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Sample records for colonizacion por streptococcus

  1. Streptococcus iniae and Streptococcus agalactiae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Streptococcus iniae and S. agalactiae are economically important Gram positive bacterial pathogens of cultured and wild fish with a worldwide distribution. Both bacteria are potential zoonotic pathogens and have been associated most often with infections in immunocompromised people. Streptococcus in...

  2. Streptococcus anginosus ("Streptococcus milleri"): the unrecognized pathogen.

    PubMed Central

    Ruoff, K L

    1988-01-01

    "Streptococcus milleri" is an unofficial name that has been applied to a group of streptococci which, although basically similar, show various hemolytic, serological, and physiological characteristics. The species name Streptococcus anginosus has recently been recognized as the approved name for these organisms. Streptococci known as "S. milleri" have been implicated as etiologic agents in a variety of serious purulent infections, but because of their heterogeneous characteristics, these organisms may be unrecognized or misidentified by clinical laboratorians. This review describes the bacteriological aspects of organisms known as "S. milleri," their clinical significance, and the problems encountered with their identification in the clinical laboratory. PMID:3060239

  3. Streptococcus bovis meningitis and hemorrhoids.

    PubMed

    Smith, Adam Hewitt; Sra, Harminder K; Bawa, Sandeep; Stevens, Richard

    2010-07-01

    We report a case of Streptococcus bovis (Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. pasteurianus) meningitis, a rare cause of central nervous system (CNS) infection in an adult, and comment on the importance of investigation of the lower gastrointestinal tract to identify a portal of entry in cases of systemic Streptococcus bovis infection. PMID:20421434

  4. Phenotypic differentiation of Streptococcus intermedius, Streptococcus constellatus, and Streptococcus anginosus strains within the "Streptococcus milleri group".

    PubMed Central

    Whiley, R A; Fraser, H; Hardie, J M; Beighton, D

    1990-01-01

    A biochemical scheme was developed by which strains of Streptococcus constellatus, Streptococcus intermedius, and Streptococcus anginosus can reliably be distinguished from within the "Streptococcus milleri group." Strains identified as S. intermedius were differentiated by the ability to produce detectable levels of alpha-glucosidase, beta-galactosidase, beta-D-fucosidase, beta-N-acetylgalactosaminidase, beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase, and sialidase with 4-methylumbelliferyl-linked fluorogenic substrates in microdilution trays after 3 h of incubation at 37 degrees C, together with the production of hyaluronidase. Strains of S. constellatus and S. anginosus were differentiated by the production of alpha-glucosidase and hyaluronidase by the former and the production of beta-glucosidase by the latter. The majority of strains of the S. milleri group obtained from dental plaque were identified as S. intermedius, as were most strains isolated from abscesses of the brain and liver. Strains of S. constellatus and S. anginosus were from a wider variety of infections, both oral and nonoral, than were strains of S. intermedius, with the majority of strains from urogenital infections being identified as S. anginosus. PMID:2380375

  5. Serologic studies of Streptococcus intermedius, Streptococcus constellatus, and Streptococcus morbillorum by crossed immunoelectrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Coleman, R M; Lambe, D W

    1979-07-01

    A reference antigen-antibody system for Streptococcus intermedius, Streptococcus constellatus, and Streptococcus morbillorum was established with crossed immunoelectrophoresis. A comparison of S. intermedius, S. constellatus, and S. morbillorum with crossed immunoelectrophoresis and crossed immunoelectrophoresis with intermediate gel indicated that S. intermedius and S. constellatus are closely related antigenically with as many as six common cytoplasmic antigens. S. morbillorum was antigenically more distinct; antiserum of one strain of S. morbillorum was monospecific, indicating that specific serogroups of S. morbillorum exist. Crossed immunoelectrophoresis and tandem crossed immunoelectrophoresis revealed that S. intermedius, S. constellatus, and S. morbillorum also share some common antigens with Streptococcus sanguis and Streptococcus mitis, but S. intermedius, S. constellatus, and S. morbillorum are antigenically distinct from Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus bovis.

  6. Genetic manipulation of Streptococcus pyogenes (the Group A Streptococcus, GAS).

    PubMed

    Le Breton, Yoann; McIver, Kevin S

    2013-01-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes (the Group A Streptococcus, GAS) is a Gram-positive bacterium responsible for a wide spectrum of diseases ranging from mild superficial infections (pharyngitis, impetigo) to severe, often life-threatening invasive diseases (necrotizing fasciitis, streptococcal toxic shock syndrome) in humans. This unit describes molecular techniques for the genetic manipulation of S. pyogenes with detailed protocols for transformation, gene disruption, allelic exchange, transposon mutagenesis, and genetic complementation. PMID:24510894

  7. Identification of Streptococcus bovis and Streptococcus salivarius in clinical laboratories.

    PubMed Central

    Ruoff, K L; Ferraro, M J; Holden, J; Kunz, L J

    1984-01-01

    Streptococci identified as Streptococcus bovis, S. bovis variant, and Streptococcus salivarius were examined with respect to physiological and serological characteristics and cellular fatty acid content. Similarities in physiological reactions and problems encountered in serological analysis were noted, suggesting that an expanded battery of physiological tests is needed to definitively identify these streptococci. Cellular fatty acid analysis provided an accurate method for distinguishing S. salivarius from S. bovis and S. bovis variant. PMID:6490816

  8. [Streptococcus pyogenes pathogenic factors].

    PubMed

    Bidet, Ph; Bonacorsi, S

    2014-11-01

    The pathogenicity of ß-hemolytic group A streptococcus (GAS) is particularly diverse, ranging from mild infections, such as pharyngitis or impetigo, to potentially debilitating poststreptococcal diseases, and up to severe invasive infections such as necrotizing fasciitis or the dreaded streptococcal toxic shock syndrome. This variety of clinical expressions, often radically different in individuals infected with the same strain, results from a complex interaction between the bacterial virulence factors, the mode of infection and the immune system of the host. Advances in comparative genomics have led to a better understanding of how, following this confrontation, GAS adapts to the immune system's pressure, either peacefully by reducing the expression of certain virulence factors to achieve an asymptomatic carriage, or on the contrary, by overexpressing them disproportionately, resulting in the most severe forms of invasive infection. PMID:25456681

  9. Streptococcus suis infection

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Youjun; Zhang, Huimin; Wu, Zuowei; Wang, Shihua; Cao, Min; Hu, Dan; Wang, Changjun

    2014-01-01

    Streptococcus suis (S. suis) is a family of pathogenic gram-positive bacterial strains that represents a primary health problem in the swine industry worldwide. S. suis is also an emerging zoonotic pathogen that causes severe human infections clinically featuring with varied diseases/syndromes (such as meningitis, septicemia, and arthritis). Over the past few decades, continued efforts have made significant progress toward better understanding this zoonotic infectious entity, contributing in part to the elucidation of the molecular mechanism underlying its high pathogenicity. This review is aimed at presenting an updated overview of this pathogen from the perspective of molecular epidemiology, clinical diagnosis and typing, virulence mechanism, and protective antigens contributing to its zoonosis. PMID:24667807

  10. A Highly Arginolytic Streptococcus Species That Potently Antagonizes Streptococcus mutans

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Xuelian; Palmer, Sara R.; Ahn, Sang-Joon; Richards, Vincent P.; Williams, Matthew L.; Nascimento, Marcelle M.

    2016-01-01

    The ability of certain oral biofilm bacteria to moderate pH through arginine metabolism by the arginine deiminase system (ADS) is a deterrent to the development of dental caries. Here, we characterize a novel Streptococcus strain, designated strain A12, isolated from supragingival dental plaque of a caries-free individual. A12 not only expressed the ADS pathway at high levels under a variety of conditions but also effectively inhibited growth and two intercellular signaling pathways of the dental caries pathogen Streptococcus mutans. A12 produced copious amounts of H2O2 via the pyruvate oxidase enzyme that were sufficient to arrest the growth of S. mutans. A12 also produced a protease similar to challisin (Sgc) of Streptococcus gordonii that was able to block the competence-stimulating peptide (CSP)–ComDE signaling system, which is essential for bacteriocin production by S. mutans. Wild-type A12, but not an sgc mutant derivative, could protect the sensitive indicator strain Streptococcus sanguinis SK150 from killing by the bacteriocins of S. mutans. A12, but not S. gordonii, could also block the XIP (comX-inducing peptide) signaling pathway, which is the proximal regulator of genetic competence in S. mutans, but Sgc was not required for this activity. The complete genome sequence of A12 was determined, and phylogenomic analyses compared A12 to streptococcal reference genomes. A12 was most similar to Streptococcus australis and Streptococcus parasanguinis but sufficiently different that it may represent a new species. A12-like organisms may play crucial roles in the promotion of stable, health-associated oral biofilm communities by moderating plaque pH and interfering with the growth and virulence of caries pathogens. PMID:26826230

  11. Streptococcus Adherence and Colonization

    PubMed Central

    Nobbs, Angela H.; Lamont, Richard J.; Jenkinson, Howard F.

    2009-01-01

    Summary: Streptococci readily colonize mucosal tissues in the nasopharynx; the respiratory, gastrointestinal, and genitourinary tracts; and the skin. Each ecological niche presents a series of challenges to successful colonization with which streptococci have to contend. Some species exist in equilibrium with their host, neither stimulating nor submitting to immune defenses mounted against them. Most are either opportunistic or true pathogens responsible for diseases such as pharyngitis, tooth decay, necrotizing fasciitis, infective endocarditis, and meningitis. Part of the success of streptococci as colonizers is attributable to the spectrum of proteins expressed on their surfaces. Adhesins enable interactions with salivary, serum, and extracellular matrix components; host cells; and other microbes. This is the essential first step to colonization, the development of complex communities, and possible invasion of host tissues. The majority of streptococcal adhesins are anchored to the cell wall via a C-terminal LPxTz motif. Other proteins may be surface anchored through N-terminal lipid modifications, while the mechanism of cell wall associations for others remains unclear. Collectively, these surface-bound proteins provide Streptococcus species with a “coat of many colors,” enabling multiple intimate contacts and interplays between the bacterial cell and the host. In vitro and in vivo studies have demonstrated direct roles for many streptococcal adhesins as colonization or virulence factors, making them attractive targets for therapeutic and preventive strategies against streptococcal infections. There is, therefore, much focus on applying increasingly advanced molecular techniques to determine the precise structures and functions of these proteins, and their regulatory pathways, so that more targeted approaches can be developed. PMID:19721085

  12. Development of primer sets for loop-mediated isothermal amplification that enables rapid and specific detection of Streptococcus dysgalactiae, Streptococcus uberis and Streptococcus agalactiae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Streptococcus dysgalactiae, Streptococcus uberis and Streptococcus agalactiae are the three main pathogens causing bovine mastitis, with great losses to the dairy industry. Rapid and specific loop-mediated isothermal amplification methods (LAMP) for identification and differentiation of these three ...

  13. Recombination-deficient Streptococcus sanguis

    SciTech Connect

    Daneo-Moore, L.; Volpe, A.

    1985-05-01

    A UV-sensitive derivative was obtained from Streptococcus sanguis Challis. The organism could be transformed with a number of small streptococcal plasmids at frequencies equal to, or 1 logarithm below, the transformation frequencies for the parent organism. However, transformation with chromosomal DNA was greatly impaired in the UV-sensitive derivative.

  14. Gene repertoire evolution of Streptococcus pyogenes inferred from phylogenomic analysis with Streptococcus canis and Streptococcus dysgalactiae.

    PubMed

    Lefébure, Tristan; Richards, Vince P; Lang, Ping; Pavinski-Bitar, Paulina; Stanhope, Michael J

    2012-01-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes, is an important human pathogen classified within the pyogenic group of streptococci, exclusively adapted to the human host. Our goal was to employ a comparative evolutionary approach to better understand the genomic events concomitant with S. pyogenes human adaptation. As part of ascertaining these events, we sequenced the genome of one of the potential sister species, the agricultural pathogen S. canis, and combined it in a comparative genomics reconciliation analysis with two other closely related species, Streptococcus dysgalactiae and Streptococcus equi, to determine the genes that were gained and lost during S. pyogenes evolution. Genome wide phylogenetic analyses involving 15 Streptococcus species provided convincing support for a clade of S. equi, S. pyogenes, S. dysgalactiae, and S. canis and suggested that the most likely S. pyogenes sister species was S. dysgalactiae. The reconciliation analysis identified 113 genes that were gained on the lineage leading to S. pyogenes. Almost half (46%) of these gained genes were phage associated and 14 showed significant matches to experimentally verified bacteria virulence factors. Subsequent to the origin of S. pyogenes, over half of the phage associated genes were involved in 90 different LGT events, mostly involving different strains of S. pyogenes, but with a high proportion involving the horse specific pathogen S. equi subsp. equi, with the directionality almost exclusively (86%) in the S. pyogenes to S. equi direction. Streptococcus agalactiae appears to have played an important role in the evolution of S. pyogenes with a high proportion of LGTs originating from this species. Overall the analysis suggests that S. pyogenes adaptation to the human host was achieved in part by (i) the integration of new virulence factors (e.g. speB, and the sal locus) and (ii) the construction of new regulation networks (e.g. rgg, and to some extent speB).

  15. Gene Repertoire Evolution of Streptococcus pyogenes Inferred from Phylogenomic Analysis with Streptococcus canis and Streptococcus dysgalactiae

    PubMed Central

    Lefébure, Tristan; Richards, Vince P.; Lang, Ping; Pavinski-Bitar, Paulina; Stanhope, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes, is an important human pathogen classified within the pyogenic group of streptococci, exclusively adapted to the human host. Our goal was to employ a comparative evolutionary approach to better understand the genomic events concomitant with S. pyogenes human adaptation. As part of ascertaining these events, we sequenced the genome of one of the potential sister species, the agricultural pathogen S. canis, and combined it in a comparative genomics reconciliation analysis with two other closely related species, Streptococcus dysgalactiae and Streptococcus equi, to determine the genes that were gained and lost during S. pyogenes evolution. Genome wide phylogenetic analyses involving 15 Streptococcus species provided convincing support for a clade of S. equi, S. pyogenes, S. dysgalactiae, and S. canis and suggested that the most likely S. pyogenes sister species was S. dysgalactiae. The reconciliation analysis identified 113 genes that were gained on the lineage leading to S. pyogenes. Almost half (46%) of these gained genes were phage associated and 14 showed significant matches to experimentally verified bacteria virulence factors. Subsequent to the origin of S. pyogenes, over half of the phage associated genes were involved in 90 different LGT events, mostly involving different strains of S. pyogenes, but with a high proportion involving the horse specific pathogen S. equi subsp. equi, with the directionality almost exclusively (86%) in the S. pyogenes to S. equi direction. Streptococcus agalactiae appears to have played an important role in the evolution of S. pyogenes with a high proportion of LGTs originating from this species. Overall the analysis suggests that S. pyogenes adaptation to the human host was achieved in part by (i) the integration of new virulence factors (e.g. speB, and the sal locus) and (ii) the construction of new regulation networks (e.g. rgg, and to some extent speB). PMID:22666370

  16. First Isolation of Streptococcus halichoeri and Streptococcus phocae from a Steller Sea Lion (Eumetopias jubatus) in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kichan; Kim, Ji-Yeon; Jung, Suk Chan; Lee, Hee-Soo; Her, Moon; Chae, Chanhee

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus species are emerging potential pathogens in marine mammals. We report the isolation and identification of Streptococcus halichoeri and Streptococcus phocae in a Steller sea lion (Eumetopias jubatus) in South Korea.

  17. First Isolation of Streptococcus halichoeri and Streptococcus phocae from a Steller Sea Lion (Eumetopias jubatus) in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kichan; Kim, Ji-Yeon; Jung, Suk Chan; Lee, Hee-Soo; Her, Moon; Chae, Chanhee

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus species are emerging potential pathogens in marine mammals. We report the isolation and identification of Streptococcus halichoeri and Streptococcus phocae in a Steller sea lion (Eumetopias jubatus) in South Korea. PMID:26555114

  18. GLYOXYLATE FERMENTATION BY STREPTOCOCCUS ALLANTOICUS

    PubMed Central

    Valentine, R. C.; Drucker, H.; Wolfe, R. S.

    1964-01-01

    Valentine, R. C. (University of Illinois, Urbana), H. Drucker, and R. S. Wolfe. Glyoxylate fermentation by Streptococcus allantoicus. J. Bacteriol. 87:241–246. 1964.—Extracts of Streptococcus allantoicus were found to degrade glyoxylate, yielding tartronic semialdehyde and CO2. Tartronic semialdehyde was prepared chemically, and its properties were compared with the enzymatic product: reduction by sodium borohydride yielded glycerate; heating at 100 C yielded glycolaldehyde and CO2; autoxidation yielded mesoxalic semialdehyde; periodate oxidation yielded glyoxylate and a compound presumed to be formate. Tartronic semialdehyde reductase was present in extracts of S. allantoicus and in a species of Pseudomonas grown on allantoin. A scheme for the synthesis of acetate from glyoxylate by S. allantoicus is discussed. PMID:14151040

  19. Streptococcus tangierensis sp. nov. and Streptococcus cameli sp. nov., two novel Streptococcus species isolated from raw camel milk in Morocco.

    PubMed

    Kadri, Zaina; Vandamme, Peter; Ouadghiri, Mouna; Cnockaert, Margo; Aerts, Maarten; Elfahime, El Mostafa; Farricha, Omar El; Swings, Jean; Amar, Mohamed

    2015-02-01

    Biochemical and molecular genetic studies were performed on two unidentified Gram-stain positive, catalase and oxidase negative, non-hemolytic Streptococcus-like organisms recovered from raw camel milk in Morocco. Phenotypic characterization and comparative 16S rRNA gene sequencing demonstrated that the two strains were highly different from each other and that they did not correspond to any recognized species of the genus Streptococcus. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed the unidentified organisms each formed a hitherto unknown sub-line within the genus Streptococcus, displaying a close affinity with Streptococcus moroccensis, Streptococcus minor and Streptococcus ovis. DNA G+C content determination, MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and biochemical tests demonstrated the bacterial isolates represent two novel species. Based on the phenotypic distinctiveness of the new bacteria and molecular genetic evidence, it is proposed to classify the two strains as Streptococcus tangierensis sp. nov., with CCMM B832(T) (=LMG 27683(T)) as the type strain, and Streptococcus cameli sp. nov., with CCMM B834(T) (=LMG 27685(T)) as the type strain.

  20. Streptococcus salivarius K12 Limits Group B Streptococcus Vaginal Colonization.

    PubMed

    Patras, Kathryn A; Wescombe, Philip A; Rösler, Berenice; Hale, John D; Tagg, John R; Doran, Kelly S

    2015-09-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae (group B streptococcus [GBS]) colonizes the rectovaginal tract in 20% to 30% of women and during pregnancy can be transmitted to the newborn, causing severe invasive disease. Current routine screening and antibiotic prophylaxis have fallen short of complete prevention of GBS transmission, and GBS remains a leading cause of neonatal infection. We have investigated the ability of Streptococcus salivarius, a predominant member of the native human oral microbiota, to control GBS colonization. Comparison of the antibacterial activities of multiple S. salivarius strains by use of a deferred-antagonism test showed that S. salivarius strain K12 exhibited the broadest spectrum of activity against GBS. K12 effectively inhibited all GBS strains tested, including disease-implicated isolates from newborns and colonizing isolates from the vaginal tract of pregnant women. Inhibition was dependent on the presence of megaplasmid pSsal-K12, which encodes the bacteriocins salivaricin A and salivaricin B; however, in coculture experiments, GBS growth was impeded by K12 independently of the megaplasmid. We also demonstrated that K12 adheres to and invades human vaginal epithelial cells at levels comparable to GBS. Inhibitory activity of K12 was examined in vivo using a mouse model of GBS vaginal colonization. Mice colonized with GBS were treated vaginally with K12. K12 administration significantly reduced GBS vaginal colonization in comparison to nontreated controls, and this effect was partially dependent on the K12 megaplasmid. Our results suggest that K12 may have potential as a preventative therapy to control GBS vaginal colonization and thereby prevent its transmission to the neonate during pregnancy.

  1. Streptococcus salivarius K12 Limits Group B Streptococcus Vaginal Colonization

    PubMed Central

    Patras, Kathryn A.; Wescombe, Philip A.; Rösler, Berenice; Hale, John D.; Tagg, John R.

    2015-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae (group B streptococcus [GBS]) colonizes the rectovaginal tract in 20% to 30% of women and during pregnancy can be transmitted to the newborn, causing severe invasive disease. Current routine screening and antibiotic prophylaxis have fallen short of complete prevention of GBS transmission, and GBS remains a leading cause of neonatal infection. We have investigated the ability of Streptococcus salivarius, a predominant member of the native human oral microbiota, to control GBS colonization. Comparison of the antibacterial activities of multiple S. salivarius strains by use of a deferred-antagonism test showed that S. salivarius strain K12 exhibited the broadest spectrum of activity against GBS. K12 effectively inhibited all GBS strains tested, including disease-implicated isolates from newborns and colonizing isolates from the vaginal tract of pregnant women. Inhibition was dependent on the presence of megaplasmid pSsal-K12, which encodes the bacteriocins salivaricin A and salivaricin B; however, in coculture experiments, GBS growth was impeded by K12 independently of the megaplasmid. We also demonstrated that K12 adheres to and invades human vaginal epithelial cells at levels comparable to GBS. Inhibitory activity of K12 was examined in vivo using a mouse model of GBS vaginal colonization. Mice colonized with GBS were treated vaginally with K12. K12 administration significantly reduced GBS vaginal colonization in comparison to nontreated controls, and this effect was partially dependent on the K12 megaplasmid. Our results suggest that K12 may have potential as a preventative therapy to control GBS vaginal colonization and thereby prevent its transmission to the neonate during pregnancy. PMID:26077762

  2. Streptococcus salivarius K12 Limits Group B Streptococcus Vaginal Colonization.

    PubMed

    Patras, Kathryn A; Wescombe, Philip A; Rösler, Berenice; Hale, John D; Tagg, John R; Doran, Kelly S

    2015-09-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae (group B streptococcus [GBS]) colonizes the rectovaginal tract in 20% to 30% of women and during pregnancy can be transmitted to the newborn, causing severe invasive disease. Current routine screening and antibiotic prophylaxis have fallen short of complete prevention of GBS transmission, and GBS remains a leading cause of neonatal infection. We have investigated the ability of Streptococcus salivarius, a predominant member of the native human oral microbiota, to control GBS colonization. Comparison of the antibacterial activities of multiple S. salivarius strains by use of a deferred-antagonism test showed that S. salivarius strain K12 exhibited the broadest spectrum of activity against GBS. K12 effectively inhibited all GBS strains tested, including disease-implicated isolates from newborns and colonizing isolates from the vaginal tract of pregnant women. Inhibition was dependent on the presence of megaplasmid pSsal-K12, which encodes the bacteriocins salivaricin A and salivaricin B; however, in coculture experiments, GBS growth was impeded by K12 independently of the megaplasmid. We also demonstrated that K12 adheres to and invades human vaginal epithelial cells at levels comparable to GBS. Inhibitory activity of K12 was examined in vivo using a mouse model of GBS vaginal colonization. Mice colonized with GBS were treated vaginally with K12. K12 administration significantly reduced GBS vaginal colonization in comparison to nontreated controls, and this effect was partially dependent on the K12 megaplasmid. Our results suggest that K12 may have potential as a preventative therapy to control GBS vaginal colonization and thereby prevent its transmission to the neonate during pregnancy. PMID:26077762

  3. Group A Streptococcus endometritis following medical abortion.

    PubMed

    Gendron, Nicolas; Joubrel, Caroline; Nedellec, Sophie; Campagna, Jennifer; Agostini, Aubert; Doucet-Populaire, Florence; Casetta, Anne; Raymond, Josette; Poyart, Claire; Kernéis, Solen

    2014-07-01

    Medical abortion is not recognized as a high-risk factor for invasive pelvic infection. Here, we report two cases of group A Streptococcus (GAS; Streptococcus pyogenes) endometritis following medical abortions with a protocol of oral mifepristone and misoprostol. PMID:24829245

  4. Group A Streptococcus Endometritis following Medical Abortion

    PubMed Central

    Gendron, Nicolas; Joubrel, Caroline; Nedellec, Sophie; Campagna, Jennifer; Agostini, Aubert; Doucet-Populaire, Florence; Casetta, Anne; Raymond, Josette; Kernéis, Solen

    2014-01-01

    Medical abortion is not recognized as a high-risk factor for invasive pelvic infection. Here, we report two cases of group A Streptococcus (GAS; Streptococcus pyogenes) endometritis following medical abortions with a protocol of oral mifepristone and misoprostol. PMID:24829245

  5. Endocarditis caused by unusual Streptococcus species (Streptococcus pluranimalium)

    PubMed Central

    Fotoglidis, A; Pagourelias, E; Kyriakou, P; Vassilikos, V

    2015-01-01

    Background Infective endocarditis in intravenous drug abusers is caused mainly by Staphylococcus species and usually affects the right heart valves. Case Description We report the case of a 37-years-old intravenous drug abuser, who was diagnosed with infective endocarditis of the mitral and aortic valve. An unusual Streptococcus species (Streptococcus pluranimalium) was isolated from surgical specimens (peripheral arterial emboli, valves’ vegetations) which, according to the literature, is related to animals’ diseases such as infective endocarditis in adult broiler parents, with no references existing regarding causing such disease in humans. This unusual coccus infection caused specific clinical features (sizable vegetation on mitral valve >2cm, smaller vegetations on aortic valve, systemic emboli), resistance to antimicrobial therapy, rapid progression of the disease (despite of medical therapy and surgical replacement of both valves), and finally the death of the patient two months after the initial presentation of infective endocarditis. Conclusion Unusual cases of infective endocarditis in intravenous drug abusers are emerging and are characterized by changing microbiological profile and varying clinical characteristics. Clinical doctors must be aware of these cases, especially when their patients present an atypical clinical course, and reappraise their medical management. Hippokratia 2015; 19 (2):182-185. PMID:27418771

  6. Streptococcus milleri in the appendix.

    PubMed Central

    Poole, P M; Wilson, G

    1977-01-01

    The appendix was investigated as a possible habitat of Streptococcus milleri. Both normal and inflamed appendices were examined and the isolation rates compared. S. milleri was present in a quarter of the normal appendices and more than half of those associated with apendicitis--a difference that was statistically highly significant. The isolation rates throughout were indepencent of age. There was a pronounced connection between the presence of S. milleri in the appendix and the purulent manifestations of appendicitis. S. milleri was isolated from other abdominal sites associated with appendicitis. The frequency of isolation was increased by culture in an enrichment broth containing nalidixic acid and sulphadimidine. PMID:591633

  7. Streptococcus milleri in the appendix.

    PubMed

    Poole, P M; Wilson, G

    1977-10-01

    The appendix was investigated as a possible habitat of Streptococcus milleri. Both normal and inflamed appendices were examined and the isolation rates compared. S. milleri was present in a quarter of the normal appendices and more than half of those associated with apendicitis--a difference that was statistically highly significant. The isolation rates throughout were indepencent of age. There was a pronounced connection between the presence of S. milleri in the appendix and the purulent manifestations of appendicitis. S. milleri was isolated from other abdominal sites associated with appendicitis. The frequency of isolation was increased by culture in an enrichment broth containing nalidixic acid and sulphadimidine.

  8. Streptococcus agalactiae mastitis: a review.

    PubMed Central

    Keefe, G P

    1997-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae continues to be a major cause of subclinical mastitis in dairy cattle and a source of economic loss for the industry. Veterinarians are often asked to provide information on herd level control and eradication of S. agalactiae mastitis. This review collects and collates relevant publications on the subject. The literature search was conducted in 1993 on the Agricola database. Articles related to S. agalactiae epidemiology, pathogen identification techniques, milk quality consequences, and control, prevention, and therapy were included. Streptococcus agalactiae is an oblique parasite of the bovine mammary gland and is susceptible to treatment with a variety of antibiotics. Despite this fact, where state or provincial census data are available, herd prevalence levels range from 11% (Alberta, 1991) to 47% (Vermont, 1985). Infection with S. agalactiae is associated with elevated somatic cell count and total bacteria count and a decrease in the quantity and quality of milk products produced. Bulk tank milk culture has, using traditional milk culture techniques, had a low sensitivity for identifying S. agalactiae at the herd level. New culture methods, using selective media and large inocula, have substantially improved the sensitivity of bulk tank culture. Efficacy of therapy on individual cows remains high. Protocols for therapy of all infected animals in a herd are generally successful in eradicating the pathogen from the herd, especially if they are followed up with good udder hygiene techniques. PMID:9220132

  9. Structural analysis of the lipoteichoic acids isolated from bovine mastitis Streptococcus uberis 233, Streptococcus dysgalactiae 2023 and Streptococcus agalactiae 0250.

    PubMed

    Czabańska, Anna; Neiwert, Olga; Lindner, Buko; Leigh, James; Holst, Otto; Duda, Katarzyna A

    2012-11-01

    Lipoteichoic acid (LTA) is an amphiphilic polycondensate located in the cell envelope of Gram-positive bacteria. In this study, LTAs were isolated from the three bovine mastitis species Streptococcus uberis 233, Streptococcus dysgalactiae 2023, and Streptococcus agalactiae 0250. Structural investigations of these LTAs were performed applying 1D and 2D nuclear magnetic resonance experiments as well as chemical analyses and mass spectrometry. Compositional analysis revealed the presence of glycerol (Gro), Glc, alanine (Ala), and 16:0, 16:1, 18:0, 18:1. The LTAs of the three Streptococcus strains possessed the same structure, that is, a lipid anchor comprised of α-Glcp-(1→2)-α-Glcp-(1→3)-1,2-diacyl-sn-Gro and the hydrophilic backbone consisting of poly(sn-Gro-1-phosphate) randomly substituted at O-2 of Gro by d-Ala.

  10. Structural analysis of the lipoteichoic acids isolated from bovine mastitis Streptococcus uberis 233, Streptococcus dysgalactiae 2023 and Streptococcus agalactiae 0250.

    PubMed

    Czabańska, Anna; Neiwert, Olga; Lindner, Buko; Leigh, James; Holst, Otto; Duda, Katarzyna A

    2012-11-01

    Lipoteichoic acid (LTA) is an amphiphilic polycondensate located in the cell envelope of Gram-positive bacteria. In this study, LTAs were isolated from the three bovine mastitis species Streptococcus uberis 233, Streptococcus dysgalactiae 2023, and Streptococcus agalactiae 0250. Structural investigations of these LTAs were performed applying 1D and 2D nuclear magnetic resonance experiments as well as chemical analyses and mass spectrometry. Compositional analysis revealed the presence of glycerol (Gro), Glc, alanine (Ala), and 16:0, 16:1, 18:0, 18:1. The LTAs of the three Streptococcus strains possessed the same structure, that is, a lipid anchor comprised of α-Glcp-(1→2)-α-Glcp-(1→3)-1,2-diacyl-sn-Gro and the hydrophilic backbone consisting of poly(sn-Gro-1-phosphate) randomly substituted at O-2 of Gro by d-Ala. PMID:23036931

  11. Antibody binding to Streptococcus mitis and Streptococcus oralis cell fractions

    PubMed Central

    Wirth, Katherine A.; Bowden, George H.; Richmond, Dorothy A.; Sheridan, Michael J.; Cole, Michael F.

    2008-01-01

    Summary Objective To determine which cell fraction(s) of Streptococcus mitis biovar 1 serve as the best source of antigens recognized by salivary SIgA antibodies in infants. Design Whole cells of 38 reference and wild-type isolates of Streptococcus mitis, S. oralis, S. gordonii, Enterococcus casseliflavus, and E. faecalis were fractionated into cell walls CW), protease-treated cell walls (PTCW), cell membranes (CM) and cell protein (CP). Whole cells and these fractions were tested for binding by rabbit anti-S. mitis SK145 and anti-S. oralis SK100 sera, and also by salivary SIgA antibodies from infants and adults. Results Anti-SK145 and anti-SK100 sera bound whole cells and fractions of all strains of S. mitis and S. oralis variably. Cluster analysis of antibody binding data placed the strains into S. mitis, S. oralis and ‘Non-S. mitis/non-S. oralis’ clusters. Antigens from CW and CM best discriminated S. mitis from S. oralis. CM bound the most infant salivary SIgA antibody and PTCW bound the least. In contrast, adult salivary SIgA antibody bound all of the cell fractions and at higher levels. Conclusions Presumably the relatively short period of immune stimulation and immunological immaturity in infants, in contrast to adults, result in low levels of salivary SIgA antibody that preferentially bind CM of S. mitis but not PTCW. By utilizing isolated cell walls and membranes as sources of antigens for proteomics it may be possible to identify antigens common to oral streptococci and dissect the fine specificity of salivary SIgA antibodies induced by oral colonization by S. mitis. PMID:17904095

  12. A plasmid in Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, M D; Guild, W R

    1979-01-01

    Plasmid deoxyribonucleic acid has been detected in three related laboratory strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae. Strains D39S, R36, and R36NC each contain a minimum of two copies per cell of a 2.0-megadalton plasmid (pDP1). A plasmid twice as large as this smaller one is also present in much lower quantity in these strains, but neither plasmid is present in four strains related to these or in a drug-resistant clinical isolate from Paris. The plasmid yield was not amplified in the presence of chloramphenicol. No phenotype has been correlated with the presence of pDP1, which has existed in strains carried for many years in laboratory collections. Images PMID:33961

  13. Safety assessment of dairy microorganisms: Streptococcus thermophilus.

    PubMed

    Delorme, Christine

    2008-09-01

    Streptococcus thermophilus is a major dairy starter used in yogurt and cheese production. In Streptococcus genus, S. thermophilus is the only one food species among commensal and opportunistic pathogen species. Comparative genomics suggest that this species recently emerged and evolved by combination of loss-of-function and horizontal gene transfer events. These gene transfer events detected in S. thermophilus have originated from other dairy species and might contribute to its adaptation to the milk environment.

  14. Infections Associated with Streptococcus intermedius in Children.

    PubMed

    Faden, Howard S

    2016-09-01

    Streptococcus intermedius is a viridans Streptococcus belonging to the Anginosus group. In the past 7 years, it has been associated with abscesses in 48 children, 40% of whom had complicated and/or life-threatening illness. It was the sole pathogen in 35 cases. Seventy-five percent of the infections occurred in winter and spring. None occurred in infants younger than 1 year.

  15. Isolation of Streptococcus tigurinus - a novel member of Streptococcus mitis group from a case of periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Dhotre, Shree V; Mehetre, Gajanan T; Dharne, Mahesh S; Suryawanshi, Namdev M; Nagoba, Basavraj S

    2014-08-01

    Streptococcus tigurinus is a new member of the Streptococcus viridians group and is closely related to Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus pseudopneumoniae, Streptococcus oralis, and Streptococcus infantis. The type strain AZ_3a(T) of S. tigurinus was originally isolated from a patient with infective endocarditis. Accurate identification of S. tigurinus is facilitated only by newer molecular methods like 16S rRNA gene analysis. During the course of study on bacteraemia and infective endocarditis with reference to periodontitis and viridians group of streptococci, a strain of S. tigurinus isolated from subgingival plaque of a patient with periodontitis identified by 16S rRNA gene analysis, which was originally identified as Streptococcus pluranimalium by Vitek 2. Confirmation by 16S rRNA gene analysis showed 99.39% similarity (1476/1485 bp) with S. tigurinus AZ_3a(T) (AORU01000002). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of isolation of S. tigurinus from the oral cavity of a periodontitis patient.

  16. Penetration of Streptococcus sobrinus and Streptococcus sanguinis into dental enamel.

    PubMed

    Kneist, Susanne; Nietzsche, Sandor; Küpper, Harald; Raser, Gerhard; Willershausen, Brita; Callaway, Angelika

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this pilot study was to assess the difference in virulence of acidogenic and aciduric oral streptococci in an in vitro caries model using their penetration depths into dental enamel. 30 caries-free extracted molars from 11- to 16-year-olds were cleaned ultrasonically for 1 min with de-ionized water and, after air-drying, embedded in epoxy resin. After 8-h of setting at room temperature, the specimens were ground on the buccal side with SiC-paper 1200 (particle size 13-16 μm). Enamel was removed in circular areas sized 3 mm in diameter; the mean depth of removed enamel was 230 ± 60 μm. 15 specimens each were incubated anaerobically under standardized conditions with 24 h-cultures of Streptococcus sanguinis 9S or Streptococcus sobrinus OMZ 176 in Balmelli broth at 37 ± 2 °C; the pH-values of the broths were measured at the beginning and end of each incubation cycle. After 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 weeks 3 teeth each were fixed in 2.5% glutaraldehyde in cacodylate buffer for 24 h, washed 3× and dehydrated 30-60min by sequential washes through a series of 30-100% graded ethanol. The teeth were cut in half longitudinally; afterward, two slits were made to obtain fracture surfaces in the infected area. After critical-point-drying the fragments were gold-sputtered and viewed in a scanning electron microscope at magnifications of ×20-20,000. After 10 weeks of incubation, penetration of S. sanguinis of 11.13 ± 24.04 μm below the break edges into the enamel was observed. The invasion of S. sobrinus reached depths of 87.53 ± 76.34 μm. The difference was statistically significant (paired t test: p = 0.033). The experimental penetration depths emphasize the importance of S. sanguinis versus S. sobrinus in the context of the extended ecological plaque hypothesis.

  17. Penetration of Streptococcus sobrinus and Streptococcus sanguinis into dental enamel.

    PubMed

    Kneist, Susanne; Nietzsche, Sandor; Küpper, Harald; Raser, Gerhard; Willershausen, Brita; Callaway, Angelika

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this pilot study was to assess the difference in virulence of acidogenic and aciduric oral streptococci in an in vitro caries model using their penetration depths into dental enamel. 30 caries-free extracted molars from 11- to 16-year-olds were cleaned ultrasonically for 1 min with de-ionized water and, after air-drying, embedded in epoxy resin. After 8-h of setting at room temperature, the specimens were ground on the buccal side with SiC-paper 1200 (particle size 13-16 μm). Enamel was removed in circular areas sized 3 mm in diameter; the mean depth of removed enamel was 230 ± 60 μm. 15 specimens each were incubated anaerobically under standardized conditions with 24 h-cultures of Streptococcus sanguinis 9S or Streptococcus sobrinus OMZ 176 in Balmelli broth at 37 ± 2 °C; the pH-values of the broths were measured at the beginning and end of each incubation cycle. After 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 weeks 3 teeth each were fixed in 2.5% glutaraldehyde in cacodylate buffer for 24 h, washed 3× and dehydrated 30-60min by sequential washes through a series of 30-100% graded ethanol. The teeth were cut in half longitudinally; afterward, two slits were made to obtain fracture surfaces in the infected area. After critical-point-drying the fragments were gold-sputtered and viewed in a scanning electron microscope at magnifications of ×20-20,000. After 10 weeks of incubation, penetration of S. sanguinis of 11.13 ± 24.04 μm below the break edges into the enamel was observed. The invasion of S. sobrinus reached depths of 87.53 ± 76.34 μm. The difference was statistically significant (paired t test: p = 0.033). The experimental penetration depths emphasize the importance of S. sanguinis versus S. sobrinus in the context of the extended ecological plaque hypothesis. PMID:25805186

  18. 21 CFR 866.3740 - Streptococcus spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3740 Streptococcus spp. serological reagents. (a) Identification. Streptococcus spp. serological reagents are devices... streptococci are associated with infections, such as sore throat, impetigo (an infection characterized by...

  19. 21 CFR 866.3740 - Streptococcus spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3740 Streptococcus spp. serological reagents. (a) Identification. Streptococcus spp. serological reagents are devices... streptococci are associated with infections, such as sore throat, impetigo (an infection characterized by...

  20. Galactokinase activity in Streptococcus thermophilus

    SciTech Connect

    Hutkins, R.; Morris, H.A.; McKay, L.L.

    1985-10-01

    ATP-dependent phosphorylation of (/sup 14/C)galactose by 11 strains of streptococcus thermophilus indicated that these organisms possessed the Leloir enzyme, galactokinase (galK). Activities were 10 times higher in fully induced, galactose-fermenting (Gal/sup +/) strains than in galactose-nonfermenting (Gal/sup -/) strains. Lactose-grown, Gal/sup -/ cells released free galactose into the medium and were unable to utilize residual galactose or to induce galK above basal levels. Gal/sup +/ S. thermophilus 19258 also released galactose into the medium, but when lactose was depleted, growth on galactose commenced, and galK increased from 0.025 to 0.22 ..mu..mol of galactose phosphorylated per min per mg of protein. When lactose was added to galactose-grown cells of S. thermophilus 19258, galK activity rapidly decreased. These results suggest that galK in Gal/sup +/ S. thermophilus is subject to an induction-repression mechanism, but that galK cannot be induced in Gal/sup -/ strains.

  1. Macrolide Resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Schroeder, Max R.; Stephens, David S.

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is a common commensal and an opportunistic pathogen. Suspected pneumococcal upper respiratory infections and pneumonia are often treated with macrolide antibiotics. Macrolides are bacteriostatic antibiotics and inhibit protein synthesis by binding to the 50S ribosomal subunit. The widespread use of macrolides is associated with increased macrolide resistance in S. pneumoniae, and the treatment of pneumococcal infections with macrolides may be associated with clinical failures. In S. pneumoniae, macrolide resistance is due to ribosomal dimethylation by an enzyme encoded by erm(B), efflux by a two-component efflux pump encoded by mef (E)/mel(msr(D)) and, less commonly, mutations of the ribosomal target site of macrolides. A wide array of genetic elements have emerged that facilitate macrolide resistance in S. pneumoniae; for example erm(B) is found on Tn917, while the mef (E)/mel operon is carried on the 5.4- or 5.5-kb Mega element. The macrolide resistance determinants, erm(B) and mef (E)/mel, are also found on large composite Tn916-like elements most notably Tn6002, Tn2009, and Tn2010. Introductions of 7-valent and 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV-7 and PCV-13) have decreased the incidence of macrolide-resistant invasive pneumococcal disease, but serotype replacement and emergence of macrolide resistance remain an important concern. PMID:27709102

  2. Streptococcus orisasini sp. nov. and Streptococcus dentasini sp. nov., isolated from the oral cavity of donkeys.

    PubMed

    Takada, Kazuko; Saito, Masanori; Tsudukibashi, Osamu; Hiroi, Takachika; Hirasawa, Masatomo

    2013-08-01

    Four Gram-positive, catalase-negative, coccoid isolates that were obtained from donkey oral cavities formed two distinct clonal groups when characterized by phenotypic and phylogenetic studies. From the results of biochemical tests, the organisms were tentatively identified as a streptococcal species. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequencing studies confirmed the organisms to be members of the genus Streptococcus. Two of the isolates were related most closely to Streptococcus ursoris with 95.6 % similarity based on the 16S rRNA gene and to Streptococcus ratti with 92.0 % similarity based on the 60 kDa heat-shock protein gene (groEL). The other two isolates, however, were related to Streptococcus criceti with 95.0 and 89.0 % similarities based on the 16S rRNA and groEL genes, respectively. From both phylogenetic and phenotypic evidence, the four isolates formed two distinct clonal groups and are suggested to represent novel species of the genus Streptococcus. The names proposed for these organisms are Streptococcus orisasini sp. nov. (type strain NUM 1801(T) = JCM 17942(T) = DSM 25193(T)) and Streptococcus dentasini sp. nov. (type strain NUM 1808(T) = JCM 17943(T) = DSM 25137(T)).

  3. Distribution of Streptococcus troglodytae and Streptococcus dentirousetti in chimpanzee oral cavities.

    PubMed

    Miyanohara, Mayu; Imai, Susumu; Okamoto, Masaaki; Saito, Wataru; Nomura, Yoshiaki; Momoi, Yasuko; Tomonaga, Masaki; Hanada, Nobuhiro

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the distribution and phenotypic properties of the indigenous streptococci in chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) oral cavities. Eleven chimpanzees (aged from 9 to 44 years, mean ± SD, 26.9 ± 12.6 years) in the Primate Research Institute of Kyoto University were enrolled in this research and brushing bacterial samples collected from them. Streptococci were isolated from the oral cavities of all chimpanzees. The isolates (n = 46) were identified as thirteen species by 16S rRNA genes analysis. The predominant species was Streptococcus sanguinis of mitis streptococci from five chimpanzees (45%). Mutans streptococci were isolated from six chimpanzees (55%). The predominant species in the mutans streptococci were Streptococcus troglodytae from four chimpanzees (36%), this species having been proposed as a novel species by us, and Streptococcus dentirousetti from three chimpanzees (27%). Streptococcus mutans was isolated from one chimpanzee (9%). However, Streptococcus sobrinus, Streptococcus macacae and Streptococcus downei, which are indigenous to human and monkey (Macaca fasciclaris) oral habitats, were not isolated. Of the mutans streptococci, S. troglodytae, S. dentirousetti, and S. mutans possessed strong adherence activity to glass surface.

  4. ATP-driven calcium transport in membrane vesicles of Streptococcus sanguis. [Streptococcus sanguis; Streptococcus faecalis; Escherichia coli

    SciTech Connect

    Houng, H.; Lynn, A.R.; Rosen, B.P.

    1986-11-01

    Calcium transport was investigated in membrane vesicles prepared from the oral bacterium Streptococcus sanguis. Procedures were devised for the preparation of membrane vesicles capable of accumulation /sup 45/Ca/sup 2 +/. Uptake was ATP dependent and did not require a proton motive force. Calcium transport in these vesicles was compared with /sup 45/Ca/sup 2 +/ accumulation in membrane vesicles from Streptococcus faecalis and Escherichia coli. The data support the existence of an ATP-driven calcium pump in S. sanguis similar to that in S. faecalis. This pump, which catalyzes uptake into membrane vesicles, would be responsible for extrusion of calcium from intact cells.

  5. Galactose metabolism by Streptococcus mutans.

    PubMed

    Abranches, Jacqueline; Chen, Yi-Ywan M; Burne, Robert A

    2004-10-01

    The galK gene, encoding galactokinase of the Leloir pathway, was insertionally inactivated in Streptococcus mutans UA159. The galK knockout strain displayed only marginal growth on galactose, but growth on glucose or lactose was not affected. In strain UA159, the sugar phosphotransferase system (PTS) for lactose and the PTS for galactose were induced by growth in lactose and galactose, although galactose PTS activity was very low, suggesting that S. mutans does not have a galactose-specific PTS and that the lactose PTS may transport galactose, albeit poorly. To determine if the galactose growth defect of the galK mutant could be overcome by enhancing lactose PTS activity, the gene encoding a putative repressor of the operon for lactose PTS and phospho-beta-galactosidase, lacR, was insertionally inactivated. A galK and lacR mutant still could not grow on galactose, although the strain had constitutively elevated lactose PTS activity. The glucose PTS activity of lacR mutants grown in glucose was lower than in the wild-type strain, revealing an influence of LacR or the lactose PTS on the regulation of the glucose PTS. Mutation of the lacA gene of the tagatose pathway caused impaired growth in lactose and galactose, suggesting that galactose can only be efficiently utilized when both the Leloir and tagatose pathways are functional. A mutation of the permease in the multiple sugar metabolism operon did not affect growth on galactose. Thus, the galactose permease of S. mutans is not present in the gal, lac, or msm operons. PMID:15466549

  6. Streptococcus pneumoniae NanC

    PubMed Central

    Owen, C. David; Lukacik, Petra; Potter, Jane A.; Sleator, Olivia; Taylor, Garry L.; Walsh, Martin A.

    2015-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is an important human pathogen that causes a range of disease states. Sialidases are important bacterial virulence factors. There are three pneumococcal sialidases: NanA, NanB, and NanC. NanC is an unusual sialidase in that its primary reaction product is 2-deoxy-2,3-didehydro-N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac2en, also known as DANA), a nonspecific hydrolytic sialidase inhibitor. The production of Neu5Ac2en from α2–3-linked sialosides by the catalytic domain is confirmed within a crystal structure. A covalent complex with 3-fluoro-β-N-acetylneuraminic acid is also presented, suggesting a common mechanism with other sialidases up to the final step of product formation. A conformation change in an active site hydrophobic loop on ligand binding constricts the entrance to the active site. In addition, the distance between the catalytic acid/base (Asp-315) and the ligand anomeric carbon is unusually short. These features facilitate a novel sialidase reaction in which the final step of product formation is direct abstraction of the C3 proton by the active site aspartic acid, forming Neu5Ac2en. NanC also possesses a carbohydrate-binding module, which is shown to bind α2–3- and α2–6-linked sialosides, as well as N-acetylneuraminic acid, which is captured in the crystal structure following hydration of Neu5Ac2en by NanC. Overall, the pneumococcal sialidases show remarkable mechanistic diversity while maintaining a common structural scaffold. PMID:26370075

  7. Iron acquisition and regulation systems in Streptococcus species.

    PubMed

    Ge, Ruiguang; Sun, Xuesong

    2014-05-01

    Gram-positive Streptococcus species are responsible for millions of cases of meningitis, bacterial pneumonia, endocarditis, erysipelas and necrotizing fasciitis. Iron is essential for the growth and survival of Streptococcus in the host environment. Streptococcus species have developed various mechanisms to uptake iron from an environment with limited available iron. Streptococcus can directly extract iron from host iron-containing proteins such as ferritin, transferrin, lactoferrin and hemoproteins, or indirectly by relying on the employment of specialized secreted hemophores (heme chelators) and small siderophore molecules (high affinity ferric chelators). This review presents the most recent discoveries in the iron acquisition system of Streptococcus species - the transporters as well as the regulators.

  8. Streptococcus tigurinus, a novel member of the Streptococcus mitis group, causes invasive infections.

    PubMed

    Zbinden, Andrea; Mueller, Nicolas J; Tarr, Philip E; Eich, Gerhard; Schulthess, Bettina; Bahlmann, Anna S; Keller, Peter M; Bloemberg, Guido V

    2012-09-01

    We recently described the novel species Streptococcus tigurinus sp. nov. belonging to the Streptococcus mitis group. The type strain AZ_3a(T) of S. tigurinus was originally isolated from a patient with infective endocarditis. According to its phenotypic and molecular characteristics, S. tigurinus is most closely related to Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus pseudopneumoniae, Streptococcus oralis, and Streptococcus infantis. Accurate identification of S. tigurinus is facilitated by 16S rRNA gene analysis. We retrospectively analyzed our 16S rRNA gene molecular database, which contains sequences of all clinical samples obtained in our institute since 2003. We detected 17 16S rRNA gene sequences which were assigned to S. tigurinus, including sequences from the 3 S. tigurinus strains described previously. S. tigurinus originated from normally sterile body sites, such as blood, cerebrospinal fluid, or heart valves, of 14 patients and was initially detected by culture or broad-range 16S rRNA gene PCR, followed by sequencing. The 14 patients had serious invasive infections, i.e., infective endocarditis (n = 6), spondylodiscitis (n = 3), bacteremia (n = 2), meningitis (n = 1), prosthetic joint infection (n = 1), and thoracic empyema (n = 1). To evaluate the presence of Streptococcus tigurinus in the endogenous oral microbial flora, we screened saliva specimens of 31 volunteers. After selective growth, alpha-hemolytic growing colonies were analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and subsequent molecular methods. S. tigurinus was not identified among 608 strains analyzed. These data indicate that S. tigurinus is not widely distributed in the oral cavity. In conclusion, S. tigurinus is a novel agent of invasive infections, particularly infective endocarditis.

  9. Antagonistic action of Streptococcus salivarius and Streptococcus faecalis to Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed Central

    Darling, C L; Hart, G D

    1976-01-01

    Streptococcus salivarius and Streptococcus faecalis were found to inhibit the growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis on Löwenstein-Jensen and Middlebrook 7H11 agars, but not on the latter medium when antibacterial drugs were added. S. faecalis was found to be more inhibitory than S. salivarius to 15 strains of M. tuberculosis. S. salivarius produced little or no inhibition of growth of Runyon group III organisms but was very antagonistic to Runyon group I mycobacteria. Images PMID:824304

  10. Streptococcus loxodontisalivarius sp. nov. and Streptococcus saliviloxodontae sp. nov., isolated from oral cavities of elephants.

    PubMed

    Saito, Masanori; Shinozaki-Kuwahara, Noriko; Hirasawa, Masatomo; Takada, Kazuko

    2014-09-01

    Four Gram-stain-positive, catalase-negative, coccoid-shaped organisms were isolated from elephant oral cavities. The isolates were tentatively identified as streptococcal species based on the results of biochemical tests. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequencing studies confirmed the organisms to be members of the genus Streptococcus. Two isolates (NUM 6304(T) and NUM 6312) were related most closely to Streptococcus salivarius with 96.8 % and 93.1 % similarity based on the 16S rRNA gene and the RNA polymerase β subunit encoding gene (rpoB), respectively, and to Streptococcus vestibularis with 83.7 % similarity based on the 60 kDa heat-shock protein gene (groEL). The other two isolates (NUM 6306(T) and NUM 6318) were related most closely to S. vestibularis with 97.0 % and 82.9 % similarity based on the 16S rRNA and groEL genes, respectively, and to S. salivarius with 93.5 % similarity based on the rpoB gene. Based on phylogenetic and phenotypic evidence, these isolates are suggested to represent novel species of the genus Streptococcus, for which the names Streptococcus loxodontisalivarius sp. nov. (type strain NUM 6304(T) = JCM 19287(T) = DSM 27382(T)) and Streptococcus saliviloxodontae sp. nov. (type strain NUM 6306(T) = JCM 19288(T) = DSM 27513(T)) are proposed.

  11. Streptococcus moroccensis sp. nov. and Streptococcus rifensis sp. nov., isolated from raw camel milk.

    PubMed

    Kadri, Zaina; Amar, Mohamed; Ouadghiri, Mouna; Cnockaert, Margo; Aerts, Maarten; El Farricha, Omar; Vandamme, Peter

    2014-07-01

    Two catalase- and oxidase-negative Streptococcus-like strains, LMG 27682(T) and LMG 27684(T), were isolated from raw camel milk in Morocco. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequencing assigned these bacteria to the genus Streptococcus with Streptococcus rupicaprae 2777-2-07(T) as their closest phylogenetic neighbour (95.9% and 95.7% similarity, respectively). 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity between the two strains was 96.7%. Although strains LMG 27682(T) and LMG 27684(T) shared a DNA-DNA hybridization value that corresponded to the threshold level for species delineation (68%), the two strains could be distinguished by multiple biochemical tests, sequence analysis of the phenylalanyl-tRNA synthase (pheS), RNA polymerase (rpoA) and ATP synthase (atpA) genes and by their MALDI-TOF MS profiles. On the basis of these considerable phenotypic and genotypic differences, we propose to classify both strains as novel species of the genus Streptococcus, for which the names Streptococcus moroccensis sp. nov. (type strain, LMG 27682(T)  = CCMM B831(T)) and Streptococcus rifensis sp. nov. (type strain, LMG 27684(T)  = CCMM B833(T)) are proposed.

  12. 9230 FECAL ENTEROCOCCUS/STREPTOCOCCUS GROUPS

    EPA Science Inventory

    In 1903 the genus name Enterococcus was proposed for gram-positive, catalase-negative, coccoid-shaped bacterial of intestinal origin. Several years later, it was suggested that the genus name be changed to Streptococcus because of the organisms' ability to form chains of coccoid...

  13. Nontypeable Streptococcus pneumoniae as an Otopathogen

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Qingfu; Kaur, Ravinder; Casey, Janet R.; Sabharwal, Vishakha; Pelton, Stephen; Pichichero, Michael E.

    2014-01-01

    Among 34 Spn sequential isolates from middle ear fluid we found a case of a nontypeable Streptococcus pneumoniae (NT-Spn) in a child with AOM. The strain was pneumolysin PCR positive and capsule gene PCR negative. Virulence of the NT-Spn was confirmed in a chinchilla model of AOM. PMID:21251566

  14. Streptococcus-Zebrafish Model of Bacterial Pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Neely, Melody N.; Pfeifer, John D.; Caparon, Michael

    2002-01-01

    Due to its small size, rapid generation time, powerful genetic systems, and genomic resources, the zebrafish has emerged as an important model of vertebrate development and human disease. Its well-developed adaptive and innate cellular immune systems make the zebrafish an ideal model for the study of infectious diseases. With a natural and important pathogen of fish, Streptococcus iniae, we have established a streptococcus- zebrafish model of bacterial pathogenesis. Following injection into the dorsal muscle, zebrafish developed a lethal infection, with a 50% lethal dose of 103 CFU, and died within 2 to 3 days. The pathogenesis of infection resembled that of S. iniae in farmed fish populations and that of several important human streptococcal diseases and was characterized by an initial focal necrotic lesion that rapidly progressed to invasion of the pathogen into all major organ systems, including the brain. Zebrafish were also susceptible to infection by the human pathogen Streptococcus pyogenes. However, disease was characterized by a marked absence of inflammation, large numbers of extracellular streptococci in the dorsal muscle, and extensive myonecrosis that occurred far in advance of any systemic invasion. The genetic systems available for streptococci, including a novel method of mutagenesis which targets genes whose products are exported, were used to identify several mutants attenuated for virulence in zebrafish. This combination of a genetically amenable pathogen with a well-defined vertebrate host makes the streptococcus-zebrafish model of bacterial pathogenesis a powerful model for analysis of infectious disease. PMID:12065534

  15. Pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders after streptococcus infection.

    PubMed

    Maini, Baljeet; Bathla, Manish; Dhanjal, Gurdeep S; Sharma, Prem D

    2012-10-01

    Pediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorders Associated with Streptococcal infection (PANDAS) is a group of disorders recently recognized as a clinical entity. A case of PANDAS is described here, which remitted after 1 month of treatment. Recent Group A beta-hemolytic streptococcus infection should be considered in a child who presents with a sudden explosive onset of tics or obsessive compulsive symptoms. PMID:23372243

  16. Streptococcus suis Serotype 2 Capsule In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Auger, Jean-Philippe; Meekhanon, Nattakan; Okura, Masatoshi; Osaki, Makoto; Gottschalk, Marcelo; Sekizaki, Tsutomu; Takamatsu, Daisuke

    2016-10-01

    Many Streptococcus suis isolates from porcine endocarditis in slaughterhouses have lost their capsule and are considered avirulent. However, we retrieved capsule- and virulence-recovered S. suis after in vivo passages of a nonencapsulated strain in mice, suggesting that nonencapsulated S. suis are still potentially hazardous for persons in the swine industry. PMID:27648583

  17. Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus meningitis in Peru.

    PubMed

    Mori, Nicanor; Guevara, Jose M; Tilley, Drake H; Briceno, Jesus A; Zunt, Joseph R; Montano, Silvia M

    2013-02-01

    A 59-year-old man with a history of fever, unsteadiness, hemiparesis, motor aphasia and consciousness disturbance was hospitalized for Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus meningitis. He denied contact with farm animals, but had a practice of consuming unpasteurized goats' cheese from an uncertain source.

  18. Streptococcus suis Serotype 2 Capsule In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Auger, Jean-Philippe; Meekhanon, Nattakan; Okura, Masatoshi; Osaki, Makoto; Gottschalk, Marcelo; Sekizaki, Tsutomu

    2016-01-01

    Many Streptococcus suis isolates from porcine endocarditis in slaughterhouses have lost their capsule and are considered avirulent. However, we retrieved capsule- and virulence-recovered S. suis after in vivo passages of a nonencapsulated strain in mice, suggesting that nonencapsulated S. suis are still potentially hazardous for persons in the swine industry. PMID:27648583

  19. Revisitingmolecular serotyping of Streptococcus pneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Ninety-two Streptococcus pneumoniae serotypes have been described so far, but the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine introduced in the Brazilian basic vaccination schedule in 2010 covers only the ten most prevalent in the country. Pneumococcal serotype-shifting after massive immunization is a major concern and monitoring this phenomenon requires efficient and accessible serotyping methods. Pneumococcal serotyping based on antisera produced in animals is laborious and restricted to a few reference laboratories. Alternatively, molecular serotyping methods assess polymorphisms in the cps gene cluster, which encodes key enzymes for capsular polysaccharides synthesis in pneumococci. In one such approach, cps-RFLP, the PCR amplified cps loci are digested with an endonuclease, generating serotype-specific fingerprints on agarose gel electrophoresis. Methods In this work, in silico and in vitro approaches were combined to demonstrate that XhoII is the most discriminating endonuclease for cps-RFLP, and to build a database of serotype-specific fingerprints that accommodates the genetic diversity within the cps locus of 92 known pneumococci serotypes. Results The expected specificity of cps-RFLP using XhoII was 76% for serotyping and 100% for serogrouping. The database of cps-RFLP fingerprints was integrated to Molecular Serotyping Tool (MST), a previously published web-based software for molecular serotyping. In addition, 43 isolates representing 29 serotypes prevalent in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, from 2007 to 2013, were examined in vitro; 11 serotypes (nine serogroups) matched the respective in silico patterns calculated for reference strains. The remaining experimental patterns, despite their resemblance to their expected in silico patterns, did not reach the threshold of similarity score to be considered a match and were then added to the database. Conclusion The cps-RFLP method with XhoII outperformed the antisera-based and other molecular serotyping

  20. Molecular and antimicrobial susceptibility profiling of atypical Streptococcus species from porcine clinical specimens.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Luisa Z; Matajira, Carlos E C; Gomes, Vasco T M; Silva, Ana Paula S; Mesquita, Renan E; Christ, Ana Paula G; Sato, Maria Inês Z; Moreno, Andrea M

    2016-10-01

    The Streptococcus species present broad phenotypic variation, making identification difficult using only traditional microbiological methods. Even though Streptococcus suis is the most important species for the worldwide swine industry, other Streptococcus species appear to be able to cause disease in swine and could represent a higher underestimated risk for porcine health. The aim of this study was to identify Streptococcus-like isolates by MALDI-TOF MS and 16S rRNA sequencing and further molecular and antibiotic susceptibility characterization of the atypical Streptococcus species capable of causing disease in swine. Fifty presumptive Streptococcus isolates from diseased pigs isolated from different Brazilian States between 2002 and 2014 were evaluated. Among the studied isolates, 26% were identified as Streptococcus hyovaginalis, 24% as Streptococcus plurianimalium, 12% as Streptococcus alactolyticus, 10% as Streptococcus hyointestinalis, and the remaining isolates belonged to Streptococcus henryi (6%), Streptococcus thoraltensis (6%), Streptococcus gallolyticus (6%), Streptococcus gallinaceus (4%), Streptococcus sanguinis (4%), and Streptococcus mitis (2%). The Streptococcus isolates were successfully identified by spectral cluster analysis and 16S rRNA sequencing with 96% of concordance between the techniques. The SE-AFLP analysis also supported Streptococcus species distinction and enabled further observation of higher genetic heterogeneity intra-species. The identified Streptococcus species presented variable MIC values to β-lactams, enrofloxacin and florfenicol, and high resistance rates to tetracyclines and macrolides, which appear to be directly related to the industry's antimicrobial usage and resistance selection.

  1. Developing oral probiotics from Streptococcus salivarius.

    PubMed

    Wescombe, Philip A; Hale, John D F; Heng, Nicholas C K; Tagg, John R

    2012-12-01

    Considerable human illness can be linked to the development of oral microbiota disequilibria. The predominant oral cavity commensal, Streptococcus salivarius has emerged as an important source of safe and efficacious probiotics, capable of fostering more balanced, health-associated oral microbiota. Strain K12, the prototype S. salivarius probiotic, originally introduced to counter Streptococcus pyogenes infections, now has an expanded repertoire of health-promoting applications. K12 and several more recently proposed S. salivarius probiotics are now being applied to control diverse bacterial consortia infections including otitis media, halitosis and dental caries. Other potential applications include upregulation of immunological defenses against respiratory viral infections and treatment of oral candidosis. An overview of the key steps required for probiotic development is also presented. PMID:23231486

  2. Acute Mastoiditis Caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Obringer, Emily; Chen, Judy L

    2016-05-01

    Acute mastoiditis (AM) is a relatively rare complication of acute otitis media (AOM). The most common pathogens include Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus pyogenes, and Staphylococcus aureus. Pneumococcal vaccination and changes in antibiotic prescribing recommendations for AOM may change the incidence of AM in the future. Diagnosis of AM can be made based on clinical presentation, but computed tomography of the temporal bone with contrast should be considered if there is concern for complicated AM. Both extracranial and intracranial complications of AM may occur. Previously, routine cortical mastoidectomy was recommended for AM treatment, but new data suggest that a more conservative treatment approach can be considered, including intravenous (IV) antibiotics alone or IV antibiotics with myringotomy. [Pediatr Ann. 2016;45(5):e176-e179.]. PMID:27171806

  3. 21 CFR 866.3740 - Streptococcus spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3740 Streptococcus... derived from clinical specimens. The identification aids in the diagnosis of diseases caused by...

  4. 21 CFR 866.3740 - Streptococcus spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3740 Streptococcus... derived from clinical specimens. The identification aids in the diagnosis of diseases caused by...

  5. 21 CFR 866.3740 - Streptococcus spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3740 Streptococcus... derived from clinical specimens. The identification aids in the diagnosis of diseases caused by...

  6. Recombination-deficient mutant of Streptococcus faecalis

    SciTech Connect

    Yagi, Y.; Clewell, D.B.

    1980-08-01

    An ultraviolet radiation-sensitive derivative of Streptococcus faecalis strain JH2-2 was isolated and found to be deficient in recombination, using a plasmid-plasmid recombination system. The strain was sensitive to chemical agents which interact with deoxyribonucleic acid and also underwent deoxyribonucleic acid degradation after ultraviolet irradiation. Thus, the mutant has properties similar to those of recA strains of Escherichia coli.

  7. Dual Functions of Streptococcus salivarius Urease

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yi-Ywan M.; Weaver, Cheryl A.; Burne, Robert A.

    2000-01-01

    A urease-deficient derivative of Streptococcus salivarius 57.I was constructed by allelic exchange at the ureC locus. The wild-type strain was protected against acid killing through hydrolysis of physiologically relevant concentrations of urea, whereas the mutant was not. Also, S. salivarius could use urea as a source of nitrogen for growth exclusively through a urease-dependent pathway. PMID:10913107

  8. Genomics, evolution, and molecular epidemiology of the Streptococcus bovis/Streptococcus equinus complex (SBSEC).

    PubMed

    Jans, Christoph; Meile, Leo; Lacroix, Christophe; Stevens, Marc J A

    2015-07-01

    The Streptococcus bovis/Streptococcus equinus complex (SBSEC) is a group of human and animal derived streptococci that are commensals (rumen and gastrointestinal tract), opportunistic pathogens or food fermentation associates. The classification of SBSEC has undergone massive changes and currently comprises 7 (sub)species grouped into four branches based on sequences identities: the Streptococcus gallolyticus, the Streptococcus equinus, the Streptococcus infantarius and the Streptococcus alactolyticus branch. In animals, SBSEC are causative agents for ruminal acidosis, potentially laminitis and infective endocarditis (IE). In humans, a strong association was established between bacteraemia, IE and colorectal cancer. Especially the SBSEC-species S. gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus is an emerging pathogen for IE and prosthetic joint infections. S. gallolyticus subsp. pasteurianus and the S. infantarius branch are further associated with biliary and urinary tract infections. Knowledge on pathogenic mechanisms is so far limited to colonization factors such as pili and biofilm formation. Certain strain variants of S. gallolyticus subsp. macedonicus and S. infantarius subsp. infantarius are associated with traditional dairy and plant-based food fermentations and display traits suggesting safety. However, due to their close relationship to virulent strains, their use in food fermentation has to be critically assessed. Additionally, implementing accurate and up-to-date taxonomy is critical to enable appropriate treatment of patients and risk assessment of species and strains via recently developed multilocus sequence typing schemes to enable comparative global epidemiology. Comparative genomics revealed that SBSEC strains harbour genomics islands (GI) that seem acquired from other streptococci by horizontal gene transfer. In case of virulent strains these GI frequently encode putative virulence factors, in strains from food fermentation the GI encode functions that are

  9. Genomics, evolution, and molecular epidemiology of the Streptococcus bovis/Streptococcus equinus complex (SBSEC).

    PubMed

    Jans, Christoph; Meile, Leo; Lacroix, Christophe; Stevens, Marc J A

    2015-07-01

    The Streptococcus bovis/Streptococcus equinus complex (SBSEC) is a group of human and animal derived streptococci that are commensals (rumen and gastrointestinal tract), opportunistic pathogens or food fermentation associates. The classification of SBSEC has undergone massive changes and currently comprises 7 (sub)species grouped into four branches based on sequences identities: the Streptococcus gallolyticus, the Streptococcus equinus, the Streptococcus infantarius and the Streptococcus alactolyticus branch. In animals, SBSEC are causative agents for ruminal acidosis, potentially laminitis and infective endocarditis (IE). In humans, a strong association was established between bacteraemia, IE and colorectal cancer. Especially the SBSEC-species S. gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus is an emerging pathogen for IE and prosthetic joint infections. S. gallolyticus subsp. pasteurianus and the S. infantarius branch are further associated with biliary and urinary tract infections. Knowledge on pathogenic mechanisms is so far limited to colonization factors such as pili and biofilm formation. Certain strain variants of S. gallolyticus subsp. macedonicus and S. infantarius subsp. infantarius are associated with traditional dairy and plant-based food fermentations and display traits suggesting safety. However, due to their close relationship to virulent strains, their use in food fermentation has to be critically assessed. Additionally, implementing accurate and up-to-date taxonomy is critical to enable appropriate treatment of patients and risk assessment of species and strains via recently developed multilocus sequence typing schemes to enable comparative global epidemiology. Comparative genomics revealed that SBSEC strains harbour genomics islands (GI) that seem acquired from other streptococci by horizontal gene transfer. In case of virulent strains these GI frequently encode putative virulence factors, in strains from food fermentation the GI encode functions that are

  10. Evaluation of Group B Streptococcus Differential Agar for detection and isolation of Streptococcus agalactiae.

    PubMed

    Bou, G; Figueira, M; Canle, D; Cartelle, M; Eiros, J M; Villanueva, R

    2005-08-01

    In total, 320 vaginal or rectal swabs were cultured on Granada medium (GM) or Group B Streptococcus Differential Agar (GBSDA), and were also inoculated into LIM broth (Todd-Hewitt broth supplemented with selective antibiotics), for detection of group B Streptococcus (GBS). Overall, GBS isolates were detected on 53 of the 320 swabs; 47 of these isolates grew on both GM and GBSDA, five only on GBSDA, and one only following subculture from LIM broth. GBSDA appears to be a valid alternative to GM for the growth of GBS isolates from pregnant women.

  11. Recombination between Streptococcus suis ICESsu32457 and Streptococcus agalactiae ICESa2603 yields a hybrid ICE transferable to Streptococcus pyogenes.

    PubMed

    Marini, Emanuela; Palmieri, Claudio; Magi, Gloria; Facinelli, Bruna

    2015-07-01

    Integrative conjugative elements (ICEs) are mobile genetic elements that reside in the chromosome but retain the ability to undergo excision and to transfer by conjugation. Genes involved in drug resistance, virulence, or niche adaptation are often found among backbone genes as cargo DNA. We recently characterized in Streptococcus suis an ICE (ICESsu32457) carrying resistance genes [tet(O/W/32/O), tet(40), erm(B), aphA, and aadE] in the 15K unstable genetic element, which is flanked by two ∼1.3kb direct repeats. Remarkably, ∼1.3-kb sequences are conserved in ICESa2603 of Streptococcus agalactiae 2603V/R, which carry heavy metal resistance genes cadC/cadA and mer. In matings between S. suis 32457 (donor) and S. agalactiae 2603V/R (recipient), transconjugants were obtained. PCR experiments, PFGE, and sequence analysis of transconjugants demonstrated a tandem array between ICESsu32457 and ICESa2603. Matings between tandem array-containing S. agalactiae 2603V/R (donor) and Streptococcus pyogenes RF12 (recipient) yielded a single transconjugant containing a hybrid ICE, here named ICESa2603/ICESsu32457. The hybrid formed by recombination of the left ∼1.3-kb sequence of ICESsu32457 and the ∼1.3-kb sequence of ICESa2603. Interestingly, the hybrid ICE was transferable between S. pyogenes strains, thus demonstrating that it behaves as a conventional ICE. These findings suggest that both tandem arrays and hybrid ICEs may contribute to the evolution of antibiotic resistance in streptococci, creating novel mobile elements capable of disseminating new combinations of antibiotic resistance genes.

