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Sample records for colon carcinoma tissue

  1. Terahertz absorption and reflection imaging of carcinoma-affected colon tissues embedded in paraffin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahaia, Faustino; Kasalynas, Irmantas; Venckevicius, Rimvydas; Seliuta, Dalius; Valusis, Gintaras; Urbanowicz, Andrzej; Molis, Gediminas; Carneiro, Fatima; Carvalho Silva, Catia D.; Granja, Pedro L.

    2016-03-01

    In the present study, dehydrated human colon tissues embedded in paraffin were studied at THz frequency. A compact THz imaging system with high numerical aperture optics was developed for the analysis of adenocarcinoma-affected colon sections, in transmission and reflection geometry. A comprehensive analysis of the THz images revealed a contrast up to 23% between the neoplastic and control tissues. Absorption and reflection THz images demonstrated the possibility to distinguish adenocarcinoma-affected areas even without water in the tissue, as the main contrast mechanism in THz measurements has been observed to be water absorption in in vivo or freshly excised tissues. The present results corroborate with previous histologic findings in the same tissues, and confirm that the contrast prevails even in dehydrated tissues.

  2. [Lactobacilli and colon carcinoma--A review].

    PubMed

    Wang, Shumei; Zhang, Lanwei; Shan, Yujuan

    2015-06-01

    Epidemiological studies showed that incidence of colon carcinoma is increased in the world. There are many difficulties to inhibit colon carcinoma because the causes of inducing colon carcinoma were various and interactive each other. Previous evidence supported the balance of the colonic microflora was critical in inhibiting colon carcinoma and the protection by colonic microflora could be improved by ingesting lactobacilli. Therefore, the biological functions and anticancer effects of lactobacilli attract attention of researchers. In this review we discussed the causes of colon carcinoma; the anticancer mechanisms of lactobacilli on the basis of our own studies. Eventually, we summarized the effects of anticancer of different components and metabolic products extracted from lactobacilli.

  3. [Lactobacilli and colon carcinoma--A review].

    PubMed

    Wang, Shumei; Zhang, Lanwei; Shan, Yujuan

    2015-06-01

    Epidemiological studies showed that incidence of colon carcinoma is increased in the world. There are many difficulties to inhibit colon carcinoma because the causes of inducing colon carcinoma were various and interactive each other. Previous evidence supported the balance of the colonic microflora was critical in inhibiting colon carcinoma and the protection by colonic microflora could be improved by ingesting lactobacilli. Therefore, the biological functions and anticancer effects of lactobacilli attract attention of researchers. In this review we discussed the causes of colon carcinoma; the anticancer mechanisms of lactobacilli on the basis of our own studies. Eventually, we summarized the effects of anticancer of different components and metabolic products extracted from lactobacilli. PMID:26562990

  4. Mixed Adenoneuroendocrine Carcinoma Causing Colonic Intussusception

    PubMed Central

    Pinho, André Costa; Marques, Ana; Lopes, Joanne; Duarte, Alexandre; da Silva, Pedro Correia; Lopes, José Manuel; Maia, J. Costa

    2016-01-01

    Colonic intussusception is a rare cause of intestinal obstruction in adults and is caused by a malignant lesion in about 70% of cases. Early diagnosis and treatment are essential. We present a 64-year-old male patient with right colonic intussusception caused by a mixed adenoneuroendocrine carcinoma (MANEC), presenting as a giant pedunculated polyp (54 mm of largest diameter). The patient underwent right colectomy with primary anastomosis and adjuvant chemotherapy. The diagnosis of intussusception of the colon in adults is difficult because of its rarity and nonspecific clinical presentation. In this case, the cause was a rare histological type malignant tumor (MANEC). PMID:27525153

  5. Colon carcinoma metastatic to the thyroid gland

    SciTech Connect

    Lester, J.W. Jr.; Carter, M.P.; Berens, S.V.; Long, R.F.; Caplan, G.E.

    1986-09-01

    Metastatic carcinoma to the thyroid gland rarely is encountered in clinical practice; however, autopsy series have shown that it is not a rare occurrence. A case of adenocarcinoma of the colon with metastases to the thyroid is reported. A review of the literature reveals that melanoma, breast, renal, and lung carcinomas are the most frequent tumors to metastasize to the thyroid. Metastatic disease must be considered in the differential diagnosis of cold nodules on radionuclide thyroid scans, particularly in patients with a known primary.

  6. [Thyroid metastasis due to right colonic carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Rauber, E; Pancrazio, F; Spivach, A; Stanta, G

    1998-12-01

    Clinical evident metastases to the thyroid gland are rarely found antemortem. A case of a 62 year-old man with a history of right colonic carcinoma, who presented a mass in the right lobe of his thyroid gland one year after the removal of a metachronous metastasis in his right lung, is presented. The tumour of the thyroid was found to be metastatic adenocarcinoma from his previous colonic cancer. The clinical finding of metastases to the thyroid gland is rare, particularly from a colorectal primary neoplasm. However, the possibility of a tumour of the thyroid gland representing a secondary malignancy is to be considered in any patient with a prior history of cancer.

  7. Specific Antigen in Serum of Patients with Colon Carcinoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koprowski, Hilary; Herlyn, Meenhard; Steplewski, Zenon; Sears, Henry F.

    1981-04-01

    The binding of monoclonal antibody specific for colon carcinoma was inhibited by serum from patients with adenocarcinoma of the colon but not by serum from patients with other bowel diseases or from healthy volunteers. Of other malignancies studied, serum from two patients with gastric carcinoma and two patients with pancreatic carcinoma also inhibited the specific binding of monoclonal antibody. The levels of carcinoembryonic antigen in these serum samples were not correlated with their levels of binding inhibition. Such monoclonal antibodies may prove useful for the detection of colorectal carcinoma.

  8. The destruction complex of beta-catenin in colorectal carcinoma and colonic adenoma

    PubMed Central

    Bourroul, Guilherme Muniz; Fragoso, Hélio José; Gomes, José Walter Feitosa; Bourroul, Vivian Sati Oba; Oshima, Celina Tizuko Fujiyama; Gomes, Thiago Simão; Saba, Gabriela Tognini; Palma, Rogério Tadeu; Waisberg, Jaques

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective To evaluate the destruction complex of beta-catenin by the expression of the proteins beta-catetenin, adenomatous polyposis coli, GSK3β, axin and ubiquitin in colorectal carcinoma and colonic adenoma. Methods Tissue samples from 64 patients with colorectal carcinoma and 53 patients with colonic adenoma were analyzed. Tissue microarray blocks and slides were prepared and subjected to immunohistochemistry with polyclonal antibodies in carcinoma, adjacent non-neoplastic mucosa, and adenoma tissues. The immunoreactivity was evaluated by the percentage of positive stained cells and by the intensity assessed through of the stained grade of proteins in the cytoplasm and nucleus of cells. In the statistical analysis, the Spearman correlation coefficient, Student’s t, χ2, Mann-Whitney, and McNemar tests, and univariate logistic regression analysis were used. Results In colorectal carcinoma, the expressions of beta-catenin and adenomatous polyposis coli proteins were significantly higher than in colonic adenomas (p<0.001 and p<0.0001, respectively). The immunoreactivity of GSK3β, axin 1 and ubiquitin proteins was significantly higher (p=0.03, p=0.039 and p=0.03, respectively) in colorectal carcinoma than in the colonic adenoma and adjacent non-neoplastic mucosa. The immunohistochemistry staining of these proteins did not show significant differences with the clinical and pathological characteristics of colorectal cancer and colonic adenoma. Conclusions These results suggest that, in adenomas, the lower expression of the beta-catenin, axin 1 and GSK3β proteins indicated that the destruction complex of beta-catenin was maintained, while in colorectal carcinoma, the increased expression of beta-catenin, GSK3β, axin 1, and ubiquitin proteins indicated that the destruction complex of beta-catenin was disrupted. PMID:27462886

  9. Different expression of calgizzarin (S100A11) in normal colonic epithelium, adenoma and colorectal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Melle, Christian; Ernst, Günther; Schimmel, Bettina; Bleul, Annett; Mothes, Henning; Kaufmann, Roland; Settmacher, Utz; Von Eggeling, Ferdinand

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the study was to detect proteomic markers usable to distinguish colorectal carcinoma from colon adenoma for a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms in the process of tumourigenesis. Therefore, we microdissected colon carcinoma tissue, epithelial colon adenoma tissue as well as normal adjacent colon epithelium and determined protein profiles by SELDI-TOF MS. A multitude of significantly different signals was detected. For their identification colon biopsis were lysed and subjected to a two-dimensional gel electrophoresis for separation. Subsequently, we identified nearly 100 proteins by tryptic digestion, peptide fingerprint mapping and database search. Calgizzarin (S100A11; S100C) identified by peptide fingerprint mapping correlated very well with a significantly differentially expressed signal found in prior protein profiling. Using an immunodepletion assay we confirmed the identity of this signal as calgizzarin. To localise calgizzarin in tissues we performed immunohistochemistry. For further confirmation of the identity of calgizzarin we re-analysed IHC-positive as well as IHC-negative tissue sections on ProteinChip arrays. This work demonstrates that biomarkers in colorectal cancer can be detected, identified and assessed by a proteomic approach comprising tissue-microdissection, protein profiling and immunological techniques. PMID:16327996

  10. Classification of human colonic tissues using FTIR spectra and advanced statistical techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zwielly, A.; Argov, S.; Salman, A.; Bogomolny, E.; Mordechai, S.

    2010-04-01

    One of the major public health hazards is colon cancer. There is a great necessity to develop new methods for early detection of cancer. If colon cancer is detected and treated early, cure rate of more than 90% can be achieved. In this study we used FTIR microscopy (MSP), which has shown a good potential in the last 20 years in the fields of medical diagnostic and early detection of abnormal tissues. Large database of FTIR microscopic spectra was acquired from 230 human colonic biopsies. Five different subgroups were included in our database, normal and cancer tissues as well as three stages of benign colonic polyps, namely, mild, moderate and severe polyps which are precursors of carcinoma. In this study we applied advanced mathematical and statistical techniques including principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA), on human colonic FTIR spectra in order to differentiate among the mentioned subgroups' tissues. Good classification accuracy between normal, polyps and cancer groups was achieved with approximately 85% success rate. Our results showed that there is a great potential of developing FTIR-micro spectroscopy as a simple, reagent-free viable tool for early detection of colon cancer in particular the early stages of premalignancy among the benign colonic polyps.

  11. Extrahepatic biliary obstruction by metastatic colon carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Warshaw, A L; Welch, J P

    1978-11-01

    Extrahepatic biliary obstruction can be caused by cancer metastatic from the colon to the lymph nodes adjacent to the bile duct. This report details our experience with eight such cases treated at the Massachusetts General Hospital in the last seven years. The interval between resection of the primary tumor and appearance of jaundice averaged 13 months. The location of the obstruction, preferably defined preoperatively by cholangiography, was low on the common duct in three cases and high in the porta hepatis in five. Relief of biliary obstruction was accomplished by biliary-enteric bypass (four cases), internal biliary stenting by permanent indwelling tube (two cases), or by portal irradiation (two cases). In addition to palliating the symptoms of obstructive jaundice, the period of comfortable survival appears to have been extended: the bypassed patients lived 13-38 months. Erosion of tumor into the duodenum, with resulting gastrointestinal hemorrhage, was an additional problem in three patients. Our overall experience illustrates the value of distinguishing this subgroup of patients from the larger number whose jaundice results from extensive liver metastases, and of treating aggressively those with extrahepatic biliary obstruction.

  12. Pleomorphic Carcinoma of the Colon: Morphological and Immunohistochemical Findings

    PubMed Central

    Branca, Giovanni; Barresi, Valeria; Ieni, Antonio; Irato, Eleonora; Caruso, Rosario Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Pleomorphic carcinoma is an aggressive neoplasm defined by the World Health Organization (WHO) as a poorly differentiated (squamous cell carcinoma or adenocarcinoma) or undifferentiated carcinoma in which at least 10% spindle and/or giant cells are identified, or as a carcinoma constituted purely of spindle and giant cells. Although this entity has initially been shown in the lung, it has been described also in extrapulmonary locations, with only one report for a colonic site. A 65-year-old woman developed a caecal tumour. Gross examination revealed an endophytic/ulcerative mass 7 cm in length. Microscopically, the tumour was a poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma with a pleomorphic component that occupied more than 10% of the specimen. The tumour shared these histopathological findings with pulmonary giant cell carcinoma but differed in other clinicopathological features such as a pushing growth pattern, stage pT3N1, and an uneventful outcome 24 months after operation. The pleomorphic component showed morphological and immunohistochemical features compatible with mitotic catastrophe, a non-apoptotic cell death occurring in cycling cells after aberrant mitosis. These features included multinucleation, micronucleation, atypical mitoses, foci of geographic necrosis, as well as immunohistochemical overexpression of p53 and Ki-67. The interpretation of the pleomorphic component as morphological expression of mitotic catastrophe may be useful in comprehending the pathogenesis of this rare neoplasm, and it may have practical implications as a potential cancer therapeutic target. PMID:27462191

  13. Butyrate modulates antioxidant enzyme expression in malignant and non-malignant human colon tissues.

    PubMed

    Jahns, Franziska; Wilhelm, Anne; Jablonowski, Nadja; Mothes, Henning; Greulich, Karl Otto; Glei, Michael

    2015-04-01

    The induction of antioxidant enzymes is an important mechanism in colon cancer chemoprevention, but the response of human colon tissue to butyrate, a gut fermentation product derived from dietary fiber, remains largely unknown. Therefore, our study investigated the effect of a butyrate treatment on catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD2) in matched human colon tissues of different transformation stages (n = 3-15 in each group) ex vivo. By performing quantitative real-time PCR, Western blot, and spectrophotometric measurements, we found an increase in SOD2 at expression and activity level in colonic adenocarcinomas (mRNA: 1.96-fold; protein: 1.41-fold, activity: 1.8-fold; P < 0.05). No difference was detectable for CAT between normal, adenoma, and carcinoma colon tissues. Treatment of normal colon epithelium (12 h) with a physiologically relevant concentration of butyrate (10 mM) resulted in a significant increase (P < 0.05) in CAT mRNA (1.24-fold) and protein (1.39-fold), without affecting the enzymatic activity. Consequently, preliminary experiments failed to show any protective effect of butyrate against H2 O2 -mediated DNA damage. Despite a significantly lowered SOD2 transcript (0.51-fold, P < 0.01) and, to a lesser extent, protein level (0.86-fold) after butyrate exposure of normal colon cells, the catalytic activity was significantly enhanced (1.19-fold, P < 0.05), suggesting an increased protection against tissue superoxide radicals. In malignant tissues, greater variations in response to butyrate were observed. Furthermore, both enzymes showed an age-dependent decrease in activity in normal colon epithelium (CAT: r = -0.49, P = 0.09; SOD2: r = -0.58, P = 0.049). In conclusion, butyrate exhibited potential antioxidant features ex vivo but cellular consequences need to be investigated more in depth.

  14. Primary colonic signet ring cell carcinoma in a young patient.

    PubMed

    Prabhu, Raghunath; Kumar, Neha; Krishna, Sunil; Shenoy, Rajgopal

    2014-01-01

    A 28-year-old woman presented with colicky abdominal pain for 3 months. Pain was associated with episodes of vomiting, abdominal distension and constipation. She also had loss of weight for this duration. General physical examination was unremarkable and the abdomen was soft, with no palpable organomegaly. A CT of the abdomen showed small bowel and ascending colon dilation with multiple air fluid levels. There was also a short segment of circumferential bowel wall thickening and luminal narrowing in the hepatic flexure with sudden transition of bowel diameter. She underwent a right hemicolectomy after necessary preoperative investigations. Histopathology revealed signet ring cell carcinoma (SRCC). This case highlights the importance of detecting such a lesion in a young, otherwise fit woman. The challenge lies in early diagnosis and awareness of general practitioners about this aggressive form of colonic tumours. PMID:24654235

  15. Major Protein of Carcinoembryonic Antigen Gene Family - CD66c, A Novel Marker in Colon Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Nataraj, Suma M; Prema, Chaitra Linganna; Vimalambike, Manjunath Gubbanna; Shivalingaiah, Sheeladevi Chandakavadi; Sundaram, Shivakumar; Kumar, Anjali Pradeep; Math, Ananda Kuruvatti

    2016-01-01

    Introduction In view of rising trend of the incidence of colorectal carcinoma in the Indian population due to adoption of western lifestyles and behaviours, we investigated the expression of the new emerging stem cell biomarker, CD66c in colorectal carcinoma of Indian origin. Aim To study the expression of CD66c in human colorectal carcinoma and to correlate level of marker expression with tumour staging. Materials and Methods This hospital based prospective study was conducted on 26 colorectal carcinoma patients in the age group of 20 years to 70 years. Surgically resected tumour specimens along with adjacent normal tissue were collected taking necessary precautions, paraffin embedded sections were prepared and used for histological and immunohistochemical analysis of CD66c. Statistical analysis Descriptive statistical measures like mean, standard deviation, percentage was applied. Other inferential statistical tests like Chi-square, Fisher’s-exact test and one-way ANOVA was applied to find out the association of CD66c with different stages. The difference were interpreted as statistically significant when p <0.05. Results CD66c showed differential expression with membrane positivity in normal colorectal epithelial cells and cytoplasmic expression in tumour cells. There was significant correlation between CD66c expression and tumour site (p=0.02) with colon carcinoma showing positive expression compared to the rectal carcinoma. There was no significant correlation between CD66c staining and tumour stage (p=0.947). No significant relationship was observed between CD66c expression and other clinicopathologic variables studied such as sex (p=0.552), age (p=0.713) and tumour grade (p=0.263). Conclusion CD66c can be specifically used for colon carcinoma and may be a novel marker in colon carcinoma stem cell isolation. The quantification of CD66c can be further verified by flow cytometry and RT-PCR. Further studies can be carried out using CD66c alone or in

  16. Expression Profiles of miRNA Subsets Distinguish Human Colorectal Carcinoma and Normal Colonic Mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Pellatt, Daniel F; Stevens, John R; Wolff, Roger K; Mullany, Lila E; Herrick, Jennifer S; Samowitz, Wade; Slattery, Martha L

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, non-protein-coding RNA molecules that are commonly dysregulated in colorectal tumors. The objective of this study was to identify smaller subsets of highly predictive miRNAs. METHODS: Data come from population-based studies of colorectal cancer conducted in Utah and the Kaiser Permanente Medical Care Program. Tissue samples were available for 1,953 individuals, of which 1,894 had carcinoma tissue and 1,599 had normal mucosa available for statistical analysis. Agilent Human miRNA Microarray V.19.0 was used to generate miRNA expression profiles; validation of expression levels was carried out using quantitative PCR. We used random forest analysis and verified findings with logistic modeling in separate data sets. Important microRNAs are identified and bioinformatics tools are used to identify target genes and related biological pathways. RESULTS: We identified 16 miRNAs for colon and 17 miRNAs for rectal carcinoma that appear to differentiate between carcinoma and normal mucosa; of these, 12 were important for both colon and rectal cancer, hsa-miR-663b, hsa-miR-4539, hsa-miR-17-5p, hsa-miR-20a-5p, hsa-miR-21-5p, hsa-miR-4506, hsa-miR-92a-3p, hsa-miR-93-5p, hsa-miR-145-5p, hsa-miR-3651, hsa-miR-378a-3p, and hsa-miR-378i. Estimated misclassification rates were low at 4.83% and 2.5% among colon and rectal observations, respectively. Among independent observations, logistic modeling reinforced the importance of these miRNAs, finding the primary principal components of their variation statistically significant (P<0.001 among both colon and rectal observations) and again producing low misclassification rates. Repeating our analysis without those miRNAs initially identified as important identified other important miRNAs; however, misclassification rates increased and distinctions between remaining miRNAs in terms of classification importance were reduced. CONCLUSIONS: Our data support the hypothesis that while many miRNAs are

  17. Morphological Differentiation of Colon Carcinoma Cell Lines in Rotating Wall Vessels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jessup, J. M.

    1994-01-01

    The objectives of this project were to determine whether (1) microgravity permits unique, three-dimensional cultures of neoplastic human colon tissues and (2) this culture interaction produces novel intestinal growth and differentiation factors. The initial phase of this project tested the efficacy of simulated microgravity for the cultivation and differentiation of human colon carcinoma in rotating wall vessels (RWV's) on microcarrier beads. The RWV's simulate microgravity by randomizing the gravity vector in an aqueous medium under a low shear stress environment in unit gravity. This simulation achieves approximately a one-fifth g environment that allows cells to 'float' and form three-dimensional relationships with less shear stress than in other stirred aqueous medium bioreactors. In the second phase of this project we assessed the ability of human colon carcinoma lines to adhere to various substrates because adhesion is the first event that must occur to create three-dimensional masses. Finally, we tested growth factor production in the last phase of this project.

  18. Characterization of galactosyl glycerolipids in the HT29 human colon carcinoma cell line.

    PubMed

    Påhlsson, P; Spitalnik, S L; Spitalnik, P F; Fantini, J; Rakotonirainy, O; Ghardashkhani, S; Lindberg, J; Konradsson, P; Larson, G

    2001-12-15

    Glycoglycerolipids constitute a family of glycolipids with apparently very restricted expression in human tissues. They have previously been detected only in the testis and the nervous system. In the present study, two glycoglycerolipids were isolated from the HT29 human colon carcinoma cell line. The glycoglycerolipids were structurally characterized as a monogalactosylglycerolipid (1-O-alkyl-2-O-acyl-3-O-(beta-galactosyl)-sn-glycerol) and a digalactosylglycerolipid (1-O-alkyl-2-O-acyl-3-O-(beta-galactosyl(1-4)alpha-galactosyl)-sn-glycerol) using NMR and mass spectrometry. This digalactosylglycerolipid has not previously been structurally characterized. When HT29 cells were allowed to differentiate into more enterocyte-like cells by culture in glucose-free medium, expression of both of these glycoglycerolipids was greatly diminished. The presence of glycoglycerolipids in a human colon carcinoma cell line indicates that expression of this family of glycolipids may not be as restricted as previously thought. Instead this class of glycolipids may serve as differentiation antigens in various normal tissues and in tumor development. The Galalpha1-4Gal epitope was previously identified as a receptor for bacterial adhesins and toxins. The finding that this epitope is also linked to a glycerolipid moiety opens up new possible roles for this carbohydrate receptor in intracellular signaling.

  19. Endometriosis presenting as carcinoma colon in a perimenopausal woman

    PubMed Central

    Muthyala, Tanuja; Sikka, Pooja; Aggarwal, Neelam; Suri, Vanita; Gupta, Rajesh; Nahar, Uma

    2015-01-01

    Endometriosis is a common benign disease of reproductive age women, and can involve the intestinal tract. Inconsistent clinical presentation, similar features on radiological imaging and colonoscopy with other inflammatory and malignant lesions of the bowel makes the preoperative diagnosis of bowel endometriosis difficult. We present a case of a 42-year-old perimenopausal female clinically presented, investigated and managed in the lines of carcinoma of sigmoid colon. She underwent terminal ileac resection with end to end anastomoses, Hartmann's procedure and total hysterectomy with bilateral salpingoophorectomy. The histopathological report revealed endometriosis of small intestine, large intestine, mesentery, right ovary and adenomyoma of uterus. Thus, bowel endometriosis should also be considered as differential diagnosis in reproductive age women with gastrointestinal symptoms or intestinal mass of uncertain diagnosis. PMID:26538989

  20. Endometriosis presenting as carcinoma colon in a perimenopausal woman.

    PubMed

    Muthyala, Tanuja; Sikka, Pooja; Aggarwal, Neelam; Suri, Vanita; Gupta, Rajesh; Nahar, Uma

    2015-01-01

    Endometriosis is a common benign disease of reproductive age women, and can involve the intestinal tract. Inconsistent clinical presentation, similar features on radiological imaging and colonoscopy with other inflammatory and malignant lesions of the bowel makes the preoperative diagnosis of bowel endometriosis difficult. We present a case of a 42-year-old perimenopausal female clinically presented, investigated and managed in the lines of carcinoma of sigmoid colon. She underwent terminal ileac resection with end to end anastomoses, Hartmann's procedure and total hysterectomy with bilateral salpingoophorectomy. The histopathological report revealed endometriosis of small intestine, large intestine, mesentery, right ovary and adenomyoma of uterus. Thus, bowel endometriosis should also be considered as differential diagnosis in reproductive age women with gastrointestinal symptoms or intestinal mass of uncertain diagnosis.

  1. A case of colonic lymphoid tissue invasion by Gymnophalloides seoi in a Korean man

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Min; Chun, Hokyung; Ahn, Geunghwan; Jang, Kee-Taek; Guk, Sang-Mee

    2006-01-01

    A 65-year old Korean man, living in Mokpo-city, Jeollanam-do, Republic of Korea, visited a local clinic complaining of right upper quadrant pain and indigestion. At colonoscopy, he was diagnosed as having a carcinoma of the ascending colon, and thus, a palliative right hemicolectomy was performed. Subsequently, an adult fluke of Gymnophalloides seoi was incidentally found in a surgical pathology specimen of the lymph node around the colon. The worm was found to have invaded gut lymphoid tissue, with characteristic morphologies of a large oral sucker, a small ventral sucker, and a ventral pit surrounded by strong muscle fibers. This is the first reported case of mucosal tissue invasion by G. seoi in the human intestinal tract. PMID:16514288

  2. Transforming growth factor-alpha precursors in human colon carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Asbert, M; Montaner, B; Pérez-Tomás, R

    2001-06-01

    Among the proteins of the epidermal growth factor family, transforming growth factor-alpha (TGF-alpha) may be an especially reliable indicator of metastasis or prognosis in human colorectal carcinomas. Moreover, anomalous forms of TGF-alpha have been detected in several tissues of cancer origin, suggesting a role of these forms in the development of the disease. This study was designed to identify the presence of TGF-alpha precursors in different colon cancer cell lines by mean of immunocytochemistry and western blotting techniques. Pro-TGF-alpha was detected in all cell lines tested. Staining for pro-TGF-alpha was observed in cytoplasm. Monoclonal antibody to TGF-alpha detected two bands of 20 and 21 kDa. Polyclonal antibody to pro-TGF-alpha revealed five bands ranging from 15 to 24 kDa. All these proteins were also detected in nonmalignant cells expressing a transfected rat pro-TGF-alpha gene. In conclusions, transformation in these human colon carcinoma cells is not due to the presence of anomalous forms of TGF-alpha precursors.

  3. [Signet ring cell carcinoma of sigmoid colon in an adolescent patient. Report of a case].

    PubMed

    Casavilca Zambrano, S; Cisneros Gallegos, E; Lem Arce, F; Magallanes Maldonado, M

    2001-01-01

    We report the case of a female patient, sixteen years old who was diagnosed of signet ring cell carcinoma of sigmoid colon. We discuss the clinical presentation outstanding the early presentation of this unusual cancer.

  4. Colonic Macrophages "Remote Control" Adipose Tissue Inflammation and Insulin Resistance.

    PubMed

    Biswas, Subhra K; Bonecchi, Raffaella

    2016-08-01

    The early events linking diet-induced adipose tissue inflammation and insulin resistance remain poorly understood. In this issue of Cell Metabolism, Kawano et al. (2016) show that infiltration of colonic pro-inflammatory macrophages orchestrated by the intestinal CCL2/CCR2 axis kick-starts this process during high-fat-diet feeding. PMID:27508866

  5. Transcriptional attenuation in colon carcinoma cells in response to butyrate.

    PubMed

    Daroqui, Maria C; Augenlicht, Leonard H

    2010-10-01

    The short-chain fatty acid sodium butyrate (NaB), produced in the colonic lumen, induces cell cycle arrest, differentiation, and/or apoptosis in colorectal carcinoma cells in vitro, establishing a potential role for NaB in colon cancer prevention. We have previously shown that butyrate decreases cyclin D1 and c-myc expression, each essential for intestinal tumor development, by transcriptional attenuation. Here, we determined that butyrate-induced transcriptional attenuation of the cyclin D1 and c-myc genes in SW837 human colorectal adenocarcinoma cells occurs at ∼100 nucleotides downstream of the transcription start site, with a similar positioning in Caco-2 cells. A concomitant decrease in RNA polymerase II occupancy at the 5' end of each gene was observed. Because transcriptional regulation is associated with chromatin remodeling, we investigated by chromatin immunoprecipitation whether the histone deacetylase inhibitory activity of butyrate altered chromatin structure at the attenuated loci. Although the distributions of histone H3 trimethylated on K4 and K36 along the cyclin D1 and c-myc genes were consistent with current models, butyrate induced only modest decreases in these modifications, with a similar effect on acetylated H3 and a modest increase in histone H3 trimethylated on K27. Finally, transcriptome analysis using novel microarrays showed that butyrate-induced attenuation is widespread throughout the genome, likely independent of transcriptional initiation. We identified 42 loci potentially paused by butyrate and showed that the transcription patterns are gene specific. The biological functions of these loci encompass a number of effects of butyrate on the physiology of intestinal epithelial cells.

  6. Interleukin-8 as an autocrine growth factor for human colon carcinoma cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Brew, R; Erikson, J S; West, D C; Kinsella, A R; Slavin, J; Christmas, S E

    2000-01-01

    Cell lines derived from human colon carcinomas secrete interleukin 8 (IL-8) in vitro and this chemokine has also been detected immunohistochemically in human colon carcinoma specimens, in which it is tumour cell associated. In these experiments, IL-8 was shown to comprise an important component of the angiogenic activity of colon carcinoma cell line supernatants. The effect of modulating IL-8 activity upon the growth of the colon carcinoma cell lines HCT116A, HT29 and CaCo2 was investigated. Supplementing endogenously produced IL-8 by recombinant chemokine led to stimulation of cell growth. Neutralization of the effect of endogenously produced IL-8, either with the specific antagonist peptide AcRRWWCR or with blocking anti-IL-8 antibody, resulted in around 50% inhibition of cell growth (P<0.05). All of the colon carcinoma cell lines tested expressed mRNA for both IL-8RA and RB when grown at confluence. At the protein level, all cell lines expressed IL-8RA. Expression of IL-8RB was weak, although increased expression was seen in HCT116A cells as they approached confluence. Antibodies to IL-8RA and RB did not affect proliferation at low cell density but were strongly inhibitory when cells were cultured at a higher density. These data suggest that IL-8 acts as an autocrine growth factor for colon carcinoma cell lines and would support the concept that a similar autocrine loop operates in vivo.

  7. Recurrence of Urothelial Bladder Carcinoma in the Colon Presenting as Hematochezia

    PubMed Central

    Krzyzak, Michael; Barakat, Iskandar; Deeb, Liliane

    2016-01-01

    Patients with superficial bladder cancers remain clinically indolent after treatment with even a modicum of urologic intervention. However, with more invasive disease, the majority of patients experience recurrence. The conventional route of metastasis and recurrence in primary urothelial cell carcinoma is through lymphatic system, with regional lymph nodes, lungs, liver, brain, and bone being the most common sites. Isolated intraluminal colonic recurrence in the absence of local invasion is extremely rare. We report a unique case of urothelial cell carcinoma presenting with an isolated colonic mass, which unexpectedly, on immunohistostaining, proved to be primarily of urothelial rather than colonic origin. PMID:27807561

  8. [Recent results of research on cancer of the colon, gastric cancer, sarcoma and bronchial carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Hacker, U T; Wolf, J; Wendtner, C-M

    2011-02-01

    In patients up to 70 years of age with colon carcinoma stage III adjuvant chemotherapy with infusions of fluorouracil (5-FU) or oral capecitabine combined with oxaliplatin should be the standard method. A new standard for the palliative treatment of Her2/newly positive advanced gastric cancer and cancer at the gastro-esophageal junction is the administration of trastuzumab combined with chemotherapy. Patients with high-risk soft tissue sarcoma can be helped, in addition to surgical resection and subsequent radiotherapy, by neoadjuvant chemotherapy combined with regional deep hyperthermia. For patients with lung cancer additional individualized treatment is about to become routine. In addition to the EGFR mutation status, all non-smokers should in future be tested for aberration in the anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene.

  9. Fusobacterium in colonic flora and molecular features of colorectal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Tahara, Tomomitsu; Yamamoto, Eiichiro; Suzuki, Hiromu; Maruyama, Reo; Chung, Woonbok; Garriga, Judith; Jelinek, Jaroslav; Yamano, Hiro-o; Sugai, Tamotsu; An, Byonggu; Shureiqi, Imad; Toyota, Minoru; Kondo, Yutaka; Estécio, Marcos R H; Issa, Jean-Pierre J

    2014-03-01

    Fusobacterium species are part of the gut microbiome in humans. Recent studies have identified overrepresentation of Fusobacterium in colorectal cancer tissues, but it is not yet clear whether this is pathogenic or simply an epiphenomenon. In this study, we evaluated the relationship between Fusobacterium status and molecular features in colorectal cancers through quantitative real-time PCR in 149 colorectal cancer tissues, 89 adjacent normal appearing mucosae and 72 colonic mucosae from cancer-free individuals. Results were correlated with CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP) status, microsatellite instability (MSI), and mutations in BRAF, KRAS, TP53, CHD7, and CHD8. Whole-exome capture sequencing data were also available in 11 cases. Fusobacterium was detectable in 111 of 149 (74%) colorectal cancer tissues and heavily enriched in 9% (14/149) of the cases. As expected, Fusobacterium was also detected in normal appearing mucosae from both cancer and cancer-free individuals, but the amount of bacteria was much lower compared with colorectal cancer tissues (a mean of 250-fold lower for Pan-fusobacterium). We found the Fusobacterium-high colorectal cancer group (FB-high) to be associated with CIMP positivity (P = 0.001), TP53 wild-type (P = 0.015), hMLH1 methylation positivity (P = 0.0028), MSI (P = 0.018), and CHD7/8 mutation positivity (P = 0.002). Among the 11 cases where whole-exome sequencing data were available, two that were FB-high cases also had the highest number of somatic mutations (a mean of 736 per case in FB-high vs. 225 per case in all others). Taken together, our findings show that Fusobacterium enrichment is associated with specific molecular subsets of colorectal cancers, offering support for a pathogenic role in colorectal cancer for this gut microbiome component.

  10. Limitations of tissue micro array in Duke's B colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Kjaer-Frifeldt, Sanne; Lindebjerg, Jan; Brünner, Nils; Garm Spindler, Karen-Lise; Jakobsen, Anders

    2012-10-01

    Tissue micro array (TMA) is widely used in cancer research in search of new predictive and prognostic markers. Colon cancer is known to be heterogeneous and the present study addresses some methodological aspects using cores of different size and analysing markers with different cellular distribution. We selected 61 paraffin-embedded tissue blocks representing patients diagnosed with Dukes B colon cancer. Two 1 mm and two 2 mm cores were taken from both the centre and the invasive front of the tumour respectively. The immunostaining included MLH1, MSH2, PMS2, p53, COX-2, TIMP and Betacatenin. Twenty-five percent of the cores taken from paraffin blocks less than 0.5 cm was lost and the total loss was 8%. The homogeneous stains (MLH1, MSH2 and PMS2) all showed high agreement between TMA and whole tissue stains (kappa = 0.96,1 and 1 respectively). The COX-2, p53 and Betacatenin illustrated moderate to high agreement (kappa = 0.54-0.9) whereas TIMP-1 had the lowest score (kappa 0.19-0.25). The application of TMA in Dukes B colon cancer has several pitfalls and depends substantially on the immunohistochemical marker in question. Therefore a validation study seems justified before applying large scale TMA in this setting.

  11. Physical Activity Counteracts Tumor Cell Growth in Colon Carcinoma C26-Injected Muscles: An Interim Report

    PubMed Central

    Hiroux, Charlotte; Vandoorne, Tijs; Koppo, Katrien; De Smet, Stefan; Hespel, Peter; Berardi, Emanuele

    2016-01-01

    Skeletal muscle tissue is a rare site of tumor metastasis but is the main target of the degenerative processes occurring in cancer-associated cachexia syndrome. Beneficial effects of physical activity in counteracting cancer-related muscle wasting have been described in the last decades. Recently it has been shown that, in tumor xeno-transplanted mouse models, physical activity is able to directly affect tumor growth by modulating inflammatory responses in the tumor mass microenvironment. Here, we investigated the effect of physical activity on tumor cell growth in colon carcinoma C26 cells injected tibialis anterior muscles of BALB/c mice. Histological analyses revealed that 4 days of voluntary wheel running significantly counteracts tumor cell growth in C26-injected muscles compared to the non-injected sedentary controls. Since striated skeletal muscle tissue is the site of voluntary contraction, our results confirm that physical activity can also directly counteract tumor cell growth in a metabolically active tissue that is usually not a target for metastasis. PMID:27478560

  12. Diagnosis of colonic amebiasis and coexisting signet-ring cell carcinoma in intestinal biopsy.

    PubMed

    Grosse, Alexandra

    2016-09-28

    Amebiasis is uncommon in developed countries. Several case reports in the literature emphasize that both the presenting symptoms and the radiological findings of colonic amebiasis closely resemble more common conditions, such as idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease and gastro-intestinal malignancy. We describe a unique case of colonic amebiasis (amebomas) coexisting with signet-ring cell carcinoma of the ileocecal valve, the cecum and the appendix. Endoscopically, the ulcerated tumor was indistinguishable from the ulcerations and pseudotumors (amebomas) detected in the ascending colon. Histological examination of biopsy specimens revealed the pathognomonic features of protozoa with ingested erythrocytes in combination with signet-ring cell infiltration. The author concludes that amebiasis may not only mimic carcinoma but, rarely, may coexist with carcinoma in the same patient. Clinicians and pathologists should be aware of this possibility in order not to delay diagnosis and treatment of malignant disease. PMID:27688666

  13. Diagnosis of colonic amebiasis and coexisting signet-ring cell carcinoma in intestinal biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Grosse, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    Amebiasis is uncommon in developed countries. Several case reports in the literature emphasize that both the presenting symptoms and the radiological findings of colonic amebiasis closely resemble more common conditions, such as idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease and gastro-intestinal malignancy. We describe a unique case of colonic amebiasis (amebomas) coexisting with signet-ring cell carcinoma of the ileocecal valve, the cecum and the appendix. Endoscopically, the ulcerated tumor was indistinguishable from the ulcerations and pseudotumors (amebomas) detected in the ascending colon. Histological examination of biopsy specimens revealed the pathognomonic features of protozoa with ingested erythrocytes in combination with signet-ring cell infiltration. The author concludes that amebiasis may not only mimic carcinoma but, rarely, may coexist with carcinoma in the same patient. Clinicians and pathologists should be aware of this possibility in order not to delay diagnosis and treatment of malignant disease.

  14. Diagnosis of colonic amebiasis and coexisting signet-ring cell carcinoma in intestinal biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Grosse, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    Amebiasis is uncommon in developed countries. Several case reports in the literature emphasize that both the presenting symptoms and the radiological findings of colonic amebiasis closely resemble more common conditions, such as idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease and gastro-intestinal malignancy. We describe a unique case of colonic amebiasis (amebomas) coexisting with signet-ring cell carcinoma of the ileocecal valve, the cecum and the appendix. Endoscopically, the ulcerated tumor was indistinguishable from the ulcerations and pseudotumors (amebomas) detected in the ascending colon. Histological examination of biopsy specimens revealed the pathognomonic features of protozoa with ingested erythrocytes in combination with signet-ring cell infiltration. The author concludes that amebiasis may not only mimic carcinoma but, rarely, may coexist with carcinoma in the same patient. Clinicians and pathologists should be aware of this possibility in order not to delay diagnosis and treatment of malignant disease. PMID:27688666

  15. MiR-30a-5p suppresses tumor growth in colon carcinoma by targeting DTL.

    PubMed

    Baraniskin, Alexander; Birkenkamp-Demtroder, Karin; Maghnouj, Abdelouahid; Zöllner, Hannah; Munding, Johanna; Klein-Scory, Susanne; Reinacher-Schick, Anke; Schwarte-Waldhoff, Irmgard; Schmiegel, Wolff; Hahn, Stephan A

    2012-04-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs that are involved in different biological processes by suppressing target gene expression. Altered expression of miR-30a-5p has been reported in colon carcinoma. To elucidate its potential biological role in colon cancer, miR-30a-5p was overexpressed via a lentiviral vector system in two different colon cancer cell lines. This induced in both lines miR-30a-5p-mediated growth inhibition, attributable to a cell cycle arrest at the G(1) phase and an induction of apoptosis. Combining global gene expression analyses of miR-30a-5p transgenic line HCT116 with in silico miRNA target prediction, we identified the denticleless protein homolog (DTL) as a potential miRNA-30a-5p target. Subsequent reporter gene assays confirmed the predicted miR-30a-5p binding site in the 3'untranslated region of DTL. Importantly, overexpression of DTL in HCT116 cells partially rescued these cells from miR-30a-5p-mediated growth suppression. In addition, TP53 and CDKN1A expression were increased in miR-30a-5p-overexpressing HCT116 cells, suggesting that miR-30a-5p is able to modulate the cell cycle via a DTL-TP53-CDKN1A regulatory circuit. Finally, 379 colorectal cancer tissues were screened for DTL expression and DTL was found to be overexpressed in 95.8% of human colorectal cancers compared with normal colon mucosa. In conclusion, our data identified miR-30a-5p as a tumor-suppressing miRNA in colon cancer cells exerting its function via modulation of DTL expression, which is frequently overexpressed in colorectal cancer. Thus, our data suggest that restoring miR-30a-5p function may prove useful as therapeutic strategy for tumors with reduced miR-30a-5p expression.

  16. Disturbed Colonic Motility Contributes to Anorectal Symptoms and Dysfunction After Radiotherapy for Carcinoma of the Prostate

    SciTech Connect

    Yeoh, Eric K.; Bartholomeusz, Dylan L.; Holloway, Richard H.; Fraser, Robert J.; Botten, Rochelle; Di Matteo, Addolorata; Moore, James W.; Schoeman, Mark N.

    2010-11-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the role of colonic motility in the pathogenesis of anorectal symptoms and dysfunction after radiotherapy (RT) for carcinoma of the prostate. Patients and Methods: Thirty-eight patients, median age 71 (range, 50-81) years with localized prostate carcinoma randomized to one of two radiation dose schedules underwent colonic transit scintigraphy and assessment of anorectal symptoms (questionnaire), anorectal function (manometry), and anal sphincteric morphology (endoanal ultrasound) before and at 1 month and 1 year after RT. Results: Whole and distal colonic transit increased 1 month after RT, with faster distal colonic transit only persisting at 1 year. Frequency and urgency of defecation, fecal incontinence, and rectal bleeding increased 1 month after RT and persisted at 1 year. Basal anal pressures remained unchanged, but progressive reductions occurred in anal squeeze pressures and responses to increased intra-abdominal pressure. Rectal compliance decreased progressively in the patients, although no changes in anorectal sensory function ensued. Radiotherapy had no effect on the morphology of the internal and external anal sphincters. Distal colonic retention was weakly related to rectal compliance at 1 month, but both faster colonic transit and reduced rectal compliance were more frequent with increased fecal urgency. At 1 year, a weak inverse relationship existed between colonic half-clearance time and frequency of defecation, although both faster whole-colonic transit and reduced rectal compliance occurred more often with increased stool frequency. Conclusion: Colonic dysmotility contributes to anorectal dysfunction after RT for carcinoma of the prostate. This has implications for improving the management of anorectal radiation sequelae.

  17. [A case of adenosquamous carcinoma of the sigmoid colon with inferior mesenteric vein thrombosis].

    PubMed

    Otsuka, Ryota; Maruyama, Takashi; Tanaka, Hajime; Matsuzaki, Hiroshi; Natsume, Toshiyuki; Miyazaki, Akinari; Sato, Yayoi; Sazuka, Tetsutaro; Yamamoto, Yuji; Yoshioka, Takafumi; Kanada, Yoko; Yanagihara, Akitoshi; Yokoyama, Masaya; Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Shimizu, Shinichiro

    2014-11-01

    A 63-year-old man who had been admitted to another institute with sepsis and renal failure was referred to our hospital after computed tomography (CT) findings showed thickening of the walls in the sigmoid colon and a defect in contrast enhancement in the portal and inferior mesenteric veins. Emergency sigmoid colon resection with D2 lymphadenectomy was performed after detection of perforation due to sigmoid colon cancer. The histopathological diagnosis was adenosquamous carcinoma, pSS, int, INF b, ly1, v0, pN2, pStage IIIband inferior mesenteric vein thrombosis. He was discharged on day 12, and we administered anticoagulant warfarin therapy.

  18. Expression of DIAPH1 is up-regulated in colorectal cancer and its down-regulation strongly reduces the metastatic capacity of colon carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yuan-Na; Izbicki, Jakob R; König, Alexandra; Habermann, Jens K; Blechner, Christine; Lange, Tobias; Schumacher, Udo; Windhorst, Sabine

    2014-04-01

    In most cases, metastatic colorectal cancer is not curable, thus new approaches are necessary to identify novel targets for colorectal cancer therapy. Actin-binding-proteins (ABPs) directly regulate motility of metastasising tumor cells, and for cortactin an association with colon cancer metastasis has been already shown. However, as its depletion only incompletely inhibits metastasis, additional, more suitable cellular targets have to be identified. Here we analyzed expression of the ABPs, DIAPH1, VASP, N-WASP, and fascin in comparison with cortactin and found that, besides cortactin, DIAPH1 was expressed with the highest frequency (63%) in colorectal cancer. As well as cortactin, DIAPH1 was not detectable in normal colon tissue and expression of both proteins was positively correlated with metastasis of colorectal cancer. To analyse the mechanistic role of DIAPH1 for metastasis of colon carcinoma cells in comparison with cortactin, expression of the proteins was stably down-regulated in the human colon carcinoma cell lines HT-29, HROC-24 and HCT-116. Analysis of metastasis of colon carcinoma cells in SCID mice revealed that depletion of DIAPH1 reduced metastasis 60-fold and depletion of cortactin 16-fold as compared with control cells. Most likely the stronger effect of DIAPH1 depletion on colon cancer metastasis is due to the fact that in vitro knock down of DIAPH1 impaired all steps of metastasis; adhesion, invasion and migration while down-regulation of cortactin only reduced adhesion and invasion. This very strong reducing effect of DIAPH1 depletion on colon carcinoma cell metastasis makes the protein a promising therapeutic target for individualized colorectal cancer therapy.

  19. Scintigraphic demonstration of acute gastrointestinal bleeding caused by gallbladder carcinoma eroding the colon

    SciTech Connect

    Czerniak, A.; Zwas, S.T.; Rabau, M.Y.; Avigad, I.; Borag, B.; Wolfstein, I.

    1985-08-01

    Massive lower gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding caused by gallbladder carcinoma eroding into the colonic wall was demonstrated accurately by Tc-99m RBCs. In addition, retrograde bleeding into the gallbladder was also identified while arteriography did not show contrast extravasation. This case supports the use of Tc-99m RBCs over Tc-99m sulfur colloid for more accurate localization of lower GI bleeding.

  20. Hepatic tuberculosis mimicking metastasis in a case of carcinoma sigmoid colon.

    PubMed

    Husain, Musharraf; Khan, Sabina; Hassan, Mohammad Jaseem

    2015-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) presenting as isolated liver mass without clinical evidence of TB is difficult to diagnose preoperatively and is usually mimicked by primary or metastatic carcinoma of the liver. Hepatic TB associated with carcinoma colon is a rare association which has very rarely been reported in the literature. This case illustrates the diagnostic difficulties of hepatic TB and the need to consider it in the differential diagnosis of hepatic nodular lesions in carcinoma colon patients. Here, we report a case of 48-year-old female who presented in the casualty with features of acute intestinal obstruction. Preoperatively a mass was seen at the hepatic flexure along with three lesions in the liver presumed to be metastatic in origin. However, histopathology of the mass revealed adenocarcinoma colon and the liver lesion proved to be hepatic TB. We wish to highlight that on encountering a hepatic lesion in a carcinoma colon patient the possibility of hepatic TB should also be kept in mind apart from the obvious possibility of metastasis especially in an endemic country like India.

  1. Frequency and spectrum of c-Ki-ras mutations in human sporadic colon carcinoma, carcinomas arising in ulcerative colitis, and pancreatic adenocarcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Burmer, G.C.; Rabinovitch, P.S.; Loeb, L.A. )

    1991-06-01

    Sporadic colon carcinomas, carcinomas arising in chronic ulcerative colitis, and pancreatic adenocarcinomas have been analyzed for the presence of c-Ki-ras mutations by a combination of histological enrichment, cell sorting, polymerase chain reaction, and direct sequencing. Although 60% (37/61) of sporadic colon carcinomas contained mutations in codon 12, only 1 of 17 specimens of dysplasia or carcinoma from ulcerative colitis patients contained c-Ki-ras mutations, despite a high frequency of aneuploid tumors. In contrast, a higher percentage (16/20 = 80%) of pancreatic adenocarcinomas contained mutations in c-Ki-ras 2, despite a lower frequency of DNA aneuploidy in these neoplasms. Moreover, the spectrum of mutations differed between sporadic colon carcinoma, where the predominant mutation was a G to A transition, and pancreatic carcinomas, which predominantly contained G to C or T transversions. These results suggest that the etiology of ras mutations is different in these three human neoplasms.

  2. Retinoic acid receptor alpha mediates growth inhibition by retinoids in human colon carcinoma HT29 cells.

    PubMed

    Nicke, B; Kaiser, A; Wiedenmann, B; Riecken, E O; Rosewicz, S

    1999-08-11

    Although retinoids have been suggested to inhibit chemically induced colon carcinogenesis, the molecular mechanisms underlying retinoid-mediated growth regulation in colon carcinoma cells are unknown. Therefore, we investigated the biological effects of retinoids on growth in HT29 colon carcinoma cells. All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) treatment of HT29 cells resulted in a profound inhibition of anchorage-independent growth without biochemical or morphological evidence for induction of differentiation. Treatment with the selective RARalpha agonist Ro 40-6055 completely mimicked the effects of ATRA on growth and transactivation of a betaRAREx2-luciferase reporter construct, while RARbeta- and gamma-specific analogues were ineffective. Furthermore, ATRA-regulated growth and transactivation could be completely blocked by a RARalpha-selective receptor antagonist. Thus, ATRA potently inhibits anchorage-independent growth in HT29 cells and this effect is mainly if not exclusively mediated by the retinoic acid receptor alpha.

  3. Src activity increases and Yes activity decreases during mitosis of human colon carcinoma cells.

    PubMed Central

    Park, J; Cartwright, C A

    1995-01-01

    Src and Yes protein-tyrosine kinase activities are elevated in malignant and premalignant tumors of the colon. To determine whether Src activity is elevated throughout the human colon carcinoma cell cycle as it is in polyomavirus middle T antigen- or F527 Src-transformed cells, and whether Yes activity, which is lower than that of Src in the carcinoma cells, is regulated differently, we measured their activities in cycling cells. We observed that the activities of both kinases were higher throughout all phases of the HT-29 colon carcinoma cell cycle than in corresponding phases of the fibroblast cycle. In addition, during mitosis of HT-29 cells, Src specific activity increased two- to threefold more, while Yes activity and abundance decreased threefold. The decreased steady-state protein levels of Yes during mitosis appeared to be due to both decreased synthesis and increased degradation of the protein. Inhibition of tyrosine but not serine/threonine phosphatases abolished the mitotic activation of Src. Mitotic Src was phosphorylated at novel serine and threonine sites and dephosphorylated at Tyr-527. Two cellular proteins (p160 and p180) were phosphorylated on tyrosine only during mitosis. Tyrosine phosphorylation of several other proteins decreased during mitosis. Thus, Src in HT-29 colon carcinoma cells, similar to Src complexed to polyomavirus middle T antigen or activated by mutation at Tyr-527, is highly active in all phases of the cell cycle. Moreover, Src activity further increases during mitosis, whereas Yes activity and abundance decrease. Thus, Src and Yes appear to be regulated differently during mitosis of HT-29 colon carcinoma cells. PMID:7739521

  4. Detection of the c-myc oncogene product in colonic polyps and carcinomas.

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, J.; Evan, G.; Watson, J.; Sikora, K.

    1986-01-01

    The c-myc oncogene has been implicated in the processes of normal cell proliferation and differentiation. Elevated levels of c-myc mRNA and its gene product (p62c-myc), have been detected in a variety of solid tumours and cultured cel lines. Its precise role in normal cell function and in neoplastic transformation and progression has yet to be elucidated. We have used a monoclonal antibody, raised by peptide immunisation, to determine the distribution by immunoperoxidase staining of the c-myc oncogene product in archival specimens of colonic polyps and carcinomas. Samples from 42 patients with colon carcinoma, 24 with benign polyps and 15 normal colon biopsies were examined. Normal colon revealed maximum staining in the mid-zone of the crypts, corresponding to the zone of differentiation and maturation. The staining was predominantly cytoplasmic. Adenomatous polyps revealed the most intense pattern of staining in areas of dysplastic change. Colonic tumours showed a wide range of staining. Well differentiated tumours contained more cytoplasmic p62c-myc than poorly differentiated tumours. These findings suggest that the c-myc oncogene product may play an important role in the evolution of colonic neoplasia. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:3511934

  5. Inflammatory regulatory T cells in the microenvironments of ulcerative colitis and colon carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kryczek, Ilona; Wang, Lin; Wu, Ke; Li, Wei; Zhao, Ende; Cui, Tracy; Wei, Shuang; Liu, Yan; Wang, Yin; Vatan, Linda; Szeliga, Wojciech; Greenson, Joel K; Roliński, Jacek; Zgodzinski, Witold; Huang, Emina; Tao, Kaixiong; Wang, Guobin; Zou, Weiping

    2016-08-01

    Foxp3(+)CD4(+) regulatory T (Treg) cells are thought to express negligible levels of effector cytokines, and inhibit immune responses and inflammation. Here, we have identified a population of IL-8(+)Foxp3(+)CD4(+) T cells in human peripheral blood, which is selectively increased in the microenvironments of ulcerative colitis and colon carcinoma. Phenotypically, this population is minimally overlapping with IL-17(+)Foxp3(+)CD4(+) T cells, and is different from IL-8(-)Foxp3(+)CD4(+) T cells in the same microenvironment. 40-60% of IL-8(+)Foxp3(+)CD4(+) T cells exhibit naive phenotype and express CD127, whereas IL-8(-)Foxp3(+)CD4(+) cells are basically memory T cells and express minimal CD127. The levels of CXCR5 expression are higher in IL-8(+)Foxp3(+) cells than in IL-8(-)Foxp3(+) cells. IL-2 and TGFβ induce IL-8(+)Foxp3(+) T cells. Exogenous Foxp3 expression promotes IL-8(+)Foxp3(+) T cells and inhibits effector cytokine IFNγ and IL-2 expression. Furthermore, Foxp3 binds to IL-8 proximal promoter and increases its activity. Functionally, IL-8(+)Foxp3(+) T cells inhibit T cell proliferation and effector cytokine production, but stimulate inflammatory cytokine production in the colon tissues, and promote neutrophil trafficking through IL-8. Thus, IL-8(+)Foxp3(+) cells may be an "inflammatory" Treg subset, and possess inflammatory and immunosuppressive dual biological activities. Given their dual roles and localization, these cells may be in a unique position to support tumor initiation and development in human chronic inflammatory environment. PMID:27622054

  6. Disparities of conjugating protective enzyme activities in the colon of patients with adenomas and carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Hoensch, Harald P; Roelofs, Hennie MJ; Edler, Lutz; Kirch, Wilhelm; Peters, Wilbert HM

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the metabolic enzymatic capacity of the colon mucosa to detoxify noxious carcinogenic compounds. METHODS: We investigated the activity of 2 conjugating enzymes-the microsomal uridine glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) and the cytosomal glutathione S-transferase (GST) in the uninvolved mucosa of the colon transversum and sigmoideum in patients with adenomatous polyps and colorectal cancer. Biopsies were taken from the mucosa during colonoscopies which were done for clinical (diagnostic) reasons. After storage, the biopsy material was homogenized and after differential centrifugation the enzyme assays were performed with 4-nitrophenol (UGT) and 1-chloro 2,4-dinitrobenzene (GST) as substrates. RESULTS: About 48 patients were included of which 28 had adenomas and 20 had colorectal carcinomas confirmed by histopathology. Enzyme activities were expressed as nmol/mg per minute protein for the GST and as pmol/mg per minute protein for the UGT. Analysis of variance (F-test) indicated that both enzymes were more widely distributed in adenoma than in cancer patients. The means ± SD were smaller for cancer patients: GST for adenomas 268 ± 152 vs 241 ± 69 for carcinomas and UGT for adenomas 197 ± 200 vs 150 ± 86 for carcinomas. CONCLUSION: Compared to patients with adenomatous colon polyps those with colorectal carcinoma exhibited a lower capacity of detoxifying enzyme metabolism and their activities clustered over a smaller range. PMID:24106402

  7. Descending colo-colonic intussusception secondary to signet ring cell carcinoma: A case report

    PubMed Central

    SUN, KE-KANG; YANG, DONG; GAN, MINGQIANG; WU, XIAO-YANG

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of intussusception is low in adults, particularly in the descending colon, due to the anatomical attachment of the descending colon to the retroperitoneum. Signet ring cell histology represents ~1% of colon adenocarcinomas and is associated with young patients and a poor clinical outcome. The present study describes a case of descending colo-colonic intussusception caused by signet ring cell carcinoma in a 27-year-old male. The patient presented with a history of intermittent left upper-quadrant abdominal pain for more than six months without any evident etiology. A computed tomography scan of the abdomen revealed left-sided colo-colonic intussusception. Upon laparotomy, a left hemicolectomy was performed according to intraoperative frozen-section pathology. Post-operative pathological evaluation revealed signet ring cell carcinoma invasion of the serosa, and 31.8% (7/22) of the regional lymph nodes were positive for cancerous cells. The post-operative course was uneventful and the patient was discharged on the tenth post-operative day. PMID:25685200

  8. Label-free detection of tumor markers in a colon carcinoma tumor progression model by confocal Raman microspectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scalfi-Happ, Claudia; Rück, Angelika; Udart, Martin; Hauser, Carmen; Dürr, Christine; Kriebel, Martin

    2013-06-01

    Living colon carcinoma cells were investigated by confocal Raman microspectroscopy. An in vitro model of tumor progression was established. Evaluation of data sets by cluster analysis reveals that lipid bodies might be a valuable diagnostic parameter for early carcinogenesis.

  9. Colonic Metastases From Lung Carcinoma: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Tallon, Ana Isabel; Vasquez-Guerrero, Jorge; Garcia-Mayor, Maria Angeles

    2013-01-01

    Lung cancer is the most frequent cause of cancer death in the world. Although about 50% of lung cancers have distant metastases at the time of diagnosis, gastrointestinal metastasis has rarely been described. The most common metastatic site is the small bowel, whereas, colonic metastases are very rare. This report presents a clinical case of a 68-year-old male with a previous diagnosis of non-microcytic lung carcinoma (T4, N2, M1), stage IV, who presented rectorrhagia at the emergency. Colonoscopy showed many ulcerated tumors along the colon and histology proved that these lesions were metastases of primitive lung carcinoma. Gut metastasis from the lung is uncommon but we have to be aware of it in patients who present gastrointestinal symptoms.

  10. Successful radioimmunotherapy of established syngeneic rat colon carcinoma with 211At-mAb

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Most carcinomas are prone to metastasize despite successful treatment of the primary tumor. One way to address this clinical challenge may be targeted therapy with α-emitting radionuclides such as astatine-211 (211At). Radioimmunotherapy utilizing α-particle emitting radionuclides is considered especially suitable for the treatment of small cell clusters and single cells, although lesions of different sizes may also be present in the patient. The aim of this study was primarily to evaluate the toxicity and secondarily in vivo efficacy of a 211At-labeled monoclonal antibody (mAb) directed against colon carcinoma with tumor diameters of approximately 10 mm. Methods Eighteen rats with subperitoneal syngeneic colon carcinoma were allocated to three groups of six animals together with three healthy rats in each group. The groups were injected intravenously with either 150 μg of unlabeled mAbs (controls) or 2.5 or 5 MBq 211At-mAbs directed towards the Lewis Y antigen expressed on the cell membrane of several carcinomas. Tumor volume, body weight, and blood cell counts were monitored for 100 days after treatment. Results Local tumors were non-palpable in five out of six rats after treatment with both activities of 211At-mAbs, compared to one out of six in the control group. At the study end, half of the animals in each group given 211At-BR96 and one animal in the control group were free from disease. Radioimmunotherapy resulted in dose-dependent, transient weight loss and myelotoxicity. Survival was significantly better in the groups receiving targeted alpha therapy than in those receiving unlabeled mAbs. Conclusions This study demonstrates the possibility of treating small, solid colon carcinoma tumors with α-emitting radionuclides such as 211At bound to mAbs, with tolerable toxicity. PMID:23557183

  11. Combination Gene Therapy for Liver Metastasis of Colon Carcinoma in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Shu-Hsai; Chen, X. H. Li; Wang, Yibin; Kosai, Ken-Ichiro; Finegold, Milton J.; Rich, Susan S.

    1995-03-01

    The efficacy of combination therapy with a "suicide gene" and a cytokine gene to treat metastatic colon carcinoma in the liver was investigated. Tumor in the liver was generated by intrahepatic injection of a colon carcinoma cell line (MCA-26) in syngeneic BALB/c mice. Recombinant adenoviral vectors containing various control and therapeutic genes were injected directly into the solid tumors, followed by treatment with ganciclovir. While the tumors continued to grow in all animals treated with a control vector or a mouse interleukin 2 vector, those treated with a herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase vector, with or without the coadministration of the mouse interleukin 2 vector, exhibited dramatic necrosis and regression. However, only animals treated with both vectors developed an effective systemic antitumoral immunity against challenges of tumorigenic doses of parental tumor cells inoculated at distant sites. The antitumoral immunity was associated with the presence of MCA-26 tumor-specific cytolytic CD8^+ T lymphocytes. The results suggest that combination suicide and cytokine gene therapy in vivo can be a powerful approach for treatment of metastatic colon carcinoma in the liver.

  12. Magnetic Nanoparticles from Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense Increase the Efficacy of Thermotherapy in a Model of Colon Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Mannucci, Silvia; Ghin, Leonardo; Conti, Giamaica; Tambalo, Stefano; Lascialfari, Alessandro; Orlando, Tomas; Benati, Donatella; Bernardi, Paolo; Betterle, Nico; Bassi, Roberto; Marzola, Pasquina; Sbarbati, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) are capable of generate heating power under the influence of alternating magnetic fields (AMF); this behaviour recently opened new scenarios for advanced biomedical applications, mainly as new promising tumor therapies. In this paper we have tested magnetic nanoparticles called magnetosomes (MNs): a class of MNPs naturally produced by magnetotactic bacteria. We extracted MNs from Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense strain MSR-1 and tested the interaction with cellular elements and anti-neoplastic activity both in vitro and in vivo, with the aim of developing new therapeutic approaches for neoplastic diseases. In vitro experiments performed on Human Colon Carcinoma HT-29 cell cultures demonstrated a strong uptake of MNs with no evident signs of cytotoxicity and revealed three phases in the interaction: adherence, transport and accumulation in Golgi vesicles. In vivo studies were performed on subcutaneous tumors in mice; in this model MNs are administered by direct injection in the tumor volume, then a protocol consisting of three exposures to an AMF rated at 187 kHz and 23kA/m is carried out on alternate days, over a week. Tumors were monitored by Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) to obtain information about MNs distribution and possible tissue modifications induced by hyperthermia. Histological analysis showed fibrous and necrotic areas close to MNs injection sites in mice subjected to a complete thermotherapy protocol. These results, although concerning a specific tumor model, could be useful to further investigate the feasibility and efficacy of protocols based on MFH. Magnetic nanoparticles naturally produced and extracted from bacteria seem to be promising candidates for theranostic applications in cancer therapy. PMID:25289664

  13. COX-2 gene expression in colon cancer tissue related to regulating factors and promoter methylation status

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Increased cyclooxygenase activity promotes progression of colorectal cancer, but the mechanisms behind COX-2 induction remain elusive. This study was therefore aimed to define external cell signaling and transcription factors relating to high COX-2 expression in colon cancer tissue. Method Tumor and normal colon tissue were collected at primary curative operation in 48 unselected patients. COX-2 expression in tumor and normal colon tissue was quantified including microarray analyses on tumor mRNA accounting for high and low tumor COX-2 expression. Cross hybridization was performed between tumor and normal colon tissue. Methylation status of up-stream COX-2 promoter region was evaluated. Results Tumors with high COX-2 expression displayed large differences in gene expression compared to normal colon. Numerous genes with altered expression appeared in tumors of high COX-2 expression compared to tumors of low COX-2. COX-2 expression in normal colon was increased in patients with tumors of high COX-2 compared to normal colon from patients with tumors of low COX-2. IL1β, IL6 and iNOS transcripts were up-regulated among external cell signaling factors; nine transcription factors (ATF3, C/EBP, c-Fos, Fos-B, JDP2, JunB, c-Maf, NF-κB, TCF4) showed increased expression and 5 (AP-2, CBP, Elk-1, p53, PEA3) were decreased in tumors with high COX-2. The promoter region of COX-2 gene did not show consistent methylation in tumor or normal colon tissue. Conclusions Transcription and external cell signaling factors are altered as covariates to COX-2 expression in colon cancer tissue, but DNA methylation of the COX-2 promoter region was not a significant factor behind COX-2 expression in tumor and normal colon tissue. PMID:21668942

  14. Metastasis-associated in colon cancer 1 is a novel survival-related biomarker for human patients with renal pelvis carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Hu, Hailong; Tian, Dawei; Chen, Tao; Han, Ruifa; Sun, Yan; Wu, Changli

    2014-01-01

    Metastasis-associated in colon cancer 1 (MACC1) has recently been identified as a novel independent prognostic indicator for metastasis occurrence, overall survival and cancer-free survival for patients with colon cancer and other solid tumors. In this study, we investigated the role of MACC1 in the development and progression of renal pelvis carcinoma, a form of upper tract urothelial carcinomas. MACC1 protein has been found in the cytoplasm as well as in the nucleus of the transitional epithelial cells of the normal renal pelvis in immunohistochemical (IHC) assays. Quantitative IHC examinations revealed that MACC1 abnormal abundance in cancerous tissues might represent a biological indicator clinically suggestive of tumor malignancy in the renal pelvis. Furthermore, investigation of the association of MACC1 protein levels with clinicopathological parameters in this study has suggested a correlation of MACC1 expression with tumor-node-metastasis stage and histopathological grade of patients with renal pelvis carcinoma, with elevated MACC1 protein levels frequently associated with higher aggressiveness of the disease. Moreover, both disease-free survival and overall survival for the patients in the high MACC1 expression group were significantly lower than those in the low expression group. Multivariate analysis with a Cox proportional-hazards model suggested that MACC1 is indeed an independent prognostic indicator of overall survival and cancer-free survival for patients with renal pelvis carcinoma. Thus, MACC1 may represent a promising prognostic biomarker candidate, as well as a potential therapeutic target for this disease. PMID:24949951

  15. Metastasis-Associated in Colon Cancer 1 Is a Novel Survival-Related Biomarker for Human Patients with Renal Pelvis Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Tao; Han, Ruifa; Sun, Yan; Wu, Changli

    2014-01-01

    Metastasis-associated in colon cancer 1 (MACC1) has recently been identified as a novel independent prognostic indicator for metastasis occurrence, overall survival and cancer-free survival for patients with colon cancer and other solid tumors. In this study, we investigated the role of MACC1 in the development and progression of renal pelvis carcinoma, a form of upper tract urothelial carcinomas. MACC1 protein has been found in the cytoplasm as well as in the nucleus of the transitional epithelial cells of the normal renal pelvis in immunohistochemical (IHC) assays. Quantitative IHC examinations revealed that MACC1 abnormal abundance in cancerous tissues might represent a biological indicator clinically suggestive of tumor malignancy in the renal pelvis. Furthermore, investigation of the association of MACC1 protein levels with clinicopathological parameters in this study has suggested a correlation of MACC1 expression with tumor-node-metastasis stage and histopathological grade of patients with renal pelvis carcinoma, with elevated MACC1 protein levels frequently associated with higher aggressiveness of the disease. Moreover, both disease-free survival and overall survival for the patients in the high MACC1 expression group were significantly lower than those in the low expression group. Multivariate analysis with a Cox proportional-hazards model suggested that MACC1 is indeed an independent prognostic indicator of overall survival and cancer-free survival for patients with renal pelvis carcinoma. Thus, MACC1 may represent a promising prognostic biomarker candidate, as well as a potential therapeutic target for this disease. PMID:24949951

  16. Increased mRNA expression of a laminin-binding protein in human colon carcinoma: Complete sequence of a full-length cDNA encoding the protein

    SciTech Connect

    Yow, Hsiukang; Wong, Jau Min; Chen, Hai Shiene; Lee, C.; Steele, G.D. Jr.; Chen, Lanbo

    1988-09-01

    Reliable markers to distinguish human colon carcinoma from normal colonic epithelium are needed particularly for poorly differentiated tumors where no useful marker is currently available. To search for markers the authors constructed cDNA libraries from human colon carcinoma cell lines and screened for clones that hybridize to a greater degree with mRNAs of colon carcinomas than with their normal counterparts. Here they report one such cDNA clone that hybridizes with a 1.2-kilobase (kb) mRNA, the level of which is /approx/9-fold greater in colon carcinoma than in adjacent normal colonic epithelium. Blot hybridization of total RNA from a variety of human colon carcinoma cell lines shows that the level of this 1.2-kb mRNA in poorly differentiated colon carcinomas is as high as or higher than that in well-differentiated carcinomas. Molecular cloning and complete sequencing of cDNA corresponding to the full-length open reading frame of this 1.2-kb mRNA unexpectedly show it to contain all the partial cDNA sequence encoding 135 amino acid residues previously reported for a human laminin receptor. The deduced amino acid sequence suggests that this putative laminin-binding protein from human colon carcinomas consists of 295 amino acid residues with interesting features. There is an unusual C-terminal 70-amino acid segment, which is trypsin-resistant and highly negatively charged.

  17. Loss of monomorphic and polymorphic HLA antigens in metastatic breast and colon carcinoma.

    PubMed Central

    Goepel, J. R.; Rees, R. C.; Rogers, K.; Stoddard, C. J.; Thomas, W. E.; Shepherd, L.

    1991-01-01

    MHC class I antigens are intimately involved in intercellular communication, and recognition by cytotoxic T cells. Thus tumour cells that fail to express them may be at a growth or metastatic advantage. A series of ten colorectal and ten breast carcinomas, and their respective lymph node metastases, were examined immunohistologically using monoclonal antibodies (mAb) against both monomorphic and A2 polymorphic determinants, and beta-2-microglobulin (beta 2m). Four colon polypoid adenomas stained positively throughout, but 6/10 primary tumours had partial or complete loss of expression of monomorphic determinants using mAb W6/32: two node and the liver metastasis showed less, four more expression. Similar results were seen for beta 2m. HLA-A2 expression was absent or reduced in 4/4 colon tumours and all their metastases. Among the breast tumours, W6/32 staining was absent or reduced in 2/10, and node deposits showed two with less reactivity than their primary. Beta 2m staining was reduced or absent in 8/10 primaries and all the node metastases; in every case in which beta 2m was detected in the primary tumour their corresponding lymph node metastasis showed a decreased expression. HLA-A2 expression was absent or reduced in 3/4 primary breast carcinomas, and all their metastases. These results show that individual human colon and breast carcinomas often have a reduced HLA class I antigen expression, which apparently confers a metastatic advantage. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:1718386

  18. Comparative characterization of pulmonary surfactant aggregates and alkaline phosphatase isozymes in human lung carcinoma tissue.

    PubMed

    Iino, Nozomi; Matsunaga, Toshiyuki; Harada, Tsuyoshi; Igarashi, Seiji; Koyama, Iwao; Komoda, Tsugikazu

    2007-05-01

    Alkaline phosphatase (AP) isozymes are surfactant-associated proteins (SPs). Since several different AP isozymes have been detected in the pneumocytes of lung cancer patients, we attempted to identify the relationship between pulmonary surfactant aggregate subtypes and AP isozymes. Pulmonary surfactant aggregates were isolated from carcinoma and non-carcinoma tissues of patients with non-small cell carcinoma of the lung. Upon analysis, ultraheavy, heavy, and light surfactant aggregates were detected in the non-carcinoma tissues, but no ultraheavy surfactant aggregates were found in the carcinoma tissues. Surfactant-associated protein A (SP-A) was detected as two bands (a 27-kDa band and a 54-kDa band) in the ultraheavy, heavy, and light surfactant aggregates found in the non-carcinoma tissues. Although both SP-A bands were detected in the heavy and light surfactant aggregates from adenocarcinoma tissues, the 54-kDa band was not detected in squamous cell carcinoma tissues. Liver AP (LAP) was detected in the heavy and light surfactant aggregates from both non-carcinoma and squamous carcinoma tissues, but not in heavy surfactant aggregates from adenocarcinoma tissues. A larger amount of bone type AP (BAP) was found in light surfactant aggregate fractions from squamous cell carcinomas than those from adenocarcinoma tissues or non-carcinoma tissues from patients with either type of cancer. LAP, BAP, and SP-A were identified immunohistochemically in type II pneumocytes from non-carcinoma tissues and adenocarcinoma cells, but no distinct SP-A staining was observed in squamous cell carcinoma tissues. The present study has thus revealed several differences in pulmonary surfactant aggregates and AP isozymes between adenocarcinoma tissue and squamous cell carcinoma tissue.

  19. Thyroid, Renal, and Breast Carcinomas, Chondrosarcoma, Colon Adenomas, and Ganglioneuroma: A New Cancer Syndrome, FAP, or Just Coincidence.

    PubMed

    Atta, Ihab Shafek; AlQahtani, Fahd Nasser

    2016-01-01

    We are presenting a case associated with papillary thyroid carcinoma, renal cell carcinoma, invasive mammary carcinoma, chondrosarcoma, benign ganglioneuroma, and numerous colon adenomas. The patient had a family history of colon cancer, kidney and bladder cancers, lung cancer, thyroid cancer, leukemia, and throat and mouth cancers. She was diagnosed with colonic villous adenoma at the age of 41 followed by thyroid, renal, and breast cancers and chondrosarcoma at the ages of 48, 64, 71, and 74, respectively. Additionally, we included a table with the most common familial cancer syndromes with one or more benign or malignant tumors diagnosed in our case, namely, FAP, HNPCC, Cowden, Peutz-Jeghers, renal cancer, tuberous sclerosis, VHL, breast/other, breast/ovarian, Carney, Werner's, Bloom, Li-Fraumeni, xeroderma pigmentosum, ataxia-telangiectasia, osteochondromatosis, retinoblastoma, and MEN2A. PMID:27087812

  20. Thyroid, Renal, and Breast Carcinomas, Chondrosarcoma, Colon Adenomas, and Ganglioneuroma: A New Cancer Syndrome, FAP, or Just Coincidence

    PubMed Central

    Atta, Ihab Shafek; AlQahtani, Fahd Nasser

    2016-01-01

    We are presenting a case associated with papillary thyroid carcinoma, renal cell carcinoma, invasive mammary carcinoma, chondrosarcoma, benign ganglioneuroma, and numerous colon adenomas. The patient had a family history of colon cancer, kidney and bladder cancers, lung cancer, thyroid cancer, leukemia, and throat and mouth cancers. She was diagnosed with colonic villous adenoma at the age of 41 followed by thyroid, renal, and breast cancers and chondrosarcoma at the ages of 48, 64, 71, and 74, respectively. Additionally, we included a table with the most common familial cancer syndromes with one or more benign or malignant tumors diagnosed in our case, namely, FAP, HNPCC, Cowden, Peutz-Jeghers, renal cancer, tuberous sclerosis, VHL, breast/other, breast/ovarian, Carney, Werner's, Bloom, Li-Fraumeni, xeroderma pigmentosum, ataxia-telangiectasia, osteochondromatosis, retinoblastoma, and MEN2A. PMID:27087812

  1. Identification of Meningococcal Genes Necessary for Colonization of Human Upper Airway Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Exley, Rachel M.; Sim, Richard; Goodwin, Linda; Winterbotham, Megan; Schneider, Muriel C.; Read, Robert C.; Tang, Christoph M.

    2009-01-01

    Neisseria meningitidis is an exclusively human pathogen that has evolved primarily to colonize the nasopharynx rather than to cause systemic disease. Colonization is the most frequent outcome following meningococcal infection and a prerequisite for invasive disease. The mechanism of colonization involves attachment of the organism to epithelial cells via bacterial type IV pili (Tfp), but subsequent events during colonization remain largely unknown. We analyzed 576 N. meningitidis mutants for their capacity to colonize human nasopharyngeal tissue in an organ culture model to identify bacterial genes required for colonization. Eight colonization-defective mutants were isolated. Two mutants were unable to express Tfp and were defective for adhesion to epithelial cells, which is likely to be the basis of their attenuation in nasopharyngeal tissue. Three other mutants are predicted to have lost previously uncharacterized surface molecules, while the remaining mutants have transposon insertions in genes of unknown function. We have identified novel meningococcal colonization factors, and this should provide insights into the survival of this important pathogen in its natural habitat. PMID:18936183

  2. Mechanism of Alternariol monomethyl ether-induced mitochondrial apoptosis in human colon carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Bensassi, Fatma; Gallerne, Cindy; el Dein, Ossama Sharaf; Hajlaoui, Mohamed Rabeh; Bacha, Hassen; Lemaire, Christophe

    2011-12-18

    Alternariol monomethyl ether (AME) is a major mycotoxin produced by fungi of the genus Alternaria and a common contaminant of food products such as fruits and cereals worldwide. AME can cause serious health problems for animals as well as for humans. In this study, human colon carcinoma cells (HCT116) were used to explore the mechanisms of cell death induced by AME. Exposure of HCT116 cells to AME resulted in significant cytotoxicity manifested by a loss in cell viability mainly mediated by activation of apoptotic process. AME activated the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway evidenced by the opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (PTP), loss of the mitochondrial transmembrane potential (ΔΨm) downstream generation of O(2)(-), cytochrome c release and caspase 9 and 3 activation. Experiments conducted on isolated organelles indicated that AME does not directly target mitochondria to induce PTP-dependent permeabilization of mitochondrial membranes. Moreover, no difference was observed in Bax-KO cells in comparison to parental cells, suggesting that the pro-apoptotic protein Bax is not involved in AME-induced mitochondrial apoptosis. Our findings demonstrate for the first time that AME induces cell death in human colon carcinoma cells by activating the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis.

  3. Soluble OX40L favors tumor rejection in CT26 colon carcinoma model.

    PubMed

    Serebrovskaya, Ekaterina O; Yuzhakova, Diana V; Ryumina, Alina P; Druzhkova, Irina N; Sharonov, George V; Kotlobay, Alexey A; Zagaynova, Elena V; Lukyanov, Sergey A; Shirmanova, Marina V

    2016-08-01

    OX40 receptor-expressing regulatory T cells (Tregs) populate tumors and suppress a variety of immune cells, posing a major obstacle for cancer immunotherapy. Different ways to functionally inactivate Tregs by triggering OX40 receptor have been suggested, including anti-OX40 antibodies and Fc:OX40L fusion proteins. To investigate whether the soluble extracellular domain of OX40L (OX40Lexo) is sufficient to enhance antitumor immune response, we generated an OX40Lexo-expressing CT26 colon carcinoma cell line and studied its tumorigenicity in immunocompetent BALB/c and T cell deficient nu/nu mice. We found that soluble OX40L expressed in CT26 colon carcinoma favors the induction of an antitumor response which is not limited just to cells co-expressing EGFP as an antigenic determinant, but also eliminates CT26 cells expressing another fluorescent protein, KillerRed. Tumor rejection required the presence of T lymphocytes, as indicated by the unhampered tumor growth in nu/nu mice. Subsequent re-challenge of tumor-free BALB/c mice with CT26 EGFP cells resulted in no tumor growth, which is indicative of the formation of immunological memory. Adoptive transfer of splenocytes from mice that successfully rejected CT26 OX40Lexo EGFP tumors to naïve mice conferred 100% resistance to subsequent challenge with the CT26 EGFP tumor. PMID:27203665

  4. Vitamin B6 Modifies the Immune Cross-Talk between Mononuclear and Colon Carcinoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Bessler, H; Djaldetti, M

    2016-01-01

    The role of vitamin B6 as a key component in a number of biological events has been well established. Based on the relationship between chronic inflammation and carcinogenesis on the one hand, and the interaction between immune and cancer cells expressed by modulated cytokine production on the other hand, the aim of the present work was to examine the possibility that vitamin B6 affects cancer development by an interference in the cross-talk between human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and those from two colon carcinoma cell lines. Both non-stimulated PBMC and mononuclear cells induced for cytokine production by HT-29 and RKO cells from human colon carcinoma lines were incubated without and with 4, 20 and 100 μg/ml of pyridoxal hydrochloride (vitamin B6) and secretion of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, IFN-γ, IL-10, and IL-1ra was examined. Vit B6 caused a dose-dependent decrease in production of all cytokines examined, except for that of IL-1ra. The results indicate that vitamin B6 exerts an immunomodulatory effect on human PBMC. The finding that production of inflammatory cytokines is more pronounced when PBMC are in contact with malignant cells and markedly inhibited by the vitamin suggests an additional way by which vitamin B6 may exert its carcinopreventive effect. PMID:27085010

  5. Lack of functioning intratumoral lymphatics in colon and pancreas cancer tissue.

    PubMed

    Olszewski, Waldemar L; Stanczyk, Marek; Gewartowska, Magdalena; Domaszewska-Szostek, Anna; Durlik, Marek

    2012-09-01

    There are controversial views as to whether intratumoral or peritumoral lymphatics play a dominant role in the metastatic process. Most clinical observations originate from studies of colon cancer. Colon contains mucosa and submucosa rich in lymphatics and with high lymph formation rate. This seems to be a prerequisite for easy metastasis of cancer cells to regional lymph nodes. However, there are other tissues as pancreas with a rudimentary lymphatic network where cancer metastasis formation is as intensive as in colon cancer. This contradicts the common notion that intratumor lymphatics play major role in metastases. We visualized interstitial space and lymphatics in the central and peripheral regions of colon and pancreas tumors using the color stereoscopic lymphography and simultaneously immunohistochemical performed stainings specific for lymphatic and blood endothelial cells. The density of open and compressed lymphatic and blood vessels was measured in the tumor core and edge. There were very few lymphatics in the colon and pancreas tumor core but numerous minor fluid "lakes" with no visible connection to the peritumoral lymphatics. Lining of "lakes" did not express molecular markers specific for lymphatic endothelial cells. Dense connective tissue surrounding tumor foci did not contain lymphatics. Peritumoral lymphatics were irregularly distributed in both types of tumor and only sporadically contained cells that might be tumor cells. Similar lymphoscintigraphic and histological pictures were seen in colon and pancreas cancer despite of different structure of both tissues. This suggests a uniform reaction of tissues to the growing cancer irrespective of the affected organ.

