrylamide levels in selected Colombian foods.

    PubMed

    Pacetti, Deborah; Gil, Elizabeth; Frega, Natale G; Álvarez, Lina; Dueñas, Pilar; Garzón, Angélica; Lucci, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Acrylamide (AA) levels in conventional (n = 112) and traditional (n = 43) Colombian foods were analysed by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry (GC/MS) detection. Samples included: infant powdered formula, coffee and chocolate powders, corn snacks, bakery products and tuber-, meat- and vegetable-based foods. There was a wide variability in AA levels among different foods and within different brands of the same food, especially for coffee powder, breakfast cereals biscuits and French fries samples. Among the conventional foods tested, the highest mean AA value was found in bakery products, such as biscuit (1104 µg kg(-1)) and wafer (1449 µg kg(-1)), followed by potato chips (916 µg kg(-1)). On the other hand, among the traditional foods, higher AA amounts were detected in fried platano (2813 µg kg(-1)) and yuca (3755 µg kg(-1)) compared to other products. Interestingly, the arepa, a traditional Colombian bakery product made with corn flour, showed a lower AA content (< 75 µg kg(-1)) when compared with similar bakery products tested, such as soft bread (102-594 µg kg(-1)), which is a made with wheat flour. PMID:25494681

  11. Acrylamide levels in selected Colombian foods.

    PubMed

    Pacetti, Deborah; Gil, Elizabeth; Frega, Natale G; Álvarez, Lina; Dueñas, Pilar; Garzón, Angélica; Lucci, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Acrylamide (AA) levels in conventional (n = 112) and traditional (n = 43) Colombian foods were analysed by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry (GC/MS) detection. Samples included: infant powdered formula, coffee and chocolate powders, corn snacks, bakery products and tuber-, meat- and vegetable-based foods. There was a wide variability in AA levels among different foods and within different brands of the same food, especially for coffee powder, breakfast cereals biscuits and French fries samples. Among the conventional foods tested, the highest mean AA value was found in bakery products, such as biscuit (1104 µg kg(-1)) and wafer (1449 µg kg(-1)), followed by potato chips (916 µg kg(-1)). On the other hand, among the traditional foods, higher AA amounts were detected in fried platano (2813 µg kg(-1)) and yuca (3755 µg kg(-1)) compared to other products. Interestingly, the arepa, a traditional Colombian bakery product made with corn flour, showed a lower AA content (< 75 µg kg(-1)) when compared with similar bakery products tested, such as soft bread (102-594 µg kg(-1)), which is a made with wheat flour.

  12. Genetic Characterization of Northwestern Colombian Chikungunya Virus Strains from the 2014-2015 Epidemic.

    PubMed

    Rodas, Juan D; Kautz, Tiffany; Camacho, Erwin; Paternina, Luis; Guzmán, Hilda; Díaz, Francisco J; Blanco, Pedro; Tesh, Robert; Weaver, Scott C

    2016-09-01

    Chikungunya fever, an acute and often chronic arthralgic disease caused by the mosquito-borne alphavirus, chikungunya virus (CHIKV), spread into the Americas in late 2013. Since then it has caused epidemics in nearly all New World countries, the second largest being Colombia with over 450,000 suspected cases beginning in September, 2014, and focused in Bolivar Department in the north. We examined 32 human sera from suspected cases, including diverse age groups and both genders, and sequenced the CHIKV envelope glycoprotein genes, known determinants of vector host range. As expected for Asian lineage CHIKV strains, these isolates lacked known Aedes albopictus-adaptive mutations. All the Colombian strains were closely related to those from the Virgin Islands, Saint Lucia, Mexico, Puerto Rico, and Brazil, consistent with a single, point-source introduction from the southeast Asia/Pacific region. Two substitutions in the E2 and E1 envelope glycoprotein genes were found in the Colombian strains, especially E1-K211E involving a residue shown previously to affect epistatically the penetrance of the E1-A226V A. albopictus-adaptive substitution. We also identified two amino acid substitutions unique to all American CHIKV sequences: E2-V368A and 6K-L20M. Only one codon, 6K-47, had a high nonsynonymous substitution rate suggesting positive selection. PMID:27430542

  13. Evidences of the Presence of Methane Seeps in the Colombian Caribbean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gracia, Adriana; Rangel-Buitrago, Nelson; Sellanes, Javier

    2010-05-01

    For the first time in the southern Caribbean Sea Margin of Colombia (between 450 - 700 m deep) we confirm the presence of methane seep communities near the deltas of the Magdalena and Sinu rivers. Some evidences of the occurrence of those communities include: i) bivalves constituents of marine chemosynthesis-based communities, which are indicators of reducing environments as vesicomyid and lucinid bivalves (Vesicomya caribbea, Calyptogena ponderosa, Ectenagena modioliforma, Lucinoma spp. and Graecina colombiensis), together with the rare solemyid clam Acharax caribbaea, ii) other seep-associated fauna such as the trochid snail Cataegis meroglypta, iii) the first report of vestimentiferan tubeworms for the area and, iv) the presence of authigenic carbonates; these constructions form hard substrates colonized by sessile fauna. Additionally, more than 20 species of benthic non-seep fauna were found associated in the area. The collected fauna exhibits an elevated taxonomic similarity to other modern and fossil seep communities from the Caribbean (Barbados Prism, Gulf of Mexico, Cenozoic seep taxa from Barbados, Trinidad and Venezuela). The presence of these chemosymbiotic species seems to be related to mud diapirism activity in the South West of the Colombian coast, this geologic characteristic indicates tectonic and depositional processes associated with the aforementioned deltas. Further research is necessary to establish biological and geological interactions, geochemical and geophysical controls, and organization of cold seeps communities in this unexplored area of the Caribbean. Keywords: Methane, Chemosynthesis-based communities,Bivalves, Mud diapirs, Colombian Caribbean Sea

  14. Citrus alongside the sinking wreckage of MV Pacific Star in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Citrus alongside the sinking wreckage of MV Pacific Star in the Pacific Ocean. Pacific Star's captain used his vessel to ram the cutter after he was ordered to stop and submit to inspection by a boarding team. Citrus was not seriously damaged in the collision. U.S. Coast Guard personnel recovered a large amount of marijuana from the wreckage - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter CITRUS, Coos Bay, Coos County, OR

  15. Reproductive variables of Urotrygon rogersi (Batoidea: Urotrygonidae): a species with a triannual reproductive cycle in the eastern tropical Pacific Ocean.

    PubMed

    Mejía-Falla, P A; Navia, A F; Cortés, E

    2012-04-01

    Reproductive aspects of the round ray Urotrygon rogersi were studied based on 2005 specimens obtained in the artisanal shrimp fishery operating on the Colombian Pacific coast. Females reached greater maximum total length (L(T) ), disc width (W(D) ) and mass (M) (38·0 cm, 19·9 cm and 348 g) than males (32·5 cm, 17·0 cm and 165 g). Sex ratio of juveniles and adults was 1:1. Clasper length increased rapidly between 10·0 and 12·5 cm W(D) . The smallest mature male measured 10·5 cm W(D) and the largest immature individual 13·7 cm W(D) . Male first maturity was reached at 61·8% of maximum W(D) , and estimated W(D50) was between 11·5 and 11·8 cm. The smallest mature female measured 10·5 cm W(D) ; the size at first maturity was 52·8% of maximum W(D) , and estimated W(D50) was between 11·8 and 12·3 cm. Embryos were found in females ≥ 10·5 cm W(D) and maximum fecundity was three embryos per female (mode = 1) and varied with maternal size. Embryos were found in all months, but three birthing peaks per year were identified and a gestation period of 4-5 months estimated. Based on ovulation time, embryonic growth and parturition dates, a triannual reproductive cycle was inferred for this species, with overlapping ovarian and uterine cycles. These results suggest that U. rogersi has a reproductive strategy based on low fecundity, a rapid reproductive cycle (short ovulation and gestation time), three birth peaks per year and large embryos. This strategy probably allows U. rogersi to withstand the fishing pressure they are subject to on the Colombian Pacific coast. The results also suggest that the study area is an important nursery and reproductive area for this species. PMID:22497382

  16. 33 CFR 3.04-3 - Pacific Area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Pacific Area. 3.04-3 Section 3.04... AREAS, DISTRICTS, SECTORS, MARINE INSPECTION ZONES, AND CAPTAIN OF THE PORT ZONES Coast Guard Areas § 3.04-3 Pacific Area. (a) The Area Office is in Alameda, CA. (b) The Pacific Area is comprised of...

  17. 33 CFR 3.04-3 - Pacific Area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pacific Area. 3.04-3 Section 3.04... AREAS, DISTRICTS, SECTORS, MARINE INSPECTION ZONES, AND CAPTAIN OF THE PORT ZONES Coast Guard Areas § 3.04-3 Pacific Area. (a) The Area Office is in Alameda, CA. (b) The Pacific Area is comprised of...

  18. 33 CFR 3.04-3 - Pacific Area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pacific Area. 3.04-3 Section 3.04... AREAS, DISTRICTS, SECTORS, MARINE INSPECTION ZONES, AND CAPTAIN OF THE PORT ZONES Coast Guard Areas § 3.04-3 Pacific Area. (a) The Area Office is in Alameda, CA. (b) The Pacific Area is comprised of...

  19. 33 CFR 3.04-3 - Pacific Area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Pacific Area. 3.04-3 Section 3.04... AREAS, DISTRICTS, SECTORS, MARINE INSPECTION ZONES, AND CAPTAIN OF THE PORT ZONES Coast Guard Areas § 3.04-3 Pacific Area. (a) The Area Office is in Alameda, CA. (b) The Pacific Area is comprised of...