  12. Diversity of human small intestinal Streptococcus and Veillonella populations.

    PubMed

    van den Bogert, Bartholomeus; Erkus, Oylum; Boekhorst, Jos; de Goffau, Marcus; Smid, Eddy J; Zoetendal, Erwin G; Kleerebezem, Michiel

    2013-08-01

    Molecular and cultivation approaches were employed to study the phylogenetic richness and temporal dynamics of Streptococcus and Veillonella populations in the small intestine. Microbial profiling of human small intestinal samples collected from four ileostomy subjects at four time points displayed abundant populations of Streptococcus spp. most affiliated with S. salivarius, S. thermophilus, and S. parasanguinis, as well as Veillonella spp. affiliated with V. atypica, V. parvula, V. dispar, and V. rogosae. Relative abundances varied per subject and time of sampling. Streptococcus and Veillonella isolates were cultured using selective media from ileostoma effluent samples collected at two time points from a single subject. The richness of the Streptococcus and Veillonella isolates was assessed at species and strain level by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and genetic fingerprinting, respectively. A total of 160 Streptococcus and 37 Veillonella isolates were obtained. Genetic fingerprinting differentiated seven Streptococcus lineages from ileostoma effluent, illustrating the strain richness within this ecosystem. The Veillonella isolates were represented by a single phylotype. Our study demonstrated that the small intestinal Streptococcus populations displayed considerable changes over time at the genetic lineage level because only representative strains of a single Streptococcus lineage could be cultivated from ileostoma effluent at both time points.

  13. Draft Genome Sequence of Streptococcus agalactiae PR06

    PubMed Central

    MZ, Irma Syakina; Teh, L. K.

    2013-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae (group B streptococcus [GBS]) is a Gram-positive bacterium that was first recognized as a causative agent of bovine mastitis. S. agalactiae has subsequently emerged as a significant cause of human diseases. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of S. agalactiae PR06, which was isolated from a septicemic patient in a local hospital in Malaysia. PMID:23766409

  14. Human Streptococcus agalactiae isolate in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Streptococcus agalactiae, the Lancefield group B Streptococcus (GBS), long recognized as a mammalian pathogen, is an emerging pathogen to fish. We show that a GBS serotype Ia, multilocus sequence type ST-7 isolate from a human neonatal meningitis clinical case causes disease signs and mortality in N...

  15. Novel Streptococcus infantarius subsp. infantarius variants harboring lactose metabolism genes homologous to Streptococcus thermophilus.

    PubMed

    Jans, Christoph; Gerber, Andrea; Bugnard, Joséphine; Njage, Patrick Murigu Kamau; Lacroix, Christophe; Meile, Leo

    2012-08-01

    Streptococcus infantarius subsp. infantarius belongs to the Streptococcus bovis/Streptococcus equinus complex (SBSEC) commonly associated with human and animal infections. We elucidated the lactose metabolism of S. infantarius subsp. infantarius predominant in African fermented milk products. S. infantarius subsp. infantarius isolates (n = 192) were identified in 88% of spontaneously fermented camel milk suusac samples (n = 24) from Kenya and Somalia at log₁₀ 8.2-8.5 CFU mL⁻¹. African S. infantarius isolates excreted stoichiometric amounts of galactose when grown on lactose, exhibiting a metabolism similar to Streptococcus thermophilus and distinct from their type strain. African S. infantarius subsp. infantarius CJ18 harbors a regular gal operon with 99.7-100% sequence identity to S. infantarius subsp. infantarius ATCC BAA-102(T) and a gal-lac operon with 91.7-97.6% sequence identity to S. thermophilus, absent in all sequenced SBSEC strains analyzed. The expression and functionality of lacZ was demonstrated in a β-galactosidase assay. The gal-lac operon was identified in 100% of investigated S. infantarius isolates (n = 46) from suusac samples and confirmed in Malian fermented cow milk isolates. The African S. infantarius variant potentially evolved through horizontal gene transfer of an S. thermophilus-homologous lactose pathway. Safety assessments are needed to identify any putative health risks of this novel S. infantarius variant. PMID:22475940

  16. Influence of pH on inhibition of Streptococcus mutans by Streptococcus oligofermentans.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ying; Chu, Lei; Wu, Fei; Guo, Lili; Li, Mengci; Wang, Yinghui; Wu, Ligeng

    2014-02-01

    Streptococcus oligofermentans is a novel strain of oral streptococcus that can specifically inhibit the growth of Streptococcus mutans. The aims of this study were to assess the growth of S. oligofermentans and the ability of S. oligofermentans to inhibit growth of Streptococcus mutans at different pH values. Growth inhibition was investigated in vitro using an interspecies competition assay. The 4-aminoantipyine method was used to measure the initial production rate and the total yield of hydrogen peroxide in S. oligofermentans. S. oligofermentans grew best at pH 7.0 and showed the most pronounced inhibitory effect when it was inoculated earlier than S. mutans. In terms of the total yield and the initial production rate of hydrogen peroxide by S. oligofermentans, the effects of the different culture pH values were as follows: pH 7.0 > 6.5 > 6.0 > 7.5 > 5.5 = 8.0 (i.e. there was no significant difference between pH 5.5 and pH 8.0). Environmental pH and the sequence of inoculation significantly affected the ability of S. oligofermentans to inhibit the growth of S. mutans. The degree of inhibition may be attributed to the amount of hydrogen peroxide produced.

  17. Novel Streptococcus infantarius subsp. infantarius variants harboring lactose metabolism genes homologous to Streptococcus thermophilus.

    PubMed

    Jans, Christoph; Gerber, Andrea; Bugnard, Joséphine; Njage, Patrick Murigu Kamau; Lacroix, Christophe; Meile, Leo

    2012-08-01

    Streptococcus infantarius subsp. infantarius belongs to the Streptococcus bovis/Streptococcus equinus complex (SBSEC) commonly associated with human and animal infections. We elucidated the lactose metabolism of S. infantarius subsp. infantarius predominant in African fermented milk products. S. infantarius subsp. infantarius isolates (n = 192) were identified in 88% of spontaneously fermented camel milk suusac samples (n = 24) from Kenya and Somalia at log₁₀ 8.2-8.5 CFU mL⁻¹. African S. infantarius isolates excreted stoichiometric amounts of galactose when grown on lactose, exhibiting a metabolism similar to Streptococcus thermophilus and distinct from their type strain. African S. infantarius subsp. infantarius CJ18 harbors a regular gal operon with 99.7-100% sequence identity to S. infantarius subsp. infantarius ATCC BAA-102(T) and a gal-lac operon with 91.7-97.6% sequence identity to S. thermophilus, absent in all sequenced SBSEC strains analyzed. The expression and functionality of lacZ was demonstrated in a β-galactosidase assay. The gal-lac operon was identified in 100% of investigated S. infantarius isolates (n = 46) from suusac samples and confirmed in Malian fermented cow milk isolates. The African S. infantarius variant potentially evolved through horizontal gene transfer of an S. thermophilus-homologous lactose pathway. Safety assessments are needed to identify any putative health risks of this novel S. infantarius variant.

  18. Ferrous iron transport in Streptococcus mutans

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, S.L.; Arcenaeux, J.E.L.; Byers, B.R.; Martin, M.E.; Aranha, H.

    1986-12-01

    Radioiron uptake from /sup 59/FeCl/sub 3/ by Streptococcus mutans OMZ176 was increased by anaerobiosis, sodium ascorbate, and phenazine methosulfate (PMS), although there was a 10-min lag before PMS stimulation was evident. The reductant ascorbate may have provided ferrous iron. The PMS was reduced by the cells, and the reduced PMS then may have generated ferrous iron for transport; reduced PMS also may have depleted dissolved oxygen. It was concluded that S. mutans transports only ferrous iron, utilizing reductants furnished by glucose metabolism to reduce iron prior to its uptake.

  19. Colonisation endpoints in Streptococcus pneumoniae vaccine trials.

    PubMed

    Auranen, Kari; Rinta-Kokko, Hanna; Goldblatt, David; Nohynek, Hanna; O'Brien, Katherine L; Satzke, Catherine; Simell, Birgit; Tanskanen, Antti; Käyhty, Helena

    2013-12-17

    Evaluating vaccine efficacy for protection against colonisation (VEcol) with bacterial pathogens is an area of growing interest. In this article, we consider estimation of VEcol for colonisation with Streptococcus pneumoniae (the pneumococcus). Colonisation is a common, recurrent and multi-type endpoint that requires both careful definition of the vaccine efficacy parameter and the corresponding method of estimation. We review recent developments in the area and provide practical guidelines for choosing the estimand and the estimation method in trials with a colonisation endpoint. We concentrate on methods that are based on a cross-sectional study design, in which only one nasopharyngeal sample is obtained per study subject.

  20. Streptococcus agalactiae pyomyositis in diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Panikkath, Deepa; Tantrachoti, Pakpoom; Panikkath, Ragesh; Nugent, Kenneth

    2016-07-01

    Pyomyositis is an acute infectious disorder affecting the skeletal muscle. Although seen more commonly in the tropics, cases are being reported in temperate countries, including the United States. We report a case of nontropical pyomyositis in a 58-year-old diabetic man who presented with a vague chest wall swelling. His initial clinical presentation and imaging findings suggested an intramuscular hematoma. He later developed fever with increased swelling, and pyomyositis was diagnosed after an aspiration of the swelling yielded Streptococcus agalactiae. Aspiration of the abscess and the use of appropriate antibiotics led to complete resolution of the disease. We discuss possible factors in diabetics that might predispose them to pyomyositis. PMID:27365874

  1. Streptococcus anginosus infections: crossing tissue planes.

    PubMed

    Sunwoo, Bernie Y; Miller, Wallace T

    2014-10-01

    Streptococcus anginosus has long been recognized to cause invasive pyogenic infections. This holds true for thoracic infections where S. anginosus has a propensity for abscess and empyema formation. Early diagnosis is important given the significant morbidity and mortality associated with thoracic S. anginosus infections. Yet, distinguishing thoracic S. anginosus clinically is difficult. We present three cases of thoracic S. anginosus that demonstrated radiographic extension across tissue planes, including the interlobar fissure, diaphragm, and chest wall. Few infectious etiologies are known to cross tissue planes. Accordingly, we propose S. anginosus be considered among the differential diagnosis of potential infectious etiologies causing radiographic extension across tissue planes.

  2. Update on Streptococcus equi subsp equi infections.

    PubMed

    Mallicote, Martha

    2015-04-01

    There are few diseases that ignite as much fervor among horse owners as strangles. Streptococcus equi subsp equi (strangles) infections frequently require the treating veterinarian to manage not only the clinical cases but also the biosecurity and provision of information to all involved parties. Although the disease is typically characterized by low mortality and high morbidity, restrictions of horse movement that result from appropriate quarantine procedures often frustrate the involved parties. The aims of this article are to provide clinically relevant information for diagnosis, treatment, and biosecurity management of strangles infection.

  3. Acid tolerance mechanisms utilized by Streptococcus mutans

    PubMed Central

    Matsui, Robert; Cvitkovitch, Dennis

    2010-01-01

    Since its discovery in 1924 by J Clarke, Streptococcus mutans has been the focus of rigorous research efforts due to its involvement in caries initiation and progression. Its ability to ferment a range of dietary carbohydrates can rapidly drop the external environmental pH, thereby making dental plaque inhabitable to many competing species and can ultimately lead to tooth decay. Acid production by this oral pathogen would prove suicidal if not for its remarkable ability to withstand the acid onslaught by utilizing a wide variety of highly evolved acid-tolerance mechanisms. The elucidation of these mechanisms will be discussed, serving as the focus of this review. PMID:20210551

  4. [Infectious aortitis caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae].

    PubMed

    Zizi, O; Jiber, H; Bouarhroum, A

    2016-02-01

    Infectious aortitis is a rare clinical entity that most often manifests itself by an aortic aneurysm. The syphilitic or tubercular forms can be subacute. When it is caused by Salmonella sp., Staphylococcus sp. or Streptococcus pneumoniae, the aortitis is acute with alarming symptoms. Germs found in most cases are Salmonella and Staphylococcus aureus. S. pneumoniae rarely causes infectious aortitis. We report the case of a 75-year-old patient seen in an emergency setting for sudden-onset abdominal pain with fever. An abdominal angio-computed tomography (CT) scan showed a sacciform infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm, with an inflammatory aspect and periaortic hematoma. Surgical cure was undertaken because of the impending rupture. An interposition aortic replacement graft was implanted. Blood cultures and bacteriological study of the aortic wall isolated a S. pneumoniae. The anatomical pathology study reported fibrin clot leukocyte remodeling of the aortic wall. An intravenous antibiotic regimen was started. Several organisms, including Streptococcus, can cause infectious aortitis. We found 36 cases described in the literature in addition to our patient. PMID:26775836

  5. Diverse virulent pneumophages infect Streptococcus mitis.

    PubMed

    Ouennane, Siham; Leprohon, Philippe; Moineau, Sylvain

    2015-01-01

    Streptococcus mitis has emerged as one of the leading causes of bacterial endocarditis and is related to Streptococcus pneumoniae. Antibiotic resistance has also increased among strains of S. mitis and S. pneumoniae. Phages are being reinvestigated as alternatives to antibiotics for managing infections. In this study, the two virulent phages Cp-1 (Podoviridae) and Dp-1 (Siphoviridae), previously isolated from S. pneumoniae, were found to also infect S. mitis. Microbiological assays showed that both pneumophages could not only replicate in S. mitis but also produced more visible plaques on this host. However, the burst size and phage adsorption data were lower in S. mitis as compared to S. pneumoniae. A comparison of the genomes of each phage grown on both hosts produced identical nucleotide sequences, confirming that the same phages infect both bacterial species. We also discovered that the genomic sequence of podophage Cp-1 of the Félix d'Hérelle collection is different than the previously reported sequence and thus renamed SOCP. PMID:25692983

  6. Streptococcus agalactiae infection in zebrafish larvae.

    PubMed

    Kim, Brandon J; Hancock, Bryan M; Del Cid, Natasha; Bermudez, Andres; Traver, David; Doran, Kelly S

    2015-02-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B Streptococcus, GBS) is an encapsulated, Gram-positive bacterium that is a leading cause of neonatal pneumonia, sepsis and meningitis, and an emerging aquaculture pathogen. The zebrafish (Danio rerio) is a genetically tractable model vertebrate that has been used to analyze the pathogenesis of both aquatic and human bacterial pathogens. We have developed a larval zebrafish model of GBS infection to study bacterial and host factors that contribute to disease progression. GBS infection resulted in dose dependent larval death, and GBS serotype III, ST-17 strain was observed as the most virulent. Virulence was dependent on the presence of the GBS capsule, surface anchored lipoteichoic acid (LTA) and toxin production, as infection with GBS mutants lacking these factors resulted in little to no mortality. Additionally, interleukin-1β (il1b) and CXCL-8 (cxcl8a) were significantly induced following GBS infection compared to controls. We also visualized GBS outside the brain vasculature, suggesting GBS penetration into the brain during the course of infection. Our data demonstrate that zebrafish larvae are a valuable model organism to study GBS pathogenesis. PMID:25617657

  7. Diverse Virulent Pneumophages Infect Streptococcus mitis

    PubMed Central

    Ouennane, Siham; Leprohon, Philippe; Moineau, Sylvain

    2015-01-01

    Streptococcus mitis has emerged as one of the leading causes of bacterial endocarditis and is related to Streptococcus pneumoniae. Antibiotic resistance has also increased among strains of S. mitis and S. pneumoniae. Phages are being reinvestigated as alternatives to antibiotics for managing infections. In this study, the two virulent phages Cp-1 (Podoviridae) and Dp-1 (Siphoviridae), previously isolated from S. pneumoniae, were found to also infect S. mitis. Microbiological assays showed that both pneumophages could not only replicate in S. mitis but also produced more visible plaques on this host. However, the burst size and phage adsorption data were lower in S. mitis as compared to S. pneumoniae. A comparison of the genomes of each phage grown on both hosts produced identical nucleotide sequences, confirming that the same phages infect both bacterial species. We also discovered that the genomic sequence of podophage Cp-1 of the Félix d’Hérelle collection is different than the previously reported sequence and thus renamed SOCP. PMID:25692983

  8. Occurrence of Streptococcus macedonicus in Italian cheeses.

    PubMed

    Pacini, Federico; Cariolato, Diego; Andrighetto, Christian; Lombardi, Angiolella

    2006-08-01

    A new approach for the detection and enumeration of Streptococcus macedonicus in cheese was developed. The method which is based on a first screening of cheeses by a PCR assay specific for S. macedonicus followed by plating positive samples on a differential medium (SM medium) was applied to 51 samples derived from PDO and traditional Italian cheeses. Streptococcus macedonicus was found in 16 of the 51 samples examined in the present work. With the exclusion of an Asiago cheese sample in which very high numbers of S. macedonicus (7.13 log CFU g(-1)) were found, the counts of S. macedonicus in SM medium ranged from 2.48 to 4.70 log CFU g(-1). In the same cheeses, total streptococci enumerated onto M17 agar were found at higher concentrations with values up to 7.88 log CFU g(-1). The system developed was particularly useful for the differential count of S. macedonicus in cheese and allowed to evaluate the occurrence of this species within the complex microbial lactic acid bacteria (LAB) population, which is typical of traditional cheeses. Results showed that in the examined cheeses S. macedonicus cannot be considered as a dominant LAB species.

  9. Bacteremia with Streptococcus bovis and Streptococcus salivarius: clinical correlates of more accurate identification of isolates.

    PubMed Central

    Ruoff, K L; Miller, S I; Garner, C V; Ferraro, M J; Calderwood, S B

    1989-01-01

    Two biotypes of Streptococcus bovis can be identified by laboratory testing and can be distinguished from the phenotypically similar organism Streptococcus salivarius. We assessed the clinical relevance of careful identification of these organisms in 68 patients with streptococcal bacteremia caused by these similar species. S. bovis was more likely to be clinically significant when isolated from blood (89%) than was S. salivarius (23%). There was a striking association between S. bovis I bacteremia and underlying endocarditis (94%) compared with that of S. bovis II bacteremia (18%). Bacteremia with S. bovis I was also highly correlated with an underlying colonic neoplasm (71% of patients overall, 100% of those with thorough colonic examinations) compared with bacteremia due to S. bovis II or S. salivarius (17% overall, 25% of patients with thorough colonic examinations). We conclude that careful identification of streptococcal bacteremic isolates as S. bovis biotype I provides clinically important information and should be more widely applied. PMID:2915024

  10. Reappraisal of the taxonomy of Streptococcus suis serotypes 20, 22 and 26: Streptococcus parasuis sp. nov.

    PubMed

    Nomoto, R; Maruyama, F; Ishida, S; Tohya, M; Sekizaki, T; Osawa, Ro

    2015-02-01

    In order to clarify the taxonomic position of serotypes 20, 22 and 26 of Streptococcus suis, biochemical and molecular genetic studies were performed on isolates (SUT-7, SUT-286(T), SUT-319, SUT-328 and SUT-380) reacted with specific antisera of serotypes 20, 22 or 26 from the saliva of healthy pigs as well as reference strains of serotypes 20, 22 and 26. Comparative recN gene sequencing showed high genetic relatedness among our isolates, but marked differences from the type strain S. suis NCTC 10234(T), i.e. 74.8-75.7 % sequence similarity. The genomic relatedness between the isolates and other strains of species of the genus Streptococcus, including S. suis, was calculated using the average nucleotide identity values of whole genome sequences, which indicated that serotypes 20, 22 and 26 should be removed taxonomically from S. suis and treated as a novel genomic species. Comparative sequence analysis revealed 99.0-100 % sequence similarities for the 16S rRNA genes between the reference strains of serotypes 20, 22 and 26, and our isolates. Isolate STU-286(T) had relatively high 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with S. suis NCTC 10234(T) (98.8 %). SUT-286(T) could be distinguished from S. suis and other closely related species of the genus Streptococcus using biochemical tests. Due to its phylogenetic and phenotypic similarities to S. suis we propose naming the novel species Streptococcus parasuis sp. nov., with SUT-286(T) ( = JCM 30273(T) = DSM 29126(T)) as the type strain.

  11. Laboratory growth and maintenance of Streptococcus pyogenes (the Group A Streptococcus, GAS).

    PubMed

    Gera, Kanika; McIver, Kevin S

    2013-10-02

    Streptococcus pyogenes is a Gram-positive bacterium that strictly infects humans. It is the causative agent of a broad spectrum of diseases accounting for millions of infections and at least 517,000 deaths each year worldwide. It is a nutritionally fastidious organism that ferments sugars to produce lactic acid and has strict requirements for growth. To aid in the study of this organism, this unit describes the growth and maintenance of S. pyogenes.

  12. Comparison of genes required for H2O2 resistance in Streptococcus gordonii and Streptococcus sanguinis.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yifan; Itzek, Andreas; Kreth, Jens

    2014-12-01

    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is produced by several members of the genus Streptococcus mainly through the pyruvate oxidase SpxB under aerobic growth conditions. The acute toxic nature of H2O2 raises the interesting question of how streptococci cope with intrinsically produced H2O2, which subsequently accumulates in the microenvironment and threatens the closely surrounding population. Here, we investigate the H2O2 susceptibility of oral Streptococcus gordonii and Streptococcus sanguinis and elucidate potential mechanisms of how they protect themselves from the deleterious effect of H2O2. Both organisms are considered primary colonizers and occupy the same intraoral niche making them potential targets for H2O2 produced by other species. We demonstrate that S. gordonii produces relatively more H2O2 and has a greater ability for resistance to H2O2 stress. Functional studies show that, unlike in Streptococcus pneumoniae, H2O2 resistance is not dependent on a functional SpxB and confirms the important role of the ferritin-like DNA-binding protein Dps. However, the observed increased H2O2 resistance of S. gordonii over S. sanguinis is likely to be caused by an oxidative stress protection machinery present even under anaerobic conditions, while S. sanguinis requires a longer period of time for adaptation. The ability to produce more H2O2 and be more resistant to H2O2 might aid S. gordonii in the competitive oral biofilm environment, since it is lower in abundance yet manages to survive quite efficiently in the oral biofilm.

  13. Laboratory Growth and Maintenance of Streptococcus pyogenes (The Group A Streptococcus, GAS)

    PubMed Central

    Gera, Kanika; McIver, Kevin S.

    2013-01-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes is a Gram-positive bacterium that strictly infects humans. It is the causative agent of a broad spectrum of diseases accounting for millions of infections and at least 517, 000 deaths each year worldwide (Carapetis et al., 2005). It is a nutritionally fastidious organism that ferments sugars to produce lactic acid and has strict requirements for growth. To aid in the study of this organism, this unit describes the growth and maintenance of S. pyogenes. PMID:24510893

  14. Phage 3396 from a Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis pathovar may have its origins in streptococcus pyogenes.

    PubMed

    Davies, Mark R; McMillan, David J; Van Domselaar, Gary H; Jones, Malcolm K; Sriprakash, Kadaba S

    2007-04-01

    Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis strains (group G streptococcus [GGS]) are largely defined as commensal organisms, which are closely related to the well-defined human pathogen, the group A streptococcus (GAS). While lateral gene transfers are emerging as a common theme in these species, little is known about the mechanisms and role of these transfers and their effect on the population structure of streptococci in nature. It is now becoming evident that bacteriophages are major contributors to the genotypic diversity of GAS and, consequently, are pivotal to the GAS strain structure. Furthermore, bacteriophages are strongly associated with altering the pathogenic potential of GAS. In contrast, little is know about phages from GGS and their role in the population dynamics of GGS. In this study we report the first complete genome sequence of a GGS phage, Phi3396. Exhibiting high homology to the GAS phage Phi315.1, the chimeric nature of Phi3396 is unraveled to reveal evidence of extensive ongoing genetic diversity and dissemination of streptococcal phages in nature. Furthermore, we expand on our recent findings to identify inducible Phi3396 homologues in GAS from a region of endemicity for GAS and GGS infection. Together, these findings provide new insights into not only the population structure of GGS but also the overall population structure of the streptococcal genus and the emergence of pathogenic variants.

  15. Identification of Lipoprotein Homologues of Pneumococcal PsaA in the Equine Pathogens Streptococcus equi and Streptococcus zooepidemicus

    PubMed Central

    Harrington, Dean J.; Greated, Joanne S.; Chanter, Neil; Sutcliffe, Iain C.

    2000-01-01

    Streptococcus equi and Streptococcus zooepidemicus are major etiological agents of upper and lower airway disease in horses. Despite the considerable animal suffering and economic burden associated with these diseases, the factors that contribute to the virulence of these equine pathogens have not been extensively investigated. Here we demonstrate the presence of a homologue of the Streptococcus pneumoniae PsaA protein in both of these equine pathogens. Inhibition of signal peptide processing by the antibiotic globomycin confirmed the lipoprotein nature of the mature proteins, and surface exposure was confirmed by their release from intact cells by mild trypsinolysis. PMID:10992520

  16. Molecular typing of Streptococcus agalactiae isolates from fish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The genetic variability among Streptococcus agalactiae isolates recovered from fish was characterized using single-stranded conformation polymorphisms (SSCP) analysis of the intergenic spacer region (ISR), and amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) fingerprinting. A total of 49 S. agalactiae ...

  17. Quantification of bovine oxylipids during intramammary Streptococcus uberis infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Streptococcus uberis mastitis results in severe mammary tissue damage in dairy cows due to uncontrolled inflammation. Oxylipids are potent lipid mediators that orchestrate pathogen-induced inflammatory responses, however, changes in oxylipid biosynthesis during S. uberis mastitis are unknown. Thus, ...

  18. Comparative genomics of the dairy isolate Streptococcus macedonicus ACA-DC 198 against related members of the Streptococcus bovis/Streptococcus equinus complex

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Within the genus Streptococcus, only Streptococcus thermophilus is used as a starter culture in food fermentations. Streptococcus macedonicus though, which belongs to the Streptococcus bovis/Streptococcus equinus complex (SBSEC), is also frequently isolated from fermented foods mainly of dairy origin. Members of the SBSEC have been implicated in human endocarditis and colon cancer. Here we compare the genome sequence of the dairy isolate S. macedonicus ACA-DC 198 to the other SBSEC genomes in order to assess in silico its potential adaptation to milk and its pathogenicity status. Results Despite the fact that the SBSEC species were found tightly related based on whole genome phylogeny of streptococci, two distinct patterns of evolution were identified among them. Streptococcus macedonicus, Streptococcus infantarius CJ18 and Streptococcus pasteurianus ATCC 43144 seem to have undergone reductive evolution resulting in significantly diminished genome sizes and increased percentages of potential pseudogenes when compared to Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus. In addition, the three species seem to have lost genes for catabolizing complex plant carbohydrates and for detoxifying toxic substances previously linked to the ability of S. gallolyticus to survive in the rumen. Analysis of the S. macedonicus genome revealed features that could support adaptation to milk, including an extra gene cluster for lactose and galactose metabolism, a proteolytic system for casein hydrolysis, auxotrophy for several vitamins, an increased ability to resist bacteriophages and horizontal gene transfer events with the dairy Lactococcus lactis and S. thermophilus as potential donors. In addition, S. macedonicus lacks several pathogenicity-related genes found in S. gallolyticus. For example, S. macedonicus has retained only one (i.e. the pil3) of the three pilus gene clusters which may mediate the binding of S. gallolyticus to the extracellular matrix. Unexpectedly

  19. Streptococcus pneumoniae: virulence factors, pathogenesis, and vaccines.

    PubMed Central

    AlonsoDeVelasco, E; Verheul, A F; Verhoef, J; Snippe, H

    1995-01-01

    Although pneumococcal conjugate vaccines are close to being licensed, a more profound knowledge of the virulence factors responsible for the morbidity and mortality caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae is necessary. This review deals with the major structures of pneumococci involved in the pathogenesis of pneumococcal disease and their interference with the defense mechanisms of the host. It is well known that protection against S. pneumoniae is the result of phagocytosis of invading pathogens. For this process, complement and anticapsular polysaccharide antibodies are required. Besides, relatively recent experimental data suggest that protection is also mediated by the removal of disintegrating pneumococci and their degradation products (cell wall, pneumolysin). These structures seem to be major contributors to illness and death caused by pneumococci. An effective conjugate vaccine should therefore preferably include the capsular polysaccharide and at least one of these inflammatory factors. PMID:8531887

  20. Current Taxonomical Situation of Streptococcus suis.

    PubMed

    Okura, Masatoshi; Osaki, Makoto; Nomoto, Ryohei; Arai, Sakura; Osawa, Ro; Sekizaki, Tsutomu; Takamatsu, Daisuke

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus suis, a major porcine pathogen and an important zoonotic agent, is considered to be composed of phenotypically and genetically diverse strains. However, recent studies reported several "S. suis-like strains" that were identified as S. suis by commonly used methods for the identification of this bacterium, but were regarded as distinct species from S. suis according to the standards of several taxonomic analyses. Furthermore, it has been suggested that some S. suis-like strains can be assigned to several novel species. In this review, we discuss the current taxonomical situation of S. suis with a focus on (1) the classification history of the taxon of S. suis; (2) S. suis-like strains revealed by taxonomic analyses; (3) methods for detecting and identifying this species, including a novel method that can distinguish S. suis isolates from S. suis-like strains; and (4) current topics on the reclassification of S. suis-like strains. PMID:27348006

  1. Lactam inhibiting Streptococcus mutans growth on titanium.

    PubMed

    Xavier, J G; Geremias, T C; Montero, J F D; Vahey, B R; Benfatti, C A M; Souza, J C M; Magini, R S; Pimenta, A L

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this work was to analyze the activity of novel synthetic lactams on preventing biofilm formation on titanium surfaces. Titanium (Ti6Al4V) samples were exposed to Streptococcus mutans cultures in the presence or absence of a synthetic lactam. After 48h incubation, planktonic growth was determined by spectrophotometry. Biofilm was evaluated by crystal violet staining and colony forming units (CFU·ml(-)(1)), followed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Results showed that the average of adhered viable cells was approximately 1.5×10(2)CFU/ml in the presence of lactam and 4×10(2)CFU/ml in its absence. This novel compound was considerable active in reducing biofilm formation over titanium surfaces, indicating its potential for the development of antimicrobial drugs targeting the inhibition of the initial stages of bacterial biofilms on dental implants abutments. PMID:27524086

  2. Current Taxonomical Situation of Streptococcus suis

    PubMed Central

    Okura, Masatoshi; Osaki, Makoto; Nomoto, Ryohei; Arai, Sakura; Osawa, Ro; Sekizaki, Tsutomu; Takamatsu, Daisuke

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus suis, a major porcine pathogen and an important zoonotic agent, is considered to be composed of phenotypically and genetically diverse strains. However, recent studies reported several “S. suis-like strains” that were identified as S. suis by commonly used methods for the identification of this bacterium, but were regarded as distinct species from S. suis according to the standards of several taxonomic analyses. Furthermore, it has been suggested that some S. suis-like strains can be assigned to several novel species. In this review, we discuss the current taxonomical situation of S. suis with a focus on (1) the classification history of the taxon of S. suis; (2) S. suis-like strains revealed by taxonomic analyses; (3) methods for detecting and identifying this species, including a novel method that can distinguish S. suis isolates from S. suis-like strains; and (4) current topics on the reclassification of S. suis-like strains. PMID:27348006

  3. Group A Streptococcus invasive infections: a review

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Karl A.; Laverdière, Michel

    1997-01-01

    The incidence of group A Streptococcus (GAS) invasive infections has been increasing worldwide, and there is no obvious explanation for this phenomenon. In 1993, a working group on severe GAS infections was established to define accurately what constitutes an invasive infection. Three types of infection are particularly feared: necrotizing fasciitis, myositis and a newly defined entity, named streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (STSS) because of a certain analogy with its staphylococcal counterpart. GAS produces many toxins responsible for its clinical manifestations. Some of them, labelled streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxins, have been characterized as superantigens. These proteins play a key role in initiating the immune response to GAS and are mostly responsible for the precipitous course of invasive infections. Death rates are high in streptococcal invasive infections, ranging from about 20% for necrotizing fasciitis to almost 100% for myositis. Therapy consists mainly of high doses of antibiotic combinations, aggressive surgery, and intravenous administration of immunoglobulins for STSS. PMID:9030079

  4. Capillary precipitin typing of Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    PubMed Central

    Russell, H; Facklam, R R; Padula, J F; Cooksey, R

    1978-01-01

    The Neufeld test is presently the method of choice for typing Streptococcus pneumoniae. Although the test is reliable and relatively easy to perform, a simpler test, not requiring microscopic examination, would facilitate large-scale testing. A capillary precipitine test has been designed and tested for its usefulness in typing pneumococci. The type-specific carbohydrate antigens were obtained from broth culture supernatants. The antigens were reacted with type-specific antisera in glass capillary pipettes. Results from 82 reference antigens and 166 antigens from diagnostic pneumococcal strains showed that the reactions ere specific, and the results agreed with Neufeld test results. These results indicate that the precipitin test is as specific as the Neufeld test. The test is easy to perform, requires small amounts of antiserum, and can be completed in a short period of time. PMID:31369

  5. Mechanisms of genome evolution of Streptococcus

    PubMed Central

    Andam, Cheryl P.; Hanage, William P.

    2014-01-01

    The genus Streptococcus contains 104 recognized species, many of which are associated with human or animal hosts. A globally prevalent human pathogen in this group is Streptococcus pneumoniae (the pneumococcus). While being a common resident of the upper respiratory tract, it is also a major cause of otitis media, pneumonia, bacteremia and meningitis, accounting for a high burden of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Recent findings demonstrate the importance of recombination and selection in driving the population dynamics and evolution of different pneumococcal lineages, allowing them to successfully evade the impacts of selective pressures such as vaccination and antibiotic treatment. We highlight the ability of pneumococci to respond to these pressures through processes including serotype replacement, capsular switching and horizontal gene transfer (HGT) of antibiotic resistance genes. The challenge in controlling this pathogen also lies in the exceptional genetic and phenotypic variation among different pneumococcal lineages, particularly in terms of their pathogenicity and resistance to current therapeutic strategies. The widespread use of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines, which target only a small subset of the more than 90 pneumococcal serotypes, provides us with a unique opportunity to elucidate how the processes of selection and recombination interact to generate a remarkable level of plasticity and heterogeneity in the pneumococcal genome. These processes also play an important role in the emergence and spread of multi-resistant strains, which continues to pose a challenge in disease control and/or eradication. The application of population of genomic approaches at different spatial and temporal scales will help improve strategies to control this global pathogen, and potentially other pathogenic streptococci. PMID:25461843

  6. Mechanisms of genome evolution of Streptococcus.

    PubMed

    Andam, Cheryl P; Hanage, William P

    2015-07-01

    The genus Streptococcus contains 104 recognized species, many of which are associated with human or animal hosts. A globally prevalent human pathogen in this group is Streptococcus pneumoniae (the pneumococcus). While being a common resident of the upper respiratory tract, it is also a major cause of otitis media, pneumonia, bacteremia and meningitis, accounting for a high burden of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Recent findings demonstrate the importance of recombination and selection in driving the population dynamics and evolution of different pneumococcal lineages, allowing them to successfully evade the impacts of selective pressures such as vaccination and antibiotic treatment. We highlight the ability of pneumococci to respond to these pressures through processes including serotype replacement, capsular switching and horizontal gene transfer (HGT) of antibiotic resistance genes. The challenge in controlling this pathogen also lies in the exceptional genetic and phenotypic variation among different pneumococcal lineages, particularly in terms of their pathogenicity and resistance to current therapeutic strategies. The widespread use of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines, which target only a small subset of the more than 90 pneumococcal serotypes, provides us with a unique opportunity to elucidate how the processes of selection and recombination interact to generate a remarkable level of plasticity and heterogeneity in the pneumococcal genome. These processes also play an important role in the emergence and spread of multi-resistant strains, which continues to pose a challenge in disease control and/or eradication. The application of population of genomic approaches at different spatial and temporal scales will help improve strategies to control this global pathogen, and potentially other pathogenic streptococci.

  7. Transfer of plasmids by conjugation in Streptococcus pneumoniae

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, M.D.; Shoemaker, N.B.; Burdett, V.; Guild, W.R.

    1980-01-01

    Transfer of resistance plasmids occurred by conjugation in Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) similiarly to the process in other streptococcal groups. The 20-megadalton plasmid pIP501 mediated its own DNase-resistant transfer by filter mating and mobilized the 3.6-megadalton non-self-transmissible pMV158. Pneumococcal strains acted as donors or as recipients for intraspecies transfers and for interspecific transfers with Streptococcus faecalis. Transfer-deficient mutants of pIP501 have been found.

  8. A selective-differential medium for detection of Streptococcus agalactiae.

    PubMed

    Guthrie, R K; Brunson, K W; Stiles, J C

    1968-01-01

    A practical culture medium which allows direct plating of milk samples for detection and differentiation of Streptococcus agalactiae within 48 hours is described. Most other micro-organisms likely to be present in these samples are inhibited. Although some strains of Staphylococcus species and ofStreptococcus faecalis are able to grow, they may be differentiated on the basis of reaction in the medium surrounding the colonies.

  9. Streptococcus rubneri sp. nov., isolated from the human throat.

    PubMed

    Huch, Melanie; De Bruyne, Katrien; Cleenwerck, Ilse; Bub, Achim; Cho, Gyu-Sung; Watzl, Bernhard; Snauwaert, Isabel; Franz, Charles M A P; Vandamme, Peter

    2013-11-01

    The novel, Gram-stain-positive, ovoid, lactic acid bacterial isolates LMG 27205, LMG 27206, LMG 27207(T) and MRI-F 18 were obtained from throat samples of healthy humans. 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses indicated that these isolates belong to the genus Streptococcus, specifically the Streptococcus mitis group, with Streptococcus australis and Streptococcus mitis as the nearest neighbours (99.45 and 98.56 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to the respective type strains). Genotypic fingerprinting by fluorescent amplified fragment length polymorphism (FAFLP) and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), DNA-DNA hybridizations, comparative sequence analysis of pheS, rpoA and atpA and physiological and biochemical tests revealed that these bacteria formed a taxon well separated from its nearest neighbours and other species of the genus Streptococcus with validly published names and, therefore, represent a novel species, for which the name Streptococcus rubneri sp. nov. is proposed, with LMG 27207(T) ( = DSM 26920(T)) as the type strain.

  10. Development of Primer Sets for Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification that Enables Rapid and Specific Detection of Streptococcus dysgalactiae, Streptococcus uberis and Streptococcus agalactiae.

    PubMed

    Wang, Deguo; Liu, Yanhong

    2015-05-26

    Streptococcus dysgalactiae, Streptococcus uberis and Streptococcus agalactiae are the three main pathogens causing bovine mastitis, with great losses to the dairy industry. Rapid and specific loop-mediated isothermal amplification methods (LAMP) for identification and differentiation of these three pathogens are not available. With the 16S rRNA gene and 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacers as targets, four sets of LAMP primers were designed for identification and differentiation of S. dysgalactiae, S. uberis and S. agalactiae. The detection limit of all four LAMP primer sets were 0.1 pg DNA template per reaction, the LAMP method with 16S rRNA gene and 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacers as the targets can differentiate the three pathogens, which is potentially useful in epidemiological studies.

  11. Development of Primer Sets for Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification that Enables Rapid and Specific Detection of Streptococcus dysgalactiae, Streptococcus uberis and Streptococcus agalactiae

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Deguo; Liu, Yanhong

    2015-01-01

    Streptococcus dysgalactiae, Streptococcus uberis and Streptococcus agalactiae are the three main pathogens causing bovine mastitis, with great losses to the dairy industry. Rapid and specific loop-mediated isothermal amplification methods (LAMP) for identification and differentiation of these three pathogens are not available. With the 16S rRNA gene and 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacers as targets, four sets of LAMP primers were designed for identification and differentiation of S. dysgalactiae, S. uberis and S. agalactiae. The detection limit of all four LAMP primer sets were 0.1 pg DNA template per reaction, the LAMP method with 16S rRNA gene and 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacers as the targets can differentiate the three pathogens, which is potentially useful in epidemiological studies. PMID:26016433

  12. Development of Primer Sets for Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification that Enables Rapid and Specific Detection of Streptococcus dysgalactiae, Streptococcus uberis and Streptococcus agalactiae.

    PubMed

    Wang, Deguo; Liu, Yanhong

    2015-06-01

    Streptococcus dysgalactiae, Streptococcus uberis and Streptococcus agalactiae are the three main pathogens causing bovine mastitis, with great losses to the dairy industry. Rapid and specific loop-mediated isothermal amplification methods (LAMP) for identification and differentiation of these three pathogens are not available. With the 16S rRNA gene and 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacers as targets, four sets of LAMP primers were designed for identification and differentiation of S. dysgalactiae, S. uberis and S. agalactiae. The detection limit of all four LAMP primer sets were 0.1 pg DNA template per reaction, the LAMP method with 16S rRNA gene and 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacers as the targets can differentiate the three pathogens, which is potentially useful in epidemiological studies. PMID:26016433

  13. Three Streptococcus pneumoniae sialidases: three different products.

    PubMed

    Xu, Guogang; Kiefel, Milton J; Wilson, Jennifer C; Andrew, Peter W; Oggioni, Marco R; Taylor, Garry L

    2011-02-16

    Streptococcus penumoniae is a major human pathogen responsible for respiratory tract infections, septicemia, and meningitis and continues to produce numerous cases of disease with relatively high mortalities. S. pneumoniae encodes up to three sialidases, NanA, NanB, and NanC, that have been implicated in pathogenesis and are potential drug targets. NanA has been shown to be a promiscuous sialidase, hydrolyzing the removal of Neu5Ac from a variety of glycoconjugates with retention of configuration at the anomeric center, as we confirm by NMR. NanB is an intramolecular trans-sialidase producing 2,7-anhydro-Neu5Ac selectively from α2,3-sialosides. Here, we show that the first product of NanC is 2-deoxy-2,3-didehydro-N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac2en) that can be slowly hydrated by the enzyme to Neu5Ac. We propose that the three pneumococcal sialidases share a common catalytic mechanism up to the final product formation step, and speculate on the roles of the enzymes in the lifecycle of the bacterium.

  14. Molecular typing of Chinese Streptococcus pyogenes isolates.

    PubMed

    You, Yuanhai; Wang, Haibin; Bi, Zhenwang; Walker, Mark; Peng, Xianhui; Hu, Bin; Zhou, Haijian; Song, Yanyan; Tao, Xiaoxia; Kou, Zengqiang; Meng, Fanliang; Zhang, Menghan; Bi, Zhenqiang; Luo, Fengji; Zhang, Jianzhong

    2015-06-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes causes human infections ranging from mild pharyngitis and impetigo to serious diseases including necrotizing fasciitis and streptococcal toxic shock syndrome. The objective of this study was to compare molecular emm typing and pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) with multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA) for genotyping of Chinese S. pyogenes isolates. Molecular emm typing and PFGE were performed using standard protocols. Seven variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) loci reported in a previous study were used to genotype 169 S. pyogenes geographically-diverse isolates from China isolated from a variety of disease syndromes. Multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis provided greater discrimination between isolates when compared to emm typing and PFGE. Removal of a single VNTR locus (Spy2) reduced the sensitivity by only 0.7%, which suggests that Spy2 was not informative for the isolates screened. The results presented support the use of MLVA as a powerful epidemiological tool for genotyping S. pyogenes clinical isolates. PMID:25843529

  15. Ornithine transport and exchange in Streptococcus lactis

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, J.

    1987-09-01

    Resting cells of Streptococcus lactis 133 appeared to accumulate (/sup 14/C)ornithine to a high concentration in the absence of an exogenous energy source. However, analysis of intracellular amino acid pool constituents and results of transport experiments revealed that the accumulation of ornithine represented a homoexchange between extracellular (/sup 14/C)ornithine and unlabeled ornithine in the cell. The energy-independent exchange of ornithine was not inhibited by proton-conducting uncouplers or by metabolic inhibitors. Intracellular (/sup 14/C)ornithine was retained by resting cells after suspension in a buffered medium. However, addition of unlabeled ornithine to the suspension elicited rapid exit of labeled amino acid. The initial rate of exist of (/sup 14/C)ornithine was dependent on the concentration of unlabeled ornithine in the medium, but this accelerative exchange diffusion process caused no net loss of amino acid. By contrast, the presence of a fermentable energy source caused a rapid expulsion of and new decrease in the concentration of intracellular ornithine. Kinetic analyses of amino acid transport demonstrated competitive inhibition between lysine and ornithine, and data obtained by two-dimensional thin-layer chromatography established the heteroexchange of these basic amino acids. The effects of amino acids and of ornithine analogs on both entry and exit of (/sup 14/C)ornithine have been examined. The data suggest that common carrier mediates the entry and exchange of lysine, arginine, and ornithine in cells of S. lactis.

  16. Molecular typing of Chinese Streptococcus pyogenes isolates.

    PubMed

    You, Yuanhai; Wang, Haibin; Bi, Zhenwang; Walker, Mark; Peng, Xianhui; Hu, Bin; Zhou, Haijian; Song, Yanyan; Tao, Xiaoxia; Kou, Zengqiang; Meng, Fanliang; Zhang, Menghan; Bi, Zhenqiang; Luo, Fengji; Zhang, Jianzhong

    2015-06-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes causes human infections ranging from mild pharyngitis and impetigo to serious diseases including necrotizing fasciitis and streptococcal toxic shock syndrome. The objective of this study was to compare molecular emm typing and pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) with multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA) for genotyping of Chinese S. pyogenes isolates. Molecular emm typing and PFGE were performed using standard protocols. Seven variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) loci reported in a previous study were used to genotype 169 S. pyogenes geographically-diverse isolates from China isolated from a variety of disease syndromes. Multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis provided greater discrimination between isolates when compared to emm typing and PFGE. Removal of a single VNTR locus (Spy2) reduced the sensitivity by only 0.7%, which suggests that Spy2 was not informative for the isolates screened. The results presented support the use of MLVA as a powerful epidemiological tool for genotyping S. pyogenes clinical isolates.

  17. Peptide pheromone signaling in Streptococcus and Enterococcus.

    PubMed

    Cook, Laura C; Federle, Michael J

    2014-05-01

    Intercellular chemical signaling in bacteria, commonly referred to as quorum sensing (QS), relies on the production and detection of compounds known as pheromones to elicit coordinated responses among members of a community. Pheromones produced by Gram-positive bacteria are comprised of small peptides. Based on both peptide structure and sensory system architectures, Gram-positive bacterial signaling pathways may be classified into one of four groups with a defining hallmark: cyclical peptides of the Agr type, peptides that contain Gly-Gly processing motifs, sensory systems of the RNPP family, or the recently characterized Rgg-like regulatory family. The recent discovery that Rgg family members respond to peptide pheromones increases substantially the number of species in which QS is likely a key regulatory component. These pathways control a variety of fundamental behaviors including conjugation, natural competence for transformation, biofilm development, and virulence factor regulation. Overlapping QS pathways found in multiple species and pathways that utilize conserved peptide pheromones provide opportunities for interspecies communication. Here we review pheromone signaling identified in the genera Enterococcus and Streptococcus, providing examples of all four types of pathways.

  18. Glucosyltransferase gene polymorphism among Streptococcus mutans strains.

    PubMed Central

    Chia, J S; Hsu, T Y; Teng, L J; Chen, J Y; Hahn, L J; Yang, C S

    1991-01-01

    Genetic polymorphisms in genes coding for the glucosyltransferases were detected among Streptococcus mutans serotype c strains by Southern blot analysis with DNA probes located within the gtfB gene (H. Aoki, T. Shiroza, M. Hayakawa, S. Sato, and H. K. Kuramitsu, Infect. Immun. 53:587-594, 1986). Restriction endonucleases were used to examine genomic DNAs isolated from serotype a to h strains. The variations were readily detected among 33 strains of serotype c by EcoRI and PstI restriction enzyme digestions. Serotypes e and f, which are genetically similar to serotype c, also had comparable polymorphism; however, serotypes a, b, d, g, and h did not hybridize to the same DNA probes in parallel experiments. Further analysis of enzymatic activities for glucan synthesis and sucrose-dependent adherence revealed no significant differences among the serotype c strains. Our results suggested that genetic polymorphisms existing in S. mutans serotype c strains may reflect a complexity in genes coding for the glucosyltransferases, which are produced ubiquitously in members of the S. mutans group. Images PMID:1826894

  19. Parallel Evolution in Streptococcus pneumoniae Biofilms

    PubMed Central

    Churton, Nicholas W. V.; Misra, Raju V.; Howlin, Robert P.; Allan, Raymond N.; Jefferies, Johanna; Faust, Saul N.; Gharbia, Saheer E.; Edwards, Richard J.; Clarke, Stuart C.; Webb, Jeremy S.

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is a commensal human pathogen and the causative agent of various invasive and noninvasive diseases. Carriage of the pneumococcus in the nasopharynx is thought to be mediated by biofilm formation, an environment where isogenic populations frequently give rise to morphological colony variants, including small colony variant (SCV) phenotypes. We employed metabolic characterization and whole-genome sequencing of biofilm-derived S. pneumoniae serotype 22F pneumococcal SCVs to investigate diversification during biofilm formation. Phenotypic profiling revealed that SCVs exhibit reduced growth rates, reduced capsule expression, altered metabolic profiles, and increased biofilm formation compared to the ancestral strain. Whole-genome sequencing of 12 SCVs from independent biofilm experiments revealed that all SCVs studied had mutations within the DNA-directed RNA polymerase delta subunit (RpoE). Mutations included four large-scale deletions ranging from 51 to 264 bp, one insertion resulting in a coding frameshift, and seven nonsense single-nucleotide substitutions that result in a truncated gene product. This work links mutations in the rpoE gene to SCV formation and enhanced biofilm development in S. pneumoniae and therefore may have important implications for colonization, carriage, and persistence of the organism. Furthermore, recurrent mutation of the pneumococcal rpoE gene presents an unprecedented level of parallel evolution in pneumococcal biofilm development. PMID:27190203

  20. Quorum sensing in group A Streptococcus

    PubMed Central

    Jimenez, Juan Cristobal; Federle, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Quorum sensing (QS) is a widespread phenomenon in the microbial world that has important implications in the coordination of population-wide responses in several bacterial pathogens. In Group A Streptococcus (GAS), many questions surrounding QS systems remain to be solved pertaining to their function and their contribution to the GAS lifestyle in the host. The QS systems of GAS described to date can be categorized into four groups: regulator gene of glucosyltransferase (Rgg), Sil, lantibiotic systems, and LuxS/AI-2. The Rgg family of proteins, a conserved group of transcription factors that modify their activity in response to signaling peptides, has been shown to regulate genes involved in virulence, biofilm formation and competence. The sil locus, whose expression is regulated by the activity of signaling peptides and a putative two-component system (TCS), has been implicated on regulating genes involved with invasive disease in GAS isolates. Lantibiotic regulatory systems are involved in the production of bacteriocins and their autoregulation, and some of these genes have been shown to target both bacterial organisms as well as processes of survival inside the infected host. Finally AI-2 (dihydroxy pentanedione, DPD), synthesized by the LuxS enzyme in several bacteria including GAS, has been proposed to be a universal bacterial communication molecule. In this review we discuss the mechanisms of these four systems, the putative functions of their targets, and pose critical questions for future studies. PMID:25309879

  1. Transformation of Streptococcus sanguis Challis by plasmid deoxyribonucleic acid from Streptococcus faecalis.

    PubMed Central

    LeBlanc, D J; Hassell, F P

    1976-01-01

    Plasmid deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) from Streptococcus faecalis, strain DS5, was transferred to the Challis strain of Streptococcus sanguis by transformation. Two antibiotic resistance markers carried by the beta plasmid from strain DS5, erythromycin and lincomycin, were transferred to S. sanguis at a maximum frequency of 1.8 x 10-5/colony-forming unit. Approximately 70% of the covalently closed circular DNA isolated from transformant cultures by dye buoyant density gradients was shown to be hybridizable to beta plasmid DNA. Two major differences were observed between the beta plasmid from S. faecalis and the plasmid isolated from transformed S. sanguis: (i) the beta plasmid from strain DS5 sedimented in velocity gradients at 43S, whereas the covalently closed circular DNA from transformed Challis sedimented at 41S, suggesting a 1.5-Mdal deletion from the beta plasmid occurred; (ii) although the 43S beta plasmid remained in the supercoiled configuration for several weeks after isolation, the 41S plasmid was rapidly converted to a linear double-stranded molecule. Attempts to transform S. sanguis with the alpha plasmid from S. faecalis, strain DS5, were unsuccessful. PMID:824275

  2. Biofilm formation enhances fomite survival of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Streptococcus pyogenes.

    PubMed

    Marks, Laura R; Reddinger, Ryan M; Hakansson, Anders P

    2014-03-01

    Both Streptococcus pyogenes and Streptococcus pneumoniae are widely thought to rapidly die outside the human host, losing infectivity following desiccation in the environment. However, to date, all literature investigating the infectivity of desiccated streptococci has used broth-grown, planktonic populations. In this study, we examined the impact of biofilm formation on environmental survival of clinical and laboratory isolates of S. pyogenes and S. pneumoniae as both organisms are thought to colonize the human host as biofilms. Results clearly demonstrate that while planktonic cells that are desiccated rapidly lose viability both on hands and abiotic surfaces, such as plastic, biofilm bacteria remain viable over extended periods of time outside the host and remain infectious in a murine colonization model. To explore the level and extent of streptococcal fomite contamination that children might be exposed to naturally, direct bacteriologic cultures of items in a day care center were conducted, which demonstrated high levels of viable streptococci of both species. These findings raise the possibility that streptococci may survive in the environment and be transferred from person to person via fomites contaminated with oropharyngeal secretions containing biofilm streptococci.

  3. In Vitro Effect of Zingiber officinale Extract on Growth of Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sanguinis.

    PubMed

    Azizi, Arash; Aghayan, Shabnam; Zaker, Saeed; Shakeri, Mahdieh; Entezari, Navid; Lawaf, Shirin

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives. Tooth decay is an infectious disease of microbial origin. Considering the increasing prevalence of antibiotic resistance due to their overuse and also their side effects, medicinal plants are now considered for use against bacterial infections. This study aimed to assess the effects of different concentrations of Zingiber officinale extract on proliferation of Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sanguinis in vitro. Materials and Methods. In this experimental study, serial dilutions of the extract were prepared in two sets of 10 test tubes for each bacterium (total of 20). Standard amounts of bacterial suspension were added; 100ƛ of each tube was cultured on prepared solid agar plates and incubated at 37°C for 24 hours. Serial dilutions of the extract were prepared in another 20 tubes and 100ƛ of each tube was added to blood agar culture medium while being prepared. The mixture was transferred to the plates. The bacteria were inoculated on plates and incubated as described. Results. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was 0.02 mg/mL for S. mutans and 0.3 mg/mL for S. sanguinis. The minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) was 0.04 mg for S. mutans and 0.6 mg for S. sanguinis. Conclusion. Zingiber officinale extract has significant antibacterial activity against S. mutans and S. sanguinis cariogenic microorganisms.

  4. Conjugal mobilization of the mega element carrying mef(E) from Streptococcus salivarius to Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Santagati, Maria; Lupo, Agnese; Scillato, Marina; Di Martino, Andrea; Stefani, Stefania

    2009-01-01

    We report the isolation and characterization of an unusual strain of Streptococcus salivarius, 3C30, displaying both the macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B and the tetracycline resistance phenotypes. It harbours the mef(E), erm(B), and tet(M) genes carried by different genetic elements. The genetic element carrying mef(E), named mega, was investigated by long PCR and sequencing, while the presence of the Tn3872-like element, carrying tet(M) and erm(B), was demonstrated by sequencing of both the int-xis-Tn and the fragment between the two resistance genes. In strain 3C30 the mega element is 5388 bp in size and its nucleotide sequence is identical to that of the element described previously in S. salivarius, with the exception of a 912 bp deletion at the left end. The composite Tn3872-like element appeared to be nonconjugative while the mega element was transferred by conjugation to Streptococcus pneumoniae. It was, however, impossible to transfer it again from these transconjugants to other strains. In addition, only in the 3C30 strain did mega form circular structures, as identified by real-time PCR. In conclusion, we found a clinical strain of S. salivarius carrying both mega and Tn3872-like genetic elements. Mega is transferable by conjugation to S. pneumoniae but it is not transferable again from the transconjugants, suggesting a possible mobilization by recombinases of the coresident Tn3872-like transposon. PMID:19025575

  5. In Vitro Effect of Zingiber officinale Extract on Growth of Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sanguinis

    PubMed Central

    Azizi, Arash; Aghayan, Shabnam; Zaker, Saeed; Shakeri, Mahdieh; Entezari, Navid; Lawaf, Shirin

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives. Tooth decay is an infectious disease of microbial origin. Considering the increasing prevalence of antibiotic resistance due to their overuse and also their side effects, medicinal plants are now considered for use against bacterial infections. This study aimed to assess the effects of different concentrations of Zingiber officinale extract on proliferation of Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sanguinis in vitro. Materials and Methods. In this experimental study, serial dilutions of the extract were prepared in two sets of 10 test tubes for each bacterium (total of 20). Standard amounts of bacterial suspension were added; 100ƛ of each tube was cultured on prepared solid agar plates and incubated at 37°C for 24 hours. Serial dilutions of the extract were prepared in another 20 tubes and 100ƛ of each tube was added to blood agar culture medium while being prepared. The mixture was transferred to the plates. The bacteria were inoculated on plates and incubated as described. Results. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was 0.02 mg/mL for S. mutans and 0.3 mg/mL for S. sanguinis. The minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) was 0.04 mg for S. mutans and 0.6 mg for S. sanguinis. Conclusion. Zingiber officinale extract has significant antibacterial activity against S. mutans and S. sanguinis cariogenic microorganisms. PMID:26347778

  6. Comparative analysis of the localization of lipoteichoic acid in Streptococcus agalactiae and Streptococcus pyogenes.

    PubMed Central

    Mattingly, S J; Johnston, B P

    1987-01-01

    The cellular locations of deacylated lipoteichoic acid (dLTA) and lipoteichoic acid (LTA) were examined in late-exponential-phase cells of a serotype III strain of Streptococcus agalactiae (group B streptococci [GBS]) isolated from an infant with late-onset meningitis and compared with a fresh clinical isolate of Streptococcus pyogenes (group A streptococci [GAS]). LTA and dLTA were found to be associated with the protoplast membranes of both organisms, with only dLTA found in mutanolysin cell wall digests. Both organisms released dLTA during growth, but only the GAS released substantial levels of LTA into the culture medium. However, penicillin treatment (5 micrograms/ml for 60 min) of GBS resulted in the recovery of LTA in cell wall digests as well as in the culture medium. These results suggest that under normal growth conditions, the hydrophobic region (glycolipid) of LTA remains associated with the cytoplasmic membrane of GBS and unavailable for hydrophobic interactions at the cell surface with epithelial cells. In contrast, release of LTA into the environment by the GAS allows the fatty acid moieties to interact with hydrophobic domains on the surface of epithelial cells. These results may help explain the marked differences in the specificity of binding between these two major streptococcal pathogens for human fetal and adult epithelial cells. PMID:3308704

  7. Portable exhausters POR-004 SKID B, POR-005 SKID C, POR-006 SKID D storage plan

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, O.D.

    1997-09-04

    This document provides a storage plan for portable exhausters POR-004 SKID B, POR-005 SKID C, AND POR-006 SKID D. The exhausters will be stored until they are needed by the TWRS (Tank Waste Remediation Systems) Saltwell Pumping Program. The storage plan provides criteria for portable exhauster storage, periodic inspections during storage, and retrieval from storage.

  8. The streptococcal inhibitor of complement (SIC) protects Streptococcus pyogenes from bacteriocin-like inhibitory substance (BLIS) from Streptococcus salivarius.

    PubMed

    Minami, Masaaki; Ohmori, Daisuke; Tatsuno, Ichiro; Isaka, Masanori; Kawamura, Yoshiaki; Ohta, Michio; Hasegawa, Tadao

    2009-09-01

    Streptococcus salivarius inhibits the growth of Streptococcus pyogenes in vitro. Streptococcus pyogenes has various virulence factors, including the streptococcus inhibitor of complement (SIC). Although SIC inhibits the activity of the peptides LL-37 and NAP1, the relationship between SIC and the bacteriocin-like inhibitory substance (BLIS) has not been elucidated. Here, we evaluated whether S. salivarius BLIS affects S. pyogenes SIC. We created three deltasic mutant strains from three S. pyogenes strains and performed deferred antagonism assays. The test strains were BLIS-positive S. salivarius JCM5707 and BLIS-negative S. salivarius NCU12. Deferred antagonism assays with JCM5707 showed that the inhibitory zones in the three deltasic mutant strains were wider than those in the three wild-type strains. Streptococcus pyogenes was cultured in BLIS-containing broth and the change in SIC in the supernatant was assessed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE). The 2-DE analysis of S. pyogenes exoproteins with the JCM5707 supernatant showed reduced SIC compared with those without the JCM5707 supernatant. Changes in sic mRNA levels affected by S. salivarius BLIS were evaluated by a reverse transcriptase-PCR. The sic mRNA level was affected more by the BLIS-positive S. salivarius than by the BLIS-negative strain. Our result indicates that SIC plays a role in the inhibition of S. salivarius BLIS. PMID:19594623

  9. Chlorophyll mediated photodynamic inactivation of blue laser on Streptococcus mutans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Astuti, Suryani Dyah; Zaidan, A.; Setiawati, Ernie Maduratna; Suhariningsih

    2016-03-01

    Photodynamic inactivation is an inactivation method in microbial pathogens that utilize light and photosensitizer. This study was conducted to investigate photodynamic inactivation effects of low intensity laser exposure with various dose energy on Streptococcus mutans bacteria. The photodynamic inactivation was achieved with the addition of chlorophyll as photosensitizers. To determine the survival percentage of Streptococcus mutans bacteria after laser exposure, the total plate count method was used. For this study, the wavelength of the laser is 405 nm and variables of energy doses are 1.44, 2.87, 4.31, 5.74, 7.18, and 8.61 in J/cm2. The results show that exposure to laser with energy dose of 7.18 J/cm2 has the best photodynamic inactivation with a decrease of 78% in Streptococcus

  10. [Streptococcus intermedius: a rare cause of brain abscess in children].

    PubMed

    Jouhadi, Z; Sadiki, H; Hafid, I; Najib, J

    2013-03-01

    Streptococcus intermedius is a member of the Streptococcus anginosus group, also known as the Streptococcus milleri group. Although this is a commensal agent of the mouth and upper airways, it has been recognized as an important pathogen in the formation of abscesses. However, it has rarely been involved in the formation of brain abscess in children. We report 4 pediatric cases of brain abscess caused by S. intermedius. Three boys and 1 girl, all aged over 2 years, were admitted for a febrile meningeal syndrome and seizures, caused by a S. intermedius brain abscess. Diagnosis was obtained by brain imaging combined with culture of cerebrospinal fluid. The outcome was favorable after antibiotic therapy and abscess puncture. S. intermedius should be considered a potential pathogen involved in the development of brain abscess in children.

  11. Thalamic abscess caused by a rare pathogen: streptococcus constellatus

    PubMed Central

    Şenol, Özgür; Süslü, Hikmet Turan; Tatarlı, Necati; Tiryaki, Mehmet; Güçlü, Bülent

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus constellatus is a microorganism that lives commensally in the oropharyngeal region, urogenital region, and intestinal tract. However, it can cause infection in patients with certain predisposing factors. Rarely, this microorganism can cause a brain abscess. Thalamic localization of brain abscesses is much rarer than abscesses in other locations of the brain. Brain abscess caused by streptococcus constellatus are very rarely been reported in the literature. We present a rare case of a left-sided thalamic abscess caused by streptococcus constellatus in a 25-year-old male patient who was injured by shrapnel pieces in the head and who was malnourished. The patient was successfully treated by stereotactic aspiration and antibiotherapy. PMID:27800109

  12. Streptococcus suis infection in Taiwan, 2000-2011.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Hsih-Yeh; Liao, Chun-Hsing; Liu, Chia-Ying; Huang, Yu-Tsung; Teng, Lee-Jene; Hsueh, Po-Ren

    2012-09-01

    From 2000 to 2011, 8 patients with Streptococcus suis infections were identified in Taiwan. Six isolates were initially misidentified as Streptococcus acidominimus using commercial identification systems and later confirmed to be S. suis using 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis. Among the 7 isolates available for further analysis, all belonged to biotype II. Three serotype I isolates possessed the same genotypes, indicating the possible clonal spread of S. suis. All of these patients survived. S. suis infection is underestimated in Taiwan. PMID:22705228

  13. Fluoroquinolone Resistance among Clonal Complex 1 Group B Streptococcus Strains.

    PubMed

    Neemuchwala, Alefiya; Teatero, Sarah; Patel, Samir N; Fittipaldi, Nahuel

    2016-01-01

    Fluoroquinolone resistance in group B Streptococcus is increasingly being reported worldwide. Here, we correlated fluoroquinolone resistance with mutations in gyrA, gyrB, parC, and parE genes, identified by mining whole-genome sequencing (WGS) data of 190 clonal complex 1 group B Streptococcus strains recovered from patients with invasive diseases in North America. We report a high prevalence of fluoroquinolone resistance (12%) among GBS strains in our collection. Our approach is the first step towards accurate prediction of fluoroquinolone resistance from WGS data in this opportunistic pathogen. PMID:27559344

  14. Invasive Streptococcus pyogenes after allograft implantation--Colorado, 2003.

    PubMed

    2003-12-01

    Allograft tissues are used for various orthopedic procedures (e.g., ligament reconstruction, meniscal transplantation, and spinal surgery). In 2002, approximately one million allografts were distributed for transplantation (American Association of Tissue Banks [AATB], unpublished data, 2002). Recent reports of allograft-associated infections have prompted evaluation of the processing and quality-control methods employed by tissue processors. This report describes a case of invasive disease with Streptococcus pyogenes (i.e., group A streptococcus [GAS]), after reconstructive knee surgery using contaminated allograft tissue and provides recommendations to reduce the risk for allograft-associated infections. Although allograft infections are rare, they highlight the need for improved tissue evaluation and processing standards.

  15. Streptococcus agalactie involved in the etiology of sexually transmitted diseases.

    PubMed

    Frey, Marcos Noronha; Ioppi, Ana Elisa Empinotti; Bonamigo, Renan Rangel; Prado, Guilherme Pinheiro

    2011-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae is an important microorganism involved in a number of conditions in pregnant women, newborns, elderly people (over 65 years of age) and individuals with chronic disabling illnesses. This pathogen is infrequently found among patients outside this age range or clinical profile(1-5) and is rarely reported in the etiology of sexually transmitted diseases. Here we describe a case of an otherwise healthy 19 year-old male, who presented with ulcerative genital and oral lesions in association with urethral and ocular discharge, suggestive of Streptococcus agalactiae infection acquired through sexual contact.

  16. Molecular Epidemiology and Genomics of Group A Streptococcus

    PubMed Central

    Bessen, Debra E.; McShan, W. Michael; Nguyen, Scott V.; Shetty, Amol; Agrawal, Sonia; Tettelin, Hervé

    2014-01-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes (group A streptococcus; GAS) is a strict human pathogen with a very high prevalence worldwide. This review highlights the genetic organization of the species and the important ecological considerations that impact its evolution. Recent advances are presented on the topics of molecular epidemiology, population biology, molecular basis for genetic change, genome structure and genetic flux, phylogenomics and closely related streptococcal species, and the long- and short-term evolution of GAS. The application of whole genome sequence data to addressing key biological questions is discussed. PMID:25460818

  17. Fluoroquinolone Resistance among Clonal Complex 1 Group B Streptococcus Strains

    PubMed Central

    Teatero, Sarah; Patel, Samir N.

    2016-01-01

    Fluoroquinolone resistance in group B Streptococcus is increasingly being reported worldwide. Here, we correlated fluoroquinolone resistance with mutations in gyrA, gyrB, parC, and parE genes, identified by mining whole-genome sequencing (WGS) data of 190 clonal complex 1 group B Streptococcus strains recovered from patients with invasive diseases in North America. We report a high prevalence of fluoroquinolone resistance (12%) among GBS strains in our collection. Our approach is the first step towards accurate prediction of fluoroquinolone resistance from WGS data in this opportunistic pathogen. PMID:27559344

  18. Nonencapsulated Streptococcus pneumoniae: Emergence and Pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Keller, Lance E.; Robinson, D. Ashley

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT While significant protection from pneumococcal disease has been achieved by the use of polysaccharide and polysaccharide-protein conjugate vaccines, capsule-independent protection has been limited by serotype replacement along with disease caused by nonencapsulated Streptococcus pneumoniae (NESp). NESp strains compose approximately 3% to 19% of asymptomatic carriage isolates and harbor multiple antibiotic resistance genes. Surface proteins unique to NESp enhance colonization and virulence despite the lack of a capsule even though the capsule has been thought to be required for pneumococcal pathogenesis. Genes for pneumococcal surface proteins replace the capsular polysaccharide (cps) locus in some NESp isolates, and these proteins aid in pneumococcal colonization and otitis media (OM). NESp strains have been isolated from patients with invasive and noninvasive pneumococcal disease, but noninvasive diseases, specifically, conjunctivitis (85%) and OM (8%), are of higher prevalence. Conjunctival strains are commonly of the so-called classical NESp lineages defined by multilocus sequence types (STs) ST344 and ST448, while sporadic NESp lineages such as ST1106 are more commonly isolated from patients with other diseases. Interestingly, sporadic lineages have significantly higher rates of recombination than classical lineages. Higher rates of recombination can lead to increased acquisition of antibiotic resistance and virulence factors, increasing the risk of disease and hindering treatment. NESp strains are a significant proportion of the pneumococcal population, can cause disease, and may be increasing in prevalence in the population due to effects on the pneumococcal niche caused by pneumococcal vaccines. Current vaccines are ineffective against NESp, and further research is necessary to develop vaccines effective against both encapsulated and nonencapsulated pneumococci. PMID:27006456

  19. Thermoregulation of capsule production by Streptococcus pyogenes.

    PubMed

    Kang, Song Ok; Wright, Jordan O; Tesorero, Rafael A; Lee, Hyunwoo; Beall, Bernard; Cho, Kyu Hong

    2012-01-01

    The capsule of Streptococcus pyogenes serves as an adhesin as well as an anti-phagocytic factor by binding to CD44 on keratinocytes of the pharyngeal mucosa and the skin, the main entry sites of the pathogen. We discovered that S. pyogenes HSC5 and MGAS315 strains are further thermoregulated for capsule production at a post-transcriptional level in addition to the transcriptional regulation by the CovRS two-component regulatory system. When the transcription of the hasABC capsular biosynthetic locus was de-repressed through mutation of the covRS system, the two strains, which have been used for pathogenesis studies in the laboratory, exhibited markedly increased capsule production at sub-body temperature. Employing transposon mutagenesis, we found that CvfA, a previously identified membrane-associated endoribonuclease, is required for the thermoregulation of capsule synthesis. The mutation of the cvfA gene conferred increased capsule production regardless of temperature. However, the amount of the capsule transcript was not changed by the mutation, indicating that a post-transcriptional regulator mediates between CvfA and thermoregulated capsule production. When we tested naturally occurring invasive mucoid strains, a high percentage (11/53, 21%) of the strains exhibited thermoregulated capsule production. As expected, the mucoid phenotype of these strains at sub-body temperature was due to mutations within the chromosomal covRS genes. Capsule thermoregulation that exhibits high capsule production at lower temperatures that occur on the skin or mucosal surface potentially confers better capability of adhesion and invasion when S. pyogenes penetrates the epithelial surface.