  6. Hyperspectral microscopic analysis of normal, benign and carcinoma microarray tissue sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maggioni, Mauro; Davis, Gustave L.; Warner, Frederick J.; Geshwind, Frank B.; Coppi, Andreas C.; DeVerse, Richard A.; Coifman, Ronald R.

    2006-02-01

    We apply a unique micro-optoelectromechanical tuned light source and new algorithms to the hyper-spectral microscopic analysis of human colon biopsies. The tuned light prototype (Plain Sight Systems Inc.) transmits any combination of light frequencies, range 440nm 700nm, trans-illuminating H and E stained tissue sections of normal (N), benign adenoma (B) and malignant carcinoma (M) colon biopsies, through a Nikon Biophot microscope. Hyper-spectral photomicrographs, randomly collected 400X magnication, are obtained with a CCD camera (Sensovation) from 59 different patient biopsies (20 N, 19 B, 20 M) mounted as a microarray on a single glass slide. The spectra of each pixel are normalized and analyzed to discriminate among tissue features: gland nuclei, gland cytoplasm and lamina propria/lumens. Spectral features permit the automatic extraction of 3298 nuclei with classification as N, B or M. When nuclei are extracted from each of the 59 biopsies the average classification among N, B and M nuclei is 97.1%; classification of the biopsies, based on the average nuclei classification, is 100%. However, when the nuclei are extracted from a subset of biopsies, and the prediction is made on nuclei in the remaining biopsies, there is a marked decrement in performance to 60% across the 3 classes. Similarly the biopsy classification drops to 54%. In spite of these classification differences, which we believe are due to instrument and biopsy normalization issues, hyper-spectral analysis has the potential to achieve diagnostic efficiency needed for objective microscopic diagnosis.

  7. Orthotopic xenografts of human melanoma and colonic and ovarian carcinoma in sheep to evaluate radioimmunotherapy.

    PubMed Central

    Turner, J. H.; Rose, A. H.; Glancy, R. J.; Penhale, W. J.

    1998-01-01

    Extrapolation to humans from experimental radioimmunotherapy in nude mouse xenograft models is confounded by large relative tumour size and small volume of distribution in mice allowing tumour uptake of radiolabelled antibodies unattainable in patients. Our large animal model of human tumours in cyclosporin-immunosuppressed sheep demonstrated tumour uptake of targeted radiolabelled monoclonal antibodies comparable with uptakes reported in clinical trials. Sheep immunosuppression with daily intravenous cyclosporin augmented by oral ketoconazole maintained trough blood levels of cyclosporin within the range 1000-1500 ng ml(-1). Human tumour cells were transplanted orthotopically by inoculation of 10(7) cells: SKMEL melanoma subcutaneously; LS174T and HT29 colon carcinoma into bowel, peritoneum and liver; and JAM ovarian carcinoma into ovary and peritoneum. Tumour xenografts grew at all sites within 3 weeks of inoculation, preserving characteristic morphology without evidence of necrosis or host rejection. Lymphatic metastasis was demonstrated in regional nodes draining xenografts of melanoma and ovarian carcinoma. Colonic LS1 74T xenografts produced mucin and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA). The anti-CEA IgG1 monoclonal antibody A5B7 was radiolabelled with iodine-131 and administered intravenously to sheep. Peak uptake at 5 days in orthotopic human tumour transplants in gut was 0.027% DI g(-1) (percentage of injected dose per gram) and 0.034% DI g(-1) in hepatic metastases with tumour to blood ratios of 2-2.5. Non-specific tumour uptake in melanoma was 0.003% DI g(-1). Uptake of radiolabelled monoclonal antibody in human tumours in our large animal model is comparable with that observed in patients and may be more realistic than nude mice xenografts for prediction of clinical efficacy of radioimmunotherapy. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:9716032

  8. Cytotoxicity of fucosterol containing fraction of marine algae against breast and colon carcinoma cell line

    PubMed Central

    Khanavi, Mahnaz; Gheidarloo, Razieh; Sadati, Nargess; Ardekani, Mohammad Reza Shams; Nabavi, Seyed Mohammad Bagher; Tavajohi, Shohreh; Ostad, Seyed Nasser

    2012-01-01

    Context: Marine algae produce different secondary metabolites with a wide range of biological activities. Many studies have been achieved on the screening of biological effects of marine organisms and a lot of active compounds were isolated and characterized. Aims: In an attempt to find cytotoxic compound of hexane fraction, isolation, identification, and cytotoxicity of active compound of this fraction were performed. Materials and Methods: In this study, total methanolic (70%) extract and partition fractions of hexane, chloroform (CHCl3), ethyl acetate (EtOAc), and MeOH–H2O of Sargassum angustifolium, Chondria dasyphylla, and Ulva flexuosa, collected from coastlines of the Persian Gulf in south of Iran, were studied against colon carcinoma (HT-29), colorectal adenocarcinoma (Caco-2), breast ductal carcinoma (T47D), and Swiss mouse embryo fibroblast (NIH 3T3) cell lines by MTT assay. Statistical Analysis Used: IC50 (median growth inhibitory concentration) values were calculated by Sigmaplot (10) software. Results: Hexane fraction of Chondria dasyphylla (IC50 82.26 ± 4.09 μg/ml) and MeOH-H2O fraction of Ulva flexuosa (IC50 116.92 ± 8.58 μg/ml) showed cytotoxic activity against proliferation of T47D cells. Hexane fraction of Sargassum angustifolium was also observed for cytotoxicity against T47D and HT-29 cell lines (IC50 166.42 ± 26.7 and 190.24 ± 52.8 μg/ml), respectively. An investigation of a component from the hexane fraction of Sargassum angustifolium yielded a steroidal metabolite, fucosterol, with cytotoxicity in T47D and HT29 (IC50 27.94 ± 9.3 and 70.41 ± 7.5 μg/ml). Conclusions: These results indicated that fucosterol, the most abundant phytosterol in brown algae, is responsible for cytotoxic effect of this extract against breast and colon carcinoma cell lines. PMID:22438665

  9. [A Case of Invasive Intraductal Papillary Mucinous Carcinoma, Penetrating the Stomach, Colon, and Jejunum].

    PubMed

    Goto, Tadahiro; Toyama, Hirochika; Asari, Sadaki; Terai, Sachio; Kinoshita, Hisoka; Matsumoto, Taku; Kuramitsu, Kaori; Tanaka, Motofumi; Takebe, Atsushi; Kido, Masahiro; Matsumoto, Ippei; Ajiki, Tetsuo; Fukumoto, Takumi; Ku, Yonson

    2015-11-01

    A 69-year-old woman was admitted to a nearby clinic complaining of abdominal pain. Abdominal CT showed a 10 cm diameter huge cystic lesion in the body and tail of the pancreas. The patient was referred to our institution for treatment. Endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) revealed a cystic mass with a solid lesion. Endoscopic retrograde pancreatography(ERP) demonstrated mucous at the opening of the papilla of Vater and dilatation of the pancreatic duct with a solid nodule. Contrast radiography revealed a fistula from the tumor to the jejunum. A biopsy specimen from the lesion showed adenocarcinoma. Intraoperative findings showed a tumor occupying the pancreas body and tail with suspected invasion to the stomach, jejunum, and transverse colon. We performed distal pancreatectomy with partial resection of stomach, jejunum, and colon. Pathological findings showed an invasive type of IPMC, with invasion to the subserosal layer of the stomach and colon and the mucous layer of the jejunum. While IPMC is recognized as a slow growing malignancy, some cases of invasive carcinoma with fistulation into adjacent organs have been reported. To our knowledge, a case of IPMC penetrating to 3 adjacent organs is rare.

  10. [Colonic metastases of breast infiltrating lobular carcinoma: atypical presentation of a clinical case].

    PubMed

    Bürgesser, Maria Virginia; Calafat, Patricia; Diller, Ana

    2010-01-01

    Gastrointestinal metastases are rare. May occur years after initial diagnosis and its symptoms are nonspecific, delaying its correct diagnosis and aggravating its prognosis. The most common histological subtype is lobular breast carcinoma. We present a 75-year-old woman with history of left mastectomy six years ago by infiltrating lobular carcinoma. She was treated with tamoxifen for five years. At present, there was no evidence of disease. She attended the hospital for intestinal subocclusion, being admitted for study. A barium enema revealed multiple strictures of the large bowel and a colonoscopy revealed an impassable stricture in the rectum-sigma. Due to the severity of symptoms, underwent total colectomy. The suspected diagnosis was Crohn's disease. The surgical specimen showed multiple stenosis of the light, with thickened wall and mucosa with granulations. Microscopic examination showed transmural infiltration of colonic wall by malignant cells CK7 positive and ER positive. Breast infiltrating lobular carcinoma has more special tendency to affect the digestive tract, even many years after the diagnosis of the primary tumor. In front of a patient with history of breast cancer and gastrointestinal symptoms, its mandatory to consider gastrointestinal metastases, making differential diagnosis with inflammatory bowel disease, infections or primary tumors, as the therapeutic actions are different.

  11. Biobanking of Fresh-Frozen Human Adenocarcinomatous and Normal Colon Tissues: Which Parameters Influence RNA Quality?

    PubMed

    Galissier, Thibaut; Schneider, Christophe; Nasri, Saviz; Kanagaratnam, Lukshe; Fichel, Caroline; Coquelet, Christelle; Diebold, Marie-Danièle; Kianmanesh, Reza; Bellon, Georges; Dedieu, Stéphane; Marchal Bressenot, Aude; Boulagnon-Rombi, Camille

    2016-01-01

    Medical research projects become increasingly dependent on biobanked tissue of high quality because the reliability of gene expression is affected by the quality of extracted RNA. Hence, the present study aimed to determine if clinical, surgical, histological, and molecular parameters influence RNA quality of normal and tumoral frozen colonic tissues. RNA Quality Index (RQI) was evaluated on 241 adenocarcinomas and 115 matched normal frozen colon tissues collected between October 2006 and December 2012. RQI results were compared to patients' age and sex, tumor site, kind of surgery, anastomosis failure, adenocarcinoma type and grade, tumor cell percentage, necrosis extent, HIF-1α and cleaved caspase-3 immunohistochemistry, and BRAF, KRAS and microsatellites status. The RQI was significantly higher in colon cancer tissue than in matched normal tissue. RQI from left-sided colonic cancers was significantly higher than RQI from right-sided cancers. The RNA quality was not affected by ischemia and storage duration. According to histological control, 7.9% of the samples were unsatisfactory because of inadequate sampling. Biobanked tumoral tissues with RQI ≥5 had lower malignant cells to stromal cells ratio than samples with RQI <5 (p <0.05). Cellularity, necrosis extent and mucinous component did not influence RQI results. Cleaved caspase-3 and HIF-1α immunolabelling were not correlated to RQI. BRAF, KRAS and microsatellites molecular status did not influence RNA quality. Multivariate analysis revealed that the tumor location, the surgical approach (laparoscopy versus open colectomy) and the occurrence of anastomotic leakage were the only parameters influencing significantly RQI results of tumor samples. We failed to identify parameter influencing RQI of normal colon samples. These data suggest that RNA quality of colonic adenocarcinoma biospecimens is determined by clinical and surgical parameters. More attention should be paid during the biobanking procedure of

  12. Biobanking of Fresh-Frozen Human Adenocarcinomatous and Normal Colon Tissues: Which Parameters Influence RNA Quality?

    PubMed Central

    Galissier, Thibaut; Schneider, Christophe; Nasri, Saviz; Kanagaratnam, Lukshe; Fichel, Caroline; Coquelet, Christelle; Diebold, Marie-Danièle; Kianmanesh, Reza; Bellon, Georges; Dedieu, Stéphane; Marchal Bressenot, Aude

    2016-01-01

    Medical research projects become increasingly dependent on biobanked tissue of high quality because the reliability of gene expression is affected by the quality of extracted RNA. Hence, the present study aimed to determine if clinical, surgical, histological, and molecular parameters influence RNA quality of normal and tumoral frozen colonic tissues. RNA Quality Index (RQI) was evaluated on 241 adenocarcinomas and 115 matched normal frozen colon tissues collected between October 2006 and December 2012. RQI results were compared to patients’ age and sex, tumor site, kind of surgery, anastomosis failure, adenocarcinoma type and grade, tumor cell percentage, necrosis extent, HIF-1α and cleaved caspase-3 immunohistochemistry, and BRAF, KRAS and microsatellites status. The RQI was significantly higher in colon cancer tissue than in matched normal tissue. RQI from left-sided colonic cancers was significantly higher than RQI from right-sided cancers. The RNA quality was not affected by ischemia and storage duration. According to histological control, 7.9% of the samples were unsatisfactory because of inadequate sampling. Biobanked tumoral tissues with RQI ≥5 had lower malignant cells to stromal cells ratio than samples with RQI <5 (p <0.05). Cellularity, necrosis extent and mucinous component did not influence RQI results. Cleaved caspase-3 and HIF-1α immunolabelling were not correlated to RQI. BRAF, KRAS and microsatellites molecular status did not influence RNA quality. Multivariate analysis revealed that the tumor location, the surgical approach (laparoscopy versus open colectomy) and the occurrence of anastomotic leakage were the only parameters influencing significantly RQI results of tumor samples. We failed to identify parameter influencing RQI of normal colon samples. These data suggest that RNA quality of colonic adenocarcinoma biospecimens is determined by clinical and surgical parameters. More attention should be paid during the biobanking procedure of

  13. Detection of exfoliated carcinoma cells in colonic luminal washings by identification of deranged patterns of expression of the CD44 gene.

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, K; Sugino, T; Bolodeoku, J; Warren, B F; Goodison, S; Woodman, A; Toge, T; Tahara, E; Tarin, D

    1996-01-01

    AIMS: To investigate whether colonic cancer cells exfoliated into the lumen of the organ can be detected by identification of their abnormal CD44 gene products. METHODS: Exfoliated cells were obtained by centrifugation of saline wash-outs of 27 surgically resected colon specimens obtained from 15 patients with carcinoma, seven with ulcerative colitis and five with Crohn's disease. After extracting cellular mRNA, amplification by the reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) technique and analysis by Southern blot hybridisation was carried out to examine the levels and patterns of transcription of exons 11(v6), and 12(v7) and intron 9 of the CD44 gene. The transcription of these CD44 components was also examined by RT-PCR of snap-frozen solid tissue specimens from 11 of the above patients with colorectal carcinoma, seven with ulcerative colitis and five with Crohn's disease. RESULTS: Abnormal expression of exons 11(v6) and 12(v7) was detected in exfoliated cells from 11 (73%) of 15 patients with carcinoma, but not in any patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The retention of intron 9 in CD44 mRNA transcripts was detected in washings from four (27%) carcinoma specimens but not in washings from non-malignant specimens. It was confirmed that in solid tissue samples from the same carcinomas there was abnormal over-expression of numerous alternatively spliced CD44 species containing transcripts of exons 11 and 12 and retention of intron 9. Low level expression of these exons was detected in tissue from inflammatory lesions from five of seven patients with ulcerative colitis and four of five with Crohn's disease. The retention of intron 9 was not seen in normal mucosa nor IBD. CONCLUSION: Abnormal expression of the variant exons and of intron 9 of the CD44 gene in tumour cells exfoliated into the colonic lumen may be helpful markers for the early, non-invasive, diagnosis of colorectal cancer. Images PMID:8655705

  14. Breast Cancer Cell Colonization of the Human Bone Marrow Adipose Tissue Niche1

    PubMed Central

    Templeton, Zach S.; Lie, Wen-Rong; Wang, Weiqi; Rosenberg-Hasson, Yael; Alluri, Rajiv V.; Tamaresis, John S.; Bachmann, Michael H.; Lee, Kitty; Maloney, William J.; Contag, Christopher H.; King, Bonnie L.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Bone is a preferred site of breast cancer metastasis, suggesting the presence of tissue-specific features that attract and promote the outgrowth of breast cancer cells. We sought to identify parameters of human bone tissue associated with breast cancer cell osteotropism and colonization in the metastatic niche. METHODS: Migration and colonization patterns of MDA-MB-231-fLuc-EGFP (luciferase-enhanced green fluorescence protein) and MCF-7-fLuc-EGFP breast cancer cells were studied in co-culture with cancellous bone tissue fragments isolated from 14 hip arthroplasties. Breast cancer cell migration into tissues and toward tissue-conditioned medium was measured in Transwell migration chambers using bioluminescence imaging and analyzed as a function of secreted factors measured by multiplex immunoassay. Patterns of breast cancer cell colonization were evaluated with fluorescence microscopy and immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: Enhanced MDA-MB-231-fLuc-EGFP breast cancer cell migration to bone-conditioned versus control medium was observed in 12/14 specimens (P = .0014) and correlated significantly with increasing levels of the adipokines/cytokines leptin (P = .006) and IL-1β (P = .001) in univariate and multivariate regression analyses. Fluorescence microscopy and immunohistochemistry of fragments underscored the extreme adiposity of adult human bone tissues and revealed extensive breast cancer cell colonization within the marrow adipose tissue compartment. CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that breast cancer cells migrate to human bone tissue-conditioned medium in association with increasing levels of leptin and IL-1β, and colonize the bone marrow adipose tissue compartment of cultured fragments. Bone marrow adipose tissue and its molecular signals may be important but understudied components of the breast cancer metastatic niche. PMID:26696367

  15. Paraneoplastic Dermatomyositis in Hepatocellular Carcinoma with Colonic Perforation: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Miyata, Naoteru; Emoto, Katsura; Dei, Yoshiaki; Tomiyasu, Kazuhiro; Ishiyama, Ryoko; Horie, Tomofumi; Sakai, Gen; Tahara, Toshiyuki

    2016-01-01

    Background Dermatomyositis (DM) is an autoimmune disease characterized by cutaneous Gottron papules, heliotrope rash, and proximal myopathy. It may also present as a paraneoplastic syndrome that can complicate a variety of different cancers, such as lung, cervical, and breast cancer. However, the association with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is extremely rare. Moreover, to our knowledge, there are no previous reports of colonic perforation following steroid pulse treatment for a DM patient. Case Summary A 61-year-old male complained of a skin rash that began in his neck and spread to his face and abdomen. On physical examination, the patient was also found to have symmetrical proximal muscle weakness, abdominal pain, heliotrope rash in the periorbital skin, and poikiloderma on his face and abdomen. Serum level of muscle enzymes was remarkably increased. Muscle examination revealed symmetrical proximal weakness. The diagnosis of DM was made, and steroid treatment was started for symptomatic relief. A search for causative malignancy revealed HCC. Despite steroid therapy for DM, his symptoms did not improve. Additionally, C-reactive protein elevation was seen along with severe abdominal pain on day 14 of admission. Shortly after this, the patient died of septic shock due to suppurative peritonitis after perforation of the ascending colon. Conclusion Here, we present a rare case of DM caused by non-hepatitis-associated advanced HCC with colonic perforation. The cause of colonic perforation is still unclear. This case demonstrates the need to carefully monitor abdominal pain in DM patients as symptoms can be masked by steroid therapy. PMID:27790119

  16. [Hansenula anomala fungemia in a patient undergoing IVH-treatment with ascending colon carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Sumitomo, M; Kawata, K; Kaminaga, Y; Ito, A; Makimura, K; Yamaguchi, H

    1996-02-01

    A case of catheter-related fungemia due to Hansenula anomala is reported. A 61-year-old male was diagnosed as having stage 3 ascending colon carcinoma stenosing the colon severely and was admitted to our hospital to receive an operation of the carcinoma. Just after admission, an intravenous hyperalimentation (IVH) catheter was inserted and IVH was started to prevent development of ileus and to prepare for laparotomy. Nine days later, he developed a fever. On the next day, the IVH catheter was removed and cultures of blood and the catheter revealed the presence of yeast-like organisms that were identified as H. anomala. Laboratory data showed hypogranulocytemia, slight disturbances of liver and kidney, a prolongation of PT, an increase of FDP and positive reaction of candida antigen by CAND-TEC. He improved after the removal of the catheter, and treatment with intravenous infusion of fluconazole 2 days after the removal was thought to be useful for recovery and to prevent the reappearance of infection though susceptibility to fluconazole was not good. Human infections due to H. anomala are rare and this is the 8th case of H. anomala fungemia in Japan. From this report and a review of the literature, risk factors for developing this fungemia include the use and abuse of central venous catheters such as IVH-catheter. It appears that H. anomala has recently emerged as a potential pathogen in the immunocompromised hosts and patients after insertion of central venous catheters and that these organisms should be added to the growing list of unusual fungal pathogens in these patients. PMID:8851393

  17. Requirement of p53 targets in chemosensitization of colonic carcinoma to death ligand therapy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shulin; El-Deiry, Wafik S

    2003-12-01

    Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) exhibits specific tumoricidal activity and is under development for cancer therapy. Mismatch-repair-deficient colonic tumors evade TRAIL-induced apoptosis through mutational inactivation of Bax, but chemotherapeutics including Camptosar (CPT-11) restore TRAIL sensitivity. However, the signaling pathways in restoring TRAIL sensitivity remain to be elucidated. Here, we imaged p53 transcriptional activity in Bax-/- carcinomas by using bioluminescence, in vivo, and find that p53 is required for sensitization to TRAIL by CPT-11. Small interfering RNAs directed at proapoptotic p53 targets reveal TRAIL receptor KILLER/DR5 contributes significantly to TRAIL sensitization, whereas Bak plays a minor role. Caspase 8 inhibition protects both CPT-11 pretreated wild-type and Bax-/- HCT116 cells from TRAIL-induced apoptosis, whereas caspase 9 inhibition only rescued the wild-type HCT116 cells from death induced by TRAIL. The results suggest a conversion in the apoptotic mechanism in HCT116 colon carcinoma from a type II pathway involving Bax and the mitochondria to a type I pathway involving efficient extrinsic pathway caspase activation. In contrast to Bax-/- cells, Bak-deficient human cancers undergo apoptosis in response to TRAIL or CPT-11, implying that these proteins have nonoverlapping functions. Our studies elucidate a mechanism for restoration of TRAIL sensitivity in MMR-deficient Bax-/- human cancers through p53-dependent activation of KILLER/DR5 and reconstitution of a type I death pathway. Efforts to identify agents that up-regulate DR5 may be useful in cancer therapies restoring TRAIL sensitivity. PMID:14645705

  18. Development of HIV-1 Rectal-Specific Microbicides and Colonic Tissue Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Dezzutti, Charlene S.; Russo, Julie; Wang, Lin; Abebe, Kaleab Z.; Li, Jie; Friend, David R.; McGowan, Ian M.; Rohan, Lisa C.

    2014-01-01

    The gastrointestinal tract is structurally and functionally different from the vagina. Thus, the paradigm of topical microbicide development and evaluation has evolved to include rectal microbicides (RMs). Our interest was to create unique RM formulations to safely and effectively deliver antiretroviral drugs to mucosal tissue. RMs were designed to include those that spread and coat all surfaces of the rectum and distal colon rapidly (liquid) and those that create a deformable, erodible barrier and remain localized at the administration site (gel). Tenofovir (TFV) (1%) was formulated as an aqueous thermoreversible fluid and a carbopol-based aqueous hydrogel. Lipid-based liquid and gel formulations were prepared for UC781 (0.1%) using isopropyl myristate and GTCC (Caprylic/Capric Triglycerides), respectively. Formulations were characterized for pH, viscosity, osmolality, and drug content. Pre-clinical testing incorporated ex vivo colonic tissue obtained through surgical resections and flexible sigmoidoscopy (flex sig). As this was the first time using tissue from both sources side-by-side, the ability to replicate HIV-1 was compared. Efficacy of the RM formulations was tested by applying the products with HIV-1 directly to polarized colonic tissue and following viral replication. Safety of the formulations was determined by MTT assay and histology. All products had a neutral pH and were isoosmolar. While HIV-1BaL and HIV-1JR-CSF alone and in the presence of semen had similar replication trends between surgically resected and flex sig tissues, the magnitude of viral replication was significantly better in flex sig tissues. Both TFV and UC781 formulations protected the colonic tissue, regardless of tissue source, from HIV-1 and retained tissue viability and architecture. Our in vitro and ex vivo results show successful formulation of unique RMs. Moreover, the results of flex sig and surgically resected tissues were comparable suggesting the incorporation of both in

  19. Teng-Long-Bu-Zhong-Tang, a Chinese herbal formula, enhances anticancer effects of 5 - Fluorouracil in CT26 colon carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Colorectal cancer remains one of the leading causes of cancer death worldwide. Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) has played a positive role in colorectal cancer treatment. There is a great need to establish effective herbal formula for colorectal cancer treatment. Based on TCM principles and clinical practices, we have established an eight herbs composed formula for colorectal cancer treatment, which is Teng-Long-Bu-Zhong-Tang (TLBZT). We have demonstrated the anticancer effects of TLBZT against colorectal carcinoma in vitro. In present study, we evaluated the anticancer potential of TLBZT, used alone or in combination with low dose of 5-Fluorouracil (5-Fu), in CT26 colon carcinoma in vivo. Methods CT26 colon carcinoma was established in BALB/c mice and treated with TLBZT, 5-Fu, or TLBZT plus 5-Fu. The tumor volumes were observed. Apoptosis was detected by TUNEL assay. Caspases activities were detected by colorimetric assay. Cell senescence was indentified by senescence β-galactosidase staining. Gene expression and angiogenesis was observed by immunohistochemistry or western blot. Results TLBZT significantly inhibited CT26 colon carcinoma growth. TLBZT elicited apoptosis in CT26 colon carcinoma, accompanied by Caspase-3, 8, and 9 activation and PARP cleavage, and downregulation of XIAP and Survivin. TLBZT also induced cell senescence in CT26 colon carcinoma, with concomitant upregulation of p16 and p21 and downregulation of RB phosphorylation. In addition, angiogenesis and VEGF expression in CT26 colon carcinoma was significantly inhibited by TLBZT treatment. Furthermore, TLBZT significantly enhanced anticancer effects of 5-Fu in CT26 colon carcinoma. Conclusions TLBZT exhibited significantly anticancer effect, and enhanced the effects of 5-Fu in CT26 colon carcinoma, which may correlate with induction of apoptosis and cell senescence, and angiogenesis inhibition. The present study provides new insight into TCM approaches for colon cancer treatment

  20. Subgingival bacterial colonization profiles correlate with gingival tissue gene expression

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory disease caused by the microbiota of the periodontal pocket. We investigated the association between subgingival bacterial profiles and gene expression patterns in gingival tissues of patients with periodontitis. A total of 120 patients undergoing periodontal surgery contributed with a minimum of two interproximal gingival papillae (range 2-4) from a maxillary posterior region. Prior to tissue harvesting, subgingival plaque samples were collected from the mesial and distal aspects of each tissue sample. Gingival tissue RNA was extracted, reverse-transcribed, labeled, and hybridized with whole-genome microarrays (310 in total). Plaque samples were analyzed using checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridizations with respect to 11 bacterial species. Random effects linear regression models considered bacterial levels as exposure and expression profiles as outcome variables. Gene Ontology analyses summarized the expression patterns into biologically relevant categories. Results Wide inter-species variation was noted in the number of differentially expressed gingival tissue genes according to subgingival bacterial levels: Using a Bonferroni correction (p < 9.15 × 10-7), 9,392 probe sets were differentially associated with levels of Tannerella forsythia, 8,537 with Porphyromonas gingivalis, 6,460 with Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, 506 with Eikenella corrodens and only 8 with Actinomyces naeslundii. Cluster analysis identified commonalities and differences among tissue gene expression patterns differentially regulated according to bacterial levels. Conclusion Our findings suggest that the microbial content of the periodontal pocket is a determinant of gene expression in the gingival tissues and provide new insights into the differential ability of periodontal species to elicit a local host response. PMID:19835625

  1. Electroporation-assisted penetration of zinc oxide nanoparticles in ex vivo normal and cancerous human colon tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, L. P.; Wu, G. Y.; Wei, H. J.; Guo, Z. Y.; Yang, H. Q.; He, Y. H.; Xie, S. S.

    2015-11-01

    In this study, we presented the research of the penetration of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) (30 and 90 nm), and electroporation (EP) assisted penetration of the ZnO NPs in the human normal colon (NC) and adenomatous colon (AC) tissues studied with optical coherence tomography (OCT) and diffuse reflectance (DR) measurement. The results have shown that the attenuation coefficient of colon tissue after the application of 30 or 90 nm ZnO NPs alone decreased approximately by 28% and 14% for NC tissue, 35% and 22% for AC tissue, respectively; while the attenuation coefficient of colon tissue after combined application of 30 or 90 nm ZnO NPs/EP decreased approximately by 46% and 30% for NC tissue, and 53% and 42% for AC tissue, respectively. The results illustrate EP can significantly increase the penetration of ZnO NPs in the colon tissue, especially in AC tissue. Through the analysis of attenuation coefficient and reflectance intensity of the colon tissue, we find that the accumulation of the ZnO NPs in the colon tissue greatly influenced the tissue optical properties.

  2. p53 is important for the anti-proliferative effect of ibuprofen in colon carcinoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Janssen, Astrid; Schiffmann, Susanne; Birod, Kerstin; Maier, Thorsten J.; Wobst, Ivonne; Geisslinger, Gerd

    2008-01-25

    S-ibuprofen which inhibits the cyclooxygenase-1/-2 and R-ibuprofen which shows no COX-inhibition at therapeutic concentrations have anti-carcinogenic effects in human colon cancer cells; however, the molecular mechanisms for these effects are still unknown. Using HCT-116 colon carcinoma cell lines, expressing either the wild-type form of p53 (HCT-116 p53{sup wt}) or being p(HCT-116 p53{sup -/-}), we demonstrated that both induction of a cell cycle block and apoptosis after S- and R-ibuprofen treatment is in part dependent on p53. Also in the in vivo nude mice model HCT-116 p53{sup -/-} xenografts were less sensitive for S- and R-ibuprofen treatment than HCT-116 p53{sup wt} cells. Furthermore, results indicate that induction of apoptosis in HCT-116 p53{sup wt} cells after ibuprofen treatment is in part dependent on a signalling pathway including the neutrophin receptor p75{sup NTR}, p53 and Bax.

  3. 5-Fluorouracil causes leukocytes attraction in the peritoneal cavity by activating autophagy and HMGB1 release in colon carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Cottone, Lucia; Capobianco, Annalisa; Gualteroni, Chiara; Perrotta, Cristiana; Bianchi, Marco E; Rovere-Querini, Patrizia; Manfredi, Angelo A

    2015-03-15

    Signals released by leukocytes contribute to tumor growth and influence the efficacy of antineoplastic treatments. The outcome of peritoneal carcinomatosis treatments is unsatisfactory, possibly because chemotherapy activates events that have in the long-term deleterious effects. In this study we offer evidence that 5-fluorouracile (5-FU), besides provoking apoptosis of MC38 colon carcinoma cells, induces a striking attraction of leukocytes both in an orthotopic model of colon carcinomatosis in vivo and in monocyte-migration assays in vitro. Leukocyte attraction depends on the presence of High Mobility Group Box 1 (HMGB1), an endogenous immune adjuvant and chemoattractant released by dying cells. Leukocyte recruitment is prevented in vivo and in vitro using blocking antibodies against HMGB1 and its competitive antagonist BoxA or by interfering with HMGB1 expression. Autophagy is required for leukocyte chemoattraction, since the latter abates upon pharmacological blockade of the autophagic flux while activation of autophagy per se, in the absence of death of colon carcinoma cells, is not sufficient to attract leukocytes. Our results identify autophagy induction and HMGB1 release in colon carcinoma cells as key events responsible for 5-FU elicited leukocyte attraction and define a novel rate-limiting target for combinatorial therapies.

  4. Soft Tissue Myoepithelial Carcinoma of the Neck with Spinal Invasion

    PubMed Central

    Moussaly, Elias; Nazha, Bassel; Kedia, Shiksha; Chang, Qing; Forte, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Soft tissue myoepithelial neoplasms are a rare yet diverse group of tumors, ranging from benign to malignant lesions. Their presentation in the head and neck region is uncommon and represents a challenging diagnosis. Early identification of myoepithelial carcinoma is crucial given its more aggressive course compared to its benign counterpart, although the histopathological distinction between the two can be difficult. EWSR1 gene rearrangement is found in half the cases and has a speculative role in pathogenesis. Complete excision remains the treatment of choice. The roles of chemotherapy and radiation are unclear. We report the hospital course of a 33-year-old female who presented to our institution with a posterior neck mass with spinal invasion, diagnosed as myoepithelial cancer. A literature review of these rare tumors is discussed here. PMID:27746887

  5. In vivo migration of labeled autologous natural killer cells to liver metastases in patients with colon carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Matera, Lina; Galetto, Alessandra; Bello, Marilena; Baiocco, Cinzia; Chiappino, Isabella; Castellano, Giancarlo; Stacchini, Alessandra; Satolli, Maria A; Mele, Michele; Sandrucci, Sergio; Mussa, Antonio; Bisi, Gianni; Whiteside, Theresa L

    2006-01-01

    Background Besides being the effectors of native anti-tumor cytotoxicity, NK cells participate in T-lymphocyte responses by promoting the maturation of dendritic cells (DC). Adherent NK (A-NK) cells constitute a subset of IL-2-stimulated NK cells which show increased expression of integrins and the ability to adhere to solid surface and to migrate, infiltrate, and destroy cancer. A critical issue in therapy of metastatic disease is the optimization of NK cell migration to tumor tissues and their persistence therein. This study compares localization to liver metastases of autologous A-NK cells administered via the systemic (intravenous, i.v.) versus locoregional (intraarterial, i.a.) routes. Patients and methods A-NK cells expanded ex-vivo with IL-2 and labeled with 111In-oxine were injected i.a. in the liver of three colon carcinoma patients. After 30 days, each patient had a new preparation of 111In-A-NK cells injected i.v. Migration of these cells to various organs was evaluated by SPET and their differential localization to normal and neoplastic liver was demonstrated after i.v. injection of 99mTc-phytate. Results A-NK cells expressed a donor-dependent CD56+CD16+CD3- (NK) or CD56+CD16+CD3+ (NKT) phenotype. When injected i.v., these cells localized to the lung before being visible in the spleen and liver. By contrast, localization of i.a. injected A-NK cells was virtually confined to the spleen and liver. Binding of A-NK cells to liver neoplastic tissues was observed only after i.a. injections. Conclusion This unique study design demonstrates that A-NK cells adoptively transferred to the liver via the intraarterial route have preferential access and substantial accumulation to the tumor site. PMID:17105663

  6. In vivo deep tissue fluorescence imaging of the murine small intestine and colon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crosignani, Viera; Dvornikov, Alexander; Aguilar, Jose S.; Stringari, Chiara; Edwards, Roberts; Mantulin, Williams; Gratton, Enrico

    2012-03-01

    Recently we described a novel technical approach with enhanced fluorescence detection capabilities in two-photon microscopy that achieves deep tissue imaging, while maintaining micron resolution. This technique was applied to in vivo imaging of murine small intestine and colon. Individuals with Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD), commonly presenting as Crohn's disease or Ulcerative Colitis, are at increased risk for developing colorectal cancer. We have developed a Giα2 gene knock out mouse IBD model that develops colitis and colon cancer. The challenge is to study the disease in the whole animal, while maintaining high resolution imaging at millimeter depth. In the Giα2-/- mice, we have been successful in imaging Lgr5-GFP positive stem cell reporters that are found in crypts of niche structures, as well as deeper structures, in the small intestine and colon at depths greater than 1mm. In parallel with these in vivo deep tissue imaging experiments, we have also pursued autofluorescence FLIM imaging of the colon and small intestine-at more shallow depths (roughly 160μm)- on commercial two photon microscopes with excellent structural correlation (in overlapping tissue regions) between the different technologies.

  7. Tissue- and Serum-Associated Biomarkers of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Chauhan, Ranjit; Lahiri, Nivedita

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), one of the leading causes of cancer deaths in the world, is offering a challenge to human beings, with the current modes of treatment being a palliative approach. Lack of proper curative or preventive treatment methods encouraged extensive research around the world with an aim to detect a vaccine or therapeutic target biomolecule that could lead to development of a drug or vaccine against HCC. Biomarkers or biological disease markers have emerged as a potential tool as drug/vaccine targets, as they can accurately diagnose, predict, and even prevent the diseases. Biomarker expression in tissue, serum, plasma, or urine can detect tumor in very early stages of its development and monitor the cancer progression and also the effect of therapeutic interventions. Biomarker discoveries are driven by advanced techniques, such as proteomics, transcriptomics, whole genome sequencing, micro- and micro-RNA arrays, and translational clinics. In this review, an overview of the potential of tissue- and serum-associated HCC biomarkers as diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic targets for drug development is presented. In addition, we highlight recently developed micro-RNA, long noncoding RNA biomarkers, and single-nucleotide changes, which may be used independently or as complementary biomarkers. These active investigations going on around the world aimed at conquering HCC might show a bright light in the near future. PMID:27398029

  8. Tissue- and Serum-Associated Biomarkers of Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Chauhan, Ranjit; Lahiri, Nivedita

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), one of the leading causes of cancer deaths in the world, is offering a challenge to human beings, with the current modes of treatment being a palliative approach. Lack of proper curative or preventive treatment methods encouraged extensive research around the world with an aim to detect a vaccine or therapeutic target biomolecule that could lead to development of a drug or vaccine against HCC. Biomarkers or biological disease markers have emerged as a potential tool as drug/vaccine targets, as they can accurately diagnose, predict, and even prevent the diseases. Biomarker expression in tissue, serum, plasma, or urine can detect tumor in very early stages of its development and monitor the cancer progression and also the effect of therapeutic interventions. Biomarker discoveries are driven by advanced techniques, such as proteomics, transcriptomics, whole genome sequencing, micro- and micro-RNA arrays, and translational clinics. In this review, an overview of the potential of tissue- and serum-associated HCC biomarkers as diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic targets for drug development is presented. In addition, we highlight recently developed micro-RNA, long noncoding RNA biomarkers, and single-nucleotide changes, which may be used independently or as complementary biomarkers. These active investigations going on around the world aimed at conquering HCC might show a bright light in the near future. PMID:27398029

  9. Tissue-specific gene expression in maize seeds during colonization by Aspergillus flavus and Fusarium verticillioides.

    PubMed

    Shu, Xiaomei; Livingston, David P; Franks, Robert G; Boston, Rebecca S; Woloshuk, Charles P; Payne, Gary A

    2015-09-01

    Aspergillus flavus and Fusarium verticillioides are fungal pathogens that colonize maize kernels and produce the harmful mycotoxins aflatoxin and fumonisin, respectively. Management practice based on potential host resistance to reduce contamination by these mycotoxins has proven difficult, resulting in the need for a better understanding of the infection process by these fungi and the response of maize seeds to infection. In this study, we followed the colonization of seeds by histological methods and the transcriptional changes of two maize defence-related genes in specific seed tissues by RNA in situ hybridization. Maize kernels were inoculated with either A. flavus or F. verticillioides 21-22 days after pollination, and harvested at 4, 12, 24, 48, 72, 96 and 120 h post-inoculation. The fungi colonized all tissues of maize seed, but differed in their interactions with aleurone and germ tissues. RNA in situ hybridization showed the induction of the maize pathogenesis-related protein, maize seed (PRms) gene in the aleurone and scutellum on infection by either fungus. Transcripts of the maize sucrose synthase-encoding gene, shrunken-1 (Sh1), were observed in the embryo of non-infected kernels, but were induced on infection by each fungus in the aleurone and scutellum. By comparing histological and RNA in situ hybridization results from adjacent serial sections, we found that the transcripts of these two genes accumulated in tissue prior to the arrival of the advancing pathogens in the seeds. A knowledge of the patterns of colonization and tissue-specific gene expression in response to these fungi will be helpful in the development of resistance.

  10. Increased expression of metastasis-associated in colon cancer-1 in renal cell carcinoma is associated with poor prognosis.

    PubMed

    Jin, Zhong; Xu, Naijin; Guo, Kai; Xu, Peng; Li, Pengju; Zhang, Yiming; Li, Xiezhao; Zheng, Shaobo; Liu, Chunxiao; Xu, Abai; Huang, Peng

    2015-01-01

    Metastasis-associated in colon cancer-1 (MACC1) expression in tumor specimens is an independent prognostic indicator of metastasis, which has recently gained considerable attention in cancer research, due to its overexpression in several types of carcinoma. However, MACC1 expression patterns and its possible role in renal cell carcinoma remain unknown. This study aimed to investigate MACC1 expression in renal cell carcinoma via immunohistochemical analysis and determine the relationship between MACC1 expression and cancer prognosis. Positive MACC1 expression was found to significantly correlate with distant metastasis and TNM stage (P < 0.05). A Kaplan-Meier survival analysis revealed that patients with higher MACC1 expression had a significantly lower disease-free rate (P < 0.05). These results indicate that MACC1 expression is significantly associated with prognosis in patients with renal cell carcinoma. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study on the significance of MACC1 as a prognostic marker in renal cell carcinoma. MACC1 expression may be a useful target for the development of new therapeutic approaches, including molecular targeted therapeutic agents, for renal cell carcinoma.

  11. [Experience of the Pharmacotherapy against Appendix and Sigmoid Colon Signet Ring Cell Carcinoma with the Peritoneal Dissemination].

    PubMed

    Harada, Shingo; Tsuchida, Kazuhito; Shibuya, Taisuke; Doi, Yuki; Kikuchi, Akitomo; Mori, Koichi; Yabushita, Yasuhiro; Watanabe, Takuo; Murakami, Hitoshi; Hasegawa, Seiji; Fukushima, Tadao; Ike, Hideyuki; Nakayama, Takashi

    2015-10-01

    We report 2 cases of signet ring cell carcinoma of the appendix and colon. Case 1: A 61-year-old man was admitted for lower abdominal pain. Colonoscopy revealed an elevated lesion in the orifice of the appendix. Signet ring cell carcinoma was diagnosed on biopsy. The surgical findings showed multiple peritoneal dissemination nodules, while the primary tumor was unresectable owing to extensive invasion into the retroperitoneum. The histopathological findings were signet ring cell carcinoma, T4b (retroperitoneum), NX, P3, Stage Ⅳ. Although the patient received 14 courses of treatment with S-1 as postoperative chemotherapy, he died of his illness at 32 postoperative months. Case 2: A 76-year-old man was admitted for abdominal pain. Perforation of the lower gastrointestinal tract was diagnosed on abdominal CT, and an emergency operation was performed. The surgical findings demonstrated a large number of peritoneal dissemination nodules, cecal invasion of a sigmoid tumor, and perforation of the ascending colon. The primary tumor was thought to be unresectable, and the perforated segment was resected. The histopathological findings were signet ring cell carcinoma, T4b (cecum), NX, P3, Stage Ⅳ. Although 11 courses of treatment using FOLFIRI+Bev were administered as postoperative chemotherapy, the patient died of his illness at 26 postoperative months.

  12. Induction of apoptosis of 2,4',6-trihydroxybenzophenone in HT-29 colon carcinoma cell line.

    PubMed

    Lay, Ma Ma; Karsani, Saiful Anuar; Malek, Sri Nurestri Abd

    2014-01-01

    2,4',6-Trihydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone was isolated from the ethyl acetate fraction of Phaleria macrocarpa (Scheff.) Boerl. fruits. It was found to inhibit cell proliferation in HT-29 human colon carcinoma cell line but caused little damage to WRL-68 normal human liver and MRC-5 normal human fibroblast lung cell lines. The compound was found to sharply affect the viability of HT-29 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. HT-29 cells treated with the compound showed morphological changes under microscopic examination such as cell shrinkage, membrane blebbing, DNA fragmentation, and the occurrence of apoptotic nuclei. The percentage of early apoptotic, late apoptotic, and dead or necrotic cells was determined by flow cytometry using annexin V-FTIC/PI staining. In addition, flow cytometry showed that, when the HT-29 cells were treated with 115 µM of the compound, it resulted in G0/G1 phase arrest in a time-dependent manner. Western blot revealed an upregulation of PUMA, Bak, Bcl-2, and Mcl-1 proteins suggesting that the compound induced apoptosis in HT-29 cells by regulating these proteins. PMID:24579081

  13. ZnO nanoparticle tracking from uptake to genotoxic damage in human colon carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Condello, Maria; De Berardis, Barbara; Ammendolia, Maria Grazia; Barone, Flavia; Condello, Giancarlo; Degan, Paolo; Meschini, Stefania

    2016-09-01

    Zinc Oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles are widely used both in the industry and in biomedical applications for their chemical and physical nanomaterial properties. It is therefore essential to go in depth into the cytotoxicity mechanisms and interactions between nanomaterials and cells. The aim of this work was to evaluate the dissolution of ZnO nanoparticles and their uptake, from a few minutes after treatments up to 24h. ZnO nanoparticles routes of entry into the human colon carcinoma cells (LoVo) were followed at different times by a thorough ultrastructural investigation and semiquantitative analysis. The intracellular release of Zn(2+) ions by Zinquin fluorescent dye, and phosphorylated histone H2AX (γ-H2AX) expression were evaluated. The genotoxic potential of ZnO nanoparticles was also investigated by determining the levels of 8-hydroxyl-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG). The experimental data show that ZnO nanoparticles entered LoVo cells by either passive diffusion or endocytosis or both, depending on the agglomeration state of the nanomaterial. ZnO nanoparticles coming into contact with acid pH of lysosomes altered organelles structure, resulting in the release of Zn(2+) ions. The simultaneous presence of ZnO nanoparticles and Zn(2+) ions in the LoVo cells determined the formation of reactive oxygen species at the mitochondrial and nuclear level, inducing severe DNA damage. PMID:27317967

  14. ADAM17 Silencing in Mouse Colon Carcinoma Cells: The Effect on Tumoricidal Cytokines and Angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Das, Sudipta; Czarnek, Maria; Bzowska, Monika; Mężyk-Kopeć, Renata; Stalińska, Krystyna; Wyroba, Barbara; Sroka, Jolanta; Jucha, Jarosław; Deneka, Dawid; Stokłosa, Paulina; Ogonek, Justyna; Swartz, Melody A.; Madeja, Zbigniew; Bereta, Joanna

    2012-01-01

    ADAM17 (a disintegrin and metalloprotease 17) is a major sheddase for numerous growth factors, cytokines, receptors, and cell adhesion molecules and is often overexpressed in malignant cells. It is generally accepted that ADAM17 promotes tumor development via activating growth factors from the EGF family, thus facilitating autocrine stimulation of tumor cell proliferation and migration. Here we show, using MC38CEA murine colon carcinoma model, that ADAM17 also regulates tumor angiogenesis and cytokine profile. When ADAM17 was silenced in MC38CEA cells, in vivo tumor growth and in vitro cell motility were significantly diminished, but no effect was seen on in vitro cell proliferation. ADAM17-silencing was accompanied by decreased in vitro expression of vascular endothelial growth factor-A and matrix metalloprotease-9, which was consistent with the limited angiogenesis and slower growth seen in ADAM17-silenced tumors. Among the growth factors susceptible to shedding by ADAM17, neuregulin-1 was the only candidate to mediate the effects of ADAM17 on MC38CEA motility and tumor angiogenesis. Concentrations of TNF and IFNγ, cytokines that synergistically induced proapoptotic effects on MC38CEA cells, were significantly elevated in the lysates of ADAM17-silenced tumors compared to mock transfected controls, suggesting a possible role for ADAM17 in host immune suppression. These results introduce new, complex roles of ADAM17 in tumor progression, including its impact on the anti-tumor immune response. PMID:23251384

  15. ADAM17 silencing in mouse colon carcinoma cells: the effect on tumoricidal cytokines and angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Das, Sudipta; Czarnek, Maria; Bzowska, Monika; Mężyk-Kopeć, Renata; Stalińska, Krystyna; Wyroba, Barbara; Sroka, Jolanta; Jucha, Jarosław; Deneka, Dawid; Stokłosa, Paulina; Ogonek, Justyna; Swartz, Melody A; Madeja, Zbigniew; Bereta, Joanna

    2012-01-01

    ADAM17 (a disintegrin and metalloprotease 17) is a major sheddase for numerous growth factors, cytokines, receptors, and cell adhesion molecules and is often overexpressed in malignant cells. It is generally accepted that ADAM17 promotes tumor development via activating growth factors from the EGF family, thus facilitating autocrine stimulation of tumor cell proliferation and migration. Here we show, using MC38CEA murine colon carcinoma model, that ADAM17 also regulates tumor angiogenesis and cytokine profile. When ADAM17 was silenced in MC38CEA cells, in vivo tumor growth and in vitro cell motility were significantly diminished, but no effect was seen on in vitro cell proliferation. ADAM17-silencing was accompanied by decreased in vitro expression of vascular endothelial growth factor-A and matrix metalloprotease-9, which was consistent with the limited angiogenesis and slower growth seen in ADAM17-silenced tumors. Among the growth factors susceptible to shedding by ADAM17, neuregulin-1 was the only candidate to mediate the effects of ADAM17 on MC38CEA motility and tumor angiogenesis. Concentrations of TNF and IFNγ, cytokines that synergistically induced proapoptotic effects on MC38CEA cells, were significantly elevated in the lysates of ADAM17-silenced tumors compared to mock transfected controls, suggesting a possible role for ADAM17 in host immune suppression. These results introduce new, complex roles of ADAM17 in tumor progression, including its impact on the anti-tumor immune response.

  16. Oak ellagitannins suppress the phosphorylation of the epidermal growth factor receptor in human colon carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Fridrich, Diana; Glabasnia, Arne; Fritz, Jessica; Esselen, Melanie; Pahlke, Gudrun; Hofmann, Thomas; Marko, Doris

    2008-05-14

    The ellagitannins castalagin and vescalagin, and the C-glycosides grandinin and roburin E as well as ellagic acid were found to potently inhibit the growth of human colon carcinoma cells (HT29) in vitro. In a cell-free system these compounds were identified as potent inhibitors of the protein tyrosine kinase activity of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) with IC 50 values in the low nanomolar range. To address the question of whether the interference with the activity of the isolated EGFR also plays a role within intact cells, effects on the phosphorylation status of the EGFR, as a measure for its activity, were determined in HT29 cells. As exemplified for castalagin and grandinin, both the nonglycosylated and the glycosylated ellagitannins effectively suppressed EGFR phosphorylation, but only at concentrations > or =10 microM, thus, in a concentration range where growth inhibition was observed. These results indicate that the suppression of EGFR-mediated signaling might contribute to the growth inhibitory effects of these compounds present in oak-matured wines and spirits such as whiskey. In contrast, despite substantial growth inhibitory properties, ellagic acid did not significantly affect EGFR phosphorylation in HT29 cells up to 100 microM. PMID:18419129

  17. Tissue-specific patterns of gene expression in the epithelium and stroma of normal colon in healthy individuals in an aspirin intervention trial.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Sushma S; Makar, Karen W; Li, Lin; Zheng, Yingye; Yang, Peiying; Levy, Lisa; Rudolph, Rebecca Y; Lampe, Paul D; Yan, Min; Markowitz, Sanford D; Bigler, Jeannette; Lampe, Johanna W; Potter, John D

    2015-12-01

    Regular aspirin use reduces colon adenoma and carcinoma incidence. UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGT) are involved in aspirin metabolism and clearance, and variant alleles in UGT1A6 have been shown to alter salicylic acid metabolism and risk of colon neoplasia. In a randomized, cross-over, placebo-controlled trial of 44 healthy men and women, homozygous for UGT1A6*1 or UGT1A6*2, we explored differences between global epithelial and stromal expression, using Affymetrix U133 + 2.0 microarrays and tested effects of 60-day aspirin supplementation (325 mg/d) on epithelial and stromal gene expression and colon prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) levels. We conducted a comprehensive study of differential gene expression between normal human colonic epithelium and stroma from healthy individuals. Although no statistically significant differences in gene expression were observed in response to aspirin or UGT1A6 genotype, we have identified the genes uniquely and reproducibly expressed in each tissue type and have analyzed the biologic processes they represent. Here we describe in detail how the data, deposited in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) - accession number GSE71571 - was generated including the basic analysis as contained in the manuscript published in BMC Medical Genetics with the PMID 25927723 (Thomas et al., 2015 [9]).

  18. Tissue-specific patterns of gene expression in the epithelium and stroma of normal colon in healthy individuals in an aspirin intervention trial

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Sushma S.; Makar, Karen W.; Li, Lin; Zheng, Yingye; Yang, Peiying; Levy, Lisa; Rudolph, Rebecca Y.; Lampe, Paul D.; Yan, Min; Markowitz, Sanford D.; Bigler, Jeannette; Lampe, Johanna W.; Potter, John D.

    2015-01-01

    Regular aspirin use reduces colon adenoma and carcinoma incidence. UDP-glucuronosyltransferases (UGT) are involved in aspirin metabolism and clearance, and variant alleles in UGT1A6 have been shown to alter salicylic acid metabolism and risk of colon neoplasia. In a randomized, cross-over, placebo-controlled trial of 44 healthy men and women, homozygous for UGT1A6*1 or UGT1A6*2, we explored differences between global epithelial and stromal expression, using Affymetrix U133 + 2.0 microarrays and tested effects of 60-day aspirin supplementation (325 mg/d) on epithelial and stromal gene expression and colon prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) levels. We conducted a comprehensive study of differential gene expression between normal human colonic epithelium and stroma from healthy individuals. Although no statistically significant differences in gene expression were observed in response to aspirin or UGT1A6 genotype, we have identified the genes uniquely and reproducibly expressed in each tissue type and have analyzed the biologic processes they represent. Here we describe in detail how the data, deposited in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) – accession number GSE71571 – was generated including the basic analysis as contained in the manuscript published in BMC Medical Genetics with the PMID 25927723 (Thomas et al., 2015 [9]). PMID:26697360

  19. Optical properties of human colon tissues in the 350 – 2500 nm spectral range

    SciTech Connect

    Bashkatov, A N; Genina, E A; Kochubey, V I; Kolesnikova, E A; Tuchin, V V; Rubtsov, V S

    2014-08-31

    We present the optical characteristics of the mucosa and submucosa of human colon tissue. The experiments are performed in vitro using a LAMBDA 950 spectrophotometer in the 350 – 2500 nm spectral range. The absorption and scattering coefficients and the scattering anisotropy factor are calculated based on the measured diffuse reflectance and total and collimated transmittance spectra using the inverse Monte Carlo method. (laser biophotonics)

  20. DUOX2 Expression Is Increased in Barrett Esophagus and Cancerous Tissues of Stomach and Colon

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Ran; Zhou, Yunfeng; Li, Xiaozhen; Guo, Hong; Gao, Lei; Wu, Lijuan; Wang, Yufeng; Gao, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    Aim. To detect the expression of dual oxidase (DUOX) 2 in Barrett esophagus, gastric cancer, and colorectal cancer (CRC). Materials and Methods. The endoscopic biopsies were collected from patients with Barrett esophagus, while the curative resection tissues were obtained from patients with gastric cancer, CRC, or hepatic carcinoma. The DUOX2 protein and mRNA levels were detected with immunohistochemistry (IHC) and real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR). The correlation of DUOX2 expression with clinicopathological parameters of tumors was identified. Results. Low levels of DUOX2 mRNA were detected in Barrett esophagus and the adjacent normal tissues, and there was no difference between these two groups. DUOX2 protein was found in Barrett esophagus and undetectable in the normal epithelium. The DUOX2 mRNA and protein levels in the gastric cancer and CRC were increased compared to the adjacent nonmalignant tissues. The elevated DUOX2 in the gastric cancer was significantly associated with smoking history. In CRC tissues, the DUOX2 protein expression level in stages II–IV was significantly higher than that in stage I. In both hepatic carcinoma and the adjacent nonmalignant tissue, the DUOX2 was virtually undetectable. Conclusion. DUOX2 in Barrett esophagus, gastric cancer, and CRC may be involved in the tumorigenesis of these tissues. PMID:26839536

  1. Morphologic differentiation of colon carcinoma cell lines HT-29 and HT-29KM in rotating-wall vessels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodwin, T. J.; Jessup, J. M.; Wolf, D. A.

    1992-01-01

    A new low shear stress microcarrier culture system has been developed at NASA's Johnson Space Center that permits three-dimensional tissue culture. Two established human colon adenocarcinoma cell lines, HT-29, an undifferentiated, and HT-29KM, a stable, moderately differentiated subline of HT-29, were grown in new tissue culture bioreactors called Rotating-Wall Vessels (RWVs). RWVs are used in conjunction with multicellular cocultivation to develop a unique in vitro tissue modeling system. Cells were cultivated on Cytodex-3 microcarrier beads, with and without mixed normal human colonic fibroblasts, which served as the mesenchymal layer. Culture of the tumor lines in the absence of fibroblasts produced spheroidlike growth and minimal differentiation. In contrast, when tumor lines were co-cultivated with normal colonic fibroblasts, initial growth was confined to the fibroblast population until the microcarriers were covered. The tumor cells then commenced proliferation at an accelerated rate, organizing themselves into three-dimensional tissue masses that achieved 1.0- to 1.5-cm diameters. The masses displayed glandular structures, apical and internal glandular microvilli, tight intercellular junctions, desmosomes, cellular polarity, sinusoid development, internalized mucin, and structural organization akin to normal colon crypt development. Differentiated samples were subjected to transmission and scanning electron microscopy and histologic analysis, revealing embryoniclike mesenchymal cells lining the areas around the growth matrices. Necrosis was minimal throughout the tissue masses. These data suggest that the RWV affords a new model for investigation and isolation of growth, regulatory, and structural processes within neoplastic and normal tissue.

  2. WISP genes are members of the connective tissue growth factor family that are up-regulated in wnt-1-transformed cells and aberrantly expressed in human colon tumors.

    PubMed

    Pennica, D; Swanson, T A; Welsh, J W; Roy, M A; Lawrence, D A; Lee, J; Brush, J; Taneyhill, L A; Deuel, B; Lew, M; Watanabe, C; Cohen, R L; Melhem, M F; Finley, G G; Quirke, P; Goddard, A D; Hillan, K J; Gurney, A L; Botstein, D; Levine, A J

    1998-12-01

    Wnt family members are critical to many developmental processes, and components of the Wnt signaling pathway have been linked to tumorigenesis in familial and sporadic colon carcinomas. Here we report the identification of two genes, WISP-1 and WISP-2, that are up-regulated in the mouse mammary epithelial cell line C57MG transformed by Wnt-1, but not by Wnt-4. Together with a third related gene, WISP-3, these proteins define a subfamily of the connective tissue growth factor family. Two distinct systems demonstrated WISP induction to be associated with the expression of Wnt-1. These included (i) C57MG cells infected with a Wnt-1 retroviral vector or expressing Wnt-1 under the control of a tetracyline repressible promoter, and (ii) Wnt-1 transgenic mice. The WISP-1 gene was localized to human chromosome 8q24.1-8q24.3. WISP-1 genomic DNA was amplified in colon cancer cell lines and in human colon tumors and its RNA overexpressed (2- to >30-fold) in 84% of the tumors examined compared with patient-matched normal mucosa. WISP-3 mapped to chromosome 6q22-6q23 and also was overexpressed (4- to >40-fold) in 63% of the colon tumors analyzed. In contrast, WISP-2 mapped to human chromosome 20q12-20q13 and its DNA was amplified, but RNA expression was reduced (2- to >30-fold) in 79% of the tumors. These results suggest that the WISP genes may be downstream of Wnt-1 signaling and that aberrant levels of WISP expression in colon cancer may play a role in colon tumorigenesis.

  3. Salicylic acid induces apoptosis in colon carcinoma cells grown in-vitro: Influence of oxygen and salicylic acid concentration

    SciTech Connect

    Zitta, Karina; Meybohm, Patrick; Bein, Berthold; Huang, Ying; Heinrich, Christin; Scholz, Jens; Steinfath, Markus; Albrecht, Martin

    2012-04-15

    In solid tumors the hypoxic environment can promote tumor progression and resistance to therapy. Recently, acetylsalicylic acid a major component of analgesic drugs and its metabolite salicylic acid (SA) have been shown to reduce the risk of colon cancer, but the mechanisms of action remain still unclear. Here we elucidate the effects of physiologically relevant concentrations of SA on colon carcinoma cells (CaCo-2) grown under normoxic and hypoxic conditions. Western blotting, caspase-3/7 apoptosis assays, MTS cell-proliferation assays, LDH cytotoxicity assays and hydrogen peroxide measurements were performed to investigate the effects of 1 and 10 {mu}M SA on CaCo-2 cells grown under normoxic conditions and cells exposed to hypoxia. Under normoxic conditions, SA did not influence cell proliferation or LDH release of CaCo-2 cells. However, caspase-3/7 activity was significantly increased. Under hypoxia, cell proliferation was reduced and LDH release and caspase-3/7 activities were increased. None of these parameters was altered by the addition of SA under hypoxic conditions. Hypoxia increased hydrogen peroxide concentrations 300-fold and SA significantly augmented the release of hydrogen peroxide under normoxic, but not under hypoxic conditions. Phosphorylation of the pro-survival kinases akt and erk1/2 was not changed by SA under hypoxic conditions, whereas under normoxia SA reduced phosphorylation of erk1/2 after 2 hours. We conclude that in colon carcinoma cells effects of SA on apoptosis and cellular signaling are dependent on the availability of oxygen. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Effects of salicylic acid on colon carcinoma cells grown under normoxic and hypoxic conditions Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Salicylic acid increases caspase-3/7 activity and hydrogen peroxide release under normoxia Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Salicylic acid decreases pro-survival erk-1/2 phosphorylation under normoxia Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Salicylic acid does

  4. Survivin expression in breast lobular carcinoma: correlations with normal breast tissue and clinicomorphological parameters.

    PubMed

    Adamkov, Marian; Výbohová, Desanka; Horáček, Jaroslav; Kovalská, Mária; Furjelová, Martina

    2013-06-01

    The antiapoptotic protein survivin is rarely expressed in normal adult differentiated tissues, but it is often detected in their malignant counterparts. Immunohistochemically, we evaluated survivin expression in 19 cases of normal breast tissue and 64 cases of lobular breast carcinoma. The intensity of staining, percentage of labeled cells and subcellular location of survivin were assessed. We analyzed the quantitative differences of survivin expression between normal breast tissue and carcinomas. We also correlated survivin expression pattern in carcinomas with clinicomorphological parameters such as age of patients, grade, stage and size of primary tumor, lymph node metastasis, vascular invasion as well as estrogen and progesterone status. Survivin was detected in 10/19 cases of normal breast tissue (52.6%) and in 55/64 cases of lobular breast carcinoma (86%). The statistical analysis confirmed significant correlations between the assessed parameters in normal breast and lobular carcinoma. Furthermore, the expression of estrogen correlated significantly with the subcellular localization and intensity of survivin in carcinoma. However, no significant correlation was shown with regard to other clinicomorphological parameters. Our results suggest that survivin may be a valuable diagnostic marker, as well as a new independent prognostic parameter, in lobular breast carcinoma. Finally, our data support the hypothesis that lobular and ductal breast carcinomas seem to be different clinicomorphological entities.

  5. Specific oncogenic activity of the Src-family tyrosine kinase c-Yes in colon carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Sancier, Florence; Dumont, Aurélie; Sirvent, Audrey; Paquay de Plater, Ludmilla; Edmonds, Thomas; David, Géraldine; Jan, Michel; de Montrion, Catherine; Cogé, Francis; Léonce, Stéphane; Burbridge, Michael; Bruno, Alain; Boutin, Jean A; Lockhart, Brian; Roche, Serge; Cruzalegui, Francisco

    2011-02-24

    c-Yes, a member of the Src tyrosine kinase family, is found highly activated in colon carcinoma but its importance relative to c-Src has remained unclear. Here we show that, in HT29 colon carcinoma cells, silencing of c-Yes, but not of c-Src, selectively leads to an increase of cell clustering associated with a localisation of β-catenin at cell membranes and a reduction of expression of β-catenin target genes. c-Yes silencing induced an increase in apoptosis, inhibition of growth in soft-agar and in mouse xenografts, inhibition of cell migration and loss of the capacity to generate liver metastases in mice. Re-introduction of c-Yes, but not c -Src, restores transforming properties of c-Yes depleted cells. Moreover, we found that c-Yes kinase activity is required for its role in β-catenin localisation and growth in soft agar, whereas kinase activity is dispensable for its role in cell migration. We conclude that c-Yes regulates specific oncogenic signalling pathways important for colon cancer progression that is not shared with c-Src.

  6. Heterogeneity of ERBB2 in gastric carcinomas: a study of tissue microarray and matched primary and metastatic carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Cho, Eun Yoon; Park, Kyeongmee; Do, Ingu; Cho, Junhun; Kim, Jiyun; Lee, Jeeyun; Kim, Seonwoo; Kim, Kyoung-Mee; Sohn, Tae Sung; Kang, Won Ki; Kim, Sung

    2013-05-01

    Trastuzumab in association with systemic cytotoxic chemotherapy is a therapeutic option for patients with advanced or metastatic ERBB2+ gastric carcinoma. The status of the ERBB2 overexpression or gene amplification is an important predictive marker in gastric cancer. However, it is controversial whether the primary tumor is representative of distant metastases in terms of ERBB2 status. Quadruplicated tissue microarrays from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues from 498 advanced primary gastric carcinomas and 97 matched metastatic lymph nodes were investigated by immunohistochemistry with HercepTest and silver in situ hybridization. For further comparison, another set of 41 paired primary and distant metastatic gastric carcinomas were also tested. Intratumoral heterogeneity was defined as different results between tissue microarray cores. ERBB2-positivity was observed in 52 gastric carcinomas (10%) and was not associated with recurrence of disease or survival of patients. In ERBB2-positive primary gastric carcinomas, heterogeneous ERBB2 overexpression was observed in 21/63 (33%) gastric carcinomas and heterogeneous ERBB2 gene amplification in 14/62 (23%) cases. Repeated immunohistochemistry and silver in situ hybridization in representative paraffin tumor blocks confirmed focal ERBB2 overexpression and ERBB2 gene amplification and did not change the final results. Discrepancies in ERBB2 results between primary and paired metastatic lymph nodes were observed in 11% of cases by immunohistochemistry and 7% by silver in situ hybridization. Out of the 41 paired primary and distant metastases, 5 (12%) cases were ERBB2-positive, and discrepancy was observed in one case. Intratumoral heterogeneity and discrepant ERBB2 results in primary and metastatic tumor are not uncommon in gastric carcinoma. Results of silver in situ hybridization showed less frequent heterogeneity compared with immunohistochemistry. Wherever possible, ERBB2 immunohistochemistry testing should be

  7. Overexpression of gelsolin reduces the proliferation and invasion of colon carcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wen-Xiang; Yang, Meng-Xuan; Hong, Xin-Qiang; Dong, Tian-Geng; Yi, Tuo; Lin, Sheng-Li; Qin, Xin-Yu; Niu, Wei-Xin

    2016-01-01

    The enhanced motility of cancer cells via the remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton is crucial in the process of cancer cell invasion and metastasis. It was previously demonstrated that gelsolin (GSN) may be involved as a tumor or a metastasis suppressor, depending on the cell lines and model systems used. In the present study, the effect of GSN on the growth and invasion of human colon carcinoma (CC) cells was investigated using reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blotting. It was observed that upregulation of the expression of GSN in human CC cells significantly reduced the invasiveness of these cells. The expression levels of GSN were observed to be reduced in CC cells, and the reduced expression level of GSN was often associated with a poorer metastasis-free survival rate in patients with CC (P=0.04). In addition, the overexpression of GSN inhibited the invasion of CC cells in vitro. Furthermore, GSN was observed to inhibit signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 3 signaling in CC cells. Together, these results suggested that GSN is critical in regulating cytoskeletal events and inhibits the invasive and/or metastatic potential of CC cells. The results obtained in the present study may improve understanding of the functional and mechanistic links between GSN as a possible tumor suppressor and the STAT3 signaling pathway, with respect to the aggressive nature of CC. In addition, the present study demonstrated the importance of GSN in regulating the invasion and metastasis of CC cells at the molecular level, suggesting that GSN may be a potential predictor of prognosis and treatment success in CC. PMID:27573444

  8. Cytotoxicity, cellular uptake, and cellular biotransformations of oxaliplatin in human colon carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Luo, F R; Wyrick, S D; Chaney, S G

    1998-01-01

    Biotransformation products of platinum anticancer drugs have been suggested to be responsible for drug efficacy and toxicity. This study was designed to determine whether the efficacy of the closely related 1,2-diaminocyclohexane-Pt (dach-Pt) compounds oxaliplatin and ormaplatin were determined primarily by the parent drugs or by one of their biotransformation products. Based on consideration of both in vitro cytotoxicity in human colon carcinoma cells (HT-29) and concentrations following oxaliplatin administration in vivo, our data suggest that the efficacy of oxaliplatin is primarily determined by the plasma levels of the parent drug, with the biotransformation products Pt(dach)Cl2, Pt(dach)(H2O)Cl, and Pt(dach)(H2O)2 making only minor contributions. The stable biotransformation products containing amino acids did not have any significant cytotoxicity. In contrast, our data suggest that the efficacy of ormaplatin is primarily determined by plasma levels of Pt(dach)Cl2. The cytotoxicity of oxaliplatin, Pt(dach)Cl2, and Pt(dach)(H2O)Cl was approximately proportional to their cellular uptake, whereas the cytotoxicity of ormaplatin, Pt(dach)(H2O)2, and Pt(dach)(Met) was less than predicted from their uptake. Treatment of HT-29 cells with equimolar external concentrations of Pt(dach)Cl2 and oxaliplatin resulted in the formation of twofold more Pt-DNA adducts following Pt(dach)Cl2 treatment than following oxaliplatin treatment. However, intracellular Pt(dach)Cl2 levels were 30-fold higher for Pt(dach)Cl2-treated cells than for oxaliplatin-treated cells. These data suggest that intracellular conversion of oxaliplatin to Pt(dach)Cl2 makes only a minor contribution to Pt-DNA adduct formation and the resultant cytotoxicity of oxaliplatin. PMID:10367941

  9. Understanding Intratumoral Heterogeneity: Lessons from the Analysis of At-Risk Tissue and Premalignant Lesions in the Colon.

    PubMed

    Sievers, Chelsie K; Leystra, Alyssa A; Clipson, Linda; Dove, William F; Halberg, Richard B

    2016-08-01

    Advances in DNA sequencing have created new opportunities to better understand the biology of cancers. Attention is currently focused on precision medicine: does a cancer carry a mutation that is targetable with already available drugs? But, the timing at which multiple, targetable mutations arise during the adenoma to carcinoma sequence remains unresolved. Borras and colleagues identified mutations and allelic imbalance in at-risk mucosa and early polyps in the human colon. Their analyses indicate that mutations in key genes can arise quite early during tumorigenesis and that polyps are often multiclonal with at least two clones. These results are consistent with the "Big Bang" model of tumorigenesis, which postulates that intratumoral heterogeneity is a consequence of a mutational burst in the first few cell divisions following initiation that drives divergence from a single founder with unique but related clones coevolving. Emerging questions center around the ancestry of the tumor and impact of early intratumoral heterogeneity on tumor establishment, growth, progression, and most importantly, response to therapeutic intervention. Additional sequencing studies in which samples, especially at-risk tissue and premalignant neoplasms, are analyzed from animal models and humans will further our understanding of tumorigenesis and lead to more effective strategies for prevention and treatment. Cancer Prev Res; 9(8); 638-41. ©2016 AACRSee related article by Borras, et al., Cancer Prev Res 2016;9(6):417-427. PMID:27199343

  10. Fully unsupervised inter-individual IR spectral histology of paraffinized tissue sections of normal colon.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Thi Nguyet Que; Jeannesson, Pierre; Groh, Audrey; Piot, Olivier; Guenot, Dominique; Gobinet, Cyril

    2016-05-01

    In label-free Fourier-transform infrared histology, spectral images are individually recorded from tissue sections, pre-processed and clustered. Each single resulting color-coded image is annotated by a pathologist to obtain the best possible match with tissue structures revealed after Hematoxylin-Eosin staining. However, the main limitations of this approach are the empirical choice of the number of clusters in unsupervised classification, and the marked color heterogeneity between the clustered spectral images. Here, using normal murine and human colon tissues, we developed an automatic multi-image spectral histology to simultaneously analyze a set of spectral images (8 images mice samples and 72 images human ones). This procedure consisted of a joint Extended Multiplicative Signal Correction (EMSC) to numerically deparaffinize the tissue sections, followed by an automated joint K-Means (KM) clustering using the hierarchical double application of Pakhira-Bandyopadhyay-Maulik (PBM) validity index. Using this procedure, the main murine and human colon histological structures were correctly identified at both the intra- and the inter-individual levels, especially the crypts, secreted mucus, lamina propria and submucosa. Here, we show that batched multi-image spectral histology procedure is insensitive to the reference spectrum but highly sensitive to the paraffin model of joint EMSC. In conclusion, combining joint EMSC and joint KM clustering by double PBM application allows to achieve objective and automated batched multi-image spectral histology. PMID:26872124

  11. Fully unsupervised inter-individual IR spectral histology of paraffinized tissue sections of normal colon.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Thi Nguyet Que; Jeannesson, Pierre; Groh, Audrey; Piot, Olivier; Guenot, Dominique; Gobinet, Cyril

    2016-05-01

    In label-free Fourier-transform infrared histology, spectral images are individually recorded from tissue sections, pre-processed and clustered. Each single resulting color-coded image is annotated by a pathologist to obtain the best possible match with tissue structures revealed after Hematoxylin-Eosin staining. However, the main limitations of this approach are the empirical choice of the number of clusters in unsupervised classification, and the marked color heterogeneity between the clustered spectral images. Here, using normal murine and human colon tissues, we developed an automatic multi-image spectral histology to simultaneously analyze a set of spectral images (8 images mice samples and 72 images human ones). This procedure consisted of a joint Extended Multiplicative Signal Correction (EMSC) to numerically deparaffinize the tissue sections, followed by an automated joint K-Means (KM) clustering using the hierarchical double application of Pakhira-Bandyopadhyay-Maulik (PBM) validity index. Using this procedure, the main murine and human colon histological structures were correctly identified at both the intra- and the inter-individual levels, especially the crypts, secreted mucus, lamina propria and submucosa. Here, we show that batched multi-image spectral histology procedure is insensitive to the reference spectrum but highly sensitive to the paraffin model of joint EMSC. In conclusion, combining joint EMSC and joint KM clustering by double PBM application allows to achieve objective and automated batched multi-image spectral histology.

  12. Electron microscopy, tissue culture,and immunology of ovarian carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ioachim, H L; Dorsett, B H; Sabbath, M; Barber, H R

    1975-10-01

    The ultrastructure of the major histologic types of ovarian carcinoma was investigated as part of a multilateral study of this tumor. The nuclear and nucleolar changes in size, shape, and structure correlated well with the degree of malignancy and tumor grading. Cytoplasmic organelles and intercellular junctions were abundant and fairly well differentiated even in ovarian carcinomas of higher grade and stage. Active processes of synthesis and secretion taking place in most of these tumors were suggested by the presence of a richly granulated endoplasmic reticulum, dilated cisternae, and numerous secretory granules. Seventy-eight different ovarian carcinomas of all histologic types were cultured in vitro for periods of up to 300 days, and their morphology in light and electron microscopy was compared to that of the original tumors. The cultures displayed a consistent pattern of growth which led to the conclusion that ovarian cancer cells in vitro preserve their salient features and are representative of the tumors of origin. Heterologous antisera raised with pooled extracts of various types of ovarian carcinomas reacted specifically in immunodiffusion and immunofluorescence tests only with ovarian carcinomas and not with normal ovaries, benigh ovarian tumors, and nonovarian malignant neoplasms, indicating the presence of a cross-reacting specific antigen for ovarian carcinomas. In other studies, autologous antibodies were isolated from antigen-antibody complexes recovered from peritoneal effusions of patients with ovarian carcinomas. These antibodies displayed a high degree of specificity against ovarian carcinoma cells when tested in immunofluorescence assays.

  13. Differentiation between human normal colon mucosa and colon cancer tissue using ToF-SIMS imaging technique and principal component analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Ji-Won; Shon, Hyun Kyong; Yoo, Byong Chul; Kim, In Hoo; Moon, Dae Won; Lee, Tae Geol

    2008-12-01

    Human normal colon mucosa and colon cancer tissue were studied using the time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy (ToF-SIMS) and principal component analysis (PCA) techniques. The surfaces of the tissues were successfully cleaned by C 602+ cluster-ion beams before the ToF-SIMS images were obtained. A PCA on the spectra and images were performed to compare differences in the peaks and images of normal and cancer tissues. Significant differences in principal component 1 (PC 1) score values for normal and cancer tissues were observed, and each PC 1 loadings had a specific peak profile of proteins. In addition, the PC images obtained from the ToF-SIMS images for normal and cancer tissues were clearly distinguishable, and the amino acid fragments associated with normal and cancer tissues were found to have originated from the lamina propria region and the epithelium cells, respectively. Based on the PCA results, structural distortion of the crypts in the cancer colon tissue could be attributed to the proliferation of the cancerous epithelium cells. This work shows that the application of the ToF-SIMS imaging technique with PCA could be a useful method of obtaining valuable information for cancer analysis.

  14. Early detection of dysplasia in colon and bladder tissue using laser-induced fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rava, Richard P.; Richards-Kortum, Rebecca R.; Fitzmaurice, Maryann; Cothren, Robert M., Jr.; Petras, Robert; Sivak, Michael J., Jr.; Levine, Howard H.

    1991-06-01

    Laser induced fluorescence has been explored as an early detection scheme for two clinically important examples of neoplasia: colorectal dysplasia and transitional cell carcinoma in the urinary bladder. In both, it is desirable to detect microscopic and biochemical changes of pre-cancer in order to identify patients at risk for developing invasive carcinoma. This paper will compare the fluorescence obtained from these two pre-cancerous conditions, and discuss the connection between the fluorescence and the morphological/molecular changes occurring in the tissue. The similarities and differences in the fluorescence will be compared to determine the general features of pre-cancerous changes that might be utilized for detection of the disease.

  15. Life cycle specialization of filamentous pathogens - colonization and reproduction in plant tissues.

    PubMed

    Haueisen, Janine; Stukenbrock, Eva H

    2016-08-01

    Filamentous plant pathogens explore host tissues to obtain nutrients for growth and reproduction. Diverse strategies for tissue invasion, defense manipulation, and colonization of inter and intra-cellular spaces have evolved. Most research has focused on effector molecules, which are secreted to manipulate plant immunity and facilitate infection. Effector genes are often found to evolve rapidly in response to the antagonistic host-pathogen co-evolution but other traits are also subject to adaptive evolution during specialization to the anatomy, biochemistry and ecology of different plant hosts. Although not directly related to virulence, these traits are important components of specialization but little is known about them. We present and discuss specific life cycle traits that facilitate exploration of plant tissues and underline the importance of increasing our insight into the biology of plant pathogens. PMID:27153045

  16. Study of paraffin-embedded colon cancer tissue using terahertz spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahaia, Faustino; Kasalynas, Irmantas; Seliuta, Dalius; Molis, Gediminas; Urbanowicz, Andrzej; Carvalho Silva, Catia D.; Carneiro, Fatima; Valusis, Gintaras; Granja, Pedro L.

    2015-01-01

    In this work, samples of non-neoplastic and adenocarcinoma-affected human colon tissue samples were analyzed using multipoint transmission time-domain THz spectroscopy (THz-TDS) to sort out the contrast-contributing factors other than water, the main contrast mechanism factor in in-vivo or in freshly excised bio-tissue. Solving the electromagnetic inverse problem through THz-TDS and, analyzing the transmittance spectra that yielded the frequency-dependent absorption coefficient α and refractive index n of non-neoplastic and neoplastic tissues, we show that it is possible to distinguish between non-neoplastic and neoplastic regions in paraffin-embedded dehydrated. Results and discussion are presented.

  17. [I costi farmacologici della terapia di conversione con farmaci biologici nel carcinoma del colon-retto con metastasi epatiche].

    PubMed

    Giuliani, Jacopo; Bonetti, Andrea

    2016-08-01

    Riassunto. Lo scopo di questo studio è quello di valutare i costi dei farmaci (con particolare riferimento alle terapie con farmaci biologici) utilizzati nella terapia di conversione in una popolazione non selezionata di pazienti affetti da carcinoma del colon-retto in stadio avanzato, al fine di ottenere una resezione epatica R0. In questa rassegna sono stati selezionati i report completi e gli aggiornamenti di tutti gli studi clinici randomizzati (di fase II e fase III) che confrontassero almeno 2 regimi di terapia con farmaci biologici in prima linea in pazienti affetti da carcinoma del colon-retto in stadio avanzato di malattia. I costi dei farmaci sono stati ricavati dalla nostra Farmacia Ospedaliera e sono espressi in euro (€). Il nostro studio inizia con la valutazione di 683 abstract. 48 tria sono stati considerati adeguati per una successiva analisi. Una valutazione più approfondita ha portato all'esclusione di 37 trial, lasciando alla valutazione finale 11 studi clinici randomizzati (3 trial di fase II, per un totale di 522 pazienti, e 8 studi di fase III, per un totale di 7191 pazienti). I costi dei farmaci utilizzati nella terapia di conversione aumentano con la sostituzione del 5-fluorouracile con la capecitabina e, in misura maggiore, con l'introduzione degli agenti biologici. In questo lavoro sono presentati due punti chiave. Primo, i costi degli agenti farmacologici utilizzati nei regimi di prima linea a base di agenti biologici più comunemente utilizzati nel trattamento del carcinoma del colon-retto in stadio avanzato sono molto variabili. Secondo, i dati di efficacia dei regimi pubblicati, in termini di tassi di resezione, dipendono dalla selezione dei pazienti, dalle caratteristiche del tumore e dal tipo di schema di terapia.

  18. [I costi farmacologici della terapia di conversione con farmaci biologici nel carcinoma del colon-retto con metastasi epatiche].

    PubMed

    Giuliani, Jacopo; Bonetti, Andrea

    2016-08-01

    Riassunto. Lo scopo di questo studio è quello di valutare i costi dei farmaci (con particolare riferimento alle terapie con farmaci biologici) utilizzati nella terapia di conversione in una popolazione non selezionata di pazienti affetti da carcinoma del colon-retto in stadio avanzato, al fine di ottenere una resezione epatica R0. In questa rassegna sono stati selezionati i report completi e gli aggiornamenti di tutti gli studi clinici randomizzati (di fase II e fase III) che confrontassero almeno 2 regimi di terapia con farmaci biologici in prima linea in pazienti affetti da carcinoma del colon-retto in stadio avanzato di malattia. I costi dei farmaci sono stati ricavati dalla nostra Farmacia Ospedaliera e sono espressi in euro (€). Il nostro studio inizia con la valutazione di 683 abstract. 48 tria sono stati considerati adeguati per una successiva analisi. Una valutazione più approfondita ha portato all'esclusione di 37 trial, lasciando alla valutazione finale 11 studi clinici randomizzati (3 trial di fase II, per un totale di 522 pazienti, e 8 studi di fase III, per un totale di 7191 pazienti). I costi dei farmaci utilizzati nella terapia di conversione aumentano con la sostituzione del 5-fluorouracile con la capecitabina e, in misura maggiore, con l'introduzione degli agenti biologici. In questo lavoro sono presentati due punti chiave. Primo, i costi degli agenti farmacologici utilizzati nei regimi di prima linea a base di agenti biologici più comunemente utilizzati nel trattamento del carcinoma del colon-retto in stadio avanzato sono molto variabili. Secondo, i dati di efficacia dei regimi pubblicati, in termini di tassi di resezione, dipendono dalla selezione dei pazienti, dalle caratteristiche del tumore e dal tipo di schema di terapia. PMID:27571559

  19. Adjuvant postoperative radiation therapy for colorectal carcinoma above the peritoneal reflection. II. Antimesenteric wall ascending and descending colon and cecum

    SciTech Connect

    Kopelson, G.

