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Sample records for color difference formulas

  1. How psychophysical methods influence optimizations of color difference formulas.

    PubMed

    Kirchner, Eric; Dekker, Niels; Lucassen, Marcel; Njo, Lan; van der Lans, Ivo; Urban, Philipp; Huertas, Rafael

    2015-03-01

    For developing color difference formulas, there are several choices to be made on the psychophysical method used for gathering visual (observer) data. We tested three different psychophysical methods: gray scales, constant stimuli, and two-alternative forced choice (2AFC). Our results show that when using gray scales or constant stimuli, assessments of color differences are biased toward lightness differences. This bias is particularly strong in LCD monitor experiments, and also present when using physical paint samples. No such bias is found when using 2AFC. In that case, however, observer responses are affected by other factors that are not accounted for by current color difference formulas. For accurate prediction of relative color differences, our results show, in agreement with other works, that modern color difference formulas do not perform well. We also investigated if the use of digital images as presented on LCD displays is a good alternative to using physical samples. Our results indicate that there are systematic differences between these two media.

  2. Evaluating the uniformity of color spaces and performance of color difference formulae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lian, Yusheng; Liao, Ningfang; Wang, Jiajia; Tan, Boneng; Liu, Zilong

    2010-11-01

    Using small color difference data sets (Macadam ellipses dataset and RIT-DuPont suprathreshold color difference ellipses dataset), and large color difference data sets (Munsell Renovation Data and OSA Uniform Color Scales dataset), the uniformity of several color spaces and performance of color difference formulae based on these color spaces are evaluated. The color spaces used are CIELAB, DIN99d, IPT, and CIECAM02-UCS. It is found that the uniformity of lightness is better than saturation and hue. Overall, for all these color spaces, the uniformity in the blue area is inferior to the other area. The uniformity of CIECAM02-UCS is superior to the other color spaces for the whole color-difference range from small to large. The uniformity of CIELAB and IPT for the large color difference data sets is better than it for the small color difference data sets, but the DIN99d is opposite. Two common performance factors (PF/3 and STRESS) and the statistical F-test are calculated to test the performance of color difference formula. The results show that the performance of color difference formulae based on these four color spaces is consistent with the uniformity of these color spaces.

  3. Lightness-difference data set for evaluation of CIELAB-based color-difference formulae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Dong-Ho; Song, Hee-Kang; Kim, Jae-Pil

    2002-06-01

    A new color-difference data set has been produced to evaluate the lightness difference weighting functions of eight CIELAB-based formulae: CIELAB, CMC, CIE94, DCI-95, LCD97, LCD99, BFD-II and CIEDE2000. Glossy polyester fabric was dyed to prepare 220 color-difference pairs, each having mainly lightness-difference. The gray-scale method was used to assess the color-difference of each pair by an average of twenty-five color normal observers. The test results of the visual data are presented.

  4. Performance of select color-difference formulas in the blue region.

    PubMed

    Shamey, R; Cao, R; Tomasino, T; Zaidy, S S H; Iqbal, K; Lin, J; Lee, S G

    2014-06-01

    The main objective of this work was to test the performance of major formulas for assessment of small suprathreshold color differences in the blue region. The models examined include CIELAB color space based equations, including CIELAB, CIE94, CIEDE2000, CMC (l:c), BFD (l:c), and formulas based on more uniform color spaces, such as DIN99d, CAM02-SCD, CAM02-UCS, OSA-GP, and OSA-Eu in comparison against data obtained via visual assessments. For this purpose, a dataset around the CIE high-chroma blue color center, hereafter called NCSU-B2, was developed. The NCSU-B2 dataset comprised 65 textile substrates and a standard, with a mean ΔE(ab)* color difference of 2.72, ranging from 0.54-5.72. Samples were visually assessed by 26 subjects against the reference gray scale in three separate trials with at least 24 h between assessments. A total of 5070 assessments were obtained. The standardized residual sum of squares (STRESS) index was used to examine the performance of various formulas for this dataset, as well as a previously developed NCSU-B1 low-chroma blue dataset [Color Res. Appl. 36, 27, 2011], and blue centers from other established visual datasets. Results show that formulas based on more recent uniform color spaces provide better agreement with perceptual data compared with models based on CIELAB space.

  5. How color difference formulas depend on reference pairs in the underlying constant stimuli experiment.

    PubMed

    Kirchner, Eric; Dekker, Niels; Lucassen, Marcel; Njo, Lan; van der Lans, Ivo; Koeckhoven, Pim; Urban, Philipp; Huertas, Rafael

    2015-12-01

    For calculating color differences, the CIEDE2000 and CIE94 equations are widely used and recommended. These equations were derived more than a decade ago, based for a large part on the RIT-Dupont set of visual data. This data was collected from a series of psychophysical tests that use the method of constant stimuli. In this method, observers need to compare the color difference within a sample pair to that between a reference pair. In the current investigation, we show that the color difference equation significantly changes if reference pairs are chosen in the underlying visual experiments that differ from what was used when creating the RIT-Dupont dataset. The investigation is done using metallic paint samples representing two color centers, red and yellow-green. We show that the reproducibility differs for three different reference pairs, and that for modeling the visual data for the yellow-green color center, extra model terms are required as compared to the CIEDE2000 equation. Our results suggest that observers differ in their ability to mentally convert a color difference recognized in a sample pair into an equivalent color difference along the color difference direction represented by the reference pair. We also find that in these tests the tolerance to lightness differences is widened by a factor of 1.3 to 1.6, and that for the red color center the tolerance ellipsoid is rotated by 30° as compared to the CIEDE2000 equation. The latter observations are possibly due to the metallic texture in the samples used for the current experiment.

  6. Generalization of color-difference formulas for any illuminant and any observer by assuming perfect color constancy in a color-vision model based on the OSA-UCS system.

    PubMed

    Oleari, Claudio; Melgosa, Manuel; Huertas, Rafael

    2011-11-01

    The most widely used color-difference formulas are based on color-difference data obtained under D65 illumination or similar and for a 10° visual field; i.e., these formulas hold true for the CIE 1964 observer adapted to D65 illuminant. This work considers the psychometric color-vision model based on the Optical Society of America-Uniform Color Scales (OSA-UCS) system previously published by the first author [J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 21, 677 (2004); Color Res. Appl. 30, 31 (2005)] with the additional hypothesis that complete illuminant adaptation with perfect color constancy exists in the visual evaluation of color differences. In this way a computational procedure is defined for color conversion between different illuminant adaptations, which is an alternative to the current chromatic adaptation transforms. This color conversion allows the passage between different observers, e.g., CIE 1964 and CIE 1931. An application of this color conversion is here made in the color-difference evaluation for any observer and in any illuminant adaptation: these transformations convert tristimulus values related to any observer and illuminant adaptation to those related to the observer and illuminant adaptation of the definition of the color-difference formulas, i.e., to the CIE 1964 observer adapted to the D65 illuminant, and then the known color-difference formulas can be applied. The adaptations to the illuminants A, C, F11, D50, Planckian and daylight at any color temperature and for CIE 1931 and CIE 1964 observers are considered as examples, and all the corresponding transformations are given for practical use.

  7. Objective evaluation of visibility in virtual chromoendoscopy for esophageal squamous carcinoma using a color difference formula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, Masahito; Miyake, Yoichi; Odaka, Takeo; Sato, Toru; Watanabe, Yoshiyuki; Sakama, Atsunori; Zenbutsu, Satoki; Yokosuka, Osamu

    2010-09-01

    Computed virtual chromoendoscopy with flexible spectral imaging color enhancement (FICE) is a new dyeless imaging technique that enhances mucosal and vascular patterns. However, a method for selecting a suitable wavelength for a particular condition has not been established. The aim of this study is to evaluate the color difference method for quality assessment of FICE images of the intrapapillary capillary loop in magnifying endoscopy for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. The color difference between 60 microvessels and background mucosa observed using the magnifying endoscope was 8.31+/-2.84 SD under white light and 12.26+/-3.14 (p=0.0031), 11.70+/-4.49 (p=0.0106), and 17.49+/-5.40 (p<0.0001) in FICE modes A, B, and C, respectively. The visibility scores for microvessels observed by medical students were 6.00+/-1.12 points under white light and 11.1+/-2.25 (p<0.0001), 8.65+/-2.06 (p=0.0001), and 12.55+/-2.56 (p<0.0001) in FICE modes A, B, and C, respectively. Furthermore, the measurement of color difference was correlated with the visibility score assigned by medical students (Pearson's correlation coefficient=0.583, p<0.0001) In conclusion, the color difference method corresponds to human vision and is an appropriate method for evaluation of endoscopic images.

  8. Coloring [Formula: see text]-Embeddable [Formula: see text]-Uniform Hypergraphs.

    PubMed

    Heise, Carl Georg; Panagiotou, Konstantinos; Pikhurko, Oleg; Taraz, Anusch

    2014-01-01

    This paper extends the scenario of the Four Color Theorem in the following way. Let [Formula: see text] be the set of all [Formula: see text]-uniform hypergraphs that can be (linearly) embedded into [Formula: see text]. We investigate lower and upper bounds on the maximum (weak) chromatic number of hypergraphs in [Formula: see text]. For example, we can prove that for [Formula: see text] there are hypergraphs in [Formula: see text] on [Formula: see text] vertices whose chromatic number is [Formula: see text], whereas the chromatic number for [Formula: see text]-vertex hypergraphs in [Formula: see text] is bounded by [Formula: see text] for [Formula: see text].

  9. How Color Coding Formulaic Writing Enhances Organization: A Qualitative Approach for Measuring Student Affect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geigle, Bryce A.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to investigate and present the status of student synthesis with color coded formula writing for grade level six through twelve, and to make recommendations for educators to teach writing structure through a color coded formula system in order to increase classroom engagement and lower students' affect. The thesis first…

  10. The Processing on Different Types of English Formulaic Sequences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qian, Li

    2015-01-01

    Formulaic sequences are found to be processed faster than their matched novel phrases in previous studies. Given the variety of formulaic types, few studies have compared processing on different types of formulaic sequences. The present study explored the processing among idioms, speech formulae and written formulae. It has been found that in…

  11. Human eye color difference threshold measurement system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Lin; Zhou, Taogeng

    2013-12-01

    The human eye has the ability to distinguish millions of colors, with this feature we can identify very subtle color differences, and the measurement of human eye color difference threshold can provide a visual function diagnosis for testee. In recent years, people begin to focus on studies on visual threshold diagnostic equipment. This paper proposes a human eye color difference threshold measurement system which is based on dual integrating sphere. The system includes two pairs of dual integrating sphere and color control module. Dual integrating sphere uses to mix and produce color, and palette unit which produces primary colors (red (R), green (G), blue (B)) is embedded in dual integrating sphere. At the same time, the embedded palette unit which produces cyan (C), magenta (M), and yellow (Y) expands color area that the system can generate. One optical path based on dual integrating sphere generates standard color, the other path produces the matching color which is similar to a standard color. In the high-precision closed-loop color control module, photoelectric switch records stepper motor's origin position and limits move displacement. Precision stepper motor pushes the light-blocking panel of the palette unit to a predetermined position, while real-time monitoring the position of the light-blocking panel and mixing the ideal controllable color. Two colors that the system generates are projected onto the same target area. Subjects make a judgment on color difference threshold by observing the target eventually.

  12. Probing color coherence effects in pp collisions at [Formula: see text].

    PubMed

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Puigh, D; Rodenburg, M; Smith, G; Vuosalo, C; Winer, B L; Wolfe, H; Berry, E; Elmer, P; Halyo, V; Hebda, P; Hegeman, J; Hunt, A; Jindal, P; Koay, S A; Lujan, P; Marlow, D; Medvedeva, T; Mooney, M; Olsen, J; Piroué, P; Quan, X; Raval, A; Saka, H; Stickland, D; Tully, C; Werner, J S; Zenz, S C; Zuranski, A; Brownson, E; Lopez, A; Mendez, H; Vargas, J E Ramirez; Alagoz, E; Benedetti, D; Bolla, G; Bortoletto, D; De Mattia, M; Everett, A; Hu, Z; Jones, M; Jung, K; Koybasi, O; Kress, M; Leonardo, N; Pegna, D Lopes; Maroussov, V; Merkel, P; Miller, D H; Neumeister, N; Shipsey, I; Silvers, D; Svyatkovskiy, A; Wang, F; Xie, W; Xu, L; Yoo, H D; Zablocki, J; Zheng, Y; Parashar, N; Adair, A; Akgun, B; Ecklund, K M; Geurts, F J M; Li, W; Michlin, B; Padley, B P; Redjimi, R; Roberts, J; Zabel, J; Betchart, B; Bodek, A; Covarelli, R; de Barbaro, P; Demina, R; Eshaq, Y; Ferbel, T; Garcia-Bellido, A; Goldenzweig, P; Han, J; Harel, A; Miner, D C; Petrillo, G; Vishnevskiy, D; Zielinski, M; Bhatti, A; Ciesielski, R; Demortier, L; Goulianos, K; Lungu, G; Malik, S; Mesropian, C; Arora, S; Barker, A; Chou, J P; Contreras-Campana, C; Contreras-Campana, E; Duggan, D; Ferencek, D; Gershtein, Y; Gray, R; Halkiadakis, E; Hidas, D; Lath, A; Panwalkar, S; Park, M; Patel, R; Rekovic, V; Robles, J; Salur, S; Schnetzer, S; Seitz, C; Somalwar, S; Stone, R; Thomas, S; Thomassen, P; Walker, M; Cerizza, G; Hollingsworth, M; Rose, K; Spanier, S; Yang, Z C; York, A; Bouhali, O; Eusebi, R; Flanagan, W; Gilmore, J; Kamon, T; Khotilovich, V; Montalvo, R; Osipenkov, I; Pakhotin, Y; Perloff, A; Roe, J; Safonov, A; Sakuma, T; Suarez, I; Tatarinov, A; Toback, D; Akchurin, N; Cowden, C; Damgov, J; Dragoiu, C; Dudero, P R; Kovitanggoon, K; Lee, S W; Libeiro, T; Volobouev, I; Appelt, E; Delannoy, A G; Greene, S; Gurrola, A; Johns, W; Maguire, C; Melo, A; Sharma, M; Sheldon, P; Snook, B; Tuo, S; Velkovska, J; Arenton, M W; Boutle, S; Cox, B; Francis, B; Goodell, J; Hirosky, R; Ledovskoy, A; Lin, C; Neu, C; Wood, J; Gollapinni, S; Harr, R; Karchin, P E; Kottachchi Kankanamge Don, C; Lamichhane, P; Sakharov, A; Belknap, D A; Borrello, L; Carlsmith, D; Cepeda, M; Dasu, S; Duric, S; Friis, E; Grothe, M; Hall-Wilton, R; Herndon, M; Hervé, A; Klabbers, P; Klukas, J; Lanaro, A; Loveless, R; Mohapatra, A; Ojalvo, I; Perry, T; Pierro, G A; Polese, G; Ross, I; Sarangi, T; Savin, A; Smith, W H; Swanson, J

    A study of color coherence effects in pp collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 7[Formula: see text] is presented. The data used in the analysis were collected in 2010 with the CMS detector at the LHC and correspond to an integrated luminosity of 36 pb[Formula: see text]. Events are selected that contain at least three jets and where the two jets with the largest transverse momentum exhibit a back-to-back topology. The measured angular correlation between the second- and third-leading jet is shown to be sensitive to color coherence effects, and is compared to the predictions of Monte Carlo models with various implementations of color coherence. None of the models describe the data satisfactorily.

  13. Carotenoid pixels characterization under color space tests and RGB formulas for mesocarp of mango's fruits cultivars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammad, Ahmed Yahya; Kassim, Farid Saad Eid Saad

    2010-01-01

    This study experimented the pulp (mesocarp) of fourteen cultivars were healthy ripe of Mango fruits (Mangifera indica L.) selected after picking from Mango Spp. namely Taimour [Ta], Dabsha [Da], Aromanis [Ar], Zebda [Ze], Fagri Kelan [Fa], Alphonse [Al], Bulbek heart [Bu], Hindi- Sinnara [Hi], Compania [Co], Langra [La], Mestikawi [Me], Ewais [Ew], Montakhab El Kanater [Mo] and Mabroka [Ma] . Under seven color space tests included (RGB: Red, Green and Blue), (CMY: Cyan, Magenta and Yellow), (CMY: Cyan, Magenta and Yellow), (HSL: Hue, Saturation and Lightness), (CMYK%: Cyan%, Magenta%, Yellow% and Black%), (HSV: Hue, Saturation and Value), (HºSB%: Hueº, Saturation% and Brightness%) and (Lab). (CMY: Cyan, Magenta and Yellow), (HSL: Hue, Saturation and Lightness), (CMYK%: Cyan%, Magenta%, Yellow% and Black%), (HSV: Hue, Saturation and Value), (HºSB%: Hueº, Saturation% and Brightness%) and (Lab). Addition, nine formula of color space tests included (sRGB 0÷1, CMY, CMYK, XYZ, CIE-L*ab, CIE-L*CH, CIE-L*uv, Yxy and Hunter-Lab) and (RGB 0÷FF/hex triplet) and Carotenoid Pixels Scale. Utilizing digital color photographs as tool for obtainment the natural color information for each cultivar then the result expounded with chemical pigment estimations. Our location study in the visual yellow to orange color degrees from the visible color of electromagnetic spectrum in wavelength between (~570 to 620) nm and frequency between (~480 to 530) THz. The results found carotene very strong influence in band Red while chlorophyll (a & b) was very lower subsequently, the values in band Green was depressed. Meanwhile, the general ratios percentage for carotenoid pixels in bands Red, Green and Blue were 50%, 39% and 11% as orderliness opposite the ratios percentage for carotene, chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b which were 63%, 22% and 16% approximately. According to that the pigments influence in all color space tests and RGB formulas. Band Yellow% in color test (CMYK%) as signature

  14. Colorful solar selective absorber integrated with different colored units.

    PubMed

    Chen, Feiliang; Wang, Shao-Wei; Liu, Xingxing; Ji, Ruonan; Li, Zhifeng; Chen, Xiaoshuang; Chen, Yuwei; Lu, Wei

    2016-01-25

    Solar selective absorbers are the core part for solar thermal technologies such as solar water heaters, concentrated solar power, solar thermoelectric generators and solar thermophotovoltaics. Colorful solar selective absorber can provide new freedom and flexibility beyond energy performance, which will lead to wider utilization of solar technologies. In this work, we present a monolithic integration of colored solar absorber array with different colors on a single substrate based on a multilayered structure of Cu/TiN(x)O(y)/TiO(2)/Si(3)N(4)/SiO(2). A colored solar absorber array with 16 color units is demonstrated experimentally by using combinatorial deposition technique via changing the thickness of SiO(2) layer. The solar absorptivity and thermal emissivity of all the color units is higher than 92% and lower than 5.5%, respectively. The colored solar selective absorber array can have colorful appearance and designable patterns while keeping high energy performance at the same time. It is a new candidate for a number of solar applications, especially for architecture integration and military camouflage.

  15. Color difference threshold determination for acrylic denture base resins.

    PubMed

    Ren, Jiabao; Lin, Hong; Huang, Qingmei; Liang, Qifan; Zheng, Gang

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to set evaluation indicators, i.e., perceptibility and acceptability color difference thresholds, of color stability for acrylic denture base resins for a spectrophotometric assessing method, which offered an alternative to the visual method described in ISO 20795-1:2013. A total of 291 disk specimens 50±1 mm in diameter and 0.5±0.1 mm thick were prepared (ISO 20795-1:2013) and processed through radiation tests in an accelerated aging chamber (ISO 7491:2000) for increasing times of 0 to 42 hours. Color alterations were measured with a spectrophotometer and evaluated using the CIE L*a*b* colorimetric system. Color differences were calculated through the CIEDE2000 color difference formula. Thirty-two dental professionals without color vision deficiencies completed perceptibility and acceptability assessments under controlled conditions in vitro. An S-curve fitting procedure was used to analyze the 50:50% perceptibility and acceptability thresholds. Furthermore, perceptibility and acceptability against the differences of the three color attributes, lightness, chroma, and hue, were also investigated. According to the S-curve fitting procedure, the 50:50% perceptibility threshold was 1.71ΔE00 (r(2)=0.88) and the 50:50% acceptability threshold was 4.00 ΔE00 (r(2)=0.89). Within the limitations of this study, 1.71/4.00 ΔE00 could be used as perceptibility/acceptability thresholds for acrylic denture base resins.

  16. Generation of furosine and color in infant/enteral formula-resembling systems.

    PubMed

    Rufián-Henares, José Angel; García-Villanova, Belén; Guerra-Hernández, Eduardo

    2004-08-25

    The extent of the Maillard reaction was studied by measuring furosine and color formation in infant and enteral formula-resembling model systems prepared by mixing calcium caseinate, laboratory-obtained or commercial whey protein with lactose or dextrinomaltose (ingredients similar to those used in infant and enteral formula manufacture) and heating the mixture at 100, 120, or 140 degrees C for 0-30 min. The furosine determination was performed by HPLC and the color determination by measuring colorimetric parameters L, a, and b in a reflection photometer. The first steps of the Maillard reaction could be followed by furosine determination when initial ingredients had low thermal damage. Hence, furosine may be an indicator of low thermal damage in ingredients with <100 mg/100 g of protein. At the concentrations used in these model systems, similar to those in infant and enteral formulas, furosine values (indirect measure of lysine losses) were higher in lactose than in dextrinomaltose systems, in which only glucose, maltose, maltotriose, and maltotetraose among all of the sugars present showed reactivity with casein. Finally, the advanced steps could be followed by color determination when the initial ingredients had high thermal damage or the model systems were heated at high temperature or for a long time. Among the parameters assayed, b was the most sensitive.

  17. A Color Image Edge Detection Algorithm Based on Color Difference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuo, Li; Hu, Xiaochen; Jiang, Liying; Zhang, Jing

    2016-12-01

    Although image edge detection algorithms have been widely applied in image processing, the existing algorithms still face two important problems. On one hand, to restrain the interference of noise, smoothing filters are generally exploited in the existing algorithms, resulting in loss of significant edges. On the other hand, since the existing algorithms are sensitive to noise, many noisy edges are usually detected, which will disturb the subsequent processing. Therefore, a color image edge detection algorithm based on color difference is proposed in this paper. Firstly, a new operation called color separation is defined in this paper, which can reflect the information of color difference. Then, for the neighborhood of each pixel, color separations are calculated in four different directions to detect the edges. Experimental results on natural and synthetic images show that the proposed algorithm can remove a large number of noisy edges and be robust to the smoothing filters. Furthermore, the proposed edge detection algorithm is applied in road foreground segmentation and shadow removal, which achieves good performances.

  18. [Sociometric typologies during adolescence: contrasting different scoring techniques and formulas].

    PubMed

    Muñoz Tinoco, Victoria; Moreno Rodríguez, Ma del Carmen; Jiménez Lagares, Irene

    2008-11-01

    Our aim in this work is to compare the different sociometric classification formulae and to analyze possible connections between each type of formula and each behaviour assessed by peers during adolescence. We classified a total of 1,009 Spanish fourth-grade secondary education students (15-year-olds) using four different systems: two were based on a nomination technique by Coie and Dodge, Newcomb and Bukowski, the third system was a modified version of the latter based on the revision of the neglected status, and a fourth system was based on the qualification scale by Maassen and Laandsheer. Results show a significant relation between all four classifications, but there are also differences among them. The classifications proceeding from the nomination technique share more similarities and also offer a better behavioural characterization of sociometric categories.

  19. New formula for proton-neutron mass difference

    SciTech Connect

    Kimel, I.

    1983-05-01

    A new formula is presented, allowing the computation of the proton-neutron mass difference without the knowledge of the subtraction function in the dispersion integral. The Born terms contribute with the correct sign. The integral over the deep-inelastic region is finite whenever the Weinberg--'t Hooft mechanism is operative, and gives a small value. The net result is in very good agreement with the experimental value.

  20. Evaluation of color mapping algorithms in different color spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bronner, Timothée.-Florian; Boitard, Ronan; Pourazad, Mahsa T.; Nasiopoulos, Panos; Ebrahimi, Touradj

    2016-09-01

    The color gamut supported by current commercial displays is only a subset of the full spectrum of colors visible by the human eye. In High-Definition (HD) television technology, the scope of the supported colors covers 35.9% of the full visible gamut. For comparison, Ultra High-Definition (UHD) television, which is currently being deployed on the market, extends this range to 75.8%. However, when reproducing content with a wider color gamut than that of a television, typically UHD content on HD television, some original color information may lie outside the reproduction capabilities of the television. Efficient gamut mapping techniques are required in order to fit the colors of any source content into the gamut of a given display. The goal of gamut mapping is to minimize the distortion, in terms of perceptual quality, when converting video from one color gamut to another. It is assumed that the efficiency of gamut mapping depends on the color space in which it is computed. In this article, we evaluate 14 gamut mapping techniques, 12 combinations of two projection methods across six color spaces as well as R'G'B' Clipping and wrong gamut interpretation. Objective results, using the CIEDE2000 metric, show that the R'G'B' Clipping is slightly outperformed by only one combination of color space and projection method. However, analysis of images shows that R'G'B' Clipping can result in loss of contrast in highly saturated images, greatly impairing the quality of the mapped image.

  1. 27 CFR 19.392 - Converting denatured alcohol to a different formula.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... alcohol to a different formula. 19.392 Section 19.392 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND... denatured alcohol to a different formula. (a) General. A proprietor may convert specially denatured alcohol (SDA) from one formula of SDA to another formula of SDA if the resultant mixture contains only...

  2. 27 CFR 19.392 - Converting denatured alcohol to a different formula.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... alcohol to a different formula. 19.392 Section 19.392 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND... denatured alcohol to a different formula. (a) General. A proprietor may convert specially denatured alcohol (SDA) from one formula of SDA to another formula of SDA if the resultant mixture contains only...

  3. Differences Between Kuder-Richardson Formula 20 and Formula 21 Reliability Coefficients for Short Tests with Different Item Variabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lenke, Joanne M.; And Others

    To investigate the effect of violating the assumption of equal item difficulty on Kuder-Richardson (KR) Formula 21 reliability coefficient, 670 eighth-and ninth- grade students were administered 26 short, homogeneous "tests" of mathematics concepts and skills. Both KR Formula 20 and KR Formula 21 were used to estimate reliability on each…

  4. Bayesian approach to color-difference models based on threshold and constant-stimuli methods.

    PubMed

    Brusola, Fernando; Tortajada, Ignacio; Lengua, Ismael; Jordá, Begoña; Peris, Guillermo

    2015-06-15

    An alternative approach based on statistical Bayesian inference is presented to deal with the development of color-difference models and the precision of parameter estimation. The approach was applied to simulated data and real data, the latter published by selected authors involved with the development of color-difference formulae using traditional methods. Our results show very good agreement between the Bayesian and classical approaches. Among other benefits, our proposed methodology allows one to determine the marginal posterior distribution of each random individual parameter of the color-difference model. In this manner, it is possible to analyze the effect of individual parameters on the statistical significance calculation of a color-difference equation.

  5. Trace element status and zinc homeostasis differ in breast and formula-fed piglets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Differences in trace element composition and bioavailability between breast milk and infant formulas may affect metal homeostasis in neonates. In the current study, piglets were fed soy infant formula (Soy), cow's milk formula (Milk), or were allowed to suckle from the sow from PND2 to PND21. Serum ...

  6. Difference between highlight and object colors enhances glossiness.

    PubMed

    Hanada, Mitsuhiko

    2012-06-01

    The effect of highlight and object colors on perception of glossiness was examined. Ten participants rated glossiness of object images. The color coordinates of objects and highlights were varied while luminance of each pixel was unchanged. Four colors were used for objects and highlights. Objects were perceived as glossier when the highlight color was different from the object color than when they were the same. Objects with some unnatural combinations of highlight and object colors were perceived to be as glossy as those with natural color combinations. The results suggested that differences between highlight and object colors enhance perceived glossiness and that perceived glossiness does not depend on naturalness of color combination for highlights and objects.

  7. Design of the scanning mode coated glass color difference online detection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bi, Weihong; Zhang, Yu; Wang, Dajiang; Zhang, Baojun; Fu, Guangwei

    2008-03-01

    A design of scanning mode coated glass color difference online detection system was introduced. The system consisted of color difference data acquirement part and orbit control part. The function of the color difference data acquirement part was to acquire glass spectral reflectance and then processed them to get the color difference value. Using fiber for light guiding, the reflected light from surface of glass was transmitted into light division part, and the dispersive light was imaged on linear CCD, and then the output signals from the CCD was sampled pixel by pixel, and the spectral reflectance of coated glass was obtained finally. Then, the acquired spectral reflectance signals was sent to industrial personal computer through USB interface, using standard color space and color difference formula nominated by International Commission on Illumination (CIE) in 1976 to process these signals, and the reflected color parameter and color difference of coated glass was gained in the end. The function of the orbit control part was to move the detection probe by way of transverse scanning mode above the glass strip, and control the measuring start-stop time of the color difference data acquirement part at the same time. The color difference data acquirement part of the system was put on the orbit which is after annealing area in coated glass production line, and the protected fiber probe was placed on slide of the orbit. Using single chip microcomputer to control transmission mechanism of the slide, which made the slide move by way of transverse scanning mode on the glass strip, meanwhile, the color difference data acquirement part of the system was also controlled by the single chip microcomputer, and it made the acquirement part measure color difference data when the probe reached the needed working speed and required place on the glass strip. The scanning mode coated glass color difference online detection system can measure color parameter and color difference of

  8. Ecological influences on individual differences in color preference.

    PubMed

    Schloss, Karen B; Hawthorne-Madell, Daniel; Palmer, Stephen E

    2015-11-01

    How can the large, systematic differences that exist between individuals' color preferences be explained? The ecological valence theory (Palmer & Schloss, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 107:8877-8882, 2010) posits that an individual's preference for each particular color is determined largely by his or her preferences for all correspondingly colored objects. Therefore, individuals should differ in their color preferences to the extent that they have different preferences for the same color-associated objects or that they experience different objects. Supporting this prediction, we found that individuals' color preferences were predicted better by their own preferences for correspondingly colored objects than by other peoples' preferences for the same objects. Moreover, the fit between color preferences and affect toward the colored objects was reliably improved when people's own idiosyncratic color-object associations were included in addition to a standard set of color-object associations. These and related results provide evidence that individual differences in color preferences are reliably influenced by people's personal experiences with colored objects in their environment.

  9. Visual Determination of Industrial Color-Difference Tolerances Using Probit Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-06-01

    determine the median tolerance values of 45 color-difference vectors in CIELAB color space using surface mode viewing of paint samples. Nine different...8 4. Distribution Design for Color Centers in CIELAB Color Space ............................. 13 5. CIE Recommended Color Centers...compared to a near neutral anchor color- difference stimulus. The experiment concentrated on nine color centers systematically distributed in CIELAB color

  10. Contrast edge colors under different natural illuminations.

    PubMed

    Nieves, Juan Luis; Nascimento, Sérgio M C; Romero, Javier

    2012-02-01

    Essential to sensory processing in the human visual system is natural illumination, which can vary considerably not only across space but also along the day depending on the atmospheric conditions and the sun's position in the sky. In this work, edges derived from the three postreceptoral Luminance, Red-Green, and Blue-Yellow signals were computed from hyperspectral images of natural scenes rendered with daylights of Correlated Color Temperatures (CCTs) from 2735 to 25,889 K; for low CCT, the same analysis was performed using Planckian illuminants up to 800 K. It was found that average luminance and chromatic edge contrasts were maximal for low correlated color temperatures and almost constants above 10,000 K. The magnitude of these contrast changes was, however, only about 2% across the tested daylights. Results suggest that the postreceptoral opponent and nonopponent color vision mechanisms produce almost constant responses for color edge detection under natural illumination.

  11. Effects of different food colorants and polishing techniques on color stability of provisional prosthetic materials.

    PubMed

    Rutkunas, Vygandas; Sabaliauskas, Vaidotas; Mizutani, Hiroshi

    2010-03-01

    The main objective was to investigate the effects of different polishing techniques on the color stability of provisional prosthetic materials upon exposure to different staining agents by mimicking the oral environment in vitro. Fifty-six cylindrical specimens were prepared for each type of material: bis-acryl and light-polymerized composite resins, and methyl methacrylate- and ethyl methacrylatebased resins. The specimens were polished using seven different polishing techniques and then immersed in four different staining agents. Color was measured with a spectrophotometer before and after immersion, and color changes (DeltaE) were calculated. The effects of the type of provisional material, polishing procedure, staining agent, and their interactions on color stability were significant (p<0.05). Amongst these factors, the staining agent exerted the strongest effect on color stability. Amongst the provisional materials tested, methacrylate-based resins exhibited the highest color stability irrespective of polishing technique and staining agent.