  20. Recent advances in understanding the molecular basis of group B Streptococcus virulence

    PubMed Central

    Maisey, Heather C.; Doran, Kelly S.; Nizet, Victor

    2009-01-01

    Group B Streptococcus commonly colonises healthy adults without symptoms, yet under certain circumstances displays the ability to invade host tissues, evade immune detection and cause serious invasive disease. Consequently, Group B Streptococcus remains a leading cause of neonatal pneumonia, sepsis and meningitis. Here we review recent information on the bacterial factors and mechanisms that direct host–pathogen interactions involved in the pathogenesis of Group B Streptococcus infection. New research on host signalling and inflammatory responses to Group B Streptococcus infection is summarised. An understanding of the complex interplay between Group B Streptococcus and host provides valuable insight into pathogen evolution and highlights molecular targets for therapeutic intervention. PMID:18803886

  1. The novel species Streptococcus tigurinus and its association with oral infection.

    PubMed

    Zbinden, Andrea; Bostanci, Nagihan; Belibasakis, Georgios N

    2015-01-01

    Streptococcus tigurinus is a novel species of viridans streptococci, shown to cause severe invasive infections such as infective endocarditis, spondylodiscitis and meningitis. S. tigurinus belongs to the Streptococcus mitis group and is most closely related to Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus oralis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus pseudopneumoniae and Streptococcus infantis. The presence of S. tigurinus in the human oral cavity has been documented, including in patients with periodontal disease. This review addresses the available scientific knowledge on S. tigurinus and its association with closely related streptococci, and discusses its putative involvement in common oral infections. While there is as yet no strong evidence on the involvement of S. tigurinus with oral infections, its presence in the oral cavity and its association with endocarditis warrants special attention for a link between oral and systemic infection.

  2. Susceptibility of enterococci. I. Inhibitory and bactericidal activity of several chemoantibiotics against Streptococcus faecalis and Streptococcus faecium.

    PubMed

    Fabbri, A; Manno, G; Tacchella, A; Belli, M L; Palmero, C

    1986-10-01

    The authors present a microbiological study of 100 strains of Enterococcus (70 strains of Streptococcus faecalis and 30 strains of Streptococcus faecium) tested for susceptibility to the following antibiotics, amoxicillin, ampicillin + flucloxacillin, piperacillin, rifampicin, vancomycin, netilmicin, ofloxacin, and norfloxacin. The assessment of minimum inhibitory and minimum bactericidal concentrations of these substances indicates that all have good inhibitory activity except netilmicin, which is active at higher concentrations; with rifampicin and vancomycin showing very poor bactericidal activity. The bactericidal activity of penicillins was hard to assess because of tolerance and paradoxical effect phenomena. The quinolones showed good inhibitory and bactericidal activity.

  3. An occurrence of equine transport pneumonia caused by mixed infection with Pasteurella caballi, Streptococcus suis and Streptococcus zooepidemicus.

    PubMed

    Hayakawa, Y; Komae, H; Ide, H; Nakagawa, H; Yoshida, Y; Kamada, M; Kataoka, Y; Nakazawa, M

    1993-06-01

    An acute death occurred in a racehorse with pneumonia after long-distance transportation in December, 1990. Pasteurella caballi, Streptococcus suis and Streptococcus zooepidemicus were isolated from the lung at high rate. Specific antigens of these bacteria were also demonstrated immunohistologically in the pneumonic lesion. These findings indicated that the disease is equine transport pneumonia caused by a mixed infection of the three bacterial species. This is the first report on the isolation of P. caballi and S. suis from a racehorse in Japan. PMID:8357920

  4. Isolation and Characterization of Unsaturated Fatty Acid Auxotrophs of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Streptococcus mutans▿

    PubMed Central

    Altabe, Silvia; Lopez, Paloma; de Mendoza, Diego

    2007-01-01

    Unsaturated fatty acid (UFA) biosynthesis is essential for the maintenance of membrane structure and function in many groups of anaerobic bacteria. Like Escherichia coli, the human pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae produces straight-chain saturated fatty acids (SFA) and monounsaturated fatty acids. In E. coli UFA synthesis requires the action of two gene products, the essential isomerase/dehydratase encoded by fabA and an elongation condensing enzyme encoded by fabB. S. pneumoniae lacks both genes and instead employs a single enzyme with only an isomerase function encoded by the fabM gene. In this paper we report the construction and characterization of an S. pneumoniae 708 fabM mutant. This mutant failed to grow in complex medium, and the defect was overcome by addition of UFAs to the growth medium. S. pneumoniae fabM mutants did not produce detectable levels of monounsaturated fatty acids as determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and thin-layer chromatography analysis of the radiolabeled phospholipids. We also demonstrate that a fabM null mutant of the cariogenic organism Streptococcus mutants is a UFA auxotroph, indicating that FabM is the only enzyme involved in the control of membrane fluidity in streptococci. Finally we report that the fabN gene of Enterococcus faecalis, coding for a dehydratase/isomerase, complements the growth of S. pneumoniae fabM mutants. Taken together, these results suggest that FabM is a potential target for chemotherapeutic agents against streptococci and that S. pneumoniae UFA auxotrophs could help identify novel genes encoding enzymes involved in UFA biosynthesis. PMID:17827283

  5. Inhibition of Streptococcus mutans biofilm formation by Streptococcus salivarius FruA.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Ayako; Furukawa, Soichi; Fujita, Shuhei; Mitobe, Jiro; Kawarai, Taketo; Narisawa, Naoki; Sekizuka, Tsuyoshi; Kuroda, Makoto; Ochiai, Kuniyasu; Ogihara, Hirokazu; Kosono, Saori; Yoneda, Saori; Watanabe, Haruo; Morinaga, Yasushi; Uematsu, Hiroshi; Senpuku, Hidenobu

    2011-03-01

    The oral microbial flora consists of many beneficial species of bacteria that are associated with a healthy condition and control the progression of oral disease. Cooperative interactions between oral streptococci and the pathogens play important roles in the development of dental biofilms in the oral cavity. To determine the roles of oral streptococci in multispecies biofilm development and the effects of the streptococci in biofilm formation, the active substances inhibiting Streptococcus mutans biofilm formation were purified from Streptococcus salivarius ATCC 9759 and HT9R culture supernatants using ion exchange and gel filtration chromatography. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry analysis was performed, and the results were compared to databases. The S. salivarius HT9R genome sequence was determined and used to indentify candidate proteins for inhibition. The candidates inhibiting biofilms were identified as S. salivarius fructosyltransferase (FTF) and exo-beta-d-fructosidase (FruA). The activity of the inhibitors was elevated in the presence of sucrose, and the inhibitory effects were dependent on the sucrose concentration in the biofilm formation assay medium. Purified and commercial FruA from Aspergillus niger (31.6% identity and 59.6% similarity to the amino acid sequence of FruA from S. salivarius HT9R) completely inhibited S. mutans GS-5 biofilm formation on saliva-coated polystyrene and hydroxyapatite surfaces. Inhibition was induced by decreasing polysaccharide production, which is dependent on sucrose digestion rather than fructan digestion. The data indicate that S. salivarius produces large quantities of FruA and that FruA alone may play an important role in multispecies microbial interactions for sucrose-dependent biofilm formation in the oral cavity. PMID:21239559

  6. Inhibition of Streptococcus mutans Biofilm Formation by Streptococcus salivarius FruA▿

    PubMed Central

    Ogawa, Ayako; Furukawa, Soichi; Fujita, Shuhei; Mitobe, Jiro; Kawarai, Taketo; Narisawa, Naoki; Sekizuka, Tsuyoshi; Kuroda, Makoto; Ochiai, Kuniyasu; Ogihara, Hirokazu; Kosono, Saori; Yoneda, Saori; Watanabe, Haruo; Morinaga, Yasushi; Uematsu, Hiroshi; Senpuku, Hidenobu

    2011-01-01

    The oral microbial flora consists of many beneficial species of bacteria that are associated with a healthy condition and control the progression of oral disease. Cooperative interactions between oral streptococci and the pathogens play important roles in the development of dental biofilms in the oral cavity. To determine the roles of oral streptococci in multispecies biofilm development and the effects of the streptococci in biofilm formation, the active substances inhibiting Streptococcus mutans biofilm formation were purified from Streptococcus salivarius ATCC 9759 and HT9R culture supernatants using ion exchange and gel filtration chromatography. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry analysis was performed, and the results were compared to databases. The S. salivarius HT9R genome sequence was determined and used to indentify candidate proteins for inhibition. The candidates inhibiting biofilms were identified as S. salivarius fructosyltransferase (FTF) and exo-beta-d-fructosidase (FruA). The activity of the inhibitors was elevated in the presence of sucrose, and the inhibitory effects were dependent on the sucrose concentration in the biofilm formation assay medium. Purified and commercial FruA from Aspergillus niger (31.6% identity and 59.6% similarity to the amino acid sequence of FruA from S. salivarius HT9R) completely inhibited S. mutans GS-5 biofilm formation on saliva-coated polystyrene and hydroxyapatite surfaces. Inhibition was induced by decreasing polysaccharide production, which is dependent on sucrose digestion rather than fructan digestion. The data indicate that S. salivarius produces large quantities of FruA and that FruA alone may play an important role in multispecies microbial interactions for sucrose-dependent biofilm formation in the oral cavity. PMID:21239559

  7. Streptococcus oligofermentans Inhibits Streptococcus mutans in Biofilms at Both Neutral pH and Cariogenic Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Bao, Xudong; de Soet, Johannes Jacob; Tong, Huichun; Gao, Xuejun; He, Libang; van Loveren, Cor; Deng, Dong Mei

    2015-01-01

    Homeostasis of oral microbiota can be maintained through microbial interactions. Previous studies showed that Streptococcus oligofermentans, a non-mutans streptococci frequently isolated from caries-free subjects, inhibited the cariogenic Streptococcus mutans by the production of hydrogen peroxide (HP). Since pH is a critical factor in caries formation, we aimed to study the influence of pH on the competition between S. oligofermentans and S. mutans in biofilms. To this end, S. mutans and S. oligofermentans were inoculated alone or mixed at 1:1 ratio in buffered biofilm medium in a 96-well active attachment model. The single- and dual-species biofilms were grown under either constantly neutral pH or pH-cycling conditions. The latter includes two cycles of 8 h neutral pH and 16 h pH 5.5, used to mimic cariogenic condition. The 48 h biofilms were analysed for the viable cell counts, lactate and HP production. The last two measurements were carried out after incubating the 48 h biofilms in buffers supplemented with 1% glucose (pH 7.0) for 4 h. The results showed that S. oligofermentans inhibited the growth of S. mutans in dual-species biofilms under both tested pH conditions. The lactic acid production of dual-species biofilms was significantly lower than that of single-species S. mutans biofilms. Moreover, dual-species and single-species S. oligofermentans biofilms grown under pH-cycling conditions (with a 16 h low pH period) produced a significantly higher amount of HP than those grown under constantly neutral pH. In conclusion, S. oligofermentans inhibited S. mutans in biofilms not only under neutral pH, but also under pH-cycling conditions, likely through HP production. S. oligofermentans may be a compelling probiotic candidate against caries. PMID:26114758

  8. Streptococcus oligofermentans Inhibits Streptococcus mutans in Biofilms at Both Neutral pH and Cariogenic Conditions.

    PubMed

    Bao, Xudong; de Soet, Johannes Jacob; Tong, Huichun; Gao, Xuejun; He, Libang; van Loveren, Cor; Deng, Dong Mei

    2015-01-01

    Homeostasis of oral microbiota can be maintained through microbial interactions. Previous studies showed that Streptococcus oligofermentans, a non-mutans streptococci frequently isolated from caries-free subjects, inhibited the cariogenic Streptococcus mutans by the production of hydrogen peroxide (HP). Since pH is a critical factor in caries formation, we aimed to study the influence of pH on the competition between S. oligofermentans and S. mutans in biofilms. To this end, S. mutans and S. oligofermentans were inoculated alone or mixed at 1:1 ratio in buffered biofilm medium in a 96-well active attachment model. The single- and dual-species biofilms were grown under either constantly neutral pH or pH-cycling conditions. The latter includes two cycles of 8 h neutral pH and 16 h pH 5.5, used to mimic cariogenic condition. The 48 h biofilms were analysed for the viable cell counts, lactate and HP production. The last two measurements were carried out after incubating the 48 h biofilms in buffers supplemented with 1% glucose (pH 7.0) for 4 h. The results showed that S. oligofermentans inhibited the growth of S. mutans in dual-species biofilms under both tested pH conditions. The lactic acid production of dual-species biofilms was significantly lower than that of single-species S. mutans biofilms. Moreover, dual-species and single-species S. oligofermentans biofilms grown under pH-cycling conditions (with a 16 h low pH period) produced a significantly higher amount of HP than those grown under constantly neutral pH. In conclusion, S. oligofermentans inhibited S. mutans in biofilms not only under neutral pH, but also under pH-cycling conditions, likely through HP production. S. oligofermentans may be a compelling probiotic candidate against caries. PMID:26114758

  9. Genome Sequence of the Oral Probiotic Streptococcus salivarius JF

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus salivarius is a nonpathogenic Gram-positive bacterium and the predominant colonizer of the oral microbiota. It finds a wide application in the prevention of upper respiratory tract infections, also reducing the frequency of other main pathogens. Here, we present the complete genome sequence of the oral probiotic S. salivarius JF. PMID:27660775

  10. Genome Sequence of the Oral Probiotic Streptococcus salivarius JF.

    PubMed

    Jia, Fang

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus salivarius is a nonpathogenic Gram-positive bacterium and the predominant colonizer of the oral microbiota. It finds a wide application in the prevention of upper respiratory tract infections, also reducing the frequency of other main pathogens. Here, we present the complete genome sequence of the oral probiotic S. salivarius JF. PMID:27660775

  11. Flying Under the Radar: Immune Evasion by Group B Streptococcus.

    PubMed

    McFarland, Adelle P; Woodward, Joshua J

    2016-07-13

    Type I IFN production is an important host defense mechanism against Gram-positive Streptococci. In this issue of Cell Host & Microbe, Andrade et al. (2016) report that Group B Streptococcus limits type I IFN by expressing a surface phosphodiesterase that degrades extracellular bacterial cyclic dinucleotides, thereby promoting virulence.

  12. Plasmid mediated enhancement of uv resistance in Streptococcus faecalis

    SciTech Connect

    Miehl, R.; Miller, M.; Yasbin, R.E.

    1980-01-01

    A 38.5-Mdal plasmid of Streptococcus faecalis subdp. zymogenes has been shown to enhance survival following uv irradiation. In addition, the presence of this plasmid increases the mutation frequencies following uv irradiation and enhanced W-reactivation. The data presented indicate that S. faecalis has an inducible error-prone repair system and that the plasmid enhances these repair functions.

  13. Flying Under the Radar: Immune Evasion by Group B Streptococcus.

    PubMed

    McFarland, Adelle P; Woodward, Joshua J

    2016-07-13

    Type I IFN production is an important host defense mechanism against Gram-positive Streptococci. In this issue of Cell Host & Microbe, Andrade et al. (2016) report that Group B Streptococcus limits type I IFN by expressing a surface phosphodiesterase that degrades extracellular bacterial cyclic dinucleotides, thereby promoting virulence. PMID:27414494

  14. Activity of faropenem against resistant isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Black, J A; Moland, E S; Chartrand, S A; Thomson, K S

    2001-01-01

    An in vitro study of the activity of 9 agents against 181 US pediatric isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae identified imipenem and faropenem as the most active agents. Overall, faropenem was the most potent oral agent inhibiting 98% of isolates at 1 microg/mL. PMID:11687320

  15. Recurrent Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus Bacteremia in an Infant

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Joshua R.; Leber, Amy; Velineni, Sridhar; Timoney, John F.

    2015-01-01

    We describe a case of an infant with recurrent bacteremia caused by Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus, likely transmitted from mother to infant. Our case highlights the importance of an epidemiological history and molecular diagnostics in ascertaining insights into transmission, pathogenesis, and optimal management. PMID:26179301

  16. Streptococcus parasanguinis: new pathogen associated with asymptomatic mastitis in sheep.

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Garayzábal, J. F.; Fernández, E.; Las Heras, A.; Pascual, C.; Collins, M. D.; Domínguez, L.

    1998-01-01

    We describe two unusual cases in sheep of subclinical mastitis caused by Streptococcus parasanguinis. This bacterium has been associated with the development of experimental endocarditis; its presence at relatively high concentrations in apparently healthy sheep milk may pose a health risk in persons with predisposing heart lesions. PMID:9866743

  17. Amoeba Host Model for Evaluation of Streptococcus suis Virulence ▿

    PubMed Central

    Bonifait, Laetitia; Charette, Steve J.; Filion, Geneviève; Gottschalk, Marcelo; Grenier, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    The Gram-positive bacterium Streptococcus suis is a major swine pathogen worldwide that causes meningitis, septicemia, and endocarditis. In this study, we demonstrate that the amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum can be a relevant alternative system to study the virulence of S. suis. PMID:21742906

  18. Following the equator: division site selection in Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Bramkamp, Marc

    2015-03-01

    The mechanisms that spatially regulate cytokinesis are more diverse than initially thought. In two recent publications a positive regulator of FtsZ positioning has been identified in Streptococcus pneumoniae. MapZ (LocZ) connects the division machinery with cell wall elongation, providing a simple mechanism to ensure correct division site selection.

  19. Pigment Production by Streptococcus agalactiae in Quasi-Defined Media

    PubMed Central

    Rosa-Fraile, Manuel; Sampedro, Antonio; Rodríguez-Granger, Javier; García-Peña, Maria Luisa; Ruiz-Bravo, Alfonso; Haïdour, Ali

    2001-01-01

    A quasi-defined medium that supports the growth of Streptococcus agalactiae as pigmented colonies has been developed. The medium contains starch, a peptic digest of albumin, amino acids, nucleosides, vitamins, and salts. The presence of free cysteine, which could be replaced with other sulphur-containing compounds and to a lesser degree by reducing agents, was required for pigment formation. PMID:11133484

  20. Genetic regulation of fructosyltransferase in Streptococcus mutans.

    PubMed Central

    Kiska, D L; Macrina, F L

    1994-01-01

    Streptococcus mutans possesses several extracellular sucrose-metabolizing enzymes which have been implicated as important virulence factors in dental caries. This study was initiated to investigate the genetic regulation of one of these enzymes, the extracellular fructosyltransferase (Ftf). Fusions were constructed with the region upstream of the S. mutans GS5 Ftf gene (ftf) and a promoterless chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) gene. The fusions were integrated at a remote site in the chromosome, and transcriptional activity in response to the addition of various carbohydrates to the growth medium was measured. A significant increase in CAT activity was observed when glucose-grown cells were shifted to sucrose-containing medium. Sucrose-induced expression was repressed immediately upon addition of phosphoenolpyruvate phosphotransferase system sugars to the growth media. Deletion analysis of the ftf upstream region revealed that an inverted repeat structure was involved in the control of ftf expression in response to carbohydrate. However, the control of the level of ftf transcription appeared to involve a region distinct from that mediating carbohydrate regulation. CAT gene fusions also were constructed with the ftf upstream region from S. mutans V403, a fructan-hyperproducing strain which synthesizes increased levels of Ftf. Sequence analysis of the upstream ftf region in this strain revealed several nucleotide sequence changes which were associated with high-level ftf expression. Comparison of the GS5 and V403 ftf expression patterns suggested the presence of a trans-acting factor(s) involved in modulation of ftf expression in response to carbohydrate. This factor(s) was either absent or altered in V403, resulting in the inability of this organism to respond to the presence of carbohydrate. The sequences of the ftf regions from three additional fructan-hyperproducing strains were determined and compared with that of V403. Only one strain displayed nucleotide

  1. Emerging resistant serotypes of invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Elshafie, Sittana; Taj-Aldeen, Saad J

    2016-01-01

    Background Streptococcus pneumoniae is the leading cause of meningitis and sepsis. The aim of the study was to analyze the distribution, vaccine serotype coverage, and antibiotic resistance of S. pneumoniae serotypes isolated from patients with invasive diseases, after the introduction of pneumococcal 7-valent conjugated vaccine (PCV-7). Methods A total of 134 isolates were collected from blood and cerebrospinal fluid specimens at Hamad Hospital during the period from 2005 to 2009. Isolate serotyping was done using the Quellung reaction. The prevaccination period was considered before 2005. Results The most common serotypes for all age groups were 3 (12.70%), 14 (11.90%), 1 (11.90%), 19A (9.00%), 9V (5.20%), 23F (5.20%), and 19F (4.50%). Coverage rates for infant <2 years for PCV-7, the 10-valent conjugated vaccine (PCV-10), and the 13-valent conjugated vaccine (PCV-13) were 34.78%, 52.17%, and 78.26%, respectively. Coverage rates of these vaccines were 50%, 67.86%, and 75% for the 2–5 years age group; 27.12%, 40.68%, and 64.41% for the age group 6–64 years; and 25%, 33.33%, and 66.67% for the ≥65 years age group, respectively. The percentage of nonsusceptible isolates to penicillin, cefotaxime, and erythromycin were 43.86%, 16.66%, and 22.81%, respectively. Thirty-seven isolates (32.46%) were multidrug resistant (MDR) and belonged to serotypes 14, 19A, 19F, 23F, 1, 9V, 12F, 4, 6B, 3, and 15A. Compared to previous results before the introduction of PCV-7, there was a significant reduction in penicillin-nonsusceptable S. pneumoniae from 66.67% to 43.86%, and a slight insignificant reduction in erythromycin nonsusceptible strains from 27.60% to 22.8%, while there was a significant increase in cefotaxime nonsusceptible strains from 3.55% to 16.66%. Conclusion Invasive pneumococcal strains and the emergence of MDR serotypes is a global burden that must be addressed through multiple strategies, including vaccination, antibiotic stewardship, and continuous

  2. Compositions and characteristics of strains of Streptococcus bovis.

    PubMed

    Russell, J B; Robinson, P H

    1984-07-01

    Streptococcus bovis strains JB1, 26, 581AXY2, 21096C, and 45S1 grew on glucose, maltose, starch, sucrose, cellobiose, and lactose. None of these strains grew on xylose or ribose, but arabinose was a suitable energy source for strains 2109C and K27FF4. All strains grew at 45 degrees C, but incubation at 50 degrees C prevented growth. Growth was permitted in 2% sodium chloride, but 6.5% sodium chloride was inhibitory. Doubling times ranged from 24 to 27 min, and final pH on glucose was approximately 4.6. None of the strains had a requirement for amino acids, and growth was rapid in media containing glucose salts and B vitamins. There was no ammonia production from arginine. All strains showed aminoendopeptidase activity, but there was considerable strain variation. Strain 7H4, reported as Streptococcus bovis, was noticeably different from the other six strains. It had a doubling time that was more than four times as long, and it grew poorly on starch or in the absence of an amino acid source. Six-and-a-half percent sodium chloride was not inhibitory, and it produced ammonia from arginine. Cell morphology was coccoid rather than ovoid. Based on these criteria, classification of strain 7H4 as Streptococcus bovis seemed doubtful. Other experiments with strain 7H4 indicated that Streptococcus bovis was devoid of diaminopimelic acid. In these experiments strain 7H4 contained significant diaminopimelic acid. The six Streptococcus bovis strains all contained diaminopimelic acid as well, but concentration varied.

  3. [THE DIAGNOSTIC APPROACHES TO VERIFICATION OF STREPTOCOCCUS INFECTION IN PATIENTS WITH INFECTIOUS MONONUCLEOSIS].

    PubMed

    Kim, M A; Labushkina, A V; Simovanian, E N; Kharseeva, G G

    2015-11-01

    The Rostovskii state medical university of Minzdrav of Russia, 344022 Rostov-on-Don, Russia The analysis is applied concerning significance of laboratory techniques of verification of streptococcus infection (bacteriological analysis, detection of anti-streptolysin O in pair serums) in 148 patients with infectious mononucleosis aged from 3 to 15 years. The content of anti-streptolysin O exceeded standard in 41 ± 4.8% of patients with concomitant in acute period and in 49.5 ± 4.9% during period of re-convalescence. This data differed from analogous indicator in patients with negative result of examination on streptococcus infection independently of period of disease (9.3 ± 2.8%). The exceeding of standard of anti-streptolysin O was detected more frequently (t ≥ 2, P ≥ 95%) in patients with isolation of Streptococcus pyogenes (56.9 ± 5.8%) than in patients with Streptococcus viridans (31.2 ± 6.5%). The concentration of anti-streptolysin 0 in patients with concomitant streptococcus infection varied within limits 200-1800 IE/ml. The minimal level of anti-streptolysin O (C = 200 IE/mI) was detected independently of type of isolated Streptococcus and period of disease. The high levels of anti-streptolysin O were observed exclusively in patients with isolation of Streptococcus pyogenes. In blood serum ofpatient with concomitant streptococcus infection (Streptococcus pyogenes + Streptococcus viridans) increasing of level of anti-streptolysin O was detected in dynamics of diseases from minimal (C = 200 IE/ ml) to moderately high (200 < C < 400 IE/mI). It is demonstrated that to identify streptococcus infection in patients with infectious mononucleosis the anamnesis data is to be considered. The complex bacteriological and serological examination ofpatients is to be implemented This is necessary for early detection ofpatients with streptococcus infection and decreasing risk of formation of streptococcus carrier state. PMID:26999869

  4. Molecular characterization of Streptococcus agalactiae and Streptococcus uberis isolates from bovine milk.

    PubMed

    Shome, Bibek Ranjan; Bhuvana, Mani; Mitra, Susweta Das; Krithiga, Natesan; Shome, Rajeswari; Velu, Dhanikachalam; Banerjee, Apala; Barbuddhe, Sukhadeo B; Prabhudas, Krishnamshetty; Rahman, Habibar

    2012-12-01

    Streptococci are one among the major mastitis pathogens which have a considerable impact on cow health, milk quality, and productivity. The aim of the present study was to investigate the occurrence and virulence characteristics of streptococci from bovine milk and to assess the molecular epidemiology and population structure of the Indian isolates using multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Out of a total of 209 bovine composite milk samples screened from four herds (A-D), 30 Streptococcus spp. were isolated from 29 milk samples. Among the 30 isolates, species-specific PCR and partial 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis identified 17 Streptococcus agalactiae arising from herd A and 13 Streptococcus uberis comprising of 5, 7, and 1 isolates from herds B, C, and D respectively. PCR based screening for virulence genes revealed the presence of the cfb and the pavA genes in 17 and 1 S. agalactiae isolates, respectively. Similarly, in S. uberis isolates, cfu gene was present in six isolates from herd C, the pau A/skc gene in all the isolates from herds B, C, and D, whereas the sua gene was present in four isolates from herd B and the only isolate from herd D. On MLST analysis, all the S. agalactiae isolates were found to be of a novel sequence type (ST), ST-483, reported for the first time and is a single locus variant of the predicted subgroup founder ST-310, while the S. uberis isolates were found to be of three novel sequence types, namely ST-439, ST-474, and ST-475, all reported for the first time. ST-474 was a double locus variant of three different STs of global clonal complex ST-143 considered to be associated with clinical and subclinical mastitis, but ST-439 and ST-475 were singletons. Unique sequence types identified for both S. agalactiae and S. uberis were found to be herd specific. On PFGE analysis, identical or closely related restriction patterns for S. agalactiae ST-483 and S. uberis ST-439 in herds A and B

  5. Molecular characterization of Streptococcus agalactiae and Streptococcus uberis isolates from bovine milk.

    PubMed

    Shome, Bibek Ranjan; Bhuvana, Mani; Mitra, Susweta Das; Krithiga, Natesan; Shome, Rajeswari; Velu, Dhanikachalam; Banerjee, Apala; Barbuddhe, Sukhadeo B; Prabhudas, Krishnamshetty; Rahman, Habibar

    2012-12-01

    Streptococci are one among the major mastitis pathogens which have a considerable impact on cow health, milk quality, and productivity. The aim of the present study was to investigate the occurrence and virulence characteristics of streptococci from bovine milk and to assess the molecular epidemiology and population structure of the Indian isolates using multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Out of a total of 209 bovine composite milk samples screened from four herds (A-D), 30 Streptococcus spp. were isolated from 29 milk samples. Among the 30 isolates, species-specific PCR and partial 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis identified 17 Streptococcus agalactiae arising from herd A and 13 Streptococcus uberis comprising of 5, 7, and 1 isolates from herds B, C, and D respectively. PCR based screening for virulence genes revealed the presence of the cfb and the pavA genes in 17 and 1 S. agalactiae isolates, respectively. Similarly, in S. uberis isolates, cfu gene was present in six isolates from herd C, the pau A/skc gene in all the isolates from herds B, C, and D, whereas the sua gene was present in four isolates from herd B and the only isolate from herd D. On MLST analysis, all the S. agalactiae isolates were found to be of a novel sequence type (ST), ST-483, reported for the first time and is a single locus variant of the predicted subgroup founder ST-310, while the S. uberis isolates were found to be of three novel sequence types, namely ST-439, ST-474, and ST-475, all reported for the first time. ST-474 was a double locus variant of three different STs of global clonal complex ST-143 considered to be associated with clinical and subclinical mastitis, but ST-439 and ST-475 were singletons. Unique sequence types identified for both S. agalactiae and S. uberis were found to be herd specific. On PFGE analysis, identical or closely related restriction patterns for S. agalactiae ST-483 and S. uberis ST-439 in herds A and B

  6. Streptococcus salivarius urease: genetic and biochemical characterization and expression in a dental plaque streptococcus.

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Y Y; Clancy, K A; Burne, R A

    1996-01-01

    The hydrolysis of urea by urease enzyme of oral bacteria is believed to have a major impact on oral microbial ecology and to be intimately involved in oral health and diseases. To begin to understand the biochemistry and genetics of oral ureolysis, a study of the urease of Streptococcus salivarius, a highly ureolytic organism which is present in large numbers on the soft tissues of the oral cavity, has been initiated. By using as a probe a 0.6-kpb internal fragment of the S. salivarius 57.I ureC gene, two clones from subgenomic libraries of S. salivarius 57.I in an Escherichia coli plasmid vector were identified. Nucleotide sequence analysis revealed the presence of one partial and six complete open reading frames which were most homologous to ureIAB-CEFGD of other ureolytic bacteria. Plasmid clones were generated to construct a complete gene cluster and used to transform E. coli and Streptococcus gordonii DL1, a nonureolytic, dental plaque microorganism. The recombinant organisms expressed high levels of urease activity when the growth medium was supplemented with NiCl2. The urease enzyme was purified from E. coli, and its biochemical properties were compared with those of the urease produced by S. salivarius and those of the urease produced by S. gordonii carrying the plasmid-borne ure genes. In all cases, the enzyme had a Km of 3.5 to 4.1 mM, a pH optimum near 7.0, and a temperature optimum near 60 degrees C. S. gordonii carrying the urease genes was then demonstrated to have a significant capacity to temper glycolytic acidification in vitro in the presence of concentrations of urea commonly found in the oral cavity. The ability to genetically engineer plaque bacteria that can modulate environmental pH through ureolysis will open the way to using recombinant ureolytic organisms to test hypotheses regarding the role of oral ureolysis in dental caries, calculus formation, and periodontal diseases. Such recombinant organisms may eventually prove useful for

  7. Draft Genome Sequences for Seven Streptococcus parauberis Isolates from Wild Fish in the Chesapeake Bay.

    PubMed

    Haines, Ashley; Nebergall, Emily; Besong, Elvira; Council, Kimaya; Lambert, Onaysha; Gauthier, David

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus parauberis is a pathogen of cattle and fish, closely related Streptococcus uberis and Streptococcus iniae We report the genomes of seven S. parauberis strains recovered from striped bass (Morone saxatilis) in the Chesapeake Bay. The availability of these genomes will allow comparative genomic analysis of Chesapeake Bay S. parauberis strains versus S. parauberis cultured from other animal hosts and geographic regions. PMID:27540054

  8. Draft Genome Sequences for Seven Streptococcus parauberis Isolates from Wild Fish in the Chesapeake Bay

    PubMed Central

    Nebergall, Emily; Besong, Elvira; Council, Kimaya; Lambert, Onaysha; Gauthier, David

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus parauberis is a pathogen of cattle and fish, closely related Streptococcus uberis and Streptococcus iniae. We report the genomes of seven S. parauberis strains recovered from striped bass (Morone saxatilis) in the Chesapeake Bay. The availability of these genomes will allow comparative genomic analysis of Chesapeake Bay S. parauberis strains versus S. parauberis cultured from other animal hosts and geographic regions. PMID:27540054

  9. Draft Genome Sequences for Seven Streptococcus parauberis Isolates from Wild Fish in the Chesapeake Bay.

    PubMed

    Haines, Ashley; Nebergall, Emily; Besong, Elvira; Council, Kimaya; Lambert, Onaysha; Gauthier, David

    2016-08-18

    Streptococcus parauberis is a pathogen of cattle and fish, closely related Streptococcus uberis and Streptococcus iniae We report the genomes of seven S. parauberis strains recovered from striped bass (Morone saxatilis) in the Chesapeake Bay. The availability of these genomes will allow comparative genomic analysis of Chesapeake Bay S. parauberis strains versus S. parauberis cultured from other animal hosts and geographic regions.

  10. One More Disguise in the Stealth Behavior of Streptococcus pyogenes.

    PubMed

    Fischetti, Vincent A; Dale, James B

    2016-05-17

    The ability to hide in the animal kingdom is essential for survival; the same is true for bacteria. Streptococcus pyogenes is considered one of the more successful stealth bacteria in its production of a hyaluronic acid capsule that is chemically identical to the hyaluronic acid lining human joints. It has also acquired the capacity to enter eukaryotic cells to avoid the onslaught of the host's immune defenses, as well as drugs. From this intracellular vantage point, it may remain dormant from days to weeks, only to cause disease again at a later time, perhaps causing a relapse in a drug-treated patient. We now learn that it is able to enter macrophages as well, enabling the Streptococcus to use this "Trojan horse" approach to be transported to distant sites in the body.

  11. One More Disguise in the Stealth Behavior of Streptococcus pyogenes

    PubMed Central

    Dale, James B.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The ability to hide in the animal kingdom is essential for survival; the same is true for bacteria. Streptococcus pyogenes is considered one of the more successful stealth bacteria in its production of a hyaluronic acid capsule that is chemically identical to the hyaluronic acid lining human joints. It has also acquired the capacity to enter eukaryotic cells to avoid the onslaught of the host’s immune defenses, as well as drugs. From this intracellular vantage point, it may remain dormant from days to weeks, only to cause disease again at a later time, perhaps causing a relapse in a drug-treated patient. We now learn that it is able to enter macrophages as well, enabling the Streptococcus to use this “Trojan horse” approach to be transported to distant sites in the body. PMID:27190219

  12. Streptococcus agalactiae infection in domestic rabbits, Oryctolagus cuniculus.

    PubMed

    Ren, S Y; Geng, Y; Wang, K Y; Zhou, Z Y; Liu, X X; He, M; Peng, X; Wu, C Y; Lai, W M

    2014-12-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B streptococcus, GBS) has emerged as an important pathogen that affects humans and animals, including aquatic species. In August 2011, a severe infectious disease affecting rabbits, which caused 42% mortality, occurred in Mianyang, Sichuan Province, China. The main clinical signs included acute respiratory distress syndrome, fever, paddling and convulsions. A Gram-positive, chain-forming coccus was isolated from the primary organs and tissues of diseased rabbits and then identified as S. agalactiae by morphology, biochemical and physiological characteristics, 16S rDNA and gyrB gene sequences analysis. All isolates of S. agalactiae showed a similar antibiotic susceptibility, which were sensitive to florfenicol, ampicillin,gentamicin and norfloxacin, as well as being resistant to penicillin, amoxicillin and tetracycline. To our knowledge, this is the first report on S. agalactiae natural infection in domestic rabbits.

  13. Purification and Some Properties of Diplococcin from Streptococcus cremoris 346

    PubMed Central

    Davey, G. P.; Richardson, B. C.

    1981-01-01

    Eleven of 150 Streptococcus cremoris strains examined produced the bacteriocin diplococcin. The diplococcin activity spectrum was restricted to S. cremoris and Streptococcus lactis strains, and none of a wide range of other gram-positive or gram-negative strains were inhibited. The diplococcin produced by S. cremoris 346 was purified by ammonium sulfate precipitation and column chromatography. Purified diplococcin was very unstable at room temperature and lost 75% of its activity after heating at 100°C for 1 min. The proteolytic enzymes trypsin, pronase, and α-chymotrypsin completely inactivated diplococcin. The amino acid composition showed a high content of acidic and neutral acids and a correspondingly low content of basic amino acids, including one residue of ornithine per mole. From the amino acid analysis a molecular weight of 5,300 was estimated. Diplococcin was readily distinguished from the S. lactis bacteriocin nisin by its restricted activity spectrum, its biological properties, and by cross-reaction experiments. PMID:16345704

  14. Periprosthetic breast abscess caused by Streptococcus pyogenes after scarlet fever.

    PubMed

    Persichetti, Paolo; Langella, Marika; Marangi, Giovanni Francesco; Vulcano, Ettore; Gherardi, Giovanni; Dicuonzo, Giordano

    2008-01-01

    We present a case of a 32-year-old white women, affected by breast cancer and treated with mastectomy, who underwent immediate breast reconstruction with a tissue expander. She presented a periprosthetic infection from Streptococcus pyogenes (group A streptococcus, GAS) after scarlet fever. S. pyogenes may be responsible for suppurative complications of the respiratory system and a variety of metastatic foci of infection such as suppurative arthritic, endocarditis, meningitis, or brain abscess. Even though, in the literature, several cases and types of infection associated with breast implantation have been described, to our knowledge this is the first case report of periprosthetic infection after scarlet fever. Signs, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment of GAS infection that occurred 2 months after the surgery are discussed.

  15. Invasive Streptococcus pyogenes after allograft implantation--Colorado, 2003.

    PubMed

    2003-12-01

    Allograft tissues are used for various orthopedic procedures (e.g., ligament reconstruction, meniscal transplantation, and spinal surgery). In 2002, approximately one million allografts were distributed for transplantation (American Association of Tissue Banks [AATB], unpublished data, 2002). Recent reports of allograft-associated infections have prompted evaluation of the processing and quality-control methods employed by tissue processors. This report describes a case of invasive disease with Streptococcus pyogenes (i.e., group A streptococcus [GAS]), after reconstructive knee surgery using contaminated allograft tissue and provides recommendations to reduce the risk for allograft-associated infections. Although allograft infections are rare, they highlight the need for improved tissue evaluation and processing standards. PMID:14654764

  16. Inhibition of group A streptococcus infection by carboxyfullerene.

    PubMed

    Tsao, N; Luh, T Y; Chou, C K; Wu, J J; Lin, Y S; Lei, H Y

    2001-06-01

    The effect of a water-soluble trimalonic acid derivative of fullerene, carboxyfullerene, against Streptococcus pyogenes infection was tested. Pretreatment with carboxyfullerene was able to protect mice from S. pyogenes infection in an air pouch model. S. pyogenes-induced death and skin injury were inhibited dose dependently by carboxyfullerene. Administration of carboxyfullerene via the peritoneum and air pouch at 3 h post-S. pyogenes infection was able to protect 33% of mice from death. Surveys of exudates of the air pouch of carboxyfullerene-treated mice revealed that survival of infiltrating neutrophils was prolonged and that the bacteria were eliminated as a result of enhanced bactericidal activity of the neutrophils. Furthermore, carboxyfullerene was able to directly inhibit in vitro growth of S. pyogenes. These data suggest that carboxyfullerene can be considered an antimicrobial agent for group A streptococcus infection. PMID:11353626

  17. Rapid antigen testing for group A Streptococcus by DNA probe.

    PubMed

    Heelan, J S; Wilbur, S; Depetris, G; Letourneau, C

    1996-02-01

    The Gen-probe group A Streptococcus direct test (GASD), a nucleic acid probe assay for detecting GAS from throat swabs, has recently been developed. The test uses an acridium ester-labeled DNA probe which is complementary to the rRNA of Streptococcus pyogenes. In this study, 318 single culturette throat swabs were tested by this method using culture as a "gold standard." After plating onto trypticase soy agar plates with 5% sheep blood, swabs were stored at 4 degrees C for no more than 72 h before the probe assay was performed. Our patient population consisted of symptomatic outpatients seen in the Memorial Hospital Emergency Department and in the Family Care Center. After discrepancy testing, sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values were 91.4%, 97%, 91.4%, and 97%. The GASD is a rapid, easy-to-perform method for batch screening for streptococcal pharyngitis.

  18. Septic arthritis of the pubic symphysis caused by Streptococcus mitis.

    PubMed

    Yusuf, E; Hofer, M; Steinrücken, J; Trampuz, A; Borens, O

    2014-12-01

    Septic arthritis of the pubic symphisis is distinguished from osteitis pubis by positive cultures. The symptoms, physical examination and laboratory findings of these two conditions are comparable. We present a case of 57-year-old woman with septic arthritis of pubic symphisis caused by Streptococcus mitis, a commensal oral flora that belongs to viridans group streptococci, which normally reside in the oral cavity, the gastrointestinal and the urogenital tract.

  19. Phenotypic, Genotypic, and Antimicrobial Characteristics of Streptococcus halichoeri Isolates from Humans, Proposal To Rename Streptococcus halichoeri as Streptococcus halichoeri subsp. halichoeri, and Description of Streptococcus halichoeri subsp. hominis subsp. nov., a Bacterium Associated with Human Clinical Infections.

    PubMed

    Shewmaker, P L; Whitney, A M; Humrighouse, B W

    2016-03-01

    Phenotypic, genotypic, and antimicrobial characteristics of six phenotypically distinct human clinical isolates that most closely resembled the type strain of Streptococcus halichoeri isolated from a seal are presented. Sequencing of the 16S rRNA, rpoB, sodA, and recN genes; comparative whole-genome analysis; conventional biochemical and Rapid ID 32 Strep identification methods; and antimicrobial susceptibility testing were performed on the human isolates, the type strain of S. halichoeri, and type strains of closely related species. The six human clinical isolates were biochemically indistinguishable from each other and showed 100% 16S rRNA, rpoB, sodA, and recN gene sequence similarity. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis revealed 98.6% similarity to S. halichoeri CCUG 48324(T), 97.9% similarity to S. canis ATCC 43496(T), and 97.8% similarity to S. ictaluri ATCC BAA-1300(T). A 3,530-bp fragment of the rpoB gene was 98.8% similar to the S. halichoeri type strain, 84.6% to the S. canis type strain, and 83.8% to the S. ictaluri type strain. The S. halichoeri type strain and the human clinical isolates were susceptible to the antimicrobials tested based on CLSI guidelines for Streptococcus species viridans group with the exception of tetracycline and erythromycin. The human isolates were phenotypically distinct from the type strain isolated from a seal; comparative whole-genome sequence analysis confirmed that the human isolates were S. halichoeri. On the basis of these results, a novel subspecies, Streptococcus halichoeri subsp. hominis, is proposed for the human isolates and Streptococcus halichoeri subsp. halichoeri is proposed for the gray seal isolates. The type strain of the novel subspecies is SS1844(T) = CCUG 67100(T) = LMG 28801(T).

  20. Bullous impetigo caused by Streptococcus salivarius: a case report.

    PubMed Central

    Brook, I

    1980-01-01

    A 19-month-old child presented with bullous impetigo around the perineal region, penis, and left foot. Streptococcus salivarius was the only isolate recovered from the lesions. The child was treated with parenteral penicillin, debridement of the bulli, and local application of silver sulphadiazine cream. This case of bullous impetigo illustrates another aspect of the pathogenicity of Strep. salivarius. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:7002959

  1. Phenotypic, Genotypic, and Antimicrobial Characteristics of Streptococcus halichoeri Isolates from Humans, Proposal To Rename Streptococcus halichoeri as Streptococcus halichoeri subsp. halichoeri, and Description of Streptococcus halichoeri subsp. hominis subsp. nov., a Bacterium Associated with Human Clinical Infections

    PubMed Central

    Whitney, A. M.; Humrighouse, B. W.

    2016-01-01

    Phenotypic, genotypic, and antimicrobial characteristics of six phenotypically distinct human clinical isolates that most closely resembled the type strain of Streptococcus halichoeri isolated from a seal are presented. Sequencing of the 16S rRNA, rpoB, sodA, and recN genes; comparative whole-genome analysis; conventional biochemical and Rapid ID 32 Strep identification methods; and antimicrobial susceptibility testing were performed on the human isolates, the type strain of S. halichoeri, and type strains of closely related species. The six human clinical isolates were biochemically indistinguishable from each other and showed 100% 16S rRNA, rpoB, sodA, and recN gene sequence similarity. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis revealed 98.6% similarity to S. halichoeri CCUG 48324T, 97.9% similarity to S. canis ATCC 43496T, and 97.8% similarity to S. ictaluri ATCC BAA-1300T. A 3,530-bp fragment of the rpoB gene was 98.8% similar to the S. halichoeri type strain, 84.6% to the S. canis type strain, and 83.8% to the S. ictaluri type strain. The S. halichoeri type strain and the human clinical isolates were susceptible to the antimicrobials tested based on CLSI guidelines for Streptococcus species viridans group with the exception of tetracycline and erythromycin. The human isolates were phenotypically distinct from the type strain isolated from a seal; comparative whole-genome sequence analysis confirmed that the human isolates were S. halichoeri. On the basis of these results, a novel subspecies, Streptococcus halichoeri subsp. hominis, is proposed for the human isolates and Streptococcus halichoeri subsp. halichoeri is proposed for the gray seal isolates. The type strain of the novel subspecies is SS1844T = CCUG 67100T = LMG 28801T. PMID:26763962

  2. Streptococcus equi subspecies equi infection (strangles) in horses.

    PubMed

    Boyle, Ashley

    2011-03-01

    Streptococcus equi subspecies equi (strangles) is a highly contagious upper respiratory infection in horses. The infection is transmitted by inhalation or direct contact with mucopurulent discharge from an infective animal, resulting in fever, depression, and submandibular and retropharyngeal lymph node enlargement that can lead to respiratory distress. Complications include purpura hemorrhagica and metastatic abscessation. Control of outbreaks requires strict isolation protocols and hygiene measures. Detection of carriers is essential for preventing disease recurrence on a farm.

  3. Magnetic response in cultures of Streptococcus mutans ATCC-27607.

    PubMed

    Adamkiewicz, V W; Bassous, C; Morency, D; Lorrain, P; Lepage, J L

    1987-01-01

    Streptococcus mutans ATCC-27607 produces exopolysaccharides that adhere to glass. In the normal geomagnetic field about 50% more polysaccharide adhere preferentially to glass surfaces facing North as compared to South facing surfaces. Reversal of the direction of the magnetic field by 180 degrees produces a similar reversal in the direction of the preferential accumulation. Reduction of the field by 90% abolishes the preferential accumulation. PMID:3582582

  4. Structure of a conjugative element in Streptococcus pneumoniae

    SciTech Connect

    Vijayakumar, M.N.; Priebe, S.D.; Guild, W.R.

    1986-06-01

    The authors have cloned and mapped a 69-kilobase (kb) region of the chromosome of Streptococcus pneumoniae DP1322, which carries the conjugative Omega(cat-tet) insertion from S. pneumoniae BM6001. This element proved to be 65.5 kb in size. Location of the junctions was facilitated by cloning a preferred target region from the wild-type strain Rx1 recipient genome. This target site was preferred by both the BM6001 element and the cat-erm-tet element from Streptococcus agalactiae B109. Within the BM6001 element cat and tet were separated by 30 kb, and cat was flanked by two copies of a sequence that was also present in the recipient strain Rx1 DNA. Another sequence at least 2.4 kb in size was found inside the BM6001 element and at two places in the Rx1 genome. Its role is unknown. The ends of the BM6001 element appear to be the same as those of the B109 element, both as seen after transfer to S. pneumoniae and as mapped by others in pDP5 after transposition in Streptococcus faecalis. No homology is seen between the ends of the BM6001 element and no evidence found suggesting that it ever circularizes.

  5. Characterization of salivary alpha-amylase binding to Streptococcus sanguis

    SciTech Connect

    Scannapieco, F.A.; Bergey, E.J.; Reddy, M.S.; Levine, M.J. )

    1989-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the major salivary components which interact with oral bacteria and to determine the mechanism(s) responsible for their binding to the bacterial surface. Strains of Streptococcus sanguis, Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus mutans, and Actinomyces viscosus were incubated for 2 h in freshly collected human submandibular-sublingual saliva (HSMSL) or parotid saliva (HPS), and bound salivary components were eluted with 2% sodium dodecyl sulfate. By sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and Western transfer, alpha-amylase was the prominent salivary component eluted from S. sanguis. Studies with {sup 125}I-labeled HSMSL or {sup 125}I-labeled HPS also demonstrated a component with an electrophoretic mobility identical to that of alpha-amylase which bound to S. sanguis. Purified alpha-amylase from human parotid saliva was radiolabeled and found to bind to strains of S. sanguis genotypes 1 and 3 and S. mitis genotype 2, but not to strains of other species of oral bacteria. Binding of ({sup 125}I)alpha-amylase to streptococci was saturable, calcium independent, and inhibitable by excess unlabeled alpha-amylases from a variety of sources, but not by secretory immunoglobulin A and the proline-rich glycoprotein from HPS. Reduced and alkylated alpha-amylase lost enzymatic and bacterial binding activities. Binding was inhibited by incubation with maltotriose, maltooligosaccharides, limit dextrins, and starch.

  6. Genomic analysis of dairy starter culture Streptococcus thermophilus MTCC 5461.

    PubMed

    Prajapati, Jashbhai B; Nathani, Neelam M; Patel, Amrutlal K; Senan, Suja; Joshi, Chaitanya G

    2013-04-01

    The lactic acid bacterium Streptococcus thermophilus is widely used as a starter culture for the production of dairy products. Whole-genome sequencing is expected to utilize the genetic basis behind the metabolic functioning of lactic acid bacterium (LAB), for development of their use in biotechnological and probiotic applications. We sequenced the whole genome of Streptococcus thermophilus MTCC 5461, the strain isolated from a curd source, by 454 GS-FLX titanium and Ion Torrent PGM. We performed comparative genome analysis using the local BLAST and RDP for 16S rDNA comparison and by the RAST server for functional comparison against the published genome sequence of Streptococcus thermophilus CNRZ 1066. The whole genome size of S. thermophilus MTCC 5461 is of 1.73Mb size with a GC content of 39.3%. Streptococcal virulence-related genes are either inactivated or absent in the strain. The genome possesses coding sequences for features important for a probiotic organism such as adhesion, acid tolerance, bacteriocin production, and lactose utilization, which was found to be conserved among the strains MTCC 5461 and CNRZ 1066. Biochemical analysis revealed the utilization of 17 sugars by the bacterium, where the presence of genes encoding enzymes involved in metabolism for 16 of these 17 sugars were confirmed in the genome. This study supports the facts that the strain MTCC 5461 is nonpathogenic and harbors essential features that can be exploited for its probiotic potential.

  7. Antibacterial activity and mechanism of berberine against Streptococcus agalactiae

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Lianci; Kang, Shuai; Yin, Zhongqiong; Jia, Renyong; Song, Xu; Li, Li; Li, Zhengwen; Zou, Yuanfeng; Liang, Xiaoxia; Li, Lixia; He, Changliang; Ye, Gang; Yin, Lizi; Shi, Fei; Lv, Cheng; Jing, Bo

    2015-01-01

    The antibacterial activity and mechanism of berberine against Streptococcus agalactiae were investigated in this study by analyzing the growth, morphology and protein of the S. agalactiae cells treated with berberine. The antibacterial susceptibility test result indicated minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) of berberine against Streptococcus agalactiae was 78 μg/mL and the time-kill curves showed the correlation of concentration-time. After the bacteria was exposed to 78 μg/mL berberine, the fragmentary cell membrane and cells unequal division were observed by the transmission electron microscopy (TEM), indicating the bacterial cells were severely damaged. Sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) study demonstrated that berberine could damage bacterial cells through destroying cellular proteins. Meanwhile, Fluorescence microscope revealed that berberine could affect the synthesis of DNA. In conclusion, these results strongly suggested that berberine may damage the structure of bacterial cell membrane and inhibit synthesis of protein and DNA, which cause Streptococcus agalactiae bacteria to die eventually. PMID:26191220

  8. Antibacterial activity and mechanism of berberine against Streptococcus agalactiae.

    PubMed

    Peng, Lianci; Kang, Shuai; Yin, Zhongqiong; Jia, Renyong; Song, Xu; Li, Li; Li, Zhengwen; Zou, Yuanfeng; Liang, Xiaoxia; Li, Lixia; He, Changliang; Ye, Gang; Yin, Lizi; Shi, Fei; Lv, Cheng; Jing, Bo

    2015-01-01

    The antibacterial activity and mechanism of berberine against Streptococcus agalactiae were investigated in this study by analyzing the growth, morphology and protein of the S. agalactiae cells treated with berberine. The antibacterial susceptibility test result indicated minimum inhibition concentration (MIC) of berberine against Streptococcus agalactiae was 78 μg/mL and the time-kill curves showed the correlation of concentration-time. After the bacteria was exposed to 78 μg/mL berberine, the fragmentary cell membrane and cells unequal division were observed by the transmission electron microscopy (TEM), indicating the bacterial cells were severely damaged. Sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) study demonstrated that berberine could damage bacterial cells through destroying cellular proteins. Meanwhile, Fluorescence microscope revealed that berberine could affect the synthesis of DNA. In conclusion, these results strongly suggested that berberine may damage the structure of bacterial cell membrane and inhibit synthesis of protein and DNA, which cause Streptococcus agalactiae bacteria to die eventually.

  9. Localised mitogenic activity in horses following infection with Streptococcus equi.

    PubMed

    McLean, R; Rash, N L; Robinson, C; Waller, A S; Paillot, R

    2015-06-01

    Streptococcus equi subspecies equi (S. equi) is the causative agent of strangles, a highly contagious upper respiratory disease of equids. Streptococcus equi produces superantigens (sAgs), which are thought to contribute to strangles pathogenicity through non-specific T-cell activation and pro-inflammatory response. Streptococcus equi infection induces abscesses in the lymph nodes of the head and neck. In some individuals, some abscess material remains into the guttural pouch and inspissates over time to form chondroids which can harbour live S. equi. The aim of this study was to determine the sites of sAg production during infection and therefore improve our understanding of their role. Abscess material, chondroids and serum collected from Equidae with signs of strangles were tested in mitogenic assays. Mitogenic sAg activity was only detected in abscess material and chondroids. Our data support the localised in vivo activity of sAg during both acute and carrier phases of S. equi infection.

  10. Impact of immunization against SpyCEP during invasive disease with two streptococcal species: Streptococcus pyogenes and Streptococcus equi

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Claire E.; Kurupati, Prathiba; Wiles, Siouxsie; Edwards, Robert J.; Sriskandan, Shiranee

    2009-01-01

    Currently there is no licensed vaccine against the human pathogen Streptococcus pyogenes. The highly conserved IL-8 cleaving S. pyogenes cell envelope proteinase SpyCEP is surface expressed and is a potential vaccine candidate. A recombinant N-terminal part of SpyCEP (CEP) was expressed and purified. AntiCEP antibodies were found to neutralize the IL-8 cleaving activity of SpyCEP. CEP-immunized mice had reduced bacterial dissemination from focal S. pyogenes intramuscular infection and intranasal infection. We also identified a functional SpyCEP-homolog protease SeCEP, expressed by the equine pathogen Streptococcus equi, which was able to cleave both human and equine IL-8. CEP-immunized mice also demonstrated reduced bacterial dissemination from S. equi intramuscular infection. Therefore immunization against SpyCEP may provide protection against other streptococci species with homologous proteases. PMID:19563892

  11. Regulation of ATP-dependent P-(Ser)-HPr formation in Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus salivarius.

    PubMed Central

    Thevenot, T; Brochu, D; Vadeboncoeur, C; Hamilton, I R

    1995-01-01

    Sugar transport via the phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) phosphotransferase system involves PEP-dependent phosphorylation of the general phosphotransferase system protein, HPr, at histidine 15. However, gram-positive bacteria can also carry out ATP-dependent phosphorylation of HPr at serine 46 by means of (Ser)HPr kinase. In this study, we demonstrate that (Ser)HPr kinase in crude preparations of Streptococcus mutans Ingbritt and Streptococcus salivarius ATCC 25975 is membrane associated, with pH optima of 7.0 and 7.5, respectively. The latter organism possessed 7- to 27-fold-higher activity than S. mutans NCTC 10449, GS-5, and Ingbritt strains. The enzyme in S. salivarius was activated by fructose-1,6-bisphosphate (FBP) twofold with 0.05 mM ATP, but this intermediate was slightly inhibitory with 1.0 mM ATP at FBP concentrations up to 10 mM. Similar inhibition was observed with the enzyme from S. mutans Ingbritt. A variety of other glycolytic intermediates had no effect on kinase activity under these conditions. The activity and regulation of (Ser)HPr kinase were assessed in vivo by monitoring P-(Ser)-HPr formation in steady-state cells of S. mutans Ingbritt grown in continuous culture with limiting glucose (10 and 50 mM) and with excess glucose (100 and 200 mM). All four forms of HPr [free HPr, P approximately (His)-HPr, P-(Ser)-HPr, and P approximately (His)-P-(Ser)-HPr] could be detected in the cells; however, significant differences in the intracellular levels of the forms were apparent during growth at different glucose concentrations. The total HPr pool increased with increasing concentrations of glucose in the medium, with significant increases in the P-(Ser)-HPr and P approximately HHis)-P-(Ser)-HPr concentrations. For example, while total PEP-dependent phosphorylation [P approximately(His)-HPr plus P approximately (His)-P-(Ser)-HPr] varied only from 21.5 to 52.5 microgram mg of cell protein (-1) in cells grown at the four glucose concentrations, the total ATP

  12. Transduction of the Streptococcus pyogenes bacteriophage Φm46.1, carrying resistance genes mef(A) and tet(O), to other Streptococcus species.

    PubMed

    Giovanetti, Eleonora; Brenciani, Andrea; Morroni, Gianluca; Tiberi, Erika; Pasquaroli, Sonia; Mingoia, Marina; Varaldo, Pietro E

    2014-01-01

    Φm46.1 - Streptococcus pyogenes bacteriophage carrying mef(A) and tet(O), respectively, encoding resistance to macrolides (M phenotype) and tetracycline - is widespread in S. pyogenes but has not been reported outside this species. Φm46.1 is transferable in vitro among S. pyogenes isolates, but no information is available about its transferability to other Streptococcus species. We thus investigated Φm46.1 for its ability to be transduced in vitro to recipients of different Streptococcus species. Transductants were obtained from recipients of Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus gordonii, and Streptococcus suis. Retransfer was always achieved, and from S. suis to S. pyogenes occurred at a much greater frequency than in the opposite direction. In transductants Φm46.1 retained its functional properties, such as inducibility with mitomycin C, presence both as a prophage and as a free circular form, and transferability. The transductants shared the same Φm46.1 chromosomal integration site as the donor, at the 3' end of a conserved RNA uracil methyltransferase (rum) gene, which is an integration hotspot for a variety of genetic elements. No transfer occurred to recipients of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus oralis, and Streptococcus salivarius, even though rum-like genes were also detected in the sequenced genomes of these species. A largely overlapping 18-bp critical sequence, where the site-specific recombination process presumably takes place, was identified in the rum genes of all recipients, including those of the species yielding no transductants. Growth assays to evaluate the fitness cost of Φm46.1 acquisition disclosed a negligible impact on S. pyogenes, S. agalactiae, and S. gordonii transductants and a noticeable fitness advantage in S. suis. The S. suis transductant also displayed marked overexpression of the autolysin-encoding gene atl.

  13. Molecular characterization of virulence genes of Streptococcus equi subsp. equi and Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus in equines

    PubMed Central

    Javed, R.; Taku, A. K.; Gangil, Rakhi; Sharma, R. K.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The aim was to determine the occurrence of streptococci in equines in Jammu (R. S. Pura, Katra), characterization of Streptococci equi subsp. equi and Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus with respect to their virulence traits and to determine antibiotic sensitivity pattern of virulent Streptococcus isolates. Materials and Methods: A total of 96 samples were collected from both clinically affected animals (exhibiting signs of respiratory tract disease) and apparently healthy animals and were sent to laboratory. The organisms were isolated on Columbia nalidixic acid agar containing 5% sheep blood as well as on sheep blood agar and confirmed by cultural characteristics and biochemical tests. Molecular detection of Streptococcus was done directly from cultures using sodA and seM gene-based polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Antibiogram was performed against five antibiotics such as amoxicillin, penicillin G, streptomycin, rifampicin, and methicillin. Results: During this study, a total 40 streptococcal isolates were obtained out of which 2 isolates were of S. equi subsp. equi, 12 isolates were from S. equi subsp. zooepidemicus. In the PCR-based detection, we revealed amplicons of 235 bp and 679 bp for confirmation of sodA and seM gene, respectively. In antibiogram, two isolates of S. equi subsp. equi were found resistant to penicillin G, and all other isolates were found sensitive to amoxicillin and streptomycin. Conclusion: The majority of streptococcal infections was due to S. equi subsp. Zooepidemicus, and thus was recognized as a potential pathogen of diseases of equines besides S. equi subsp. equi.

  14. The cell-bound fructosyltransferase of Streptococcus salivarius: the carboxyl terminus specifies attachment in a Streptococcus gordonii model system.

    PubMed Central

    Rathsam, C; Giffard, P M; Jacques, N A

    1993-01-01

    The ftf gene, coding for the cell-bound beta-D-fructosyltransferase (FTF) of Streptococcus salivarius ATCC 25975, has been analyzed, and its deduced amino acid sequence has been compared with that of the secreted FTF of Streptococcus mutans and the levansucrases (SacBs) of Bacillus species. A unique proline-rich region detected at the C terminus of the FTF of S. salivarius preceded a hydrophobic terminal domain. This proline-rich region was shown to possess strong homology to the product of the prgC gene from pCF10 in Enterococcus faecalis, which encodes a pheromone-responsive protein of unknown function, as well as homology to the human proline-rich salivary protein PRP-4. A series of 3'-OH deletions of the S. salivarius ftf gene expressed in Streptococcus gordonii Challis LGR2 showed that the C terminus was required for cell surface attachment in this heterologous organism, as only the complete gene product was cell bound. This cell-bound activity was released in the presence of sucrose, suggesting that the mode of attachment and release of the S. salivarius FTF in S. gordonii was similar to that in its native host. PMID:8331080

  15. Non-infectivity of Cattle Streptococcus agalactiae in Nile Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus and Channel Catfish, Ictalurus punctatus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Streptococcus agalactiae is classified as a Lancefield’s group B Streptococcus (GBS). It is the causative bacterium of streptococcosis that is responsible for severe economic losses in wild and cultured fish, worldwide. Streptococcus agalactiae also causes bovine mastitis. Only limited comparativ...

  16. Hypopituitarism as consequence of late neonatal infection by Group B streptococcus: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Amanda Santana; Fernandes, Ana Lourdes Lima Araújo; Guaragna-Filho, Guilherme

    2015-01-01

    Hypopituitarism is a condition characterized by dysfunction of the pituitary gland hormone production. The insults of the perinatal period, which includes the late infection by Group B Streptococcus, consists in a rare etiology of this condition. We present the case of a 39-days-old infant with meningitis caused by Streptococcus Group B, which showed, among other consequences, hypopituitarism. PMID:26161231

  17. Draft Genome Sequence of Streptococcus gordonii Type Strain CCUG 33482T

    PubMed Central

    Jakobsson, Hedvig E.; Gonzales-Siles, Lucia; Hallbäck, Erika T.; Jaén-Luchoro, Daniel; Boulund, Fredrik; Sikora, Per; Karlsson, Roger; Svensson, Liselott; Bennasar, Antoni; Engstrand, Lars; Kristiansson, Erik

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus gordonii type strain CCUG 33482T is a member of the Streptococcus mitis group, isolated from a case of subacute bacterial endocarditis. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of S. gordonii CCUG 33482T, composed of 41 contigs of a total size of 2.15 Mb with 2,061 annotated coding sequences. PMID:27013051

  18. Draft Genome Sequence of Streptococcus gordonii Type Strain CCUG 33482T.

    PubMed

    Salvà-Serra, Francisco; Jakobsson, Hedvig E; Thorell, Kaisa; Gonzales-Siles, Lucia; Hallbäck, Erika T; Jaén-Luchoro, Daniel; Boulund, Fredrik; Sikora, Per; Karlsson, Roger; Svensson, Liselott; Bennasar, Antoni; Engstrand, Lars; Kristiansson, Erik; Moore, Edward R B

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus gordoniitype strain CCUG 33482(T)is a member of theStreptococcus mitisgroup, isolated from a case of subacute bacterial endocarditis. Here, we report the draft genome sequence ofS. gordoniiCCUG 33482(T), composed of 41 contigs of a total size of 2.15 Mb with 2,061 annotated coding sequences. PMID:27013051

  19. 21 CFR 866.3720 - Streptococcus spp. exo-enzyme reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Streptococcus spp. exo-enzyme reagents. 866.3720 Section 866.3720 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... spp. exo-enzyme reagents. (a) Identification. Streptococcus spp. exoenzyme reagents are devices...

  20. 21 CFR 866.3720 - Streptococcus spp. exo-enzyme reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Streptococcus spp. exo-enzyme reagents. 866.3720 Section 866.3720 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... spp. exo-enzyme reagents. (a) Identification. Streptococcus spp. exoenzyme reagents are devices...

  1. 21 CFR 866.3720 - Streptococcus spp. exo-enzyme reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Streptococcus spp. exo-enzyme reagents. 866.3720 Section 866.3720 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... spp. exo-enzyme reagents. (a) Identification. Streptococcus spp. exoenzyme reagents are devices...

  2. Nonhemolytic Streptococcus pyogenes Isolates That Lack Large Regions of the sag Operon Mediating Streptolysin S Production▿

    PubMed Central

    Yoshino, Miho; Murayama, Somay Y.; Sunaoshi, Katsuhiko; Wajima, Takeaki; Takahashi, Miki; Masaki, Junko; Kurokawa, Iku; Ubukata, Kimiko

    2010-01-01

    Among nonhemolytic Streptococcus pyogenes (group A streptococcus) strains (n = 9) isolated from patients with pharyngitis or acute otitis media, we identified three deletions in the region from the epf gene, encoding the extracellular matrix binding protein, to the sag operon, mediating streptolysin S production. PMID:20018818

  3. 21 CFR 866.3720 - Streptococcus spp. exo-enzyme reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3720 Streptococcus spp. exo-enzyme reagents. (a) Identification. Streptococcus spp. exoenzyme reagents are devices used... information on these diseases. Pathogenic streptococci are associated with infections, such as sore...

  4. 21 CFR 866.3720 - Streptococcus spp. exo-enzyme reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3720 Streptococcus spp. exo-enzyme reagents. (a) Identification. Streptococcus spp. exoenzyme reagents are devices used... information on these diseases. Pathogenic streptococci are associated with infections, such as sore...

  5. First case of a dog bite wound infection caused by Streptococcus minor in human.

    PubMed

    Tré-Hardy, M; Saussez, T; Yombi, J C; Rodriguez-Villalobos, H

    2016-11-01

    We report the first case of human infection caused by Streptococcus minor in a 51-year-old immunocompetent woman admitted for dog bite injuries. At present, the role of Streptococcus minor in bite wound infections is unknown. Further studies on virulence factors are needed to elucidate its pathogenicity mechanisms. PMID:27688883

  6. Controlled laboratory challenge demonstrates substantial additive genetic variation in resistance to Streptococcus iniae in Nile tilapia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Streptococcus iniae is an etiologic agent of streptococcal disease in tilapia and is one of several Streptococcus spp. that negatively impact worldwide tilapia production. Methods for the prevention and control of S. iniae include vaccines, management strategies, and antibiotics. An alternative and ...

  7. Reliable five-minute test strip method for identification of Streptococcus pyogenes.

    PubMed

    Dealler, S F; Campbell, L; Kerr, K G; McGoldrick, J; Flannigan, K A; Hawkey, P M

    1989-04-01

    A novel and rapid method (Strep Strip, Lab M) for identification of Streptococcus pyogenes was evaluated. The method combines the established test for pyroglutamyl aminopeptidase (PYR) with a rapid chromogenic test for beta-glucosidase on a paper strip. The test was evaluated with 274 clinical isolates and 237 culture collection isolates of beta-haemolytic streptococci. Streptococcus pyogenes was identified with 100% specificity. Six isolates identified as Lancefield group A and which might therefore be assumed to be Streptococcus pyogenes were shown by the test strip method not to be this species. The beta-glucosidase test on the test strip allowed differentiation between enterococci and Streptococcus pyogenes (both PYR positive) in all cases. The test strip method represents an economical and accurate method for identification of Streptococcus pyogenes in clinical material. PMID:2565813

  8. Complete Genome Sequence of emm4 Streptococcus pyogenes MEW427, a Throat Isolate from a Child Meeting Clinical Criteria for Pediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorders Associated with Streptococcus (PANDAS)

    PubMed Central

    Jacob, Kristin M.; Spilker, Theodore; LiPuma, John J.; Dawid, Suzanne R.

    2016-01-01

    We report the complete genome assembly of the Streptococcus pyogenes type emm4 strain MEW427 (also referred to as strain UM001 in the Pediatric Acute-Onset Neuropsychiatric Syndrome [PANS] Research Consortium), a throat isolate from a child with acute-onset neuropsychiatric symptoms meeting clinical criteria for PANDAS (pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcus). The genome length is 1,814,455 bp with 38.51% G+C%. PMID:26988046

  9. Complete Genome Sequence of emm4 Streptococcus pyogenes MEW427, a Throat Isolate from a Child Meeting Clinical Criteria for Pediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorders Associated with Streptococcus (PANDAS).

    PubMed

    Jacob, Kristin M; Spilker, Theodore; LiPuma, John J; Dawid, Suzanne R; Watson, Michael E

    2016-01-01

    We report the complete genome assembly of the Streptococcus pyogenes type emm4 strain MEW427 (also referred to as strain UM001 in the Pediatric Acute-Onset Neuropsychiatric Syndrome [PANS] Research Consortium), a throat isolate from a child with acute-onset neuropsychiatric symptoms meeting clinical criteria for PANDAS (pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcus). The genome length is 1,814,455 bp with 38.51% G+C%. PMID:26988046

  10. Complete Genome Sequence of emm4 Streptococcus pyogenes MEW427, a Throat Isolate from a Child Meeting Clinical Criteria for Pediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorders Associated with Streptococcus (PANDAS).