  20. Coast Guard

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-06-01

    This paper reports that about 16,000 oil spills involving the release of more than 46 million gallons of oil took place in U.S. navigable waters in 1988; spills at water-front facilities, where vessels load and unload oil, accounted for about half of the oil spilled. While the Coast Guard acknowledges its responsibility for regulating and inspecting waterfront facilities, it efforts in this area have fallen short because it has not been inspecting portions of intrafacility pipes that transport oil between docks and storage tanks. Water pollution and noncompliance with federal oil pollution prevention regulations continue to be high at waterfront facilities. Yet the Coast Guard cannot determine how effective its inspection program has been in reducing the risk of oil spills because information on program results, such as the types, severity, and frequency of deficiencies found by inspectors, is not compiled an linked with information on the causes of oil spills found by investigators. Until the Coast Guard collects this type of information, it will not be in a position to establish measurable goals.

  1. Southwest coast of Greenland and Davis Strait

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This true-color image was taken by MODIS as it passed over the southwest coast of Greenland (right) and the Davis Strait (center and left). The Davis Strait connects Baffin Bay to the north and the Labrador Sea to the south, and separates Greenland from Baffin Island, Canada. The Davis Strait is part of the Northwest Passage, a navigable seaway connecting the Atlantic Ocean and the Pacific Ocean. The image shows the prevailing currents in the area, with the warm water of a branch of the North Atlantic Drift flowing northward along the Greenland coast, and the cold, iceberg-filled Labrador Current flowing southward along the Baffin Island coast.

  2. [Migrations forced by violence: the Colombian case].

    PubMed

    Builes, Gloria Marcela Gómez; Arias, Gilberto Mauricio Astaiza; Minayo, Maria Cecília de Souza

    2008-01-01

    The human migrations have been one of the motors in the history of humanity. During the twentieth century, internal forced displacement has been an important component of the migration processes in the world. Colombia, a paradigm for this phenomenon, is a country with more than three and a half million people displaced over the last 25 years by force of the violence resulting from an internal armed conflict. Besides the socio-demographic effects in the reconfiguration of the cities, this problem affects the human condition of the victims deteriorating their health and quality of life. This article aims to show the general panorama of migrations forced by violence in the world and to analyze the peculiarities of this phenomenon in the Colombian case. We conclude that forced displacement is a serious violation of human rights producing a human drama by exposing the affected individuals and communities to vulnerability and a deep deterioration of their quality of life and health. PMID:18813665

  3. [Migrations forced by violence: the Colombian case].

    PubMed

    Builes, Gloria Marcela Gómez; Arias, Gilberto Mauricio Astaiza; Minayo, Maria Cecília de Souza

    2008-01-01

    The human migrations have been one of the motors in the history of humanity. During the twentieth century, internal forced displacement has been an important component of the migration processes in the world. Colombia, a paradigm for this phenomenon, is a country with more than three and a half million people displaced over the last 25 years by force of the violence resulting from an internal armed conflict. Besides the socio-demographic effects in the reconfiguration of the cities, this problem affects the human condition of the victims deteriorating their health and quality of life. This article aims to show the general panorama of migrations forced by violence in the world and to analyze the peculiarities of this phenomenon in the Colombian case. We conclude that forced displacement is a serious violation of human rights producing a human drama by exposing the affected individuals and communities to vulnerability and a deep deterioration of their quality of life and health.

  4. The genesis of Colombian emeralds: a restatement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheilletz, A.; Giuliani, G.

    1996-07-01

    A renewal of metallogenetical studies of Colombian emerald deposits produced new geological and geochemical data that favour a hydrothermal-sedimentary genetic model for these deposits. A comprehensive model is presented which integrates both chemical and structural aspects and invalidates some aspects of the model recently presented by Ottaway et al. The deposits result from a two-stage process in which shortening tectonics affect the two borders of the Eastern Cordillera of Colombia and provoke decollement planes, thrusting, and thrust-fault related folds in the Early Cretaceous black shale series. Three major descriptive and interpretative aspects of the deposits are presented: (1) time relationships between the two different sets of barren and mineralized extensional veins; (2) the association of graphite and emerald mineralization, and (3) the thermochemical sulfate reduction reaction acting at the site of the emerald deposits to reduce sulfate of evaporitic origin from the hydrothermal brines into hydrogen sulfide by interaction with organic-rich strata.

  5. Ivory Coast.

    PubMed

    1985-07-01

    Since the Ivory Coast's independence (1960), the population has increased from 3.7 million to 9.7 million, representing a growth rate of up to 4.2%. The country's 5th 5-Year Plan (1981-85) has 4 priorities: 1) agricultural modernization, 2) traditional industry and crafts modernization, 3) human resources enhancement, and 4) continued economic growth. Population objectives include 1) increasing peasant aid, 2) making education more development oriented, 3) making health care more accessible, and 4) finding solutions to employment and unemployment problems. The government wants to increase population size because it needs labor for economic development. Programs 1) develop areas with high out-migration, 2) reduce maternal and child mortality, and 3) support family planning only to benefit family well being. Although the Ivory Coast's population will reach 15 million by the year 2000, and population density has tripled since 1950, the country is still thinly populated. The current population policy strives to 1) reduce infant mortality, 2) maintain fertility, and 3) diminish immigration and emigration. Life expectancy is 47 years, infant mortality is 122/1000, and most rural people have no health services. The government considers the total fertility rate of 6.7 satisfactory. Abortion for contraceptive purposes and sterilization are illegal; access to contraception is limited. The Ivory Coast, because of rapid economic growth, attracts immigrants from neighboring countries; at present 1/3 of the population is foreign-born. The government is trying to integrate natives more fully into the labor force. There is little emigration, but internal migration involves almost half of the population. The government attempts to 1) slow down and redirect rural to urban migration to small and medium sized towns and 2) slow rural to rural migration from the savannah to the forest zone.

  6. 77 FR 12503 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries off West Coast States; Biennial Specifications and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-01

    ... specifications ] and management measures for most species of the Pacific Coast groundfish fishery (75 FR 67810... species of the Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery was published on May 11, 2011 (76 FR 27508). This final... action, which published on December 21, 2011 (76 FR 79122). This inseason action contains a...

  7. 78 FR 49190 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Biennial Specifications and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-13

    ... specifications and management measures for most species of the Pacific Coast groundfish fishery (77 FR 67974... species of the Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery was published on January 3, 2013 (78 FR 580). The Council... management measures are not expected to result in greater impacts to overfished species, except for...

  8. 77 FR 22679 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries off West Coast States; Biennial Specifications and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-17

    ... specifications and management measures for most species of the Pacific Coast groundfish fishery (75 FR 67810... species of the Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery was published on May 11, 2011 (76 FR 27508). This final rule was subsequently amended by several inseason actions (76 FR 39313, 76 FR 67092, 76 FR 79122, 77...

  9. 77 FR 47322 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Biennial Specifications and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-08

    ... at the Office of the Federal Register's Web site at http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/search/home.action... specifications and management measures for most species of the Pacific Coast groundfish fishery (75 FR 67810... species of the Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery was published on May 11, 2011 (76 FR 27508). This...

  10. 77 FR 63758 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Biennial Specifications and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-17

    ... at the Office of the Federal Register's Web site at http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/search/home.action... specifications and management measures for most species of the Pacific Coast groundfish fishery (75 FR 67810... species of the Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery was published on May 11, 2011 (76 FR 27508). This...

  11. 78 FR 72586 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries off West Coast States; Biennial Specifications and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-03

    ... specifications and management measures for most species of the Pacific Coast groundfish ] fishery (77 FR 67974... species of the Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery was published on January 3, 2013 (78 FR 580). The Council.... had a large projected underage compared to their harvest target, the Council recommended an...

  12. Caribbean basin framework, 3: Southern Central America and Colombian basin

    SciTech Connect

    Kolarsky, R.A.; Mann, P. )

    1991-03-01

    The authors recognize three basin-forming periods in southern Central America (Panama, Costa Rica, southern Nicaragua) that they attempt to correlate with events in the Colombian basin (Bowland, 1984): (1) Early-Late Cretaceous island arc formation and growth of the Central American island arc and Late Cretaceous formation of the Colombian basin oceanic plateau. During latest Cretaceous time, pelagic carbonate sediments blanketed the Central American island arc in Panama and Costa Rica and elevated blocks on the Colombian basin oceanic plateau; (2) middle Eocene-middle Miocene island arc uplift and erosion. During this interval, influx of distal terrigenous turbidites in most areas of Panama, Costa Rica, and the Colombian basin marks the uplift and erosion of the Central American island arc. In the Colombian basin, turbidites fill in basement relief and accumulate to thicknesses up to 2 km in the deepest part of the basin. In Costa Rica, sedimentation was concentrated in fore-arc (Terraba) and back-arc (El Limon) basins; (3) late Miocene-Recent accelerated uplift and erosion of segments of the Central American arc. Influx of proximal terrigenous turbidites and alluvial fans in most areas of Panama, Costa Rica, and the Colombian basin marks collision of the Panama arc with the South American continent (late Miocene early Pliocene) and collision of the Cocos Ridge with the Costa Rican arc (late Pleistocene). The Cocos Ridge collision inverted the Terraba and El Limon basins. The Panama arc collision produced northeast-striking left-lateral strike-slip faults and fault-related basins throughout Panama as Panama moved northwest over the Colombian basin.

  13. 75 FR 22829 - National Environmental Policy Act; Final Environmental Impact Statement on U.S. Coast Guard...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-30

    .... The Coast Guard published a notice of intent to prepare an EIS in the Federal ] Register (71 FR 14233... SECURITY Coast Guard National Environmental Policy Act; Final Environmental Impact Statement on U.S. Coast Guard Pacific Area Operations: Districts 11 and 13 AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice...

  14. Invisible gold in Colombian auriferous soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bustos Rodriguez, H.; Oyola Lozano, D.; Rojas Martínez, Y. A.; Pérez Alcázar, G. A.; Balogh, A. G.