  12. Fermentation pattern of infant formulas containing different prebiotics.

    PubMed

    Vanderhoof, Jon; Ferguson, Paul; Pauley-Hunter, Rosemary; Prestridge, Laurel

    2015-05-01

    Prebiotics play a role in the development of intestinal flora. When exposed to unabsorbed food, such as prebiotic carbohydrates, intestinal bacteria produce hydrogen. Increases in hydrogen may signify a slower rate of fermentation or digestion. In this blinded, crossover study, infants (n = 13) consumed formula containing either 4 g/L galactooligosaccharide (GOS) or 4 g/L polydextrose (PDX) + GOS, and breath hydrogen was measured. Breath hydrogen was higher in the PDX/GOS group versus GOS alone (mean ± standard error, 25.35 ± 2.87 ppm vs 13.69 ± 2.87 ppm, P = 0.0001). These results indicate that the formula with PDX/GOS may have undergone slower digestion.

  13. Study on color difference estimation method of medicine biochemical analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chunhong; Zhou, Yue; Zhao, Hongxia; Sun, Jiashi; Zhou, Fengkun

    2006-01-01

    The biochemical analysis in medicine is an important inspection and diagnosis method in hospital clinic. The biochemical analysis of urine is one important item. The Urine test paper shows corresponding color with different detection project or different illness degree. The color difference between the standard threshold and the test paper color of urine can be used to judge the illness degree, so that further analysis and diagnosis to urine is gotten. The color is a three-dimensional physical variable concerning psychology, while reflectance is one-dimensional variable; therefore, the estimation method of color difference in urine test can have better precision and facility than the conventional test method with one-dimensional reflectance, it can make an accurate diagnose. The digital camera is easy to take an image of urine test paper and is used to carry out the urine biochemical analysis conveniently. On the experiment, the color image of urine test paper is taken by popular color digital camera and saved in the computer which installs a simple color space conversion (RGB -> XYZ -> L *a *b *)and the calculation software. Test sample is graded according to intelligent detection of quantitative color. The images taken every time were saved in computer, and the whole illness process will be monitored. This method can also use in other medicine biochemical analyses that have relation with color. Experiment result shows that this test method is quick and accurate; it can be used in hospital, calibrating organization and family, so its application prospect is extensive.

  14. Color associations for days and letters across different languages

    PubMed Central

    Rouw, Romke; Case, Laura; Gosavi, Radhika; Ramachandran, Vilayanur

    2014-01-01

    While colors are commonplace in everyday metaphors, relatively little is known about implicit color associations to linguistic or semantic concepts in a general population. In this study, we test color associations for ordered linguistic concepts (letters and days). The culture and language specificity of these effects was examined in a large group (457) of Dutch-speaking participants, 92 English-speaking participants, and 49 Hindi-speaking participants. Non-random distributions of color choices were revealed; consistencies were found across the three language groups in color preferences for both days and letters. Interestingly, while the Hindi-speaking participants were presented with letter stimuli matched on phonology, their pattern of letter-to-color preferences still showed similarities with Dutch- and English-speaking participants. Furthermore, we found that that the color preferences corresponded between participants indicating to have conscious color experiences with letters or days (putative synesthetes) and participants who do not (non-synesthetes). We also explored possible mechanisms underlying the color preferences. There were a few specific associations, including red for “A,” red for “Monday,” and white for “Sunday.” We also explored more general mechanisms, such as overall color preferences as shown by Simner et al. (2005). While certainly not all variation can be explained or predicted, the results show that regularities are present in color-to-letter or color-to-day preferences in both putative synesthetes and non-synesthetes across languages. Both letter-to-color and day-to-color preferences were influenced by multiple factors. The findings support a notion of abstract concepts (such as days and letters) that are not represented in isolation, but are connected to perceptual representational systems. Interestingly, at least some of these connections to color representations are shared across different language/cultural groups. PMID

  15. 27 CFR 19.392 - Converting denatured alcohol to a different formula.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Converting denatured alcohol to a different formula. 19.392 Section 19.392 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND... denatured alcohol to a different formula. (a) General. A proprietor may convert specially denatured...

  16. Color Difference in Bering Sea Phytoplankton Blooms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    There is considerable color variation in the phytoplankton blooms in the Bering Sea -- from the aquamarine west of Nunivak Island to the almost reddish patch west of St. Matthew Island to the green eddy astride the International dateline at 60 North latitude and 178 East longitude. Credit: Provided by the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

  17. An experiment on the color rendering of different light sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fumagalli, Simonetta; Bonanomi, Cristian; Rizzi, Alessandro

    2013-02-01

    The color rendering index (CRI) of a light source attempts to measure how much the color appearance of objects is preserved when they are illuminated by the given light source. This problem is of great importance for various industrial and scientific fields, such as lighting architecture, design, ergonomics, etc. Usually a light source is specified through the Correlated Color Temperature or CCT. However two (or more) light sources with the same CCT but different spectral power distribution can exist. Therefore color samples viewed under two light sources with equal CCTs can appear different. Hence, the need for a method to assess the quality of a given illuminant in relation to color. Recently CRI has had a renewed interest because of the new LED-based lighting systems. They usually have a color rendering index rather low, but good preservation of color appearance and a pleasant visual appearance (visual appeal). Various attempts to develop a new color rendering index have been done so far, but still research is working for a better one. This article describes an experiment performed by human observers concerning the appearance preservation of color under some light sources, comparing it with a range of available color rendering indices.

  18. Different pre-term formulas for different pre-term infants.

    PubMed

    Fanaro, Silvia; Ballardini, Elisa; Vigi, Vittorio

    2010-07-01

    Optimal nutrition is one of the most important aspects in the care of pre-term infants, especially for the gestationally youngest ones. These infants should receive a supply of nutrients that can sustain growth similar to that of a third trimester normal foetus. Traditional pre-term formulas do not ensure an optimal protein supply except when fed at high volumes, with an excess of fat and carbohydrates. Formulas with a protein content of 2-2.5 g 100ml(-1) and a protein/energy (P:E) ratio of less than 3g 100 kcal(-1) are not the best choice for the very low birth weight (VLBW) infants. We have tested a new formulation designed for the nutrition of the VLBW infants that is characterised by a protein content of 2.9 g 100ml(-1) and a P:E ratio of 3.5 g 100 kcal(-1). The milk formula was well tolerated and associated with better weight gain compared with fortified breast milk (18.1 vs. 15.2 g kg(-1)day(-1); p=0.0015). These results were obtained with a noticeably lower fluid supply (157 vs. 177 ml kg day(-1); p<0.0001) and lower energy intake (130 vs. 151 kcal kg(-1)day(-1); p<0.0001). Infant length and head circumference did not differ significantly between groups. Currently, the use of a formula with a P:E ratio of 3.5 g 100 kcal(-1) appears to be safe and to represent the best choice available for the gestationally youngest infants.

  19. Preferred memory color difference between the deuteranomalous and normal color vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baek, YeSeul; Kwak, Youngshin; Woo, Sungjoo; Park, Chongwook

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study is to evaluate the difference of the preferred hues of familiar objects between the color deficient observer and the normal observer. Thirteen test color images were chosen covering fruit colors, natural scene and human faces. It contained red, yellow, green, blue, purple and skin color. Two color deficient observer (deuteranomal) and two normal observers were participated in this experiment. They controlled the YCC hue of the objects in the images to obtain the most preferred and the most natural image. The selected images were analyzed using CIELAB values of each pixel. Data analysis results showed that in the case of naturalness, both groups selected the similar hues for the most of image, while, in the case of preference, the color deficient observer preferred more reddish or more greenish images. Since the deuteranomalous observer has relatively week perception for red and green region, they may prefer more reddish or greenish color. The color difference between natural hue and preferred hue of deuteranomal observer is bigger than those of normal observer.

  20. [Effect of bagging with different colors on the fruit coloration of 'yunhongli No.2' pear].

    PubMed

    Ma, Ce; Xiao, Chang-Cheng; Hu, Hong-Ju; Huang, Xiao-San; Zhang, Shao-Ling; Wu, Jun

    2014-03-01

    The present study was conducted to reveal the effect of bags with different colors on the fruit coloration of 'Yunhongli No. 2'. The differences in fruit skin color, chlorophyll, flavonoids, total phenol, anthocyanin contents and the activities of related enzymes involved in anthocyanin synthesis among different bagging treatments were evaluated. The results showed that dark treatment at the fruit development stage was beneficial to skin coloration after bag removing. After removing bags, the anthocyanin content in the treatment of natural light was highest and the red coloration of the fruit skin were best, followed by the treatment of white bags. The different bagging treatments significantly affected the contents of chlorophyll, flavonoids, total phenol, anthocyanin in the fruit skin, thereby affected the skin coloration. The activities of related enzymes for anthocyanin synthesis showed significant differences among the different bagging treatments. The correlation analysis suggested that the anthocyanin content was significantly positively related with the activities of dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (DFR) and UDP-glucose flavonoid-3-O-glucosyltransf-erase (UFGT), however, it had no significant correlation with the activity of phenylalanin ammo-nialyase (PAL).

  1. Difference in color and color parameters between dental porcelain and porcelain-repairing resin composite.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung-Hee; Lee, Yong-Keun; Lim, Bum-Soon; Rhee, Sang-Hoon; Yang, Hyeong-Cheol

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study was to measure the differences in color and color parameters between dental porcelain and porcelain-repairing resin composites. The colors of three shades (A2, A3, A3.5) of one brand of dental porcelain, three original shades (A2, A3, A3.5), and three combinations (A2/A3, A3/3.5, A2/A3.5) of three brands of porcelain-repairing resin composites (ABT, FSP, TCR) were measured. The specimens were 2 mm thick, and 1 mm of each shade was layered to make combined shades. Differences in color (DeltaE(ab) (*)), lightness (DeltaL*), chroma (DeltaC(ab) (*)), and hue (DeltaH(*)) between porcelain and resin composite were calculated. Color difference was calculated as DeltaE(ab) (*) = (DeltaL*(2) + Deltaa*(2) + Deltab*(2))(1/2), chroma difference was calculated as DeltaC(ab) (*) = (Deltaa*(2) + Deltab*(2))(1/2), and hue difference was calculated as DeltaH(ab) (*) = (DeltaE(ab) (*2) - DeltaL*(2) - DeltaC(ab) (*2))(1/2). The influence of porcelain shade, brand of resin composites, and shade of resin composites were analyzed by three-way analyses of variance, and the differential influence of color parameters on color difference was analyzed with multiple regression analysis (alpha = 0.05). Differences in color and color parameters were influenced by the porcelain shade, brand and shade of resin composites. The DeltaE(ab) (*) value was in the range of 2.2-16.9. The DeltaE(ab) (*) value was correlated with DeltaC(ab) (*) (standardized correlation coefficient, beta = - 0.85), DeltaL* (beta = - 0.52), and DeltaH(ab) (*) (beta = 0.08). Between the same shade designated pairs of porcelain and repairing composite, color difference was perceptible. Therefore, studies to improve the color matching between porcelain and repairing resin are recommended.

  2. Color Image Segmentation Based on Different Color Space Models Using Automatic GrabCut

    PubMed Central

    Ebied, Hala Mousher; Hussein, Ashraf Saad; Tolba, Mohamed Fahmy

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a comparative study using different color spaces to evaluate the performance of color image segmentation using the automatic GrabCut technique. GrabCut is considered as one of the semiautomatic image segmentation techniques, since it requires user interaction for the initialization of the segmentation process. The automation of the GrabCut technique is proposed as a modification of the original semiautomatic one in order to eliminate the user interaction. The automatic GrabCut utilizes the unsupervised Orchard and Bouman clustering technique for the initialization phase. Comparisons with the original GrabCut show the efficiency of the proposed automatic technique in terms of segmentation, quality, and accuracy. As no explicit color space is recommended for every segmentation problem, automatic GrabCut is applied with RGB, HSV, CMY, XYZ, and YUV color spaces. The comparative study and experimental results using different color images show that RGB color space is the best color space representation for the set of the images used. PMID:25254226

  3. Color Stability of Enamel following Different Acid Etching and Color Exposure Times

    PubMed Central

    Jahanbin, Arezoo; Basafa, Mohammad; Moazzami, Mostafa; Basafa, Behnoush; Eslami, Neda

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different etching times on enamel color stability after immediate versus delayed exposure to colored artificial saliva (CAS). Materials and methods. Human first premolars were divided into five groups of twenty. A colorimeter was used according to the CIE system on the mid-buccal and mid-lingual surfaces to evaluate initial tooth color. Samples in group A remained unetched. In groups B to E, buccal and lingual surfaces were initially etched with phosphoric acid for 15 and 60 seconds, respectively. Then, the samples in groups A and C were immersed in colored artificial saliva (cola+saliva). In group B, the teeth were immersed in simple artificial saliva (AS). Samples in groups D and E were immersed in AS for 24 and 72 hours, respectively before being immersed in colored AS. The teeth were immersed for one month in each solution before color measurement. During the test period, the teeth were retrieved from the staining solution and stored in AS for five minutes. This was repeated 60 times. Color changes of buccal and lingual surfaces were calculated. Kruskal-Wallis and Wilcoxon tests were used for statistical analysis (α ≤0.05). Results. There were no significant differences between the groups in term of ΔE of buccal (P = 0.148) and lingual surfaces (P = 0.73). Conclusion. Extended time of etching did not result in significant enamel color change. Immediate and delayed exposure of etched enamel to staining solutions did not result in clinically detectable tooth color changes. PMID:25093048

  4. Color difference threshold of chromostereopsis induced by flat display emission.

    PubMed

    Ozolinsh, Maris; Muizniece, Kristine

    2015-01-01

    The study of chromostereopsis has gained attention in the backdrop of the use of computer displays in daily life. In this context, we analyze the illusory depth sense using planar color images presented on a computer screen. We determine the color difference threshold required to induce an illusory sense of depth psychometrically using a constant stimuli paradigm. Isoluminant stimuli are presented on a computer screen, which stimuli are aligned along the blue-red line in the computer display CIE xyY color space. Stereo disparity is generated by increasing the color difference between the central and surrounding areas of the stimuli with both areas consisting of random dots on a black background. The observed altering of illusory depth sense, thus also stereo disparity is validated using the "center-of-gravity" model. The induced illusory sense of the depth effect undergoes color reversal upon varying the binocular lateral eye pupil covering conditions (lateral or medial). Analysis of the retinal image point spread function for the display red and blue pixel radiation validates the altering of chromostereopsis retinal disparity achieved by increasing the color difference, and also the chromostereopsis color reversal caused by varying the eye pupil covering conditions.

  5. Color difference threshold of chromostereopsis induced by flat display emission

    PubMed Central

    Ozolinsh, Maris; Muizniece, Kristine

    2015-01-01

    The study of chromostereopsis has gained attention in the backdrop of the use of computer displays in daily life. In this context, we analyze the illusory depth sense using planar color images presented on a computer screen. We determine the color difference threshold required to induce an illusory sense of depth psychometrically using a constant stimuli paradigm. Isoluminant stimuli are presented on a computer screen, which stimuli are aligned along the blue–red line in the computer display CIE xyY color space. Stereo disparity is generated by increasing the color difference between the central and surrounding areas of the stimuli with both areas consisting of random dots on a black background. The observed altering of illusory depth sense, thus also stereo disparity is validated using the “center-of-gravity” model. The induced illusory sense of the depth effect undergoes color reversal upon varying the binocular lateral eye pupil covering conditions (lateral or medial). Analysis of the retinal image point spread function for the display red and blue pixel radiation validates the altering of chromostereopsis retinal disparity achieved by increasing the color difference, and also the chromostereopsis color reversal caused by varying the eye pupil covering conditions. PMID:25883573

  6. Color categories only affect post-perceptual processes when same- and different-category colors are equally discriminable.

    PubMed

    He, Xun; Witzel, Christoph; Forder, Lewis; Clifford, Alexandra; Franklin, Anna

    2014-04-01

    Prior claims that color categories affect color perception are confounded by inequalities in the color space used to equate same- and different-category colors. Here, we equate same- and different-category colors in the number of just-noticeable differences, and measure event-related potentials (ERPs) to these colors on a visual oddball task to establish if color categories affect perceptual or post-perceptual stages of processing. Category effects were found from 200 ms after color presentation, only in ERP components that reflect post-perceptual processes (e.g., N2, P3). The findings suggest that color categories affect post-perceptual processing, but do not affect the perceptual representation of color.

  7. Causes of Different Vivid Colors in Chalcedonies: Kutahya-Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozcan Kilic, Cumhur; Kagan Kadıoglu, Yusuf

    2016-04-01

    Chalcedony is a silicate mineral which is a mixture of fibrous quartz (trigonal) and granular moganite (monoclinic) minerals. They are both SiO2 in composition but differs in crystal system. Chalcedony is widely used as semi-precious gemstone in many countries. It has many different kinds due to their various colors and structures. The colour changes in mineral depends on different causes. Most important causes are transition metal impurities in minerals chemical composition and charge transfer between ions. Different chalcedony types have different colors due to their elemental composition. Chalcedony can be show almost every colour strating from white, black, gray, red, blue, green to brown or a combinations of more than one color in case of agates and jasper formations. Although they have same major oxide compositions,chrysopras (green chalcedony) have Ni which gives the green color and carnelian (orange chalcedony) have Fe+3 which gives the orange color. Kutahya, Eskisehir, Ankara, Manisa, Balıkesir, Canakkale and Yozgat represent the most cities which chalcedony can be mostly observed in Turkey. In Kutahya, chalcedony occurs in cavity or vein fillings in pyroclastic rocks such as tuff and formed by precipitation of silica bearing fluids in low temperatures. They can be also formed within the hydrothermal alteration zone of ultramafic rocks. Although chalcedonies in Kutahya form under almost same condition, they have various colors within the same unit. To specify the cause of the different colors, chemical analysis and Confocal Raman studies performed on Kutahya chalcedonies. Firstly, samples are crushed to 2 mm. size. After that, different colors of chalcedonies are separated by hand picking under binocular microscope and grouped into different color sets such as white, blue, dark yellow, light orange, dark orange and claret red. Each color set is measured by PED-XRF method to obtain chemical compositions. Also Raman studies performed to identify the effect

  8. Trace element status and zinc homeostasis differ in breast and formula-fed piglets

    PubMed Central

    Miousse, Isabelle R; Mason, Andrew Z; Sharma, Neha; Blackburn, Michael L; Badger, Thomas M

    2015-01-01

    Differences in trace element composition and bioavailability between breast milk and infant formulas may affect metal homeostasis in neonates. However, there is a paucity of controlled studies in this area. Here, piglets were fed soy infant formula (soy), cow’s milk formula (milk), or were allowed to suckle from the sow from PND2 to PND21. Serum iron concentrations were higher in formula-fed compared to breastfed piglets (P < 0.05). Serum zinc values were higher in milk compared to breastfed or soy groups (P < 0.05). Zinc transporter Zip4 mRNA was elevated in small intestine of the soy compared to breastfed group (P < 0.05). Transporter Znt1 mRNA was greater in small intestine of both formula-fed groups and in liver of the milk compared to the breastfed group (P < 0.05). Metallothionein Mt1 mRNA expression was higher in small intestine and liver of milk compared to breastfed and soy groups (P < 0.05). In liver, metallothionein protein levels and protein bound zinc were also highly elevated in the milk compared to other groups (P < 0.05). mRNA encoding the hepatic zinc-regulated gene Gclc was higher in the milk than soy group (P < 0.05). ChIP assay revealed increased binding of the zinc-regulated transcription factor MTF1 to the promoters of hepatic Mt3 and Gclc genes in the milk compared to the soy group. These data provide evidence that trace element status differs in breastfed, milk-fed, and soy-fed piglets and that despite similar levels of dietary supplementation, allows strong causal inference that significant differences in serum zinc after cow’s milk formula compared to soy formula consumption result in compensatory changes in expression of zinc transporters, binding proteins, and zinc-regulated genes. PMID:25179632

  9. Trace element status and zinc homeostasis differ in breast and formula-fed piglets.

    PubMed

    Ronis, Martin J J; Miousse, Isabelle R; Mason, Andrew Z; Sharma, Neha; Blackburn, Michael L; Badger, Thomas M

    2015-01-01

    Differences in trace element composition and bioavailability between breast milk and infant formulas may affect metal homeostasis in neonates. However, there is a paucity of controlled studies in this area. Here, piglets were fed soy infant formula (soy), cow's milk formula (milk), or were allowed to suckle from the sow from PND2 to PND21. Serum iron concentrations were higher in formula-fed compared to breastfed piglets (P < 0.05). Serum zinc values were higher in milk compared to breastfed or soy groups (P < 0.05). Zinc transporter Zip4 mRNA was elevated in small intestine of the soy compared to breastfed group (P < 0.05). Transporter Znt1 mRNA was greater in small intestine of both formula-fed groups and in liver of the milk compared to the breastfed group (P < 0.05). Metallothionein Mt1 mRNA expression was higher in small intestine and liver of milk compared to breastfed and soy groups (P < 0.05). In liver, metallothionein protein levels and protein bound zinc were also highly elevated in the milk compared to other groups (P < 0.05). mRNA encoding the hepatic zinc-regulated gene Gclc was higher in the milk than soy group (P < 0.05). ChIP assay revealed increased binding of the zinc-regulated transcription factor MTF1 to the promoters of hepatic Mt3 and Gclc genes in the milk compared to the soy group. These data provide evidence that trace element status differs in breastfed, milk-fed, and soy-fed piglets and that despite similar levels of dietary supplementation, allows strong causal inference that significant differences in serum zinc after cow's milk formula compared to soy formula consumption result in compensatory changes in expression of zinc transporters, binding proteins, and zinc-regulated genes.

  10. Image evaluation using a color visual difference predictor (CVDP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lian, Ming-Shih

    2001-06-01

    In order to automate the image evaluation task, an engineering model for predicting the visual differences of color images is developed. The present CVDP consists of a color appearance model, a set of contrast sensitivity functions, the modified cortex transform, and a multichannel interaction model for masking effects. Based ona pixel-by- pixel difference metric similar to the CIELAB color difference, the predictions of the simplified CVDP are found to correlate fairly with the psychophysical test results over 51 pairs of natural images with some detection failures. These failures can be eliminated by including additional image quality metrics: the clarity in the shadow and highlight areas and the graininess in the mid-tone areas. The modified model is found to be able to identify 55 percent of those visually indistinguishable image pairs. The preliminary results using the complete CVDP for selected image pairs indicate that the effects of masking introduce only little changes to the results of the simplified CVDP.

  11. Efficient color face detection algorithm under different lighting conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chow, Tze-Yin; Lam, Kin-Man; Wong, Kwok-Wai

    2006-01-01

    We present an efficient and reliable algorithm to detect human faces in an image under different lighting conditions. In our algorithm, skin-colored pixels are identified using a region-based approach, which can provide more reliable skin color segmentation under various lighting conditions. In addition, to compensate for extreme lighting conditions, a color compensation scheme is proposed, and the distributions of the skin-color components under various illuminations are modeled by means of the maximum-likelihood method. With the skin-color regions detected, a ratio method is proposed to determine the possible positions of the eyes in the image. Two eye candidates form a possible face region, which is then verified as a face or not by means of a two-stage procedure with an eigenmask. Finally, the face boundary region of a face candidate is further verified by a probabilistic approach to reduce the chance of false alarms. Experimental results based on the HHI MPEG-7 face database, the AR face database, and the CMU pose, illumination, and expression (PIE) database show that this face detection algorithm is efficient and reliable under different lighting conditions and facial expressions.

  12. National Differences in Intelligence, Crime, Income, and Skin Color

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rushton, J. Philippe; Templer, Donald I.

    2009-01-01

    National differences in murder, rape, and serious assault were examined in 113 countries in relation to national IQ, income, skin color, birth rate, life expectancy, infant mortality, and HIV/AIDS. Data were collated from the 1993-1996 International Crime Statistics published by INTERPOL. Violent crime was found to be lower in countries with…

  13. Geometrically derived difference formulae for the numerical integration of trajectory problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcleod, R. J. Y.; Sanz-Serna, J. M.

    1981-01-01

    The term 'trajectory problem' is taken to include problems that can arise, for instance, in connection with contour plotting, or in the application of continuation methods, or during phase-plane analysis. Geometrical techniques are used to construct difference methods for these problems to produce in turn explicit and implicit circularly exact formulae. Based on these formulae, a predictor-corrector method is derived which, when compared with a closely related standard method, shows improved performance. It is found that this latter method produces spurious limit cycles, and this behavior is partly analyzed. Finally, a simple variable-step algorithm is constructed and tested.

  14. Eye Movement Preferences As Individual Differences in Learning From Color and Non-Color Pictures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caban, Juan Pedro

    An experiment compared the effectiveness of color and non-color (black-and-white) pictures in a paired associate learning task. The study also used individual eye movement quantifications as a predictor of preference for color and non-color pictures. Specifically, eye movement fixation patterns were used as indices of preference for color and…

  15. Numerical expression of color emotion and its application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Tetsuya; Kajiwara, Kanji; Xin, John H.; Hansuebsai, Aran; Nobbs, Jim

    2002-06-01

    Human emotions induced by colors are various but the emotions are expressed through words and languages. In order to analyze the emotions expressed through words and languages, visual assessment tests against color emotions expressed by twelve kinds of word pairs were carried out in Japan, Thailand, Hong Kong and UK. The numerical expression of each color emotion is being tried as a formula with an ellipsoid-shape resembling that of a color difference formula. In this paper, the numerical expression of 'Soft- Hard' color emotion was mainly discussed. The application of color emotions via the empirical color emotions formulae derived from kansei database (database of sensory assessments) was also briefly reported.