    PubMed

    Jacob, Kristin M; Spilker, Theodore; LiPuma, John J; Dawid, Suzanne R; Watson, Michael E

    2016-03-17

    We report the complete genome assembly of the Streptococcus pyogenes type emm4 strain MEW427 (also referred to as strain UM001 in the Pediatric Acute-Onset Neuropsychiatric Syndrome [PANS] Research Consortium), a throat isolate from a child with acute-onset neuropsychiatric symptoms meeting clinical criteria for PANDAS (pediatric autoimmune neuropsychiatric disorders associated with streptococcus). The genome length is 1,814,455 bp with 38.51% G+C%.

  11. Genomics of Streptococcus salivarius, a major human commensal.

    PubMed

    Delorme, Christine; Abraham, Anne-Laure; Renault, Pierre; Guédon, Eric

    2015-07-01

    The salivarius group of streptococci is of particular importance for humans. This group consists of three genetically similar species, Streptococcus salivarius, Streptococcus vestibularis and Streptococcus thermophilus. S. salivarius and S. vestibularis are commensal organisms that may occasionally cause opportunistic infections in humans, whereas S. thermophilus is a food bacterium widely used in dairy production. We developed Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and comparative genomic analysis to confirm the clear separation of these three species. These analyses also identified a subgroup of four strains, with a core genome diverging by about 10%, in terms of its nucleotide sequence, from that of S. salivarius sensu stricto. S. thermophilus species displays a low level of nucleotide variability, due to its recent emergence with the development of agriculture. By contrast, nucleotide variability is high in the other two species of the salivarius group, reflecting their long-standing association with humans. The species of the salivarius group have genome sizes ranging from the smallest (∼ 1.7 Mb for S. thermophilus) to the largest (∼ 2.3 Mb for S. salivarius) among streptococci, reflecting genome reduction linked to a narrow, nutritionally rich environment for S. thermophilus, and natural, more competitive niches for the other two species. Analyses of genomic content have indicated that the core genes of S. salivarius account for about two thirds of the genome, indicating considerable variability of gene content and differences in potential adaptive features. Furthermore, we showed that the genome of this species is exceptionally rich in genes encoding surface factors, glycosyltransferases and response regulators. Evidence of widespread genetic exchanges was obtained, probably involving a natural competence system and the presence of diverse mobile elements. However, although the S. salivarius strains studied were isolated from several human body-related sites

  12. Genomics of Streptococcus salivarius, a major human commensal.

    PubMed

    Delorme, Christine; Abraham, Anne-Laure; Renault, Pierre; Guédon, Eric

    2015-07-01

    The salivarius group of streptococci is of particular importance for humans. This group consists of three genetically similar species, Streptococcus salivarius, Streptococcus vestibularis and Streptococcus thermophilus. S. salivarius and S. vestibularis are commensal organisms that may occasionally cause opportunistic infections in humans, whereas S. thermophilus is a food bacterium widely used in dairy production. We developed Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and comparative genomic analysis to confirm the clear separation of these three species. These analyses also identified a subgroup of four strains, with a core genome diverging by about 10%, in terms of its nucleotide sequence, from that of S. salivarius sensu stricto. S. thermophilus species displays a low level of nucleotide variability, due to its recent emergence with the development of agriculture. By contrast, nucleotide variability is high in the other two species of the salivarius group, reflecting their long-standing association with humans. The species of the salivarius group have genome sizes ranging from the smallest (∼ 1.7 Mb for S. thermophilus) to the largest (∼ 2.3 Mb for S. salivarius) among streptococci, reflecting genome reduction linked to a narrow, nutritionally rich environment for S. thermophilus, and natural, more competitive niches for the other two species. Analyses of genomic content have indicated that the core genes of S. salivarius account for about two thirds of the genome, indicating considerable variability of gene content and differences in potential adaptive features. Furthermore, we showed that the genome of this species is exceptionally rich in genes encoding surface factors, glycosyltransferases and response regulators. Evidence of widespread genetic exchanges was obtained, probably involving a natural competence system and the presence of diverse mobile elements. However, although the S. salivarius strains studied were isolated from several human body-related sites

  13. Peritoneal culture alters Streptococcus pneumoniae protein profiles and virulence properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orihuela, C. J.; Janssen, R.; Robb, C. W.; Watson, D. A.; Niesel, D. W.

    2000-01-01

    We have examined the properties of Streptococcus pneumoniae cultured in the murine peritoneal cavity and compared its virulence-associated characteristics to those of cultures grown in vitro. Analysis of mRNA levels for specific virulence factors demonstrated a 2.8-fold increase in ply expression and a 2.2-fold increase in capA3 expression during murine peritoneal culture (MPC). Two-dimensional gels and immunoblots using convalescent-phase patient sera and murine sera revealed distinct differences in protein production in vivo (MPC). MPC-grown pneumococci adhered to A549 epithelial cell lines at levels 10-fold greater than those cultured in vitro.

  14. Chromosome and cell wall segregation in Streptococcus faecium ATCC 9790

    SciTech Connect

    Higgins, M.L.; Glaser, D.; Dicker, D.T.; Zito, E.T.

    1989-01-01

    Segregation was studied by measuring the positions of autoradiographic grain clusters in chains formed from single cells containing on average less than one radiolabeled chromosome strand. The degree to which chromosomal and cell wall material cosegregated was quantified by using the methods of S. Cooper and M. Weinberger, dividing the number of chains labeled at the middle. This analysis indicated that in contrast to chromosomal segregation in Escherichia coli and, in some studies, to that in gram-positive rods, chromosomal segregation in Streptococcus faecium was slightly nonrandom and did not vary with growth rate. Results were not significantly affected by strand exchange. In contrast, labeled cell wall segregated predominantly nonrandomly.

  15. A severe case of Lemierre Syndrome with Streptococcus constellatus Infection.

    PubMed

    Shimada, Midori; Morinaga, Yoshitomo; Kitazaki, Takeshi; Fukuda, Minoru; Hashiguchi, Kohji; Yanagihara, Katsunori; Kohno, Shigeru

    2014-01-01

    A 76-year-old Japanese male presenting with high fever, headache, and disturbance of consciousness was hospitalized. Contrast computed tomography revealed thrombophlebitis in the internal jugular vein and abscesses in the posterior neck region, pharynx, and pterygoid muscle. Streptococcus constellatus infection was confirmed by culture of blood samples, and the patient was diagnosed with Lemierre syndrome. In addition to the administration of antibiotics and anticoagulants, abscess drainage was performed. S. constellatus should be considered as a causative bacterium in elderly patients with Lemierre syndrome. PMID:25410567

  16. Characterization of an extracellular dipeptidase from Streptococcus gordonii FSS2.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, J M; Kordula, T; Moon, J L; Mayo, J A; Travis, J

    2005-02-01

    PepV, a dipeptidase found in culture fluids of Streptococcus gordonii FSS2, was purified and characterized, and its gene was cloned. PepV is a monomeric metalloenzyme of approximately 55 kDa that preferentially degrades hydrophobic dipeptides. The gene encodes a polypeptide of 467 amino acids, with a theoretical molecular mass of 51,114 Da and a calculated pI of 4.8. The S. gordonii PepV gene is homologous to the PepV gene family from Lactobacillus and Lactococcus spp.

  17. [Lytic phages and prophages of Streptococcus suis--a review].

    PubMed

    Tang, Fang; Lu, Chengping

    2015-04-01

    Streptococcus suis (S. suis) is an important zoonosis and pathogen that can carry prophages. In this review, we focus on the recent advances in our understanding of lytic phage and lysogenic phage of S. suis, including the morphology of S. suis lytic phage, the functions of lysin and terminase large subunit encoded by S. suis lytic phage, comparative genomics of S. suis prophages, lysogenic. conversion between S. suis lytic phage and prophage. Furthermore, prospective evolution of interactions between phage and host was discussed. PMID:26211312

  18. Development of Streptococcus pneumoniae Vaccines Using Live Vectors

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shifeng; Curtiss, Roy

    2014-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae still causes severe morbidity and mortality worldwide, especially in young children and the elderly. Much effort has been dedicated to developing protein-based universal vaccines to conquer the current shortcomings of capsular vaccines and capsular conjugate vaccines, such as serotype replacement, limited coverage and high costs. A recombinant live vector vaccine delivering protective antigens is a promising way to achieve this goal. In this review, we discuss the researches using live recombinant vaccines, mainly live attenuated Salmonella and lactic acid bacteria, to deliver pneumococcal antigens. We also discuss both the limitations and the future of these vaccines. PMID:25309747

  19. Effects of Manganese on Streptococcus mutans Planktonic and Biofilm Growth

    PubMed Central

    Arirachakaran, P.; Luengpailin, S.; Banas, J.A.; Mazurkiewicz, J.E.; Benjavongkulchai, E.

    2007-01-01

    Streptococcus mutans, an agent of dental caries, was tested for growth in the presence or absence of manganese (Mn), since studies have linked Mn levels with cariogenic potential. Seven S. mutans serotype c strains were grown in chemically defined medium under different atmospheric conditions: 5% CO2, O2-enriched 5% CO2 (shaking) and anaerobic. There was significant strain variability with respect to Mn requirements under the various conditions tested. Both sucrose-dependent and sucrose-independent biofilm growth by strain UA159 were affected by the absence of Mn. S. mutans strains show highly variable responses to both high and low Mn concentrations. PMID:17992012

  20. Absence of Streptococcus pneumoniae in pharyngeal swabs of geriatric inpatients.

    PubMed

    Jomrich, Nina; Kellner, Silvia; Djukic, Marija; Eiffert, Helmut; Nau, Roland

    2015-07-01

    Colonization of the pharynx by Streptococcus pneumoniae was studied in 185 in-hospital geriatric patients (median age 81 years) from 29 March 2011 to 22 June 2011. Swabs were plated on blood agar plates. Colonies with a morphology suggesting S. pneumoniae were further analyzed. Surprisingly, pneumococci were not found in any of the samples. Pneumococci chronically colonizing the pharynx of elderly people may be much rarer than previously thought and probably are not the source of pneumococcal pneumonia in old age. PMID:25746605

  1. cadDX Operon of Streptococcus salivarius 57.I▿

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yi-Ywan M.; Feng, C. W.; Chiu, C. F.; Burne, Robert A.

    2008-01-01

    A CadDX system that confers resistance to Cd2+ and Zn2+ was identified in Streptococcus salivarius 57.I. Unlike with other CadDX systems, the expression of the cad promoter was negatively regulated by CadX, and the repression was inducible by Cd2+ and Zn2+, similar to what was found for CadCA systems. The lower G+C content of the S. salivarius cadDX genes suggests acquisition by horizontal gene transfer. PMID:18165364

  2. cadDX operon of Streptococcus salivarius 57.I.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi-Ywan M; Feng, C W; Chiu, C F; Burne, Robert A

    2008-03-01

    A CadDX system that confers resistance to Cd(2+) and Zn(2+) was identified in Streptococcus salivarius 57.I. Unlike with other CadDX systems, the expression of the cad promoter was negatively regulated by CadX, and the repression was inducible by Cd(2+) and Zn(2+), similar to what was found for CadCA systems. The lower G+C content of the S. salivarius cadDX genes suggests acquisition by horizontal gene transfer. PMID:18165364

  3. Survival of Streptococcus equi on surfaces in an outdoor environment

    PubMed Central

    Weese, J. Scott; Jarlot, Capucine; Morley, Paul S.

    2009-01-01

    Management practices to prevent or control outbreaks of Streptococcus equi subsp. equi often include consideration of environment survival, but limited objective data are available. This study involved evaluation of S. equi persistence following inoculation of wood, metal, and rubber surfaces in an outdoor environment. Survival was short, ranging from < 1 to 3 d. There was no effect of rain (P = 0.33) or surface type (P = 0.95), but there was an effect of sunlight (P = 0.002). Outdoor survival of S. equi is poor, and prolonged quarantine of outdoor areas, particularly areas exposed to the sun, is probably unnecessary. PMID:19949559

  4. The molecular basis of Streptococcus equi infection and disease.

    PubMed

    Harrington, Dean J; Sutcliffe, Iain C; Chanter, Neil

    2002-04-01

    Streptococcus equi is the aetiological agent of strangles, one of the most prevalent diseases of the horse. The animal suffering and economic burden associated with this disease necessitate effective treatment. Current antibiotic therapy is often ineffective and thus recent attention has focused on vaccine development. A systematic understanding of S. equi virulence, leading to the identification of targets to which protective immunity can be directed, is a prerequisite of the development of such a vaccine. Here, the virulence factors of S. equi are reviewed.

  5. Copper intoxication inhibits aerobic nucleotide synthesis in Streptococcus pneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Michael D. L.; Kehl-Fie, Thomas E.; Rosch, Jason W.

    2015-01-01

    Copper is universally toxic in excess, a feature exploited by the human immune system to facilitate bacterial clearance. The mechanism of copper intoxication remains unknown for many bacterial species. Here, we demonstrate that copper toxicity in Streptococcus pneumoniae is independent from oxidative stress but, rather, is the result of copper inhibiting the aerobic dNTP biosynthetic pathway. Furthermore, we show that copper-intoxicated S. pneumoniae is rescued by manganese, which is an essential metal in the aerobic nucleotide synthesis pathway. These data provide insight into new targets to enhance copper-mediated toxicity during bacterial clearance. PMID:25730343

  6. Antibiotic resistance of Streptococcus agalactiae from cows with mastitis.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jian; Yu, Fu-Qing; Luo, Li-Ping; He, Jian-Zhong; Hou, Rong-Guang; Zhang, Han-Qi; Li, Shu-Mei; Su, Jing-Liang; Han, Bo

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to characterise the phenotypic and genotypic antibiotic resistance patterns of Streptococcus agalactiae isolated from cows with mastitis in China. Antibiotic resistance was based on minimum inhibitory concentrations and detection of resistance genes by PCR. S. agalactiae isolates most frequently exhibited phenotypic resistance to tetracycline, while the resistance genes most frequently detected were ermB, tetL and tetM. Resistance genes were detected in some susceptible isolates, whereas no resistance genes could be detected in some resistant isolates, indicating that the resistance genotype does not accurately predict phenotypic resistance. PMID:22627045

  7. Molecular characterization of virulence genes of Streptococcus equi subsp. equi and Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus in equines

    PubMed Central

    Javed, R.; Taku, A. K.; Gangil, Rakhi; Sharma, R. K.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The aim was to determine the occurrence of streptococci in equines in Jammu (R. S. Pura, Katra), characterization of Streptococci equi subsp. equi and Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus with respect to their virulence traits and to determine antibiotic sensitivity pattern of virulent Streptococcus isolates. Materials and Methods: A total of 96 samples were collected from both clinically affected animals (exhibiting signs of respiratory tract disease) and apparently healthy animals and were sent to laboratory. The organisms were isolated on Columbia nalidixic acid agar containing 5% sheep blood as well as on sheep blood agar and confirmed by cultural characteristics and biochemical tests. Molecular detection of Streptococcus was done directly from cultures using sodA and seM gene-based polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Antibiogram was performed against five antibiotics such as amoxicillin, penicillin G, streptomycin, rifampicin, and methicillin. Results: During this study, a total 40 streptococcal isolates were obtained out of which 2 isolates were of S. equi subsp. equi, 12 isolates were from S. equi subsp. zooepidemicus. In the PCR-based detection, we revealed amplicons of 235 bp and 679 bp for confirmation of sodA and seM gene, respectively. In antibiogram, two isolates of S. equi subsp. equi were found resistant to penicillin G, and all other isolates were found sensitive to amoxicillin and streptomycin. Conclusion: The majority of streptococcal infections was due to S. equi subsp. Zooepidemicus, and thus was recognized as a potential pathogen of diseases of equines besides S. equi subsp. equi. PMID:27651677

  8. A novel pheromone quorum-sensing system controls the development of natural competence in Streptococcus thermophilus and Streptococcus salivarius.

    PubMed

    Fontaine, Laetitia; Boutry, Céline; de Frahan, Marie Henry; Delplace, Brigitte; Fremaux, Christophe; Horvath, Philippe; Boyaval, Patrick; Hols, Pascal

    2010-03-01

    In streptococcal species, the key step of competence development is the transcriptional induction of comX, which encodes the alternative sigma factor sigma(X), which positively regulates genes necessary for DNA transformation. In Streptococcus species belonging to the mitis and mutans groups, induction of comX relies on the activation of a three-component system consisting of a secreted pheromone, a histidine kinase, and a response regulator. In Streptococcus thermophilus, a species belonging to the salivarius group, the oligopeptide transporter Ami is essential for comX expression under competence-inducing conditions. This suggests a different regulation pathway of competence based on the production and reimportation of a signal peptide. The objective of our work was to identify the main actors involved in the early steps of comX induction in S. thermophilus LMD-9. Using a transcriptomic approach, four highly induced early competence operons were identified. Among them, we found a Rgg-like regulator (Ster_0316) associated with a nonannotated gene encoding a 24-amino-acid hydrophobic peptide (Shp0316). Through genetic deletions, we showed that these two genes are essential for comX induction. Moreover, addition to the medium of synthetic peptides derived from the C-terminal part of Shp0316 restored comX induction and transformation of a Shp0316-deficient strain. These peptides also induced competence in S. thermophilus and Streptococcus salivarius strains that are poorly transformable or not transformable. Altogether, our results show that Ster_0316 and Shp0316, renamed ComRS, are the two members of a novel quorum-sensing system responsible for comX induction in species from the salivarius group, which differs from the classical phosphorelay three-component system identified previously in streptococci. PMID:20023010

  9. A Novel Pheromone Quorum-Sensing System Controls the Development of Natural Competence in Streptococcus thermophilus and Streptococcus salivarius▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Fontaine, Laetitia; Boutry, Céline; de Frahan, Marie Henry; Delplace, Brigitte; Fremaux, Christophe; Horvath, Philippe; Boyaval, Patrick; Hols, Pascal

    2010-01-01

    In streptococcal species, the key step of competence development is the transcriptional induction of comX, which encodes the alternative sigma factor σX, which positively regulates genes necessary for DNA transformation. In Streptococcus species belonging to the mitis and mutans groups, induction of comX relies on the activation of a three-component system consisting of a secreted pheromone, a histidine kinase, and a response regulator. In Streptococcus thermophilus, a species belonging to the salivarius group, the oligopeptide transporter Ami is essential for comX expression under competence-inducing conditions. This suggests a different regulation pathway of competence based on the production and reimportation of a signal peptide. The objective of our work was to identify the main actors involved in the early steps of comX induction in S. thermophilus LMD-9. Using a transcriptomic approach, four highly induced early competence operons were identified. Among them, we found a Rgg-like regulator (Ster_0316) associated with a nonannotated gene encoding a 24-amino-acid hydrophobic peptide (Shp0316). Through genetic deletions, we showed that these two genes are essential for comX induction. Moreover, addition to the medium of synthetic peptides derived from the C-terminal part of Shp0316 restored comX induction and transformation of a Shp0316-deficient strain. These peptides also induced competence in S. thermophilus and Streptococcus salivarius strains that are poorly transformable or not transformable. Altogether, our results show that Ster_0316 and Shp0316, renamed ComRS, are the two members of a novel quorum-sensing system responsible for comX induction in species from the salivarius group, which differs from the classical phosphorelay three-component system identified previously in streptococci. PMID:20023010

  10. Development of a multiplex PCR assay to detect Edwardsiella tarda, Streptococcus parauberis, and Streptococcus iniae in olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus).

    PubMed

    Park, Seong Bin; Kwon, Kyoung; Cha, In Seok; Jang, Ho Bin; Nho, Seong Won; Fagutao, Fernand F; Kim, Young Kyu; Yu, Jong Earn; Jung, Tae Sung

    2014-01-01

    A multiplex PCR protocol was established to simultaneously detect major bacterial pathogens in olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) including Edwardsiella (E.) tarda, Streptococcus (S.) parauberis, and S. iniae. The PCR assay was able to detect 0.01 ng of E. tarda, 0.1 ng of S. parauberis, and 1 ng of S. iniae genomic DNA. Furthermore, this technique was found to have high specificity when tested with related bacterial species. This method represents a cheaper, faster, and reliable alternative for identifying major bacterial pathogens in olive flounder, the most important farmed fish in Korea.

  11. [Streptococcus pyogenes and the brain: living with the enemy].

    PubMed

    Dale, R C

    Streptococcus pyogenes (or group A beta hemolytic streptococcus) is a pathogenic bacterium that can give rise to a range of invasive and autoimmune diseases, although it is more widely known as the cause of tonsillitis. It is particularly interesting to note that this germ only causes disease in humans. For many years it has been acknowledged that it can cause an autoimmune brain disease (Sydenham s chorea). Yet, the spectrum of post streptococcal brain disorders has recently been extended to include other movement disorders such as tics or dystonia. A number of systematic psychiatric studies have shown that certain emotional disorders generally accompany the movement disorder (particularly, obsessive compulsive disorder). The proposed pathogenetic mechanism is that of a neuronal dysfunction in which antibodies play a mediating role. The antibodies that are produced after the streptococcal infection cross react with neuronal proteins, and more especially so in individuals with a propensity. This represents a possible model of immunological mimicry and its potential importance with respect to certain idiopathic disorders such as Tourette syndrome and obsessive compulsive disorder.

  12. Mechanisms of group A Streptococcus resistance to reactive oxygen species.

    PubMed

    Henningham, Anna; Döhrmann, Simon; Nizet, Victor; Cole, Jason N

    2015-07-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes, also known as group A Streptococcus (GAS), is an exclusively human Gram-positive bacterial pathogen ranked among the 'top 10' causes of infection-related deaths worldwide. GAS commonly causes benign and self-limiting epithelial infections (pharyngitis and impetigo), and less frequent severe invasive diseases (bacteremia, toxic shock syndrome and necrotizing fasciitis). Annually, GAS causes 700 million infections, including 1.8 million invasive infections with a mortality rate of 25%. In order to establish an infection, GAS must counteract the oxidative stress conditions generated by the release of reactive oxygen species (ROS) at the infection site by host immune cells such as neutrophils and monocytes. ROS are the highly reactive and toxic byproducts of oxygen metabolism, including hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), superoxide anion (O2•(-)), hydroxyl radicals (OH•) and singlet oxygen (O2*), which can damage bacterial nucleic acids, proteins and cell membranes. This review summarizes the enzymatic and regulatory mechanisms utilized by GAS to thwart ROS and survive under conditions of oxidative stress. PMID:25670736

  13. Disease manifestations and pathogenic mechanisms of Group A Streptococcus.

    PubMed

    Walker, Mark J; Barnett, Timothy C; McArthur, Jason D; Cole, Jason N; Gillen, Christine M; Henningham, Anna; Sriprakash, K S; Sanderson-Smith, Martina L; Nizet, Victor

    2014-04-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes, also known as group A Streptococcus (GAS), causes mild human infections such as pharyngitis and impetigo and serious infections such as necrotizing fasciitis and streptococcal toxic shock syndrome. Furthermore, repeated GAS infections may trigger autoimmune diseases, including acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis, acute rheumatic fever, and rheumatic heart disease. Combined, these diseases account for over half a million deaths per year globally. Genomic and molecular analyses have now characterized a large number of GAS virulence determinants, many of which exhibit overlap and redundancy in the processes of adhesion and colonization, innate immune resistance, and the capacity to facilitate tissue barrier degradation and spread within the human host. This improved understanding of the contribution of individual virulence determinants to the disease process has led to the formulation of models of GAS disease progression, which may lead to better treatment and intervention strategies. While GAS remains sensitive to all penicillins and cephalosporins, rising resistance to other antibiotics used in disease treatment is an increasing worldwide concern. Several GAS vaccine formulations that elicit protective immunity in animal models have shown promise in nonhuman primate and early-stage human trials. The development of a safe and efficacious commercial human vaccine for the prophylaxis of GAS disease remains a high priority. PMID:24696436

  14. Oxygen dependent pyruvate oxidase expression and production in Streptococcus sanguinis

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Lan-yan; Itzek, Andreas; Chen, Zhi-yun; Kreth, Jens

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to characterize the oxygen dependent regulation of pyruvate oxidase (SpxB) gene expression and protein production in Streptococcus sanguinis (S. sanguinis). SpxB is responsible for the generation of growth-inhibiting amounts of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) able to antagonize cariogenic Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans). Furthermore, the ecological consequence of H2O2 production was investigated in its self-inhibiting ability towards the producing strain. Expression of spxB was determined with quantitative Real-Time RT-PCR and a fluorescent expression reporter strain. Protein abundance was investigated with FLAG epitope engineered in frame on the C-terminal end of SpxB. Self inhibition was tested with an antagonism plate assay. The expression and protein abundance decreased in cells grown under anaerobic conditions. S. sanguinis was resistant against its own produced H2O2, while cariogenic S. mutans was inhibited in its growth. The results suggest that S. sanguinis produces H2O2 as antimicrobial substance to inhibit susceptible niche competing species like S. mutans during initial biofilm formation, when oxygen availability allows for spxB expression and Spx production. PMID:21485312

  15. Mechanisms of group A Streptococcus resistance to reactive oxygen species.

    PubMed

    Henningham, Anna; Döhrmann, Simon; Nizet, Victor; Cole, Jason N

    2015-07-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes, also known as group A Streptococcus (GAS), is an exclusively human Gram-positive bacterial pathogen ranked among the 'top 10' causes of infection-related deaths worldwide. GAS commonly causes benign and self-limiting epithelial infections (pharyngitis and impetigo), and less frequent severe invasive diseases (bacteremia, toxic shock syndrome and necrotizing fasciitis). Annually, GAS causes 700 million infections, including 1.8 million invasive infections with a mortality rate of 25%. In order to establish an infection, GAS must counteract the oxidative stress conditions generated by the release of reactive oxygen species (ROS) at the infection site by host immune cells such as neutrophils and monocytes. ROS are the highly reactive and toxic byproducts of oxygen metabolism, including hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), superoxide anion (O2•(-)), hydroxyl radicals (OH•) and singlet oxygen (O2*), which can damage bacterial nucleic acids, proteins and cell membranes. This review summarizes the enzymatic and regulatory mechanisms utilized by GAS to thwart ROS and survive under conditions of oxidative stress.

  16. Detection of Streptococcus pyogenes using rapid visual molecular assay.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xiangna; He, Xiaoming; Li, Huan; Zhao, Jiangtao; Huang, Simo; Liu, Wei; Wei, Xiao; Ding, Yiwei; Wang, Zhaoyan; Zou, Dayang; Wang, Xuesong; Dong, Derong; Yang, Zhan; Yan, Xiabei; Huang, Liuyu; Du, Shuangkui; Yuan, Jing

    2015-09-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes is an increasingly important pathogen in many parts of the world. Rapid and accurate detection of S. pyogenes aids in the control of the infection. In this study, a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay was developed and validated for the specific detection of S. pyogenes. The assay incorporates two methods: a chromogenic analysis using a calcein/Mn(2+) complex and real-time turbidity monitoring to assess the reaction. Both methods detected the target DNA within 60 min under 64°C isothermal conditions. The assay used specifically designed primers to target spy1258, and correctly identified 111 strains of S. pyogenes and 32 non-S. pyogenes strains, including other species of the genus Streptococcus. Tests using reference strains showed that the LAMP assay was highly specific. The sensitivity of the assay, with a detection limit of 1.49 pg DNA, was 10-fold greater than that of PCR. The LAMP assay established in this study is simple, fast and sensitive, and does not rely upon any special equipment; thus, it could be employed in clinical diagnosis.

  17. Lysogenic Transfer of Group A Streptococcus Superantigen Gene among Streptococci

    PubMed Central

    Vojtek, Ivo; Pirzada, Zaid A.; Henriques-Normark, Birgitta; Mastny, Markus; Janapatla, Rajendra P.; Charpentier, Emmanuelle

    2010-01-01

    A group A Streptococcus(GAS) isolate,serotypeM12,recovered from a patient with streptococcal toxic shock syndrome was analyzed for superantigen-carrying prophages, revealing 149, which encodes superantigen SSA. Sequence analysis of the att-L proximal region of 149 showed that the phage had a mosaic nature. Remarkably, we successfully obtained lysogenic conversion of GAS clinical isolates of various M serotypes (M1, M3, M5, M12, M19, M28, and M94), as well as of group C Streptococcus equisimilis (GCSE) clinical isolates, via transfer of a recombinant phage 149::Kmr. Phage149::Kmr from selected lysogenized GAS and GCSE strains could be transferred back to M12 GAS strains. Our data indicate that horizontal transfer of lysogenic phages among GAS can occur across the M-type barrier; these data also provide further support for the hypothesis that toxigenic conversion can occur via lysogeny between species. Streptococci might employ this mechanism specifically to allow more efficient adaptation to changing host challenges, potentially leading to fitter and more virulent clones. PMID:18179387

  18. Lysogenic transfer of group A Streptococcus superantigen gene among Streptococci.

    PubMed

    Vojtek, Ivo; Pirzada, Zaid A; Henriques-Normark, Birgitta; Mastny, Markus; Janapatla, Rajendra P; Charpentier, Emmanuelle

    2008-01-15

    A group A Streptococcus (GAS) isolate, serotype M12, recovered from a patient with streptococcal toxic shock syndrome was analyzed for superantigen-carrying prophages, revealing phi149, which encodes superantigen SSA. Sequence analysis of the att-L proximal region of phi149 showed that the phage had a mosaic nature. Remarkably, we successfully obtained lysogenic conversion of GAS clinical isolates of various M serotypes (M1, M3, M5, M12, M19, M28, and M94), as well as of group C Streptococcus equisimilis (GCSE) clinical isolates, via transfer of a recombinant phage phi149::Km(r). Phage phi149::Km(r) from selected lysogenized GAS and GCSE strains could be transferred back to M12 GAS strains. Our data indicate that horizontal transfer of lysogenic phages among GAS can occur across the M-type barrier; these data also provide further support for the hypothesis that toxigenic conversion can occur via lysogeny between species. Streptococci might employ this mechanism specifically to allow more efficient adaptation to changing host challenges, potentially leading to fitter and more virulent clones.

  19. Fibronectin-binding protein of Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus.

    PubMed Central

    Lindmark, H; Jacobsson, K; Frykberg, L; Guss, B

    1996-01-01

    By screening a genomic lambda library of Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus, we have cloned and sequenced a gene, termed fnz, encoding a fibronectin (Fn)-binding protein called FNZ. On the basis of the deduced amino acid sequence of FNZ, the mature protein has a molecular mass of approximately 61 kDa. Analysis of FNZ reveals a structural organization similar to that of other cell surface proteins from streptococci and staphylococci. The Fn-binding activity is localized to two domains in the C-terminal part of FNZ. One domain is composed of five repeats, which contain a motif similar to what has earlier been found in other Fn-binding proteins in streptococci and staphylococci. The first and second repeats are separated by a short stretch of amino acids, including the motif LAGESGET, which is an important part of the second Fn-binding domain. This motif is also present in an Fn-binding domain (UR) in protein F of Streptococcus pyogenes. A fusion protein covering the Fn-binding domain of FNZ inhibits the binding of the 29-kDa N-terminal fragment of Fn to cells of various streptococcal species as well as to Staphylococcus aureus. PMID:8926060

  20. Mechanisms of group A Streptococcus resistance to reactive oxygen species

    PubMed Central

    Henningham, Anna; Döhrmann, Simon; Nizet, Victor; Cole, Jason N.

    2015-01-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes, also known as group A Streptococcus (GAS), is an exclusively human Gram-positive bacterial pathogen ranked among the ‘top 10’ causes of infection-related deaths worldwide. GAS commonly causes benign and self-limiting epithelial infections (pharyngitis and impetigo), and less frequent severe invasive diseases (bacteremia, toxic shock syndrome and necrotizing fasciitis). Annually, GAS causes 700 million infections, including 1.8 million invasive infections with a mortality rate of 25%. In order to establish an infection, GAS must counteract the oxidative stress conditions generated by the release of reactive oxygen species (ROS) at the infection site by host immune cells such as neutrophils and monocytes. ROS are the highly reactive and toxic byproducts of oxygen metabolism, including hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), superoxide anion (O2•−), hydroxyl radicals (OH•) and singlet oxygen (O2*), which can damage bacterial nucleic acids, proteins and cell membranes. This review summarizes the enzymatic and regulatory mechanisms utilized by GAS to thwart ROS and survive under conditions of oxidative stress. PMID:25670736

  1. Disease Manifestations and Pathogenic Mechanisms of Group A Streptococcus

    PubMed Central

    Barnett, Timothy C.; McArthur, Jason D.; Cole, Jason N.; Gillen, Christine M.; Henningham, Anna; Sriprakash, K. S.; Sanderson-Smith, Martina L.; Nizet, Victor

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Streptococcus pyogenes, also known as group A Streptococcus (GAS), causes mild human infections such as pharyngitis and impetigo and serious infections such as necrotizing fasciitis and streptococcal toxic shock syndrome. Furthermore, repeated GAS infections may trigger autoimmune diseases, including acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis, acute rheumatic fever, and rheumatic heart disease. Combined, these diseases account for over half a million deaths per year globally. Genomic and molecular analyses have now characterized a large number of GAS virulence determinants, many of which exhibit overlap and redundancy in the processes of adhesion and colonization, innate immune resistance, and the capacity to facilitate tissue barrier degradation and spread within the human host. This improved understanding of the contribution of individual virulence determinants to the disease process has led to the formulation of models of GAS disease progression, which may lead to better treatment and intervention strategies. While GAS remains sensitive to all penicillins and cephalosporins, rising resistance to other antibiotics used in disease treatment is an increasing worldwide concern. Several GAS vaccine formulations that elicit protective immunity in animal models have shown promise in nonhuman primate and early-stage human trials. The development of a safe and efficacious commercial human vaccine for the prophylaxis of GAS disease remains a high priority. PMID:24696436

  2. Molecular Epidemiology of sil Locus in Clinical Streptococcus pyogenes Strains

    PubMed Central

    Plainvert, Céline; Dinis, Márcia; Ravins, Miriam; Hanski, Emanuel; Touak, Gérald; Dmytruk, Nicolas; Fouet, Agnès

    2014-01-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes (group A Streptococcus [GAS]) causes a wide variety of diseases, ranging from mild noninvasive to severe invasive infections. Mutations in regulatory components have been implicated in the switch from colonization to invasive phenotypes. The inactivation of the sil locus, composed of six genes encoding a quorum-sensing complex, gives rise to a highly invasive strain. However, studies conducted on limited collections of GAS strains suggested that sil prevalence is around 15%; furthermore, whereas a correlation between the presence of sil and the genetic background was suggested, no link between the presence of a functional sil locus and the invasive status was assessed. We established a collection of 637 nonredundant strains covering all emm genotypes present in France and of known clinical history; 68%, 22%, and 10% were from invasive infections, noninvasive infections, and asymptomatic carriage, respectively. Among the 637 strains, 206 were sil positive. The prevalence of the sil locus varied according to the emm genotype, being present in >85% of the emm4, emm18, emm32, emm60, emm87, and emm90 strains and absent from all emm1, emm28, and emm89 strains. A random selection based on 2009 French epidemiological data indicated that 16% of GAS strains are sil positive. Moreover, due to mutations leading to truncated proteins, only 9% of GAS strains harbor a predicted functional sil system. No correlation was observed between the presence or absence of a functional sil locus and the strain invasiveness status. PMID:24671796

  3. A molecular trigger for intercontinental epidemics of group A Streptococcus

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Luchang; Olsen, Randall J.; Nasser, Waleed; Beres, Stephen B.; Vuopio, Jaana; Kristinsson, Karl G.; Gottfredsson, Magnus; Porter, Adeline R.; DeLeo, Frank R.; Musser, James M.

    2015-01-01

    The identification of the molecular events responsible for strain emergence, enhanced virulence, and epidemicity has been a long-pursued goal in infectious diseases research. A recent analysis of 3,615 genomes of serotype M1 group A Streptococcus strains (the so-called “flesh-eating” bacterium) identified a recombination event that coincides with the global M1 pandemic beginning in the early 1980s. Here, we have shown that the allelic variation that results from this recombination event, which replaces the chromosomal region encoding secreted NADase and streptolysin O, is the key driver of increased toxin production and enhanced infection severity of the M1 pandemic strains. Using isoallelic mutant strains, we found that 3 polymorphisms in this toxin gene region increase resistance to killing by human polymorphonuclear leukocytes, increase bacterial proliferation, and increase virulence in animal models of pharyngitis and necrotizing fasciitis. Genome sequencing of an additional 1,125 streptococcal strains and virulence studies revealed that a highly similar recombinational replacement event underlies an ongoing intercontinental epidemic of serotype M89 group A Streptococcus infections. By identifying the molecular changes that enhance upper respiratory tract fitness, increased resistance to innate immunity, and increased tissue destruction, we describe a mechanism that underpins epidemic streptococcal infections, which have affected many millions of people. PMID:26258415

  4. Phylogenomics and the Dynamic Genome Evolution of the Genus Streptococcus

    PubMed Central

    Richards, Vincent P.; Palmer, Sara R.; Pavinski Bitar, Paulina D.; Qin, Xiang; Weinstock, George M.; Highlander, Sarah K.; Town, Christopher D.; Burne, Robert A.; Stanhope, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    The genus Streptococcus comprises important pathogens that have a severe impact on human health and are responsible for substantial economic losses to agriculture. Here, we utilize 46 Streptococcus genome sequences (44 species), including eight species sequenced here, to provide the first genomic level insight into the evolutionary history and genetic basis underlying the functional diversity of all major groups of this genus. Gene gain/loss analysis revealed a dynamic pattern of genome evolution characterized by an initial period of gene gain followed by a period of loss, as the major groups within the genus diversified. This was followed by a period of genome expansion associated with the origins of the present extant species. The pattern is concordant with an emerging view that genomes evolve through a dynamic process of expansion and streamlining. A large proportion of the pan-genome has experienced lateral gene transfer (LGT) with causative factors, such as relatedness and shared environment, operating over different evolutionary scales. Multiple gene ontology terms were significantly enriched for each group, and mapping terms onto the phylogeny showed that those corresponding to genes born on branches leading to the major groups represented approximately one-fifth of those enriched. Furthermore, despite the extensive LGT, several biochemical characteristics have been retained since group formation, suggesting genomic cohesiveness through time, and that these characteristics may be fundamental to each group. For example, proteolysis: mitis group; urea metabolism: salivarius group; carbohydrate metabolism: pyogenic group; and transcription regulation: bovis group. PMID:24625962

  5. Induction of Cytokines by Glucosyltransferases of Streptococcus mutans

    PubMed Central

    Chia, Jean-San; Lien, Huei-Ting; Hsueh, Po-Ren; Chen, Pei-Min; Sun, Andy; Chen, Jen-Yang

    2002-01-01

    Production of proinflammatory cytokines is implicated in the pathogenesis of viridans streptococcus-induced α-streptococcal shock syndrome and infective endocarditis. Streptococcus mutans, one of the opportunistic pathogens causing infective endocarditis, was reported previously to stimulate monocytes and epithelial and endothelial cells in vitro to produce various cytokines. We found that glucosyltransferases (GTFs) GtfC and GtfD of S. mutans stimulated predominantly the production of interleukin-6 (IL-6) from T cells cultured in vitro. The level of IL-6 but not of tumor necrosis factor alpha in blood was significantly elevated when rats were injected intravenously with S. mutans GS-5, whereas IL-6 was detected at a much lower level when rats were challenged with NHS1DD, an isogenic mutant defective in the expression of GTFs. The serum IL-6 level was elevated in patients with endocarditis caused by different species of viridans streptococci which express GTF homologues. Affinity column-purified GTFs reduced the levels of detectable IL-2 of T cells stimulated by another bacterial antigen, tetanus toxoid. These results suggested that GTFs might modulate the production of Th1-type cytokines and that GTFs of S. mutans play a significant role in stimulating the production of the proinflammatory cytokine IL-6 in vivo. PMID:12093691

  6. Comparative genomic analysis of ten Streptococcus pneumoniae temperate bacteriophages.

    PubMed

    Romero, Patricia; Croucher, Nicholas J; Hiller, N Luisa; Hu, Fen Z; Ehrlich, Garth D; Bentley, Stephen D; García, Ernesto; Mitchell, Tim J

    2009-08-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is an important human pathogen that often carries temperate bacteriophages. As part of a program to characterize the genetic makeup of prophages associated with clinical strains and to assess the potential roles that they play in the biology and pathogenesis in their host, we performed comparative genomic analysis of 10 temperate pneumococcal phages. All of the genomes are organized into five major gene clusters: lysogeny, replication, packaging, morphogenesis, and lysis clusters. All of the phage particles observed showed a Siphoviridae morphology. The only genes that are well conserved in all the genomes studied are those involved in the integration and the lysis of the host in addition to two genes, of unknown function, within the replication module. We observed that a high percentage of the open reading frames contained no similarities to any sequences catalogued in public databases; however, genes that were homologous to known phage virulence genes, including the pblB gene of Streptococcus mitis and the vapE gene of Dichelobacter nodosus, were also identified. Interestingly, bioinformatic tools showed the presence of a toxin-antitoxin system in the phage phiSpn_6, and this represents the first time that an addition system in a pneumophage has been identified. Collectively, the temperate pneumophages contain a diverse set of genes with various levels of similarity among them. PMID:19502408

  7. Streptococcus caprae sp. nov., isolated from Iberian ibex (Capra pyrenaica hispanica).

    PubMed

    Vela, A I; Mentaberre, G; Lavín, S; Domínguez, L; Fernández-Garayzábal, J F

    2016-01-01

    Biochemical and molecular genetic studies were performed on a novel Gram-stain-positive, catalase-negative, coccus-shaped organism isolated from tonsil samples of two Iberian ibexes. The micro-organism was identified as a streptococcal species based on its cellular, morphological and biochemical characteristics. 16S rRNA gene sequence comparison studies confirmed its identification as a member of the genus Streptococcus, but the organism did not correspond to any species of this genus. The nearest phylogenetic relative of the unknown coccus from ibex was Streptococcus porci 2923-03T (96.6 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity). Analysis based on rpoB and sodA gene sequences revealed sequence similarity values lower than 86.0 and 83.8 %, respectively, from the type strains of recognized Streptococcus species. The novel bacterial isolate was distinguished from Streptococcus porci and other Streptococcus species using biochemical tests. Based on both phenotypic and phylogenetic findings, it is proposed that the unknown bacterium be classified as representing a novel species of the genus Streptococcus, for which the name Streptococcus caprae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is DICM07-02790-1CT ( = CECT 8872T = CCUG 67170T).

  8. Streptococcus danieliae sp. nov., a novel bacterium isolated from the caecum of a mouse.

    PubMed

    Clavel, Thomas; Charrier, Cédric; Haller, Dirk

    2013-01-01

    We report the characterization of one novel bacterium, strain ERD01G(T), isolated from the cecum of a TNF(deltaARE) mouse. The strain was found to belong to the genus Streptococcus based on phylogenetic analysis of partial 16S rRNA gene sequences. The bacterial species with standing name in nomenclature that was most closely related to our isolate was Streptococcus alactolyticus (97 %). The two bacteria were characterized by a DNA-DNA hybridization similarity value of 35 %, demonstrating that they belong to different species. The new isolate was negative for acetoin production, esculin hydrolysis, urease, α-galactosidase and β-glucosidase, was able to produce acid from starch and trehalose, grew as beta-hemolytic coccobacilli on blood agar, did not grow at >40 °C, did not survive heat treatment at 60 °C for 20 min and showed negative agglutination in Lancefield tests. On the basis of these characteristics, strain ERD01G(T) differed from the most closely related species S. alactolyticus, Streptococcus gordonii, Streptococcus intermedius and Streptococcus sanguinis. Thus, based on genotypic and phenotypic evidence, we propose that the isolate belongs to a novel bacterial taxon within the genus Streptococcus, for which the name Streptococcus danieliae is proposed. The type strain is ERD01G(T) (= DSM 22233(T) = CCUG 57647(T)).

  9. Streptococcus oriloxodontae sp. nov., isolated from the oral cavities of elephants.

    PubMed

    Shinozaki-Kuwahara, Noriko; Saito, Masanori; Hirasawa, Masatomo; Takada, Kazuko

    2014-11-01

    Two strains were isolated from oral cavity samples of healthy elephants. The isolates were Gram-positive, catalase-negative, coccus-shaped organisms that were tentatively identified as a streptococcal species based on the results of biochemical tests. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis suggested classification of these organisms in the genus Streptococcus with Streptococcus criceti ATCC 19642(T) and Streptococcus orisuis NUM 1001(T) as their closest phylogenetic neighbours with 98.2 and 96.9% gene sequence similarity, respectively. When multi-locus sequence analysis using four housekeeping genes, groEL, rpoB, gyrB and sodA, was carried out, similarity of concatenated sequences of the four housekeeping genes from the new isolates and Streptococcus mutans was 89.7%. DNA-DNA hybridization experiments suggested that the new isolates were distinct from S. criceti and other species of the genus Streptococcus. On the basis of genotypic and phenotypic differences, it is proposed that the novel isolates are classified in the genus Streptococcus as representatives of Streptococcus oriloxodontae sp. nov. The type strain of S. oriloxodontae is NUM 2101(T) ( =JCM 19285(T) =DSM 27377(T)).

  10. Streptococcus caprae sp. nov., isolated from Iberian ibex (Capra pyrenaica hispanica).

    PubMed

    Vela, A I; Mentaberre, G; Lavín, S; Domínguez, L; Fernández-Garayzábal, J F

    2016-01-01

    Biochemical and molecular genetic studies were performed on a novel Gram-stain-positive, catalase-negative, coccus-shaped organism isolated from tonsil samples of two Iberian ibexes. The micro-organism was identified as a streptococcal species based on its cellular, morphological and biochemical characteristics. 16S rRNA gene sequence comparison studies confirmed its identification as a member of the genus Streptococcus, but the organism did not correspond to any species of this genus. The nearest phylogenetic relative of the unknown coccus from ibex was Streptococcus porci 2923-03T (96.6 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity). Analysis based on rpoB and sodA gene sequences revealed sequence similarity values lower than 86.0 and 83.8 %, respectively, from the type strains of recognized Streptococcus species. The novel bacterial isolate was distinguished from Streptococcus porci and other Streptococcus species using biochemical tests. Based on both phenotypic and phylogenetic findings, it is proposed that the unknown bacterium be classified as representing a novel species of the genus Streptococcus, for which the name Streptococcus caprae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is DICM07-02790-1CT ( = CECT 8872T = CCUG 67170T). PMID:26486442

  11. Fulminant neonatal sepsis due to Streptococcus alactolyticus - A case report and review.

    PubMed

    Toepfner, Nicole; Shetty, Sindhu; Kunze, Mirjam; Orlowska-Volk, Marzenna; Krüger, Markus; Berner, Reinhard; Hentschel, Roland

    2014-07-01

    Group D streptococci have rarely been associated with neonatal infections. We report a case of fulminant respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) caused by Streptococcus alactolyticus in a term neonate. Gram staining revealed gram-positive cocci and culture grew group D streptococci in samples taken from trachea, ear, and nasopharynx. Streptococcus alactolyticus was identified using automated microbial identification system (Vitek 2). Histopathology showed massive pulmonary inflammation with intra-alveolar granulocytosis and secondary pulmonary bleeding as etiology of fatal outcome. To our knowledge, this is first case presenting neonatal infection caused by Streptococcus alactolyticus.

  12. An unusual case of Streptococcus agalactiae meningitis in a patient with sys-temic lupus erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    Protonotariou, E; Arampatzi, A; Ourailoglou, V; Diza, E; Skoura, L

    2015-01-01

    Background: Streptococcus agalactiae (group B Streptococcus) is a major cause of sepsis and meningitis in neonates and an important cause of invasive disease in adults. Case description: We describe an unusual case of fatal bacterial meningitis caused by Streptococcus agalactiae in a young man suffering from systemic lupus erythematosus for over 20 years. The young man was transferred intubated in AHEPA University Hospital in a coma; twenty-four hours upon arrival and despite intense invasive treatment, he died from multiple organ failure. Conclusion: The risk of serious infections in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus even under treatment with moderate doses of corticosteroids is high. Hippokratia 2015; 19 (4):372-373.

  13. mef(A) is the predominant macrolide resistance determinant in Streptococcus pneumoniae and Streptococcus pyogenes in Germany.

    PubMed

    Bley, Christine; van der Linden, Mark; Reinert, Ralf René

    2011-05-01

    In this study, macrolide-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae and Streptococcus pyogenes isolates from Germany were carefully characterised by susceptibility testing, phenotyping, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing of macrolides resistance genes, and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Of 2045 S. pneumoniae and 352 S. pyogenes isolates, 437 (21.4%) and 29 (8.2%), respectively, were found to be macrolide-resistant. Amongst the S. pneumoniae isolates, the most prevalent resistance marker was mef(A) (57.7%) followed by erm(B) (27.0%) and mef(E) (11.2%). Of note, the dual resistance mechanism mef(E)+erm(B) was found in a relatively high proportion (4.1%) of pneumococcal isolates. Amongst the S. pyogenes isolates, 31.0% carried mef(A), 34.5% erm(B) and 13.8% erm(A). Dissemination of a single clone [mef(A)-positive England(14)-9] has significantly contributed to the emergence of macrolide resistance amongst pneumococci in Germany.

  14. Solitary Pyomyositis of the Left Rhomboideus Muscle Caused by Streptococcus anginosus and Streptococcus intermedius in an Immunocompetent Person.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Yasuhiro; Takaya, Kenichi; Yamamoto, Go; Shinzato, Isaku; Takafuta, Toshiro

    2015-01-01

    Primary pyomyositis is a bacterial infection of the skeletal muscle commonly affecting children with Staphylococcus aureus most often isolated as a pathogen. However, pyomyositis caused by anaerobic bacteria is rare in adults. Here, we report a case of solitary Pyomyositis of the left rhomboideus muscle in an immunocompetent person. A 70-year-old Japanese male presented with high fever and left shoulder pain. His muscle below the lower edge of the left scapula was tender and swollen. His laboratory examinations revealed severe inflammation. Computed tomography showed a solitary low-density area around a contrast enhancement in the left rhomboideus muscle. He was diagnosed as having solitary pyomyositis. Although his symptoms did not improve despite empiric intravenous administration of antibiotics, an incision was performed. Streptococcus anginosus and Streptococcus intermedius were isolated from the culture of drainage fluid. His symptoms gradually disappeared after the incisional drainage and continuous administration of antibiotics. Pyomyositis did not recur after his discharge. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on anaerobic pyomyositis of the shoulder muscle.

  15. Adherence of Streptococcus sanguis clinical isolates to smooth surfaces and interactions of the isolates with Streptococcus mutans glucosyltransferase.

    PubMed Central

    Hamada, S; Torii, M; Kotani, S; Tsuchitani, Y

    1981-01-01

    Streptococcus sanguis isolated from human dental plaque were grown in Todd-Hewitt broth. Cells were collected by centrifugation and lyophilized after extensive washing with water. The cell-associated glucosyltransferase (GTase) activities of S. sanguis strains were assayed with [14C]sucrose. Strain differences in GTase activity were significant within the same serotype or biotype or both. The ability of S. sanguis cells to adhere to smooth glass surfaces was generally weak, irrespective of significant cell-associated GTase activity synthesizing water-insoluble, gel-like glucans. Resting cells of most S. sanguis strains bound extracellular GTase from Streptococcus mutans strain B13 (serotype d), resulting in the strong adherence of the S. sanguis cells to smooth glass surfaces in the presence of sucrose. Conversely, S. mutans B13 cells also could bind extracellular GTase from some strains of S. sanguis examined. The sucrose-dependent adherence of S. mutans cells was not altered, although S. sanguis strains from which the extracellular GTases were obtained did not produce significant adherence in the presence of sucrose. In view of these findings, it was suggested that S. mutans GTase could affect the adherence of S. sanguis to smooth tooth surfaces in the oral cavity. Images PMID:6452415

  16. Beta-hemolytic Streptococcus dysgalactiae strains isolated from horses are a genetically distinct population within the Streptococcus dysgalactiae taxon.

    PubMed

    Pinho, Marcos D; Erol, Erdal; Ribeiro-Gonçalves, Bruno; Mendes, Catarina I; Carriço, João A; Matos, Sandra C; Preziuso, Silvia; Luebke-Becker, Antina; Wieler, Lothar H; Melo-Cristino, Jose; Ramirez, Mario

    2016-01-01

    The pathogenic role of beta-hemolytic Streptococcus dysgalactiae in the equine host is increasingly recognized. A collection of 108 Lancefield group C (n = 96) or L (n = 12) horse isolates recovered in the United States and in three European countries presented multilocus sequence typing (MLST) alleles, sequence types and emm types (only 56% of the isolates could be emm typed) that were, with few exceptions, distinct from those previously found in human Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis. Characterization of a subset of horse isolates by multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) and 16S rRNA gene sequence showed that most equine isolates could also be differentiated from S. dysgalactiae strains from other animal species, supporting the existence of a horse specific genomovar. Draft genome information confirms the distinctiveness of the horse genomovar and indicates the presence of potentially horse-specific virulence factors. While this genomovar represents most of the isolates recovered from horses, a smaller MLST and MLSA defined sub-population seems to be able to cause infections in horses, other animals and humans, indicating that transmission between hosts of strains belonging to this group may occur. PMID:27530432

  17. Extensive Adaptive Changes Occur in the Transcriptome of Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B Streptococcus) in Response to Incubation with Human Blood

    PubMed Central

    Mereghetti, Laurent; Sitkiewicz, Izabela; Green, Nicole M.; Musser, James M.

    2008-01-01

    To enhance understanding of how Streptococcus agalactiae (group B streptococcus, GBS) adapts during invasive infection, we performed a whole-genome transcriptome analysis after incubation with whole human blood. Global changes occurred in the GBS transcriptome rapidly in response to blood contact following shift from growth in a rich laboratory medium. Most (83%) of the significantly altered transcripts were down-regulated after 30 minutes of incubation in blood, and all functional categories of genes were abundantly represented. We observed complex dynamic changes in the expression of transcriptional regulators and stress response genes that allow GBS to rapidly adapt to blood. The transcripts of relatively few proven virulence genes were up-regulated during the first 90 minutes. However, a key discovery was that genes encoding proteins involved in interaction with the host coagulation/fibrinolysis system and bacterial-host interactions were rapidly up-regulated. Extensive transcript changes also occurred for genes involved in carbohydrate metabolism, including multi-functional proteins and regulators putatively involved in pathogenesis. Finally, we discovered that an incubation temperature closer to that occurring in patients with severe infection and high fever (40°C) induced additional differences in the GBS transcriptome relative to normal body temperature (37°C). Taken together, the data provide extensive new information about transcriptional adaptation of GBS exposed to human blood, a crucial step during GBS pathogenesis in invasive diseases, and identify many new leads for molecular pathogenesis research. PMID:18769548

  18. A novel suicide shuttle plasmid for Streptococcus suis serotype 2 and Streptococcus equi ssp. zooepidemicus gene mutation

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Rui; Zhang, Ping; Su, Yiqi; Lin, Huixing; Zhang, Hui; Yu, Lei; Ma, Zhe; Fan, Hongjie

    2016-01-01

    The mariner-based Himar1 system has been utilized for creating mutant libraries of many Gram-positive bacteria. Streptococcus suis serotype 2 (SS2) and Streptococcus equi ssp. zooepidemicus (SEZ) are primary pathogens of swine that threaten the swine industry in China. To provide a forward-genetics technology for finding virulent phenotype-related genes in these two pathogens, we constructed a novel temperature-sensitive suicide shuttle plasmid, pMar4s, which contains the Himar1 system transposon, TnYLB-1, and the Himar1 C9 transposase from pMarA and the repTAs temperature-sensitive fragment from pSET4s. The kanamycin (Kan) resistance gene was in the TnYLB-1 transposon. Temperature sensitivity and Kan resistance allowed the selection of mutant strains and construction of the mutant library. The SS2 and SEZ mutant libraries were successfully constructed using the pMar4s plasmid. Inverse-Polymerase Chain Reaction (Inverse-PCR) results revealed large variability in transposon insertion sites and that the library could be used for phenotype alteration screening. The thiamine biosynthesis gene apbE was screened for its influence on SS2 anti-phagocytosis; likewise, the sagF gene was identified to be a hemolytic activity-related gene in SEZ. pMar4s was suitable for mutant library construction, providing more information regarding SS2 and SEZ virulence factors and illustrating the pathogenesis of swine streptococcosis. PMID:27256117

  19. A novel suicide shuttle plasmid for Streptococcus suis serotype 2 and Streptococcus equi ssp. zooepidemicus gene mutation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Rui; Zhang, Ping; Su, Yiqi; Lin, Huixing; Zhang, Hui; Yu, Lei; Ma, Zhe; Fan, Hongjie

    2016-01-01

    The mariner-based Himar1 system has been utilized for creating mutant libraries of many Gram-positive bacteria. Streptococcus suis serotype 2 (SS2) and Streptococcus equi ssp. zooepidemicus (SEZ) are primary pathogens of swine that threaten the swine industry in China. To provide a forward-genetics technology for finding virulent phenotype-related genes in these two pathogens, we constructed a novel temperature-sensitive suicide shuttle plasmid, pMar4s, which contains the Himar1 system transposon, TnYLB-1, and the Himar1 C9 transposase from pMarA and the repTAs temperature-sensitive fragment from pSET4s. The kanamycin (Kan) resistance gene was in the TnYLB-1 transposon. Temperature sensitivity and Kan resistance allowed the selection of mutant strains and construction of the mutant library. The SS2 and SEZ mutant libraries were successfully constructed using the pMar4s plasmid. Inverse-Polymerase Chain Reaction (Inverse-PCR) results revealed large variability in transposon insertion sites and that the library could be used for phenotype alteration screening. The thiamine biosynthesis gene apbE was screened for its influence on SS2 anti-phagocytosis; likewise, the sagF gene was identified to be a hemolytic activity-related gene in SEZ. pMar4s was suitable for mutant library construction, providing more information regarding SS2 and SEZ virulence factors and illustrating the pathogenesis of swine streptococcosis. PMID:27256117

  20. Beta-hemolytic Streptococcus dysgalactiae strains isolated from horses are a genetically distinct population within the Streptococcus dysgalactiae taxon

    PubMed Central

    Pinho, Marcos D.; Erol, Erdal; Ribeiro-Gonçalves, Bruno; Mendes, Catarina I.; Carriço, João A.; Matos, Sandra C.; Preziuso, Silvia; Luebke-Becker, Antina; Wieler, Lothar H.; Melo-Cristino, Jose; Ramirez, Mario

    2016-01-01

    The pathogenic role of beta-hemolytic Streptococcus dysgalactiae in the equine host is increasingly recognized. A collection of 108 Lancefield group C (n = 96) or L (n = 12) horse isolates recovered in the United States and in three European countries presented multilocus sequence typing (MLST) alleles, sequence types and emm types (only 56% of the isolates could be emm typed) that were, with few exceptions, distinct from those previously found in human Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis. Characterization of a subset of horse isolates by multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) and 16S rRNA gene sequence showed that most equine isolates could also be differentiated from S. dysgalactiae strains from other animal species, supporting the existence of a horse specific genomovar. Draft genome information confirms the distinctiveness of the horse genomovar and indicates the presence of potentially horse-specific virulence factors. While this genomovar represents most of the isolates recovered from horses, a smaller MLST and MLSA defined sub-population seems to be able to cause infections in horses, other animals and humans, indicating that transmission between hosts of strains belonging to this group may occur. PMID:27530432

  1. Characterization and genome sequencing of a novel bacteriophage infecting Streptococcus agalactiae with high similarity to a phage from Streptococcus pyogenes.

    PubMed

    Bai, Qinqin; Zhang, Wei; Yang, Yongchun; Tang, Fang; Nguyen, Xuanhoa; Liu, Guangjin; Lu, Chengping

    2013-08-01

    A novel bacteriophage, JX01, specifically infecting bovine Streptococcus agalactiae was isolated from milk of mastitis-affected cattle. The phage morphology showed that JX01 belongs to the family Siphoviridae, and this phage demonstrated a broad host range. Microbiological characterization demonstrated that nearly 90 % of JX01 phage particles were adsorbed after 2.5 min of incubation, that the burst size was 20 virions released per infected host cell, and that there was a latent period of 30 min. JX01 was thermal sensitive and showed acid and alkaline resistance (pH 3-11). The genome of JX01 was found to consist of a linear, double-stranded 43,028-bp DNA molecule with a GC content of 36.81 % and 70 putative open reading frames (ORFs) plus one tRNA. Comparative genome analysis revealed high similarity between JX01 and the prophage 315.2 of Streptococcus pyogenes. PMID:23515875

  2. Salivaricin G32, a Homolog of the Prototype Streptococcus pyogenes Nisin-Like Lantibiotic SA-FF22, Produced by the Commensal Species Streptococcus salivarius.

    PubMed

    Wescombe, Philip A; Dyet, Kristin H; Dierksen, Karen P; Power, Daniel A; Jack, Ralph W; Burton, Jeremy P; Inglis, Megan A; Wescombe, Anna L; Tagg, John R

    2012-01-01

    Salivaricin G32, a 2667 Da novel member of the SA-FF22 cluster of lantibiotics, has been purified and characterized from Streptococcus salivarius strain G32. The inhibitory peptide differs from the Streptococcus pyogenes-produced SA-FF22 in the absence of lysine in position 2. The salivaricin G32 locus was widely distributed in BLIS-producing S. salivarius, with 6 (23%) of 26 strains PCR-positive for the structural gene, slnA. As for most other lantibiotics produced by S. salivarius, the salivaricin G32 locus can be megaplasmid encoded. Another member of the SA-FF22 family was detected in two Streptococcus dysgalactiae of bovine origin, an observation supportive of widespread distribution of this lantibiotic within the genus Streptococcus. Since the inhibitory spectrum of salivaricin G32 includes Streptococcus pyogenes, its production by S. salivarius, either as a member of the normal oral microflora or as a commercial probiotic, could serve to enhance protection of the human host against S. pyogenes infection. PMID:22567013

  3. Salivaricin G32, a Homolog of the Prototype Streptococcus pyogenes Nisin-Like Lantibiotic SA-FF22, Produced by the Commensal Species Streptococcus salivarius

    PubMed Central

    Wescombe, Philip A.; Dyet, Kristin H.; Dierksen, Karen P.; Power, Daniel A.; Jack, Ralph W.; Burton, Jeremy P.; Inglis, Megan A.; Wescombe, Anna L.; Tagg, John R.

    2012-01-01

    Salivaricin G32, a 2667 Da novel member of the SA-FF22 cluster of lantibiotics, has been purified and characterized from Streptococcus salivarius strain G32. The inhibitory peptide differs from the Streptococcus pyogenes—produced SA-FF22 in the absence of lysine in position 2. The salivaricin G32 locus was widely distributed in BLIS-producing S. salivarius, with 6 (23%) of 26 strains PCR-positive for the structural gene, slnA. As for most other lantibiotics produced by S. salivarius, the salivaricin G32 locus can be megaplasmid encoded. Another member of the SA-FF22 family was detected in two Streptococcus dysgalactiae of bovine origin, an observation supportive of widespread distribution of this lantibiotic within the genus Streptococcus. Since the inhibitory spectrum of salivaricin G32 includes Streptococcus pyogenes, its production by S. salivarius, either as a member of the normal oral microflora or as a commercial probiotic, could serve to enhance protection of the human host against S. pyogenes infection. PMID:22567013

  4. Fatal Streptococcus pneumoniae Sepsis in a Patient With Celiac Disease-Associated Hyposplenism

    PubMed Central

    Ouseph, Madhu M.; Simons, Malorie; Treaba, Diana O.; Yakirevich, Evgeny; Green, Peter H.; Bhagat, Govind; Moss, Steven F.

    2016-01-01

    We present a 59-year-old male with poorly controlled celiac disease (CD) and fatal Streptococcus pneumoniae sepsis, describe the morphologic findings, and stress the need for monitoring splenic function and pneumococcal vaccination in these patients. PMID:27761478

  5. Antibiotic Resistances of Yogurt Starter Cultures Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus bulgaricus.

    PubMed

    Sozzi, T; Smiley, M B

    1980-11-01

    Twenty-nine strains of Lactobacillus bulgaricus and 15 strains of Streptococcus thermophilus were tested for resistance to 35 antimicrobial agents by using commercially available sensitivity disks. Approximately 35% of the isolates had uncharacteristic resistance patterns. PMID:16345654

  6. Evaluation of nine teat dip formulations under experimental challenge to staphylococcus aureus and streptococcus agalactiae.

    PubMed

    Pankey, J W; Philpot, W N; Boddie, R L; Watts, J L

    1983-01-01

    Nine postmilking teat dips were evaluated by an experimental challenge model against either Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae, or both. Formulations containing .9 and .6% sodium hypochlorite, 1% sodium dichloro-s-triazene-trione, .55% chlorhexidine gluconate, and .35% povidone iodine reduced incidence of Staphylococcus aureus infections 56.8, 28.3, 75.9, 92.5, and 77.9%. Incidence of infections with Streptococcus agalactiae was reduced 48.1 and 63.2% by 1.7 and 1% sodium dichloro-s-triazene-trione formulations. The 1% chlorhexidine gluconate and .35% povidone iodine products reduced Streptococcus agalactiae infections 71.0 and 67.0%. Three experimental 1% iodophor formulations reduced Streptococcus agalactiae infections 28.9, 44.8, and 50.7%. The experimental challenge model was refined further and provided an efficient method to determine efficacy of postmilking teat dips. PMID:6339575

  7. Incorporation of radioactive mevalonate into C50 and C55 phenols by Streptococcus mutans.

    PubMed

    Thorne, K J

    1973-11-01

    Growing cells of Streptococcus mutans Ingbritt incorporate radioactive mevalonate into unsaponifiable lipid. Of the radioactive lipid 40% was shown by chromatography and mass spectrometry to be C(50) and C(55) prenol.

  8. LambdaSa1 and LambdaSa2 Prophage Lysins of Streptococcus agalactiae▿

    PubMed Central

    Pritchard, David G.; Dong, Shengli; Kirk, Marion C.; Cartee, Robert T.; Baker, John R.

    2007-01-01

    Putative N-acetylmuramyl-l-alanine amidase genes from LambdaSa1 and LambdaSa2 prophages of Streptococcus agalactiae were cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. The purified enzymes lysed the cell walls of Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Staphylococcus aureus. The peptidoglycan digestion products in the cell wall lysates were not consistent with amidase activity. Instead, the structure of the muropeptide digestion fragments indicated that both the LambdaSa1 and LambdaSa2 lysins exhibited γ-d-glutaminyl-l-lysine endopeptidase activity. The endopeptidase cleavage specificity of the lysins was confirmed using a synthetic peptide substrate corresponding to a portion of the stem peptide and cross bridge of Streptococcus agalactiae peptidoglycan. The LambdaSa2 lysin also displayed β-d-N-acetylglucosaminidase activity. PMID:17905888

  9. Draft Genome Sequence of Streptococcus orisasini SH06, Isolated from a Healthy Thoroughbred Gastrointestinal Tract

    PubMed Central

    Takagi, Misako; Nakano, Akiyo; Toh, Hidehiro; Oshima, Kenshiro; Arakawa, Kensuke; Nakajima, Fumihiko; Tashiro, Kosuke; Kikusui, Tekefumi; Yanagida, Fujitoshi

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus orisasini SH06 was isolated from a healthy thoroughbred gastrointestinal tract. Here, we report the draft genome sequence of this organism. This paper is the first published report of the genomic sequence of S. orisasini. PMID:26769944

  10. Mechanism of resistance to macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin antibiotics in Streptococcus thermophilus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Resistance to macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin (MLS) group antibiotics in the dairy bacterium Streptococcus thermophilus (ST) is documented but the mechanism of resistance has not been elucidated. MIC values for erythromycin (Erm), azithromycin (Azm), tylosin (Tyl), spiramycin (Spm), pristinamyci...

  11. Neonatal Mortality in Puppies Due to Bacteremia by Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. dysgalactiae

    PubMed Central

    Vela, Ana I.; Falsen, Enevold; Simarro, Isabel; Rollan, Eduardo; Collins, Matthew D.; Domínguez, Lucas; Fernandez-Garayzabal, Jose F.

    2006-01-01

    We report a case of bacteremia in puppies caused by Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. dysgalactiae. Identification was achieved by phenotypic and molecular genetic methods. This is the first report of the recovery of S. dysgalactiae subsp. dysgalactiae from dogs. PMID:16455943

  12. Streptococcus canis arthritis in a cat breeding colony.

    PubMed

    Iglauer, F; Kunstýr, I; Mörstedt, R; Farouq, H; Wullenweber, M; Damsch, S

    1991-01-01

    This is the first description of a pathologic condition--arthritis in cats affecting mainly one joint, i.e. monarthritis--caused by Streptococcus canis (S. canis), of the Lancefield serologic group G. Six cases were recorded in a closed cat breeding colony during a 6 month period in 1988, and one additional case in 1990. Therapy with penicillin and streptomycin led to full recovery in four of six cases. The bacterium had been detected from different purulent processes sporadically--including one case of purulent arthritis in 1982--as a nosocomial infection since 1980, the year the breeding colony was established. A possible genetic predisposition (high inbreeding) may have contributed to the accumulation of the six cases in 1988. Although S. canis was isolated in mouse, rat, rabbit and dog, cat and man seem to be more frequently affected. There are some similarities between S. canis-arthritis in cat and man.

  13. Fatal Streptococcus canis infections in intensively housed shelter cats.

    PubMed

    Pesavento, P A; Bannasch, M J; Bachmann, R; Byrne, B A; Hurley, K F

    2007-03-01

    Three independent, fatal outbreaks of Streptococcus canis infection occurred in a 2-year period in shelter cats. The outbreaks occurred in Northern California (Yolo County), Southern California (Kern County), and North Carolina (Guilford County). An estimation of the affected population is >150 cats among 3 affected shelters, with a mortality rate of up to 30%. Among 20 cats submitted for necropsy there were 2 distinct pathologic presentations. The first (shelters 1 and 2) was skin ulceration and chronic respiratory infection that progressed, in some cats, to necrotizing sinusitis and meningitis. The second (shelter 3) was rapid progression from necrotizing fasciitis with skin ulceration to toxic shock-like syndrome, sepsis, and death. S canis was the sole pathogen identified in most cases. Whether hypervirulent S canis strains exist is unknown; there is little understanding of how these bacteria cause invasive disease in cats.

  14. Treatment of Streptococcus mutans bacteria by a plasma needle

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Xianhui; Huang Jun; Lv Guohua; Liu Xiaodi; Peng Lei; Guo Lihong; Chen Wei; Feng Kecheng; Yang Size

    2009-03-15

    A dielectric barrier discharge plasma needle was realized at atmospheric pressure with a funnel-shaped nozzle. The preliminary characteristics of the plasma plume and its applications in the inactivation of Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans), the most important microorganism causing dental caries, were presented in this paper. The temperature of the plasma plume does not reach higher than 315 K when the power is below 28 W. Oxygen was injected downstream in the plasma afterglow region through the powered steel tube. Its effect was studied via optical-emission spectroscopy, both in air and in agar. Results show that addition of 26 SCCM O{sub 2} does not affect the plume length significantly (SCCM denotes cubic centimeter per minute at STP). The inactivation of S. mutans is primarily attributed to ultraviolet light emission, O, OH, and He radicals.