    1983-08-15

    From 1970 to 1981, 50 patients had curative surgery for carcinoma of the cecum, ascending, or descending colon and were Stage greater than or equal to B2. In 15 cases, the lesion originated on the antimesenteric (posterolateral) bowel wall. Of seven cases (with minimum three-year follow-up) not receiving adjuvant postoperative regional irradiation, four recurred in the tumor bed/abdominal wall versus 0/3 irradiated patients. Similarly, the five-year survival was improved in the irradiated group (2/3) versus only 2/9 in the unirradiated group. Patients with transmural extension of right or left colon cancers originating on the anti mesenteric (posterolateral) bowel wall may have a high incidence of postoperative regional failure which may be decreased by adjuvant postoperative regional irradiation.

  20. Tissue microarray-based study of hepatocellular carcinoma validating SPIB as potential clinical prognostic marker.

    PubMed

    Ho, Yi-Jung; Lin, Yueh-Min; Huang, Yen-Chi; Yeh, Kun-Tu; Lin, Liang-In; Lu, Jeng-Wei

    2016-01-01

    Currently, the prognostic significance of SPIB protein overexpression in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is unclear. The aim of the present study was to investigate the level of SPIB expression in human HCC in order to determine possible correlations between SPIB expression and clinicopathological findings. The expression of SPIB proteins was detected using immunohistochemical staining in commercial multiple-tissue microarrays as a means of examining expression profiles in patients. Using online biomarker validation tool SurvExpress, we focused on the correlation between SPIB overexpression and survival as well as relapse-free survival (RFS). Results show that SPIB protein expression levels were significantly higher in colon, liver, and stomach tumors than in non-tumor tissues (p<0.05). SPIB overexpression in patients with HCC was also significantly higher than that of the normal samples (p<0.001). Among patients with liver disease, SPIB protein expression levels differ significantly according to the stage of liver disease, specifically between stages I, II, and III of HCC (p<0.05). SPIB expression was also shown to be significantly correlated with age (p=0.046) and histological grade (p=0.027). Furthermore, the SurvExpress analysis suggested that high SPIB and KI-67 mRNA expression were significantly associated with the poor survival of patients with HCC (p<0.05). Our results indicate that cross-talk in the expression of SPIB and KI-67 may be associated with poor prognosis and may potentially serve as a clinical prognostic indicator of HCC. This is the first time that such an association has been reported. PMID:26610895

  1. Urinary epidermal growth factor (hEGF) levels in patients with carcinomas of the breast, colon and rectum.

    PubMed Central

    Sweetenham, J. W.; Davies, D. E.; Warnes, S.; Alexander, P.

    1990-01-01

    A specific two-site ELISA for human epidermal growth factor (hEGF) has been used to measure urinary hEGF/creatinine ratios in 30 normal subjects, 30 hospital in-patients with breast cancer and 30 hospital in-patients with colonic or rectal cancer. There was no significant difference between patients with breast cancer and controls. Although a statistically significant difference between patients with colorectal cancer and controls was observed, the biological significance of this observation is doubtful. No clear effect of the presence of breast or colorectal carcinoma on the urinary excretion of hEGF has been observed. PMID:2206955

  2. The Mbd4 DNA glycosylase protects mice from inflammation-driven colon cancer and tissue injury

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Amy Marie; Calvo, Jennifer A.; Muthupalani, Suresh; Samson, Leona D.

    2016-01-01

    Much of the global cancer burden is associated with longstanding inflammation accompanied by release of DNA-damaging reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. Here, we report that the Mbd4 DNA glycosylase is protective in the azoxymethane/dextran sodium sulfate (AOM/DSS) mouse model of inflammation-driven colon cancer. Mbd4 excises T and U from T:G and U:G mismatches caused by deamination of 5-methylcytosine and cytosine. Since the rate of deamination is higher in inflamed tissues, we investigated the role of Mbd4 in inflammation-driven tumorigenesis. In the AOM/DSS assay, Mbd4−/− mice displayed more severe clinical symptoms, decreased survival, and a greater tumor burden than wild-type (WT) controls. The increased tumor burden in Mbd4−/− mice did not arise from impairment of AOM-induced apoptosis in the intestinal crypt. Histopathological analysis indicated that the colonic epithelium of Mbd4−/− mice is more vulnerable than WT to DSS-induced tissue damage. We investigated the role of the Mbd4−/− immune system in AOM/DSS-mediated carcinogenesis by repeating the assay on WT and Mbd4−/− mice transplanted with WT bone marrow. Mbd4−/− mice with WT bone marrow behaved similarly to Mbd4−/− mice. Together, our results indicate that the colonic epithelium of Mbd4−/− mice is more vulnerable to DSS-induced injury, which exacerbates inflammation-driven tissue injury and cancer. PMID:27086921

  3. Differentiation of immature DCs into endothelial-like cells in human esophageal carcinoma tissue homogenates.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jing; Bai, Ruihua; Qin, Zhenzhu; Zhang, Yanyan; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Jiang, Yanan; Yang, Hongyan; Huang, Youtian; Li, Gang; Zhao, Mingyao; Dong, Ziming

    2013-08-01

    We previously reported endothelial-like differentiation (ELD) of immature dendritic cells (iDCs) in the microenvironment derived from EC9706 human esophageal squamous cell carcinoma conditioned medium (CM). However, the CM is far different from the esophageal carcinoma tissue of patients. In addition, the potential role of peri-esophageal carcinoma in the ELD of iDCs is also unknown. In the present study, we showed that the tumor microenvironment derived from esophageal carcinoma homogenate promoted iDCs to differentiate from the DC pathway toward endothelial cells, while the peri-esophageal carcinoma homogenate did not have this function. During the course of ELD, ERK signaling pathway and CREB were activated. Blocking MEK, both the phosphorylation of ERK and CREB, and the ELD of iDCs were inhibited. These data suggest that esophageal carcinoma tissue, not peri-esophageal carcinoma tissue, can drive iDCs to differentiate into endothelial-like cells, instead of differentiation into mature DCs, thereby losing the ability of antigen presentation. PMID:23708958

  4. Stomach, intestine, and colon tissue discriminators for wireless capsule endoscopy images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berens, Jeff; Mackiewicz, Michal; Bell, Duncan

    2005-04-01

    Wireless Capsule Endoscopy (WCE) is a new colour imaging technology that enables close examination of the interior of the entire small intestine. Typically, the WCE operates for ~8 hours and captures ~40,000 useful images. The images are viewed as a video sequence, which generally takes a doctor over an hour to analyse. In order to activate certain key features of the software provided with the capsule, it is necessary to locate and annotate the boundaries between certain gastrointestinal (GI) tract regions (stomach, intestine and colon) in the footage. In this paper we propose a method of automatically discriminating stomach, intestine and colon tissue in order to significantly reduce the video assessment time. We use hue saturation chromaticity histograms which are compressed using a hybrid transform, incorporating the Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) and Principal Component Analysis (PCA). The performance of two classifiers is compared: k-nearest neighbour (kNN) and Support Vector Classifier (SVC). After training the classifier, we applied a narrowing step algorithm to converge to the points in the video where the capsule firstly passes through the pylorus (the valve between the stomach and the intestine) and later the ileocaecal valve (IV, the valve between the intestine and colon). We present experimental results that demonstrate the effectiveness of this method.

  5. Independent bottlenecks characterize colonization of systemic compartments and gut lymphoid tissue by salmonella.

    PubMed

    Lim, Chee Han; Voedisch, Sabrina; Wahl, Benjamin; Rouf, Syed Fazle; Geffers, Robert; Rhen, Mikael; Pabst, Oliver

    2014-07-01

    Vaccination represents an important instrument to control typhoid fever in humans and protects mice from lethal infection with mouse pathogenic serovars of Salmonella species. Mixed infections with tagged Salmonella can be used in combination with probabilistic models to describe the dynamics of the infection process. Here we used mixed oral infections with tagged Salmonella strains to identify bottlenecks in the infection process in naïve and vaccinated mice. We established a next generation sequencing based method to characterize the composition of tagged Salmonella strains which offers a fast and reliable method to characterise the composition of genome-tagged Salmonella strains. We show that initial colonization of Salmonella was distinguished by a non-Darwinian selection of few bacteria setting up the infection independently in gut associated lymphoid tissue and systemic compartments. Colonization of Peyer's patches fuels the sustained spread of bacteria into mesenteric lymph nodes via dendritic cells. In contrast, infection of liver and spleen originated from an independent pool of bacteria. Vaccination only moderately reduced invasion of Peyer's patches but potently uncoupled bacterial populations present in different systemic compartments. Our data indicate that vaccination differentially skews the capacity of Salmonella to colonize systemic and gut immune compartments and provide a framework for the further dissection of infection dynamics.

  6. Copper, zinc, and magnesium tissue and serum levels in patients with cervical carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Altintas, A; Vardar, M A; Gönlüsen, F; Atay, Y; Evrüke, C; Arpaci, A; Aridogan, N

    1995-01-01

    Serum and cervical tissue copper (Cu), zinc (Zn) and magnesium (Mg) levels were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry in 65 women with cervical carcinoma and compared with levels in 30 healthy women. The patients mean serum Cu level (184.8 +/- 12.3 mugr/dl) was significantly higher than the control group (p < 0.05). However, in relation to the control group, the differences in Mg, Zn and Cu levels in cancerous tissues of patients with cervical carcinoma were not statistically significant (p > 0.05). There was also no significant difference between FIGO Stage I and IIA patients according to their serum and tissue concentrations of these trace elements. We concluded that serum and tissue copper, zinc and magnesium determinations have no use in cervical carcinoma management.

  7. Ceramide mediates FasL-induced caspase 8 activation in colon carcinoma cells to enhance FasL-induced cytotoxicity by tumor-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    Coe, Genevieve L.; Redd, Priscilla S.; Paschall, Amy V.; Lu, Chunwan; Gu, Lilly; Cai, Houjian; Albers, Thomas; Lebedyeva, Iryna O.; Liu, Kebin

    2016-01-01

    FasL-mediated cytotoxicity is one of the mechanisms that CTLs use to kill tumor cells. However, human colon carcinoma often deregulates the Fas signaling pathway to evade host cancer immune surveillance. We aimed at testing the hypothesis that novel ceramide analogs effectively modulate Fas function to sensitize colon carcinoma cells to FasL-induced apoptosis. We used rational design and synthesized twenty ceramide analogs as Fas function modulators. Five ceramide analogs, IG4, IG7, IG14, IG17, and IG19, exhibit low toxicity and potent activity in sensitization of human colon carcinoma cells to FasL-induced apoptosis. Functional deficiency of Fas limits both FasL and ceramide analogs in the induction of apoptosis. Ceramide enhances FasL-induced activation of the MAPK, NF-κB, and caspase 8 despite induction of potent tumor cell death. Finally, a sublethal dose of several ceramide analogs significantly increased CTL-mediated and FasL-induced apoptosis of colon carcinoma cells. We have therefore developed five novel ceramide analogs that act at a sublethal dose to enhance the efficacy of tumor-specific CTLs, and these ceramide analogs hold great promise for further development as adjunct agents in CTL-based colon cancer immunotherapy. PMID:27487939

  8. Unusual Urethral Metastasis from Colon Carcinoma Presenting with Difficult Urination and Hematuria

    PubMed Central

    Karakose, Ayhan; Aydogdu, Ozgu; Atesci, Yusuf Z.

    2014-01-01

    Urethral metastases originating from the colon are extremely rare. We report a case of a 67-year-old man who presented with difficult urination and hematuria. Diagnostic cystoscopy showed an abnormal, exophytic lesion in his proximal penile urethra a bulbar urethra. His pathology was diagnosed as adenocarcinoma consistent with colon metastasis. PMID:24917778

  9. Curcumin Conjugated with PLGA Potentiates Sustainability, Anti-Proliferative Activity and Apoptosis in Human Colon Carcinoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Waghela, Bhargav N.; Sharma, Anupama; Dhumale, Suhashini; Pandey, Shashibahl M.; Pathak, Chandramani

    2015-01-01

    Curcumin, an ingredient of turmeric, exhibits a variety of biological activities such as anti-inflammatory, anti-atherosclerotic, anti-proliferative, anti-oxidant, anti-cancer and anti-metastatic. It is a highly pleiotropic molecule that inhibits cell proliferation and induces apoptosis in cancer cells. Despite its imperative biological activities, chemical instability, photo-instability and poor bioavailability limits its utilization as an effective therapeutic agent. Therefore, enhancing the bioavailability of curcumin may improve its therapeutic index for clinical setting. In the present study, we have conjugated curcumin with a biodegradable polymer Poly (D, L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) and evaluated its apoptotic potential in human colon carcinoma cells (HCT 116). The results show that curcumin-PLGA conjugate efficiently inhibits cell proliferation and cell survival in human colon carcinoma cells as compared to native curcumin. Additionally, curcumin conjugated with PLGA shows improved cellular uptake and exhibits controlled release at physiological pH as compared to native curcumin. The curcumin-PLGA conjugate efficiently activates the cascade of caspases and promotes intrinsic apoptotic signaling. Thus, the results suggest that conjugation potentiates the sustainability, anti-proliferative and apoptotic activity of curcumin. This approach could be a promising strategy to improve the therapeutic index of cancer therapy. PMID:25692854

  10. Expression of TFF3 during multistep colon carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    John, R; El-Rouby, N M; Tomasetto, C; Rio, M-C; Karam, S M

    2007-07-01

    The pathogenesis of colon cancer is not well understood. This common type of cancer is generally believed to occur in a multistep process which involves alterations of various tumor suppressor genes and oncogenes during the progression through benign lesions towards carcinoma. TFF3 is a product of the colonic epithelium and has been implicated in colonic mucosal protection and also in the aggressiveness of colon cancer cells. The aim of this study was to analyze the expression of TFF3 during propagation towards cancer development in the human colon. Colonic tissues representing colitis, adenomatous polyposis, tubulovillous adenoma, and mucoid/adeno-carcinomas were processed for immunohistochemistry using an antibody specific for human TFF3. The results were correlated with those of PCNA-labeling, quantified, and compared with those of control tissues obtained from the safe margin of macroscopically normal colonic mucosa of patients with colon cancer. The data showed marked down-regulation of TFF3 expression in adenomatous polyposis, then TFF3 expression returns to about control level during adenoma and remains high during mucoid- and adeno-carcinomas. Colonic tissues with highly invasive cancer cells were characterized by statistically significant down-regulation of TFF3 expression. The changes observed in expression of TFF3 showed an inverse correlation with cell proliferation and suggest that it might play a protective role against colon carcinogenesis.

  11. Expression of Serotonin Receptors in the Colonic Tissue of Chronic Diarrhea Rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Tong; Qiu, Juanjuan; Wan, Jiajia; Wang, Fengyun; Tang, Xudong; Guo, Huishu

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims: This study aimed to investigate the difference among the expression of serotonin receptors (5-HT3, 5-HT4, and 5-HT7 receptors) in colonic tissue of chronic diarrhea rats. Materials and Methods: A rat model of chronic diarrhea was established by lactose diet. The expression of 5-HT3, 5-HT4, and 5-HT7 receptors in the colonic tissue was detected using immunohistochemistry, real-time PCR and Western blotting techniques. Results: There is no significant difference on the protein expression of 5-HT3 receptor between the normal group and the chronic diarrhea model group. The mRNA expression of 5-HT3 receptor in the chronic diarrhea model group was significantly lower than that in the normal group (n = 10; P < 0.01). The protein and mRNA expression of 5-HT4 receptor in the chronic diarrhea model group were significantly higher than those in the normal group (n = 10; P < 0.05, P < 0.01). On the contrary, the protein and mRNA expressions of 5-HT7 receptor in the chronic diarrhea model group were significantly decreased compared with the normal group (n = 10; P < 0.01, P < 0.01). Conclusions: The results suggested the receptors of 5-HT4 and 5-HT7 may be involved in inducing diarrhea by lactose diet. PMID:27184643

  12. Dielectric characterization of healthy and malignant colon tissues in the 0.5–18 GHz frequency band

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fornes-Leal, A.; Garcia-Pardo, C.; Frasson, M.; Pons Beltrán, V.; Cardona, N.

    2016-10-01

    Several reports over the last few decades have shown that the dielectric properties of healthy and malignant tissues of the same body organ usually show different values. However, no intensive dielectric studies of human colon tissue have been performed, despite colon cancer’s being one of the most common types of cancer in the world. In order to provide information regarding this matter, a dielectric characterization of healthy and malignant colon tissues is presented. Measurements are performed on ex vivo surgery samples obtained from 20 patients, using an open-ended coaxial probe in the 0.5–18 GHz frequency band. Results show that the dielectric constant of colon cancerous tissue is 8.8% higher than that of healthy tissues (p  =  0.002). Besides, conductivity is about 10.6% higher, but in this case measurements do not have statistical significance (p  =  0.038). Performing an analysis per patient, the differences in dielectric constant between healthy and malignant tissues appear systematically. Particularized results for specific frequencies (500 MHz, 900 MHz, 2.45 GHz, 5 GHz, 8.5 GHz and 15 GHz) are also reported. The findings have potential application in early-stage cancer detection and diagnosis, and can be useful in developing new tools for hyperthermia treatments as well as creating electromagnetic models of healthy and cancerous tissues.

  13. Comparison of the fecal microflora of Seventh-Day Adventists with individuals consuming a general diet. Implications concerning colonic carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, M J; Smith, J W; Nichols, R L

    1977-07-01

    Qualitative and quantitative fecal microflora was studied in a double blind fashion in 28 subjects. Fourteen were Seventh-Day Adventists, who were strict vegetarians, while the remaining 14 subjects were individuals consuming a general western diet. No statistically significant differences were identified in the fecal microflora of the two groups. The bacteriologic analysis included total aerobes and total anaerobes as well as each of the major fecal aerobes and anaerobes. This study seems to indicate that the dietary intake of animal fat and protein does not significantly alter the fecal microflora, a possibility which has previously been suggested as being part of the explanation for the higher incidence of colonic carcinoma in those who consume meat compared with vegetarians. It does not, however, invalidate the concept that dietary animal fat does increase bile acid degradation within the gastrointestinal tract, a factor which has been related to colon cancer. Future studies should be directed at identifying the factors that may be present in the gastrointestinal tracts of vegetarians which modify the ability of their colonic microflora to degrade bile acids, an essential step in the production of intraluminal carcinogens or co-carcinogens.

  14. Comprehensive site-specific whole genome profiling of stromal and epithelial colonic gene signatures in human sigmoid colon and rectal tissue.

    PubMed

    Knight, Jason M; Kim, Eunji; Ivanov, Ivan; Davidson, Laurie A; Goldsby, Jennifer S; Hullar, Meredith A J; Randolph, Timothy W; Kaz, Andrew M; Levy, Lisa; Lampe, Johanna W; Chapkin, Robert S

    2016-09-01

    The strength of associations between various exposures (e.g., diet, tobacco, chemopreventive agents) and colorectal cancer risk may partially depend on the complex interaction between epithelium and stroma across anatomic subsites. Currently, baseline data describing genome-wide coding and long noncoding gene expression profiles in the healthy colon specific to tissue type and location are lacking. Therefore, colonic mucosal biopsies from 10 healthy participants who were enrolled in a clinical study to evaluate effects of lignan supplementation on gut resiliency were used to characterize the site-specific global gene expression signatures associated with stromal vs. epithelial cells in the sigmoid colon and rectum. Using RNA-seq, we demonstrate that tissue type and location patterns of gene expression and upstream regulatory pathways are distinct. For example, consistent with a key role of stroma in the crypt niche, mRNAs associated with immunoregulatory and inflammatory processes (i.e., CXCL14, ANTXR1), smooth muscle contraction (CALD1), proliferation and apoptosis (GLP2R, IGFBP3), and modulation of extracellular matrix (MMP2, COL3A1, MFAP4) were all highly expressed in the stroma. In comparison, HOX genes (HOXA3, HOXD9, HOXD10, HOXD11, and HOXD-AS2, a HOXD cluster antisense RNA 2), and WNT5B expression were also significantly higher in sigmoid colon compared with the rectum. These findings provide strong impetus for considering colorectal tissue subtypes and location in future observational studies and clinical trials designed to evaluate the effects of exposures on colonic health.

  15. Comprehensive site-specific whole genome profiling of stromal and epithelial colonic gene signatures in human sigmoid colon and rectal tissue.

    PubMed

    Knight, Jason M; Kim, Eunji; Ivanov, Ivan; Davidson, Laurie A; Goldsby, Jennifer S; Hullar, Meredith A J; Randolph, Timothy W; Kaz, Andrew M; Levy, Lisa; Lampe, Johanna W; Chapkin, Robert S

    2016-09-01

    The strength of associations between various exposures (e.g., diet, tobacco, chemopreventive agents) and colorectal cancer risk may partially depend on the complex interaction between epithelium and stroma across anatomic subsites. Currently, baseline data describing genome-wide coding and long noncoding gene expression profiles in the healthy colon specific to tissue type and location are lacking. Therefore, colonic mucosal biopsies from 10 healthy participants who were enrolled in a clinical study to evaluate effects of lignan supplementation on gut resiliency were used to characterize the site-specific global gene expression signatures associated with stromal vs. epithelial cells in the sigmoid colon and rectum. Using RNA-seq, we demonstrate that tissue type and location patterns of gene expression and upstream regulatory pathways are distinct. For example, consistent with a key role of stroma in the crypt niche, mRNAs associated with immunoregulatory and inflammatory processes (i.e., CXCL14, ANTXR1), smooth muscle contraction (CALD1), proliferation and apoptosis (GLP2R, IGFBP3), and modulation of extracellular matrix (MMP2, COL3A1, MFAP4) were all highly expressed in the stroma. In comparison, HOX genes (HOXA3, HOXD9, HOXD10, HOXD11, and HOXD-AS2, a HOXD cluster antisense RNA 2), and WNT5B expression were also significantly higher in sigmoid colon compared with the rectum. These findings provide strong impetus for considering colorectal tissue subtypes and location in future observational studies and clinical trials designed to evaluate the effects of exposures on colonic health. PMID:27401218

  16. Gut colonization by Candida albicans aggravates inflammation in the gut and extra-gut tissues in mice.

    PubMed

    Sonoyama, Kei; Miki, Atsuko; Sugita, Ryusuke; Goto, Haruka; Nakata, Mayumi; Yamaguchi, Natsu

    2011-04-01

    We examined whether Candida albicans gut colonization aggravates immune diseases in mice. Chronic and latent C. albicans gut colonization was established by the intragastric inoculation of C. albicans in mice fed as part of a purified diet. Allergic diarrhea was induced by repetitive intragastric administration of ovalbumin in sensitized BALB/c mice. Contact hypersensitivity was evaluated by measuring ear swelling after topical application of 2, 4-dinitrofluorobenzene in NC/Nga mice. Arthritis was induced by intradermal injection of bovine type-II collagen emulsified with complete Freund's adjuvant in DBA/1J mice. C. albicans gut colonization increased the incidence of allergic diarrhea, which was accompanied by gut hyperpermeability, as well as increased infiltration of inflammatory cells in the colon. Contact hypersensitivity was also exacerbated by C. albicans gut colonization, as demonstrated by increased swelling, myeloperoxidase activity, and proinflammatory cytokines in ear auricles. Furthermore, C. albicans gut colonization promoted limb joint inflammation in collagen-induced arthritis, in an animal model of rheumatoid arthritis. These findings suggest that C. albicans gut colonization in mice aggravates inflammation in allergic and autoimmune diseases, not only in the gut but also in the extra-gut tissues and underscores the necessity of investigating the pathogenic role of C. albicans gut colonization in immune diseases in humans.

  17. Voriconazole Exposure and Risk of Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinoma, Aspergillus Colonization, Invasive Aspergillosis and Death in Lung Transplant Recipients.

    PubMed

    Mansh, M; Binstock, M; Williams, K; Hafeez, F; Kim, J; Glidden, D; Boettger, R; Hays, S; Kukreja, J; Golden, J; Asgari, M M; Chin-Hong, P; Singer, J P; Arron, S T

    2016-01-01

    Voriconazole is a triazole antifungal used to prevent and treat invasive fungal infections after lung transplantation, but it has been associated with an increased risk of developing cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Despite widespread use, there are no clear guidelines for optimal prophylactic regimens that balance the competing risks and benefits. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of all lung transplant recipients at the University of California, San Francisco, who were transplanted between October 1991 and December 2012 (n = 455) to investigate whether voriconazole exposure affected development of SCC, Aspergillus colonization, invasive aspergillosis and all-cause mortality. Voriconazole exposure was associated with a 73% increased risk of developing SCC (hazard ratio [HR] 1.73; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.04-2.88; p = 0.03), with each additional 30-day exposure at the standard dose increasing the risk by 3.0% (HR 1.03; 95% CI: 1.02-1.04; p < 0.001). Voriconazole exposure reduced risk of Aspergillus colonization by 50% (HR 0.50; 95% CI: 0.34-0.72; p < 0.001), but we were underpowered to detect risk reduction for invasive aspergillosis. Voriconazole exposure significantly reduced all-cause mortality among subjects who developed Aspergillus colonization (HR 0.34; 95% CI: 0.13-0.91; p = 0.03) but had no significant impact on those without colonization. Physicians should consider patient-specific factors that modify the potential risks and benefits of voriconazole for the care of lung transplant recipients. PMID:26372838

  18. First Evaluation of the Biologic Effectiveness Factors of Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) in a Human Colon Carcinoma Cell Line

    SciTech Connect

    Dagrosa, Maria Alejandra; Crivello, Martin; Perona, Marina; Thorp, Silvia; Santa Cruz, Gustavo Alberto; Pozzi, Emiliano; Casal, Mariana; Thomasz, Lisa; Cabrini, Romulo; Kahl, Steven; Juvenal, Guillermo Juan; Pisarev, Mario Alberto

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: DNA lesions produced by boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) and those produced by gamma radiation in a colon carcinoma cell line were analyzed. We have also derived the relative biologic effectiveness factor (RBE) of the neutron beam of the RA-3- Argentine nuclear reactor, and the compound biologic effectiveness (CBE) values for p-boronophenylalanine ({sup 10}BPA) and for 2,4-bis ({alpha},{beta}-dihydroxyethyl)-deutero-porphyrin IX ({sup 10}BOPP). Methods and Materials: Exponentially growing human colon carcinoma cells (ARO81-1) were distributed into the following groups: (1) BPA (10 ppm {sup 10}B) + neutrons, (2) BOPP (10 ppm {sup 10}B) + neutrons, (3) neutrons alone, and (4) gamma rays ({sup 60}Co source at 1 Gy/min dose-rate). Different irradiation times were used to obtain total absorbed doses between 0.3 and 5 Gy ({+-}10%) (thermal neutrons flux = 7.5 10{sup 9} n/cm{sup 2} sec). Results: The frequency of micronucleated binucleated cells and the number of micronuclei per micronucleated binucleated cells showed a dose-dependent increase until approximately 2 Gy. The response to gamma rays was significantly lower than the response to the other treatments (p < 0.05). The irradiations with neutrons alone and neutrons + BOPP showed curves that did not differ significantly from, and showed less DNA damage than, irradiation with neutrons + BPA. A decrease in the surviving fraction measured by 3-(4,5-dimetiltiazol-2-il)-2,5-difeniltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay as a function of the absorbed dose was observed for all the treatments. The RBE and CBE factors calculated from cytokinesis block micronucleus (CBMN) and MTT assays were, respectively, the following: beam RBE: 4.4 {+-} 1.1 and 2.4 {+-} 0.6; CBE for BOPP: 8.0 {+-} 2.2 and 2.0 {+-} 1; CBE for BPA: 19.6 {+-} 3.7 and 3.5 {+-} 1.3. Conclusions: BNCT and gamma irradiations showed different genotoxic patterns. To our knowledge, these values represent the first experimental ones obtained for the RA-3 in a

  19. Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Lymphoma of the Sigmoid Colon Discovered on Routine Screening Colonoscopy in Patient with Hepatitis C and Helicobacter pylori Infection

    PubMed Central

    Bhuta, Rajiv; Bromberg, Michael; Bains, Ashish

    2016-01-01

    Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma is predominantly found in the stomach. Rarely, it is found in the proximal colon and even less so in the sigmoid colon. We present a rare case of primary sigmoid colon MALT lymphoma in a patient with concomitant Helicobacter pylori and hepatitis C infection. We also review current imaging, staging, and therapeutic modalities. To our knowledge, this is the first sigmoid colon MALT lymphoma reported in the United States.

  20. Low electric field enhanced chemotherapy can cure mice with CT-26 colon carcinoma and induce anti-tumour immunity

    PubMed Central

    PLOTNIKOV, A; FISHMAN, D; TICHLER, T; KORENSTEIN, R; KEISARI, Y

    2004-01-01

    Low electric field cancer treatment − enhanced chemotherapy (LEFCT-EC) is a new anticancer treatment which utilizes a combination of chemotherapeutic agents and a low electric field. We investigated the antitumour effectiveness of this technique in a model of murine colon carcinoma (CT-26). The low electric field was applied to ∼65 mm3 intracutaneous tumours after intratumoral injection of 5FU, bleomycin or BCNU. We observed significant tumour size reduction and a prolongation of survival time. The complete cure of a significant fraction of animals treated by LEFCT-EC with 5FU (33%), bleomycin (51%) or BCNU (83%) was observed. Mice cured by LEFCT-EC developed resistance to a tumour challenge and their splenocytes had antitumour activity in vivo. Our results suggest that LEFCT-EC is an effective method for treatment of solid tumours. PMID:15544616

  1. Low electric field enhanced chemotherapy can cure mice with CT-26 colon carcinoma and induce anti-tumour immunity.

    PubMed

    Plotnikov, A; Fishman, D; Tichler, T; Korenstein, R; Keisari, Y

    2004-12-01

    Low electric field cancer treatment-enhanced chemotherapy (LEFCT-EC) is a new anticancer treatment which utilizes a combination of chemotherapeutic agents and a low electric field. We investigated the antitumour effectiveness of this technique in a model of murine colon carcinoma (CT-26). The low electric field was applied to approximately 65 mm3 intracutaneous tumours after intratumoral injection of 5FU, bleomycin or BCNU. We observed significant tumour size reduction and a prolongation of survival time. The complete cure of a significant fraction of animals treated by LEFCT-EC with 5FU (33%), bleomycin (51%) or BCNU (83%) was observed. Mice cured by LEFCT-EC developed resistance to a tumour challenge and their splenocytes had antitumour activity in vivo. Our results suggest that LEFCT-EC is an effective method for treatment of solid tumours.

  2. Dose-response efficacy of caraway (Carum carvi L.) on tissue lipid peroxidation and antioxidant profile in rat colon carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Kamaleeswari, Muthaiyan; Nalini, Namasivayam

    2006-08-01

    Colon cancer is a leading cause of cancer death and its prevention is of great interest throughout the world. This study was conducted to examine the efficacy of different doses of dietary caraway (Carum carvi L.) on tissue lipid peroxidation (LPO) and antioxidant profile in rat colon carcinogenesis. Wistar male rats were divided into 6 groups and were fed a modified pellet diet for the whole of 30 weeks. To induce colon cancer, rats were given a weekly subcutaneous injection of 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH) at a dose of 20 mg kg(-1) (based on body weight) for the first 15 weeks. Caraway was supplemented every day orally at doses of 30, 60 and 90 mg kg(-1) for different groups of rats for the total period of 30 weeks. All rats were sacrificed at the end of 30 weeks, the colons were examined visually for masses and were subsequently evaluated histologically. The results showed diminished levels of intestinal, colonic and caecal LPO products, such as conjugated dienes (CD), lipid hydroperoxides (LOOH) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and also the antioxidants superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), reduced glutathione (GSH) and glutathione reductase (GR) in DMH treated rats, which were significantly reversed (P<0.05) on caraway supplementation. Moreover, enhanced activity of intestinal, colonic and caecal glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and colonic ascorbic acid and alpha-tocopherol levels were observed in carcinogen-treated rats, which were significantly (P<0.05) reduced on caraway supplementation. Thus, our study showed that caraway supplementation at a dose of 60 mg kg(-1) had a modulatory role on tissue LPO, antioxidant profile and prevented DMH-induced histopathological lesions in colon cancer rats.

  3. The proliferative and morphologic responses of a colon carcinoma cell line (LIM 1215) require the production of two autocrine factors.

    PubMed Central

    Sizeland, A M; Burgess, A W

    1991-01-01

    The role of autocrine growth factors in tumor cell growth has been difficult to prove. Our results indicate that more than one autocrine factor is required for the autonomous growth of the LIM 1215 colonic carcinoma cell line. Furthermore, the morphologic changes induced by epidermal growth factor (EGF) are also density dependent and appear to require a synergistic autocrine factor. The serum-free proliferation of the colonic carcinoma cell line LIM 1215 depends on cell density and the presence of EGF (A. Sizeland, S. Bol, and A.W. Burgess, Growth Factors 4:129-143, 1991). At cell densities below 10(4)/cm2, conditioned medium (from cells at a density of 10(5)/cm2) was required for the cells to elicit a mitogenic response to exogenous EGF. At higher cell densities (10(5)/cm2), the cells were independent of both exogenous EGF and conditioned medium. In addition, the EGF receptor was found to be phosphorylated on tyrosine in LIM 1215 cells proliferating at high density, suggesting that the autocrine production of transforming growth factor alpha (TGF alpha) and subsequent ligation to the EGF receptor was occurring. The proliferation of cells at high density was partly inhibited by TGF alpha antibodies but was almost completely inhibited by an antisense oligonucleotide to TGF alpha. The antisense inhibition could be overcome by the addition of EGF, indicating that the effect of the antisense TGF alpha oligonucleotide was on the production of autocrine TGF alpha. LIM 1215 cells were also observed to undergo morphologic changes (spreading and actin cable organization) in response to EGF. These changes were density dependent, but they occurred with a cell density dependence different from that of the proliferative response. These results suggest two possibilities: that the morphologic changes and proliferative responses have different sensitivities to the autocrine factors or that the actions of the autocrine factors are mediated through different signal transduction

  4. Apoptosis inducing capacity of Holothuria arenicola in CT26 colon carcinoma cells in vitro and in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Baharara, Javad; Amini, Elaheh; Afzali, Mahbubeh; Nikdel, Najme; Mostafapour, Asma; Kerachian, Mohammad Amin

    2016-01-01

    Objective(s): Sea cucumber is one of the classes of echinoderms, which is considered as a health marine product and possess various biological characteristics with therapeutic application. The present investigation attempted to evaluate the potential of anti-cancer Persian Gulf sea cucumber species Holothuria arenicola (H. arenicola) aqueous extract on mice colon carcinoma cells in vitro and in vivo. Materials and Methods: The CT26 carcinoma cells were treated with various concentrations of extract in 24 and 48 hr, and then its anti-proliferative effect was measured by MTT assay and morphological observations. The apoptotic effect was examined by fluorescence microscopy (DNA fragmentation assay), Flow cytometry, caspase-3 and -9 colorimetric assays. The in vivo anti-tumor efficacy of sea cucumber extract on CT26 tumor cells transplanted in BALB/c mice was also investigated. Results: The results showed that the water extract of sea cucumber revealed remarkable anti-proliferative effect on CT26 tumor cells with IC50= 31 µg/ml with recruitment of intrinsic apoptotic pathway in vitro. In addition, the colon tumor volume in treated groups remarkably reduced in homozygous mice. Histopathological examination elucidated that sea cucumber extract attenuated tumor size and volume along with apoptosis characteristics. Moreover, RT-PCR analysis revealed that sea cucumber extract induced intrinsic apoptosis in vivo through suppression of Bcl-2 expression. Conclusion: Our data confirmed this notion that sea cucumber administrates anti-cancer effect that can be used as complementary in preclinical experiments, so further characterization are recommended for detection sea cucumber metabolites and clinical application. PMID:27279978

  5. Biosynthesized silver nanoparticles performing as biogenic SERS-nanotags for investigation of C26 colon carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Potara, Monica; Bawaskar, Manisha; Simon, Timea; Gaikwad, Swapnil; Licarete, Emilia; Ingle, Avinash; Banciu, Manuela; Vulpoi, Adriana; Astilean, Simion; Rai, Mahendra

    2015-09-01

    In this work, two classes of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were biosynthesized with the goal to assess their reliability in vitro as surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) nanotags. Mycosynthesized silver nanoparticles (MAgNPs) and phytosynthesized silver nanoparticles (PAgNPs) were produced through environmentally friendly procedures by reduction of silver nitrate with Fusarium oxysporum cell filtrate and Azadirachta indica extract, respectively. Two cell lines, namely C26 murine colon carcinoma cells as example of cancer cells and human immortalized keratinocyte cells (HaCaT) as representative of healthy cell line, were selected for in vitro investigation. The in vitro toxicity studies show that M(P)AgNPs present lower cytotoxic effect on both cell lines as compared with standard citrate coated AgNPs. The internalization of M(P)AgNPs by colon carcinoma cells and structural alterations induced in the morphology of treated cells were analyzed by dark-field (DF) and differential interference contrast (DIC) microscopy, respectively. The most informative data about the cellular uptake and tracking potential of M(P)AgNPs were provided by scanning Confocal Raman Microscopy (CRM) and multivariate K-means cluster analysis of collected Raman spectra. The analysis reveals the subcellular components and the localization of AgNPs inside the cell via the intrinsic SERS signature of biogenic coating material. The use of unique biological material to perform synthesis, stability, biocompatibility and SERS tagging is relevant both from the point of view of encoding nanoparticles with Raman reporters and further applications in cell investigation via Raman/SERS imaging. PMID:26123850

  6. Thermal coagulation-induced changes of the optical properties of normal and adenomatous human colon tissues in vitro in the spectral range 400 1100 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ao, Huilan; Xing, Da; Wei, Huajiang; Gu, Huaimin; Wu, Guoyong; Lu, Jianjun

    2008-04-01

    The absorption coefficients, the reduced scattering coefficients and the optical penetration depths for native and coagulated human normal and adenomatous colon tissues in vitro were determined over the range of 400-1100 nm using a spectrophotometer with an internal integrating sphere system, and the inverse adding-doubling method was applied to calculate the tissue optical properties from diffuse reflectance and total transmittance measurements. The experimental results showed that in the range of 400-1100 nm there were larger absorption coefficients (P < 0.01) and smaller reduced scattering coefficients (P < 0.01) for adenomatous colon tissues than for normal colon tissues, and there were smaller optical penetration depths for adenomatous colon tissues than for normal colon tissues, especially in the near-infrared wavelength. Thermal coagulation induced significant increase of the absorption coefficients and reduced scattering coefficients for the normal and adenomatous colon tissues, and significantly reduced decrease of the optical penetration depths for the normal and adenomatous colon tissues. The smaller optical penetration depth for coagulated adenomatous colon tissues is a disadvantage for laser-induced thermotherapy (LITT) and photodynamic therapy (PDT). It is necessary to adjust the application parameters of lasers to achieve optimal therapy.

  7. Carcinoma of the small intestine and colon as a complication of Crohn disease: radiologic manifestation

    SciTech Connect

    Kerber, G.W.; Frank, P.H.

    1984-03-01

    Barium examinations of the large and small bowel were analyzed in six of seven patients who had adenocarcinoma in areas of the intestine affected with Crohn disease; radiographic changes were correlated with clinical, surgical, and pathologic findings. Radiographic examinations were available in five of these patients at the time of diagnosis of tumor. Two of the five patients demonstrated classic radiographic changes associated with carcinoma. In the other three cases, the radiographic changes were atypical for carcinoma and demonstrated progression of disease over time to include more portions of the bowel and presence of fistulas, strictures, and obstruction. The most frequent clinical presentation of adenocarcinoma in these patients was a recrudescence of symptoms after a long quiescent period. In patients with long-standing Crohn disease plus these clinical features and the above radiographic findings, the diagnosis of a coexisting carcinoma should be considered.

  8. Flexible fiberoptic sigmoidoscopy and double-contrast barium-enema examination in the identification of adenomas and carcinoma of the colon.

    PubMed

    Farrands, P A; Vellacott, K D; Amar, S S; Balfour, T W; Hardcastle, J D

    1983-11-01

    To assess the accuracy of the flexible fiberoptic sigmoidoscope, 227 consecutive patients (mean age 61.8 +/- 13 years) requiring investigation of colonic symptoms were evaluated using rigid and flexible sigmoidoscopy (PAF and KDV) and double-contrast barium enema (SSA). Patients with equivocal findings or adenomatous polyps underwent colonoscopy (TWB). Thirty-four patients had carcinoma and 50 patients had one or more adenomatous polyps (greater than 5mm). The neoplastic yield from rigid sigmoidoscopy was 12 per cent, flexible fiberoptic sigmoidoscopy 90 per cent, and double-contrast barium enema only 76 per cent. Barium enema failed to identify eight carcinomas and 13 adenomatous polyps; seven of the eight carcinomas were polypoid Dukes' Stage A lesions, and associated diverticular disease was present in 62.5 per cent of cases. Flexible fiberoptic sigmoidoscopy failed to identify seven carcinomas and one adenomatous polyp. Five of the carcinomas were beyond range of the instrument; in one patient, a stricture was seen that was caused by the carcinoma; and in the seventh patient, the examination was terminated because of angulation spasm. Double-contrast barium enema is inaccurate in detecting lesions in the sigmoid colon, with flexible sigmoidoscopy being superior. PMID:6628146

  9. Death receptor-3, a new E-Selectin counter-receptor that confers migration and survival advantages to colon carcinoma cells by triggering p38 and ERK MAPK activation.

    PubMed

    Gout, Stéphanie; Morin, Chantale; Houle, François; Huot, Jacques

    2006-09-15

    E-selectin-mediated adhesion of colon cancer cells to endothelial cells is a key event in metastasis. However, the signaling mechanisms that confer metastatic advantages to cancer cells adhering to E-selectin are ill defined. By using affinity column chromatography and pull-down assays on purified membrane extracts of HT29 and LoVo cells coupled to mass spectrometry analysis, we obtained the first evidence indicating that E-selectin binds to death receptor-3 (DR3) expressed by the cancer cells. Thereafter, we accumulated several results, suggesting that DR3 is an E-selectin receptor on colon cancer cells and that its activation by E-selectin triggers the activation of p38 and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and confers migration and survival advantages. First, by Western blotting, we found that the E-selectin-binding protein, identified as DR3, is recognized by two anti-DR3 antibodies. Second, the neutralization of DR3 with an antibody and its knockdown by small interfering RNA decrease the adhesion of colon cancer cells to E-selectin and E-selectin-expressing human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Third, inhibiting DR3 and knocking down its expression impair transendothelial migration of HT29 cells and block the activation of p38 and ERK by E-selectin. Fourth, high molecular weight isoforms of DR3 are expressed in samples of primary human colon carcinoma but not in samples from normal colon tissue. Intriguingly, DR3 is a death receptor but its activation by E-selectin does not induce apoptosis in colon cancer cells, except when ERK is inhibited. Our findings identify novel signaling and functional roles of DR3 activated in response to E-selectin and highlight the potential link between DR3 and metastasis. PMID:16982754

  10. Psychological stress promotes neutrophil infiltration in colon tissue through adrenergic signaling in DSS-induced colitis model.

    PubMed

    Deng, Que; Chen, Hongyu; Liu, Yanjun; Xiao, Fengjun; Guo, Liang; Liu, Dan; Cheng, Xiang; Zhao, Min; Wang, Xiaomeng; Xie, Shuai; Qi, Siyong; Yin, Zhaoyang; Gao, Jiangping; Chen, Xintian; Wang, Jiangong; Guo, Ning; Ma, Yuanfang; Shi, Ming

    2016-10-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic intestinal inflammatory condition. Psychological stress has been postulated to affect the clinical symptoms and recurrence of IBD. The exact molecular mechanisms are not fully understood. In the present study, we demonstrate that psychological stress promotes neutrophil infiltration into colon tissues in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis model. The psychological stress resulted in abnormal expression of the proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-17A, and IL-22) and neutrophil chemokines (CXCL1 and CXCL2) and overactivation of the STAT3 inflammatory signaling pathway. Under chronic unpredictable stress, the adrenergic nervous system was markedly activated, as the expression of tyrosine hydroxylase, the rate-limiting enzyme in catecholamine biosynthesis, in bone marrow and colonic epithelium was enhanced, especially in the myenteric ganglia. The β-AR agonist isoproterenol mimicked the effects of psychological stress on neutrophilia, neutrophil infiltration, and colonic damage in DSS-induced colitis. The β1-AR/β2-AR inhibitor propranolol reduced the numbers of the neutrophils in the circulation, suppressed neutrophil infiltration into colonic tissues, and attenuated the colonic tissue damage promoted by chronic stress. Propranolol also abolished stress-induced upregulation of proinflammatory cytokines and neutrophil chemokines. Our data reveal a close linkage between the β1-AR/β2-AR activation and neutrophil trafficking and also suggest the critical roles of adrenergic nervous system in exacerbation of inflammation and damage of colonic tissues in experimental colitis. The current study provides a new insight into the mechanisms underlying the association of psychological stress with excessive inflammatory response and pathophysiological consequences in IBD. The findings also suggest a potential application of neuroprotective agents to prevent relapsing immune activation in the treatment of IBD. PMID

  11. Psychological stress promotes neutrophil infiltration in colon tissue through adrenergic signaling in DSS-induced colitis model.

    PubMed

    Deng, Que; Chen, Hongyu; Liu, Yanjun; Xiao, Fengjun; Guo, Liang; Liu, Dan; Cheng, Xiang; Zhao, Min; Wang, Xiaomeng; Xie, Shuai; Qi, Siyong; Yin, Zhaoyang; Gao, Jiangping; Chen, Xintian; Wang, Jiangong; Guo, Ning; Ma, Yuanfang; Shi, Ming

    2016-10-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic intestinal inflammatory condition. Psychological stress has been postulated to affect the clinical symptoms and recurrence of IBD. The exact molecular mechanisms are not fully understood. In the present study, we demonstrate that psychological stress promotes neutrophil infiltration into colon tissues in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis model. The psychological stress resulted in abnormal expression of the proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-17A, and IL-22) and neutrophil chemokines (CXCL1 and CXCL2) and overactivation of the STAT3 inflammatory signaling pathway. Under chronic unpredictable stress, the adrenergic nervous system was markedly activated, as the expression of tyrosine hydroxylase, the rate-limiting enzyme in catecholamine biosynthesis, in bone marrow and colonic epithelium was enhanced, especially in the myenteric ganglia. The β-AR agonist isoproterenol mimicked the effects of psychological stress on neutrophilia, neutrophil infiltration, and colonic damage in DSS-induced colitis. The β1-AR/β2-AR inhibitor propranolol reduced the numbers of the neutrophils in the circulation, suppressed neutrophil infiltration into colonic tissues, and attenuated the colonic tissue damage promoted by chronic stress. Propranolol also abolished stress-induced upregulation of proinflammatory cytokines and neutrophil chemokines. Our data reveal a close linkage between the β1-AR/β2-AR activation and neutrophil trafficking and also suggest the critical roles of adrenergic nervous system in exacerbation of inflammation and damage of colonic tissues in experimental colitis. The current study provides a new insight into the mechanisms underlying the association of psychological stress with excessive inflammatory response and pathophysiological consequences in IBD. The findings also suggest a potential application of neuroprotective agents to prevent relapsing immune activation in the treatment of IBD.

  12. Plant polyphenols and oxidative metabolites of the herbal alkenylbenzene methyleugenol suppress histone deacetylase activity in human colon carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Groh, Isabel Anna Maria; Chen, Chen; Lüske, Claudia; Cartus, Alexander Thomas; Esselen, Melanie

    2013-01-01

    Evidence has been provided that diet and environmental factors directly influence epigenetic mechanisms associated with cancer development in humans. The inhibition of histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity and the disruption of the HDAC complex have been recognized as a potent strategy for cancer therapy and chemoprevention. In the present study, we investigated whether selected plant constituents affect HDAC activity or HDAC1 protein status in the human colon carcinoma cell line HT29. The polyphenols (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) and genistein (GEN) as well as two oxidative methyleugenol (ME) metabolites were shown to inhibit HDAC activity in intact HT29 cells. Concomitantly, a significant decrease of the HDAC1 protein level was observed after incubation with EGCG and GEN, whereas the investigated ME metabolites did not affect HDAC1 protein status. In conclusion, dietary compounds were found to possess promising HDAC-inhibitory properties, contributing to epigenetic alterations in colon tumor cells, which should be taken into account in further risk/benefit assessments of polyphenols and alkenylbenzenes.

  13. Plant Polyphenols and Oxidative Metabolites of the Herbal Alkenylbenzene Methyleugenol Suppress Histone Deacetylase Activity in Human Colon Carcinoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Groh, Isabel Anna Maria; Chen, Chen; Lüske, Claudia; Cartus, Alexander Thomas; Esselen, Melanie

    2013-01-01

    Evidence has been provided that diet and environmental factors directly influence epigenetic mechanisms associated with cancer development in humans. The inhibition of histone deacetylase (HDAC) activity and the disruption of the HDAC complex have been recognized as a potent strategy for cancer therapy and chemoprevention. In the present study, we investigated whether selected plant constituents affect HDAC activity or HDAC1 protein status in the human colon carcinoma cell line HT29. The polyphenols (−)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) and genistein (GEN) as well as two oxidative methyleugenol (ME) metabolites were shown to inhibit HDAC activity in intact HT29 cells. Concomitantly, a significant decrease of the HDAC1 protein level was observed after incubation with EGCG and GEN, whereas the investigated ME metabolites did not affect HDAC1 protein status. In conclusion, dietary compounds were found to possess promising HDAC-inhibitory properties, contributing to epigenetic alterations in colon tumor cells, which should be taken into account in further risk/benefit assessments of polyphenols and alkenylbenzenes. PMID:23476753

  14. Quantification of inflammation in colonic tissue sections and wound healing in-vitro with digital holographic microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bettenworth, Dominik; Lenz, Philipp; Krausewitz, Philipp; Brückner, Markus; Ketelhut, Steffi; von Bally, Gert; Domagk, Dirk; Kemper, Björn

    2013-06-01

    We show that the tissue refractive index, obtained from quantitative digital holographic microscopy (DHM) phase contrast images of unstained histological colonic sections, is directly related to the degree of inflammation in experimental colitis. In addition, it is demonstrated that quantitative DHM phase contrast is capable to quantify in-vitro wound healing assays.

  15. The Colonic Tissue Levels of TLR2, TLR4 and Nitric Oxide in Patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Koçak, Erdem; Akbal, Erdem; Köklü, Seyfettin; Ergül, Bilal; Can, Murat

    2016-01-01

    Objective Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a highly prevalent and debilitating functional disorder. The toll-like receptors (TLRs) are a family of pathogen-recognition receptors in the innate immune system. In the present study we aimed to investigate the TLR2, TLR4 and nitric oxide (NO) levels in patients with IBS. Methods Fifty-one IBS patients and 15 healthy controls were included in the present study. Colonic tissue levels of TLR2, TLR4 and NO were detected using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) and through biochemical methods. Results The colonic tissue levels of TLR4 and NO were significantly higher in IBS patients than in healthy controls. A subgroup analysis, which was based on the presence of diarrhea and constipation, showed that TLR2 levels were significantly higher among individuals with diarrhea-predominant IBS than among constipation-predominant IBS patients and healthy controls. The TLR4 levels were significantly higher in the diarrhea-predominant IBS patients and constipation-predominant IBS patients than in comparison healthy controls. The colonic tissue levels of NO were higher in the constipation-predominant IBS patients than in the diarrhea-predominant IBS patients and healthy controls. Conclusion In the present study we found that the colonic tissue levels of TLR and NO were elevated in IBS patients. Our results support the presence of a degree of immune dysregulation and oxidative stress in patients with IBS. PMID:27150852

  16. BVES regulates EMT in human corneal and colon cancer cells and is silenced via promoter methylation in human colorectal carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Christopher S.; Zhang, Baolin; Smith, J. Joshua; Jayagopal, Ashwath; Barrett, Caitlyn W.; Pino, Christopher; Russ, Patricia; Presley, Sai H.; Peng, DunFa; Rosenblatt, Daniel O.; Haselton, Frederick R.; Yang, Jin-Long; Washington, M. Kay; Chen, Xi; Eschrich, Steven; Yeatman, Timothy J.; El-Rifai, Wael; Beauchamp, R. Daniel; Chang, Min S.

    2011-01-01

    The acquisition of a mesenchymal phenotype is a critical step in the metastatic progression of epithelial carcinomas. Adherens junctions (AJs) are required for suppressing this epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) but less is known about the role of tight junctions (TJs) in this process. Here, we investigated the functions of blood vessel epicardial substance (BVES, also known as POPDC1 and POP1), an integral membrane protein that regulates TJ formation. BVES was found to be underexpressed in all stages of human colorectal carcinoma (CRC) and in adenomatous polyps, indicating its suppression occurs early in transformation. Similarly, the majority of CRC cell lines tested exhibited decreased BVES expression and promoter DNA hypermethylation, a modification associated with transcriptional silencing. Treatment with a DNA-demethylating agent restored BVES expression in CRC cell lines, indicating that methylation represses BVES expression. Reexpression of BVES in CRC cell lines promoted an epithelial phenotype, featuring decreased proliferation, migration, invasion, and anchorage-independent growth; impaired growth of an orthotopic xenograft; and blocked metastasis. Conversely, interfering with BVES function by expressing a dominant-negative mutant in human corneal epithelial cells induced mesenchymal features. These biological outcomes were associated with changes in AJ and TJ composition and related signaling. Therefore, BVES prevents EMT, and its epigenetic silencing may be an important step in promoting EMT programs during colon carcinogenesis. PMID:21911938

  17. Selected case from the Arkadi M. Rywlin International Pathology Slide Club: carcinoma of the transverse colon in a young girl.

    PubMed

    Galliani, Carlos A; Sanchez, Irene C; D'Errico, Maria M; Bisceglia, Michele

    2015-05-01

    We report a case of a 14-year-old female with primary adenocarcinoma of the transverse colon. She was hospitalized after presenting with abdominal pain and signs of intestinal obstruction. There was no health antecedent or family history of neoplasia. Physical examination revealed a distended abdomen. Tenderness was elicited to palpation of the right lower quadrant. Magnetic resonance imaging of the abdomen revealed obstructive signs, with a constricting lesion in the mid-transverse colon of probable neoplastic nature. Laparoscopic segmental resection of the colon was followed by standard right hemicolectomy. A circumferential mid-transverse tumor was diagnosed as primary colorectal carcinoma (CRC) of signet-ring cell type, AJCC stage IIIC, Dukes' C stage. On the basis of immunohistochemistry and clinical data, hereditary nonpolyposis and hamartomatous colorectal cancer syndromes were excluded. Involvement of either the p53, BRAF, or K-RAS genes was ruled out by immunohistochemistry profiling and genetic testing. The neoplasm was categorized as sporadic. The possibility of activation of the Wnt signaling pathway was suspected, because of a defective turnover of the β-catenin protein. Postoperatively, the patient was treated with both systemic and intra-abdominal adjuvant chemotherapy, including oxaliplatin. Between 18 and 24 months after diagnosis, intra-abdominal tumor recurrences were detected. The patient underwent bilateral oophorectomies for Krukenberg tumors and received salvage chemotherapy. Recently, additional recurrent metastatic retroperitoneal disease caused hydronephrosis. The retroperitoneal mass was debulked and a ureteric stent was placed. At the time of this writing, 43 months after diagnosis, the patient is receiving FOLFOX chemotherapy combined with panitumumab. CRC of childhood is exceedingly rare, generally develops in the setting of unrecognized genetic predisposing factors to cancer, presents with advanced disease, is high grade, and tends

  18. Selected case from the Arkadi M. Rywlin International Pathology Slide Club: carcinoma of the transverse colon in a young girl.

    PubMed

    Galliani, Carlos A; Sanchez, Irene C; D'Errico, Maria M; Bisceglia, Michele

    2015-05-01

    We report a case of a 14-year-old female with primary adenocarcinoma of the transverse colon. She was hospitalized after presenting with abdominal pain and signs of intestinal obstruction. There was no health antecedent or family history of neoplasia. Physical examination revealed a distended abdomen. Tenderness was elicited to palpation of the right lower quadrant. Magnetic resonance imaging of the abdomen revealed obstructive signs, with a constricting lesion in the mid-transverse colon of probable neoplastic nature. Laparoscopic segmental resection of the colon was followed by standard right hemicolectomy. A circumferential mid-transverse tumor was diagnosed as primary colorectal carcinoma (CRC) of signet-ring cell type, AJCC stage IIIC, Dukes' C stage. On the basis of immunohistochemistry and clinical data, hereditary nonpolyposis and hamartomatous colorectal cancer syndromes were excluded. Involvement of either the p53, BRAF, or K-RAS genes was ruled out by immunohistochemistry profiling and genetic testing. The neoplasm was categorized as sporadic. The possibility of activation of the Wnt signaling pathway was suspected, because of a defective turnover of the β-catenin protein. Postoperatively, the patient was treated with both systemic and intra-abdominal adjuvant chemotherapy, including oxaliplatin. Between 18 and 24 months after diagnosis, intra-abdominal tumor recurrences were detected. The patient underwent bilateral oophorectomies for Krukenberg tumors and received salvage chemotherapy. Recently, additional recurrent metastatic retroperitoneal disease caused hydronephrosis. The retroperitoneal mass was debulked and a ureteric stent was placed. At the time of this writing, 43 months after diagnosis, the patient is receiving FOLFOX chemotherapy combined with panitumumab. CRC of childhood is exceedingly rare, generally develops in the setting of unrecognized genetic predisposing factors to cancer, presents with advanced disease, is high grade, and tends

  19. Claudin-7 indirectly regulates the integrin/FAK signaling pathway in human colon cancer tissue.

    PubMed

    Ding, Lei; Wang, Liyong; Sui, Leiming; Zhao, Huanying; Xu, Xiaoxue; Li, Tengyan; Wang, Xiaonan; Li, Wenjing; Zhou, Ping; Kong, Lu

    2016-08-01

    The claudin family of proteins is integral to the structure and function of tight junctions. The role of claudin-7 (Cldn-7, CLDN7) in regulating the integrin/focal adhesion kinase (FAK)/ERK signaling pathway remains poorly understood. Therefore, we investigated differences in gene expression, primarily focusing on CLDN7 and integrin/FAK/ERK signaling pathway genes, between colon cancer and adjacent normal tissues. Quantitative real-time reverse transcription-PCR and immunohistochemistry were utilized to verify the results of mRNA and protein expression, respectively. In silico analysis was used to predict co-regulation between Cldn-7 and integrin/FAK/ERK signaling pathway components, and the STRING database was used to analyze protein-protein interaction pairs among these proteins. Meta-analysis of expression microarrays in The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database was used to identify significant correlations between Cldn-7 and components of predicted genes in the integrin/FAK/ERK signaling pathway. Our results showed marked cancer stage-specific decreases in the protein expression of Cldn-7, Gelsolin, MAPK1 and MAPK3 in colon cancer samples, and the observed changes for all proteins except Cldn-7 were in agreement with changes in the corresponding mRNA levels. Cldn-7 might indirectly regulate MAPK3 via KRT8 due to KRT8 co-expression with MAPK3 or CLDN7. Our bioinformatics methods supported the hypothesis that Cldn-7 does not directly regulate any genes in the integrin/FAK/ERK signaling pathway. These factors may participate in a common network that regulates cancer progression in which the MAPK pathway serves as the central node.

  20. Prognostic value of graph theory-based tissue architecture analysis in carcinomas of the tongue.

    PubMed

    Sudbø, J; Bankfalvi, A; Bryne, M; Marcelpoil, R; Boysen, M; Piffko, J; Hemmer, J; Kraft, K; Reith, A

    2000-12-01

    Several studies on oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC) suggest that the clinical value of traditional histologic grading is limited both by poor reproducibility and by low prognostic impact. However, the prognostic potential of a strictly quantitative and highly reproducible assessment of the tissue architecture in OSCC has not been evaluated. Using image analysis, in 193 cases of T1-2 (Stage I-II) OSCC we retrospectively investigated the prognostic impact of two graph theory-derived structural features: the average Delaunay Edge Length (DEL_av) and the average homogeneity of the Ulam Tree (ELH_av). Both structural features were derived from subgraphs of the Voronoi Diagram. The geometric centers of the cell nuclei were computed, generating a two-dimensional swarm of point-like seeds from which graphs could be constructed. The impact on survival of the computed values of ELH_av and DEL_av was estimated by the method of Kaplan and Meier, with relapse-free survival and overall survival as end-points. The prognostic values of DEL_av and ELH_av as computed for the invasive front, the superficial part of the carcinoma, the total carcinoma, and the normal-appearing oral mucosa were compared. For DEL_av, significant prognostic information was found in the invasive front (p < 0.001). No significant prognostic information was found in superficial part of the carcinoma (p = 0.34), in the carcinoma as a whole (p = 0.35), or in the normal-appearing mucosa (p = 0.27). For ELH_av, significant prognostic information was found in the invasive front (p = 0.01) and, surprisingly, in putatively normal mucosa (p = 0.03). No significant prognostic information was found in superficial parts of the carcinoma (p = 0.34) or in the total carcinoma (p = 0.11). In conclusion, strictly quantitative assessment of tissue architecture in the invasive front of OSCC yields highly prognostic information. PMID:11140700

  1. Prognostic value of graph theory-based tissue architecture analysis in carcinomas of the tongue.

    PubMed

    Sudbø, J; Bankfalvi, A; Bryne, M; Marcelpoil, R; Boysen, M; Piffko, J; Hemmer, J; Kraft, K; Reith, A

    2000-12-01

    Several studies on oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC) suggest that the clinical value of traditional histologic grading is limited both by poor reproducibility and by low prognostic impact. However, the prognostic potential of a strictly quantitative and highly reproducible assessment of the tissue architecture in OSCC has not been evaluated. Using image analysis, in 193 cases of T1-2 (Stage I-II) OSCC we retrospectively investigated the prognostic impact of two graph theory-derived structural features: the average Delaunay Edge Length (DEL_av) and the average homogeneity of the Ulam Tree (ELH_av). Both structural features were derived from subgraphs of the Voronoi Diagram. The geometric centers of the cell nuclei were computed, generating a two-dimensional swarm of point-like seeds from which graphs could be constructed. The impact on survival of the computed values of ELH_av and DEL_av was estimated by the method of Kaplan and Meier, with relapse-free survival and overall survival as end-points. The prognostic values of DEL_av and ELH_av as computed for the invasive front, the superficial part of the carcinoma, the total carcinoma, and the normal-appearing oral mucosa were compared. For DEL_av, significant prognostic information was found in the invasive front (p < 0.001). No significant prognostic information was found in superficial part of the carcinoma (p = 0.34), in the carcinoma as a whole (p = 0.35), or in the normal-appearing mucosa (p = 0.27). For ELH_av, significant prognostic information was found in the invasive front (p = 0.01) and, surprisingly, in putatively normal mucosa (p = 0.03). No significant prognostic information was found in superficial parts of the carcinoma (p = 0.34) or in the total carcinoma (p = 0.11). In conclusion, strictly quantitative assessment of tissue architecture in the invasive front of OSCC yields highly prognostic information.

  2. Colon tumors with the simultaneous induction of driver mutations in APC, KRAS, and PIK3CA still progress through the adenoma-to-carcinoma sequence

    PubMed Central

    Hadac, Jamie N.; Leystra, Alyssa A.; Olson, Terrah J. Paul; Maher, Molly E.; Payne, Susan N; Yueh, Alexander E.; Schwartz, Alexander R.; Albrecht, Dawn M.; Clipson, Linda; Pasch, Cheri A.; Matkowskyj, Kristina A.; Halberg, Richard B.; Deming, Dustin A.

    2015-01-01

    Human colorectal cancers often possess multiple mutations, including 3–6 driver mutations per tumor. The timing of when these mutations occur during tumor development and progression continues to be debated. More advanced lesions carry a greater number of driver mutations, indicating that colon tumors might progress from adenomas to carcinomas through the stepwise accumulation of mutations following tumor initiation. However, mutations that have been implicated in tumor progression have been identified in normal-appearing epithelial cells of the colon, leaving the possibility that these mutations might be present prior to the initiation of tumorigenesis. We utilized mouse models of colon cancer to investigate whether tumorigenesis still occurs through the adenoma-to-carcinoma sequence when multiple mutations are present at the time of tumor initiation. To create a model in which tumors could concomitantly possess mutations in Apc, Kras, and Pik3ca, we developed a novel minimally invasive technique to administer an adenovirus expressing Cre recombinase to a focal region of the colon. Here we demonstrate that the presence of these additional driver mutations at the time of tumor initiation results in increased tumor multiplicity and an increased rate of progression to invasive adenocarcinomas. These cancers can even metastasize to retroperitoneal lymph nodes or the liver. However, despite having as many as three concomitant driver mutations at the time of initiation, these tumors still proceed through the adenoma-to-carcinoma sequence. PMID:26276752

  3. Perforated carcinoma of the sigmoid colon in an incarcerated inguinal hernia: report of a case.

    PubMed

    Kouraklis, Gregory; Kouskos, Efstratios; Glinavou, Andromachi; Raftopoulos, John; Karatzas, Gabriel

    2003-01-01

    Perforation of the large bowel due to benign or malignant disease in an inguinal hernia is very rare, but should be considered as a potential cause of strangulated hernias. A 79-year-old man with a 2-day history of scrotal swelling and pain in the left side associated with fever and chills was brought to our Emergency Department, where he was classified as American Society of Anesthesiologists IVE. A large left incarcerated scrotal hernia was diagnosed and surgical exploration was performed using local infiltration anesthesia. A standard oblique inguinal incision was made, revealing perforation of the sigmoid colon due to cancer. A 40-cm segmental resection of the sigmoid colon was done, and a double-barrel colostomy was made through the inguinal incision. This surgical strategy involving construction of a double-barrel colostomy through the inguinal hernia incision could be an alternative method of managing such critically ill patients.

  4. Absorption spectra of adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma cervical tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivashko, Pavlo; Peresunko, Olexander; Zelinska, Natalia; Alonova, Marina

    2014-08-01

    We studied a methods of assessment of a connective tissue of cervix in terms of specific volume of fibrous component and an optical density of staining of connective tissue fibers in the stroma of squamous cancer and cervix adenocarcinoma. An absorption spectra of blood plasma of the patients suffering from squamous cancer and cervix adenocarcinoma both before the surgery and in postsurgical periods were obtained. Linear dichroism measurements transmittance in polarized light at different orientations of the polarization plane relative to the direction of the dominant orientation in the structure of the sample of biotissues of stroma of squamous cancer and cervix adenocarcinoma were carried. Results of the investigation of the tumor tissues showed that the magnitude of the linear dichroism Δ is insignificant in the researched spectral range λ=280-840 nm and specific regularities in its change observed short-wave ranges.

  5. Cytotoxicity and Apoptotic Effects of Polyphenols from Sugar Beet Molasses on Colon Carcinoma Cells in Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Mingshun; Zhao, Zhengang; Yu, Shujuan

    2016-01-01

    Three polyphenols were isolated and purified from sugar beet molasses by ultrasonic-aid extraction and various chromatographic techniques, and their structures were elucidated by spectral analysis. Cytotoxicity and the molecular mechanism were measured by methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) assay, flow cytometry, caspase-3 activity assay and Western blot assay. The results showed that gallic acid, cyanidin-3-O-glucoside chloride and epicatechin have cytotoxicity to the human colon, hepatocellular and breast cancer cells. Cyanidin-3-O-glucoside chloride showed its cytotoxicity against various tumor cell lines, particularly against colon cancer Caco-2 cells with half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) value of 23.21 ± 0.14 μg/mL in vitro. Cyanidin-3-O-glucoside chloride may be a potential candidate for the treatment of colon cancer. In the mechanism study, cyanidin-3-O-glucoside chloride increased the ratio of cell cycle at G0/G1 phase and reduced cyclin D1 expression on Caco-2 cells. Cyanidin-3-O-glucoside chloride decreased mutant p21 expression, and increased the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2 and the activation of caspase-3 to induce apoptosis. PMID:27347927

  6. Activated systemic inflammatory response at diagnosis reduces lymph node count in colonic carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Kennelly, Rory P; Murphy, Brenda; Larkin, John O; Mehigan, Brian J; McCormick, Paul H

    2016-01-01

    AIM To investigate a link between lymph node yield and systemic inflammatory response in colon cancer. METHODS A prospectively maintained database was interrogated. All patients undergoing curative colonic resection were included. Neutrophil lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and albumin were used as markers of SIR. In keeping with previously studies, NLR ≥ 4, albumin < 35 was used as cut off points for SIR. Statistical analysis was performed using 2 sample t-test and χ2 tests where appropriate. RESULTS Three hundred and two patients were included for analysis. One hundred and ninety-five patients had NLR < 4 and 107 had NLR ≥ 4. There was no difference in age or sex between groups. Patients with NLR of ≥ 4 had lower mean lymph node yields than patients with NLR < 4 [17.6 ± 7.1 vs 19.2 ± 7.9 (P = 0.036)]. More patients with an elevated NLR had node positive disease and an increased lymph node ratio (≥ 0.25, P = 0.044). CONCLUSION Prognosis in colon cancer is intimately linked to the patient’s immune response. Assuming standardised surgical technique and sub specialty pathology, lymph node count is reduced when systemic inflammatory response is activated. PMID:27574555

  7. Cytotoxicity and Apoptotic Effects of Polyphenols from Sugar Beet Molasses on Colon Carcinoma Cells in Vitro.

    PubMed

    Chen, Mingshun; Zhao, Zhengang; Yu, Shujuan

    2016-01-01

    Three polyphenols were isolated and purified from sugar beet molasses by ultrasonic-aid extraction and various chromatographic techniques, and their structures were elucidated by spectral analysis. Cytotoxicity and the molecular mechanism were measured by methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) assay, flow cytometry, caspase-3 activity assay and Western blot assay. The results showed that gallic acid, cyanidin-3-O-glucoside chloride and epicatechin have cytotoxicity to the human colon, hepatocellular and breast cancer cells. Cyanidin-3-O-glucoside chloride showed its cytotoxicity against various tumor cell lines, particularly against colon cancer Caco-2 cells with half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) value of 23.21 ± 0.14 μg/mL in vitro. Cyanidin-3-O-glucoside chloride may be a potential candidate for the treatment of colon cancer. In the mechanism study, cyanidin-3-O-glucoside chloride increased the ratio of cell cycle at G₀/G₁ phase and reduced cyclin D1 expression on Caco-2 cells. Cyanidin-3-O-glucoside chloride decreased mutant p21 expression, and increased the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2 and the activation of caspase-3 to induce apoptosis. PMID:27347927

  8. Deregulation of c-myc gene expression in human colon carcinoma is not accompanied by amplification or rearrangement of the gene.

    PubMed Central

    Erisman, M D; Rothberg, P G; Diehl, R E; Morse, C C; Spandorfer, J M; Astrin, S M

    1985-01-01

    The structure and expression of the c-myc oncogene were examined in 29 primary human colon adenocarcinomas. Dot blot hybridization of total RNA showed that 21 tumors (72%) had considerably elevated expression of c-myc (5- to 40-fold) relative to normal colonic mucosa. These data were corroborated by Northern blots of polyadenylated RNA, which showed a 2.3-kilobase transcript. Southern analysis of the c-myc locus in these tumors indicated the absence of amplification or DNA rearrangement in a 35-kilobase region encompassing the gene. In a parallel study, elevated expression of c-myc without amplification or DNA rearrangement was also observed in three of six colon carcinoma cell lines examined; in addition, unlike a normal colon cell line control, these three cell lines exhibited constitutive, high-level expression of the gene during their growth in cultures. These results indicate that elevated expression of the c-myc oncogene occurs frequently in primary human colon carcinomas and that the mechanism involved in the regulation of c-myc expression is altered in tumor-derived cell lines. Images PMID:3837853

  9. Comparison of oral microbiota in tumor and non-tumor tissues of patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Bacterial infections have been linked to malignancies due to their ability to induce chronic inflammation. We investigated the association of oral bacteria in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC/tumor) tissues and compared with adjacent non-tumor mucosa sampled 5 cm distant from the same patient (n = 10). By using culture-independent 16S rRNA approaches, denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and cloning and sequencing, we assessed the total bacterial diversity in these clinical samples. Results DGGE fingerprints showed variations in the band intensity profiles within non-tumor and tumor tissues of the same patient and among the two groups. The clonal analysis indicated that from a total of 1200 sequences characterized, 80 bacterial species/phylotypes were detected representing six phyla, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, Fusobacteria, Actinobacteria and uncultivated TM7 in non-tumor and tumor libraries. In combined library, 12 classes, 16 order, 26 families and 40 genera were observed. Bacterial species, Streptococcus sp. oral taxon 058, Peptostreptococcus stomatis, Streptococcus salivarius, Streptococcus gordonii, Gemella haemolysans, Gemella morbillorum, Johnsonella ignava and Streptococcus parasanguinis I were highly associated with tumor site where as Granulicatella adiacens was prevalent at non-tumor site. Streptococcus intermedius was present in 70% of both non-tumor and tumor sites. Conclusions The underlying changes in the bacterial diversity in the oral mucosal tissues from non-tumor and tumor sites of OSCC subjects indicated a shift in bacterial colonization. These most prevalent or unique bacterial species/phylotypes present in tumor tissues may be associated with OSCC and needs to be further investigated with a larger sample size. PMID:22817758

  10. Combined intravenous and intraperitoneal chemotherapy with fluorouracil + leucovorin vs fluorouracil + levamisole for adjuvant therapy of resected colon carcinoma.

    PubMed Central

    Scheithauer, W.; Kornek, G. V.; Marczell, A.; Karner, J.; Salem, G.; Greiner, R.; Burger, D.; Stöger, F.; Ritschel, J.; Kovats, E.; Vischer, H. M.; Schneeweiss, B.; Depisch, D.

    1998-01-01

    -effects were infrequent and generally mild in both arms, although a lower rate of severe (WHO grade 3) adverse reactions was noted in patients receiving locoregional plus intravenous chemotherapy (3% vs 12%; P = 0.01). The results of this trial suggest that combined intraperitoneal plus systemic intravenous chemotherapy with FU/LV is a promising adjuvant treatment strategy in patients with surgically resected stage III colon carcinoma. PMID:9579845

  11. Organotypical tissue cultures from adult murine colon as an in vitro model of intestinal mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Bareiss, Petra M.; Metzger, Marco; Sohn, Kai; Rupp, Steffen; Frick, Julia S.; Autenrieth, Ingo B.; Lang, Florian; Schwarz, Heinz; Skutella, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Together with animal experiments, organotypical cell cultures are important models for analyzing cellular interactions of the mucosal epithelium and pathogenic mechanisms in the gastrointestinal tract. Here, we introduce a three-dimensional culture model from the adult mouse colon for cell biological investigations in an in vivo-like environment. These explant cultures were cultured for up to 2 weeks and maintained typical characteristics of the intestinal mucosa, including a high-prismatic epithelium with specific epithelial cell-to-cell connections, a basal lamina and various connective tissue cell types, as analyzed with immunohistological and electron microscopic methods. The function of the epithelium was tested by treating the cultures with dexamethasone, which resulted in a strong upregulation of the serum- and glucocorticoid-inducible kinase 1 similar to that found in vivo. The culture system was investigated in infection experiments with the fungal pathogen Candida albicans. Wildtype but not Δcph1/Δefg1-knockout Candida adhered to, penetrated and infiltrated the epithelial barrier. The results demonstrate the potential usefulness of this intestinal in vitro model for studying epithelial cell-cell interactions, cellular signaling and microbiological infections in a three-dimensional cell arrangement. PMID:18320204

  12. Use of Solid-Phase Extraction To Determine Ergosterol Concentrations in Plant Tissue Colonized by Fungi

    PubMed Central

    Gessner, M. O.; Schmitt, A. L.

    1996-01-01

    At present, the ergosterol and acetate-to-ergosterol techniques are generally considered to be the methods of choice to quantify fungal biomass, growth rate, and productivity under natural conditions. Both methods rely on the accurate isolation and quantification of ergosterol, a major membrane component of eumycotic fungi. Taking advantage of the solid-phase extraction (SPE) technique, we present a novel method to determine the ergosterol concentration in lipid extracts derived from plant tissues and dead organic matter colonized by fungi. In this method, a primary alkaline extract is acidified and passed through a reversed-phase (C(inf18)) SPE column. The column is then washed with an alkaline methanol-water solution to eliminate interfering substances and increase pH and is thoroughly dried in air. Ergosterol is eluted with alkaline isopropanol. This eluting solvent was chosen to produce a strongly basic pH of the final extract and thus confer stability on the ergosterol molecule before high-performance liquid chromatography analysis. The recovery of ergosterol from plant tissues and the O(infhf) horizon of a woodland soil ranged from 85 to 98%, and the overall extraction efficiency was similar to that obtained by a conventional procedure involving liquid-liquid extraction. Potential pitfalls of ergosterol analysis by SPE include (i) insufficient acidification before sample loading on the extraction column, resulting in a poor affinity of ergosterol for the sorbent; (ii) incomplete drying of the sorbent bed before the elution step; and (iii) chemical breakdown of ergosterol after elution, which was found to be related to a low pH of the final extract and a high concentration of matrix compounds. When these pitfalls are avoided, SPE is an attractive alternative to existing methods of ergosterol analysis of environmental samples. PMID:16535229

  13. Thermotherapy enhances oxaliplatin-induced cytotoxicity in human colon carcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiang-Liang; Hu, An-Bin; Cui, Shu-Zhong; Wei, Hong-Bo

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To observe the synergistic effects of hyperthermia in oxaliplatin-induced cytotoxicity in human colon adenocarcinoma Lovo cells. METHODS: The human colon adenocarcinoma cell line Lovo was obtained from Sun Yat-Sen University. Cells were sealed with parafilm and placed in a circulating water bath, and was maintained within 0.01  °C of the desired temperature (37  °C, 39  °C, 41  °C, 43  °C and 45  °C). Thermal therapy was given alone to the negative control group while oxaliplatin was administered to the treatment group at doses of 12.5 μg/mL and 50 μg/mL. Identification of morphological changes, 3-(4,5-dimethyl-thiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay, flow cytometry and Western blotting were used to investigate the effect of thermochemotherapy on human colon adenocarcinoma Lovo cells, including changes in the signal pathway related to apoptosis. RESULTS: A temperature-dependent inhibition of cell growth was observed after oxaliplatin exposure, while a synergistic interaction was detected preferentially with sequential combination. Thermochemotherapy changed the morphology of Lovo cells, increased the inhibition rate of the Lovo cells (P < 0.05) and enhanced cellular population in the G0/G1 phase (16.7% ± 4.8 % in phase S plus 3.7% ± 2.4 % in phase G2/M, P < 0.05). Thermochemotherapy increased apoptosis through upregulating p53, Bax and downregulating Bcl-2. Protein levels were elevated in p53, Bax/Bcl-2 in thermochemotherapy group as compared with the control group (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Thermochemotherapy may play an important role in apoptosis via the activation of p53, Bax and the repression of Bcl-2 in Lovo cells. PMID:22363135

  14. Specific Behaviors Predict Staphylococcus aureus Colonization and Skin and Soft Tissue Infections Among Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Persons.

    PubMed

    Crum-Cianflone, Nancy F; Wang, Xun; Weintrob, Amy; Lalani, Tahaniyat; Bavaro, Mary; Okulicz, Jason F; Mende, Katrin; Ellis, Michael; Agan, Brian K

    2015-04-01

    Background.  Few data exist on the incidence and risk factors of Staphylococcus aureus colonization and skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) among patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Methods.  Over a 2-year period, we prospectively evaluated adults infected with HIV for incident S aureus colonization at 5 body sites and SSTIs. Cox proportional hazard models using time-updated covariates were performed. Results.  Three hundred twenty-two participants had a median age of 42 years (interquartile range, 32-49), an HIV duration of 9.4 years (2.7-17.4), and 58% were on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Overall, 102 patients (32%) became colonized with S aureus with an incidence rate of 20.6 (95% confidence interval [CI], 16.8-25.0) per 100 person-years [PYs]. Predictors of colonization in the final multivariable model included illicit drug use (hazard ratios [HR], 4.26; 95% CI, 1.33-13.69) and public gym use (HR 1.66, 95% CI, 1.04-2.66), whereas antibacterial soap use was protective (HR, 0.50; 95% CI, 0.32-0.78). In a separate model, perigenital colonization was associated with recent syphilis infection (HR, 4.63; 95% CI, 1.01-21.42). Fifteen percent of participants developed an SSTI (incidence rate of 9.4 cases [95% CI, 6.8-12.7] per 100 PYs). Risk factors for an SSTI included incident S aureus colonization (HR 2.52; 95% CI, 1.35-4.69), public shower use (HR, 2.59; 95% CI, 1.48-4.56), and hospitalization (HR 3.54; 95% CI, 1.67-7.53). The perigenital location for S aureus colonization was predictive of SSTIs. Human immunodeficiency virus-related factors (CD4 count, HIV RNA level, and HAART) were not associated with colonization or SSTIs. Conclusions.  Specific behaviors, but not HIV-related factors, are predictors of colonization and SSTIs. Behavioral modifications may be the most important strategies in preventing S aureus colonization and SSTIs among persons infected with HIV. PMID:26380335

  15. Multifunctional and Redundant Roles of Borrelia burgdorferi Outer Surface Proteins in Tissue Adhesion, Colonization, and Complement Evasion

    PubMed Central

    Caine, Jennifer A.; Coburn, Jenifer

    2016-01-01

    Borrelia burgdorferi is the causative agent of Lyme disease in the U.S., with at least 25,000 cases reported to the CDC each year. B. burgdorferi is thought to enter and exit the bloodstream to achieve rapid dissemination to distal tissue sites during infection. Travel through the bloodstream requires evasion of immune surveillance and pathogen clearance in the host, a process at which B. burgdorferi is adept. B. burgdorferi encodes greater than 19 adhesive outer surface proteins many of which have been found to bind to host cells or components of the extracellular matrix. Several others bind to host complement regulatory factors, in vitro. Production of many of these adhesive proteins is tightly regulated by environmental cues, and some have been shown to aid in vascular interactions and tissue colonization, as well as survival in the blood, in vivo. Recent work has described multifaceted and redundant roles of B. burgdorferi outer surface proteins in complement component interactions and tissue targeted adhesion and colonization, distinct from their previously identified in vitro binding capabilities. Recent insights into the multifunctional roles of previously well-characterized outer surface proteins such as BBK32, DbpA, CspA, and OspC have changed the way we think about the surface proteome of these organisms during the tick–mammal life cycle. With the combination of new and old in vivo models and in vitro techniques, the field has identified distinct ligand binding domains on BBK32 and DbpA that afford tissue colonization or blood survival to B. burgdorferi. In this review, we describe the multifunctional and redundant roles of many adhesive outer surface proteins of B. burgdorferi in tissue adhesion, colonization, and bloodstream survival that, together, promote the survival of Borrelia spp. throughout maintenance in their multi-host lifestyle.