  16. Measurement of the phase difference between short- and long-distance amplitudes in the [Formula: see text] decay.

    PubMed

    Aaij, R; Adeva, B; Adinolfi, M; Ajaltouni, Z; Akar, S; Albrecht, J; Alessio, F; Alexander, M; Ali, S; Alkhazov, G; Alvarez Cartelle, P; Alves, A A; Amato, S; Amerio, S; Amhis, Y; An, L; Anderlini, L; Andreassi, G; Andreotti, M; Andrews, J E; Appleby, R B; Archilli, F; d'Argent, P; Arnau Romeu, J; Artamonov, A; Artuso, M; Aslanides, E; Auriemma, G; Baalouch, M; Babuschkin, I; Bachmann, S; Back, J J; Badalov, A; Baesso, C; Baker, S; Balagura, V; Baldini, W; Barlow, R J; Barschel, C; Barsuk, S; Barter, W; Baszczyk, M; Batozskaya, V; Batsukh, B; Battista, V; Bay, A; Beaucourt, L; Beddow, J; Bedeschi, F; Bediaga, I; Bel, L J; Bellee, V; Belloli, N; Belous, K; Belyaev, I; Ben-Haim, E; Bencivenni, G; Benson, S; Berezhnoy, A; Bernet, R; Bertolin, A; Betancourt, C; Betti, F; Bettler, M-O; van Beuzekom, M; Bezshyiko, Ia; Bifani, S; Billoir, P; Bird, T; Birnkraut, A; Bitadze, A; Bizzeti, A; Blake, T; Blanc, F; Blouw, J; Blusk, S; Bocci, V; Boettcher, T; Bondar, A; Bondar, N; Bonivento, W; Bordyuzhin, I; Borgheresi, A; Borghi, S; Borisyak, M; Borsato, M; Bossu, F; Boubdir, M; Bowcock, T J V; Bowen, E; Bozzi, C; Braun, S; Britsch, M; Britton, T; Brodzicka, J; Buchanan, E; Burr, C; Bursche, A; Buytaert, J; Cadeddu, S; Calabrese, R; Calvi, M; Calvo Gomez, M; Camboni, A; Campana, P; Campora Perez, D H; Capriotti, L; Carbone, A; Carboni, G; Cardinale, R; Cardini, A; Carniti, P; Carson, L; Carvalho Akiba, K; Casse, G; Cassina, L; Castillo Garcia, L; Cattaneo, M; Cavallero, G; Cenci, R; Chamont, D; Charles, M; Charpentier, Ph; Chatzikonstantinidis, G; Chefdeville, M; Chen, S; Cheung, S-F; Chobanova, V; Chrzaszcz, M; Cid Vidal, X; Ciezarek, G; Clarke, P E L; Clemencic, M; Cliff, H V; Closier, J; Coco, V; Cogan, J; Cogneras, E; Cogoni, V; Cojocariu, L; Collazuol, G; Collins, P; Comerma-Montells, A; Contu, A; Cook, A; Coombs, G; Coquereau, S; Corti, G; Corvo, M; Costa Sobral, C M; Couturier, B; Cowan, G A; Craik, D C; Crocombe, A; Cruz Torres, M; Cunliffe, S; Currie, R; D'Ambrosio, C; Da Cunha Marinho, F; Dall'Occo, E; Dalseno, J; David, P N Y; Davis, A; De Bruyn, K; De Capua, S; De Cian, M; De Miranda, J M; De Paula, L; De Serio, M; De Simone, P; Dean, C-T; Decamp, D; Deckenhoff, M; Del Buono, L; Demmer, M; Dendek, A; Derkach, D; Deschamps, O; Dettori, F; Dey, B; Di Canto, A; Dijkstra, H; Dordei, F; Dorigo, M; Dosil Suárez, A; Dovbnya, A; Dreimanis, K; Dufour, L; Dujany, G; Dungs, K; Durante, P; Dzhelyadin, R; Dziurda, A; Dzyuba, A; Déléage, N; Easo, S; Ebert, M; Egede, U; Egorychev, V; Eidelman, S; Eisenhardt, S; Eitschberger, U; Ekelhof, R; Eklund, L; Ely, S; Esen, S; Evans, H M; Evans, T; Falabella, A; Farley, N; Farry, S; Fay, R; Fazzini, D; Ferguson, D; Fernandez Prieto, A; Ferrari, F; Ferreira Rodrigues, F; Ferro-Luzzi, M; Filippov, S; Fini, R A; Fiore, M; Fiorini, M; Firlej, M; Fitzpatrick, C; Fiutowski, T; Fleuret, F; Fohl, K; Fontana, M; Fontanelli, F; Forshaw, D C; Forty, R; Franco Lima, V; Frank, M; Frei, C; Fu, J; Funk, W; Furfaro, E; Färber, C; Gallas Torreira, A; Galli, D; Gallorini, S; Gambetta, S; Gandelman, M; Gandini, P; Gao, Y; Garcia Martin, L M; García Pardiñas, J; Garra Tico, J; Garrido, L; Garsed, P J; Gascon, D; Gaspar, C; Gavardi, L; Gazzoni, G; Gerick, D; Gersabeck, E; Gersabeck, M; Gershon, T; Ghez, Ph; Gianì, S; Gibson, V; Girard, O G; Giubega, L; Gizdov, K; Gligorov, V V; Golubkov, D; Golutvin, A; Gomes, A; Gorelov, I V; Gotti, C; Graciani Diaz, R; Granado Cardoso, L A; Graugés, E; Graverini, E; Graziani, G; Grecu, A; Griffith, P; Grillo, L; Gruberg Cazon, B R; Grünberg, O; Gushchin, E; Guz, Yu; Gys, T; Göbel, C; Hadavizadeh, T; Hadjivasiliou, C; Haefeli, G; Haen, C; Haines, S C; Hall, S; Hamilton, B; Han, X; Hansmann-Menzemer, S; Harnew, N; Harnew, S T; Harrison, J; Hatch, M; He, J; Head, T; Heister, A; Hennessy, K; Henrard, P; Henry, L; van Herwijnen, E; Heß, M; Hicheur, A; Hill, D; Hombach, C; Hopchev, H; Hulsbergen, W; Humair, T; Hushchyn, M; Hutchcroft, D; Idzik, M; Ilten, P; Jacobsson, R; Jaeger, A; Jalocha, J; Jans, E; Jawahery, A; Jiang, F; John, M; Johnson, D; Jones, C R; Joram, C; Jost, B; Jurik, N; Kandybei, S; Karacson, M; Kariuki, J M; Karodia, S; Kecke, M; Kelsey, M; Kenzie, M; Ketel, T; Khairullin, E; Khanji, B; Khurewathanakul, C; Kirn, T; Klaver, S; Klimaszewski, K; Koliiev, S; Kolpin, M; Komarov, I; Koopman, R F; Koppenburg, P; Kosmyntseva, A; Kozachuk, A; Kozeiha, M; Kravchuk, L; Kreplin, K; Kreps, M; Krokovny, P; Kruse, F; Krzemien, W; Kucewicz, W; Kucharczyk, M; Kudryavtsev, V; Kuonen, A K; Kurek, K; Kvaratskheliya, T; Lacarrere, D; Lafferty, G; Lai, A; Lanfranchi, G; Langenbruch, C; Latham, T; Lazzeroni, C; Le Gac, R; van Leerdam, J; Leflat, A; Lefrançois, J; Lefèvre, R; Lemaitre, F; Lemos Cid, E; Leroy, O; Lesiak, T; Leverington, B; Li, T; Li, Y; Likhomanenko, T; Lindner, R; Linn, C; Lionetto, F; Liu, X; Loh, D; Longstaff, I; Lopes, J H; Lucchesi, D; Lucio Martinez, M; Luo, H; Lupato, A; Luppi, E; Lupton, O; Lusiani, A; Lyu, X; Machefert, F; Maciuc, F; Maev, O; Maguire, K; Malde, S; Malinin, A; Maltsev, T; Manca, G; Mancinelli, G; Manning, P; Maratas, J; Marchand, J F; Marconi, U; Marin Benito, C; Marinangeli, M; Marino, P; Marks, J; Martellotti, G; Martin, M; Martinelli, M; Martinez Santos, D; Martinez Vidal, F; Martins Tostes, D; Massacrier, L M; Massafferri, A; Matev, R; Mathad, A; Mathe, Z; Matteuzzi, C; Mauri, A; Maurice, E; Maurin, B; Mazurov, A; McCann, M; McNab, A; McNulty, R; Meadows, B; Meier, F; Meissner, M; Melnychuk, D; Merk, M; Merli, A; Michielin, E; Milanes, D A; Minard, M-N; Mitzel, D S; Mogini, A; Molina Rodriguez, J; Monroy, I A; Monteil, S; Morandin, M; Morawski, P; Mordà, A; Morello, M J; Morgunova, O; Moron, J; Morris, A B; Mountain, R; Muheim, F; Mulder, M; Mussini, M; Müller, D; Müller, J; Müller, K; Müller, V; Naik, P; Nakada, T; Nandakumar, R; Nandi, A; Nasteva, I; Needham, M; Neri, N; Neubert, S; Neufeld, N; Neuner, M; Nguyen, T D; Nguyen-Mau, C; Nieswand, S; Niet, R; Nikitin, N; Nikodem, T; Nogay, A; Novoselov, A; O'Hanlon, D P; Oblakowska-Mucha, A; Obraztsov, V; Ogilvy, S; Oldeman, R; Onderwater, C J G; Otalora Goicochea, J M; Otto, A; Owen, P; Oyanguren, A; Pais, P R; Palano, A; Palombo, F; Palutan, M; Papanestis, A; Pappagallo, M; Pappalardo, L L; Parker, W; Parkes, C; Passaleva, G; Pastore, A; Patel, G D; Patel, M; Patrignani, C; Pearce, A; Pellegrino, A; Penso, G; Pepe Altarelli, M; Perazzini, S; Perret, P; Pescatore, L; Petridis, K; Petrolini, A; Petrov, A; Petruzzo, M; Picatoste Olloqui, E; Pietrzyk, B; Pikies, M; Pinci, D; Pistone, A; Piucci, A; Placinta, V; Playfer, S; Plo Casasus, M; Poikela, T; Polci, F; Poluektov, A; Polyakov, I; Polycarpo, E; Pomery, G J; Popov, A; Popov, D; Popovici, B; Poslavskii, S; Potterat, C; Price, E; Price, J D; Prisciandaro, J; Pritchard, A; Prouve, C; Pugatch, V; Puig Navarro, A; Punzi, G; Qian, W; Quagliani, R; Rachwal, B; Rademacker, J H; Rama, M; Ramos Pernas, M; Rangel, M S; Raniuk, I; Ratnikov, F; Raven, G; Redi, F; Reichert, S; Dos Reis, A C; Remon Alepuz, C; Renaudin, V; Ricciardi, S; Richards, S; Rihl, M; Rinnert, K; Rives Molina, V; Robbe, P; Rodrigues, A B; Rodrigues, E; Rodriguez Lopez, J A; Rodriguez Perez, P; Rogozhnikov, A; Roiser, S; Rollings, A; Romanovskiy, V; Romero Vidal, A; Ronayne, J W; Rotondo, M; Rudolph, M S; Ruf, T; Ruiz Valls, P; Saborido Silva, J J; Sadykhov, E; Sagidova, N; Saitta, B; Salustino Guimaraes, V; Sanchez Mayordomo, C; Sanmartin Sedes, B; Santacesaria, R; Santamarina Rios, C; Santimaria, M; Santovetti, E; Sarti, A; Satriano, C; Satta, A; Saunders, D M; Savrina, D; Schael, S; Schellenberg, M; Schiller, M; Schindler, H; Schlupp, M; Schmelling, M; Schmelzer, T; Schmidt, B; Schneider, O; Schopper, A; Schubert, K; Schubiger, M; Schune, M-H; Schwemmer, R; Sciascia, B; Sciubba, A; Semennikov, A; Sergi, A; Serra, N; Serrano, J; Sestini, L; Seyfert, P; Shapkin, M; Shapoval, I; Shcheglov, Y; Shears, T; Shekhtman, L; Shevchenko, V; Siddi, B G; Silva Coutinho, R; Silva de Oliveira, L; Simi, G; Simone, S; Sirendi, M; Skidmore, N; Skwarnicki, T; Smith, E; Smith, I T; Smith, J; Smith, M; Snoek, H; Soares Lavra, L; Sokoloff, M D; Soler, F J P; Souza De Paula, B; Spaan, B; Spradlin, P; Sridharan, S; Stagni, F; Stahl, M; Stahl, S; Stefko, P; Stefkova, S; Steinkamp, O; Stemmle, S; Stenyakin, O; Stevens, H; Stevenson, S; Stoica, S; Stone, S; Storaci, B; Stracka, S; Straticiuc, M; Straumann, U; Sun, L; Sutcliffe, W; Swientek, K; Syropoulos, V; Szczekowski, M; Szumlak, T; T'Jampens, S; Tayduganov, A; Tekampe, T; Tellarini, G; Teubert, F; Thomas, E; van Tilburg, J; Tilley, M J; Tisserand, V; Tobin, M; Tolk, S; Tomassetti, L; Tonelli, D; Topp-Joergensen, S; Toriello, F; Tournefier, E; Tourneur, S; Trabelsi, K; Traill, M; Tran, M T; Tresch, M; Trisovic, A; Tsaregorodtsev, A; Tsopelas, P; Tully, A; Tuning, N; Ukleja, A; Ustyuzhanin, A; Uwer, U; Vacca, C; Vagnoni, V; Valassi, A; Valat, S; Valenti, G; Vazquez Gomez, R; Vazquez Regueiro, P; Vecchi, S; van Veghel, M; Velthuis, J J; Veltri, M; Veneziano, G; Venkateswaran, A; Vernet, M; Vesterinen, M; Viana Barbosa, J V; Viaud, B; Vieira, D; Vieites Diaz, M; Viemann, H; Vilasis-Cardona, X; Vitti, M; Volkov, V; Vollhardt, A; Voneki, B; Vorobyev, A; Vorobyev, V; Voß, C; de Vries, J A; Vázquez Sierra, C; Waldi, R; Wallace, C; Wallace, R; Walsh, J; Wang, J; Ward, D R; Wark, H M; Watson, N K; Websdale, D; Weiden, A; Whitehead, M; Wicht, J; Wilkinson, G; Wilkinson, M; Williams, M; Williams, M P; Williams, M; Williams, T; Wilson, F F; Wimberley, J; Wishahi, J; Wislicki, W; Witek, M; Wormser, G; Wotton, S A; Wraight, K; Wyllie, K; Xie, Y; Xing, Z; Xu, Z; Yang, Z; Yao, Y; Yin, H; Yu, J; Yuan, X; Yushchenko, O; Zarebski, K A; Zavertyaev, M; Zhang, L; Zhang, Y; Zhang, Y; Zhelezov, A; Zheng, Y; Zhu, X; Zhukov, V; Zucchelli, S

    2017-01-01

    A measurement of the phase difference between the short- and long-distance contributions to the [Formula: see text] decay is performed by analysing the dimuon mass distribution. The analysis is based on pp collision data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 3[Formula: see text] collected by the LHCb experiment in 2011 and 2012. The long-distance contribution to the [Formula: see text] decay is modelled as a sum of relativistic Breit-Wigner amplitudes representing different vector meson resonances decaying to muon pairs, each with their own magnitude and phase. The measured phases of the [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] resonances are such that the interference with the short-distance component in dimuon mass regions far from their pole masses is small. In addition, constraints are placed on the Wilson coefficients, [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text], and the branching fraction of the short-distance component is measured.

  17. Origin of the different color of ruby and emerald

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Lastra, J. M.; Barriuso, M. T.; Aramburu, J. A.; Moreno, M.

    2005-09-01

    The different color exhibited by ruby and emerald is a fundamental but still unsolved question. According to recent EXAFS measurements, such a difference can hardly be explained on the basis of a different average distance between Cr3+ and the six oxygen ligands. The puzzling difference in color between the two gemstones is shown in this work to arise essentially from the distinct electrostatic potential imposed by the rest of lattice ions upon the active electrons of the CrO69- unit. Main effects are shown to come from the electric field generated in the neighborhood of the Cr3+ site in ruby which is absent in the case of emerald due to symmetry.

  18. Sex differences in color preferences transcend extreme differences in culture and ecology.

    PubMed

    Sorokowski, Piotr; Sorokowska, Agnieszka; Witzel, Christoph

    2014-10-01

    At first glance, color preferences might seem to be the most subjective and context-dependent aspects of color cognition. Yet they are not. The present study compares color preferences of women and men from an industrialized and a remote, nonindustrialized culture. In particular, we investigated preferences in observers from Poland and from the Yali in Papua, respectively. Not surprisingly, we found that color preferences clearly differed between the two communities and also between sexes. However, despite the pronounced cultural differences, the way in which men and women differed from each other was almost the same in both cultures. At the same time, this sexual contrast was not specific to biological components of color vision. Our results reveal a pattern of sexual dimorphism that transcends extreme differences in culture and ecology. They point toward strong cross-cultural constraints beyond the biological predispositions of nature and the cultural particularities of nurture.

  19. Infant milk formulas differ regarding their allergenic activity and induction of T-cell and cytokine responses

    PubMed Central

    Hochwallner, H.; Schulmeister, U.; Swoboda, I.; Focke-Tejkl, M.; Reininger, R.; Civaj, V.; Campana, R.; Thalhamer, J.; Scheiblhofer, S.; Balic, N.; Horak, F.; Ollert, M.; Papadopoulos, N. G.; Quirce, S.; Szepfalusi, Z.; Herz, U.; van Tol, E. A. F.; Spitzauer, S.; Valenta, R.

    2017-01-01

    Background Several hydrolyzed cow’s milk (CM) formulas are available for avoidance of allergic reactions in CM-allergic children and for prevention of allergy development in high-risk infants. Our aim was to compare CM formulas regarding the presence of immunoreactive CM components, IgE reactivity, allergenic activity, ability to induce T-cell proliferation, and cytokine secretion. Methods A blinded analysis of eight CM formulas, one nonhydrolyzed, two partially hydrolyzed (PH), four extensively hydrolyzed (EH), and one amino acid formula, using biochemical techniques and specific antibody probes was conducted. IgE reactivity and allergenic activity of the formulas were tested with sera from CM-allergic patients (n = 26) in RAST-based assays and with rat basophils transfected with the human FcεRI, respectively. The induction of T-cell proliferation and the secretion of cytokines in Peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) culture from CM allergic patients and nonallergic individuals were assessed. Results Immune-reactive α-lactalbumin and β-lactoglobulin were found in the two PH formulas and casein components in one of the EH formulas. One PH formula and the EH formula containing casein components showed remaining IgE reactivity, whereas the other hydrolyzed formulas lacked IgE reactivity. Only two EH formulas and the amino acid formula did not induce T-cell proliferation and proinflammatory cytokine release. The remaining formulas varied regarding the induction of Th2, Th1, and proinflammatory cytokines. Conclusion Our results show that certain CM formulas without allergenic and low proinflammatory properties can be identified and they may also explain different outcomes obtained in clinical studies using CM formulas. PMID:27455132

  20. Large and small color differences: predicting them from hue scaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Hoover; Abramov, Israel; Gordon, James

    1991-06-01

    Color appearance can be specified by a procedure of direct hue scaling. In this procedure, subjects look at a stimulus and then simply state the proportions of their sensations using the four unique hue names red, yellow, green, and blue; to completeness, they also state the apparent saturation. Observers can scale stimuli quickly and reliably, and this is true even if they are relatively inexperienced. Thus stimuli can be rescaled whenever viewing conditions change such that a new specification of appearance is required. The scaled sensory values elicited by a set of stimuli are used to derive the locations of the stimuli on a color diagram that is based on appearance and which we term a Uniform Appearance Diagram (UAD). The orthogonal axes of these space are red-green and yellow-blue; the location of a stimulus specifies its hue and its distance from the origin specifies its apparent saturation. We have investigated the uniformity of this space by using a subject's UAD, for a particular set of viewing conditions, to predict both small and large color differences under comparable viewing conditions. For small-scale differences we compared wavelength discrimination functions derived from UADs with those obtained by direct adjustment of a bipartite field. For large-scale differences, subjects rated the degree of similarity of pairs of different wavelengths; these ratings were compared with the distances separating the same pairs of wavelengths on a UAD. In both cases, the agreements were very good, implying that UAD's are metrically uniform. Thus, UADs could be used to adjust the hues in a pseudo-color display so that all transitions would be equally perceptible or would differ by specified amounts.

  1. Development of an adaptive bilateral filter for evaluating color image difference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhaohui; Hardeberg, Jon Yngve

    2012-04-01

    Spatial filtering, which aims to mimic the contrast sensitivity function (CSF) of the human visual system (HVS), has previously been combined with color difference formulae for measuring color image reproduction errors. These spatial filters attenuate imperceptible information in images, unfortunately including high frequency edges, which are believed to be crucial in the process of scene analysis by the HVS. The adaptive bilateral filter represents a novel approach, which avoids the undesirable loss of edge information introduced by CSF-based filtering. The bilateral filter employs two Gaussian smoothing filters in different domains, i.e., spatial domain and intensity domain. We propose a method to decide the parameters, which are designed to be adaptive to the corresponding viewing conditions, and the quantity and homogeneity of information contained in an image. Experiments and discussions are given to support the proposal. A series of perceptual experiments were conducted to evaluate the performance of our approach. The experimental sample images were reproduced with variations in six image attributes: lightness, chroma, hue, compression, noise, and sharpness/blurriness. The Pearson's correlation values between the model-predicted image difference and the observed difference were employed to evaluate the performance, and compare it with that of spatial CIELAB and image appearance model.

  2. Color alteration in teeth subjected to different bleaching techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briso, A. L. F.; Fonseca, M. S. M.; de Almeida, L. C. A. G.; Mauro, S. J.; Dos Santos, P. H.

    2010-12-01

    This study evaluated the color alteration of teeth subjected to the action of different bleaching agents and the influence of light sources commonly used in association with these products, In GI, the specimens remained immersed in artificial saliva. The specimens in GII were bleached with a 10% carbamide peroxide gel 4 hours/day during 3 weeks; the teeth in the other three groups were subjected to three sessions of three 10-min applications of 35% hydrogen peroxide gel at 7-day intervals. In GIII, no light was used, while in GIV and GV the gel was associated with a quartz-tungsten-halogen light and a LED/laser source, respectively. The teeth color was evaluated before and 7 days after the bleaching sessions by reflectance spectrophotometry. Data were analyzed statistically by ANOVA and Fisher's test (α = 0.05), and showed that a significant color change was obtained in all treated groups. After the first week of treatment and at the end of it, the bleaching protocols showed similar results. The results of the present study indicate that association of a light source is not necessary to obtain the bleaching effect and that optimal bleaching can be achieved with all techniques tested.

  3. The Difference between the Two Representative Kampo Formulas for Treating Dysmenorrhea: An Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Yoshino, Tetsuhiro; Katayama, Kotoe; Horiba, Yuko; Munakata, Kaori; Yamaguchi, Rui; Imoto, Seiya; Miyano, Satoru; Mima, Hideki; Watanabe, Kenji; Mimura, Masaru

    2016-01-01

    In Kampo medicine, two different formulas are effective for treating dysmenorrhea—tokishakuyakusan and keishibukuryogan; however, the criteria by which specialists select the appropriate formula for each patient are not clear. We compared patients treated with tokishakuyakusan and those with keishibukuryogan and proposed a predictive model. The study included 168 primary and secondary dysmenorrhea patients who visited the Kampo Clinic at Keio University Hospital. We collected clinical data from 128 dysmenorrhea patients, compared the two patient groups and selected significantly different factors as potential predictors, and used logistic regression to establish a model. An external validation was performed using 40 dysmenorrhea patients. Lightheadedness, BMI < 18.5, and a weak abdomen were significantly more frequent in the tokishakuyakusan group; tendency to sweat, heat intolerance, leg numbness, a cold sensation in the lower back, a strong abdomen, and paraumbilical tenderness and resistance were more frequent in the keishibukuryogan group. The final model fitted the data well. Internally estimated accuracy was 81.2%, and a leave-one-out cross-validation estimate of accuracy was 80.5%. External validation accuracy was 85.0%. We proposed a model for predicting the use of two Kampo formulas for dysmenorrhea, which should be validated in prospective trials. PMID:27006676

  4. Chromium content in different kinds of Spanish infant formulae and estimation of dietary intake by infants fed on reconstituted powder formulae.

    PubMed

    Sola-Larrañaga, Cristina; Navarro-Blasco, Iñigo

    2006-11-01

    Chromium is well documented as an essential element for humans. Trivalent chromium, the main chemical form found in foods, is essential for maintaining normal glucose metabolism. Owing to analytical difficulties, several literature reports of chromium content of foods, especially for the lower levels, show large variability and should be interpreted with caution. Zeeman background correction, transversely heated graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry was used to determine the chromium content of 104 different infant formulae (cow's milk and soy protein based) marketed in Spain following an acid-digestion sample preparation procedure in a closed, pressurized and microwave digestion unit. The mean and range of chromium values, regarding types and main protein-based infant formulae are presented. Additionally, the influence of the type of container used, the impact of industrial process from different manufacturers and the physical state (powder and liquid formulae) on chromium levels is also discussed. In general, the infant formulae contain a higher chromium concentration than that found in human milk (reference range: 0.20-8.18 microg l-1), particularly in the case of hypoallergenic (18.16 +/- 7.89 microg l-1), lactose-free (11.37 +/- 3.07 microg l-1), pre-term (11.48 +/- 3.15 microg l-1) and soya (10.43 +/- 4.05 microg l-1) formulae. The maximum theoretical estimated intake of infants fed on the studied formulae was lower than the upper limit safety for trivalent chromium of 1 mg kg-1 (14 microg kg-1 b.w. day-1) recommended by the experts of Council for Responsible Nutrition (Hathcock 2004; available at: http://crnusa.org/safety.html), amounting to about 10, 15-18 and 26% of the standard (adapted and follow-up) and toddler, soya, lactose-free and pre-term, and hypoallergenic formulae, respectively. Therefore, manufacturers are called upon to make continued efforts to routinely monitor chromium levels, particularly for specialised and pre-term formulae

  5. Variability and systematic differences in normal, protan, and deutan color naming.

    PubMed

    Nagy, Balázs V; Németh, Zoltán; Samu, Krisztián; Ábrahám, György

    2014-01-01

    The congenital color vision deficient (CVD) generally demonstrates difficulties in color naming tasks. In our study we investigated color naming properties and uncertainties of a relatively large group of red-green CVDs using quasi monochromatic stimuli and seven basic color terms. The results show a large variability in color naming for the CVD when contrasted to normal color vision and similar alterations when comparing protans to deutans. Statistically significant differences were found in specific wavelength ranges between the tested groups. In general, protans and deutans have shown better color naming ability than expected, which suggests the use of non-chromatic visual cues.

  6. Variability and systematic differences in normal, protan, and deutan color naming

    PubMed Central

    Nagy, Balázs V.; Németh, Zoltán; Samu, Krisztián; Ábrahám, György

    2014-01-01

    The congenital color vision deficient (CVD) generally demonstrates difficulties in color naming tasks. In our study we investigated color naming properties and uncertainties of a relatively large group of red–green CVDs using quasi monochromatic stimuli and seven basic color terms. The results show a large variability in color naming for the CVD when contrasted to normal color vision and similar alterations when comparing protans to deutans. Statistically significant differences were found in specific wavelength ranges between the tested groups. In general, protans and deutans have shown better color naming ability than expected, which suggests the use of non-chromatic visual cues. PMID:25538665

  7. The effect of different drinks on the color stability of different restorative materials after one month

    PubMed Central

    Tuncer, Safa; Demirci, Mustafa; Serim, Merve Efe; Baydemir, Canan

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of three different drinks on the color parameters of four different restorative materials. Materials and Methods Three different composites (Filtek Ultimate Universal Restorative, Filtek Ultimate Flowable, and Filtek Silorane, 3M ESPE) and a polyacid-modified composite resin material (Dyract XP, Dentsply DeTrey GmbH) were evaluated. Eighty-four disc-shaped specimens of 8 mm in diameter and 2 mm in thickness were prepared (n = 21 each). Color coordinates (L*a*b*, ΔL*, Δa*, Δb*, and ΔE*) were measured using a VİTA Easyshade Compact (VİTA Zahnfabrik) after 24 hr of storage (baseline) and after 30 day of storage in three different beverages of black tea, Coca cola, or water (control) (n = 7). In each beverage, the specimens were stored three times a day, one hr each, for 30 day. The color changes (ΔE) were calculated and were analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn multiple comparison test. Results The color difference (ΔE*) of the resin materials ranged between 1.31 and 15.28 after 30 day of immersion in the staining solutions. Dyract XP in Coca cola (15.28 ± 2.61) and black tea (12.22 ± 2.73) showed the highest mean ΔE* value after 30 day, followed by Filtek Ultimate Universal Restorative (5.99 ± 1.25) and Filtek Ultimate Flowable (4.71 ± 1.40) in black tea (p < 0.05). Conclusions The compomers displayed unacceptable color changes at the end of 30 day in all beverages. Among resin composites, the silorane based composite exhibited relatively good color stability than the others. Filtek Ultimate Universal Restorative and Filtek Flowable showed similar color changes in all beverages. PMID:26587410

  8. Waking Up to Difference: Teachers, Color-Blindness, and the Effects on Students of Color

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castro Atwater, Sheri A.

    2008-01-01

    Color-blindness, the ideology that "race should not matter" in how individuals are treated, is often confused with "race does not matter" (Neville, 2000). The historical, social, and political origins of color-blind racial attitudes are outlined here. Developmental and constructivist theories are used to illustrate how…

  9. Color differences between artificial and natural teeth in removable partial denture wearers.

    PubMed

    Ueda, Takayuki; Takagi, Ichiro; Ueda-Kodaira, Yorika; Sugiyama, Tetsuya; Hirose, Naoki; Ogami, Koichiro; Mori, Kazunari; Sakurai, Kaoru

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate differences between natural tooth color and that selected for artificial teeth in partial dentures at our department with a view to establishing criteria for obtaining greater harmonization between colors. The participants in this study comprised partial denture wearers visiting the Department of Prosthodontics, Tokyo Dental College Chiba Hospital, in whom both artificial teeth and natural teeth were present in the maxillary anterior tooth area. Natural tooth color was measured according to VITA classical shade guide number using a dental color measurement apparatus. Artificial tooth color in partial dentures produced at our department was investigated by referring to medical records. Color of 28 participants' natural teeth and 345 participants' artificial teeth was investigated. Differences in color distribution between the natural and artificial tooth were analyzed using the Fisher exact test. The most frequent color of natural tooth was C-type, accounting for 39%, followed by D- at 32%, A-at 22% and B-type at 7%. In terms of artificial tooth color, A-type was the most common (97%). The color distribution of natural teeth differed significantly from that of artificial teeth in partial dentures. These results suggest that artificial tooth color did not harmonize with the color of the natural teeth in partial denture wearers.

  10. Teaching Formulaic Sequences: The Same as or Different from Teaching Single Words?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alali, Fatima A.; Schmitt, Norbert

    2012-01-01

    Formulaic language is an important component of discourse and needs to be addressed in teaching pedagogy. Unfortunately, there has been little research into the most effective ways of teaching formulaic language. In this study, Kuwaiti students were taught words and idioms using the same teaching methodologies, and their learning was measured. The…

  11. Neutral oligosaccharides in feces of breastfed and formula-fed infants at different ages.

    PubMed

    Dotz, Viktoria; Adam, Rüdiger; Lochnit, Günter; Schroten, Horst; Kunz, Clemens

    2016-12-01

    Beneficial effects have been proposed for human milk oligosaccharides (HMO), as deduced from in vitro and animal studies. To date, in vivo evidence of the link between certain oligosaccharide structures in milk and their consumption by infant gut microbiota is still missing, although likely. Whereas many studies have described HMO patterns in human milk from larger cohorts, data on the excretion of HMO and possible metabolites produced in the infant gut are still very limited. From smaller-scale studies, an age-dependency according to infant gut maturation and microbiota adaptation has previously been hypothesized. To further investigate this, we profiled neutral fecal oligosaccharides from term-born infants who were exclusively breastfed, formula-fed or mixed-fed at the age of 2 months, and from a follow-up of a subgroup at 7 months of age (INFABIO study). Data on maternal antibiotic exposure was also included. Automated matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry analyses revealed the presence of HMO and metabolites in the feces of most, but not all breastfed infants at 2 months, with highly varying patterns that appeared not to differ with maternal antibiotics exposure. Formula-fed infants at 2 months and most of the breastfed infants at 7 months did not excrete HMO-like structures in their feces, the latter corresponding to the hypothesis of age-dependency. Together with our previous results that were partly contradictory to what has been proposed by others, here, we suggest alternative explanations for the described association of oligosaccharide excretion with age and feeding type in infants below 7 months of age.

  12. False Color Processing to Enhance Differences Around Yogi

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    In this scene showing the rover deployed at rock Yogi, the colors have similarly been enhanced to bring out differences. The same three kinds of rocks are recognized as in the distance. Yogi (red arrow), one of the large rocks with a weathered coating, exhibits a fresh face to the northeast, resulting perhaps from eolian scouring or from fracturing off of pieces to expose a fresher surface. Barnacle Bill and Cradle (blue arrows) are typical of the unweathered smaller rocks. During its traverse to Yogi the rover stirred the soil and exposed material from several cm in depth. During one of the turns to deploy Sojourner's Alpha Proton X-Ray Spectrometer (inset and white arrow), the wheels dug particularly deeply and exposed white material. Spectra of this white material show it is virtually identical to Scooby Doo, and such white material may underlie much of the site. The lander's rear ramp, which Sojourner used to descend to the Martian surface, is at lower left.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and managed the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

  13. Natural and sexual selection act on different axes of variation in avian plumage color

    PubMed Central

    Dunn, Peter O.; Armenta, Jessica K.; Whittingham, Linda A.

    2015-01-01

    The bright colors of birds are often attributed to sexual selection on males, but in many species both sexes are colorful and it has been long debated whether sexual selection can also explain this variation. We show that most evolutionary transitions in color have been toward similar plumage in both sexes, and the color of both sexes (for example, bright or dull) was associated with indices of natural selection (for example, habitat type), whereas sexual differences in color were primarily associated with indices of sexual selection on males (for example, polygyny and large testes size). Debate about the evolution of bird coloration can be resolved by recognizing that both natural and sexual selection have been influential, but they have generally acted on two different axes: sexual selection on an axis of sexual differences and natural selection on both sexes for the type of color (for example, bright or dull). PMID:26601146

  14. Difference between seeing a random color dot picture and reading shapes from the same color dot picture in the Ishihara pseudoisochromatic plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ichihara, Yasuyo G.; Nakadomari, Satoshi; Takeuchi, Hiroaki; Miyauchi, Satoru; Kitahara, Kenji

    2002-06-01

    When we are viewing colored picture, what is the difference in our brain between a random Color dot picture and a digit figure pattern picture seen through its colored dots? We created 3 patterns that are a functional magnetic resonance imaging version of the Ishihara plate patterns to test multiple color-sensitive areas in human ventral occipitotemporal cortex. The results showed that area V4 is activated by the stimulus of reading shapes from its color dots in the Ishihara pseudoisochromatic plates but not by the stimulus of seeing a random color dot picture. We suggest that area V4 is activated not by color processing but by segregation.

  15. The Effect of Color on Communication or "A Course of a Different Color."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemons, Frankie; Wall, Larry

    A study examined the influence of the color of an individual's clothing and hair on the feelings and attitudes of others. Subjects, 246 college students, were shown 20 slides, one at a time, and asked to answer 15 questions for each slide. The slides were of four magazine models, two male, two female, with one blonde and one brunette of each sex.…

  16. Selective Pressures Explain Differences in Flower Color among Gentiana lutea Populations.

    PubMed

    Sobral, Mar; Veiga, Tania; Domínguez, Paula; Guitián, Javier A; Guitián, Pablo; Guitián, José M

    2015-01-01

    Flower color variation among plant populations might reflect adaptation to local conditions such as the interacting animal community. In the northwest Iberian Peninsula, flower color of Gentiana lutea varies longitudinally among populations, ranging from orange to yellow. We explored whether flower color is locally adapted and the role of pollinators and seed predators as agents of selection by analyzing the influence of flower color on (i) pollinator visitation rate and (ii) escape from seed predation and (iii) by testing whether differences in pollinator communities correlate with flower color variation across populations. Finally, (iv) we investigated whether variation in selective pressures explains flower color variation among 12 G. lutea populations. Flower color influenced pollinator visits and differences in flower color among populations were related to variation in pollinator communities. Selective pressures on flower color vary among populations and explain part of flower color differences among populations of G. lutea. We conclude that flower color in G. lutea is locally adapted and that pollinators play a role in this adaptation.

  17. Selective Pressures Explain Differences in Flower Color among Gentiana lutea Populations

    PubMed Central

    Domínguez, Paula; Guitián, Javier A.; Guitián, Pablo; Guitián, José M.

    2015-01-01

    Flower color variation among plant populations might reflect adaptation to local conditions such as the interacting animal community. In the northwest Iberian Peninsula, flower color of Gentiana lutea varies longitudinally among populations, ranging from orange to yellow. We explored whether flower color is locally adapted and the role of pollinators and seed predators as agents of selection by analyzing the influence of flower color on (i) pollinator visitation rate and (ii) escape from seed predation and (iii) by testing whether differences in pollinator communities correlate with flower color variation across populations. Finally, (iv) we investigated whether variation in selective pressures explains flower color variation among 12 G. lutea populations. Flower color influenced pollinator visits and differences in flower color among populations were related to variation in pollinator communities. Selective pressures on flower color vary among populations and explain part of flower color differences among populations of G. lutea. We conclude that flower color in G. lutea is locally adapted and that pollinators play a role in this adaptation. PMID:26172378

  18. The effect of choosing three different C factor formulae derived from NDVI on a fully raster-based erosion modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sulistyo, Bambang

    2016-11-01

    The research was aimed at studying the efect of choosing three different C factor formulae derived from NDVI on a fully raster-based erosion modelling of The USLE using remote sensing data and GIS technique. Methods applied was by analysing all factors affecting erosion such that all data were in the form of raster. Those data were R, K, LS, C and P factors. Monthly R factor was evaluated based on formula developed by Abdurachman. K factor was determined using modified formula used by Ministry of Forestry based on soil samples taken in the field. LS factor was derived from Digital Elevation Model. Three C factors used were all derived from NDVI and developed by Suriyaprasit (non-linear) and by Sulistyo (linear and non-linear). P factor was derived from the combination between slope data and landcover classification interpreted from Landsat 7 ETM+. Another analysis was the creation of map of Bulk Density used to convert erosion unit. To know the model accuracy, model validation was done by applying statistical analysis and by comparing Emodel with Eactual. A threshold value of ≥ 0.80 or ≥ 80% was chosen to justify. The research result showed that all Emodel using three formulae of C factors have coeeficient of correlation value of > 0.8. The results of analysis of variance showed that there was significantly difference between Emodel and Eactual when using C factor formula developed by Suriyaprasit and Sulistyo (non-linear). Among the three formulae, only Emodel using C factor formula developed by Sulistyo (linear) reached the accuracy of 81.13% while the other only 56.02% as developed by Sulistyo (nonlinear) and 4.70% as developed by Suriyaprasit, respectively.