  15. Streptococcus pyogenes degrades extracellular matrix in chondrocytes via MMP-13

    SciTech Connect

    Sakurai, Atsuo; Okahashi, Nobuo; Maruyama, Fumito; Ooshima, Takashi; Hamada, Shigeyuki; Nakagawa, Ichiro

    2008-08-29

    Group A streptococcus (GAS) causes a wide range of human diseases, including bacterial arthritis. The pathogenesis of arthritis is characterized by synovial proliferation and the destruction of cartilage and subchondral bone in joints. We report here that GAS strain JRS4 invaded a chondrogenic cell line ATDC5 and induced the degradation of the extracellular matrix (ECM), whereas an isogenic mutant of JRS4 lacking a fibronectin-binding protein, SAM1, failed to invade the chondrocytes or degrade the ECM. Reverse transcription-PCR and Western blot analysis revealed that the expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-13 was strongly elevated during the infection with GAS. A reporter assay revealed that the activation of the AP-1 transcription factor and the phosphorylation of c-Jun terminal kinase participated in MMP-13 expression. These results suggest that MMP-13 plays an important role in the destruction of infected joints during the development of septic arthritis.

  16. Genetic patterns of Streptococcus uberis isolated from bovine mastitis.

    PubMed

    Reinoso, Elina B; Lasagno, Mirta C; Odierno, Liliana M

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the genotypic relationships among 40 Streptococcus uberis isolated from bovine mastitis by using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Additionally, the association between PFGE patterns and virulence profiles was investigated. The isolates exhibited 17 PFGE patterns. Different strains were found within and among herds; however, a low number of isolates within the same herd shared an identical PFGE type. No association between PFGE patterns and virulence profiles was found. However, the detection of specific strains in some herds could indicate that some strains are more virulent than others. Further research needs to be undertaken to elucidate new virulence-associated genes that might contribute to the capability of these strains to produce infection.

  17. Macrolide-resistant Streptococcus pyogenes: prevalence and treatment strategies.

    PubMed

    Silva-Costa, Catarina; Friães, Ana; Ramirez, Mario; Melo-Cristino, Jose

    2015-05-01

    Although penicillin remains the first-choice treatment for Streptococcus pyogenes infection, macrolides are important alternatives for allergic patients and lincosamides are recommended together with β-lactams in invasive infections. S. pyogenes may exhibit macrolide resistance because of active efflux (mef genes) or target modification (erm genes), the latter conferring cross resistance to lincosamides and streptogramin B. Worldwide, resistance is restricted to a limited number of genetic lineages, despite resistance genes being encoded on mobile genetic elements. For reasons that are not completely clear, resistance and the associated phenotypes are highly variable across countries. Although resistance remains high in several countries, particularly in Asia, an overall decreasing trend of resistance has been noted in recent years, mostly in Europe. This decrease is not always accompanied by declines in macrolide consumption, suggesting significant roles of other factors in determining the dynamics of macrolide-resistant clones. Continued surveillance is needed to obtain further insights into the forces governing macrolide resistance in S. pyogenes.

  18. Aromatic Esters of Bicyclic Amines as Antimicrobials against Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    de Gracia Retamosa, María; Díez-Martínez, Roberto; Maestro, Beatriz; García-Fernández, Esther; de Waal, Bas; Meijer, E W; García, Pedro; Sanz, Jesús M

    2015-11-01

    A double approach was followed in the search of novel inhibitors of the surface choline-binding proteins (CBPs) of Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) with antimicrobial properties. First, a library of 49 rationally-designed esters of alkyl amines was screened for their specific binding to CBPs. The best binders, being esters of bicyclic amines (EBAs), were then tested for their in vitro effect on pneumococcal growth and morphology. Second, the efficiency of EBA-induced CBP inhibition was enhanced about 45,000-fold by multivalency effects upon synthesizing a poly(propylene imine) dendrimer containing eight copies of an atropine derivative. Both approaches led to compounds that arrest bacterial growth, dramatically decrease cell viability, and exhibit a protection effect in animal disease models, demonstrating that the pneumococcal CBPs are adequate targets for the discovery of novel antimicrobials that overcome the currently increasing antimicrobial resistance issues. PMID:26377931

  19. The role of Streptococcus intermedius in brain abscess.

    PubMed

    Mishra, A K; Fournier, P-E

    2013-04-01

    Brain abscess represents a significant medical problem, despite recent advances made in detection and therapy. Streptococcus intermedius, a commensal organism, has the potential to cause significant morbidity. S. intermedius expresses one or more members of a family of structurally and antigenically related surface proteins termed antigen I/II, which plays a potential role in its pathogenesis. It is involved in binding to human fibronectin and laminin and in inducing IL-8 release from monocytes, which promotes neutrophil chemotaxis and activation. There are few published data on the role of this organism in brain abscess. This review focuses on the clinical evidence, pathogenic role, mechanism of predisposition, and currently employed strategies to fight against S. intermedius associated to brain abscess.

  20. Involvement of NADH Oxidase in Biofilm Formation in Streptococcus sanguinis

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Xiuchun; Shi, Xiaoli; Shi, Limei; Liu, Jinlin; Stone, Victoria; Kong, Fanxiang; Kitten, Todd; Xu, Ping

    2016-01-01

    Biofilms play important roles in microbial communities and are related to infectious diseases. Here, we report direct evidence that a bacterial nox gene encoding NADH oxidase is involved in biofilm formation. A dramatic reduction in biofilm formation was observed in a Streptococcus sanguinis nox mutant under anaerobic conditions without any decrease in growth. The membrane fluidity of the mutant bacterial cells was found to be decreased and the fatty acid composition altered, with increased palmitic acid and decreased stearic acid and vaccenic acid. Extracellular DNA of the mutant was reduced in abundance and bacterial competence was suppressed. Gene expression analysis in the mutant identified two genes with altered expression, gtfP and Idh, which were found to be related to biofilm formation through examination of their deletion mutants. NADH oxidase-related metabolic pathways were analyzed, further clarifying the function of this enzyme in biofilm formation. PMID:26950587

  1. [Controversies on antibiotics for common group A streptococcus infections].

    PubMed

    Grimprel, E; Cohen, R

    2014-11-01

    Management of common group A streptococcus (GAS) infections remains controversial. French recommendations advocate systematic treatment of streptococcal tonsillitis after confirmation by rapid diagnostic test. Oral amoxicillin twice daily for 6 days is the first-line treatment. Antibiotic prophylaxis is restricted to at-risk patients after contact with invasive GAS case. These recommendations take into consideration the prevention of complications, even if they are rare, the reduction of infectiousness and the reduction of the duration of symptoms. Different recommendations have been issued in other countries, particularly in Europe and are based on different considerations. These differences do not originate in the absence of demonstrative scientific studies but rather in societal considerations, themselves guided by the history of each different health system (and also judicial system). This is probably necessary to obtain physicians and public support. The French attitude reflects these considerations. However, its lack of enforcement needs to question about its origins.

  2. Ultrastructural study of surface components of Streptococcus suis.

    PubMed Central

    Jacques, M; Gottschalk, M; Foiry, B; Higgins, R

    1990-01-01

    The presence of capsular material on cells of nine reference strains of Streptococcus suis representing serotypes 1 to 8 and 1/2 was determined by transmission electron microscopy after polycationic ferritin labeling, immunostabilization, or fixation with a combination of glutaraldehyde and lysine. All the cells of the reference strains examined were covered with a layer of capsular material whose thickness varied between 20 to 30 nm and 350 to 375 nm when examined by immunostabilization. Capsular material from cells exposed to homologous antiserum was usually thicker than that from polycationic ferritin-labeled cells or cells fixed with glutaraldehyde-lysine. Negative staining revealed detectable surface structures on S. suis strains. All strains carried peritichous, thin, and flexible fimbriae with a diameter of approximately 2 nm and a length of up to 250 nm. This study indicated that morphological differences of surface structure exist among S. suis reference strains. Images PMID:1971617

  3. Novel clones of Streptococcus pneumoniae causing invasive disease in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Jefferies, Johanna M; Mohd Yusof, Mohd Yasim; Devi Sekaran, Shamala; Clarke, Stuart C

    2014-01-01

    Although Streptococcus pneumoniae is a leading cause of childhood disease in South East Asia, little has previously been reported regarding the epidemiology of invasive pneumococcal disease in Malaysia and very few studies have explored pneumococcal epidemiology using multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Here we describe serotype, multilocus sequence type (ST), and penicillin susceptibility of thirty pneumococcal invasive disease isolates received by the University of Malaya Medical Centre between February 2000 and January 2007 and relate this to the serotypes included in current pneumococcal conjugate vaccines. A high level of diversity was observed; fourteen serotypes and 26 sequence types (ST), (11 of which were not previously described) were detected from 30 isolates. Penicillin non-susceptible pneumococci accounted for 33% of isolates. The extent of molecular heterogeneity within carried and disease-causing Malaysian pneumococci remains unknown. Larger surveillance and epidemiological studies are now required in this region to provide robust evidence on which to base future vaccine policy.

  4. Regional variation in root dentinal tubule infection by Streptococcus gordonii.

    PubMed

    Love, R M

    1996-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the pattern of bacterial invasion of dentinal tubules at different regions in human roots. Specimens were obtained from single-rooted teeth that had their root canals prepared in a standard manner. Roots were then sectioned longitudinally through the canals and the resulting specimens chemically treated to remove the smear layers. Specimens were immersed in a suspension of Streptococcus gordonii for 3 weeks and then prepared for histological analysis. Sections from the cervical, midroot, and apical areas were examined. The pattern of bacterial infection of the cervical and midroot areas was similar, characterized as a heavy infection with bacteria penetrating as deep as 200 microns. Invasion of the apical dentin was significantly different, with a mild infection and maximum penetration of 60 microns. PMID:8934987

  5. Genetic diversity of geographically distinct Streptococcus dysgalactiae isolates from fish

    PubMed Central

    Abdelsalam, M.; Eissa, A.E.; Chen, S.-C.

    2013-01-01

    Streptococcus dysgalactiae is an emerging pathogen of fish. Clinically, infection is characterized by the development of necrotic lesions at the caudal peduncle of infected fishes. The pathogen has been recently isolated from different fish species in many countries. Twenty S. dysgalactiae isolates collected from Japan, Taiwan, Malaysia and Indonesia were molecularly characterized by biased sinusoidal field gel electrophoresis (BSFGE) using SmaI enzyme, and tuf gene sequencing analysis. DNA sequencing of ten S. dysgalactiae revealed no genetic variation in the tuf amplicons, except for three strains. The restriction patterns of chromosomal DNA measured by BSFGE were differentiated into six distinct types and one subtype among collected strains. To our knowledge, this report gives the first snapshot of S. dysgalactiae isolates collected from different countries that are localized geographically and differed on a multinational level. This genetic unrelatedness among different isolates might suggest a high recombination rate and low genetic stability. PMID:25750757

  6. Regulation and function of lactate oxidation in Streptococcus faecium.

    PubMed

    London, J

    1968-04-01

    Regulation of the synthesis and function of an l(+)-specific lactate-oxidizing enzyme system found in a homofermentative Streptococcus was investigated. With the exception of fructose, aerobic growth at the expense of a variety of substrates resulted in the formation of a lactate oxidation system; anaerobic growth resulted in a marked reduction or complete loss of lactate-oxidizing activity. Growth on fructose, under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, invariably produced a decrease in the activity of the lactate oxidation system. A negative control, activated by an early intermediate product of glycolysis, appeared to be responsible for repression of the lactate-oxidizing enzyme(s). The enzyme system confers upon the organism the ability to grow aerobically at the expense of l(+)-lactic acid.

  7. In Vitro Antibacterial Activity of Essential Oils against Streptococcus pyogenes

    PubMed Central

    Sfeir, Julien; Lefrançois, Corinne; Baudoux, Dominique; Derbré, Séverine; Licznar, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes plays an important role in the pathogenesis of tonsillitis. The present study was conducted to evaluate the in vitro antibacterial activities of 18 essential oils chemotypes from aromatic medicinal plants against S. pyogenes. Antibacterial activity of essential oils was investigated using disc diffusion method. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration of essential oils showing an important antibacterial activity was measured using broth dilution method. Out of 18 essential oils tested, 14 showed antibacterial activity against S. pyogenes. Among them Cinnamomum verum, Cymbopogon citratus, Thymus vulgaris CT thymol, Origanum compactum, and Satureja montana essential oils exhibited significant antibacterial activity. The in vitro results reported here suggest that, for patients suffering from bacterial throat infections, if aromatherapy is used, these essential oils, considered as potential antimicrobial agents, should be preferred. PMID:23662123

  8. Clinical analysis of cases of neonatal Streptococcus agalactiae sepsis.

    PubMed

    Zeng, S J; Tang, X S; Zhao, W L; Qiu, H X; Wang, H; Feng, Z C

    2016-01-01

    With the advent of antibiotic resistance, pathogenic bacteria have become a major threat in cases of neonatal sepsis; however, guidelines for treatment have not yet been standardized. In this study, 15 cases of neonatal Streptococcus agalactiae sepsis from our hospital were retrospectively analyzed. Of these, nine cases showed early-onset and six cases showed late-onset sepsis. Pathogens were characterized by genotyping and antibiotic sensitivity tests on blood cultures. Results demonstrated that in cases with early-onset sepsis, clinical manifestations affected mainly the respiratory tract, while late-onset sepsis was accompanied by intracranial infection. Therefore, we suggest including a cerebrospinal fluid examination when diagnosing neonatal sepsis. Bacterial genotyping indicated the bacteria were mainly type Ib, Ia, and III S. agalactiae. We recommend treatment with penicillin or ampicillin, since bacteria were resistant to clindamycin and tetracycline. In conclusion, our results provide valuable information for the clinical treatment of S. agalactiae sepsis in neonatal infants.

  9. Human plasma fibronectin inhibits adherence of Streptococcus pyogenes to hexadecane.

    PubMed Central

    Courtney, H S; Ofek, I; Simpson, W A; Whitnack, E; Beachey, E H

    1985-01-01

    The effect of human plasma fibronectin on the adherence of Streptococcus pyogenes to hexadecane droplets was investigated. Fibronectin blocked the adherence of streptococci to hexadecane in a dose-dependent manner. The inhibitory effect resulted from the binding of fibronectin to the streptococcal cells; radiolabeled fibronectin failed to bind to the hexadecane but bound readily to untreated streptococci. Chemical treatments of streptococci that decreased streptococcal binding of fibronectin also decreased their binding to hexadecane. Pretreatment of fibronectin with lipoteichoic acid blocked the binding of fibronectin to streptococci and abolished its ability to inhibit streptococcal adherence to hexadecane in a dose-related manner. In contrast, wheat germ agglutinin, which binds to N-acetylglucosamine on the surface of S. pyogenes cells, failed to alter hexadecane adherence. The data suggest that fibronectin binds to lipoteichoic acid on the surface of the streptococci, thereby preventing lipoteichoic acid from interacting with the hexadecane phase. PMID:3880729

  10. Megaplasmids encode differing combinations of lantibiotics in Streptococcus salivarius.

    PubMed

    Wescombe, Philip A; Burton, Jeremy P; Cadieux, Peter A; Klesse, Nikolai A; Hyink, Otto; Heng, Nicholas C K; Chilcott, Chris N; Reid, Gregor; Tagg, John R

    2006-10-01

    Streptococcus salivarius strains commonly produce bacteriocins as putative anti-competitor or signalling molecules. Here we report that bacteriocin production by the oral probiotic strain S. salivarius K12 is encoded by a large (ca. 190 kb) plasmid. Oral cavity transmission of the plasmid from strain K12 to a plasmid-negative variant of this bacterium was demonstrated in two subjects. Tests of additional S. salivarius strains showed large (up to ca. 220 kb) plasmids present in bacteriocin-producing isolates. Various combinations (up to 3 per plasmid) of loci encoding the known streptococcal lantibiotics salivaricin A, salivaricin B, streptin and SA-FF22 were localised to these plasmids. Since all bacteriocin-producing strains of S. salivarius tested to date appear to harbour plasmids, it appears that they may function as mobile repositories for bacteriocin loci, especially those of the lantibiotic class. PMID:16871420

  11. Tween 80 effect on glucosyltransferase synthesis by Streptococcus salivarius.

    PubMed Central

    Wittenberger, C L; Beaman, A J; Lee, L N

    1978-01-01

    Streptococcus salivarius (ATCC 25975) produced very low or nondetectable amounts of the extracellular enzyme glucosyltransferase (GTase) when grown in a chemically defined medium. The addition of Tween 80 to this medium resulted in the production of markedly enhanced levels of the enzyme. Oleic acid, the methyl ester of oleic acid, and sucrose each could not substitute for Tween 80 in this regard. The surfactant had no direct activating effect on performed enzyme activity. Tween 80 also stimulated the production of GTase by concentrated cells suspended in defined medium during a time when no measurable growth occurred. Under these conditions, the stimulatory effect of Tween 80 was blocked by chloramphenicol. It was further found that the surfactant dramatically stimulated the differential rate of GTase synthesis. These and other data strongly suggest that Tween 80 stimulates the production of extracellular GTase by acting either directly or indirectly at the level of enzyme synthesis. PMID:618839

  12. Streptococcus mutans in a wild, sucrose-eating rat population.

    PubMed

    Coykendall, A L; Specht, P A; Samol, H H

    1974-07-01

    Streptococcus mutans, an organism implicated in dental caries and not previously found outside of man and certain laboratory animals, was isolated from the mouths of wild rats which ate sugar cane. The strains isolated fermented mannitol and sorbitol, and failed to grow in 6.5% NaCl or at 45 C. They formed in vitro plaques on nichrome wires when grown in sucrose broth. They also stored intracellular polysaccharide which could be catabolized by washed, resting cells. Deoxyribonucleic acid-deoxyribonucleic acid reassociations revealed two genetic types. One type shared extensive deoxyribonucleic acid base sequences with S. mutans strains HS6 and OMZ61, two members of a genetic type found in man and laboratory hamsters. The other type seemed unrelated to any S. mutans genetic type previously encountered. It is concluded that the ecological triad of tooth-sucrose-S. mutans is not a phenomenon unique to man and experimental animals. PMID:4601769

  13. Immunochemical detection of a common antigen among Streptococcus uberis isolates.

    PubMed Central

    Jones, K F; Norcross, N L

    1983-01-01

    Fifty-three isolates of Streptococcus uberis from various sources were examined for the presence of a common antigen. Initially, a serum was produced in rabbits which, by using rocket line immunoelectrophoresis, proved to react with identity to all of the S. uberis crude extracts as well as group B and E streptococcal extracts. The antigen(s) responsible for this cross-reactivity was partially purified by Sephacryl S-200 gel chromatography and analyzed by fused rocket immunoelectrophoresis. Further analysis by immunodiffusion showed that probably two antigens in the gel chromatography-consolidated fractions were common to the S. uberis and group B and E isolates, but that one of the antigens present was unique to S. uberis. Trypsin destroyed the immunoreactivity of this antigen. Isolation of this common antigen could possibly alleviate some of the tedium associated with the identification of this organism. Images PMID:6408120

  14. The Streptococcus pneumoniae Beta-Galactosidase Is a Surface Protein

    PubMed Central

    Zähner, Dorothea; Hakenbeck, Regine

    2000-01-01

    The β-galactosidase gene of Streptococcus pneumoniae, bgaA, encodes a putative 2,235-amino-acid protein with the two amino acid motifs characteristic of the glycosyl hydrolase family of proteins. In addition, an N-terminal signal sequence and a C-terminal LPXTG motif typical of surface-associated proteins of gram-positive bacteria are present. Trypsin treatment of cells resulted in solubilization of the enzyme, documenting that it is associated with the cell envelope. In order to obtain defined mutants suitable for lacZ reporter experiments, the bgaA gene was disrupted, resulting in a complete absence of endogenous β-galactosidase activity. The results are consistent with β-galactosidase being a surface protein that seems not to be involved in lactose metabolism but that may play a role during pathogenesis. PMID:11004197

  15. Streptococcus pneumoniae bacteraemia leading to the diagnosis of multiple myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Shahani, Savita; Shahani, Lokesh

    2014-01-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is a malignant plasma cell disorder characterised by the neoplastic proliferation of a single clone of plasma cells producing a monoclonal immunoglobulin. Anaemia, bone pain from lytic lesions, hypercalcaemia and renal failure are the most common presentations at diagnosis; however, the presence of infection at the time of diagnosis is rarely reported. The author reports an elderly male presenting with isolated fever and initial blood cultures positive for Streptococcus pneumoniae. Investigating the patient's underlying immunodeficient state predisposing him to this infection, serum and urine immunofixation electrophoresis identified monoclonal IgG λ and bone marrow biopsy revealed diffuse plasma cell infiltration that comprised 35% of the cellular elements, which were all consistent with MM. This case report highlights the importance of considering MM in asymptomatic elderly patients who present with acute pneumococcal infection without an apparent predisposing factor. PMID:25239987

  16. Rapid diagnosis of strangles (Streptococcus equi subspecies equi) using PCR.

    PubMed

    Cordoni, Guido; Williams, Adele; Durham, Andy; Florio, Daniela; Zanoni, Renato Giulio; La Ragione, Roberto M

    2015-10-01

    Strangles is one of the most common equine infectious diseases with serious health, welfare and socio-economic impact. However, the detection of Streptococcus equi subspecies equi can be challenging and persistently infected carriers are common. Furthermore, the use of classical microbiology can result in an underestimation of the prevalence of the disease. The difficulties associated with the slow diagnosis of Strangles can result in rapid spread of the disease. Therefore, rapid and economical diagnostic tests are urgently required. Here, two multiplex assays, were developed and validated for the detection of S. equi and S. equi subspecies zooepidemicus, the most common differential diagnosis. Using 59 S. equi and 59 S. zooepidemicus strains collected from various geographical areas, the PCR tests demonstrated a sensitivity of 95% and a specificity of 98%. Furthermore, the assay can be performed directly from clinical swabs. Thus, the assays designed here provide a rapid, reliable and economical solution for the diagnosis of Strangles.

  17. Fatal Streptococcus canis infections in intensively housed shelter cats.

    PubMed

    Pesavento, P A; Bannasch, M J; Bachmann, R; Byrne, B A; Hurley, K F

    2007-03-01

    Three independent, fatal outbreaks of Streptococcus canis infection occurred in a 2-year period in shelter cats. The outbreaks occurred in Northern California (Yolo County), Southern California (Kern County), and North Carolina (Guilford County). An estimation of the affected population is >150 cats among 3 affected shelters, with a mortality rate of up to 30%. Among 20 cats submitted for necropsy there were 2 distinct pathologic presentations. The first (shelters 1 and 2) was skin ulceration and chronic respiratory infection that progressed, in some cats, to necrotizing sinusitis and meningitis. The second (shelter 3) was rapid progression from necrotizing fasciitis with skin ulceration to toxic shock-like syndrome, sepsis, and death. S canis was the sole pathogen identified in most cases. Whether hypervirulent S canis strains exist is unknown; there is little understanding of how these bacteria cause invasive disease in cats. PMID:17317801

  18. Pleural effusion Due to Streptococcus milleri: Case descriptions.

    PubMed

    Madrid-Carbajal, Claudia Janeth; Molinos, Luis; García-Clemente, Marta; Pando-Sandoval, Ana; Fleites, Ana; Casan-Clarà, Pere

    2014-09-01

    In this study we analyzed the characteristics of patients with pleural effusion secondary to Streptococcus milleri studied retrospectively between January and March 2013 and found seven patients with a mean age of 60 years, 43% of which were smokers and 57% with a drinking habit. The most common associated factors were alcoholism, previous pneumonia and diabetes. Other bacteria were identified as Enterobacter aerogenes, Bacteroides and Prevotella intermedia capillosus in two patients. The mean duration of antibiotic therapy was 28 days; six patients underwent pleural drainage by chest tube and one patient needed surgery due to poor clinical progress. The mean duration of hospitalization was 30 days with satisfactory outcome in all cases, despite some changes in residual function.

  19. Single Cell Bottlenecks in the Pathogenesis of Streptococcus pneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Zafar, M. Ammar; Zuniga, Marisol; Roche, Aoife M.; Hamaguchi, Shigeto; Weiser, Jeffrey N.

    2016-01-01

    Herein, we studied a virulent isolate of the leading bacterial pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae in an infant mouse model of colonization, disease and transmission, both with and without influenza A (IAV) co-infection. To identify vulnerable points in the multiple steps involved in pneumococcal pathogenesis, this model was utilized for a comprehensive analysis of population bottlenecks. Our findings reveal that in the setting of IAV co-infection the organism must pass through single cell bottlenecks during bloodstream invasion from the nasopharynx within the host and in transmission between hosts. Passage through these bottlenecks was not associated with genetic adaptation by the pathogen. The bottleneck in transmission occurred between bacterial exit from one host and establishment in another explaining why the number of shed organisms in secretions is critical to overcoming it. These observations demonstrate how viral infection, and TLR-dependent innate immune responses it stimulates and that are required to control it, drive bacterial contagion. PMID:27732665

  20. Streptococcus gallolyticus: a single bacteria, two different conditions.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Cristiano Silva; Machado, Catarina; Almeida, André; Moura, Rita Barata

    2015-07-01

    The authors describe the case of a 48-year-old woman presenting with fever, joint pain and migratory skin lesions. She had no other symptoms or medical history. After an extensive and inconclusive work up, she was admitted to the hospital for further study. This patient was ultimately found to have Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp gallolyticus bacteraemia. This finding led to the diagnosis of mitral valve infective endocarditis related to an underlying rectum adenocarcinoma. This article points out diagnostic difficulties related to an unusual presentation of the underlying disease. Furthermore, the authors reinforce the need of keeping a high level of suspicion and a systematic approach in every case of fever of unknown origin. This case highlights the importance of performing a colonoscopy in the event of S. gallolyticus subsp gallolyticus bacteraemia, as it may provide an opportunity for detecting colonic lesions at an earlier stage.

  1. An Unusual Cause of Flexor Tenosynovitis: Streptococcus mitis

    PubMed Central

    Ulucay, Cağatay; Ozler, Turhan

    2014-01-01

    Summary: Streptococcus mitis is a commensal organism of the human oropharynx that rarely causes infection in healthy individuals. Herein, we describe a previously healthy 35-year-old woman who presented with acute pyogenic flexor tenosynovitis of the left index finger due to S. mitis infection. The patient’s infection was treated successfully via surgical and medical interventions, and during follow-up, it was determined that she was complement component C3 deficient. Tenosynovitis is an emergent clinical syndrome that can result in permanent disability or amputation. To the best of our knowledge, this case report is the first to describe tenosynovitis due to S. mitis; in addition, it highlights the importance of initiating therapy with antibiotics that are effective against this rare pathogen. PMID:25587497

  2. Identification of a functional capsule locus in Streptococcus mitis.

    PubMed

    Rukke, H V; Hegna, I K; Petersen, F C

    2012-04-01

    The polysaccharide capsule of Streptococcus pneumoniae is a hallmark for virulence in humans. In its close relative Streptococcus mitis, a common human commensal, analysis of the sequenced genomes of six strains revealed the presence of a putative capsule locus in four of them. We constructed an isogenic S. mitis mutant from the type strain that lacked the 19 open reading frames in the capsule locus (Δcps mutant), using a deletion strategy similar to previous capsule functional studies in S. pneumoniae. Transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy revealed a capsule-like structure in the S. mitis type strain that was absent or reduced in the Δcps mutant. Since S. mitis are predominant oral colonizers of tooth surfaces, we addressed the relevance of the capsule locus for the S. mitis overall surface properties, autoaggregation and biofilm formation. The capsule deletion resulted in a mutant with approximately two-fold increase in hydrophobicity. Binding to the Stains-all cationic dye was reduced by 40%, suggesting a reduction in the overall negative surface charge of the mutant. The mutant exhibited also increased autoaggregation in coaggregation buffer, and up to six-fold increase in biofilm levels. The results suggested that the capsule locus is associated with production of a capsule-like structure in S. mitis and indicated that the S. mitis capsule-like structure may confer surface attributes similar to those associated with the capsule in S. pneumoniae.

  3. The role of coagulation/fibrinolysis during Streptococcus pyogenes infection.

    PubMed

    Loof, Torsten G; Deicke, Christin; Medina, Eva

    2014-01-01

    The hemostatic system comprises platelet aggregation, coagulation and fibrinolysis and is a host defense mechanism that protects the integrity of the vascular system after tissue injury. During bacterial infections, the coagulation system cooperates with the inflammatory system to eliminate the invading pathogens. However, pathogenic bacteria have frequently evolved mechanisms to exploit the hemostatic system components for their own benefit. Streptococcus pyogenes, also known as Group A Streptococcus, provides a remarkable example of the extraordinary capacity of pathogens to exploit the host hemostatic system to support microbial survival and dissemination. The coagulation cascade comprises the contact system (also known as the intrinsic pathway) and the tissue factor pathway (also known as the extrinsic pathway), both leading to fibrin formation. During the early phase of S. pyogenes infection, the activation of the contact system eventually leads to bacterial entrapment within a fibrin clot, where S. pyogenes is immobilized and killed. However, entrapped S. pyogenes can circumvent the antimicrobial effect of the clot by sequestering host plasminogen on the bacterial cell surface that, after conversion into its active proteolytic form, plasmin, degrades the fibrin network and facilitates the liberation of S. pyogenes from the clot. Furthermore, the surface-localized fibrinolytic activity also cleaves a variety of extracellular matrix proteins, thereby enabling S. pyogenes to migrate across barriers and disseminate within the host. This review summarizes the knowledge gained during the last two decades on the role of coagulation/fibrinolysis in host defense against S. pyogenes as well as the strategies developed by this pathogen to evade and exploit these host mechanisms for its own benefit.

  4. Factors that cause trimethoprim resistance in Streptococcus pyogenes.

    PubMed

    Bergmann, René; van der Linden, Mark; Chhatwal, Gursharan S; Nitsche-Schmitz, D Patric

    2014-01-01

    The use of trimethoprim in treatment of Streptococcus pyogenes infections has long been discouraged because it has been widely believed that this pathogen is resistant to this antibiotic. To gain more insight into the extent and molecular basis of trimethoprim resistance in S. pyogenes, we tested isolates from India and Germany and sought the factors that conferred the resistance. Resistant isolates were identified in tests for trimethoprim or trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (SXT) susceptibility. Resistant isolates were screened for the known horizontally transferable trimethoprim-insensitive dihydrofolate reductase (dfr) genes dfrG, dfrF, dfrA, dfrD, and dfrK. The nucleotide sequence of the intrinsic dfr gene was determined for resistant isolates lacking the horizontally transferable genes. Based on tentative criteria, 69 out of 268 isolates (25.7%) from India were resistant to trimethoprim. Occurring in 42 of the 69 resistant isolates (60.9%), dfrF appeared more frequently than dfrG (23 isolates; 33.3%) in India. The dfrF gene was also present in a collection of SXT-resistant isolates from Germany, in which it was the only detected trimethoprim resistance factor. The dfrF gene caused resistance in 4 out of 5 trimethoprim-resistant isolates from the German collection. An amino acid substitution in the intrinsic dihydrofolate reductase known from trimethoprim-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae conferred resistance to S. pyogenes isolates of emm type 102.2, which lacked other aforementioned dfr genes. Trimethoprim may be more useful in treatment of S. pyogenes infections than previously thought. However, the factors described herein may lead to the rapid development and spread of resistance of S. pyogenes to this antibiotic agent.

  5. FORMATE—PYRUVATE EXCHANGE REACTION IN STREPTOCOCCUS FAECALIS II.

    PubMed Central

    Oster, M. O.; Wood, N. P.

    1964-01-01

    Oster, M. O. (A. & M. College of Texas, College Station), and N. P. Wood. Formate-pyruvate exchange reaction in Streptococcus faecalis. II. Reaction conditions for cell extracts. J. Bacteriol. 87:104–113. 1964.—In contrast to intact cells of Streptococcus faecalis, no stimulation of the formate-pyruvate exchange reaction was observed in cell extracts when yeast extract was added to the reaction mixture. A heated extract of Micrococcus lactilyticus, vitamin K5, ferrous sulfate, and ferrous ammonium sulfate stimulated an active exchange by protecting the system from oxygen. Tetrahydrofolate, 2,3-dimercaptopropanol, and sodium sulfide provided partial protection, whereas ascorbate, glutathione, sodium hydrosulfite, ammonium sulfide, and sodium bisulfite gave insufficient protection or were inhibitory. Oxidation-reduction (O-R) indicators were not inhibitory and were used to estimate the O-R potentials of reaction mixtures. A potential at least as negative as −125 mv was estimated to be necessary to preserve or initiate formate-pyruvate exchange activity. The reaction operated over a narrow pH range when strict anaerobic conditions were not maintained but, when the system was suitably poised, the pH range was broader. The influence of high phosphate concentrations was less under strictly anaerobic conditions, and orthophosphate could be replaced by small amounts of pyrophosphate. Effect of temperature, time, and amount of extract is presented. Addition of reduced benzyl viologen and hydrogen-saturated palladium in the buffer during 8 hr of dialysis prevented inactivation of extracts. Recovery of activity could be obtained after ammonium sulfate treatment when a combination of palladium chloride, neutral red, and hydrogen bubbling were used. PMID:14102842

  6. Factors that cause trimethoprim resistance in Streptococcus pyogenes.

    PubMed

    Bergmann, René; van der Linden, Mark; Chhatwal, Gursharan S; Nitsche-Schmitz, D Patric

    2014-01-01

    The use of trimethoprim in treatment of Streptococcus pyogenes infections has long been discouraged because it has been widely believed that this pathogen is resistant to this antibiotic. To gain more insight into the extent and molecular basis of trimethoprim resistance in S. pyogenes, we tested isolates from India and Germany and sought the factors that conferred the resistance. Resistant isolates were identified in tests for trimethoprim or trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (SXT) susceptibility. Resistant isolates were screened for the known horizontally transferable trimethoprim-insensitive dihydrofolate reductase (dfr) genes dfrG, dfrF, dfrA, dfrD, and dfrK. The nucleotide sequence of the intrinsic dfr gene was determined for resistant isolates lacking the horizontally transferable genes. Based on tentative criteria, 69 out of 268 isolates (25.7%) from India were resistant to trimethoprim. Occurring in 42 of the 69 resistant isolates (60.9%), dfrF appeared more frequently than dfrG (23 isolates; 33.3%) in India. The dfrF gene was also present in a collection of SXT-resistant isolates from Germany, in which it was the only detected trimethoprim resistance factor. The dfrF gene caused resistance in 4 out of 5 trimethoprim-resistant isolates from the German collection. An amino acid substitution in the intrinsic dihydrofolate reductase known from trimethoprim-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae conferred resistance to S. pyogenes isolates of emm type 102.2, which lacked other aforementioned dfr genes. Trimethoprim may be more useful in treatment of S. pyogenes infections than previously thought. However, the factors described herein may lead to the rapid development and spread of resistance of S. pyogenes to this antibiotic agent. PMID:24492367

  7. Salivaricin 9, a new lantibiotic produced by Streptococcus salivarius.

    PubMed

    Wescombe, P A; Upton, M; Renault, P; Wirawan, R E; Power, D; Burton, J P; Chilcott, C N; Tagg, J R

    2011-05-01

    Salivaricin 9 (Sal9) is a 2560 Da lantibiotic having just 46 % amino acid identity with its closest known homologue, the Streptococcus pyogenes lantibiotic SA-FF22. The Sal9 locus (designated siv) in Streptococcus salivarius strain 9 was partially sequenced and localized to an approximately 170 kb megaplasmid, which also harbours the locus for the lantibiotic salivaricin A4. The entire locus was fully characterized in the draft genome sequence of S. salivarius strain JIM8780 and shown to consist of eight genes, having the following putative functions: sivK, sensor kinase; sivR, response regulator; sivA, Sal9 precursor peptide; sivM, lantibiotic modification enzyme; sivT, ABC transporter involved in the export of Sal9 and concomitant cleavage of its leader peptide; and sivFEG, encoding lantibiotic self-immunity. Intriguingly, in contrast to strain 9, the siv locus was chromosomally located in strain JIM8780--the first lantibiotic locus shown not to be exclusively plasmid-associated in S. salivarius. Sal9-containing extracts specifically induced lantibiotic production in both strain 9 and strain JIM8780, indicating that Sal9 functions as a signal peptide for upregulation of its own biosynthesis. Screening representative strains of three streptococcal species (S. salivarius, S. pyogenes and S. mitis) for sivA indicated that it was present only in S. salivarius, with 12 of 28 tested S. salivarius positive. Since Sal9 was inhibitory to all tested S. pyogenes strains it appears to have potential as an important component of the bacteriocin armoury of S. salivarius probiotics intended to control S. pyogenes infections of the human oral cavity. PMID:21310787

  8. Characterisation of an oxidative response inhibitor produced by Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    PubMed Central

    Perry, F. E.; Elson, C. J.; Mitchell, T. J.; Andrew, P. W.; Catterall, J. R.

    1994-01-01

    BACKGROUND--Pneumonia caused by infection with Streptococcus pneumoniae is still a major clinical problem. Reactive oxygen species contribute to the killing of these bacteria by polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMNs). Defence mechanisms of Str pneumoniae which counter reactive oxygen species are characterised. METHODS--PMNs were stimulated with phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) in the presence and absence of Str pneumoniae and supernatants from them, and superoxide (O2-) production was measured by the reduction of ferricytochrome c. RESULTS--Streptococcus pneumoniae, but not Klebsiella pneumoniae or Staphylococcus aureus, inhibited PMA stimulated superoxide production by PMNs. Washed PMNs which had been preincubated with Str pneumoniae autolysis phase supernatants also exhibited depressed H2O2 production in response to PMA. The inhibitory activity was not attributable to non-specific cytotoxicity as assessed by release of the cytoplasmic enzyme lactate dehydrogenase, nor did the supernatants inhibit PMA stimulated degranulation of PMNs. Fractionation of the autolysis phase supernatants revealed inhibitory activity in both the fractions greater than and less than 10 kD. Like pneumolysin the inhibitory activity was heat sensitive. However, both a parent and pneumolysin negative mutant Str pneumoniae, and autolysis phase supernatants from them, inhibited PMN superoxide production. Antisera to pneumolysin failed to abrogate the inhibitory effect of intact Str pneumoniae or autolysis phase supernatants from types 1 or 14 Str pneumoniae. CONCLUSIONS--The inhibitory effect of Str pneumoniae on the respiratory burst of PMNs is not shared by two other common lung pathogens. The existence of a novel inhibitor of the PMN respiratory burst, distinct from pneumolysin, has been demonstrated. The inhibitor is specific for the respiratory burst and is active both in the logarithmic phase of growth and during autolysis. PMID:8066562

  9. Characterization of a Multipeptide Lantibiotic Locus in Streptococcus pneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Maricic, Natalie; Anderson, Erica S.; Opipari, AnneMarie E.; Yu, Emily A.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Bacterial communities are established through a combination of cooperative and antagonistic interactions between the inhabitants. Competitive interactions often involve the production of antimicrobial substances, including bacteriocins, which are small antimicrobial peptides that target other community members. Despite the nearly ubiquitous presence of bacteriocin-encoding loci, inhibitory activity has been attributed to only a small fraction of gene clusters. In this study, we characterized a novel locus (the pld locus) in the pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae that drives the production of a bacteriocin called pneumolancidin, which has broad antimicrobial activity. The locus encodes an unusual tandem array of four inhibitory peptides, three of which are absolutely required for antibacterial activity. The three peptide sequences are similar but appear to play distinct roles in regulation and inhibition. A modification enzyme typically found in loci encoding a class of highly modified bacteriocins called lantibiotics was required for inhibitory activity. The production of pneumolancidin is controlled by a two-component regulatory system that is activated by the accumulation of modified peptides. The locus is located on a mobile element that has been found in many pneumococcal lineages, although not all elements carry the pld genes. Intriguingly, a minimal region containing only the genes required for pneumolancidin immunity was found in several Streptococcus mitis strains. The pneumolancidin-producing strain can inhibit nearly all pneumococci tested to date and provided a competitive advantage in vivo. These peptides not only represent a unique strategy for bacterial competition but also are an important resource to guide the development of new antimicrobials. PMID:26814178

  10. vanG Element Insertions within a Conserved Chromosomal Site Conferring Vancomycin Resistance to Streptococcus agalactiae and Streptococcus anginosus

    PubMed Central

    Srinivasan, Velusamy; Metcalf, Benjamin J.; Knipe, Kristen M.; Ouattara, Mahamoudou; McGee, Lesley; Shewmaker, Patricia L.; Glennen, Anita; Nichols, Megin; Harris, Carol; Brimmage, Mary; Ostrowsky, Belinda; Park, Connie J.; Schrag, Stephanie J.; Frace, Michael A.; Sammons, Scott A.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Three vancomycin-resistant streptococcal strains carrying vanG elements (two invasive Streptococcus agalactiae isolates [GBS-NY and GBS-NM, both serotype II and multilocus sequence type 22] and one Streptococcus anginosus [Sa]) were examined. The 45,585-bp elements found within Sa and GBS-NY were nearly identical (together designated vanG-1) and shared near-identity over an ~15-kb overlap with a previously described vanG element from Enterococcus faecalis. Unexpectedly, vanG-1 shared much less homology with the 49,321-bp vanG-2 element from GBS-NM, with widely different levels (50% to 99%) of sequence identity shared among 44 related open reading frames. Immediately adjacent to both vanG-1 and vanG-2 were 44,670-bp and 44,680-bp integrative conjugative element (ICE)-like sequences, designated ICE-r, that were nearly identical in the two group B streptococcal (GBS) strains. The dual vanG and ICE-r elements from both GBS strains were inserted at the same position, between bases 1328 and 1329, within the identical RNA methyltransferase (rumA) genes. A GenBank search revealed that although most GBS strains contained insertions within this specific site, only sequence type 22 (ST22) GBS strains contained highly related ICE-r derivatives. The vanG-1 element in Sa was also inserted within this position corresponding to its rumA homolog adjacent to an ICE-r derivative. vanG-1 insertions were previously reported within the same relative position in the E. faecalis rumA homolog. An ICE-r sequence perfectly conserved with respect to its counterpart in GBS-NY was apparent within the same site of the rumA homolog of a Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis strain. Additionally, homologous vanG-like elements within the conserved rumA target site were evident in Roseburia intestinalis. PMID:25053786

  11. vanG element insertions within a conserved chromosomal site conferring vancomycin resistance to Streptococcus agalactiae and Streptococcus anginosus.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, Velusamy; Metcalf, Benjamin J; Knipe, Kristen M; Ouattara, Mahamoudou; McGee, Lesley; Shewmaker, Patricia L; Glennen, Anita; Nichols, Megin; Harris, Carol; Brimmage, Mary; Ostrowsky, Belinda; Park, Connie J; Schrag, Stephanie J; Frace, Michael A; Sammons, Scott A; Beall, Bernard

    2014-01-01

    Three vancomycin-resistant streptococcal strains carrying vanG elements (two invasive Streptococcus agalactiae isolates [GBS-NY and GBS-NM, both serotype II and multilocus sequence type 22] and one Streptococcus anginosus [Sa]) were examined. The 45,585-bp elements found within Sa and GBS-NY were nearly identical (together designated vanG-1) and shared near-identity over an ~15-kb overlap with a previously described vanG element from Enterococcus faecalis. Unexpectedly, vanG-1 shared much less homology with the 49,321-bp vanG-2 element from GBS-NM, with widely different levels (50% to 99%) of sequence identity shared among 44 related open reading frames. Immediately adjacent to both vanG-1 and vanG-2 were 44,670-bp and 44,680-bp integrative conjugative element (ICE)-like sequences, designated ICE-r, that were nearly identical in the two group B streptococcal (GBS) strains. The dual vanG and ICE-r elements from both GBS strains were inserted at the same position, between bases 1328 and 1329, within the identical RNA methyltransferase (rumA) genes. A GenBank search revealed that although most GBS strains contained insertions within this specific site, only sequence type 22 (ST22) GBS strains contained highly related ICE-r derivatives. The vanG-1 element in Sa was also inserted within this position corresponding to its rumA homolog adjacent to an ICE-r derivative. vanG-1 insertions were previously reported within the same relative position in the E. faecalis rumA homolog. An ICE-r sequence perfectly conserved with respect to its counterpart in GBS-NY was apparent within the same site of the rumA homolog of a Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis strain. Additionally, homologous vanG-like elements within the conserved rumA target site were evident in Roseburia intestinalis. Importance: These three streptococcal strains represent the first known vancomycin-resistant strains of their species. The collective observations made from these strains reveal a specific

  12. Significance, management and prevention of Streptococcus agalactiae infection during the perinatal period.

    PubMed

    Berner, Reinhard

    2004-06-01

    The highest annual death rate during the first five decades of life occurs in the first year, particularly during the perinatal period between the onset of labor and 72 h after birth. Invasive bacterial disease evoking the severe inflammatory response syndrome is a leading cause of perinatal morbidity and mortality. Group B streptococcus (Streptococcus agalactiae) is the most important pathogen in this period of life, although the concept of intrapartum antimicrobial prophylaxis has impressively reduced the rate of culture-proven invasive infection in neonates. This strategy, however, has considerable limitations since group B streptococcus-related stillbirths or prematurity and late-onset sepsis cannot be prevented. Moreover, the use of intrapartum antimicrobial prophylaxis has significantly increased the use of antibiotics during labor and therefore may select for intrapartum infections caused by other bacteria, including those resistant to antibiotics. Several advances in the development of vaccines and research on virulence factors and pathways involved in the immune response to group B streptococcus have been accomplished within the last years, including complete sequencing of the group B streptococcus genome. Development of effective vaccines and implementation of vaccination strategies will be one of the key challenges in the future for prevention of neonatal group B Streptococcus infections.

  13. Intracerebral hemorrhage and deep microbleeds associated with cnm-positive Streptococcus mutans; a hospital cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Tonomura, Shuichi; Ihara, Masafumi; Kawano, Tomohiro; Tanaka, Tomotaka; Okuno, Yoshinori; Saito, Satoshi; Friedland, Robert P.; Kuriyama, Nagato; Nomura, Ryota; Watanabe, Yoshiyuki; Nakano, Kazuhiko; Toyoda, Kazunori; Nagatsuka, Kazuyuki

    2016-01-01

    Oral infectious diseases are epidemiologically associated with stroke. We previously showed that oral Streptococcus mutans with the cnm gene encoding a collagen-binding Cnm protein induced intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) experimentally and was also associated with cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) in our population-based cohort study. We therefore investigated the roles of cnm-positive Streptococcus mutans in this single hospital-based, observational study that enrolled 100 acute stroke subjects. The cnm gene in Streptococcus mutans isolated from saliva was screened using PCR techniques and its collagen-binding activities examined. CMBs were evaluated on T2* gradient-recalled echo MRI. One subject withdrew informed consent and 99 subjects (63 males) were analyzed, consisting of 67 subjects with ischemic stroke, 5 with transient ischemic attack, and 27 with ICH. Eleven cases showed Streptococcus mutans strains positive for cnm. The presence of cnm-positive Streptococcus mutans was significantly associated with ICH [OR vs. ischemic stroke, 4.5; 95% CI, 1.17–19.1] and increased number of deep CMBs [median (IQR), 3 (2–9) vs. 0 (0–1), p = 0.0002]. In subjects positive for Streptococcus mutans, collagen binding activity was positively correlated with the number of deep CMBs (R2 = 0.405; p < 0.0001). These results provide further evidence for the key role of oral health in stroke. PMID:26847666

  14. Streptococcus constellatus Causing Septic Thrombophlebitis of the Right Ovarian Vein with Extension into the Inferior Vena Cava

    PubMed Central

    Haidar, Abdallah; Haddad, Amy; Naqvi, Amir; Onyesoh, Ngozi U.; Malik, Rushdah; Williams, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Streptococcus constellatus collectively with Streptococcus anginosus and Streptococcus intermedius constitute the Streptococcus anginosus (formerly Streptococcus milleri) group. Though they are commonly associated with abscesses, bacteremia with subsequent septic thrombophlebitis is extremely rare, and resulting mortality is infrequent. Case Presentation. We report a case of a previously healthy 60-year-old African American female who presented with Streptococcus constellatus bacteremia associated with septic thrombophlebitis to the right ovarian vein extending into the inferior vena cava. She was urgently treated with antibiotics and anticoagulation. Conclusion. Septic thrombophlebitis has a clinical presentation that is often misleading. Therefore, a high clinical index of suspicion and the use of appropriate imaging modalities (computed tomography) are essential in recognizing and confirming this diagnosis. Prompt treatment is warranted. Surgical thrombectomies have been successfully replaced by a combination of antibiotics and anticoagulation therapy. PMID:26171262

  15. Influence of fluoride on the bacterial composition of a dual-species biofilm composed of Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus oralis.

    PubMed

    Jung, Ji-Eun; Cai, Jian-Na; Cho, Sung-Dae; Song, Kwang-Yeob; Jeon, Jae-Gyu

    2016-10-01

    Despite the widespread use of fluoride for the prevention of dental caries, few studies have demonstrated the effects of fluoride on the bacterial composition of dental biofilms. This study investigated whether fluoride affects the proportion of Streptococcus mutans and S. oralis in mono- and dual-species biofilm models, via microbiological, biochemical, and confocal fluorescence microscope studies. Fluoride did not affect the bacterial count and bio-volume of S. mutans and S. oralis in mono-species biofilms, except for the 24-h-old S. mutans biofilms. However, fluoride reduced the proportion and bio-volume of S. mutans but did not decrease those of S. oralis during both S. oralis and S. mutans dual-species biofilm formation, which may be related to the decrease in extracellular polysaccharide formation by fluoride. These results suggest that fluoride may prevent the shift in the microbial proportion to cariogenic bacteria in dental biofilms, subsequently inhibiting the cariogenic bacteria dominant biofilm formation. PMID:27643392

  16. Novel real-time PCR assays using TaqMan minor groove binder probes for identification of fecal carriage of Streptococcus bovis/Streptococcus equinus complex from rectal swab specimens.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Paulo Guilherme Markus; Cantarelli, Vlademir Vicente; Agnes, Grasiela; Costabeber, Ane Micheli; d'Azevedo, Pedro Alves

    2014-03-01

    Real-time PCR based on the recN and gyrB genes was developed to detect four Streptococcus bovis/Streptococcus equinus complex (SBEC) subspecies from rectal swab specimens. The overall prevalence was 35.2%: Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus (11.1%), S. gallolyticus subsp. pasteurianus (13%), Streptococcus infantarius subsp. coli (20.4%), and S. infantarius subsp. infantarius (11.1%). To conclude, these real-time PCR assays provide a reliable molecular method to detect SBEC pathogenic subspecies from rectal swab specimens.

  17. Spontaneous meningitis due to Streptococcus salivarius subsp. salivarius: cross-reaction in an assay with a rapid diagnostic kit that detected Streptococcus pneumoniae antigens.

    PubMed

    Shirokawa, Taijiro; Nakajima, Jun; Hirose, Kazuhito; Suzuki, Hiromichi; Nagaoka, Shoko; Suzuki, Masatsune

    2014-01-01

    Streptococcus salivarius subsp. salivarius occasionally causes meningitis associated with iatrogenic or traumatic events. We herein describe a case of meningitis caused by this organism in a patient without any apparent risk factors. In an assay of the patient's cerebrospinal fluid, cross-reaction occurred with Streptococcus pneumoniae antigen-coated latex particles in the Pastorex Meningitis Kit. In the in vitro assays, three of the five clinically isolated S. salivarius strains showed cross-reactions with the kit, indicating that these strains expressed pneumococcal antigen-like antigens. This case shows that meningitis caused by S. salivarius can occur spontaneously and it may sometimes be misdiagnosed as S. pneumoniae infection. PMID:24492701

  18. Macrolide-Resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae and Streptococcus pyogenes in the Pediatric Population in Germany during 2000-2001

    PubMed Central

    Reinert, Ralf René; Lütticken, Rudolf; Bryskier, André; Al-Lahham, Adnan

    2003-01-01

    In a nationwide study in Germany covering 13 clinical microbiology laboratories, a total of 307 Streptococcus pyogenes (mainly pharyngitis) and 333 Streptococcus pneumoniae (respiratory tract infections) strains were collected from outpatients less than 16 years of age. The MICs of penicillin G, amoxicillin, cefotaxime, erythromycin A, clindamycin, levofloxacin, and telithromycin were determined by the microdilution method. In S. pyogenes isolates, resistance rates were as follows: penicillin, 0%; erythromycin A, 13.7%; and levofloxacin, 0%. Telithromycin showed good activity against S. pyogenes isolates (MIC90 = 0.25 μg/ml; MIC range, 0.016 to 16 μg/ml). Three strains were found to be telithromycin-resistant (MIC ≥ 4 μg/ml). Erythromycin-resistant strains were characterized for the underlying resistance genotype, with 40.5% having the efflux type mef(A), 38.1% having the erm(A), and 9.5% having the erm(B) genotypes. emm typing of macrolide-resistant S. pyogenes isolates showed emm types 4 (45.2%), 77 (26.2%), and 12 (11.9%) to be predominant. In S. pneumoniae, resistance rates were as follows: penicillin intermediate, 7.5%; penicillin resistant, 0%; erythromycin A, 17.4%; and levofloxacin, 0%. Telithromycin was highly active against pneumococcal isolates (MIC90 ≤ 0.016 μg/ml; range, 0.016 to 0.5 μg/ml). The overall resistance profile of streptococcal respiratory tract isolates is still favorable, but macrolide resistance is of growing concern in Germany. PMID:12543648

  19. Helper plasmid cloning in Streptococcus sanguis: cloning of a tetracycline resistance determinant from the Streptococcus mutans chromosome.

    PubMed

    Tobian, J A; Macrina, F L

    1982-10-01

    A model system for testing the helper plasmid cloning system of Gryczan et al. (Mol. Gen. Genet. 177:459-467, 1980) was devised for the Streptococcus sanguis (Challis) host-vector system. In this system, linearized pVA736 plasmid efficiently transformed an S. sanguis (Challis) host containing a homologous plasmid, pVA380-1, but did not transform a plasmidless host or a host containing a nonhomologous plasmid, pVA380. In addition, whereas monomeric circular pVA736 transformed a plasmidless host with two-hit kinetics, it transformed a pVA380-1-containing host with one-hit kinetics. This helper plasmid cloning system was used to isolate two HindIII fragments (5.0 megadaltons [Mdal] and 1.9 Mdal in size) from the chromosome of Streptococcus mutans V825 which conferred high-level tetracycline resistance. One tetracycline-resistant clone was examined and found to contain three plasmids which were sized and designated pVA868 (9.0 Mdal), pVA869 (9.5 Mdal), and pVA870 (9.8 Mdal). Results of Southern blot hybridization and restriction endonuclease digestion confirmed that all three chimeras were composed of two HindIII fragments of the S. mutans V825 chromosome, as well as a large portion, varying in size for each chimera, of the 2.8 Mdal cloning vector, pVA380-1. Incompatibility observed between pVA380-1 and each of the chimeras indicated that replication of the chimeras was governed by the pVA380-1 replicative origin. Southern blotting experiments revealed that the chimeras hybridized to Tn916, providing the first evidence that transposon-related genes of enteric streptococcal origin are disseminated among oral streptococci.

  20. Frequency of Spontaneous Resistance to Peptide Deformylase Inhibitor GSK1322322 in Haemophilus influenzae, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, and Streptococcus pneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Ingraham, Karen; Huang, Jianzhong; McCloskey, Lynn; Rilling, Sarah; Windau, Anne; Pizzollo, Jason; Butler, Deborah; Aubart, Kelly; Miller, Linda A.; Zalacain, Magdalena; Holmes, David J.; O'Dwyer, Karen

    2015-01-01

    The continuous emergence of multidrug-resistant pathogenic bacteria is compromising the successful treatment of serious microbial infections. GSK1322322, a novel peptide deformylase (PDF) inhibitor, shows good in vitro antibacterial activity and has demonstrated safety and efficacy in human proof-of-concept clinical studies. In vitro studies were performed to determine the frequency of resistance (FoR) to this antimicrobial agent in major pathogens that cause respiratory tract and skin infections. Resistance to GSK1322322 occurred at high frequency through loss-of-function mutations in the formyl-methionyl transferase (FMT) protein in Staphylococcus aureus (4/4 strains) and Streptococcus pyogenes (4/4 strains) and via missense mutations in Streptococcus pneumoniae (6/21 strains), but the mutations were associated with severe in vitro and/or in vivo fitness costs. The overall FoR to GSK1322322 was very low in Haemophilus influenzae, with only one PDF mutant being identified in one of four strains. No target-based mutants were identified from S. pyogenes, and only one or no PDF mutants were isolated in three of the four S. aureus strains studied. In S. pneumoniae, PDF mutants were isolated from only six of 21 strains tested; an additional 10 strains did not yield colonies on GSK1322322-containing plates. Most of the PDF mutants characterized from those three organisms (35/37 mutants) carried mutations in residues at or in close proximity to one of three highly conserved motifs that are part of the active site of the PDF protein, with 30 of the 35 mutations occurring at position V71 (using the S. pneumoniae numbering system). PMID:26014938

  1. Chemical and botanical characterization of Chilean propolis and biological activity on cariogenic bacteria Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus

    PubMed Central

    Barrientos, Leticia; Herrera, Christian L.; Montenegro, Gloria; Ortega, Ximena; Veloz, Jorge; Alvear, Marysol; Cuevas, Alejandro; Saavedra, Nicolás; Salazar, Luis A.

    2013-01-01

    Propolis is a non-toxic natural substance with multiple pharmacological properties including anti-cancer, antioxidant, fungicidal, antibacterial, antiviral, and anti-inflammatory among others. The aim of this study was to determine the chemical and botanical characterization of Chilean propolis samples and to evaluate their biological activity against the cariogenic bacteria Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus. Twenty propolis samples were obtained from beekeeping producers from the central and southern regions of Chile. The botanical profile was determined by palynological analysis. Total phenolic contents were determined using colorimetric assays. Reverse phase HPLC and HPLC-MS were used to determine the chemical composition. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined on S. mutans and S. sobrinus. All propolis samples were dominated by structures from native plant species. The characterization by HPLC/MS, evidenced the presence of quercetin, myricetin, kaempferol, rutine, pinocembrin, coumaric acid, caffeic acid and caffeic acid phenethyl ester, that have already been described in these propolis with conventional HPLC. Although all propolis samples inhibited the mutans streptococci growth, it was observed a wide spectrum of action (MIC 0.90 to 8.22 μg mL−1). Given that results it becomes increasingly evident the need of standardization procedures, where we combine both the determination of botanical and the chemical characterization of the extracts. Research conducted to date, describes a promising effectiveness of propolis in the prevention of caries and other diseases of the oral cavity, making it necessary to develop studies to identify and understand the therapeutic targets or mechanisms of molecular action of the various compounds present on them. PMID:24294257

  2. Chemical and botanical characterization of Chilean propolis and biological activity on cariogenic bacteria Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus.

    PubMed

    Barrientos, Leticia; Herrera, Christian L; Montenegro, Gloria; Ortega, Ximena; Veloz, Jorge; Alvear, Marysol; Cuevas, Alejandro; Saavedra, Nicolás; Salazar, Luis A

    2013-01-01

    Propolis is a non-toxic natural substance with multiple pharmacological properties including anti-cancer, antioxidant, fungicidal, antibacterial, antiviral, and anti-inflammatory among others. The aim of this study was to determine the chemical and botanical characterization of Chilean propolis samples and to evaluate their biological activity against the cariogenic bacteria Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus. Twenty propolis samples were obtained from beekeeping producers from the central and southern regions of Chile. The botanical profile was determined by palynological analysis. Total phenolic contents were determined using colorimetric assays. Reverse phase HPLC and HPLC-MS were used to determine the chemical composition. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined on S. mutans and S. sobrinus. All propolis samples were dominated by structures from native plant species. The characterization by HPLC/MS, evidenced the presence of quercetin, myricetin, kaempferol, rutine, pinocembrin, coumaric acid, caffeic acid and caffeic acid phenethyl ester, that have already been described in these propolis with conventional HPLC. Although all propolis samples inhibited the mutans streptococci growth, it was observed a wide spectrum of action (MIC 0.90 to 8.22 μg mL(-1)). Given that results it becomes increasingly evident the need of standardization procedures, where we combine both the determination of botanical and the chemical characterization of the extracts. Research conducted to date, describes a promising effectiveness of propolis in the prevention of caries and other diseases of the oral cavity, making it necessary to develop studies to identify and understand the therapeutic targets or mechanisms of molecular action of the various compounds present on them.

  3. Clinical characteristics and significance of Streptococcus salivarius bacteremia and Streptococcus bovis bacteremia: a prospective 16-year study.

    PubMed

    Corredoira, J C; Alonso, M P; García, J F; Casariego, E; Coira, A; Rodriguez, A; Pita, J; Louzao, C; Pombo, B; López, M J; Varela, J

    2005-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the clinical significance of Streptococcus salivarius isolates recovered from blood cultures and compare them with isolates of Streptococcus bovis biotypes I and II. Seventeen of the 52 (32%) S. salivarius isolates recovered were considered clinically significant, compared with 62 of the 64 (97%) S. bovis isolates (p<0.0001). Bacteremia caused by S. salivarius occurred mostly in patients who showed relevant disruption of the mucous membranes and/or serious underlying diseases. Patients with S. salivarius bacteremia were younger than those with S. bovis bacteremia (57 vs. 67 years; p<0.01). Patients with S. salivarius bacteremia and patients with S. bovis II bacteremia had similar rates of endocarditis, colon tumors, and non-colon cancer. On the other hand, when compared with S. bovis I bacteremia, S. salivarius bacteremia was associated with lower rates of endocarditis (18% vs. 74%, respectively) (p<0.01) and colon tumors (0% vs. 57%, respectively) (p<0.005) and higher rates of non-colon cancer (53% vs. 9.5%, respectively) (p<0.01). Bacteremia caused by S. bovis II had a hepatobiliary origin in 50% of the patients, while, in contrast, that due to S. salivarius or S. bovis I was less frequently associated with a hepatobiliary origin (12% and 5%, respectively) (p<0.00001). The rate of penicillin resistance was 31% among S. salivarius isolates and 0% among S. bovis isolates (p<0.0001). In conclusion, the clinical characteristics of S. salivarius bacteremia and S. bovis II bacteremia are similar, and the isolation of S. salivarius in blood should not be systematically regarded as contamination. PMID:15902530

  4. Divalent cations enhance fluoride binding to Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sanguinis cells and subsequently inhibit bacterial acid production.

    PubMed

    Domon-Tawaraya, H; Nakajo, K; Washio, J; Ashizawa, T; Ichino, T; Sugawara, H; Fukumoto, S; Takahashi, N

    2013-01-01

    One preventive effect of topical fluoride application is derived from the fact that fluoride can inhibit bacterial acid production. Furthermore, divalent cations such as Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) increase the binding of fluoride to bacterial cells. These findings suggest that exposure of oral bacteria to fluoride in the presence of divalent cations increases fluoride binding to bacterial cells and subsequently enhances fluoride-induced inhibition of bacterial acid production. This study investigated the effects of fluoride exposure (0-20,000 ppm F) in the presence of Ca(2+) or Mg(2+) prior to glucose challenge on pH fall ability by bacterial sugar fermentation, as well as fluoride binding to bacterial cells by exposure to fluoride, and fluoride release from bacterial cells during bacterial sugar fermentation, using caries-related bacteria, Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sanguinis. The pH fall by both streptococci was inhibited by exposure to over 250 ppm F in the presence of Ca(2+) (p < 0.01), whereas in the presence of Mg(2+), the pH fall by S. mutans and S. sanguinis was inhibited after exposure to over 250 and 950 ppm F, respectively (p < 0.05). The amounts of fluoride binding to and released from streptococcal cells increased with the concentration of fluoride the cells were exposed to in the presence of Mg(2+), but were high enough even after 250 ppm F exposure in the presence of Ca(2+). The enhanced inhibition of acid production in the presence of divalent cations is probably due to the improved efficiency of fluoride binding to bacterial cells being improved via these divalent cations.

  5. The antimicrobial sensitivity of Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sangius to colloidal solutions of different nanoparticles applied as mouthwashes

    PubMed Central

    Ahrari, Farzaneh; Eslami, Neda; Rajabi, Omid; Ghazvini, Kiarash; Barati, Sahar

    2015-01-01

    Background: Metal nanoparticles have been recently applied in dentistry because of their antibacterial properties. This study aimed to evaluate antibacterial effects of colloidal solutions containing zinc oxide (ZnO), copper oxide (CuO), titanium dioxide (TiO2) and silver (Ag) nanoparticles on Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sangius and compare the results with those of chlorhexidine and sodium fluoride mouthrinses. Materials and Methods: After adding nanoparticles to a water-based solution, six groups were prepared. Groups I to IV included colloidal solutions containing nanoZnO, nanoCuO, nanoTiO2 and nanoAg, respectively. Groups V and VI consisted of 2.0% sodium fluoride and 0.2% chlorhexidine mouthwashes, respectively as controls. We used serial dilution method to find minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and with subcultures obtained minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) of the solutions against S. mutans and S. sangius. The data were analyzed by analysis of variance and Duncan test and P < 0.05 was considered as significant. Results: The sodium fluoride mouthrinse did not show any antibacterial effect. The nanoTiO2-containing solution had the lowest MIC against both microorganisms and also displayed the lowest MBC against S. mutans (P < 0.05). The colloidal solutions containing nanoTiO2 and nanoZnO showed the lowest MBC against S. sangius (P < 0.05). On the other hand, chlorhexidine showed the highest MIC and MBC against both streptococci (P < 0.05). Conclusion: The nanoTiO2-containing mouthwash proved to be an effective antimicrobial agent and thus it can be considered as an alternative to chlorhexidine or sodium fluoride mouthrinses in the oral cavity provided the lack of cytotoxic and genotoxic effects on biologic tissues. PMID:25709674

  6. Influence of time, toothpaste and saliva in the retention of Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sanguinis on different toothbrushes

    PubMed Central

    SCHMIDT, Julia Caroline; BUX, Miriam; FILIPUZZI-JENNY, Elisabeth; KULIK, Eva Maria; WALTIMO, Tuomas; WEIGER, Roland; WALTER, Clemens

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The intraoral transmission of cariogenic and periodontopathogenic species seems to be facilitated by contaminated toothbrushes and other oral hygiene devices. The aim of this investigation was to analyze the in vitro retention and survival rate of Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sanguinis on different toothbrushes. The impacts of human saliva and antimicrobial toothpaste on these parameters were further evaluated. Material and Methods Part I: Four toothbrushes (Colgate 360°, Curaprox CS5460 ultra soft, elmex InterX, Trisa Flexible Head3) were contaminated by S. mutans DSM 20523 or S. sanguinis DSM 20068 suspensions for three minutes. Bacteria were removed from the toothbrushes after either three minutes (T0) or 24 hours (T24) of dry storage and grown on Columbia blood agar plates for the quantification of colony-forming units (CFUs). Part II: The effects of saliva from a caries-active or a caries-inactive person and of toothpaste containing 0.12% chlorhexidine digluconate were also tested. Results Part I: After three minutes of dry storage, approximately one percent of the bacteria were still detectable on the toothbrushes. After 24 hours, S. sanguinis exhibited a more pronounced decrease in viable cell numbers compared with S. mutans but the differences were not significant (Kruskal-Wallis test, p>0.05). Part II: The addition of human saliva from a caries-active or caries-inactive person slightly increased the retention of both streptococcal species at T0. The use of toothpaste had no influence on the amount of viable streptococci at T0, but it reduced the microbial load after 24 hours of storage. There were only slight nonsignificant differences (p>0.05) between the four toothbrushes. Conclusions In vitro bacterial retention and survival of S. sanguinis and S. mutans on different toothbrushes occurred. Within the limitations of this study, the use of human saliva or an antimicrobial toothpaste did not lead to significant differences in the

  7. Frequency of Spontaneous Resistance to Peptide Deformylase Inhibitor GSK1322322 in Haemophilus influenzae, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, and Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Min, Sharon; Ingraham, Karen; Huang, Jianzhong; McCloskey, Lynn; Rilling, Sarah; Windau, Anne; Pizzollo, Jason; Butler, Deborah; Aubart, Kelly; Miller, Linda A; Zalacain, Magdalena; Holmes, David J; O'Dwyer, Karen

    2015-08-01

    The continuous emergence of multidrug-resistant pathogenic bacteria is compromising the successful treatment of serious microbial infections. GSK1322322, a novel peptide deformylase (PDF) inhibitor, shows good in vitro antibacterial activity and has demonstrated safety and efficacy in human proof-of-concept clinical studies. In vitro studies were performed to determine the frequency of resistance (FoR) to this antimicrobial agent in major pathogens that cause respiratory tract and skin infections. Resistance to GSK1322322 occurred at high frequency through loss-of-function mutations in the formyl-methionyl transferase (FMT) protein in Staphylococcus aureus (4/4 strains) and Streptococcus pyogenes (4/4 strains) and via missense mutations in Streptococcus pneumoniae (6/21 strains), but the mutations were associated with severe in vitro and/or in vivo fitness costs. The overall FoR to GSK1322322 was very low in Haemophilus influenzae, with only one PDF mutant being identified in one of four strains. No target-based mutants were identified from S. pyogenes, and only one or no PDF mutants were isolated in three of the four S. aureus strains studied. In S. pneumoniae, PDF mutants were isolated from only six of 21 strains tested; an additional 10 strains did not yield colonies on GSK1322322-containing plates. Most of the PDF mutants characterized from those three organisms (35/37 mutants) carried mutations in residues at or in close proximity to one of three highly conserved motifs that are part of the active site of the PDF protein, with 30 of the 35 mutations occurring at position V71 (using the S. pneumoniae numbering system).

  8. Comparative Genomics Analysis of Streptococcus Isolates from the Human Small Intestine Reveals their Adaptation to a Highly Dynamic Ecosystem

    PubMed Central

    Van den Bogert, Bartholomeus; Boekhorst, Jos; Herrmann, Ruth; Smid, Eddy J.; Zoetendal, Erwin G.; Kleerebezem, Michiel

    2013-01-01

    The human small-intestinal microbiota is characterised by relatively large and dynamic Streptococcus populations. In this study, genome sequences of small-intestinal streptococci from S. mitis, S. bovis, and S. salivarius species-groups were determined and compared with those from 58 Streptococcus strains in public databases. The Streptococcus pangenome consists of 12,403 orthologous groups of which 574 are shared among all sequenced streptococci and are defined as the Streptococcus core genome. Genome mining of the small-intestinal streptococci focused on functions playing an important role in the interaction of these streptococci in the small-intestinal ecosystem, including natural competence and nutrient-transport and metabolism. Analysis of the small-intestinal Streptococcus genomes predicts a high capacity to synthesize amino acids and various vitamins as well as substantial divergence in their carbohydrate transport and metabolic capacities, which is in agreement with observed physiological differences between these Streptococcus strains. Gene-specific PCR-strategies enabled evaluation of conservation of Streptococcus populations in intestinal samples from different human individuals, revealing that the S. salivarius strains were frequently detected in the small-intestine microbiota, supporting the representative value of the genomes provided in this study. Finally, the Streptococcus genomes allow prediction of the effect of dietary substances on Streptococcus population dynamics in the human small-intestine. PMID:24386196

  9. Comparative genomics analysis of Streptococcus isolates from the human small intestine reveals their adaptation to a highly dynamic ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Van den Bogert, Bartholomeus; Boekhorst, Jos; Herrmann, Ruth; Smid, Eddy J; Zoetendal, Erwin G; Kleerebezem, Michiel

    2013-01-01

    The human small-intestinal microbiota is characterised by relatively large and dynamic Streptococcus populations. In this study, genome sequences of small-intestinal streptococci from S. mitis, S. bovis, and S. salivarius species-groups were determined and compared with those from 58 Streptococcus strains in public databases. The Streptococcus pangenome consists of 12,403 orthologous groups of which 574 are shared among all sequenced streptococci and are defined as the Streptococcus core genome. Genome mining of the small-intestinal streptococci focused on functions playing an important role in the interaction of these streptococci in the small-intestinal ecosystem, including natural competence and nutrient-transport and metabolism. Analysis of the small-intestinal Streptococcus genomes predicts a high capacity to synthesize amino acids and various vitamins as well as substantial divergence in their carbohydrate transport and metabolic capacities, which is in agreement with observed physiological differences between these Streptococcus strains. Gene-specific PCR-strategies enabled evaluation of conservation of Streptococcus populations in intestinal samples from different human individuals, revealing that the S. salivarius strains were frequently detected in the small-intestine microbiota, supporting the representative value of the genomes provided in this study. Finally, the Streptococcus genomes allow prediction of the effect of dietary substances on Streptococcus population dynamics in the human small-intestine.