    2005-11-01

    Optic microscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Mössbauer spectroscopy (MS), Electron microprobe analysis (EPMA) and secondary ions mass spectroscopy (SIMS) were used to study Colombian auriferous soils. The auriferous samples, collected from El Diamante mine, located in Guachavez-Nariño (Colombia), were prepared by means of polished thin sections and polished sections for EPMA and SIMS. Petrography analysis was made using an optical microscope with a vision camera, registering the presence, in different percentages, of the following phases: pyrite, quartz, arsenopyrite, sphalerite, chalcopyrite and galena. By XRD analysis, the same phases were detected and their respective cell parameters calculated. By MS, the presence of two types of pyrite was detected and the hyperfine parameters are: δ 1 = 0.280 ± 0.01 mm/s and Δ Q 1 = 0.642 ± 0.01 mm/s, δ 2 = 0.379 ± 0.01 mm/s and Δ Q 2 = 0.613 ± 0.01 mm/s. For two of the samples MS detected also the arsenopyrite and chalcopyrite presence. The mean composition of the detected gold regions, established by EPMA, indicated 73% Au and 27% Ag (electrum type). Multiple regions of approximately 200 × 200 μm of area in each mineral sample were analyzed by SIMS registering the presence of “invisible gold” associated mainly with the pyrite and occasionally with the arsenopyrite.

  15. Storms or cold fronts: what is really responsible for the extreme waves regime in the Colombian Caribbean coastal region?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otero, L. J.; Ortiz-Royero, J. C.; Ruiz-Merchan, J. K.; Higgins, A. E.; Henriquez, S. A.

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study is to determine the contribution and importance of cold fronts and storms to extreme waves in different areas of the Colombian Caribbean in an attempt to determine the extent of the threat posed by the flood processes to which these coastal populations are exposed. Furthermore, the study wishes to establish the actions to which coastal engineering constructions should be subject. In the calculation of maritime constructions, the most important parameter is the height of the wave. For this reason, it is necessary to establish the design wave height to which a coastal engineering structure should be resistant. This wave height varies according to the return period considered. The significant height values for the areas focused on in the study were calculated in accordance with Gumbel's extreme value methodology. The methodology was evaluated using data from the reanalysis of the spectral National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) WAVEWATCH III® (WW3) model for 15 points along the 1600 km of the Colombian Caribbean coastline (continental and insular) between the years 1979 and 2009. The results demonstrated that the extreme waves caused by tropical cyclones and those caused by cold fronts have different effects along the Colombian Caribbean coast. Storms and hurricanes are of greater importance in the Guajira Peninsula (Alta Guajira). In the central area (consisting of Baja Guajira, and the cities of Santa Marta, Barranquilla, and Cartagena), the strong impact of cold fronts on extreme waves is evident. However, in the southern region of the Colombian Caribbean coast (ranging from the Gulf of Morrosquillo to the Gulf of Urabá), the extreme values of wave heights are lower than in the previously mentioned regions, despite being dominated mainly by the passage of cold fronts. Extreme waves in the San Andrés and Providencia insular region present a different dynamic from

  16. [The exodus of Colombians between 1963-1973].

    PubMed

    Arbelaez, A

    1977-05-01

    Prior to 1964 the Colombian population was rather stationary, with net migration having little effect on the total volume of population. Between the 1963 and the 1973 censuses the displacement of Colombians abroad took place on such a large scale as to have a significant effect on the demographic structure of the country. The deterioration of living standards in Colombia in combination with a lack of economic opportunities, accounts for this mass exodus to countries with stronger economies. A large portion of those who leave establish themselves in foreign countries as illegal aliens. Immigration to the U.S. and Venezuela accounts for 85% of the total migration. Official statistics for Venezuela indicate that there are more than 300,000 Colombians living there illegally, but unofficial sources state that the figure is closer to 2 million. In the U.S. there are more than 25,000 Colombians registered, but a more reasonable estimate of 1,200,000 Colombians living there is closer to reality. The author offers several hypotheses for the increase in the number of illegal aliens to the U.S. These include favorable conditions for legal immigration until 1965, and increasing promotion of tourism to the U.S., with greater opportunity to remain there beyond the visa period. Between 1967 and 1969 new restrictions on immigration were imposed by U.S. authorities, causing a drop of entries into the U.S. After this initial period, however, the number of Colombians coming to the U.S. increased again. This study includes charts which indicate legal and illegal immigration, and deportations. These categories are analyzed on the basis of sex, age, country of destination, and place of origin in Colombia.

  17. A physical view of La Guajira Upwelling System, Colombian Basin, Caribbean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernal, G.; Beier, E.; Barton, E. D.; Ruiz-Ochoa, M.; Correa, J. G.

    2013-05-01

    La Guajira Peninsula lies within a large upwelling system along the South Caribbean Coast, created by the NE trade winds. In this location, sea surface temperature (SST) exhibits the lowest mean value and the highest variability in the whole Colombian Basin. The seasonal variation of SST explains up to 75 % of the total variability. La Guajira coastal zone also experiences the highest values of wind stress and wind stress curl, with the greatest annual and semiannual variability in the Colombian Basin. It has been shown that wind stress curl enhances the upwelling over the region. Near 90% of the variability of SST in La Guajira can be explained by the seasonality plus the first three EOFs interannual modes: the first, synchronous throughout the Basin, is dominant, and consists of a uniform interannual variation in phase with the North Tropical Atlantic Index; the second co-varies strongly with the second mode of wind stress curl; and the third reflects the role of the vertical atmospheric circulation cell associated with the Caribbean Low Level Jet off Central America. The inclusion of wind stress curl with its maximum offshore of La Guajira explains in part the extension of cool coastal water into the Colombian Basin, with advection in filaments, eddies and meanders. In order to complement the physical knowledge of La Guajira upwelling system, an analysis of water masses, sea surface height, Ekman suction, Ekman transport and coastal upwelling index (CUI) was performed. Hydrographic data was obtained from gridded climatologies from the National Oceanographic Data Center (WOD01); sea surface height anomalies from the Archiving, Validation, and Interpretation of Satellite Oceanography (AVISO) data; and wind data from the Cross-Calibrated Multi-Platform Ocean Surface Wind Velocity Product for Meteorological and Oceanographic Applications (CCMP). The upwelling forms a local water mass, La Guajira surface water (LGSW), with the mixing of subtropical underwater and

  18. Morphodynamics of the Pacific and Caribbean deltas of Colombia, South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Restrepo, Juan D.; López, Sergio A.

    2008-02-01

    This paper analyzes the physical factors controlling the recent morphology of major deltas along the Pacific and Caribbean coasts of Colombia. The study considers the fluvial, coastal, and oceanographic contributions to changes in delta morphology and uses different approaches, including (1) remote sensing techniques; (2) time series analysis of river discharge, sea level, wave climate and tidal variability; (3) analysis of the relationship between monthly mean sea level anomalies near the deltas related to the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO); (4) development of a database of key physical variables; (5) series of correlation calculations to examine which environmental factors control delta morphology; (6) analysis of shoreline changes for the 1986-2000 yr-period; and (7) classification of each delta system based on the relationship between water and sediment discharges and wave and tidal energies. Overall, Colombian deltas are built under destructive physical conditions. The Pacific deltas, San Juan, Mira, and Patía, are tide-influenced deltas although they exhibit definite characteristics of wave-dominated systems such as the presence of barriers and beach ridges. Also, these deltas exhibit the highest marine energy conditions of all Colombian deltas (marine power values between 9.1 and 11.6) due to the interplay of (1) moderate wave conditions as a result of the effect of swells from the SW with a significant height varying from 1.7 in the San Juan delta to 3.0 m and 3.1 m in the Mira and Patía deltas, respectively; (2) meso-tidal ranges; (3) steep subaqueous profiles; (4) low attenuation indexes of deep-water waves; and (5) strong oceanographic manifestations associated with the ENSO, causing regional sea level rises of 20-44 cm during El Niño events. The Caribbean deltas, Magdalena, Sinú and to a lesser extent, the Atrato, are wave-influenced deltas. The Magdalena, with deep and nearshore wave power values of 45 × 10 6 erg s -1 and 35 × 10 6 erg s -1

  19. 29. Historic American Buildings Survey, Photocopy of illustration in Pacific ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. Historic American Buildings Survey, Photocopy of illustration in Pacific Coast Architect, V. 33, No. 4 (April 1928) MEZZANINE FOYER, FROM SMOKING ROOM. - Oriental Theatre, 828 Southeast Grand Avenue, Portland, Multnomah County, OR

  20. 28. Historic American Buildings Survey, Photocopy of illustration in Pacific ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. Historic American Buildings Survey, Photocopy of illustration in Pacific Coast Architect, V. 33, No. 4 (April 1928) SMOKING ROOM, MEZZANINE. - Oriental Theatre, 828 Southeast Grand Avenue, Portland, Multnomah County, OR

  1. 75 FR 42069 - Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-20

    ... meeting to develop a draft assessment of the factors triggering an overfishing concern for SRFC. The... consecutive years, an overfishing concern is triggered according to the terms of the Pacific Coast Salmon...

  2. Ocean dumping of radioactive waste off the Pacific Coast. Hearing before a Subcommittee of the Committee on Government Operations, House of Representatives, Ninety-Sixth Congress, Second Session, October 7, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    Hearings of the Subcommittee of the Committee on Government Operations, House of Representatives, 96th Congress are reported. Analyses of health and environmental implications of dump sites in the Atlantic as well as the Pacific Ocean are presented. Statements are included from representatives of various federal agencies and from public interest groups such as Friends of the Earth, Project Tektite and the US Mussel Watch Committee. (JMT)

  3. 78 FR 70858 - Safety Zones; Pacific Northwest Grain Handlers Association Facilities; Columbia and Willamette...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-27

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zones; Pacific Northwest Grain Handlers.... SUMMARY: The Coast Guard is establishing temporary safety zones around the following Pacific Northwest... Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed Rulemaking TFR Temporary...