  19. Different attitudes during breastfeeding consultations when infant formula was given: a phenomenographic approach

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background WHO and UNICEF believe that both antenatal and maternity care organizations are in an excellent position to protect and, if necessary, reinstate a culture that promotes breastfeeding, and that they are responsible for doing so. In Sweden, the number of breastfeeding women has been decreasing annually since 1996. Thus the aim of this study is to identify, describe and analyze the attitude midwives have towards the mother, child and breastfeeding when infant formula is given. Methods From the theoretical standpoint of Buber's I-Thou and I-It concept, the different attitudes during breastfeeding consultations are interpreted. By using a phenomenographic approach based on 101 accounts of varying lengths from 39 midwives, different attitudes or approaches were identified. Results Four different approaches are distinguished in the breastfeeding consultation. The first is the family as a whole, the second is mother and child as separate and equal, the third views the mother as superior and the fourth views the child as superior. Conclusions The approach of the midwife is related to how she defines the overall perspective of the mother-child relationship and how she looks upon her relationship to the mother-child dyad. Her approach varies depending on whether she meets the mother and child as a subject, similar to herself, or whether she sees one of them as an object. A midwife may also take an outside position, as an object, thus excluding a genuine relationship with the mother. The results also indicate that health care professionals focus on parts of the whole instead of maintaining a holistic perspective. PMID:21281517

  20. Color Blindness

    MedlinePlus

    ... rose in full bloom. If you have a color vision defect, you may see these colors differently than most people. There are three main kinds of color vision defects. Red-green color vision defects are the most ...

  1. Differences in the Affective Meaning of Color and Black-and-White Pictures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winn, William; Everett, Richard J.

    A total of 73 university freshman and 93 grade 7 and 8 students took part in a study of the differences in the affective meaning of color and black-and-white pictures. Subjects rated black-and-white and color slides on nine seven-point semantic differential scales and a red-blue scale. Results indicated that differences in affective meaning…

  2. Phytochemicals and antioxidant capacities in rice brans of different color.

    PubMed

    Min, Byungrok; McClung, Anna M; Chen, Ming-Hsuan

    2011-01-01

    Rice bran, a byproduct of the rice milling process, contains most of the phytochemicals. This study aimed at determining the concentrations of lipophilic, solvent-extractable (free), and cell wall-bound (bound) phytochemicals and their antioxidant capacities from brans of white, light brown, brown, purple, and red colors, and broccoli and blueberry for comparison. The concentrations of lipophilic antioxidants of vitamin E (tocopherol and tocotrienols) and γ-oryzanols were 319.67 to 443.73 and 3861.93 to 5911.12 μg/g bran dry weight (DW), respectively, and were not associated with bran color. The total phenolic, total flavonoid, and antioxidant capacities of ORAC (oxygen radical absorbance capacity), DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging, and iron-chelating in the free fraction were correlated with the intensity of bran color, while variations of these in the bound fraction were less than those in the free fraction among brans. Compounds in the bound fraction had higher antioxidant capacity of ORAC than DPPH, relative to those in the free fraction. The bound fraction of light-color brans contributed as much to its total ORAC as the free fraction. Total proanthocyanidin concentration was the highest in red rice bran, while total anthocyanin was highest in purple brans. The predominant anthocyanin was cyanidin-3-glucoside. Red and purple brans had several fold higher total phenolics and flavonoids as well as ORAC and DPPH, from both free and bound fractions, than freeze-dried blueberry and broccoli. These results indicate that rice brans are natural sources of hydrophilic and lipophilic phytochemicals for use in quality control of various food systems as well as for nutraceutical and functional food application.

  3. Escher in color space: individual-differences multidimensional scaling of color dissimilarities collected with a gestalt formation task.

    PubMed

    Bimler, David; Kirkland, John; Pichler, Shaun

    2004-02-01

    The structure of color perception can be examined by collecting judgments about color dissimilarities. In the procedure used here, stimuli are presented three at a time on a computer monitor and the spontaneous grouping of most-similar stimuli into gestalts provides the dissimilarity comparisons. Analysis with multidimensional scaling allows such judgments to be pooled from a number of observers without obscuring the variations among them. The anomalous perceptions of color-deficient observers produce comparisons that are represented well by a geometric model of compressed individual color spaces, with different forms of deficiency distinguished by different directions of compression. The geometrical model is also capable of accommodating the normal spectrum of variation, so that there is greater variation in compression parameters between tests on normal subjects than in those between repeated tests on individual subjects. The method is sufficiently sensitive and the variations sufficiently large that they are not obscured by the use of a range of monitors, even under somewhat loosely controlled conditions.

  4. [Analysis of different health status based on characteristics of the facial spectrum photometric color].

    PubMed

    Xu, Jiatuo; Wu, Hongjin; Lu, Luming; Tu, Liping; Zhang, Zhifeng; Chen, Xiao

    2012-12-01

    This paper is aimed to observe the difference of facial color of people with different health status by spectral photometric color measuring technique according to the theory of facial color diagnosis in Internal Classic. We gathered the facial color information about the health status of persons in healthy group (183), sub-healthy group (287) and disease group (370) respectively. The information included L, a, b, C values and reflection of different wavelengths in 400-700nm with CM-2600D spectral photometric color measuring instrument on 8 points. The results indicated that overall complexion color values of the people in the three groups were significantly different. The persons in the disease group looked deep dark in features. The people in the sub-healthy group looked pale in features. The loci L, a, b, C values were with varying degrees of significant differences (P < 0.05) at 6 points among the groups, and the central position of the face in all the groups was the position with most significant differences. Comparing the facial color information at the same point of the people in the three groups, we obtained each group's diagnostic special point. There existed diagnostic values in distinguishing disease status and various status of health in some degree by spectral photometric color measuring technique. The present method provides a prosperous quantitative basis for Chinese medical inspection of the complexion diagnosis.

  5. Sex and skill differences in translation of English color words by Chinese students.

    PubMed

    Yang, Y

    2000-12-01

    The present study investigated sex and skill differences in color-word translation by Chinese-speaking students in university English classes. A questionnaire was administered to estimate the correlation between subjects' performance and their color-related hobbies. To conceptualize the issue better, two more groups of correlated parameter (academic achievements plus demographic factors) were introduced in this research as well. 40 English majors (20 women, 20 men), ranging in education from level one to level four, were randomly drawn from a metropolitan university and tested in the experiments as subjects. These university students were asked to provide Chinese equivalents for a list of 33 elaborated English color terms chosen from a thesaurus by mapping on the 11 color-tone categories defined by basic color theory. The results confirm the findings in relevant studies that used native speakers as subjects by observing that (1) women possessed a richer color vocabulary both in their source language and in their target language, (2) women also provided more elaborated Chinese equivalents to the color words used as stimuli, and finally, (3) women showed a superiority in accuracy in this color-lexicon matching or translating task. As a whole, the effects of skill and age were not significant. A significant correlation was found between the learners' proficiency in English and performance in translation of color words, but this relationship was rather weak and only true for the men. Color-related hobbies did not significantly correlate with the color-decoding performance of these language learners. Neither did the demographic factors. Taken together, it is sensible to state that differences reported here were affected primarily by the sex of the learn er. conditionally by language proficiency, and presumably by the cognitive and perceptual sex differences as well. These findings further indicate that the process of color codability is a complicated but unstudied issue

  6. Measuring the color of maxillofacial prosthetic material.

    PubMed

    Hu, X; Johnston, W M; Seghi, R R

    2010-12-01

    Color information from different color-measuring systems varies during color matching in maxillofacial prosthetics. We studied the hypothesis that a non-contact measuring system and 4 contact color-measuring instruments perform comparably in accuracy and precision on measurements of pigmented maxillofacial elastomer specimens having human skin colors. Measurement comparisons in accuracy on opaque standard color patches were made in Phase I. In Phase II, the system with the best accuracy was used as the reference instrument, and comparisons in accuracy and precision on elastomer specimens were made. The CIEDE2000 color difference formula was used. Repeated-measures ANOVA with Tukey testing and linear regression analysis for CIELAB and color differences among the instruments were performed. The contact measuring systems perform differently in accuracy, possibly due to edge loss and other factors, but performed comparably in precision with the non-contact measuring instrument. This non-contact system is recommended for color measurement of maxillofacial prosthetic materials.

  7. Content based Image Retrieval based on Different Global and Local Color Histogram Methods: A Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suhasini, Pallikonda Sarah; Sri Rama Krishna, K.; Murali Krishna, I. V.

    2016-06-01

    Different global and local color histogram methods for content based image retrieval (CBIR) are investigated in this paper. Color histogram is a widely used descriptor for CBIR. Conventional method of extracting color histogram is global, which misses the spatial content, is less invariant to deformation and viewpoint changes, and results in a very large three dimensional histogram corresponding to the color space used. To address the above deficiencies, different global and local histogram methods are proposed in recent research. Different ways of extracting local histograms to have spatial correspondence, invariant colour histogram to add deformation and viewpoint invariance and fuzzy linking method to reduce the size of the histogram are found in recent papers. The color space and the distance metric used are vital in obtaining color histogram. In this paper the performance of CBIR based on different global and local color histograms in three different color spaces, namely, RGB, HSV, L*a*b* and also with three distance measures Euclidean, Quadratic and Histogram intersection are surveyed, to choose appropriate method for future research.

  8. Content based Image Retrieval based on Different Global and Local Color Histogram Methods: A Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suhasini, Pallikonda Sarah; Sri Rama Krishna, K.; Murali Krishna, I. V.

    2017-02-01

    Different global and local color histogram methods for content based image retrieval (CBIR) are investigated in this paper. Color histogram is a widely used descriptor for CBIR. Conventional method of extracting color histogram is global, which misses the spatial content, is less invariant to deformation and viewpoint changes, and results in a very large three dimensional histogram corresponding to the color space used. To address the above deficiencies, different global and local histogram methods are proposed in recent research. Different ways of extracting local histograms to have spatial correspondence, invariant colour histogram to add deformation and viewpoint invariance and fuzzy linking method to reduce the size of the histogram are found in recent papers. The color space and the distance metric used are vital in obtaining color histogram. In this paper the performance of CBIR based on different global and local color histograms in three different color spaces, namely, RGB, HSV, L*a*b* and also with three distance measures Euclidean, Quadratic and Histogram intersection are surveyed, to choose appropriate method for future research.

  9. Compositional and Mechanical Properties of Peanuts Roasted to Equivalent Colors using Different Time/Temperature Combinations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Peanuts in North America and Europe are primarily consumed after dry roasting. Standard industry practice is to roast peanuts to a specific surface color (Hunter L-value) for a given application; however, equivalent surface colors can be attained using different roast temperature/time combinations,...

  10. Different effects of color-based and location-based selection on visual working memory.

    PubMed

    Li, Qi; Saiki, Jun

    2015-02-01

    In the present study, we investigated how feature- and location-based selection influences visual working memory (VWM) encoding and maintenance. In Experiment 1, cue type (color, location) and cue timing (precue, retro-cue) were manipulated in a change detection task. The stimuli were color-location conjunction objects, and binding memory was tested. We found a significantly greater effect for color precues than for either color retro-cues or location precues, but no difference between location pre- and retro-cues, consistent with previous studies (e.g., Griffin & Nobre in Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 15, 1176-1194, 2003). We also found no difference between location and color retro-cues. Experiment 2 replicated the color precue advantage with more complex color-shape-location conjunction objects. Only one retro-cue effect was different from that in Experiment 1: Color retro-cues were significantly less effective than location retro-cues in Experiment 2, which may relate to a structural property of multidimensional VWM representations. In Experiment 3, a visual search task was used, and the result of a greater location than color precue effect suggests that the color precue advantage in a memory task is related to the modulation of VWM encoding rather than of sensation and perception. Experiment 4, using a task that required only memory for individual features but not for feature bindings, further confirmed that the color precue advantage is specific to binding memory. Together, these findings reveal new aspects of the interaction between attention and VWM and provide potentially important implications for the structural properties of VWM representations.

  11. Infant formulas - overview

    MedlinePlus

    ... 6 months of life, infants need only breast milk or formula to meet all their nutritional needs. ... 12 months old who are not drinking breast milk . While there are some differences, infant formulas sold ...

  12. Color difference amplification between gold nanoparticles in colorimetric analysis with actively controlled multiband illumination.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Xiaodong; Dai, Dinggui; Yuan, Zhiqin; Peng, Lan; He, Yan; Yeung, Edward S

    2014-08-05

    Spectral chemical sensing with digital color analysis by using consumer imaging devices could potentially revolutionize personalized healthcare. However, samples with small spectral variations often cannot be differentiated in color due to the nonlinearity of color appearance. In this study, we address this problem by exploiting the color image formation mechanism in digital photography. A close examination of the color image processing pipeline emphasizes that although the color can be represented digitally, it is still a reproducible subjective perception rather than a measurable physical property. That makes it possible to physically manage the color appearance of a nonradiative specimen through engineered illumination. By using scattering light imaging of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) as a model system, we demonstrated via simulation that enlarged color difference between spectrally close samples could be achieved with actively controlled illumination of multiple narrow-band light sources. Experimentally, darkfield imaging results indicate that color separation of single GNPs with various sizes can be significantly improved and the detection limit of GNP aggregation-based colorimetric assays can be much reduced when the conventional spectrally continuous white light was replaced with three independently intensity-controlled laser beams, even though the laser lines were uncorrelated with the LSPR maxima of the GNPs. With low-cost narrow-band light sources widely available today, this actively controlled illumination strategy could be utilized to replace the spectrometer in many spectral sensing applications.

  13. Phospholipid Species in Newborn and 4 Month Old Infants after Consumption of Different Formulas or Breast Milk

    PubMed Central

    Uhl, Olaf; Fleddermann, Manja; Hellmuth, Christian; Demmelmair, Hans; Koletzko, Berthold

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Arachidonic acid (AA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are important long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids for neuronal and cognitive development and are ingredients of infant formulae that are recommended but there is no evidence based minimal supplementation level available. The aim of this analysis was to investigate the effect of supplemented AA and DHA on phospholipid metabolism. Methods Plasma samples of a randomized, double-blind infant feeding trial were used for the analyses of phospholipid species by flow-injection mass spectrometry. Healthy term infants consumed isoenergetic formulae (intervention formula with equal amounts of AA and DHA—IF, control formula without additional AA and DHA—CF) from the first month of life until the age of 120 days. A group of breast milk (BM) -fed infants was followed as a reference. Results The plasma profile detected in newborns was different from 4 month old infants, irrespective of study group. Most relevant changes were seen in higher level of LPC16:1, LPC20:4, PC32:1, PC34:1 and PC36:4 and lower level of LPC18:0, LPC18:2, PC32:2, PC36:2 and several ether-linked phosphatidylcholines in newborns. The sum of all AA and DHA species at 4 month old infants in the CF group showed level of 40% (AA) and 51% (DHA) of newborns. The supplemented amount of DHA resulted in phospholipid level comparable to BM infants, but AA phospholipids were lower than in BM infants. Interestingly, relative contribution of DHA was higher in ether-linked phosphatidylcholines in CF fed infants, but IF and BM fed infants showed higher overall ether-linked phosphatidylcholines levels. Conclusion In conclusion, we have shown that infant plasma phospholipid profile changes remarkably from newborn over time and is dependent on the dietary fatty acid composition. A supplementation of an infant formula with AA and DHA resulted in increased related phospholipid species. PMID:27571269

  14. Color matching using dot gain and intensity compensation for different papers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Cheol-Hee; Lee, Chae-Soo; Kim, Kyeong-Man; Ha, Yeong-Ho

    1997-04-01

    In a drop-on-demand thermal ink-jet printer, the dot size of an ink droplet expelled from printer depends on the absorption of the paper. This causes severe differences between output images on the different paper materials. In this paper, the color matching algorithm for different papers is proposed. To achieve corresponding color reproduction, dot gain compensation based on saturation was applied to predict color reproduction on printer. If the dot gain of pigment is increased, the white portion of paper decreases while the saturation value increases monotonically. As the result of dot gain compensation, intensity change may be appeared. Therefore, an intensity compensation without any hue variation is followed to match the colors of different substrates.

  15. Cultural Differences in Color/Form Preference and in Classificatory Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, W. H. O.; Nzimande, A.

    1970-01-01

    Cross-cultural data was collected on color/form preference and the ability to classify among Zulu children and adults. Significant differences were found attributable to factors of Western-type schooling, literacy, and urban or rural life. (NH)

  16. Color changes in resin cement polymerized with different curing lights under indirect restorations

    PubMed Central

    Bayindir, Funda; Ilday, Nurcan Ozakar; Bayindir, Yusuf Ziya; Karataş, Ozcan; Gurpinar, Aysel

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of different interface materials and curing units on color changes in a resin cement material. Materials and Methods: Three interface materials and different curing systems, quartz-tungsten-halogen and polywave and monowave light-emitting diode (LED) light curing units, were studied at two-time intervals. Polystyrene strip was used as a control group. All measurements were made on a white background for standard color measurement. According to the CIE L*a*b* color space, the baseline color values of each specimen were measured. Differences between the measurements were calculated as ΔE, ΔL, Δa, and Δb. Data were analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Duncan's tests (α = 0.05) with SPSS 20.0 software (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). ANOVA revealed significance for interface materials and curing units and time for ΔE (P < 0.05). Results: Interaction between polymerizing units, material and time was not significant (P > 0.05). Monowave LED exhibited significantly higher color changes than the other units ([P < 0.05] [ΔE 2.94 ± 0.44]). QTH promoted composite specimens significantly less color change ([P < 0.05] [ΔE 0.87 ± 0.41]). Conclusion: This study concluded that color of resin cement used in the adhesion of indirect restorations was affected by curing device light and indirect restoration material type. PMID:26957793

  17. Reasons of different colors in the ignimbrite lithology: micro-XRF and confocal Raman spectrometry method.

    PubMed

    Koralay, Tamer; Kadioglu, Yusuf Kagan

    2008-03-01

    Medium to large volume ignimbrites usually show vertical changes in terms of color, mineral components, texture and geochemistry. Determination of vertical changes in single extensive ignimbrite flow unit is difficult and requires careful studies. Color changes in ignimbrite flow units are very important for earth scientists. This may cause to identify the same ignimbrite series with different definition. Incesu ignimbrite has a wide distribution in the Central Anatolian Volcanic Province (CAVP). It is classified into three levels as lower, middle and upper according to color and welding degree. There is a sharp contact between the lower and middle level. The lower level is dark brown to black in color and the middle level has pinkish red to red color. The present paper focuses on the investigation of color changes between the ignimbrite levels by using micro-XRF and confocal Raman spectrometry. Micro-XRF and Raman spectrometry studies were performed on the polished thin sections of the lower and middle levels with different compositions. These differences were because of the compositional changes of K and slightly Fe elements distribution within the matrix. The dark brown to black color of the lower level was related to the high concentration of the K and Fe relatively to the middle level. Confocal Raman spectrometry investigations exhibited the matrix of the lower level mainly composed of anorthoclase, supporting the results of the micro-XRF.

  18. Search for new phenomena in different-flavour high-mass dilepton final states in pp collisions at [Formula: see text] Tev with the ATLAS detector.

    PubMed

    Aaboud, M; Aad, G; Abbott, B; Abdallah, J; Abdinov, O; Abeloos, B; Aben, R; AbouZeid, O S; Abraham, N L; Abramowicz, H; Abreu, H; Abreu, R; Abulaiti, Y; Acharya, B S; Adachi, S; Adamczyk, L; Adams, D L; Adelman, J; Adomeit, S; Adye, T; Affolder, A A; Agatonovic-Jovin, T; Agricola, J; Aguilar-Saavedra, J A; Ahlen, S P; Ahmadov, F; Aielli, G; Akerstedt, H; Åkesson, T P A; Akimov, A V; Alberghi, G L; Albert, J; Albrand, S; Verzini, M J Alconada; Aleksa, M; Aleksandrov, I N; Alexa, C; Alexander, G; Alexopoulos, T; Alhroob, M; Ali, B; Aliev, M; Alimonti, G; Alison, J; Alkire, S P; Allbrooke, B M M; Allen, B W; Allport, P P; Aloisio, A; Alonso, A; Alonso, F; Alpigiani, C; Alshehri, A A; Alstaty, M; Gonzalez, B Alvarez; Piqueras, D Álvarez; Alviggi, M G; Amadio, B T; Amako, K; Coutinho, Y Amaral; Amelung, C; Amidei, D; Santos, S P Amor Dos; Amorim, A; Amoroso, S; Amundsen, G; Anastopoulos, C; Ancu, L S; Andari, N; Andeen, T; Anders, C F; Anders, G; Anders, J K; Anderson, K J; Andreazza, A; Andrei, V; Angelidakis, S; Angelozzi, I; Anger, P; Angerami, A; Anghinolfi, F; Anisenkov, A V; Anjos, N; Annovi, A; Antel, C; Antonelli, M; Antonov, A; Anulli, F; Aoki, M; Bella, L Aperio; Arabidze, G; Arai, Y; Araque, J P; Arce, A T H; Arduh, F A; Arguin, J-F; Argyropoulos, S; Arik, M; Armbruster, A J; Armitage, L J; Arnaez, O; Arnold, H; Arratia, M; Arslan, O; Artamonov, A; Artoni, G; Artz, S; Asai, S; Asbah, N; Ashkenazi, A; Åsman, B; Asquith, L; Assamagan, K; Astalos, R; Atkinson, M; Atlay, N B; Augsten, K; Avolio, G; Axen, B; Ayoub, M K; Azuelos, G; Baak, M A; Baas, A E; Baca, M J; Bachacou, H; Bachas, K; Backes, M; Backhaus, M; Bagiacchi, P; Bagnaia, P; Bai, Y; Baines, J T; Baker, O K; Baldin, E M; Balek, P; Balestri, T; Balli, F; Balunas, W K; Banas, E; Banerjee, Sw; Bannoura, A A E; Barak, L; Barberio, E L; Barberis, D; Barbero, M; Barillari, T; Barisits, M-S; Barklow, T; Barlow, N; Barnes, S L; Barnett, B M; Barnett, R M; Barnovska-Blenessy, Z; Baroncelli, A; Barone, G; Barr, A J; Navarro, L Barranco; Barreiro, F; da Costa, J Barreiro Guimarães; Bartoldus, R; Barton, A E; Bartos, P; Basalaev, A; Bassalat, A; Bates, R L; Batista, S J; Batley, J R; Battaglia, M; Bauce, M; Bauer, F; Bawa, H S; Beacham, J B; Beattie, M D; Beau, T; Beauchemin, P H; Bechtle, P; Beck, H P; Becker, K; Becker, M; Beckingham, M; Becot, C; Beddall, A J; Beddall, A; Bednyakov, V A; Bedognetti, M; Bee, C P; Beemster, L J; Beermann, T A; Begel, M; Behr, J K; Belanger-Champagne, C; Bell, A S; Bella, G; Bellagamba, L; Bellerive, A; Bellomo, M; Belotskiy, K; Beltramello, O; Belyaev, N L; Benary, O; Benchekroun, D; Bender, M; Bendtz, K; Benekos, N; Benhammou, Y; Noccioli, E Benhar; Benitez, J; Benjamin, D P; Bensinger, J R; Bentvelsen, S; Beresford, L; Beretta, M; Berge, D; Kuutmann, E Bergeaas; Berger, N; Beringer, J; Berlendis, S; Bernard, N R; Bernius, C; Bernlochner, F U; Berry, T; Berta, P; Bertella, C; Bertoli, G; Bertolucci, F; Bertram, I A; Bertsche, C; Bertsche, D; Besjes, G J; Bylund, O Bessidskaia; Bessner, M; Besson, N; Betancourt, C; Bethani, A; Bethke, S; Bevan, A J; Bianchi, R M; Bianchini, L; Bianco, M; Biebel, O; Biedermann, D; Bielski, R; Biesuz, N V; Biglietti, M; De Mendizabal, J Bilbao; Billoud, T R V; Bilokon, H; Bindi, M; Binet, S; Bingul, A; Bini, C; Biondi, S; Bisanz, T; Bjergaard, D M; Black, C W; Black, J E; Black, K M; Blackburn, D; Blair, R E; Blanchard, J-B; Blazek, T; Bloch, I; Blocker, C; Blue, A; Blum, W; Blumenschein, U; Blunier, S; Bobbink, G J; Bobrovnikov, V S; Bocchetta, S S; Bocci, A; Bock, C; Boehler, M; Boerner, D; Bogaerts, J A; Bogavac, D; Bogdanchikov, A G; Bohm, C; Boisvert, V; Bokan, P; Bold, T; Boldyrev, A S; Bomben, M; Bona, M; Boonekamp, M; Borisov, A; Borissov, G; Bortfeldt, J; Bortoletto, D; Bortolotto, V; Bos, K; Boscherini, D; Bosman, M; Sola, J D Bossio; Boudreau, J; Bouffard, J; Bouhova-Thacker, E V; Boumediene, D; Bourdarios, C; Boutle, S K; Boveia, A; Boyd, J; Boyko, I R; Bracinik, J; Brandt, A; Brandt, G; Brandt, O; Bratzler, U; Brau, B; Brau, J E; Madden, W D Breaden; Brendlinger, K; Brennan, A J; Brenner, L; Brenner, R; Bressler, S; Bristow, T M; Britton, D; Britzger, D; Brochu, F M; Brock, I; Brock, R; Brooijmans, G; Brooks, T; Brooks, W K; Brosamer, J; Brost, E; Broughton, J H; de Renstrom, P A Bruckman; Bruncko, D; Bruneliere, R; Bruni, A; Bruni, G; Bruni, L S; Brunt, B H; Bruschi, M; Bruscino, N; Bryant, P; Bryngemark, L; Buanes, T; Buat, Q; Buchholz, P; Buckley, A G; Budagov, I A; Buehrer, F; Bugge, M K; Bulekov, O; Bullock, D; Burckhart, H; Burdin, S; Burgard, C D; Burghgrave, B; Burka, K; Burke, S; Burmeister, I; Burr, J T P; Busato, E; Büscher, D; Büscher, V; Bussey, P; Butler, J M; Buttar, C M; Butterworth, J M; Butti, P; Buttinger, W; Buzatu, A; Buzykaev, A R; Urbán, S Cabrera; Caforio, D; Cairo, V M; Cakir, O; Calace, N; Calafiura, P; Calandri, A; Calderini, G; Calfayan, P; Callea, G; Caloba, L P; Lopez, S Calvente; Calvet, D; Calvet, S; Calvet, T P; Toro, R Camacho; Camarda, S; Camarri, P; Cameron, D; Armadans, R Caminal; Camincher, C; Campana, S; Campanelli, M; Camplani, A; Campoverde, A; Canale, V; Canepa, A; Bret, M Cano; Cantero, J; Cao, T; Garrido, M D M Capeans; Caprini, I; Caprini, M; Capua, M; Carbone, R M; Cardarelli, R; Cardillo, F; Carli, I; Carli, T; Carlino, G; Carminati, L; Caron, S; Carquin, E; Carrillo-Montoya, G D; Carter, J R; Carvalho, J; Casadei, D; Casado, M P; Casolino, M; Casper, D W; Castaneda-Miranda, E; Castelijn, R; Castelli, A; Gimenez, V Castillo; Castro, N F; Catinaccio, A; Catmore, J R; Cattai, A; Caudron, J; Cavaliere, V; Cavallaro, E; Cavalli, D; Cavalli-Sforza, M; Cavasinni, V; Ceradini, F; Alberich, L Cerda; Cerio, B C; Cerqueira, A S; Cerri, A; Cerrito, L; Cerutti, F; Cerv, M; Cervelli, A; Cetin, S A; Chafaq, A; Chakraborty, D; Chan, S K; Chan, Y L; Chang, P; Chapman, J D; Charlton, D G; Chatterjee, A; Chau, C C; Barajas, C A Chavez; Che, S; Cheatham, S; Chegwidden, A; Chekanov, S; Chekulaev, S V; Chelkov, G A; Chelstowska, M A; Chen, C; Chen, H; Chen, K; Chen, S; Chen, S; Chen, X; Chen, Y; Cheng, H C; Cheng, H J; Cheng, Y; Cheplakov, A; Cheremushkina, E; Moursli, R Cherkaoui El; Chernyatin, V; Cheu, E; Chevalier, L; Chiarella, V; Chiarelli, G; Chiodini, G; Chisholm, A S; Chitan, A; Chizhov, M V; Choi, K; Chomont, A R; Chouridou, S; Chow, B K B; Christodoulou, V; Chromek-Burckhart, D; Chudoba, J; Chuinard, A J; Chwastowski, J J; Chytka, L; Ciapetti, G; Ciftci, A K; Cinca, D; Cindro, V; Cioara, I A; Ciocca, C; Ciocio, A; Cirotto, F; Citron, Z H; Citterio, M; Ciubancan, M; Clark, A; Clark, B L; Clark, M R; Clark, P J; Clarke, R N; Clement, C; Coadou, Y; Cobal, M; Coccaro, A; Cochran, J; Colasurdo, L; Cole, B; Colijn, A P; Collot, J; Colombo, T; Compostella, G; Muiño, P Conde; Coniavitis, E; Connell, S H; Connelly, I A; Consorti, V; Constantinescu, S; Conti, G; Conventi, F; Cooke, M; Cooper, B D; Cooper-Sarkar, A M; Cormier, K J R; Cornelissen, T; Corradi, M; Corriveau, F; Corso-Radu, A; Cortes-Gonzalez, A; Cortiana, G; Costa, G; Costa, M J; Costanzo, D; Cottin, G; 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Yildiz, H Duran; Düren, M; Durglishvili, A; Duschinger, D; Dutta, B; Dyndal, M; Eckardt, C; Ecker, K M; Edgar, R C; Edwards, N C; Eifert, T; Eigen, G; Einsweiler, K; Ekelof, T; Kacimi, M El; Ellajosyula, V; Ellert, M; Elles, S; Ellinghaus, F; Elliot, A A; Ellis, N; Elmsheuser, J; Elsing, M; Emeliyanov, D; Enari, Y; Endner, O C; Ennis, J S; Erdmann, J; Ereditato, A; Ernis, G; Ernst, J; Ernst, M; Errede, S; Ertel, E; Escalier, M; Esch, H; Escobar, C; Esposito, B; Etienvre, A I; Etzion, E; Evans, H; Ezhilov, A; Ezzi, M; Fabbri, F; Fabbri, L; Facini, G; Fakhrutdinov, R M; Falciano, S; Falla, R J; Faltova, J; Fang, Y; Fanti, M; Farbin, A; Farilla, A; Farina, C; Farina, E M; Farooque, T; Farrell, S; Farrington, S M; Farthouat, P; Fassi, F; Fassnacht, P; Fassouliotis, D; Giannelli, M Faucci; Favareto, A; Fawcett, W J; Fayard, L; Fedin, O L; Fedorko, W; Feigl, S; Feligioni, L; Feng, C; Feng, E J; Feng, H; Fenyuk, A B; Feremenga, L; Martinez, P Fernandez; Perez, S Fernandez; Ferrando, J; Ferrari, A; Ferrari, P; Ferrari, R; de Lima, D E Ferreira; Ferrer, A; Ferrere, D; Ferretti, C; Parodi, A Ferretto; Fiedler, F; Filipčič, A; Filipuzzi, M; Filthaut, F; Fincke-Keeler, M; Finelli, K D; Fiolhais, M C N; Fiorini, L; Firan, A; Fischer, A; Fischer, C; Fischer, J; Fisher, W C; Flaschel, N; Fleck, I; Fleischmann, P; Fletcher, G T; Fletcher, R R M; Flick, T; Castillo, L R Flores; Flowerdew, M J; Forcolin, G T; Formica, A; Forti, A; Foster, A G; Fournier, D; Fox, H; Fracchia, S; Francavilla, P; Franchini, M; Francis, D; Franconi, L; Franklin, M; Frate, M; Fraternali, M; Freeborn, D; Fressard-Batraneanu, S M; Friedrich, F; Froidevaux, D; Frost, J A; Fukunaga, C; Torregrosa, E Fullana; Fusayasu, T; Fuster, J; Gabaldon, C; Gabizon, O; Gabrielli, A; Gabrielli, A; Gach, G P; Gadatsch, S; Gadomski, S; Gagliardi, G; Gagnon, L G; Gagnon, P; Galea, C; Galhardo, B; Gallas, E J; Gallop, B J; Gallus, P; Galster, G; Gan, K K; Gao, J; Gao, Y; Gao, Y S; Walls, F M Garay; García, C; Navarro, J E García; Garcia-Sciveres, M; 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Gorbounov, P A; Gordon, H A; Gorelov, I; Gorini, B; Gorini, E; Gorišek, A; Gornicki, E; Goshaw, A T; Gössling, C; Gostkin, M I; Goudet, C R; Goujdami, D; Goussiou, A G; Govender, N; Gozani, E; Graber, L; Grabowska-Bold, I; Gradin, P O J; Grafström, P; Gramling, J; Gramstad, E; Grancagnolo, S; Gratchev, V; Gravila, P M; Gray, H M; Graziani, E; Greenwood, Z D; Grefe, C; Gregersen, K; Gregor, I M; Grenier, P; Grevtsov, K; Griffiths, J; Grillo, A A; Grimm, K; Grinstein, S; Gris, Ph; Grivaz, J-F; Groh, S; Grohs, J P; Gross, E; Grosse-Knetter, J; Grossi, G C; Grout, Z J; Guan, L; Guan, W; Guenther, J; Guescini, F; Guest, D; Gueta, O; Guido, E; Guillemin, T; Guindon, S; Gul, U; Gumpert, C; Guo, J; Guo, Y; Gupta, R; Gupta, S; Gustavino, G; Gutierrez, P; Ortiz, N G Gutierrez; Gutschow, C; Guyot, C; Gwenlan, C; Gwilliam, C B; Haas, A; Haber, C; Hadavand, H K; Haddad, N; Hadef, A; Hageböck, S; Hagihara, M; Hajduk, Z; Hakobyan, H; Haleem, M; Haley, J; Halladjian, G; Hallewell, G D; Hamacher, K; Hamal, P; Hamano, K; Hamilton, A; Hamity, G N; Hamnett, P G; Han, L; Hanagaki, K; Hanawa, K; Hance, M; Haney, B; Hanke, P; Hanna, R; Hansen, J B; Hansen, J D; Hansen, M C; Hansen, P H; Hara, K; Hard, A S; Harenberg, T; Hariri, F; Harkusha, S; Harrington, R D; Harrison, P F; Hartjes, F; Hartmann, N M; Hasegawa, M; Hasegawa, Y; Hasib, A; Hassani, S; Haug, S; Hauser, R; Hauswald, L; Havranek, M; Hawkes, C M; Hawkings, R J; Hayakawa, D; Hayden, D; Hays, C P; Hays, J M; Hayward, H S; Haywood, S J; Head, S J; Heck, T; Hedberg, V; Heelan, L; Heim, S; Heim, T; Heinemann, B; Heinrich, J J; Heinrich, L; Heinz, C; Hejbal, J; Helary, L; Hellman, S; Helsens, C; Henderson, J; Henderson, R C W; Heng, Y; Henkelmann, S; Correia, A M Henriques; Henrot-Versille, S; Herbert, G H; Herde, H; Herget, V; Jiménez, Y Hernández; Herten, G; Hertenberger, R; Hervas, L; Hesketh, G G; Hessey, N P; Hetherly, J W; Hickling, R; Higón-Rodriguez, E; Hill, E; Hill, J C; Hiller, K H; Hillier, S J; Hinchliffe, I; Hines, E; Hinman, R R; Hirose, M; Hirschbuehl, D; Hobbs, J; Hod, N; Hodgkinson, M C; Hodgson, P; Hoecker, A; Hoeferkamp, M R; Hoenig, F; Hohn, D; Holmes, T R; Homann, M; Honda, T; Hong, T M; Hooberman, B H; Hopkins, W H; Horii, Y; Horton, A J; Hostachy, J-Y; Hou, S; Hoummada, A; Howarth, J; Hoya, J; Hrabovsky, M; Hristova, I; Hrivnac, J; Hryn'ova, T; Hrynevich, A; Hsu, C; Hsu, P J; Hsu, S-C; Hu, Q; Hu, S; Huang, Y; Hubacek, Z; Hubaut, F; Huegging, F; Huffman, T B; Hughes, E W; Hughes, G; Huhtinen, M; Huo, P; Huseynov, N; Huston, J; Huth, J; Iacobucci, G; Iakovidis, G; Ibragimov, I; Iconomidou-Fayard, L; Ideal, E; Idrissi, Z; Iengo, P; Igonkina, O; Iizawa, T; Ikegami, Y; Ikeno, M; Ilchenko, Y; Iliadis, D; Ilic, N; Ince, T; Introzzi, G; Ioannou, P; Iodice, M; Iordanidou, K; Ippolito, V; Ishijima, N; Ishino, M; Ishitsuka, M; Ishmukhametov, R; Issever, C; Istin, S; Ito, F; Ponce, J M Iturbe; Iuppa, R; Iwanski, W; Iwasaki, H; Izen, J M; Izzo, V; Jabbar, S; Jackson, B; Jackson, P; Jain, V; Jakobi, K B; Jakobs, K; 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Tikhomirov, V O; Tikhonov, Yu A; Timoshenko, S; Tipton, P; Tisserant, S; Todome, K; Todorov, T; Todorova-Nova, S; Tojo, J; Tokár, S; Tokushuku, K; Tolley, E; Tomlinson, L; Tomoto, M; Tompkins, L; Toms, K; Tong, B; Tornambe, P; Torrence, E; Torres, H; Pastor, E Torró; Toth, J; Touchard, F; Tovey, D R; Trefzger, T; Tricoli, A; Trigger, I M; Trincaz-Duvoid, S; Tripiana, M F; Trischuk, W; Trocmé, B; Trofymov, A; Troncon, C; Trottier-McDonald, M; Trovatelli, M; Truong, L; Trzebinski, M; Trzupek, A; Tseng, J C-L; Tsiareshka, P V; Tsipolitis, G; Tsirintanis, N; Tsiskaridze, S; Tsiskaridze, V; Tskhadadze, E G; Tsui, K M; Tsukerman, I I; Tsulaia, V; Tsuno, S; Tsybychev, D; Tu, Y; Tudorache, A; Tudorache, V; Tuna, A N; Tupputi, S A; Turchikhin, S; Turecek, D; Turgeman, D; Turra, R; Tuts, P M; Tyndel, M; Ucchielli, G; Ueda, I; Ughetto, M; Ukegawa, F; Unal, G; Undrus, A; Unel, G; Ungaro, F C; Unno, Y; Unverdorben, C; Urban, J; Urquijo, P; Urrejola, P; Usai, G; Vacavant, L; Vacek, V; Vachon, B; Valderanis, C; Santurio, E Valdes; Valencic, N; Valentinetti, S; Valero, A; Valery, L; Valkar, S; Ferrer, J A Valls; Van Den Wollenberg, W; Van Der Deijl, P C; van der Graaf, H; van Eldik, N; van Gemmeren, P; Van Nieuwkoop, J; van Vulpen, I; van Woerden, M C; Vanadia, M; Vandelli, W; Vanguri, R; Vaniachine, A; Vankov, P; Vardanyan, G; Vari, R; Varnes, E W; Varol, T; Varouchas, D; Vartapetian, A; Varvell, K E; Vasquez, J G; Vasquez, G A; Vazeille, F; Schroeder, T Vazquez; Veatch, J; Veeraraghavan, V; Veloce, L M; Veloso, F; Veneziano, S; Ventura, A; Venturi, M; Venturi, N; Venturini, A; Vercesi, V; Verducci, M; Verkerke, W; Vermeulen, J C; Vest, A; Vetterli, M C; Viazlo, O; Vichou, I; Vickey, T; Boeriu, O E Vickey; Viehhauser, G H A; Viel, S; Vigani, L; Villa, M; Perez, M Villaplana; Vilucchi, E; Vincter, M G; Vinogradov, V B; Vittori, C; Vivarelli, I; Vlachos, S; Vlasak, M; Vogel, M; Vokac, P; Volpi, G; Volpi, M; von der Schmitt, H; von Toerne, E; Vorobel, V; Vorobev, K; Vos, M; Voss, R; Vossebeld, J H; Vranjes, N; Milosavljevic, M Vranjes; Vrba, V; Vreeswijk, M; Vuillermet, R; Vukotic, I; Vykydal, Z; Wagner, P; Wagner, W; Wahlberg, H; Wahrmund, S; Wakabayashi, J; Walder, J; Walker, R; Walkowiak, W; Wallangen, V; Wang, C; Wang, C; Wang, F; Wang, H; Wang, H; Wang, J; Wang, J; Wang, K; Wang, R; Wang, S M; Wang, T; Wang, T; Wang, W; Wang, X; Wanotayaroj, C; Warburton, A; Ward, C P; Wardrope, D R; Washbrook, A; Watkins, P M; Watson, A T; Watson, M F; Watts, G; Watts, S; Waugh, B M; Webb, S; Weber, M S; Weber, S W; Weber, S A; Webster, J S; Weidberg, A R; Weinert, B; Weingarten, J; Weiser, C; Weits, H; Wells, P S; Wenaus, T; Wengler, T; Wenig, S; Wermes, N; Werner, M; Werner, M D; Werner, P; Wessels, M; Wetter, J; Whalen, K; Whallon, N L; Wharton, A M; White, A; White, M J; White, R; Whiteson, D; Wickens, F J; Wiedenmann, W; Wielers, M; Wiglesworth, C; Wiik-Fuchs, L A M; Wildauer, A; Wilk, F; Wilkens, H G; Williams, H H; Williams, S; Willis, C; Willocq, S; Wilson, J A; Wingerter-Seez, I; Winklmeier, F; Winston, O J; Winter, B T; Wittgen, M; Wittkowski, J; Wolf, T M H; Wolter, M W; Wolters, H; Worm, S D; Wosiek, B K; Wotschack, J; Woudstra, M J; Wozniak, K W; Wu, M; Wu, M; Wu, S L; Wu, X; Wu, Y; Wyatt, T R; Wynne, B M; Xella, S; Xu, D; Xu, L; Yabsley, B; Yacoob, S; Yamaguchi, D; Yamaguchi, Y; Yamamoto, A; Yamamoto, S; Yamanaka, T; Yamauchi, K; Yamazaki, Y; Yan, Z; Yang, H; Yang, H; Yang, Y; Yang, Z; Yao, W-M; Yap, Y C; Yasu, Y; Yatsenko, E; Wong, K H Yau; Ye, J; Ye, S; Yeletskikh, I; Yen, A L; Yildirim, E; Yorita, K; Yoshida, R; Yoshihara, K; Young, C; Young, C J S; Youssef, S; Yu, D R; Yu, J; Yu, J M; Yu, J; Yuan, L; Yuen, S P Y; Yusuff, I; Zabinski, B; Zaidan, R; Zaitsev, A M; Zakharchuk, N; Zalieckas, J; Zaman, A; Zambito, S; Zanello, L; Zanzi, D; Zeitnitz, C; Zeman, M; Zemla, A; Zeng, J C; Zeng, Q; Zengel, K; Zenin, O; Ženiš, T; Zerwas, D; Zhang, D; Zhang, F; Zhang, G; Zhang, H; Zhang, J; Zhang, L; Zhang, R; Zhang, R; Zhang, X; Zhang, Z; Zhao, X; Zhao, Y; Zhao, Z; Zhemchugov, A; Zhong, J; Zhou, B; Zhou, C; Zhou, L; Zhou, L; Zhou, M; Zhou, N; Zhu, C G; Zhu, H; Zhu, J; Zhu, Y; Zhuang, X; Zhukov, K; Zibell, A; Zieminska, D; Zimine, N I; Zimmermann, C; Zimmermann, S; Zinonos, Z; Zinser, M; Ziolkowski, M; Živković, L; Zobernig, G; Zoccoli, A; Nedden, M Zur; Zwalinski, L