  10. Recombinant production of Streptococcus equisimilis streptokinase by Streptomyces lividans

    PubMed Central

    Pimienta, Elsa; Ayala, Julio C; Rodríguez, Caridad; Ramos, Astrid; Van Mellaert, Lieve; Vallín, Carlos; Anné, Jozef

    2007-01-01

    Background Streptokinase (SK) is a potent plasminogen activator with widespread clinical use as a thrombolytic agent. It is naturally secreted by several strains of beta-haemolytic streptococci. The low yields obtained in SK production, lack of developed gene transfer methodology and the pathogenesis of its natural host have been the principal reasons to search for a recombinant source for this important therapeutic protein. We report here the expression and secretion of SK by the Gram-positive bacterium Streptomyces lividans. The structural gene encoding SK was fused to the Streptomyces venezuelae CBS762.70 subtilisin inhibitor (vsi) signal sequence or to the Streptomyces lividans xylanase C (xlnC) signal sequence. The native Vsi protein is translocated via the Sec pathway while the native XlnC protein uses the twin-arginine translocation (Tat) pathway. Results SK yield in the spent culture medium of S. lividans was higher when the Sec-dependent signal peptide mediates the SK translocation. Using a 1.5 L fermentor, the secretory production of the Vsi-SK fusion protein reached up to 15 mg SK/l. SK was partially purified from the culture supernatant by DEAE-Sephacel chromatography. A 44-kDa degradation product co-eluted with the 47-kDa mature SK. The first amino acid residues of the S. lividans-produced SK were identical with those of the expected N-terminal sequence. The Vsi signal peptide was thus correctly cleaved off and the N-terminus of mature Vsi-SK fusion protein released by S. lividans remained intact. This result also implicates that the processing of the recombinant SK secreted by Streptomyces probably occurred at its C-terminal end, as in its native host Streptococcus equisimilis. The specific activity of the partially purified Streptomyces-derived SK was determined at 2661 IU/mg protein. Conclusion Heterologous expression of Streptococcus equisimilis ATCC9542 skc-2 in Streptomyces lividans was successfully achieved. SK can be translocated via both the

  11. Characterization of the adherence properties of Streptococcus salivarius.

    PubMed Central

    Weerkamp, A H; McBride, B C

    1980-01-01

    The adherence and aggregation properties of 46 human oral Streptococcus salivarius isolates were examined. A total of 41% of the isolates aggregated with whole human saliva, 50% aggregated with human erythrocytes, and 85% adhered to human buccal epithelial cells. Strains that aggregated with saliva and erythrocytes usually reacted with Streptococcus group K typing serum whereas the non-hemagglutinating strains did not. K+ strains also adhered more strongly to human buccal epithelial cells than K- strains. All isolates coaggregated with Fusobacterium nucleatum LF and Bacteroides asaccharolyticus 2D, 91% coaggregated with Veillonella alcalescens V1, and 50% coaggregated with Veillonella parvula V4. S. salivarius HB aggregated with saliva from 15 different human donors and aggregated with human erythrocytes irrespective of the blood group. This strain only weakly aggregated with rat saliva or rat erythrocytes. We isolated mutants which concomitantly lost the ability to agglutinate erythrocytes, aggregate with saliva, and bind to buccal epithelial cells, but retained their interbacterial aggregation properties. A second class of mutants lost the ability to coaggregate with Veillonella, but these mutants retained all of the other aggregation properties. Treatment of S. salivarius HB cells with pronase or subtilisin destroyed their ability to aggregate with saliva and erythrocytes and to bind to buccal epithelial cells. The unique characteristics of the aggregation and adherence reactions were suggested by differences in the rate of loss of activity during protease treatment and in the response to chemical modification. The presence of saliva did not affect hemagglutination and adherence to buccal epithelial cells. Binding of the salivary aggregating factor to the bacteria could be distinguished from aggregation on the basis that the latter required divalent cations. The factor involved in coaggregation with F. nucleatum LF was physicochemically different from the other

  12. Performance of the Vitek MS v2.0 System in Distinguishing Streptococcus pneumoniae from Nonpneumococcal Species of the Streptococcus mitis Group

    PubMed Central

    Markham, Rachelle P.; Garner, Cherilyn D.; Rychert, Jenna A.; Ferraro, Mary Jane

    2013-01-01

    The Vitek MS v2.0 matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization–time of flight mass spectrometry system accurately distinguished Streptococcus pneumoniae from nonpneumococcal S. mitis group species. Only 1 of 116 nonpneumococcal isolates (<1%) was misidentified as S. pneumoniae. None of 95 pneumococcal isolates was misidentified. This method provides a rapid, simple means of discriminating among these challenging organisms. PMID:23784130

  13. The post-vaccine microevolution of invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Cremers, Amelieke J. H.; Mobegi, Fredrick M.; de Jonge, Marien I.; van Hijum, Sacha A. F. T.; Meis, Jacques F.; Hermans, Peter W. M.; Ferwerda, Gerben; Bentley, Stephen D.; Zomer, Aldert L.

    2015-01-01

    The 7-valent pneumococcal conjugated vaccine (PCV7) has affected the genetic population of Streptococcus pneumoniae in pediatric carriage. Little is known however about pneumococcal population genomics in adult invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) under vaccine pressure. We sequenced and serotyped 349 strains of S. pneumoniae isolated from IPD patients in Nijmegen between 2001 and 2011. Introduction of PCV7 in the Dutch National Immunization Program in 2006 preluded substantial alterations in the IPD population structure caused by serotype replacement. No evidence could be found for vaccine induced capsular switches. We observed that after a temporary bottleneck in gene diversity after the introduction of PCV7, the accessory gene pool re-expanded mainly by genes already circulating pre-PCV7. In the post-vaccine genomic population a number of genes changed frequency, certain genes became overrepresented in vaccine serotypes, while others shifted towards non-vaccine serotypes. Whether these dynamics in the invasive pneumococcal population have truly contributed to invasiveness and manifestations of disease remains to be further elucidated. We suggest the use of whole genome sequencing for surveillance of pneumococcal population dynamics that could give a prospect on the course of disease, facilitating effective prevention and management of IPD. PMID:26492862

  14. Cytosolic Replication of Group A Streptococcus in Human Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    O’Neill, Alan M.; Thurston, Teresa L. M.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT As key components of innate immune defense, macrophages are essential in controlling bacterial pathogens, including group A Streptococcus (GAS). Despite this, only a limited number of studies have analyzed the recovery of GAS from within human neutrophils and macrophages. Here, we determined the intracellular fate of GAS in human macrophages by using several quantitative approaches. In both U937 and primary human macrophages, the appearance over time of long GAS chains revealed that despite GAS-mediated cytotoxicity, replication occurred in viable, propidium iodide-negative macrophages. Whereas the major virulence factor M1 did not contribute to bacterial growth, a GAS mutant strain deficient in streptolysin O (SLO) was impaired for intracellular replication. SLO promoted bacterial escape from the GAS-containing vacuole (GCV) into the macrophage cytosol. Up to half of the cytosolic GAS colocalized with ubiquitin and p62, suggesting that the bacteria were targeted by the autophagy machinery. Despite this, live imaging of U937 macrophages revealed proficient replication of GAS after GCV rupture, indicating that escape from the GCV is important for growth of GAS in macrophages. Our results reveal that GAS can replicate within viable human macrophages, with SLO promoting GCV escape and cytosolic growth, despite the recruitment of autophagy receptors to bacteria. PMID:27073088

  15. Streptococcus mutans-derived extracellular matrix in cariogenic oral biofilms.

    PubMed

    Klein, Marlise I; Hwang, Geelsu; Santos, Paulo H S; Campanella, Osvaldo H; Koo, Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Biofilms are highly structured microbial communities that are enmeshed in a self-produced extracellular matrix. Within the complex oral microbiome, Streptococcus mutans is a major producer of extracellular polymeric substances including exopolysaccharides (EPS), eDNA, and lipoteichoic acid (LTA). EPS produced by S. mutans-derived exoenzymes promote local accumulation of microbes on the teeth, while forming a spatially heterogeneous and diffusion-limiting matrix that protects embedded bacteria. The EPS-rich matrix provides mechanical stability/cohesiveness and facilitates the creation of highly acidic microenvironments, which are critical for the pathogenesis of dental caries. In parallel, S. mutans also releases eDNA and LTA, which can contribute with matrix development. eDNA enhances EPS (glucan) synthesis locally, increasing the adhesion of S. mutans to saliva-coated apatitic surfaces and the assembly of highly cohesive biofilms. eDNA and other extracellular substances, acting in concert with EPS, may impact the functional properties of the matrix and the virulence of cariogenic biofilms. Enhanced understanding about the assembly principles of the matrix may lead to efficacious approaches to control biofilm-related diseases.

  16. Granzyme A impairs host defense during Streptococcus pneumoniae pneumonia.

    PubMed

    van den Boogaard, Florry E; van Gisbergen, Klaas P J M; Vernooy, Juanita H; Medema, Jan P; Roelofs, Joris J T H; van Zoelen, Marieke A D; Endeman, Henrik; Biesma, Douwe H; Boon, Louis; Van't Veer, Cornelis; de Vos, Alex F; van der Poll, Tom

    2016-08-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is the most common causative pathogen in community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). Granzyme A (GzmA) is a serine protease produced by a variety of cell types involved in the immune response. We sought to determine the role of GzmA on the host response during pneumococcal pneumonia. GzmA was measured in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) harvested from CAP patients from the infected and contralateral uninfected side and in lung tissue slides from CAP patients and controls. In CAP patients, GzmA levels were increased in BALF obtained from the infected lung. Human lungs showed constitutive GzmA expression by both parenchymal and nonparenchymal cells. In an experimental setting, pneumonia was induced in wild-type (WT) and GzmA-deficient (GzmA(-/-)) mice by intranasal inoculation of S. pneumoniae In separate experiments, WT and GzmA(-/-) mice were treated with natural killer (NK) cell depleting antibodies. Upon infection with S. pneumoniae, GzmA(-/-) mice showed a better survival and lower bacterial counts in BALF and distant body sites compared with WT mice. Although NK cells showed strong GzmA expression, NK cell depletion did not influence bacterial loads in either WT or GzmA(-/-) mice. These results implicate that GzmA plays an unfavorable role in host defense during pneumococcal pneumonia by a mechanism that does not depend on NK cells. PMID:27343190

  17. Natural transformation and genome evolution in Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Straume, Daniel; Stamsås, Gro Anita; Håvarstein, Leiv Sigve

    2015-07-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is a frequent colonizer of the human nasopharynx that has the potential to cause severe infections such as pneumonia, bacteremia and meningitis. Despite considerable efforts to reduce the burden of pneumococcal disease, it continues to be a major public health problem. After the Second World War, antimicrobial therapy was introduced to fight pneumococcal infections, followed by the first effective vaccines more than half a century later. These clinical interventions generated a selection pressure that drove the evolution of vaccine-escape mutants and strains that were highly resistant against antibiotics. The remarkable ability of S. pneumoniae to acquire drug resistance and evade vaccine pressure is due to its recombination-mediated genetic plasticity. S. pneumoniae is competent for natural genetic transformation, a property that enables the pneumococcus to acquire new traits by taking up naked DNA from the environment and incorporating it into its genome through homologous recombination. In the present paper, we review current knowledge on pneumococcal transformation, and discuss how the pneumococcus uses this mechanism to adapt and survive under adverse and fluctuating conditions. PMID:25445643

  18. Comparative functional analysis of the lac operons in Streptococcus pyogenes.

    PubMed

    Loughman, Jennifer A; Caparon, Michael G

    2007-04-01

    Having no known environmental reservoir, Streptococcus pyogenes, a bacterium responsible for a wider variety of human diseases than any other bacterial species, must rely on its host for metabolic substrates. Although a streptococcal aldolase, LacD.1, has been adapted to virulence gene regulation, both LacD.1 and a paralogous protein, LacD.2, are predicted to function in the tagatose 6-phosphate pathway for lactose and galactose utilization. In order to gain insight into the mechanism of the LacD.1 regulatory pathway and the role of genome context in the emergence of LacD.1's novel regulatory functions, we compared the function and regulation of the Lac.1 and Lac.2 loci. The Lac.1 operon is not inducible, and regulation by LacD.1 is independent of a functional tagatose 6-phosphate pathway and enhanced by the conserved truncation of upstream Lac.1 genes. In contrast, Lac.2 expression is sensitive to environmental carbohydrates, and LacD.2, not LacD.1, contributes to growth on galactose. Thus, we conclude that the Lac.1 locus has been specialized to participate in regulation, leaving efficient utilization of carbohydrate sources to the Lac.2 locus. The adaptation of LacD for transcription regulation may be an underappreciated strategy among prokaryotes, as homologues of this multifaceted enzyme are present in a broad range of species. PMID:17371500

  19. Molecular characteristics of phosphoenolpyruvate: mannose phosphotransferase system in Streptococcus bovis.

    PubMed

    Asanuma, Narito; Yoshii, Takahiro; Hino, Tsuneo

    2004-07-01

    To elucidate the regulatory mechanism of catabolite control in Streptococcus bovis, we investigated the molecular properties and gene expression of the mannose-specific phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP)-dependent sugar: phosphotransferase system (PTS). The mannose PTS gene cluster (man) was found to comprise a gene encoding enzyme (E) II AB (manL) and genes encoding EIIC (manM), EIID (manN), and a putative regulator (manO). The gene cluster (man operon) was transcribed from one transcriptional start site, which was located 40 bp upstream of the manL start codon. However, two transcriptional start sites were found between manN and manO in primer extension analysis, and the manO may be transcribed independently from the man operon. The man operon and manO were constitutively transcribed without being affected by culture conditions, such as the sugar supplied (glucose, galactose, fructose, maltose, lactose, sucrose, or mannose), growth rate, or pH. PMID:15297922

  20. Expression, purification and crystallization of Streptococcus dysgalactiae-derived mitogen

    SciTech Connect

    Papageorgiou, Anastassios C. Saarinen, Susanna; Ramirez-Bartutis, Rosa; Kato, Hidehito; Uchiyama, Takehiko; Kirikae, Teruo; Miyoshi-Akiyama, Toru

    2006-03-01

    S. dysgalactiae-derived mitogen, a superantigen, was crystallized. Crystals diffract to 2.4 Å at a synchrotron-radiation source and belong to space group P3/P3{sub 1}/P3{sub 2}, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 52.7, c = 62.4 Å, γ = 120° and one molecule in the crystallographic asymmetric unit. Superantigens are bacterial or viral toxins with potent immunostimulatory properties. Streptococcus dysgalactiae-derived mitogen, a 25 kDa protein, is a recently discovered superantigen isolated from S. dysgalactiae culture supernatant. Sequence considerations suggest that it belongs to a new superantigen family distinct from other superantigens. The protein was expressed in Escherichia coli cells and purified to homogeneity. Crystals were grown at pH 4.2–4.4 in the presence of 18–20%(w/v) PEG 3350 and 0.4 M lithium nitrate. A complete data set to 2.4 Å resolution was collected from a single crystal at liquid-nitrogen temperatures using synchrotron radiation. The crystals belong to space group P3/P3{sub 1}/P3{sub 2}, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 52.7, c = 62.4 Å, γ = 120° and one molecule in the crystallographic asymmetric unit.

  1. Molecular Characterization of Invasive Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis, Japan.

    PubMed

    Wajima, Takeaki; Morozumi, Miyuki; Hanada, Shigeo; Sunaoshi, Katsuhiko; Chiba, Naoko; Iwata, Satoshi; Ubukata, Kimiko

    2016-02-01

    We collected β-hemolytic streptococci (1,611 isolates) from patients with invasive streptococcal infections in Japan during April 2010-March 2013. Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis (SDSE) was most common (n = 693); 99% of patients with SDSE infections were elderly (mean age 75 years, SD ±15 years). We aimed to clarify molecular and epidemiologic characteristics of SDSE isolates and features of patient infections. Bacteremia with no identified focus of origin and cellulitis were the most prevalent manifestations; otherwise, clinical manifestations resembled those of S. pyogenes infections. Clinical manifestations also differed by patient's age. SDSE isolates were classified into 34 emm types; stG6792 was most prevalent (27.1%), followed by stG485 and stG245. Mortality rates did not differ according to emm types. Multilocus sequence typing identified 46 sequence types and 12 novel types. Types possessing macrolide- and quinolone-resistance genes were 18.4% and 2.6%, respectively; none showed β-lactam resistance. Among aging populations, invasive SDSE infections are an increasing risk.

  2. Recombinant expression of Streptococcus pneumoniae capsular polysaccharides in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Kay, Emily J.; Yates, Laura E.; Terra, Vanessa S.; Cuccui, Jon; Wren, Brendan W.

    2016-01-01

    Currently, Streptococcus pneumoniae is responsible for over 14 million cases of pneumonia worldwide annually, and over 1 million deaths, the majority of them children. The major determinant for pathogenesis is a polysaccharide capsule that is variable and is used to distinguish strains based on their serotype. The capsule forms the basis of the pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV23) that contains purified capsular polysaccharide from 23 serotypes, and the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13), containing 13 common serotypes conjugated to CRM197 (mutant diphtheria toxin). Purified capsule from S. pneumoniae is required for pneumococcal conjugate vaccine production, and costs can be prohibitively high, limiting accessibility of the vaccine in low-income countries. In this study, we demonstrate the recombinant expression of the capsule-encoding locus from four different serotypes of S. pneumoniae within Escherichia coli. Furthermore, we attempt to identify the minimum set of genes necessary to reliably and efficiently express these capsules heterologously. These E. coli strains could be used to produce a supply of S. pneumoniae serotype-specific capsules without the need to culture pathogenic bacteria. Additionally, these strains could be applied to synthetic glycobiological applications: recombinant vaccine production using E. coli outer membrane vesicles or coupling to proteins using protein glycan coupling technology. PMID:27110302

  3. Contribution of IL-1 to resistance to Streptococcus pneumoniae infection.

    PubMed

    Kafka, Daniel; Ling, Eduard; Feldman, Galia; Benharroch, Daniel; Voronov, Elena; Givon-Lavi, Noga; Iwakura, Yoichiro; Dagan, Ron; Apte, Ron N; Mizrachi-Nebenzahl, Yaffa

    2008-09-01

    The role of IL-1 in susceptibility to Streptococcus pneumoniae infection was studied in mice deficient in genes of the IL-1 family [i.e. IL-1alpha-/-, IL-1beta-/-, IL-1alpha/beta-/- and IL-1R antagonist (IL-1Ra)-/- mice] following intra-nasal inoculation. Intra-nasal inoculation of S. pneumoniae of IL-1beta-/- and IL-1alpha/beta-/- mice displayed significantly lower survival rates and higher nasopharyngeal and lung bacterial load as compared with control, IL-1alpha-/- and IL-1Ra-/- mice. Treatment of IL-1beta-/- mice with rIL-1beta significantly improved their survival. A significant increase in blood neutrophils was found in control, IL-1alpha-/- and IL-1Ra-/- but not in IL-1beta-/- and IL-1alpha/beta-/- mice. Local infiltrates of neutrophils and relatively preserved organ architecture were observed in the lungs of IL-1alpha-/- and control mice. However, S. pneumoniae-infected IL-1beta-/-, IL-1alpha/beta-/- and IL-1Ra-/- mice demonstrated diffuse pneumonia and tissue damage. Altogether, all three isoforms contribute to protection against S. pneumoniae; our results point to differential role of IL-1alpha and IL-1beta in the pathogenesis and control of S. pneumoniae infection and suggest that IL-1beta has a major role in resistance to primary pneumococcal infection while the role of IL-1alpha is less important.

  4. Electron microscopy of virulent phages for Streptococcus lactis.

    PubMed Central

    Tsaneva, K P

    1976-01-01

    Electron microscopic studies were made on eight virulent Streptococcus lactis bacteriophages. These phages were taken as representative of eight host range groups established in a study of 75 phage isolates and 253 hosts (213 S. lactis, 22 S. cremoris, 18 S. diacetilactis). The phages studied were shown to have an isometric hexagonal head and noncontractile tails, usually several times longer than the head diameter. The virus heads were octahedral. The phages investigated represented three morphological types on the basis of head diameter , tail thickness, and tail length. These dimensions were approximately: for type I phages, 63, 172, and 11 nm, respectively; type II, 73, 200, and 20 nm, respectively; and type III, represented here by a single phage, 98, 551, and 12 nm, respectively. The tail surface revealed a different arrangment of the structural subunits which lent a helical appearance to the tails of type I and II phages and a guaffered tube appearance to the tail of type III phage. The number of turns along the tail axis, turn length, axial pitch, and helix angle were: type I, 32, 12 to 13 nm, 7.14 nm, and 11 degrees 43', respectively; type II, 24, 24, to 28 nm, 40.00 nm, and 32 degrees 30', respectively; and type III, 120, 12 nm, and no visible slope towards the axis. The morphology types showed complete correlation with serological groups, but not with groups based on host range pattern. Images PMID:817668

  5. Development of a multilocus sequence typing scheme for Streptococcus gallolyticus.

    PubMed

    Shibata, Yusuke; Tien, Le Hong Thuy; Nomoto, Ryohei; Osawa, Ro

    2014-01-01

    Streptococcus gallolyticus is often found as a member of the normal gut microflora in various animals. However, it has been reported to cause mastitis in cattle, septicaemia in pigeons, and meningitis, septicaemia and endocarditis in humans. However, little is known about the epidemiology and crucial virulence factors of S. gallolyticus. To help address these issues, we developed a multilocus sequence typing (MLST) scheme for S. gallolyticus. Seven housekeeping gene fragments were sequenced from each of 58 S. gallolyticus isolates collected from diverse origins and sources. The MLST scheme had good discriminatory ability. The 63 strains, including the 5 whole genome sequenced strains examined, resolved into 57 sequence types (STs), with 52 STs represented by only a single strain. With respect to the identification of S. gallolyticus subspecies (i.e. S. gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus, S. gallolyticus subsp. pasteurianus and S. gallolyticus subsp. macedonicus), the results of biochemical tests and DNA-DNA hybridization were in high concordance with those of the MLST scheme. The MLST scheme developed in this study may be a useful tool capable of replacing the conventional methods used for S. gallolyticus subspecies identification. The results of this study suggest that the biology and virulence of two pathogenic S. gallolyticus subspecies (i.e. S. gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus and S. gallolyticus subsp. pasteurianus) are very different. The MLST scheme offers researchers a valuable typing tool that will promote further investigation of the epidemiology of S. gallolyticus. PMID:24131946

  6. Small regulatory RNAs in Streptococcus pneumoniae: discovery and biological functions

    PubMed Central

    Wilton, Joana; Acebo, Paloma; Herranz, Cristina; Gómez, Alicia; Amblar, Mónica

    2015-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is a prominent human pathogen responsible for many severe diseases and the leading cause of childhood mortality worldwide. The pneumococcus is remarkably adept at colonizing and infecting different niches in the human body, and its adaptation to dynamic host environment is a central aspect of its pathogenesis. In the last decade, increasing findings have evidenced small RNAs (sRNAs) as vital regulators in a number of important processes in bacteria. In S. pneumoniae, a small antisense RNA was first discovered in the pMV158 plasmid as a copy number regulator. More recently, genome-wide screens revealed that the pneumococcal genome also encodes multiple sRNAs, many of which have important roles in virulence while some are implicated in competence control. The knowledge of the sRNA-mediated regulation in pneumococcus remains very limited, and future research is needed for better understanding of functions and mechanisms. Here, we provide a comprehensive summary of the current knowledge on sRNAs from S. pneumoniae, focusing mainly on the trans-encoded sRNAs. PMID:25904932

  7. Antibodies to Streptococcus pneumoniae Capsular Polysaccharide Enhance Pneumococcal Quorum Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Yano, Masahide; Gohil, Shruti; Coleman, J. Robert; Manix, Catherine; Pirofski, Liise-anne

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT The use of pneumococcal capsular polysaccharide (PPS)-based vaccines has resulted in a substantial reduction in invasive pneumococcal disease. However, much remains to be learned about vaccine-mediated immunity, as seven-valent PPS-protein conjugate vaccine use in children has been associated with nonvaccine serotype replacement and 23-valent vaccine use in adults has not prevented pneumococcal pneumonia. In this report, we demonstrate that certain PPS-specific monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) enhance the transformation frequency of two different Streptococcus pneumoniae serotypes. This phenomenon was mediated by PPS-specific MAbs that agglutinate but do not promote opsonic effector cell killing of the homologous serotype in vitro. Compared to the autoinducer, competence-stimulating peptide (CSP) alone, transcriptional profiling of pneumococcal gene expression after incubation with CSP and one such MAb to the PPS of serotype 3 revealed changes in the expression of competence (com)-related and bacteriocin-like peptide (blp) genes involved in pneumococcal quorum sensing. This MAb was also found to induce a nearly 2-fold increase in CSP2-mediated bacterial killing or fratricide. These observations reveal a novel, direct effect of PPS-binding MAbs on pneumococcal biology that has important implications for antibody immunity to pneumococcus in the pneumococcal vaccine era. Taken together, our data suggest heretofore unsuspected mechanisms by which PPS-specific antibodies could affect genetic exchange and bacterial viability in the absence of host cells. PMID:21917597

  8. AdcAII of Streptococcus pneumoniae Affects Pneumococcal Invasiveness

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Lindsey R.; Gunnell, Steven M.; Cassella, Adam N.; Keller, Lance E.; Scherkenbach, Lisa A.; Mann, Beth; Brown, Matthew W.; Hill, Rebecca; Fitzkee, Nicholas C.; Rosch, Jason W.; Tuomanen, Elaine I.; Thornton, Justin A.

    2016-01-01

    Across bacterial species, metal binding proteins can serve functions in pathogenesis in addition to regulating metal homeostasis. We have compared and contrasted the activities of zinc (Zn2+)-binding lipoproteins AdcA and AdcAII in the Streptococcus pneumoniae TIGR4 background. Exposure to Zn2+-limiting conditions resulted in delayed growth in a strain lacking AdcAII (ΔAdcAII) when compared to wild type bacteria or a mutant lacking AdcA (ΔAdcA). AdcAII failed to interact with the extracellular matrix protein laminin despite homology to laminin-binding proteins of related streptococci. Deletion of AdcA or AdcAII led to significantly increased invasion of A549 human lung epithelial cells and a trend toward increased invasion in vivo. Loss of AdcAII, but not AdcA, was shown to negatively impact early colonization of the nasopharynx. Our findings suggest that expression of AdcAII affects invasiveness of S. pneumoniae in response to available Zn2+ concentrations. PMID:26752283

  9. Evolutionary inactivation of a sialidase in group B Streptococcus

    PubMed Central

    Yamaguchi, Masaya; Hirose, Yujiro; Nakata, Masanobu; Uchiyama, Satoshi; Yamaguchi, Yuka; Goto, Kana; Sumitomo, Tomoko; Lewis, Amanda L.; Kawabata, Shigetada; Nizet, Victor

    2016-01-01

    Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is a leading cause of bacterial sepsis and meningitis in newborns. GBS possesses a protein with homology to the pneumococcal virulence factor, NanA, which has neuraminidase (sialidase) activity and promotes blood-brain barrier penetration. However, phylogenetic sequence and enzymatic analyses indicate the GBS NanA ortholog has lost sialidase function – and for this distinction we designate the gene and encoded protein nonA/NonA. Here we analyze NonA function in GBS pathogenesis, and through heterologous expression of active pneumococcal NanA in GBS, potential costs of maintaining sialidase function. GBS wild-type and ΔnonA strains lack sialidase activity, but forced expression of pneumococcal NanA in GBS induced degradation of the terminal sialic acid on its exopolysaccharide capsule. Deletion of nonA did not change GBS-whole blood survival or brain microvascular cell invasion. However, forced expression of pneumococcal NanA in GBS removed terminal sialic acid residues from the bacterial capsule, restricting bacterial proliferation in human blood and in vivo upon mouse infection. GBS expressing pneumococcal NanA had increased invasion of human brain microvascular endothelial cells. Thus, we hypothesize that nonA lost enzyme activity allowing the preservation of an effective survival factor, the sialylated exopolysaccharide capsule. PMID:27352769

  10. Potential Transmission Pathways of Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus

    PubMed Central

    Dumke, Jessika; Hinse, Dennis; Vollmer, Tanja; Schulz, Jochen; Knabbe, Cornelius; Dreier, Jens

    2015-01-01

    Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus (S. gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus), a member of group D streptococci, is an inhabitant of the animal and human gastrointestinal tract. Furthermore, it is a facultative pathogen which causes e.g. endocarditis, septicemia and mastitis. S. gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus may be transmitted either directly or indirectly between animals and humans. However, the transmission routes are an unsolved issue. In this study, we present systematic analyses of an S. gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus isolate of an infective endocarditis patient in relation to isolates of his laying hen flock. Isolates from pooled droppings of laying hens, pooled dust samples and human blood culture were characterized by using multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and DNA fingerprinting. MLST revealed the same allelic profile of isolates from the human blood culture and from the droppings of laying hens. In addition, these isolates showed clonal identity regarding a similar DNA fingerprinting pattern. For the first time, we received a hint that transmission of S. gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus between poultry and humans may occur. This raises the question about the zoonotic potential of isolates from poultry and should be considered in future studies. PMID:25978355

  11. [Investigation of the antibacterial activity of faropenem against Streptococcus pneumoniae].

    PubMed

    Hanaki, H; Inaba, Y; Hiramatsu, K

    1999-09-01

    We evaluated the antibacterial activity of faropenem against penicillin-susceptible Streptococcus pneumoniae (PSSP) and penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae (PRSP). It was shown that the minimum inhibitory concentrations against 90% of the clinically isolated strains (MIC90) of faropenem, penicillin G, cefaclor, cefcapene, and cefditoren against PSSP were 0.032, 0.063, 2, 0.25, and 0.125 micrograms/ml, respectively. While those against PRSP were 0.5, 2, > 128, 1, and 1 micrograms/ml, respectively. Furthermore, we evaluated the bactericidal activity, at the level of 1/4, 1, and 4 MIC, of faropenem and the above four reference antibacterial agents against PSSP and PRSP. Against PSSP No. 127, a sensitive strain to both penicillin G and cefcapene, faropenem showed almost the same bactericidal activity as those of reference agents. Against PSSP No. 108, a penicillin-susceptible and cephem-resistant strain, and PRSP No. 57, a resistant strain to both of penicillin and cephem, faropenem of 1 MIC showed bactericidal activity, but reference agents needed 4 MIC to show bactericidal activity. PMID:10746191

  12. Genetic analysis of Streptococcus suis isolates from wild rabbits.

    PubMed

    Sánchez del Rey, V; Fernández-Garayzábal, J F; Briones, V; Iriso, A; Domínguez, L; Gottschalk, M; Vela, A I

    2013-08-30

    This work aims to investigate the presence of Streptococcus suis in wild rabbits. A total of 65 S. suis isolates were recovered from 33.3% of the wild rabbits examined. Most isolates (86.2%) belong to genotype cps9. These isolates were further characterized by pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and virulence genotyping. Overall, S. suis exhibited a low genetic diversity. Only 5 genetic profiles were obtained by PFGE and most isolates (71.4%) were included in two pulsotypes that were also widely distributed among the wild rabbit population. MLST analysis assigned all cps9 isolates into three new singlestones (ST216, ST217 and ST284), which were not genetically related to the European ST87 and Spanish ST61 widespread swine clones, indicating a different genetic background for the S. suis isolates from wild rabbits and pigs. Wild rabbit isolates exhibited the genotype mrp-/epf-/sly-, different from those showed by most of the swine S. suis isolates of the ST87 and ST61 clones. None of the S. suis isolated from wild rabbits exhibited the genotype cps2/mrp+/epf+/sly+ associated with human infections. These results indicate that S. suis isolates from wild rabbits are not genetically related with prevalent clones usually associated with infections in pigs or humans in Europe and do not exhibit either their virulence genotypes. Therefore, although wild rabbits could represent an unknown reservoir of this pathogen, they could not represent a potential risk for pigs or humans.

  13. Effects of Suilysin on Streptococcus suis-Induced Platelet Aggregation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shengwei; Wang, Junping; Chen, Shaolong; Yin, Jiye; Pan, Zhiyuan; Liu, Keke; Li, Lin; Zheng, Yuling; Yuan, Yuan; Jiang, Yongqiang

    2016-01-01

    Blood platelets play important roles during pathological thrombocytopenia in streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (STSS). Streptococcus suis (S. suis) an emerging human pathogen, can cause STSS similarly to S. pyogenes. However, S. suis interactions with platelets are poorly understood. Here, we found that suilysin (SLY), different from other bacterial cholesterol-dependent cytolysins (CDCs), was the sole stimulus that induced platelet aggregation. Furthermore, the inside-out activation of GPIIb/IIIa of platelets mediated SLY-induced platelet aggregation. This process was triggered by Ca2+ influx that depend on the pore forming on platelets by SLY. Additionally, although SLY induced α-granule release occurred via the MLCK-dependent pathway, PLC-β-IP3/DAG-MLCK and Rho-ROCK-MLCK signaling were not involved in SLY-induced platelet aggregation. Interestingly, the pore dependent Ca2+ influx was also found to participate in the induction of platelet aggregation with pneumolysin (PLY) and streptolysin O (SLO), two other CDCs. It is possible that the CDC-mediated platelet aggregation we observed in S. suis is a similar response mechanism to that used by a wide range of bacteria. These findings might lead to the discovery of potential therapeutic targets for S. suis-associated STSS. PMID:27800304

  14. Surface association of Pht proteins of Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Plumptre, Charles D; Ogunniyi, Abiodun D; Paton, James C

    2013-10-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is a major human pathogen responsible for massive global morbidity and mortality. The pneumococcus attaches a variety of proteins to its cell surface, many of which contribute to virulence; one such family are the polyhistidine triad (Pht) proteins PhtA, PhtB, PhtD, and PhtE. In this study, we have examined the mechanism of Pht surface attachment using PhtD as a model. Analysis of deletion and point mutants identified a three-amino-acid region of PhtD (Q27-H28-R29) that is critical for the process. The analogous region in PhtE was also necessary for its attachment to the cell surface. Furthermore, we show that a large proportion of the total amount of each Pht protein is released into bacterial culture supernatants. Other surface proteins were also released, albeit to lesser extents, and this was not due to pneumococcal autolysis. The extent of release of surface proteins was strain dependent and was not affected by the capsule. Lastly, we compared the fitness of wild-type and ΔphtABDE pneumococci in vivo in a mouse coinfection model. Release of Pht proteins by the wild type did not complement the mutant strain, consistent with surface-attached rather than soluble forms of the Pht proteins playing the major role in virulence. The significant degree of release of Pht proteins from intact bacteria may have implications for the use of these proteins in novel vaccines.

  15. Selection and application of Streptococcus bovis as a silage inoculant.

    PubMed Central

    Jones, B A; Muck, R E; Ricke, S C

    1991-01-01

    Three strains of Streptococcus bovis, a homolactic bacterium capable of utilizing starch, were evaluated for growth kinetics and ability to decrease the pH of alfalfa silage. A selected strain was evaluated for its competitiveness as an inoculant with Enterococcus faecium, an organism used in inoculants, and for its ability to enhance the effect of a commercial inoculant. Testing was completed over three studies using wilted alfalfa (28 to 34% dry matter) ensiled into laboratory silos. Treatments were control, E. faecium, E. faecium and commercial inoculant, S. bovis, and S. bovis and commercial inoculant. Replicate silos were emptied and analyzed at 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8, and 40 days for pH, fermentation products, and nitrogen fractions. S. bovis alone lowered the pH quicker and improved silage parameters early in the fermentation compared with E. faecium, the commercial inoculant, and control treatments. When combined with a commercial inoculant, S. bovis lowered pH more quickly than the commercial inoculant alone and E. faecium plus commercial inoculant. At 40 days, S. bovis combination had lower pH and ammonia nitrogen and acetate contents than the E. faecium combination. Starch in the silage was not utilized by S. bovis as had been anticipated. Results indicate that S. bovis was more effective than E. faecium as a silage inoculant and could enhance a commercial inoculant on low-dry-matter alfalfa. PMID:1746960

  16. Characterization of the Streptococcus adjacens group antigen structure.

    PubMed Central

    Sieling, P A; Thomas, M J; van de Rijn, I

    1992-01-01

    Serological classification of bacteria requires the presence of an antigen unique to the organism of interest. Streptococci are serologically differentiated by group antigens, many of which are carbohydrates, although some are amphiphiles. This report describes the chemical characterization of the Streptococcus adjacens group antigen structure. Previous studies demonstrated that the amphiphile contained phosphorus, ribitol, galactose, galactosamine, alanine, and fatty acids. Phosphodiester bonds present in the purified group antigen were identified as part of a poly(ribitol phosphate), since ribitol phosphate was the only organic phosphate detected after acid hydrolysis. Hydrofluoric acid cleavage of the phosphodiester bonds generated oligosaccharide repeating units. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometric analysis of the methylated, acetylated oligosaccharide suggested that the repeating unit is a trisaccharide of Galp beta 1-3Galp beta 1-4GalNac with N-acetylgalactosamine attached in beta-linkage to either the number two or the number four carbon of ribitol. The lipid- and carbohydrate-substituted poly(ribitol phosphate) of the S. adjacens group antigen therefore is a unique amphiphile structure, differing in its repeating-unit structure from the polyglycerophosphate structure of the more common gram-positive amphiphile lipoteichoic acid. PMID:1309524

  17. Kinetics of Coinfection with Influenza A Virus and Streptococcus pneumoniae

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Amber M.; Adler, Frederick R.; Ribeiro, Ruy M.; Gutenkunst, Ryan N.; McAuley, Julie L.; McCullers, Jonathan A.; Perelson, Alan S.

    2013-03-21

    Secondary bacterial infections are a leading cause of illness and death during epidemic and pandemic influenza. Experimental studies suggest a lethal synergism between influenza and certain bacteria, particularly Streptococcus pneumoniae, but the precise processes involved are unclear. In this paper, to address the mechanisms and determine the influences of pathogen dose and strain on disease, we infected groups of mice with either the H1N1 subtype influenza A virus A/Puerto Rico/8/34 (PR8) or a version expressing the 1918 PB1-F2 protein (PR8-PB1-F2(1918)), followed seven days later with one of two S. pneumoniae strains, type 2 D39 or type 3 A66.1. We determined that, following bacterial infection, viral titers initially rebound and then decline slowly. Bacterial titers rapidly rise to high levels and remain elevated. We used a kinetic model to explore the coupled interactions and study the dominant controlling mechanisms. We hypothesize that viral titers rebound in the presence of bacteria due to enhanced viral release from infected cells, and that bacterial titers increase due to alveolar macrophage impairment. Dynamics are affected by initial bacterial dose but not by the expression of the influenza 1918 PB1-F2 protein. Finally, our model provides a framework to investigate pathogen interaction during coinfections and to uncover dynamical differences based on inoculum size and strain.

  18. Sequetyping: serotyping Streptococcus pneumoniae by a single PCR sequencing strategy.

    PubMed

    Leung, Marcus H; Bryson, Kevin; Freystatter, Kathrin; Pichon, Bruno; Edwards, Giles; Charalambous, Bambos M; Gillespie, Stephen H

    2012-07-01

    The introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines necessitates continued monitoring of circulating strains to assess vaccine efficacy and replacement serotypes. Conventional serological methods are costly, labor-intensive, and prone to misidentification, while current DNA-based methods have limited serotype coverage requiring multiple PCR primers. In this study, a computer algorithm was developed to interrogate the capsulation locus (cps) of vaccine serotypes to locate primer pairs in conserved regions that border variable regions and could differentiate between serotypes. In silico analysis of cps from 92 serotypes indicated that a primer pair spanning the regulatory gene cpsB could putatively amplify 84 serotypes and differentiate 46. This primer set was specific to Streptococcus pneumoniae, with no amplification observed for other species, including S. mitis, S. oralis, and S. pseudopneumoniae. One hundred thirty-eight pneumococcal strains covering 48 serotypes were tested. Of 23 vaccine serotypes included in the study, most (19/22, 86%) were identified correctly at least to the serogroup level, including all of the 13-valent conjugate vaccine and other replacement serotypes. Reproducibility was demonstrated by the correct sequetyping of different strains of a serotype. This novel sequence-based method employing a single PCR primer pair is cost-effective and simple. Furthermore, it has the potential to identify new serotypes that may evolve in the future.

  19. Characterization of Afb, a novel bifunctional protein in Streptococcus agalactiae

    PubMed Central

    Dehbashi, Sanaz; Pourmand, Mohammad Reza; Mashhadi, Rahil

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Streptococcus agalactiae is the leading cause of bacterial sepsis and meningitis in newborns and results in pneumonia and bacteremia in adults. A number of S. agalactiae components are involved in colonization of target cells. Destruction of peptidoglycan and division of covalently linked daughter cells is mediated by autolysins. In this study, autolytic activity and plasma binding ability of AFb novel recombinant protein of S. agalactiae was investigated. Materials and Methods: The gbs1805 gene was cloned and expressed. E. coli strains DH5α and BL21 were used as cloning and expression hosts, respectively. After purification, antigenicity and binding ability to plasma proteins of the recombinant protein was evaluated. Results: AFb, the 18KDa protein was purified successfully. The insoluble mature protein revealed the ability to bind to fibrinogen and fibronectin. This insoluble mature protein revealed that it has the ability to bind to fibrinogen and fibronectin plasma proteins. Furthermore, in silico analysis demonstrated the AFb has an autolytic activity. Conclusions: AFb is a novel protein capable of binding to fibrinogen and fibronectin. This findings lay a ground work for further investigation of the role of the bacteria in adhesion and colonization to the host. PMID:27092228

  20. Streptococcus pneumoniae capsule determines disease severity in experimental pneumococcal meningitis

    PubMed Central

    Grandgirard, Denis; Valente, Luca G.; Täuber, Martin G.; Leib, Stephen L.

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae bacteria can be characterized into over 90 serotypes according to the composition of their polysaccharide capsules. Some serotypes are common in nasopharyngeal carriage whereas others are associated with invasive disease, but when carriage serotypes do invade disease is often particularly severe. It is unknown whether disease severity is due directly to the capsule type or to other virulence factors. Here, we used a clinical pneumococcal isolate and its capsule-switch mutants to determine the effect of capsule, in isolation from the genetic background, on severity of meningitis in an infant rat model. We found that possession of a capsule was essential for causing meningitis. Serotype 6B caused significantly more mortality than 7F and this correlated with increased capsule thickness in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), a stronger inflammatory cytokine response in the CSF and ultimately more cortical brain damage. We conclude that capsule type has a direct effect on meningitis severity. This is an important consideration in the current era of vaccination targeting a subset of capsule types that causes serotype replacement. PMID:27009189

  1. Invasive Group A Streptococcus Infection among Children, Rural Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Mark R.; Anampiu, Kirimi; Morpeth, Susan C.; Nyongesa, Sammy; Mwarumba, Salim; Smeesters, Pierre R.; Efstratiou, Androulla; Karugutu, Rosylene; Mturi, Neema; Williams, Thomas N.; Scott, J. Anthony G.; Kariuki, Samuel; Dougan, Gordon; Berkley, James A.

    2016-01-01

    To determine the extent of group A Streptococcus (GAS) infections in sub-Saharan Africa and the serotypes that cause disease, we analyzed surveillance data for 64,741 hospital admissions in Kilifi, Kenya, during 1998–2011. We evaluated incidence, clinical presentations, and emm types that cause invasive GAS infection. We detected 370 cases; of the 369 for which we had data, most were skin and soft tissue infections (70%), severe pneumonia (23%), and primary bacteremia (14%). Overall case-fatality risk was 12%. Incidence of invasive GAS infection was 0.6 cases/1,000 live births among neonates, 101/100,000 person-years among children <1 year of age, and 35/100,000 among children <5 years of age. Genome sequencing identified 88 emm types. GAS causes serious disease in children in rural Kenya, especially neonates, and the causative organisms have considerable genotypic diversity. Benefit from the most advanced GAS type–specific vaccines may be limited, and efforts must be directed to protect against disease in regions of high incidence. PMID:26811918

  2. Penetration of smeared or nonsmeared dentine by Streptococcus gordonii.

    PubMed

    Love, R M; Chandler, N P; Jenkinson, H F

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the penetration of smeared and nonsmeared dentine by Streptococcus gordonii. Prepared human roots, grouped as either nonsmeared or smeared, were immersed in a suspension of S. gordonii cells for 3 weeks. The roots were then prepared for scanning electron microscopy and histological analysis. Dentine discs prepared from coronal dentine were grouped similarly. Using a fluid filtration apparatus, the hydraulic conductance (Lp) of each disc was determined before and after incubation with bacterial suspension. Scanning electron microscopy evaluation of the roots following infection with bacteria showed no change in the smear layer (P < 0.0001). Histological sections revealed that bacterial penetration of all the nonsmeared samples had occurred, while nine out of 10 smeared samples showed no bacterial penetration (P < 0.0001). The Lp of the nonsmeared discs was significantly reduced by 42% (P < 0.0001) after bacterial penetration. However, the smeared samples revealed a 1% reduction in Lp which was not significant (P > 0.05). The results suggest that dentinal smear layers are an effective barrier to dentinal tubule invasion by S. gordonii. PMID:9206406

  3. Functional analysis of glucan binding protein B from Streptococcus mutans.

    PubMed

    Mattos-Graner, Renata O; Porter, Kristen A; Smith, Daniel J; Hosogi, Yumiko; Duncan, Margaret J

    2006-06-01

    Mutans streptococci are major etiological agents of dental caries, and several of their secreted products contribute to bacterial accumulation on teeth. Of these, Streptococcus mutans glucan binding protein B (GbpB) is a novel, immunologically dominant protein. Its biological function is unclear, although GbpB shares homology with a putative peptidoglycan hydrolase from S. agalactiae and S. pneumoniae, indicative of a role in murein biosynthesis. To determine the cellular function of GbpB, we used several approaches to inactivate the gene, analyze its expression, and identify interacting proteins. None of the transformants analyzed were true gbpB mutants, since they all contained both disrupted and wild-type gene copies, and expression of functional GbpB was always conserved. Thus, the inability to obtain viable gbpB null mutants supports the notion that gbpB is an essential gene. Northern blot and real-time PCR analyses suggested that induction of gbpB expression in response to stress was a strain-dependent phenomenon. Proteins that interacted with GbpB were identified in pull-down and coimmunoprecipitation assays, and these data suggest that GbpB interacts with ribosomal protein L7/L12, possibly as part of a protein complex involved in peptidoglycan synthesis and cell division. PMID:16707674

  4. Extracellular Transglucosylase and α-Amylase of Streptococcus equinus1

    PubMed Central

    Boyer, Ernest W.; Hartman, Paul A.

    1971-01-01

    Culture filtrates of Streptococcus equinus 1091 contained α-amylase and transglucosylase. The effects of calcium carbonate, age of inoculum, concentration of maltose, and duration of the fermentation on α-amylase and transglucosylase production were determined. The extracellular α-amylase was purified 48-fold and was free of transglucosylase activity. The α-amylase (amylose substrate) required Cl− for maximum activity; ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) partially inhibited activity, but CaCl2 prevented EDTA inhibition. The temperature optimum was 38 C at pH 7.0, and the pH optimum was 7.0 at 37 C in the presence of CaCl2. Predominant final products of amylose hydrolysis, in order of decreasing prevalence, were maltose, maltotriose, maltotetraose, and glucose. The α-amylase showed no evidence of multiple attack. The extracellular transglucosylase was purified 27-fold, but a small amount of α-amylase remained. Transglucosylase activity (amylose substrate) was not increased in the presence of CaCl2. The temperature optimum was 37 C at pH 6.5, and the pH optimum was 6.0 at 37 C. Carbohydrates that served as acceptors for the transglucosylase to degrade amylose were, in order of decreasing acceptor efficiency: d-glucose, d-mannose, l-sorbose, maltose, sucrose, and trehalose. The extracellular transglucosylase of S. equinus 1091 synthesized higher maltodextrins in the medium when the cells were grown in the presence of maltose. Images PMID:4995651

  5. Fluoroquinolone Resistance in Penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae Clones, Spain

    PubMed Central

    Balsalobre, Luz; Ardanuy, Carmen; Fenoll, Asunción; Pérez-Trallero, Emilio; Liñares, Josefina

    2004-01-01

    Among 2,882 Streptococcus pneumoniae sent to the Spanish Reference Laboratory during 2002, 75 (2.6%) were ciprofloxacin-resistant. Resistance was associated with older patients (3.9% in adults and 7.2% in patients >65 years of age), with isolation from noninvasive sites (4.3% vs. 1.0%), and with penicillin and macrolide resistance. Among 14 low-level resistant (MIC 4–8 µg/mL) strains, 1 had a fluoroquinolone efflux phenotype, and 13 showed single ParC changes. The 61 high-level ciprofloxacin-resistant (MIC >16 µg/mL) strains showed either two or three changes at ParC, ParE, and GyrA. Resistance was acquired either by point mutation (70 strains) or by recombination with viridans streptococci (4 strains) at the topoisomerase II genes. Although 36 pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns were observed, 5 international multiresistant clones (Spain23F-1, Spain6B-2, Spain9V-3, Spain14-5 and Sweden15A-25) accounted for 35 (46.7%) of the ciprofloxacin-resistant strains. Continuous surveillance is needed to prevent the dissemination of these clones. PMID:15504260

  6. Kinetics of Coinfection with Influenza A Virus and Streptococcus pneumoniae

    DOE PAGES

    Smith, Amber M.; Adler, Frederick R.; Ribeiro, Ruy M.; Gutenkunst, Ryan N.; McAuley, Julie L.; McCullers, Jonathan A.; Perelson, Alan S.

    2013-03-21

    Secondary bacterial infections are a leading cause of illness and death during epidemic and pandemic influenza. Experimental studies suggest a lethal synergism between influenza and certain bacteria, particularly Streptococcus pneumoniae, but the precise processes involved are unclear. In this paper, to address the mechanisms and determine the influences of pathogen dose and strain on disease, we infected groups of mice with either the H1N1 subtype influenza A virus A/Puerto Rico/8/34 (PR8) or a version expressing the 1918 PB1-F2 protein (PR8-PB1-F2(1918)), followed seven days later with one of two S. pneumoniae strains, type 2 D39 or type 3 A66.1. We determinedmore » that, following bacterial infection, viral titers initially rebound and then decline slowly. Bacterial titers rapidly rise to high levels and remain elevated. We used a kinetic model to explore the coupled interactions and study the dominant controlling mechanisms. We hypothesize that viral titers rebound in the presence of bacteria due to enhanced viral release from infected cells, and that bacterial titers increase due to alveolar macrophage impairment. Dynamics are affected by initial bacterial dose but not by the expression of the influenza 1918 PB1-F2 protein. Finally, our model provides a framework to investigate pathogen interaction during coinfections and to uncover dynamical differences based on inoculum size and strain.« less

  7. Molecular cloning of the extracellular endodextranase of Streptococcus salivarius.

    PubMed Central

    Lawman, P; Bleiweis, A S

    1991-01-01

    We report the cloning in Escherichia coli of the gene encoding an extracellular endodextranase (alpha-1,6-glucanhydrolase, EC 3.2.1.11) from Streptococcus salivarius PC-1. Recombinants from a S. salivarius PC-1-Lambda ZAP II genomic library specifying dextranase activity were identified as plaques surrounded by zones of clearing on blue dextran agar. One such clone, PD1, had a 6.3-kb EcoRI fragment insert which encoded a 190-kDa protein with dextranase activity. The recombinant strain also produced two lower-molecular-mass polypeptides (90 and 70 kDa) that had dextranase activity. Native dextranase was recovered from concentrated culture fluids of S. salivarius as a single 110-kDa polypeptide. PD1 phage lysate and PC-1 culture supernatant fluid extract were used to measure substrate specificity of the recombinant and native forms of dextranase, respectively. Analysis of these reaction products by thin-layer chromatography revealed the expected isomaltosaccharide products yielded by the recombinant-specified enzyme but was unable to resolve the larger polysaccharide products of the native enzyme. Furthermore, S. salivarius utilized neither the substrates nor the products of dextran hydrolysis for growth. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 FIG. 3 FIG. 4 PMID:1938938

  8. Isolation and properties of levanase from Streptococcus salivarius KTA-19.

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, N; Mizuno, F; Takamori, K

    1983-01-01

    Fructan-hydrolyzing enzyme from Streptococcus salivarius KTA-19 isolated from human dental plaque was investigated. The enzyme was purified by ammonium sulfate precipitation, acetone fractionation, and column chromatography on Bio-Gel and DEAE-cellulose. The purified enzyme showed a single band on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and isoelectric focusing. Its molecular weight was 100,000 as determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The enzyme exhibited an optimum pH of 6.5 and decreased its activity from pH 6.0 and especially below pH 5.5. The optimum temperature was 40 to 50 degrees C, and enzyme activity was reduced by 90% at 55 degrees C. Enzyme activity was markedly inhibited by Hg2+, Ag+, Cu2+, and p-chloromercuribenzoate at a concentration of 10(-3) M, but not by other metal ions or chemical effectors. Fructose was the only by-product of the enzyme action on levan. These results indicated that the levanase of S. salivarius KTA-19 is an exo-beta-(2,6)-fructofuranosidase. PMID:6618666

  9. Transcriptional Regulation of the Streptococcus salivarius 57.I Urease Operon

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yi-Ywan M.; Weaver, Cheryl A.; Mendelsohn, David R.; Burne, Robert A.

    1998-01-01

    The Streptococcus salivarius 57.I ure cluster was organized as an operon, beginning with ureI, followed by ureABC (structural genes) and ureEFGD (accessory genes). Northern analyses revealed transcripts encompassing structural genes and transcripts containing the entire operon. A ς70-like promoter could be mapped 5′ to ureI (PureI) by primer extension analysis. The intensity of the signal increased when cells were grown at an acidic pH and was further enhanced by excess carbohydrate. To determine the function(s) of two inverted repeats located 5′ to PureI, transcriptional fusions of the full-length promoter region (PureI), or a deletion derivative (PureIΔ100), and a promoterless chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) gene were constructed and integrated into the chromosome to generate strains PureICAT and PureIΔ100CAT, respectively. CAT specific activities of PureICAT were repressed at pH 7.0 and induced at pH 5.5 and by excess carbohydrate. In PureIΔ100CAT, CAT activity was 60-fold higher than in PureICAT at pH 7.0 and pH induction was nearly eliminated, indicating that expression was negatively regulated. Thus, it was concluded that PureI was the predominant, regulated promoter and that regulation was governed by a mechanism differing markedly from other known mechanisms for bacterial urease expression. PMID:9791132

  10. Disentangling competence for genetic transformation and virulence in Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jingjun; Zhu, Luchang; Lau, Gee W

    2016-02-01

    Horizontal gene transfer mediated by the competence regulon is a major driver of genome plasticity in Streptococcus pneumoniae. When pneumococcal cells enter the competent state, about 6% of the genes in the genome are up-regulated. Among these, some genes are essential for genetic transformation while others are dispensable for the process. Exhaustive deletion analyses show that some up-regulated genes dispensable for genetic transformation contribute to pneumococcal-mediated pneumonia and bacteremia infections. Interestingly, virulence functions of such genes are either dependent or independent of the competent state. Among the competent-state-dependent genes are those mediating allolysis, a process where small fraction of non-competent cells within the pneumococcal population are lysed by their competent counterparts, releasing DNA presumably for transformation. Inadvertently, the pore-forming toxin pneumolysin is also released during allolysis, contributing to virulence. In this review, we discuss recent advances in our understanding of pneumococcal virulence processes mediated by the competence regulon. We proposed that coupling of competence induction and bacterial fitness drives the natural selection to favor an intact competence regulon, which in turn, provides the long-term benefits of genetic plasticity.

  11. Characteristics of Streptococcus mutans genotypes and dental caries in children.

    PubMed

    Cheon, Kyounga; Moser, Stephen A; Wiener, Howard W; Whiddon, Jennifer; Momeni, Stephanie S; Ruby, John D; Cutter, Gary R; Childers, Noel K

    2013-06-01

    This longitudinal cohort study evaluated the diversity, commonality, and stability of Streptococcus mutans genotypes associated with dental caries history. Sixty-seven 5- and 6-yr-old children, considered as being at high caries risk, had plaque collected from baseline through 36 months for S. mutans isolation and genotyping using repetitive extragenic palindromic-PCR (4,392 total isolates). Decayed, missing, or filled surfaces (dmfs (primary teeth)/DMFS (secondary teeth)) for each child were recorded at baseline. At baseline, 18 distinct genotypes were found among 911 S. mutans isolates from 67 children (diversity), and 13 genotypes were shared by at least two children (commonality). The number of genotypes per individual was positively associated with the proportion of decayed surfaces (p-ds) at baseline. Twenty-four of the 39 children who were available at follow-up visits maintained a predominant genotype for the follow-up periods (stability) and this was negatively associated with the p-ds. The observed diversity, commonality, and stability of S. mutans genotypes represent a pattern of dental caries epidemiology in this high-caries-risk community, which suggests that fewer decayed surfaces are significantly associated with lower diversity and higher stability of S. mutans genotypes. PMID:23659236

  12. Streptococcus pyogenes biofilms—formation, biology, and clinical relevance

    PubMed Central

    Fiedler, Tomas; Köller, Thomas; Kreikemeyer, Bernd

    2015-01-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes (group A streptococci, GAS) is an exclusive human bacterial pathogen. The virulence potential of this species is tremendous. Interactions with humans range from asymptomatic carriage over mild and superficial infections of skin and mucosal membranes up to systemic purulent toxic-invasive disease manifestations. Particularly the latter are a severe threat for predisposed patients and lead to significant death tolls worldwide. This places GAS among the most important Gram-positive bacterial pathogens. Many recent reviews have highlighted the GAS repertoire of virulence factors, regulators and regulatory circuits/networks that enable GAS to colonize the host and to deal with all levels of the host immune defense. This covers in vitro and in vivo studies, including animal infection studies based on mice and more relevant, macaque monkeys. It is now appreciated that GAS, like many other bacterial species, do not necessarily exclusively live in a planktonic lifestyle. GAS is capable of microcolony and biofilm formation on host cells and tissues. We are now beginning to understand that this feature significantly contributes to GAS pathogenesis. In this review we will discuss the current knowledge on GAS biofilm formation, the biofilm-phenotype associated virulence factors, regulatory aspects of biofilm formation, the clinical relevance, and finally contemporary treatment regimens and future treatment options. PMID:25717441

  13. Interactions of Streptococcus iniae with phagocytic cell line.

    PubMed

    El Aamri, Fatima; Remuzgo-Martínez, S; Acosta, Félix; Real, Fernando; Ramos-Vivas, José; Icardo, José M; Padilla, Daniel

    2015-04-01

    Streptococcus iniae has become one of the most serious aquatic pathogens in the last decade, causing large losses in wild and farmed fish worldwide. There is clear evidence that this pathogen is capable not only of causing serious disease in fish but also of being transferred to and infecting humans. In this study, we investigate the interaction of S. iniae with two murine macrophage cell lines, J774-A1 and RAW 264.7. Cytotoxicity assay demonstrated significant differences between live and UV-light killed IUSA-1 strains. The burst respiratory activity decreased to baseline after 1 and 4 h of exposure for J774-A1 and RAW 264.7, respectively. Immunofluorescent and ultrastructural study of infected cells confirmed the intracellular localization of bacteria at 1 h and 24 h post-infection. Using qRT-PCR arrays, we investigated the changes in the gene expression of immune relevant genes associated with macrophage activation. In this screening, we identified 11 of 84 genes up-regulated, we observed over-expression of pro-inflammatory response as IL-1α, IL-1β, and TNF-α, without a good anti-inflammatory response. Present findings suggest a capacity of S. iniae to modulate a mammalian macrophages cell lines to their survival and replication intracellular, which makes this cell type as a reservoir for continued infection.

  14. Physiological and molecular characterization of genetic competence in Streptococcus sanguinis

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Alejandro Miguel; Callahan, Jill E.; Fawcett, Paul; Ge, Xiuchun; Xu, Ping; Kitten, Todd

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Streptococcus sanguinis is a major component of the oral flora and an important cause of infective endocarditis. Although S. sanguinis is naturally competent, genome sequencing has suggested significant differences in the S. sanguinis competence system relative to those of other streptococci. An S. sanguinis mutant possessing an in-frame deletion in the comC gene, which encodes competence-stimulating peptide (CSP), was created. Addition of synthetic CSP induced competence in this strain. Gene expression in this strain was monitored by microarray analysis at multiple time points from 2.5 to 30 min after CSP addition, and verified by quantitative RT-PCR. Over 200 genes were identified whose expression was altered at least two-fold in at least one time point, with the majority upregulated. The “late” response was typical of that seen in previous studies. However, comparison of the “early” response in S. sanguinis with that of other oral streptococci revealed unexpected differences with regard to the number of genes induced, the nature of these genes, and their putative upstream regulatory sequences. S. sanguinis possesses a comparatively limited early response, which may define a minimal streptococcal competence regulatory circuit. PMID:21375701

  15. Streptococcus pneumoniae serogroup 6 clones over two decades.

    PubMed

    Payne, D B; Gray, B M

    2014-12-01

    The major evolutionary stresses on Streptococcus pneumoniae are thought to be the widespread use of antibiotics and the deployment of effective vaccines against the capsular polysaccharides. Our current knowledge of genetic lineages among pneumococcal isolates comes largely from investigations just before and after the introduction of the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) introduced in 2000. We examined 66 serogroup 6 isolates from the 1970s, long before the introduction of PCV7 and before widespread penicillin resistance was common in Birmingham, Alabama, to look for ancestors of the clones that came into play around the introduction of the PCV7 vaccine. The hypothesis was that some clonal complexes, if not individual clones, would be stable enough to persist over this period of time. We compared the 1970s isolates with 122 isolates from the 1990s in US and worldwide collections. Genotyping with pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) revealed that while some clones were probably localized to our area, others have persisted within groups that have expanded or diminished over the years.

  16. Diversity of Bacteriocins and Activity Spectrum in Streptococcus pneumoniae▿

    PubMed Central

    Lux, Thomas; Nuhn, Michael; Hakenbeck, Regine; Reichmann, Peter

    2007-01-01

    The production of bacteriocins can be favorable for colonization of the host by eliminating other bacterial species that share the same environment. In Streptococcus pneumoniae, the pnc (blp) locus encoding putative bacteriocins, immunity, and export proteins is controlled by a two-component system similar to the comCDE system required for the induction of genetic competence. A detailed comparison of the pnc clusters of four genetically distinct isolates confirmed the great plasticity of this locus and documented several repeat sequences. Members of the multiple-antibiotic-resistant Spain23F-1 clone, one member of the Spain9V-3 clone, sensitive 23F strain 2306, and the TIGR4 strain produced bactericidal substances active against other gram-positive bacteria and in some cases against S. pneumoniae as well. However, other strains did not show activity against the indicator strains despite the presence of a bacteriocin cluster, indicating that other factors are required for bacteriocin activity. Analysis of strain 2306 and mutant derivatives of this strain confirmed that bacteriocin production was dependent on the two-component regulatory system and genes involved in bacteriocin transport and processing. At least one other bacteriocin gene, pncE, is located elsewhere on the chromosome and might contribute to the bacteriocin activity of this strain. PMID:17704229

  17. Adaptation of Group A Streptococcus to Human Amniotic Fluid

    PubMed Central

    Sitkiewicz, Izabela; Green, Nicole M.; Guo, Nina; Bongiovanni, Ann M.; Witkin, Steven S.; Musser, James M.

    2010-01-01

    Background For more than 100 years, group A Streptococcus has been identified as a cause of severe and, in many cases, fatal infections of the female urogenital tract. Due to advances in hospital hygiene and the advent of antibiotics, this type of infection has been virtually eradicated. However, within the last three decades there has been an increase in severe intra- and post-partum infections attributed to GAS. Methodology We hypothesized that GAS alters its transcriptome to survive in human amniotic fluid (AF) and cause disease. To identify genes that were up or down regulated in response to growth in AF, GAS was grown in human AF or standard laboratory media (THY) and samples for expression microarray analysis were collected during mid-logarithmic, late-logarithmic, and stationary growth phases. Microarray analysis was performed using a custom Affymetrix chip and normalized hybridization values derived from three biological replicates were collected at each growth point. Ratios of AF/THY above a 2-fold change and P-value <0.05 were considered significant. Principal Findings The majority of changes in the GAS transcriptome involved down regulation of multiple adhesins and virulence factors and activation of the stress response. We observed significant changes in genes involved in the arginine deiminase pathway and in the nucleotide de novo synthesis pathway. Conclusions/Significance Our work provides new insight into how pathogenic bacteria respond to their environment to establish infection and cause disease. PMID:20352104

  18. β-Phosphoglucomutase contributes to aciduricity in Streptococcus mutans

    PubMed Central

    Buckley, Andrew A.; Faustoferri, Roberta C.

    2014-01-01

    Streptococcus mutans encounters an array of sugar moieties within the oral cavity due to a varied human diet. One such sugar is β-d-glucose 1-phosphate (βDG1P), which must be converted to glucose 6-phosphate (G6P) before further metabolism to lactic acid. The conversion of βDG1P to G6P is mediated by β-phosphoglucomutase, which has not been previously observed in any oral streptococci, but has been extensively characterized and the gene designated pgmB in Lactococcus lactis. An orthologue was identified in S. mutans, SMU.1747c, and deletion of the gene resulted in the inability of the deletion strain to convert βDG1P to G6P, indicating that SMU.1747c is a β-phosphoglucomutase and should be designated pgmB. In this study, we sought to characterize how deletion of pgmB affected known virulence factors of S. mutans, specifically acid tolerance. The ΔpgmB strain showed a decreased ability to survive acid challenge. Additionally, the strain lacking β-phosphoglucomutase had a diminished glycolytic profile compared with the parental strain. Deletion of pgmB had a negative impact on the virulence of S. mutans in the Galleria mellonella (greater wax worm) animal model. Our results indicate that pgmB plays a role at the juncture of carbohydrate metabolism and virulence. PMID:24509501

  19. Effect of Lactobacillus species on Streptococcus mutans biofilm formation.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Ayaz; Dachang, Wu; Lei, Zhou; Jianjun, Liu; Juanjuan, Qiu; Yi, Xin

    2014-09-01

    Streptococcus mutans is the primary pathogen responsible for initiating dental caries and decay. The presence of sucrose, stimulates S. mutans to produce insoluble glucans to form oral biofilm also known as dental plaque to initiate caries lesion. The GtfB and LuxS genes of S. mutans are responsible for formation and maturation of biofilm. Lactobacillus species as probiotic can reduces the count of S. mutans. In this study effect of different Lactobacillus species against the formation of S. mutans biofilm was observed. Growing biofilm in the presence of sucrose was detected using 96 well microtiter plate crystal violet assay and biofilm formation by S. mutans in the presence of Lactobacillus was detected. Gene expression of biofilm forming genes (GtfB and LuxS) was quantified through Real-time PCR. All strains of Lactobacillus potently reduced the formation of S. mutans biofilm whereas Lactobacillus acidophilus reduced the genetic expression by 60-80%. Therefore, probiotic Lactobacillus species can be used as an alternative instead of antibiotics to decrease the chance of dental caries by reducing the count of S. mutans and their gene expression to maintain good oral health.

  20. Transformation of restriction endonuclease phenotype in Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    PubMed Central

    Muckerman, C C; Springhorn, S S; Greenberg, B; Lacks, S A

    1982-01-01

    The genetic basis of the unique restriction endonuclease DpnI, that cleaves only at a methylated sequence, 5'-GmeATC-3', and of the complementary endonuclease DpnII, which cleaves at the same sequence when it is not methylated, was investigated. Different strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae isolated from patients contained either DpnI (two isolates) or DpnII (six isolates). The latter strains also contained DNA methylated at the 5'-GATC-3' sequence. A restrictable bacteriophage, HB-3, was used to characterize the various strains and to select for transformants. One laboratory strain contained neither DpnI nor Dpn II. It was probably derived from a DpnI-containing strain, and its DNA was not methylated at 5'-GATC-3'. Cells of this strain were transformed to the DpnI restriction phenotype by DNA from a DpnI-containing strain and to the DpnII restriction phenotype by DNA from a DpnII-containing strain. Neither cross-transformation, that is, transformation to one phenotype by DNA from a strain of the other phenotype, nor spontaneous conversion was observed. Extracts of transformants to the new restriction phenotype were shown to contain the corresponding endonuclease. Images PMID:6288656

  1. Streptococcus agalactiae mural infective endocarditis in a structurally normal heart.

    PubMed

    Ariyoshi, Nobuhiro; Miyamoto, Keisuke; Bolger, Dennis T

    2016-01-01

    A 38-year-old Caucasian man with uncontrolled diabetes mellitus type 2 was admitted with a 1-week duration of fevers, chills, and a non-productive cough. He had a left ischiorectal abscess 1 month prior to admission. Physical examination revealed caries on a left upper molar and a well-healed scar on the left buttock, but no heart murmur or evidence of micro-emboli. Blood cultures grew Streptococcus agalactiae. A transesophageal echocardiogram revealed a mobile mass in the right ventricle that attached to chordae tendineae without valvular disease or dysfunction. A computed tomography (CT) with contrast revealed the mass within the right ventricle, a left lung cavitary lesion, and a splenic infarction. He was initially treated with penicillin G for a week. Subsequently, ceftriaxone was continued for a total of 8 weeks. A follow-up CT showed no evidence of right ventricular mass 8 weeks after discharge. This is the first reported case of S. agalactiae mural infective endocarditis in a structurally normal heart. PMID:27124171

  2. Studies of Fibronectin-Binding Proteins of Streptococcus equi

    PubMed Central

    Lannergård, Jonas; Flock, Margareta; Johansson, Staffan; Flock, Jan-Ingmar; Guss, Bengt

    2005-01-01

    Streptococcus equi subsp. equi is the causative agent of strangles, a disease of the upper respiratory tract in horses. The initiation of S. equi subsp. equi infection is likely to involve cell surface-anchored molecules mediating bacterial adhesion to the epithelium of the host. The present study describes the cloning and characterization of FNEB, a fibronectin-binding protein with cell wall-anchoring motifs. FNEB can thus be predicted as cell surface located, contrary to the two previously characterized fibronectin-binding proteins in S. equi subsp. equi, FNE and SFS. Assays of antibody titers in horses and in experimentally infected mice indicate that the protein is immunogenic and expressed in vivo during S. equi subsp. equi infection. Using Western ligand blotting, it was shown that FNEB binds to the N-terminal 29-kDa fragment of fibronectin, while SFS and FNE both bind to the adjacent 40-kDa fragment. S. equi subsp. equi is known to bind fibronectin to a much lower degree than the closely related S. equi subsp. zooepidemicus, but the binding is primarily directed to the 29-kDa fragment. Inhibition studies using S. equi subsp. equi cells indicate that FNEB mediates cellular binding to fibronectin in this species. PMID:16239519

  3. Association of Streptococcus mutans with Human Dental Decay

    PubMed Central

    Loesche, W. J.; Rowan, J.; Straffon, L. H.; Loos, P. J.