  4. 50 CFR 660.323 - Pacific whiting allocations, allocation attainment, and inseason allocation reapportionment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pacific whiting allocations, allocation attainment, and inseason allocation reapportionment. 660.323 Section 660.323 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY...) FISHERIES OFF WEST COAST STATES West Coast Groundfish Fisheries § 660.323 Pacific whiting...

  5. Colombian Emigration: A Research Note on Its Probable Quantitative Extent.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diaz-Briquets, Sergio; Frederick, Melinda J.

    1984-01-01

    Provides a brief overview of quantitative estimates of Colombian emigration including a discussion of how estimates were prepared. Concludes that estimates of international migration from Colombia are inflated and that such migration is not as significant as some observers claim. (CMG)

  6. Peruvian Arid Coast and Agriculture, South America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The coast of Peru, between the Pacific Ocean and the Andes Mountains is very arid (16.5S, 72.5W). For several thousand years, water from numerous small streams has been used for traditional flood and canal irrigation agriculture. However, during the past decade innovative techniques have tapped new water sources for increased agricultural production. Ground water in the porous sedimentary rock formations has been tapped for well irrigation agriculture.

  7. 50 CFR 660.131 - Pacific whiting fishery management measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Pacific whiting fishery management measures. 660.131 Section 660.131 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OFF WEST COAST STATES West Coast Groundfish-Limited Entry...

  8. 50 CFR 660.373 - Pacific whiting (whiting) fishery management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pacific whiting (whiting) fishery management. 660.373 Section 660.373 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OFF WEST COAST STATES West Coast Groundfish Fisheries §...

  9. 50 CFR 660.131 - Pacific whiting fishery management measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OFF WEST COAST STATES West Coast Groundfish-Limited Entry Trawl Fisheries § 660.131 Pacific whiting fishery management... of the whiting population; expected harvest of bycatch and prohibited species; availability and...

  10. 50 CFR 660.131 - Pacific whiting fishery management measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OFF WEST COAST STATES West Coast Groundfish-Limited Entry Trawl Fisheries § 660.131 Pacific whiting fishery management... of the whiting population; expected harvest of bycatch and prohibited species; availability and...

  11. 50 CFR 660.131 - Pacific whiting fishery management measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OFF WEST COAST STATES West Coast Groundfish-Limited Entry Trawl Fisheries § 660.131 Pacific whiting fishery management... the other provisions of 50 CFR part 660, subpart C or D, a vessel that is 75 feet or less LOA...

  12. 50 CFR 660.131 - Pacific whiting fishery management measures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OFF WEST COAST STATES West Coast Groundfish-Limited Entry Trawl Fisheries § 660.131 Pacific whiting fishery management... of the whiting population; expected harvest of bycatch and prohibited species; availability and...

  13. 50 CFR 660.336 - Pacific whiting vessel licenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OFF WEST COAST STATES West Coast... processing history will be used to determine whether that vessel meets the qualifying criteria for a Pacific... processing history includes only the catch and/or processed product of that particular vessel, as...

  14. 50 CFR 660.26 - Pacific whiting vessel licenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE (CONTINUED) FISHERIES OFF WEST COAST STATES West Coast.... (c) Pacific whiting vessel license qualifying criteria—(1) Qualifying catch and/or processing history. Vessel catch and/or processing history will be used to determine whether that vessel meets the...

  15. Pacific Regional Solar Heating Handbook. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Writers' Development Trust, Toronto (Ontario).

    This handbook is intended as a guide for engineers, architects, and individuals familiar with heating and ventilating applications who wish to design a solar heating system for a residential or small commercial building in the Pacific Coast Region. The climate of the region is discussed by selected cities in terms of the effect of climate on solar…

  16. 33 CFR 165.2030 - Pacific Area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    .... Coast Guard Districts are set out in 33 CFR part 3. (b) A naval vessel protection zone exists around U.S... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pacific Area. 165.2030 Section...) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND LIMITED ACCESS AREAS Protection of...

  17. 33 CFR 165.2030 - Pacific Area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    .... Coast Guard Districts are set out in 33 CFR part 3. (b) A naval vessel protection zone exists around U.S... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pacific Area. 165.2030 Section...) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND LIMITED ACCESS AREAS Protection of...

  18. 33 CFR 165.2030 - Pacific Area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .... Coast Guard Districts are set out in 33 CFR part 3. (b) A naval vessel protection zone exists around U.S... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pacific Area. 165.2030 Section...) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND LIMITED ACCESS AREAS Protection of...

  19. 33 CFR 165.2030 - Pacific Area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    .... Coast Guard Districts are set out in 33 CFR part 3. (b) A naval vessel protection zone exists around U.S... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Pacific Area. 165.2030 Section...) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND LIMITED ACCESS AREAS Protection of...

  20. 33 CFR 165.2030 - Pacific Area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    .... Coast Guard Districts are set out in 33 CFR part 3. (b) A naval vessel protection zone exists around U.S... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Pacific Area. 165.2030 Section...) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY REGULATED NAVIGATION AREAS AND LIMITED ACCESS AREAS Protection of...

  1. Techno-economic analysis for a sugarcane biorefinery: Colombian case.

    PubMed

    Moncada, Jonathan; El-Halwagi, Mahmoud M; Cardona, Carlos A

    2013-05-01

    In this paper a techno-economic analysis for a sugarcane biorefinery is presented for the Colombian case. It is shown two scenarios for different conversion pathways as function of feedstock distribution and technologies for sugar, fuel ethanol, PHB, anthocyanins and electricity production. These scenarios are compared with the Colombian base case which simultaneously produce sugar, fuel ethanol and electricity. A simulation procedure was used in order to evaluate biorefinery schemes for all the scenarios, using Aspen Plus software, that include productivity analysis, energy calculations and economic evaluation for each process configuration. The results showed that the configuration with the best economic, environmental and social performance is the one that considers fuel ethanol and PHB production from combined cane bagasse and molasses. This result served as the basis to draw recommendations on technological and economic feasibility as well as social aspects for the implementation of such type of biorefinery in Colombia.

  2. Colombian late cretaceous tropical planktonic foraminifera: Redressing the imbalance

    SciTech Connect

    McCarthy, L.D.

    1993-02-01

    Recent work involving Late Cretaceous planktonic foraminifera has concentrated on European and other areas in the Northern Hemisphere. Many of the biostratigraphical and evolutionary models reflect this geographical restriction and ignore earlier studies from tropical areas. In 1955 Rolando Gandolfi described many new species and subspecies from Colombia and provided a different view of the evolutionary development of planktonic foraminifera. A re-examination of the Gandolfi type collection using Scanning Electron Micrography (Environmental Chamber technique) integrated with Colombian well samples from onshore Guajira area, Middle and Upper Magdalena Valley and Putumayo Basin has given a new view into the evolutionary development of Late Cretaceous planktonic foraminifera. This has enabled a modified globigerine Late Cretaceous biostratigraphy to be constructed for Colombia. This work redresses the imbalance between studies of tropical and northern high latitude Late Cretaceous planktonic foraminifera and provides an insight into the paleoenvironmental and paleoclimatological factors influencing the Colombian region at the time.

  3. Techno-economic analysis for a sugarcane biorefinery: Colombian case.

    PubMed

    Moncada, Jonathan; El-Halwagi, Mahmoud M; Cardona, Carlos A

    2013-05-01

    In this paper a techno-economic analysis for a sugarcane biorefinery is presented for the Colombian case. It is shown two scenarios for different conversion pathways as function of feedstock distribution and technologies for sugar, fuel ethanol, PHB, anthocyanins and electricity production. These scenarios are compared with the Colombian base case which simultaneously produce sugar, fuel ethanol and electricity. A simulation procedure was used in order to evaluate biorefinery schemes for all the scenarios, using Aspen Plus software, that include productivity analysis, energy calculations and economic evaluation for each process configuration. The results showed that the configuration with the best economic, environmental and social performance is the one that considers fuel ethanol and PHB production from combined cane bagasse and molasses. This result served as the basis to draw recommendations on technological and economic feasibility as well as social aspects for the implementation of such type of biorefinery in Colombia. PMID:23021947

  4. Year of the Coast.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobik, Gray; Lux, Gretchen

    1980-01-01

    President Carter has designated 1980 as the "Year of the Coast" through the efforts of a coalition known as the Coast Alliance. The Coast Alliance will alert people to changes along the coastline, and the need for public participation in the decisions which govern the use and abuse of the coastline. (DS)

  5. [Levels of plasma cholinesterase in Colombian working-class populations].

    PubMed

    Carmona-Fonseca, Jaime

    2003-12-01

    Levels of plasma cholinesterase in Colombian working-class populations Reference values for plasma cholinesterase (EC 3.1.1.8) are not available for Colombian populations. A representative sample of a working-class population was used to establish these values to provide reference data for use by the social security system. Two working-class populations were sampled from the Aburrá Valley (Aburrá) and eastern Antioquia (Oriente). Cholinesterase activity was measured in 827 workers, with ages spanning 18-49 years, 415 from Aburrá and 412 people from Oriente. Three methods were used to measure cholinesterase: Michel, EQM and Monotest The average values by Michel and EQM were not statistically different between regions (Michel: Aburrá, 1.11, and East, 1.13 deltas pH/hora; EQM: Aburrá, 2.55, and Oriente, 2.48 U/ml). By the Monotest, the enzyme average was statistically higher in Aburra than in Oriente (5,743 and 5,459 U/L respectively; p = 0 .012). By region and technique, men had significantly higher enzymatic levels than women. Within both regions and sexes, no statistically significant difference among the three aged groups was noted. Our obtained Colombian values differed significantly from foreign reference values: Michel and Monotest levels were higher and EQM levels were lower. For making clinical and epidemiologic decisions in Colombia related to these data, the values obtained for the Colombian populations are preferred over values derived from external sources. PMID:14968922

  6. [Colombian migration to the Venezuelan agrarian sector: a binational context].