    2016-01-01

    A search is performed for a heavy particle decaying into different flavour dilepton pairs ([Formula: see text], [Formula: see text] or [Formula: see text]), using 3.2 fb[Formula: see text] of proton-proton collision data at [Formula: see text] TeV collected in 2015 by the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider. No excess over the Standard Model prediction is observed. Limits at the 95 % credibility level are set on the mass of a [Formula: see text] boson with lepton-flavour-violating couplings at 3.0, 2.7 and 2.6 TeV, and on the mass of a supersymmetric [Formula: see text] sneutrino with R-parity-violating couplings at 2.3, 2.2 and 1.9 TeV, for [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] final states, respectively. The results are also interpreted as limits on the threshold mass for quantum black hole production.

  19. Accurate spectral color measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiltunen, Jouni; Jaeaeskelaeinen, Timo; Parkkinen, Jussi P. S.

    1999-08-01

    Surface color measurement is of importance in a very wide range of industrial applications including paint, paper, printing, photography, textiles, plastics and so on. For a demanding color measurements spectral approach is often needed. One can measure a color spectrum with a spectrophotometer using calibrated standard samples as a reference. Because it is impossible to define absolute color values of a sample, we always work with approximations. The human eye can perceive color difference as small as 0.5 CIELAB units and thus distinguish millions of colors. This 0.5 unit difference should be a goal for the precise color measurements. This limit is not a problem if we only want to measure the color difference of two samples, but if we want to know in a same time exact color coordinate values accuracy problems arise. The values of two instruments can be astonishingly different. The accuracy of the instrument used in color measurement may depend on various errors such as photometric non-linearity, wavelength error, integrating sphere dark level error, integrating sphere error in both specular included and specular excluded modes. Thus the correction formulas should be used to get more accurate results. Another question is how many channels i.e. wavelengths we are using to measure a spectrum. It is obvious that the sampling interval should be short to get more precise results. Furthermore, the result we get is always compromise of measuring time, conditions and cost. Sometimes we have to use portable syste or the shape and the size of samples makes it impossible to use sensitive equipment. In this study a small set of calibrated color tiles measured with the Perkin Elmer Lamda 18 and the Minolta CM-2002 spectrophotometers are compared. In the paper we explain the typical error sources of spectral color measurements, and show which are the accuracy demands a good colorimeter should have.

  20. Exploring Combinations of Different Color and Facial Expression Stimuli for Gaze-Independent BCIs

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Long; Jin, Jing; Daly, Ian; Zhang, Yu; Wang, Xingyu; Cichocki, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    Background: Some studies have proven that a conventional visual brain computer interface (BCI) based on overt attention cannot be used effectively when eye movement control is not possible. To solve this problem, a novel visual-based BCI system based on covert attention and feature attention has been proposed and was called the gaze-independent BCI. Color and shape difference between stimuli and backgrounds have generally been used in examples of gaze-independent BCIs. Recently, a new paradigm based on facial expression changes has been presented, and obtained high performance. However, some facial expressions were so similar that users couldn't tell them apart, especially when they were presented at the same position in a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) paradigm. Consequently, the performance of the BCI is reduced. New Method: In this paper, we combined facial expressions and colors to optimize the stimuli presentation in the gaze-independent BCI. This optimized paradigm was called the colored dummy face pattern. It is suggested that different colors and facial expressions could help users to locate the target and evoke larger event-related potentials (ERPs). In order to evaluate the performance of this new paradigm, two other paradigms were presented, called the gray dummy face pattern and the colored ball pattern. Comparison with Existing Method(s): The key point that determined the value of the colored dummy faces stimuli in BCI systems was whether the dummy face stimuli could obtain higher performance than gray faces or colored balls stimuli. Ten healthy participants (seven male, aged 21–26 years, mean 24.5 ± 1.25) participated in our experiment. Online and offline results of four different paradigms were obtained and comparatively analyzed. Results: The results showed that the colored dummy face pattern could evoke higher P300 and N400 ERP amplitudes, compared with the gray dummy face pattern and the colored ball pattern. Online results showed that

  1. Skin color and makeup strategies of women from different ethnic groups.

    PubMed

    Caisey, L; Grangeat, F; Lemasson, A; Talabot, J; Voirin, A

    2006-12-01

    The development of a world-wide makeup foundation range requires a thorough understanding of skin color features of women around the world. To understand the cosmetic needs of women from different ethnic groups, we measured skin color in five different groups (French and American Caucasian, Japanese, African-American, and Hispanic-American) and compared the data obtained with women's self-perception of skin color, before or after applying their usual foundation product. Skin color was measured using a spectro-radiometer and a spheric lighting device with CCD camera ensuring a highly reliable imaging and data acquisition. The diversity of skin types involved in the study lead to define a large, continuous color space where color spectra from various ethnic groups overlap. Three types of complexion - dark, medium, or light - were distinguished in each group. Only Japanese women did not identify with this lightness scale and considered it makes more sense to classify their skin according to a pink-ocher-beige color scale. The approach however revealed the great variety of skin colors within each ethnic group and the extent of unevenness. A fairly good agreement appeared between women's self-perception and data from color measurements but in Hispanic-American group. Data recorded, after foundation was applied, showed overall consistency with makeup strategy as described by volunteers except for the latter group whose approach looked more uncertain and variable. The findings of the study demonstrate the advantage of combining qualitative and quantitative approach for assessing the cosmetic needs and expectations of women from different ethnic origin and cultural background.

  2. Variability of the Structural Coloration in Two Butterfly Species with Different Prezygotic Mating Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Kertész, Krisztián; Bálint, Zsolt; Biró, László Péter

    2016-01-01

    Structural coloration variability was investigated in two Blue butterfly species that are common in Hungary. The males of Polyommatus icarus (Common Blue) and Plebejus argus (Silver-studded Blue) use their blue wing coloration for conspecific recognition. Despite living in the same type of habitat, these two species display differences in prezygotic mating strategy: the males of P. icarus are patrolling, while P. argus males have sedentary behavior. Therefore, the species-specific photonic nanoarchitecture, which is the source of the structural coloration, may have been subjected to different evolutionary effects. Despite the increasing interest in photonic nanoarchitectures of biological origin, there is a lack of studies focused on the biological variability of structural coloration that examine a statistically relevant number of individuals from the same species. To investigate possible structural color variation within the same species in populations separated by large geographical distances, climatic differences, or applied experimental conditions, one has to be able to compare these variations to the normal biological variability within a single population. The structural coloration of the four wings of 25 male individuals (100 samples for each species) was measured and compared using different light-collecting setups: perpendicular and with an integrating sphere. Significant differences were found in the near UV wavelength region that are perceptible by these polyommatine butterflies but are invisible to human observers. The differences are attributed to the differences in the photonic nanoarchitecture in the scales of these butterflies. Differences in the intensity of structural coloration were also observed and were tentatively attributed to the different prezygotic mating strategies of these insects. Despite the optical complexity of the scale covered butterfly wings, for sufficiently large sample batches, the averaged normal incidence measurements and

  3. Differences in tooth shade value according to age, gender and skin color: A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Veeraganta, Sumanth K.; Savadi, Ravindra C.; Baroudi, Kusai; Nassani, Mohammad Z.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: The purpose was to investigate the differences in tooth shade value according to age, gender and skin color among a sample of the local population in Bengaluru, India. Methodology: The study comprised 100 subjects belonging to both gender between the age groups of 16 years to 55 years. Tooth shade values of permanent maxillary left or right central incisors were recorded using the Vitapan 3D-Master shade guide. Skin color was matched using the Radiance compact makeup shades as a guide. Results: Chi-square statistical test demonstrated that younger subjects have lighter tooth shade values. No statistically significant differences were recorded in tooth shade value according to gender or skin color. Conclusion: Within the limitations of the current study, it can be concluded that tooth shade value is significantly influenced by age. Gender and skin color appear not to have a significant relation to tooth shade value. PMID:26929500

  4. Color makes a difference: two-dimensional object naming in literate and illiterate subjects.

    PubMed

    Reis, Alexandra; Faísca, Luís; Ingvar, Martin; Petersson, Karl Magnus

    2006-02-01

    Previous work has shown that illiterate subjects are better at naming two-dimensional representations of real objects when presented as colored photos as compared to black and white drawings. This raises the question if color or textural details selectively improve object recognition and naming in illiterate compared to literate subjects. In this study, we investigated whether the surface texture and/or color of objects is used to access stored object knowledge in illiterate subjects. A group of illiterate subjects and a matched literate control group were compared on an immediate object naming task with four conditions: color and black and white (i.e., grey-scaled) photos, as well as color and black and white (i.e., grey-scaled) drawings of common everyday objects. The results show that illiterate subjects perform significantly better when the stimuli are colored and this effect is independent of the photographic detail. In addition, there were significant differences between the literacy groups in the black and white condition for both drawings and photos. These results suggest that color object information contributes to object recognition. This effect was particularly prominent in the illiterate group.

  5. Influence of three different concentration techniques on evaporation rate, color and phenolics content of blueberry juice.

    PubMed

    Elik, Aysel; Yanık, Derya Koçak; Maskan, Medeni; Göğüş, Fahrettin

    2016-05-01

    The present study was undertaken to assess the effects of three different concentration processes open-pan, rotary vacuum evaporator and microwave heating on evaporation rate, the color and phenolics content of blueberry juice. Kinetics model study for changes in soluble solids content (°Brix), color parameters and phenolics content during evaporation was also performed. The final juice concentration of 65° Brix was achieved in 12, 15, 45 and 77 min, for microwave at 250 and 200 W, rotary vacuum and open-pan evaporation processes, respectively. Color changes associated with heat treatment were monitored using Hunter colorimeter (L*, a* and b*). All Hunter color parameters decreased with time and dependently studied concentration techniques caused color degradation. It was observed that the severity of color loss was higher in open-pan technique than the others. Evaporation also affected total phenolics content in blueberry juice. Total phenolics loss during concentration was highest in open-pan technique (36.54 %) and lowest in microwave heating at 200 W (34.20 %). So, the use of microwave technique could be advantageous in food industry because of production of blueberry juice concentrate with a better quality and short time of operation. A first-order kinetics model was applied to modeling changes in soluble solids content. A zero-order kinetics model was used to modeling changes in color parameters and phenolics content.

  6. Preschoolers' speed of locating a target symbol under different color conditions.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Krista M; Carlin, Michael; Jagaroo, Vinoth

    2006-06-01

    A pressing decision in AAC concerns the organization of aided visual symbols. One recent proposal suggested that basic principles of visual processing may be important determinants of how easily a symbol is found in an array, and that this, in turn will influence more functional outcomes like symbol identification or use. This study examined the role of color on accuracy and speed of symbol location by 16 preschool children without disabilities. Participants searched for a target stimulus in an array of eight stimuli. In the same-color condition, the eight stimuli were all red; in the guided search condition, four of the stimuli were red and four were yellow; in the unique-color condition, all stimuli were unique colors. Accuracy was higher and reaction time was faster when stimuli were unique colors than when they were all one color. Reaction time and accuracy did not differ under the guided search and the color-unique conditions. The implications for AAC are discussed.

  7. Color blindness

    MedlinePlus

    ... have trouble telling the difference between red and green. This is the most common type of color ... color blindness often have problems seeing reds and greens, too. The most severe form of color blindness ...

  8. Cross-cultural differences in color preferences: implication for international film distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Kyung Jae

    2002-06-01

    This paper proposes the necessity of manipulating colors of movie contents to fit diverse audiences around the world. Since films are highly color-dependent messages, it is critical to understand how people in different cultures respond differently to color. In recent years, the international market for filmed entertainment has grown more than the U.S. market. However, a lack of research on audience preferences shows no constant guide for the motion picture industry. The film production stage is often disregarded to deliver the appropriate visual color contents for local audience when U.S. films are distributed to foreign markets. Therefore, it is assumed that it would cause distractions for local audiences and it could result in poor ticket sales. When the U.S. produced films are distributed in Asia, colors of original films are always shown without manipulation. It is common that when a U.S. manufactured car is imported to Japan, a driver seat is installed on the right side and also other parts are modified for local customers. Film development is also significantly dependent on audience behavior, so film content also needs to be localized for the different culture. This paper will only address a hypothesis of the implementation of color marketing methodology present in motion pictures.

  9. Optical influence of different standard illuminants on green nephrite's color From Manasi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Hong-mei; Guo, Ying

    2010-11-01

    To evaluate the optical influence of illuminant on green color with low chroma (C*~1~12) of nephrite from Manasi, three different standard illuminant-daylight D65, incandescent light A and fluorescent light F2 (CWF) were applied during the experiment. Two-way ANOVA was used to analyze the illuminants tested considering the coordinates of lightness L* and chromaticity a*, b*. The results indicate significant differences for L*, a* and b* (p<0.05). Only L* between D65 and F2 didn't vary significantly (p=0.691) with the multiple comparisons (LSD- test). The green color with higher C*and L* were found to be easily influenced by illuminant, and the color-difference was larger and the color appearance varied more obviously while the illuminant as changed. The changes in color parameters and visual effects showed that the D65 light illuminant is more suitable for the evaluation of green nephrite's color grading while light source A can be used during trading.

  10. The effect of repeated firings on the color change of dental ceramics using different glazing methods

    PubMed Central

    Yılmaz, Kerem; Ozturk, Caner

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE Surface color is one of the main criteria to obtain an ideal esthetic. Many factors such as the type of the material, surface specifications, number of firings, firing temperature and thickness of the porcelain are all important to provide an unchanged surface color in dental ceramics. The aim of this study was to evaluate the color changes in dental ceramics according to the material type and glazing methods, during the multiple firings. MATERIALS AND METHODS Three different types of dental ceramics (IPS Classical metal ceramic, Empress Esthetic and Empress 2 ceramics) were used in the study. Porcelains were evaluated under five main groups according to glaze and natural glaze methods. Color changes (ΔE) and changes in color parameters (ΔL, Δa, Δb) were determined using colorimeter during the control, the first, third, fifth, and seventh firings. The statistical analysis of the results was performed using ANOVA and Tukey test. RESULTS The color changes which occurred upon material-method-firing interaction were statistically significant (P<.05). ΔE, ΔL, Δa and Δb values also demonstrated a negative trend. The MC-G group was less affected in terms of color changes compared to other groups. In all-ceramic specimens, the surface color was significantly affected by multiple firings. CONCLUSION Firing detrimentally affected the structure of the porcelain surface and hence caused fading of the color and prominence of yellow and red characters. Compressible all-ceramics were remarkably affected by repeated firings due to their crystalline structure. PMID:25551001

  11. Spectrophotometric evaluation of the color changes of different feldspathic porcelains after exposure to commonly consumed beverages

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Chandni; Bhargava, Akshay; Gupta, Sharad; Rath, Rishi; Nagpal, Abhishek; Kumar, Prince

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to compare color stability and surface topography of three different feldspathic porcelains both qualitatively and quantitatively after exposure to routinely consumed beverages over different time periods using a Spectrophotometer, Stereomicroscope and Surface roughness tester, respectively. Materials and Methods: A total of 90 plastic discs were casted to obtain metal dies for three different newer ceramic applications each on thirty samples. The color and surface roughness of these samples were measured using stereomicroscope and surface roughness tester following which they were kept in different test solutions for different durations and revaluated for color changes and surface roughness in the similar manner. Results and Conclusion: Among all the five test solutions, Coffee showed the maximum staining of the ceramic whereas maximum surface roughness was shown by the Duceram Kiss (1.48 μm) by Orange Juice which could be due to its high titratable acidity. PMID:24883022

  12. Genomic expression differences between cutaneous cells from red hair color individuals and black hair color individuals based on bioinformatic analysis.

    PubMed

    Puig-Butille, Joan Anton; Gimenez-Xavier, Pol; Visconti, Alessia; Nsengimana, Jérémie; Garcia-García, Francisco; Tell-Marti, Gemma; Escamez, Maria José; Newton-Bishop, Julia; Bataille, Veronique; Del Río, Marcela; Dopazo, Joaquín; Falchi, Mario; Puig, Susana

    2016-12-24

    The MC1R gene plays a crucial role in pigmentation synthesis. Loss-of-function MC1R variants, which impair protein function, are associated with red hair color (RHC) phenotype and increased skin cancer risk. Cultured cutaneous cells bearing loss-of-function MC1R variants show a distinct gene expression profile compared to wild-type MC1R cultured cutaneous cells. We analysed the gene signature associated with RHC co-cultured melanocytes and keratinocytes by Protein-Protein interaction (PPI) network analysis to identify genes related with non-functional MC1R variants. From two detected networks, we selected 23 nodes as hub genes based on topological parameters. Differential expression of hub genes was then evaluated in healthy skin biopsies from RHC and black hair color (BHC) individuals. We also compared gene expression in melanoma tumors from individuals with RHC versus BHC. Gene expression in normal skin from RHC cutaneous cells showed dysregulation in 8 out of 23 hub genes (CLN3, ATG10, WIPI2, SNX2, GABARAPL2, YWHA, PCNA and GBAS). Hub genes did not differ between melanoma tumors in RHC versus BHC individuals. The study suggests that healthy skin cells from RHC individuals present a constitutive genomic deregulation associated with the red hair phenotype and identify novel genes involved in melanocyte biology.

  13. Formation of colorized silicon by femtosecond laser pulses in different background gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Hong-Dao; Li, Xiao-Hong; Li, Guo-Qiang; Wen, Cai; Qiu, Rong; Huang, Wen-Hao; Wang, Jun-Bo

    2011-08-01

    A single-crystal silicon(111) wafer surface fixed on an x- y translation stage is scanned with a focused femtosecond laser beam at a wavelength of 800 nm under different atmospheres (air, vacuum, and nitrogen). Different colors from different angles on the surface of the silicon then appear. From the result of the experiments, periodic ripple surface structures emerge on the surface of colorized silicon, and the phenomenon is more obvious in vacuum and nitrogen than in air. The periods of the surface structures on silicon are not the same in the different atmospheres. Under vacuum, the period is the longest and is closer to the wavelength of the laser irradiation. Different from metals, the range of energy density is smaller when the colorized silicon appears with femtosecond laser pulses. Through SEM, TEM, and AFM, we observe in detail the microstructures of colorized silicon that forms in air, vacuum, and nitrogen and analyze the possible physical mechanism. Finally, research into the optical reflection of the colorized silicon indicates that the reflectivity is not higher than 30% in the 250-800 nm range.

  14. Effects of sports beverages and polishing systems on color stability of different resin composites

    PubMed Central

    Taşkınsel, Ertan; Özel, Emre; Öztürk, Elif

    2014-01-01

    Background: Consumption of certain acidic beverages may alter the physical and esthetic properties of resin composites. Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of two sports beverages on color stability of two different types of resin composites polished with different composite polishing systems. Materials and Methods: A total of 96 disk-shaped specimens (diameter: 8-mm and thickness: 2-mm) were made from two different resin composites (Cavex Quadrant Universal-LC, and Clearfil-APX). All of the specimens were stored in distilled water for 24 h at 37°C. Color measurements of each specimen were performed using a colorimeter according to the CIEL*a*b* color scale at baseline and after seven days of immersion in two different sports beverages (Powerade and Buzzer). Statistical Analysis Used: The data were evaluated using Kruskal Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests. Results: Significant differences were found between the mean ΔE values of the groups after seven days of immersion (P < 0.05). The highest level of the mean color change was observed in the Clearfil APX specimens immersed in Powerade (ΔE = 3.5 ± 0.9). Control groups stored in distilled water for both composites exhibited small color changes (ΔE-Cavex-bur = 2.1 ± 1; ΔE-Clearfil APX-bur = 2.1 ± 0.4). Conclusion: Sport beverages caused discoloration in the resin composites after seven days. PMID:25125843

  15. Comparative color space analysis of difference images from adjacent visible human slices for lossless compression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thoma, George R.; Pipkin, Ryan; Mitra, Sunanda

    1997-10-01

    This paper reports the compression ratio performance of the RGB, YIQ, and HSV color plane models for the lossless coding of the National Library of Medicine's Visible Human (VH) color data set. In a previous study the correlation between adjacent VH slices was exploited using the RGB color plane model. The results of that study suggested an investigation into possible improvements using the other two color planes, and alternative differencing methods. YIQ and HSV, also know a HSI, both represent the image by separating the intensity from the color information, and we anticipated higher correlation between the intensity components of adjacent VH slices. However the compression ratio did not improve by the transformation from RGB into the other color plane models, since in order to maintain lossless performance, YIQ and HSV both require more bits to store each pixel. This increase in file size is not offset by the increase in compression due to the higher correlation of the intensity value, the best performance being achieved with the RGB color plane model. This study also explored three methods of differencing: average reference image, alternating reference image, and cascaded difference from single reference. The best method proved to be the first iteration of the cascaded difference from single reference. In this method, a single reference image is chosen, and the difference between it and its neighbor is calculated. Then the difference between the neighbor and its next neighbor is calculated. This method requires that all preceding images up to the reference image be reconstructed before the target image is available. The compression ratios obtained from this method are significantly better than the competing methods.

  16. Development of the RGB LEDs color mixing mechanism for stability the color temperature at different projection distances.

    PubMed

    Hung, Chih-Ching

    2015-01-01

    In lighting application, the color mixing of the RGB LEDs can provide more color selection in correlated color temperature and color rendering. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to propose a RGB color mixing mechanism by applying the mechanism design. Three sets of lamp-type RGB LEDs are individually installed on three four-bar linkages. A crank is used to drive three groups of RGB LEDs lamp-type to project lights onto a single plane in order to mix the lights. And, simulations of the illuminance and associated color temperatures are conducted by changing the distance to the projection plane, under the assumption that the stability of the color temperature of the projected light does not change according to the projecting height. Thus, the effect of change in the color temperature on color determination by the humans' eyes was avoided. The success of the proposed method will allow medical personnel to choose suitable wavelengths and color temperatures according to the particular requirements of their medical-examination environments.