  16. Molecular evidence that invasive adenocarcinoma can mimic prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) and intraductal carcinoma through retrograde glandular colonization.

    PubMed

    Haffner, Michael C; Weier, Christopher; Xu, Meng Meng; Vaghasia, Ajay; Gürel, Bora; Gümüşkaya, Berrak; Esopi, David M; Fedor, Helen; Tan, Hsueh-Li; Kulac, Ibrahim; Hicks, Jessica; Isaacs, William B; Lotan, Tamara L; Nelson, William G; Yegnasubramanian, Srinivasan; De Marzo, Angelo M

    2016-01-01

    Prostate cancer often manifests as morphologically distinct tumour foci and is frequently found adjacent to presumed precursor lesions such as high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (HGPIN). While there is some evidence to suggest that these lesions can be related and exist on a pathological and morphological continuum, the precise clonal and temporal relationships between precursor lesions and invasive cancers within individual tumours remain undefined. Here, we used molecular genetic, cytogenetic, and histological analyses to delineate clonal, temporal, and spatial relationships between HGPIN and cancer lesions with distinct morphological and molecular features. First, while confirming the previous finding that a substantial fraction of HGPIN lesions associated with ERG-positive cancers share rearrangements and overexpression of ERG, we found that a significant subset of such HGPIN glands exhibit only partial positivity for ERG. This suggests that such ERG-positive HGPIN cells either rapidly invade to form adenocarcinoma or represent cancer cells that have partially invaded the ductal and acinar space in a retrograde manner. To clarify these possibilities, we used ERG expression status and TMPRSS2-ERG genomic breakpoints as markers of clonality, and PTEN deletion status to track temporal evolution of clonally related lesions. We confirmed that morphologically distinct HGPIN and nearby invasive cancer lesions are clonally related. Further, we found that a significant fraction of ERG-positive, PTEN-negative HGPIN and intraductal carcinoma (IDC-P) lesions are most likely clonally derived from adjacent PTEN-negative adenocarcinomas, indicating that such PTEN-negative HGPIN and IDC-P lesions arise from, rather than give rise to, the nearby invasive adenocarcinoma. These data suggest that invasive adenocarcinoma can morphologically mimic HGPIN through retrograde colonization of benign glands with cancer cells. Similar clonal relationships were also seen for

  17. Intrinsic and extrinsic heterogeneity in the responses of parent and clonal human colon carcinoma xenografts to photon irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Leith, J.T.; Bliven, S.F.; Lee, E.S.; Glicksman, A.S.; Dexter, D.L.

    1984-09-01

    Responses to photon irradiation of xenografted human colon tumors derived from the heterogeneous DLD-1 line or its derivative A and D subpopulations were determined using excision assay and tumor regrowth delay assays. Differential responses among the three xenografted carcinomas were demonstrated. Clone A tumors treated with up to 17.5 Gy showed no actual regression below pretreatment volume. In contrast, clone D tumors were sensitive to doses as low as 3.5 Gy, and tumor volumes were reduced by 65% with a dose of 17.5 Gy. The responses of DLD-1 tumors were intermediate between the clone A and clone D tumor responses. Data indicate that the DLD-1 tumors were the most resistant, with clone A of intermediate sensitivity, clone D being the most sensitive tumor. In addition to the interclonal diversity among xenograft lines, intraclonal variation was also observed with clone A (but not clone D or DLD-1) tumors. A biphasic survival curve of cells from clone A xenografts irradiated in air-breathing hosts clearly indicated a minority (approximately 3%) subpopulation of hypoxic cells. Similar results indicating a small percentage of hypoxic cells in clone A solid tumors were obtained from the tumor regrowth delay studies. Also, excision assay data from experiments in which the heterografted carcinomas were irradiated under anoxic conditions support the interpretation that clone A tumors contain a small fraction of hypoxic cells. This study indicates that: (a) heterogeneity in vivo to ionizing radiation exists in the DLD-1 system; and (b) intraclonal variation occurs in vivo due to extrinsic (e.g., environmental hypoxia) factors, such that the intrinsic radioresistance of a subpopulation (clone A) of a heterogeneous human tumor can be further increased.

  18. Molecular evidence that invasive adenocarcinoma can mimic prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) and intraductal carcinoma through retrograde glandular colonization

    PubMed Central

    Haffner, Michael C; Weier, Christopher; Xu, Meng Meng; Vaghasia, Ajay; Gürel, Bora; Gümüşkaya, Berrak; Esopi, David M; Fedor, Helen; Tan, Hsueh-Li; Kulac, Ibrahim; Hicks, Jessica; Isaacs, William B; Lotan, Tamara L; Nelson, William G; Yegnasubramanian, Srinivasan; De Marzo, Angelo M

    2015-01-01

    Prostate cancer often manifests as morphologically distinct tumour foci and is frequently found adjacent to presumed precursor lesions such as high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (HGPIN). While there is some evidence to suggest that these lesions can be related and exist on a pathological and morphological continuum, the precise clonal and temporal relationships between precursor lesions and invasive cancers within individual tumours remain undefined. Here, we used molecular genetic, cytogenetic, and histological analyses to delineate clonal, temporal, and spatial relationships between HGPIN and cancer lesions with distinct morphological and molecular features. First, while confirming the previous finding that a substantial fraction of HGPIN lesions associated with ERG-positive cancers share rearrangements and overexpression of ERG, we found that a significant subset of such HGPIN glands exhibit only partial positivity for ERG. This suggests that such ERG-positive HGPIN cells either rapidly invade to form adenocarcinoma or represent cancer cells that have partially invaded the ductal and acinar space in a retrograde manner. To clarify these possibilities, we used ERG expression status and TMPRSS2–ERG genomic breakpoints as markers of clonality, and PTEN deletion status to track temporal evolution of clonally related lesions. We confirmed that morphologically distinct HGPIN and nearby invasive cancer lesions are clonally related. Further, we found that a significant fraction of ERG-positive, PTEN-negative HGPIN and intraductal carcinoma (IDC-P) lesions are most likely clonally derived from adjacent PTEN-negative adenocarcinomas, indicating that such PTEN-negative HGPIN and IDC-P lesions arise from, rather than give rise to, the nearby invasive adenocarcinoma. These data suggest that invasive adenocarcinoma can morphologically mimic HGPIN through retrograde colonization of benign glands with cancer cells. Similar clonal relationships were also seen for

  19. A new in vitro model of Entamoeba histolytica adhesion, using the human colon carcinoma cell line Caco-2: scanning electron microscopic study.

    PubMed Central

    Rigothier, M C; Coconnier, M H; Servin, A L; Gayral, P

    1991-01-01

    The human colon carcinoma cell line Caco-2, which is widely used to study the adhesion and cytotoxicity of enterobacteria, was used to investigate the adhesion of the trophozoites of Entamoeba histolytica. We observed a high percentage of adhesion of amoebae to Caco-2 cells. Scanning electron microscopy showed that amoebial membrane structures were involved in adhesion and the cytolytic action. These differentiated cells should prove to be a useful model system for investigation of the pathogenic action of amoebae. Images PMID:1937772

  20. Immunohistochemical expression of tenascin in normal stomach tissue, gastric carcinomas and gastric carcinoma in lymph nodes.

    PubMed Central

    Ikeda, Y.; Mori, M.; Kajiyama, K.; Haraguchi, Y.; Sasaki, O.; Sugimachi, K.

    1995-01-01

    The immunohistochemical expression of tenascin was examined in the normal adult mucosa of the stomach, primary tumours and lymph node metastases of gastric cancer patients. In normal gastric tissue tenascin was expressed in the muscularis mucosae, muscularis propria and vessel walls, however it was not expressed in either the mucosal connective tissue or the stromal tissue in the submucosal layer. In gastric cancer, tenascin was expressed in 35 of 85 primary tumours, and in 8 of 25 metastases in lymph nodes. Tenascin was located in the fibrous stroma surrounding foci of cancer. The expression of tenascin in the primary tumour did not correlate with the depth of invasion, lymph node metastasis or prognosis. Tenascin appears during the process of either malignant transformation or tumour progression in gastric cancer, and the positive expression of tenascin may be useful as a stromal marker for the early detection of gastric cancer. Images Figure 1 PMID:7541237

  1. Double ileo-ceco-colic invagination due to right colon carcinoma: clinical presentation and management.

    PubMed

    Patrizi, G; Di Rocco, G; Giannotti, D; Casella, G; Casella Mariolo, J R; Bernieri, M G; Redler, A

    2013-08-01

    Intestinal intussusceptions represent a rare cause of intestinal obstruction in adults (about 1% of intestinal obstructions). The principle causes are benign or malignant tumors. In adults, the most frequent localizations of intestinal invaginations are the ileo-cecal segment, ileum and colon as exclusive localization. We report the case of a 56 year-old Caucasian male admitted in our Department complaining with diffuse abdominal pain and severe anemia. The colonoscopy revealed a vegetant, stenosing and ulcerated mass in the hepatic flexure. The computed tomography suggested the additional diagnosis of intestinal intussusception with no evidence of intestinal obstruction. In our experience, surgery is always indicated for the treatment of intussusceptions in adults, especially for the almost constant underlying neoplasm. PMID:23893196

  2. Extramedullary plasmacytoma mimicking colon carcinoma: an unusual presentation and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Parnell, Kaela; Ahmed, Mashrafi; Smalligan, Roger D; Nadesan, Suhasini

    2015-01-01

    A 72-year-old woman presented to outpatient clinic with fatigue, light-headedness, dyspnoea and dark stool suggestive of lower gastrointestinal bleeding. She was previously diagnosed with multiple myeloma and completed 9 cycles of chemotherapy with bortezomib, lenalidomide and dexamethasone. She had very good partial response. A CT scan of the abdomen revealed a 9 cm mass at the hepatic flexure of the large intestine with an apple core deformity causing a marked narrowing of the lumen. Colonoscopy confirmed a large, nearly obstructing ulcerative mass in the distal right colon. The patient underwent a right hemicolectomy, distal ileal resection and lymph node dissection. Histopathology confirmed the mass as a plasmacytoma. Postoperatively, the patient was started with bortezomib and liposomal doxorubicin followed by carfilzomib. She showed excellent response to the chemotherapy.

  3. Pathophysiological study of diarrhoea in a patient with medullary thyroid carcinoma. Evidence against a secretory mechanism and for the role of shortened colonic transit time.

    PubMed Central

    Rambaud, J C; Jian, R; Flourié, B; Hautefeuille, M; Salmeron, M; Thuillier, F; Ruskoné, A; Florent, C; Chaoui, F; Bernier, J J

    1988-01-01

    Intubation techniques and scintigraphic studies were used to determine the origin and mechanism of diarrhoea in a patient with medullary thyroid carcinoma, high plasma immunoreactive calcitonin and normal circulating serotonin, substance P and prostaglandins E2 and F2 alpha. Normal function of the small intestine was found for the following: (a) absorption tests; (b) water and electrolyte absorption in the proximal jejunum; (c) 24 hour flow rate and composition of fluid entering the colon and (d) gastric emptying rate and small intestinal progression of a normal meal. By contrast, colonic function was markedly impaired in three ways: (a) water absorption was decreased by half; (b) as the main excreted solutes were organic acids, a large electrolyte gap was recorded in faecal water, and (c) colonic transit time of the meal marker was very short, and was in agreement with the rapid transit of ingested radioopaque markers. These data strongly suggest that decreased absorption in the colon secondary to a motor disturbance is the main mechanism of diarrhoea in this case of medullary thyroid carcinoma, while calcitonin induced small intestinal fluid secretion suggested earlier is either non-existent, or only of minor importance. PMID:3371722

  4. Sodium butyrate suppresses the transforming activity of an activated N-ras oncogene in human colon carcinoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Stoddart, J.H.; Niles, R.M. ); Lane, M.A. )

    1989-09-01

    The transforming activity of DNA from a newly established undifferentiated human colon carcinoma cell line (MIP-101) was tested in the NIH-3T3 transfection assay. Southern blot analysis of the transfectant DNA revealed the presence of a human N-ras oncogene. Here the authors report that there is a significant reduction in the transforming efficiency of the DNA from butyrate-treated MIP-101 cells. A nonspecific reduction in total DNA uptake as an explanation for these findings was eliminated by showing that there was similar uptake and expression of the thymidine kinase gene from the DNA of butyrate-treated and control MIP cells. An NIH-3T3 transformant carrying the human N-ras gene was evaluated for phenotypic reversion and DNA transforming ability after treatment with sodium butyrate. Although butyrate suppressed several transformed properties similar to MIP-101 cells, DNA from control and treated cultures had an identical level of transforming activity. The results suggest that the environment of the MIP cells may contain additional elements not present in the NIH-3T3 transformants which are required to observe the effect of butyrate on reduction of transforming activity.

  5. Cytotoxic and anti-inflammatory effects of onion peel extract on lipopolysaccharide stimulated human colon carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jungmi; Kim, Ji-Sang; Park, Eunju

    2013-12-01

    The present study investigated the cytotoxic activity of ethanol extract of onion peel (OPE) in HT-29 human colon carcinoma cells. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis was performed to determine the amounts of phenolic acids and flavonoids in OPE. In addition, the influence of OPE on antioxidant- and inflammation-associated gene expression was also determined in a model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated HT-29 cells. HPLC analysis showed that OPE contained well-known antioxidant compounds, including p-coumaric acid, vanillic acid, epicatechin, and morin. After incubation with OPE, HT-29 cells showed either a loss of normal nuclear architecture or detachability from each other. The cytotoxic effects of OPE on HT-29 cells were confirmed by MTT and LDH release assays. LPS-induced oxidative conditions effectively downregulated TNF-α mRNA expression in OPE pretreated HT-29 cells compared with cells only stimulated with LPS. In addition, the expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and glutathione S-transferase (GSTs) detoxification genes (i.e., GSTM1, GSTT1, and GSTP1) was upregulated after treatment with LPS at sublethal concentrations. However, the LPS-induced mRNA expression of HO-1 and GSTs was significantly attenuated by treatment with OPE. Therefore, onion peel extract is a promising component of future nutraceuticals and value-added products.

  6. Induction of Apoptosis of 2,4′,6-Trihydroxybenzophenone in HT-29 Colon Carcinoma Cell Line

    PubMed Central

    Lay, Ma Ma; Karsani, Saiful Anuar

    2014-01-01

    2,4′,6-Trihydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone was isolated from the ethyl acetate fraction of Phaleria macrocarpa (Scheff.) Boerl. fruits. It was found to inhibit cell proliferation in HT-29 human colon carcinoma cell line but caused little damage to WRL-68 normal human liver and MRC-5 normal human fibroblast lung cell lines. The compound was found to sharply affect the viability of HT-29 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. HT-29 cells treated with the compound showed morphological changes under microscopic examination such as cell shrinkage, membrane blebbing, DNA fragmentation, and the occurrence of apoptotic nuclei. The percentage of early apoptotic, late apoptotic, and dead or necrotic cells was determined by flow cytometry using annexin V-FTIC/PI staining. In addition, flow cytometry showed that, when the HT-29 cells were treated with 115 µM of the compound, it resulted in G0/G1 phase arrest in a time-dependent manner. Western blot revealed an upregulation of PUMA, Bak, Bcl-2, and Mcl-1 proteins suggesting that the compound induced apoptosis in HT-29 cells by regulating these proteins. PMID:24579081

  7. Cytotoxic and anti-inflammatory effects of onion peel extract on lipopolysaccharide stimulated human colon carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jungmi; Kim, Ji-Sang; Park, Eunju

    2013-12-01

    The present study investigated the cytotoxic activity of ethanol extract of onion peel (OPE) in HT-29 human colon carcinoma cells. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis was performed to determine the amounts of phenolic acids and flavonoids in OPE. In addition, the influence of OPE on antioxidant- and inflammation-associated gene expression was also determined in a model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated HT-29 cells. HPLC analysis showed that OPE contained well-known antioxidant compounds, including p-coumaric acid, vanillic acid, epicatechin, and morin. After incubation with OPE, HT-29 cells showed either a loss of normal nuclear architecture or detachability from each other. The cytotoxic effects of OPE on HT-29 cells were confirmed by MTT and LDH release assays. LPS-induced oxidative conditions effectively downregulated TNF-α mRNA expression in OPE pretreated HT-29 cells compared with cells only stimulated with LPS. In addition, the expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and glutathione S-transferase (GSTs) detoxification genes (i.e., GSTM1, GSTT1, and GSTP1) was upregulated after treatment with LPS at sublethal concentrations. However, the LPS-induced mRNA expression of HO-1 and GSTs was significantly attenuated by treatment with OPE. Therefore, onion peel extract is a promising component of future nutraceuticals and value-added products. PMID:24001438

  8. Apoptotic-like death occurs through a caspase-independent route in colon carcinoma cells undergoing mitotic catastrophe.

    PubMed

    Llovera, Laia; Mansilla, Sylvia; Portugal, José

    2012-12-29

    We have examined the relationship between chemotherapy-induced mitotic catastrophe and cell death by apoptosis in both wild-type and p53(-/-) HCT116 human colon carcinoma cells treated with nanomolar concentrations of paclitaxel (PTX), a drug that acts on tubulin altering the normal development of mitosis. After treatment, HCT116 cells entered mitosis regardless of the presence of functional p53, which resulted in changes in the distribution of cells in the different phases of the cell cycle, and in cell death. In the presence of PTX, the percentage of polyploid cells observed was higher in p53-deficient cells, indicating that mitotic slippage was favored compared to wild-type cells, with the presence of large multinucleate cells. PTX caused mitotic catastrophe and about 50-60% cells that were entering an aberrant mitosis died through an apoptotic-like pathway characterized by the presence of phosphatidylserine in the outer cell membrane, which occurred in the absence of significant activation of caspases. Lack of p53 facilitated endoreduplication and polyploidy in PTX-treated cells, but cells were still killed with similar efficacy through the same apoptotic-like mechanism in the absence of caspase activity. PMID:22885806

  9. Identification of transport pathways for citric acid cycle intermediates in the human colon carcinoma cell line, Caco-2.

    PubMed

    Weerachayaphorn, Jittima; Pajor, Ana M

    2008-04-01

    Citric acid cycle intermediates are absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract through carrier-mediated mechanisms, although the transport pathways have not been clearly identified. This study examines the transport of citric acid cycle intermediates in the Caco-2 human colon carcinoma cell line, often used as a model of small intestine. Inulin was used as an extracellular volume marker instead of mannitol since the apparent volume measured with mannitol changed with time. The results show that Caco-2 cells contain at least three distinct transporters, including the Na+-dependent di- and tricarboxylate transporters, NaDC1 and NaCT, and one or more sodium-independent pathways, possibly involving organic anion transporters. Succinate transport is mediated mostly by Na+-dependent pathways, predominantly by NaDC1, but with some contribution by NaCT. RT-PCR and functional characteristics verified the expression of these transporters in Caco-2 cells. In contrast, citrate transport in Caco-2 cells occurs by a combination of Na+-independent pathways, possibly mediated by an organic anion transporter, and Na+-dependent mechanisms. The non-metabolizable dicarboxylate, methylsuccinate, is also transported by a combination of Na+-dependent and -independent pathways. In conclusion, we find that multiple pathways are involved in the transport of di- and tricarboxylates by Caco-2 cells. Since many of these pathways are not found in human intestine, this model may be best suited for studying Na+-dependent transport of succinate by NaDC1.

  10. Proliferation rate but not mismatch repair affects the long-term response of colon carcinoma cells to 5FU treatment.

    PubMed

    Choudhary, B; Hanski, M L; Zeitz, M; Hanski, C

    2012-07-01

    The role of mismatch repair (MMR) in the response of colon carcinoma cells to 5-fluorouracil (5FU) is not well understood. In most of the in vitro studies only short-term response was investigated. We focussed here on the influence of MMR status on the mechanism of the short- and long-term response to clinically relevant 5FU concentrations by using isogenic or semiisogenic cell line pairs expressing/nonexpressing the hMLH1 protein, an important component of the MMR system. We show that the lower survival of MMR-proficient than of MMR-deficient cells in the clonogenic survival assay is due to a more frequent early cell arrest and to subsequent senescence. By contrast, the long-term cell growth after treatment, which is also affected by long-term arrest and senescence, is independent from the MMR status. The overall effect on the long-term cell growth is a cumulative result of cell proliferation rate-dependent growth inhibition, apoptosis and necrotic cell death. The main long-term cytotoxic effect of 5FU is the inhibition of growth while apoptosis and the necrotic cell death are minor contributions.

  11. Adjuvant chemotherapy for colon carcinoma with positive lymph nodes: use and benefit in routine health care practice.

    PubMed

    Bouchardy, C; Queneau, P E; Fioretta, G; Usel, M; Zellweger, M; Neyroud, I; Raymond, L; de Wolf, C; Sappino, A P

    2001-11-01

    In 1990, an international consensus was reached on the efficacy of adjuvant chemotherapy for lymph node positive (stage III) colon carcinoma (CC). This study evaluates the use and benefit of such therapy in routine health care practice. The study includes all patients with stage III CC treated by putative curative surgery (n = 182) recorded at the Geneva cancer registry between 1990 and 1996. Factors modifying chemotherapy use were determined by logistic regression, considering patients with chemotherapy as cases (n = 55) and others as controls (n = 127). The effect of chemotherapy on the 5-year survival was evaluated by the Cox model. Analyses were adjusted for possible confounders. The use of chemotherapy increased over the period (P(trend) < 0.001). Age strongly modulated chemotherapy use. In 1996, 54% of eligible patients received chemotherapy, this proportion fell to 13% after age 70. Decisions to use chemotherapy significantly depended on stage, grade and cancer site. The chance to be treated was non-significantly lower among individuals of low social class, widowed and foreigners. Chemotherapy significantly decreased mortality rates (Hazard ratio: 0.35, 95%CI: 0.18-0.68), independently of the prognostic factors and with similar benefit regardless of stage and age group. Strong beneficial effect of adjuvant chemotherapy on stage III CC can be achieved in routine practice. However, this study shows that it is probably not optimally utilised in Switzerland, particularly among the elderly.

  12. Adjuvant chemotherapy for colon carcinoma with positive lymph nodes: use and benefit in routine health care practice

    PubMed Central

    Bouchardy, C; Queneau, P-E; Fioretta, G; Usel, M; Zellweger, M; Neyroud, I; Raymond, L; Wolf, C de; Sappino, A P

    2001-01-01

    In 1990, an international consensus was reached on the efficacy of adjuvant chemotherapy for lymph node positive (stage III) colon carcinoma (CC). This study evaluates the use and benefit of such therapy in routine health care practice. The study includes all patients with stage III CC treated by putative curative surgery (n= 182) recorded at the Geneva cancer registry between 1990 and 1996. Factors modifying chemotherapy use were determined by logistic regression, considering patients with chemotherapy as cases (n= 55) and others as controls (n= 127). The effect of chemotherapy on the 5-year survival was evaluated by the Cox model. Analyses were adjusted for possible confounders. The use of chemotherapy increased over the period (Ptrend < 0.001). Age strongly modulated chemotherapy use. In 1996, 54% of eligible patients received chemotherapy, this proportion fell to 13% after age 70. Decisions to use chemotherapy significantly depended on stage, grade and cancer site. The chance to be treated was non-significantly lower among individuals of low social class, widowed and foreigners. Chemotherapy significantly decreased mortality rates (Hazard ratio: 0.35, 95%CI: 0.18–0.68), independently of the prognostic factors and with similar benefit regardless of stage and age group. Strong beneficial effect of adjuvant chemotherapy on stage III CC can be achieved in routine practice. However, this study shows that it is probably not optimally utilised in Switzerland, particularly among the elderly. © 2001 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:11720457

  13. Lack of evidence for low-LET radiation induced bystander response in normal human fibroblasts and colon carcinoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Marianne B. Sowa; Wilfried Goetz; Janet E. Baulch; Dinah N. Pyles; Jaroslaw Dziegielewski; Susannah Yovino; Andrew R. Snyder; Sonia M. de Toledo; Edouard I. Azzam; William F. Morgan

    2008-06-30

    Purpose: To investigate radiation induced bystander responses and to determine the role of gap junction intercellular communication and the radiation environment in propagating this response. Materials and Methods: We use medium transfer and targeted irradiation to examine radiation induced bystander effects in primary human fibroblast (AG1522) and human colon carcinoma (RKO36) cells. We examined the effect of variables such as gap junction intercellular communication, linear energy transfer (LET), and the role of the radiation environment in non-targeted responses. Endpoints included clonogenic survival, micronucleus formation and foci formation at histone 2AX over doses ranging from 10 to 100 cGy. Results: The results show no evidence of a low-LET radiation induced bystander response for the endpoints of clonogenic survival and induction of DNA damage. Nor do we see evidence of a high-LET, Fe ion radiation (1 GeV/n) induced bystander effect. However, direct comparison for 3.2 MeV α-particle exposures showed a statistically significant medium transfer bystander effect for this high-LET radiation. Conclusions: From our results, it is evident that there are many confounding factors influencing bystander responses as reported in the literature. Our observations reflect the inherent variability in biological systems and the difficulties in extrapolating from in vitro models to radiation risks in humans.

  14. Poorly differentiated medullary carcinoma of the colon with an unusual phenotypic profile mimicking high grade large cell lymphoma – a unique case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Johnny; Coppola, Domenico; Shan, Yuan; Zhang, Ling

    2014-01-01

    Medullary carcinoma (MC) of the colon and rectum is a rare entity, accounting for less than 0.1% of colonic adenocarcinoma that poses a diagnostic challenge for the practicing pathologist. Poorly differentiated or undifferentiated MC with an unusual histological appearance and immunoprofile in addition to heavy lymphoid infiltrate could make it problematic when differentiating it from a high grade lymphoma, in particular anaplastic large B- or T-cell lymphoma, plasmablastic lymphoma, and other undifferentiated neoplasms. Here we reported a unique case of an 81 y/o woman presenting with a 7.0 cm colon mass detected by computed tomography (CT) scan. A partial transverse and ileum resection with appendectomy were performed. Microscopic examination revealed sheets of large, pleomorphic, mitotically-active cells with abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm and multiple prominent nucleoli, growing with a pushing border and poor glandular formation in a background of intratumoral lymphocytes. The neoplastic cells were only focally positive for keratins (<10%); diffusely and strongly positive for vimentin and CD10 with high proliferative index (Ki-67, 90%). The tumor cells were also aberrantly positive for CD30, CD79a and CD43 (diffusely or focally), resulting in a diagnostic dilemma between colonic MC and high grade lymphoma. Careful examination and additional immunohistochemical stains performed proved there was no evidence of T or B-cell lymphoma, melanoma, or other types of primary colon or metastatic carcinomas. This case highlights the difficulty in distinguishing a high grade lymphoma and poorly differentiated colonic MC, and, also the aberrant expression of CD10 and a significant loss of pancytokeratin could result in a diagnostic pitfall. PMID:24551312

  15. Biomarker-based ovarian carcinoma typing: a histological investigation in the Ovarian Tumor Tissue Analysis consortium

    PubMed Central

    Köbel, Martin; Kalloger, Steve E.; Lee, Sandra; Duggan, Máire A.; Kelemen, Linda E.; Prentice, Leah; Kalli, Kimberly R.; Fridley, Brooke L.; Visscher, Daniel W.; Keeney, Gary L.; Vierkant, Robert A.; Cunningham, Julie M.; Chow, Christine; Ness, Roberta B.; Moysich, Kirsten; Edwards, Robert; Modugno, Francesmary; Bunker, Clareann; Wozniak, Eva L.; Benjamin, Elizabeth; Gayther, Simon A.; Gentry-Maharaj, Aleksandra; Menon, Usha; Gilks, C. Blake; Huntsman, David G.; Ramus, Susan J.; Goode, Ellen L.

    2014-01-01

    Background Ovarian carcinoma is composed of five major histological types which associate with outcome and predict therapeutic response. Our aim was to evaluate histological type assessments across centres participating in the Ovarian Tumor Tissue Analysis (OTTA) consortium using an immunohistochemical (IHC) prediction model. Methods Tissue microarrays (TMAs) and clinical data were available for 524 pathologically confirmed ovarian carcinomas. Centralized IHC was performed for ARID1A, CDKN2A, DKK1, HNF1B, MDM2, PGR, TP53, TFF3, VIM, and WT1, and three histological type assessments were compared: the original pathologic type, an IHC-based calculated type (termed TB_COSPv2), and a WT1-assisted TMA core review. Results The concordance between TB_COSPv2 type and original type was 73%. Applying WT1-assisted core review, the remaining 27% discordant cases subdivided into unclassifiable (6%), TB_COSPv2 error (6%), and original type error (15%). The largest discordant subgroup was classified as endometrioid carcinoma (EC) by original type and as high-grade serous carcinoma (HGSC) by TB_COSPv2. When TB_COSPv2 classification was used, the difference in overall survival of EC compared to HGSC became significant (RR 0.60, 95% CI 0.37–0.93, p=0.021), consistent with previous reports. In addition, 71 cases with unclear original type could be histologically classified by TB_COSPv2. Conclusions Research cohorts, particularly those across different centres within consortia, show significant variability in original histological type diagnosis. Our IHC-based reclassification produced more homogeneous types with respect to outcome than original type. Impact Biomarker-based classification of ovarian carcinomas is feasible, improves comparability of results across research studies, and can reclassify cases which lack reliable original pathology. PMID:23880734

  16. Fluorescence lifetime spectroscopy of tissue autofluorescence in normal and diseased colon measured ex vivo using a fiber-optic probe

    PubMed Central

    Coda, Sergio; Thompson, Alex J.; Kennedy, Gordon T.; Roche, Kim L.; Ayaru, Lakshmana; Bansi, Devinder S.; Stamp, Gordon W.; Thillainayagam, Andrew V.; French, Paul M. W.; Dunsby, Chris

    2014-01-01

    We present an ex vivo study of temporally and spectrally resolved autofluorescence in a total of 47 endoscopic excision biopsy/resection specimens from colon, using pulsed excitation laser sources operating at wavelengths of 375 nm and 435 nm. A paired analysis of normal and neoplastic (adenomatous polyp) tissue specimens obtained from the same patient yielded a significant difference in the mean spectrally averaged autofluorescence lifetime −570 ± 740 ps (p = 0.021, n = 12). We also investigated the fluorescence signature of non-neoplastic polyps (n = 6) and inflammatory bowel disease (n = 4) compared to normal tissue in a small number of specimens. PMID:24575345

  17. Tissue resonance interaction accurately detects colon lesions: A double-blind pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Dore, Maria P; Tufano, Marcello O; Pes, Giovanni M; Cuccu, Marianna; Farina, Valentina; Manca, Alessandra; Graham, David Y

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigated the performance of the tissue resonance interaction method (TRIM) for the non-invasive detection of colon lesions. METHODS: We performed a prospective single-center blinded pilot study of consecutive adults undergoing colonoscopy at the University Hospital in Sassari, Italy. Before patients underwent colonoscopy, they were examined by the TRIMprobe which detects differences in electromagnetic properties between pathological and normal tissues. All patients had completed the polyethylene glycol-containing bowel prep for the colonoscopy procedure before being screened. During the procedure the subjects remained fully dressed. A hand-held probe was moved over the abdomen and variations in electromagnetic signals were recorded for 3 spectral lines (462-465 MHz, 930 MHz, and 1395 MHz). A single investigator, blind to any clinical information, performed the test using the TRIMprob system. Abnormal signals were identified and recorded as malignant or benign (adenoma or hyperplastic polyps). Findings were compared with those from colonoscopy with histologic confirmation. Statistical analysis was performed by χ2 test. RESULTS: A total of 305 consecutive patients fulfilling the inclusion criteria were enrolled over a period of 12 months. The most frequent indication for colonoscopy was abdominal pain (33%). The TRIMprob was well accepted by all patients; none spontaneously complained about the procedure, and no adverse effects were observed. TRIM proved inaccurate for polyp detection in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and they were excluded leaving 281 subjects (mean age 59 ± 13 years; 107 males). The TRIM detected and accurately characterized all 12 adenocarcinomas and 135/137 polyps (98.5%) including 64 adenomatous (100%) found. The method identified cancers and polyps with 98.7% sensitivity, 96.2% specificity, and 97.5% diagnostic accuracy, compared to colonoscopy and histology analyses. The positive predictive value was 96.7% and the

  18. Microsatellite instable vs stable colon carcinomas: analysis of tumour heterogeneity, inflammation and angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    De Smedt, L; Lemahieu, J; Palmans, S; Govaere, O; Tousseyn, T; Van Cutsem, E; Prenen, H; Tejpar, S; Spaepen, M; Matthijs, G; Decaestecker, C; Moles Lopez, X; Demetter, P; Salmon, I; Sagaert, X

    2015-01-01

    Background: Microsatellite instability (MSI) accounts for 15% of all colorectal tumours. Several specific clinicopathologicals (e.g., preference for the proximal colon over the distal colon, improved prognosis and altered response to chemotherapeutics) are described for this subset of tumours. This study aimed to analyse morphological, inflammatory and angiogenic features of MSI vs microsatellite stable (MSS) tumours. Methods: Twenty-seven MSS and 29 MSI, TNM stage matched, colorectal tumours were selected from the archive of the Department of Pathology, UZ Leuven. Morphology was analysed on haematoxylin–eosin sections. Immunohistochemistry for CD3, CD4, CD8, CD20 and CD68 was used to map tumour infiltration in both a digital and traditional microscope-based manner for all distinct morphological components of the tumour. CD31 immunostains were performed to assess angiogenesis. Results: Morphological tumour heterogeneity was a marked feature of MSI tumours, occurring in 53% of the cases as compared with 11% of the MSS tumours (P<0.001). Digital immune quantification showed an increased number of tumour-infiltrating cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CD8+) in MSI compared with MSS tumours for both the tumour (P=0.02) and peritumoural area (P=0.03). Traditional microscope-based quantification confirmed these results (P<0.001 for both) and, in addition, revealed large numbers of CD68+ macrophages in the peritumoural area of MSI cancers (P=0.001). Moreover, traditional microscope-based analysis was able to distinguish between lymphocytes directly infiltrating the tumoural glands (intra-epithelial) and those infiltrating only the neoplastic stroma around the glands (intratumoural). Quantification showed high numbers of intra-epithelial CD3+, CD4+, CD8+, CD20+ and CD68+ cells in MSI compared with MSS cancers (P<0.001, P=0.01, P<0.001, P<0.001 and P=0.006, respectively). Higher microvessel density (MVD) was observed in MSI tumours compared with their MSS counterpart. Conclusions

  19. Colorectal carcinoma: Importance of colonic environment for anti-cancer response and systemic immunity.

    PubMed

    Vannucci, Luca; Stepankova, Renata; Grobarova, Valeria; Kozakova, Hana; Rossmann, Pavel; Klimesova, Klara; Benson, Veronika; Sima, Petr; Fiserova, Anna; Tlaskalova-Hogenova, Helena

    2009-12-01

    The intestinal environment is considered to play an important role both in colorectal tumor development and in the evolution and modulation of mucosal immunity. Studies in animals reared in germ-free (GF, without any intestinal microflora) versus conventional (CV, with regular microflora in bowel) conditions can aid in clarifying the influence of bacteria on carcinogenesis and anti-cancer immune responses in situ. The lower incidence of colon cancers and better immunological parameters in GF animals versus CV ones after chemically-induced carcinogenesis raises questions about specific characteristics of the immunological networks in each respective condition. Different levels of tolerance/regulatory mechanisms in the GF versus CV animals may influence the development of immune responses not only at the level of mucosal, but also at the systemic, immunity. We hypothesize that GF animals can better recognize and respond to evolving neoplasias in the bowel as a consequence of their less-tolerogenic immunity (i.e., due to their more limited exposure to antigens to become tolerated against at the intestinal level). In this paper, we review the role of bacteria in modulating gut environment and mucosal immunity, their importance in cancer development, and aspects of immune regulation (both at local and systemic level) that can be modified by bacterial microflora. Lastly, the use of GF animals in comparison with conventionally-raised animals is proposed as a suitable and potent model for understanding the inflammatory network and its effect on cancer immunity especially during colorectal cancer development.

  20. Magnesium homeostasis in colon carcinoma LoVo cells sensitive or resistant to doxorubicin.

    PubMed

    Castiglioni, Sara; Cazzaniga, Alessandra; Trapani, Valentina; Cappadone, Concettina; Farruggia, Giovanna; Merolle, Lucia; Wolf, Federica I; Iotti, Stefano; Maier, Jeanette A M

    2015-11-13

    Neoplastic cells accumulate magnesium, an event which provides selective advantages and is frequently associated with TRPM7 overexpression. Little is known about magnesium homeostasis in drug-resistant cancer cells. Therefore, we used the colon cancer LoVo cell model and compared doxorubicin-resistant to sensitive cells. In resistant cells the concentration of total magnesium is higher while its influx capacity is lower than in sensitive cells. Accordingly, resistant cells express lower amounts of the TRPM6 and 7, both involved in magnesium transport. While decreased TRPM6 levels are due to transcriptional regulation, post-transcriptional events are involved in reducing the amounts of TRPM7. Indeed, the calpain inhibitor calpeptin markedly increases the levels of TRPM7 in resistant cells. In doxorubicin-sensitive cells, silencing TRPM7 shifts the phenotype to one more similar to resistant cells, since in these cells silencing TRPM7 significantly decreases the influx of magnesium, increases its intracellular concentration and increases resistance to doxorubicin. On the other hand, calpain inhibition upregulates TRPM7, decreases intracellular magnesium and enhances the sensitivity to doxorubicin of resistant LoVo cells. We conclude that in LoVo cells drug resistance is associated with alteration of magnesium homeostasis through modulation of TRPM7. Our data suggest that TRPM7 expression may be an additional undisclosed player in chemoresistance.

  1. Magnesium homeostasis in colon carcinoma LoVo cells sensitive or resistant to doxorubicin

    PubMed Central

    Castiglioni, Sara; Cazzaniga, Alessandra; Trapani, Valentina; Cappadone, Concettina; Farruggia, Giovanna; Merolle, Lucia; Wolf, Federica I.; Iotti, Stefano; Maier, Jeanette A M

    2015-01-01

    Neoplastic cells accumulate magnesium, an event which provides selective advantages and is frequently associated with TRPM7overexpression. Little is known about magnesium homeostasis in drug-resistant cancer cells. Therefore, we used the colon cancer LoVo cell model and compared doxorubicin-resistant to sensitive cells. In resistant cells the concentration of total magnesium is higher while its influx capacity is lower than in sensitive cells. Accordingly, resistant cells express lower amounts of the TRPM6 and 7, both involved in magnesium transport. While decreased TRPM6 levels are due to transcriptional regulation, post-transcriptional events are involved in reducing the amounts of TRPM7. Indeed, the calpain inhibitor calpeptin markedly increases the levels of TRPM7 in resistant cells. In doxorubicin-sensitive cells, silencing TRPM7 shifts the phenotype to one more similar to resistant cells, since in these cells silencing TRPM7 significantly decreases the influx of magnesium, increases its intracellular concentration and increases resistance to doxorubicin. On the other hand, calpain inhibition upregulates TRPM7, decreases intracellular magnesium and enhances the sensitivity to doxorubicin of resistant LoVo cells. We conclude that in LoVo cells drug resistance is associated with alteration of magnesium homeostasis through modulation of TRPM7. Our data suggest that TRPM7 expression may be an additional undisclosed player in chemoresistance. PMID:26563869

  2. Metagenomic Analysis of Microbiome in Colon Tissue from Subjects with Inflammatory Bowel Diseases Reveals Interplay of Viruses and Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Weiwei; Jovel, Juan; Halloran, Brendan; Wine, Eytan; Patterson, Jordan; Ford, Glenn; O'Keefe, Sandra; Meng, Bo; Song, Deyong; Zhang, Yong; Tian, Zhijian; Wasilenko, Shawn T.; Rahbari, Mandana; Reza, Salman; Mitchell, Troy; Jordan, Tracy; Carpenter, Eric; Madsen, Karen; Fedorak, Richard; Dielemann, Levinus A.; Ka-Shu Wong, Gane

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, are poorly understood disorders affecting the intestinal tract. The current model for disease suggests that genetically susceptible patients develop intolerance to gut microflora, and chronic inflammation develops as a result of environmental insults. Although interest has mainly focused on studying genetic variants and gut bacterial flora, little is known about the potential of viral infection to contribute to disease. Accordingly, we conducted a metagenomic analysis to document the baseline virome in colonic biopsy samples from patients with IBD in order to assess the contribution of viral infection to IBD. Libraries were generated from colon RNA to create approximately 2 GB sequence data per library. Using a bioinformatic pipeline designed to detect viral sequences, more than 1000 viral reads were derived directly from tissue without any coculture or isolation procedure. Herein, we describe the complexity and abundance of viruses, bacteria/bacteriophage, and human endogenous retroviral sequences from 10 patients with IBD and 5 healthy subjects undergoing surveillance colonoscopy. Differences in gut microflora and the abundance of mammalian viruses and human endogenous retroviruses were readily detected in the metagenomic analyses. Specifically, patients with herpesviridae sequences in their colon demonstrated increased expression of human endogenous viral sequences and differences in the diversity of their microbiome. This study provides a promising metagenomic approach to describe the colonic microbiome that can be used to better understand virus–host and phage–bacteria interactions in IBD. PMID:25939040

  3. Metagenomic analysis of microbiome in colon tissue from subjects with inflammatory bowel diseases reveals interplay of viruses and bacteria.

    PubMed

    Wang, Weiwei; Jovel, Juan; Halloran, Brendan; Wine, Eytan; Patterson, Jordan; Ford, Glenn; OʼKeefe, Sandra; Meng, Bo; Song, Deyong; Zhang, Yong; Tian, Zhijian; Wasilenko, Shawn T; Rahbari, Mandana; Reza, Salman; Mitchell, Troy; Jordan, Tracy; Carpenter, Eric; Madsen, Karen; Fedorak, Richard; Dielemann, Levinus A; Ka-Shu Wong, Gane; Mason, Andrew L

    2015-06-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, are poorly understood disorders affecting the intestinal tract. The current model for disease suggests that genetically susceptible patients develop intolerance to gut microflora, and chronic inflammation develops as a result of environmental insults. Although interest has mainly focused on studying genetic variants and gut bacterial flora, little is known about the potential of viral infection to contribute to disease. Accordingly, we conducted a metagenomic analysis to document the baseline virome in colonic biopsy samples from patients with IBD in order to assess the contribution of viral infection to IBD. Libraries were generated from colon RNA to create approximately 2 GB sequence data per library. Using a bioinformatic pipeline designed to detect viral sequences, more than 1000 viral reads were derived directly from tissue without any coculture or isolation procedure. Herein, we describe the complexity and abundance of viruses, bacteria/bacteriophage, and human endogenous retroviral sequences from 10 patients with IBD and 5 healthy subjects undergoing surveillance colonoscopy. Differences in gut microflora and the abundance of mammalian viruses and human endogenous retroviruses were readily detected in the metagenomic analyses. Specifically, patients with herpesviridae sequences in their colon demonstrated increased expression of human endogenous viral sequences and differences in the diversity of their microbiome. This study provides a promising metagenomic approach to describe the colonic microbiome that can be used to better understand virus-host and phage-bacteria interactions in IBD.

  4. Autonomous Inhibition of Apoptosis Correlates with Responsiveness of Colon Carcinoma Cell Lines to Ciglitazone

    PubMed Central

    Baron, David M.; Kaindl, Ulrike; Haudek-Prinz, Verena J.; Bayer, Editha; Röhrl, Clemens

    2014-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is a leading cause of mortality worldwide. Resistance to therapy is common and often results in patients succumbing to the disease. The mechanisms of resistance are poorly understood. Cells basically have two possibilities to survive a treatment with potentially apoptosis-inducing substances. They can make use of their existing proteins to counteract the induced reactions or quickly upregulate protective factors to evade the apoptotic signal. To identify protein patterns involved in resistance to apoptosis, we studied two colorectal adenocarcinoma cell lines with different growth responses to low-molar concentrations of the thiazolidinedione Ciglitazone: HT29 cells underwent apoptosis, whereas SW480 cells increased cell number. Fluorescence detection and autoradiography scans of 2D-PAGE gels were performed in both cell lines to assess protein synthesis and turnover, respectively. To verify the data we performed shotgun analysis using the same treatment procedure as in 2D-experiments. Biological functions of the identified proteins were mainly associated with apoptosis regulation, chaperoning, intrinsic inflammation, and DNA repair. The present study suggests that different growth response of two colorectal carcinoma cell lines after treatment with Ciglitazone results from cell-specific protein synthesis and differences in protein regulation. PMID:25502518

  5. Hemorrhoids, anal fissure, and carcinoma of the colon, rectum, and anus during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Medich, D S; Fazio, V W

    1995-02-01

    The pregnant patient afflicted with a variety of colorectal conditions merits special consideration for reasons related to the safety and timeliness of operation while preserving fetal viability and fertility. The literature is scanty with respect to hemorrhoids, fissures, and colorectal and anal carcinoma. Therefore, the patient has to have a forthright discussion with her physician(s) about the pros and cons of operative and nonoperative approaches, which can result in either therapeutic abortion and timely surgery versus preserving the fetus and taking on the unknown factor of whether delay in treatment will cause an adverse outcome. This underscores the need for a frank discussion with the patient with regard to anticipated outcomes. In benign conditions, there is more latitude to adopt a conservative approach, as the patient's ability to tolerate the symptoms of her condition would dictate the need for definitive operative therapy. In the patient with malignancy, delaying surgical or radiation therapy carries an unknown risk to the patient. Here, the patient's personal views regarding abortion and future fertility dictate the timing of definitive treatment.

  6. Hemorrhoids, anal fissure, and carcinoma of the colon, rectum, and anus during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Medich, D S; Fazio, V W

    1995-02-01

    The pregnant patient afflicted with a variety of colorectal conditions merits special consideration for reasons related to the safety and timeliness of operation while preserving fetal viability and fertility. The literature is scanty with respect to hemorrhoids, fissures, and colorectal and anal carcinoma. Therefore, the patient has to have a forthright discussion with her physician(s) about the pros and cons of operative and nonoperative approaches, which can result in either therapeutic abortion and timely surgery versus preserving the fetus and taking on the unknown factor of whether delay in treatment will cause an adverse outcome. This underscores the need for a frank discussion with the patient with regard to anticipated outcomes. In benign conditions, there is more latitude to adopt a conservative approach, as the patient's ability to tolerate the symptoms of her condition would dictate the need for definitive operative therapy. In the patient with malignancy, delaying surgical or radiation therapy carries an unknown risk to the patient. Here, the patient's personal views regarding abortion and future fertility dictate the timing of definitive treatment. PMID:7855720

  7. Extremely rare presentation of soft tissue metastasis from carcinoma breast as a massive swelling of upper extremity.

    PubMed

    Purkayastha, Abhishek; Sharma, Neelam

    2016-04-01

    Soft tissue metastasis from any primary malignancy is considered very rare and a breast carcinoma metastasizing to soft tissue is still rarer. To the best of our knowledge, carcinoma breast with soft tissue metastasis to upper extremity is very uncommon with only six cases been reported in world literature till date and our case is the seventh such case in an 80-year-old female, previously treated for carcinoma right breast 15 years ago. The patient presented with progressive painful massive swelling of right upper arm measuring 21 cm × 17 cm, of 2 months duration. Histopathological examination of the swelling showed metastatic deposits from a poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma. Further immunohistochemical (IHC) analysis revealed tumor cells staining positive for estrogen and progesterone receptors while negative for HER 2-Nu, desmin, epithelial membrane antigen, CK7 and thyroid transcription factor-1 (TTF-1), suggestive of metastasis from a primary breast carcinoma. Only few case series and isolated cases reports have been published regarding any primary malignancy or breast carcinoma metastasizing to soft tissues. A thorough review of literature also reveals that our case is the largest soft tissue metastatic swelling from breast carcinoma ever reported. We hereby present this case with review of literature to highlight its extreme rarity, unusual presentation, clinicopathological characteristics and its overall prognosis.

  8. Loss of UDP-GalNAc:polypeptide N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase 3 and reduced O-glycosylation in colon carcinoma cells selected for hepatic metastasis.

    PubMed

    Kato, Kentaro; Takeuchi, Hideyuki; Kanoh, Akira; Miyahara, Naoki; Nemoto-Sasaki, Yoko; Morimoto-Tomita, Megumi; Matsubara, Azusa; Ohashi, Yoshimi; Waki, Michihiko; Usami, Katsuaki; Mandel, Ulla; Clausen, Henrik; Higashi, Nobuaki; Irimura, Tatsuro

    2010-02-01

    O-glycosylation of mucin is initiated by the attachment of N-acetyl-D-galactosamine (GalNAc) to serine or threonine residues in mucin core polypeptides by UDPGalNAc:polypeptide N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferases (ppGalNAc-Ts). It is not well understood how GalNAc attachment is regulated by multiple ppGalNAc-Ts in each cell. In the present study, the expression levels of murine ppGalNAc-Ts (mGalNAc-Ts), T1, T2, T3, T4, T6, and T7 were compared between mouse colon carcinoma colon 38 cells and variant SL4 cells, selected for their metastatic potentials, by using the competitive RT-PCR method. The expression levels of mGalNAc-T1, T2, and T7 were slightly higher in the SL4 cells than in the colon 38 cells, whereas the expression level of mGalNAc-T3 in the SL4 cells was 1.5% of that in the colon 38 cells. Products of enzymatic incorporations of GalNAc residues into FITCPTTTPITTTTK peptide by the use of microsome fractions of these cells as the enzyme source were separated and characterized for the number of attached GalNAc residues and their positions. The maximum number of attached GalNAc residues was 6 and 4 when the microsome fractions of the colon 38 cells and SL4 cells were used, respectively. When the microsome fractions of the colon 38 cells were treated with a polyclonal antibody raised against mGalNAc-T3, the maximum number of incorporated GalNAc residues was 4. These results strongly suggest that mGalNAc-T3 in colon 38 cells is involved in additional transfer of GalNAc residues to this peptide.

  9. Tissue spray ionization mass spectrometry for rapid recognition of human lung squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Yiping; Chen, Liru; Zhou, Wei; Chingin, Konstantin; Ouyang, Yongzhong; Zhu, Tenggao; Wen, Hua; Ding, Jianhua; Xu, Jianjun; Chen, Huanwen

    2015-01-01

    Tissue spray ionization mass spectrometry (TSI-MS) directly on small tissue samples has been shown to provide highly specific molecular information. In this study, we apply this method to the analysis of 38 pairs of human lung squamous cell carcinoma tissue (cancer) and adjacent normal lung tissue (normal). The main components of pulmonary surfactants, dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine (DPPC, m/z 757.47), phosphatidylcholine (POPC, m/z 782.52), oleoyl phosphatidylcholine (DOPC, m/z 808.49), and arachidonic acid stearoyl phosphatidylcholine (SAPC, m/z 832.43), were identified using high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry. Monte Carlo sampling partial least squares linear discriminant analysis (PLS-LDA) was used to distinguish full-mass-range mass spectra of cancer samples from the mass spectra of normal tissues. With 5 principal components and 30 – 40 Monte Carlo samplings, the accuracy of cancer identification in matched tissue samples reached 94.42%. Classification of a tissue sample required less than 1 min, which is much faster than the analysis of frozen sections. The rapid, in situ diagnosis with minimal sample consumption provided by TSI-MS is advantageous for surgeons. TSI-MS allows them to make more informed decisions during surgery. PMID:25961911

  10. Pharmacokinetic studies of mouse monoclonal antibodies to a rat colon carcinoma: I. Comparison of biodistribution in normal rats, syngeneic tumor-bearing rats, or tumor-bearing nude mice

    SciTech Connect

    Laborda, J.; Douillard, J.Y.; Burg, C.; Lizzio, E.F.; Ridge, J.; Levenbook, I.; Hoffman, T. )

    1990-06-01

    The pharmacokinetics of two iodine-131-({sup 131}I) labeled murine anti-rat colon carcinoma monoclonal antibodies (D3 and E4) were compared in normal Sprague Dawley rats, syngeneic BDIX rats, or nude mice bearing that tumor. Results of antibody uptake after i.v. administration were analyzed in terms of accumulation and localization indices for normal tissues and tumor. Statistically significant differences between rat and mouse tissue biodistribution were found. D3, which reacts in vitro with the tumor and several normal rat tissues, cleared quickly from the blood of rats and was specifically targeted to several normal tissues, notably the lung. Virtually no targeting to the tumor was observed. Nude mice, however, showed a slower blood clearance and specific antibody targeting only in the tumor. Similar results were seen after injection of another antibody, E4, which is tumor-specific in vitro. Data suggest that studies on the xenogeneic nude mouse model may not necessarily be relevant to the choice of monoclonal antibodies for clinical diagnostic imaging or therapy.

  11. Evaluating the effect of four extracts of avocado fruit on esophageal squamous carcinoma and colon adenocarcinoma cell lines in comparison with peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

    PubMed

    Vahedi Larijani, Laleh; Ghasemi, Maryam; AbedianKenari, Saeid; Naghshvar, Farshad

    2014-01-01

    Most patients with gastrointestinal cancers refer to the health centers at advanced stages of the disease and conventional treatments are not significantly effective for these patients. Therefore, using modern therapeutic approaches with lower toxicity bring higher chance for successful treatment and reduced adverse effects in such patients. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of avocado fruit extracts on inhibition of the growth of cancer cells in comparison with normal cells. In an experimental study, ethanol, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and petroleum extracts of avocado (Persea americana) fruit were prepared. Then, the effects if the extracts on the growth of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and colon adenocarcinoma cell lines were evaluated in comparison with the control group using the MTT test in the cell culture medium. Effects of the four extracts of avocado fruit on three cells lines of peripheral blood mononuclear cells, esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, and colon adenocarcinoma were tested. The results showed that avocado fruit extract is effective in inhibition of cancer cell growth in comparison with normal cells (P<0.05). Avocado fruit is rich in phytochemicals, which play an important role in inhibition of growth of cancer cells. The current study for the first time demonstrates the anti-cancer effect of avocado fruit extracts on two cancers common in Iran. Therefore, it is suggested that the fruit extracts can be considered as appropriate complementary treatments in treatment of esophageal and colon cancers. PMID:24901722

  12. Evaluating the effect of four extracts of avocado fruit on esophageal squamous carcinoma and colon adenocarcinoma cell lines in comparison with peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

    PubMed

    Vahedi Larijani, Laleh; Ghasemi, Maryam; AbedianKenari, Saeid; Naghshvar, Farshad

    2014-01-01

    Most patients with gastrointestinal cancers refer to the health centers at advanced stages of the disease and conventional treatments are not significantly effective for these patients. Therefore, using modern therapeutic approaches with lower toxicity bring higher chance for successful treatment and reduced adverse effects in such patients. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of avocado fruit extracts on inhibition of the growth of cancer cells in comparison with normal cells. In an experimental study, ethanol, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and petroleum extracts of avocado (Persea americana) fruit were prepared. Then, the effects if the extracts on the growth of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and colon adenocarcinoma cell lines were evaluated in comparison with the control group using the MTT test in the cell culture medium. Effects of the four extracts of avocado fruit on three cells lines of peripheral blood mononuclear cells, esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, and colon adenocarcinoma were tested. The results showed that avocado fruit extract is effective in inhibition of cancer cell growth in comparison with normal cells (P<0.05). Avocado fruit is rich in phytochemicals, which play an important role in inhibition of growth of cancer cells. The current study for the first time demonstrates the anti-cancer effect of avocado fruit extracts on two cancers common in Iran. Therefore, it is suggested that the fruit extracts can be considered as appropriate complementary treatments in treatment of esophageal and colon cancers.

  13. Effect of silencing PARG in human colon carcinoma LoVo cells on the ability of HUVEC migration and proliferation.

    PubMed

    Pan, J; Fauzee, N J S; Wang, Y-l; Sheng, Y-T; Tang, Y; Wang, J-Q; Wu, W-q; Yan, J-x; Xu, J

    2012-10-01

    Our aim was to investigate the influence of silencing poly-(ADP-ribose)glycohydrolase (PARG) in human colon carcinoma LoVo cells on the ability of human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) migration, proliferation and its possible mechanisms. PARG mRNA expression was detected by reverse transcriptase (RT) and real-time-PCR. PARG, poly-(ADP-ribose)polymerase (PARP), p38, p-p38, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), p-ERK, nuclear factor (NF)-κB, phosphorylated IκBα (p-IκBα), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), basic fibroblast growth factor (b-FGF), intercellular cell adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 and matrix metalloproteinases (MMP)-9 expressions were detected by western blot. The influence of PARG-short hairpin (sh)RNA on the ability of HUVEC migration and proliferation were observed by transwell migration and Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) assay. Both RT-PCR and western blot results showed that the expression of PARG in PARG-shRNA cells was decreased and expressions of PARP, p38, p-p38, ERK, p-ERK, NF-κB, p-IκBα, VEGF, b-FGF, ICAM-1 and MMP-9 in those cells were lower than that in the untransfected and control-shRNA groups (P<0.05). Migration assay showed that migratory inhibition rate for HUVEC was decreased (55.23%) in cocultured PARG-shRNA cells; moreover, CCK-8 assay showed that the proliferation of HUVECs cultured with the supernatant of PARG-shRNA cells was also comparatively lower. Hence, concluding that PARG silencing could inhibit the ability of HUVEC migration and proliferation by downregulating the activity of NF-κB in LoVo cells that in turn decreases angiogenic factors such as VEGF, b-FGF, ICAM-1, MMP-9, as well as phosphorylation of p38 and ERK.

  14. Dual role of macrophages in the response of C26 colon carcinoma cells to 5-fluorouracil administration

    PubMed Central

    Patras, Laura; Sesarman, Alina; Licarete, Emilia; Luca, Lavinia; Alupei, Marius Costel; Rakosy-Tican, Elena; Banciu, Manuela

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) are pivotal players in tumor progression via modulation of tumor angiogenesis, inflammation, metastasis and oxidative stress, as well as of the response of cancer cells to cytotoxic drugs. Nevertheless, the role of TAMs in the prognosis of colorectal cancer remains controversial. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate how TAMs mediate the response of C26 colon carcinoma cells to the cytotoxic drug 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), upon TAM co-cultivation with these cancer cells in vitro. In this respect, 5-FU cytotoxicity was assessed in C26 cells in standard culture and in a co-culture with peritoneal macrophages, the production of NF-κB was determined by western blot analysis, and the production of angiogenic/inflammatory proteins in each experimental model was evaluated by protein array analysis. To gain further evidence of the effect of TAMs on oxidative stress, malondialdehyde was measured through high-performance liquid chromatography, and the total nonenzymatic antioxidant levels and the production of nitrites were measured through colorimetric assays. The results demonstrated that TAMs exerted a dual role in the response of C26 cells to 5-FU administration in the co-culture model. Thus, on one side, TAMs sensitized C26 cells to 5-FU administration through inhibition of the production of inflammatory and angiogenic proteins in these cancer cells; however, they also protected cancer cells against 5-FU-induced oxidative stress. Collectively, the present findings suggest that the combined administration of 5-FU with pharmacological agents that prevent TAMs to maintain the physiological range of tumor cell oxidative stress may highly improve the therapeutic potential of this drug. PMID:27446416

  15. New potent and selective inhibitor of Pim-1/3 protein kinases sensitizes human colon carcinoma cells to doxorubicin.

    PubMed

    Moreau, Pascale; Dezhenkova, Lyubov G; Anizon, Fabrice; Nauton, Lionel; Thery, Vincent; Liang, Shuguang; Kaluzhny, Dmitry N; Shtil, Alexander A

    2014-01-01

    The Pim protein kinases (provirus insertion site of Moloney murine leukemia virus) have been identified as important actors involved in tumor cell survival, proliferation, migration and invasion. Therefore, inhibition of Pim activity by low molecular weight compounds is under investigation as a part of anticancer therapeutic strategies. We have synthesized a series of pyrrolo[2,3-a]carbazole derivatives that significantly inhibited Pim protein kinases at submicromolar concentrations. Particularly, benzodiazocine derivative 1 potently inhibited Pim-1 and -3 isoforms in in vitro kinase assays (IC50 8 nM and 13 nM, respectively), whereas Pim-2 activity was less affected (IC50 350 nM). We show here that no inhibitory effect of 1 was detectable at 1 µM against other 22 serine/threonine and tyrosine kinases. In addition, 1, possessing a planar pyrrolocarbazole scaffold, demonstrated no significant binding to DNA, nor was it a potent topoisomerase I inhibitor, suggesting that 1 is likely to be highly selective for Pim-1 and -3. Importantly, whereas 1 exerted a negligible cytotoxicity for human colon carcinoma HCT116 cell line at concentrations >10 µM within 72 h of cell exposure, it synergized at nontoxic concentrations with the antitumor drug doxorubicin (Dox) in killing HCT116 cells: IC50 of Dox alone and Dox+1 were ~200 nM and ~25 nM, respectively. These data strongly suggest that 1 emerges as a prospective antitumor drug candidate due to its selectivity to individual Pim protein kinases and the ability to potentiate the efficacy of conventional chemotherapeutics. PMID:25175798

  16. Development of tissue-engineered models of oral dysplasia and early invasive oral squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Colley, H E; Hearnden, V; Jones, A V; Weinreb, P H; Violette, S M; MacNeil, S; Thornhill, M H; Murdoch, C

    2011-01-01

    Background: Current organotypic models of dysplasia and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) lack the complexity that mimics in vivo tissue. Here we describe a three-dimensional in vitro model of the oral epithelium that replicates tumour progression from dysplasia to an invasive phenotype. Methods: The OSCC cell lines were seeded as a cell suspension (D20, Cal27) or as multicellular tumour spheroids (FaDu) with oral fibroblasts on to a de-epidermised acellular dermis to generate tissue-engineered models and compared with patient biopsies. Results: The D20 and Cal27 cells generated a model of epithelial dysplasia. Overtime Cal27 cells traversed the basement membrane and invaded the connective tissue to reproduce features of early invasive OSCC. When seeded onto a model of the normal oral mucosa, FaDu spheroids produced a histological picture mimicking carcinoma in situ with severe cellular atypia juxtaposed to normal epithelium. Conclusion: It is possible to culture in vitro models with the morphological appearance and histological characteristics of dysplasia and tumour cell invasion seen in vivo using native dermis. Such models could facilitate study of the molecular processes involved in malignant transformation, invasion and tumour growth as well as in vitro testing of new treatments, diagnostic tests and drug delivery systems for OSCC. PMID:21989184

  17. Metastatic Colonization

    PubMed Central

    Massagué, Joan; Obenauf, Anna C.

    2016-01-01

    Metastasis is the main cause of death from cancer. To colonize distant organs, circulating cancer cells must overcome many obstacles through mechanisms that we are starting to understand. Infiltrating distant tissue, evading immune defences, adapting to supportive niches, surviving as latent tumour-initiating seeds, and eventually breaking out to replace the host tissue, are key steps for metastatic colonization. These obstacles make metastasis a highly inefficient process, but once metastases are established current treatments frequently fail to provide durable responses. A better understanding of the mechanistic determinants of metastatic colonization is needed to better prevent and treat metastatic cancer. PMID:26791720

  18. The focus on sample quality: Influence of colon tissue collection on reliability of qPCR data

    PubMed Central

    Korenkova, Vlasta; Slyskova, Jana; Novosadova, Vendula; Pizzamiglio, Sara; Langerova, Lucie; Bjorkman, Jens; Vycital, Ondrej; Liska, Vaclav; Levy, Miroslav; Veskrna, Karel; Vodicka, Pavel; Vodickova, Ludmila; Kubista, Mikael; Verderio, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Successful molecular analyses of human solid tissues require intact biological material with well-preserved nucleic acids, proteins, and other cell structures. Pre-analytical handling, comprising of the collection of material at the operating theatre, is among the first critical steps that influence sample quality. The aim of this study was to compare the experimental outcomes obtained from samples collected and stored by the conventional means of snap freezing and by PAXgene Tissue System (Qiagen). These approaches were evaluated by measuring rRNA and mRNA integrity of the samples (RNA Quality Indicator and Differential Amplification Method) and by gene expression profiling. The collection procedures of the biological material were implemented in two hospitals during colon cancer surgery in order to identify the impact of the collection method on the experimental outcome. Our study shows that the pre-analytical sample handling has a significant effect on the quality of RNA and on the variability of qPCR data. PAXgene collection mode proved to be more easily implemented in the operating room and moreover the quality of RNA obtained from human colon tissues by this method is superior to the one obtained by snap freezing. PMID:27383461

  19. Colonization of avian reproductive tract tissues by variant subpopulations of Salmonella Enteritidis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Leghorn hens were infected with Salmonella Enteritidis cultures to determine their comparative ability to colonize the avian reproductive tract. Group 1 received PT4 22079, which was previously shown to contaminate eggs and to form biofilm. Group 2 received a 90:10 mixture of PT13a strains 21027 and...

  20. Serum and tissue PIVKA-II expression reflect the biological malignant potential of small hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Tamano, Masaya; Sugaya, Hitoshi; Oguma, Motoo; Iijima, Makoto; Yoneda, Masashi; Murohisa, Toshimitsu; Kojima, Kazuo; Kuniyoshi, Toru; Majima, Yuichi; Hashimoto, Takashi; Terano, Akira

    2002-04-01

    A sensitive method for measuring the serum level of protein-induced by vitamin K absence or antagonist II (PIVKA-II) has become so widely available that it is now used for the clinical diagnosis of small hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). It is known that serum PIVKA-II can be a prognostic indicator for HCC, but there have been no detailed investigations concerning the tissue expression of PIVKA-II. The present study assessed the relationship between serum or tissue PIVKA-II and the biological malignant potential of HCC. The subjects were 25 patients with histologically confirmed HCC, that were solitary and 3 cm or less in diameter. Tissue PIVKA-II was detected by immunostaining using MU-3 as the primary antibody. The biological malignant potential of the tumors was evaluated on the basis of the Ki-67 labeling index of HCC cells and the tumor arterial vascularity assesed by angiography and CO(2) enhanced ultrasonography. The recurrence-free period after treatment was also evaluated. Among the 25 patients, eight were positive for tissue PIVKA-II. Serum PIVKA-II levels were significantly higher in the tissue PIVKA-II-positive patients compared with the negative patients, but serum and tissue PIVKA-II expressions were not consistently parallel. Tumor cell proliferation was closely correlated with the tissue PIVKA-II expression, while the recurrence-free period was correlated with the serum PIVKA-II level. Tumor arterial vascularity showed a strong correlation with the expression of both serum and tissue PIVKA-II. In conclusion, serum and tissue PIVKA-II expression reflect the biological malignant potential of HCC and thus may be useful indicators for the prognosis of small HCC.

  1. Comparison of gene expression of SOX2 and OCT4 in normal tissue, polyps, and colon adenocarcinoma using immunohistochemical staining

    PubMed Central

    Talebi, Ardeshir; Kianersi, Kianoosh; Beiraghdar, Mozhdeh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cancer stem cells have been isolated and characterized in all common cancers. SOX2 and OCT4 are important genes to enhance the self-renewal ability as activate stem cells and inhibit the genes that start differentiation and thus maintain the self-renewal ability of stem cells. Also, the aim of this study is “Comparison of gene expression of SOX2 and OCT4 in normal tissue, polyps, and colon adenocarcinoma using immunohistochemical staining.” Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study conducted on 20 patients so that for each patient, a sample of healthy tissue, dysplastic polyp tissue, and colon adenocarcinoma were provided as microscopic sections and staining on each tissue was performed through immunohistochemistry method by markers OCT4 and SOX2. The collected data were interred into SPSS version 18.0, (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA) software and the level of significance were considered as <0.05. Results: The study sample consisted of 20 patients including 11 men (55%) and 9 women (45%) with a mean age of 55.6 ± 9.88 years. There was no association between Oct4 and colorectal cancer (CRC) patients (P > 0.05), but there was a significant correlation between Sox2 expression and CRC (P < 0.05). Patients in many aspects such as race, type of polyp, presence of lymph node, grade and intensity of Sox2 in different types of patients’ tissues (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Regarding our findings, the expression of Sox2 would be a liable marker for evaluating of cancer progression and could be a treatment target of CRC cells. PMID:26645019

  2. Effects of a Mediterranean Diet Intervention on Anti- and Pro-Inflammatory Eicosanoids, Epithelial Proliferation, and Nuclear Morphology in Biopsies of Normal Colon Tissue.

    PubMed

    Djuric, Zora; Turgeon, D Kim; Ren, Jianwei; Neilson, Andrew; Plegue, Missy; Waters, Ian G; Chan, Alexander; Askew, Leah M; Ruffin, Mack T; Sen, Ananda; Brenner, Dean E

    2015-01-01

    This randomized trial evaluated the effects of intervention with either a Healthy Eating or a Mediterranean diet on colon biomarkers in 120 healthy individuals at increased colon cancer risk. The hypothesis was that eicosanoids and markers of proliferation would be favorably affected by the Mediterranean diet. Colon epithelial biopsy tissues and blood samples were obtained at baseline and after 6 mo of intervention. Colonic eicosanoid concentrations were evaluated by HPLC-MS-MS, and measures of epithelial proliferation and nuclear morphology were evaluated by image analysis of biopsy sections. There was little change in proinflammatory eicosanoids and in plasma cytokine concentrations with either dietary intervention. There was, however, a 50% increase in colonic prostaglandin E3 (PGE3), which is formed from eicosapentanoic acid, in the Mediterranean arm. Unlike PGE2, PGE3, was not significantly affected by regular use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs at baseline, and normal weight subjects had significantly higher colon PGE3 than overweight or obese subjects. Increased proliferation in the colon at baseline, by Ki67 labeling, was associated with morphological features that defined smaller nuclei in the epithelial cells, lower colon leukotriene concentrations and higher plasma cytokine concentrations. Dietary intervention had little effect on measures of epithelial proliferation or of nuclear morphology. The increase in PGE3 with a Mediterranean diet indicates that in normal colon, diet might affect protective pathways to a greater extent than proinflammatory and proliferative pathways. Hence, biomarkers from cancer models might not be relevant in a true prevention setting.

  3. Lactobacillus casei Exerts Anti-Proliferative Effects Accompanied by Apoptotic Cell Death and Up-Regulation of TRAIL in Colon Carcinoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Tiptiri-Kourpeti, Angeliki; Spyridopoulou, Katerina; Santarmaki, Valentina; Aindelis, Georgios; Tompoulidou, Evgenia; Lamprianidou, Eleftheria E; Saxami, Georgia; Ypsilantis, Petros; Lampri, Evangeli S; Simopoulos, Constantinos; Kotsianidis, Ioannis; Galanis, Alex; Kourkoutas, Yiannis; Dimitrellou, Dimitra; Chlichlia, Katerina

    2016-01-01

    Probiotic microorganisms such as lactic acid bacteria (LAB) exert a number of strain-specific health-promoting activities attributed to their immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory and anti-carcinogenic properties. Despite recent attention, our understanding of the biological processes involved in the beneficial effects of LAB strains is still limited. To this end, the present study investigated the growth-inhibitory effects of Lactobacillus casei ATCC 393 against experimental colon cancer. Administration of live Lactobacillus casei (as well as bacterial components thereof) on murine (CT26) and human (HT29) colon carcinoma cell lines raised a significant concentration- and time-dependent anti-proliferative effect, determined by cell viability assays. Specifically, a dramatic decrease in viability of colon cancer cells co-incubated with 10(9) CFU/mL L. casei for 24 hours was detected (78% for HT29 and 52% for CT26 cells). In addition, live L. casei induced apoptotic cell death in both cell lines as revealed by annexin V and propidium iodide staining. The significance of the in vitro anti-proliferative effects was further confirmed in an experimental tumor model. Oral daily administration of 10(9) CFU live L. casei for 13 days significantly inhibited in vivo growth of colon carcinoma cells, resulting in approximately 80% reduction in tumor volume of treated mice. Tumor growth inhibition was accompanied by L. casei-driven up-regulation of the TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand TRAIL and down-regulation of Survivin. Taken together, these findings provide evidence for beneficial tumor-inhibitory, anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects driven by this probiotic LAB strain. PMID:26849051

  4. Lactobacillus casei Exerts Anti-Proliferative Effects Accompanied by Apoptotic Cell Death and Up-Regulation of TRAIL in Colon Carcinoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Santarmaki, Valentina; Aindelis, Georgios; Tompoulidou, Evgenia; Lamprianidou, Eleftheria E.; Saxami, Georgia; Ypsilantis, Petros; Lampri, Evangeli S.; Simopoulos, Constantinos; Kotsianidis, Ioannis; Galanis, Alex; Kourkoutas, Yiannis; Dimitrellou, Dimitra; Chlichlia, Katerina

    2016-01-01

    Probiotic microorganisms such as lactic acid bacteria (LAB) exert a number of strain-specific health-promoting activities attributed to their immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory and anti-carcinogenic properties. Despite recent attention, our understanding of the biological processes involved in the beneficial effects of LAB strains is still limited. To this end, the present study investigated the growth-inhibitory effects of Lactobacillus casei ATCC 393 against experimental colon cancer. Administration of live Lactobacillus casei (as well as bacterial components thereof) on murine (CT26) and human (HT29) colon carcinoma cell lines raised a significant concentration- and time-dependent anti-proliferative effect, determined by cell viability assays. Specifically, a dramatic decrease in viability of colon cancer cells co-incubated with 109 CFU/mL L. casei for 24 hours was detected (78% for HT29 and 52% for CT26 cells). In addition, live L. casei induced apoptotic cell death in both cell lines as revealed by annexin V and propidium iodide staining. The significance of the in vitro anti-proliferative effects was further confirmed in an experimental tumor model. Oral daily administration of 109 CFU live L. casei for 13 days significantly inhibited in vivo growth of colon carcinoma cells, resulting in approximately 80% reduction in tumor volume of treated mice. Tumor growth inhibition was accompanied by L. casei-driven up-regulation of the TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand TRAIL and down-regulation of Survivin. Taken together, these findings provide evidence for beneficial tumor-inhibitory, anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects driven by this probiotic LAB strain. PMID:26849051

  5. COTA (colon-ovarian tumor antigen). An immunohistochemical study.

    PubMed

    Pant, K D; Fenoglio-Preiser, C M; Berry, C O; Zamora, P O; Ram, M D; Fulks, R M; Rhodes, B A

    1986-07-01

    A goat anti-serum was prepared against mucinous ovarian cyst fluid and absorbed with normal colon and a variety of normal tissues until the only residual immunoreactivity was directed against colon cancer and ovarian tumor mucin. The set of antigenic determinants defined by this anti-serum has been called COTA, standing for colon-ovarian-tumor-antigen. This highly absorbed anti-serum (anti-COTA) was used for immunohistochemical staining of 42 different tissues in parallel with staining with a goat anti-CEA, which was also highly absorbed. The results suggest that COTA is a highly sensitive and specific antigen for colon carcinoma and may have potential for the early detection of malignant changes predictive of cancer of the colon.

  6. Colonization process of olive tissues by Verticillium dahliae and its in planta interaction with the biocontrol root endophyte Pseudomonas fluorescens PICF7

    PubMed Central

    Prieto, Pilar; Navarro‐Raya, Carmen; Valverde‐Corredor, Antonio; Amyotte, Stefan G.; Dobinson, Katherine F.; Mercado‐Blanco, Jesús

    2009-01-01

    Summary The colonization process of Olea europaea by the defoliating pathotype of Verticillium dahliae, and the in planta interaction with the endophytic, biocontrol strain Pseudomonas fluorescens PICF7 were determined. Differential fluorescent protein tagging was used for the simultaneous visualization of P. fluorescens PICF7 and V. dahliae in olive tissues. Olive plants were bacterized with PICF7 and then transferred to V. dahliae‐infested soil. Monitoring olive colonization events by V. dahliae and its interaction with PICF7 was conducted using a non‐gnotobiotic system, confocal laser scanner microscopy and tissue vibratoming sections. A yellow fluorescently tagged V. dahliae derivative (VDAT‐36I) was obtained by Agrobacterium tumefaciens‐mediated transformation. Isolate VDAT‐36I quickly colonized olive root surface, successfully invaded root cortex and vascular tissues via macro‐ and micro‐breakages, and progressed to the aerial parts of the plant through xylem vessel cells. Strain PICF7 used root hairs as preferred penetration site, and once established on/in root tissues, hindered pathogen colonization. For the first time using this approach, the entire colonization process of a woody plant by V. dahliae is reported. Early and localized root surface and root endophytic colonization by P. fluorescens PICF7 is needed to impair full progress of verticillium wilt epidemics in olive. PMID:21255281

  7. Colonization process of olive tissues by Verticillium dahliae and its in planta interaction with the biocontrol root endophyte Pseudomonas fluorescens PICF7.

    PubMed

    Prieto, Pilar; Navarro-Raya, Carmen; Valverde-Corredor, Antonio; Amyotte, Stefan G; Dobinson, Katherine F; Mercado-Blanco, Jesús

    2009-07-01

    The colonization process of Olea europaea by the defoliating pathotype of Verticillium dahliae, and the in planta interaction with the endophytic, biocontrol strain Pseudomonas fluorescens PICF7 were determined. Differential fluorescent protein tagging was used for the simultaneous visualization of P. fluorescens PICF7 and V. dahliae in olive tissues. Olive plants were bacterized with PICF7 and then transferred to V. dahliae-infested soil. Monitoring olive colonization events by V. dahliae and its interaction with PICF7 was conducted using a non-gnotobiotic system, confocal laser scanner microscopy and tissue vibratoming sections. A yellow fluorescently tagged V. dahliae derivative (VDAT-36I) was obtained by Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. Isolate VDAT-36I quickly colonized olive root surface, successfully invaded root cortex and vascular tissues via macro- and micro-breakages, and progressed to the aerial parts of the plant through xylem vessel cells. Strain PICF7 used root hairs as preferred penetration site, and once established on/in root tissues, hindered pathogen colonization. For the first time using this approach, the entire colonization process of a woody plant by V. dahliae is reported. Early and localized root surface and root endophytic colonization by P. fluorescens PICF7 is needed to impair full progress of verticillium wilt epidemics in olive.

  8. Quantitative changes of collagen in human normal breast tissue and invasive ductal carcinoma using nonlinear optical microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Weiqiang; Wu, Yan; Lian, Yuane; Fu, Fangmeng; Wang, Chuan; Zhuo, Shuangmu; Chen, Jianxin

    2014-11-01

    Multiphoton microscopy (MPM) imaging of collagen plays a key role in noninvasive diagnosis of human tissue. During the experiment, we observed an interesting phenomenon which two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF) signal of collagen in human invasive ductal carcinoma of breast tissue becomes much weaker than the normal breast tissue, but the second harmonic generation (SHG) signal of collagen does not get an obvious change . In order to explain the phenomena,this paper emphasizes on the intensity of TPEF and SHG signal from collagen in human invasive ductal carcinoma of breast tissues and normal breast tissue. Further, we respectively obtain the intensity spectral information from collagen in the above two tissues with all parameter unaltered. Our quantitative results show that the intensity of TPEF from collagen in human invasive ductal carcinoma of breast tissue is much lower than the intensity of TPEF from collagen in normal breast tissue. According to the theoretic analysis, it was concluded that the intensity of TPEF declined due to the reduction of the quantum yield when the collagen was intruded by cancer cells. However, the invasion of cancer cells has no effect on decisive factor of SHG. Our theoretical analysis brings more detailed information about intensity of SHG and TPEF from collagen in the above two tissues.

  9. Soft Tissue Myoepithelial Carcinoma Metastatic to the Cecum: Highlighting an Unusual Metastatic Pattern and the Need for Diagnostic Awareness.

    PubMed

    Mourtzoukou, Despoina; Zaidi, Shane; Jones, Robin L; Fisher, Cyril; Thway, Khin

    2016-03-21

    Myoepithelial neoplasms of the soft tissues are a rare, heterogeneous group of tumors for which classification continues to evolve. While well defined within salivary glands, they can also arise in viscera and soft tissues, where diagnosis is challenging due to the lack of clinical and pathological familiarity. We present the case of a 36 year old man with myoepithelial carcinoma arising as a primary tumor within the soft tissues of the neck, which metastasized to the cecum, causing intussusception. This spindle cell neoplasm showed the classic S100 protein, smooth muscle actin and pancytokeratin-positive immunoprofile. Metastasis of myoepithelial carcinoma to the cecum has not been previously described, and coupled with the spindle cell morphology, may cause significant diagnostic difficulty in the absence of clinical familiarity, particularly as there is morphologic overlap with spindle cell neoplasms arising more commonly in gastrointestinal sites, including gastrointestinal stromal tumor, leiomyosarcoma and sarcomatoid carcinoma.

  10. Soft Tissue Myoepithelial Carcinoma Metastatic to the Cecum: Highlighting an Unusual Metastatic Pattern and the Need for Diagnostic Awareness

    PubMed Central

    Mourtzoukou, Despoina; Zaidi, Shane; Jones, Robin L.; Fisher, Cyril; Thway, Khin

    2016-01-01

    Myoepithelial neoplasms of the soft tissues are a rare, heterogeneous group of tumors for which classification continues to evolve. While well defined within salivary glands, they can also arise in viscera and soft tissues, where diagnosis is challenging due to the lack of clinical and pathological familiarity. We present the case of a 36 year old man with myoepithelial carcinoma arising as a primary tumor within the soft tissues of the neck, which metastasized to the cecum, causing intussusception. This spindle cell neoplasm showed the classic S100 protein, smooth muscle actin and pancytokeratin-positive immunoprofile. Metastasis of myoepithelial carcinoma to the cecum has not been previously described, and coupled with the spindle cell morphology, may cause significant diagnostic difficulty in the absence of clinical familiarity, particularly as there is morphologic overlap with spindle cell neoplasms arising more commonly in gastrointestinal sites, including gastrointestinal stromal tumor, leiomyosarcoma and sarcomatoid carcinoma. PMID:27134707

  11. Polyploidisation of metastatic colon carcinoma cells by microtubule and tubulin interacting drugs: effect on proteolytic activity and invasiveness.