    PubMed

    Mora, J; Gomez, A

    1980-01-01

    The authors attempt to determine the reasons for the chronic national labor shortage in the Venezuelan agrarian sector and for the large-scale emigration of Colombians to work in Venezuelan agriculture. The income of agricultural wage earners and the conditions of labor force reproduction in Venezuela are discussed as factors contributing to the labor shortage. With reference to Colombia, the rapid growth of international commerce and the policy of limiting wages are suggested as factors which contribute to emigration

  7. [Reproduction of the pink shrimp Farfantepenaeus notialis (Decapoda: Penaeidae) in the Colombian Caribbean].

    PubMed

    Paramo, Jorge; Pérez, Daniel; Wolff, Matthias

    2014-06-01

    The shallow water pink shrimp (Farfantepenaeus notialis) is among the socioeconomically most important resources of the Caribbean. The lack of biological and fishery information is of great concern for the fisheries management authorities. The presented study therefore aimed at the investigation of the reproductive cycle, the size composition and the size at first maturity of this species as a basis for the ordination and management of this resource. The study was conducted from June 2012 to May 2013 off the coast of the Caribbean Sea of Colombia. A total of 5 356 individuals were collected, identified, classified and preserved for their subsequent analysis in the laboratory. Size, weight, sex and gonad stage were recorded for each specimen. Significant differences were found in sex ratio in all months sampled with a clear predominance of females. Mature females were found year-around, but two reproductive peaks were identified during the periods October-December and April-June. The mean catch total length size (MCS) for females and males was 148.00mm and 122.54mm, respectively. The mean size at maturity (LT50%) was 129.34mm for females and 97.77mm for males. MCS was always above LT50% for both sexes. Considering the large reduction in fishing effort in the Colombian Caribbean Sea over the last years, we could expect that the shrimp population is in a rebuilding process or perhaps it may be already restored. PMID:25102635

  8. [Reproduction of the pink shrimp Farfantepenaeus notialis (Decapoda: Penaeidae) in the Colombian Caribbean].

    PubMed

    Paramo, Jorge; Pérez, Daniel; Wolff, Matthias

    2014-06-01

    The shallow water pink shrimp (Farfantepenaeus notialis) is among the socioeconomically most important resources of the Caribbean. The lack of biological and fishery information is of great concern for the fisheries management authorities. The presented study therefore aimed at the investigation of the reproductive cycle, the size composition and the size at first maturity of this species as a basis for the ordination and management of this resource. The study was conducted from June 2012 to May 2013 off the coast of the Caribbean Sea of Colombia. A total of 5 356 individuals were collected, identified, classified and preserved for their subsequent analysis in the laboratory. Size, weight, sex and gonad stage were recorded for each specimen. Significant differences were found in sex ratio in all months sampled with a clear predominance of females. Mature females were found year-around, but two reproductive peaks were identified during the periods October-December and April-June. The mean catch total length size (MCS) for females and males was 148.00mm and 122.54mm, respectively. The mean size at maturity (LT50%) was 129.34mm for females and 97.77mm for males. MCS was always above LT50% for both sexes. Considering the large reduction in fishing effort in the Colombian Caribbean Sea over the last years, we could expect that the shrimp population is in a rebuilding process or perhaps it may be already restored.

  9. Paleomagnetism of the Miocene Columbia River Basalt Group in Oregon and Washington from the Pacific Coast to the Columbia Plateau: Magnetostratigraphy, Vertical-Axis Rotations, Paleosecular Variation, and Remagnetization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagstrum, J. T.; Wells, R. E.; Evarts, R. C.; Niem, A. R.; Sawlan, M. G.; Blakely, R. J.

    2008-12-01

    Identification of individual flows within the Columbia River Basalt Group (CRBG) has mostly relied on minor differences in geochemistry, but magnetic polarity has also proved useful in differentiating flows and establishing a temporal framework. Within the thick, rapidly erupted Grande Ronde Basalt four major polarity chrons (R1 to N2) have been identified. Because cooling times of CRBG flows are brief compared to rates of paleosecular variation (PSV), within-flow paleomagnetic directions are expected to be constant across the extensive east-west reaches of these flows. Vertical-axis rotations in OR and WA, driven by northward-oblique subduction of the Juan de Fuca plate, thus can be measured by comparing directions for western sampling localities to directions for the same flow units on the relatively stable Columbia Plateau. Clockwise rotations calculated for outcrop locations within the Coast Range (CR) block are uniformly about 30° (N=102 sites). East of the northwest-trending en échelon Mt. Angel-Gales Creek, Portland Hills, and northern unnamed fault zones, as well as north of the CR block's northern boundary (~Columbia River), clockwise rotations abruptly drop to about 15° (N=39 sites), with offsets in these bounding fault zones corresponding to the Portland and Willamette pull-apart basins. The general agreement of vertical- axis rotation rates estimated from CRBG magnetizations with those determined from modern GPS velocities indicates a relatively steady rate over the last 10 to 15 Myr. Unusual directions due to PSV, field excursions, or polarity transitions could provide useful stratigraphic markers. Individual flow directions, however, have not been routinely used to identify flows. One reason this has been difficult is that remagnetization is prevalent, particularly in the Coast Ranges, coupled with earlier demagnetization techniques that did not completely remove overprint components. Except for the Ginkgo and Pomona flows of the Wanapum and Saddle

  10. Evaluating the X Chromosome-Specific Diversity of Colombian Populations Using Insertion/Deletion Polymorphisms

    PubMed Central

    Ibarra, Adriana; Restrepo, Tomás; Rojas, Winston; Castillo, Adriana; Amorim, António; Martínez, Beatriz; Burgos, German; Ostos, Henry; Álvarez, Karen; Camacho, Mauricio; Suarez, Zuleyma; Pereira, Rui; Gusmão, Leonor

    2014-01-01

    The European and African contribution to the pre-existing Native American background has influenced the complex genetic pool of Colombia. Because colonisation was not homogeneous in this country, current populations are, therefore, expected to have different proportions of Native American, European and African ancestral contributions. The aim of this work was to examine 11 urban admixed populations and a Native American group, called Pastos, for 32 X chromosome indel markers to expand the current knowledge concerning the genetic background of Colombia. The results revealed a highly diverse genetic background comprising all admixed populations, harbouring important X chromosome contributions from all continental source populations. In addition, Colombia is genetically sub-structured, with different proportions of European and African influxes depending on the regions. The samples from the North Pacific and Caribbean coasts have a high African ancestry, showing the highest levels of diversity. The sample from the South Andean region showed the lowest diversity and significantly higher proportion of Native American ancestry than the other samples from the North Pacific and Caribbean coasts, Central-West and Central-East Andean regions, and the Orinoquian region. The results of admixture analysis using X-chromosomal markers suggest that the high proportion of African ancestry in the North Pacific coast was primarily male driven. These men have joined to females with higher Native American and European ancestry (likely resulting from a classic colonial asymmetric mating type: European male x Amerindian female). This high proportion of male-mediated African contributions is atypical of colonial settings, suggesting that the admixture occurred during a period when African people were no longer enslaved. In the remaining regions, the African contribution was primarily female-mediated, whereas the European counterpart was primarily male driven and the Native American

  11. Chapter 9: The rock coast of the USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hapke, Cheryl J.; Adams, Peter N.; Allan, Jonathan; Ashton, Andrew; Griggs, Gary B.; Hampton, Monty A.; Kelly, Joseph; Young, Adam P.

    2014-01-01

    The coastline of the USA is vast and comprises a variety of landform types including barrier islands, mainland beaches, soft bluffed coastlines and hard rocky coasts. The majority of the bluffed and rocky coasts are found in the northeastern part of the country (New England) and along the Pacific coast. Rocky and bluffed landform types are commonly interspersed along the coastline and occur as a result of relative lowering of sea level from tectonic or isostatic forcing, which can occur on timescales ranging from instantaneous to millenia. Recent research on sea cliffs in the contiguous USA has focused on a broad range of topics from documenting erosion rates to identifying processes and controls on morphology to prediction modelling. This chapter provides a detailed synthesis of recent and seminal research on rocky coast geomorphology along open-ocean coasts of the continental United States (USA).

  12. Comparison of aliphatic hydrocarbons, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, polybrominated diphenylethers, and organochlorine pesticides in Pacific sanddab (Citharichthys sordidus) from offshore oil platforms and natural reefs along the California coast

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gale, Robert W.; Tanner, Michael J.; Love, Milton S.; Nishimoto, Mary M.; Schroeder, Donna M.