    1975-01-01

    The association of Streptococcus mutans with human dental decay was investigated by using several types of samples: (i) paraffin-stimulated saliva samples taken from children with from 0 to 15 decayed teeth; (ii) pooled occlusal and approximal plaque taken from children with no decayed or filled teeth, or from children with rampant caries of 10 or more teeth; (iii) plaque removed from single occlusal fissures that were either carious or noncarious. The results showed a significant association between plaque levels of S. mutans and caries. The strongest association, P < 0.0001, was found when plaque was removed from single occlusal fissures. Seventy-one percent of the carious fissures had S. mutans accounting for more than 10% of the viable flora, whereas 70% of the fissures that were caries free had no detectable S. mutans. Sixty-five percent of the pooled plaque samples from the children with rampant caries had S. mutans accounting for more than 10% of the viable flora, whereas 40% of the pooled samples from children that were caries free had no detectable S. mutans. Saliva samples tended to have low levels of S. mutans and were equivocal in demonstrating a relationship between S. mutans and caries. PMID:1140847

  4. HIV Infection Affects Streptococcus mutans Levels, but Not Genotypes

    PubMed Central

    Liu, G.; Saxena, D.; Chen, Z.; Norman, R.G.; Phelan, J.A.; Laverty, M.; Fisch, G.S.; Corby, P.M.; Abrams, W.; Malamud, D.; Li, Y.

    2012-01-01

    We report a clinical study that examines whether HIV infection affects Streptococcus mutans colonization in the oral cavity. Whole stimulated saliva samples were collected from 46 HIV-seropositive individuals and 69 HIV-seronegative control individuals. The level of S. mutans colonization was determined by conventional culture methods. The genotype of S. mutans was compared between 10 HIV-positive individuals before and after highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and 10 non-HIV-infected control individuals. The results were analyzed against viral load, CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell counts, salivary flow rate, and caries status. We observed that S. mutans levels were higher in HIV-infected individuals than in the non-HIV-infected control individuals (p = 0.013). No significant differences in S. mutans genotypes were found between the two groups over the six-month study period, even after HAART. There was a bivariate linear relationship between S. mutans levels and CD8+ counts (r = 0.412; p = 0.007), but not between S. mutans levels and either CD4+ counts or viral load. Furthermore, compared with non-HIV-infected control individuals, HIV-infected individuals experienced lower salivary secretion (p = 0.009) and a positive trend toward more decayed tooth surfaces (p = 0.027). These findings suggest that HIV infection can have a significant effect on the level of S. mutans, but not genotypes. PMID:22821240

  5. Streptococcus mutans-derived extracellular matrix in cariogenic oral biofilms

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Marlise I.; Hwang, Geelsu; Santos, Paulo H. S.; Campanella, Osvaldo H.; Koo, Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Biofilms are highly structured microbial communities that are enmeshed in a self-produced extracellular matrix. Within the complex oral microbiome, Streptococcus mutans is a major producer of extracellular polymeric substances including exopolysaccharides (EPS), eDNA, and lipoteichoic acid (LTA). EPS produced by S. mutans-derived exoenzymes promote local accumulation of microbes on the teeth, while forming a spatially heterogeneous and diffusion-limiting matrix that protects embedded bacteria. The EPS-rich matrix provides mechanical stability/cohesiveness and facilitates the creation of highly acidic microenvironments, which are critical for the pathogenesis of dental caries. In parallel, S. mutans also releases eDNA and LTA, which can contribute with matrix development. eDNA enhances EPS (glucan) synthesis locally, increasing the adhesion of S. mutans to saliva-coated apatitic surfaces and the assembly of highly cohesive biofilms. eDNA and other extracellular substances, acting in concert with EPS, may impact the functional properties of the matrix and the virulence of cariogenic biofilms. Enhanced understanding about the assembly principles of the matrix may lead to efficacious approaches to control biofilm-related diseases. PMID:25763359

  6. Carbohydrate Availability Regulates Virulence Gene Expression in Streptococcus suis

    PubMed Central

    Ferrando, M. Laura; van Baarlen, Peter; Orrù, Germano; Piga, Rosaria; Bongers, Roger S.; Wels, Michiel; De Greeff, Astrid; Smith, Hilde E.; Wells, Jerry M.

    2014-01-01

    Streptococcus suis is a major bacterial pathogen of young pigs causing worldwide economic problems for the pig industry. S. suis is also an emerging pathogen of humans. Colonization of porcine oropharynx by S. suis is considered to be a high risk factor for invasive disease. In the oropharyngeal cavity, where glucose is rapidly absorbed but dietary α-glucans persist, there is a profound effect of carbohydrate availability on the expression of virulence genes. Nineteen predicted or confirmed S. suis virulence genes that promote adhesion to and invasion of epithelial cells were expressed at higher levels when S. suis was supplied with the α-glucan starch/pullulan compared to glucose as the single carbon source. Additionally the production of suilysin, a toxin that damages epithelial cells, was increased more than ten-fold when glucose levels were low and S. suis was growing on pullulan. Based on biochemical, bioinformatics and in vitro and in vivo gene expression studies, we developed a biological model that postulates the effect of carbon catabolite repression on expression of virulence genes in the mucosa, organs and blood. This research increases our understanding of S. suis virulence mechanisms and has important implications for the design of future control strategies including the development of anti-infective strategies by modulating animal feed composition. PMID:24642967

  7. Origin of the Cell-Associated Dextransucrase of Streptococcus mutans

    PubMed Central

    McCabe, M. M.; Smith, E. E.

    1973-01-01

    The cell-associated dextransucrase produced by sucrose-grown cells of cariogenic Streptococcus mutans K1-R is derived from soluble dextransucrase. Synthesis of insoluble dextran by soluble dextransucrase gives rise to two dextransucrase fractions bound to the insoluble polysaccharide; a reversibly bound enzyme, which can be eluted in solutions of clinical dextran, and an irreversibly bound enzyme, which cannot be solubilized in this manner. Both of these fractions of dextransucrase are also present on sucrose-grown cells. During the synthesis of insoluble dextran by sucrose-grown cells, dextransucrase is progressively converted from soluble enzyme, first to the reversibly bound fraction and then to the irreversibly bound fraction, and is finally inactivated as insoluble dextran accumulates. The two cell-associated dextransucrase fractions therefore represent two stages in the insolubilization and inactivation of their precursor, soluble dextransucrase. As a result of this process of inactivation, the yield of dextransucrase from cells cultured on sucrose is markedly decreased by high concentrations of sucrose in the culture medium. PMID:4716541

  8. Selection and properties of Streptococcus thermophilus mutants deficient in urease.

    PubMed

    Monnet, C; Pernoud, S; Sepulchre, A; Fremaux, C; Corrieu, G

    2004-06-01

    Natural variations of the urea content of milk have a detrimental effect on the regularity of acidification by Streptococcus thermophilus strains used in dairy processes. The aim of the present study was to select urease-deficient mutants of S. thermophilus and to investigate their properties. Using an improved screening medium on agar plates, mutants were selected from 4 different parent strains after mutagen treatment and by spontaneous mutation. Most mutants were stable and had a phage sensitivity profile similar to that of their parent strain. Some of them contained detrimental secondary mutations, as their acidifying activity was lower than that of the parent strain cultivated in the presence of the urease inhibitor flurofamide. The proportion of this type of mutant was much lower among spontaneous mutants than among mutants selected after mutagen treatment. Utilization of urease-deficient mutants in dairy processes may have several advantages, such as an increase in acidification, an improved regularity of acidification, and a lower production of ammonia in whey.

  9. Characteristics of Streptococcus mutans genotypes and dental caries in children

    PubMed Central

    Cheon, Kyounga; Moser, Stephen A.; Wiener, Howard W.; Whiddon, Jennifer; Momeni, Stephanie S.; Ruby, John D.; Cutter, Gary R.; Childers, Noel K.

    2013-01-01

    This longitudinal cohort study evaluated the diversity, commonality, and stability of Streptococcus mutans genotypes associated with dental caries history. Sixty-seven 5 and 6 yr-old children, considered being at high caries risk, had plaque collected from baseline through 36 months for S. mutans isolation and genotyping with repetitive extragenic palindromic-PCR (4,392 total isolates). Decayed, missing, filled surfaces (dmfs/DMFS) for each child were recorded at baseline. At baseline, 18 distinct genotypes were found among 911 S. mutans isolates from 67 children (diversity) and 13 genotypes were shared by at least 2 children (commonality). The number of genotypes per individual was positively associated with the proportion of decayed surfaces (p-ds) at baseline. Twenty-four of the 39 children who were available at follow-up visits maintained a predominant genotype for the follow-up periods (stability) and was negatively associated with p-ds. The observed diversity, commonality, and stability of S. mutans genotypes represent a pattern of dental caries epidemiology in this high caries risk community, which suggest fewer decayed surfaces are significantly associated with lower diversity and stability of S. mutans genotypes. PMID:23659236

  10. Interference with the oxidative response of neutrophils by Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    PubMed Central

    Perry, F E; Elson, C J; Greenham, L W; Catterall, J R

    1993-01-01

    BACKGROUND--Pneumococcal infections are still a major clinical problem. Polymorphonuclear leucocytes (neutrophils) are considered to have a key role in the host's defence against Streptococcus pneumoniae but the mechanisms by which they kill the pneumococcus remain unclear. As reactive oxygen species are regarded as a major antimicrobial defence of phagocytes an attempt has been made to establish their role in the response of neutrophils to S pneumoniae. METHODS--S pneumoniae isolated from patients with bacteraemic pneumococcal pneumonia were incubated with neutrophils in suspension and superoxide production was measured by reduction of ferricytochrome c. RESULTS--S pneumoniae did not stimulate superoxide production alone or in the presence of normal human serum. Spontaneous superoxide production by neutrophils was actually abrogated by S pneumoniae, as was the powerful respiratory burst stimulated by phorbol myristate acetate. This phenomenon depended on both the dose and the viability of the bacteria. With S pneumoniae in the logarithmic phase of growth inhibitory activity was confined to the organisms themselves but with organisms undergoing autolysis it was also present in filtered supernatants, suggesting that the inhibitory activity can be attributed to a factor released during autolysis. CONCLUSIONS--S pneumoniae can interfere with the respiratory burst of neutrophils. This property may help to explain the pathogenicity of the organism. PMID:8390109

  11. Protein degradation in bovine milk caused by Streptococcus agalactiae.

    PubMed

    Åkerstedt, Maria; Wredle, Ewa; Lam, Vo; Johansson, Monika

    2012-08-01

    Streptococcus (Str.) agalactiae is a contagious mastitis bacterium, often associated with cases of subclinical mastitis. Different mastitis bacteria have been evaluated previously from a diagnostic point of view, but there is a lack of knowledge concerning their effect on milk composition. Protein composition is important in achieving optimal yield and texture when milk is processed to fermented products, such as cheese and yoghurt, and is thus of great economic value. The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate protein degradation mainly caused by exogenous proteases originating from naturally occurring Str. agalactiae. The samples were incubated at 37°C to imitate degradation caused by the bacteria in the udder. Protein degradation caused by different strains of Str. agalactiae was also investigated. Protein degradation was observed to occur when Str. agalactiae was added to milk, but there were variations between strains of the bacteria. Caseins, the most economically important proteins in milk, were degraded up to 75% in milk inoculated with Str. agalactiae in relation to sterile ultra-high temperature (UHT) milk, used as control milk. The major whey proteins, α-lactalbumin and β-lactoglobulin, were degraded up to 21% in relation to the sterile control milk. These results suggest that different mastitis bacteria but also different strains of mastitis bacteria should be evaluated from a milk quality perspective to gain knowledge about their ability to degrade the economically important proteins in milk. PMID:22850579

  12. Streptococcus agalactiae mural infective endocarditis in a structurally normal heart

    PubMed Central

    Ariyoshi, Nobuhiro; Miyamoto, Keisuke; Bolger, Dennis T.

    2016-01-01

    A 38-year-old Caucasian man with uncontrolled diabetes mellitus type 2 was admitted with a 1-week duration of fevers, chills, and a non-productive cough. He had a left ischiorectal abscess 1 month prior to admission. Physical examination revealed caries on a left upper molar and a well-healed scar on the left buttock, but no heart murmur or evidence of micro-emboli. Blood cultures grew Streptococcus agalactiae. A transesophageal echocardiogram revealed a mobile mass in the right ventricle that attached to chordae tendineae without valvular disease or dysfunction. A computed tomography (CT) with contrast revealed the mass within the right ventricle, a left lung cavitary lesion, and a splenic infarction. He was initially treated with penicillin G for a week. Subsequently, ceftriaxone was continued for a total of 8 weeks. A follow-up CT showed no evidence of right ventricular mass 8 weeks after discharge. This is the first reported case of S. agalactiae mural infective endocarditis in a structurally normal heart. PMID:27124171

  13. Kinetic properties of a phosphate-bond-driven glutamate-glutamine transport system in Streptococcus lactis and Streptococcus cremoris.

    PubMed

    Poolman, B; Smid, E J; Konings, W N

    1987-06-01

    In Streptococcus lactis ML3 and Streptococcus cremoris Wg2 the uptake of glutamate and glutamine is mediated by the same transport system, which has a 30-fold higher affinity for glutamine than for glutamate at pH 6.0. The apparent affinity constant for transport (KT) of glutamine is 2.5 +/- 0.3 microM, independent of the extracellular pH. The KTS for glutamate uptake are 3.5, 11.2, 77, and 1200 microM at pH 4.0, 5.1, 6.0, and 7.0, respectively. Recalculation of the affinity constants based on the concentration of glutamic acid in the solution yield KTS of 1.8 +/- 0.5 microM independent of the external pH, indicating that the protonated form of glutamate, i.e., glutamic acid, and glutamine are the transported species. The maximal rates of glutamate and glutamine uptake are independent of the extracellular pH as long as the intracellular pH is kept constant, despite large differences in the magnitude and composition of the components of the proton motive force. Uptake of glutamate and glutamine requires the synthesis of ATP either from glycolysis or from arginine metabolism and appears to be essentially unidirectional. Cells are able to maintain glutamate concentration gradients exceeding 4 X 10(3) for several hours even in the absence of metabolic energy. The t1/2s of glutamate efflux are 2, 12, and greater than 30 h at pH 5.0, 6.0, and 7.0, respectively. After the addition of lactose as energy source, the rate of glutamine uptake and the level of ATP are both very sensitive to arsenate. When the intracellular pH is kept constant, both parameters decrease approximately in parallel (between 0.2 and 1.0 mM ATP) with increasing concentrations of the inhibitor. These results suggest that the accumulation of glutamate and glutamine is energized by ATP or an equivalent energy-rich phosphorylated intermediate and not by the the proton motive force.

  14. Antibacterial activity of clove, gall nut methanolic and ethanolic extracts on Streptococcus mutans PTCC 1683 and Streptococcus salivarius PTCC 1448

    PubMed Central

    Mirpour, Mirsasan; Gholizadeh Siahmazgi, Zohreh; Sharifi Kiasaraie, Masoumeh

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Antimicrobial compounds from herbal sources have good therapeutic potential. In this study, the antibacterial effects of clove and gall nut, methanolic and ethanolic extractions, were evaluated for their effect on Streptococcus mutans PTCC 1683 and Streptococcus salivarius PTCC 1448, as both the two cause oral diseases. Method The clove and gall nut methanolic and ethanolic extracts were prepared and antibacterial activity was evaluated for S. mutans and S. salivarius in the base of inhibition zone diameter using agar diffusion method. In this part minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) were assessed. Results These extracts showed effective antibacterial activity on bacteria. Antibacterial activity of Methanolic extract of clove was more than that of ethanolic extract, and ethanolic extracts of gall nut had antibacterial activity more than that of methanolic extracts. MIC and MBC results for clove methanolic extract were 1.5 mg/ml and 3 mg/ml for S. mutans and 6.25 mg/ml and 12.5 mg/ml for S. salivarius, respectively. These results for clove ethanolic extracts were 12.5 mg/ml and 25 mg/ml for S. mutans and 25 mg/ml and 50 mg/ml for S. salivarius, respectively. MIC and MBC results for gall nut methanolic extract were 25 mg/ml and 50 mg/ml for S. mutans and 12.5 mg/ml and 25 mg/ml for S. salivarius, respectively. These results for gall nut ethanolic extracts were 3.1 mg/ml and 6.2 mg/ml for S. mutans and 25 mg/ml and 50 mg/ml for S. salivarius, respectively. Discussion The results showed effective antibacterial activity using clove and gall nut methanolic extracts. If other properties such as tolerance of tissue can also be studied, these extracts can be used as a mouthwash. PMID:25853041

  15. Antimicrobial effects of herbal extracts on Streptococcus mutans and normal oral streptococci.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sung-Hoon

    2013-08-01

    Streptococcus mutans is associated with dental caries. A cariogenic biofilm, in particular, has been studied extensively for its role in the formation of dental caries. Herbal extracts such as Cudrania tricuspidata, Sophora flavescens, Ginkgo biloba, and Betula Schmidtii have been used as a folk remedy for treating diseases. The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the antibacterial activity of herbal extracts against normal oral streptococci, planktonic and biofilm of S. mutans. Streptococcus gordonii, Streptococcus oralis, Streptococcus salivarius, Streptococcus sanguinis, and S. mutans were cultivated with brain heart infusion broth and susceptibility assay for the herbal extracts was performed according to the protocol of Clinical and Laboratory Standard Institute. Also, S. mutans biofilm was formed on a polystyrene 12-well plate and 8-well chamber glass slip using BHI broth containing 2% sucrose and 1% mannose after conditioning the plate and the glass slip with unstimulated saliva. The biofilm was treated with the herbal extracts in various concentrations and inoculated on Mitis-Salivarius bacitracin agar plate for enumeration of viable S. mutans by counting colony forming units. Planktonic S. mutans showed susceptibility to all of the extracts and S. mutans biofilm exhibited the highest level of sensitivity for the extracts of S. flavescens. The normal oral streptococci exhibited a weak susceptibility in comparison to S. mutans. S. oralis, however, was resistant to all of the extracts. In conclusion, the extract of S. flavescens may be a potential candidate for prevention and management of dental caries.

  16. Streptococcus dentisani sp. nov., a novel member of the mitis group.

    PubMed

    Camelo-Castillo, Anny; Benítez-Páez, Alfonso; Belda-Ferre, Pedro; Cabrera-Rubio, Raúl; Mira, Alex

    2014-01-01

    Genomic, taxonomic and biochemical studies were performed on two strains of α-haemolytic streptococci that showed them to be clustered with major members of the Streptococcus mitis group. These Gram-stain-positive strains were isolated from tooth surfaces of caries-free humans and showed the classical spherical shape of streptococcal species growing in chains. Sequence analysis from concatenated 16S and 23S rRNA gene and sodA genes showed that these strains belonged to the mitis group, but both of them clustered into a new phylogenetic branch. The genomes of these two isolates were sequenced, and whole-genome average nucleotide identity (ANI) demonstrated that these strains significantly differed from any streptococcal species, showing ANI values under 91 % even when compared with the phylogenetically closest species such as Streptococcus oralis and S. mitis. Biochemically, the two isolates also showed distinct metabolic features relative to closely related species, like α-galactosidase activity. From the results of the present study, the name Streptococcus dentisani sp. nov. is proposed to accommodate these novel strains, which have been deposited in open collections at the Spanish type Culture Collection (CECT) and Leibniz Institute DSMZ-German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures (DSMZ), being respectively identified as Streptococcus dentisani Str. 7746 ( = CECT 8313 = DSM 27089) and Streptococcus dentisani Str. 7747(T) ( = CECT 8312(T) = DSM 27088(T)).

  17. Streptococcus pharyngis sp. nov., a novel streptococcal species isolated from the respiratory tract of wild rabbits.

    PubMed

    Vela, Ana I; Casas-Díaz, Encarna; Lavín, Santiago; Domínguez, Lucas; Fernández-Garayzábal, Jose F

    2015-09-01

    Four isolates of an unknown Gram-stain-positive, catalase-negative coccus-shaped organism, isolated from the pharynx of four wild rabbits, were characterized by phenotypic and molecular genetic methods. The micro-organisms were tentatively assigned to the genus Streptococcus based on cellular morphological and biochemical criteria, although the organisms did not appear to correspond to any species with a validly published name. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequencing confirmed their identification as members of the genus Streptococcus, being most closely related phylogenetically to Streptococcus porcorum 682-03(T) (96.9% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity). Analysis of rpoB and sodA gene sequences showed divergence values between the novel species and S. porcorum 682-03(T) (the closest phylogenetic relative determined from 16S rRNA gene sequences) of 18.1 and 23.9%, respectively. The novel bacterial isolate could be distinguished from the type strain of S. porcorum by several biochemical characteristics, such as the production of glycyl-tryptophan arylamidase and α-chymotrypsin, and the non-acidification of different sugars. Based on both phenotypic and phylogenetic findings, it is proposed that the unknown bacterium be assigned to a novel species of the genus Streptococcus, and named Streptococcus pharyngis sp. nov. The type strain is DICM10-00796B(T) ( = CECT 8754(T) = CCUG 66496(T)).

  18. The influence of oral Veillonella species on biofilms formed by Streptococcus species.

    PubMed

    Mashima, Izumi; Nakazawa, Futoshi

    2014-08-01

    Oral Veillonella, Veillonella atypica, Veillonella denticariosi, Veillonella dispar, Veillonella parvula, Veillonella rogosae, and Veillonella tobetsuensis are known as early colonizers in oral biofilm formation. To investigate the role of oral Veillonella, biofilms formed by the co-culture of Streptococcus gordonii, Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus salivarius, or Streptococcus sanguinis, with oral Veillonella were examined at the species level. The amount of biofilm formed by S. mutans, S. gordonii, and S. salivarius in the presence of the six Veillonella species was greater than that formed in the control experiments, with the exception of S. mutans with V. dispar. In contrast, in the case of biofilm formation by S. sanguinis, the presence of Veillonella species reduced the amount of the biofilm, with the exception of V. parvula and V. dispar. The time-dependent changes in the amount of biofilm and the number of planktonic cells were grouped into four patterns over the 24 combinations. Only that of S. gordonii with V. tobetsuensis showed a unique pattern. These results indicate that the mode of action of this combination differed from that of the other combinations with respect to biofilm formation. It is possible that there may be several factors involved in the interaction between Streptococcus and Veillonella species.

  19. Adherence of Candida albicans to a cell surface polysaccharide receptor on Streptococcus gordonii.

    PubMed Central

    Holmes, A R; Gopal, P K; Jenkinson, H F

    1995-01-01

    Candida albicans ATCC 10261 and CA2 bound to cells of the oral bacteria Streptococcus gordonii, Streptococcus oralis, and Streptococcus sanguis when these bacteria were immobilized onto microtiter plate wells, but they did not bind to cells of Streptococcus mutans or Streptococcus salivarius. Cell wall polysaccharide was extracted with alkali from S. gordonii NCTC 7869, the streptococcal species to which C. albicans bound with highest affinity, and was effective in blocking the coaggregation of C. albicans and S. gordonii cells in the fluid phase. When fixed to microtiter plate wells, the S. gordonii polysaccharide was bound by all strains of C. albicans tested. The polysaccharide contained Rha, Glc, GalNAc, GlcNAc, and Gal and was related compositionally to previously characterized cell wall polysaccharides from strains of S. oralis and S. sanguis. The adherence of yeast cells to the immobilized polysaccharide was not inhibitable by a number of saccharides. Antiserum raised to the S. gordonii NCTC 7869 polysaccharide blocked adherence of C. albicans ATCC 10261 to the polysaccharide. The results identify a complex cell wall polysaccharide of S. gordonii as the coaggregation receptor for C. albicans. Adherent interactions of yeast cells with streptococci and other bacteria may be important for colonization of both hard and soft oral surfaces by C. albicans. PMID:7729891

  20. GENETIC LINKAGE OF MUTATIONAL SITES AFFECTING SIMILAR CHARACTERS IN PNEUMOCOCCUS AND STREPTOCOCCUS.

    PubMed

    RAVIN, A W; DESA, J H

    1964-01-01

    Ravin, Arnold W. (University of Rochester, Rochester, N.Y.), and Joscelyn D. H. De Sa. Genetic linkage of mutational sites affecting similar characters in pneumococcus and streptococcus. J. Bacteriol. 87:86-96. 1964.-By interspecific transformation, deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) determinants conferring resistance to high levels of streptomycin in pneumococcus were found to be allelic with DNA determinants conferring low levels of streptomycin resistance in the Challis and NBSI strains of streptococcus. The reciprocal transformation (low resistance pneumococcus x high resistance streptococcus) led to the same conclusion. In addition, determinants controlling resistance to erythromycin in pneumococcus and the Challis strain of streptococcus were found to become closely linked after interspecific transformation. Modifier genes influencing the phenotype conferred by mutations at the streptomycin-resistance locus differentiate species to a certain extent. The results demonstrate that transformations between pneumococcus and streptococcus are not due to episomes, but involve recombinational events in which genetic material of the host species is replaced by homologous material that performed a similar function in the donor species.

  1. Effect of Propolis on Streptococcus mutans Counts: An in vivo Study

    PubMed Central

    Hegde, K Sundeep; Rao, Ajay; Sain, Shaniya

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Propolis, a natural antibiotic, is a resinous substance that honey bees (Apis mellifera) produce. The main chemical classes present in propolis are flavonoids, phenolics and other various aromatic compounds. Aim: To evaluate the antibacterial action of propolis on the concentration of Streptococcus mutans colonizing the oral cavity of children. Materials and methods: Thirty children performed the rinses, with no other changes in their oral hygiene and dietary habits. Saliva was collected at two time points: Before using the product, 1 hour after the rinse. Results: Paired t-test was used for analysis of the results. A reduction in the concentration of Streptococcus mutans was observed in samples collected after use of the extract. There was a reduction in Streptococcus mutans count when compared to samples obtained in baseline. Significant reductions were seen at the end of 1 hour. The result was statistically significant. There were no side effects in soft and hard tissues of mouth. Conclusion and clinical implication: The propolis possesses in vivo antimicrobial activity against Streptococcus mutans present in the oral cavity and might be used as a measure to prevent dental caries. How to cite this article: Hegde KS, Bhat SS, Rao A, Sain S. Effect of Propolis on Streptococcus mutans Counts: An in vivo Study. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2013;6(1):22-25. PMID:25206182

  2. Portable exhauster POR-007/Skid E and POR-008/Skid F storage plan

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, O.D.

    1998-07-25

    This document provides storage requirements for 1,000 CFM portable exhausters POR-O07/Skid E and POR-008/Skid F. These requirements are presented in three parts: preparation for storage, storage maintenance and testing, and retrieval from storage. The exhauster component identification numbers listed in this document contain the prefix POR-007 or POR-008 depending on which exhauster is being used.

  3. Inverse association between Lancefield group G Streptococcus colonization and sore throat in slum and nonslum settings in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Tartof, Sara Yee; Farrimond, Frances; de Matos, Juliana Arruda; Reis, Joice Neves; Ramos, Regina Terse Trindade; Andrade, Aurelio Nei; dos Reis, Mitermayer Galvão; Riley, Lee Woodland

    2011-01-01

    Group G Streptococcus has been implicated as a causative agent of pharyngitis in outbreak situations, but its role in endemic disease remains elusive. We found an unexpected inverse association of Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis colonization and sore throat in a study of 2,194 children of 3 to 15 years of age in Salvador, Brazil.

  4. Complete Genome Sequence of Streptococcus salivarius HSISS4, a Human Commensal Bacterium Highly Prevalent in the Digestive Tract.

    PubMed

    Mignolet, Johann; Fontaine, Laetitia; Kleerebezem, Michiel; Hols, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    The human commensal bacterium Streptococcus salivarius plays a major role in the equilibrium of microbial communities of the digestive tract. Here, we report the first complete genome sequence of a Streptococcus salivarius strain isolated from the small intestine, namely, HSISS4. Its circular chromosome comprises 1,903 coding sequences and 2,100,988 nucleotides. PMID:26847886

  5. Complete Genome Sequence of Streptococcus salivarius HSISS4, a Human Commensal Bacterium Highly Prevalent in the Digestive Tract

    PubMed Central

    Fontaine, Laetitia; Kleerebezem, Michiel

    2016-01-01

    The human commensal bacterium Streptococcus salivarius plays a major role in the equilibrium of microbial communities of the digestive tract. Here, we report the first complete genome sequence of a Streptococcus salivarius strain isolated from the small intestine, namely, HSISS4. Its circular chromosome comprises 1,903 coding sequences and 2,100,988 nucleotides. PMID:26847886

  6. Fatal Case of Toxic Shock-Like Syndrome Due to Group C Streptococcus Associated with Superantigen Exotoxin

    PubMed Central

    Korman, Tony M.; Boers, Anthony; Gooding, Travis M.; Curtis, Nigel; Visvanathan, Kumar

    2004-01-01

    Group C streptococci have been reported to cause invasive disease similar to that classically associated with group A streptococcus (GAS). We describe a fatal case of toxic shock-like syndrome due to Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus. The causative organism did not possess any known GAS superantigen exotoxin genes but did show evidence of superantigen production. PMID:15184494

  7. Controlled challenge experiment demonstrates substantial additive genetic variation in resistance of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) to Streptococcus iniae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Streptococcus iniae is an etiologic agent of streptococcal disease in tilapia and is one of several Streptococcus spp. that negatively impact worldwide tilapia production. Methods for the prevention and control of S. iniae include vaccines, management strategies, and antibiotics. A complimentary pre...

  8. Complete Genome Sequence of Nonhemolytic Streptococcus agalactiae Serotype V Strain 1, Isolated from the Buccal Cavity of a Canine

    PubMed Central

    Harden, Leeanne K.; Morales, Karina M.

    2016-01-01

    The complete genome sequence from a nonhemolytic strain of Streptococcus agalactiae from the oral cavity of a canine was assembled. The genome is 2,165,968 bp, contains 2,055 genes, and is classified as group B streptococcus (GBS) serotype V, strain 1. A comparison to other S. agalactiae sequences shows high gene synteny with human and bovine strains. PMID:26823579

  9. Draft Genome Sequence of Streptococcus sp. X13SY08, Isolated from Murray Cod (Maccullochella peelii peelii).

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang; Zeng, Runying; Weng, Boqi; Luo, Tuyan; Luo, Qin; Xu, Liwen

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus sp. X13SY08, isolated from freshwater Murray cod fish, likely presents a novel species of Streptococcus. Here, we present an annotated draft genome sequence of this species, which will improve our understanding of its physiology and pathogenesis.

  10. Bacteriological and Molecular Detection of Streptococcus equi subsp. equi and Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus in Equines of Northern India

    PubMed Central

    MIR, Irfan Ahmad; KUMAR, Bablu; TAKU, Anil; FARIDI, Farah; BHAT, Mohd. Altaf; BABA, Naseer Ahmad; MAQBOOL, Tahir

    2013-01-01

    Present study was undertaken to study the prevalence of β-haemolytic streptococci in equine of northern temperate region of Jammu and Kashmir, India. One hundred and forty one samples were collected in duplicate from nasopharyngeal tract of diseased (53) and apparently healthy equine (88) for isolation and direct PCR. A total of 77 isolates of streptococci were recovered from 141 samples with an overall prevalence rate of 54.60%. Out of these 77 isolates, 52 were from diseased and 25 from apparently healthy animals. Of the 77 isolates, 4 were identified as Streptococcus equi subsp. equi, 56 as S. equi subsp. zooepidemicus and 17 as S. dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis. Thus the overall prevalence of S. equi subsp. equi, S. equi subsp. zooepidemicus and S. dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis was 2.83, 39.71 and 12.05% respectively. The sensitivity of the PCR for the detection of S. equi species was found higher when attempted from direct swab samples. PMID:24834002

  11. Drug resistance profile and serotype of streptococcus of pneumoniae infected pediatric patients.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiefei; Huang, Nannan; Wang, Guangzhou; Yu, Fengqin

    2016-07-01

    To investigate the surveillance of drug resistance and serotype monitoring of steptococcus pneumoniae in hospitalized children. the pathogenic bacteria isolation and identification methods were employed to do the bacteria isolation identification and drug sensitive test on the specimens from Women & Infants Hospital of Zhengzhou. From the specimens, there were 134 detected strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae, and the drug resistance to erythromycin and clindamycin were respectively 97.7% and 89.9%, and the drug resistance to tetracycline, azithromycin and paediatric compound sulfamethoxazole were respectively 86. 3%, 58. 3%, 51. 2%. The vancomycin resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae were often not found. the Streptococcus pneumoniae in children were generally with drug resistant in Zhengzhou area. It shall strengthen drug resistance surveillance, and reasonably choose antibacterial agents. PMID:27592480

  12. Involvement of NADH Oxidase in Competition and Endocarditis Virulence in Streptococcus sanguinis

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Xiuchun; Yu, Yang; Zhang, Min; Chen, Lei; Chen, Weihua; Elrami, Fadi; Kong, Fanxiang; Kitten, Todd

    2016-01-01

    Here, we report for the first time that the Streptococcus sanguinis nox gene encoding NADH oxidase is involved in both competition with Streptococcus mutans and virulence for infective endocarditis. An S. sanguinis nox mutant was found to fail to inhibit the growth of Streptococcus mutans under microaerobic conditions. In the presence of oxygen, the recombinant Nox protein of S. sanguinis could reduce oxygen to water and oxidize NADH to NAD+. The oxidation of NADH to NAD+ was diminished in the nox mutant. The nox mutant exhibited decreased levels of extracellular H2O2; however, the intracellular level of H2O2 in the mutant was increased. Furthermore, the virulence of the nox mutant was attenuated in a rabbit endocarditis model. The nox mutant also was shown to be more sensitive to blood killing, oxidative and acid stresses, and reduced growth in serum. Thus, NADH oxidase contributes to multiple phenotypes related to competitiveness in the oral cavity and systemic virulence. PMID:26930704

  13. Antibiofilm Activity of Chilean Propolis on Streptococcus mutans Is Influenced by the Year of Collection.

    PubMed

    Veloz, Jorge Jesús; Saavedra, Nicolás; Lillo, Alexis; Alvear, Marysol; Barrientos, Leticia; Salazar, Luis A

    2015-01-01

    The chemical composition of propolis varies according to factors that could have an influence on its biological properties. Polyphenols from propolis have demonstrated an inhibitory effect on Streptococcus mutans growth. However, it is not known if different years of propolis collection may affect its activity. We aimed to elucidate if the year of collection of propolis influences its activity on Streptococcus mutans. Polyphenol-rich extracts were prepared from propolis collected in three different years, characterized by LC-MS and quantified the content of total polyphenols and flavonoids groups. Finally, was evaluated the antibacterial effect on Streptococcus mutans and the biofilm formation. Qualitative differences were observed in total polyphenols, flavones, and flavonols and the chemical composition between the extracts, affecting the strength of inhibition of biofilm formation but not the antimicrobial assays. In conclusion, chemical composition of propolis depends on the year of collection and influences the strength of the inhibition of biofilm formation.

  14. Antibiofilm Activity of Chilean Propolis on Streptococcus mutans Is Influenced by the Year of Collection.

    PubMed

    Veloz, Jorge Jesús; Saavedra, Nicolás; Lillo, Alexis; Alvear, Marysol; Barrientos, Leticia; Salazar, Luis A

    2015-01-01

    The chemical composition of propolis varies according to factors that could have an influence on its biological properties. Polyphenols from propolis have demonstrated an inhibitory effect on Streptococcus mutans growth. However, it is not known if different years of propolis collection may affect its activity. We aimed to elucidate if the year of collection of propolis influences its activity on Streptococcus mutans. Polyphenol-rich extracts were prepared from propolis collected in three different years, characterized by LC-MS and quantified the content of total polyphenols and flavonoids groups. Finally, was evaluated the antibacterial effect on Streptococcus mutans and the biofilm formation. Qualitative differences were observed in total polyphenols, flavones, and flavonols and the chemical composition between the extracts, affecting the strength of inhibition of biofilm formation but not the antimicrobial assays. In conclusion, chemical composition of propolis depends on the year of collection and influences the strength of the inhibition of biofilm formation. PMID:26247015

  15. Antibiofilm Activity of Chilean Propolis on Streptococcus mutans Is Influenced by the Year of Collection

    PubMed Central

    Veloz, Jorge Jesús; Saavedra, Nicolás; Lillo, Alexis; Alvear, Marysol; Barrientos, Leticia; Salazar, Luis A.

    2015-01-01

    The chemical composition of propolis varies according to factors that could have an influence on its biological properties. Polyphenols from propolis have demonstrated an inhibitory effect on Streptococcus mutans growth. However, it is not known if different years of propolis collection may affect its activity. We aimed to elucidate if the year of collection of propolis influences its activity on Streptococcus mutans. Polyphenol-rich extracts were prepared from propolis collected in three different years, characterized by LC-MS and quantified the content of total polyphenols and flavonoids groups. Finally, was evaluated the antibacterial effect on Streptococcus mutans and the biofilm formation. Qualitative differences were observed in total polyphenols, flavones, and flavonols and the chemical composition between the extracts, affecting the strength of inhibition of biofilm formation but not the antimicrobial assays. In conclusion, chemical composition of propolis depends on the year of collection and influences the strength of the inhibition of biofilm formation. PMID:26247015

  16. Chromosomal islands of Streptococcus pyogenes and related streptococci: molecular switches for survival and virulence.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Scott V; McShan, William M

    2014-01-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes is a significant pathogen of humans, annually causing over 700,000,000 infections and 500,000 deaths. Virulence in S. pyogenes is closely linked to mobile genetic elements like phages and chromosomal islands (CI). S. pyogenes phage-like chromosomal islands (SpyCI) confer a complex mutator phenotype on their host. SpyCI integrate into the 5' end of DNA mismatch repair (MMR) gene mutL, which also disrupts downstream operon genes lmrP, ruvA, and tag. During early logarithmic growth, SpyCI excise from the bacterial chromosome and replicate as episomes, relieving the mutator phenotype. As growth slows and the cells enter stationary phase, SpyCI reintegrate into the chromosome, again silencing the MMR operon. This system creates a unique growth-dependent and reversible mutator phenotype. Additional CI using the identical attachment site in mutL have been identified in related species, including Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis, Streptococcus anginosus, Streptococcus intermedius, Streptococcus parauberis, and Streptococcus canis. These CI have small genomes, which range from 13 to 20 kB, conserved integrase and DNA replication genes, and no identifiable genes encoding capsid proteins. SpyCI may employ a helper phage for packaging and dissemination in a fashion similar to the Staphylococcus aureus pathogenicity islands (SaPI). Outside of the core replication and integration genes, SpyCI and related CI show considerable diversity with the presence of many indels that may contribute to the host cell phenotype or fitness. SpyCI are a subset of a larger family of streptococcal CI who potentially regulate the expression of other host genes. The biological and phylogenetic analysis of streptococcal chromosomal islands provides important clues as to how these chromosomal islands help S. pyogenes and other streptococcal species persist in human populations in spite of antibiotic therapy and immune challenges.

  17. Chromosomal islands of Streptococcus pyogenes and related streptococci: molecular switches for survival and virulence.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Scott V; McShan, William M

    2014-01-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes is a significant pathogen of humans, annually causing over 700,000,000 infections and 500,000 deaths. Virulence in S. pyogenes is closely linked to mobile genetic elements like phages and chromosomal islands (CI). S. pyogenes phage-like chromosomal islands (SpyCI) confer a complex mutator phenotype on their host. SpyCI integrate into the 5' end of DNA mismatch repair (MMR) gene mutL, which also disrupts downstream operon genes lmrP, ruvA, and tag. During early logarithmic growth, SpyCI excise from the bacterial chromosome and replicate as episomes, relieving the mutator phenotype. As growth slows and the cells enter stationary phase, SpyCI reintegrate into the chromosome, again silencing the MMR operon. This system creates a unique growth-dependent and reversible mutator phenotype. Additional CI using the identical attachment site in mutL have been identified in related species, including Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis, Streptococcus anginosus, Streptococcus intermedius, Streptococcus parauberis, and Streptococcus canis. These CI have small genomes, which range from 13 to 20 kB, conserved integrase and DNA replication genes, and no identifiable genes encoding capsid proteins. SpyCI may employ a helper phage for packaging and dissemination in a fashion similar to the Staphylococcus aureus pathogenicity islands (SaPI). Outside of the core replication and integration genes, SpyCI and related CI show considerable diversity with the presence of many indels that may contribute to the host cell phenotype or fitness. SpyCI are a subset of a larger family of streptococcal CI who potentially regulate the expression of other host genes. The biological and phylogenetic analysis of streptococcal chromosomal islands provides important clues as to how these chromosomal islands help S. pyogenes and other streptococcal species persist in human populations in spite of antibiotic therapy and immune challenges. PMID:25161960

  18. A case of culture-negative endocarditis due to Streptococcus tigurinus.

    PubMed

    Kanamori, Hajime; Kakuta, Risako; Yano, Hisakazu; Suzuki, Tomoyuki; Gu, Yoshiaki; Oe, Chihiro; Inomata, Shinya; Aoyagi, Tetsuji; Hatta, Masumitsu; Endo, Shiro; Tokuda, Koichi; Weber, David J; Nakamura, Yasuhiro; Saiki, Yoshikatsu; Kaku, Mitsuo

    2015-02-01

    Culture-negative endocarditis remains a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge despite recent medical advances. Streptococcus tigurinus, a novel member of the Streptococcus mitis group, was first identified in Zurich. S. tigurinus possesses virulence determinants and causes invasive infections. We report a case of culture-negative endocarditis with serious complications due to S. tigurinus, which was identified by 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequence analysis of excised valve tissue specimens. This technique is useful for identification of the causative microorganism in patients with culture-negative endocarditis and may facilitate early diagnosis and appropriate antimicrobial treatment.

  19. Fluoride-sensitivity of growth and acid production of oral Actinomyces: comparison with oral Streptococcus.

    PubMed

    Kawashima, Junko; Nakajo, Kazuko; Washio, Jumpei; Mayanagi, Gen; Shimauchi, Hidetoshi; Takahashi, Nobuhiro

    2013-12-01

    Actinomyces are predominant oral bacteria; however, their cariogenic potential in terms of acid production and fluoride sensitivity has not been elucidated in detail and compared with that of other caries-associated oral bacteria, such as Streptococcus. Therefore, this study aimed to elucidate and compare the acid production and growth of Actinomyces and Streptococcus in the presence of bicarbonate and fluoride to mimic conditions in the oral cavity. Acid production from glucose was measured by pH-stat at pH 5.5 and 7.0 under anaerobic conditions. Growth rate was assessed by optical density in anaerobic culture. Although Actinomyces produced acid at a lower rate than did Streptococcus, their acid production was more tolerant of fluoride (IDacid production 50 = 110-170 ppm at pH 7.0 and 10-13 ppm at pH 5.5) than that of Streptococcus (IDacid production 50 = 36-53 ppm at pH 7.0 and 6.3-6.5 ppm at pH 5.5). Bicarbonate increased acid production by Actinomyces with prominent succinate production and enhanced their fluoride tolerance (IDacid production 50 = 220-320 ppm at pH 7.0 and 33-52 ppm at pH 5.5). Bicarbonate had no effect on these variables in Streptococcus. In addition, although the growth rate of Actinomyces was lower than that of Streptococcus, Actinomyces growth was more tolerant of fluoride (IDgrowth 50 = 130-160 ppm) than was that of Streptococcus (IDgrowth 50 = 27-36 ppm). These results indicate that oral Actinomyces are more tolerant of fluoride than oral Streptococcus, and bicarbonate enhances the fluoride tolerance of oral Actinomyces. Because of the limited number of species tested here, further study is needed to generalize these findings to the genus level.

  20. Capsular polysaccharide of Group B Streptococcus mediates biofilm formation in the presence of human plasma.

    PubMed

    Xia, Fan Di; Mallet, Adeline; Caliot, Elise; Gao, Cherry; Trieu-Cuot, Patrick; Dramsi, Shaynoor

    2015-01-01

    Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is an asymptomatic colonizer of human mucosal surfaces that is responsible for sepsis and meningitis in neonates. Bacterial persistence and pathogenesis often involves biofilm formation. We previously showed that biofilm formation in medium supplemented with glucose is mediated by the PI-2a pilus. Here, biofilm formation was tested in cell culture medium supplemented with human plasma. GBS strains were able to form biofilms in these conditions unlike Group A Streptococcus (GAS) or Staphylococcus aureus. Analysis of mutants impaired for various surface components revealed that the GBS capsule is a key component in this process.

  1. Streptococcus gallolyticus (bovis): a rare presentation of meningitis in the ED.

    PubMed

    Gray, Joshua D; Wilson, Christopher J

    2016-03-01

    Bacterial meningitis is a fairly common and often deadly manifestation of altered mental status in the elderly, carrying a mortality rate of greater than 20% despite antibiotic therapy. Most commonly caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli, and Klebsiella pneumoniae. We present a case of meningitis caused by Streptococcus gallolyticus in an elderly, otherwise healthy woman. There have been no reports in the emergency medicine literature and only a few reports in the literature of S gallolyticus as a cause of altered mental status and meningitis, specifically of immunocompetent patients.

  2. First Described Case of Group B Streptococcus Pelvic Abscess in a Patient with No Medical Comorbidities.

    PubMed

    Tyan, Paul; Abi-Khalil, Elias; Dwarki, Karthik; Moawad, Gaby

    2016-01-01

    Background. Group B Streptococcus is an organism that commonly infects a wide range of hosts including infants in the first week of life, pregnant women, and older age adults as well as adults with underlying medical comorbidities. Case. Large pelvic abscess in a nonpregnant patient found to be caused by Group B Streptococcus was treated successfully with IR guided drainage and antibiotics. Conclusion. Though rare, GBS can still be a cause of invasive infection even in individuals who are nonpregnant and have no underlying comorbidities. Empiric antibiotic coverage for this organism should be kept in mind when treating an abscess. PMID:27529043

  3. STREPTOCOCCUS PHOCAE ISOLATED FROM A SPOTTED SEAL (PHOCA LARGHA) WITH PYOMETRA IN ALASKA

    PubMed Central

    Hueffer, Karsten; Lieske, Camilla L.; McGilvary, Lisa M.; Hare, Rebekah F.; Miller, Debra L.; O’Hara, Todd M.

    2013-01-01

    A spotted seal harvested by subsistence hunters in Kotzebue Sound, Alaska (USA), showed a grossly enlarged uterus and associated lymph nodes. Streptococcus phocae was isolated from the purulent uterine discharge. Histopathologic examination revealed inflammation that was limited to the uterine mucosa. Lymph nodes draining the affected organ were reactive but no evidence of active infection was found in the lymph nodes. This report is the first Streptococcus phocae isolated from spotted seals as well as the first report of pyometra as the main pathologic finding associated with this pathogen. Isolation of this pathogen from Alaska expands the reported range to arctic pinnipeds. Zoonotic potential remains unknown. PMID:22946378

  4. First Described Case of Group B Streptococcus Pelvic Abscess in a Patient with No Medical Comorbidities

    PubMed Central

    Dwarki, Karthik

    2016-01-01

    Background. Group B Streptococcus is an organism that commonly infects a wide range of hosts including infants in the first week of life, pregnant women, and older age adults as well as adults with underlying medical comorbidities. Case. Large pelvic abscess in a nonpregnant patient found to be caused by Group B Streptococcus was treated successfully with IR guided drainage and antibiotics. Conclusion. Though rare, GBS can still be a cause of invasive infection even in individuals who are nonpregnant and have no underlying comorbidities. Empiric antibiotic coverage for this organism should be kept in mind when treating an abscess. PMID:27529043

  5. Susceptibility of Streptococcus pneumoniae to fluoroquinolones in Canada.

    PubMed

    Patel, Samir N; McGeer, Allison; Melano, Roberto; Tyrrell, Gregory J; Green, Karen; Pillai, Dylan R; Low, Donald E

    2011-08-01

    Ciprofloxacin, the first fluoroquinolone to be used to treat lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI), demonstrates poor potency against Streptococcus pneumoniae, and its use has been associated with the emergence of resistance. During the last decade, fluoroquinolones with enhanced in vitro activity against S. pneumoniae have replaced ciprofloxacin for the treatment of LRTI. Here, we analyzed the impact of more active fluoroquinolone usage on pneumococci by examining the fluoroquinolone usage, prevalence of fluoroquinolone resistance, and mutations in the genes that encode the major target sites for the fluoroquinolones (gyrA and parC) in pneumococcal isolates collected in Canada-wide surveillance. A total of 26,081 isolates were collected between 1998 and 2009. During this time period, total per capita outpatient use of fluoroquinolones increased from 64 to 96 prescriptions per 1,000 persons per year. The proportion of prescriptions for respiratory tract infection that were for fluoroquinolones increased from 5.9% to 10.7%, but the distribution changed: the proportion of prescriptions for ciprofloxacin decreased from 5.3% to 0.5%, and those for levofloxacin or moxifloxacin increased from 1.5% in 1999 to 5.9% in 2009. The prevalence of ciprofloxacin resistance (MIC ≥ 4 μg/ml), levofloxacin resistance, and moxifloxacin resistance remained unchanged at <2%. Multivariable analyses showed that prevalence of mutations known to be associated with reduced susceptibility to fluoroquinolones did not change during the surveillance period. If fluoroquinolone therapy is required, the preferential use of fluoroquinolones with enhanced pneumococcal activity to treat pneumococcal infections may slow the emergence of resistance in S. pneumoniae.

  6. Susceptibility of Streptococcus pneumoniae to Fluoroquinolones in Canada▿

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Samir N.; McGeer, Allison; Melano, Roberto; Tyrrell, Gregory J.; Green, Karen; Pillai, Dylan R.; Low, Donald E.

    2011-01-01

    Ciprofloxacin, the first fluoroquinolone to be used to treat lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI), demonstrates poor potency against Streptococcus pneumoniae, and its use has been associated with the emergence of resistance. During the last decade, fluoroquinolones with enhanced in vitro activity against S. pneumoniae have replaced ciprofloxacin for the treatment of LRTI. Here, we analyzed the impact of more active fluoroquinolone usage on pneumococci by examining the fluoroquinolone usage, prevalence of fluoroquinolone resistance, and mutations in the genes that encode the major target sites for the fluoroquinolones (gyrA and parC) in pneumococcal isolates collected in Canada-wide surveillance. A total of 26,081 isolates were collected between 1998 and 2009. During this time period, total per capita outpatient use of fluoroquinolones increased from 64 to 96 prescriptions per 1,000 persons per year. The proportion of prescriptions for respiratory tract infection that were for fluoroquinolones increased from 5.9% to 10.7%, but the distribution changed: the proportion of prescriptions for ciprofloxacin decreased from 5.3% to 0.5%, and those for levofloxacin or moxifloxacin increased from 1.5% in 1999 to 5.9% in 2009. The prevalence of ciprofloxacin resistance (MIC ≥ 4 μg/ml), levofloxacin resistance, and moxifloxacin resistance remained unchanged at <2%. Multivariable analyses showed that prevalence of mutations known to be associated with reduced susceptibility to fluoroquinolones did not change during the surveillance period. If fluoroquinolone therapy is required, the preferential use of fluoroquinolones with enhanced pneumococcal activity to treat pneumococcal infections may slow the emergence of resistance in S. pneumoniae. PMID:21628545

  7. Complete structure of the polysaccharide from Streptococcus sanguis J22

    SciTech Connect

    Abeygunawardana, C.; Bush, C.A. ); Cisar, J.O. )

    1990-01-09

    The cell wall polysaccharides of certain oral streptococci such as Streptococcus sanguis strains 34 and J22, although immunologically distinct, act as receptors for the fimbrial lectins of Actinomyces viscosus T14V. The authors report the complete covalent structure of the polysaccharide from S. sanguis J22 which is composed of a heptasaccharide subunit linked by phosphodiester bonds. The repeating subunit, which contains {alpha}-GalNAc, {alpha}-rhamnose, {beta}-rhamnose, {beta}-glucose, and {beta}-galactose all in the pyranoside form and {beta}-galactofuranose, is compared with the previously published structure of the polysaccharide from strain 34. The structure has been determined almost exclusively by high-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance methods. The {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR spectra of the polysaccharides from both strains 34 and J22 have been completely assigned. The stereochemistry of pyranosides was assigned from J{sub H-H} values determined from phase-sensitive COSY spectra, and acetamido sugars were assigned by correlation of the resonances of the amide {sup 1}H with the sugar ring protons. The {sup 13}C spectra were assigned by {sup 1}H-detected multiple-quantum correlation (HMQC) spectra, and the assignments were confirmed by {sup 1}H-detected multiple-bond correlation (HMBC) spectra. The positions of the glycosidic linkages were assigned by detection of three-bond {sup 1}H-{sup 13}C correlation across the glycosidic linkage in the HMBC spectra. The positions of the phosphodiester linkages were determined by splittings observed in the {sup 13}C resonances due to {sup 31}P coupling and also by {sup 1}H-detected {sup 31}P correlation spectroscopy.

  8. Role of human milk oligosaccharides in Group B Streptococcus colonisation.

    PubMed

    Andreas, Nicholas J; Al-Khalidi, Asmaa; Jaiteh, Mustapha; Clarke, Edward; Hyde, Matthew J; Modi, Neena; Holmes, Elaine; Kampmann, Beate; Mehring Le Doare, Kirsty

    2016-08-01

    Group B Streptococcus (GBS) infection is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in infants. The major risk factor for GBS disease is maternal and subsequent infant colonisation. It is unknown whether human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) protect against GBS colonisation. HMO production is genetically determined and linked to the Lewis antigen system. We aimed to investigate the association between HMOs and infant GBS colonisation between birth and postnatal day 90. Rectovaginal swabs were collected at delivery, as well as colostrum/breast milk, infant nasopharyngeal and rectal swabs at birth, 6 days and days 60-89 postpartum from 183 Gambian mother/infant pairs. GBS colonisation and serotypes were determined using culture and PCR. (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy was used to characterise the mother's Lewis status and HMO profile in breast milk. Mothers who were Lewis-positive were significantly less likely to be colonised by GBS (X (2)=12.50, P<0.001). Infants of Lewis-positive mothers were less likely GBS colonised at birth (X (2)=4.88 P=0.03) and more likely to clear colonisation between birth and days 60-89 than infants born to Lewis-negative women (P=0.05). There was no association between Secretor status and GBS colonisation. In vitro work revealed that lacto-N-difucohexaose I (LNDFHI) correlated with a reduction in the growth of GBS. Our results suggest that HMO such as LNDFHI may be a useful adjunct in reducing maternal and infant colonisation and hence invasive GBS disease. Secretor status offers utility as a stratification variable in GBS clinical trials. PMID:27588204

  9. Molecule Targeting Glucosyltransferase Inhibits Streptococcus mutans Biofilm Formation and Virulence

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Zhi; Cui, Tao; Zeng, Jumei; Chen, Lulu; Zhang, Wenling; Xu, Xin; Cheng, Lei; Li, Mingyun; Li, Jiyao; Zhou, Xuedong

    2015-01-01

    Dental plaque biofilms are responsible for numerous chronic oral infections and cause a severe health burden. Many of these infections cannot be eliminated, as the bacteria in the biofilms are resistant to the host's immune defenses and antibiotics. There is a critical need to develop new strategies to control biofilm-based infections. Biofilm formation in Streptococcus mutans is promoted by major virulence factors known as glucosyltransferases (Gtfs), which synthesize adhesive extracellular polysaccharides (EPS). The current study was designed to identify novel molecules that target Gtfs, thereby inhibiting S. mutans biofilm formation and having the potential to prevent dental caries. Structure-based virtual screening of approximately 150,000 commercially available compounds against the crystal structure of the glucosyltransferase domain of the GtfC protein from S. mutans resulted in the identification of a quinoxaline derivative, 2-(4-methoxyphenyl)-N-(3-{[2-(4-methoxyphenyl)ethyl]imino}-1,4-dihydro-2-quinoxalinylidene)ethanamine, as a potential Gtf inhibitor. In vitro assays showed that the compound was capable of inhibiting EPS synthesis and biofilm formation in S. mutans by selectively antagonizing Gtfs instead of by killing the bacteria directly. Moreover, the in vivo anti-caries efficacy of the compound was evaluated in a rat model. We found that the compound significantly reduced the incidence and severity of smooth and sulcal-surface caries in vivo with a concomitant reduction in the percentage of S. mutans in the animals' dental plaque (P < 0.05). Taken together, these results represent the first description of a compound that targets Gtfs and that has the capacity to inhibit biofilm formation and the cariogenicity of S. mutans. PMID:26482298

  10. Is Streptococcus pyogenes resistant or susceptible to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole?

    PubMed

    Bowen, Asha C; Lilliebridge, Rachael A; Tong, Steven Y C; Baird, Robert W; Ward, Peter; McDonald, Malcolm I; Currie, Bart J; Carapetis, Jonathan R

    2012-12-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes is commonly believed to be resistant to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (SXT), resulting in reservations about using SXT for skin and soft tissue infections (SSTI) where S. pyogenes is involved. S. pyogenes' in vitro susceptibility to SXT depends on the medium's thymidine content. Thymidine allows S. pyogenes to bypass the sulfur-mediated inhibition of folate metabolism and, historically, has resulted in apparently reduced susceptibility of S. pyogenes to sulfur antibacterials. The low thymidine concentration in Mueller-Hinton agar (MHA) is now regulated. We explored S. pyogenes susceptibility to SXT on various media. Using two sets of 100 clinical S. pyogenes isolates, we tested for susceptibility using SXT Etests on MHA containing defibrinated horse blood and 20 mg/liter β-NAD (MHF), MHA with sheep blood (MHS), MHA alone, MHA with horse blood (MHBA), and MHA with lysed horse blood (MHLHBA). European Committee on Antibacterial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) breakpoints defined susceptibility (MIC, ≤ 1 mg/liter) and resistance (MIC, >2 mg/liter). In study 1, 99% of S. pyogenes isolates were susceptible to SXT on MHA, MHBA, and MHLHBA, with geometric mean MICs of 0.04, 0.04, and 0.05 mg/liter, respectively. In study 2, all 100 S. pyogenes isolates were susceptible to SXT on MHF, MHS, MHA, and MHLHBA with geometric mean MICs of 0.07, 0.16, 0.07, and 0.09 mg/liter, respectively. This study confirms the in vitro susceptibility of S. pyogenes to SXT, providing support for the use of SXT for SSTIs. A clinical trial using SXT for impetigo is ongoing. PMID:23052313

  11. Capsule type of Streptococcus pneumoniae determines growth phenotype.

    PubMed

    Hathaway, Lucy J; Brugger, Silvio D; Morand, Brigitte; Bangert, Mathieu; Rotzetter, Jeannine U; Hauser, Christoph; Graber, Werner A; Gore, Suzanna; Kadioglu, Aras; Mühlemann, Kathrin

    2012-01-01

    The polysaccharide capsule of Streptococcus pneumoniae defines over ninety serotypes, which differ in their carriage prevalence and invasiveness for poorly understood reasons. Recently, an inverse correlation between carriage prevalence and oligosaccharide structure of a given capsule has been described. Our previous work suggested a link between serotype and growth in vitro. Here we investigate whether capsule production interferes with growth in vitro and whether this predicts carriage prevalence in vivo. Eighty-one capsule switch mutants were constructed representing nine different serotypes, five of low (4, 7F, 14, 15, 18C) and four of high carriage prevalence (6B, 9V, 19F, 23F). Growth (length of lag phase, maximum optical density) of wildtype strains, nontypeable mutants and capsule switch mutants was studied in nutrient-restricted Lacks medium (MLM) and in rich undefined brain heart infusion broth supplemented with 5% foetal calf serum (BHI+FCS). In MLM growth phenotype depended on, and was transferred with, capsule operon type. Colonization efficiency of mouse nasopharynx also depended on, and was transferred with, capsule operon type. Capsule production interfered with growth, which correlated inversely with serotype-specific carriage prevalence. Serotypes with better growth and higher carriage prevalence produced thicker capsules (by electron microscopy, FITC-dextran exclusion assays and HPLC) than serotypes with delayed growth and low carriage prevalence. However, expression of cpsA, the first capsule gene, (by quantitative RT-PCR) correlated inversely with capsule thickness. Energy spent for capsule production (incorporation of H3-glucose) relative to amount of capsule produced was higher for serotypes with low carriage prevalence. Experiments in BHI+FCS showed overall better bacterial growth and more capsule production than growth in MLM and differences between serotypes were no longer apparent. Production of polysaccharide capsule in S. pneumoniae

  12. Composite mobile genetic elements disseminating macrolide resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Chancey, Scott T.; Agrawal, Sonia; Schroeder, Max R.; Farley, Monica M.; Tettelin, Hervé; Stephens, David S.

    2015-01-01

    Macrolide resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae emerged in the U.S. and globally during the early 1990's. The RNA methylase encoded by erm(B) and the macrolide efflux genes mef(E) and mel were identified as the resistance determining factors. These genes are disseminated in the pneumococcus on mobile, often chimeric elements consisting of multiple smaller elements. To better understand the variety of elements encoding macrolide resistance and how they have evolved in the pre- and post-conjugate vaccine eras, the genomes of 121 invasive and ten carriage isolates from Atlanta from 1994 to 2011 were analyzed for mobile elements involved in the dissemination of macrolide resistance. The isolates were selected to provide broad coverage of the genetic variability of antibiotic resistant pneumococci and included 100 invasive isolates resistant to macrolides. Tn916-like elements carrying mef(E) and mel on the Macrolide Genetic Assembly (Mega) and erm(B) on the erm(B) element and Tn917 were integrated into the pneumococcal chromosome backbone and into larger Tn5253-like composite elements. The results reported here include identification of novel insertion sites for Mega and characterization of the insertion sites of Tn916-like elements in the pneumococcal chromosome and in larger composite elements. The data indicate that integration of elements by conjugation was infrequent compared to recombination. Thus, it appears that conjugative mobile elements allow the pneumococcus to acquire DNA from distantly related bacteria, but once integrated into a pneumococcal genome, transformation and recombination is the primary mechanism for transmission of novel DNA throughout the pneumococcal population. PMID:25709602

  13. Molecule Targeting Glucosyltransferase Inhibits Streptococcus mutans Biofilm Formation and Virulence.

    PubMed

    Ren, Zhi; Cui, Tao; Zeng, Jumei; Chen, Lulu; Zhang, Wenling; Xu, Xin; Cheng, Lei; Li, Mingyun; Li, Jiyao; Zhou, Xuedong; Li, Yuqing

    2015-10-19

    Dental plaque biofilms are responsible for numerous chronic oral infections and cause a severe health burden. Many of these infections cannot be eliminated, as the bacteria in the biofilms are resistant to the host's immune defenses and antibiotics. There is a critical need to develop new strategies to control biofilm-based infections. Biofilm formation in Streptococcus mutans is promoted by major virulence factors known as glucosyltransferases (Gtfs), which synthesize adhesive extracellular polysaccharides (EPS). The current study was designed to identify novel molecules that target Gtfs, thereby inhibiting S. mutans biofilm formation and having the potential to prevent dental caries. Structure-based virtual screening of approximately 150,000 commercially available compounds against the crystal structure of the glucosyltransferase domain of the GtfC protein from S. mutans resulted in the identification of a quinoxaline derivative, 2-(4-methoxyphenyl)-N-(3-{[2-(4-methoxyphenyl)ethyl]imino}-1,4-dihydro-2-quinoxalinylidene)ethanamine, as a potential Gtf inhibitor. In vitro assays showed that the compound was capable of inhibiting EPS synthesis and biofilm formation in S. mutans by selectively antagonizing Gtfs instead of by killing the bacteria directly. Moreover, the in vivo anti-caries efficacy of the compound was evaluated in a rat model. We found that the compound significantly reduced the incidence and severity of smooth and sulcal-surface caries in vivo with a concomitant reduction in the percentage of S. mutans in the animals' dental plaque (P < 0.05). Taken together, these results represent the first description of a compound that targets Gtfs and that has the capacity to inhibit biofilm formation and the cariogenicity of S. mutans.

  14. New Insights into Various Production Characteristics of Streptococcus thermophilus Strains

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Yanhua; Xu, Tingting; Qu, Xiaojun; Hu, Tong; Jiang, Xu; Zhao, Chunyu

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus thermophilus is one of the most valuable homo-fermentative lactic acid bacteria, which, for a long time, has been widely used as a starter for the production of fermented dairy products. The key production characteristics of S. thermophilus, for example the production of extracellular polysaccharide, proteolytic enzymes and flavor substances as well as acidifying capacity etc., have an important effect on the quality of dairy products. The acidification capacity of the strains determines the manufacturing time and quality of dairy products. It depends on the sugar utilization ability of strains. The production of extracellular polysaccharide is beneficial for improving the texture of dairy products. Flavor substances increase the acceptability of dairy products. The proteolytic activity of the strain influences not only the absorption of the nitrogen source, but also the formation of flavor substances. Different strains have obvious differences in production characteristics via long-time evolution and adaptation to environment. Gaining new strains with novel and desirable characteristics is an important long-term goal for researchers and the fermenting industry. The understanding of the potential molecular mechanisms behind important characteristics of different strains will promote the screening and breeding of excellent strains. In this paper, key technological and functional properties of different S. thermophilus strains are discussed, including sugar metabolism, proteolytic system and amino acid metabolism, and polysaccharide and flavor substance biosynthesis. At the same time, diversity of genomes and plasmids of S. thermophilus are presented. Advances in research on key production characteristics and molecular levels of S. thermophilus will increase understanding of molecular mechanisms of different strains with different important characteristics, and improve the industrialization control level for fermented foods. PMID:27754312

  15. Mechanism and regulation of phosphate transport in Streptococcus pyogenes

    SciTech Connect

    Reizer, J.; Saier, M.H. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    In contrast to results reported with other bacteria, uptake of /sup 32/Pi in Streptococcus pyogenes was found to occur rapidly in starved cultures and to be strongly and immediately inhibited by addition of exogenous glycolytic energy sources (such as glucose) and nonglycolytic sources of ATP (such as arginine). Preincubation of starved cells with NaF, iodoacetate, or arsenate eliminated the inhibiting effect of glucose but not that of arginine. In accordance with the hypothesis that transport was attributable to P/sub i/-P/sub i/ exchange, uptake and efflux of /sup 32/P/sub i/ in the presence of trans unlabeled P/sub i/ exhibited similar characteristics and were largely eliminated by reduction of the trans P/sub i/ concentration. Neither process was inhibited appreciably by pretreatment of cells with ionophores or metabolic inhibitors, but both processes were abolished by exposure to p-chloromercuribenzoate. Inhibition by both exogenous energy sources resulted in a reduction in the maximal velocity of transport (V/sub max/). Whereas arginine also caused a shift in the apparent Michaelis-Menten constant (K/sub m/) to larger values, glucose did not alter the K/sub m/. On the basis of the results reported, it is proposed that the rate of P/sub i/ exchange is determined positively by the intracellular and extracellular concentrations of P/sub i/ and negatively by ATP or metabolites thereof. The mechanism of ATP action is unknown but could involve either covalent or noncovalent modification of the carrier protein.

  16. NAD+-Glycohydrolase Promotes Intracellular Survival of Group A Streptococcus

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Onkar; O’Seaghdha, Maghnus; Velarde, Jorge J.; Wessels, Michael R.

    2016-01-01

    A global increase in invasive infections due to group A Streptococcus (S. pyogenes or GAS) has been observed since the 1980s, associated with emergence of a clonal group of strains of the M1T1 serotype. Among other virulence attributes, the M1T1 clone secretes NAD+-glycohydrolase (NADase). When GAS binds to epithelial cells in vitro, NADase is translocated into the cytosol in a process mediated by streptolysin O (SLO), and expression of these two toxins is associated with enhanced GAS intracellular survival. Because SLO is required for NADase translocation, it has been difficult to distinguish pathogenic effects of NADase from those of SLO. To resolve the effects of the two proteins, we made use of anthrax toxin as an alternative means to deliver NADase to host cells, independently of SLO. We developed a novel method for purification of enzymatically active NADase fused to an amino-terminal fragment of anthrax toxin lethal factor (LFn-NADase) that exploits the avid, reversible binding of NADase to its endogenous inhibitor. LFn-NADase was translocated across a synthetic lipid bilayer in vitro in the presence of anthrax toxin protective antigen in a pH-dependent manner. Exposure of human oropharyngeal keratinocytes to LFn-NADase in the presence of protective antigen resulted in cytosolic delivery of NADase activity, inhibition of protein synthesis, and cell death, whereas a similar construct of an enzymatically inactive point mutant had no effect. Anthrax toxin-mediated delivery of NADase in an amount comparable to that observed during in vitro infection with live GAS rescued the defective intracellular survival of NADase-deficient GAS and increased the survival of SLO-deficient GAS. Confocal microscopy demonstrated that delivery of LFn-NADase prevented intracellular trafficking of NADase-deficient GAS to lysosomes. We conclude that NADase mediates cytotoxicity and promotes intracellular survival of GAS in host cells. PMID:26938870

  17. Chamaecyparis obtusa Suppresses Virulence Genes in Streptococcus mutans

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eun-Hee; Kang, Sun-Young; Park, Bog-Im; Kim, Young-Hoi; Lee, Young-Rae; Hoe, Jin-Hee; Choi, Na-Young; Ra, Ji-Young; An, So-Youn; You, Yong-Ouk

    2016-01-01

    Chamaecyparis obtusa (C. obtusa) is known to have antimicrobial effects and has been used as a medicinal plant and in forest bathing. This study aimed to evaluate the anticariogenic activity of essential oil of C. obtusa on Streptococcus mutans, which is one of the most important bacterial causes of dental caries and dental biofilm formation. Essential oil from C. obtusa was extracted, and its effect on bacterial growth, acid production, and biofilm formation was evaluated. C. obtusa essential oil exhibited concentration-dependent inhibition of bacterial growth over 0.025 mg/mL, with 99% inhibition at a concentration of 0.2 mg/mL. The bacterial biofilm formation and acid production were also significantly inhibited at the concentration greater than 0.025 mg/mL. The result of LIVE/DEAD® BacLight™ Bacterial Viability Kit showed a concentration-dependent bactericidal effect on S. mutans and almost all bacteria were dead over 0.8 mg/mL. Real-time PCR analysis showed that gene expression of some virulence factors such as brpA, gbpB, gtfC, and gtfD was also inhibited. In GC and GC-MS analysis, the major components were found to be α-terpinene (40.60%), bornyl acetate (12.45%), α-pinene (11.38%), β-pinene (7.22%), β-phellandrene (3.45%), and α-terpinolene (3.40%). These results show that C. obtusa essential oil has anticariogenic effect on S. mutans. PMID:27293453

  18. Differences between Belgian and Brazilian Group A Streptococcus Epidemiologic Landscape

    PubMed Central

    Smeesters, Pierre Robert; Vergison, Anne; Campos, Dioclécio; de Aguiar, Eurico; Deyi, Veronique Yvette Miendje; Van Melderen, Laurence

    2006-01-01

    Background Group A Streptococcus (GAS) clinical and molecular epidemiology varies with location and time. These differences are not or are poorly understood. Methods and Findings We prospectively studied the epidemiology of GAS infections among children in outpatient hospital clinics in Brussels (Belgium) and Brasília (Brazil). Clinical questionnaires were filled out and microbiological sampling was performed. GAS isolates were emm-typed according to the Center for Disease Control protocol. emm pattern was predicted for each isolate. 334 GAS isolates were recovered from 706 children. Skin infections were frequent in Brasília (48% of the GAS infections), whereas pharyngitis were predominant (88%) in Brussels. The mean age of children with GAS pharyngitis in Brussels was lower than in Brasília (65/92 months, p<0.001). emm-typing revealed striking differences between Brazilian and Belgian GAS isolates. While 20 distinct emm-types were identified among 200 Belgian isolates, 48 were found among 128 Brazilian isolates. Belgian isolates belong mainly to emm pattern A–C (55%) and E (42.5%) while emm pattern E (51.5%) and D (36%) were predominant in Brasília. In Brasília, emm pattern D isolates were recovered from 18.5% of the pharyngitis, although this emm pattern is supposed to have a skin tropism. By contrast, A–C pattern isolates were unfrequently recovered in a region where rheumatic fever is still highly prevalent. Conclusions Epidemiologic features of GAS from a pediatric population were very different in an industrialised country and a low incomes region, not only in term of clinical presentation, but also in terms of genetic diversity and distribution of emm patterns. These differences should be taken into account for designing treatment guidelines and vaccine strategies. PMID:17183632

  19. Natural Genetic Transformation of Streptococcus mutans Growing in Biofilms

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yung-Hua; Lau, Peter C. Y.; Lee, Janet H.; Ellen, Richard P.; Cvitkovitch, Dennis G.