    PubMed

    Seiler, Nikolaus; Schneider, Yann; Gossé, Francine; Schleiffer, René; Raul, Francis

    2004-10-01

    When SW620 colon cancer-derived metastatic cells were exposed to nanomolar concentrations of Taxol, colchicine or (Z)-3,5,4'-trimethoxystilbene (R3), huge aneuploid, polynuclear cells survived the treatment. These cells released considerable amounts of the matrix metalloproteinase matrilysin (MMP-7), and tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) into the surrounding culture medium. MMP-7, and other proteolytic enzymes were highly expressed by these cells. In spite of their enormous size, the polyploid cells exhibited a considerable migratory capacity, as was demonstrated by their migration through an artificial basement membrane. While colchicine and R3-treated cells showed an inverse relationship between drug concentration and invasiveness, treatment with Taxol increased the capacity of the SW620 cells to penetrate through the membrane. The invasive capacity was not correlated with the induction and release of proteolytic enzymes. The idea that expression and release of proteolytic enzymes is a fundamental prerequisite of tumour cell invasiveness is generally accepted. The ability of the cells to respond to chemotactic signalling, and the filamentous structures of the cells, together with several cell adhesion factors, which are the basis of cell migration, are prerequisites of invasiveness. These factors are presumably different in the aneuploid cells produced by Taxol, colchicine and R3, and await scrutiny. PMID:15375554

  12. Serum and tissue selenium contents related to renal disease and colon cancer as determined by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Marchante-Gayón, J M; Sánchez-Uría, J E; Sanz-Medel, A

    1996-12-01

    Microwave digestion with nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide was applied to the determination of selenium in biological tissues by Electrothermal Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (ETAAS). Validation of this method is presented in terms of adequate recovery of selenium from standard reference materials and the method is applied to carcinogen human colon tissue. Ultramicrofiltration was used to study selenium protein binding and its fractionation and speciation in blood serum. These studies showed that 95% of the total selenium in serum seems to be bonded to high-molecular-weight proteins. Experiments with renal failure patients showed lower selenium levels than in the health population (0.57 +/- 0.23 mM versus 0.81 +/- 0.11 mM). A wider distribution pattern of total serum selenium concentration (from 0.1 to 1 mM) was clearly observed in renal failure patients. However, the ultramicrofiltrable selenium fraction was always constant, even in the presence of desferrioxamine (DFO).

  13. Effects of four regulating-intestine prescriptions on pathology and ultrastructure of colon tissue in rats with ulcerative colitis

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Heng; Qiu, Ming-Yi; Mei, Jia-Jun; Shen, Guan-Xin; Liu, Song-Lin; Chen, Rui

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To observe different histomorphologic changes of ulcerative colitis (UC) rats that were treated with four regulating-intestine prescriptions (FRIP), to investigate the curative effects of FRIP and to analyze their treatment mechanism. METHODS: The UC rat model was made by the method of 2,4-dinitro chloro benzene (DNCB) immunity and acetic acid local enema. Ninety-eight SD rats were randomly divided into seven groups, namely, the normal control group, model group, salicylazosulfapyridine (SASP) group, Wumeiwan (WMW) group, Baitouwengtang (BTWT) group, Senglingbaishusan (SLBSS) group, and Tongxieyaofang (TXYF) group. Each group had 14 rats (with equal ratio of male and female). The six animal model groups of UC -SASP, TXYF, WMW, BTWT, SLBSS, TXYF-were treated by distilled water except the normal control group. Changes of the rat’s general conditions after treatment were respectively observed, the colon tissue damage scores were given out, the pathology of colonic mucosa and changes of ultrastructure were analyzed. RESULTS: Different pathological changes on histology were shown after treatment by FRIP. The colon tissue damage score in model group was higher than that of FRIP groups and SASP group (q = 4.59, 4.77, P<0.05 or q = 5.48, 6.25, 5.97, P<0.01). The scores of WMW group, BTWT group and SLBSS group were lower than that of SASP (q = 4.13, P<0.05 or q = 5.31, 5.12, P<0.01). There was no remarkable difference between the damage score of TXYF group and SASP group (q = 3.75, P>0.05). In addition, some apoptosis cells were found in the pathologic control group. CONCLUSION: The model made with DNCB and acetic acid was successful, and FRIP had better curative effect and WMW was the best curative effect, BTW, SLBSS and TXYF were similar to SASP, and we discovered that apoptosis was possibly related to UC. PMID:16097047

  14. The biocontrol endophytic bacterium Pseudomonas fluorescens PICF7 induces systemic defense responses in aerial tissues upon colonization of olive roots

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-Lama Cabanás, Carmen; Schilirò, Elisabetta; Valverde-Corredor, Antonio; Mercado-Blanco, Jesús

    2014-01-01

    Pseudomonas fluorescens PICF7, a native olive root endophyte and effective biocontrol agent (BCA) against Verticillium wilt of olive, is able to trigger a broad range of defense responses in root tissues of this woody plant. In order to elucidate whether strain PICF7 also induces systemic defense responses in above-ground organs, aerial tissues of olive plants grown under non-gnotobiotic conditions were collected at different time points after root bacterization with this endophytic BCA. A suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) cDNA library, enriched in up-regulated genes, was generated. This strategy enabled the identification of 376 ESTs (99 contigs and 277 singlets), many of them related to response to different stresses. Five ESTs, involved in defense responses, were selected to carry out time-course quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) experiments aiming to: (1) validate the induction of these genes, and (2) shed light on their expression pattern along time (from 1 to 15 days). Induction of olive genes potentially coding for lipoxygenase 2, catalase, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate oxidase, and phenylananine ammonia-lyase was thus confirmed at some time points. Computational analysis also revealed that different transcription factors were up-regulated in olive aerial tissues (i.e., JERF, bHLH, WRKY), as previously reported for roots. Results confirmed that root colonization by this endophytic bacterium does not only trigger defense responses in this organ but also mounts a wide array of systemic defense responses in distant tissues (stems, leaves). This sheds light on how olive plants respond to the “non-hostile” colonization by a bacterial endophyte and how induced defense response can contribute to the biocontrol activity of strain PICF7. PMID:25250017

  15. SPROUTY-2 represses the epithelial phenotype of colon carcinoma cells via upregulation of ZEB1 mediated by ETS1 and miR-200/miR-150.

    PubMed

    Barbáchano, A; Fernández-Barral, A; Pereira, F; Segura, M F; Ordóñez-Morán, P; Carrillo-de Santa Pau, E; González-Sancho, J M; Hanniford, D; Martínez, N; Costales-Carrera, A; Real, F X; Pálmer, H G; Rojas, J M; Hernando, E; Muñoz, A

    2016-06-01

    SPROUTY-2 (SPRY2) is a modulator of tyrosine kinase receptor signaling with receptor- and cell type-dependent inhibitory or enhancing effects. Studies on the action of SPRY2 in major cancers are conflicting and its role remains unclear. Here we have dissected SPRY2 action in human colon cancer. Global transcriptomic analyses show that SPRY2 downregulates genes encoding tight junction proteins such as claudin-7 and occludin and other cell-to-cell and cell-to-matrix adhesion molecules in human SW480-ADH colon carcinoma cells. Moreover, SPRY2 represses LLGL2/HUGL2, PATJ1/INADL and ST14, main regulators of the polarized epithelial phenotype, and ESRP1, an epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) inhibitor. A key action of SPRY2 is the upregulation of the major EMT inducer ZEB1, as these effects are reversed by ZEB1 knock-down by means of RNA interference. Consistently, we found an inverse correlation between the expression level of claudin-7 and those of SPRY2 and ZEB1 in human colon tumors. Mechanistically, ZEB1 upregulation by SPRY2 results from the combined induction of ETS1 transcription factor and the repression of microRNAs (miR-200 family, miR-150) that target ZEB1 RNA. Moreover, SPRY2 increased AKT activation by epidermal growth factor, whereas AKT and also Src inhibition reduced the induction of ZEB1. Altogether, these data suggest that AKT and Src are implicated in SPRY2 action. Collectively, these results show a tumorigenic role of SPRY2 in colon cancer that is based on the dysregulation of tight junction and epithelial polarity master genes via upregulation of ZEB1. The dissection of the mechanism of action of SPRY2 in colon cancer cells is important to understand the upregulation of this gene in a subset of patients with this neoplasia that have poor prognosis.

  16. GPX4 and GPX7 Over-Expression in Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Guerriero, E.; Capone, F.; Accardo, M.; Sorice, A.; Costantini, M.; Colonna, G.; Castello, G.

    2015-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common type of liver cancer and is still one of the most fatal cancers. Hence, it needs to identify always new putative markers to improve its diagnosis and prognosis. The selenium is an essential trace mineral implicated as a key factor in the early stage of cancer and exerts its biological function through the selenoproteins. In the last years our group has been studying the involvement of some selenoproteins in HCC. However, no many data are reported in literature about the correlation between HCC and the glutathione peroxidases (GPXs), both selenium and non selenium-containing GPXs. In this paper we have evaluated the GPX4 and GPX7 expression in some paraffin-embedded tissues from liver biopsy of patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV)-related cirrhosis and HCC by immunohistochemistry and RT-qPCR analysis. Our results evidenced that i) GPX4 and GPX7 had a statistically significant over-expression in HCC tissues compared to cirrhotic counterparts used as non tumor tissues, and ii) their expression was higher in grade III HCC tissues with respect to grade I-II samples. Therefore, we propose to use GPX4 and GPX7 as possible markers for improving HCC diagnosis/prognosis. PMID:26708178

  17. Assessment of XAF1 as A Biomarker to Differentiate Hepatocellular Carcinoma from Nonneoplastic Liver Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Ying

    2012-01-01

    Objective XIAP-associated factor 1 (XAF1) expression has been shown to be related with apoptosis in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the correlation of XAF1 expression with HCC tumor grade has not been intensively assessed. XIAP-associated factor-1 (XAF1) is an important apoptosis inducer in human HCC. The aim of this study is to determine the correlation between XAF1 expression and HCC histopathological grades. Methods The mRNA levels of XAF1 in 24 paired HCC-nonneoplastic specimens were quantified by real-time reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR). Protein levels of XAF1 in 110 paired HCC-noncancer tissues were investigated by immunostaining specimens on a tissue microarray (TMA). Correlations between XAF1 mRNA levels or protein expression and clinicopathological features were assessed by statistical analysis. Results Both XAF1 mRNA and protein were significantly under-expressed in HCC tissues compared to their non-neoplastic counterparts. No significant relationship was found between XAF1 mRNA or protein expression and histological tumor grade. Conclusion All these data suggest that XAF1 is a potential biomarker for differentiating HCC with noncancerous tissues. PMID:23358741

  18. Comparison of intracellular accumulation and cytotoxicity of free mTHPC and mTHPC-loaded PLGA nanoparticles in human colon carcinoma cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Löw, Karin; Knobloch, Thomas; Wagner, Sylvia; Wiehe, Arno; Engel, Andrea; Langer, Klaus; von Briesen, Hagen

    2011-06-01

    The second generation photosensitizer mTHPC was approved by the European Medicines Agency (EMA) for the palliative treatment of advanced head and neck cancer in October 2001. It is known that mTHPC possesses a significant phototoxicity against a variety of human cancer cells in vitro but also exhibits dark toxicity and can cause adverse effects (especially skin photosensitization). Due to its poor water solubility, the administration of hydrophobic photosensitizer still presents several difficulties. To overcome the administration problems, the use of nanoparticles as drug carrier systems is much investigated. Nanoparticles based on poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) have been extensively studied as delivery systems into tumours due to their biocompatibility and biodegradability. The goal of this study was the comparison of free mTHPC and mTHPC-loaded PLGA nanoparticles concerning cytotoxicity and intracellular accumulation in human colon carcinoma cells (HT29). The nanoparticles delivered the photosensitizer to the colon carcinoma cells and enabled drug release without losing its activity. The cytotoxicity assays showed a time- and concentration-dependent decrease in cell proliferation and viability after illumination. However, first and foremost mTHPC lost its dark toxic effects using the PLGA nanoparticles as a drug carrier system. Therefore, PLGA nanoparticles are a promising drug carrier system for the hydrophobic photosensitizer mTHPC.

  19. Aqueous extract of Curcuma aromatica induces apoptosis and G2/M arrest in human colon carcinoma LS-174-T cells independent of p53.

    PubMed

    Hu, Bing; Shen, Ke-Ping; An, Hong-Mei; Wu, Yang; Du, Qin

    2011-02-01

    Curcuma aromatica is a common Chinese herb for treating diseases with blood stasis and has been regarded as an anticancer herb in modern clinical practice. However, the anticancer effects and related molecular mechanisms of Curcuma aromatica remain unclear. In the present study, human colon carcinoma LS-174-T cell line with wild-type p53 was used as a model cell to evaluate the anticancer effects of aqueous extract of Curcuma aromatica (AECA). AECA inhibits LS-174-T cell proliferation in a dose- and time-dependent manner and colony formation in a dose-dependent manner. AECA treatment induces apoptosis accompanied by caspase-8, -9, and -3 activation in LS-174-T cells. Moreover, blocking the activities of these caspases with a specific inhibitor significantly protected LS-174-T cells from AECA-induced apoptosis. AECA treatment also induces G2/M phase arrest in LS-174-T cells. Expression of p53 was unchanged after AECA treatment; specific silence of p53 did not influence AECA-induced apoptosis and G2/M phase arrest. Further, the expression of cyclin B1 and CDK1 was reduced by AECA. This study suggests that AECA might be effective as an antiproliferative herb for colon carcinoma, the antitumor activity of AECA may involve both extrinsic and intrinsic apoptosis, and AECA induces G2/M phase arrest via downregulation of cyclin B1 and CDK1 and without the participation of p53.

  20. Early detection of cytotoxic events between hepatic natural killer cells and colon carcinoma cells as probed with the atomic force microscope.

    PubMed

    Braet, F; Vermijlen, D; Bossuyt, V; De Zanger, R; Wisse, E

    2001-11-01

    The atomic force microscope (AFM) is a powerful tool to investigate surface and submembranous structures of living cells under physiological conditions at high resolution. These properties enabled us to study the interaction between live hepatic natural killer (NK) cells, also called pit cells, and colon carcinoma cells in vitro by AFM. In addition, the staining for filamentous actin and DNA was performed and served as a reference, because actin and nuclear observations at the light microscopic level during the cytotoxic interaction between these two cell types have been presented earlier. In this study, we collected evidence that conjugation of hepatic NK cells with CC531s colon carcinoma cells results in a decreased binding of CC531s cells to the substratum as probed with the AFM in contact mode as early as 10 min after cell contact (n = 11). To avoid the lateral forces and smearing artefacts of contact mode AFM, non-contact imaging was performed on hepatic NK/CC531s cell conjugates, resulting in identical observations (n = 3). In contrast, the first cytotoxic signs, as determined with the nuclear staining dye Hoechst 33342, could be observed 3 h after the start of the co-culture. This study illustrates that the AFM can be used to probe early cytotoxic effects of effector to target cell contact in nearby physiological conditions. Other routine cytotoxicity tests detect the first cytotoxic effects after 1.5-3 h co-incubation at the earliest.

  1. Studies concerning the effect of external irradiation on localization of radiolabeled monoclonal antibody B72. 3 to human colon carcinoma xenografts

    SciTech Connect

    Shrivastav, S.; Schlom, J.; Raubitschek, A.; Molinolo, A.; Simpson, J.; Hand, P.H.

    1989-03-01

    Recent studies in animal models involving antibody tumor targeting of hepatoma and melanoma and clinical trials involving hepatoma patients have suggested that preirradiation of tumors may enhance antibody tumor targeting. These reports led us to study the effect of external irradiation on monoclonal antibody (MAb) targeting of human carcinomas; as a model system, we used MAb B72.3 and the LS-174T human colon carcinoma xenograft in athymic mice. LS-174T tumors exposed to 300 cGy grew to approximately 93% the size of non-irradiated tumors, while those exposed to 600, 900, or 2,000 cGy were approximately 41% the size of control tumors. Splitting the 900 cGy into three 300-cGy fractions yielded a two-fold lower tumor volume compared with a single 900-cGy fraction. Histochemical evaluation of the carcinomas revealed a decrease in the number of mitoses per high power field consistent with early effects of radiation exposure. Using the avidin-biotin complex immunoperoxidase technique, carcinomas were assayed for expression of the tumor associated glycoprotein (TAG)-72, the high-molecular-weight mucin detected by MAb B72.3. No discernable variation was observed in the staining intensity among tumors in both the control and radiation treated group; that is, differences among tumors within each group were compatible with the known heterogeneous expression of TAG-72. Exposure of carcinomas to 300 or 900 cGy in a single fraction or 900 cGy split in three 300-cGy fractions did not yield a consistent or substantial enhanced localization of radiolabeled MAb B72.3 IgG or F(ab')2 to tumors. A 1.5-fold augmentation of MAb binding to tumors was observed in preirradiated mice; however, these results were not statistically significant.

  2. Genes, environment and gene expression in colon tissue: a pathway approach to determining functionality.

    PubMed

    Slattery, Martha L; Pellatt, Daniel F; Wolff, Roger K; Lundgreen, Abbie

    2016-01-01

    Genetic and environmental factors have been shown to work together to alter cancer risk. In this study we evaluate previously identified gene and lifestyle interactions in a candidate pathway that were associated with colon cancer risk to see if these interactions altered gene expression. We analyzed non-tumor RNA-seq data from 144 colon cancer patients who had genotype, recent cigarette smoking, diet, body mass index (BMI), and recent aspirin/non-steroidal anti-inflammatory use data. Using a false discovery rate of 0.1, we evaluated differential gene expression between high and low levels of lifestyle exposure and genotypes using DESeq2. Thirteen pathway genes and 17 SNPs within those genes were associated with altered expression of other genes in the pathway. BMI, NSAIDs use and dietary components of the oxidative balance score (OBS) also were associated with altered gene expression. SNPs previously identified as interacting with these lifestyle factors, altered expression of pathway genes. NSAIDs interacted with 10 genes (15 SNPs) within those genes to alter expression of 28 pathway genes; recent cigarette smoking interacted with seven genes (nine SNPs) to alter expression of 27 genes. BMI interacted with FLT1, KDR, SEPN1, TERT, TXNRD2, and VEGFA to alter expression of eight genes. Three genes (five SNPs) interacted with OBS to alter expression of 12 genes. These data provide support for previously identified lifestyle and gene interactions associated with colon cancer in that they altered expression of key pathway genes. The need to consider lifestyle factors in conjunction with genetic factors is illustrated.

  3. Colonic Saturated Fatty Acid Concentrations and Expression of COX-1, but not Diet, Predict Prostaglandin E2 in Normal Human Colon Tissue.

    PubMed

    Sidahmed, ElKhansa; Sen, Ananda; Ren, Jianwei; Patel, Arsh; Turgeon, D Kim; Ruffin, Mack T; Brenner, Dean E; Djuric, Zora

    2016-10-01

    Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in the colon is a pro-inflammatory mediator that is associated with increased risk of colon cancer. In this study, expression of genes in the PGE2 pathway were quantified in colon biopsies from a trial of a Mediterranean versus a Healthy Eating diet in 113 individuals at high risk for colon cancer. Colon biopsies were obtained before and after 6 months of intervention. Quantitative, real-time PCR was used to measure mRNA expression of prostaglandin H synthases (PTGS1 and 2), prostaglandin E synthases (PTGES1 and 3), prostaglandin dehydrogenase (HPGD), and PGE2 receptors (PTGER2, PTGER4). The most highly expressed genes were HPGD and PTGS1. In multivariate linear regression models of baseline data, both colon saturated fatty acid concentrations and PTGS1 expression were significant, positive predictors of colon PGE2 concentrations after controlling for nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug use, gender, age, and smoking status. The effects of dietary intervention on gene expression were minimal with small increases in expression noted for PTGES3 in both arms and in PTGER4 in the Mediterranean arm. These results indicate that short-term dietary change had little effect on enzymes in the prostaglandin pathway in the colon and other factors, such as differences in fatty acid metabolism, might be more influential. PMID:27548026

  4. Intrahepatic Tissue Implantation Represents a Favorable Approach for Establishing Orthotopic Transplantation Hepatocellular Carcinoma Mouse Models.

    PubMed

    Rao, Quan; You, Abin; Guo, Zhenglong; Zuo, Bingfeng; Gao, Xianjun; Zhang, Ti; Du, Zhi; Wu, Chenxuan; Yin, HaiFang

    2016-01-01

    Mouse models are commonly used for studying hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) biology and exploring new therapeutic interventions. Currently three main modalities of HCC mouse models have been extensively employed in pre-clinical studies including chemically induced, transgenic and transplantation models. Among them, transplantation models are preferred for evaluating in vivo drug efficacy in pre-clinical settings given the short latency, uniformity in size and close resemblance to tumors in patients. However methods used for establishing orthotopic HCC transplantation mouse models are diverse and fragmentized without a comprehensive comparison. Here, we systemically evaluate four different approaches commonly used to establish HCC mice in preclinical studies, including intravenous, intrasplenic, intrahepatic inoculation of tumor cells and intrahepatic tissue implantation. Four parameters--the latency period, take rates, pathological features and metastatic rates--were evaluated side-by-side. 100% take rates were achieved in liver with intrahepatic, intrasplenic inoculation of tumor cells and intrahepatic tissue implantation. In contrast, no tumor in liver was observed with intravenous injection of tumor cells. Intrahepatic tissue implantation resulted in the shortest latency with 0.5 cm (longitudinal diameter) tumors found in liver two weeks after implantation, compared to 0.1cm for intrahepatic inoculation of tumor cells. Approximately 0.1cm tumors were only visible at 4 weeks after intrasplenic inoculation. Uniform, focal and solitary tumors were formed with intrahepatic tissue implantation whereas multinodular, dispersed and non-uniform tumors produced with intrahepatic and intrasplenic inoculation of tumor cells. Notably, metastasis became visible in liver, peritoneum and mesenterium at 3 weeks post-implantation, and lung metastasis was visible after 7 weeks. T cell infiltration was evident in tumors, resembling the situation in HCC patients. Our study

  5. Viral hepatitis markers in liver tissue in relation to serostatus in hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez, Brenda Y.; Zhu, Xuemei; Kwee, Sandi; Chan, Owen T. M.; Tsai, Naoky; Okimoto, Gordon; Horio, David; McGlynn, Katherine A.; Altekruse, Sean; Wong, Linda L.

    2013-01-01

    Background Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) incidence is rising in the United States. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) are major causes of HCC. Hepatitis infection in HCC patients is generally diagnosed by serology, which is not always consistent with the presence of HBV and HCV in the liver. The relationship of liver viral status to serostatus in hepatocarcinogenesis is not fully understood. Methods HBV and HCV were evaluated in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded liver tissue specimens in a retrospective study of 61 U.S. HCC cases of known serologic status. HBV DNA and HCV RNA were detected by PCR, RT-PCR and pyrosequencing, and HBsAg and HBcAg were evaluated by immunohistochemistry. Results Viral markers were detected in the liver tissue of 25 of 61 (41%) HCC cases. Tissue viral and serologic status were discordant in 27 (44%) cases, including those with apparent “occult” infection. Specifically, HBV DNA was detected in tissue of 4 of 39 (10%) serum HBsAg (−) cases, including 1 anti-HCV(+) case; and HCV RNA was detected in tissue of 3 of 42 (7%) anti-HCV seronegative cases, including 2 with serologic evidence of HBV. Conclusions Viral hepatitis, including HBV-HCV coinfection, may be unrecognized in up to 17% of HCC patients when based on serology alone. Further research is needed to understand the clinical significance of viral makers in liver tissue of HCC patients in the absence of serologic indices. Impact The contribution of HBV and HCV to the rising incidence of HCC in the United States may be underestimated. PMID:23983238

  6. Evaluation of colon cancer histomorphology: a comparison between formalin and PAXgene tissue fixation by an international ring trial.

    PubMed

    Gündisch, Sibylle; Slotta-Huspenina, Julia; Verderio, Paolo; Ciniselli, Chiara Maura; Pizzamiglio, Sara; Schott, Christina; Drecoll, Enken; Viertler, Christian; Zatloukal, Kurt; Kap, Marcel; Riegman, Peter; Esposito, Irene; Specht, Katja; Babaryka, Gregor; Asslaber, Martin; Bodó, Koppany; den Bakker, Michael; den Hollander, Jan; Fend, Falko; Neumann, Jens; Reu, Simone; Perren, Aurel; Langer, Rupert; Lugli, Alessandro; Becker, Ingrid; Richter, Thomas; Kayser, Gian; May, Annette M; Carneiro, Fatima; Lopes, José Manuel; Sobin, Leslie; Höfler, Heinz; Becker, Karl-Friedrich

    2014-11-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate the quality of histo- and cytomorphological features of PAXgene-fixed specimens and their suitability for histomorphological classification in comparison to standard formalin fixation. Fifteen colon cancer tissues were collected, divided into two mirrored samples and either formalin fixed (FFPE) or PAXgene fixed (PFPE) before paraffin embedding. HE- and PAS-stained sections were scanned and evaluated in a blinded, randomised ring trial by 20 pathologists from Europe and the USA using virtual microscopy. The pathologists evaluated histological grading, histological subtype, presence of adenoma, presence of lymphovascular invasion, quality of histomorphology and quality of nuclear features. Statistical analysis revealed that the reproducibility with regard to grading between both fixation methods was rather satisfactory (weighted kappa statistic (k w) = 0.73 (95 % confidence interval (CI), 0.41-0.94)), with a higher agreement between the reference evaluation and the PFPE samples (k w = 0.86 (95 % CI, 0.67-1.00)). Independent from preservation method, inter-observer reproducibility was not completely satisfactory (k w = 0.60). Histomorphological quality parameters were scored equal or better for PFPE than for FFPE samples. For example, overall quality and nuclear features, especially the detection of mitosis, were judged significantly better for PFPE cases. By contrast, significant retraction artefacts were observed more frequently in PFPE samples. In conclusion, our findings suggest that the PAXgene Tissue System leads to excellent preservation of histomorphology and nuclear features of colon cancer tissue and allows routine morphological diagnosis.

  7. Seromuscular Colonic Flap for Intrapelvic Soft-Tissue Coverage: A Reconstructive Option for Plastic Surgeons When Traditionally Used Flaps Are Not Available

    PubMed Central

    Aho, Johnathon; Winocour, Sebastian; Hammoudeh, Ziyad S.; Nelson, Heidi; Rose, Peter; Tran, Nho V.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Reconstruction of intrapelvic defects can be a challenging problem in patients with limited regional muscle flap options and previously resected omentum. In such situations, alternative methods of mobilizing vascularized tissue may be required. Methods. A case of a patient that underwent pelvic extirpation for recurrent rectal cancer who had limited donor sites for flap reconstruction is presented. The mucosa was removed from a blind loop of colon, and a pedicled seromuscular flap based on the colonic mesentery was placed into the pelvis for vascularized soft-tissue coverage and elimination of dead space. Results. The postoperative course was only complicated by a small subcutaneous fluid collection beneath the sacrectomy skin incision, which was drained with radiological assistance. The patient recovered without any major postoperative complications. Conclusion. Seromuscular colonic flap is a useful option for soft-tissue coverage after pelvic extirpation and should be considered by plastic surgeons when other reconstruction options are not available. PMID:26688771

  8. Seromuscular Colonic Flap for Intrapelvic Soft-Tissue Coverage: A Reconstructive Option for Plastic Surgeons When Traditionally Used Flaps Are Not Available.

    PubMed

    Aho, Johnathon; Winocour, Sebastian; Hammoudeh, Ziyad S; Nelson, Heidi; Rose, Peter; Tran, Nho V

    2015-01-01

    Background. Reconstruction of intrapelvic defects can be a challenging problem in patients with limited regional muscle flap options and previously resected omentum. In such situations, alternative methods of mobilizing vascularized tissue may be required. Methods. A case of a patient that underwent pelvic extirpation for recurrent rectal cancer who had limited donor sites for flap reconstruction is presented. The mucosa was removed from a blind loop of colon, and a pedicled seromuscular flap based on the colonic mesentery was placed into the pelvis for vascularized soft-tissue coverage and elimination of dead space. Results. The postoperative course was only complicated by a small subcutaneous fluid collection beneath the sacrectomy skin incision, which was drained with radiological assistance. The patient recovered without any major postoperative complications. Conclusion. Seromuscular colonic flap is a useful option for soft-tissue coverage after pelvic extirpation and should be considered by plastic surgeons when other reconstruction options are not available. PMID:26688771

  9. Assessment of BRAF V600E Status in Colorectal Carcinoma: Tissue-Specific Discordances between Immunohistochemistry and Sequencing.

    PubMed

    Estrella, Jeannelyn S; Tetzlaff, Michael T; Bassett, Roland L; Patel, Keyur P; Williams, Michelle D; Curry, Jonathan L; Rashid, Asif; Hamilton, Stanley R; Broaddus, Russell R

    2015-12-01

    Although sequencing provides the gold standard for identifying colorectal carcinoma with BRAF V600E mutation, immunohistochemistry (IHC) with the recently developed mouse monoclonal antibody VE1 for BRAF V600E protein has shown promise as a more widely available and rapid method. However, we identified anecdotal discordance between VE1 IHC and sequencing results and therefore analyzed VE1 staining by two different IHC methods (Leica Bond and Ventana BenchMark) in whole tissue sections from 480 colorectal carcinomas (323 BRAF wild-type, 142 BRAF V600E mutation, and 15 BRAF non-V600E mutation). We also compared the results with melanomas and papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTC). With the Bond method, among 142 BRAF V600E-mutated colorectal carcinomas, 77 (54%) had diffuse VE1 staining and 48 (33%) had heterogeneous staining, but 17 (12%) were negative. Among 323 BRAF wild-type colorectal carcinomas, 196 (61%) were negative, but 127 (39%) had staining, including 7 with diffuse staining. When positivity was defined as staining in ≥ 20% of tumor cells, VE1 IHC had sensitivity of 75% and specificity of 93% for BRAF V600E mutation. With the Ventana method, among 57 BRAF V600E-mutated colorectal carcinomas, 36 (63%) had diffuse VE1 staining, whereas 6 (11%) had no or weak (<20% of tumor cells) staining. Among 33 BRAF wild-type colorectal carcinomas, 16 (48%) had no or weak staining, whereas 15 (45%) had heterogeneous staining. In contrast with colorectal carcinoma, Bond and Ventana VE1 IHC in melanoma and PTC were highly concordant with sequencing results. We conclude that VE1 IHC produces suboptimal results in colorectal carcinoma and should not be used to guide patient management.

  10. Developing in vitro models of human ductal carcinoma in situ from primary tissue explants.

    PubMed

    Brown, Daniel D; Dabbs, David J; Lee, Adrian V; McGuire, Kandace P; Ahrendt, Gretchen M; Bhargava, Rohit; Davidson, Nancy E; Brufsky, Adam M; Johnson, Ronald R; Oesterreich, Steffi; McAuliffe, Priscilla F

    2015-09-01

    Because there are currently no reliable predictors for progression of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) to invasive disease, nearly all patients receive comprehensive therapy, leading to over-treatment in many cases. Few in vitro models for studying DCIS progression have been developed. We report here the successful culture and expansion of primary DCIS from surgical specimens using a conditional reprogramming protocol. Patients with percutaneous core-needle biopsy demonstrating DCIS were enrolled in a tissue banking protocol after informed consent was received. Fresh tissue was taken from lumpectomy or mastectomy specimens, mechanically and enzymatically dissociated, cultured in medium conditioned by irradiated mouse fibroblasts and supplemented with rho-associated protein kinase (ROCK) inhibitor, and characterized by immunocytochemistry. Out of 33 DCIS cases, 58% (19) were expanded for up to 2 months in culture, and 42% (14) were frozen immediately after mechanical dissociation for future growth. The cultures are almost exclusively composed of cytokeratin 8- and EpCAM-positive luminal and cytokeratin 14-, cytokeratin 5-, and p63-positive basal mammary epithelial cells, suggesting maintenance of heterogeneity in vitro. Furthermore, as assessed by luminal and basal marker expression, these cells retain their cellular identities both in the "conditionally reprogrammed" proliferative state and after conditioned media and ROCK inhibitor withdrawal. When grown to 100 % confluency, the cultures organize into luminal and basal layers as well as luminal compartments surrounded by basal cells. Primary cultures of DCIS derived directly from patient tissues can be generated and may serve as in vitro models for the study of DCIS.

  11. Quantitative tissue proteomics of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma for novel biomarker discovery

    PubMed Central

    Pawar, Harsh; Kashyap, Manoj Kumar; Sahasrabuddhe, Nandini A; Renuse, Santosh; Harsha, HC; Kumar, Praveen; Sharma, Jyoti; Kandasamy, Kumaran; Marimuthu, Arivusudar; Nair, Bipin; Rajagopalan, Sudha; Maharudraiah, Jagadeesha; Premalatha, Chennagiri Shrinivasamurthy; Kumar, Kariyanakatte Veeraiah Veerendra; Vijayakumar, M; Chaerkady, Raghothama; Prasad, Thotterthodi Subrahmanya Keshava

    2011-01-01

    Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is among the top ten most frequent malignancies worldwide. In this study, our objective was to identify potential biomarkers for ESCC through a quantitative proteomic approach using the isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) approach. We compared the protein expression profiles of ESCC tumor tissues with the corresponding adjacent normal tissue from ten patients. LC-MS/MS analysis of strong cation exchange chromatography fractions was performed on an Accurate Mass QTOF mass spectrometer, which led to the identification of 687 proteins. In all, 257 proteins were identified as differentially expressed in ESCC as compared with normal. We found several previously known protein biomarkers to be upregulated in ESCC including thrombospondin 1 (THBS1), periostin 1 (POSTN) and heat shock 70 kDa protein 9 (HSPA9) confirming the validity of our approach. In addition, several novel proteins that had not been reported previously were identified in our screen. These novel biomarker candidates included prosaposin (PSAP), plectin 1 (PLEC1) and protein disulfide isomerase A 4 (PDIA4) that were further validated to be overexpressed by immunohistochemical labeling using tissue microarrays. The success of our study shows that this mass spectrometric strategy can be applied to cancers in general to develop a panel of candidate biomarkers, which can then be validated by other techniques. PMID:21743296

  12. Gene expression profiling of normal thyroid tissue from patients with thyroid carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Melaccio, Assunta; Di Meo, Giovanna; Trino, Stefania; Mazzoccoli, Carmela; Saltarella, Ilaria; Lamanuzzi, Aurelia; Morano, Annalisa; Gurrado, Angela; Pasculli, Alessandro; Lastilla, Gaetano; Musto, Pellegrino; Reale, Antonia; Dammacco, Franco; Vacca, Angelo; Testini, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Gene expression profiling (GEP) of normal thyroid tissue from 43 patients with thyroid carcinoma, 6 with thyroid adenoma, 42 with multinodular goiter, and 6 with Graves-Basedow disease was carried out with the aim of achieving a better understanding of the genetic mechanisms underlying the role of normal cells surrounding the tumor in the thyroid cancer progression. Unsupervised and supervised analyses were performed to compare samples from neoplastic and non-neoplastic diseases. GEP and subsequent RT-PCR analysis identified 28 differentially expressed genes. Functional assessment revealed that they are involved in tumorigenesis and cancer progression. The distinct GEP is likely to reflect the onset and/or progression of thyroid cancer, its molecular classification, and the identification of new potential prognostic factors, thus allowing to pinpoint selective gene targets with the aim of realizing more precise preoperative diagnostic procedures and novel therapeutic approaches. STATEMENT OF SIGNIFICANCE This study is focused on the gene expression profiling analysis followed by RT-PCR of normal thyroid tissues from patients with neoplastic and non-neoplastic thyroid diseases. Twenty-eight genes were found to be differentially expressed in normal cells surrounding the tumor in the thyroid cancer. The genes dysregulated in normal tissue samples from patients with thyroid tumors may represent new molecular markers, useful for their diagnostic, prognostic and possibly therapeutic implications. PMID:27105534

  13. Gene expression profiling of normal thyroid tissue from patients with thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ria, Roberto; Simeon, Vittorio; Melaccio, Assunta; Di Meo, Giovanna; Trino, Stefania; Mazzoccoli, Carmela; Saltarella, Ilaria; Lamanuzzi, Aurelia; Morano, Annalisa; Gurrado, Angela; Pasculli, Alessandro; Lastilla, Gaetano; Musto, Pellegrino; Reale, Antonia; Dammacco, Franco; Vacca, Angelo; Testini, Mario

    2016-05-17

    Gene expression profiling (GEP) of normal thyroid tissue from 43 patients with thyroid carcinoma, 6 with thyroid adenoma, 42 with multinodular goiter, and 6 with Graves-Basedow disease was carried out with the aim of achieving a better understanding of the genetic mechanisms underlying the role of normal cells surrounding the tumor in the thyroid cancer progression. Unsupervised and supervised analyses were performed to compare samples from neoplastic and non-neoplastic diseases. GEP and subsequent RT-PCR analysis identified 28 differentially expressed genes. Functional assessment revealed that they are involved in tumorigenesis and cancer progression. The distinct GEP is likely to reflect the onset and/or progression of thyroid cancer, its molecular classification, and the identification of new potential prognostic factors, thus allowing to pinpoint selective gene targets with the aim of realizing more precise preoperative diagnostic procedures and novel therapeutic approaches.This study is focused on the gene expression profiling analysis followed by RT-PCR of normal thyroid tissues from patients with neoplastic and non-neoplastic thyroid diseases. Twenty-eight genes were found to be differentially expressed in normal cells surrounding the tumor in the thyroid cancer. The genes dysregulated in normal tissue samples from patients with thyroid tumors may represent new molecular markers, useful for their diagnostic, prognostic and possibly therapeutic implications.

  14. Gene expression profiling of normal thyroid tissue from patients with thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ria, Roberto; Simeon, Vittorio; Melaccio, Assunta; Di Meo, Giovanna; Trino, Stefania; Mazzoccoli, Carmela; Saltarella, Ilaria; Lamanuzzi, Aurelia; Morano, Annalisa; Gurrado, Angela; Pasculli, Alessandro; Lastilla, Gaetano; Musto, Pellegrino; Reale, Antonia; Dammacco, Franco; Vacca, Angelo; Testini, Mario

    2016-05-17

    Gene expression profiling (GEP) of normal thyroid tissue from 43 patients with thyroid carcinoma, 6 with thyroid adenoma, 42 with multinodular goiter, and 6 with Graves-Basedow disease was carried out with the aim of achieving a better understanding of the genetic mechanisms underlying the role of normal cells surrounding the tumor in the thyroid cancer progression. Unsupervised and supervised analyses were performed to compare samples from neoplastic and non-neoplastic diseases. GEP and subsequent RT-PCR analysis identified 28 differentially expressed genes. Functional assessment revealed that they are involved in tumorigenesis and cancer progression. The distinct GEP is likely to reflect the onset and/or progression of thyroid cancer, its molecular classification, and the identification of new potential prognostic factors, thus allowing to pinpoint selective gene targets with the aim of realizing more precise preoperative diagnostic procedures and novel therapeutic approaches.This study is focused on the gene expression profiling analysis followed by RT-PCR of normal thyroid tissues from patients with neoplastic and non-neoplastic thyroid diseases. Twenty-eight genes were found to be differentially expressed in normal cells surrounding the tumor in the thyroid cancer. The genes dysregulated in normal tissue samples from patients with thyroid tumors may represent new molecular markers, useful for their diagnostic, prognostic and possibly therapeutic implications. PMID:27105534

  15. Differentiating fibroadenoma and ductal carcinoma in situ from normal breast tissue by multiphoton microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nie, Yuting; Wu, Yan; Lian, Yuane; Fu, Fangmeng; Wang, Chuan; Chen, Jianxin

    2014-09-01

    Fibroadenoma (FA) is the most common benign tumor of the female breast and several studies have reported that women with it have increased risk of breast cancer. While the ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) is a very early form of breast cancer. Thus, early detections of FA and DCIS are critical for improving breast tumor outcome and survival. In this paper, we use multiphoton microscopy (MPM) to obtain the high-contrast images of fresh, unfixed, unstained human breast specimens (normal breast tissue, FA and DCIS). Our results show that MPM has the ability to identify the characteristics of FA and DCIS including changes of duct architecture and collagen morphology. These results are consistent with the histological results. With the advancement of MPM, the technique has potential ability to serve as a real-time noninvasive imaging tool for early detection of breast tumor.

  16. TISSUE METABOLOMICS OF HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA: TUMOR ENERGY METABOLISM AND THE ROLE OF TRANSCRIPTOMIC CLASSIFICATION

    PubMed Central

    Beyoğlu, Diren; Imbeaud, Sandrine; Maurhofer, Olivier; Bioulac-Sage, Paulette; Zucman-Rossi, Jessica; Dufour, Jean-François; Idle, Jeffrey R.

    2013-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the commonest causes of death from cancer. A plethora of metabolomic investigations of HCC have yielded molecules in biofluids that are both up- and downregulated but no real consensus has emerged regarding exploitable biomarkers for early detection of HCC. We report here a different approach, a combined transcriptomics and metabolomics study of energy metabolism in HCC. A panel of 31 pairs of HCC tumors and corresponding non-tumor liver tissues from the same patients was investigated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GCMS) based metabolomics. HCC was characterized by approximately two-fold depletion of glucose, glycerol 3- and 2-phosphate, malate, alanine, myo-inositol, and linoleic acid. Data are consistent with a metabolic remodeling involving a four-fold increase in glycolysis over mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. A second panel of 59 HCC that had been typed by transcriptomics and classified in G1 to G6 subgroups was also subjected to GCMS tissue metabolomics. No differences in glucose, lactate, alanine, glycerol 3-phosphate, malate, myo-inositol or stearic acid tissue concentrations were found, suggesting that the Wnt/β-catenin pathway activated by CTNNB1 mutation in subgroups G5 and G6 did not exhibit specific metabolic remodeling. However, subgroup G1 had markedly reduced tissue concentrations of 1-stearoylglycerol, 1-palmitoylglycerol, and palmitic acid, suggesting that the high serum α-fetoprotein phenotype of G1, associated with the known overexpression of lipid catabolic enzymes, could be detected through metabolomics as increased lipid catabolism. Conclusion Tissue metabolomics yielded precise biochemical information regarding HCC tumor metabolic remodeling from mitochondrial oxidation to aerobic glycolysis and the impact of molecular subtypes on this process. PMID:23463346

  17. Ex vivo determination of glucose permeability and optical attenuation coefficient in normal and adenomatous human colon tissues using spectral domain optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Qingliang; Zhou, Chuanqing; Wei, Huajiang; He, Yonghong; Chai, Xinyu; Ren, Qiushi

    2012-10-01

    Recent reports have suggested that spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) is a useful tool for quantifying the permeability of hyperosmotic agents in various tissues. We report our preliminary results on quantification of glucose diffusion and assessment of the optical attenuation change due to the diffusion of glucose in normal and adenomatous human colon tissues in vitro by using a SD-OCT and then calculated the permeability coefficients (PC) and optical attenuation coefficients (AC). The PC of a 30% aqueous solution of glucose was 3.37±0.23×10-6 cm/s in normal tissue and 5.65±0.16×10-6 cm/s in cancerous colon tissue. Optical AC in a normal colon ranged from 3.48±0.37 to 2.68±0.82 mm-1 and was significantly lower than those seen in the cancerous tissue (8.48±0.95 to 3.16±0.69 mm-1, p<0.05). The results suggest that quantitative measurements of using PC and AC from OCT images could be a potentially powerful method for colon cancer detection.

  18. Effects of supplemental vitamin D and calcium on normal colon tissue and circulating biomarkers of risk for colorectal neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Bostick, Roberd M

    2015-04-01

    This brief review, based on an invited presentation at the 17th Workshop on Vitamin D, is to summarize a line of the author's research that has been directed at the intertwined missions of clarifying and/or developing vitamin D and calcium as preventive agents against colorectal cancer in humans, understanding the mechanisms by which these agents may reduce risk for the disease, and developing 'treatable' biomarkers of risk for colorectal cancer. The biological plausibility and observational and clinical trial evidence for vitamin D and calcium in reducing risk for colorectal neoplasms, the development of pre-neoplastic biomarkers of risk for colorectal neoplasms, and the clinical trial findings from the author's research group on the efficacy of vitamin D and calcium in modulating these biomarkers are summarized. Regarding the latter, we tested the efficacy of 800 IU (20μg) of vitamin D3 and 2.0g of calcium daily, alone and combined vs. placebo over 6 months on modulating normal colon tissue and circulating hypothesis-based biomarkers of risk for colorectal neoplasms in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 2×2 factorial design clinical trial (n=92). The tissue-based biomarkers were measured in biopsies of normal-appearing rectal mucosa using immunohistochemistry with quantitative image analysis, and a panel of circulating inflammation markers was measured using enzyme-linked immunoassays (ELISA). Statistically significant proportional tissue increases in the vitamin D group relative to the placebo group were found in bax (51%), p21 (141%), APC (48%), E-cadherin (78%), MSH2 (179%), the CaSR (39%), and CYP27B1 (159%). In blood, there was a 77% statistically significant decrease in a summary inflammation z-score. The findings for calcium were similar to those for vitamin D. These findings indicate that supplemental vitamin D3 or calcium can favorably modulate multiple normal colon tissue and circulating hypothesis-based biomarkers of risk for colorectal

  19. Evaluation of ultrasound and glucose synergy effect on the optical clearing and light penetration for human colon tissue using SD-OCT.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qingliang; Wei, Huajiang; He, Yonghong; Ren, Qiushi; Zhou, Chuanqing

    2014-11-01

    Topical application optical clearing agents (OCAs) can effectively enhance the tissue optical clearing on the human colon tissue, which has been demonstrated in our previous studies. Nevertheless, the strong light scattering still limits the diffusion rate of OCAs and penetration depth of light into the tissue. In this study, in order to further increase the diffusion of the OCA of glucose into tissue, we employ a method to improve the glucose permeability and light penetration with ultrasound (sonophoretic delivery, SP) and glucose (G) synergy on human normal and cancerous colon tissues in vitro, which was measured and quantified with spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) technology. To evaluate the effect of ultrasound mediation, the percentages of OCT signal enhancement (PSE) and 1/e light-penetration depth were calculated for G alone and ultrasound-G treatments. The PSE was calculated at approximately 313 μm from the sample tissue surface. For normal and cancerous colon tissues the PSE were about 91.1 ± 10.6% and 65.3% ± 12.3% with 30% G/SP, but for the 30% G alone treatment it was about 78.6 ± 11.2% and 54.5% ± 9.3%, respectively. The max value of 1/e light-penetration depth for normal colon tissue was 0.47 ± 0.02 mm with 30% G alone and 0.60 ± 0.05 mm (p < 0.05)with 30% G/SP synergy. However, for the cancerous colon tissue the max value was 0.45 ± 0.01 mm and 0.57 ± 0.03 mm (p < 0.05), respectively. The obtained permeability coefficients showed a significant enhancement with ultrasound mediation. The mean permeability coefficients of 30% G/SP in normal and cancerous colon tissues were (6.3 ± 0.16) × 10(-6) cm/s and (12.1 ± 0.34) × 10(-6) cm/s (p < 0.05), respectively. These preliminary experiments showed that ultrasound can effectively enhance the tissue optical clearing and glucose diffusion rate as well as increase the light-penetration depth into biotissues.

  20. Oral inoculation of probiotics Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM suppresses tumour growth both in segmental orthotopic colon cancer and extra-intestinal tissue.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chien-Chang; Lin, Wei-Chuan; Kong, Man-Shan; Shi, Hai Ning; Walker, W Allan; Lin, Chun-Yen; Huang, Ching-Tai; Lin, Yung-Chang; Jung, Shih-Ming; Lin, Tzou-Yien

    2012-06-01

    Modulation of the cellular response by the administration of probiotic bacteria may be an effective strategy for preventing or inhibiting tumour growth. We orally pre-inoculated mice with probiotics Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM (La) for 14 d. Subcutaneous dorsal-flank tumours and segmental orthotopic colon cancers were implanted into mice using CT-26 murine colon adenocarcinoma cells. On day 28 after tumour initiation, the lamina propria of the colon, mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN) and spleen were harvested and purified for flow cytometry and mRNA analyses. We demonstrated that La pre-inoculation reduced tumour volume growth by 50·3 %, compared with untreated mice at 28 d after tumour implants (2465·5 (SEM 1290·4) v. 4950·9 (SEM 1689·3) mm³, P<0·001). Inoculation with La reduced the severity of colonic carcinogenesis caused by CT-26 cells, such as level of colonic involvement and structural abnormality of epithelial/crypt damage. Moreover, La enhanced apoptosis of CT-26 cells both in dorsal-flank tumour and segmental orthotopic colon cancer, and the mean counts of apoptotic body were higher in mice pre-inoculated with La (P<0·05) compared with untreated mice. La pre-inoculation down-regulated the CXCR4 mRNA expressions in the colon, MLN and extra-intestinal tissue, compared with untreated mice (P<0·05). In addition, La pre-inoculation reduced the mean fluorescence index of MHC class I (H-2Dd, -Kd and -Ld) in flow cytometry analysis. Taken together, these findings suggest that probiotics La may play a role in attenuating tumour growth during CT-26 cell carcinogenesis. The down-regulated expression of CXCR4 mRNA and MHC class I, as well as increasing apoptosis in tumour tissue, indicated that La may be associated with modulating the cellular response triggered by colon carcinogenesis. PMID:21992995

  1. The parasite Entamoeba histolytica exploits the activities of human matrix metalloproteinases to invade colonic tissue.

    PubMed

    Thibeaux, Roman; Avé, Patrick; Bernier, Michèle; Morcelet, Marie; Frileux, Pascal; Guillén, Nancy; Labruyère, Elisabeth

    2014-10-07

    Intestinal invasion by the protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica is characterized by remodelling of the extracellular matrix (ECM). The parasite cysteine proteinase A5 (CP-A5) is thought to cooperate with human matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) involved in ECM degradation. Here, we investigate the role CP-A5 plays in the regulation of MMPs upon mucosal invasion. We use human colon explants to determine whether CP-A5 activates human MMPs. Inhibition of the MMPs' proteolytic activities abolishes remodelling of the fibrillar collagen structure and prevents trophozoite invasion of the mucosa. In the presence of trophozoites, MMPs-1 and -3 are overexpressed and are associated with fibrillar collagen remodelling. In vitro, CP-A5 performs the catalytic cleavage needed to activate pro-MMP-3, which in turn activates pro-MMP-1. Ex vivo, incubation with recombinant CP-A5 was enough to rescue CP-A5-defective trophozoites. Our results suggest that MMP-3 and/or CP-A5 inhibitors may be of value in further studies aiming to treat intestinal amoebiasis.

  2. A glycine betaine importer limits Salmonella stress resistance and tissue colonization by reducing trehalose production.

    PubMed

    Pilonieta, M Carolina; Nagy, Toni A; Jorgensen, Dana R; Detweiler, Corrella S

    2012-04-01

    Mechanisms by which Salmonella establish chronic infections are not well understood. Microbes respond to stress by importing or producing compatible solutes, small molecules that stabilize proteins and lipids. The Salmonella locus opuABCD (also called OpuC) encodes a predicted importer of the compatible solute glycine betaine. Under stress conditions, if glycine betaine cannot be imported, Salmonella enterica produce the disaccharide trehalose, a highly effective compatible solute. We demonstrate that strains lacking opuABCD accumulate more trehalose under stress conditions than wild-type strains. ΔopuABCD mutant strains are more resistant to high-salt, low-pH and -hydrogen peroxide, conditions that mimic aspects of innate immunity, in a trehalose-dependent manner. In addition, ΔopuABCD mutant strains require the trehalose production genes to out-compete wild-type strains in mice and macrophages. These data suggest that in the absence of opuABCD, trehalose accumulation increases bacterial resistance to stress in broth and mice. Thus, opuABCD reduces bacterial colonization via a mechanism that limits trehalose production. Mechanisms by which microbes limit disease may reveal novel pathways as therapeutic targets.

  3. Differential Proteomics Analysis of Colonic Tissues in Patients of Slow Transit Constipation

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Songlin; Liu, Weicheng; Tian, Cuiping; Ren, Xianghai; Ding, Zhao; Qian, Qun; Jiang, Congqing; Wu, Yunhua

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To investigate and screen the different expression of proteins in STC and normal group with a comparative proteomic approach. Methods. Two-dimensional electrophoresis was applied to separate the proteins in specimens from both 5 STC patients and 5 normal controls. The proteins with statistically significant differential expression between two groups were identified by computer aided image analysis and matrix assisted laser desorption ionization tandem time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). Results. A total of 239 protein spots were identified in the average gel of the normal control and 215 in patients with STC. A total of 197 protein spots were matched and the mean matching rate was 82%. There were 14 protein spots which were expressed with statistically significant differences from others. Of those 14 protein spots, the expression of 12 spots increased markedly, while that of 2 spots decreased significantly. Conclusion. The proteomics expression in colonic specimens of STC patients is statistically significantly different from that of normal control, which may be associated with the pathogenesis of STC. PMID:27239471

  4. Terahertz in-line digital holography of human hepatocellular carcinoma tissue

    PubMed Central

    Rong, Lu; Latychevskaia, Tatiana; Chen, Chunhai; Wang, Dayong; Yu, Zhengping; Zhou, Xun; Li, Zeyu; Huang, Haochong; Wang, Yunxin; Zhou, Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Terahertz waves provide a better contrast in imaging soft biomedical tissues than X-rays, and unlike X-rays, they cause no ionisation damage, making them a good option for biomedical imaging. Terahertz absorption imaging has conventionally been used for cancer diagnosis. However, the absorption properties of a cancerous sample are influenced by two opposing factors: an increase in absorption due to a higher degree of hydration and a decrease in absorption due to structural changes. It is therefore difficult to diagnose cancer from an absorption image. Phase imaging can thus be critical for diagnostics. We demonstrate imaging of the absorption and phase-shift distributions of 3.2 mm × 2.3 mm × 30-μm-thick human hepatocellular carcinoma tissue by continuous-wave terahertz digital in-line holography. The acquisition time of a few seconds for a single in-line hologram is much shorter than that of other terahertz diagnostic techniques, and future detectors will allow acquisition of meaningful holograms without sample dehydration. The resolution of the reconstructions was enhanced by sub-pixel shifting and extrapolation. Another advantage of this technique is its relaxed minimal sample size limitation. The fibrosis indicated in the phase distribution demonstrates the potential of terahertz holographic imaging to obtain a more objective, early diagnosis of cancer. PMID:25676705

  5. Diagnostic and Prognostic Significance of Serum and Tissue Galectin 3 Expression in Patients with Carcinoma of the Bladder

    PubMed Central

    Gendy, Hoda El; Madkour, Bothina; Abdelaty, Sara; Essawy, Fayza; Khattab, Dina; Hammam, Olfat; Nour, Hani H.

    2014-01-01

    Background Galectins are group of proteins found in the cytoplasm, nucleus, cell surface and extracellular matrix. Galectin 3 (Gal-3) displays pathological expression in a variety of processes such as tumorigenesis. Patients and Method 70 patients classified into the control group, cystitis group, transitional cell carcinoma group, and squamous cell carcinoma group were enrolled in this study which aimed to detect the serum level and the intensity of tissue expression of Gal-3. Results Both serum level and tissue expression of Gal-3 were statistically higher in bladder cancer patients compared to the other groups. Gal-3 level expression increased from low to high grade urothelial tumors, with a statistically significant increase of its level and expression between muscle invasive and non-muscle invasive Ta urothelial tumors. Conclusion The serum Gal-3 level is sensitive and specific for the diagnosis of bladder cancer. The prognostic significance of tissue expression is to be confirmed. PMID:26195948

  6. Major contribution of MEK1 to the activation of ERK1/ERK2 and to the growth of LS174T colon carcinoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Shama, Jessica; Garcia-Medina, Raquel; Pouyssegur, Jacques Vial, Emmanuel

    2008-08-08

    Mammalian cells express two closely related MEK isoforms, MEK1 and MEK2, upstream of the ERK1/ERK2 MAPK module. Although genetic studies have suggested that MEK1 and MEK2 do not have overlapping functions in vivo, little is known about their specific contribution to the activation of ERKs and to tumor cell proliferation. We used Tet-inducible shRNA to investigate the independent role of MEK1 and MEK2 for the oncogenic and the serum-induced activation of ERK1 and ERK2 in LS174T colon carcinoma cells. We show that MEK1 is the main activator of both ERK1 and ERK2. MEK2 removal has no impact by itself but it can cooperate with MEK1 ablation for the inhibition of ERK1/2 activity. In addition, we show that MEK1 is the critical isoform regulating tumor cell proliferation in vitro and in vivo.

  7. Development of a quantitative PCR assay for monitoring Streptococcus agalactiae colonization and tissue tropism in experimentally infected tilapia.

    PubMed

    Su, Y-L; Feng, J; Li, Y-W; Bai, J-S; Li, A-X

    2016-02-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae has become one of the most important emerging pathogens in the aquaculture industry and has resulted in large economic losses for tilapia farms in China. In this study, three pairs of specific primers were designed and tested for their specificities and sensitivities in quantitative real-time polymerase chain reactions (qPCRs) after optimization of the annealing temperature. The primer pair IGS-s/IGS-a, which targets the 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacer region, was finally chosen, having a detection limit of 8.6 copies of S. agalactiae DNA in a 20 μL reaction mixture. Bacterial tissue tropism was demonstrated by qPCR in Oreochromis niloticus 5 days post-injection with a virulent S. agalactiae strain. Bacterial loads were detected at the highest level in brain, followed by moderately high levels in kidney, heart, spleen, intestines, and eye. Significantly lower bacterial loads were observed in muscle, gill and liver. In addition, significantly lower bacterial loads were observed in the brain of convalescent O. niloticus 14 days post-injection with several different S. agalactiae strains. The qPCR for the detection of S. agalactiae developed in this study provides a quantitative tool for investigating bacterial tissue tropism in infected fish, as well as for monitoring bacterial colonization in convalescent fish.

  8. Differential Gene Expression in Colon Tissue Associated With Diet, Lifestyle, and Related Oxidative Stress.

    PubMed

    Slattery, Martha L; Pellatt, Daniel F; Mullany, Lila E; Wolff, Roger K

    2015-01-01

    Several diet and lifestyle factors may impact health by influencing oxidative stress levels. We hypothesize that level of cigarette smoking, alcohol, anti-inflammatory drugs, and diet alter gene expression. We analyzed RNA-seq data from 144 colon cancer patients who had information on recent cigarette smoking, recent alcohol consumption, diet, and recent aspirin/non-steroidal anti-inflammatory use. Using a false discovery rate of 0.1, we evaluated gene differential expression between high and low levels of exposure using DESeq2. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) was used to determine networks associated with de-regulated genes in our data. We identified 46 deregulated genes associated with recent cigarette use; these genes enriched causal networks regulated by TEK and MAP2K3. Different differentially expressed genes were associated with type of alcohol intake; five genes were associated with total alcohol, six were associated with beer intake, six were associated with wine intake, and four were associated with liquor consumption. Recent use of aspirin and/or ibuprofen was associated with differential expression of TMC06, ST8SIA4, and STEAP3 while a summary oxidative balance score (OBS) was associated with SYCP3, HDX, and NRG4 (all up-regulated with greater oxidative balance). Of the dietary antioxidants and carotenoids evaluated only intake of beta carotene (1 gene), Lutein/Zeaxanthine (5 genes), and Vitamin E (4 genes) were associated with differential gene expression. There were similarities in biological function of de-regulated genes associated with various dietary and lifestyle factors. Our data support the hypothesis that diet and lifestyle factors associated with oxidative stress can alter gene expression. However genes altered were unique to type of alcohol and type of antioxidant. Because of potential differences in associations observed between platforms these findings need replication in other populations. PMID:26230583

  9. Akt Inhibitor MK2206 in Treating Patients With Previously Treated Colon or Rectal Cancer That is Metastatic or Locally Advanced and Cannot Be Removed by Surgery

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-06-10

    Colon Mucinous Adenocarcinoma; Colon Signet Ring Cell Adenocarcinoma; Rectal Mucinous Adenocarcinoma; Rectal Signet Ring Cell Adenocarcinoma; Recurrent Colon Carcinoma; Recurrent Rectal Carcinoma; Stage IIIA Colon Cancer; Stage IIIA Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIB Colon Cancer; Stage IIIB Rectal Cancer; Stage IIIC Colon Cancer; Stage IIIC Rectal Cancer; Stage IVA Colon Cancer; Stage IVA Rectal Cancer; Stage IVB Colon Cancer; Stage IVB Rectal Cancer

  10. Up-regulation of Tim-3 is associated with poor prognosis of patients with colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Encheng; Huang, Qing; Wang, Ji; Fang, Chengfeng; Yang, Leilei; Zhu, Min; Chen, Jianhui; Chen, Lihua; Dong, Milian

    2015-01-01

    Tim-3 (T cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain 3), belonging to the member of the novel Tim family, has been confirmed that it plays a critical negative role in regulating the immune responses against viral infection and carcinoma. Recently, it has also been reported that the over-expression of Tim-3 is associated with poor prognosis in solid tumors. However, the role of Tim-3 in colorectal cancer remains largely unknown. In the current study, we aim to investigate the expression of Tim-3 in colorectal carcinoma and discuss the relationship between Tim-3 expression and colon cancer prognosis, thus speculating the possible role of Tim-3 in colon cancer progression. Colon cancer tissues and paired normal tissue were obtained from 201 patients with colon cancer for preparation of tissue microarray. Tim-3 expression was evaluated by immunohistochemical staining. The Tim-3 expression level was evaluated by q-RT-PCR, western blot and immunocytochemistry in four colon cancer cell lines (HT-29, HCT116, LoVo, SW620). Tim-3 was expressed in 92.5% tumor tissue samples and 86.5% corresponding normal tissue samples. Expression of Tim-3 was significantly higher in tumor tissues than in normal tissues (P < 0.0001). Tim-3 expression in colon cancer tissues is in correlation with colon cancer lymphatic metastasis and TNM (P < 0.0001). Multivariate analysis demonstrated that Tim-3 expression could be a potential independent prognostic factor for colon cancer patients (P < 0.0001). Kaplan-Meier survival analysis result showed that patients with higher Tim-3 expression had a significantly shorter survival time than those with lower Tim-3 expression patients. Our results indicated that Tim-3 might participate in the tumorgenesis of colon cancer and Tim-3 expression might be a potential independent prognostic factor for patients with colorectal cancer.

  11. Both soluble and membrane-bound forms of Flt3 ligand enhance tumor immunity following "suicide" gene therapy in a murine colon carcinoma model.

    PubMed

    Alsheikhly, Abdul-Razzak; Zweiri, Jehad; Walmesley, Alice J; Watson, Alastair J M; Christmas, Stephen E

    2004-11-01

    In prodrug-activated ("suicide") gene therapy, tumor cells are transfected with the gene for an enzyme that converts an inactive prodrug, such as ganciclovir (GCV), to a toxic compound. Transfected cells are killed on administration of GCV, as also are untransfected "bystander" cells. The ability of the dendritic cell stimulatory cytokine Flt3 ligand (Flt3-L) to modulate prodrug-activated gene therapy has been investigated. Transfectants of the murine colon carcinoma MC26 were generated expressing soluble (FLS) and membrane-bound forms of Flt3-L. They were inoculated together with wild-type MC26 cells and cells expressing herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV1) thymidine kinase into BALB/c mice, which were then administered GCV. Expression of Flt3-L or FLS prevented regrowth of tumor in most mice, which was comparable to the effect of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), while tumors recurred in all mice receiving "suicide" gene therapy alone. Recurring tumor cells were resistant to direct killing by GCV but sensitive to "bystander" killing in vitro. Mice without tumor recurrence were rechallenged with unmodified MC26 cells. Of those mice given transfectants expressing GM-CSF, Flt3-L, or FLS, approximately 50% were immune to rechallenge. These mice also showed cytotoxic and proliferative responses to MC26 cells. These experiments show that both soluble and membrane-bound forms of Flt3-L were able to induce a protective immune response to colon carcinoma cells in a fashion similar to GM-CSF.

  12. Metabolomics of papillary thyroid carcinoma tissues: potential biomarkers for diagnosis and promising targets for therapy.

    PubMed

    Shang, Xingchen; Zhong, Xia; Tian, Xingsong

    2016-08-01

    Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) is the most common pathological type of thyroid cancer. Our study was to construct a tissue-targeted metabolomics analysis method based on untargeted and targeted metabolic multi-platforms to identify a comprehensive PTC metabolic network in clinical samples. We applied untargeted gas chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOF-MS) for preliminary screening of potential biomarkers. With diagnostic models constructed using principal component analysis (PCA), partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) and orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA), 45 differentially abundant metabolites with a variable importance in the projection (VIP) value greater than 1 and a P value less than 0.05 were identified, and we show that our approach was able to discriminate PTC tissues from healthy tissues. We then performed validation experiments based on targeted GC-TOF-MS combined with ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-triple-quadrupole mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QqQ-MS) through constructing linear standard curves of analytes. Ultimately, galactinol, melibiose, and melatonin were validated as significantly altered metabolites (p < 0.05). These three metabolites were defined as a combinatorial biomarker to assist needle biopsy for PTC diagnosis as demonstrated by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis, which revealed an area under the ROC curve (AUC) value of 0.96. Based on the metabolite enrichment analysis results, the galactose metabolism pathway was regarded as an important factor influencing PTC development by affecting energy metabolism. Alpha-galactosidase (GLA) was considered to be a potential target for PTC therapy. PMID:26935059

  13. Comparison of Nanostring nCounter® Data on FFPE Colon Cancer Samples and Affymetrix Microarray Data on Matched Frozen Tissues.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xi; Deane, Natasha G; Lewis, Keeli B; Li, Jiang; Zhu, Jing; Washington, M Kay; Beauchamp, R Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The prognosis of colorectal cancer (CRC) stage II and III patients remains a challenge due to the difficulties of finding robust biomarkers suitable for testing clinical samples. The majority of published gene signatures of CRC have been generated on fresh frozen colorectal tissues. Because collection of frozen tissue is not practical for routine surgical pathology practice, a clinical test that improves prognostic capabilities beyond standard pathological staging of colon cancer will need to be designed for formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues. The NanoString nCounter® platform is a gene expression analysis tool developed for use with FFPE-derived samples. We designed a custom nCounter® codeset based on elements from multiple published fresh frozen tissue microarray-based prognostic gene signatures for colon cancer, and we used this platform to systematically compare gene expression data from FFPE with matched microarray array data from frozen tissues. Our results show moderate correlation of gene expression between two platforms and discovery of a small subset of genes as candidate biomarkers for colon cancer prognosis that are detectable and quantifiable in FFPE tissue sections. PMID:27176004

  14. Comparison of Microarray Platforms for Measuring Differential MicroRNA Expression in Paired Normal/Cancer Colon Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Callari, Maurizio; Dugo, Matteo; Musella, Valeria; Marchesi, Edoardo; Chiorino, Giovanna; Grand, Maurizia Mello; Pierotti, Marco Alessandro; Daidone, Maria Grazia; Canevari, Silvana; De Cecco, Loris

    2012-01-01

    Background Microarray technology applied to microRNA (miRNA) profiling is a promising tool in many research fields; nevertheless, independent studies characterizing the same pathology have often reported poorly overlapping results. miRNA analysis methods have only recently been systematically compared but only in few cases using clinical samples. Methodology/Principal Findings We investigated the inter-platform reproducibility of four miRNA microarray platforms (Agilent, Exiqon, Illumina, and Miltenyi), comparing nine paired tumor/normal colon tissues. The most concordant and selected discordant miRNAs were further studied by quantitative RT-PCR. Globally, a poor overlap among differentially expressed miRNAs identified by each platform was found. Nevertheless, for eight miRNAs high agreement in differential expression among the four platforms and comparability to qRT-PCR was observed. Furthermore, most of the miRNA sets identified by each platform are coherently enriched in data from the other platforms and the great majority of colon cancer associated miRNA sets derived from the literature were validated in our data, independently from the platform. Computational integration of miRNA and gene expression profiles suggested that anti-correlated predicted target genes of differentially expressed miRNAs are commonly enriched in cancer-related pathways and in genes involved in glycolysis and nutrient transport. Conclusions Technical and analytical challenges in measuring miRNAs still remain and further research is required in order to increase consistency between different microarray-based methodologies. However, a better inter-platform agreement was found by looking at miRNA sets instead of single miRNAs and through a miRNAs – gene expression integration approach. PMID:23028787

  15. The GacA global regulator of Vibrio fischeri is required for normal host tissue responses that limit subsequent bacterial colonization.

    PubMed

    Whistler, Cheryl A; Koropatnick, Tanya A; Pollack, Amber; McFall-Ngai, Margaret J; Ruby, Edward G

    2007-03-01

    Harmful and beneficial bacterium-host interactions induce similar host-tissue changes that lead to contrasting outcomes of association. A life-long association between Vibrio fischeri and the light organ of its host Euprymna scolopes begins when the squid collects bacteria from the surrounding seawater using mucus secreted from ciliated epithelial appendages. Following colonization, the bacterium causes changes in host tissue including cessation of mucus shedding, and apoptosis and regression of the appendages that may limit additional bacterial interactions. We evaluated whether delivery of morphogenic signals is influenced by GacA, a virulence regulator in pathogens, which also influences squid-colonization by V. fischeri. Low-level colonization by a GacA mutant led to regression of the ciliated appendages. However, the GacA mutant did not induce cessation of mucus shedding, nor did it trigger apoptosis in the appendages, a phenotype that normally correlates with their regression. Because apoptosis is triggered by lipopolysaccharide, we examined the GacA mutant and determined that it had an altered lipopolysaccharide profile as well as an increased sensitivity to detergents. GacA-mutant-colonized animals were highly susceptible to invasion by secondary colonizers, suggesting that the GacA mutant's inability to signal the full programme of light-organ responses permitted the prolonged recruitment of additional symbionts.

  16. Antioxidant effectiveness of phenolic apple juice extracts and their gut fermentation products in the human colon carcinoma cell line caco-2.

    PubMed

    Bellion, Phillip; Hofmann, Thomas; Pool-Zobel, Beatrice L; Will, Frank; Dietrich, Helmut; Knaup, Bastian; Richling, Elke; Baum, Matthias; Eisenbrand, Gerhard; Janzowski, Christine

    2008-08-13

    Apples represent a major dietary source of antioxidative polyphenols. Their metabolic conversion by the gut microflora might generate products that protect the intestine against oxidative damage. We studied the antioxidant effectiveness of supernatants of fermented apple juice extracts (F-AEs, 6 and 24 h fermentation) and of selected phenolic degradation products, identified by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS. Cell free antioxidant capacity of unfermented apple juice extracts (AEs) was decreased after fermentation by 30-50%. In the human colon carcinoma cell line Caco-2, F-AEs (containing <0.5% of original AE-phenolics) decreased the reactive oxygen species (ROS) level more efficiently than the F-blank (fermented without AE) but were less effective than the respective AEs. Similarly, antioxidant effectiveness of individual degradation products was lower compared to respective AE constituents. Glutathione level was slightly increased and oxidative DNA damage slightly decreased by fermented AE03, rich in quercetin glycosides. In conclusion, F-AEs/degradation products exhibit antioxidant activity in colon cells but to a lesser extent than the respective unfermented AEs/constituents.

  17. Effect of cisplatin and c-myb antisense phosphorothioate oligodeoxynucleotides combination on a human colon carcinoma cell line in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Del Bufalo, D.; Cucco, C.; Leonetti, C.; Citro, G.; D'Agnano, I.; Benassi, M.; Geiser, T.; Zon, G.; Calabretta, B.; Zupi, G.

    1996-01-01

    We investigated the effect of c-myb antisense phosphorothioate oligodeoxynucleotides [(S)ODNs] and cisplatin (CDDP) combination on the human colon carcinoma cell line LoVo Dx both in vitro and in nude mice bearing LoVo Dx solid tumour. We show that antisense (S)ODN treatment decreases c-myb mRNA and protein expression, induces growth arrest in the G1 phase of the cell cycle, and inhibits cell proliferation. In vivo treatment with c-myb antisense (S)ODNs results in a reduction in tumour growth. A greater inhibition of cell proliferation in vitro and a higher increase of tumour growth inhibition and growth delay in vivo were obtained with the combination of (S)ODNs and CDDP than when the two agents were administered separately. This comparative study, using the same tumour cell line in vitro and in vivo, suggests that c-myb antisense (S)ODNs might be useful in the therapy of colon cancer in combination with antineoplastic drugs. Images Figure 1 Figure 4 PMID:8695353

  18. Tumour-Associated Tissue Eosinophilia in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma- A Boon or a Bane?

    PubMed Central

    Yellapurkar, Shweta; Boaz, Karen; Baliga, Mohan; Shetty, Premalatha; Manaktala, Nidhi; Prasad, Mukul; Ravi, Mahalakshmi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The infiltration of tumour stroma by eosinophils, Tumour-Associated Tissue Eosinophilia (TATE) is known to modulate the evolution of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma (OSCC). Identification of eosinophils in the inflammatory stroma has been proven to be an important factor in prognostication of malignant tumours including cancers of mouth, oesophagus, larynx, pharynx, breast, lung, intestine and genitourinary tract. Aim Our study aimed to assess the role of TATE as a prognosticator in OSCC as visualized by Haematoxylin and Eosin (H&E) and congo red staining. Materials and Methods Thirty histologically-proven cases of OSCC were retrieved from the archives of Department of Oral Pathology, Manipal College of Dental Sciences, Mangalore, Manipal University, Karnataka, India. Two serial sections of 4μm thickness were made and subjected to routine staining with H&E and modified congo red staining, where eosinophil granules stained red and nuclei stained blue. In 40x magnification, 10 HPF at invasive tumour front were assessed for counting eosinophils by placing a 49 square grid (measuring 0.0289 sq mm). Statistical Analysis The TATE was compared with the prognosticators using Mann-Whitney U-test. The grades of carcinoma were correlated with TATE using Kruskal-Wallis test followed by Post-hoc Bonferronis correction. Agreement of the number of eosinophils counted in the two staining techniques (H&E and Congo red) in OSCC was achieved using interclass correlation coefficient, and Friedman’s test. A value of p< 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results Our results showed that tissue eosinophil counts were higher in well-differentiated cases of OSCC, cases with lymph node involvement, decreased survival, without margin involvement and in cases that did not recur. H&E stain showed significantly better visualization of eosinophils resulting in higher eosinophil counts than when seen with Congo red (p=0.008). Conclusion Thus, TATE can be used as a

  19. Revealing editing and SNPs of microRNAs in colon tissues by analyzing high-throughput sequencing profiles of small RNAs

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Editing and mutations in microRNAs (miRNAs) can change the stability of pre-miRNAs and/or complementarities between miRNAs and their targets. Small RNA (sRNA) high-throughput sequencing (HTS) profiles contain miRNAs that are originated from mutated DNAs or are edited during their biogenesis procedures. It is largely unknown whether miRNAs are edited in colon tissues since existing studies mainly focused their attention on the editing of miRNAs in brain tissues. Results Through comprehensive analysis of four high-throughput sequencing profiles of normal and cancerous colon tissues, we identified 548 editing and/or SNPs in miRNAs that are significant in at least one of the sequencing profiles used. Our results show that the most abundant editing events of miRNAs in colon tissues are 3'-A and 3'-U. In addition to four known A-to-I editing sites previously reported in brain tissues, four novel A-to-I editing sites are also identified in colon tissues. Conclusions This suggests that A-to-I editing of miRNAs potentially is a commonly existing mechanism in different tissues to diversify the possible functional roles of miRNAs, but only a small portion of different miRNAs are edited by the A-to-I mechanism at a significant level. Our results suggest that there are other types of editing in miRNAs through unknown mechanisms. Furthermore, several SNPs in miRNAs are also identified. PMID:25521855

  20. MicroRNA-320a suppresses human colon cancer cell proliferation by directly targeting {beta}-catenin

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Jian-Yong; Huang, Yi; Li, Ji-Peng; Zhang, Xiang; Wang, Lei; Meng, Yan-Ling; Yan, Bo; Bian, Yong-Qian; Zhao, Jing; Wang, Wei-Zhong; and others

    2012-04-20

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer miR-320a is downregulated in human colorectal carcinoma. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Overexpression of miR-320a inhibits colon cancer cell proliferation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer {beta}-Catenin is a direct target of miR-320a in colon cancer cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer miR-320a expression inversely correlates with mRNA expression of {beta}-catenin's target genes in human colon carcinoma. -- Abstract: Recent profile studies of microRNA (miRNA) expression have documented a deregulation of miRNA (miR-320a) in human colorectal carcinoma. However, its expression pattern and underlying mechanisms in the development and progression of colorectal carcinoma has not been elucidated clearly. Here, we performed real-time PCR to examine the expression levels of miR-320a in colon cancer cell lines and tumor tissues. And then, we investigated its biological functions in colon cancer cells by a gain of functional strategy. Further more, by the combinational approaches of bioinformatics and experimental validation, we confirmed target associations of miR-320a in colorectal carcinoma. Our results showed that miR-320a was frequently downregulated in cancer cell lines and colon cancer tissues. And we demonstrated that miR-320a restoration inhibited colon cancer cell proliferation and {beta}-catenin, a functionally oncogenic molecule was a direct target gene of miR-320a. Finally, the data of real-time PCR showed the reciprocal relationship between miR-320a and {beta}-catenin's downstream genes in colon cancer tissues. These findings indicate that miR-320a suppresses the growth of colon cancer cells by directly targeting {beta}-catenin, suggesting its application in prognosis prediction and cancer treatment.

  1. Berberine Reduces cAMP-Induced Chloride Secretion in T84 Human Colonic Carcinoma Cells through Inhibition of Basolateral KCNQ1 Channels

    PubMed Central

    Alzamora, Rodrigo; O’Mahony, Fiona; Ko, Wing-Hung; Yip, Tiffany Wai-Nga; Carter, Derek; Irnaten, Mustapha; Harvey, Brian Joseph

    2011-01-01

    Berberine is a plant alkaloid with multiple pharmacological actions, including antidiarrhoeal activity and has been shown to inhibit Cl− secretion in distal colon. The aims of this study were to determine the molecular signaling mechanisms of action of berberine on Cl− secretion and the ion transporter targets. Monolayers of T84 human colonic carcinoma cells grown in permeable supports were placed in Ussing chambers and short-circuit current measured in response to secretagogues and berberine. Whole-cell current recordings were performed in T84 cells using the patch-clamp technique. Berberine decreased forskolin-induced short-circuit current in a concentration-dependent manner (IC50 80 ± 8 μM). In apically permeabilized monolayers and whole-cell current recordings, berberine inhibited a cAMP-dependent and chromanol 293B-sensitive basolateral membrane K+ current by 88%, suggesting inhibition of KCNQ1 K+ channels. Berberine did not affect either apical Cl− conductance or basolateral Na+–K+-ATPase activity. Berberine stimulated p38 MAPK, PKCα and PKA, but had no effect on p42/p44 MAPK and PKCδ. However, berberine pre-treatment prevented stimulation of p42/p44 MAPK by epidermal growth factor. The inhibitory effect of berberine on Cl− secretion was partially blocked by HBDDE (∼65%), an inhibitor of PKCα and to a smaller extent by inhibition of p38 MAPK with SB202190 (∼15%). Berberine treatment induced an increase in association between PKCα and PKA with KCNQ1 and produced phosphorylation of the channel. We conclude that berberine exerts its inhibitory effect on colonic Cl− secretion through inhibition of basolateral KCNQ1 channels responsible for K+ recycling via a PKCα-dependent pathway. PMID:21747769

  2. Studies on the Infection, Colonization, and Movement of Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae in Kiwifruit Tissues Using a GFPuv-Labeled Strain

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Xiaoning; Huang, Qiling; Zhao, Zhibo; Han, Qingmei; Ke, Xiwang; Qin, Huqiang; Huang, Lili

    2016-01-01

    Kiwifruit bacterial canker, an economically important disease caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae (Psa), has caused severe losses in all major areas of kiwifruit cultivation. Using a GFPuv-labeled strain of Psa, we monitored the invasion, colonization, and movement of the pathogen in kiwifruit twigs, leaves and veins. The pathogen can invade twigs through both wounds and natural openings; the highest number of Psa is obtained in cut tissues. We determined that, following spray inoculation, Psa-GFPuv could infect leaves and cause lesions in the presence and absence of wounds. Light and transmission electron microscopic observations showed that bacterial cells colonize both phloem and xylem vessels. Bacterial infection resulted in marked alterations of host tissues including the disintegration of organelles and degeneration of protoplasts and cell walls. Furthermore, low temperature was conducive to colonization and movement of Psa-GFPuv in kiwifruit tissues. Indeed, the pathogen migrated faster at 4°C than at 16°C or 25°C in twigs. However, the optimum temperature for colonization and movement of Psa in leaf veins was 16°C. Our results, revealing a better understanding of the Psa infection process, might contribute to develop more efficacious disease management strategies. PMID:26999596

  3. Studies on the Infection, Colonization, and Movement of Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae in Kiwifruit Tissues Using a GFPuv-Labeled Strain.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xiaoning; Huang, Qiling; Zhao, Zhibo; Han, Qingmei; Ke, Xiwang; Qin, Huqiang; Huang, Lili

    2016-01-01

    Kiwifruit bacterial canker, an economically important disease caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae (Psa), has caused severe losses in all major areas of kiwifruit cultivation. Using a GFPuv-labeled strain of Psa, we monitored the invasion, colonization, and movement of the pathogen in kiwifruit twigs, leaves and veins. The pathogen can invade twigs through both wounds and natural openings; the highest number of Psa is obtained in cut tissues. We determined that, following spray inoculation, Psa-GFPuv could infect leaves and cause lesions in the presence and absence of wounds. Light and transmission electron microscopic observations showed that bacterial cells colonize both phloem and xylem vessels. Bacterial infection resulted in marked alterations of host tissues including the disintegration of organelles and degeneration of protoplasts and cell walls. Furthermore, low temperature was conducive to colonization and movement of Psa-GFPuv in kiwifruit tissues. Indeed, the pathogen migrated faster at 4°C than at 16°C or 25°C in twigs. However, the optimum temperature for colonization and movement of Psa in leaf veins was 16°C. Our results, revealing a better understanding of the Psa infection process, might contribute to develop more efficacious disease management strategies.

  4. Studies on the Infection, Colonization, and Movement of Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae in Kiwifruit Tissues Using a GFPuv-Labeled Strain.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xiaoning; Huang, Qiling; Zhao, Zhibo; Han, Qingmei; Ke, Xiwang; Qin, Huqiang; Huang, Lili

    2016-01-01

    Kiwifruit bacterial canker, an economically important disease caused by Pseudomonas syringae pv. actinidiae (Psa), has caused severe losses in all major areas of kiwifruit cultivation. Using a GFPuv-labeled strain of Psa, we monitored the invasion, colonization, and movement of the pathogen in kiwifruit twigs, leaves and veins. The pathogen can invade twigs through both wounds and natural openings; the highest number of Psa is obtained in cut tissues. We determined that, following spray inoculation, Psa-GFPuv could infect leaves and cause lesions in the presence and absence of wounds. Light and transmission electron microscopic observations showed that bacterial cells colonize both phloem and xylem vessels. Bacterial infection resulted in marked alterations of host tissues including the disintegration of organelles and degeneration of protoplasts and cell walls. Furthermore, low temperature was conducive to colonization and movement of Psa-GFPuv in kiwifruit tissues. Indeed, the pathogen migrated faster at 4°C than at 16°C or 25°C in twigs. However, the optimum temperature for colonization and movement of Psa in leaf veins was 16°C. Our results, revealing a better understanding of the Psa infection process, might contribute to develop more efficacious disease management strategies. PMID:26999596

  5. Analyses of the temporal dynamics of fungal communities colonizing the healthy wood tissues of esca leaf-symptomatic and asymptomatic vines.