    2013-01-01

    Recently, the relative exposure of Pacific sanddab (Citharichthys sordidus) to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) at oil-production platforms was reported, indicating negligible exposure to PAHs and no discernible differences between exposures at platforms and nearby natural areas sites. In this report, the potential for chronic PAH exposure in fish is reported, by measurement of recalcitrant, higher molecular weight PAHs in tissues of fish previously investigated for PAH metabolites in bile. A total of 34 PAHs (20 PAHs, 11 alkylated PAHs, and 3 polycyclic aromatic thiophenes) were targeted. In addition, legacy contaminants—polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs),—and current contaminants, polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs) linked to endocrine disruption, were measured by gas chromatography with electron-capture or mass spectrometric detection, to form a more complete picture of the contaminant-related status of fishes at oil production platforms in the Southern California Bight. No hydrocarbon profiles or unresolved complex hydrocarbon background were found in fish from platforms and from natural areas, and concentrations of aliphatics were low less than 100 nanograms per gram (ng/g) per component]. Total-PAH concentrations in fish ranged from 15 to 37 ng/g at natural areas and from 8.7 to 22 ng/g at platforms. Profiles of PAHs were similar at all natural and platform sites, consisting mainly of naphthalene and methylnaphthalenes, phenanthrene, fluoranthene, and pyrene. Total-PCB concentrations (excluding non-ortho-chloro-substituted congeners) in fish were low, ranging from 7 to 22 ng/g at natural areas and from 10 to 35 ng/g at platforms. About 50 percent of the total-PCBs at all sites consisted of 11 congeners: 153 > 138/163/164 > 110 > 118 > 15 > 99 > 187 > 149 > 180. Most OCPs, except dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT)-related compounds, were not detectable or were at concentrations of less than 1 ng/g in fish. p

  13. The Colombian Community in Metropolitan New York; Who Are We and Where Are We Going?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hofman, Amparo; Escala, Zuleynan

    1999-01-01

    Describes the Colombian immigrant community in New York as revealed through a survey conducted in May 1997. Study findings show that most of the Colombian immigrants were attracted to the United States because of better material and economic conditions. Once established, most succeed in becoming part of the workforce. (SLD)

  14. The Emergence of Doctoral Programmes in the Colombian Higher Education System: Trends and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acosta, Orlando; Celis, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    The international literature contains few formal analyses of the state of Colombian higher education and its most critical issues. This article systematically and comparatively analyzes the emergence of Colombian doctoral programmes within a national and international context. It shows that, while Colombia has experienced a significant growth in…

  15. Comparison of Plasmodium falciparum infections in Panamanian and Colombian owl monkeys.

    PubMed

    Rossan, R N; Harper, J S; Davidson, D E; Escajadillo, A; Christensen, H A

    1985-11-01

    Parameters of blood-induced infections of the Vietnam Oak Knoll, Vietnam Smith, and Uganda Palo Alto strains of Plasmodium falciparum studied in 395 Panamanian owl monkeys in this laboratory between 1976-1984 were compared with those reported from another laboratory for 665 Colombian owl monkeys, studied between 1968-1975, and, at the time, designated Aotus trivirgatus griseimembra. The virulence of these strains was less in Panamanian than in Colombian owl monkeys, as indicated by lower mortality rates of the Panamanian monkeys during the first 30 days of patency. Maximum parasitemias of the Vietnam Smith and Uganda Palo Alto strain, in Panamanian owl monkeys dying during the first 15 days of patent infection, were significantly higher than in Colombian owl monkeys. Panamanian owl monkeys that survived the primary attack had significantly higher maximum parasitemias than the surviving Colombian owl monkeys. Peak parasitemias were attained significantly earlier after patency in Panamanian than in Colombian owl monkeys, irrespective of the strain of P. falciparum. More Panamanian than Colombian owl monkeys evidenced self-limited infection after the primary attack of either the Vietnam Smith or Uganda Palo Alto strain. The duration of the primary attacks and recrudescences were significantly shorter in Panamanian than in Colombian owl monkeys. Mean peak parasitemias during recrudescence were usually higher in Panamanian owl monkeys than in Colombian monkeys. Differences of infection parameters were probably attributable, in part, to geographical origin of the two monkey hosts and parasite strains. PMID:3914842

  16. 77 FR 73005 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Coastal Pelagic Species Fisheries; Annual Specifications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-07

    ...NMFS proposes to implement the annual catch limit (ACL), harvest guideline (HG), annual catch target (ACT) and associated annual reference points for Pacific mackerel in the U.S. exclusive economic zone (EEZ) off the Pacific coast for the fishing season of July 1, 2012, through June 30, 2013. This rule is proposed according to the Coastal Pelagic Species (CPS) Fishery Management Plan (FMP).......

  17. 78 FR 51097 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Coastal Pelagic Species Fisheries; Closure

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-20

    ...NMFS is prohibiting directed fishing for Pacific sardine off the coasts of Washington, Oregon and California. This action is necessary because the directed harvest allocation total for the second seasonal period (July 1-September 14) is projected to be reached by the effective date of this rule. From the effective date of this rule until September 15, 2013, Pacific sardine may be harvested......

  18. Spatio-temporal stress change after Tohoku-Oki Earthquake in the Pacific slab and Philippine Sea slab inverted from seismicity rate change in the coast of southern Tohoku and Kanto district, central Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, G.; Tsumura, N.

    2013-12-01

    From the analysis of seismicity rate, we estimated spatio-temporal evolution of Coulomb stress in the region which is located in the southern tip of Tohoku-Oki earthquake in off southern Tohoku and Kanto district. Our analysis focused on the upper boundaries of subducting Pacific slab (PAC) and Philippine Sea slab (PHS) in this region. For the analysis, we use the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA)'s hypocenter catalog of the period from 1998/1/1 to 2012/8/31. The result from the analysis of seismicity rate showed that the Coulomb stress change was perturbed extensively in the study area and large stress change reached in the southern part of the contact zone of the PHS and the PAC, while this area is located at outside of the source fault of Tohoku-Oki earthquake. Further some part of the region where the stress change was observed kept showing large stress change for several months. On the contrary, most of the region around off Boso peninsula, which is located on the southern part of the PHS-PAC contact zone, showed the relatively small stress change. Next, to evaluate the influence of the mainshock, the afterslip and a M7.9 aftershock for Tohoku-Oki earthquake on the local stress in this study region, we made simple forward modeling by assuming a half-space elastic body. For the forward modeling, we used simplified slip distributions for the Tohoku-Oki earthquake, a M7.9 aftershock and the Tohoku-Oki earthquake afterslip derived by Wei and Sladen (2011), JMA (2012), Ozawa et al., (2012) respectively. As the receiver fault on which the stress change was resolved, we adapted the upper boundaries of PAC and PHS (Uchida et al., 2009; Uchida et al., 2010). Slip vectors on the receiver faults were determined by referring to focal mechanisms around the plate boundaries. The result of this forward modeling indicated that the relatively large stress change occurred in most part of the study region, while the southern part on PHS-PAC contact zone showed the negative

  19. [Costa Rica mangroves: the north Pacific].

    PubMed

    Zamora-Trejos, Priscilla; Cortés, Jorge

    2009-09-01

    Costa Rica has mangrove forests on both the Caribbean and Pacific coasts. The Pacific side has 99% of the mangrove area of the country. In this review we compile available information on the mangroves of the north Pacific coast of Costa Rica, from Bahía Salinas, on the border with Nicaragua, to the tip of the Peninsula de Nicoya at Cabo Blanco. We provide information on the location of the mangroves and all available information for each mangrove forest. These mangrove communities are smaller in extension and tree sizes, and have lower diversity compared to the mangroves on the southern section of the Pacific coast of Costa Rica. The dominant species are Rhizophora mangle and Rhizophora racemosa along the canal edges, backed by Avicennia germinans, and farther inland Avicennia bicolor, Laguncularia racemosa and Conocarpus erectus. At Potrero Grande a healthy population of Pelliciera rhizophorae, a rare species, has been reported. We recognized 38 mangrove communities in this part of the country, based on the National Wetland Inventory, published papers, field observations, theses, technical reports, and the national topographic maps (1:50,000, Instituto Geográfico Nacional). Relatively detailed information could be found for only five mangrove forests, for 14 more only prelimary and incomplete lists of plants and in some cases of animal species are available, for nine there is even less information, and for nine more only their location is known, which in some cases was not correct. Detail mapping, characterization of the vegetation and fauna, physiological studies, analyses of biogeochemical and physical processes, economic valuations, and determination of the health status of the mangrove of the northern Pacific coast, as well as for the rest of Costa Rica, are neccesary and urgent.

  20. [Costa Rica mangroves: the north Pacific].

    PubMed

    Zamora-Trejos, Priscilla; Cortés, Jorge

    2009-09-01

    Costa Rica has mangrove forests on both the Caribbean and Pacific coasts. The Pacific side has 99% of the mangrove area of the country. In this review we compile available information on the mangroves of the north Pacific coast of Costa Rica, from Bahía Salinas, on the border with Nicaragua, to the tip of the Peninsula de Nicoya at Cabo Blanco. We provide information on the location of the mangroves and all available information for each mangrove forest. These mangrove communities are smaller in extension and tree sizes, and have lower diversity compared to the mangroves on the southern section of the Pacific coast of Costa Rica. The dominant species are Rhizophora mangle and Rhizophora racemosa along the canal edges, backed by Avicennia germinans, and farther inland Avicennia bicolor, Laguncularia racemosa and Conocarpus erectus. At Potrero Grande a healthy population of Pelliciera rhizophorae, a rare species, has been reported. We recognized 38 mangrove communities in this part of the country, based on the National Wetland Inventory, published papers, field observations, theses, technical reports, and the national topographic maps (1:50,000, Instituto Geográfico Nacional). Relatively detailed information could be found for only five mangrove forests, for 14 more only prelimary and incomplete lists of plants and in some cases of animal species are available, for nine there is even less information, and for nine more only their location is known, which in some cases was not correct. Detail mapping, characterization of the vegetation and fauna, physiological studies, analyses of biogeochemical and physical processes, economic valuations, and determination of the health status of the mangrove of the northern Pacific coast, as well as for the rest of Costa Rica, are neccesary and urgent. PMID:19928448

  1. Cervical cancer detection by electrical impedance in a Colombian setting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miranda, David A.; Corzo, Sandra P.; González Correa, C. A.

    2013-04-01

    Electrical properties of normal and neoplastic cervical tissues in a heterogeneous group of 56 Colombian women were studied by electrical impedance spectroscopy and a model based on the Generalized Effective-Medium Theory of Induced Polarization (GEMTIP). Differences between the electrical bioimpedance spectra were correlated with cellular and tissue parameters. The analysis performed by the proposed model suggest that the number of different types of cellular layers that form the biological tissue, the intracellular and extracellular conductivity could be used to explain the differences between electrical bioimpedance spectra in normal and neoplastic tissues.

  2. 33 CFR 334.960 - Pacific Ocean, San Clemente Island, Calif.; naval danger zone off West Cove.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Pacific Ocean, San Clemente... REGULATIONS § 334.960 Pacific Ocean, San Clemente Island, Calif.; naval danger zone off West Cove. (a) The danger zone. The waters of the Pacific Ocean in an area about one-half mile off the west coast of...