  17. Effects of a static electric field on two-color photoassociation between different atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Chakraborty, Debashree; Deb, Bimalendu

    2014-01-15

    We study non-perturbative effects of a static electric field on two-color photoassociation of different atoms. A static electric field induces anisotropy in scattering between two different atoms and hybridizes field-free rotational states of heteronuclear dimers or polar molecules. In a previous paper [D. Chakraborty et al., J. Phys. B 44, 095201 (2011)], the effects of a static electric field on one-color photoassociation between different atoms has been described through field-modified ground-state scattering states, neglecting electric field effects on heteronuclear diatomic bound states. To study the effects of a static electric field on heteronuclear bound states, and the resulting influence on Raman-type two-color photoassociation between different atoms in the presence of a static electric field, we develop a non-perturbative numerical method to calculate static electric field-dressed heteronuclear bound states. We show that the static electric field induced scattering anisotropy as well as hybridization of rotational states strongly influence two-color photoassociation spectra, leading to significant enhancement in PA rate and large shift. In particular, for static electric field strengths of a few hundred kV/cm, two-color PA rate involving high-lying bound states in electronic ground-state increases by several orders of magnitude even in the weak photoassociative coupling regime.

  18. Compositional and mechanical properties of peanuts roasted to equivalent colors using different time/temperature combinations.

    PubMed

    McDaniel, Kristin A; White, Brittany L; Dean, Lisa L; Sanders, Timothy H; Davis, Jack P

    2012-12-01

    Peanuts in North America and Europe are primarily consumed after dry roasting. Standard industry practice is to roast peanuts to a specific surface color (Hunter L-value) for a given application; however, equivalent surface colors can be attained using different roast temperature/time combinations, which could affect product quality. To investigate this potential, runner peanuts from a single lot were systematically roasted using 5 roast temperatures (147, 157, 167, 177, and 187 °C) and to Hunter L-values of 53 ± 1, 48.5 ± 1, and 43 ± 1, corresponding to light, medium, and dark roasts, respectively. Moisture contents (MC) ranged from 0.41% to 1.70% after roasting. At equivalent roast temperatures, MC decreased as peanuts became darker; however, for a given color, MC decreased with decreasing roast temperature due to longer roast times required for specified color formation. Initial total tocopherol contents of expressed oils ranged from 164 to 559 μg/g oil. Peanuts roasted at lower temperatures and darker colors had higher tocopherol contents. Glucose content was roast color and temperature dependent, while fructose was only temperature dependent. Soluble protein was lower at darker roast colors, and when averaged across temperatures, was highest when samples were roasted at 187 °C. Lysine content decreased with increasing roast color but was not dependent on temperature. MC strongly correlated with several components including tocopherols (R(2) = 0.67), soluble protein (R(2) = 0.80), and peak force upon compression (R(2) = 0.64). The variation in characteristics related to roast conditions is sufficient to suggest influences on final product shelf life and consumer acceptability.

  19. The Color Differences of Kuiper Belt Objects in Resonance with Neptune

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheppard, Scott S.

    2012-12-01

    The optical colors of 58 objects in mean motion resonance with Neptune were obtained. The various Neptune resonant populations were found to have significantly different surface color distributions. The 5:3 and 7:4 resonances have semimajor axes near the middle of the main Kuiper Belt and both are dominated by ultra-red material (spectral gradient: S >~ 25). The 5:3 and 7:4 resonances have statistically the same color distribution as the low-inclination "cold" classical belt. The inner 4:3 and distant 5:2 resonances have objects with mostly moderately red colors (S ~ 15), similar to the scattered and detached disk populations. The 2:1 resonance, which is near the outer edge of the main Kuiper Belt, has a large range of colors with similar numbers of moderately red and ultra-red objects at all inclinations. The 2:1 resonance was also found to have a very rare neutral colored object showing that the 2:1 resonance is really a mix of all object types. The inner 3:2 resonance, like the outer 2:1, has a large range of objects from neutral to ultra-red. The Neptune Trojans (1:1 resonance) are only slightly red (S ~ 9), similar to the Jupiter Trojans. The inner 5:4 resonance only has four objects with measured colors but shows equal numbers of ultra-red and moderately red objects. The 9:5, 12:5, 7:3, 3:1, and 11:3 resonances do not have reliable color distribution statistics since few objects have been observed in these resonances, though it appears noteworthy that all three of the measured 3:1 objects have only moderately red colors, similar to the 4:3 and 5:2 resonances. The different color distributions of objects in mean motion resonance with Neptune are likely a result from the disruption of the primordial Kuiper Belt from the scattering and migration of the giant planets. The few low-inclination objects known in the outer 2:1 and 5:2 resonances are mostly only moderately red. This suggests if the 2:1 and 5:2 have a cold low-inclination component, the objects likely

  20. THE COLOR DIFFERENCES OF KUIPER BELT OBJECTS IN RESONANCE WITH NEPTUNE

    SciTech Connect

    Sheppard, Scott S.

    2012-12-01

    The optical colors of 58 objects in mean motion resonance with Neptune were obtained. The various Neptune resonant populations were found to have significantly different surface color distributions. The 5:3 and 7:4 resonances have semimajor axes near the middle of the main Kuiper Belt and both are dominated by ultra-red material (spectral gradient: S {approx}> 25). The 5:3 and 7:4 resonances have statistically the same color distribution as the low-inclination 'cold' classical belt. The inner 4:3 and distant 5:2 resonances have objects with mostly moderately red colors (S {approx} 15), similar to the scattered and detached disk populations. The 2:1 resonance, which is near the outer edge of the main Kuiper Belt, has a large range of colors with similar numbers of moderately red and ultra-red objects at all inclinations. The 2:1 resonance was also found to have a very rare neutral colored object showing that the 2:1 resonance is really a mix of all object types. The inner 3:2 resonance, like the outer 2:1, has a large range of objects from neutral to ultra-red. The Neptune Trojans (1:1 resonance) are only slightly red (S {approx} 9), similar to the Jupiter Trojans. The inner 5:4 resonance only has four objects with measured colors but shows equal numbers of ultra-red and moderately red objects. The 9:5, 12:5, 7:3, 3:1, and 11:3 resonances do not have reliable color distribution statistics since few objects have been observed in these resonances, though it appears noteworthy that all three of the measured 3:1 objects have only moderately red colors, similar to the 4:3 and 5:2 resonances. The different color distributions of objects in mean motion resonance with Neptune are likely a result from the disruption of the primordial Kuiper Belt from the scattering and migration of the giant planets. The few low-inclination objects known in the outer 2:1 and 5:2 resonances are mostly only moderately red. This suggests if the 2:1 and 5:2 have a cold low-inclination component

  1. Differing Perceptions: How Students of Color and White Students Perceive Campus Climate for Underrepresented Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rankin, Susan R.; Reason, Robert D.

    2005-01-01

    Using a campus climate assessment instrument developed by Rankin (1998), we surveyed students (n = 7,347) from 10 campuses to explore whether students from different racial groups experienced their campus climates differently. Students of color experienced harassment at higher rates than Caucasian students, although female White students reported…

  2. Different temporal structure for form versus surface cortical color systems--evidence from chromatic non-linear VEP.

    PubMed

    Crewther, David P; Crewther, Sheila G

    2010-12-20

    Physiological studies of color processing have typically measured responses to spatially varying chromatic stimuli such as gratings, while psychophysical studies of color include color naming, color and light, as well as spatial and temporal chromatic sensitivities. This raises the question of whether we have one or several cortical color processing systems. Here we show from non-linear analysis of human visual evoked potentials (VEP) the presence of distinct and independent temporal signatures for form and surface color processing. Surface color stimuli produced most power in the second order Wiener kernel, indicative of a slowly recovering neural system, while chromatic form stimulation produced most power in the first order kernel (showing rapid recovery). We find end-spectral saturation-dependent signals, easily separable from achromatic signals for surface color stimuli. However physiological responses to form color stimuli, though varying somewhat with saturation, showed similar waveform components. Lastly, the spectral dependence of surface and form color VEP was different, with the surface color responses almost vanishing with yellow-grey isoluminant stimulation whereas the form color VEP shows robust recordable signals across all hues. Thus, surface and form colored stimuli engage different neural systems within cortex, pointing to the need to establish their relative contributions under the diverse chromatic stimulus conditions used in the literature.

  3. The effect of different drinks on tooth color after home bleaching

    PubMed Central

    Karadas, Muhammet; Seven, Nilgun

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This study evaluated the influence of coffee, tea, cola, and red wine staining on the color of teeth after home bleaching. Materials and Methods: A total of 45 samples were obtained from 45 sound maxillary central incisors. The home bleaching procedure was performed using 10% carbamide peroxide gel applied to the sample surface for a period of 6 h each day, for 14 days. After bleaching, baseline color measurements were taken, and the samples were immersed in four staining solutions (coffee, tea, cola, and red wine) or artificial saliva (n = 9). Following 15 min and 6 h of immersion on the first day and next day, respectively, the samples were washed with distilled water for 10 s. After 15 min, 6 h, 1 week, and 1 month immersions, the color values of each sample were remeasured and the color change values (∆E) were calculated. Color change analysis was performed using a spectrophotometer. The results were analyzed using analysis of variance and Tukey's honestly significant difference test (P <0.05). Results: Of all the staining solutions, the lowest ∆E values were observed with coffee staining versus artificial saliva (control group), for all time intervals evaluated after whitening. Although no statistically differences were observed between the coffee and control group at all the time points evaluated, there were statistically significant differences between the red wine, cola, and tea solutions. Conclusion: Following tooth whitening, patients should avoid drinks that cause tooth staining, particularly red wine, tea and cola. PMID:24966778

  4. Grapheme-color synesthesia subtypes: Stable individual differences reflected in posterior alpha-band oscillations.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Michael X; Weidacker, Kathrin; Tankink, Judith; Scholte, H Steven; Rouw, Romke

    2015-01-01

    Grapheme-color synesthesia is a condition in which seeing letters and numbers produces sensations of colors (e.g., the letter R may elicit a sky-blue percept). Recent evidence implicates posterior parietal areas, in addition to lower-level sensory processing regions, in the neurobiological mechanisms involved in synesthesia. Furthermore, these mechanisms seem to differ for "projectors" (synesthetes who report seeing the color "out there in the real world") versus "associators" (synesthetes who report the color to be only an internal experience). Relatively little is known about possible electrophysiological characteristics of grapheme-color synesthesia. Here we used EEG to investigate functional oscillatory differences among associators, projectors, and non-synesthetes. Projectors had stronger stimulus-related alpha-band (~10 Hz) power over posterior parietal electrodes, compared to both associators and non-synesthetes. Posterior alpha activity was not statistically significantly different between associators from non-synesthetes. We also performed a test-retest assessment of the projector-associator score and found strong retest reliability, as evidenced by a correlation coefficient of .85. These findings demonstrate that the projector-associator distinction is highly reliable over time and is related to neural oscillations in the alpha band.

  5. The differing magnitude distributions of the two Jupiter Trojan color populations

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, Ian; Brown, Michael E.; Emery, Joshua P.

    2014-12-01

    The Jupiter Trojans are a significant population of minor bodies in the middle solar system that have garnered substantial interest in recent years. Several spectroscopic studies of these objects have revealed notable bimodalities with respect to near-infrared spectra, infrared albedo, and color, which suggest the existence of two distinct groups among the Trojan population. In this paper, we analyze the magnitude distributions of these two groups, which we refer to as the red and less red color populations. By compiling spectral and photometric data from several previous works, we show that the observed bimodalities are self-consistent and categorize 221 of the 842 Trojans with absolute magnitudes in the range H<12.3 into the two color populations. We demonstrate that the magnitude distributions of the two color populations are distinct to a high confidence level (>95%) and fit them individually to a broken power law, with special attention given to evaluating and correcting for incompleteness in the Trojan catalog as well as incompleteness in our categorization of objects. A comparison of the best-fit curves shows that the faint-end power-law slopes are markedly different for the two color populations, which indicates that the red and less red Trojans likely formed in different locations. We propose a few hypotheses for the origin and evolution of the Trojan population based on the analyzed data.

  6. Different colors of light lead to different adaptation and activation as determined by high-density EEG.

    PubMed

    Münch, M; Plomp, G; Thunell, E; Kawasaki, A; Scartezzini, J L; Herzog, M H

    2014-11-01

    Light adaptation is crucial for coping with the varying levels of ambient light. Using high-density electroencephalography (EEG), we investigated how adaptation to light of different colors affects brain responsiveness. In a within-subject design, sixteen young participants were adapted first to dim white light and then to blue, green, red, or white bright light (one color per session in a randomized order). Immediately after both dim and bright light adaptation, we presented brief light pulses and recorded event-related potentials (ERPs). We analyzed ERP response strengths and brain topographies and determined the underlying sources using electrical source imaging. Between 150 and 261 ms after stimulus onset, the global field power (GFP) was higher after dim than bright light adaptation. This effect was most pronounced with red light and localized in the frontal lobe, the fusiform gyrus, the occipital lobe and the cerebellum. After bright light adaptation, within the first 100 ms after light onset, stronger responses were found than after dim light adaptation for all colors except for red light. Differences between conditions were localized in the frontal lobe, the cingulate gyrus, and the cerebellum. These results indicate that very short-term EEG brain responses are influenced by prior light adaptation and the spectral quality of the light stimulus. We show that the early EEG responses are differently affected by adaptation to different colors of light which may contribute to known differences in performance and reaction times in cognitive tests.

  7. A Comparative Study to Assess the Predictability of Different IOL Power Calculation Formulas in Eyes of Short and Long Axial Length

    PubMed Central

    Limdi, Purvi; Parekh, Nilesh; Gohil, Neepa

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Accurate Intraocular Lens (IOL) power calculation in cataract surgery is very important for providing postoperative precise vision. Selection of most appropriate formula is difficult in high myopic and hypermetropic patients. Aim To investigate the predictability of different IOL (Intra Ocular Lens) power calculation formulae in eyes with short and long Axial Length (AL) and to find out most accurate IOL power calculation formula in both groups. Materials and Methods A prospective study was conducted on 80 consecutive patients who underwent phacoemulsification with monofocal IOL implantation after obtaining an informed and written consent. Preoperative keratometry was done by IOL Master. Axial length and anterior chamber depth was measured using A-scan machine ECHORULE 2 (BIOMEDIX). Patients were divided into two groups based on AL. (40 in each group). Group A with AL<22 mm and Group B with AL>24.5 mm. The IOL power calculation in each group was done by Haigis, Hoffer Q, Holladay-I, SRK/T formulae using the software of ECHORULE 2. The actual postoperative Spherical Equivalent (SE), Estimation error (E) and Absolute Error (AE) were calculated at one and half months and were used in data analysis. The predictive accuracy of each formula in each group was analyzed by comparing the Absolute Error (AE). The Kruskal Wallis test was used to compare differences in the (AE) of the formulae. A statistically significant difference was defined as p-value<0.05. Results In Group A, Hoffer Q, Holladay 1 and SRK/T formulae were equally accurate in predicting the postoperative refraction after cataract surgery (IOL power calculation) in eyes with AL less than 22.0 mm and accuracy of these three formulae was significantly higher than Haigis formula. Whereas in Group B, Hoffer Q, Holladay 1, SRK/T and Haigis formulae were equally accurate in predicting the postoperative refraction after cataract surgery (IOL power calculation) in eyes with AL more than 24.5 mm

  8. Instrumental color control for metallic coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chou, W.; Han, Bing; Cui, Guihua; Rigg, Bryan; Luo, Ming R.

    2002-06-01

    This paper describes work investigating a suitable color quality control method for metallic coatings. A set of psychological experiments was carried out based upon 50 pairs of samples. The results were used to test the performance of various color difference formulae. Different techniques were developed by optimising the weights and/or the lightness parametric factors of colour differences calculated from the four measuring angles. The results show that the new techniques give a significant improvement compared to conventional techniques.

  9. Comparison of serum creatinine levels in different color/race categories in a Brazilian population.

    PubMed

    Barcellos, Roberto Carlos de Brito; Matos, Jorge Paulo Strogoff de; Kang, Hye Chung; Rosa, Maria Luiza Garcia; Lugon, Jocemir Ronaldo

    2015-07-01

    Serum creatinine (sCr) is usually higher among black people in the United States due to increased muscle mass, justifying the addition of race adjustment in creatinine-based formulas to estimate glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). We aimed to assess if sCr levels are different in low-income communities in Brazil according to their race. A total of 1,303 participants were enrolled (58% females, 50±14 years-old, 33% self-defined as white, 41% as mixed race, and 26% as black). No significant differences in sCr were found between racial groups and no influence of race on sCr was seen in the linear regression analysis. The eGFR, calculated using the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) formula with no race adjustment, was no different between whites, mixed race and blacks. However, using such adjustment, eGFR for mixed race and black individuals was significantly higher than for whites (p < 0.001). In conclusion, no significant differences in sCr levels were found between racial groups, raising doubts as to whether race adjustment in eGFR formula should be used in that population.

  10. Do normal pupil diameter differences in the population underlie the color selection of #thedress?

    PubMed

    Vemuri, Kavita; Bisla, Kulvinder; Mulpuru, SaiKrishna; Varadharajan, Srinivasa

    2016-03-01

    The fundamental question that arises from the color conundrum of #thedress is "What are the phenomena that underlie the individual differences in the reported colors when all other conditions like light and device for the display are identical?" A survey of 384 participants showed near-equal distribution into blue/black (b/b) and white/gold (w/g) groups. We looked at pupil size differences in a sample population of 53 individuals from these two groups and a group that switched from w/g to b/b. Our results showed that the w/g and switch groups had significantly lower pupil size than the b/b group (w/gdifference in light perception influencing pupil size. A standard infinity focus experiment was then conducted on 18 participants from each group to check if there is bimodality in the population, and we found a statistically significant difference (w/gcolor in the w/g group, 6 participants were administered dilation drops that increased the pupil size by 3-4 mm, but the participants did not report a switch. The results suggest a population difference in normal pupil size influencing color observation which was exposed by the dress.

  11. Detection of between-eye differences in color: Interactions with luminance.

    PubMed

    Jennings, Ben J; Kingdom, Frederick A A

    2016-01-01

    Between-eye differences in color or luminance result in the appearance of luster, which provides a cue for detecting between-eye differences. We measured thresholds for detecting between-eye differences in both hue and chromatic contrast (saturation) in dichoptically superimposed color patches. Sensitivity was found to be highest at isoluminance and decreased with the addition of task-irrelevant, spatially coextensive, binocular (i.e., same in both eyes) luminance contrast. However, when the members of each dichoptic pair were presented side by side on the screen and viewed with the same eye, the added luminance contrast had no effect on the detection of their differences. If the effect of the luminance contrast was simply to dilute or desaturate the chromatic signals, we would expect thresholds to increase for the within-eye and not just the between-eye (dichoptic) conditions. We suggest that the presence of binocular luminance contrast reduces the interocular suppression between the dichoptic colors, causing the dichoptic color pairs to blend, thus rendering their differences harder to detect.

  12. The effects of different shades of resin luting cement on the color of ceramic veneers.

    PubMed

    Alqahtani, Mohammed Q; Aljurais, Rana M; Alshaafi, Maan M

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantitatively evaluate the effects of different shades of light-polymerized resin cement on the color of two different thicknesses (0.5 mm and 0.7 mm) of three different ceramic materials (Esthetic, e.max, and ZirPress). A spectrophotometer (Color Eye 7000A - CIE (L*a*b*) was used to measure the color of specimens on the control substrate without cement, and then on (Translucent, White Opaque, B0.5, A1, and A3 of RelyX™ Veneer cement). The mean values of color difference (ΔE) were higher for Esthetic, followed by ZirPress, with the lowest values for e.max. The mean values of ΔE decreased when the thickness of ceramic increased from 0.5 mm to 0.7 mm. It was observed that the White Opaque had significantly increased ΔE values when compared with (TR, B0.5, A1, and A3), whereas no significant difference between B0.5 and TR, and between B0.5 and A3.

  13. [Research on quality parameters of scutellariae radix (formula particles) using on-line NIR in pilot with different extraction process].

    PubMed

    Li, Yang; Wu, Zhi-Sheng; Shi, Xin-Yuan; Pan, Xiao-Ning; Zhang, Qiao; Qiao, Yan-Jiang

    2014-10-01

    The on-line monitor for the changes in the content of baicalin in Scutellariae Radix formula particles during the extraction process was conducted by using near infrared spectroscopy (NIR). High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used as a reference method. Kennard-Stone (KS) was used to divide sample sets, so as to compare different pretreatment methods. The synergy interval partial least squares (SiPLS) was used to screen out modeling wave band to establish partial least-squares models. The relative error method was applied to predict forecast set samples of Scutellariae Radix in three extraction phases. The results showed that the model established by Savitzky-Golay smoothing with 11 points (SG11 points) was the best, with the root mean square with cross validation (RMSECV), root mean square error of correction (RMSEC) and root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) of baicalin of 0.092 7, 0.134 4 and 0.114 8, respectively, the determination coefficient R2 of greater than 0.99, and the relative error of baicalin content of less than 5%. This indicates that the on-line near infrared reflectance spectroscopy could be applied in on-line monitor and quality control of the extraction process of Scutellariae Radix formula particles.

  14. Nonrandom Composition of Flower Colors in a Plant Community: Mutually Different Co-Flowering Natives and Disturbance by Aliens

    PubMed Central

    Makino, Takashi T.; Yokoyama, Jun

    2015-01-01

    When pollinators use flower color to locate food sources, a distinct color can serve as a reproductive barrier against co-flowering species. This anti-interference function of flower color may result in a community assembly of plant species displaying mutually different flower colors. However, such color dispersion is not ubiquitous, suggesting a variable selection across communities and existence of some opposing factors. We conducted a 30-week study in a plant community and measured the floral reflectances of 244 species. The reflectances were evaluated in insect color spaces (bees, swallowtails, and flies), and the dispersion was compared with random expectations. We found that co-existing colors were overdispersed for each analyzed pollinator type, and this overdispersion was statistically significant for bees. Furthermore, we showed that exclusion of 32 aliens from the analysis significantly increased the color dispersion of native flowers in every color space. This result indicated that aliens disturbed a native plant–pollinator network via similarly colored flowers. Our results demonstrate the masking effects of aliens in the detection of color dispersion of native flowers and that variations in pollinator vision yield different outcomes. Our results also support the hypothesis that co-flowering species are one of the drivers of color diversification and affect the community assembly. PMID:26650121

  15. Nonrandom Composition of Flower Colors in a Plant Community: Mutually Different Co-Flowering Natives and Disturbance by Aliens.

    PubMed

    Makino, Takashi T; Yokoyama, Jun

    2015-01-01

    When pollinators use flower color to locate food sources, a distinct color can serve as a reproductive barrier against co-flowering species. This anti-interference function of flower color may result in a community assembly of plant species displaying mutually different flower colors. However, such color dispersion is not ubiquitous, suggesting a variable selection across communities and existence of some opposing factors. We conducted a 30-week study in a plant community and measured the floral reflectances of 244 species. The reflectances were evaluated in insect color spaces (bees, swallowtails, and flies), and the dispersion was compared with random expectations. We found that co-existing colors were overdispersed for each analyzed pollinator type, and this overdispersion was statistically significant for bees. Furthermore, we showed that exclusion of 32 aliens from the analysis significantly increased the color dispersion of native flowers in every color space. This result indicated that aliens disturbed a native plant-pollinator network via similarly colored flowers. Our results demonstrate the masking effects of aliens in the detection of color dispersion of native flowers and that variations in pollinator vision yield different outcomes. Our results also support the hypothesis that co-flowering species are one of the drivers of color diversification and affect the community assembly.

  16. Connected formulas for amplitudes in standard model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Song; Zhang, Yong

    2017-03-01

    Witten's twistor string theory has led to new representations of S-matrix in massless QFT as a single object, including Cachazo-He-Yuan formulas in general and connected formulas in four dimensions. As a first step towards more realistic processes of the standard model, we extend the construction to QCD tree amplitudes with massless quarks and those with a Higgs boson. For both cases, we find connected formulas in four dimensions for all multiplicities which are very similar to the one for Yang-Mills amplitudes. The formula for quark-gluon color-ordered amplitudes differs from the pure-gluon case only by a Jacobian factor that depends on flavors and orderings of the quarks. In the formula for Higgs plus multi-parton amplitudes, the massive Higgs boson is effectively described by two additional massless legs which do not appear in the Parke-Taylor factor. The latter also represents the first twistor-string/connected formula for form factors.

  17. Measurement Error Correction Formula for Cluster-Level Group Differences in Cluster Randomized and Observational Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, Sun-Joo; Preacher, Kristopher J.

    2016-01-01

    Multilevel modeling (MLM) is frequently used to detect cluster-level group differences in cluster randomized trial and observational studies. Group differences on the outcomes (posttest scores) are detected by controlling for the covariate (pretest scores) as a proxy variable for unobserved factors that predict future attributes. The pretest and…

  18. The "Chocolate Experiment"--A Demonstration of Radiation Absorption by Different Colored Surfaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fung, Dennis

    2015-01-01

    In the typical "cookbook" experiment comparing the radiation absorption rates of different colored surfaces, students' hands are commonly used as a measurement instrument to demonstrate that dull black and silvery surfaces are good and poor absorbers of radiation, respectively. However, college students are often skeptical about using…

  19. Possible Selves among Urban Youths of Color: An Exploration of Peer Beliefs and Gender Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Justin C.; Vance, Kristen S.

    2010-01-01

    Drawing from possible selves theory (H. Markus & P. Nurius, 1986), this study explored the roles of peer beliefs about school and gender differences in the development of academic and occupational visions of the future among 216 urban youths of color. Peer beliefs were not related to career and educational possible selves. No gender-based…

  20. Effect of lipstick on composite resin color at different application times

    PubMed Central

    GALVÃO, Avilmar Passos; JACQUES, Letícia Borges; DANTAS, Luciana; MATHIAS, Paula; MALLMANN, André

    2010-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of the contact of two lipsticks, one with common fixer and one with ultra fixer, on the color of a composite resin immediately, 30 min and 24 h after photoactivation. Material and methods Ninety specimens were prepared with a composite resin, Filtek-Z350. Specimens were polished and divided into 9 groups (n=10) according to time elapsed after photoactivation (A- immediately; B- 30 min; C- 24 h) and the contact with lipstick (UF- lipstick with ultra fixer; F- lipstick with common fixer). The control group was represented by specimens that did not have any contact with lipstick (C- without lipstick). Color measurements of the specimens were carried out using a spectrophotometer (Easyshade - CIE L* a* b* system). For UF and F groups, the baseline color of the specimens was measured immediately before pigmentation and the lipsticks were applied dry after 1 hour. The excess lipstick was removed with absorbent paper and final color checking was performed, including the control group. Differences between the final and baseline color measurements were calculated and data were analyzed statistically by the Kruskal-Wallis test at 5%. Results The means between the differences of color values were: AUF: 16.0; AF: 12.4; AC: 1.07; BUF: 9.51; BF: 8.3; BC: 0.91; CUF: 17.7; CF: 12.41; CC: 0.82. Conclusion Groups where lipstick was applied showed greater staining than the control group at the three evaluation times. The lipstick with ultra fixer stained more than the lipstick with common fixer. Time elapsed between photoactivation and contact with lipstick had a similar influence on the groups that received lipstick application. PMID:21308286

  1. Incoherent off-axis Fourier holography for different colors using a curved mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muhammad, Dilband; Nguyen, Cuong M.; Lee, Jihoon; Kwon, Hyuk-Sang

    2017-06-01

    Herein we describe an incoherent off-axis Fourier holographic system that uses a curved mirror in conjunction with color filters to capture holograms. Conceptually, our system is similar to both the Fourier incoherent single channel holography (FISCH) and the incoherent off-axis Fourier holographic (IOFH) systems. Our proposed system, which is termed incoherent off-axis Fourier holography with curved mirror (IOFH-CM), is not as robust in its response to environmental changes when compared to single channel light systems because it relies on dual light pathways. However, IOFH-CM and IOFH have the same three advantages over FISCH. First, replacing the spatial light modulator (SLM) with a curved mirror makes it cost-effective and simple. Second, its light throughput is high; and the third advantage is its ability to capture holograms of samples placed on an optical axis by tilting one mirror. A fourth advantage, compared to IOFH, is its use for different colors because, IOFH-CM requires only a filter change to capture different colors and no other movements of any optical component or camera is necessary. Here, we demonstrate the holographic capabilities of IOFH-CM using three different color filters.

  2. The efficiency of child formula dentifrices containing different calcium and phosphate compounds on artificial enamel caries

    PubMed Central

    Rirattanapong, Praphasri; Vongsavan, Kadkao; Saengsirinavin, Chavengkiat; Khumsub, Ploychompoo

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Fluoride toothpaste has been extensively used to prevent dental caries. However, the risk of fluorosis is concerning, especially in young children. Calcium phosphate has been an effective remineralizing agent and is present in commercial dental products, with no risk of fluorosis to users. This in vitro study aimed to compare the effects of different calcium phosphate compounds and fluoride-containing dentifrices on artificial caries in primary teeth. Materials and Methods: Fifty sound primary incisors were coated with nail varnish, leaving two 1 mm2 windows on the labial surface before immersion in demineralizing solution for 96 hours to produce artificial enamel lesions. Subsequently, one window from each tooth was coated with nail varnish, and all 50 teeth were divided into five groups (n = 10); group A – deionized water; group B – casein phosphopeptide–amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP–ACP) paste (Tooth Mousse); group C – 500 ppm F (Colgate Spiderman®); group D – nonfluoridated toothpaste with triple calcium phosphate (Pureen®); and group E – tricalcium phosphate (TCP). Polarized light microscopy and Image-Pro® Plus software were used to evaluate lesions. Results: After a 7-day pH-cycle, mean lesion depths in groups A, B, C, D, and E had increased by 57.52 ± 10.66%, 33.28 ± 10.16%, 17.04 ± 4.76%, 32.51 ± 8.99%, and 21.76 ± 8.15%, respectively. All data were processed by the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (version 16.0) software package. Comparison of percentage changes using one-way analysis of variance and Fisher's least squares difference tests at a 95% level of confidence demonstrated that group A was significantly different from the other groups (P < 0.001). Lesions in groups B and D had a significant lesion progression when compared with groups C and E. Conclusions: All toothpastes in this study had the potential to delay the demineralization progression of artificial enamel caries in primary teeth. The

  3. Geometrically derived difference formulae for the numerical integration of trajectory problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcleod, R. J. Y.; Sanz-Serna, J. M.

    1982-01-01

    An initial value problem for the autonomous system of ordinary differential equations dy/dt = f(y), where y is a vector, is considered. In a number of practical applications the interest lies in obtaining the curve traced by the solution y. These applications include the computation of trajectories in mechanical problems. The term 'trajectory problem' is employed to refer to these cases. Lambert and McLeod (1979) have introduced a method involving local rotation of the axes in the y-plane for the two-dimensional case. The present investigation continues the study of difference schemes specifically derived for trajectory problems. A simple geometrical way of constructing such methods is presented, and the local accuracy of the schemes is investigated. A circularly exact, fixed-step predictor-corrector algorithm is defined, and a variable-step version of a circularly exact algorithm is presented.

  4. The mathematical formula of the intravaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT) distribution of lifelong premature ejaculation differs from the IELT distribution formula of men in the general male population

    PubMed Central

    Janssen, Paddy K.C.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To find the most accurate mathematical description of the intravaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT) distribution in the general male population. Materials and Methods We compared the fitness of various well-known mathematical distributions with the IELT distribution of two previously published stopwatch studies of the Caucasian general male population and a stopwatch study of Dutch Caucasian men with lifelong premature ejaculation (PE). The accuracy of fitness is expressed by the Goodness of Fit (GOF). The smaller the GOF, the more accurate is the fitness. Results The 3 IELT distributions are gamma distributions, but the IELT distribution of lifelong PE is another gamma distribution than the IELT distribution of men in the general male population. The Lognormal distribution of the gamma distributions most accurately fits the IELT distribution of 965 men in the general population, with a GOF of 0.057. The Gumbel Max distribution most accurately fits the IELT distribution of 110 men with lifelong PE with a GOF of 0.179. There are more men with lifelong PE ejaculating within 30 and 60 seconds than can be extrapolated from the probability density curve of the Lognormal IELT distribution of men in the general population. Conclusions Men with lifelong PE have a distinct IELT distribution, e.g., a Gumbel Max IELT distribution, that can only be retrieved from the general male population Lognormal IELT distribution when thousands of men would participate in a IELT stopwatch study. The mathematical formula of the Lognormal IELT distribution is useful for epidemiological research of the IELT. PMID:26981594

  5. Comparison of different approaches to separate analysis of phytoplankton and CDOM contributions to ocean color forming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepochkin, I. E.; Salyuk, P. A.; Golik, I. A.; Burov, D. V.; Bukin, O. A.

    2015-11-01

    Methods of empirical retrieval of chlorophyll - a and CDOM concentrations from hyperspectral ocean color data were described. We have considered cases of different relations between concentrations of these water constituents. Research area includes Japan Sea, East-China Sea, Okhotsk Sea, Barents Sea, Bering Sea, East-Siberian Sea and Chukchi Sea (water areas of different optical types) during the period from 2009 to 2014. Based on derived field data array, we created the method for building of regional empirical algorithms for concentrations of chlorophyll-a and CDOM retrieval taking into account differences of their contributions into water leaving radiance forming. In a similar manner, we have determined the most suitable spectral channels for the main satellite ocean color scanners. At the same time, we received concentrations of chlorophyll-a and CDOM with a help of tuning the semianalytical model for remote sensing reflectance (Rrs). Afterwards we carried out the quality assurance for the both approaches, comparing to shipboard data.