    PubMed

    Bruez, Emilie; Vallance, Jessica; Gerbore, Jonathan; Lecomte, Pascal; Da Costa, Jean-Pierre; Guerin-Dubrana, Lucia; Rey, Patrice

    2014-01-01

    Esca, a Grapevine Trunk Disease (GTD), is of major concern for viticulture worldwide. Our study compares the fungal communities that inhabit the wood tissues of vines that expressed or not foliar esca-symptoms. The trunk and rootstock tissues were apparently healthy, whether the 10 year-old plants were symptomatic or not. The only difference was in the cordon, which contained white rot, a typical form of esca, in 79% of symptomatic plants. Observations over a period of one year using a fingerprint method, Single Strand Conformation Polymorphism (SSCP), and the ITS-DNA sequencing of cultivable fungi, showed that shifts occurred in the fungal communities colonizing the healthy wood tissues. However, whatever the sampling time, spring, summer, autumn or winter, the fungi colonizing the healthy tissues of asymptomatic or symptomatic plants were not significantly different. Forty-eight genera were isolated, with species of Hypocreaceae and Botryosphaeriaceae being the most abundant species. Diverse fungal assemblages, made up of potentially plant-pathogenic and -protective fungi, colonized these non-necrotic tissues. Some fungi, possibly involved in GTD, inhabited the non-necrotic wood of young plants, but no increase in necrosis areas was observed over the one-year period. PMID:24788412

  6. Comparative study of the cytoplasmic organelles of epithelial cell lines derived from human carcinomas and nonmalignant tissues

    SciTech Connect

    Springer, E.L.

    1980-03-01

    The cytoplasmic organelles of 16 human epithelial cell lines have been characterized by electron microscopy. The cell lines were derived from normal, nonmalignant tissues of cancerous organs and from primary and metastatic carcinomas. Mitochondrial pleomorphism was expressed slightly by normal, to variable degrees by lines derived from nonmalignant tissues of cancerous organs, and to a much greater extent by all lines derived from malignant tissues. Hypertrophied mitochondria and longitudinal cristal arrangement were found in almost all the malignant lines, but not in any lines derived from nonmalignant tissues of cancerous organs or from normal tissues. All the lines appeared differentiate and showed slightly to moderately developed Golgi and smooth and rough endoplasmic reticula. There were no significant ultrastructural differences in cells at different passage levels or subconfluent and confluent tumor cells; however, more tight junctions were observed in confluent than in subconfluent normal cells.

  7. Polarimetry based partial least square classification of ex vivo healthy and basal cell carcinoma human skin tissues.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Iftikhar; Ahmad, Manzoor; Khan, Karim; Ikram, Masroor

    2016-06-01

    Optical polarimetry was employed for assessment of ex vivo healthy and basal cell carcinoma (BCC) tissue samples from human skin. Polarimetric analyses revealed that depolarization and retardance for healthy tissue group were significantly higher (p<0.001) compared to BCC tissue group. Histopathology indicated that these differences partially arise from BCC-related characteristic changes in tissue morphology. Wilks lambda statistics demonstrated the potential of all investigated polarimetric properties for computer assisted classification of the two tissue groups. Based on differences in polarimetric properties, partial least square (PLS) regression classified the samples with 100% accuracy, sensitivity and specificity. These findings indicate that optical polarimetry together with PLS statistics hold promise for automated pathology classification. PMID:27083851

  8. Iron-overload induces oxidative DNA damage in the human colon carcinoma cell line HT29 clone 19A.

    PubMed

    Glei, Michael; Latunde-Dada, Gladys O; Klinder, Annett; Becker, Thomas W; Hermann, Uta; Voigt, Klaus; Pool-Zobel, Beatrice L

    2002-08-26

    Dietary iron may contribute to colon cancer risk via production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The aim of the study was to determine whether physiological ferric/ferrous iron induces oxidative DNA damage in human colon cells. Therefore, differentiated human colon tumour cells (HT29 clone 19A) were incubated with ferric-nitrilotriacetate (Fe-NTA) or with haemoglobin and DNA breaks and oxidised bases were determined by microgelelectrophoresis. The effects of Fe-NTA were measured with additional H(2)O(2) (75microM) and quercetin (25-100microM) treatment. Analytic detection of iron in cell cultures, treated with 250microM Fe-NTA for 15 min to 24h, showed that 48.02+/-5.14 to 68.31+/-2.11% were rapidly absorbed and then detectable in the cellular fraction. Fe-NTA (250-1000microM) induced DNA breaks and oxidised bases, which were enhanced by subsequent H(2)O(2) exposure. Simultaneous incubation of HT29 clone 19A cells with Fe-NTA and H(2)O(2) for 15 min, 37 degrees C did not change the effect of H(2)O(2) alone. The impact of Fe-NTA and H(2)O(2)-induced oxidative damage is reduced by the antioxidant quercetin (75-67% of H(2)O(2)-control). Haemoglobin was as effective as Fe-NTA in inducing DNA damage. From these results we can conclude that iron is taken up by human colon cells and participates in the induction of oxidative DNA damage. Thus, iron or its capacity to catalyse ROS-formation, is an important colon cancer risk factor. Inhibition of damage by quercetin reflects the potential of antioxidative compounds to influence this risk factor. Quantitative data on the genotoxic impact of ferrous iron (e.g. from red meat) relative to the concentrations of antioxidants (from plant foods) in the gut are now needed to determine the optimal balance of food intake that will reduce exposure to this type of colon cancer risk factor.

  9. Expression of the Pokemon proto-oncogene in nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell lines and tissues.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Wei; Liu, Fei; Tang, Feng-Zhu; Lan, Jiao; Xiao, Rui-Ping; Chen, Xing-Zhou; Ye, Hui-Lan; Cai, Yong-Lin

    2013-01-01

    To study the differentiated expression of the proto-oncogene Pokemon in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) cell lines and tissues, mRNA and protein expression levels of CNE1, CNE2, CNE3 and C666-1 were detected separately by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), real-time PCR and Western-blotting. The immortalized nasopharyngeal epithelial cell line NP69 was used as a control. The Pokemon protein expression level in biopsy specimens from chronic rhinitis patients and undifferentiated non keratinizing NPC patients was determined by Western-blotting and arranged from high to low: C666-1>CNE1>CNE2> CNE3>NP69. The Pokemon mRNA expression level was also arranged from high to low: CNE1>CNE2>NP69>C666-1>CNE3. Pokemon expression of NP69 and C666-1 obviously varied from mRNA to protein. The Pokemon protein level of NPC biopsy specimens was obviously higher than in chronic rhinitis. The data suggest that high Pokemon protein expression is closely associated with undifferentiated non-keratinizing NPC and may provide useful information for NPC molecular target therapy. PMID:24377524

  10. Expression of the Pokemon proto-oncogene in nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell lines and tissues.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Wei; Liu, Fei; Tang, Feng-Zhu; Lan, Jiao; Xiao, Rui-Ping; Chen, Xing-Zhou; Ye, Hui-Lan; Cai, Yong-Lin

    2013-01-01

    To study the differentiated expression of the proto-oncogene Pokemon in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) cell lines and tissues, mRNA and protein expression levels of CNE1, CNE2, CNE3 and C666-1 were detected separately by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), real-time PCR and Western-blotting. The immortalized nasopharyngeal epithelial cell line NP69 was used as a control. The Pokemon protein expression level in biopsy specimens from chronic rhinitis patients and undifferentiated non keratinizing NPC patients was determined by Western-blotting and arranged from high to low: C666-1>CNE1>CNE2> CNE3>NP69. The Pokemon mRNA expression level was also arranged from high to low: CNE1>CNE2>NP69>C666-1>CNE3. Pokemon expression of NP69 and C666-1 obviously varied from mRNA to protein. The Pokemon protein level of NPC biopsy specimens was obviously higher than in chronic rhinitis. The data suggest that high Pokemon protein expression is closely associated with undifferentiated non-keratinizing NPC and may provide useful information for NPC molecular target therapy.

  11. Diminished viral replication and compartmentalization of hepatitis C virus in hepatocellular carcinoma tissue

    PubMed Central

    Harouaka, Djamila; Engle, Ronald E.; Wollenberg, Kurt; Diaz, Giacomo; Tice, Ashley B.; Zamboni, Fausto; Govindarajan, Sugantha; Alter, Harvey; Kleiner, David E.; Farci, Patrizia

    2016-01-01

    Analysis of hepatitis C virus (HCV) replication and quasispecies distribution within the tumor of patients with HCV-associated hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) can provide insight into the role of HCV in hepatocarcinogenesis and, conversely, the effect of HCC on the HCV lifecycle. In a comprehensive study of serum and multiple liver specimens from patients with HCC who underwent liver transplantation, we found a sharp and significant decrease in HCV RNA in the tumor compared with surrounding nontumorous tissues, but found no differences in multiple areas of control non-HCC cirrhotic livers. Diminished HCV replication was not associated with changes in miR-122 expression. HCV genetic diversity was significantly higher in livers containing HCC compared with control non-HCC cirrhotic livers. Tracking of individual variants demonstrated changes in the viral population between tumorous and nontumorous areas, the extent of which correlated with the decline in HCV RNA, suggesting HCV compartmentalization within the tumor. In contrast, compartmentalization was not observed between nontumorous areas and serum, or in controls between different areas of the cirrhotic liver or between liver and serum. Our findings indicate that HCV replication within the tumor is restricted and compartmentalized, suggesting segregation of specific viral variants in malignant hepatocytes. PMID:26787866

  12. PHENOTYPIC CHARACTERIZATION OF BREAST INVASIVE CARCINOMA VIA TRANSFERABLE TISSUE MORPHOMETRIC PATTERNS LEARNED FROM GLIOBLASTOMA MULTIFORME

    PubMed Central

    Han, Ju; Fontenay, Gerald V.; Wang, Yunfu; Mao, Jian-Hua; Chang, Hang

    2016-01-01

    Quantitative analysis of whole slide images (WSIs) in a large cohort may provide predictive models of clinical outcome. However, the performance of the existing techniques is hindered as a result of large technical variations (e.g., fixation, staining) and biological heterogeneities (e.g., cell type, cell state) that are always present in a large cohort. Although unsupervised feature learning provides a promising way in learning pertinent features without human intervention, its capability can be greatly limited due to the lack of well-curated examples. In this paper, we explored the transferability of knowledge acquired from a well-curated Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM) dataset through its application to the representation and characterization of tissue histology from the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) Breast Invasive Carcinoma (BRCA) cohort. Our experimental results reveals two major phenotypic subtypes with statistically significantly different survival curves. Further differential expression analysis of these two subtypes indicates enrichment of genes regulated by NF-kB in response to TNF and genes up-regulated in response to IFNG. PMID:27390615

  13. Increased WD-repeat containing protein 1 in interstitial fluid from ovarian carcinomas shown by comparative proteomic analysis of malignant and healthy gynecological tissue.

    PubMed

    Haslene-Hox, Hanne; Oveland, Eystein; Woie, Kathrine; Salvesen, Helga B; Wiig, Helge; Tenstad, Olav

    2013-11-01

    We aimed to identify differentially expressed proteins in interstitial fluid from ovarian cancer employing multiple fractioning and high resolution mass spectrometry-based proteomic analysis, and asked whether specific proteins that may serve as biomarker candidates or therapeutic targets could be identified. High throughput proteomics was conducted on immunodepleted and fractioned interstitial fluid from pooled samples of ovarian carcinomas, using endometrial carcinomas and healthy ovarian tissue as controls. Differential analysis revealed the up-regulation of extracellular proteasomes in tumor interstitial fluid compared to the healthy control. Moreover, a number of differentially expressed proteins in interstitial fluid from ovarian carcinomas compared with control tissues were identified. Detection of proteasome 20S related proteins in TIF compared to IF from healthy tissue indicates that the 20S proteasome can have a role in the tumor microenvironment. Six selected proteins, CEACAM5, FREM2, MUC5AC, TFF3, PYCARD and WDR1, were independently validated in individual tumor lysates from ovarian carcinomas by multiple reaction monitoring initiated detection and sequence analysis, Western blot and/or selected reaction monitoring. Quantification of specific proteins revealed substantial heterogeneity between individual samples. Nevertheless, WD repeat-containing protein 1 was confirmed as being significantly overexpressed in interstitial fluid from ovarian carcinomas compared to healthy ovarian tissue by Orbitrap analysis of individual native interstitial fluid from ovarian and endometrial carcinomas and healthy ovarian tissue. We suggest that this protein should be explored as a therapeutic target in ovarian carcinomas. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: An Updated Secretome.

  14. Therapeutic effects of connective tissue manipulation on wound healing and bacterial colonization count among patients with diabetic foot ulcer.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Leonard Henry; Paungmali, Aatit; Dixon, John; Holey, Liz; Naicker, Amaramalar Selvi; Htwe, Ohnmar

    2016-07-01

    This study investigated the therapeutic effects of connective tissue manipulation (CTM) in diabetic foot ulcer (DFU). A total of 20 participants (10 in CTM group and 10 in conventional treatment group (CG)) with DFU underwent the conventional DFU treatment. In addition, the CTM group received CTM twice per week for 6 weeks. The percentage wound area reduction (PWAR) and bacterial colonization count (BCC) in log10 colony-forming units (CFU) per ml wound fluid was evaluated at baseline and six weeks. Results showed a significant change in PWAR in CTM (p < 0.05, t = 3.82, Df = 9, CI L = 0.98 U = 3.81) and CG (p < 0.05, t = 2.97, Df = 9,CI L = 0.26 U = 1.98). Mean reduction of BCC showed a significant reduction (p < 0.05), with percentage of BCC reduction higher in CTM group (6.45%) than CG (3.55%). The findings suggest CTM as an effective adjunct therapy for DFU to enhance conventional treatments. PMID:27634091

  15. miR-143 Overexpression Impairs Growth of Human Colon Carcinoma Xenografts in Mice with Induction of Apoptosis and Inhibition of Proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Borralho, Pedro M.; Simões, André E. S.; Gomes, Sofia E.; Lima, Raquel T.; Carvalho, Tânia; Ferreira, Duarte M. S.; Vasconcelos, Maria H.; Castro, Rui E.; Rodrigues, Cecília M. P.

    2011-01-01

    Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are aberrantly expressed in human cancer and involved in the (dys)regulation of cell survival, proliferation, differentiation and death. Specifically, miRNA-143 (miR-143) is down-regulated in human colon cancer. In the present study, we evaluated the role of miR-143 overexpression on the growth of human colon carcinoma cells xenografted in nude mice (immunodeficient mouse strain: N: NIH(s) II-nu/nu). Methodology/Principal Findings HCT116 cells with stable miR-143 overexpression (Over-143) and control (Empty) cells were subcutaneously injected into the flanks of nude mice, and tumor growth was evaluated over time. Tumors arose ∼ 14 days after tumor cell implantation, and the experiment was ended at 40 days after implantation. miR-143 was confirmed to be significantly overexpressed in Over-143 versus Empty xenografts, by TaqMan® Real-time PCR (p<0.05). Importantly, Over-143 xenografts displayed slower tumor growth compared to Empty xenografts from 23 until 40 days in vivo (p<0.05), with final volumes of 928±338 and 2512±387 mm3, respectively. Evaluation of apoptotic proteins showed that Over-143 versus Empty xenografts displayed reduced Bcl-2 levels, and increased caspase-3 activation and PARP cleavage (p<0.05). In addition, the incidence of apoptotic tumor cells, assessed by TUNEL, was increased in Over-143 versus Empty xenografts (p<0.01). Finally, Over-143 versus Empty xenografts displayed significantly reduced NF-κB activation and ERK5 levels and activation (p<0.05), as well as reduced proliferative index, evaluated by Ki-67 immunohistochemistry (p<0.01). Conclusions Our results suggest that reduced tumor volume in Over-143 versus Empty xenografts may result from increased apoptosis and decreased proliferation induced by miR-143. This reinforces the relevance of miR-143 in colon cancer, indicating an important role in the control of in vivo tumor progression, and suggesting that miR-143 may constitute a putative novel

  16. IFNγ induces DNA methylation-silenced GPR109A expression via pSTAT1/p300 and H3K18 acetylation in colon cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bardhan, Kankana; Paschall, Amy V.; Yang, Dafeng; Chen, May R.; Simon, Priscilla S.; Bhutia, Yangzom; Martin, Pamela M.; Thangaraju, Muthusamy; Browning, Darren D.; Ganapathy, Vadivel; Heaton, Christopher M.; Gu, Keni; Lee, Jeffrey R.; Liu, Kebin

    2015-01-01

    Short-chain fatty acids, metabolites produced by colonic microbiota from fermentation of dietary fiber, act as anti-inflammatory agents in the intestinal tract to suppress proinflammatory diseases. GPR109A is the receptor for short-chain fatty acids. The functions of GPR109A has been the subject of extensive studies, however, the molecular mechanisms underlying GPR109A expression is largely unknown. We show that GPR109A is highly expressed in normal human colon tissues, but is silenced in human colon carcinoma cells. The GPR109A promoter DNA is methylated in human colon carcinoma. Strikingly, we observed that IFNγ, a cytokine secreted by activated T cells, activates GPR109A transcription without altering its promoter DNA methylation. Colon carcinoma grows significantly faster in IFNγ-deficient mice than in wildtype mice in an orthotopic colon cancer mouse model. A positive correlation was observed between GPR109A protein level and tumor-infiltrating T cells in human colon carcinoma specimens, and IFNγ expression level is higher in human colon carcinoma tissues than in normal colon tissues. We further demonstrated that IFNγ rapidly activates pSTAT1 that binds to the promoter of p300 to activate its transcription. p300 then binds to the GPR109A promoters to induce H3K18 hyperacetylation, resulting in chromatin remodeling in the methylated GPR109A promoter. The IFNγ-activated pSTAT1 then directly binds to the methylated but hyperacetylated GPR109 promoters to activate its transcription. Overall, our data indicate that GPR109A acts as a tumor suppressor in colon cancer and the host immune system might use IFNγ to counteract DNA methylation-mediated GPR109A silencing as a mechanism to suppress tumor development. PMID:25735954

  17. Identification of the boundary between normal breast tissue and invasive ductal carcinoma during breast-conserving surgery using multiphoton microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Tongxin; Nie, Yuting; Lian, Yuane; Wu, Yan; Fu, Fangmeng; Wang, Chuan; Zhuo, Shuangmu; Chen, Jianxin

    2014-11-01

    Breast-conserving surgery has become an important way of surgical treatment for breast cancer worldwide nowadays. Multiphoton microscopy (MPM) has the ability to noninvasively visualize tissue architectures at the cellular level using intrinsic fluorescent molecules in biological tissues without the need for fluorescent dye. In this study, MPM is used to image the microstructures of terminal duct lobular unit (TDLU), invasive ductal carcinoma and the boundary region between normal and cancerous breast tissues. Our study demonstrates that MPM has the ability to not only reveal the morphological changes of the cuboidal epithelium, basement membrane and interlobular stroma but also identify the boundary between normal breast tissue and invasive ductal carcinoma, which correspond well to the Hematoxylin and Eosin (H and E) images. Predictably, MPM can monitor surgical margins in real time and provide considerable accuracy for resection of breast cancerous tissues intraoperatively. With the development of miniature, real-time MPM imaging technology, MPM should have great application prospects during breast-conserving surgery.

  18. p53 alteration in morphologically normal/benign breast tissue in patients with triple-negative high-grade breast carcinomas: breast p53 signature?

    PubMed

    Wang, Xi; Stolla, Moritz; Ring, Brian Z; Yang, Qi; Laughlin, Todd S; Rothberg, Paul G; Skinner, Kristin; Hicks, David G

    2016-09-01

    p53 alterations have been identified in approximately 23% of breast carcinomas, particularly in hormone receptor-negative high-grade carcinomas. It is considered to be an early event in breast carcinogenesis. Nevertheless, the putative precursor lesion of high-grade breast carcinoma remains elusive. Breast excision specimens from 93 triple-negative high-grade invasive ductal carcinomas, 48 estrogen receptor (ER)-positive/progesterone receptor-positive/Her2-negative non-high-grade invasive ductal carcinomas, and 50 mammoplasty breasts were selected. At least 2 tissue blocks with tumor and adjacent benign tissue were sectioned and subjected to immunohistochemistry staining for p53. TP53 gene sequencing was performed on select tumors. Further immunohistochemistry staining for ER and Ki-67 was performed on consecutive sections of tissue with p53-positive normal/benign cells. Of the 93 high-grade carcinomas, 51 (55%) were positive for p53 alteration, whereas only 3 (6.25%) of the 48 non-high-grade carcinomas were p53 altered. Focal p53 positivity in adjacent normal/benign breast tissue was identified in 19 cases, and 18 of them also had p53 alteration in their carcinomas. Only 1 case had focal p53 staining in normal/benign tissue, but the tumor was negative for p53 alteration. No p53 staining positivity was identified in the mammoplasty specimens. The p53-stained normal/benign cells were ER negative and did not show an increase in the Ki-67 labeling index. These findings indicate that the p53 staining positivity in normal/benign breast tissue is not a random event. It could be considered as the "p53 signature" in breast and serve as an indicator for future potential risk of p53-positive high-grade breast carcinoma.

  19. Measurement of the Nucleus Area and Nucleus/Cytoplasm and Mitochondria/Nucleus Ratios in Human Colon Tissues by Dual-Colour Two-Photon Microscopy Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Su Lim, Chang; Sun Kim, Eun; Yeon Kim, Ji; Taek Hong, Seung; Jai Chun, Hoon; Eun Kang, Dong; Rae Cho, Bong

    2015-01-01

    We developed two-photon (TP) probes for DNA (ABI-Nu), cytoplasm (Pyr-CT), and mitochondria (BF-MT). We found that ABI-Nu binds to AT in the minor groove, while ABI-Nu and BF-MT are effective for tracking in the cytoplasm and mitochondria, respectively. These probes showed very large effective two-photon action cross section values of 2230, 1555, and 790 Göppert-Mayer units (1 GM  =  10−50 cm4 s photon−1molecule−1) at 740 nm with emission maxima at 473, 561, and 560 nm, respectively, in each organelle. Using these probes, we quantitatively estimated the mean nuclear area and the ratios of nuclei to cytoplasm and mitochondria to nuclei in human colon tissues by dual-colour two-photon microscopy imaging within 2  h after biopsy. The mean nuclear area and the nuclei to cytoplasm and mitochondria to cytoplasm ratios increased in the following order: normal colon mucosa <colon adenoma <colon adenocarcinoma. Furthermore, the nuclear areas of these tissues showed significant differences that were well outside of the ranges of experimental errors, indicating the diagnostic potential of this method. PMID:26673743

  20. Lysyl oxidase-like 2 expression is increased in colon and esophageal tumors and associated with less differentiated colon tumors.

    PubMed

    Fong, Sheri F T; Dietzsch, Erin; Fong, Keith S K; Hollosi, Peter; Asuncion, Lloyd; He, Qingping; Parker, M Iqbal; Csiszar, Katalin

    2007-07-01

    Lysyl oxidase-like 2 (LOXL2) belongs to an amine oxidase family whose members have been implicated in crosslink formation in stromal collagens and elastin, cell motility, and tumor development and progression. We previously demonstrated the association between increased LOXL2 expression and invasive/metastatic behavior in human breast cancer cells and mouse squamous and spindle cell carcinomas, interaction between LOXL2 and SNAIL in epithelial-mesenchymal transition, and localization of the LOXL2 gene to 8p21.2-21.3, within a minimally deleted region in several cancers, including colon and esophagus. In the present study, we analyzed LOXL2 expression in colon and esophageal tumors, and explored methylation as a regulator of LOXL2 expression. Immunohistochemistry using normal tissues demonstrated intracellular localization of LOXL2 in colonic enteroendocrine cells and esophageal squamous cells at the luminal surface, but not in mitotically active cells. Tissue array analysis of 52 colon adenocarcinomas and 50 esophageal squamous cell carcinomas revealed presence of LOXL2 expression in 83 and 92% of the samples, respectively, and a significant association between increased number of LOXL2-expressing cells and less-differentiated colon carcinomas. We determined that the methylation status of the 1150 bp 5' CpG island may contribute to the regulation of the gene. Loss of heterozygosity studies, using a microsatellite within intron 4 of the LOXL2 gene, revealed that loss of LOXL2 was unlikely to play a major role in either colon or esophageal tumors. These results suggest that increased LOXL2 expression in colon and esophageal cancer may contribute to tumor progression.

  1. Downregulation of Connective Tissue Growth Factor by Three-Dimensional Matrix Enhances Ovarian Carcinoma Cell Invasion

    PubMed Central

    Barbolina, Maria V.; Adley, Brian P.; Kelly, David L.; Shepard, Jaclyn; Fought, Angela J.; Scholtens, Denise; Penzes, Peter; Shea, Lonnie D.; Sharon Stack, M

    2010-01-01

    Epithelial ovarian carcinoma (EOC) is a leading cause of death from gynecologic malignancy, due mainly to the prevalence of undetected metastatic disease. The process of cell invasion during intra-peritoneal anchoring of metastatic lesions requires concerted regulation of many processes, including modulation of adhesion to the extracellular matrix and localized invasion. Exploratory cDNA microarray analysis of early response genes (altered after 4 hours of 3-dimensional collagen culture) coupled with confirmatory real-time RT-PCR, multiple three-dimensional cell culture matrices, Western blot, immunostaining, adhesion, migration, and invasion assays were used to identify modulators of adhesion pertinent to EOC progression and metastasis. cDNA microarray analysis indicated a dramatic downregulation of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) in EOC cells placed in invasion-mimicking conditions (3-dimensional type I collagen). Examination of human EOC specimens revealed that CTGF expression was absent in 46% of the tested samples (n=41), but was present in 100% of normal ovarian epithelium samples (n=7). Reduced CTGF expression occurs in many types of cells and may be a general phenomenon displayed by cells encountering a 3D environment. CTGF levels were inversely correlated with invasion such that downregulation of CTGF increased, while its upregulation reduced, collagen invasion. Cells adhered preferentially to a surface comprised of both collagen I and CTGF relative to either component alone using α6β1 and α3β1 integrins. Together these data suggest that downregulation of CTGF in EOC cells may be important for cell invasion through modulation of cell-matrix adhesion. PMID:19382180

  2. Quantification of telomerase activity in normal oral mucosal tissue and oral squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Rai, Arpita; Naikmasur, Venkatesh G.; Sattur, Atul

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objective: The role of telomeres and telomerase in oral cancer is an area of much recent interest. The understanding of the role of telomere biology, the end replication problem leading to genomic instability and the reactivation of telomerase, is absolutely critical to our understanding of oral cancer, and more so, to our ability of early diagnosis and developing novel therapies and cancer prevention approaches. The aim of the present study was to quantify telomerase activity (TA) in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and normal oral mucosa and assess the role of telomerase as diagnostic and prognostic marker of oral malignancy. Materials and Methods: We quantified TA in 45 patients with OSCC and 20 normal oral mucosal specimens using polymerase chain reaction-based telomeric repeat amplification protocol assay and compared it with the clinical status and grade of malignancy. Results: TA was detected in 89% of malignant and 5% of normal oral mucosal tissue. The TA levels ranged from 0.28 to 6.91 (mean 2.05, standard deviation [SD] 1.33) in OSCC and 0.21 to 1.09 (mean 0.54, SD 0.27) in normal oral mucosa. There was no relationship between TA levels and clinical stages, site of the lesion, history of adverse habits, or sex of the patient. However, under the WHO classification, there were significant differences (P < 0.00) between Grades I, II, and III. Furthermore, increasing age of the patient significantly correlated with TA. Interpretation and Conclusion: The results of the present study indicate that activation of TA is frequent in OSCC. Statistically significant difference in quantified telomerase levels of OSCC and normal oral mucosa (P < 0.00) demonstrates the significant clinical usefulness of telomerase activation as a valuable marker for diagnosis while significant correlation of TA with grades of malignancy indicates its effectiveness as marker for prognosis of OSCC.

  3. Tissue microarray immunohistochemical profiles of p53 and pRB in hepatocellular carcinoma and hepatoblastoma.

    PubMed

    Azlin, Abdul Hadi; Looi, Lai Meng; Cheah, Phaik Leng

    2014-01-01

    The tumour suppressor genes, p53 and pRb, are known to play important roles in neoplastic transformation. While molecular routes to the uncontrolled growth of hepatocytes, leading to primary liver cancer have generated considerable interest, the roles of p53 and pRb mutations in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and hepatoblastoma (HB) remain to be clarified. We examined the immunohistochemical expression of p53 and pRb gene products in 26 HCC and 9 HB, sampled into tissue microarray blocks. 10 (38%) of 26 HCC showed > 10% tumour nuclear staining for p53 protein, 3 of these also being HbsAg positive. Conversely, none of 9 HB expressed nuclear p53 immunopositivity. Some 24 (92%) HCC and 8 (89%) HB showed loss of pRb nuclear expression. Two of the 26 HCC and one of the 9 HB showed >10% tumour nuclear staining for pRb protein. Our results suggest that p53 does not have an important role in the development of HB but may contribute in HCC. There is also loss of pRb expression in the majority of HCC and HB, supporting loss of pRb gene function in the hepatocarcinogenesis pathway. However, a comparison of the staining profiles of p53 and pRb proteins in HCC and HB did not reveal a consistent pattern to differentiate between the two types of tumours immunohistochemically. Hence the use of p53 and pRB protein expression has no contribution in the situation where there is a diagnostic difficulty in deciding between HCC and HB.

  4. Sorafenib Metabolism Is Significantly Altered in the Liver Tumor Tissue of Hepatocellular Carcinoma Patient

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Enshuang; Chen, Weiying; Lu, Linlin; Wang, Ying; Peng, Xiaojuan; Yan, Tongmeng; Zhou, Fuyan; Liu, Zhongqiu

    2014-01-01

    Background Sorafenib, the drug used as first line treatment for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), is metabolized by cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4-mediated oxidation and uridine diphosphate glucuronosyl transferase (UGT) 1A9-mediated glucuronidation. Liver diseases are associated with reduced CYP and UGT activities, which can considerably affect drug metabolism, leading to drug toxicity. Thus, understanding the metabolism of therapeutic compounds in patients with liver diseases is necessary. However, the metabolism characteristic of sorafenib has not been systematically determined in HCC patients. Methods Sorafenib metabolism was tested in the pooled and individual tumor hepatic microsomes (THLMs) and adjacent normal hepatic microsomes (NHLMs) of HCC patients (n = 18). Commercial hepatic microsomes (CHLMs) were used as a control. In addition, CYP3A4 and UGT1A9 protein expression in different tissues were measured by Western blotting. Results The mean rates of oxidation and glucuronidation of sorafenib were significantly decreased in the pooled THLMs compared with those in NHLMs and CHLMs. The maximal velocity (Vmax) of sorafenib oxidation and glucuronidation were approximately 25-fold and 2-fold decreased in the pooled THLMs, respectively, with unchanged Km values. The oxidation of sorafenib in individual THLMs sample was significantly decreased (ranging from 7 to 67-fold) than that in corresponding NHLMs sample. The reduction of glucuronidation in THLMs was observed in 15 out of 18 patients’ samples. Additionally, the level of CYP3A4 and UGT1A9 expression were both notably decreased in the pooled THLMs. Conclusions Sorafenib metabolism was remarkably decreased in THLMs. This result was associated with the down regulation of the protein expression of CYP3A4 and UGT1A9. PMID:24797816

  5. Clinical investigation of TROP-2 as an independent biomarker and potential therapeutic target in colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Peng; Yu, Hai-Zheng; Cai, Jian-Hui

    2015-09-01

    Colon cancer is associated with a severe demographic and economic burden worldwide. The pathogenesis of colon cancer is highly complex and involves sequential genetic and epigenetic mechanisms. Despite extensive investigation, the pathogenesis of colon cancer remains to be elucidated. As the third most common type of cancer worldwide, the treatment options for colon cancer are currently limited. Human trophoblast cell‑surface marker (TROP‑2), is a cell‑surface transmembrane glycoprotein overexpressed by several types of epithelial carcinoma. In addition, TROP‑2 has been demonstrated to be associated with tumorigenesis and invasiveness in solid types of tumor. The aim of the present study was to investigate the protein expression of TROP‑2 in colon cancer tissues, and further explore the association between the expression of TROP‑2 and clinicopathological features of patients with colon cancer. The expression and localization of the TROP‑2 protein was examined using western blot analysis and immunofluorescence staining. Finally, the expression of TROP‑2 expression was correlated to conventional clinicopathological features of colon cancer using a χ2 test. The results revealed that TROP‑2 protein was expressed at high levels in the colon cancer tissues, which was associated with the development and pathological process of colon cancer. Therefore, TROP‑2 may be used as a biomarker to determine the clinical prognosis, and as a potential therapeutic target in colon cancer.

  6. Mutated epithelial cadherin is associated with increased tumorigenicity and loss of adhesion and of responsiveness to the motogenic trefoil factor 2 in colon carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Efstathiou, J A; Liu, D; Wheeler, J M; Kim, H C; Beck, N E; Ilyas, M; Karayiannakis, A J; Mortensen, N J; Kmiot, W; Playford, R J; Pignatelli, M; Bodmer, W F

    1999-03-01

    Epithelial (E)-cadherin and its associated cytoplasmic proteins (alpha-, beta-, and gamma-catenins) are important mediators of epithelial cell-cell adhesion and intracellular signaling. Much evidence exists suggesting a tumor/invasion suppressor role for E-cadherin, and loss of expression, as well as mutations, has been described in a number of epithelial cancers. To investigate whether E-cadherin gene (CDH1) mutations occur in colorectal cancer, we screened 49 human colon carcinoma cell lines from 43 patients by single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis and direct sequencing. In addition to silent changes, polymorphisms, and intronic variants in a number of the cell lines, we detected frameshift single-base deletions in repeat regions of exon 3 (codons 120 and 126) causing premature truncations at codon 216 in four replication-error-positive (RER+) cell lines (LS174T, HCT116, GP2d, and GP5d) derived from 3 patients. In LS174T such a mutation inevitably contributes to its lack of E-cadherin protein expression and function. Transfection of full-length E-cadherin cDNA into LS174T cells enhanced intercellular adhesion, induced differentiation, retarded proliferation, inhibited tumorigenicity, and restored responsiveness to the migratory effects induced by the motogenic trefoil factor 2 (human spasmolytic polypeptide). These results indicate that, although inactivating E-cadherin mutations occur relatively infrequently in colorectal cancer cell lines overall (3/43 = 7%), they are more common in cells with an RER+ phenotype (3/10 = 30%) and may contribute to the dysfunction of the E-cadherin-catenin-mediated adhesion/signaling system commonly seen in these tumors. These results also indicate that normal E-cadherin-mediated cell adhesion can restore the ability of colonic tumor cells to respond to trefoil factor 2.

  7. Does self-regulation and autonomic regulation have an influence on survival in breast and colon carcinoma patients? results of a prospective outcome study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Cancer Related Fatigue (CRF) and circadian rhythm have a great impact on the quality of life (HRQL) of patients with breast (BC) and colon cancer (CRC). Other patient related outcomes in oncology are measured by new instruments focusing on adaptive characteristics such as sense of coherence or self-regulation, which could be more appropriate as a prognostic tool than classical HRQL. The aim of this study was to assess the association of autonomic regulation (aR) and self-regulation (SR) with survival. Methods 146 cancer patients and 120 healthy controls took part in an initial evaluation in 2000/2001. At a median follow up of 5.9 years later, 62 of 95 BC, 17 of 51 CRC patients, and 85 of 117 healthy controls took part in the follow-up study. 41 participants had died. For the follow-up evaluation, participants were requested to complete the standardized aR and SR questionnaires. Results On average, cancer patients had survived for 10.1 years with the disease. Using a Cox proportional hazard regression with stepwise variables such as age, diagnosis group, Charlson co-morbidity index, body mass index (BMI)) aR and SR. SR were identified as independent parameters with potential prognostic relevance on survival While aR did not significantly influence survival, SR showed a positive and independent impact on survival (OR = 0.589; 95%-CI: 0.354 - 0.979). This positive effect persisted significantly in the sensitivity analysis of the subgroup of tumour patients and in the subscale 'Achieve satisfaction and well-being' and by tendency in the UICC stages nested for the different diagnoses groups. Conclusions Self-regulation might be an independent prognostic factor for the survival of breast and colon carcinoma patients and merits further prospective studies. PMID:21961625

  8. TNFalpha and IL-8 regulate the expression and function of CD44 variant proteins in human colon carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Barshishat, Michal; Ariel, Amiram; Cahalon, Liora; Chowers, Yehuda; Lider, Ofer; Schwartz, Betty

    2002-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying the inflammatory and metastatic processes share a number of similar pathways, such as those involving adhesion, migration and extravasation. In this article, the effects of pro-inflammatory cytokines on metastatic-related activities of colon cancer cells were tested. The expression and biological activity of the proteoglycan CD44 in low (LS174T) and high metastatic (HM7) cell lines following exposure to TNFalpha and IL-8 were assessed. Treated cells expressed more CD44 splice variants (CD44v), while CD44 standard protein (CD44s) expression remained unchanged. Treatment with TNFalpha induced IL-8 secretion and IL-8 gene transcription in a time-dependent manner. Both cytokines enhanced the ability of the cells to adhere to the CD44-specific ligand hyaluronic acid, an effect that was specifically blocked by an anti-IL-8 antibody. These results suggest that the effect of TNFalpha on IL-8 is responsible for the regulation of the expression of CD44 isoforms. Additional experiments showed that neither of the cytokines tested regulate the expression of CD44 gene regulation via activation of a well-characterized specific 22-bp epidermal growth factor regulatory element present in the CD44 promoter sequence, suggesting that this is not the mechanism of activation. We conclude that immuno-modulatory mediators can modify the expression of cell-to-cell or cell-to-matrix adhesion proteins, implicated in the determination of phenotypes associated with aggressiveness and metastasis of colon cancer cells. PMID:12090473

  9. Colonization of epidermal tissue by Staphylococcus aureus produces localized hypoxia and stimulates secretion of antioxidant and caspase-14 proteins.

    PubMed

    Lone, Abdul G; Atci, Erhan; Renslow, Ryan; Beyenal, Haluk; Noh, Susan; Fransson, Boel; Abu-Lail, Nehal; Park, Jeong-Jin; Gang, David R; Call, Douglas R

    2015-08-01

    A partial-thickness epidermal explant model was colonized with green fluorescent protein (GFP)-expressing Staphylococcus aureus, and the pattern of S. aureus biofilm growth was characterized using electron and confocal laser scanning microscopy. The oxygen concentration in explants was quantified using microelectrodes. The relative effective diffusivity and porosity of the epidermis were determined using magnetic resonance imaging, while hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) concentration in explant media was measured by using microelectrodes. Secreted proteins were identified and quantified using elevated-energy mass spectrometry (MS(E)). S. aureus biofilm grows predominantly in lipid-rich areas around hair follicles and associated skin folds. Dissolved oxygen was selectively depleted (2- to 3-fold) in these locations, but the relative effective diffusivity and porosity did not change between colonized and control epidermis. Histological analysis revealed keratinocyte damage across all the layers of colonized epidermis after 4 days of culture. The colonized explants released significantly (P < 0.01) more antioxidant proteins of both epidermal and S. aureus origin, consistent with elevated H2O2 concentrations found in the media from the colonized explants (P< 0.001). Caspase-14 was also elevated significantly in the media from the colonized explants. While H2O2 induces primary keratinocyte differentiation, caspase-14 is required for terminal keratinocyte differentiation and desquamation. These results are consistent with a localized biological impact from S. aureus in response to colonization of the skin surface.

  10. Colonization of epidermal tissue by Staphylococcus aureus produces localized hypoxia and stimulates secretion of antioxidant and caspase-14 proteins.

    PubMed

    Lone, Abdul G; Atci, Erhan; Renslow, Ryan; Beyenal, Haluk; Noh, Susan; Fransson, Boel; Abu-Lail, Nehal; Park, Jeong-Jin; Gang, David R; Call, Douglas R

    2015-08-01

    A partial-thickness epidermal explant model was colonized with green fluorescent protein (GFP)-expressing Staphylococcus aureus, and the pattern of S. aureus biofilm growth was characterized using electron and confocal laser scanning microscopy. The oxygen concentration in explants was quantified using microelectrodes. The relative effective diffusivity and porosity of the epidermis were determined using magnetic resonance imaging, while hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) concentration in explant media was measured by using microelectrodes. Secreted proteins were identified and quantified using elevated-energy mass spectrometry (MS(E)). S. aureus biofilm grows predominantly in lipid-rich areas around hair follicles and associated skin folds. Dissolved oxygen was selectively depleted (2- to 3-fold) in these locations, but the relative effective diffusivity and porosity did not change between colonized and control epidermis. Histological analysis revealed keratinocyte damage across all the layers of colonized epidermis after 4 days of culture. The colonized explants released significantly (P < 0.01) more antioxidant proteins of both epidermal and S. aureus origin, consistent with elevated H2O2 concentrations found in the media from the colonized explants (P< 0.001). Caspase-14 was also elevated significantly in the media from the colonized explants. While H2O2 induces primary keratinocyte differentiation, caspase-14 is required for terminal keratinocyte differentiation and desquamation. These results are consistent with a localized biological impact from S. aureus in response to colonization of the skin surface. PMID:25987705

  11. Colonization of Epidermal Tissue by Staphylococcus aureus Produces Localized Hypoxia and Stimulates Secretion of Antioxidant and Caspase-14 Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Lone, Abdul G.; Atci, Erhan; Renslow, Ryan; Beyenal, Haluk; Noh, Susan; Fransson, Boel; Abu-Lail, Nehal; Park, Jeong-Jin; Gang, David R.

    2015-01-01

    A partial-thickness epidermal explant model was colonized with green fluorescent protein (GFP)-expressing Staphylococcus aureus, and the pattern of S. aureus biofilm growth was characterized using electron and confocal laser scanning microscopy. The oxygen concentration in explants was quantified using microelectrodes. The relative effective diffusivity and porosity of the epidermis were determined using magnetic resonance imaging, while hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) concentration in explant media was measured by using microelectrodes. Secreted proteins were identified and quantified using elevated-energy mass spectrometry (MSE). S. aureus biofilm grows predominantly in lipid-rich areas around hair follicles and associated skin folds. Dissolved oxygen was selectively depleted (2- to 3-fold) in these locations, but the relative effective diffusivity and porosity did not change between colonized and control epidermis. Histological analysis revealed keratinocyte damage across all the layers of colonized epidermis after 4 days of culture. The colonized explants released significantly (P < 0.01) more antioxidant proteins of both epidermal and S. aureus origin, consistent with elevated H2O2 concentrations found in the media from the colonized explants (P< 0.001). Caspase-14 was also elevated significantly in the media from the colonized explants. While H2O2 induces primary keratinocyte differentiation, caspase-14 is required for terminal keratinocyte differentiation and desquamation. These results are consistent with a localized biological impact from S. aureus in response to colonization of the skin surface. PMID:25987705

  12. SERS assay of telomerase activity at single-cell level and colon cancer tissues via quadratic signal amplification.

    PubMed

    Shi, Muling; Zheng, Jing; Liu, Changhui; Tan, Guixiang; Qing, Zhihe; Yang, Sheng; Yang, Jinfeng; Tan, Yongjun; Yang, Ronghua

    2016-03-15

    As an important biomarker and therapeutic target, telomerase has attracted extensive attention concerning its detection and monitoring. Recently, enzyme-assisted amplification approaches have provided useful platforms for the telomerase activity detection, however, further improvement in sensitivity is still hindered by the single-step signal amplification. Herein, we develop a quadratic signal amplification strategy for ultrasensitive surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) detection of telomerase activity. The central idea of our design is using telomerase-induced silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) assembly and silver ions (Ag(+))-mediated cascade amplification. In our approach, each telomerase-aided DNA sequence extension could trigger the formation of a long double-stranded DNA (dsDNA), making numerous AgNPs assembling along with this long strand through specific Ag-S bond, to form a primary amplification element. For secondary amplification, each conjugated AgNP was dissolved into Ag(+), which can effectively induce the 4-aminobenzenethiol (4-ABT) modified gold nanoparticles (AuNPs@4-ABT) to undergo aggregation to form numerous "hot-spots". Through quadratic amplifications, a limit of detection down to single HeLa cell was achieved. More importantly, this method demonstrated good performance when applied to tissues from colon cancer patients, which exhibits great potential in the practical application of telomerase-based cancer diagnosis in early stages. To demonstrate the potential in screening the telomerase inhibitors and telomerase-targeted drugs, the proposed design is successfully employed to measure the inhibition of telomerase activity by 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine.

  13. Rhizospheric Bacterial Strain Brevibacterium casei MH8a Colonizes Plant Tissues and Enhances Cd, Zn, Cu Phytoextraction by White Mustard

    PubMed Central

    Płociniczak, Tomasz; Sinkkonen, Aki; Romantschuk, Martin; Sułowicz, Sławomir; Piotrowska-Seget, Zofia

    2016-01-01

    Environmental pollution by heavy metals has become a serious problem in the world. Phytoextraction, which is one of the plant-based technologies, has attracted the most attention for the bioremediation of soils polluted with these contaminants. The aim of this study was to determine whether the multiple-tolerant bacterium, Brevibacterium casei MH8a isolated from the heavy metal-contaminated rhizosphere soil of Sinapis alba L., is able to promote plant growth and enhance Cd, Zn, and Cu uptake by white mustard under laboratory conditions. Additionally, the ability of the rifampicin-resistant spontaneous mutant of MH8a to colonize plant tissues and its mechanisms of plant growth promotion were also examined. In order to assess the ecological consequences of bioaugmentation on autochthonous bacteria, the phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis was used. The MH8a strain exhibited the ability to produce ammonia, 1-amino-cyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid deaminase, indole 3-acetic acid and HCN but was not able to solubilize inorganic phosphate and produce siderophores. Introduction of MH8a into soil significantly increased S. alba biomass and the accumulation of Cd (208%), Zn (86%), and Cu (39%) in plant shoots in comparison with those grown in non-inoculated soil. Introduced into the soil, MH8a was able to enter the plant and was found in the roots and leaves of inoculated plants thus indicating its endophytic features. PLFA analysis revealed that the MH8a that was introduced into soil had a temporary influence on the structure of the autochthonous bacterial communities. The plant growth-promoting features of the MH8a strain and its ability to enhance the metal uptake by white mustard and its long-term survival in soil as well as its temporary impact on autochthonous microorganisms make the strain a suitable candidate for the promotion of plant growth and the efficiency of phytoextraction. PMID:26909087

  14. Matrix Metalloproteinase-2, Squamous Cell Carcinoma Antigen, and Tissue Polypeptide-Specific Antigen Expression in Egyptian Patients with Cervical Carcinoma: Relationship with Prognosis

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Maha Imam; Salahy, Eman-El; Tawfiq, Hassan; Khalifa, Ali; Hassan, Manal M.

    2004-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), a family of proteolytic enzymes produced by both stromal and tumor cells, appear to have a key role in the events leading to local invasion and metastasis by malignant neoplasms. In the present study, we evaluated the role of MMP-2, squamous cell carcinoma antigen (SCCA), and tissue polypeptide – specific antigen (TPS) in cervical neoplasia. Using Western blotting and enzyme immunoassay (EIA), we analyzed 50 patients with cervical carcinoma (CC) and 25 normal controls for expression of MMP-2 in tissue cell lysates. We also quantified SCCA and TPS with microparticle immunoassay and EIA, respectively. The results were correlated with human papilloma virus (HPV) infection, clinicopathological findings, and disease outcome. The cutoff point for each marker was estimated from receiver operating characteristic curves. Logistic regression analysis was performed to estimate the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for each marker. MMP-2, SCCA, and TPS protein expression were significantly higher in patients with CC than in normal controls. While TPS was the best marker for discriminating between patients and controls, MMP-2 was associated with an advanced tumor stage (OR, 13.9 [95% CI, 1.4-133.9]) and poor histological grade (OR, 10.2 [95% CI, 1.7-60.5]). Moreover, independent of the effect of an advanced CC stage and grade, the patients' age, and the presence of HPV infection, MMP-2 was considered a strong predictor for CC recurrence (OR, 8.1 [95% CI, 1.3- 49.1]). Tissue markers may be used to select high-risk patients for early detection of and adjuvant therapy for recurrence. Our MMP-2 findings are particularly relevant to the development of protease inhibitors as a new cancer therapy approach. PMID:15665394

  15. Dietary intake alters gene expression in colon tissue: possible underlying mechanism for the influence of diet on disease

    PubMed Central

    Pellatt, Andrew J.; Mullany, Lila E.; Wolff, Roger K.; Pellatt, Daniel F.

    2016-01-01

    Background Although the association between diet and disease is well documented, the biologic mechanisms involved have not been entirely elucidated. In this study, we evaluate how dietary intake influences gene expression to better understand the underlying mechanisms through which diet operates. Methods We used data from 144 individuals who had comprehensive dietary intake and gene expression data from RNAseq using normal colonic mucosa. Using the DESeq2 statistical package, we identified genes that showed statistically significant differences in expression between individuals in high-intake and low-intake categories for several dietary variables of interest adjusting for age and sex. We examined total calories, total fats, vegetable protein, animal protein, carbohydrates, trans-fatty acids, mutagen index, red meat, processed meat, whole grains, vegetables, fruits, fiber, folate, dairy products, calcium, and prudent and western dietary patterns. Results Using a false discovery rate of less than 0.1, meat-related foods were statistically associated with 68 dysregulated genes, calcium with three dysregulated genes, folate with four dysregulated genes, and nonmeat-related foods with 65 dysregulated genes. With a more stringent false discovery rate of less than 0.05, there were nine meat-related dysregulated genes and 23 nonmeat-related genes. Ingenuity pathway analysis identified three major networks among genes identified as dysregulated with respect to meat-related dietary variables and three networks among genes identified as dysregulated with respect to nonmeat-related variables. The top networks (Ingenuity Pathway Analysis network score >30) associated with meat-related genes were (i) cancer, organismal injury, and abnormalities, tumor morphology, and (ii) cellular function and maintenance, cellular movement, cell death, and survival. Among genes related to nonmeat consumption variables, the top networks were (i) hematological system development and function

  16. Culture - colonic tissue

    MedlinePlus

    ... infectious diseases. In: McPherson RA, Pincus MR, eds. Henry's Clinical Diagnosis and Management by Laboratory Methods . 22nd ... pancreatic disorders. In: McPherson RA, Pincus MR, eds. Henry's Clinical Diagnosis and Management by Laboratory Methods . 22nd ...

  17. Two-Dimensional N-Glycan Distribution Mapping of Hepatocellular Carcinoma Tissues by MALDI-Imaging Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Powers, Thomas W; Holst, Stephanie; Wuhrer, Manfred; Mehta, Anand S; Drake, Richard R

    2015-01-01

    A new mass spectrometry imaging approach to simultaneously map the two-dimensional distribution of N-glycans in tissues has been recently developed. The method uses Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization Imaging Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-IMS) to spatially profile the location and distribution of multiple N-linked glycan species released by peptide N-glycosidase F in frozen or formalin-fixed tissues. Multiple formalin-fixed human hepatocellular carcinoma tissues were evaluated with this method, resulting in a panel of over 30 N-glycans detected. An ethylation reaction of extracted N-glycans released from adjacent slides was done to stabilize sialic acid containing glycans, and these structures were compared to N-glycans detected directly from tissue profiling. In addition, the distribution of singly fucosylated N-glycans detected in tumor tissue microarray cores were compared to the histochemistry staining pattern of a core fucose binding lectin. As this MALDI-IMS workflow has the potential to be applied to any formalin-fixed tissue block or tissue microarray, the advantages and limitations of the technique in context with other glycomic methods are also summarized. PMID:26501333

  18. Tissue Distribution and Efficacy of Gold Nanorods Coupled with Laser Induced Photoplasmonic Therapy in Ehrlich Carcinoma Solid Tumor Model

    PubMed Central

    El-Sayed, Mostafa A.; Shabaka, Ali A.; El-Shabrawy, Osama A.; Yassin, Nemat A.; Mahmoud, Sawsan S.; El-Shenawy, Siham M.; Al-Ashqar, Emad; Eisa, Wael H.; Farag, Niveen M.; El-Shaer, Marwa A.; Salah, Nabila; Al-Abd, Ahmed M.

    2013-01-01

    Gold nanorods (GNR) within tumor microregions are characterized by their ability to absorb near IR light and emit heat in what is called photoplasmonic effect. Yet, the efficacy of nanoparticles is limited due to intratumoral tissue distribution reasons. In addition, distribution of GNRs to normal tissue might result in non specific toxicity. In the current study, we are assessing the intratumoral and tissue distribution of PEGylated GNRs on the top of its antitumor characteristics when given intravenously or intratumoral to solid tumor bearing mice and coupled with laser photoplasmonic sessions. PEGylated GNRs with a longitudinal size of less than 100 nm were prepared with aspect ratio of 4.6 showing strong surface plasmon absorption at wavelength 800 nm. Pharmacokinetics of GNR after single I.V. administration (0.1 mg/kg) showed very short systemic circulating time (less than 3 h). On the other hand, tissue distribution of I.V. GNR (0.1 mg/kg) to normal animals showed preferential deposition in spleen tissue. Repeated administration of I.V. GNR resulted in preferential accumulation in both liver and spleen tissues. In addition, I.V. administration of GNR to Ehrlich carcinoma tumor bearing mice resulted in similar tissue distribution; tumor accumulation and anti-tumor effect compared to intratumoral administration. In conclusion, the concentration of GNR achieved within tumors microregions after I.V. administration was comparable to I.T. administration and sufficient to elicit tumoral growth arrest when coupled with laser-aided photoplasmonic treatment. PMID:24098446

  19. Primary Mesenteric Undifferentiated Pleomorphic Sarcoma Masquerading as a Colon Carcinoma: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Diaz-Beveridge, Robert; Melian, Marcos; Zac, Carlos; Navarro, Edwin; Akhoundova, Dilara; Chrivella, Melitina; Aparicio, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    Undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma (UPS) is the most common sarcoma that appears in older patients, usually in the extremities and the retroperitoneum. Other locations are rare. By definition, in UPS, although the malignant cells tend to appear fibroblastic or myofibroblastic, they should not show differentiation towards a more specific line of differentiation. In this sense, we report the case of an 80-year-old patient with an initial clinical diagnosis of a locally advanced colonic neoplasm that was later confirmed as a primary mesenteric UPS. Primary mesenteric UPS are extremely rare with less than 20 cases reported. We also review the pathologic and radiologic diagnostic criteria and the natural history of these tumours. PMID:26380135

  20. Toad skin extract cinobufatini inhibits migration of human breast carcinoma MDA-MB-231 cells into a model stromal tissue.

    PubMed

    Nakata, Munehiro; Mori, Shuya; Kamoshida, Yo; Kawaguchi, Shota; Fujita-Yamaguchi, Yoko; Gao, Bo; Tang, Wei

    2015-08-01

    Toad skin extract cinobufatini study has been focused on anticancer activity, especially apoptosis-inducing activity by bufosteroids. The present study examined effect of the toad skin extract on cancer cell migration into model stromal tissues. Human breast carcinoma cell line MDA-MB-231 was incubated in the presence or absence of toad skin extract on a surface of reconstituted type I collagen gel as a model stromal tissue allowing the cells to migrate into the gel. Frozen sections were microscopically observed after azan staining. Data showed a decrease of cell number in a microscopic field and shortening of cell migration into the model stromal tissue in a dose dependent manner. This suggests that toad skin extract may possess migration-preventing activity in addition to cell toxicity such as apoptosis-inducing activity. The multifaceted effects including apoptosis-inducing and cancer cell migration-preventing activities would improve usefulness of toad skin extract cinobufatini as an anticancer medicine.

  1. Cytotoxic and apoptotic activities of Amorphophallus campanulatus (Roxb.) Bl. tuber extracts against human colon carcinoma cell line HCT-15

    PubMed Central

    Ansil, P.N.; Wills, P.J.; Varun, R.; Latha, M.S.

    2014-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer death worldwide and is the third most common form of malignancy in both men and women. Several possible colon cancer chemopreventive agents are found in edible plants. Amorphophallus campanulatus (Roxb.) Blume (family: Araceae) is a tuber crop, largely cultivated throughout the plains of India for using its corm as food. This tuber has also been traditionally used for the treatment of abdominal tumors, liver diseases, piles etc. The aim of this study was to evaluate the dose-dependent cytotoxic and apoptosis inducing effects of the sub fractions of A. campanulatus tuber methanolic extract (ACME) viz. petroleum ether fraction (PEF), chloroform fraction (CHF), ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) and methanolic fraction (MEF) on the colon cancer cell line, HCT-15. Antiproliferative effects of the sub fractions of ACME were studied by MTT assay. Apoptotic activity was assessed by DAPI, Annexin V-FITC and JC-1 fluorescent staining. The chemotherapeutic drug, 5-flurouracil (5-FU) was used as positive drug control. The sub fractions of ACME significantly inhibited the proliferation of HCT-15 cells in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, the extracts were found to induce apoptosis and were confirmed by DAPI, Annexin V-FITC and JC-1 fluorescent staining. A pronounced results of cytotoxic and apoptotic activities were observed in the cells treated with 5-FU and CHF, whereas, EAF and MEF treated cells exhibited a moderate result and the least effect was observed in PEF treated cells. Our results suggested that, among the sub fractions of ACME, CHF had potent cytotoxic and apoptotic activity and thus it could be explored as a novel target for anticancer drug development. Furthermore, these findings confirm that the sub fractions of ACME dose-dependently suppress the proliferation of HCT-15 cells by inducing apoptosis. PMID:25473360

  2. Cytotoxic and apoptotic activities of Amorphophallus campanulatus (Roxb.) Bl. tuber extracts against human colon carcinoma cell line HCT-15.

    PubMed

    Ansil, P N; Wills, P J; Varun, R; Latha, M S

    2014-12-01

    Colorectal cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer death worldwide and is the third most common form of malignancy in both men and women. Several possible colon cancer chemopreventive agents are found in edible plants. Amorphophallus campanulatus (Roxb.) Blume (family: Araceae) is a tuber crop, largely cultivated throughout the plains of India for using its corm as food. This tuber has also been traditionally used for the treatment of abdominal tumors, liver diseases, piles etc. The aim of this study was to evaluate the dose-dependent cytotoxic and apoptosis inducing effects of the sub fractions of A. campanulatus tuber methanolic extract (ACME) viz. petroleum ether fraction (PEF), chloroform fraction (CHF), ethyl acetate fraction (EAF) and methanolic fraction (MEF) on the colon cancer cell line, HCT-15. Antiproliferative effects of the sub fractions of ACME were studied by MTT assay. Apoptotic activity was assessed by DAPI, Annexin V-FITC and JC-1 fluorescent staining. The chemotherapeutic drug, 5-flurouracil (5-FU) was used as positive drug control. The sub fractions of ACME significantly inhibited the proliferation of HCT-15 cells in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, the extracts were found to induce apoptosis and were confirmed by DAPI, Annexin V-FITC and JC-1 fluorescent staining. A pronounced results of cytotoxic and apoptotic activities were observed in the cells treated with 5-FU and CHF, whereas, EAF and MEF treated cells exhibited a moderate result and the least effect was observed in PEF treated cells. Our results suggested that, among the sub fractions of ACME, CHF had potent cytotoxic and apoptotic activity and thus it could be explored as a novel target for anticancer drug development. Furthermore, these findings confirm that the sub fractions of ACME dose-dependently suppress the proliferation of HCT-15 cells by inducing apoptosis. PMID:25473360

  3. Growth inhibitory activities of crude extracts obtained from herbal plants in the Ryukyu Islands on several human colon carcinoma cell lines.

    PubMed

    Kaneshiro, Tatsuya; Suzui, Masumi; Takamatsu, Reika; Murakami, Akira; Ohigashi, Hajime; Fujino, Tetsuya; Yoshimi, Naoki

    2005-01-01

    There is increasing interest in the use of herbs for the treatment of human diseases including cancer. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine whether crude extracts obtained from 44 herbal plants in the Ryukyu Islands might contain components capable of inhibiting the growth of a variety of human colon carcinoma cell lines. Leaves, roots and other parts of the plants were extracted with chloroform, and the crude extracts were dissolved in dimethylsulfoxide and used for the experiments. Extracts of Hemerocallis fulva, Ipomoea batatas, Curcuma longa, and Nasturium officinale caused marked dose-dependent growth inhibition, with IC(50) values in the range of 10-80 mug/ml. With the HCT116 cell line, the extracts of Hemerocallis fulva and Ipomoea batatas induced G1 cell cycle arrest after 48 h of treatment. In addition, we found that extracts of Curcuma longa, and Nasturium officinale induced apoptosis in these cells after 48 h of treatment. The present studies are the first systematic examination of the growth inhibitory effects of crude extracts obtained from herbal plants in the Ryukyu Islands. The findings provide evidence that several plants in the Ryukyu Islands contain components that may have anticancer activity. PMID:16235999

  4. Involvement of protein kinase C in the mechanism of action of Escherichia coli heat-stable enterotoxin (STa) in a human colonic carcinoma cell line, COLO-205

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, Dyuti Datta; Saha, Subhrajit; Chakrabarti, Manoj K. . E-mail: mkc_niced@yahoo.co.in

    2005-08-01

    The present study was undertaken to determine the involvement of calcium-protein kinase C pathway in the mechanism of action of Escherichia coli heat stable enterotoxin (STa) apart from STa-induced activation of guanylate cyclase in human colonic carcinoma cell line COLO-205, which was used as a model cultured cell line to study the mechanism of action of E. coli STa. In response to E. coli STa, protein kinase C (PKC) activity was increased in a time-dependent manner with its physical translocation from cytosol to membrane. Inhibition of the PKC activity in membrane fraction and inhibition of its physical translocation in response to IP{sub 3}-mediated calcium release inhibitor dantrolene suggested the involvement of intracellular store depletion in the regulation of PKC activity. Among different PKC isoforms, predominant involvement of calcium-dependent protein kinase C (PKC{alpha}) was specified using isotype-specific pseudosubstrate, which showed pronounce enzyme activity. Inhibition of enzyme activity by PKC{alpha}-specific inhibitor Goe6976 and immunoblott study employing isotype-specific antibody further demonstrated the involvement of calcium-dependent isoform of PKC in the mechanism of action of E. coli STa. Moreover, inhibition of guanylate cyclase activity by PKC{alpha}-specific inhibitor Goe6976 suggested the involvement of PKC{alpha} in the regulation of guanylate cyclase activity.

  5. Effect of mopidamol on survival in carcinoma of the lung and colon: final report of Veterans Administration Cooperative Study No. 188.

    PubMed

    Zacharski, L R; Moritz, T E; Baczek, L A; Rickles, F R; Edwards, R L; Forman, W B; Forcier, R J; Cornell, C J; Haakenson, C M; Ballard, H S

    1988-03-16

    Mopidamol (RA-233), a derivative of dipyridamole, is a phosphodiesterase inhibitor that has been shown previously to limit progression of malignancy in certain experimental animal models and in a pilot study in humans. RA-233 plus chemotherapy was compared with chemotherapy alone in a 5-year double-blind trial involving 719 patients with advanced carcinomas of the lung and of the colon. RA-233 treatment was associated with a statistically significant prolongation of survival in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (N-SCLC) limited to one hemithorax and with reduction in mean plasma fibrogen concentration. RA-233 was not toxic. The favorable effects on survival could not be explained by any factor other than the RA-233 treatment. In other tumor categories tested, no differences in survival were observed. These results suggest that RA-233 is useful in the treatment of N-SCLC of limited extent. They also suggest that therapeutic intervention aimed at modified intracellular pathways might constitute a novel investigative approach to the treatment of cancer.

  6. The bioactive potential of red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) leaves in exhibiting cytotoxic and cytoprotective activity on human laryngeal carcinoma and colon adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Durgo, Ksenija; Belščak-Cvitanović, Ana; Stančić, Angela; Franekić, Jasna; Komes, Draženka

    2012-03-01

    In this article, the bioactive potential of red raspberry leaves, a by-product of this widely spread plant, mostly valued for its antioxidant-rich fruits, was determined. The polyphenolic profile and antioxidative properties of red raspberry leaf extract were determined and examined for potential biological activity. Cytotoxic effect, antioxidative/prooxidative effect, and effect on total glutathione concentration were determined in human laryngeal carcinoma (HEp2) and colon adenocarcinoma (SW 480) cell lines. SW 480 cells are more susceptible to raspberry leaf extract in comparison with HEp2 cells. The antioxidative nature of raspberry leaf extract was detected in HEp2 cells treated with hydrogen peroxide, as opposed to SW 480 cells, where raspberry leaf extract induced reactive oxygen species formation. Raspberry leaf extract increased total glutathione level in HEp2 cells. This effect was reinforced after 24 hours of recovery, indicating that induction was caused by products formed during cellular metabolism of compounds present in the extract. Comparison of the results obtained on these two cell lines indicates that cellular response to raspberry extract will depend on the type of the cells that are exposed to it. The results obtained confirmed the biological activity of red raspberry leaf polyphenols and showed that this traditional plant can supplement the daily intake of valuable natural antioxidants, which exhibit beneficial health effects.

  7. Application of low-energy scanning transmission electron microscopy for the study of Pt-nanoparticle uptake in human colon carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Blank, Holger; Schneider, Reinhard; Gerthsen, Dagmar; Gehrke, Helge; Jarolim, Katharina; Marko, Doris

    2014-06-01

    High-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy (HAADF STEM) in a scanning electron microscope facilitates the acquisition of images with high chemical sensitivity and high resolution. HAADF STEM at low electron energies is particularly suited to image nanoparticles (NPs) in thin cell sections which are not subjected to poststaining procedures as demonstrated by comparison with bright-field TEM. High membrane contrast is achieved and distinction of NPs with different chemical composition is possible at first sight. Low-energy HAADF STEM was applied to systematically study the uptake of Pt-NPs with a broad size distribution in HT29 colon carcinoma cells as a function of incubation time and incubation temperature. The cellular dose was quantified, that is, the amount and number density of NPs taken up by the cells, as well as the particle-size distribution. The results show a strong dependence of the amount of incubated NPs on the exposure time which can be understood by considering size-dependent diffusion and gravitational settling of the NPs in the cell culture medium.

  8. Combined ultrastructural and biochemical study of cellular processing of vasoactive intestinal peptide and its receptors in human colonic carcinoma cells in culture.

    PubMed

    Hejblum, G; Gali, P; Boissard, C; Astesano, A; Marie, J C; Anteunis, A; Hui Bon Hoa, D; Rosselin, G

    1988-11-01

    Desensitization of human carcinoma colonic cells in culture (HT-29) to vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) has been reported previously (C. Boissard, J. C. Marie, G. Hejblum, C. Gespach, and G. Rosselin, Cancer Res., 46: 4406-4413, 1986). In the present study, we have determined the ultrastructural localization of VIP and its receptor after exposure of HT-29 cells to VIP monoiodinated on tyrosyl residue 10 together with the molecular forms and the activity of the internalized VIP receptor. Quantitative electron microscope autoradiography showed that after binding at the cell surface, VIP is internalized in heterogeneous endosomes. Cross-linking experiments followed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis were performed in different experimental conditions allowing us to selectively obtain cell surface-associated, internalized, or recycled receptors. No detectable alteration of the labeled VIP-receptor complex occurred during the internalization and recycling processes. Furthermore, a loss of the forskolin potentiation of the VIP-induced stimulation of adenylate cyclase was observed after VIP exposure. This feature was time and temperature dependent as was the VIP-induced loss of cell surface receptors, indicating that the internalized VIP receptor is dissociated from the adenylate cyclase. PMID:2844402

  9. Anthocyanin-rich blackberry extract suppresses the DNA-damaging properties of topoisomerase I and II poisons in colon carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Esselen, Melanie; Boettler, Ute; Teller, Nicole; Bachler, Simone; Hutter, Melanie; Rufer, Corinna E; Skrbek, Susanne; Marko, Doris

    2011-07-13

    In the present study, we addressed the question whether cyanidin-3-glucoside (C3G) or complex C3G-rich blackberry extracts affect human topoisomerases with special emphasis on the contribution of the potential degradation products phloroglucinol aldehyde (PGA) and protocatechuic acid (PCA). In HT29 colon carcinoma cells a C3G-rich blackberry extract suppressed camptothecin- (CPT-) or doxorubicin- (DOX-) induced stabilization of the covalent DNA-topoisomerase intermediate, thus antagonizing the effects of these classical topoisomerase poisons on DNA integrity. As a single compound, C3G (100 μM) decreased the DNA-damaging effects of CPT as well, but did not significantly affect those induced by DOX. At the highest applied concentration (100 μM), cyanidin protected DNA from CPT- and DOX-induced damage. Earlier reports on DNA-damaging properties of cyanidin were found to result most likely from the formation of hydrogen peroxide as an artifact in the cell culture medium when the incubation was performed in the absence of catalase. The suppression of hydrogen peroxide accumulation, achieved by the addition of catalase, demonstrated that cyanidin does not exhibit DNA-damaging properties in HT29 cells (up to 100 μM). The observed effects on topoisomerase interference and DNA protection against CPT or DOX were clearly limited to the parent compound and were not observed for the potential cyanidin degradation products PGA and PCA.

  10. HNPCC-associated synchronous early-stage signet-ring cell carcinomas of colonic origin. A comparative morphological and immunohistochemical study of an intramucosal and a submucosal example.

    PubMed

    Klarskov, Louise; Bernstein, Inge; Holck, Susanne

    2009-01-01

    Signet-ring cell carcinoma (SRCC) developing in the colorectum (CR) is infrequently identified at an early stage (no deeper than submucosa). Most such examples involve the submucosa. Merely 13 cases of intramucosal CR SRCC are at hand. We recently had the opportunity to study a specimen with two synchronous early-stage SRCC, developed in a 65-year-old hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer male patient with a known disease-causing mutation in MLH1. A right hemicolectomy specimen comprised a 15-mm intramucosal cecal lesion, featuring zones of conventional tubular adenoma and intraepithelial SRCC as well as tumor cells multifocally permeating the lamina propria and a 12-mm submucosally expanding SRCC of the ascending colon. The intramucosal and intraepithelial as well as stromal lesional cells displayed a normal membranous expression of beta-catenin and E-cadherin; submucosally infiltrating cells featured alterations in this complex with loss of membranous expression of both proteins and a shift with nuclear accumulation of beta-catenin, suggesting a disruption of the Wingless signaling pathway taking place at the transition from the intramucosal to the submucosal level. PMID:19002494

  11. Colonization of epidermal tissue by Staphylococcus aureus produces localized hypoxia and stimulates secretion of antioxidant and caspase-14 proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Lone , Abdul G.; Atci, Erhan; Renslow, Ryan S.; Beyenal, Haluk; Noh, S.; Fransson, B.; Abu-Lail, Nehal; Park, Jeong-Jin; Gang, David R.; Call, Douglas R.

    2015-08-31

    A partial-thickness epidermal explant model was colonized with GFP-expressing S. aureus and the pattern of S. aureus biofilm growth was characterized using electron and confocal laser scanning microscopy. Oxygen concentration in explants was quantified using microelectrodes. The relative effective diffusivity and porosity of the epidermis were determined using magnetic resonance imaging, while hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) concentration in explant media was measured by using microelectrodes. Secreted proteins were identified and quantified using MSE mass spectrometry. We found that S. aureus biofilm grows predominantly in sebum-rich areas around hair follicles and associated skin folds. Dissolved oxygen was selectively depleted (2-3 fold) in these locations, but the relative effective diffusivity and porosity did not change between colonized and control epidermis. Histological analysis revealed keratinocyte damage across all the layers of colonized epidermis after four days of culture. The colonized explants released significantly (P< 0.01) more anti-oxidant proteins of both epidermal and S. aureus origin, consistent with elevated H2O2 concentration found in the media from the colonized explants (P< 0.001). Caspase-14 was also elevated significantly in media from infected explants. While H2O2 induces primary keratinocyte differentiation, caspase-14 is required for terminal keratinocyte differentiation and desquamation. These results are consistent with a localized biological impact from S. aureus in response to colonization of the skin surface.

  12. Distinct nuclear arrangement of active and inactive c-myc genes in control and differentiated colon carcinoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Harnicarova, Andrea; Kozubek, Stanislav . E-mail: kozubek@ibp.cz; Pachernik, Jiri; Krejci, Jana; Bartova, Eva

    2006-12-10

    Using sequential RNA-DNA fluorescence in situ hybridization, the nuclear arrangement of both the active and inactive c-myc gene as well as its transcription was investigated in colon cancer HT-29 cells induced to differentiate into enterocytes. Cytogenetic studies revealed the presence of two chromosomes 8 in HT-29 cells, of which the one containing c-myc gene amplicons was substantially larger and easily distinguished from the normal chromosome. This observation enabled detection of both activity and nuclear localization of c-myc genes in single cells and in individual chromosome territories. Similar transcriptional activity of the c-myc gene was observed in both the normal and derivative chromosome 8 territories showing no influence of the amplification on the c-myc gene expression. Our experiments demonstrate strikingly specific nuclear and territorial arrangements of active genes as compared with inactive ones: on the periphery of their territories facing to the very central region of the cell nucleus. Nuclear arrangement of c-myc genes and transcripts was conserved during cell differentiation and, therefore, independent of the level of differentiation-specific c-myc gene expression. However, after the induction of differentiation, a more internal territorial location was found for the single copy c-myc gene of normal chromosome 8, while amplicons conserved their territorial topography.

  13. Prune extract (Prunus domestica L.) suppresses the proliferation and induces the apoptosis of human colon carcinoma Caco-2.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Takashi; Ikami, Takao; Xu, Jin-Wen; Ikeda, Katsumi

    2006-10-01

    Prunes are the dried fruits of certain cultivars of Prunus domestica L., and are recognized as a health food. The separated ethanol fraction from concentrated prune juice by DIAION HP-20 (PE) was investigated for cytotoxic effects on two different cancer cell lines in vitro. PE dose-dependently reduced the viable cell number of Caco-2, KATO III, but does not reduce the viable cell number of human normal colon fibroblast cells (CCD-18Co) used as a normal cell model. PE treatment for 24 h led to apoptotic changes in Caco-2 such as cell shrinkage and blebbed surfaces due to the convolutions of nuclear and plasma membranes and chromatin condensation, but this was not observed in CCD-18Co. PE induced nucleosomal DNA fragmentation typical of apoptosis in Caco-2 after 24 h of treatment. These results show that PE induced apoptosis in Caco-2. Furthermore, by Caco-2 treatment with H2O2 chelator catalase and Ca2+-chelator BAPTA/AM, the PE-induced cytotoxic pathway was completely blocked, and the viable cell number of Caco-2 was not affected.

  14. Prune extract (Prunus domestica L.) suppresses the proliferation and induces the apoptosis of human colon carcinoma Caco-2.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Takashi; Ikami, Takao; Xu, Jin-Wen; Ikeda, Katsumi

    2006-10-01

    Prunes are the dried fruits of certain cultivars of Prunus domestica L., and are recognized as a health food. The separated ethanol fraction from concentrated prune juice by DIAION HP-20 (PE) was investigated for cytotoxic effects on two different cancer cell lines in vitro. PE dose-dependently reduced the viable cell number of Caco-2, KATO III, but does not reduce the viable cell number of human normal colon fibroblast cells (CCD-18Co) used as a normal cell model. PE treatment for 24 h led to apoptotic changes in Caco-2 such as cell shrinkage and blebbed surfaces due to the convolutions of nuclear and plasma membranes and chromatin condensation, but this was not observed in CCD-18Co. PE induced nucleosomal DNA fragmentation typical of apoptosis in Caco-2 after 24 h of treatment. These results show that PE induced apoptosis in Caco-2. Furthermore, by Caco-2 treatment with H2O2 chelator catalase and Ca2+-chelator BAPTA/AM, the PE-induced cytotoxic pathway was completely blocked, and the viable cell number of Caco-2 was not affected. PMID:17190111

  15. Synergistic Activity of the Src Family Kinase Inhibitor Dasatinib and Oxaliplatin in Colon Carcinoma Cells is Mediated by Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Kopetz, Scott; Lesslie, Donald P.; Dallas, Nikolas A.; Park, Serk I.; Johnson, Marjorie; Parikh, Nila U.; Kim, Michael P.; Abbruzzese, James L.; Ellis, Lee M.; Chandra, Joya; Gallick, Gary E.

    2009-01-01

    Chemotherapeutic regimens for the treatment of colorectal cancer generally include oxaliplatin, although inherent and acquired resistance is common. One potential mediator of oxaliplatin sensitivity is the non-receptor protein tyrosine kinase, Src, the activity of which correlates with disease stage and patient survival. Therefore, we investigated the effects of Src inhibition using the tyrosine kinase inhibitor dasatinib on oxaliplatin sensitivity. We demonstrate that oxaliplatin acutely activates Src and that combination treatment with dasatinib is synergistic in a cell-line dependent manner, with the level of Src activation correlating with extent of synergy in a panel of six cell lines. Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) are generated after oxaliplatin treatment, and ROS potently activates Src. Pretreatment with antioxidants inhibits oxaliplatin-induced Src activation. In oxaliplatin resistant cell lines, Src activity is constitutively increased. In a mouse model of colorectal liver metastases, treatment with oxaliplatin also results in chronic Src activation. The combination of dasatinib and oxaliplatin results in significantly smaller tumors compared to single agent treatment, corresponding with reduced proliferation and angiogenesis. Therefore, we conclude that oxaliplatin activates Src through a ROS-dependent mechanism. Src inhibition increases oxaliplatin activity both in vitro and in vivo. These results suggest that Src inhibitors combined with oxaliplatin may have efficacy in metastatic colon cancer, and may provide the first indication of a molecular phenotype that might be susceptible to such combinations. PMID:19383922

  16. Obtaining Normal Tissue Constraints Using Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy (IMRT) in Patients with Oral Cavity, Oropharnygeal, and Laryngeal Carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Skinner, William K.J.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate normal tissue dose constraints while maintaining planning target volume (PTV) prescription without reducing PTV margins. Sixteen patients with oral cavity carcinoma (group I), 27 patients with oropharyngeal carcinoma (group II), and 28 patients with laryngeal carcinoma (group III) were reviewed. Parotid constraints were a mean dose to either parotid < 26 Gy (PP1), 50% of either parotid < 30 Gy (PP2), or 20 cc of total parotid < 20 Gy (PP3). Treatment was intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) with simultaneous integrated boost (SIB). All patients met constraints for cord and brain stem. The mandibular constraints were met in 66%, 29%, and 57% of patients with oral, oropharyngeal, and laryngeal cancers, respectively. Mean dose of 26 Gy (PP1) was achieved in 44%, 41%, and 38% of oral, oropharyngeal, and laryngeal patients. PP2 (parotid constraint of 30 Gy to less than 50% of one parotid) was the easiest to achieve (group I, II, and III: 82%, 76%, and 78%, respectively). PP3 (20 cc of total parotid < 20 Gy) was difficult, and was achieved in 25%, 17%, and 35% of oral, oropharyngeal, and laryngeal patients, respectively. Mean parotid dose of 26 Gy was met 40% of the time. However, a combination of constraints allowed for sparing of the parotid based on different criteria and was met in high numbers. This was accomplished without reducing PTV-parotid overlap. What dose constraint best correlates with subjective and objective functional outcomes remains a focus for future study.

  17. Cell specific apoptosis by RLX is mediated by NFκB in human colon carcinoma HCT-116 cells

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Resistance to chemotherapy represents a major obstacle in correcting colorectal carcinomas (CRC). Inspite of recent advances in the treatment of metastatic disease, the prognosis of the patients remains poor. RLX, a vasicinone analogue has been reported to possess potent bronchodilator, anti-asthmatic and anti-inflammatory properties. However, its anti-cancer activity is unknown. Results Here, we report for the first time that RLX has anti-cancer property against panel of human cancer cell lines and most potent activity was found against HCT-116 cells with IC50 value of 12 μM and have further investigated the involvement of NFκB and caspase-3 in RLX action in CRC apoptosis. Following RLX and BEZ-235 treatment in HCT-116, we observed significant down-regulation of NFκB (1 to 0.1 fold) and up-regulation of caspase-3 (1 to 2 fold) protein expressions. Additionally, morphological studies revealed membrane blebbing, cell shrinkage, chromatin condensation and finally apoptosis in HCT-116 cells. Conclusions Overall, these findings indicate that RLX is a potent small molecule which triggers apoptosis, and promising potential candidate to be a chemotherapeutic agent. PMID:25303828

  18. A novel Osmium-based compound targets the mitochondria and triggers ROS-dependent apoptosis in colon carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Maillet, A; Yadav, S; Loo, Y L; Sachaphibulkij, K; Pervaiz, S

    2013-06-06

    Engagement of the mitochondrial-death amplification pathway is an essential component in chemotherapeutic execution of cancer cells. Therefore, identification of mitochondria-targeting agents has become an attractive avenue for novel drug discovery. Here, we report the anticancer activity of a novel Osmium-based organometallic compound (hereafter named Os) on different colorectal carcinoma cell lines. HCT116 cell line was highly sensitive to Os and displayed characteristic features of autophagy and apoptosis; however, inhibition of autophagy did not rescue cell death unlike the pan-caspase inhibitor z-VAD-fmk. Furthermore, Os significantly altered mitochondrial morphology, disrupted electron transport flux, decreased mitochondrial transmembrane potential and ATP levels, and triggered a significant increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Interestingly, the sensitivity of cell lines to Os was linked to its ability to induce mitochondrial ROS production (HCT116 and RKO) as HT29 and SW620 cell lines that failed to show an increase in ROS were resistant to the death-inducing activity of Os. Finally, intra-peritoneal injections of Os significantly inhibited tumor formation in a murine model of HCT116 carcinogenesis, and pretreatment with Os significantly enhanced tumor cell sensitivity to cisplatin and doxorubicin. These data highlight the mitochondria-targeting activity of this novel compound with potent anticancer effect in vitro and in vivo, which could have potential implications for strategic therapeutic drug design.

  19. Tissue-Specific Effects of Reduced β-catenin Expression on Adenomatous Polyposis Coli Mutation-Instigated Tumorigenesis in Mouse Colon and Ovarian Epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Ying; Sakamoto, Naoya; Wu, Rong; Liu, Jie-yu; Wiese, Alexandra; Green, Maranne E.; Green, Megan; Akyol, Aytekin; Roy, Badal C.; Zhai, Yali; Cho, Kathleen R.; Fearon, Eric R.