  3. 33 CFR 334.960 - Pacific Ocean, San Clemente Island, Calif.; naval danger zone off West Cove.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Pacific Ocean, San Clemente... REGULATIONS § 334.960 Pacific Ocean, San Clemente Island, Calif.; naval danger zone off West Cove. (a) The danger zone. The waters of the Pacific Ocean in an area about one-half mile off the west coast of...

  4. 33 CFR 334.960 - Pacific Ocean, San Clemente Island, Calif.; naval danger zone off West Cove.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pacific Ocean, San Clemente... REGULATIONS § 334.960 Pacific Ocean, San Clemente Island, Calif.; naval danger zone off West Cove. (a) The danger zone. The waters of the Pacific Ocean in an area about one-half mile off the west coast of...

  5. 33 CFR 334.960 - Pacific Ocean, San Clemente Island, Calif.; naval danger zone off West Cove.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pacific Ocean, San Clemente... REGULATIONS § 334.960 Pacific Ocean, San Clemente Island, Calif.; naval danger zone off West Cove. (a) The danger zone. The waters of the Pacific Ocean in an area about one-half mile off the west coast of...

  6. 33 CFR 334.960 - Pacific Ocean, San Clemente Island, Calif.; naval danger zone off West Cove.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pacific Ocean, San Clemente... REGULATIONS § 334.960 Pacific Ocean, San Clemente Island, Calif.; naval danger zone off West Cove. (a) The danger zone. The waters of the Pacific Ocean in an area about one-half mile off the west coast of...

  7. Development of protocols for chronic toxicity testing of Pacific marine species

    SciTech Connect

    Langdon, C.J.; Seim, W.K.; Hoffman, R.L.; Weber, L.

    1990-03-01

    The development of a year-round capability for conducting short-term toxicity tests for estimating chronic-effect levels of toxic materials with a native Pacific coast fish and a native Pacific coast mysid shrimp was the goal of the project. In order to achieve acceptable sensitivity as a surrogate for chronic toxicity tests, targeting the reproductive portion of the mysid life cycle and all or part of the embryonic, larval, or early post-larval portion of the fish life cycle was deemed necessary. This targeting is consistent with conclusions based upon earlier work in developing similar tests with Atlantic coast, Gulf coast, and freshwater fish and invertebrates.

  8. Colombian approaches to psychology in the 19th century.

    PubMed

    Oviedo, Gilberto Leonardo

    2012-11-01

    Colombian intellectuals of the 19th century widely consulted scientific psychology in regard to their political, religious, and educational interests. Colombian independence from Spain (1810) introduced the necessity of transforming the former subjects into illustrious citizens and members of a modern state. After independence, political liberals embraced Bentham's thesis of utilitarianism and the theories of sensibility, with a teaching style based in induction. Conservatives defended the Catholic tradition about the divine origin of the soul and used scholasticism as a model of teaching. A bipartisan coalition, the Regeneration, incorporated the ideas of modern psychology based on the principles of Thomistic thought (Neo-Thomism). The Neo-Thomists considered psychology as a science of the soul and debated physiological explanations of the mind. The conceptual advances of the period have been trivialized in historical accounts of psychology in Colombia, due to the emphasis on the institutionalization processes of the discipline in 1947. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:23397920

  9. GEOMORPHOLOGY AND ANTHROPOGENIC INFLUENCES ON FISH AND AMPHIBIANS IN PACIFIC NORTHWEST COASTAL STREAMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Physical habitat degradation has been implicated as a major contributor to the historic decline of salmonids in Pacific Northwest streams. Native aquatic vertebrate assemblages in the Oregon and Washington Coast Range consist primarily of coldwater salmonids, cottids, and amphib...

  10. Down Through the Eye of Hurricane Fefa, Pacific Ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The Pacific Ocean below can be seen looking down through the eye of Hurricane Fefa (exact location unknown). Fefa was a very strong Pacific Hurricane with a superb tightly formed eye. The tighter the eye in a circular storm, the stronger the winds within the gyre. At the time of this exposure, Fefa was located about midway between the California coast and Hawaii. Fefa dissipated at sea, failing to make landfall, and did no property damage

  11. Shelfbreak circulation, fronts and physical oceanography: east and west coast perspectives

    SciTech Connect

    Pietrafesa, L.J.

    1983-06-01

    A survey of fundamental physical oceanographic processes that may affect sediment distribution along shelfbreak regions is presented, emphasizing the Atlantic and Pacific coasts of the USA. These shelfbreak strips couple the bounded coastal oceans to the open seas, but there is no systematic pattern to this coupling. Pacific coast shelfbreak processes tend to be less energetic than those on the Atlantic coast since the Pacific coast is missing a Western Boundary Current and because the shelf is narrow and deep. Subinertial frequency shelfbreak motions on the west coast are typically manifested across the entire shelf, while those on the east coast tend to be confined to a loosely defined band, which brackets the break. Principal Pacific coast circulation elements include forms of continental shelf waves and thermohaline driven and mechanically wind forced currents, as well as the California Current System. While high frequency edge waves and inertial current are indigenous in similar fashion to all coasts, east and west coast tides are shown to be quite disparate, given tradeoffs between dominance of diurnal and semidiurnal constituents as a function of topographic constraint and strength of density stratification. All of the shelfbreak zones are graced by thermohaline fronts. The fronts are progradational on the west and southeastern coasts and retrogradational on the northeastern shelf. These fronts are an integral ingredient of all aspects of physical processes at the shelfbreak strip. The interplay of bottom topography with the physics of the outer continental margin is significant. Bottom features such as shoals, bumps, ridges and canyons are shown to be regions of sediment erosion, deposition and draping. Moreover, these features are shown to be casually related to upwelling and downwelling phenomena and to the deflection and scattering of waves and currents.

  12. Mya arenaria — an ancient invader of the North Sea coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strasser, Matthias

    1998-09-01

    Mya arenaria currently occupies a wide geographical range in the northern hemisphere, on both coasts of the Atlantic as well as on the Pacific east coast. Some authors claim it also occurs on the Pacific west coast. The species originated in the Pacific during the Miocene and was already present on both Atlantic coasts in the Pliocene. However, it died out on the east coasts of the Pacific and the Atlantic during glaciation of the Pleistocene. With the aid of man it was reintroduced to the North Sea some 400-700 years ago and to the East Pacific last century. In the 1960s it was also introduced to the Black Sea. M. arenaria invaded new habitats by different modes: (1) natural range expansion (2) intentional as plantings, (3) unintentional as a ballast species and (4) unintentional as a byproduct of oyster transplants. Properties that may favor its wide range of distribution and invading success are: high fecundity; planktonic dispersal stages and life stages that lend itself to unintentional transport by humans; a broad spectrum of habitat and food preference; tolerance of a wide range of environmental conditions such as salinity and temperature; longevity, and perhaps relatively large size.

  13. Dismemberment: cause of death in the Colombian armed conflict.

    PubMed

    Morcillo-Méndez, Maria Dolores; Campos, Isla Yolima

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to illustrate major findings in the recovery and analysis of victims, where dismemberment is the cause of death, but also a manner of torture within the context of the armed conflict in Colombia. It is intended to provide useful analytical information and to contribute to the correct interpretation of forensic analyses in cases of dismemberment and/or in the examination of human remains within the context of the Colombian armed conflict. The importance of including dismemberment as an opinion in the forensic report by correlating the findings on the body, the grave and context of the information available, and the accounts on the facts is encouraged. Otherwise these cases will be recorded as undetermined cause of death, which does not reflect the brutality of the war. PMID:22948397

  14. Antioxidant activity of twenty five plants from Colombian biodiversity.

    PubMed

    Mosquera, Oscar M; Correa, Yaned M; Buitrago, Diana C; Niño, Jaime

    2007-08-01

    The antioxidant activity of the crude n-hexane, dichloromethane, and methanol extracts from 25 species belonging to the Asteraceae, Euphorbiaceae, Rubiaceae, and Solanaceae families collected at natural reserves from the Eje Cafetero Ecorregión Colombia, were evaluated by using the spectrophotometric 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical-scavenging method. The strongest antioxidant activities were showed by the methanol and dichloromethane extracts from the Euphorbiaceae, Alchornea coelophylla (IC50 41.14 mg/l) and Acalypha platyphilla (IC50 111.99 mg/l), respectively. These two species had stronger DPPH radical scavenging activities than hydroquinone (IC50 151.19 mg/l), the positive control. The potential use of Colombian flora for their antioxidant activities is discussed.

  15. Dengue in an area of the Colombian Caribbean

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Barreto, Heidi; Mattar-Velilla, Salim

    2015-01-01

    Background: In Colombia, dengue is an endemic disease and the four serotypes have been reported. Objective: To describe the frequency and severity of dengue in an area of the Colombian Caribbean (Department of Cordoba) Methods: A retrospective study was conducted. Two data sources were analysed: The database from the Direction of Health in Córdoba, and clinical registers of patients diagnosed with haemorrhagic fevers and fevers of unknown origin in reference hospitals. Results: The mean incidence of dengue between 2003-2010 was 36.5 cases/105 inhabitants (CI95%: 34.3-37.5) and adjusted for sub-reporting, could be between 178.5 and 521.6. The mean incidence of severe dengue was 4.7 cases/105 inhabitants (CI95%: 4.3-5.0). Mean mortality rate due to dengue was 0.3 cases/105 inhabitants. The fatality rate was below 1%. The mean total leukocyte count in patients with dengue was 6,181 mm3 (CI95%: 5,973-6,389) and with severe Dengue was 4,729 mm3 (CI95%: 4,220-5,238). The average platelet count in patients with Dengue was 118,793/mm3 (CI95%: 107,255-130,331) and in patients with Severe Dengue 77,655 (CI95%: 59,640-95,670). Both differences were statistically significant (p <0.05). The frequency of laboratories test per patient in patients with Dengue and severe Dengue were different. Conclusion: The department of Cordoba is a highly endemic zone of Dengue and severe Dengue in the Colombian Caribbean. Moreover, the results show significant differences between dengue and severe dengue so much in tests as in frequency of use of healthcare services. PMID:26019378

  16. 33 CFR 110.237 - Pacific Ocean at Waimea, Hawaii, Naval Anchorage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at Waimea, Hawaii, Naval Anchorage. 110.237 Section 110.237 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.237 Pacific Ocean at...