  6. Grouping normal type Ia supernovae by UV to optical color differences

    SciTech Connect

    Milne, Peter A.; Brown, Peter J.; Roming, Peter W. A.; Bufano, Filomena; Gehrels, Neil

    2013-12-10

    Observations of many Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) for multiple epochs per object with the Swift Ultraviolet Optical Telescope instrument have revealed that there exists order to the differences in the UV-optical colors of optically normal supernovae (SNe). We examine UV-optical color curves for 23 SNe Ia, dividing the SNe into four groups, and find that roughly one-third of 'NUV-blue' SNe Ia have bluer UV-optical colors than the larger 'NUV-red' group. Two minor groups are recognized, 'MUV-blue' and 'irregular' SNe Ia. While we conclude that the latter group is a subset of the NUV-red group, containing the SNe with the broadest optical peaks, we conclude that the 'MUV-blue' group is a distinct group. Separating into the groups and accounting for the time evolution of the UV-optical colors lowers the scatter in two NUV-optical colors (e.g., u – v and uvw1 – v) to the level of the scatter in b – v. This finding is promising for extending the cosmological utilization of SNe Ia into the NUV. We generate spectrophotometry of 33 SNe Ia and determine the correct grouping for each. We argue that there is a fundamental spectral difference in the 2900-3500 Å wavelength range, a region suggested to be dominated by absorption from iron-peak elements. The NUV-blue SNe Ia feature less absorption than the NUV-red SNe Ia. We show that all NUV-blue SNe Ia in this sample also show evidence of unburned carbon in optical spectra, whereas only one NUV-red SN Ia features that absorption line. Every NUV-blue event also exhibits a low gradient of the Si II λ6355 absorption feature. Many NUV-red events also exhibit a low gradient, perhaps suggestive that NUV-blue events are a subset of the larger low-velocity gradient group.

  7. Grouping Normal Type Ia Supernovae by UV to Optical Color Differences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milne, Peter A.; Brown, Peter J.; Roming, Peter W. A.; Bufano, Filomena; Gehrels, Neil

    2013-12-01

    Observations of many Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) for multiple epochs per object with the Swift Ultraviolet Optical Telescope instrument have revealed that there exists order to the differences in the UV-optical colors of optically normal supernovae (SNe). We examine UV-optical color curves for 23 SNe Ia, dividing the SNe into four groups, and find that roughly one-third of "NUV-blue" SNe Ia have bluer UV-optical colors than the larger "NUV-red" group. Two minor groups are recognized, "MUV-blue" and "irregular" SNe Ia. While we conclude that the latter group is a subset of the NUV-red group, containing the SNe with the broadest optical peaks, we conclude that the "MUV-blue" group is a distinct group. Separating into the groups and accounting for the time evolution of the UV-optical colors lowers the scatter in two NUV-optical colors (e.g., u - v and uvw1 - v) to the level of the scatter in b - v. This finding is promising for extending the cosmological utilization of SNe Ia into the NUV. We generate spectrophotometry of 33 SNe Ia and determine the correct grouping for each. We argue that there is a fundamental spectral difference in the 2900-3500 Å wavelength range, a region suggested to be dominated by absorption from iron-peak elements. The NUV-blue SNe Ia feature less absorption than the NUV-red SNe Ia. We show that all NUV-blue SNe Ia in this sample also show evidence of unburned carbon in optical spectra, whereas only one NUV-red SN Ia features that absorption line. Every NUV-blue event also exhibits a low gradient of the Si II λ6355 absorption feature. Many NUV-red events also exhibit a low gradient, perhaps suggestive that NUV-blue events are a subset of the larger low-velocity gradient group.

  8. Different Selective Pressures Shape the Molecular Evolution of Color Vision in Chimpanzee and Human Populations

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Cecil M.; Stone, Anne C.; Perry, George H.

    2008-01-01

    A population genetic analysis of the long-wavelength opsin (OPN1LW, “red”) color vision gene in a global sample of 236 human nucleotide sequences had previously discovered nine amino acid replacement single nucleotide polymorphisms, which were found at high frequencies in both African and non-African populations and associated with an unusual haplotype diversity. Although this pattern of nucleotide diversity is consistent with balancing selection, it has been argued that a recombination “hot spot” or gene conversion within and between X-linked color vision genes alone may explain these patterns. The current analysis investigates a closely related primate with trichromatism to determine whether color vision gene amino acid polymorphism and signatures of adaptive evolution are characteristic of humans alone. Our population sample of 56 chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) OPN1LW sequences shows three singleton amino acid polymorphisms and no unusual recombination or linkage disequilibrium patterns across the ∼5.5-kb region analyzed. Our comparative population genetic approach shows that the patterns of OPN1LW variation in humans and chimpanzees are consistent with positive and purifying selection within the two lineages, respectively. Although the complex role of color vision has been greatly documented in primate evolution in general, it is surprising that trichromatism has followed very different selective trajectories even between humans and our closest relatives. PMID:18832077

  9. Striking individual differences in color perception uncovered by 'the dress' photograph.

    PubMed

    Lafer-Sousa, Rosa; Hermann, Katherine L; Conway, Bevil R

    2015-06-29

    'The dress' is a peculiar photograph: by themselves the dress' pixels are brown and blue, colors associated with natural illuminants, but popular accounts (#TheDress) suggest the dress appears either white/gold or blue/black. Could the purported categorical perception arise because the original social-media question was an alternative-forced-choice? In a free-response survey (N = 1401), we found that most people, including those naïve to the image, reported white/gold or blue/black, but some said blue/brown. Reports of white/gold over blue/black were higher among older people and women. On re-test, some subjects reported a switch in perception, showing the image can be multistable. In a language-independent measure of perception, we asked subjects to identify the dress' colors from a complete color gamut. The results showed three peaks corresponding to the main descriptive categories, providing additional evidence that the brain resolves the image into one of three stable percepts. We hypothesize that these reflect different internal priors: some people favor a cool illuminant (blue sky), discount shorter wavelengths, and perceive white/gold; others favor a warm illuminant (incandescent light), discount longer wavelengths, and see blue/black. The remaining subjects may assume a neutral illuminant, and see blue/brown. We show that by introducing overt cues to the illumination, we can flip the dress color.

  10. Assessing the effects of different pectins addition on color quality and antioxidant properties of blackberry jam

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In the last years pectin and other hydrocolloids were tested for improving the color stability and the retention of bioactive compounds in gelled fruit-based products. In line with these concerns, our study has been directed to quantify the changes in antioxidant status and color indices of blackberry jam obtained with different types of pectin (degree of esterification: DE, degree of amidation: DA) and doses in response to processing and storage for 1, 3 and 6 months at 20°C. Results Blackberry jam was obtained by a traditional procedure used in households or small-scale systems with different commercial pectins (HMP: high-methoxyl pectin, LMP: low-methoxyl pectin and LMAP: low-methoxyl amidated pectin) added to three concentrations (0.3, 0.7 and 1.0%) and investigated in terms of total monomeric anthocyanins (TMA), antioxidant capacity expressed as ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), total phenolics (TP), color density (CD) and percent of polymeric color, PC (%). Thermal processing resulted in significant depreciation of analyzed parameters reported to the corresponding values of fresh fruit as follows: TMA (69-82%), TP (33-55%) and FRAP (18-52%). Biologically active compounds and color were best retained one day post-processing in jams with LMAP followed by samples with LMP and HMP. Storage for 6 months brings along additional dramatic losses reported to the values recorded one day post-processing as follows: TMA (31-56%), TP (29-51%) and FRAP (20-41%). Also, both processing and storage resulted in significant increases in PC (%). The pectin type and dosage are very influential factors for limiting the alterations occurring in response to processing and storage. The best color retention and the highest TMA, TP and FRAP were achieved by LMAP, followed by LMP and HMP. Additionally, a high level of bioactive compounds in jam could be related to a high dose of pectin. LMAP to a level of 1% is the most indicated to provide the highest antioxidant

  11. Intersexual allometry differences and ontogenetic shifts of coloration patterns in two aquatic turtles, Graptemys oculifera and Graptemys flavimaculata

    PubMed Central

    Ennen, Joshua R; Lindeman, Peter V; Lovich, Jeffrey E

    2015-01-01

    Coloration can play critical roles in a species' biology. The allometry of color patterns may be useful for elucidating the evolutionary mechanisms responsible for shaping the traits. We measured characteristics relating to eight aspects of color patterns from Graptemys oculifera and G. flavimaculata to investigate the allometric differences among male, female, and unsexed juvenile specimens. Additionally, we investigated ontogenetic shifts by incorporating the unsexed juveniles into the male and female datasets. In general, male color traits were isometric (i.e., color scaled with body size), while females and juvenile color traits were hypoallometric, growing in size more slowly than the increase in body size. When we included unsexed juveniles in our male and female datasets, our linear regression analyses found all relationships to be hypoallometric and our model selection analysis found support for nonlinear models describing the relationship between body size and color patterns, suggestive of an ontogenetic shift in coloration traits for both sexes at maturity. Although color is critical for many species' biology and therefore under strong selective pressure in many other species, our results are likely explained by an epiphenomenon related to the different selection pressures on body size and growth rates between juveniles and adults and less attributable to the evolution of color patterns themselves. PMID:26078863

  12. Intersexual allometry differences and ontogenetic shifts of coloration patterns in two aquatic turtles, Graptemys oculifera and Graptemys flavimaculata

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ennen, Joshua R.; Lindeman, Peter V.; Lovich, Jeffrey E.

    2015-01-01

    Coloration can play critical roles in a species' biology. The allometry of color patterns may be useful for elucidating the evolutionary mechanisms responsible for shaping the traits. We measured characteristics relating to eight aspects of color patterns from Graptemys oculifera and G. flavimaculata to investigate the allometric differences among male, female, and unsexed juvenile specimens. Additionally, we investigated ontogenetic shifts by incorporating the unsexed juveniles into the male and female datasets. In general, male color traits were isometric (i.e., color scaled with body size), while females and juvenile color traits were hypoallometric, growing in size more slowly than the increase in body size. When we included unsexed juveniles in our male and female datasets, our linear regression analyses found all relationships to be hypoallometric and our model selection analysis found support for nonlinear models describing the relationship between body size and color patterns, suggestive of an ontogenetic shift in coloration traits for both sexes at maturity. Although color is critical for many species' biology and therefore under strong selective pressure in many other species, our results are likely explained by an epiphenomenon related to the different selection pressures on body size and growth rates between juveniles and adults and less attributable to the evolution of color patterns themselves.

  13. Prebiotics in infant formula.

    PubMed

    Vandenplas, Yvan; De Greef, Elisabeth; Veereman, Gigi

    2014-01-01

    The gastrointestinal microbiota of breast-fed babies differ from classic standard formula fed infants. While mother's milk is rich in prebiotic oligosaccharides and contains small amounts of probiotics, standard infant formula doesn't. Different prebiotic oligosaccharides are added to infant formula: galacto-oligosaccharides, fructo-oligosaccharide, polydextrose, and mixtures of these. There is evidence that addition of prebiotics in infant formula alters the gastrointestinal (GI) microbiota resembling that of breastfed infants. They are added to infant formula because of their presence in breast milk. Infants on these supplemented formula have a lower stool pH, a better stool consistency and frequency and a higher concentration of bifidobacteria in their intestine compared to infants on a non-supplemented standard formula. Since most studies suggest a trend for beneficial clinical effects, and since these ingredients are very safe, prebiotics bring infant formula one step closer to breastmilk, the golden standard. However, despite the fact that adverse events are rare, the evidence on prebiotics of a significant health benefit throughout the alteration of the gut microbiota is limited.

  14. Color Categories and Color Appearance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webster, Michael A.; Kay, Paul

    2012-01-01

    We examined categorical effects in color appearance in two tasks, which in part differed in the extent to which color naming was explicitly required for the response. In one, we measured the effects of color differences on perceptual grouping for hues that spanned the blue-green boundary, to test whether chromatic differences across the boundary…

  15. Pyrgeometer formula.

    PubMed

    Kohsiek, W; van Lammeren, A C

    1997-08-20

    In a recent article [Appl. Opt. 34 , 1598 (1995) a new pyrgeometer formula was proposed. This formula leads to a] bias at isothermal conditions. The origin of the bias is explored by a more rigorous treatment of the radiation processes involved in the energy balance of a pyrgeometer. As a result it is found that, for an accuracy of a few watts per square meter, the spectral transmission characteristics of the dome have to be taken into account.

  16. Color Space and Its Divisions: Color Order from Antiquity to the Present

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuehni, Rolf G.

    2003-03-01

    It has been postulated that humans can differentiate between millions of gradations in color. Not surprisingly, no completely adequate, detailed catalog of colors has yet been devised, however the quest to understand, record, and depict color is as old as the quest to understand the fundamentals of the physical world and the nature of human consciousness. Rolf Kuehni's Color Space and Its Divisions: Color Order from Antiquity to the Present represents an ambitious and unprecedented history of man's inquiry into color order, focusing on the practical applications of the most contemporary developments in the field. Kuehni devotes much of his study to geometric, three-dimensional arrangements of color experiences, a type of system developed only in the mid-nineteenth century. Color spaces are of particular interest for color quality-control purposes in the manufacturing and graphics industries. The author analyzes three major color order systems in detail: Munsell, OSA-UCS, and NCS. He presents historical and current information on color space developments in color vision, psychology, psychophysics, and color technology. Chapter topics include: A historical account of color order systems Fundamentals of psychophysics and the relationship between stimuli and experience Results of perceptual scaling of colors according to attributes History of the development of mathematical color space and difference formulas Analysis of the agreements and discrepancies in psychophysical data describing color differences An experimental plan for the reliable, replicated perceptual data necessary to make progress in the field Experts in academia and industry, neuroscientists, designers, art historians, and anyone interested in the nature of color will find Color Space and Its Divisions to be the authoritative reference in its field.

  17. Calibration improvements in the detector-to-detector differences for the MODIS ocean color bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yonghong; Angal, Amit; Wu, Aisheng; Geng, Xu; Link, Daniel; Xiong, Xiaoxiong J.

    2016-09-01

    The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), a major instrument within NASA's Earth Observation System missions, has operated for over 16 and 14 years onboard the Terra and Aqua satellites, respectively. Its reflective solar bands (RSB) covering a spectral range from 0.4 to 2.1 μm are primarily calibrated using the on-board solar diffuser (SD), with its on-orbit degradation monitored using the Solar Diffuser Stability Monitor. RSB calibrations are supplemented by near-monthly lunar measurements acquired from the instrument's space-view port. Nine bands (bands 8-16) in the visible to near infrared spectral range from 0.412 to 0.866 μm are primarily used for ocean color observations. During a recent reprocessing of ocean color products, performed by the NASA's Ocean Biology Processing Group, detector-to-detector differences of up to 1.5% were observed in bands 13-16 of Terra MODIS. This paper provides an overview of the current approach to characterize the MODIS detector-to-detector differences. An alternative methodology was developed to mitigate the observed impacts for bands 13-16. The results indicated an improvement in the detector residuals and in turn are expected to improve the MODIS ocean color products. This paper also discusses the limitations, subsequent enhancements, and the improvements planned for future MODIS calibration collections.

  18. Effect of marination on CIE L* and pH values of chicken breast pectoralis major with different color lightness

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Color lightness (CIE L* values) and pH are widely used as quality indicators for raw poultry breast fillets (pectoralis major). The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of vacuum-tumbling marination on L* and pH values of raw chicken breast meat with different color lightness. Early ...

  19. Effect of marination on CIE L* and pH values of chicken breast pectoralis major with different color lightness

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Color lightness (CIE L* values) and pH are widely used as quality indicators for raw poultry breast fillets (pectoralis major). The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of vacuum-tumbling marination on L* and pH values of raw chicken breast meat with different color lightness. Early d...

  20. Variations in normal color vision. VI. Factors underlying individual differences in hue scaling and their implications for models of color appearance.

    PubMed

    Emery, Kara J; Volbrecht, Vicki J; Peterzell, David H; Webster, Michael A

    2017-01-03

    Observers with normal color vision vary widely in their judgments of color appearance, such as the specific spectral stimuli they perceive as pure or unique hues. We examined the basis of these individual differences by using factor analysis to examine the variations in hue-scaling functions from both new and previously published data. Observers reported the perceived proportion of red, green, blue or yellow in chromatic stimuli sampling angles at fixed intervals within the LM and S cone-opponent plane. These proportions were converted to hue angles in a perceptual-opponent space defined by red vs. green and blue vs. yellow axes. Factors were then extracted from the correlation matrix using PCA and Varimax rotation. These analyses revealed that inter-observer differences depend on seven or more narrowly-tuned factors. Moreover, although the task required observers to decompose the stimuli into four primary colors, there was no evidence for factors corresponding to these four primaries, or for opponent relationships between primaries. Perceptions of "redness" in orange, red, and purple, for instance, involved separate factors rather than one shared process for red. This pattern was compared to factor analyses of Monte Carlo simulations of the individual differences in scaling predicted by variations in standard opponent mechanisms, such as their spectral tuning or relative sensitivity. The observed factor pattern is inconsistent with these models and thus with conventional accounts of color appearance based on the Hering primaries. Instead, our analysis points to a perceptual representation of color in terms of multiple mechanisms or decision rules that each influence the perception of only a relatively narrow range of hues, potentially consistent with a population code for color suggested by cortical physiology.

  1. Differences in Bacterial Community Structure in Two Color Morphs of the Hawaiian Reef Coral Montipora capitata.

    PubMed

    Shore-Maggio, Amanda; Runyon, Christina M; Ushijima, Blake; Aeby, Greta S; Callahan, Sean M

    2015-10-01

    Corals harbor diverse bacterial associations that contribute to the health of the host. Using 16S rRNA pyrosequencing, we compared the bacterial communities of red and orange morphs of the Hawaiian coral Montipora capitata. Although both color morphs shared dominant bacterial genera, weighted and unweighted UniFrac analyses showed distinct bacterial communities. A single operational taxonomic unit (OTU), classified as Vibrio, represented the largest driver of differences between the color morphs. This OTU comprised 35.4% (±5.5%) of the orange morph bacterial community yet comprised 1.1% (±0.6%) of the red morph bacterial community. Cultivable bacteria from the two color morphs were also compared and tested for antibacterial activity. Cultured isolates represented 14 genera (7% of the total genera identified from sequencing data), and all but two cultured isolates had a matching OTU from the sequencing data. Half of the isolates tested (8 out of 16) displayed antibacterial activity against other cultured isolates but not against two known bacterial pathogens of M. capitata. The results from this study demonstrate that the specificity of coral-bacterial associations extends beyond the level of coral species. In addition, culture-dependent methods captured bacterial diversity that was representative of both rare and abundant members of the associated bacterial community, as characterized by culture-independent methods.

  2. [The formula book. The pharmacies' own formulas].

    PubMed

    Loldrup, Hans-Otto

    2011-01-01

    During the 19th century and part of the 20th, a book of formulas was a useful tool for many Danish pharmacists in their daily work in the pharmacy laboratory. These books were handwritten and contained formulas that supplemented the official formula books, e.g. the pharmacopoeias. They originated from many different sources such as colleagues, the pharmaceutical press, local doctors, veterinarians and dentists. The book of formulas could be a pharmacist's personal document, or it could belong to a pharmacy for general use in the laboratory. The formulas included many drugs, but a number of the products were intended for daily domestic life: ingredients for food and spirits, cosmetics, cleaning and maintenance, etc. Other products were for use by the local hairdresser or photographer, for example. The article provides an overview of 52 formula books in a wide variety of shapes and sizes with instructions for a total of 8,000-10,000 compositions. Part of this large body of practical knowledge by individual pharmacists was collected and published in books in order to be available to all pharmacists. Some of this knowledge was also printed in booklets written for the general public under such pseudonyms as "An old Pharmacist". In the mid-20th century, Sven Holm enjoyed a prominent career as a well-known pharmacist giving advice on the radio and TV and in newspapers and magazines. The need for these formula books declined as pharmacies gradually stopped making up their own medicines towards the end of 20th century and finally ceased altogether in 1990.

  3. [Expression levels of Slc7a11 in the skin of Kazakh sheep with different coat colors].

    PubMed

    Li, Hong-Tao; He, Xin; Zhou, Zhi-Yong; Zhao, Song-Hua; Zhang, Wen-Xiang; Liu, Gang; Zhao, Zong-Sheng; Jia, Bin

    2012-10-01

    Slc7a11 belongs to solute transporter gene family, encoding cystine/glutamate transporter xCT. It regulates switching between eumelanin and pheomelanin synthesis. In the present study, Real-time PCR was used to detect the mRNA expression levels of Slc7a11 in the skin of Kazakh lambs with different coat colors (black, brown and white), and then the prokaryotic expression plasmid PET-32a-sxCT was constructed to induce the expression of fusion protein. The target pro-tein was purified by Ni-NTA affinity chromatographic separation, and then was used to immunize rabbit in order to produce rabbit anti-sxCT polyclonal antibody. Finally, the expression levels of sxCT were detected in the skin of Kazakh lambs with different hair colors by Western blotting analysis. Results showed that the mRNA expression levels of Slc7a11 differed significantly in the skin of Kazakh lambs with different coat colors, with the highest level in brown coat color, followed by the black, and then the white. The sxCT protein was also detected in the skin of different coat colors by polyclonal antibody, with the highest level in brown coat color, followed by the black, and then the white. It is, therefore, concluded that slc7a11 gene might be associated with the phenotype of coat color in Kazakh sheep.

  4. Fishy Formulas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bosch, William; Sizzo, Jennifer; Curtis, Anita; Klein, Shannon; Micale, Cheryl; Lin, E-Sin

    1997-01-01

    Describes an activity presented in sports fishing magazines on developing a formula that predicts the weight in pounds of a game fish given its length in inches by using a TI-83 graphing calculator. Highlights the importance of using real-life problems and mathematical explorations. (ASK)

  5. Do Different Colors Absorb Heat Better? Grades PreK-2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rushton, Erik; Ryan, Emily; Swift, Charles

    In this activity, students test whether the color of a material affects how much heat it absorbs. An ice cube is placed in a box made of colored paper (one box per color; white, yellow, red, and black) which is then placed in the sun. Students predict which color will melt the ice cube first and record the order and time required for the ice cubes…

  6. Visibility of Various Target-Background Color Combinations under Different Chromatic Ambient Illuminations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-08-24

    displays? This study addressed these three questions. We tested the visibility of seven target colors on four colored backgrounds under three colors... tested in each session. Every subject -performed under every condition. The order of presentation of lighting conditions aprt background colors was...4.6, JJ <.05). The NewmanrKeuls post hoc test showed that the mean RT with blue was significantly faster than with the green background (j><.05

  7. Cytotoxic and bioactive properties of different color tulip flowers and degradation kinetic of tulip flower anthocyanins.

    PubMed

    Sagdic, Osman; Ekici, Lutfiye; Ozturk, Ismet; Tekinay, Turgay; Polat, Busra; Tastemur, Bilge; Bayram, Okan; Senturk, Berna

    2013-08-01

    This study was conducted to determine the potential use of anthocyanin-based extracts (ABEs) of wasted tulip flowers as food/drug colorants. For this aim, wasted tulip flowers were samples and analyzed for their bioactive properties and cytotoxicity. Total phenolic contents of the extracts of the claret red (126.55 mg of gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g dry extract) and orange-red (113.76 mg GAE/g dry extract) flowers were the higher than those of the other tulip flowers. Total anthocyanin levels of the violet, orange-red, claret red and pink tulip flower extracts were determined as 265.04, 236.49, 839.08 and 404.45 mg pelargonidin 3-glucoside/kg dry extract, respectively and these levels were higher than those of the other flowers. The extracts were more effective for the inhibition of Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus and Yersinia enterocolitica compared to other tested bacteria. Additionally, the cytotoxic effects of five different tulip flower extracts on human breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7) cell line were investigated. The results showed that the orange red, pink and violet extracts had no cytotoxic activity against MCF-7 cell lines while yellow and claret red extracts appeared to be toxic for the cells. Overall, the extracts of tulip flowers with different colors possess remarkable bioactive and cytotoxic properties.

  8. Two-year color changes of light-cured composites: influence of different light-curing units.

    PubMed

    Usumez, Aslihan; Ozturk, Nilgun; Ozturk, Bora

    2005-01-01

    This study determined color changes in a composite cured with various types of curing units after two years. A hybrid (Clearfil AP-X) composite was cured with a conventional halogen, a high intensity halogen, a plasma arc and a light emitting diode unit. The specimens were stored in light-proof boxes after the curing procedure to avoid further exposure to light and stored in 37 degrees C in 100% humidity. Colorimetric values of the specimens immediately after curing and after two years were measured using a colorimeter. The CIE 1976 L*a*b color system was used to determine color differences. Differences from baseline were calculated as deltaE*ab. Data were analyzed with two-way analysis of variance (p<0.05). The deltaE*ab values varied significantly, depending on the curing unit used. The specimens cured with a plasma arc curing unit induced significantly higher color changes than any other specimen and the color differences were also visually appreciable by the non-skilled operator (deltaE*ab >2.5). The specimens cured with a high intensity halogen curing unit produced the lowest color change; however, there were no statistically significant differences among the color changes of specimens cured with conventional halogen, high intensity halogen and the light emitting diode unit, and the color changes were not clinically relevant (deltaE*ab <2.5). The results of this study suggest that composite materials undergo measurable changes due to curing unit exposure. The specimens cured with a plasma arc light showed the highest color changes as compared to specimens cured with other curing units.

  9. Transcriptome Sequencing and Characterization of Japanese Scallop Patinopecten yessoensis from Different Shell Color Lines

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Yaqing; Zhao, Wenming; Du, Zhenlin; Hao, Zhenlin

    2015-01-01

    Shell color is an important trait that is used in breeding the Japanese scallop Patinopecten yessoensis, the most economically important scallop species in China. We constructed four transcriptome libraries from different shell color lines of P. yessoensis: the left and right shell mantles of ordinary strains of P. yessoensis and the left shell mantles of the ‘Ivory’ and ‘Maple’ strains. These four libraries were paired-end sequenced using the Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform and contained 54,802,692 sequences, 40,798,962 sequences, 74,019,262 sequences, and 44,466,166 sequences, respectively. A total of 214,087,082 expressed sequence tags were assembled into 73,522 unigenes with an average size of 1,163 bp. When the data were compared against the public Nr and Swiss-Prot databases using BlastX, nearly 30.55% (22,458) of the unigenes were significantly matched to known unique proteins. Gene Ontology annotation and pathway mapping analysis using the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes categorized unigenes according to their diverse biological functions and processes and identified candidate genes that were potentially involved in growth, pigmentation, metal transcription, and immunity. Expression profile analysis was performed on all four libraries and many differentially expressed genes were identified. In addition, 5,772 simple sequence repeats were obtained from the P. yessoensis transcriptomes, and 464,197, 395,646, and 310,649 single nucleotide polymorphisms were revealed in the ordinary strains, the ‘Ivory’ strain, and the ‘Maple’ strain, respectively. These results provide valuable information for future genomic studies on P. yessoensis and improve our understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in the growth, immunity, shell coloring, and shell biomineralization of this species. These resources also may be used in a variety of applications, such as trait mapping, marker-assisted breeding, studies of population genetics and genomics

  10. Allelic variation of melanocortin-1 receptor locus in Saudi indigenous sheep exhibiting different color coats

    PubMed Central

    Mahmoud, Ahmed H.; Mashaly, Ashraf M.; Rady, Ahmed M.; Al-Anazi, Khalid M.; Saleh, Amgad A.

    2017-01-01

    Objective This study was designed to characterize the DNA polymorphisms of the melanocortin-1 receptor (MC1R) gene in indigenous Saudi Arabian sheep breeds exhibiting different color coats, along with individuals of the Sawaknee breed, an exotic sheep imported from Sudan. Methods The complete coding region of MC1R gene including parts of 3′ and 5′ untranslated regions was amplified and sequenced from three the indigenous Saudi sheep; Najdi (generally black, n = 41), Naeimi (generally white with brown faces, n = 36) and Herri (generally white, n = 18), in addition to 13 Sawaknee sheep. Results Five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were detected in the MC1R gene: two led to nonsynonymous mutations (c.218 T>A, p.73 Met>Lys and c.361 G>A, p.121 Asp>Asn) and three led to synonymous mutations (c.429 C>T, p.143 Tyr>Tyr; c.600 T>G, p.200 Leu>Leu, and c.735 C>T, p.245 Ile>Ile). Based on these five SNPs, eight haplotypes representing MC1R Ed and E+ alleles were identified among the studied sheep breeds. The most common haplotype (H3) of the dominant Ed allele was associated with either black or brown coat color in Najdi and Sawaknee sheep, respectively. Two other haplotypes (H6 and H7) of Ed allele, with only the nonsynonymous mutation A218T, were detected for the first time in Saudi indigenous sheep. Conclusion In addition to investigating the MC1R allelic variation in Saudi indigenous sheep populations, the present study supports the assumption that the two independent nonsynonymous Met73Lys and Asp121Asn mutations in MC1R gene are associated with black or red coat colors in sheep breeds. PMID:27492350

  11. Physico-chemical and microbiological properties of raw fermented sausages are not influenced by color differences of turkey breast meat.

    PubMed

    Popp, J; Krischek, C; Janisch, S; Wicke, M; Klein, G

    2013-05-01

    It has been suggested that the color of turkey breast meat influences both physico-chemical and microbiological properties of raw fermented sausages. In this study, raw fermented sausages were produced with turkey breast meat in 3 different colors (pale, normal, or dark), which were obtained from 2 fast-growing-genetic-line toms at 2 slaughterhouses. Prior to the sausage production, the breast muscles were sorted into color groups according to the lightness values determined at 24 h postmortem. This meat was subsequently processed to raw fermented sausages using 1.5 or 2.5% curing salt (CS). The pale meat had higher lightness, electrical conductivity, and drip loss, whereas the dark meat showed a darker color only. The physico-chemical (pH, water activity), visual (lightness, redness), and microbial (total plate count) properties of the sausages were not influenced by the color of the turkey breast meat. The sausage made with 2.5% CS had lower aw and higher ash and hardness values than the sausages produced with 1.5% CS. In conclusion, processing of differently colored turkey meat to raw fermented sausages does not influence the quality characteristics of the products. Based on these findings, there is no reason for the sausage producer to separate turkey breast muscles by color before producing raw fermented sausages.

  12. Color Algebras

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulligan, Jeffrey B.

    2017-01-01

    A color algebra refers to a system for computing sums and products of colors, analogous to additive and subtractive color mixtures. We would like it to match the well-defined algebra of spectral functions describing lights and surface reflectances, but an exact correspondence is impossible after the spectra have been projected to a three-dimensional color space, because of metamerism physically different spectra can produce the same color sensation. Metameric spectra are interchangeable for the purposes of addition, but not multiplication, so any color algebra is necessarily an approximation to physical reality. Nevertheless, because the majority of naturally-occurring spectra are well-behaved (e.g., continuous and slowly-varying), color algebras can be formulated that are largely accurate and agree well with human intuition. Here we explore the family of algebras that result from associating each color with a member of a three-dimensional manifold of spectra. This association can be used to construct a color product, defined as the color of the spectrum of the wavelength-wise product of the spectra associated with the two input colors. The choice of the spectral manifold determines the behavior of the resulting system, and certain special subspaces allow computational efficiencies. The resulting systems can be used to improve computer graphic rendering techniques, and to model various perceptual phenomena such as color constancy.

  13. Hibiscus sabdariffa L extract drying with different carrier agent: Drying rate evaluation and color analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Djaeni, M.; Utari, F. D.; Kumoro, A. C.

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of different carrier agents on roselle or Hibiscus sabdariffa L.extract drying. Carrier agent was used for reducing stickiness of material and avoiding agglomeration as well as improving stability. The method consisted of two steps involving roselle extraction and drying process. The liquid roselle extract was mixed with carrier agent (maltodextrin-arabic gum) in various composition. The mixture was then dried at different air temperature ranging 40 - 80°C. As a response, moisture content in the extract was observed by gravimetry every 10 minutes during90 minutes. The procedurewas repeated for the drying without carrieragent. The result showed that constant rate of drying with carrier agent was higher up to l.7 times than that of without carrier agent. Based on the color analysis,roselle extract drying with carrier agent also showed reasonable quality.