    2015-01-01

    Adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) inactivating mutations are present in most human colorectal cancers and some other cancers. The APC protein regulates the β-catenin protein pool that functions as a co-activator of T cell factor (TCF)-regulated transcription in Wnt pathway signaling. We studied effects of reduced dosage of the Ctnnb1 gene encoding β-catenin in Apc-mutation-induced colon and ovarian mouse tumorigenesis and cell culture models. Concurrent somatic inactivation of one Ctnnb1 allele, dramatically inhibited Apc mutation-induced colon polyposis and greatly extended Apc-mutant mouse survival. Ctnnb1 hemizygous dose markedly inhibited increases in β-catenin levels in the cytoplasm and nucleus following Apc inactivation in colon epithelium, with attenuated expression of key β-catenin/TCF-regulated target genes, including those encoding the EphB2/B3 receptors, the stem cell marker Lgr5, and Myc, leading to maintenance of crypt compartmentalization and restriction of stem and proliferating cells to the crypt base. A critical threshold for β-catenin levels in TCF-regulated transcription was uncovered for Apc mutation-induced effects in colon epithelium, along with evidence of a feed-forward role for β-catenin in Ctnnb1 gene expression and CTNNB1 transcription. The active β-catenin protein pool was highly sensitive to CTNNB1 transcript levels in colon cancer cells. In mouse ovarian endometrioid adenocarcinomas (OEAs) arising from Apc- and Pten-inactivation, while Ctnnb1 hemizygous dose affected β-catenin levels and some β-catenin/TCF target genes, Myc induction was retained and OEAs arose in a fashion akin to that seen with intact Ctnnb1 gene dose. Our findings indicate Ctnnb1 gene dose exerts tissue-specific differences in Apc mutation-instigated tumorigenesis. Differential expression of selected β-catenin/TCF-regulated genes, such as Myc, likely underlies context-dependent effects of Ctnnb1 gene dosage in tumorigenesis. PMID:26528816

  20. miRNA Expression in Colon Polyps Provides Evidence for a Multihit Model of Colon Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Oberg, Ann L.; French, Amy J.; Sarver, Aaron L.; Subramanian, Subbaya; Morlan, Bruce W.; Riska, Shaun M.; Borralho, Pedro M.; Cunningham, Julie M.; Boardman, Lisa A.; Wang, Liang; Smyrk, Thomas C.; Asmann, Yan; Steer, Clifford J.; Thibodeau, Stephen N.

    2011-01-01

    Changes in miRNA expression are a common feature in colon cancer. Those changes occurring in the transition from normal to adenoma and from adenoma to carcinoma, however, have not been well defined. Additionally, miRNA changes among tumor subgroups of colon cancer have also not been adequately evaluated. In this study, we examined the global miRNA expression in 315 samples that included 52 normal colonic mucosa, 41 tubulovillous adenomas, 158 adenocarcinomas with proficient DNA mismatch repair (pMMR) selected for stage and age of onset, and 64 adenocarcinomas with defective DNA mismatch repair (dMMR) selected for sporadic (n = 53) and inherited colon cancer (n = 11). Sporadic dMMR tumors all had MLH1 inactivation due to promoter hypermethylation. Unsupervised PCA and cluster analysis demonstrated that normal colon tissue, adenomas, pMMR carcinomas and dMMR carcinomas were all clearly discernable. The majority of miRNAs that were differentially expressed between normal and polyp were also differentially expressed with a similar magnitude in the comparison of normal to both the pMMR and dMMR tumor groups, suggesting a stepwise progression for transformation from normal colon to carcinoma. Among the miRNAs demonstrating the largest fold up- or down-regulated changes (≥4), four novel (miR-31, miR-1, miR-9 and miR-99a) and two previously reported (miR-137 and miR-135b) miRNAs were identified in the normal/adenoma comparison. All but one of these (miR-99a) demonstrated similar expression differences in the two normal/carcinoma comparisons, suggesting that these early tumor changes are important in both the pMMR- and dMMR-derived cancers. The comparison between pMMR and dMMR tumors identified four miRNAs (miR-31, miR-552, miR-592 and miR-224) with statistically significant expression differences (≥2-fold change). PMID:21694772

  1. Indium-labeled anti-colorectal carcinoma monoclonal antibody accumulation in non-tumored tissue in patients with colorectal carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Abdel-Nabi, H.H.; Chan, H.W.; Doerr, R.J. )

    1990-12-01

    Indium-111- ({sup 111}In) labeled murine monoclonal antibodies ZCE 025 (against carcinoembryonic antigen) and CYT-103 MAb B72.3 (against tumor-associated glycoprotein - 72) have been used to image patients with colorectal cancers with encouraging results. The objectives of this study were to assess the frequency and causes of {sup 111}In MAb localization in tumor-free, benign tissues. Thus, scans of 75 patients who have undergone exploratory surgery following radioimmunoscintigraphy with {sup 111}In-ZCE 025 (n = 37) or {sup 111}In-CYT-103 (n = 38) were reviewed in conjunction with operative and histopathology reports. Localization in non-tumored tissues was seen in 10.8% and 13.1%, respectively, of patients receiving ZCE 025 and CYT-103. The most common sites involved were: degenerative joint disease, abdominal aneurysms, postoperative bowel adhesions, and local inflammatory changes secondary to surgery or external irradiation. Review of patients' medical history and results of concurrent diagnostic modalities is likely to lessen the false-positive rate of {sup 111}In-labeled MAb scan interpretation.

  2. 5-Hydroxy-7-Methoxyflavone Triggers Mitochondrial-Associated Cell Death via Reactive Oxygen Species Signaling in Human Colon Carcinoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Souren; Jakhar, Rekha; Han, Jaehong; Kang, Sun Chul

    2016-01-01

    Plant-derived compounds are an important source of clinically useful anti-cancer agents. Chrysin, a biologically active flavone found in many plants, has limited usage for cancer chemotherapeutics due to its poor oral bioavailability. 5-Hydroxy-7-methoxyflavone (HMF), an active natural chrysin derivative found in various plant sources, is known to modulate several biological activities. However, the mechanism underlying HMF-induced apoptotic cell death in human colorectal carcinoma cells in vitro is still unknown. Herein, HMF was shown to be capable of inducing cytotoxicity in HCT-116 cells and induced cell death in a dose-dependent manner. Treatment of HCT-116 cells with HMF caused DNA damage and triggered mitochondrial membrane perturbation accompanied by Cyt c release, down-regulation of Bcl-2, activation of BID and Bax, and caspase-3-mediated apoptosis. These results show that ROS generation by HMF was the crucial mediator behind ER stress induction, resulting in intracellular Ca2+ release, JNK phosphorylation, and activation of the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway. Furthermore, time course study also reveals that HMF treatment leads to increase in mitochondrial and cytosolic ROS generation and decrease in antioxidant enzymes expression. Temporal upregulation of IRE1-α expression and JNK phosphorylation was noticed after HMF treatment. These results were further confirmed by pre-treatment with the ROS scavenger N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC), which completely reversed the effects of HMF treatment by preventing lipid peroxidation, followed by abolishment of JNK phosphorylation and attenuation of apoptogenic marker proteins. These results emphasize that ROS generation by HMF treatment regulates the mitochondrial-mediated apoptotic signaling pathway in HCT-116 cells, demonstrating HMF as a promising pro-oxidant therapeutic candidate for targeting colorectal cancer. PMID:27116119

  3. Tubulin glycylases are required for primary cilia, control of cell proliferation and tumor development in colon

    PubMed Central

    Rocha, Cecilia; Papon, Laura; Cacheux, Wulfran; Marques Sousa, Patricia; Lascano, Valeria; Tort, Olivia; Giordano, Tiziana; Vacher, Sophie; Lemmers, Benedicte; Mariani, Pascale; Meseure, Didier; Medema, Jan Paul; Bièche, Ivan; Hahne, Michael; Janke, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    TTLL3 and TTLL8 are tubulin glycine ligases catalyzing posttranslational glycylation of microtubules. We show here for the first time that these enzymes are required for robust formation of primary cilia. We further discover the existence of primary cilia in colon and demonstrate that TTLL3 is the only glycylase in this organ. As a consequence, colon epithelium shows a reduced number of primary cilia accompanied by an increased rate of cell division in TTLL3-knockout mice. Strikingly, higher proliferation is compensated by faster tissue turnover in normal colon. In a mouse model for tumorigenesis, lack of TTLL3 strongly promotes tumor development. We further demonstrate that decreased levels of TTLL3 expression are linked to the development of human colorectal carcinomas. Thus, we have uncovered a novel role for tubulin glycylation in primary cilia maintenance, which controls cell proliferation of colon epithelial cells and plays an essential role in colon cancer development. PMID:25180231

  4. Basement membrane protein distribution in LYVE-1-immunoreactive lymphatic vessels of normal tissues and ovarian carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Vainionpää, Noora; Bützow, Ralf; Hukkanen, Mika; Jackson, David G; Pihlajaniemi, Taina; Sakai, Lynn Y; Virtanen, Ismo

    2007-05-01

    The endothelial cells of blood vessels assemble basement membranes that play a role in vessel formation, maintenance and function, and in the migration of inflammatory cells. However, little is known about the distribution of basement membrane constituents in lymphatic vessels. We studied the distribution of basement membrane proteins in lymphatic vessels of normal human skin, digestive tract, ovary and, as an example of tumours with abundant lymphatics, ovarian carcinomas. Basement membrane proteins were localized by immunohistochemistry with monoclonal antibodies, whereas lymphatic capillaries were detected with antibodies to the lymphatic vessel endothelial hyaluronan receptor-1, LYVE-1. In skin and ovary, fibrillar immunoreactivity for the laminin alpha4, beta1, beta2 and gamma1 chains, type IV and XVIII collagens and nidogen-1 was found in the basement membrane region of the lymphatic endothelium, whereas also heterogeneous reactivity for the laminin alpha5 chain was detected in the digestive tract. Among ovarian carcinomas, intratumoural lymphatic vessels were found especially in endometrioid carcinomas. In addition to the laminin alpha4, beta1, beta2 and gamma1 chains, type IV and XVIII collagens and nidogen-1, carcinoma lymphatics showed immunoreactivity for the laminin alpha5 chain and Lutheran glycoprotein, a receptor for the laminin alpha5 chain. In normal lymphatic capillaries, the presence of primarily alpha4 chain laminins may therefore compromise the formation of endothelial basement membrane, as these truncated laminins lack one of the three arms required for efficient network assembly. The localization of basement membrane proteins adjacent to lymphatic endothelia suggests a role for these proteins in lymphatic vessels. The distribution of the laminin alpha5 chain and Lutheran glycoprotein proposes a difference between normal and carcinoma lymphatic capillaries.

  5. Microtubules Inhibit E-Cadherin Adhesive Activity by Maintaining Phosphorylated p120-Catenin in a Colon Carcinoma Cell Model

    PubMed Central

    Maiden, Stephanie L.; Petrova, Yuliya I.; Gumbiner, Barry M.

    2016-01-01

    Tight regulation of cadherin-mediated intercellular adhesions is critical to both tissue morphogenesis during development and tissue homeostasis in adults. Cell surface expression of the cadherin-catenin complex is often directly correlated with the level of adhesion, however, examples exist where cadherin appears to be inactive and cells are completely non-adhesive. The state of p120-catenin phosphorylation has been implicated in regulating the adhesive activity of E-cadherin but the mechanism is currently unclear. We have found that destabilization of the microtubule cytoskeleton, independent of microtubule plus-end dynamics, dephosphorylates p120-catenin and activates E-cadherin adhesion in Colo 205 cells. Through chemical screening, we have also identified several kinases as potential regulators of E-cadherin adhesive activity. Analysis of several p120-catenin phosphomutants suggests that gross dephosphorylation of p120-catenin rather than that of specific amino acids may trigger E-cadherin adhesion. Uncoupling p120-catenin binding to E-cadherin at the membrane causes constitutive adhesion in Colo 205 cells, further supporting an inhibitory role of phosphorylated p120-catenin on E-cadherin activity. PMID:26845024

  6. Colonization of epidermal tissue by Staphylococcus aureus produces localized hypoxia and stimulates secretion of antioxidant and caspase-14 proteins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A partial-thickness epidermal explant model was colonized with GFP-expressing S. aureus and the pattern of S. aureus biofilm growth was characterized using electron and confocal laser scanning microscopy. Oxygen concentration in explants and H2O2 in media was quantified using microelectrodes. The re...

  7. Evaluation of antioxidant activity and antiproliferative effect of fruit juices enriched with Pycnogenol® in colon carcinoma cells. The effect of in vitro gastrointestinal digestion.

    PubMed

    Frontela-Saseta, Carmen; López-Nicolás, Rubén; González-Bermúdez, Carlos A; Peso-Echarri, Patricia; Ros-Berruezo, Gaspar; Martínez-Graciá, Carmen; Canali, Raffaella; Virgili, Fabio

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of in vitro gastrointestinal digestion on the antioxidant and antiproliferative effect of fruit juices enriched with Pycnogenol® (0.5 g/L) on a colon carcinoma cell line (Caco-2). The total phenolic concentration (TPC), antioxidant activity and inhibition cell growth were studied in fresh and digested pineapple juice and red fruits juice (both enriched with pine bark extract and not). After in vitro digestion the level of detectable phenolic compounds (expressed as gallic acid equivalent) was higher in both pineapple and red fruits juices enriched with Pycnogenol® than in non-enriched commercial juices (155.6 mg/100 mL vs 94.6 mg/100 mL and 478.5 mg/100 mL vs 406.9 mg/100 mL, respectively). Increased antioxidant activity (measured by 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) and oxygen radical absorbance capacity assay (ORAC) methods) was observed in digested enriched juices with respect to the same samples before digestion. Pycnogenol® enrichment led to a high antiproliferative effect between 24 and 72 h of incubation with undigested pineapple juice compared with the non-enriched juice. It can be concluded that enrichment of fruit juices with Pycnogenol® provides a source of phenolic compounds with high stability to in vitro gastrointestinal conditions; however, the antioxidant properties of fruit juices were affected to a different extent.

  8. Effect of ulinastatin on the expression and distribution of high mobility group box 1 in human colon carcinoma cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yunhua; Tao, Tao; Dong, Yinv; Zhang, Jing; Qin, Zaisheng

    2015-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the in vitro effects of ulinastatin (UTI) on the proliferation, invasion, apoptosis, expression and distribution of high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) and the expression of nuclear factor κB (NF‑κB) in human colon carcinoma LoVo cells. The cells were divided into control (untreated), UTI1 (400 U/ml UTI), UTI2 (800 U/ml UTI) and UTI3 (1,600 U/ml UTI) groups. The cell proliferation, invasion, apoptosis and the gene and protein expression of HMGB1 and NF‑κB were detected using a tetrazolium assay, Transwell cell invasion assays, a caspase‑3 activity assay, western blot analysis and reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction, respectively. The distribution of HMGB1 was detected using immunofluorescence. LoVo cell proilferation decreased the most in the UTI3 group followed, in order, by the UTI2, UTI1 and control groups. UTI inhibited invasion in LoVo cells and the inhibitory effect was enhanced as the UTI concentration increased. The activity of caspase‑3 increased the least in the control group followed, in order, by the UTI1, UTI2 and UTI3 groups. UTI inhibited the expression of HMGB1 and NF‑κB, and decreased the cytoplasmic distribution of HMGB1. Thus, UTI inhibited LoVo cell proliferation and induced LoVo cell apoptosis, the mechanism of which may be associated with a decreased in the expression of HMGB1 and NF‑κB, and the cytoplasmic distribution of HMGB1.

  9. Cytotoxicity of PEGylated liposomes co-loaded with novel pro-apoptotic drug NCL-240 and the MEK inhibitor cobimetinib against colon carcinoma in vitro.

    PubMed

    Sriraman, Shravan Kumar; Geraldo, Vananelia; Luther, Ed; Degterev, Alexei; Torchilin, Vladimir

    2015-12-28

    The overactivation of signaling pathways, such as the PI3K and MAPK, which are crucial to cell growth and survival, is a common feature in many cancer types. Though a number of advances have been made in the development of molecular agents targeting these pathways, their application as monotherapies has not significantly improved clinical outcome. A novel liposomal preparation was developed, co-loaded with NCL-240, a small-molecule inhibitor of the PI3K/mTOR pathway, along with cobimetinib, a MEK/ERK pathway inhibitor. This combination drug-loaded nanocarrier, (N+C)-LP, was able to significantly enhance the cytotoxicity of these drugs against colon carcinoma cells in vitro demonstrating a clear synergistic effect (combination index of 0.79). The (N+C)-LP was also able to induce cell cycle arrest of the cells, specifically in the G1 phase thereby preventing their progression to the S-phase, typical of the action of MEK inhibitors. Analyzing the apoptotic events, it was found that this effect on cell cycle regulation is followed by the induction of apoptosis. The quantified distribution of apoptotic events showed that the (N+C)-LP induced apoptosis significantly by over 3-4 fold (P<0.001) compared to other treatment groups. The co-loaded liposomal preparation was also targeted to the transferrin receptor of cancer cells by modifying the surface of the liposome with transferrin. FACS analysis showed that transferrin-mediated targeting enhanced the association of liposomes to HCT 116 cells by almost 5-fold. This could potentially allow for cancer cell-specific effects in vivo thereby minimizing any non-specific interactions of the liposomes with non-cancerous cells. Taken together, this study clearly shows that the combined inhibition of the PI3K and MEK pathways correlates with a significant anti-proliferative effect, due to cell-cycle regulation leading to the induction of apoptosis. PMID:26497930

  10. Involvement of the immune response in the cure of metastatic murine CT-26 colon carcinoma by low electric field-enhanced chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Plotnikov, Alexander; Tichler, Thomas; Korenstein, Rafi; Keisari, Yona

    2005-12-10

    Low electric field cancer treatment-enhanced chemotherapy (LEFCT-EC) is a new treatment modality that combines chemotherapeutic agents and low electric field stimulation. LEFCT-EC was found to destroy malignant mouse tumors and cause massive death of tumor cells. This may enable the immune system cells to efficiently recognize and eliminate tumor cells at the primary tumor site and at metastatic foci. Mice with 15 mm diameter intracutaneous colon carcinomas (CT-26) were injected with BCNU (35 mg/kg), and 2 min later the tumors were exposed to low electric fields (intensity 40 V/cm, pulse duration 180 micros, frequency 500 Hz) for 12 min (LEFCT-EC). We found that treatment with LEFCT-EC achieved complete cure of 93% of the animals. In comparison, electric fields alone (13% cure), chemotherapy alone (0%), surgery (15%) or a combination of surgery and bis-chloroethyl-nitrosurea, carmustine (BCNU; 84%) treatments resulted in lower cure rates. After treatment and cure with LEFCT-EC, 50% of the cured mice developed resistance to a tumor challenge (surgery + BCNU only 15%). Furthermore, splenocytes from cured animals protected naive animals from a tumorigenic dose of tumor cells. Separation of spleen cells into lymphocyte subpopulations indicated a major role for CD4 and CD8 T cells in this protection. FACS analysis revealed restoration of normal splenocyte subpopulation proportions impaired by cytotoxic chemotherapy. Our results suggest that LEFCT-EC can directly destroy primary tumors and facilitate the destruction of metastatic disease by enforcement of antitumor immune responses.

  11. Risk factors for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus skin and soft tissue infection in MRSA-colonized patients discharged from a Veterans Affairs hospital.

    PubMed

    Cadena, J; Richardson, A M; Frei, C R

    2016-02-01

    Currently, limited studies have quantified the risk of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs) for MRSA-colonized patients on discharge from hospital. Our retrospective, case-control study identified independent risk factors for the development of MRSA SSTIs among such patients detected by active MRSA nasal screening in an acute care hospital by PCR on admission, and bacteriological cultures on discharge. Cases were MRSA-colonized patients aged ⩾18 years who developed a MRSA SSTI post-discharge and controls were those who did not develop a MRSA SSTI post-discharge. Controls were matched to cases by length of follow-up (±10 days) for up to 18 months. Potential demographic and clinical risk factors for MRSA infection were identified using electronic queries and manual chart abstraction; data were compared by standard statistical tests and variables with P values ⩽0·05 in bivariable analysis were entered into a logistic regression model. Multivariable analysis demonstrated prior hospital admission within 12 months (P = 0·02), prior MRSA infection (P = 0·05), and previous myocardial infarction (P = 0·01) were independently predictive of a MRSA SSTI post-discharge. Identification of MRSA colonization upon admission and recognition of risk factors could help identify a high-risk population that could benefit from MRSA SSTI prevention strategies.

  12. Isolation of Primary Human Colon Tumor Cells from Surgical Tissues and Culturing Them Directly on Soft Elastic Substrates for Traction Cytometry.

    PubMed

    Ali, M Yakut; Anand, Sandeep V; Tangella, Krishnarao; Ramkumar, Davendra; Saif, Taher A

    2015-01-01

    Cancer cells respond to matrix mechanical stiffness in a complex manner using a coordinated, hierarchical mechano-chemical system composed of adhesion receptors and associated signal transduction membrane proteins, the cytoskeletal architecture, and molecular motors. Mechanosensitivity of different cancer cells in vitro are investigated primarily with immortalized cell lines or murine derived primary cells, not with primary human cancer cells. Hence, little is known about the mechanosensitivity of primary human colon cancer cells in vitro. Here, an optimized protocol is developed that describes the isolation of primary human colon cells from healthy and cancerous surgical human tissue samples. Isolated colon cells are then successfully cultured on soft (2 kPa stiffness) and stiff (10 kPa stiffness) polyacrylamide hydrogels and rigid polystyrene (~3.6 GPa stiffness) substrates functionalized by an extracellular matrix (fibronectin in this case). Fluorescent microbeads are embedded in soft gels near the cell culture surface, and traction assay is performed to assess cellular contractile stresses using free open access software. In addition, immunofluorescence microscopy on different stiffness substrates provides useful information about primary cell morphology, cytoskeleton organization and vinculin containing focal adhesions as a function of substrate rigidity. PMID:26065530

  13. Pedunculated-type T1 colorectal carcinoma with lung carcinoma metastasis at the deepest invasive portion.

    PubMed

    Asayama, Naoki; Oka, Shiro; Tanaka, Shinji; Hirano, Daiki; Sumimoto, Kyoku; Ninomiya, Yuki; Tamaru, Yuzuru; Shigita, Kenjiro; Hayashi, Nana; Shimamoto, Fumio; Arihiro, Koji; Chayama, Kazuaki

    2016-08-01

    We present a rare case of colorectal T1 carcinoma with metastasis of previous lung carcinoma found at the deepest invasive portion. A 61-year-old man presented with cervical lymphadenopathy 18 years after undergoing surgery for right lung carcinoma [poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma stage IIb (T3N0M0)]. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography showed enlarged lymph nodes (LNs) in the neck and mediastinal regions. Combined hybrid-F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission-computerized tomography showed increased radionuclide uptake in multiple cervical LNs and mediastinal LNs. LN biopsy revealed a poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma, suspected to be a metastatic tumor of the lung. Subsequent colonoscopy revealed a pedunculated-type lesion with a depressed area in the ascending colon. We performed polypectomy as total excisional biopsy; this tumor was composed mainly of moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma, partially mixed with mucinous adenocarcinoma. The pathological findings of the invasive front of the colorectal carcinoma showed poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma with a morphological pattern similar to that of the previous lung carcinoma. Furthermore, immunohistochemical results for the histological type of the deepest invasive portion of the tissue specimen were positive for thyroid transcription factor-1 but negative for Caudal-type homeobox 2. From these morphological and immunohistochemical findings, the final diagnosis was moderately differentiated lung carcinoma, pTX N3 M1b (LN, colon) Stage IV. PMID:27259703

  14. Methyl green and nitrotetrazolium blue chloride co-expression in colon tissue: A hyperspectral microscopic imaging analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qingli; Liu, Hongying; Wang, Yiting; Sun, Zhen; Guo, Fangmin; Zhu, Jianzhong

    2014-12-01

    Histological observation of dual-stained colon sections is usually performed by visual observation under a light microscope, or by viewing on a computer screen with the assistance of image processing software in both research and clinical settings. These traditional methods are usually not sufficient to reliably differentiate spatially overlapping chromogens generated by different dyes. Hyperspectral microscopic imaging technology offers a solution for these constraints as the hyperspectral microscopic images contain information that allows differentiation between spatially co-located chromogens with similar but different spectra. In this paper, a hyperspectral microscopic imaging (HMI) system is used to identify methyl green and nitrotetrazolium blue chloride in dual-stained colon sections. Hyperspectral microscopic images are captured and the normalized score algorithm is proposed to identify the stains and generate the co-expression results. Experimental results show that the proposed normalized score algorithm can generate more accurate co-localization results than the spectral angle mapper algorithm. The hyperspectral microscopic imaging technology can enhance the visualization of dual-stained colon sections, improve the contrast and legibility of each stain using their spectral signatures, which is helpful for pathologist performing histological analyses.

  15. Mueller matrix imaging of human colon tissue for cancer diagnostics: how Monte Carlo modeling can help in the interpretation of experimental data.

    PubMed

    Antonelli, Maria-Rosaria; Pierangelo, Angelo; Novikova, Tatiana; Validire, Pierre; Benali, Abdelali; Gayet, Brice; De Martino, Antonello

    2010-05-10

    Colon samples with both healthy and cancerous regions have been imaged in diffuse light and backscattering geometry by using a Mueller imaging polarimeter. The tumoral parts at the early stage of cancer are found to be less depolarizing than the healthy ones. This trend clearly shows that polarimetric imaging may provide useful contrasts for optical biopsy. Moreover, both types of tissues are less depolarizing when the incident polarization is linear rather than circular. However, to really optimize an optical biopsy technique based on polarimetric imaging a realistic model is needed for polarized light scattering by tissues. Our approach to this goal is based on numerical Monte-Carlo simulations of polarized light propagation in biological tissues modeled as suspensions of monodisperse spherical scatterers representing the cell nuclei. The numerical simulations were validated by comparison with measurements on aqueous polystyrene sphere suspensions, which are commonly used as tissue phantoms. Such systems exhibit lower depolarization for incident linear polarization in the Rayleigh scattering regime, i.e. when the sphere diameters are smaller than the wavelength, which is obviously not the case for cell nuclei. In contrast, our results show that this behaviour can also be seen for "large" scatterers provided the optical index contrast between the spheres and the surrounding medium is small enough, as it is likely to be the case in biological tissues. PMID:20588874

  16. Spectroscopic Terahertz Imaging at Room Temperature Employing Microbolometer Terahertz Sensors and Its Application to the Study of Carcinoma Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Kašalynas, Irmantas; Venckevičius, Rimvydas; Minkevičius, Linas; Sešek, Aleksander; Wahaia, Faustino; Tamošiūnas, Vincas; Voisiat, Bogdan; Seliuta, Dalius; Valušis, Gintaras; Švigelj, Andrej; Trontelj, Janez

    2016-01-01

    A terahertz (THz) imaging system based on narrow band microbolometer sensors (NBMS) and a novel diffractive lens was developed for spectroscopic microscopy applications. The frequency response characteristics of the THz antenna-coupled NBMS were determined employing Fourier transform spectroscopy. The NBMS was found to be a very sensitive frequency selective sensor which was used to develop a compact all-electronic system for multispectral THz measurements. This system was successfully applied for principal components analysis of optically opaque packed samples. A thin diffractive lens with a numerical aperture of 0.62 was proposed for the reduction of system dimensions. The THz imaging system enhanced with novel optics was used to image for the first time non-neoplastic and neoplastic human colon tissues with close to wavelength-limited spatial resolution at 584 GHz frequency. The results demonstrated the new potential of compact RT THz imaging systems in the fields of spectroscopic analysis of materials and medical diagnostics. PMID:27023551

  17. Colon cancer

    MedlinePlus

    Colorectal cancer; Cancer - colon; Rectal cancer; Cancer - rectum; Adenocarcinoma - colon; Colon - adenocarcinoma ... In the United States, colorectal cancer is one of the leading causes of deaths due to cancer. Early diagnosis can often lead to a complete cure. Almost ...

  18. Identification of a FOXP3+CD3+CD56+ population with immunosuppressive function in cancer tissues of human hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaofeng; Peng, Jirun; Pang, Yanli; Yu, Sen; Yu, Xin; Chen, Pengcheng; Wang, Wenzhen; Han, Wenling; Zhang, Jun; Yin, Yanhui; Zhang, Yu

    2015-01-01

    The liver resident lymphoid population is featured by the presence of a large number of CD3+CD56+ cells referred as natural T cells. In human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients, the natural T cells were found to be sharply decreased in tumor (5.871 ± 3.553%) versus non-tumor (14.02 ± 6.151%) tissues. More intriguingly, a substantial fraction of the natural T cells (22.76 ± 18.61%) assumed FOXP3 expression. These FOXP3-expressing CD3+CD56+ cells lost the expression of IFN-γ and perforin, which are critical for the effector function of natural T cells. On the other hand, they acquired surface expression of CD25 and CTLA-4 typically found in regulatory T (Treg) cells. Consistent with the phenotypic conversion, they imposed an inhibitory effect on anti-CD3-induced proliferation of naive T cells. Further studies demonstrated that transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) could effectively induce FOXP3 expression in CD3+CD56+ cells and the cells were thus endowed with a potent immunosuppressive capacity. Finally, Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed that the relative abundance of FOXP3-expressing CD3+CD56+ cells in tumor tissues was significantly correlated with the survival of HCC patients. In conclusion, the present study identified a new type of regulatory immune cells whose emergence in liver cancer tissues may contribute to tumor progression. PMID:26437631

  19. Lynch syndrome-associated colorectal carcinoma: frequent involvement of the left colon and rectum and late-onset presentation supports a universal screening approach.

    PubMed

    Hartman, Douglas J; Brand, Randall E; Hu, Huankai; Bahary, Nathan; Dudley, Beth; Chiosea, Simon I; Nikiforova, Marina N; Pai, Reetesh K

    2013-11-01

    The optimal strategy for screening patients with colorectal carcinoma for Lynch syndrome (LS) is a subject of continued debate in the literature with some advocating universal screening while others arguing for selective screening. We evaluated 1292 colorectal carcinomas for DNA mismatch repair protein abnormalities and identified 150 (11.6%) tumors demonstrating high-levels of microsatellite instability (MSI-H). MSI-H colorectal carcinomas were divided into sporadic (112/1292, 8.7%) and LS/probable LS-associated (38/1292, 2.9%) groups based on BRAF V600E mutation, MLH1 promoter hypermethylation, cancer history, and germline mismatch repair gene mutation. All MSI-H colorectal carcinomas were analyzed for grade, location, and tumor histology. The utility of the revised Bethesda guidelines and published predictive pathology models for MSI-H colorectal carcinomas (PREDICT and MSPath) were evaluated. Left-sided MSI-H colorectal carcinomas were more frequently associated with LS compared with right-sided MSI-H colorectal carcinomas (12/21, 57% versus 26/129, 20%, P = .0008). There was no significant difference in histology between sporadic MSI-H and LS/probable LS-associated colorectal carcinomas except for a slightly higher proportion of sporadic MSI-H tumors demonstrating tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (81% versus 61%, P = .015). Neither pathology predictive model identified all LS-associated colorectal carcinomas (PREDICT: 33/38, 87%; MSPath: 35/38, 92%). 12/117 (10%) MSI-H colorectal carcinomas identified in patients >60 years were LS/probable LS-associated. Our results demonstrate that models of predicting MSI-H fail to identify LS-associated colorectal carcinoma given their reliance on right-sided location. A significant proportion (32%) of LS-associated colorectal carcinoma is identified in patients >60 years. Finally, our results demonstrate similar morphologic features between LS-associated and sporadic MSI-H colorectal carcinomas.

  20. Kinase Gene Expression Profiling of Metastatic Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma Tissue Identifies Potential New Therapeutic Targets

    PubMed Central

    Ramaker, Ryne C.; Cooper, Sara J.; Chen, Dongquan; Sudarshan, Sunil; Wei, Shi; Guru, Arjun S.; Zhao, Amy; Cooper, Tiffiny; Della Manna, Deborah L.; Naik, Gurudatta; Myers, Richard M.; Sonpavde, Guru

    2016-01-01

    Kinases are therapeutically actionable targets. Kinase inhibitors targeting vascular endothelial growth factor receptors (VEGFR) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) improve outcomes in metastatic clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC), but are not curative. Metastatic tumor tissue has not been comprehensively studied for kinase gene expression. Paired intra-patient kinase gene expression analysis in primary tumor (T), matched normal kidney (N) and metastatic tumor tissue (M) may assist in identifying drivers of metastasis and prioritizing therapeutic targets. We compared the expression of 519 kinase genes using NanoString in T, N and M in 35 patients to discover genes over-expressed in M compared to T and N tissue. RNA-seq data derived from ccRCC tumors in The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) were used to demonstrate differential expression of genes in primary tumor tissue from patients that had metastasis at baseline (n = 79) compared to those that did not develop metastasis for at least 2 years (n = 187). Functional analysis was conducted to identify key signaling pathways by using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis. Of 10 kinase genes overexpressed in metastases compared to primary tumor in the discovery cohort, 9 genes were also differentially expressed in TCGA primary tumors with metastasis at baseline compared to primary tumors without metastasis for at least 2 years: EPHB2, AURKA, GSG2, IKBKE, MELK, CSK, CHEK2, CDC7 and MAP3K8; p<0.001). The top pathways overexpressed in M tissue were pyridoxal 5'-phosphate salvage, salvage pathways of pyrimidine ribonucleotides, NF-kB signaling, NGF signaling and cell cycle control of chromosomal replication. The 9 kinase genes validated to be over-expressed in metastatic ccRCC may represent currently unrecognized but potentially actionable therapeutic targets that warrant functional validation. PMID:27574806

  1. Kinase Gene Expression Profiling of Metastatic Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma Tissue Identifies Potential New Therapeutic Targets.

    PubMed

    Ghatalia, Pooja; Yang, Eddy S; Lasseigne, Brittany N; Ramaker, Ryne C; Cooper, Sara J; Chen, Dongquan; Sudarshan, Sunil; Wei, Shi; Guru, Arjun S; Zhao, Amy; Cooper, Tiffiny; Della Manna, Deborah L; Naik, Gurudatta; Myers, Richard M; Sonpavde, Guru

    2016-01-01

    Kinases are therapeutically actionable targets. Kinase inhibitors targeting vascular endothelial growth factor receptors (VEGFR) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) improve outcomes in metastatic clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC), but are not curative. Metastatic tumor tissue has not been comprehensively studied for kinase gene expression. Paired intra-patient kinase gene expression analysis in primary tumor (T), matched normal kidney (N) and metastatic tumor tissue (M) may assist in identifying drivers of metastasis and prioritizing therapeutic targets. We compared the expression of 519 kinase genes using NanoString in T, N and M in 35 patients to discover genes over-expressed in M compared to T and N tissue. RNA-seq data derived from ccRCC tumors in The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) were used to demonstrate differential expression of genes in primary tumor tissue from patients that had metastasis at baseline (n = 79) compared to those that did not develop metastasis for at least 2 years (n = 187). Functional analysis was conducted to identify key signaling pathways by using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis. Of 10 kinase genes overexpressed in metastases compared to primary tumor in the discovery cohort, 9 genes were also differentially expressed in TCGA primary tumors with metastasis at baseline compared to primary tumors without metastasis for at least 2 years: EPHB2, AURKA, GSG2, IKBKE, MELK, CSK, CHEK2, CDC7 and MAP3K8; p<0.001). The top pathways overexpressed in M tissue were pyridoxal 5'-phosphate salvage, salvage pathways of pyrimidine ribonucleotides, NF-kB signaling, NGF signaling and cell cycle control of chromosomal replication. The 9 kinase genes validated to be over-expressed in metastatic ccRCC may represent currently unrecognized but potentially actionable therapeutic targets that warrant functional validation. PMID:27574806

  2. Tissue microarray analysis reveals a tight correlation between protein expression pattern and progression of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Li-yan; Hu, Nan; Song, Yong-mei; Zou, Shuang-mei; Shou, Jian-zhong; Qian, Lu-xia; Ren, Li-qun; Lin, Dong-mei; Tong, Tong; He, Zu-gen; Zhan, Qi-min; Taylor, Philip R; Lu, Ning

    2006-01-01

    Background The development of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) progresses a multistage process, collectively known as precursor lesions, also called dysplasia (DYS) and carcinoma in situ (CIS), subsequent invasive lesions and final metastasis. In this study, we are interested in investigating the expression of a variety of functional classes of proteins in ESCC and its precursor lesions and characterizing the correlation of these proteins with ESCC malignant progression. Methods Fas, FADD, caspase 8, CDC25B, fascin, CK14, CK4, annexin I, laminin-5γ2 and SPARC were analyzed using immunohistochemistry on tissue microarray containing 205 ESCC and 173 adjacent precursor lesions as well as corresponding normal mucosa. To confirm the immunohistochemical results, three proteins, fascin, CK14 and laminin-5γ2, which were overexpressed in ESCC on tissue microarray, were detected in 12 ESCC cell lines by Western blot assay. Results In ESCC and its precursor lesions, FADD, CDC25B, fascin, CK14, laminin-5γ2 and SPARC were overexpressed, while Fas, caspase 8, CK4 and annexin I were underexpressed. The abnormalities of these proteins could be classified into different groups in relation to the stages of ESCC development. They were "early" corresponding to mild and moderate DYS with overexpression of fascin, FADD and CDC25B and underexpression of Fas, caspase 8, CK4 and annexin I, "intermediate" to severe DYS and CIS with overexpression of FADD and CK14, and "late" to invasive lesions (ESCC) and to advanced pTNM stage ESCC lesions with overexpression of CK14, laminin-5γ2 and SPARC. Conclusion Analyzing the protein expression patterns of Fas, FADD, caspase 8, CDC25B, fascin, CK14, CK4, annexin I, laminin-5γ2 and SPARC would be valuable to develop rational strategies for early detection of lesions at risk in advance as well as for prevention and treatment of ESCC. PMID:17187659

  3. A STAT3-inhibitory hairpin decoy oligodeoxynucleotide discriminates between STAT1 and STAT3 and induces death in a human colon carcinoma cell line

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription 3 (STAT3) is activated in tumor cells, and STAT3-inhibitors are able to induce the death of those cells. Decoy oligodeoxynucleotides (dODNs), which bind to the DNA Binding Domain (DBD) of STAT3, are efficient inhibitors. However, they also inhibit STAT1, whose activity is essential not only to resistance to pathogens, but also to cell growth inhibition and programmed cell death processes. The aim of this study was to design STAT3-specific dODNs which do not affect STAT1-mediated processes. Results New dODNs with a hairpin (hpdODNs) were designed. Modifications were introduced, based on the comparison of STAT3- and STAT1-DBD interactions with DNA using 3D structural analyses. The designed hpdODNs were tested for their ability to inhibit STAT3 but not STAT1 by determining: i) cell death in the active STAT3-dependent SW480 colon carcinoma cell line, ii) absence of inhibition of interferon (IFN) γ-dependent cell death, iii) expression of STAT1 targets, and iv) nuclear location of STAT3 and STAT1. One hpdODN was found to efficiently induce the death of SW480 cells without interfering with IFNγ-activated STAT1. This hpdODN was found in a complex with STAT3 but not with STAT1 using an original in-cell pull-down assay; this hpdODN also did not inhibit IFNγ-induced STAT1 phosphorylation, nor did it inhibit the expression of the STAT1-target IRF1. Furthermore, it prevented the nuclear transfer of STAT3 but not that of IFNγ-activated STAT1. Conclusions Comparative analyses at the atomic level revealed slight differences in STAT3 and STAT1 DBDs' interaction with their DNA target. These were sufficient to design a new discriminating hpdODN that inhibits STAT3 and not STAT1, thereby inducing tumor cell death without interfering with STAT1-dependent processes. Preferential interaction with STAT3 depends on oligodeoxynucleotide sequence modifications but might also result from DNA shape changes, known to modulate

  4. Collagen-gelatin-genipin-hydroxyapatite composite scaffolds colonized by human primary osteoblasts are suitable for bone tissue engineering applications: in vitro evidences.

    PubMed

    Vozzi, G; Corallo, C; Carta, S; Fortina, M; Gattazzo, F; Galletti, M; Giordano, N

    2014-05-01

    The application of porous hydroxyapatite (HAp)-collagen as a bone tissue engineering scaffold represents a new trend of mimicking the specific bone extracellular matrix (ECM). The use of HAp in reconstructive surgery has shown that it is slowly invaded by host tissue. Therefore, implant compatibility may be augmented by seeding cells before implantation. Human primary osteoblasts were seeded onto innovative collagen-gelatin-genipin (GP)-HAp scaffolds containing respectively 10%, 20%, and 30% HAp. Cellular adhesion, proliferation, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, osteopontin (OPN), and osteocalcin (OC) expressions were evaluated after 3, 7, 15, and 21 days. The three types of scaffolds showed increased cellular proliferation over time in culture (maximum at 21 days) but the highest was recorded in 10% HAp scaffolds. ALP activity was the highest in 10% HAp scaffolds in all the times of evaluation. OC and OPN resulted in higher concentration in 10% HAp scaffolds compared to 20% and 30% HAp (maximum at 21 days). Finally, scanning electron microscopy analysis showed progressive scaffolds adhesion and colonization from the surface to the inside from day 3 to day 21. In vitro attachment, proliferation, and colonization of human primary osteoblasts on collagen-GP-HAp scaffolds with different percentages of HAp (10%, 20%, and 30%) all increased over time in culture, but comparing different percentages of HAp, they seem to increase with decreasing of HAp component. Therefore, the mechanical properties (such as the stiffness due to the HAp%) coupled with a good biomimetic component (collagen) are the parameters to set up in composite scaffolds design for bone tissue engineering. PMID:23775901

  5. Investigation of Trace Element Concentrations in Tumor Tissues of Patients with Laryngeal Carcinoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aysun, Kaçakçi; Selmin, Toplan; Birsen, Aydemir; Osman, Aslan

    2007-04-01

    Larynx cancer is one of the most frequently seen cancer type between head and neck cancers. Even thought the effective mechanisms in cancer development are not well describe, it is accepted that the effect of some elements carry out important etiology in carcinogenesis. In present study we investigated some trace element concentrations in tumor tissue (n=30) and free-adjacent tissue samples (n=30) of larynx cancer patients. All of the patients were smokers about 20 years. Trace elements were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometer (Shimadzu AA-680). When Cu, Cd and Zn concentrations of cancer tissue and free-adjacent tissue compared, Cu and Cd levels were found to be higher (p<0,001) but Zn level was lower in cancer tissue (p<0,05) than free-adjacent tissue and no statistically difference was found from Pb point of wiev (p>0,05). Malign tumors may be increase by smoking about long years. Accumulation of high metals in the organism may be change the structure of cells.

  6. The Use of Microgravity To Emulate Three-Dimensional Tissue Interactions in Colorectal Cancer Metastasis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jessup, J. Milburn

    1997-01-01

    The hypothesis of this ground-based project was that simulated microgravity may be used to recreate with high fidelity the in vivo environment in tissue culture. The objectives were to determine whether: (1) simulated microgravity induces differentiation within poorly differentiated human colon carcinoma cells that are similar to that observed in experimental metastases in vivo in nude mice; and (2) the use of simulated microgravity helps define the experimental metastatic potential of human colorectal carcinoma.

  7. Association between FOXM1 and hedgehog signaling pathway in human cervical carcinoma by tissue microarray analysis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hong; Wang, Jingjing; Yang, Hong; Chen, Dan; Li, Panpan

    2016-01-01

    Forkhead box M1 (FOXM1) and hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway are implicated in the formation and development of human tumors, including cervical cancer. Previous studies have indicated that FOXM1 may be a downstream target gene of the Hh signaling pathway, but their association in cervical cancer is largely unknown. In the present study, the expression of FOXM1 and Hh signaling molecules was evaluated by immunohistochemical analysis in a tissue microarray that contained 70 cervical cancer tissues and 10 normal cervical tissues. In addition, the association of these molecules with clinicopathological parameters, and the association between FOXM1 and various molecules involved in the Hh signaling pathway was investigated. The results indicated that FOXM1 and Hh signaling molecules were overexpressed in cervical cancer tissues. The protein expression levels of FOXM1, glioma-associated oncogene 1 (GLI1) and smoothened (SMO) correlated with the clinical stage of the tumors, while the protein expression levels of Sonic Hh (SHh), patched 1 (PTCH1) and GLI1 correlated with the pathological grade of the tumors. The expression levels of GLI1 were lower in tissues without lymph node metastasis than in tissues with lymph node metastasis. In addition, FOXM1 expression correlated with GLI1, SHh and PTCH1 expression in cancer tissues. These findings confirmed the participation of FOXM1 and the Hh signaling pathway in cervical cancer. Furthermore, the finding that FOXM1 may be a downstream target gene of the Hh signaling pathway in cervical cancer provides a potential novel diagnostic and therapeutic target for cervical cancer.

  8. Association between FOXM1 and hedgehog signaling pathway in human cervical carcinoma by tissue microarray analysis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hong; Wang, Jingjing; Yang, Hong; Chen, Dan; Li, Panpan

    2016-01-01

    Forkhead box M1 (FOXM1) and hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway are implicated in the formation and development of human tumors, including cervical cancer. Previous studies have indicated that FOXM1 may be a downstream target gene of the Hh signaling pathway, but their association in cervical cancer is largely unknown. In the present study, the expression of FOXM1 and Hh signaling molecules was evaluated by immunohistochemical analysis in a tissue microarray that contained 70 cervical cancer tissues and 10 normal cervical tissues. In addition, the association of these molecules with clinicopathological parameters, and the association between FOXM1 and various molecules involved in the Hh signaling pathway was investigated. The results indicated that FOXM1 and Hh signaling molecules were overexpressed in cervical cancer tissues. The protein expression levels of FOXM1, glioma-associated oncogene 1 (GLI1) and smoothened (SMO) correlated with the clinical stage of the tumors, while the protein expression levels of Sonic Hh (SHh), patched 1 (PTCH1) and GLI1 correlated with the pathological grade of the tumors. The expression levels of GLI1 were lower in tissues without lymph node metastasis than in tissues with lymph node metastasis. In addition, FOXM1 expression correlated with GLI1, SHh and PTCH1 expression in cancer tissues. These findings confirmed the participation of FOXM1 and the Hh signaling pathway in cervical cancer. Furthermore, the finding that FOXM1 may be a downstream target gene of the Hh signaling pathway in cervical cancer provides a potential novel diagnostic and therapeutic target for cervical cancer. PMID:27698840

  9. The putative role of members of the CEA-gene family (CEA, NCA an BGP) as ligands for the bacterial colonization of different human epithelial tissues.

    PubMed

    Leusch, H G; Drzeniek, Z; Hefta, S A; Markos-Pusztai, Z; Wagener, C

    1991-04-01

    Immobilized purified CEA (carcinoembryonic antigen), NCA (non-specific crossreacting antigen) and BGP I (biliary glycoprotein I) bind strains of E. coli (including EPEC) and some Salmonella species (including S. typhi, S. paratyphi A + B and S. java) while Shigella-, Yersinia- and Bacteroides- strains showed no adhesion. The binding was of high avidity, heat sensitive, dose dependent, saturable and nearly completely abolished in the presence of 10 mM alpha-methylmannoside. From inhibition studies with aromatic mannose compounds, it was suggested that in contrast to Salmonella strains E. coli strains exhibit a higher hydrophobicity in the binding region adjacent to the CEA-, NCA- and BGP-binding site. By further inhibition experiments it could be demonstrated that E. coli and Salmonella strains bind to high-mannose type oligosaccharides of these molecules via lectins on bacterial type I fimbriae. We conclude that the expression of products of this gene family on different human epithelial cells (colon-, bile canaliculi, uroepithel etc.) may function as ligands for bacterial colonization of epithelial tissues.

  10. Discrimination of Basal Cell Carcinoma from Normal Skin Tissue Using High-Resolution Magic Angle Spinning 1H NMR Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Mun, Je-Ho; Lee, Heonho; Yoon, Dahye; Kim, Byung-Soo; Kim, Moon-Bum; Kim, Shukmann

    2016-01-01

    High-resolution magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (HR-MAS NMR) spectroscopy is a useful tool for investigating the metabolism of various cancers. Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common skin cancer. However, to our knowledge, data on metabolic profiling of BCC have not been reported in the literature. The objective of the present study was to investigate the metabolic profiling of cutaneous BCC using HR-MAS 1H NMR spectroscopy. HR-MAS 1H NMR spectroscopy was used to analyze the metabolite profile and metabolite intensity of histopathologically confirmed BCC tissues and normal skin tissue (NST) samples. The metabolic intensity normalized to the total spectral intensities in BCC and NST was compared, and multivariate analysis was performed with orthogonal partial least-squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA). P values < 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Univariate analysis revealed 9 metabolites that showed statistically significant difference between BCC and NST. In multivariate analysis, the OPLS-DA models built with the HR-MAS NMR metabolic profiles revealed a clear separation of BCC from NST. The receiver operating characteristic curve generated from the results revealed an excellent discrimination of BCC from NST with an area under the curve (AUC) value of 0.961. The present study demonstrated that the metabolite profile and metabolite intensity differ between BCC and NST, and that HR-MAS 1H NMR spectroscopy can be a valuable tool in the diagnosis of BCC. PMID:26934749

  11. Discrimination of Basal Cell Carcinoma from Normal Skin Tissue Using High-Resolution Magic Angle Spinning 1H NMR Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Mun, Je-Ho; Lee, Heonho; Yoon, Dahye; Kim, Byung-Soo; Kim, Moon-Bum; Kim, Shukmann

    2016-01-01

    High-resolution magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (HR-MAS NMR) spectroscopy is a useful tool for investigating the metabolism of various cancers. Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the most common skin cancer. However, to our knowledge, data on metabolic profiling of BCC have not been reported in the literature. The objective of the present study was to investigate the metabolic profiling of cutaneous BCC using HR-MAS (1)H NMR spectroscopy. HR-MAS (1)H NMR spectroscopy was used to analyze the metabolite profile and metabolite intensity of histopathologically confirmed BCC tissues and normal skin tissue (NST) samples. The metabolic intensity normalized to the total spectral intensities in BCC and NST was compared, and multivariate analysis was performed with orthogonal partial least-squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA). P values < 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Univariate analysis revealed 9 metabolites that showed statistically significant difference between BCC and NST. In multivariate analysis, the OPLS-DA models built with the HR-MAS NMR metabolic profiles revealed a clear separation of BCC from NST. The receiver operating characteristic curve generated from the results revealed an excellent discrimination of BCC from NST with an area under the curve (AUC) value of 0.961. The present study demonstrated that the metabolite profile and metabolite intensity differ between BCC and NST, and that HR-MAS (1)H NMR spectroscopy can be a valuable tool in the diagnosis of BCC. PMID:26934749

  12. Uptake and localization of /sup 131/I-labeled anti-calcitonin immunoglobulins in rat medullary thyroid carcinoma tissue

    SciTech Connect

    Gautvik, K.M.; Svindahl, K.; Skretting, A.; Stenberg, B.; Myhre, L.; Ekeland, A.; Johannesen, J.V.

    1982-09-15

    A medullary carcinoma of the thyroid gland (MCT) which has been transplanted repeatedly under the kidney capsule of Wag/Rij rats secretes calcitonin (CT) spontaneously. From 10--20 weeks after transplantation, immunoreactive serum calcitonin (iCT) is abnormally elevated and continues to rise parallel to tumor growth. The immunoglobulin fraction of the rabbit anti-CT antiserum raised against intact synthetic hormone, was purified and iodinated electrolytically. Specific activities of /sup 131/I-labeled immunoglobulin of 0.008--0.014 mCi/microgram protein were obtained with 80% preservation of CT binding activity. Wag/Rig rats with MCT tumor and increased serum iCT concentrations received intravenous injections of /sup 131/I-labeled immunoglobulins (0.054--0.811 mCi). The distribution of radioactivity in the rats was followed for 14 days using external scintigraphy in combination with radioactivity measurements of blood and different organs at the end of the observation period. The distribution of /sup 113/mIn was used as a marker for blood distribution. When the radioactivity ratios (/sup 131/I//sup 113/mIn) in tumor and different organs were related to that of blood which was set equal to unity, tumor tissue contained 3--6 times higher activity. Nonhyperimmune rabbit immunoglobulins or rabbit antirat prolactin immunoglobulins were not concentrated in MCT tissue, nor did anti-CT immunoglobulins localize in rat prolactin adenomas.

  13. Ultrastructural features of collagen in thyroid carcinoma tissue observed by polarization second harmonic generation microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Tokarz, Danielle; Cisek, Richard; Golaraei, Ahmad; Asa, Sylvia L.; Barzda, Virginijus; Wilson, Brian C.

    2015-01-01

    Changes in collagen ultrastructure between malignant and normal human thyroid tissue were investigated ex vivo using polarization second harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy. The second-order nonlinear optical susceptibility tensor component ratio and the degree of linear polarization (DOLP) of the SHG signal were measured. The ratio values are related to the collagen ultrastructure, while DOLP indicates the relative amount of coherent signal and incoherent scattering of SHG. Increase in ratio values and decrease in DOLP were observed for tumor tissue compared to normal thyroid, indicating higher ultrastructural disorder in tumor collagen. PMID:26417516

  14. DNA Topoisomerase I-Targeted Chemotherapy of Human Colon Cancer in Xenografts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giovanella, Beppino C.; Stehlin, John S.; Wall, Monroe E.; Wani, Mansukh C.; Nicholas, Allan W.; Liu, Leroy F.; Silber, Robert; Potmesil, Milan

    1989-11-01

    Drug development is needed to improve chemotherapy of patients with locally advanced or metastatic colon carcinoma, who otherwise have an unfavorable prognosis. DNA topoisomerase I, a nuclear enzyme important for solving topological problems arising during DNA replication and for other cellular functions, has been identified as a principal target of a plant alkaloid 20 (S)-camptothecin. Significantly increased concentrations of this enzyme, compared to that in normal colonic mucosa, were found in advanced stages of human colon adenocarcinoma and in xenografts of colon cancer carried by immunodeficient mice. Several synthetic analogs of camptothecin, selected by tests with the purified enzyme and tissue-culture screens, were evaluated in the xenograft model. Unlike other anticancer drugs tested, 20(RS)-9-amino-camptothecin (9-AC) induced disease-free remissions. The overall drug toxicity was low and allowed for repeated courses of treatment.

  15. Targeted delivery of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 to colon tissue and identification of a major 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 glycoside from Solanumglaucophyllum plant leaves.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, Duane R; Koszewski, Nicholas J; Hoy, Derrel A; Goff, Jesse P; Horst, Ronald L

    2015-04-01

    Leaves of the Solanum glaucophyllum (Sg) plant, indigenous to South America, have long been known for their calcinogenic toxicity in ruminant animals. It was determined the leaves contained glycosidic derivatives of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25D3) and liberation of the free hormone by rumen bacterial populations elicited a hypercalcemic response. Our interest in the leaves is predicated on the concept that the glycoside forms of 1,25D3 would target release of the active hormone in the lower gut of non-ruminant mammals. This would provide a means of delivering 1,25D3 directly to the colon, where the hormone has been shown to have beneficial effects in models of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and colon cancer. We fed mice for 10 days with variable amounts of Sg leaf. Feeding 7-333μg leaf/day produced no changes in plasma Ca(2+) and 1,25D3 concentrations, and only at ≥1000μg leaf/day did these values become significantly elevated compared to controls. Gene expression studies from colon tissue indicated a linear relationship between the amount of leaf consumed and expression of the Cyp24a1 gene. In contrast, Cyp24a1 gene expression in the duodenums and ileums of these mice was unchanged compared to controls. One of the major 1,25D3-glycosides was isolated from leaves following extraction and purification by Sep-Pak cartridges and HPLC fractionation. Ultraviolet absorbance was consistent with modification of the 1-hydroxyl group, and positive ion ESI mass spectrometry indicated a diglycoside of 1,25D3. 2-Dimensional NMR analyses were carried out and established the C1 proton of the A-ring was interacting with a C1' sugar proton, while the C3 proton of the A-ring was linked with a second C1' sugar proton. The structure of the isolated compound is therefore consistent with a β-linked 1,3-diglycoside of 1,25D3. Thus, Sg leaf administered to mice at up to 333 ug/day can elicit colon-specific enhancement of Cyp24a1 gene expression without inducing hypercalcemia, and

  16. Assessment of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) signaling in paired colorectal cancer and normal colon tissue samples using computer-aided immunohistochemical analysis.

    PubMed

    Messersmith, Wells; Oppenheimer, Darin; Peralba, Josep; Sebastiani, Valeria; Amador, Maria; Jimeno, Antonio; Embuscado, Erlinda; Hidalgo, Manuel; Iacobuzio-Donahue, Christine

    2005-12-01

    The Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) plays a role in multiple tumor cell processes and is targeted by several anticancer therapies. Although EGFR mutations may determine tumor susceptibility in a small proportion of patients, knowledge of the EGFR signaling pathway status in tumors may help guide further drug development and hypothesis-driven combination studies. We aimed to validate and apply a novel computer-aided immunohistochemical (IHC) technique to characterize the status of EGFR signaling in matched colorectal tumor and normal colon tissue samples. Tissue Microarrays (TMA)were made from both cancerous and normal colorectal tissue in 18 patients and stained with antibodies against EGFR, phospho-EGFR (pEGFR), Akt, pAkt, MAPK, and pMAPK. TMA's were quantitatively scored using the Automated Cellular Imaging System (ACIS II, Chromavision, Inc). ACIS was compared against cell line Western blotting, ELISA, and visual scoring (0-3+) by a pathologist. We found that ACIS analysis was highly reproducible and results were well correlated with other techniques. A post-scan "image microdissection" technique of analyzing heterogeneous human samples showed good correlation between paired human samples [Pearson correlation for tumors, 0.922 (p < .001)]. Cancer samples had markedly higher staining of pEGFR, Akt, pAkt, MAPK, and pMAPK. We conclude that ACIS IHC of human tissue samples is quantitative, reproducible, and correlates with Western blots and ELISA in cell line pellets as well as pathologist's scores of human samples. Colorectal tumors show higher staining of pEGFR and downstream effectors compared to matched normal colorectal tissues.

  17. Primary Mucoepidermoid Carcinoma Arising from Ectopic Salivary Tissue within an Intraparotid Lymph Node

    PubMed Central

    Faras, Fatemah; Abo-Alhassan, Fawaz; Bastaki, Jassem; Al-Sihan, Mutlaq K.

    2015-01-01

    Ectopic salivary tissue is commonly found in intraparotid and periparotid lymph nodes. Warthin tumor is the most common tumor arising in ectopic salivary gland tissue and in intraparotid lymph nodes. Although rare, neoplastic transformation of the ectopic salivary tissues is conceivable and other types of salivary gland neoplasms arising in intraparotid lymph nodes have been reported. Herein we report a rare case of a 32-year-old Kuwaiti male who presented with a mass in the right parotid gland. A preoperative fine needle aspiration suggested Warthin tumor. The patient underwent a superficial parotidectomy. The specimen showed a mass within the parotid parenchyma abutting the deep margin. Hematoxylin and Eosin stained sections of the lesion showed solid islands and cysts composed of epidermoid cells, mucus cells, and intermixed smaller “intermediate” cells within an intraparotid lymph node. The tumor was seen infiltrating the parotid parenchyma at the deep margin. Metastasis from distant sites was ruled out clinically, and the diagnosis rendered was MEC, low-grade, arising from ectopic salivary tissue in an intraparotid lymph node. Such cases are extremely rare and the presence of malignancies within lymph nodes may pose a diagnostic pitfall, which can affect patient management. PMID:26697253

  18. Discrimination between basal cell carcinoma and hair follicles in skin tissue sections by Raman micro-spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larraona-Puy, M.; Ghita, A.; Zoladek, A.; Perkins, W.; Varma, S.; Leach, I. H.; Koloydenko, A. A.; Williams, H.; Notingher, I.

    2011-05-01

    Skin cancer is the most common human malignancy and basal cell carcinoma (BCC) represents approximately 80% of the non-melanoma cases. Current methods of treatment require histopathological evaluation of the tissues by qualified personnel. However, this method is subjective and in some cases BCC can be confused with other structures in healthy skin, including hair follicles. In this preliminary study, we investigated the potential of Raman micro-spectroscopy (RMS) to discriminate between hair follicles and BCC in skin tissue sections excised during Mohs micrographic surgery (MMS). Imaging and diagnosis of skin sections was automatically generated using ' a priori'-built spectral model based on LDA. This model had 90 ± 9% sensitivity and 85 ± 9% specificity for discrimination of BCC from dermis and epidermis. The model used selected Raman bands corresponding to the largest spectral differences between the Raman spectra of BCC and the normal skin regions, associated mainly with nucleic acids and collagen type I. Raman spectra corresponding to the epidermis regions of the hair follicles were found to be closer to those of healthy epidermis rather than BCC. Comparison between Raman spectral images and the gold standard haematoxylin and eosin (H&E) histopathology diagnosis showed good agreement. Some hair follicle regions were misclassified as BCC; regions corresponded mainly to the outermost layer of hair follicle (basal cells) which are expected to have higher nucleic acid concentration. This preliminary study shows the ability of RMS to distinguish between BCC and other tissue structures associated to healthy skin which can be confused with BCC due to their similar morphology.

  19. Expression and Prognostic Significance of a Panel of Tissue Hypoxia Markers in Head-and-Neck Squamous Cell Carcinomas

    SciTech Connect

    Le, Quynh-Thu Kong, Christina; Lavori, Phillip W.; O'Byrne, Ken; Erler, Janine T.; Huang Xin; Chen Yijun; Cao Hongbin; Tibshirani, Robert; Denko, Nic; Giaccia, Amato J.; Koong, Albert C.

    2007-09-01

    Purpose: To investigate the expression pattern of hypoxia-induced proteins identified as being involved in malignant progression of head-and-neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) and to determine their relationship to tumor pO{sub 2} and prognosis. Methods and Materials: We performed immunohistochemical staining of hypoxia-induced proteins (carbonic anhydrase IX [CA IX], BNIP3L, connective tissue growth factor, osteopontin, ephrin A1, hypoxia inducible gene-2, dihydrofolate reductase, galectin-1, I{kappa}B kinase {beta}, and lysyl oxidase) on tumor tissue arrays of 101 HNSCC patients with pretreatment pO{sub 2} measurements. Analysis of variance and Fisher's exact tests were used to evaluate the relationship between marker expression, tumor pO{sub 2}, and CA IX staining. Cox proportional hazard model and log-rank tests were used to determine the relationship between markers and prognosis. Results: Osteopontin expression correlated with tumor pO{sub 2} (Eppendorf measurements) (p = 0.04). However, there was a strong correlation between lysyl oxidase, ephrin A1, and galectin-1 and CA IX staining. These markers also predicted for cancer-specific survival and overall survival on univariate analysis. A hypoxia score of 0-5 was assigned to each patient, on the basis of the presence of strong staining for these markers, whereby a higher score signifies increased marker expression. On multivariate analysis, increasing hypoxia score was an independent prognostic factor for cancer-specific survival (p = 0.015) and was borderline significant for overall survival (p = 0.057) when adjusted for other independent predictors of outcomes (hemoglobin and age). Conclusions: We identified a panel of hypoxia-related tissue markers that correlates with treatment outcomes in HNSCC. Validation of these markers will be needed to determine their utility in identifying patients for hypoxia-targeted therapy.

  20. MicroRNA-203 inhibits the progression of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma with restored epithelial tissue architecture in vivo.

    PubMed

    Okumura, Tomoyuki; Shimada, Yutaka; Moriyama, Makoto; Takei, Yoshinori; Omura, Tetsuya; Sekine, Shinichi; Nagata, Takuya; Shimizu, Kazuharu; Tsukada, Kazuhiro

    2014-06-01

    MicroRNA (miR)-203 has been shown to induce squamous differentiation of epidermal stem cells through the suppression of p63. The aim of this study was to assess the tumor suppressor effect of miR-203 in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) with focus on the regulation of the cell fate decisions and organization of tumor tissue architecture in vivo. Our investigation establishing stable clones from ESCC cell lines with induced miR-203 expression resulted in significant growth inhibition in a mouse xenograft model. Small foci were observed in xenograft tumors with stratified squamous differentiation in conjunction with restored baso-apical polarity. The expression of the basement membrane protein laminine was localized at the center of the foci and the basal cell marker p75NTR was expressed in the innermost layer. The expression of ki67 and p63 was co-localized at the center layers, while involucrin was expressed in the outer layers. Flow cytometry revealed that the p75NTR-positive cells expressing p63 and Bmi1 were well maintained, while the expression of p63 was suppressed in the p75NTR-negative cells. Our cDNA microarray analysis demonstrated the upregulation of genes involved in regulating tissue architecture, such as BMP-4 and ZO-1 in the mir-203 transfectant. Investigation using surgically removed ESCC specimens revealed that the expression of miR-203 significantly correlated with a favorable prognosis. These results demonstrated that miR-203 regulated both basal and supra-basal cell components to induce differentiation with restored epithelial tissue architecture, leading to significant tumor growth inhibition in vivo. Those results suggest the use of miR-203 as a novel therapeutic and diagnostic target in patients with ESCC.

  1. Proteomic identification of fucosylated haptoglobin alpha isoforms in ascitic fluids and its localization in ovarian carcinoma tissues from Mexican patients

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Ovarian cancer is the most lethal gynecologic disease due to delayed diagnosis, and ascites production is a characteristic of patients in advanced stages. The aim of this study was to perform the proteomic analysis of ascitic fluids of Mexican patients with ovarian carcinoma, in order to detect proteins with a differential expression pattern in the continuing search to identify biomarkers for this disease. Methods Samples were collected from 50 patients from the Instituto Nacional de Cancerología of México under informed consent and with approval of the bioethics and scientific committees. After elimination of abundant proteins (Albumin/IgGs) samples were processed for 2D electrophoresis and further protein identification by Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF). Molecules of interest were followed by western blot and lectin binding assays, and their tissue location by histo-immunofluorescence and confocal analysis. Results and discussion An area with a differential expression pattern among samples was located in the 2D gels. Identified proteins were 6 alpha 1 isoforms and 1 alpha 2 isoform of Haptoglobin, and 2 isoforms of Transthyretin. While Transthyretin isoforms were constitutively expressed in all samples, clear differences in the expression pattern of Haptoglobin alpha isoforms were found. Moreover, increased levels of fucosylation of Haptoglobin alpha isoforms analyzed in 40 samples by Aleuria aurantia lectin binding by 1D overlay assay showed a positive correlation with advanced stages of the disease. Tissue detection of Haptoglobin and its fucosylated form, by histo-immunofluorescence in biopsies of ovarian cancer, also showed a correlation with ovarian cancer progression. Moreover, results show that fucosylated Haptoglobin is produced by tumor cells. Conclusions Increased numbers of highly fucosylated Haptoglobin alpha isoforms in ascitic fluids and the presence of fucosylated Haptoglobin in tumor tissues of ovarian cancer Mexican patients

  2. Intestinal trefoil factor controls the expression of the adenomatous polyposis coli-catenin and the E-cadherin-catenin complexes in human colon carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Efstathiou, J A; Noda, M; Rowan, A; Dixon, C; Chinery, R; Jawhari, A; Hattori, T; Wright, N A; Bodmer, W F; Pignatelli, M

    1998-03-17

    Intestinal trefoil factor 3 (TFF3) is a member of the trefoil family of peptides, small molecules constitutively expressed in epithelial tissues, including the gastrointestinal tract. TFF3 has been shown to promote migration of intestinal epithelial cells in vitro and to enhance mucosal healing and epithelial restitution in vivo. In this study, we evaluated the effect of recombinant TFF3 (rTFF3) stimulation on the expression and cellular localization of the epithelial (E)-cadherin-catenin complex, a prime mediator of Ca2+ dependent cell-cell adhesion, and the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC)-catenin complex in HT29, HCT116, and SW480 colorectal carcinoma cell lines. Stimulation by rTFF3 (10(-9) M and 10(-8) M) for 20-24 hr led to cell detachment and to a reduction in intercellular adhesion in HT29 and HCT116 cells. In both cell lines, E-cadherin expression was down-regulated. The expression of APC, alpha-catenin and beta-catenin also was decreased in HT29 cells, with a translocation of APC into the nucleus. No change in either cell adhesion or in the expression of E-cadherin, the catenins, and APC was detected in SW480 cells. In addition, TFF3 induced DNA fragmentation and morphological changes characteristic of apoptosis in HT29. Tyrphostin, a competitive inhibitor of protein tyrosine kinases, inhibited the effects of TFF3. Our results indicate that by perturbing the complexes between E-cadherin, beta-catenin, and associated proteins, TFF3 may modulate epithelial cell adhesion, migration, and survival.

  3. In vitro migration of cytotoxic T lymphocyte derived from a colon carcinoma patient is dependent on CCL2 and CCR2

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Infiltration of colorectal carcinomas (CRC) with T-cells has been associated with good prognosis. There are some indications that chemokines could be involved in T-cell infiltration of tumors. Selective modulation of chemokine activity at the tumor site could attract immune cells resulting in tumor growth inhibition. In mouse tumor model systems, gene therapy with chemokines or administration of antibody (Ab)-chemokine fusion proteins have provided potent immune mediated tumor rejection which was mediated by infiltrating T cells at the tumor site. To develop such immunotherapeutic strategies for cancer patients, one must identify chemokines and their receptors involved in T-cell migration toward tumor cells. Methods To identify chemokine and chemokine receptors involved in T-cell migration toward CRC cells, we have used our previously published three-dimensional organotypic CRC culture system. Organotypic culture was initiated with a layer of fetal fibroblast cells mixed with collagen matrix in a 24 well tissue culture plate. A layer of CRC cells was placed on top of the fibroblast-collagen layer which was followed by a separating layer of fibroblasts in collagen matrix. Anti-CRC specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) mixed with fibroblasts in collagen matrix were placed on top of the separating layer. Excess chemokine ligand (CCL) or Abs to chemokine or chemokine receptor (CCR) were used in migration inhibition assays to identify the chemokine and the receptor involved in CTL migration. Results Inclusion of excess CCL2 in T-cell layer or Ab to CCL2 in separating layer of collagen fibroblasts blocked the migration of CTLs toward tumor cells and in turn significantly inhibited tumor cell apoptosis. Also, Ab to CCR2 in the separating layer of collagen and fibroblasts blocked the migration of CTLs toward tumor cells and subsequently inhibited tumor cell apoptosis. Expression of CCR2 in four additional CRC patients' lymphocytes isolated from infiltrating

  4. Division of focal plane polarimeter-based 3 × 4 Mueller matrix microscope: a potential tool for quick diagnosis of human carcinoma tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Jintao; He, Honghui; Wang, Ye; Huang, Yi; Li, Xianpeng; He, Chao; Liao, Ran; Zeng, Nan; Liu, Shaoxiong; Ma, Hui

    2016-05-01

    A polarization microscope is a useful tool to reveal the optical anisotropic nature of a specimen and can provide abundant microstructural information about samples. We present a division of focal plane (DoFP) polarimeter-based polarization microscope capable of simultaneously measuring both the Stokes vector and the 3×4 Mueller matrix with an optimal polarization illumination scheme. The Mueller matrix images of unstained human carcinoma tissue slices show that the m24 and m34 elements can provide important information for pathological observations. The characteristic features of the m24 and m34 elements can be enhanced by polarization staining under illumination by a circularly polarized light. Hence, combined with a graphics processing unit acceleration algorithm, the DoFP polarization microscope is capable of real-time polarization imaging for potential quick clinical diagnoses of both standard and frozen slices of human carcinoma tissues.

  5. CD147 and Ki-67 overexpression confers poor prognosis in squamous cell carcinoma of oral tongue: A tissue microarray study

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yau-Hua; Morales, Jose; Feng, Lei; Lee, J. Jack; El-Naggar, Adel K.; Vigneswaran, Nadarajah

    2015-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma of the oral tongue (SCCOT) exhibits high risk for recurrence and regional metastasis even after surgical resection. We assessed the clinicopathologic and prognostic significance of a group of functionally related biomarkers. We used a tissue microarray consisting SCCOT from 32 patients for this study. These patients were treated at the UT- M.D. Anderson Cancer Center from 1995 to 2008. Biomarker expression levels were examined by immunohistochemistry and graded semiquantitatively to determine their prognostic significance. CD147 and Tp63 expressions were significantly associated with a higher T-stage and Ki-67 labelling index as well as shorter overall survival (OS). Expression of Tp63 associated positively with poorly-differentiated histology. There was significant association of Tp63 with the expression levels of CD147 and Glut-1. Glut-1 overexpression was marginally associated with a higher T-stage. There was no prognostic significance of CD44v6 expression in SCCOT. SCCOT with CD147 overexpression in combination with high Ki-67 labelling index had poor OS. CD147 and Ki-67 overexpression is associated with aggressive disease with poor prognosis in SCCOT. PMID:25747176

  6. Quantitative Proteomics Analysis of Tissue Interstitial Fluid for Identification of Novel Serum Candidate Diagnostic Marker for Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Sun, Wei; Xing, Baocai; Guo, Lihai; Liu, Zhilei; Mu, Jinsong; Sun, Longqin; Wei, Handong; Zhao, Xiaohang; Qian, Xiaohong; Jiang, Ying; He, Fuchu

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the fifth most common malignant cancer in the world. The sensitivity of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) is still inadequate for HCC diagnosis. Tissue interstitial fluid (TIF), as the liquid microenvironment of cancer cells, was used for biomarker discovery in this study. Paired tumor and nontumor TIF samples from 6 HBV-HCC patients were analyzed by a proteomic technique named iTRAQ (isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation). Totally, 241 up-regulated proteins (ratio ≥ 1.3, p < 0.05) and 288 down-regulated proteins (ratio ≤ -1.3, p < 0.05) in tumor TIF were identified. Interestingly, proteins in S100 family were found remarkably up-regulated in tumor TIF. One dramatically up-regulated protein S100A9 (ratio = 19) was further validated by ELISA in sera from liver cirrhosis (LC, HCC high risk population) and HCC patients (n = 47 for each group). The level of this protein was significantly elevated in HCC sera compared with LC (p < 0.0001). The area under the curve of this protein to distinguish HCC from LC was 0.83, with sensitivity of 91% (higher than AFP) and specificity of 66%. This result demonstrated the potential of S100A9 as a candidate HCC diagnostic biomarker. And TIF was a kind of promising material to identify candidate tumor biomarkers that could be detected in serum. PMID:27216119

  7. Negative regulation of natural killer cell in tumor tissue and peripheral blood of oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Anupam; Banerjee, Arunabha; Saikia, Nabajyoti; Phookan, Jyotirmoy; Baruah, Munindra Narayan; Baruah, Shashi

    2015-12-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells are the key lymphocytes in solid tumors. Its activity is regulated by both germline encoded receptors and cytokine microenvironment. We conducted a case-control study to investigate the activation status of NK cell in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). NK cell activation was assessed in context of NK cell cytotoxicity and transcript expression of NK cell receptors (NKp46 and KIRs) and NK cell associated cytokines (IL-1β, IL-2, IL-10, IL-12β, IL-15, IL-18, IL-21, IFN-γ, TNF-α and TGF-β). The results revealed possible mechanisms involved in reduced NK cell activation in peripheral circulation: quantitative deficiency of NK cell number and lowered cytotoxicity together with qualitative NK impairments caused by--(1) decreased expression of NK activating receptor NKp46, (2) increased expression of NK suppressive cytokines--IL-10 and TGF-β and (3) induction of FOXP3(+)CTLA4(+) suppressor cells. On the other hand, in the tumor tissue, escape of NK immune surveillance appeared to be modulated by upregulation of TGF-β and IL-10 together with downregulation of NK cell activating cytokines (IL-2, IL-12β, IL-15, IL-18, IL-21 and IFN-γ) and NK receptors (NKp46 and KIRs). In addition, our study supported the earlier contention that TNF-α and IL-1β expression levels may be used as markers of malignant transformation in oral leukoplakia. In conclusion, the study provided an insight into the negative regulation of NK cell in tumor tissue and peripheral blood of OSCC patients, which can be exploited to boost the current NK cell and cytokine based immunotherapy for the treatment of oral cancer. PMID:26372424

  8. Transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF beta 1) is an autocrine positive regulator of colon carcinoma U9 cells in vivo as shown by transfection of a TGF beta 1 antisense expression plasmid.

    PubMed

    Huang, F; Newman, E; Theodorescu, D; Kerbel, R S; Friedman, E

    1995-12-01

    A transforming growth factor beta1 (TGF beta1) antisense expression plasmid under constitutive control of the Rous sarcoma virus promoter was introduced into the highly tumorigenic and invasive colon carcinoma U9A cell line, which uses its autocrine TGF beta1 as a growth-stimulating factor. Stable transfectants were infrequent, and only the K6 transfectant exhibited 39 and 33%, respectively, of the levels of TGF beta1 mRNA and active, secreted TGF beta1 protein of the parental line. K6 exhibited no change in TGF beta2 expression, and TGF beta3 expression was not detected in either parental or transfectant cells. Compared to the parental line, the K6 antisense transfectant exhibited a 3-fold increase in lag time in anchorage-dependent colony formation. The parental line was 44 times as invasive through a collagen l-coated polycarbonate membrane in vitro as K6 cells and, after s.c. injection at low-cell inocula, U9A cells induced tumors 75 times as large in vivo as did the K6 antisense transfectant. The decreases in in vitro invasion and anchorage-dependent colony formation seen in K6 cells were largely reversed by the addition of TGF beta1. Tumors that did arise from the K6 antisense transfectant cells had lost antisense TGF beta1 expression and expressed the same TGF beta1 mRNA levels as controls. U9A cells were more metastatic to the liver after intrasplenic injection than K6 cells. These findings demonstrate a role for autocrine TGE beta1 in colon cancer tumorigenicity and invasion. They also show that a relatively small decrease in TGF beta1 levels was enough to markedly decrease colon carcinoma cell aggressiveness. This is not unprecedented, as we had found in an earlier study that a small, 2-4-fold increase in TGF beta1 protein levels in human colon cancers correlated with disease progression to metastases (E. Friedman et al., Cancer Epidemiol, Biomarkers & Prev., 4:549-554, 1995).

  9. Colonic Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... where your body makes and stores stool. Many disorders affect the colon's ability to work properly. Some ... abdominal cramping and other symptoms Treatment for colonic diseases varies greatly depending on the disease and its ...

  10. Detection of a long non-coding RNA (CCAT1) in living cells and human adenocarcinoma of colon tissues using FIT-PNA molecular beacons.

    PubMed

    Kam, Yossi; Rubinstein, Abraham; Naik, Shankar; Djavsarov, Irena; Halle, David; Ariel, Ilana; Gure, Ali O; Stojadinovic, Alexander; Pan, HongGuang; Tsivin, Victoria; Nissan, Aviram; Yavin, Eylon

    2014-09-28

    Although the function and mechanism of action of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNA) is still not completely known, studies have shown their potential role in the control of gene expression and regulation, in cellular proliferation and invasiveness at the transcriptional level via multiple mechanisms. Recently, colon cancer associated transcript 1 (CCAT1) lncRNA was found to be expressed in colorectal cancer (CRC) tumors but not in normal tissue. This study aimed to study the ability of a CCAT1-specific peptide nucleic acid (PNA) based molecular beacons (TO-PNA-MB) to serve as a diagnostic probe for in vitro, ex vivo, and in situ (human colon biopsies) detection of CRC. The data showed enhanced fluorescence upon in vitro hybridization to RNA extracted from CCAT1 expressing cells (HT-29, SW-480) compared to control cells (SK-Mel-2). Uptake of TO-PNA-MBs into cells was achieved by covalently attaching cell penetrating peptides (CPPs) to the TO-PNA-MB probes. In situ hybridization of selected TO-PNA-MB in human CRC specimens was shown to detect CCAT1 expression in all (4/4) subjects with pre-cancerous adenomas, and in all (8/8) patients with invasive adenocarcinoma (penetrating the bowel wall) tumors. The results showed that CCAT1 TO-PNA-MB is a powerful diagnostic tool for the specific identification of CRC, suggesting that with the aid of an appropriate pharmaceutical vehicle, real time in vivo imaging is feasible. TO-PNA-MB may enable identifying occult metastatic disease during surgery, or differentiating in real time in vivo imaging, between benign and malignant lesions. PMID:23416875

  11. Detection of a long non-coding RNA (CCAT1) in living cells and human adenocarcinoma of colon tissues using FIT-PNA molecular beacons.

    PubMed

    Kam, Yossi; Rubinstein, Abraham; Naik, Shankar; Djavsarov, Irena; Halle, David; Ariel, Ilana; Gure, Ali O; Stojadinovic, Alexander; Pan, HongGuang; Tsivin, Victoria; Nissan, Aviram; Yavin, Eylon

    2014-09-28

    Although the function and mechanism of action of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNA) is still not completely known, studies have shown their potential role in the control of gene expression and regulation, in cellular proliferation and invasiveness at the transcriptional level via multiple mechanisms. Recently, colon cancer associated transcript 1 (CCAT1) lncRNA was found to be expressed in colorectal cancer (CRC) tumors but not in normal tissue. This study aimed to study the ability of a CCAT1-specific peptide nucleic acid (PNA) based molecular beacons (TO-PNA-MB) to serve as a diagnostic probe for in vitro, ex vivo, and in situ (human colon biopsies) detection of CRC. The data showed enhanced fluorescence upon in vitro hybridization to RNA extracted from CCAT1 expressing cells (HT-29, SW-480) compared to control cells (SK-Mel-2). Uptake of TO-PNA-MBs into cells was achieved by covalently attaching cell penetrating peptides (CPPs) to the TO-PNA-MB probes. In situ hybridization of selected TO-PNA-MB in human CRC specimens was shown to detect CCAT1 expression in all (4/4) subjects with pre-cancerous adenomas, and in all (8/8) patients with invasive adenocarcinoma (penetrating the bowel wall) tumors. The results showed that CCAT1 TO-PNA-MB is a powerful diagnostic tool for the specific identification of CRC, suggesting that with the aid of an appropriate pharmaceutical vehicle, real time in vivo imaging is feasible. TO-PNA-MB may enable identifying occult metastatic disease during surgery, or differentiating in real time in vivo imaging, between benign and malignant lesions.

  12. Variable ploidy of ovarian clear cell carcinomas. Implications for adequacy of tissue sampling.

    PubMed

    Listinsky, C M; Bonfiglio, T A; Leary, J

    1988-02-01

    Ten cases of clear cell (mesonephroid) adenocarcinoma of the ovary were examined for (1) variations of morphology within each tumor and its metastases, (2) ploidy of each morphologic region and (3) clinical behavior. Correlations were sought among these factors. Analysis of the ploidy in up to six morphologic regions per tumor showed variations in the ploidy in seven of the ten cases, with all seven having both diploid and nondiploid regions. The presence or absence of abnormal ploidy was not predictable based on the histomorphologic appearance of a given section. These results suggest that (1) the evaluation of a single random tissue sample may not discover aneuploidy that is present and (2) future ploidy studies on malignant tumors may require extensive tumor sampling in order to definitively exclude the presence of aneuploid populations.