  17. 33 CFR 110.235 - Pacific Ocean (Mamala Bay), Honolulu Harbor, Hawaii (Datum: NAD 83).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pacific Ocean (Mamala Bay), Honolulu Harbor, Hawaii (Datum: NAD 83). 110.235 Section 110.235 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... Pacific Ocean (Mamala Bay), Honolulu Harbor, Hawaii (Datum: NAD 83). (a) The anchorage...

  18. 33 CFR 110.235 - Pacific Ocean (Mamala Bay), Honolulu Harbor, Hawaii (Datum: NAD 83).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Pacific Ocean (Mamala Bay), Honolulu Harbor, Hawaii (Datum: NAD 83). 110.235 Section 110.235 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... Pacific Ocean (Mamala Bay), Honolulu Harbor, Hawaii (Datum: NAD 83). (a) The anchorage...

  19. 33 CFR 110.237 - Pacific Ocean at Waimea, Hawaii, Naval Anchorage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at Waimea, Hawaii, Naval Anchorage. 110.237 Section 110.237 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.237 Pacific Ocean at...

  20. 33 CFR 110.235 - Pacific Ocean (Mamala Bay), Honolulu Harbor, Hawaii (Datum: NAD 83).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Pacific Ocean (Mamala Bay), Honolulu Harbor, Hawaii (Datum: NAD 83). 110.235 Section 110.235 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... Pacific Ocean (Mamala Bay), Honolulu Harbor, Hawaii (Datum: NAD 83). (a) The anchorage...

  1. 33 CFR 110.220 - Pacific Ocean at San Nicolas Island, Calif.; restricted anchorage areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at San Nicolas Island, Calif.; restricted anchorage areas. 110.220 Section 110.220 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... Pacific Ocean at San Nicolas Island, Calif.; restricted anchorage areas. (a) The restricted areas—(1)...

  2. 33 CFR 110.220 - Pacific Ocean at San Nicolas Island, Calif.; restricted anchorage areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at San Nicolas Island, Calif.; restricted anchorage areas. 110.220 Section 110.220 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... Pacific Ocean at San Nicolas Island, Calif.; restricted anchorage areas. (a) The restricted areas—(1)...

  3. 33 CFR 110.237 - Pacific Ocean at Waimea, Hawaii, Naval Anchorage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at Waimea, Hawaii, Naval Anchorage. 110.237 Section 110.237 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.237 Pacific Ocean at...

  4. 33 CFR 110.237 - Pacific Ocean at Waimea, Hawaii, Naval Anchorage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at Waimea, Hawaii, Naval Anchorage. 110.237 Section 110.237 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.237 Pacific Ocean at...

  5. 33 CFR 110.237 - Pacific Ocean at Waimea, Hawaii, Naval Anchorage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at Waimea, Hawaii, Naval Anchorage. 110.237 Section 110.237 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.237 Pacific Ocean at...

  6. 33 CFR 110.235 - Pacific Ocean (Mamala Bay), Honolulu Harbor, Hawaii (Datum: NAD 83).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pacific Ocean (Mamala Bay), Honolulu Harbor, Hawaii (Datum: NAD 83). 110.235 Section 110.235 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... Pacific Ocean (Mamala Bay), Honolulu Harbor, Hawaii (Datum: NAD 83). (a) The anchorage...

  7. 33 CFR 110.220 - Pacific Ocean at San Nicolas Island, Calif.; restricted anchorage areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at San Nicolas Island, Calif.; restricted anchorage areas. 110.220 Section 110.220 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... Pacific Ocean at San Nicolas Island, Calif.; restricted anchorage areas. (a) The restricted area....

  8. 33 CFR 110.220 - Pacific Ocean at San Nicolas Island, Calif.; restricted anchorage areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at San Nicolas Island, Calif.; restricted anchorage areas. 110.220 Section 110.220 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... Pacific Ocean at San Nicolas Island, Calif.; restricted anchorage areas. (a) The restricted areas—(1)...

  9. 33 CFR 110.220 - Pacific Ocean at San Nicolas Island, Calif.; restricted anchorage areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pacific Ocean at San Nicolas Island, Calif.; restricted anchorage areas. 110.220 Section 110.220 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... Pacific Ocean at San Nicolas Island, Calif.; restricted anchorage areas. (a) The restricted areas—(1)...

  10. 33 CFR 110.235 - Pacific Ocean (Mamala Bay), Honolulu Harbor, Hawaii (Datum: NAD 83).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Pacific Ocean (Mamala Bay), Honolulu Harbor, Hawaii (Datum: NAD 83). 110.235 Section 110.235 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST... Pacific Ocean (Mamala Bay), Honolulu Harbor, Hawaii (Datum: NAD 83). (a) The anchorage...

  11. 33 CFR 165.T11-577 - Security Zone; Naval Exercise; Pacific Ocean, Coronado, CA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Security Zone; Naval Exercise; Pacific Ocean, Coronado, CA. 165.T11-577 Section 165.T11-577 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... § 165.T11-577 Security Zone; Naval Exercise; Pacific Ocean, Coronado, CA. (a) Location. The limits...

  12. 78 FR 47567 - Safety Zones; Pacific Northwest Grain Handlers Association Facilities; Columbia and Willamette...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-06

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zones; Pacific Northwest Grain Handlers... the following Pacific Northwest Grain Handlers Association facilities: the Columbia Grain facility on... FR Federal Register ] NPRM Notice of Proposed Rulemaking A. Public Participation and Request...

  13. 78 FR 7665 - Safety Zones; Pacific Northwest Grain Handlers Association Facilities; Columbia and Willamette...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-04

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zones; Pacific Northwest Grain Handlers... the following Pacific Northwest Grain Handlers Association facilities: the Columbia Grain facility on...) 366-9826. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Table of Acronyms DHS Department of Homeland Security FR...

  14. 50 CFR 600.1102 - Pacific Coast groundfish fee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... fishery means each of the fisheries for coastal Dungeness crab and pink shrimp in each of the States of California and Oregon and the fishery for coastal Dungeness crab and ocean pink shrimp in the State of... pink shrimp fee-share fishery, $674,202, (iii) Oregon coastal Dungeness crab fee-share fishery,...

  15. 50 CFR 600.1102 - Pacific Coast groundfish fee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... fishery means each of the fisheries for coastal Dungeness crab and pink shrimp in each of the States of California and Oregon and the fishery for coastal Dungeness crab and ocean pink shrimp in the State of... pink shrimp fee-share fishery, $674,202, (iii) Oregon coastal Dungeness crab fee-share fishery,...

  16. 50 CFR 600.1102 - Pacific Coast groundfish fee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... fishery means each of the fisheries for coastal Dungeness crab and pink shrimp in each of the States of California and Oregon and the fishery for coastal Dungeness crab and ocean pink shrimp in the State of... pink shrimp fee-share fishery, $674,202, (iii) Oregon coastal Dungeness crab fee-share fishery,...

  17. 50 CFR 600.1102 - Pacific Coast groundfish fee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... fishery means each of the fisheries for coastal Dungeness crab and pink shrimp in each of the States of California and Oregon and the fishery for coastal Dungeness crab and ocean pink shrimp in the State of... pink shrimp fee-share fishery, $674,202, (iii) Oregon coastal Dungeness crab fee-share fishery,...

  18. 50 CFR 600.1102 - Pacific Coast groundfish fee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... fishery means each of the fisheries for coastal Dungeness crab and pink shrimp in each of the States of California and Oregon and the fishery for coastal Dungeness crab and ocean pink shrimp in the State of... pink shrimp fee-share fishery, $674,202, (iii) Oregon coastal Dungeness crab fee-share fishery,...

  19. Preliminary assessment of radon potential of the Pacific coast states

    SciTech Connect

    Otton, J.K. )

    1993-04-01

    The US Geological Survey has recently released preliminary assessments of the radon potential in Washington, Oregon, and California. These assessments, funded by the Environmental Protection Agency, are based on geology, soils, aeroradiometric data, indoor radon data, and housing characteristics. Coastal mountain areas with low-uranium basaltic rocks and high soil moisture, and drier inland areas of low-uranium basaltic rocks in the northern part of the three-stage area have low round potential (<10 percent of homes with >4 pCi/L). Areas with highly permeable, uraniferous glacial outwash deposits in central and northeastern Washington; local areas with uraniferous marine shales in southern and south-central California; areas of granites, acidic volcanic rocks and alluvium derived from then in southeastern Oregon and central California; and steep soils developed on volcanic rocks in the Columbia River Gorge all have moderate (10-25 percent of homes with >4 pCi/L) radon potential. Extreme levels of indoor radon are possible in the northern Spokane, Wash. suburbs where homes may be sited on uranium occurrences. the radon potential of Mojave-Desert areas with high-uranium soils and rocks seems to be lowered by low radon entry rates, probably caused by slab-on-grade construction, use of evaporative coolers, and lifestyle factors. With the uranium-rich soils and rocks present, however, high indoor radon levels are possible where unusual housing conditions are present.

  20. 50 CFR 660.50 - Pacific Coast treaty Indian fisheries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... issued pursuant to 25 CFR part 249, subpart A, is prima facie evidence that the holder is a member of the... guideline for black rockfish is provided in paragraph (f)(1) of this section. Tribal fishery allocations for... and are specified here with the tribal allocations. (1) Black rockfish. (i) Harvest guidelines...