    2001-01-01

    Streptococcus mutans is a bacterium that has evolved to be dependent upon a biofilm “lifestyle” for survival and persistence in its natural ecosystem, dental plaque. We initiated this study to identify the genes involved in the development of genetic competence in S. mutans and to assay the natural genetic transformability of biofilm-grown cells. Using genomic analyses, we identified a quorum-sensing peptide pheromone signaling system similar to those previously found in other streptococci. The genetic locus of this system comprises three genes, comC, comD, and comE, that encode a precursor to the peptide competence factor, a histidine kinase, and a response regulator, respectively. We deduced the sequence of comC and its active pheromone product and chemically synthesized the corresponding 21-amino-acid competence-stimulating peptide (CSP). Addition of CSP to noncompetent cells facilitated increased transformation frequencies, with typically 1% of the total cell population transformed. To further confirm the roles of these genes in genetic competence, we inactivated them by insertion-duplication mutagenesis or allelic replacement followed by assays of transformation efficiency. We also demonstrated that biofilm-grown S. mutans cells were transformed at a rate 10- to 600-fold higher than planktonic S. mutans cells. Donor DNA included a suicide plasmid, S. mutans chromosomal DNA harboring a heterologous erythromycin resistance gene, and a replicative plasmid. The cells were optimally transformed during the formation of 8- to 16-h-old biofilms primarily consisting of microcolonies on solid surfaces. We also found that dead cells in the biofilms could act as donors of a chromosomally encoded antibiotic resistance determinant. This work demonstrated that a peptide pheromone system controls genetic competence in S. mutans and that the system functions optimally when the cells are living in actively growing biofilms. PMID:11208787

  20. Discovery of Novel Peptides Regulating Competence Development in Streptococcus mutans

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Sang-Joon; Kaspar, Justin; Kim, Jeong Nam; Seaton, Kinda

    2014-01-01

    A MarR-like transcriptional repressor (RcrR) and two predicted ABC efflux pumps (RcrPQ) encoded by a single operon were recently shown to be dominant regulators of stress tolerance and development of genetic competence in the oral pathogen Streptococcus mutans. Here, we focused on polar (ΔrcrR-P) and nonpolar (ΔrcrR-NP) rcrR mutants, which are hyper- and nontransformable, respectively, to dissect the mechanisms by which these mutations impact competence. We discovered two open reading frames (ORFs) in the 3′ end of the rcrQ gene that encode peptides of 27 and 42 amino acids (aa) which are also dramatically upregulated in the ΔrcrR-NP strain. Deletion of, or start codon mutations in, the ORFs for the peptides in the ΔrcrR-NP background restored competence and sensitivity to competence-stimulating peptide (CSP) to levels seen in the ΔrcrR-P strain. Overexpression of the peptides adversely affected competence development. Importantly, overexpression of mutant derivatives of the ABC exporters that lacked the peptides also resulted in impaired competence. FLAG-tagged versions of the peptides could be detected in S. mutans, and FLAG tagging of the peptides impaired their function. The competence phenotypes associated with the various mutations, and with overexpression of the peptides and ABC transporters, were correlated with the levels of ComX protein in cells. Collectively, these studies revealed multiple novel mechanisms for regulation of competence development by the components of the rcrRPQ operon. Given their intimate role in competence and stress tolerance, the rcrRPQ-encoded peptides may prove to be useful targets for therapeutics to diminish the virulence of S. mutans. PMID:25135217

  1. Role of human milk oligosaccharides in Group B Streptococcus colonisation

    PubMed Central

    Andreas, Nicholas J; Al-Khalidi, Asmaa; Jaiteh, Mustapha; Clarke, Edward; Hyde, Matthew J; Modi, Neena; Holmes, Elaine; Kampmann, Beate; Mehring Le Doare, Kirsty

    2016-01-01

    Group B Streptococcus (GBS) infection is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in infants. The major risk factor for GBS disease is maternal and subsequent infant colonisation. It is unknown whether human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) protect against GBS colonisation. HMO production is genetically determined and linked to the Lewis antigen system. We aimed to investigate the association between HMOs and infant GBS colonisation between birth and postnatal day 90. Rectovaginal swabs were collected at delivery, as well as colostrum/breast milk, infant nasopharyngeal and rectal swabs at birth, 6 days and days 60–89 postpartum from 183 Gambian mother/infant pairs. GBS colonisation and serotypes were determined using culture and PCR. 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy was used to characterise the mother's Lewis status and HMO profile in breast milk. Mothers who were Lewis-positive were significantly less likely to be colonised by GBS (X2=12.50, P<0.001). Infants of Lewis-positive mothers were less likely GBS colonised at birth (X2=4.88 P=0.03) and more likely to clear colonisation between birth and days 60–89 than infants born to Lewis-negative women (P=0.05). There was no association between Secretor status and GBS colonisation. In vitro work revealed that lacto-N-difucohexaose I (LNDFHI) correlated with a reduction in the growth of GBS. Our results suggest that HMO such as LNDFHI may be a useful adjunct in reducing maternal and infant colonisation and hence invasive GBS disease. Secretor status offers utility as a stratification variable in GBS clinical trials. PMID:27588204

  2. Distribution of small native plasmids in Streptococcus pyogenes in India.

    PubMed

    Bergmann, René; Nerlich, Andreas; Chhatwal, Gursharan S; Nitsche-Schmitz, D Patric

    2014-05-01

    Complete characterization of a Streptococcus pyogenes population from a defined geographic region comprises information on the plasmids that circulate in these bacteria. Therefore, we determined the distribution of small plasmids (<5kb) in a collection of 279 S. pyogenes isolates from India, where diversity of strains and incidence rates of S. pyogenes infections are high. The collection comprised 77 emm-types. For plasmid detection and discrimination, we developed PCRs for different plasmid replication initiation protein genes, the putative repressor gene copG and bacteriocin genes dysA and scnM57. Plasmid distribution was limited to 13 emm-types. Co-detection analysis using aforementioned PCRs revealed four distinct plasmid sub-types, two of which were previously unknown. Representative plasmids pA852 and pA996 of the two uncharacterized plasmid sub-types were sequenced. These two plasmids could be assigned to the pMV158 and the pC194/pUB110 family of rolling-circle plasmids, respectively. The majority of small plasmids found in India belonged to the two newly characterized sub-types, with pA852- and pA996-like plasmids amounting to 42% and 22% of all detected plasmids, respectively. None of the detected plasmids coded for a known antibiotic resistance gene. Instead, all of the four plasmid sub-types carried known or potential bacteriocin genes. These genes may have influence on the evolutionary success of certain S. pyogenes genotypes. Notably, pA852-like plasmids were found in all isolates of the most prevalent emm-type 11.0. Together, a priori fitness of this genotype and increased fitness due to the acquired plasmids may have rendered type emm11.0 successful and caused the prevalence of pA852-like plasmids in India.

  3. Sucrose substitutes affect the cariogenic potential of Streptococcus mutans biofilms.

    PubMed

    Durso, S C; Vieira, L M; Cruz, J N S; Azevedo, C S; Rodrigues, P H; Simionato, M R L

    2014-01-01

    Streptococcus mutans is considered the primary etiologic agent of dental caries and contributes significantly to the virulence of dental plaque, especially in the presence of sucrose. To avoid the role of sucrose on the virulence factors of S. mutans, sugar substitutes are commonly consumed because they lead to lower or no production of acids and interfere with biofilm formation. This study aimed to investigate the contribution of sugar substitutes in the cariogenic potential of S. mutans biofilms. Thus, in the presence of sucrose, glucose, sucralose and sorbitol, the biofilm mass was quantified up to 96 h, the pH of the spent culture media was measured, the expression of biofilm-related genes was determined, and demineralization challenge experiments were conduct in enamel fragments. The presence of sugars or sugar substitutes profoundly affected the expression of spaP, gtfB, gtfC, gbpB, ftf, vicR and vicX in either biofilm or planktonic cells. The substitution of sucrose induced a down-regulation of most genes involved in sucrose-dependent colonization in biofilm cells. When the ratio between the expression of biofilm and planktonic cells was considered, most of those genes were down-regulated in biofilm cells in the presence of sugars and up-regulated in the presence of sugar substitutes. However, sucralose but not sorbitol fulfilled the purpose of reducing the cariogenic potential of the diet since it induced the biofilm formation with the lowest biomass, did not change the pH of the medium and led to the lowest lesion depth in the cariogenic challenge.

  4. Aerobic exercise attenuates pulmonary inflammation induced by Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Olivo, Clarice R; Miyaji, Eliane N; Oliveira, Maria Leonor S; Almeida, Francine M; Lourenço, Juliana D; Abreu, Rodrigo M; Arantes, Petra M M; Lopes, Fernanda Dtqs; Martins, Milton A

    2014-11-01

    Aerobic exercise has been recognized as a stimulator of the immune system, but its effect on bacterial infection has not been extensively evaluated. We studied whether moderate aerobic exercise training prior to Streptococcus pneumoniae infection influences pulmonary inflammatory responses. BALB/c mice were divided into four groups: Sedentary Untreated (sedentary without infection); Sedentary Infected (sedentary with infection); Trained Untreated (aerobic training without infection); and Trained Infected (aerobic training with infection). Animals underwent aerobic training for 4 wk, and 72 h after last exercise training, animals received a challenge with S. pneumoniae and were evaluated either 12 h or 10 days after instillation. In acute phase, Sedentary Infected group had an increase in respiratory system resistance and elastance; number of neutrophils, lymphocytes, and macrophages in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BAL); polymorphonuclear cells in lung parenchyma; and levels of keratinocyte-derived chemokine (KC), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and interleukin (IL)-1β (IL-1β) in lung homogenates. Exercise training significantly attenuated the increase in all of these parameters and induced an increase in expression of antioxidant enzymes (CuZnSOD and MnSOD) in lungs. Trained Infected mice had a significant decrease in the number of colony-forming units of pneumococci in the lungs compared with Sedentary Infected animals. Ten days after infection, Trained Infected group exhibited lower numbers of macrophages in BAL, polymorphonuclear cells in lung parenchyma and IL-6 in lung homogenates compared with Sedentary Infected group. Our results suggest a protective effect of moderate exercise training against respiratory infection with S. pneumoniae. This effect is most likely secondary to an effect of exercise on oxidant-antioxidant balance.

  5. Surface tension-like forces determine bacterial shapes: Streptococcus faecium.

    PubMed

    Koch, A L; Higgins, M L; Doyle, R J

    1981-03-01

    The same tendency that causes soap bubbles to achieve a minimum surface area for the volume enclosed seems to account for many of the features of growth and division of bacteria, including both bacilli and cocci. It is only necessary to assume that growth takes place in zones and that only in these zones does the tension caused by hydrostatic pressure create the strain that forces the cell to increase the wall area. The stress developed by osmotic pressure creates strains that significantly lower the free energy of bond splitting by hydrolysis or transfer. We believe this is sufficient to make growing wall have some of the properties ordinarily associated with surface tension. The feature common to all bacterial cell wall growth is that peptidoglycan is inserted under strain-free conditions. Only after the covalent links have been formed are the intervening stressed peptide bonds cleaved so that the new unit supports the stress due to hydrostatic pressure. The present paper analyses the growth of Streptococcus faecium in these terms. This is a particularly simple case and detailed data concerning morphology are available. The best fit to the data is achieved by assuming that growth takes place in a narrow region near the splitting septum and that the septal material is already under tension as it is externalized and is twice as thick as the external wall throughout the development of the nascent poles. Constancy of the ratio of hydrostatic pressure to the effective surface tension, P/T, is also consistent with electron microscopic observations. PMID:7320694

  6. Binding Forces of Streptococcus mutans P1 Adhesin

    PubMed Central

    Sullan, Ruby May A.; Li, James K.; Crowley, Paula J.; Brady, L. Jeannine; Dufrêne, Yves F.

    2015-01-01

    Streptococcus mutans is a Gram-positive oral bacterium that is a primary etiological agent associated with human dental caries. In the oral cavity, S. mutans adheres to immobilized salivary agglutinin (SAG) contained within the salivary pellicle on the tooth surface. Binding to SAG is mediated by cell surface P1, a multifunctional adhesin that is also capable of interacting with extracellular matrix proteins. This may be of particular importance outside of the oral cavity as S. mutans has been associated with infective endocarditis and detected in atherosclerotic plaque. Despite the biomedical importance of P1, its binding mechanisms are not completely understood. In this work, we use atomic force microscopy-based single-molecule and single-cell force spectroscopy to quantify the nanoscale forces driving P1-mediated adhesion. Single-molecule experiments show that full-length P1, as well as fragments containing only the P1 globular head or C-terminal region, binds to SAG with relatively weak forces (~50 pN). In contrast, single-cell analyses reveal that adhesion of a single S. mutans cell to SAG is mediated by strong (~500 pN) and long-range (up to 6000 nm) forces. This is likely due to the binding of multiple P1 adhesins to self-associated gp340 glycoproteins. Such a cooperative, long-range character of the S. mutans–SAG interaction would therefore dramatically increase the strength and duration of cell adhesion. We also demonstrate, at single-molecule and single-cell levels, the interaction of P1 with fibronectin and collagen, as well as with hydrophobic, but not hydrophilic, substrates. The binding mechanism (strong forces, cooperativity, broad specificity) of P1 provides a molecular basis for its multifunctional adhesion properties. Our methodology represents a valuable approach to probe the binding forces of bacterial adhesins and offers a tractable methodology to assess anti-adhesion therapy. PMID:25671413

  7. The influence of Brazilian plant extracts on Streptococcus mutans biofilm

    PubMed Central

    BARNABÉ, Michele; SARACENI, Cíntia Helena Coury; DUTRA-CORREA, Maristela; SUFFREDINI, Ivana Barbosa

    2014-01-01

    Nineteen plant extracts obtained from plants from the Brazilian Amazon showed activity against planktonic Streptococcus mutans, an important bacterium involved in the first steps of biofilm formation and the subsequent initiation of several oral diseases. Objective Our goal was to verify whether plant extracts that showed activity against planktonic S. mutans could prevent the organization of or even disrupt a single-species biofilm made by the same bacteria. Material and Methods Plant extracts were tested on a single-bacteria biofilm prepared using the Zürich method. Each plant extract was tested at a concentration 5 times higher than its minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). Discs of hydroxyapatite were submersed overnight in brain-heart infusion broth enriched with saccharose 5%, which provided sufficient time for biofilm formation. The discs were then submersed in extract solutions for one minute, three times per day, for two subsequent days. The discs were then washed with saline three times, at ten seconds each, after each treatment. Supports were allowed to remain in the enriched medium for one additional night. At the end of the process, the bacteria were removed from the discs by vortexing and were counted. Results Only two of 19 plant extracts showed activity in the present assay: EB1779, obtained from Dioscorea altissima, and EB1673, obtained from Annona hypoglauca. Although the antibacterial activity of the plant extracts was first observed against planktonic S. mutans, influence over biofilm formation was not necessarily observed in the biofilm model. The present results motivate us to find new natural products to be used in dentistry. PMID:25466471

  8. Inhibitory effect of Lactobacillus salivarius on Streptococcus mutans biofilm formation.

    PubMed

    Wu, C-C; Lin, C-T; Wu, C-Y; Peng, W-S; Lee, M-J; Tsai, Y-C

    2015-02-01

    Dental caries arises from an imbalance of metabolic activities in dental biofilms developed primarily by Streptococcus mutans. This study was conducted to isolate potential oral probiotics with antagonistic activities against S. mutans biofilm formation from Lactobacillus salivarius, frequently found in human saliva. We analysed 64 L. salivarius strains and found that two, K35 and K43, significantly inhibited S. mutans biofilm formation with inhibitory activities more pronounced than those of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG), a prototypical probiotic that shows anti-caries activity. Scanning electron microscopy showed that co-culture of S. mutans with K35 or K43 resulted in significantly reduced amounts of attached bacteria and network-like structures, typically comprising exopolysaccharides. Spot assay for S. mutans indicated that K35 and K43 strains possessed a stronger bactericidal activity against S. mutans than LGG. Moreover, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction showed that the expression of genes encoding glucosyltransferases, gtfB, gtfC, and gtfD was reduced when S. mutans were co-cultured with K35 or K43. However, LGG activated the expression of gtfB and gtfC, but did not influence the expression of gtfD in the co-culture. A transwell-based biofilm assay indicated that these lactobacilli inhibited S. mutans biofilm formation in a contact-independent manner. In conclusion, we identified two L. salivarius strains with inhibitory activities on the growth and expression of S. mutans virulence genes to reduce its biofilm formation. This is not a general characteristic of the species, so presents a potential strategy for in vivo alteration of plaque biofilm and caries. PMID:24961744

  9. Inactivation of cell-associated fructosyltransferase in Streptococcus salivarius.

    PubMed Central

    Jacques, N A; Wittenberger, C L

    1981-01-01

    In stationary phase, 95% of the fructosyltransferase (FTase) activity of Streptococcus salivarius ATCC 25975 was found associated with the cells. Within the first 15 min after inoculation into fresh medium, the specific activity of cell-associated FTase decreased by 92% of its initial value. After this period of initial loss, the enzyme was synthesized during exponential growth until a maximum level equivalent to that present before inoculation was obtained. The inactivation of FTase was also demonstrated in a nongrowing system. Washed cell suspensions incubated at 37 degrees C in 200 mM potassium phosphate buffer (pH 6.5) containing 10 microM Cu2+ lost 80 to 95% of their FRase activity after 30 min. This loss could be prevented by the addition of histidine, cysteine, or Ca2+ to the suspension mixture. A factor(s) essential for the inactivation of cell-associated FTase could itself be preferentially inactivated by heating cells at 40 degrees C for periods of up to 3 h, or by storage of cells at 0 to 4 degrees C for several days in a low-ionic-strength, low-pH, potassium phosphate buffer. Treatment of cells with the N-acetylmuramidase enzyme M-1, in the presence of 0.5 M melezitose, resulted in the release of FTase from the cell. The released enzyme was recovered in the supernatant fraction after centrifugation at 160,000 x g for 90 min. Comparison of solubilized active and inactivated FTase preparations by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis demonstrated that the inactivation of cell-associated FTase activity was associated with the loss of specific protein bands. PMID:7309680

  10. Purification and certain properties of a bacteriocin from Streptococcus mutans.

    PubMed Central

    Ikeda, T; Iwanami, T; Hirasawa, M; Watanabe, C; McGhee, J R; Shiota, T

    1982-01-01

    An inhibition factor from Streptococcus mutans strain C3603 (serotype c) was purified and isolated, and its properties indicated that it was a bacteriocin. Bacteriocin C3603 is a basic protein with a pI value of 10 and a molecular weight of 4,800. The activity of this bacteriocin was not affected by pH over a range of 1.0 to 12.0 or by storage at 100 degrees C for 10 min at pH 2.0 to 7.0 or storage at 121 degrees C for 15 min at pH 4.0. Pronase; papain, phospholipase C, trypsin, and alpha-amylase had no effect on the activity of the bacteriocin, whereas alpha-chymotrypsin and pancreatin were partially active against it. Bacteriocin activity was greater against certain S. mutans strains of serotypes b, c, e, and f than against certain S. mutans strains of serotypes a, d, and g. Bacteriocin C3603 was also effective against selected strains of S. sanguis, S. salivarius, S. bovis, S. faecium, S. lactis, Lactobacillus casei, L. plantarum, L. fermentum, Bifidobacterium bifidum, Bifidobacterium longum, Propionibacterium acnes, and Bacteroides melaninogenicus, but it was not effective against certain strains of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Corynebacterium parvum, and Candida albicans. The inhibition of S. mutans strains BHT and PS-14 by bacteriocin C3603 was found to be due to the bacteriocidal activity of the bacteriocin. When water or a diet containing bacteriocin C3603 was consumed by gnotobiotic and specific pathogen-free rats infected with S. mutans PS-14, the caries score was found to be significantly reduced. Images PMID:7068219

  11. Analysis of the immunoglobulin A protease gene of Streptococcus sanguis.

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert, J V; Plaut, A G; Wright, A

    1991-01-01

    The amino acid sequence T-P-P-T-P-S-P-S is tandemly duplicated in the heavy chain of human immunoglobulin A1 (IgA1), the major antibody in secretions. The bacterial pathogen Streptococcus sanguis, a precursor to dental caries and a cause of bacterial endocarditis, yields IgA protease that cleaves only the Pro-Thr peptide bond in the left duplication, while the type 2 IgA proteases of the genital pathogen Neisseria gonorrhoeae and the respiratory pathogen Haemophilus influenzae cleave only the P-T bond in the right half. We have sequenced the entire S. sanguis iga gene cloned into Escherichia coli. A segment consisting of 20 amino acids tandemly repeated 10 times, of unknown function, occurs near the amino-terminal end of the enzyme encoded in E. coli. Identification of a predicted zinc-binding region in the S. sanguis enzyme and the demonstration that mutations in this region result in production of a catalytically inactive protein support the idea that the enzyme is a metalloprotease. The N. gonorrhoeae and H. influenzae enzymes were earlier shown to be serine-type proteases, while the Bacteroides melaninogenicus IgA protease was shown to be a cysteine-type enzyme. The streptococcal IgA protease amino acid sequence has no significant homology with either of the two previously determined IgA protease sequences, that of type 2 N. gonorrhoeae and type 1 H. influenzae. The differences in both structure and mechanism among these functionally analogous enzymes underscore their role in the infectious process and offer some prospect of therapeutic intervention. Images PMID:1987065

  12. Genetic Locus for Streptolysin S Production by Group A Streptococcus

    PubMed Central

    Nizet, Victor; Beall, Bernard; Bast, Darrin J.; Datta, Vivekananda; Kilburn, Laurie; Low, Donald E.; De Azavedo, Joyce C. S.

    2000-01-01

    Group A streptococcus (GAS) is an important human pathogen that causes pharyngitis and invasive infections, including necrotizing fasciitis. Streptolysin S (SLS) is the cytolytic factor that creates the zone of beta-hemolysis surrounding GAS colonies grown on blood agar. We recently reported the discovery of a potential genetic determinant involved in SLS production, sagA, encoding a small peptide of 53 amino acids (S. D. Betschel, S. M. Borgia, N. L. Barg, D. E. Low, and J. C. De Azavedo, Infect. Immun. 66:1671–1679, 1998). Using transposon mutagenesis, chromosomal walking steps, and data from the GAS genome sequencing project (www.genome.ou.edu/strep.html), we have now identified a contiguous nine-gene locus (sagA to sagI) involved in SLS production. The sag locus is conserved among GAS strains regardless of M protein type. Targeted plasmid integrational mutagenesis of each gene in the sag operon resulted in an SLS-negative phenotype. Targeted integrations (i) upstream of the sagA promoter and (ii) downstream of a terminator sequence after sagI did not affect SLS production, establishing the functional boundaries of the operon. A rho-independent terminator sequence between sagA and sagB appears to regulate the amount of sagA transcript produced versus transcript for the entire operon. Reintroduction of the nine-gene sag locus on a plasmid vector restored SLS activity to the nonhemolytic sagA knockout mutant. Finally, heterologous expression of the intact sag operon conferred the SLS beta-hemolytic phenotype to the nonhemolytic Lactococcus lactis. We conclude that gene products of the GAS sag operon are both necessary and sufficient for SLS production. Sequence homologies of sag operon gene products suggest that SLS is related to the bacteriocin family of microbial toxins. PMID:10858242

  13. Streptococcus pneumoniae biofilm formation and dispersion during colonization and disease

    PubMed Central

    Chao, Yashuan; Marks, Laura R.; Pettigrew, Melinda M.; Hakansson, Anders P.

    2015-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae (the pneumococcus) is a common colonizer of the human nasopharynx. Despite a low rate of invasive disease, the high prevalence of colonization results in millions of infections and over one million deaths per year, mostly in individuals under the age of 5 and the elderly. Colonizing pneumococci form well-organized biofilm communities in the nasopharyngeal environment, but the specific role of biofilms and their interaction with the host during colonization and disease is not yet clear. Pneumococci in biofilms are highly resistant to antimicrobial agents and this phenotype can be recapitulated when pneumococci are grown on respiratory epithelial cells under conditions found in the nasopharyngeal environment. Pneumococcal biofilms display lower levels of virulence in vivo and provide an optimal environment for increased genetic exchange both in vitro and in vivo, with increased natural transformation seen during co-colonization with multiple strains. Biofilms have also been detected on mucosal surfaces during pneumonia and middle ear infection, although the role of these biofilms in the disease process is debated. Recent studies have shown that changes in the nasopharyngeal environment caused by concomitant virus infection, changes in the microflora, inflammation, or other host assaults trigger active release of pneumococci from biofilms. These dispersed bacteria have distinct phenotypic properties and transcriptional profiles different from both biofilm and broth-grown, planktonic bacteria, resulting in a significantly increased virulence in vivo. In this review we discuss the properties of pneumococcal biofilms, the role of biofilm formation during pneumococcal colonization, including their propensity for increased ability to exchange genetic material, as well as mechanisms involved in transition from asymptomatic biofilm colonization to dissemination and disease of otherwise sterile sites. Greater understanding of pneumococcal biofilm

  14. Organic Turkey Flocks: A Reservoir of Streptococcus gallolyticus subspecies gallolyticus.

    PubMed

    Schulz, Jochen; Dumke, Jessika; Hinse, Dennis; Dreier, Jens; Habig, Christin; Kemper, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    Streptococcus gallolyticus subspecies gallolyticus (S. gallolyticus) can colonise the gastrointestinal tract of humans and animals and is known to cause similar infections in both humans and animals. Data about the spread or prevalence in farm animals are missing. In this study, Trypton Soya Agar was modified to a selective medium enabling the isolation and quantification of S. gallolyticus from faecal samples. The bacterium was observed in 82 out of 91 faecal samples obtained from 18 different organic turkey flocks. The prevalence of shedding birds was estimated by the number of positive fresh droppings and reached up to 100% on most farms. Furthermore, for the first time S. gallolyticus was quantified in faeces from poultry flocks. The median of colony forming units (CFU) per gramme faeces was 3.6 x 10(5) CFU/g. Typing of one isolate from each positive faecal sample by multilocus sequence typing delivered 24 sequence types (STs). Most of the isolates belonged to the clonal complex CC58. The same STs of this complex were detected in up to six different flocks. Partly, these flocks were located in various regions and stocked with varying breeding lines. Regarding the biochemical profiles of the same STs from different farms, the results did not contradict a spread of specific STs in the organic turkey production. Moreover, checking the pubMLST database revealed that STs found in this study were also found in other animal species and in humans. The high detection rate and the number of S. gallolyticus in turkey faeces indicate that this bacterium probably belongs to the common microbiota of the gastrointestinal tract of turkeys from organic flocks. Furthermore, the findings of this study support the suggestion of a possible interspecies transmission.

  15. Organic Turkey Flocks: A Reservoir of Streptococcus gallolyticus subspecies gallolyticus

    PubMed Central

    Schulz, Jochen; Dumke, Jessika; Hinse, Dennis; Dreier, Jens; Habig, Christin; Kemper, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    Streptococcus gallolyticus subspecies gallolyticus (S. gallolyticus) can colonise the gastrointestinal tract of humans and animals and is known to cause similar infections in both humans and animals. Data about the spread or prevalence in farm animals are missing. In this study, Trypton Soya Agar was modified to a selective medium enabling the isolation and quantification of S. gallolyticus from faecal samples. The bacterium was observed in 82 out of 91 faecal samples obtained from 18 different organic turkey flocks. The prevalence of shedding birds was estimated by the number of positive fresh droppings and reached up to 100% on most farms. Furthermore, for the first time S. gallolyticus was quantified in faeces from poultry flocks. The median of colony forming units (CFU) per gramme faeces was 3.6 x 105CFU/g. Typing of one isolate from each positive faecal sample by multilocus sequence typing delivered 24 sequence types (STs). Most of the isolates belonged to the clonal complex CC58. The same STs of this complex were detected in up to six different flocks. Partly, these flocks were located in various regions and stocked with varying breeding lines. Regarding the biochemical profiles of the same STs from different farms, the results did not contradict a spread of specific STs in the organic turkey production. Moreover, checking the pubMLST database revealed that STs found in this study were also found in other animal species and in humans. The high detection rate and the number of S. gallolyticus in turkey faeces indicate that this bacterium probably belongs to the common microbiota of the gastrointestinal tract of turkeys from organic flocks. Furthermore, the findings of this study support the suggestion of a possible interspecies transmission. PMID:26657757

  16. Replacing and Additive Horizontal Gene Transfer in Streptococcus

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Sang Chul; Rasmussen, Matthew D.; Hubisz, Melissa J.; Gronau, Ilan; Stanhope, Michael J.; Siepel, Adam

    2012-01-01

    The prominent role of Horizontal Gene Transfer (HGT) in the evolution of bacteria is now well documented, but few studies have differentiated between evolutionary events that predominantly cause genes in one lineage to be replaced by homologs from another lineage (“replacing HGT”) and events that result in the addition of substantial new genomic material (“additive HGT”). Here in, we make use of the distinct phylogenetic signatures of replacing and additive HGTs in a genome-wide study of the important human pathogen Streptococcus pyogenes (SPY) and its close relatives S. dysgalactiae subspecies equisimilis (SDE) and S. dysgalactiae subspecies dysgalactiae (SDD). Using recently developed statistical models and computational methods, we find evidence for abundant gene flow of both kinds within each of the SPY and SDE clades and of reduced levels of exchange between SPY and SDD. In addition, our analysis strongly supports a pronounced asymmetry in SPY–SDE gene flow, favoring the SPY-to-SDE direction. This finding is of particular interest in light of the recent increase in virulence of pathogenic SDE. We find much stronger evidence for SPY–SDE gene flow among replacing than among additive transfers, suggesting a primary influence from homologous recombination between co-occurring SPY and SDE cells in human hosts. Putative virulence genes are correlated with transfer events, but this correlation is found to be driven by additive, not replacing, HGTs. The genes affected by additive HGTs are enriched for functions having to do with transposition, recombination, and DNA integration, consistent with previous findings, whereas replacing HGTs seen to influence a more diverse set of genes. Additive transfers are also found to be associated with evidence of positive selection. These findings shed new light on the manner in which HGT has shaped pathogenic bacterial genomes. PMID:22617954

  17. Maternal group B Streptococcus and the infant gut microbiota.

    PubMed

    Cassidy-Bushrow, A E; Sitarik, A; Levin, A M; Lynch, S V; Havstad, S; Ownby, D R; Johnson, C C; Wegienka, G

    2016-02-01

    Early patterns of gut colonization may predispose children to adult disease. Exposures in utero and during delivery are associated with the infant gut microbiome. Although ~35% of women carry group B strep (GBS; Streptococcus agalactiae) during pregnancy, it is unknown if GBS presence influences the infant gut microbiome. As part of a population-based, general risk birth cohort, stool specimens were collected from infant's diapers at research visits conducted at ~1 and 6 months of age. Using the Illumina MiSeq (San Diego, CA) platform, the V4 region of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene was sequenced. Infant gut bacterial community compositional differences by maternal GBS status were evaluated using permutational multivariate analysis of variance. Individual operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were tested using a zero-inflated negative binomial model. Data on maternal GBS and infant gut microbiota from either 1 (n=112) or 6-month-old stool (n=150) specimens was available on 262 maternal-child pairs. Eighty women (30.5%) were GBS+, of who 58 (72.5%) were given intrapartum antibiotics. After adjusting for maternal race, prenatal antifungal use and intrapartum antibiotics, maternal GBS status was statistically significantly associated with gut bacterial composition in the 6 month visit specimen (Canberra R 2=0.008, P=0.008; Unweighted UniFrac R 2=0.010, P=0.011). Individual OTU tests revealed that infants of GBS+ mothers were significantly enriched for specific members of the Clostridiaceae, Ruminococcoceae, and Enterococcaceae in the 6 month specimens compared with infants of GBS- mothers. Whether these taxonomic differences in infant gut microbiota at 6 months lead to differential predisposition for adult disease requires additional study. PMID:26264560

  18. Stability of Serotypes during Nasopharyngeal Carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Meats, Emma; Brueggemann, Angela B.; Enright, Mark C.; Sleeman, Karen; Griffiths, David T.; Crook, Derrick W.; Spratt, Brian G.

    2003-01-01

    Serotype changes among natural isolates of Streptococcus pneumoniae are well documented and occur by recombinational exchanges at the capsular biosynthetic locus. However, the frequency with which this phenomenon occurs within the nasopharynx of children is not clear and is likely to be highest in the nasopharynx of children, who have high rates of pneumococcal carriage. A birth cohort of 100 infants was studied, and pneumococci were recovered from nasopharyngeal samples taken at monthly intervals during the first 6 months of life and then at 2-monthly intervals until the age of 2 years. Among the 1,353 nasopharyngeal samples were 523 that contained presumptive pneumococci, and three colonies from each were serotyped. A total of 333 isolates, including all isolates of differing serotypes from the same child, were characterized by multilocus sequence typing. Sixty-eight children carried multiple serotypes during the first 2 years of life. Two children carried a typeable and a nonserotypeable pneumococcus of identical genotype, and five children carried genetically indistinguishable isolates of serotypes 15B and 15C. These isolates were considered, respectively, to be due to loss of capsule expression and the known ability of serotype 15B and 15C pneumococci to interconvert by loss or gain of an acetyl group on the capsular polysaccharide. In all other cases, isolates from the same children that differed in serotype also differed in genotype, indicating the acquisition of a different pneumococcal strain rather than a change in capsular type. There was therefore no evidence in this study for any change of serotype due to recombinational replacements at the capsular locus among the pneumococci carried within the nasopharynges of the children. PMID:12517877

  19. Is Streptococcus pyogenes resistant or susceptible to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole?

    PubMed

    Bowen, Asha C; Lilliebridge, Rachael A; Tong, Steven Y C; Baird, Robert W; Ward, Peter; McDonald, Malcolm I; Currie, Bart J; Carapetis, Jonathan R

    2012-12-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes is commonly believed to be resistant to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (SXT), resulting in reservations about using SXT for skin and soft tissue infections (SSTI) where S. pyogenes is involved. S. pyogenes' in vitro susceptibility to SXT depends on the medium's thymidine content. Thymidine allows S. pyogenes to bypass the sulfur-mediated inhibition of folate metabolism and, historically, has resulted in apparently reduced susceptibility of S. pyogenes to sulfur antibacterials. The low thymidine concentration in Mueller-Hinton agar (MHA) is now regulated. We explored S. pyogenes susceptibility to SXT on various media. Using two sets of 100 clinical S. pyogenes isolates, we tested for susceptibility using SXT Etests on MHA containing defibrinated horse blood and 20 mg/liter β-NAD (MHF), MHA with sheep blood (MHS), MHA alone, MHA with horse blood (MHBA), and MHA with lysed horse blood (MHLHBA). European Committee on Antibacterial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) breakpoints defined susceptibility (MIC, ≤ 1 mg/liter) and resistance (MIC, >2 mg/liter). In study 1, 99% of S. pyogenes isolates were susceptible to SXT on MHA, MHBA, and MHLHBA, with geometric mean MICs of 0.04, 0.04, and 0.05 mg/liter, respectively. In study 2, all 100 S. pyogenes isolates were susceptible to SXT on MHF, MHS, MHA, and MHLHBA with geometric mean MICs of 0.07, 0.16, 0.07, and 0.09 mg/liter, respectively. This study confirms the in vitro susceptibility of S. pyogenes to SXT, providing support for the use of SXT for SSTIs. A clinical trial using SXT for impetigo is ongoing.

  20. Antibacterial effects of several current orthodontic materials against Streptococcus mutans.

    PubMed

    Catalbaş, B; Kamak, H; Demir, A; Nur, M; Hadimli, H H

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the antibacterial effect of several current orthodontic materials against a certain oral bacterium. The antibacterial activities of six orthodontic composite resins (Transbond LR, Light Cure Retainer (LCR), Light Bond, System 1+, Kurasper F, Transbond XT adhesive), two orthodontic bonding materials (Transbond XT primer and System 1+ activator) and two glass ionomer cements (GIC) [Multicure Glass Ionomer and Ketac Cem GIC] were evaluated against Streptococcus mutans. The hard materials were put into the Teflon mould. The liquid materials were put on a paper disc. All materials were handled under aseptic conditions and placed on agar culture plates. All plates were incubated at 5% CO2 and 37 degrees C for 48 hours. The bacterial growth inhibition zones including the diameter of the sample were measured in millimetres. As a result of this study, the multicure GIC showed the highest antibacterial effectiveness, but no inhibition zones were noted for ketac cem GIC. The light bond adhesive of the Reliance orthodontic bonding system produced high antibacterial effect against S mutans, while the Reliance composite (LCR) did not show any antibacterial effect (p < 0.05). Both composite and primer of the transbond XT system demonstrated significant antibacterial effect against the test bacterium when compared to transbond LR (p < 0.05). Among the materials tested, kurasper F, Ormco system 1+ and system 1+ activator showed slight or no inhibitory effect against the test bacterium in this study In patients who have relatively high salivary levels of Streptococci mutans before treatment, the multicure GIC, the Reliance light bond adhesive, and transbond XT system which had high level antibacterial properties could be applied. PMID:23757904

  1. Short communication: Conservation of Streptococcus uberis adhesion molecule and the sua gene in strains of Streptococcus uberis isolated from geographically diverse areas.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Ying; Dego, Oudessa Kerro; Chen, Xueyan; Abadin, Eurife; Chan, Shangfeng; Jory, Lauren; Kovacevic, Steven; Almeida, Raul A; Oliver, Stephen P

    2014-12-01

    The objective was to identify and sequence the sua gene (GenBank no. DQ232760; http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/genbank/) and detect Streptococcus uberis adhesion molecule (SUAM) expression by Western blot using serum from naturally S. uberis-infected cows in strains of S. uberis isolated in milk from cows with mastitis from geographically diverse areas of the world. All strains evaluated yielded a 4.4-kb sua-containing PCR fragment that was subsequently sequenced. Deduced SUAM AA sequences from those S. uberis strains evaluated shared >97% identity. The pepSUAM sequence located at the N terminus of SUAM was >99% identical among strains of S. uberis. Streptococcus uberis adhesion molecule expression was detected in all strains of S. uberis tested. These results suggest that sua is ubiquitous among strains of S. uberis isolated from diverse geographic locations and that SUAM is immunogenic.

  2. Emergence of vancomycin resistance in the genus Streptococcus: characterization of a vanB transferable determinant in Streptococcus bovis.

    PubMed Central

    Poyart, C; Pierre, C; Quesne, G; Pron, B; Berche, P; Trieu-Cuot, P

    1997-01-01

    Streptococcus bovis NEM760 was isolated from a stool swab collected on admission from a patient as surveillance for vancomycin-resistant enterococci. Strain NEM760 was identified as S. bovis by conventional biochemical methods and partial sequence analysis of its 16S rRNA. This strain was resistant to a low level of vancomycin (MIC, 64 micrograms/ml) but was susceptible to teicoplanin (MIC, 1 micrograms/ml), and vancomycin induced resistance to both glycopeptides. The presence of a vanB-related gene in NEM760 was demonstrated in a PCR assay which enabled specific amplification of a 635-hp internal segment of vanB. Sequence analysis of the corresponding PCR product revealed that it was highly homologous (96% identity) to the prototype vanB sequence of Enterococcus faecalis V583. The VanB resistance of determinant of S. bovis NEM760 was transferred by conjugation to E. faecalis and Enterococcus faecium at a similar frequency of 2 x 10(-5) per donor. SmaI-digested genomic DNAs of independently obtained transconjugants of E. faecalis and E. faecium were analyzed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and Southern hybridization with a vanB DNA probe. The electrophoretic and hybridization patterns obtained with all transconjugants of the same species were indistinguishable and revealed vanB-containing chromosomal insertions of approximately 100 kb. These results suggest that the genes mediating VanB-type resistance in S. bovis NEM760 are part of large transferable genetic elements. The results presented in the report demonstrate for the first time the role of streptococci in the dissemination of vancomycin resistance among gram-positive bacteria. PMID:8980749

  3. Phylogenomic and MALDI-TOF MS analysis of Streptococcus sinensis HKU4T reveals a distinct phylogenetic clade in the genus Streptococcus.

    PubMed

    Teng, Jade L L; Huang, Yi; Tse, Herman; Chen, Jonathan H K; Tang, Ying; Lau, Susanna K P; Woo, Patrick C Y

    2014-10-20

    Streptococcus sinensis is a recently discovered human pathogen isolated from blood cultures of patients with infective endocarditis. Its phylogenetic position, as well as those of its closely related species, remains inconclusive when single genes were used for phylogenetic analysis. For example, S. sinensis branched out from members of the anginosus, mitis, and sanguinis groups in the 16S ribosomal RNA gene phylogenetic tree, but it was clustered with members of the anginosus and sanguinis groups when groEL gene sequences used for analysis. In this study, we sequenced the draft genome of S. sinensis and used a polyphasic approach, including concatenated genes, whole genomes, and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry to analyze the phylogeny of S. sinensis. The size of the S. sinensis draft genome is 2.06 Mb, with GC content of 42.2%. Phylogenetic analysis using 50 concatenated genes or whole genomes revealed that S. sinensis formed a distinct cluster with Streptococcus oligofermentans and Streptococcus cristatus, and these three streptococci were clustered with the "sanguinis group." As for phylogenetic analysis using hierarchical cluster analysis of the mass spectra of streptococci, S. sinensis also formed a distinct cluster with S. oligofermentans and S. cristatus, but these three streptococci were clustered with the "mitis group." On the basis of the findings, we propose a novel group, named "sinensis group," to include S. sinensis, S. oligofermentans, and S. cristatus, in the Streptococcus genus. Our study also illustrates the power of phylogenomic analyses for resolving ambiguities in bacterial taxonomy.

  4. Co-induction of beta-galactosidase and the lactose-P-enolpyruvate phosphotransferase system in Streptococcus salivarius and Streptococcus mutans.

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, I R; Lo, G C

    1978-01-01

    The addition of lactose, galactose, or isopropyl-beta-D-thiogalactoside (IPTG) to glucose-grown cells of Streptococcus salivarius 25975 resulted in the co-induction of both the lactose-P-enolpyruvate phosphotransferase system (lactose-PTS) and beta-galactosidase, with the latter the predominant metabolic system. With various strains of Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sanguis 10556, on the other hand, the lactose-PTS was the major metabolic pathway with beta-galactosidase induced either to low or negligible levels. In all cases, induction of the lactose-PTS resulted in the concomitant induction of 6-P-beta-galactosidase. The induction by lactose of both the lactose-PTS and beta-galactosidase in all strains was repressed by glucose and other catabolites, notably, fructose. Induction of beta-galactosidase in S. salivarius 25975 by IPTG was, however, relatively resistant to glucose repression. Induction experiments with IPTG and lactose suggested that a cellular metabolite of lactose metabolism was a repressor of enzyme activity. Exogenous cAMP was shown to reverse the transient repression by glucose of beta-galactosidase induction in cells of S. salivarius 25975 receiving lactose, provided the cells were grown with small amounts of toluene to overcome the permeability barrier to this nucleotide, cAMP, was however, unable to overcome the permanent repression of beta-galactosidase activity to a significant extent under these conditions. PMID:214423

  5. Chemical composition and nutrient degradability in elephant grass silage inoculated with Streptococcus bovis isolated from the rumen.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Daniele J; Zanine, Anderson M; Lana, Rogério P; Ribeiro, Marinaldo D; Alves, Guilherme R; Mantovani, Hilário C

    2014-03-01

    The objective of the present study was to assess the chemical and bromatological composition and in situ degradability of elephant grass silages inoculated with Streptococcus bovis isolated from cattle rumen. A complete randomized design was used with four treatments and six replications: elephant grass silage, elephant grass silage inoculated with 10(6) CFU/g Streptococcus bovis JB1 strains; elephant grass silage inoculated with 106 CFU/g Streptococcus bovis HC5 strains; elephant grass silage inoculated with 106 CFU/g Enterococcus faecium with six replications each. The pH and ammoniacal nitrogen values were lower (P<0.05) for the silages inoculated with Streptococcus bovis JB1 and HC5, respectively. The silage inoculated with Streptococcus bovis had a higher crude protein content (P<0.05) and there were no differences for the fiber contents in the silage. The (a)soluble fraction degradability, especially in the silages inoculated with Streptococcus bovis JB1 and HC5, had higher values, 30.77 and 29.97%, for dry matter and 31.01 and 36.66% for crude protein, respectively. Inoculation with Streptococcus bovis improved the fermentation profile, protein value and rumen degradability of the nutrients.

  6. Novel bacteriophage lysin with broad lytic activity protects against mixed infection by Streptococcus pyogenes and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Gilmer, Daniel B; Schmitz, Jonathan E; Euler, Chad W; Fischetti, Vincent A

    2013-06-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Streptococcus pyogenes (group A streptococcus [GrAS]) cause serious and sometimes fatal human diseases. They are among the many Gram-positive pathogens for which resistance to leading antibiotics has emerged. As a result, alternative therapies need to be developed to combat these pathogens. We have identified a novel bacteriophage lysin (PlySs2), derived from a Streptococcus suis phage, with broad lytic activity against MRSA, vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus (VISA), Streptococcus suis, Listeria, Staphylococcus simulans, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus equi, Streptococcus agalactiae (group B streptococcus [GBS]), S. pyogenes, Streptococcus sanguinis, group G streptococci (GGS), group E streptococci (GES), and Streptococcus pneumoniae. PlySs2 has an N-terminal cysteine-histidine aminopeptidase (CHAP) catalytic domain and a C-terminal SH3b binding domain. It is stable at 50 °C for 30 min, 37 °C for >24 h, 4°C for 15 days, and -80 °C for >7 months; it maintained full activity after 10 freeze-thaw cycles. PlySs2 at 128 μg/ml in vitro reduced MRSA and S. pyogenes growth by 5 logs and 3 logs within 1 h, respectively, and exhibited a MIC of 16 μg/ml for MRSA. A single, 2-mg dose of PlySs2 protected 92% (22/24) of the mice in a bacteremia model of mixed MRSA and S. pyogenes infection. Serially increasing exposure of MRSA and S. pyogenes to PlySs2 or mupirocin resulted in no observed resistance to PlySs2 and resistance to mupirocin. To date, no other lysin has shown such notable broad lytic activity, stability, and efficacy against multiple, leading, human bacterial pathogens; as such, PlySs2 has all the characteristics to be an effective therapeutic.

  7. Complete genome sequence of an attenuated Sparfloxacin-resistant Streptococcus agalactiae strain 138spar

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The complete genome of a sparfloxacin-resistant Streptococcus agalactiae vaccine strain 138spar is 1,838,126 bp in size. The genome has 1892 coding sequences and 82 RNAs. The annotation of the genome is added by the NCBI Prokaryotic Genome Annotation Pipeline. The publishing of this genome will allo...

  8. Isolation of a recombination-deficient mutant of Streptococcus lactis ML3.

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, D G; McKay, L L

    1983-01-01

    A recombination-deficient mutant of Streptococcus lactis ML3 designated MMS36 was isolated on the basis of its sensitivity to methyl methanesulfonate. This mutant also displayed sensitivity to UV irradiation. The inability of MMS36 to mediate homologous recombination was demonstrated by transduction of plasmid-linked lactose fermenting ability but not chromosomally mediated streptomycin resistance. PMID:6409888

  9. McKay agar enables routine quantification of the 'Streptococcus milleri' group in cystic fibrosis patients.

    PubMed

    Sibley, Christopher D; Grinwis, Margot E; Field, Tyler R; Parkins, Michael D; Norgaard, Jens C; Gregson, Daniel B; Rabin, Harvey R; Surette, Michael G

    2010-05-01

    The 'Streptococcus milleri' group (SMG) has recently been recognized as a contributor to bronchopulmonary disease in cystic fibrosis (CF). Routine detection and quantification is limited by current CF microbiology protocols. McKay agar was developed previously for the semi-selective isolation of this group. Here, McKay agar was validated against a panel of clinical SMG isolates, which revealed improved SMG recovery compared with Columbia blood agar. The effectiveness of this medium was evaluated by appending it to the standard CF sputum microbiology protocols in a clinical laboratory for a 6-month period. All unique colony types were isolated and identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Whilst a wide variety of organisms were isolated, members of the SMG were the most prevalent bacteria cultured, and McKay agar allowed routine quantification of the SMG from 10(3) to >10(8) c.f.u. ml(-1) directly from sputum. All members of the SMG were detected [Streptococcus anginosus (40.7 %), Streptococcus intermedius (34.3 %) and Streptococcus constellatus (25 %)] with an overall prevalence rate of 40.6 % in our adult CF population. Without exception, samples where SMG isolates were cultured at 10(7) c.f.u. ml(-1) or greater were associated with pulmonary exacerbations. This study demonstrates that McKay agar can be used routinely to quantify the SMG from complex clinical samples.

  10. Evaluation of a chromogenic agar for detection of group B streptococcus in pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Craven, Robin R; Weber, Carol J; Jennemann, Rebecca A; Dunne, W Michael

    2010-09-01

    We compared ChromID Strepto B agar (STRB; bioMérieux, Inc.), a selective and differential medium for group B streptococcus, with culture using neomycin-nalidixic acid agar (NNA) and LIM broth. STRB alone was more sensitive (87.7%) than NNA alone (79.0%), while each had a sensitivity of 100% when used in conjunction with LIM broth.

  11. In Vitro Inhibition of Streptococcus mutans Biofilm Formation on Hydroxyapatite by Subinhibitory Concentrations of Anthraquinones▿

    PubMed Central

    Coenye, Tom; Honraet, Kris; Rigole, Petra; Jimenez, Pol Nadal; Nelis, Hans J.

    2007-01-01

    We report that certain anthraquinones (AQs) reduce Streptococcus mutans biofilm formation on hydroxyapatite at concentrations below the MIC. Although AQs are known to generate reactive oxygen species, the latter do not underlie the observed effect. Our results suggest that AQs inhibit S. mutans biofilm formation by causing membrane perturbation. PMID:17220400

  12. Plasimids containing the gene for DNA polymerase I from Streptococcus pneumoniae

    DOEpatents

    Lacks, Sanford A.; Martinez, Susana; Lopez, Paloma; Espinosa, Manuel

    1991-01-01

    A method is disclosed for cloning the gene which encodes a DNA polymerase-exonuclease of Streptococcus pneumoniae. Plasmid pSM22, the vector containing the pneumocccal polA gene, facilitates the expression of 50-fold greater amounts of the PolI enzyme.

  13. Streptococcus cuniculi sp. nov., isolated from the respiratory tract of wild rabbits.

    PubMed

    Vela, A I; Sánchez Del Rey, V; Zamora, L; Casamayor, A; Domínguez, L; Fernández-Garayzábal, J F

    2014-07-01

    Biochemical and molecular genetic studies were performed on four unknown Gram-stain-positive, catalase-negative, coccus-shaped organisms isolated from tonsils (n = 3) and nasal samples (n = 1) of four wild rabbits. The micro-organism was identified as a streptococcal species based on its cellular morphological and biochemical tests. Comparative 16S rRNA gene sequencing confirmed its identification as a member of the genus Streptococcus, but the organism did not correspond to any recognized species of this genus. The closest phylogenetic relative of the unknown cocci from wild rabbits was Streptococcus acidominimus NCIMB 702025(T) (97.9% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity). rpoB and sodA sequence analysis of the novel isolate showed interspecies divergence of 16.2% and 20.3%, respectively, from the type strain of its closest 16S rRNA gene phylogenetic relative, S. acidominimus. The novel bacterial isolate could be distinguished from the type strain of S. acidominimus by several biochemical characteristics, such as the production of esterase C4, acid phosphatase and naphthol-AS-BI-phosphohydrolase and acidification of different sugars. Based on both phenotypic and phylogenetic findings, it is proposed that the unknown bacterium be classified as a novel species of the genus Streptococcus, Streptococcus cuniculi sp. nov. The type strain is NED12-00049-6B(T) ( = CECT 8498(T) = CCUG 65085(T)).

  14. Nitrogenous compounds stimulate glucose-derived acid production by oral Streptococcus and Actinomyces.

    PubMed

    Norimatsu, Yuka; Kawashima, Junko; Takano-Yamamoto, Teruko; Takahashi, Nobuhiro

    2015-09-01

    Both Streptococcus and Actinomyces can produce acids from dietary sugars and are frequently found in caries lesions. In the oral cavity, nitrogenous compounds, such as peptides and amino acids, are provided continuously by saliva and crevicular gingival fluid. Given that these bacteria can also utilize nitrogen compounds for their growth, it was hypothesized that nitrogenous compounds may influence their acid production; however, no previous studies have examined this topic. Therefore, the present study aimed to assess the effects of nitrogenous compounds (tryptone and glutamate) on glucose-derived acid production by Streptococcus and Actinomyces. Acid production was evaluated using a pH-stat method under anaerobic conditions, whereas the amounts of metabolic end-products were quantified using high performance liquid chromatography. Tryptone enhanced glucose-derived acid production by up to 2.68-fold, whereas glutamate enhanced Streptococcus species only. However, neither tryptone nor glutamate altered the end-product profiles, indicating that the nitrogenous compounds stimulate the whole metabolic pathways involving in acid production from glucose, but are not actively metabolized, nor do they alter metabolic pathways. These results suggest that nitrogenous compounds in the oral cavity promote acid production by Streptococcus and Actinomyces in vivo.

  15. The Effect of Carbon Source and Fluoride Concentrations in the "Streptococcus Mutans" Biofilm Formation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulino, Tony P.; Andrade, Ricardo O.; Bruschi-Thedei, Giuliana C. M.; Thedei, Geraldo, Jr.; Ciancaglini, Pietro

    2004-01-01

    The main objective of this class experiment is to show the influence of carbon source and of different fluoride concentrations on the biofilm formation by the bacterium "Streptococcus mutans." The observation of different biofilm morphology as a function of carbon source and fluoride concentration allows an interesting discussion regarding the…

  16. Clinical Significance and Characterization of Streptococcus tigurinus Isolates in an Adult Population.

    PubMed

    Bourassa, Lori; Clarridge, J E

    2015-11-01

    Streptococcus tigurinus is a newly described member of the Streptococcus mitis group. Due to the difficulty in distinguishing viridans group streptococci (VGS) by phenotype, analysis of 16S rRNA sequences is necessary for the accurate identification of most species. Through a laboratory policy of analyzing all clinically significant isolates from the VGS group by16S rRNA gene sequencing, we identified 14 S. tigurinus isolates from 11 patients. The Vitek 2 system most commonly gave an excellent rating to an incorrect identification (e.g., Streptococcus mitis), as did matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) (e.g., Streptococcus oralis). S. tigurinus strains were recovered from numerous body sites, including the blood, peritoneal fluid, bone, synovial fluid, a perianal abscess, and an arm wound. Retrospective chart review indicated that most isolates were clinically significant, with bacteremia (n = 5), soft tissue infections (n = 3) osteomyelitis (n = 2), infected joint prosthesis (n = 2), and peritonitis (n = 2) being the most common, thus expanding the spectrum of disease associated with S. tigurinus.

  17. Macedovicin, the second food-grade lantibiotic produced by Streptococcus macedonicus ACA-DC 198.

    PubMed

    Georgalaki, Marina; Papadimitriou, Konstantinos; Anastasiou, Rania; Pot, Bruno; Van Driessche, Gonzalez; Devreese, Bart; Tsakalidou, Effie

    2013-02-01

    Streptococcus macedonicus ACA-DC 198 was found to produce a second lantibiotic named macedovicin in addition to macedocin. Macedovicin was purified to homogeneity and mass spectrometric analysis identified a peptide of approximately 3.4 kDa. Partial N-terminal sequence analysis and tandem mass spectrometry revealed that macedovicin was identical to bovicin HJ50 and thermophilin 1277 produced by Streptococcus bovis and Streptococcus thermophilus, respectively. Macedovicin inhibits a broad spectrum of lactic acid bacteria, several food spoilage species (e.g. Clostridium spp.) and oral streptococci. We determined the complete biosynthetic gene cluster of macedovicin. Even though the gene clusters of macedovicin, thermophilin 1277 and bovicin HJ50 were almost identical at the nucleotide level, there were important differences in their predicted genes and proteins. Bovicin HJ50-like lantibiotics were also found to be encoded by Streptococcus suis strains SC84 and D12, Enterococcus columbae PLCH2, Clostridium perfringens JGS1721 and several Bacillus strains. All these lantibiotics contained a number of conserved amino acids that may be important for their biosynthesis and activity, while phylogenetic analysis supported their dispersion by horizontal gene transfer. In conclusion, the production of multiple bacteriocins may enhance the bio-protective potential of S. macedonicus during food fermentation.

  18. Fatal septicemia caused by the zoonotic bacterium Streptococcus iniae during an outbreak in Caribbean reef fish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An outbreak of Streptococcus iniae occurred in the early months of 2008 among wild reef fish in the waters of the Federation of St.Kitts and Nevis, lasting almost 2 months. Moribund and dead fish were collected for gross, histological, bacteriological, and molecular analysis. Necropsy findings inclu...

  19. M-Protein Analysis of Streptococcus pyogenes Isolates Associated with Acute Rheumatic Fever in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Williamson, Deborah A; Smeesters, Pierre R; Steer, Andrew C; Steemson, John D; Ng, Adrian C H; Proft, Thomas; Fraser, John D; Baker, Michael G; Morgan, Julie; Carter, Philip E; Moreland, Nicole J

    2015-11-01

    We applied an emm cluster typing system to group A Streptococcus strains in New Zealand, including those associated with acute rheumatic fever (ARF). We observed few so-called rheumatogenic emm types but found a high proportion of emm types previously associated with pyoderma, further suggesting a role for skin infection in ARF.

  20. Complete Genome Sequences of emm6 Streptococcus pyogenes JRS4 and Parental Strain D471

    PubMed Central

    Port, Gary C.; Paluscio, Elyse

    2015-01-01

    We report the complete genome assemblies of the group A Streptococcus pyogenes serotype emm6 strain D471 and its streptomycin-resistant derivative JRS4. Both of these well-studied laboratory strains have been extensively characterized over the past three decades and have been instrumental in the discovery of multiple aspects of streptococcal pathogenesis. PMID:26139722

  1. Anticariogenic activity of macelignan isolated from Myristica fragrans (nutmeg) against Streptococcus mutans.

    PubMed

    Chung, J Y; Choo, J H; Lee, M H; Hwang, J K

    2006-03-01

    The occurrence of dental caries is mainly associated with oral pathogens, especially cariogenic Streptococcus mutans. Preliminary antibacterial screening revealed that the extract of Myristica fragrans, widely cultivated for the spice and flavor of foods, possessed strong inhibitory activity against S. mutans. The anticariogenic compound was successfully isolated from the methanol extract of M. fragrans by repeated silica gel chromatography, and its structure was identified as macelignan by instrumental analysis using 1D-NMR, 2D-NMR and EI-MS. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of macelignan against S. mutans was 3.9 microg/ml, which was much lower than those of other natural anticariogenic agents such as 15.6 microg/ml of sanguinarine, 250 microg/ml of eucalyptol, 500 microg/ml of menthol and thymol, and 1000 microg/ml of methyl salicylate. Macelignan also possessed preferential activity against other oral microorganisms such as Streptococcus sobrinus, Streptococcus salivarius, Streptococcus sanguis, Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus casei in the MIC range of 2-31.3 microg/ml. In particular, the bactericidal test showed that macelignan, at a concentration of 20 microg/ml, completely inactivated S. mutans in 1 min. The specific activity and fast-effectiveness of macelignan against oral bacteria strongly suggest that it could be employed as a natural antibacterial agent in functional foods or oral care products.

  2. Effects of inulin chain length on fermentation by equine fecal bacteria and Streptococcus bovis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fructans from pasture can be fermented by Gram-positive bacteria (e.g., Streptococcus bovis) in the equine hindgut, increasing production of lactic acid and decreasing pH. The degree of polymerization (DP) of fructans has been suggested to influence fermentation rates. The objective of the current ...

  3. Early recognition of Streptococcus pneumoniae in patients with community-acquired pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Bohte, R; Hermans, J; van den Broek, P J

    1996-03-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the predictive value of signs, symptoms, and rapidly available laboratory parameters for pneumococci in community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). A prospective study on patients with CAP who were admitted to hospital was conducted. Clinical and laboratory data were collected according to a protocol. Two hundred sixty-eight patients aged 18 years or older, not living in a nursing home or not admitted to hospital within one week of this admission, with a new infiltrate on the chest radiograph consistent with pneumonia were included. According to microbiological and serological tests, patients were allocated to one of two aetiological groups, Streptococcus pneumoniae or "other pathogens". Seventy-three variables were examined for a correlation with one of the aetiological categories by means of univariate and multivariate analysis. The resulting discriminant function was considered a clinical test for which posttest probabilities for pneumococcal pneumonia were calculated. Streptococcus pneumoniae was demonstrated in 79 patients and other pathogens in 83; no pathogens were detectable in 106 patients. The variables "cardiovascular disease", "acute onset", "pleuritic pain", "gram-positive bacteria in the sputum Gram stain", and "leucocyte count" correctly predicted the cause of CAP in 80% of all cases in both groups. Depending on the prevalence of Streptococcus pneumoniae, posttest probabilities for pneumococcal pneumonia were up to 90%. It is concluded that data on history, together with the result of the Gram stain of sputum and the leucocyte count, can help to distinguish Streptococcus pneumoniae from other pathogens causing CAP.

  4. Production of capsular polysaccharide of Streptococcus pneumoniae type 14 and its purification by affinity chromatography.

    PubMed

    Suárez, N; Fraguas, L F; Texeira, E; Massaldi, H; Batista-Viera, F; Ferreira, F

    2001-02-01

    We describe a rapid and efficient method for producing the capsular polysaccharide of Streptococcus pneumoniae by fermentation on tryptic soy broth and purification of this compound by using immobilized soybean lectin as an affinity adsorbent. In principle, the same strategy can be used to produce purified capsular polysaccharides from other streptococcal serotypes by selecting the appropriate lectin adsorbents. PMID:11157270

  5. Multiple Brain Abscesses due to Streptococcus anginosus: Prediction of Mortality by an Imaging Severity Index Score.

    PubMed

    Kragha, K O

    2016-01-01

    An elderly patient with altered mental status, brain abscesses, ventriculitis, and empyemas died of septic shock and brain abscesses secondary to Streptococcus anginosus despite aggressive treatment. An imaging severity index score with a better prognostic value than the Glasgow coma scale predicted mortality in this patient. PMID:27034878

  6. Misidentification of Streptococcus uberis as a human pathogen: a case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Di Domenico, Enea Gino; Toma, Luigi; Prignano, Grazia; Pelagalli, Lorella; Police, Andrea; Cavallotti, Claudia; Torelli, Riccardo; Sanguinetti, Maurizio; Ensoli, Fabrizio

    2015-04-01

    Streptococcus uberis is an environmental bacterium responsible for bovine mastitis. It is occasionally described as a human pathogen, though in most cases the identification was based on biochemical phenotyping techniques. This report shows that the biochemical phenotyping may incorrectly identify Enterococcus faecium as S. uberis. PMID:25578263

  7. Regulation of Matrix Metalloproteinase Expression in Endothelial Cells by Heat-Inactivated Streptococcus pneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Michel, Uwe; Zobotke, Rita; Mäder, Michael; Nau, Roland

    2001-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) may contribute to an impaired endothelial layer in several diseases. We examined the effect of heat-inactivated Streptococcus pneumoniae R6 on MMP-2 and MMP-9 release by cultured aortic and brain capillary endothelial cells. Treatment with heat-inactivated S. pneumoniae caused an increased release of MMP-2 by both cell types. PMID:11179373

  8. Hypervirulent emm59 Clone in Invasive Group A Streptococcus Outbreak, Southwestern United States.

    PubMed

    Engelthaler, David M; Valentine, Michael; Bowers, Jolene; Pistole, Jennifer; Driebe, Elizabeth M; Terriquez, Joel; Nienstadt, Linus; Carroll, Mark; Schumacher, Mare; Ormsby, Mary Ellen; Brady, Shane; Livar, Eugene; Yazzie, Del; Waddell, Victor; Peoples, Marie; Komatsu, Kenneth; Keim, Paul

    2016-04-01

    The hyper-virulent emm59 genotype of invasive group A Streptococcus was identified in northern Arizona in 2015. Eighteen isolates belonging to a genomic cluster grouped most closely with recently identified isolates in New Mexico. The continued transmission of emm59 in the southwestern United States poses a public health concern. PMID:26982330

  9. Clinical Features of Group B Streptococcus Prosthetic Joint Infections and Molecular Characterization of Isolates ▿

    PubMed Central

    Corvec, S.; Illiaquer, M.; Touchais, S.; Boutoille, D.; van der Mee-Marquet, N.; Quentin, R.; Reynaud, A.; Lepelletier, D.; Bémer, P.

    2011-01-01

    Twelve group B Streptococcus (GBS) prosthetic joint infection (PJI) cases are reported. The mean patient age was 55 years. Eleven infections were caused by GBS alone. The associated isolates belonged to phylogenetic lineages different from those that cause neonatal meningitis. The clinical outcome was favorable for the eight patients for whom follow-up data were available. PMID:21068273

  10. Clinical features of group B Streptococcus prosthetic joint infections and molecular characterization of isolates.

    PubMed

    Corvec, S; Illiaquer, M; Touchais, S; Boutoille, D; van der Mee-Marquet, N; Quentin, R; Reynaud, A; Lepelletier, D; Bémer, P

    2011-01-01

    Twelve group B Streptococcus (GBS) prosthetic joint infection (PJI) cases are reported. The mean patient age was 55 years. Eleven infections were caused by GBS alone. The associated isolates belonged to phylogenetic lineages different from those that cause neonatal meningitis. The clinical outcome was favorable for the eight patients for whom follow-up data were available.

  11. 77 FR 26014 - Prospective Grant of Exclusive License: P4 Peptide From Streptococcus Pneumoniae

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-02

    ... prevention of Streptococcus pneumonia infection in humans'') to practice the inventions embodied in the..., Georgia. The patent rights in these inventions have been assigned to the government of the United States..., 2012. Tanja Popovic, Deputy Associate Director for Science, Centers for Disease Control and...

  12. Whole-Genome Sequence of the Cheese Isolate Streptococcus macedonicus 679.

    PubMed

    Papadimitriou, Konstantinos; Mavrogonatou, Eleni; Bolotin, Alexander; Tsakalidou, Effie; Renault, Pierre

    2016-09-22

    It is well recognized that Streptococcus macedonicus can populate artisanal fermented foods, especially those of dairy origin. However, the safety of S. macedonicus remains to be established. Here, we present the whole-genome sequence of strain 679, which was isolated from a French uncooked semihard cheese made with cow milk.

  13. Complete Genome Sequence of Streptococcus pyogenes Strain JMUB1235 Isolated from an Acute Phlegmonous Gastritis Patient

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Shinya; Sasahara, Teppei; Arai, Naoshi; Sasaki, Kazumasa; Aiba, Yoshifumi; Sato’o, Yusuke

    2016-01-01

    Acute phlegmonous gastritis is an uncommon endogenous bacterial gastritis presenting with a high mortality rate. Here, we report the complete genome sequence of an emm89 Streptococcus pyogenes strain, JMUB1235, which is the causative agent of acute phlegmonous gastritis. PMID:27795272

  14. Multiple Brain Abscesses due to Streptococcus anginosus: Prediction of Mortality by an Imaging Severity Index Score

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    An elderly patient with altered mental status, brain abscesses, ventriculitis, and empyemas died of septic shock and brain abscesses secondary to Streptococcus anginosus despite aggressive treatment. An imaging severity index score with a better prognostic value than the Glasgow coma scale predicted mortality in this patient. PMID:27034878

  15. Occurrence and cultural features of Streptococcus milleri in various body sites.

    PubMed Central

    Poole, P M; Wilson, G

    1979-01-01

    An investigation was made into the habitat of commensal strains of Streptococcus milleri. These showed distinctive patterns of cultural features, dependent on their sites of origin, which were compared with those prevalent in strains grown from the appendix, 'anal' lesions, and Bartholin's abscesses. A biotype, which showed a marked affinity for the vagina and produced acid from raffinose and melibiose, was identified. PMID:512036

  16. Draft Genome Sequences of Streptococcus agalactiae Serotype Ia and III Isolates from Tilapia Farms in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Areechon, Nontawith; Kannika, Korntip; Hirono, Ikuo; Kondo, Hidehiro; Unajak, Sasimanas

    2016-03-24

    Streptococcus agalactiaeserotypes Ia and III were isolated from infected tilapia in cage and pond culture farms in Thailand during 2012 to 2014, in which pathogenicity analysis demonstrated that serotype III showed higher virulence than serotype Ia. Here, we report the draft genome sequencing of piscineS. agalactiaeserotypes Ia and III.

  17. Liamocin oil from Aureobasidium pullulans has antibacterial activity with specificity for species of Streptococcus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Liamocin oil from Aureobasidium pullulans NRRL 50380 was tested for antibacterial activity. Liamocins inhibited growth of Streptococcus agalactiae, S. uberis, S. mitis, S. infantarius, and S. mutans, with minimum inhibitory concentrations from 20 'g/ml to 78 'g/ml. Enterococcus faecalis was less sus...

  18. Draft Genome Sequence of the Streptococcus pneumoniae Avery Strain A66.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Christoph; Harrison, Ewan M; Parkhill, Julian; Holmes, Mark A; Paterson, Gavin K

    2015-01-01

    We have used HiSeq 2000 technology to generate a draft genome sequence of Streptococcus pneumoniae strain A66. This is a common study strain used in investigations of pneumococcal bacterium-host interactions and was used in the seminal genetic studies of Avery et al.

  19. Plasmids containing the gene for DNA polymerase I from Streptococcus pneumoniae

    DOEpatents

    Lacks, S.A.; Martinez, S.; Lopez, P.; Espinosa, M.

    1987-08-28

    A method is disclosed for cloning the gene which encodes a DNA polymerase-exonuclease of /und Streptococcus/ /und pneumoniae/. Plasmid pSM22, the vector containing the pneumococcal polA gene, facilitates the expression of 50-fold greater amounts of the PolI enzyme. 1 fig., 1 tab.

  20. Plasmids containing the gene for DNA polymerase I from Streptococcus pneumoniae

    DOEpatents

    Lacks, S.A.; Martinez, S.; Lopez, P.; Espinosa, M.

    1991-03-26

    A method is disclosed for cloning the gene which encodes a DNA polymerase-exonuclease of Streptococcus pneumoniae. Plasmid pSM22, the vector containing the pneumocccal polA gene, facilitates the expression of 50-fold greater amounts of the PolI enzyme. 1 figure.