  13. Antibody validation and scoring guidelines for ABCG2 immunohistochemical staining in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded colon cancer tissue

    PubMed Central

    Cederbye, Camilla Natasha; Palshof, Jesper Andreas; Hansen, Tine Plato; Duun-Henriksen, Anne Katrine; Linnemann, Dorte; Stenvang, Jan; Nielsen, Dorte Lisbet; Brünner, Nils; Viuff, Birgitte Martine

    2016-01-01

    Overexpression of the ATP-dependent drug efflux pump ABCG2 is a major molecular mechanism of multidrug resistance in cancer and might be a predictive biomarker for drug response. Contradictory results have been reported for immunohistochemical studies of ABCG2 protein expression in colorectal cancer (CRC), probably because of the use of different antibodies and scoring approaches. In this study, we systematically studied six commercially available anti-ABCG2 antibodies, using cell lines with up-regulation of ABCG2, and selected one antibody for validation in CRC tissue. Furthermore, we established scoring guidelines for ABCG2 expression based on the clinically used guidelines for HER2 immunohistochemistry assessment in gastric cancer. The guidelines provide a semi-quantitative measure of the basolateral membrane staining of ABCG2 and disregard the apical membrane staining and the cytoplasmic signal. Intra-tumor heterogeneity in ABCG2 immunoreactivity was observed; however, statistical analyses of tissue microarrays (TMAs) and the corresponding whole sections from primary tumors of 57 metastatic CRC patients revealed a strong positive correlation between maximum TMA scores and whole sections, especially when more than one core was used. In conclusion, here, we provide validated results to guide future studies on the associations between ABCG2 immunoreactivity in tumor cells and the benefits of chemotherapeutic treatment in patients with CRC. PMID:27257141

  14. Use of purified F1845 fimbrial adhesin to study localization and expression of receptors for diffusely adhering Escherichia coli during enterocytic differentiation of human colon carcinoma cell lines HT-29 and Caco-2 in culture.

    PubMed Central

    Kerneis, S; Bilge, S S; Fourel, V; Chauviere, G; Coconnier, M H; Servin, A L

    1991-01-01

    Whole diffusely adhering Escherichia coli (DAEC) C1845 cells bearing the F1845 adhesive factor bind diffusely to differentiated human colon carcinoma cell lines HT-29 and Caco-2. By using antibodies directed against the purified fimbrial adhesin F1845 factor, the expression of the DAEC F1845-specific brush border receptors in the polarized human intestinal HT-29 and Caco-2 epithelial cells was studied by indirect immunofluorescence. A low level of DAEC F1845 receptors in undifferentiated intestinal cells was detected; they were localized in a cluster of cells. DAEC F1845 receptors were expressed at a high level in differentiated HT-29 and Caco-2 cells. DAEC F1845 receptors were expressed at a strikingly high level in the apical domains of the cells and developed during enterocytic differentiation in culture, in parallel with the apical expression of the intestinal brush border hydrolase, sucrase-isomaltase. Images PMID:1682255

  15. Abnormal Localization and Tumor Suppressor Function of Epithelial Tissue-Specific Transcription Factor ESE3 in Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li; Xing, Jie; Cheng, Rui; Shao, Ying; Li, Peng; Zhu, Shengtao; Zhang, Shutian

    2015-01-01

    Esophageal cancer is one of the most common malignant cancers worldwide. The molecular mechanism of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is still poorly understood. ESE3 is a member of the Ets transcription family, which is only expressed in epithelial tissues and acts as a tumor suppressor gene in prostate cancer. Our study aim was to confirm whether ESE3 is involved in the carcinogenesis of ESCC. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that ESE3 was mainly located in cell nuclei of normal tissues and the cytoplasm in ESCC tissues. Immunofluorescence and western blot analyses of the normal esophageal cell line HEEpiC and ESCC cell lines EC9706 TE-1, KYSE150, and KYSE410 confirmed these results. pEGFP-ESE3 and pcDNA3.1-V5/HisA-ESE3 plasmids were constructed for overexpression of ESE3 in EC9706 and KYSE150 cells. The stably transfected cells showed restoration of the nuclear localization of ESE3. EC9706 cells with re-localization of ESE3 to the nucleus showed inhibition of proliferation, colony formation, migration, and invasion. To explore the possible mechanism of the differences in localization of ESE3 in normal esophageal cells and ESCC cells, ESCC cell lines were treated with the nuclear export inhibitor leptomycin B, transcription inhibitor actinomycin D, PKC inhibitor sphinganine, P38 MAPK inhibitor SB202190, and CK II inhibitor TBCA. These reagents were chosen according to the well-known mechanisms of protein translocation. However, the localization of ESE3 was unchanged after these treatments. The sequence of ESE3 cDNA in ESCC cells was identical to the standard sequence of ESE3 in the NCBI Genebank database, indicating that there was no mutation in the coding region of ESE3 in ESCC. Taken together, our study suggests that ESE3 plays an important role in the carcinogenesis of ESCC through changes in subcellular localization and may act as a tumor suppressor gene in ESCC, although the mechanisms require further study.

  16. Neuroendocrine carcinoma arising in soft tissue: three case reports and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Hyer, Steve L; McAleese, Jonathan; Harmer, Clive L

    2007-01-01

    Background Neuroendocrine tumours (NET) are tumours arising from neuroendocrine cells of neural crest origin. They are characterised by the presence of neurosecretory granules which react positively to silver stains and to specific markers including neuron specific enolase, synaptophysin and chromogranin. Metastasis to the skin occurs infrequently but primary soft tissue NET is excessively rare. Case presentation We report our experience with 3 such cases. In the first case, the NET originated in muscle and was treated with wide surgical excision and adjuvant radiotherapy. The second case presented as a subcutaneous mass in the foot and the tumour was positive on 123I mIBG scan. She has had prolonged recurrence-free survival following primary hypo-fractionated radiotherapy. In the third case, a cutaneous nodule proved to be a NET and at surgery, lymph node disease was present. He has remained disease-free after surgical excision without the need for external beam radiotherapy. Conclusion These tumours appear to have a good prognosis. Complete excision offers potentially curative treatment. Adjuvant radiotherapy may be helpful when the tumour margin is narrow. For patients with unresectable disease or where surgery would not be appropriate, radiotherapy appears to be an effective therapeutic option. PMID:17620120

  17. Raman spectral properties of squamous cell carcinoma of oral tissues and cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, L.; Sun, Y. F.; Chen, Y.; Chen, P.; Shen, A. G.; Wang, X. H.; Jia, J.; Zhao, Y. F.; Zhou, X. D.; Hu, J. M.

    2011-11-01

    Early diagnosis is the key of the improved survival rates of oral cancer. Raman spectroscopy is sensitive to the early changes of molecular composition and structure that occur in benign lesion during carcinogenesis. In this study, in situ Raman analysis provided distinct spectra that can be used to discriminate between normal and malignant tissues, as well as normal and cancer cells. The biochemical variations between different groups were analyzed by the characteristic bands by comparing the normalized mean spectra. Spectral profiles of normal, malignant conditions show pronounced differences between one another, and multiple Raman markers associated with DNA and protein vibrational modes have been identified that exhibit excellent discrimination power for cancer sample identification. Statistical analyses of the Raman data and classification using principal component analysis (PCA) are shown to be effective for the Raman spectral diagnosis of oral mucosal diseases. The results indicate that the biomolecular differences between normal and malignant conditions are more obviously at the cellular level. This technique could provide a research foundation for the Raman spectral diagnosis of oral mucosal diseases.

  18. What Do We Learn from Spheroid Culture Systems? Insights from Tumorspheres Derived from Primary Colon Cancer Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Qureshi-Baig, Komal; Ullmann, Pit; Rodriguez, Fabien; Frasquilho, Sónia; Nazarov, Petr V.; Haan, Serge; Letellier, Elisabeth

    2016-01-01

    Due to their self-renewal and tumorigenic properties, tumor-initiating cells (TICs) have been hypothesized to be important targets for colorectal cancer (CRC). However the study of TICs is hampered by the fact that the identification and culturing of TICs is still a subject of extensive debate. Floating three-dimensional spheroid cultures (SC) that grow in serum-free medium supplemented with growth factors are supposed to be enriched in TICs. We generated SC from fresh clinical tumor specimens and compared them to SC isolated from CRC cell-lines as well as to adherent differentiated counterparts. Patient-derived SC display self-renewal capacity and can induce serial transplantable tumors in immuno-deficient mice, which phenotypically resemble the tumor of origin. In addition, the original tumor tissue and established SC retain several similar CRC-relevant mutations. Primary SC express key stemness proteins such as SOX2, OCT4, NANOG and LGR5 and importantly show increased chemoresistance ability compared to their adherent differentiated counterparts and to cell line-derived SC. Strikingly, cells derived from spheroid or adherent differentiating culture conditions displayed similar self-renewal capacity and equally formed tumors in immune-deficient mice, suggesting that self-renewal and tumor-initiation capacity of TICs is not restricted to phenotypically immature spheroid cells, which we describe to be highly plastic and able to reacquire stem-cell traits even after long differentiation processes. Finally, we identified two genes among a sphere gene expression signature that predict disease relapse in CRC patients. Here we propose that SC derived from fresh patient tumor tissue present interesting phenotypic features that may have clinical relevance for chemoresistance and disease relapse and therefore represent a valuable tool to test for new CRC-therapies that overcome drug resistance. PMID:26745821

  19. What Do We Learn from Spheroid Culture Systems? Insights from Tumorspheres Derived from Primary Colon Cancer Tissue.

    PubMed

    Qureshi-Baig, Komal; Ullmann, Pit; Rodriguez, Fabien; Frasquilho, Sónia; Nazarov, Petr V; Haan, Serge; Letellier, Elisabeth

    2016-01-01

    Due to their self-renewal and tumorigenic properties, tumor-initiating cells (TICs) have been hypothesized to be important targets for colorectal cancer (CRC). However the study of TICs is hampered by the fact that the identification and culturing of TICs is still a subject of extensive debate. Floating three-dimensional spheroid cultures (SC) that grow in serum-free medium supplemented with growth factors are supposed to be enriched in TICs. We generated SC from fresh clinical tumor specimens and compared them to SC isolated from CRC cell-lines as well as to adherent differentiated counterparts. Patient-derived SC display self-renewal capacity and can induce serial transplantable tumors in immuno-deficient mice, which phenotypically resemble the tumor of origin. In addition, the original tumor tissue and established SC retain several similar CRC-relevant mutations. Primary SC express key stemness proteins such as SOX2, OCT4, NANOG and LGR5 and importantly show increased chemoresistance ability compared to their adherent differentiated counterparts and to cell line-derived SC. Strikingly, cells derived from spheroid or adherent differentiating culture conditions displayed similar self-renewal capacity and equally formed tumors in immune-deficient mice, suggesting that self-renewal and tumor-initiation capacity of TICs is not restricted to phenotypically immature spheroid cells, which we describe to be highly plastic and able to reacquire stem-cell traits even after long differentiation processes. Finally, we identified two genes among a sphere gene expression signature that predict disease relapse in CRC patients. Here we propose that SC derived from fresh patient tumor tissue present interesting phenotypic features that may have clinical relevance for chemoresistance and disease relapse and therefore represent a valuable tool to test for new CRC-therapies that overcome drug resistance. PMID:26745821

  20. A case-cohort study for the disease natural history of adenoma-carcinoma and de novo carcinoma and surveillance of colon and rectum after polypectomy: implication for efficacy of colonoscopy.

    PubMed

    Chen, C-D; Yen, M-F; Wang, W-M; Wong, J-M; Chen, T H-H

    2003-06-16

    The disease natural history of colorectal neoplasm regarding two opposing theories, adenoma-carcinoma sequence and de novo carcinoma theory, is controversial and rarely quantified. The aims of this study are therefore to estimate the dwelling times of adenoma-carcinoma sequence by adenoma size and histological type, taking de novo carcinoma into account. The efficacy of polypectomy was therefore estimated making allowance for two pathways. A case-cohort design, underpinning a cohort with 13 908 subjects (including 10 496 normal subjects, 2652 polyps, 760 colorectal cancers) who underwent the first examination of colonoscopy between 1979 and 1998, was devised to estimate parameters associated with two opposing theories by randomly selecting 305 normal subjects, 300 patients with polyps, and 116 colorectal cancers from the cohort. All the 2652 polyps were linked to national cancer registry to ascertain 25 invasive carcinomas after polypectomy. For the five-state model associated with adenoma size, dwelling times of small (0.6-1 cm) and large adenoma (>1 cm) are 7.75 and 5.27 years for the model without considering de novo, and 17.48 and 15.90 years for the model taking de novo carcinoma into account. Similar findings are observed for the model associated with histological type. The estimated proportions of de novo carcinoma are 31.87% from the model by adenoma size and 27.81% from the model by histological type. Compared to size less than 5 mm, patients with adenoma size between 6 and 10 mm and patients with adenoma size larger than 1 cm have 2.17-fold (0.67-10.74) and 4.25-fold (1.23-14.70), respectively, for the risk of malignant transformation. There are similar findings for the model by histological type. The estimates of overall efficacy of colonoscopy in reducing CRC is 73% for the model allowing for de novo carcinoma and 88% for the model without considering de novo carcinoma theory. The efficacy of diminutive adenoma and small adenoma increases with follow

  1. Reliable detection of human papillomavirus in recurrent laryngeal papillomatosis and associated carcinoma of archival tissue.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Daniel; Heinkele, Thomas; Rudack, Claudia

    2015-05-01

    Recurrent laryngeal papillomatosis (RLP) is, although benign, a challenging disease for both, the patient and the treating physician. Maximum disease control with minimum intervention is considered to be the gold standard. However, patients have to undergo repeating surgical interventions. Human papillomavirus (HPV), mainly so called low risk types, are thought to be responsible for the development of RLP. But, there is still some controversy over the true prevalence of HPV and the virus-specific molecular diagnostic of choice. Therefore archival tissue samples from 44 patients with RLP at laryngeal site, out of which eight developed laryngeal cancer, was screened for presence of HPV through various molecular approaches. Results from these different methodologies were compared between each other and with patient's characteristics. The overall detection rates of HPV with the various methods used in this study were: HPV16 E6/E7 PCR: 0%; GP5+/6+ PCR: 4.5%; CDKN2A/p16 immunohistochemistry: 6.8%; in-situ hybridization for low and high risk HPV types: 52.3%; HPV6/11 L1 PCR: 72.7% and HPV6/11 E6 PCR: 79.5%. Disease progression showed no apparent dependence of the detected HPV type or clinical variables like age at diagnosis, sex, or additional drug application (Cidofovir and Bevacizumab). In conclusion, the broad-spectrum PCRs alone or in combination with immunohistochemistry of CDKN2A/p16 and in-situ hybridization are unsuitable for HPV detection in RLP. Based on the findings presented in this study the type specific PCRs targeting the E6 open reading frame are clearly superior in detection of HPV in this tumor entity.

  2. Expression of SATB1 protein in the ductal breast carcinoma tissue microarrays - preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Kobierzycki, Christopher; Wojnar, Andrzej; Dziegiel, Piotr

    2013-01-01

    Special AT-rich sequence-binding protein 1 (SATB1) is a nuclear matrix protein which interacts with specific regions of DNA, ensuring its proper organization and function in the cell. The expression of SATB1 was primarily found in thymocytes, but its increased levels were observed in various types of cancers. However, the knowledge of the function and application possibilities of this protein is still limited. The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of SATB1 protein using immunohistochemistry and tissue microarray (TMA) technique and determine its possible relationship with the proliferative marker Ki-67, estrogen a (ER) and progesterone (PR) receptors as well as grade of histological malignancy (G). The study was performed on material of 48 archival invasive ductal breast cancers (IDC). The TMAs were prepared with the use of 0.6 mm diameter punches. Immunohistochemical reactions were carried out using antibodies against Ki-67, ER, PR and SATB1 proteins. The intensity of the nuclear reaction was evaluated using a light microscope and computer-assisted image analysis. Expression of Ki-67 and SATB1 protein was observed in 89.58% and 31.25% of cancer cases, respectively. 62.5% of tumors were classified as ER-positive, and 47.92% as PR-positive. Statistical analysis showed a moderate positive correlation between Ki-67 and SATB1 expression (r = 0.291, p = 0.045 independently on the receptor status, and r = 0.392, p = 0.032 in ER-negative tumors). The expression of the Ki-67 antigen increased with higher grade of histological malignancy (G). The results suggest that SATB1 protein may play an indirect role in the cell proliferation and should be evaluated in relation to the other markers. Further studies concerning determination of its role in cancer progression and metastasis, in terms of application as therapeutic target and prognostic marker, are recommended.

  3. Radioimmunoguided surgery in primary colon cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Nieroda, C.A.; Mojzisik, C.; Sardi, A.; Ferrara, P.J.; Hinkle, G.; Thurston, M.O.; Martin, E.W. Jr. )

    1990-01-01

    Radioimmunoguided surgery (RIGS), the intraoperative use of a hand-held gamma detecting probe (GDP) to identify tissue containing radiolabeled monoclonal antibody (MAb), was performed upon 30 patients with primary colon carcinoma. Each patient received an intravenous injection of MAb B72.3 (1.0 to 0.25 mg) radiolabeled with {sup 125}I (5.0 to 1.0 mCi) 8 to 34 days before exploration. The GDP was used to measure radioactivity in colon tissue, tumor bed, nodal drainage areas, and areas of suspected metastases. Antibody localized to histologically documented tumor in 23 of 30 patients (77%). Tumor margins were more clearly defined in 20 of 30 patients (67%). GDP counts led to major alterations in surgical resection in five patients (17%) and changes in adjuvant therapy in four (14%). GDP counts identified occult liver metastases in two patients (7%) and correctly indicated the benign nature of liver masses in three (10%). In four patients (13%), occult nodal metastases were identified. RIGS can precisely delineate tumor margins, define the extent of nodal involvement, and localize occult tumor, providing a method of immediate intraoperative staging that may lessen recurrences and produce higher survival rates.

  4. Endothelial cell colonization and angiogenic potential of combined nano- and micro-fibrous scaffolds for bone tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Santos, Marina I; Tuzlakoglu, Kadriye; Fuchs, Sabine; Gomes, Manuela E; Peters, Kirsten; Unger, Ronald E; Piskin, Erhan; Reis, Rui L; Kirkpatrick, C James

    2008-11-01

    Presently the majority of tissue engineering approaches aimed at regenerating bone relies only on post-implantation vascularization. Strategies that include seeding endothelial cells (ECs) on biomaterials and promoting their adhesion, migration and functionality might be a solution for the formation of vascularized bone. Nano/micro-fiber-combined scaffolds have an innovative structure, inspired by extracellular matrix (ECM) that combines a nano-network, aimed to promote cell adhesion, with a micro-fiber mesh that provides the mechanical support. In this work we addressed the influence of this nano-network on growth pattern, morphology, inflammatory expression profile, expression of structural proteins, homotypic interactions and angiogenic potential of human EC cultured on a scaffold made of a blend of starch and poly(caprolactone). The nano-network allowed cells to span between individual micro-fibers and influenced cell morphology. Furthermore, on nano-fibers as well as on micro-fibers ECs maintained the physiological expression pattern of the structural protein vimentin and PECAM-1 between adjacent cells. In addition, ECs growing on the nano/micro-fiber-combined scaffold were sensitive to pro-inflammatory stimulus. Under pro-angiogenic conditions in vitro, the ECM-like nano-network provided the structural and organizational stability for ECs' migration and organization into capillary-like structures. The architecture of nano/micro-fiber-combined scaffolds elicited and guided the 3D distribution of ECs without compromising the structural requirements for bone regeneration.

  5. Trefoil factor-3 expression in human colon cancer liver metastasis.

    PubMed

    Babyatsky, Mark; Lin, Jing; Yio, Xianyang; Chen, Anli; Zhang, Jie-yu; Zheng, Yan; Twyman, Christina; Bao, Xiuliang; Schwartz, Myron; Thung, Swan; Lawrence Werther, J; Itzkowitz, Steven

    2009-01-01

    Deaths from colorectal cancer are often due to liver metastasis. Trefoil factor-3 (TFF3) is expressed by normal intestinal epithelial cells and its expression is maintained throughout the colon adenoma-carcinoma sequence. Our previous work demonstrated a correlation between TFF3 expression and metastatic potential in an animal model of colon cancer. The aim of this study was to determine whether TFF3 is expressed in human colon cancer liver metastasis (CCLM) and whether inhibiting TFF3 expression in colon cancer cells would alter their invasive potential in vitro. Human CCLMs were analyzed at the mRNA and protein level for TFF3 expression. Two highly metastatic rat colon cancer cell lines that either natively express TFF3 (LN cells) or were transfected with TFF3 (LPCRI-2 cells), were treated with two rat TFF3 siRNA constructs (si78 and si365), and analyzed in an in vitro invasion assay. At the mRNA and protein level, TFF3 was expressed in 17/17 (100%) CCLMs and 10/11 (91%) primary colon cancers, but not in normal liver tissue. By real time PCR, TFF3 expression was markedly inhibited by both siRNA constructs in LN and LPCRI-2 cells. The si365 and si78 constructs inhibited invasion by 44% and 53%, respectively, in LN cells, and by 74% and 50%, respectively, in LPCRI-2 cells. These results provide further evidence that TFF3 contributes to the malignant behavior of colon cancer cells. These observations may have relevance for designing new diagnostic and treatment approaches to colorectal cancer.

  6. Implications of the colonic deposition of free hemoglobin-alpha chain: a previously unknown tissue by-product in inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    Myers, Jeremy N.; Schäffer, Michael W.; Korolkova, Olga Y.; Williams, Amanda D.; Gangula, Pandu R.; M’Koma, Amosy E.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose We analyzed inflamed mucosal/submucosal layers of ulcerative colitis (UC=63) and Crohn’s colitis (CC=50) and unexpectedly we unveiled a pool of free-hemoglobin-alpha (Hb-α) chain. Patients with colitides have increased ROS, DNA-oxidation products, free-iron in mucosa, in pre-neoplastic, and in colitis-cancers and increased risks of developing colorectal-cancer (CRC). All IBD-related-CRC lesions are found in segments with colitis. Linking this information we investigated whether free-Hb-α is key transformational stepping that increases colitis-related-CRC vulnerability. Methods UC/CC samples were profiled using MALDI-MS; protein identification was made by LCM. Diverticulitis (DV) was used as control (Ctrl). The presence of Hb(n) (n=α, β and hemin)/Hb was validated by Western blotting (WB) and immunohistochemistry (IHC). We tested for DNA-damage (DNAD) by exposing normal colonic-epithelial-cell-line, NCM460, to 10μM and 100μM of Hb(n)/Hb, individually for 2 h, 6 h, and 12 h. Quantification of Hb-α-staining was done by Nikon Elements Advance Research Analysis software. ROS was measured by the production of 8-OHdG. DNAD was assessed by Comet-assay. Colonic tissue homogenate antioxidants Nrf2-, CAT-, SOD- and GPx-expressions was analyzed densitometrically/ normalized by β-actin. Results IHC of CC/UC mucosal/submucosal-compartments stained strongly positive for Hb-α and significantly higher vs. Ctrl. NCM460 exposed to Hb(n)/Hb exhibited steadily-increasing ROS and subsequent DNAD. DNAD was higher in 10μM than 100μM in Hb-β/hemin the first 2 h then plateaued followed by DNAD-repair. This may be likely due to apoptosis in the later concentration. Nrf2 enzyme activities among UC, CC and UCAC were observed impaired in all IBD subjects. Decreased levels of Nrf2 among UC vs. CC patients with active disease was insignificant as well as vs. Ctrls but significantly lower in UCAC vs. Ctrl. SOD was decreased in UC and UCAC and GPx in CC but statistically not

  7. Human carcinomas variably express the complement inhibitory proteins CD46 (membrane cofactor protein), CD55 (decay-accelerating factor), and CD59 (protectin).

    PubMed

    Niehans, G A; Cherwitz, D L; Staley, N A; Knapp, D J; Dalmasso, A P

    1996-07-01

    Normal human tissues express membrane-associated complement inhibitory proteins that protect these tissues from damage by autologous complement. To determine whether neoplasms also express these proteins, we examined the distribution of the complement inhibitors decay-accelerating factor (DAF), CD59 (protectin), and membrane cofactor protein in frozen samples of human breast, colon, kidney, and lung carcinomas and in adjacent non-neoplastic tissues, using immunohistochemistry. All samples were also studied for deposition of C3 fragments and activated C5b-9. Differences between normal tissues and the corresponding neoplasms were often observed, with loss or gain of expression of one or more inhibitors. Ductal carcinomas of the breast showed the most variation in phenotype; some tumors expressed only one inhibitor while others expressed different combinations of two or three inhibitors. Colon carcinomas, by contrast, stained intensely for all inhibitors. Renal cell carcinomas had weak to moderate expression of one to three inhibitors, generally DAF and CD59, whereas non-small cell carcinomas of the lung usually expressed CD59 and membrane cofactor protein with variable DAF immunoreactivity. The two small cell carcinomas of the lung showed little or no staining for any inhibitor. Activated C5b-9 deposition was seen adjacent to tumor nests in a minority of carcinomas and showed no correlation with complement inhibitor expression. C3 fragment deposition was minimal. Our results demonstrate that most carcinomas, with the exception of small cell carcinomas of the lung, do express one or more complement inhibitors at a level likely to inhibit complement-mediated cellular damage. Unexpectedly, large quantities of DAF and CD59 were often observed in tumor stroma, with only limited deposition in normal connective tissue. This suggests that carcinomas may supplement the activity of membrane-associated complement inhibitors by release of soluble forms of DAF and CD59 into the

  8. Role of periostin in esophageal, gastric and colon cancer

    PubMed Central

    Moniuszko, Tadeusz; Wincewicz, Andrzej; Koda, Mariusz; Domysławska, Izabela; Sulkowski, Stanisław

    2016-01-01

    Periostin, also known as osteoblast-specific factor 2, is a cell-adhesion protein with pleiotropic properties. The protein serves a vital role in the maintenance and development of tooth and bone tissue, in addition to cardiac development and healing. Periostin levels are increased in several forms of cancer, including pancreatic, ovarian, colon, lung, breast, gastric, thyroid, and esophageal head and neck carcinomas. The present review highlights the key role of periostin in tumorigenesis, particularly in increasing cell survival, invasion, angiogenesis, epithelial-mesenchymal transition and metastasis of carcinoma cells by interacting with numerous cell-surface receptors, including integrins, in the phosphoinositide 3-kinase-Akt pathway. In addition, periostin actively affects the canonical Wnt signaling pathway of colorectal tumorigenesis. The current review focused on the involvement of periostin in the development of colorectal, esophageal and gastric cancer. PMID:27446351

  9. Macrophage colony-stimulating factor expressed in non-cancer tissues provides predictive powers for recurrence in hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Kono, Hiroshi; Fujii, Hideki; Furuya, Shinji; Hara, Michio; Hirayama, Kazuyoshi; Akazawa, Yoshihiro; Nakata, Yuuki; Tsuchiya, Masato; Hosomura, Naohiro; Sun, Chao

    2016-01-01

    AIM To investigate the role of macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) after surgery. METHODS Expression of M-CSF, distribution of M2 macrophages (MΦs), and angiogenesis were assessed in the liver, including tumors and peritumoral liver tissues. The prognostic power of these factors was assessed. Mouse isolated hepatic MΦs or monocytes were cultured with media containing M-CSF. The concentration of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in media was assessed. Furthermore, the role of the M-CSF-matured hepatic MΦs on proliferation of the vascular endothelial cell (VEC) was investigated. RESULTS A strong correlation between the expressions of M-CSF and CD163 was observed in the peritumoral area. Also, groups with high density of M-CSF, CD163 or CD31 showed a significantly shorter time to recurrence (TTR) than low density groups. Multivariate analysis revealed the expression of M-CSF or hepatic M2MΦs in the peritumoral area as the most crucial factor responsible for shorter TTR. Moreover, the expression of M-CSF and hepatic M2MΦs in the peritumoral area had better predictable power of overall survival. Values of VEGF in culture media were significantly greater in the hepatic MΦs compared with the monocytes. Proliferation of the VEC was greatest in the cells co-cultured with hepatic MΦs when M-CSF was present in media. CONCLUSION M-CSF increases hepatocarcinogenesis, most likely by enhancing an angiogenic factor derived from hepatic MΦ and could be a useful target for therapy against HCC.

  10. Quantitative Proteomics Analysis of Tissue Interstitial Fluid for Identification of Novel Serum Candidate Diagnostic Marker for Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Wei; Xing, Baocai; Guo, Lihai; Liu, Zhilei; Mu, Jinsong; Sun, Longqin; Wei, Handong; Zhao, Xiaohang; Qian, Xiaohong; Jiang, Ying; He, Fuchu

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the fifth most common malignant cancer in the world. The sensitivity of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) is still inadequate for HCC diagnosis. Tissue interstitial fluid (TIF), as the liquid microenvironment of cancer cells, was used for biomarker discovery in this study. Paired tumor and nontumor TIF samples from 6 HBV-HCC patients were analyzed by a proteomic technique named iTRAQ (isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation). Totally, 241 up-regulated proteins (ratio ≥ 1.3, p < 0.05) and 288 down-regulated proteins (ratio ≤ −1.3, p < 0.05) in tumor TIF were identified. Interestingly, proteins in S100 family were found remarkably up-regulated in tumor TIF. One dramatically up-regulated protein S100A9 (ratio = 19) was further validated by ELISA in sera from liver cirrhosis (LC, HCC high risk population) and HCC patients (n = 47 for each group). The level of this protein was significantly elevated in HCC sera compared with LC (p < 0.0001). The area under the curve of this protein to distinguish HCC from LC was 0.83, with sensitivity of 91% (higher than AFP) and specificity of 66%. This result demonstrated the potential of S100A9 as a candidate HCC diagnostic biomarker. And TIF was a kind of promising material to identify candidate tumor biomarkers that could be detected in serum. PMID:27216119

  11. Association of Global DNA Hypomethylation with Clinicopathological Variables in Colonic Tumors of Iraqi Patients

    PubMed Central

    Qasim, Ban J.; Al-Wasiti, Estabraq A.; Azzal, Hayder S.

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aim: Colorectal cancer (CRC) ranks sixth among the most common 10 cancers in Iraq. It is a foremost public health dilemma and there is improved interest in understanding the fundamental principles of its molecular biology. DNA methylation in cancer has become the issue of passionate investigation. As compared with normal cells, the malignant cells show major disruptions in their DNA methylation patterns. We aimed to assess the association of global DNA hypomethylation in colonic adenomas and carcinomas of Iraqi patients, measured by immunohistochemistry of 5-methylcytosin, with different clinicopathological variables. Patients and Methods: Thirty tissue paraffin blocks from patients with colorectal adenomas, 30 tissue paraffin blocks from patients with colorectal adenocarcinomas, and 30 samples of apparently normal colonic tissue taken from autopsy cases as a control group were included in the present study. From each block, two sections of 5 μm thickness were taken, one section was stained with Hematoxylin and Eosin for revision of histopathological diagnosis and one section was immunohistochemically stained for 5-methylcytosine (5mC) and digitally analyzed by AperioImageScope software. Results: The mean digital value of 5mC immunohistochemical expression was sequentially decreased during neoplastic progression from normal colonic tissue into adenoma and then to carcinoma. The mean digital value of 5mC expression was significantly lower in large size adenomas (≥1 cm), and those with severe dysplasia. Concerning carcinoma cases, 5mC expression was significantly lower in stage C2. Conclusions: The immunohistochemical evaluation of 5mC yields refined information on colorectal tumor biology in adenoma and carcinoma. Global DNA hypomethylation reflected by low immunohistochemical expression of 5-mC is associated with advanced colorectal adenomatous polyps suggesting that it is an early event in colorectal carcinogenesis. Also this hypomethylation can

  12. Metabolism links bacterial biofilms and colon carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Caroline H; Dejea, Christine M; Edler, David; Hoang, Linh T; Santidrian, Antonio F; Felding, Brunhilde H; Ivanisevic, Julijana; Cho, Kevin; Wick, Elizabeth C; Hechenbleikner, Elizabeth M; Uritboonthai, Winnie; Goetz, Laura; Casero, Robert A; Pardoll, Drew M; White, James R; Patti, Gary J; Sears, Cynthia L; Siuzdak, Gary

    2015-06-01

    Bacterial biofilms in the colon alter the host tissue microenvironment. A role for biofilms in colon cancer metabolism has been suggested but to date has not been evaluated. Using metabolomics, we investigated the metabolic influence that microbial biofilms have on colon tissues and the related occurrence of cancer. Patient-matched colon cancers and histologically normal tissues, with or without biofilms, were examined. We show the upregulation of polyamine metabolites in tissues from cancer hosts with significant enhancement of N(1), N(12)-diacetylspermine in both biofilm-positive cancer and normal tissues. Antibiotic treatment, which cleared biofilms, decreased N(1), N(12)-diacetylspermine levels to those seen in biofilm-negative tissues, indicating that host cancer and bacterial biofilm structures contribute to the polyamine metabolite pool. These results show that colonic mucosal biofilms alter the cancer metabolome to produce a regulator of cellular proliferation and colon cancer growth potentially affecting cancer development and progression.

  13. Comparative Exoproteomics and Host Inflammatory Response in Staphylococcus aureus Skin and Soft Tissue Infections, Bacteremia, and Subclinical Colonization

    PubMed Central

    Liew, Yun Khoon; Awang Hamat, Rukman; van Belkum, Alex; Chong, Pei Pei

    2015-01-01

    The exoproteome of Staphylococcus aureus contains enzymes and virulence factors that are important for host adaptation. We investigated the exoprotein profiles and cytokine/chemokine responses obtained in three different S. aureus-host interaction scenarios by using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DGE) and two-dimensional immunoblotting (2D-IB) combined with tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) and cytometric bead array techniques. The scenarios included S. aureus bacteremia, skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs), and healthy carriage. By the 2-DGE approach, 12 exoproteins (the chaperone protein DnaK, a phosphoglycerate kinase [Pgk], the chaperone GroEL, a multisensor hybrid histidine kinase, a 3-methyl-2-oxobutanoate hydroxymethyltransferase [PanB], cysteine synthase A, an N-acetyltransferase, four isoforms of elongation factor Tu [EF-Tu], and one signature protein spot that could not be reliably identified by MS/MS) were found to be consistently present in more than 50% of the bacteremia isolates, while none of the SSTI or healthy-carrier isolates showed any of these proteins. By the 2D-IB approach, we also identified five antigens (methionine aminopeptidase [MetAPs], exotoxin 15 [Set15], a peptidoglycan hydrolase [LytM], an alkyl hydroperoxide reductase [AhpC], and a haptoglobin-binding heme uptake protein [HarA]) specific for SSTI cases. Cytokine and chemokine production varied during the course of different infection types and carriage. Monokine induced by gamma interferon (MIG) was more highly stimulated in bacteremia patients than in SSTI patients and healthy carriers, especially during the acute phase of infection. MIG could therefore be further explored as a potential biomarker of bacteremia. In conclusion, 12 exoproteins from bacteremia isolates, MIG production, and five antigenic proteins identified during SSTIs should be further investigated for potential use as diagnostic markers. PMID:25809633

  14. Molecular Types of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Methicillin-Sensitive S. aureus Strains Causing Skin and Soft Tissue Infections and Nasal Colonization, Identified in Community Health Centers in New York City.

    PubMed

    Pardos de la Gandara, Maria; Raygoza Garay, Juan Antonio; Mwangi, Michael; Tobin, Jonathan N; Tsang, Amanda; Khalida, Chamanara; D'Orazio, Brianna; Kost, Rhonda G; Leinberger-Jabari, Andrea; Coffran, Cameron; Evering, Teresa H; Coller, Barry S; Balachandra, Shirish; Urban, Tracie; Parola, Claude; Salvato, Scott; Jenks, Nancy; Wu, Daren; Burgess, Rhonda; Chung, Marilyn; de Lencastre, Herminia; Tomasz, Alexander

    2015-08-01

    In November 2011, The Rockefeller University Center for Clinical and Translational Science (CCTS), the Laboratory of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, and Clinical Directors Network (CDN) launched a research and learning collaborative project with six community health centers in the New York City metropolitan area to determine the nature (clonal type) of community-acquired Staphylococcus aureus strains causing skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs). Between November 2011 and March 2013, wound and nasal samples from 129 patients with active SSTIs suspicious for S. aureus were collected and characterized by molecular typing techniques. In 63 of 129 patients, the skin wounds were infected by S. aureus: methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) was recovered from 39 wounds and methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) was recovered from 24. Most-46 of the 63-wound isolates belonged to the CC8/Panton-Valentine leukocidin-positive (PVL(+)) group of S. aureus clone USA300: 34 of these strains were MRSA and 12 were MSSA. Of the 63 patients with S. aureus infections, 30 were also colonized by S. aureus in the nares: 16 of the colonizing isolates were MRSA, and 14 were MSSA, and the majority of the colonizing isolates belonged to the USA300 clonal group. In most cases (70%), the colonizing isolate belonged to the same clonal type as the strain involved with the infection. In three of the patients, the identity of invasive and colonizing MRSA isolates was further documented by whole-genome sequencing.

  15. Molecular Types of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Methicillin-Sensitive S. aureus Strains Causing Skin and Soft Tissue Infections and Nasal Colonization, Identified in Community Health Centers in New York City

    PubMed Central

    Pardos de la Gandara, Maria; Raygoza Garay, Juan Antonio; Mwangi, Michael; Tobin, Jonathan N.; Tsang, Amanda; Khalida, Chamanara; D'Orazio, Brianna; Kost, Rhonda G.; Leinberger-Jabari, Andrea; Coffran, Cameron; Evering, Teresa H.; Coller, Barry S.; Balachandra, Shirish; Urban, Tracie; Parola, Claude; Salvato, Scott; Jenks, Nancy; Wu, Daren; Burgess, Rhonda; Chung, Marilyn; de Lencastre, Herminia

    2015-01-01

    In November 2011, The Rockefeller University Center for Clinical and Translational Science (CCTS), the Laboratory of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases, and Clinical Directors Network (CDN) launched a research and learning collaborative project with six community health centers in the New York City metropolitan area to determine the nature (clonal type) of community-acquired Staphylococcus aureus strains causing skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs). Between November 2011 and March 2013, wound and nasal samples from 129 patients with active SSTIs suspicious for S. aureus were collected and characterized by molecular typing techniques. In 63 of 129 patients, the skin wounds were infected by S. aureus: methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) was recovered from 39 wounds and methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA) was recovered from 24. Most—46 of the 63–wound isolates belonged to the CC8/Panton-Valentine leukocidin-positive (PVL+) group of S. aureus clone USA300: 34 of these strains were MRSA and 12 were MSSA. Of the 63 patients with S. aureus infections, 30 were also colonized by S. aureus in the nares: 16 of the colonizing isolates were MRSA, and 14 were MSSA, and the majority of the colonizing isolates belonged to the USA300 clonal group. In most cases (70%), the colonizing isolate belonged to the same clonal type as the strain involved with the infection. In three of the patients, the identity of invasive and colonizing MRSA isolates was further documented by whole-genome sequencing. PMID:26063853

  16. Platelet-derived growth factor type BB and collagen matrix for soft tissue reconstruction after muco-epidermoid carcinoma removal: a possible therapeutic option.

    PubMed

    Cicciù, Marco; Herford, Alan Scott; Maria, Vecchio Giada; Bramanti, Ennio

    2015-01-01

    Muco-epidermoid carcinoma (MEC) is a rare malignant tumor occurring in major and minor salivary glands. The described case shows a patient undergoing tumor resection without neck dissection. A quick diagnosis performed through clinical investigation and incisional biopsy revealed the nature of the tumor. A porcine collagen matrix was applied after the surgery in order to improve soft tissue healing. The matrix was saturated with platelet-derived growth factor type BB in order to favorite healing process and then fixed on the palate with a dental support device. Follow-up visit performed at first, second, and third weeks highlighted a quick healing of oral mucosa. Here reported is a case of a 34-year-old man who developed a muco-epidermoid oral carcinoma localized in the left upper jaw palatal side. The clinical, radiographic, and histopathologic findings, plus differential diagnoses of the case and reconstructive treatment options are also presented.

  17. The biosynthesis of intestinal mucins. The effect of salicylate on glycoprotein biosynthesis by sheep colonic and human gastric mucosal tissues in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Kent, P. W.; Allen, A.

    1968-01-01

    1. Incubation of sheep colonic mucosal scrapings in Krebs–Ringer buffer for 2½hr. in the presence of salicylate (15mm) resulted in decreased incorporation of radioactivity into the epithelial glycoprotein from the following labelled precursors: 16·6μm-d-[2-14C]glucose (83·9% inhibition), 20μm-l-[U-14C]threonine (82%) and 35SO42−(79%). Oxygen uptake measured simultaneously was diminished to 41% of the control value. 2. At lower concentrations of salicylate (e.g. 3·75mm), incorporation of 20μm-l-[U-14C]threonine was little affected (3–6% inhibition), whereas utilization of 4μm-d-[U-14C]glucose and 35SO42− was inhibited (41–48% and 40–59% of the control values respectively). 3. Analysis of the papain-digested glycoprotein from tissue incubations with 16·6μm-d-[2-14C]glucose in the presence of salicylate (3·75mm) showed large decreases in labelling of N-acetylneuraminic acid and N-glycollylneuraminic acid residues (57% and 34% of the control values respectively) and of hexosamine constituents (glucosamine, 55% inhibition; galactosamine, 33% inhibition). Labelling of neutral sugars (galactose and fucose) was relatively little affected (9 and 11% inhibition respectively). 4. Glucose 6-phosphate transaminase and glucosamine 6-phosphate acetylase in particle-free enzyme preparations of the sheep tissue were unaffected by salicylate at the above concentrations. Acetyl-CoA synthetase was markedly inhibited. 5. Human gastric mucosa (from operation), on incubation as above, had in one experiment an oxygen consumption of 9·9μl./hr./mg. dry wt. of tissue and incorporated 5μm-d-[U-14C]glucose (15·8% of the total radioactivity added) into bound hexosamine (20·6% of the total radioactivity incorporated), hexoses (glucose and galactose, 5·7%) and fucose (14·2%). The presence of salicylate (15mm) decreased the incorporation of 5μm-d-[U-14C]glucose into the glycoprotein by 74%, all sugar constituents being affected, without influence on the rate of

  18. Establishment and characterization of HROC69 – a Crohn´s related colonic carcinoma cell line and its matched patient-derived xenograft

    PubMed Central

    Kuehn, Florian; Mullins, Christina S.; Krohn, Mathias; Harnack, Christine; Ramer, Robert; Krämer, Oliver H.; Klar, Ernst; Huehns, Maja; Linnebacher, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Colitis-associated colorectal cancer (CAC) seems to be a rather unique entity and differs in its genetic alterations, tumour formation capacities, and clinical features from sporadic colorectal carcinoma. Most descriptions about tumour biology of CAC refer to ulcerative colitis; data about Crohn´s colitis related carcinomas are scarce. The majority of patients with Crohn´s disease are under immunosuppression which generates a different environment for tumour growth. We first describe the clinical case of a fast growing CAC in a long-term immunosuppressed patient with Crohn´s disease and successful establishment and characterization of carcinoma cell lines along with their corresponding patient-derived xenograft. Subsequently, these tumor models were molecularly and functionally analysed. Beside numerous chromosomal alterations, mutations in TP53, APC, PTEN and SMAD3 were identified. The cell lines express numerous cancer testis antigens, surface molecules involved in immune evasion but low levels of HLA class I molecules. They show strong invasive but in comparison weak migratory activity. The present work is the first description of patient-derived in vitro and in vivo models for CAC from a Crohn´s disease patient. They might be valuable tools for analysis of genetic and epigenetic alterations, biomarker identification, functional testing, including response prediction, and the development of specific therapeutical strategies. PMID:27087592

  19. Establishment and characterization of HROC69 - a Crohn´s related colonic carcinoma cell line and its matched patient-derived xenograft.

    PubMed

    Kuehn, Florian; Mullins, Christina S; Krohn, Mathias; Harnack, Christine; Ramer, Robert; Krämer, Oliver H; Klar, Ernst; Huehns, Maja; Linnebacher, Michael

    2016-04-18

    Colitis-associated colorectal cancer (CAC) seems to be a rather unique entity and differs in its genetic alterations, tumour formation capacities, and clinical features from sporadic colorectal carcinoma. Most descriptions about tumour biology of CAC refer to ulcerative colitis; data about Crohn´s colitis related carcinomas are scarce. The majority of patients with Crohn´s disease are under immunosuppression which generates a different environment for tumour growth. We first describe the clinical case of a fast growing CAC in a long-term immunosuppressed patient with Crohn´s disease and successful establishment and characterization of carcinoma cell lines along with their corresponding patient-derived xenograft. Subsequently, these tumor models were molecularly and functionally analysed. Beside numerous chromosomal alterations, mutations in TP53, APC, PTEN and SMAD3 were identified. The cell lines express numerous cancer testis antigens, surface molecules involved in immune evasion but low levels of HLA class I molecules. They show strong invasive but in comparison weak migratory activity. The present work is the first description of patient-derived in vitro and in vivo models for CAC from a Crohn´s disease patient. They might be valuable tools for analysis of genetic and epigenetic alterations, biomarker identification, functional testing, including response prediction, and the development of specific therapeutical strategies.

  20. Differential distribution of U6 (RNU6-1) expression in human carcinoma tissues demonstrates the requirement for caution in the internal control gene selection for microRNA quantification.

    PubMed

    Lou, Ge; Ma, Ning; Xu, Ya; Jiang, Lei; Yang, Jing; Wang, Chuxuan; Jiao, Yufei; Gao, Xu

    2015-11-01

    Alterations in microRNA (miRNA) expression patterns have been associated with a number of human diseases. Accurate quantitation of miRNA levels is important for their use as biomarkers and in determining their functions. Although the issue of proper miRNA detection was solved with the introduction of standard reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT‑qPCR) assays, numerous issues with the selection of appropriate internal control genes remain. U6 (RNU6‑1) snRNA, the most commonly used internal control gene in miRNA RT‑qPCR assays, was shown to be unstable in clinical samples, particularly cancer tissues. Identification of the distribution of U6 in different tissues is the premise of more accurate quantification of miRNAs. However, the distribution of U6 in human carcinoma tissues and corresponding normal tissues is unknown. In the present study, U6 levels were significantly higher in human breast carcinoma tissues compared with the corresponding normal tissues by RT‑qPCR. In the carcinoma or corresponding adjacent normal tissues, the expression levels of U6 in epithelial cells were higher than those in the mesenchymal cells. Furthermore, the expression levels of U6 in the carcinoma tissues of the liver and intrahepatic bile ducts were higher than those in the adjacent normal tissues. These results suggest that the expression and distribution of U6 exhibits a high degree of variability among several types of human cells. Therefore, caution is required when selecting U6 as an internal control gene for evaluating expression profiles of miRNAs in patients with carcinoma, particularly carcinoma of the liver and intrahepatic bile ducts.

  1. Colon tumor cells grown in NASA Bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    These photos compare the results of colon carcinoma cells grown in a NASA Bioreactor flown on the STS-70 Space Shuttle in 1995 flight and ground control experiments. The cells grown in microgravity (left) have aggregated to form masses that are larger and more similar to tissue found in the body than the cells cultured on the ground (right). The principal investigator is Milburn Jessup of the University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center. The NASA Bioreactor provides a low turbulence culture environment which promotes the formation of large, three-dimensional cell clusters. Due to their high level of cellular organization and specialization, samples constructed in the bioreactor more closely resemble the original tumor or tissue found in the body. NASA-sponsored bioreactor research has been instrumental in helping scientists to better understand normal and cancerous tissue development. In cooperation with the medical community, the bioreactor design is being used to prepare better models of human colon, prostate, breast and ovarian tumors. Cartilage, bone marrow, heart muscle, skeletal muscle, pancreatic islet cells, liver and kidney are just a few of the normal tissues being cultured in rotating bioreactors by investigators. Cell constructs grown in a rotating bioreactor on Earth (left) eventually become too large to stay suspended in the nutrient media. In the microgravity of orbit, the cells stay suspended. Rotation then is needed for gentle stirring to replenish the media around the cells. The work is sponsored by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research. The bioreactor is managed by the Biotechnology Cell Science Program at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC). Credit: NASA and University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center.

  2. Microrna-199a-5p Functions as a Tumor Suppressor via Suppressing Connective Tissue Growth Factor (CTGF) in Follicular Thyroid Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Dawei; Han, Shen; Liu, Chao; Zhou, Rui; Sun, Weihai; Zhang, Zhijun; Qu, Jianjun

    2016-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was to explore the role of miR-199a-5p in the development of thyroid cancer, including its anti-proliferation effect and downstream signaling pathway. Material/Methods We conducted qRT-PCR analysis to detect the expressions of several microRNAs in 42 follicular thyroid carcinoma patients and 42 controls. We identified CTGF as target of miR-491, and viability and cell cycle status were determined in FTC-133 cells transfected with CTGF siRNA, miR-199a mimics, or inhibitors. Results We identified an underexpression of miR-199a-5p in follicular thyroid carcinoma tissue samples compared with controls. Then we confirmed CTGF as a target of miR-199a-5p thyroid cells by using informatics analysis and luciferase reporter assay. Additionally, we found that mRNA and protein expression levels of CTGF were both clearly higher in malignant tissues than in benign tissues. miR-199a-5p mimics and CTGF siRNA similarly downregulated the expression of CTGF, and reduced the viability of FTC-133 cells by arresting the cell cycle in G0 phase. Transfection of miR-199a-5p inhibitors increased the expression of CTGF and promoted the viability of the cells by increasing the fraction of cells in G2/M and S phases. Conclusions Our study proves that the CTGF gene is a target of miR-199a-5p, demonstrating the negatively related association between CTGF and miR-199a. These findings suggest that miR-199a-5p might be a novel therapeutic target in the treatment of follicular thyroid carcinoma. PMID:27062921

  3. [Colonic balantidiasis].

    PubMed

    González de Canales Simón, P; del Olmo Martínez, L; Cortejoso Hernández, A; Arranz Santos, T

    2000-03-01

    Balantidium coli is a Protozoa that is not usually pathogenic in man, although epidemics have been described in tropical areas. It mainly affects the colon and clinical presentation varies from asymptomatic forms to severe dysenteric syndromes. We present a case of endoscopically diagnosed colonic balantidiasis and review the most important characteristics of this parasite-induced disease. PMID:10804691

  4. The importance of selecting the appropriate reference genes for quantitative real time PCR as illustrated using colon cancer cells and tissue.

    PubMed

    Dowling, Catríona M; Walsh, Dara; Coffey, John C; Kiely, Patrick A

    2016-01-01

    Quantitative real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) remains the most sensitive technique for nucleic acid quantification. Its popularity is reflected in the remarkable number of publications reporting RT-qPCR data. Careful normalisation within RT-qPCR studies is imperative to ensure accurate quantification of mRNA levels. This is commonly achieved through the use of reference genes as an internal control to normalise the mRNA levels between different samples. The selection of appropriate reference genes can be a challenge as transcript levels vary with physiology, pathology and development, making the information within the transcriptome flexible and variable. In this study, we examined the variation in expression of a panel of nine candidate reference genes in HCT116 and HT29 2-dimensional and 3-dimensional cultures, as well as in normal and cancerous colon tissue. Using normfinder we identified the top three most stable genes for all conditions. Further to this we compared the change in expression of a selection of PKC coding genes when the data was normalised to one reference gene and three reference genes. Here we demonstrated that there is a variation in the fold changes obtained dependent on the number of reference genes used. As well as this, we highlight important considerations namely; assay efficiency tests, inhibition tests and RNA assessment which should also be implemented into all RT-qPCR studies. All this data combined demonstrates the need for careful experimental design in RT-qPCR studies to help eliminate false interpretation and reporting of results.

  5. Synergistic therapeutic effects of Schiff's base cross-linked injectable hydrogels for local co-delivery of metformin and 5-fluorouracil in a mouse colon carcinoma model.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xilong; He, Chaoliang; Wu, Yundi; Chen, Xuesi

    2016-01-01

    In situ formed hydrogels based on Schiff base reaction were formulated for the co-delivery of metformin (ME) and 5-fluorouracil (5FU). The reactive aldehyde-functionalized four-arm polyethylene glycol (PFA) was synthesized by end-capping of 4-arm PEG with 4-formylbenzoic acid (FA) and used as a cross-linking agent. The injectable hydrogels are designed through the quick gelation induced by the formation of covalent bonds via Schiff-base reaction of PFA with 4-arm poly (ethylene glycol)-b-poly (L-lysine) (PPLL). This formulation eliminated the need for metal catalysts and complicated processes in the preparation of in situ-forming hydrogels. In vitro degradation and drug release studies demonstrated that both ME and 5FU were released through PFA/PPLL hydrogels in a controlled and pH-dependent manner. When incubated with mouse colon adenocarcinoma cells (C26), the ME/5FU-incorporated PFA/PPLL hydrogels had synergistic inhibitory effects on the cell cycle progression and cell proliferation in colon cancer cells. After a single subcutaneous injection of the hydrogel containing ME/5FU beside the tumors of BALB/c mice inoculated with C26 cells, the dual-drug-loaded hydrogels displayed superior therapeutic activity resulted from a combination of p53-mediated G1 arrest and apoptosis in C26 cells. Hence, the Schiff's base cross-linked hydrogels containing ME and 5FU may have potential therapeutic applications in the treatments of colon cancer. PMID:26497429

  6. Immunohistochemical expression of p63, p53 and MIB-1 in urinary bladder carcinoma. A tissue microarray study of 158 cases.

    PubMed

    Compérat, Eva; Camparo, Philippe; Haus, Rachel; Chartier-Kastler, Emmanuel; Bart, Stephane; Delcourt, Annick; Houlgatte, Alain; François, Richard; Capron, Fréderique; Vieillefond, Annick

    2006-03-01

    P63 is a member of the p53 family, which plays a role in the differentiation of urothelium and is supposed to play a role in urothelial carcinogenesis. P53 and MIB-1 are recognised in many studies as predictive markers of progression, but few studies in the literature have examined p63. The aims of our study were to explore the expression of p63 in bladder carcinomas and to compare this expression to p53 and MIB-1, as well as to stage and grade. Tissue microarrays were performed on 158 urothelial carcinomas (56 pTa, 45 pT1 and 57>or=pT2). Immunohistochemical studies were performed with p63, p53 and MIB-1 antibodies. In our study we observed that p63 immunostaining is present in all cell layers in papillary urothelial neoplasm of low malignant potential (PUNLMP), but partially lost in non-invasive papillary urothelial carcinoma low grade (NILGC) and in pT1/>or=pT2 bladder cancers. P53 and MIB-1 displayed lower expression in PUNLMP/NILGC vs non-invasive papillary urothelial carcinoma high grade (NIHGC)/pT1, but there was no correlation between the expression of p63, p53 and MIB-1. Our study demonstrates that p63 expression distinguishes between PUNLMP/NILGC and NIHGC/pT1 (p=4.10(5)). A statistical difference disserving pTa and pT1/>or=pT2 with a statistical significance (p<10(-6)) could also be observed. P63 should be considered as an additional biomarker that might help pathologists to classify their patients.

  7. Detection and characterization of human tissue lesions with near-infrared Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feld, Michael S.; Manoharan, Ramasamy; Salenius, Juha; Orenstein-Carndona, Jacobo; Roemer, Tjeerd J.; Brennan, James F., III; Dasari, Ramachandra R.; Wang, Yang

    1995-05-01

    Near infrared (NIR) Raman spectroscopy provides a powerful method for quantitative histochemistry of human tissue and disease diagnosis. The feasibility and potential of this technique for in situ histochemical analysis of human coronary artery has been demonstrated and presented in other reports from our laboratory. In this work, we review recent results obtained with the NIR Raman spectroscopy on a variety of tissue types studied at the MIT Laser Biomedical Research Center. We have collected NIR Raman spectra from colon, bladder, breast, and carotid artery. For colon, bladder and breast, consistent differences between carcinoma and normal tissue spectra were observed. For colon and bladder, the spectral differences appear to be due to an increased content of nucleic acid in carcinomas, while the spectral changes in malignant breast tissue are associated with an increase of protein content. Spectra from carotid artery have similar features as those from aorta and coronary arteries. We also show some preliminary results obtained with a NIR Raman microspectroscopy setup with 20 micron lateral resolution. The biochemical distributions for normal and diseased regions on the same tissue samples are observed. The potential of using this NIR Raman spectroscopy for detection and characterization of carcinoma and atherosclerosis, is discussed.

  8. DNA methylation in tumour and normal mucosal tissue of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) patients: new diagnostic approaches and treatment.

    PubMed

    Laytragoon-Lewin, Nongnit; Rutqvist, Lars Erik; Lewin, Freddi

    2013-01-01

    Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is the sixth most common malignancy worldwide. Long-term survival of this patient group has been marginally improved during the last 30 years. This is due to the high recurrence rate of local primary or development of second primary tumours in the patients. We found that normal-appearing surgical margins and distant mucosal tissue of HNSCC patients contained tumour suppressor genes DNA methylation. These cells might be the progenitors of the tumour recurrences. Such molecular abnormalities in the normal-appearing mucosa tissue were not possible to detect in the clinic or by standard histopathologically analysis. To improve clinical outcome, the convenient and cost-effective molecular analysis such as methylation-specific PCR should be added to the pathological diagnosis armamentarium for HNSCC patients. The beneficial effect of antimethylating agents as additional treatment or for cancer chemoprevention, in this high-risk patient group, warrants further investigation.

  9. Effect of bax, bcl-2 and bcl-xL on regulating apoptosis in tissues of normal liver and hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Xiao-Zhong; Shao, Xiao-Dong; Liu, Min-Pei; Xu, Jian-Hua; Ren, Li-Nan; Zhao, Jia-Jun; Li, Hong-Yu; Wang, Di

    2002-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the expression of bax, bcl-2 and bcl-xL mRNA in the tissues of normal liver and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and analyze the relationship between the expression of bax, bcl-2 and bcl-xL mRNA and clinical parameters of HCC patients. METHODS: The expression of bax, bcl-2 and bcl-xL mRNA of normal liver and HCC was measured by Northern blot. Statistical analyses were made by t test and correlation analysis. RESULTS: A very low mRNA level was indicated at bax, bcl-2 and bcl-xL in the HCC tissues in contrast to the tissues of normal liver by Northern blot analysis. The analyses of mRNA level revealed that HCC tissues exhibited a mean 7.6-fold decrease in bax, 4.2-fold in bcl-2 and 3.5-fold in bcl-xL in comparison with normal control tissues, respectively. Positive correlation was found between bax and bcl-xL (r = 0.7061,P < 0.01). There was no significance between the mRNA expression of these three genes and age, gender, tumor differentiation and tumor stage of HCC patients . CONCLUSION: The results are consistent with the fact that apoptosis rarely occurs in normal livers but increases in HCC, indicating that bcl-2 and bcl-xL may play a very important role in regulating the apoptosis of normal liver and HCC. PMID:12439925

  10. Inhibition of p70S6K1 Activation by Pdcd4 Overcomes the Resistance to an IGF-1R/IR Inhibitor in Colon Carcinoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Wang, Qing; Chen, Li; Yang, Hsin-Sheng

    2015-03-01

    Agents targeting insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R) are being actively examined in clinical trials. Although there has been some initial success of single-agent targeting IGF-1R, attempts in later studies failed because of resistance. This study aimed to understand the effects of programmed cell death 4 (Pdcd4) on the chemosensitivity of the IGF-1R inhibitor OSI-906 in colorectal cancer cells and the mechanism underlying this impact. Using OSI-906-resistant and -sensitive colorectal cancer cells, we found that the Pdcd4 level directly correlates with cell chemosensitivity to OSI-906. In addition, tumors derived from Pdcd4 knockdown cells resist the growth inhibitory effect of OSI-906 in a colorectal cancer xenograft mouse model. Moreover, Pdcd4 enhances the antiproliferative effect of OSI-906 in resistant cells through suppression of p70S6K1 activation. Knockdown of p70S6K1, but not p70S6K2, significantly increases the chemosensitivity of OSI-906 in cultured colorectal cancer cells. Furthermore, the combination of OSI-906 and PF-4708671, a p70S6K1 inhibitor, efficiently suppresses the growth of OSI-906-resistant colon tumor cells in vitro and in vivo. Taken together, activation of p70S6K1 that is inhibited by Pdcd4 is essential for resistance to the IGF-1R inhibitor in colon tumor cells, and the combinational treatment of OSI-906 and PF-4708671 results in enhanced antiproliferation effects in colorectal cancer cells in vitro and in vivo, providing a novel venue to overcome the resistance to the IGF-1R inhibitor in treating colorectal cancer. PMID:25573956

  11. Different effects of ERβ and TROP2 expression in Chinese patients with early-stage colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Fang, Yu-Jing; Wang, Guo-Qiang; Lu, Zhen-Hai; Zhang, Lin; Li, Ji-Bin; Wu, Xiao-Jun; Ding, Pei-Rong; Ou, Qing-Jian; Zhang, Mei-Fang; Jiang, Wu; Pan, Zhi-Zhong; Wan, De-Sen

    2012-12-01

    Estrogen receptor beta (ERβ) and TROP2 expressed in colon carcinoma and might play an important role there. We explored the relationship of ERβ and TROP2 expression with the prognosis of early-stage colon cancer. ERβ and TROP2 levels were assessed by immunohistochemistry in normal mucosa and tumoral tissues from 220 Chinese patients with T(3)N(0)M(0) (stage IIa) and T(4)N(0)M(0) (stage IIb) colon cancer in the Cancer Center, Sun Yat-sen University, who underwent curative surgical resection between 1995 and 2003. The Cox proportional hazards regression model was applied to analyze the overall survival (OS) data, and the ROC curve, Kaplan-Meier estimate, log rank test, and Jackknife method were used to show the effect of ERβ and TROP2 expression at different stages of cancer. The 5-year survival rates were not significantly different between the patients with stage IIa and stage IIb colon cancer (83 vs. 80 %, respectively). The high expression of ERβ was related to decreasing OS in stage IIa and stage IIb colon cancer, while the high expression of TROP2 was related to decreasing OS in stage IIb colon cancer. The expression of ERβ and TROP2 has tumor-suppressive and tumor-promoting effect in stage IIa and stage IIb colon cancer, respectively.

  12. Lipid Profiles of Canine Invasive Transitional Cell Carcinoma of the Urinary Bladder and Adjacent Normal Tissue by Desorption Electrospray Ionization Imaging Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Dill, Allison L.; Ifa, Demian R.; Manicke, Nicholas E.; Costa, Anthony B.; Ramos-Vara, José A.; Knapp, Deborah W.; Cooks, R. Graham

    2009-01-01

    Desorption electrospray ionization (DESI) mass spectrometry (MS) was used in an imaging mode to interrogate the lipid profiles of thin tissue sections of canine spontaneous invasive transitional cell carcinoma (TCC) of the urinary bladder (a model of human invasive bladder cancer) as well as adjacent normal tissue from four different dogs. The glycerophospholipids and sphingolipids that appear as intense signals in both the negative ion and positive ion modes were identified by tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) product ion scans using collision-induced dissociation. Differences in the relative distributions of the lipid species were present between the tumor and adjacent normal tissue in both the negative and positive ion modes. DESI-MS images showing the spatial distributions of particular glycerophospholipids, sphinoglipids and free fatty acids in both the negative and positive ion modes were compared to serial tissue sections that were stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E). Increased absolute and relative intensities for at least five different glycerophospholipids and three free fatty acids in the negative ion mode and at least four different lipid species in the positive ion mode were seen in the tumor region of the samples in all four dogs. In addition, one sphingolipid species exhibited increased signal intensity in the positive ion mode in normal tissue relative to the diseased tissue. Principal component analysis (PCA) was also used to generate unsupervised statistical images from the negative ion mode data and these images are in excellent agreement with the DESI images obtained from the selected ions and also the H&E stained tissue PMID:19810710

  13. A Method for Serial Tissue Processing and Parallel Analysis of Aberrant Crypt Morphology, Mucin Depletion, and Beta-Catenin Staining in an Experimental Model of Colon Carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The use of architectural and morphological characteristics of cells for establishing prognostic indicators by which individual pathologies are assigned grade and stage is a well-accepted practice. Advances in automated micro- and macroscopic image acquisition and digital image analysis have created new opportunities in the field of prognostic assessment; but, one area in experimental pathology, animal models for colon cancer, has not taken advantage of these opportunities. This situation is primarily due to the methods available to evaluate the colon of the rodent for the presence of premalignant and malignant pathologies. We report a new method for the excision and processing of the entire colon of the rat and illustrate how this procedure permitted the quantitative assessment of aberrant crypt foci (ACF), a premalignant colon pathology, for characteristics consistent with progression to malignancy. ACF were detected by methylene blue staining and subjected to quantitative morphometric analysis. Colons were then restained with high iron diamine–alcian blue for assessment of mucin depletion using an image overlay to associate morphometric data with mucin depletion. The subsequent evaluation of ACF for beta-catenin staining is also demonstrated. The methods described are particularly relevant to the screening of compounds for cancer chemopreventive activity. PMID:21406072

  14. Evaluation of five DNA extraction methods for detection of H. pylori in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) liver tissue from patients with hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Rabelo-Gonçalves, Elizabeth; Roesler, Bruna; Guardia, Ana Carolina; Milan, Arlete; Hara, Natalicia; Escanhoela, Cecília; Almeida, Jazon; Boin, Ilka; Zeitune, José Murilo

    2014-03-01

    Since Helicobacter spp. DNA was identified in liver tissue resected from patients with hepatocelullar carcinoma (HCC), researchers have suggested a role of this bacterium in hepatic carcinogenesis. Archives of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues represent an extraordinary source for clinical studies providing many advantages. However, DNA extraction from FFPE tissues is laborious, time-consuming and still remains a challenge. The aim of this study was to evaluate five protocols for DNA extraction from FFPE liver obtained from patients with HCC in order to detect Helicobacter pylori DNA. These methods were: (1) QIAamp FFPE Tissue Kit, (2) QIAamp DNA Mini Kit, (3) Wizard SV Genomic DNA Purification System, (4) RealiaPrep FFPE gDNA Miniprep System and (5) phenol-chloroform. H. pylori detection was performed using 16S rRNA gene amplification by PCR. The highest total amount of DNA was obtained using the phenol-chloroform method. Analyses of 16S rRNA gene amplification did not show statistically significant differences among the methods (p=0.466), although the highest percentage of positive cases (70%) was found in samples extracted with phenol-chloroform. We suggest that of the five methods evaluated, phenol/chloroform is the most suitable for detection of H. pylori in FFPE liver from patients with HCC.

  15. Modification of the volumetric growth responses and steady-state hypoxic fractions of xenografted DLD-2 human colon carcinomas by administration of basic fibroblast growth factor or suramin.

    PubMed Central

    Leith, J. T.; Papa, G.; Quaranto, L.; Michelson, S.

    1992-01-01

    We studied the growth characteristics and hypoxic fractions of DLD-2 human colon tumours xenografted into male nude mice either in the unperturbed state or after i.p. injection (q.i.d. x 7) of basic fibroblast growth factor (0.25 mg kg-1) or suramin (50 mg kg-1). Hypoxic fractions were measured by clonogenic excision assay 1 day after administration b FGF or suramin was stopped. As compared to controls, the growth of tumours in b FGF treated mice was increased by a factor of 1.5 as indicated by the relative volumes of tumours on the day of excision. Similarly, suramin decreased the growth of DLD-2 tumours by a factor of 1.6. The percentage of hypoxic cells in control neoplasms was 42.9% (95% confidence limits 34.2-52.1%). In mice that received basic fibroblast growth factor injections, hypoxic fractions decreased to 19.1% (95% confidence limits 13.5-26.9%). In contrast, in mice treated with suramin, the percentage of hypoxic cells increased to 74.0% (95% confidence limits 65.3-83.9%). These data indicate that the biology of solid tumours can be significantly modified by alteration of growth factor status. PMID:1503909

  16. Expression of trefoil peptides (TFF1, TFF2, and TFF3) in gastric carcinomas, intestinal metaplasia, and non-neoplastic gastric tissues.

    PubMed

    Leung, Wai K; Yu, Jun; Chan, Francis K L; To, Ka F; Chan, Michael W Y; Ebert, M P A; Ng, Enders K W; Chung, S C Sydney; Malfertheiner, Peter; Sung, Joseph J Y

    2002-08-01

    Trefoil factor family (TFF) domain peptides consist of three members that play a role in intestinal mucosal defence and repair, and in tumourigenesis. The role of the three TFF members in the gastric carcinogenesis cascade remains poorly defined. This study examined seven gastric cell lines, 50 gastric cancers and their adjacent non-cancer tissues, and tissues from 40 non-cancer patients, in order to elucidate the chronology of TFF expression in various stages of gastric carcinogenesis. TFF expression was determined by RT-PCR, immunohistochemistry, and western blot. Aberrant expression of TFF1, TFF2, and TFF3 was frequently detected in gastric cell lines. Specifically, TFF1 was detected in all non-cancer patients, but was detected in only 50% of gastric cancer and 66% of adjacent normal tissues. TFF2 expression was demonstrated in 87.5% of non-cancer patients, 34% of gastric carcinomas, and 58% of adjacent non-cancer tissues. There was a significant correlation between TFF1 and TFF2 expression in gastric cancer and adjacent non-cancer tissues (p<0.001). By contrast, TFF3 was detected in 25% of non-cancer patients and showed a predilection for areas with intestinal metaplasia (p=0.005). Sixty-two per cent of gastric cancers and 24% of neighbouring non-cancer tissues showed TFF3 expression. Immunoreactivity against TFF3 was demonstrated in goblet cells of intestinal metaplasia and within the cytoplasm and nuclei of tumour cells. Progressive loss of TFF1 and TFF2, together with the induction of TFF3, is likely to be involved in the early stage of the multi-step gastric carcinogenesis pathway.

  17. Extracellular matrix signatures of human primary metastatic colon cancers and their metastases to liver

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Colorectal cancer is the third most frequently diagnosed cancer and the third cause of cancer deaths in the United States. Despite the fact that tumor cell-intrinsic mechanisms controlling colorectal carcinogenesis have been identified, novel prognostic and diagnostic tools as well as novel therapeutic strategies are still needed to monitor and target colon cancer progression. We and others have previously shown, using mouse models, that the extracellular matrix (ECM), a major component of the tumor microenvironment, is an important contributor to tumor progression. In order to identify candidate biomarkers, we sought to define ECM signatures of metastatic colorectal cancers and their metastases to the liver. Methods We have used enrichment of extracellular matrix (ECM) from human patient samples and proteomics to define the ECM composition of primary colon carcinomas and their metastases to liver in comparison with normal colon and liver samples. Results We show that robust signatures of ECM proteins characteristic of each tissue, normal and malignant, can be defined using relatively small samples from small numbers of patients. Comparisons with gene expression data from larger cohorts of patients confirm the association of subsets of the proteins identified by proteomic analysis with tumor progression and metastasis. Conclusions The ECM protein signatures of metastatic primary colon carcinomas and metastases to liver defined in this study, offer promise for development of diagnostic and prognostic signatures of metastatic potential of colon tumors. The ECM proteins defined here represent candidate serological or tissue biomarkers and potential targets for imaging of occult metastases and residual or recurrent tumors and conceivably for therapies. Furthermore, the methods described here can be applied to other tumor types and can be used to investigate other questions such as the role of ECM in resistance to therapy. PMID:25037231

  18. In vitro antiproliferative and antioxidant effects of urolithin A, the colonic metabolite of ellagic acid, on hepatocellular carcinomas HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yun; Qiu, Zhenpeng; Zhou, Benhong; Liu, Cong; Ruan, Jinlan; Yan, Qiujin; Liao, Jianming; Zhu, Fan

    2015-08-01

    The intestinal metabolites of ellagic acid (EA), urolithins are known to effectively inhibit cancer cell proliferation. This study investigates antiproliferative and antioxidant effects of urolithin A (UA) on cell survival of the HepG2 hepatic carcinomas cell line. The antiproliferative effects of UA (0-500 μM) on HepG2 cells were determined using a CCK assay following 12-36 h exposure. Effects on β-catenin and other factors of expression were assessed by using real-time PCR and Western blot. We found that UA showed potent antiproliferative activity on HepG2 cells. When cell death was induced by UA, it was found that the expression of β-catenin, c-Myc and Cyclin D1 were decreased and TCF/LEF transcriptional activation was notably down-regulated. UA also increased protein expression of p53, p38-MAPK and caspase-3, but suppressed expression of NF-κB p65 and other inflammatory mediators. Furthermore, the antioxidant assay afforded by UA and EA treatments was associated with decreases in intracellular ROS levels, and increases in intracellular SOD and GSH-Px activity. These results suggested that UA could inhibit cell proliferation and reduce oxidative stress status in liver cancer, thus acting as a viably effective constituent for HCC prevention and treatment.

  19. Comparison of T-cell receptor repertoire restriction in blood and tumor tissue of colorectal cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Several immunotherapeutic approaches rely on antigen-specific T-cells. Restrictions in the T-cell receptor (TCR) repertoire were reported as indicator of anti-tumor cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response in various tumor entities. It is unclear yet whether a TCR restriction in peripheral blood mirrors the tumor compartment. We compared the expression of TCR Vβ-families for the quantification of TCR repertoire alterations in blood and tissue samples from patients with colorectal carcinoma. Blood samples from patients with colorectal carcinoma and healthy volunteers and tissue samples of normal colonic mucosa and colorectal carcinoma were analyzed. Relative Vβ-family quantification was performed based on quantitative reverse transcribed PCR. Standard deviation and average mean of the single families were determined. Two variables describing the degree of Vβ-repertoire restriction were defined. Forty-eight blood samples and 37 tissue samples were analyzed. TCR repertoire restriction was higher in blood of tumor patients than in blood of healthy controls (p < 0.05). No difference in the degree of TCR repertoire restriction was found between carcinoma and unaffected colon tissue. We found no corresponding elevated TCR families among the different compartments blood, normal colon, and carcinoma tissue of the same patient. In conclusion, we observed a repertoire restriction in peripheral blood as well as in tumor tissue of cancer patients. However, in tumor tissue, repertoire alterations were comparable to normal mucosa, suggesting compartment-specific TCR distribution rather than alterations due to tumor-T-cell interaction questioning the presence of highly restricted clonal T-cell expansions in colorectal cancer as they have been described in other, assumingly more immunogenic tumor entities. PMID:20385014

  20. The Relationship between the Numbers of Salmonella Enteritidis, S. Heidelberg, or S. Hadar Colonizing Reproductive Tissues of Experimentally Infected Laying Hens and Deposition inside Eggs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Salmonella deposition inside eggs results from reproductive tract colonization in laying hens. In the present study, groups of hens were orally infected with S. Enteritidis, S. Heidelberg, or S. Hadar. No significant differences were observed between strains in either the frequency or numbers of Sal...

  1. Streptococcus Adherence and Colonization

    PubMed Central

    Nobbs, Angela H.; Lamont, Richard J.; Jenkinson, Howard F.

    2009-01-01

    Summary: Streptococci readily colonize mucosal tissues in the nasopharynx; the respiratory, gastrointestinal, and genitourinary tracts; and the skin. Each ecological niche presents a series of challenges to successful colonization with which streptococci have to contend. Some species exist in equilibrium with their host, neither stimulating nor submitting to immune defenses mounted against them. Most are either opportunistic or true pathogens responsible for diseases such as pharyngitis, tooth decay, necrotizing fasciitis, infective endocarditis, and meningitis. Part of the success of streptococci as colonizers is attributable to the spectrum of proteins expressed on their surfaces. Adhesins enable interactions with salivary, serum, and extracellular matrix components; host cells; and other microbes. This is the essential first step to colonization, the development of complex communities, and possible invasion of host tissues. The majority of streptococcal adhesins are anchored to the cell wall via a C-terminal LPxTz motif. Other proteins may be surface anchored through N-terminal lipid modifications, while the mechanism of cell wall associations for others remains unclear. Collectively, these surface-bound proteins provide Streptococcus species with a “coat of many colors,” enabling multiple intimate contacts and interplays between the bacterial cell and the host. In vitro and in vivo studies have demonstrated direct roles for many streptococcal adhesins as colonization or virulence factors, making them attractive targets for therapeutic and preventive strategies against streptococcal infections. There is, therefore, much focus on applying increasingly advanced molecular techniques to determine the precise structures and functions of these proteins, and their regulatory pathways, so that more targeted approaches can be developed. PMID:19721085

  2. Flavokawain C Inhibits Cell Cycle and Promotes Apoptosis, Associated with Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Regulation of MAPKs and Akt Signaling Pathways in HCT 116 Human Colon Carcinoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Phang, Chung-Weng; Karsani, Saiful Anuar; Sethi, Gautam; Abd Malek, Sri Nurestri

    2016-01-01

    Flavokawain C (FKC) is a naturally occurring chalcone which can be found in Kava (Piper methysticum Forst) root. The present study evaluated the effect of FKC on the growth of various human cancer cell lines and the underlying associated mechanisms. FKC showed higher cytotoxic activity against HCT 116 cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner in comparison to other cell lines (MCF-7, HT-29, A549 and CaSki), with minimal toxicity on normal human colon cells. The apoptosis-inducing capability of FKC on HCT 116 cells was evidenced by cell shrinkage, chromatin condensation, DNA fragmentation and increased phosphatidylserine externalization. FKC was found to disrupt mitochondrial membrane potential, resulting in the release of Smac/DIABLO, AIF and cytochrome c into the cytoplasm. Our results also revealed that FKC induced intrinsic and extrinsic apoptosis via upregulation of the levels of pro-apoptotic proteins (Bak) and death receptors (DR5), while downregulation of the levels of anti-apoptotic proteins (XIAP, cIAP-1, c-FlipL, Bcl-xL and survivin), resulting in the activation of caspase-3, -8 and -9 and cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP). FKC was also found to cause endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, as suggested by the elevation of GADD153 protein after FKC treatment. After the cells were exposed to FKC (60μM) over 18hrs, there was a substantial increase in the phosphorylation of ERK 1/2. The expression of phosphorylated Akt was also reduced. FKC also caused cell cycle arrest in the S phase in HCT 116 cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner and with accumulation of cells in the sub-G1 phase. This was accompanied by the downregulation of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDK2 and CDK4), consistent with the upregulation of CDK inhibitors (p21Cip1 and p27Kip1), and hypophosphorylation of Rb. PMID:26859847

  3. Flavokawain C Inhibits Cell Cycle and Promotes Apoptosis, Associated with Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Regulation of MAPKs and Akt Signaling Pathways in HCT 116 Human Colon Carcinoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Phang, Chung-Weng; Karsani, Saiful Anuar; Sethi, Gautam; Abd Malek, Sri Nurestri

    2016-01-01

    Flavokawain C (FKC) is a naturally occurring chalcone which can be found in Kava (Piper methysticum Forst) root. The present study evaluated the effect of FKC on the growth of various human cancer cell lines and the underlying associated mechanisms. FKC showed higher cytotoxic activity against HCT 116 cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner in comparison to other cell lines (MCF-7, HT-29, A549 and CaSki), with minimal toxicity on normal human colon cells. The apoptosis-inducing capability of FKC on HCT 116 cells was evidenced by cell shrinkage, chromatin condensation, DNA fragmentation and increased phosphatidylserine externalization. FKC was found to disrupt mitochondrial membrane potential, resulting in the release of Smac/DIABLO, AIF and cytochrome c into the cytoplasm. Our results also revealed that FKC induced intrinsic and extrinsic apoptosis via upregulation of the levels of pro-apoptotic proteins (Bak) and death receptors (DR5), while downregulation of the levels of anti-apoptotic proteins (XIAP, cIAP-1, c-FlipL, Bcl-xL and survivin), resulting in the activation of caspase-3, -8 and -9 and cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP). FKC was also found to cause endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, as suggested by the elevation of GADD153 protein after FKC treatment. After the cells were exposed to FKC (60μM) over 18hrs, there was a substantial increase in the phosphorylation of ERK 1/2. The expression of phosphorylated Akt was also reduced. FKC also caused cell cycle arrest in the S phase in HCT 116 cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner and with accumulation of cells in the sub-G1 phase. This was accompanied by the downregulation of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDK2 and CDK4), consistent with the upregulation of CDK inhibitors (p21Cip1 and p27Kip1), and hypophosphorylation of Rb. PMID:26859847

  4. Expression of matrix metalloproteinases and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase in uterine endometrial carcinoma and a correlation between expression of matrix metalloproteinase-7 and prognosis.

    PubMed

    Misugi, Fumiko; Sumi, Toshiyuki; Okamoto, Eri; Nobeyama, Hiroyuki; Hattori, Kanae; Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Matsumoto, Yoshinari; Yasui, Tomoyo; Honda, Ken-Ichi; Ishiko, Osamu

    2005-10-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are associated with invasion and metastasis of several human malignant tumors, in particular MMP-7, which is mainly produced by the cancer cell itself. We examined the expression of MMP-2, 7 and 9, and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1 and 2 in uterine endometrial carcinoma, and compared the expression with clinicopathological characteristics in uterine endometrial carcinoma (UEC). A group of 256 patients with UEC received surgery at the Osaka City University Medical School Hospital, and 196 tumor samples were immunohistochemically stained to examine the expression of MMP-2, 7 and 9, and TIMP-1 and 2. Additionally, the invasion ability of cell stain established from UEC was examined using an in vitro invasion assay. The expression of MMP-2, 7 and 9, and TIMP-1 and 2 was observed in the cytoplasm, and the expression of MMP-2 and 7, and TIMP-1 and 2 was observed in stromal cells around the tumor cells. The expression of MMP-7 was significantly stronger in higher-grade than lower-grade tumors (P<0.05). The invasion assay showed that the invasion of cells derived from UECs was significantly inhibited by TIMP-1 and 2. The disease-free interval was significantly shorter when MMP-7 expression was intense. This increased expression of MMP-7 in high grade UECs may be associated with tumor invasion and metastasis, and MMP-7 could serve as a prognostic maker in UEC.

  5. P62/Ubiquitin IHC Expression Correlated with Clinicopathologic Parameters and Outcome in Gastrointestinal Carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Mohamed, Amr; Ayman, Alkhoder; Deniece, Johnson; Wang, Tengteng; Kovach, Charles; Siddiqui, Momin T.; Cohen, Cynthia

    2015-01-01

    P62 and ubiquitin are small regulatory proteins demonstrated to have implications in the prognosis and survival of various malignancies including: hepatocellular, breast, ovarian, and some gastrointestinal carcinomas. Several trials studied the link of their activity to the extrinsic apoptosis pathway and showed that their autophagy modification has a critical stand point in tumorigenesis. These findings explain their vital role in controlling the process of cell death and survival. It has been shown recently that p62 and ubiquitin overexpression in different types of cancers, such as triple negative breast and ovarian cancers, have directly correlated with incidence of distant metastases. We aim to evaluate p62/ubiquitin expression in gastrointestinal carcinomas of gastric,