  14. The `Chocolate Experiment' - A Demonstration of Radiation Absorption by Different Colored Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fung, Dennis

    2015-12-01

    In the typical "cookbook" experiment comparing the radiation absorption rates of different colored surfaces, students' hands are commonly used as a measurement instrument to demonstrate that dull black and silvery surfaces are good and poor absorbers of radiation, respectively. However, college students are often skeptical about using their bare hands in this experiment because they learned in early science lessons that skin is not a reliable detector of heat transfer. Moreover, when the experiment is conducted in a school laboratory, it is often difficult for students to perceive the slight differences in heat transfer on the dull black and silvery aluminum leaves attached to their hands. Rather than replacing students' bare hands with such sophisticated apparatus as a data logger and temperature probe, I suggest using a simple (and delicious!) low-cost instrument, i.e., chocolate, which simply melts when it receives radiation.

  15. Encapsulation of the most potent antioxidant betalains in edible matrixes as powders of different colors.

    PubMed

    Gandía-Herrero, Fernando; Cabanes, Juana; Escribano, Josefa; García-Carmona, Francisco; Jiménez-Atiénzar, Mercedes

    2013-05-08

    Betalains are plant pigments with high antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities. While basal activity exists in all betalains, the dihydroxylated molecules present the highest TEAC values of the family of compounds. However, their lability limits possible applications. This work reports the encapsulation of the most active pigments, the yellow miraxanthin V and the violet betanidin in edible matrixes of chitosan and maltodextrin. An appropriate spray-drying procedure is described, with an inlet air temperature of 140 °C. The resulting particles were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, and powder color was analyzed by spectrophotometry using an integrating sphere. Stability of the bioactive compounds was followed by high-performance liquid chromatography, and it was highly promoted by encapsulation, with limited pigment loss after six months' storage. Particles retained the antioxidant and antiradical activities of the soluble pigments measured under the FRAP and ABTS radical assays. A combination of miraxanthin V and betanidin in variable proportions provides a bright palette of encapsulated powders of different colors suitable for food applications.

  16. The effect of different beverages on the color and translucency of flowable composites.

    PubMed

    Karadas, Muhammet

    2016-11-01

    This study examined the changes in color and translucency of flowable composites after immersion in different beverages. Thirty composite samples were prepared from four flowable composites (G-aenial Universal Flo, Filtek Ultimate, Esthelite Flow Quick, and Clearfil Majesty ES Flow) and a microhybrid composite (Filtek Z-250) and stored in distilled water at 37°C for 24 h. The samples were randomly divided into seven groups and then immersed in different beverages (Red Bull, coffee, black tea, Pepsi Cola, orange juice, and distilled water) for 7 days. The CIE L*a*b* values of each sample were measured against white and black backgrounds using a spectrophotometer before and after immersion. Data were analyzed using two-way analysis of variance and Tukey's post-hoc test (p < 0.05). The color changes were significantly different among the composite materials after immersion in beverages (p < 0.05). Filtek Ultimate and Esthelite Flow Quick exhibited less discoloration than did G-aenial Universal Flo and Clearfil Majesty ES Flow. No significant difference was found between Filtek Z-250 and either Filtek Ultimate or Esthelite Flow Quick (p > 0.05). Among the beverages, black tea and coffee caused the highest discoloration of all the materials. Immersion in coffee and black tea resulted in the highest negative changes in the translucency of the materials. The degree of discoloration for the composite resins depended on the material used and drinking beverage. SCANNING 38:701-709, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Uniformities in OSA-UCS and in NCS tested by color difference prediction based on principal hue components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Indow, Tarow

    2002-06-01

    The OSA uniform color system is a 3-D collection of color samples according to the regular rhombohedral structure in which each color is surrounded by its 12 nearest neighbors, all perceptually equally different (local uniformity). The Swedish NCS system is a 3-D collection of color samples that vary gradually in each of the three perceptual attributes. It is not clear that this arrangement implies all neighboring pairs along the respective coordinates being perceptually equally different (local uniformity). Of pairs (j,k) of interest, predicted color differences djk were calculated that have the following property. Suppose an observer selects a pair of Munsell grays (Va, Vb) that matches in size with the color difference between (j,k), then djk=|Va-Vb| is predicted by djk, on the average, with error of 0.34 in Munsell V-unit. Variation of djk in this unit was in the order of 0.22V for nearest neighboring pairs (j,k) in various cleavage planes of OSA-UCS and in the order of 0.11V for neighboring pairs (j,k) along s-coordinate and c-coordinate in sheets with fixed hue of NCS. Both were well within the prediction error range, but some systematic trends in values of djk were found.

  18. In vitro cytotoxicity of self-curing acrylic resins of different colors

    PubMed Central

    Retamoso, Luciana Borges; da Cunha, Taís de Morais Alves; Pithon, Matheus Melo; dos Santos, Rogério Lacerda; Martins, Fernanda Otaviano; Romanos, Maria Teresa Villela; Tanaka, Orlando Motohiro

    2014-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to assess the in vitro cytotoxicity of acrylic resins of different colors over time. Methods Specimens were divided into 4 groups (n = 6) according to the color of the acrylic resin (Orto Class, Clássico, Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil): Group 1: clear acrylic resin; group 2: pink acrylic resin; group 3: blue acrylic resin and group 4: green acrylic resin. All specimens were fabricated according to the mass manipulation technique and submitted to mechanical polishing protocol. The control was performed with an amalgam specimen (C+), a glass specimen (C-) and cell control (CC). Specimens were immersed in Minimum Eagle's Medium (MEM) and incubated for 24 h at 37ºC. The extracts from the experimental material were filtered and mixed with L929 fibroblast. Cytotoxicity was evaluated at 4 different times, 24, 48, 72 and 168 h. After contact, cells were incubated for 24 h and added to 100 µ of 0.01% neutral red dye. The cells were incubated for 3 h for pigment incorporation and fixed. Cells viability was determined by a spectroscopic (BioTek, Winooski, Vermont, USA) with a 492-nm wavelength λ=492 nm). Results There were no statistical differences between the experimental groups and the CC and C- groups. Conclusion Clear, pink, blue and green self-curing acrylic resins fabricated by means of the mass manipulation technique and mechanically polished are not cytotoxic. Neither the pigment added to the self-curing acrylic resin nor the factor of time influenced the cytotoxicity of the material. PMID:25279523

  19. Effect of immersion into solutions at various pH on the color stability of composite resins with different shades

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Ji-Deok; Seon, Eun-Mi; Son, Sung-Ae; Jung, Kyoung-Hwa; Kwon, Yong-Hoon

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This study examined the color changes of a resin composite with different shades upon exposure to water with different pH. Materials and Methods Nanohybrid resin composites (Filtek Z350XT, 3M ESPE) with four different shades (A2, A3, B1, and B2) were immersed in water with three different pH (pH 3, 6, and 9) for 14 day. The CIE L*a*b* color coordinates of the specimens were evaluated before and after immersion in the solutions. The color difference (ΔE*) and the translucency parameter (TP) were calculated using the color coordinates. Results ΔE* ranged from 0.33 to 1.58, and the values were affected significantly by the pH. The specimens immersed in a pH 6 solution showed the highest ΔE* values (0.87 - 1.58). The specimens with a B1 shade showed the lowest ΔE* change compared to the other shades. TP ranged from 7.01 to 9.46 depending on the pH and resin shade. The TP difference between before and after immersion in the pH solutions was less than 1.0. Conclusions The resulting change of color of the tested specimens did not appear to be clinically problematic because the color difference was < 1.6 in the acidic, neutral, and alkaline solutions regardless of the resin shade, i.e., the color change was imperceptible. PMID:26587412

  20. Toward a unified color space for perception-based image processing.

    PubMed

    Lissner, Ingmar; Urban, Philipp

    2012-03-01

    Image processing methods that utilize characteristics of the human visual system require color spaces with certain properties to operate effectively. After analyzing different types of perception-based image processing problems, we present a list of properties that a unified color space should have. Due to contradictory perceptual phenomena and geometric issues, a color space cannot incorporate all these properties. We therefore identify the most important properties and focus on creating opponent color spaces without cross contamination between color attributes (i.e., lightness, chroma, and hue) and with maximum perceptual uniformity induced by color-difference formulas. Color lookup tables define simple transformations from an initial color space to the new spaces. We calculate such tables using multigrid optimization considering the Hung and Berns data of constant perceived hue and the CMC, CIE94, and CIEDE2000 color-difference formulas. The resulting color spaces exhibit low cross contamination between color attributes and are only slightly less perceptually uniform than spaces optimized exclusively for perceptual uniformity. We compare the CIEDE2000-based space with commonly used color spaces in two examples of perception-based image processing. In both cases, standard methods show improved results if the new space is used. All color-space transformations and examples are provided as MATLAB codes on our website.

  1. Pollen aroma fingerprint of two sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) genotypes characterized by different pollen colors.

    PubMed

    Bertoli, Alessandra; Fambrini, Marco; Doveri, Silvia; Leonardi, Michele; Pugliesi, Claudio; Pistelli, Luisa

    2011-09-01

    Samples of fresh pollen grains, collected from capitula in full bloom from two genotypes of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) and characterized by a different color, i.e., white-cream (WC) and orange (O), were analyzed by the HS-SPME (headspacesolid phase microextraction)/GC/MS technique. This study defined for the first time the fingerprint of the sunflower pollen, separated from the disc flowers, to define its contribution to the inflorescence aroma. In the GC/MS fingerprints of the WC and O genotypes, 61 and 62 volatile compounds were identified, respectively. Monoterpene hydrocarbons (34% in O vs. 28% in WC) and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (37% in O vs. 31% in WC) were ubiquitous in all samples analyzed and represented the main chemical classes. α-Pinene (21% in O vs. 20% in WC) and sabinene (11% in O vs. 6% in WC) were the dominant volatiles, but also a full range of aliphatic hydrocarbons and their oxygenated derivatives gave a decisive contribution to the aroma composition (10% in O vs. 12% in WC). In addition, dendrolasin (3% in O vs. 4% in WC) and some minor constituents such as (E)-hex-2-en-1-ol (0.4% in O vs. 0.1% in WC) were pointed out not only for their contribution to the pollen scent, but also for their well-known role in the plant ecological relationships. Having evaluated two pollen morphs with different carotenoid-based colors, the study sought to highlight also the presence of some volatile precursors or derivatives of these pigments in the aroma. However, the pollen aroma of the two selected genotypes made a specific chemical contribution to the sunflower inflorescence scent without any influence on carotenoid derivatives.

  2. Evaluating the spectral discrimination capabilities of different pollinators and their effect on the evolution of flower colors

    PubMed Central

    Shrestha, Mani; Dyer, Adrian G.; Burd, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Important plant pollinators like bees and birds have very different color visual systems. Previous work has attempted to relate flower syndromes to the respective visual capabilities of the most important pollinators, but has often been limited by the lack of robust means to make between-species comparisons of how flower color signals are processed. In a recent study we solved this dilemma by comparing the raw spectral signals, quantifiable by major inflection points on a wavelength scale, from different flowers whose pollinators were known from direct observation. Here we elaborate on how this method allows robust cross species comparisons that are independent of the requirement to know the complex and often inaccessible physiological data about color processing in different animals. The use of this method should thus allow for the testing of pollinator syndrome hypotheses for different animal pollinators from different regions of the world. PMID:23713140

  3. Use of fluorescent proteins and color-coded imaging to visualize cancer cells with different genetic properties.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Robert M

    2016-03-01

    Fluorescent proteins are very bright and available in spectrally-distinct colors, enable the imaging of color-coded cancer cells growing in vivo and therefore the distinction of cancer cells with different genetic properties. Non-invasive and intravital imaging of cancer cells with fluorescent proteins allows the visualization of distinct genetic variants of cancer cells down to the cellular level in vivo. Cancer cells with increased or decreased ability to metastasize can be distinguished in vivo. Gene exchange in vivo which enables low metastatic cancer cells to convert to high metastatic can be color-coded imaged in vivo. Cancer stem-like and non-stem cells can be distinguished in vivo by color-coded imaging. These properties also demonstrate the vast superiority of imaging cancer cells in vivo with fluorescent proteins over photon counting of luciferase-labeled cancer cells.

  4. Flavonoid composition related to petal color in different lines of Clitoria ternatea.

    PubMed

    Kazuma, Kohei; Noda, Naonobu; Suzuki, Masahiko

    2003-11-01

    Flavonoids in the petals of several C. ternatea lines with different petal colors were investigated with LC/MS/MS. Delphinidin 3-O-(2"-O-alpha-rhamnosyl-6"-O-malonyl)-beta-glucoside was newly isolated from the petals of a mauve line (wm) together with three known anthocyanins. They were identified structurally using UV, MS, and NMR spectroscopy. Although ternatins, a group of 15 (poly)acylated delphinidin glucosides, were identified in all the blue petal lines (WB, BM-1, 'Double Blue' and 'Albiflora'), WM accumulated delphinidin 3-O-(6"-O-malonyl)-beta-glucoside instead. The white petal line (WW) did not contain anthocyanins. Quantitative data showed that the total anthocyanin contents in WB and 'Double Blue' were ca. 8- and 10-fold higher than that in BM-1, a bud mutant of 'Double Blue', respectively. The total anthocyanin content in 'Albiflora' was less than 2 x 10(-3) times those in WB or 'Double Blue'. While all the lines contained the same set of 15 flavonol glycosides in similar relative ratios, the relative ratio of myricetin glycosides in ww and 'Albiflora' was ca. 30-70 times greater than those in the other lines. The change in flower color from blue to mauve was not due to a change in the structure of an anthocyanidin from delphinidin, but to the lack of (polyacylated) glucosyl group substitutions at both the 3'- and 5'-positions of ternatins. This implies that glucosylation at the 3'- and 5'-positions of anthocyanin is a critical step in producing blue petals in C. ternatea.

  5. Effect of Salivary pH on Color Stability of Different Flowable Composites – A Prospective In-vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Kataria, Pratik; Kapoor, Sonali

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Scientifically and clinically there has been lot of development in the field of aesthetic dentistry. However, there is limited or restricted information regarding the color stability of flowable composite materials. Aim The aim of this study was to evaluate the spectrophotometric color stability of three different flowable composite materials with respect to three different pH of saliva. Materials and Methods The study included 90 different samples. Thirty samples in each composite group; (Group A: G-aenial universal flo; Group B: Z 350 XT flowable; Group C: Esthet x flow). All samples from each group were immersed in distilled water for 24 hours. Total color difference (ΔE) was recorded for each sample. After this 10 samples from each group were respectively immersed in 6.5, 7 and 7.5 pH of artificial saliva. All samples were kept in dark room for seven days and then ΔE for each sample was recorded and was compared to previous recorded ΔE for the same sample. Results Maximum color change was seen irrespective of material in 6.5 pH of saliva. G-aenial universal flo showed least change irrespective of pH of saliva. Conclusion Thus, the present study reveals that acidic pH level affects the coloration of composite resins by affecting the surface integrity and as reported in previous studies, various coloring agents in beverages and other dietary components assists the process due to absorption of these coloring substances into the resin matrix. PMID:27891456

  6. Effects of different enzyme treatments in extraction of total folate from infant formula, baby foods and other food products prior to microbiological assay and radioassay

    SciTech Connect

    De Souza, S.C.

    1988-01-01

    Four different enzyme treatments-conjugase alone, conjugase and alpha-amylase, conjugase and Pronase{reg sign} and a triple enzyme combination of conjugase, Pronase {reg sign} and alpha-amylase were applied in the extraction of total folate from infant formula, baby foods and various other foods by microbiological and radioassay methods. Significant increases (P < 0.05) in measurable folate were obtained using the triple enzyme system in spinach, Camembert cheese, soy-based infant formula and cereal-based, meat-based and fruit-based infant foods over the use of conjugase alone by the microbiological method. Increases were also observed in many of the same foods using Pronase{reg sign} or alpha-amylase in addition to conjugase alone. Increases obtained by microbiological assay were confirmed by radioassay in a number of foods studied.

  7. A Two Colorable Fourth Order Compact Difference Scheme and Parallel Iterative Solution of the 3D Convection Diffusion Equation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Jun; Ge, Lixin; Kouatchou, Jules

    2000-01-01

    A new fourth order compact difference scheme for the three dimensional convection diffusion equation with variable coefficients is presented. The novelty of this new difference scheme is that it Only requires 15 grid points and that it can be decoupled with two colors. The entire computational grid can be updated in two parallel subsweeps with the Gauss-Seidel type iterative method. This is compared with the known 19 point fourth order compact differenCe scheme which requires four colors to decouple the computational grid. Numerical results, with multigrid methods implemented on a shared memory parallel computer, are presented to compare the 15 point and the 19 point fourth order compact schemes.

  8. Symptomatology and growth in infants with cow's milk protein intolerance using two different whey-protein hydrolysate based formulas in a Primary Health Care setting.

    PubMed

    Verwimp, J J; Bindels, J G; Barents, M; Heymans, H S

    1995-09-01

    Both growth and the course of allergic symptoms were evaluated in 79 infants with cow's milk protein intolerance, aged three months or younger, diagnosed by standard elimination/provocation and treated with a whey-hydrolysate based infant formula: Nutrilon Pept or Pepti Junior. The efficacy of both products, in terms of symptomatology and growth, was compared with each other. The products differ in fat source (Pepti Junior 50% of its fat as MCT, Nutrilon Pepti normal LCT fat blend) and the presence of lactose (Pepti Junior: lactose free; Nutrilon Pepti: 40% of its carbohydrate as lactose). The study was part of a large project that aimed at standardising the approach towards cow's milk protein intolerance in Baby Health Clinics. Nearly 50 Baby Health Clinics participated in this project. In this study, growth and symptomatology (skin, respiratory tract, gastrointestinal tract) were monitored during an intervention period of at least 10 weeks. Infants in both feeding groups showed normal growth, and in at least 80% of the infants an improvement of the overall symptomatology could be seen during the intervention period. Most profound were the decreases in prevalence and severity of eczema and infantile colic. No differences in efficacy were found in this study between the two infant formulas. It was concluded that the exclusive use of either whey hydrolysate based infant formula resulted in an improvement of allergic symptoms and in normal growth in infants diagnosed by elimination/provocation for cow's milk protein intolerance in a Primary Health Care setting.

  9. Not by the Color of Their Skin; The Impact of Racial Differences on the Child's Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Marjorie

    Contents of this book include: Part I: "The Nursery School and Its Racial Integration"--introduction, establishing physical and psychological integration; staff meetings; observing and working through; Part II: "Theory and Practice"--skin color anxiety: the skin and its importance in personality development; skin color anxiety, the visual impact,…

  10. Color Makes a Difference: Two-Dimensional Object Naming in Literate and Illiterate Subjects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reis, Alexandra; Faisca, Luis; Ingvar, Martin; Petersson, Karl Magnus

    2006-01-01

    Previous work has shown that illiterate subjects are better at naming two-dimensional representations of real objects when presented as colored photos as compared to black and white drawings. This raises the question if color or textural details selectively improve object recognition and naming in illiterate compared to literate subjects. In this…

  11. Influence of Different Types of Resin Luting Agents on Color Stability of Ceramic Laminate Veneers Subjected to Accelerated Artificial Aging.

    PubMed

    Silami, Francisca Daniele Jardilino; Tonani, Rafaella; Alandia-Román, Carla Cecilia; Pires-de-Souza, Fernanda de Carvalho Panzeri

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of accelerated aging (AAA) on the color stability of resin cements for bonding ceramic laminate veneers of different thicknesses. The occlusal surfaces of 80 healthy human molars were flattened. Ceramic laminate veneers (IPS e-max Ceram) of two thicknesses (0.5 and 1.0 mm) were bonded with three types of luting agents: light-cured, conventional dual and self-adhesive dual cement. Teeth without restorations and cement samples (0.5 mm) were used as control. After initial color evaluations, the samples were subjected to AAA for 580 h. After this, new color readouts were made, and the color stability (ΔE) and luminosity (ΔL) data were analyzed. The greatest color changes (p<0.05) occurred when 0.5 mm veneers were fixed with light-cured cement and the lowest when 1.0 mm veneers were fixed with conventional dual cement. There was no influence of the restoration thickness when the self-adhesive dual cement was used. When veneers were compared with the control groups, it was verified that the cement samples presented the greatest alterations (p<0.05) in comparison with both substrates and restored teeth. Therefore, it was concluded that the thickness of the restoration influences color and luminosity changes for conventional dual and light-cured cements. The changes in self-adhesive cement do not depend on restoration thickness.

  12. Determination and comparison of mineral elements in traditional Chinese herbal formulae at different decoction times used to improve kidney function--chemometric approach.

    PubMed

    Kolasani, Archana; Xu, Hong; Millikan, Mary

    2011-01-01

    Traditional Chinese herbal formulae Liu wei di huang (LW) (six-ingredient pill with Rehmannia) and Jin gui shen qi wan (JG) (kidney Qi pill from the golden cabinet) were analysed for Ca, Fe, Mg, Mn, Na, K and Zn at different decoction intervals by atomic absorption spectroscopy. LW and JG were used to improve the kidney function. JG was higher in all elements than LW. K (1691.29 - 2372.71 mg l(-1)) was highest in both formulae LW and JG followed by Ca (245.31 - 562.91 mg l(-1)). Ca, Fe, Mg, Mn and K were highest at 40 min for LW and Fe, Mn, Na and K were highest at 40 min for JG. Chemometrics such as principal component analysis, hierarchical cluster analysis and linear discriminate analysis were applied to classify the data and to understand the relation between the elements. Metal intake related to the consumption of decoction has also been studied. Mn made the highest contribution to average daily dietary intakes from the formulae.

  13. Effects of stimulus color, pattern, and practice on sex differences in mental rotations task performance.

    PubMed

    Alington, D E; Leaf, R C; Monaghan, J R

    1992-09-01

    Redundant color information improved performance for both sexes on the Shepard Mental Rotations Task (MRT; Shepard & Metzler, 1971). Absolute score gains for women were larger than those for men; therefore, relative improvement was greater. Substantial practice effects, also favoring women, were apparent in both studies. Study 1 showed that redundant color improved performance by 0.25 SD. Study 2 demonstrated that redundant black-and-white pattern information did not have any effect; a second visuospatial channel, redundant color, was a critical factor in improving scores of men and women on difficult mental rotations tasks.

  14. Effect of different topical fluoride applications on the surface roughness of a colored compomer

    PubMed Central

    AVŞAR, Aysun; TULOGLU, Nuray

    2010-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of neutral sodium fluoride (NNaF) gel and acidulated phosphate fluoride (APF) gel on the surface roughness of colored compomer (Twinky Star), conventional compomer (Compoglass F) and resin-modified glassionomer cement (RMGIC) (Photac-Fil). Material and Methods A total of 45 standardized disc-shaped specimens were prepared for each material. After 24 h, finishing and polishing of specimens were done with aluminum oxide disc. Surface treatments with topical fluoride agents or distilled water (control) were performed four times, and interspersed with 8 pH cycles, simulating high cariogenic challenges. After the treatment, the surface roughness (Ra) was determined using a profilometer. In each group, specimens with Ra closest to the mean were examined with a scanning electron microscope (SEM) at ×1,000 and ×3,500 magnifications. Two-way ANOVA was used to evaluate Ra measurements, and the differences in Ra values between subgroups for each material and each topical applications were compared by Tukey’s highly significant difference pairwise comparisons. Results No statistically significant difference in Ra between the Twinky Star and Compoglass F was found. However, Photac Fil showed significantly higher Ra than these materials after all surface treatments. There was a general trend of Ra increase from controls to NNaF and APF gels for all materials. SEM observations revealed that the surface micromorphology of Twinky-Star did not differ significantly from that of Compoglass F. Conclusion Both the compomers and the RMGIC showed significantly higher surface roughness when subjected to APF gel application. PMID:20485929

  15. Betalain profile, phenolic content, and color characterization of different parts and varieties of Opuntia ficus-indica.

    PubMed

    Cejudo-Bastante, María Jesús; Chaalal, Makhlouf; Louaileche, Hayette; Parrado, Juan; Heredia, Francisco J

    2014-08-20

    Three different varieties of Opuntia ficus-indica (R, red; Y, yellow; RY, red-yellow) have been considered in this study. Attention was focused on differential tristimulus colorimetry and on the analysis of individual betalains (HPLC-DAD-ESI-ToF-MS) and phenolic content, scarcely previously reported in these kinds of samples. The importance of this research stems from the elucidation of the parts and varieties of cactus pear more optimal for use as natural colorants and sources of phenolics and betalains. Thus, the RY pulp was appropriate to obtain colorants with high color intensity (C*(ab) = 66.5), whereas the whole Y fruit and R pulp reached powerful and stable yellow and red colors, respectively (C*(ab)/h(ab), 57.1/84.7 and 61.1°/81.8°). This choice was also based on the visually appreciable differences (ΔE*(ab) > 5) among samples, mainly quantitative (%Δ(2)L, %Δ(2)C). In addition, seeds of all Opuntia varieties showed significantly (p < 0.05) similar phenolic content (around 23.3 mg/g) and color characteristics.

  16. Deconfining Phase Transition to a Quark-Gluon Plasma in Different SU(3) Color Representations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mezouar, K.; Ait El Djoudi, A.; Ghenam, L.

    2016-10-01

    For a statistical description of the quark gluon plasma (QGP) considering its internal symmetry, we calculate its partition function using the group theoretical projection method. We project out the partition function of a QGP consisting of gluons, massless up and down quarks, and massive strange quarks onto the singlet representation of the SU(3) color group, as well as onto the color octet and the color 27-plet representations. A comparison of these color representations is done, by studying their effects on the behavior of some thermodynamical quantities characterizing the mixed hadronic gas-QGP system undergoing a thermal deconfining phase transition on one side, and on the free energy during the formation of a QGP droplet from the hot hadronic gas on another side.

  17. Quality assessment of a formulated Chinese herbal decoction, Kaixinsan, by using rapid resolution liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry: A chemical evaluation of different historical formulae.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Kevin Y; Fu, Q; Xie, Heidi Q; Xu, Sherry L; Cheung, Anna W H; Zheng, Ken Y Z; Luk, Wilson K W; Choi, Roy C Y; Lau, David T W; Dong, Tina T X; Jiang, Zhi Y; Chen, Ji J; Tsim, Karl W K

    2010-12-01

    Kaixinsan is an ancient Chinese herbal decoction mainly prescribed for patients suffering from mental depression. This decoction was created by Sun Si-miao of Tang Dynasty (A.D. 600) in ancient China, and was composed of four herbs: Radix and Rhizome Ginseng, Radix Polygalae, Rhizoma Acori Tatarinowii and Poria. Historically, this decoction has three different formulations, each recorded at a different point in time. In this study, the chemical compositions of all three Kaixinsan formulae were analyzed. By using rapid resolution LC coupled with a diode-array detector and an ESI triple quadrupole tandem MS (QQQ-MS/MS), the Radix and Rhizome Ginseng-derived ginsenosides including Rb(1), Rd, Re, Rg(1), the Radix Polygalae-derived 3,6'-disinapoyl sucrose, the Rhizoma Acori Tatarinowii-derived α- and β-asarone and the Poria-derived pachymic acid were compared among the three different formulations. The results showed variations in the solubility of different chemicals between one formula and the others. This systematic method developed could be used for the quality assessment of this herbal decoction.

  18. An Analysis of Nonfirst-Generation Community College Men of Color: Comparing GPA, Noncognitive, and Campus Ethos Differences across Race

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palacios, Angélica M. G.; Alvarez, Rafael D.

    2016-01-01

    Drawing upon the Community College Socio-Ecological Outcomes model, this study is among the first to have addressed the outcomes of nonfirst-generation community college men of color. The purpose of this study was to investigate differences across ethnicities for key factors in two socioecological domains, including noncognitive and campus ethos…

  19. Shear bond strength of orthodontic color-change adhesives with different light-curing times

    PubMed Central

    Bayani, Shahin; Ghassemi, Amirreza; Manafi, Safa; Delavarian, Mohadeseh

    2015-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of light-curing time on the shear bond strength (SBS) of two orthodontic color-change adhesives (CCAs). Materials and Methods: A total of 72 extracted premolars were randomly assigned into 6 groups of 12 teeth each. Subsequent to primer application, a metal bracket was bonded to the buccal surface using an orthodontic adhesive. Two CCAs (Greengloo and Transbond Plus) were tested and one conventional light-cured adhesive (Resilience) served as control. For each adhesive, the specimens were light-cured for two different times of 20 and 40 s. All the specimens underwent mechanical testing using a universal testing machine to measure the SBS. Adhesive remnant index (ARI) was used to assess the remnant adhesive material on the tooth surface. All statistical analyses were performed using SPSS software. The significance level for all statistical tests was set at P ≤ 0.05. Results: The SBSs of the tested groups were in the range of 14.05-31.25 MPa. Greengloo adhesive showed the highest SBS values when light-cured for 40 s, and Transbond Plus adhesive showed the lowest values when light-cured for 20 s. ARI scores of Transbond Plus adhesive were significantly higher than those of controls, while other differences in ARI values were not significant. Conclusion: Within the limitations of his study, decreasing the light-curing time from 40 to 20 s decreased the SBS of the tested adhesives; however, this decline in SBS was statistically significant only in Transbond Plus adhesive PMID:26005468

  20. Polar Color

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 3 May 2004 This nighttime visible color image was collected on January 1, 2003 during the Northern Summer season near the North Polar Troughs.

    This daytime visible color image was collected on September 4, 2002 during the Northern Spring season in Vastitas Borealis. The THEMIS VIS camera is capable of capturing color images of the martian surface using its five different color filters. In this mode of operation, the spatial resolution and coverage of the image must be reduced to accommodate the additional data volume produced from the use of multiple filters. To make a color image, three of the five filter images (each in grayscale) are selected. Each is contrast enhanced and then converted to a red, green, or blue intensity image. These three images are then combined to produce a full color, single image. Because the THEMIS color filters don't span the full range of colors seen by the human eye, a color THEMIS image does not represent true color. Also, because each single-filter image is contrast enhanced before inclusion in the three-color image, the apparent color variation of the scene is exaggerated. Nevertheless, the color variation that does appear is representative of some change in color, however subtle, in the actual scene. Note that the long edges of THEMIS color images typically contain color artifacts that do not represent surface variation.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 79, Longitude 346 East (14 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with

  1. Class V lesions restored with four different tooth-colored materials--3-year results.

    PubMed

    Folwaczny, M; Loher, C; Mehl, A; Kunzelmann, K H; Hickel, R

    2001-03-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the treatment results using four different types of tooth colored materials for restoring class V lesions. A total of 197 class V restorations (n = 197) were placed by one dentist in 37 patients on incisors, canines and premolars. The fillings were placed due to different indications: erosion/non-carious cervical defects (n = 69), primary carious lesions (n = 57), and for replacing defective existing fillings (n = 71). The teeth were assigned on a random basis to four groups for restoration with either a composite (group 1: n = 36; Tetric, Vivadent), or a polyacid-modified resin composite (group 2: n = 79; Dyract, Dentsply), or one of two different resin-modified glass ionomer cements (group 3: n = 51, Fuji II LC,GC; group 4: n = 31, Photac-Fil, Espe). The restorations were evaluated by a single-blind design, according to a modified USPHS system 36 months following placement. Statistical analysis was completed with the Pearson Chi-square test for comparing the results of the four groups (P < 0.05). Additionally, the survival rates were analyzed with the Kaplan-Meier estimator and the Log-rank test (P < 0.05). The Alpha ratings were as follows (Tetric/Dyract/Fuji II LC/Photac Fil): shade match (86%/77%/58%/40%), surface texture (81%/83%/16%/9%), marginal integrity (enamel) (73%/67%/61%/61%), marginal integrity (dentin) (86%/70%/55%/61%), marginal discoloration (enamel) (59%/44%/58%/52%), marginal discoloration (dentin) (82%/84%/71%/48%), anatomic contours (91%/83%/39%/35%). One Tetric restoration, five Dyract restorations, two Fuji II LC restorations and three Photac restorations were dislodged within the study period. The retention of the restorations showed no significant difference among the four materials. However, the clinical performance of the restorations retained over the 3-year period showed distinct differences for the four materials. The best clinical performance was observed for the resin composite, whereas the

  2. Diffractive parameric colors.

    PubMed

    Orava, Joni; Heikkila, Noora; Jaaskelainen, Timo; Parkkinen, Jussi

    2008-12-01

    A method of producing inkless parameric color pairs is studied. In this method, colors are formed additively using diffraction gratings with differing grating periods as primary colors. Gratings with different grating periods reflect different spectral radiance peaks of a fluorescent lamp to the desired viewing angle, according to the grating equation. Four spectral peaks of a 4000 K fluorescent lamp--red, green, cyan, and blue-are used as the primary colors. The colors are mixed additively by fixing the relative areas of different grating periods inside a pixel. With four primary colors it is possible to mix certain colors with different triplets of primary colors. Thus, it is theoretically possible to produce metameric colors. In this study, three parameric color pairs are fabricated using electron beam lithography, electroplating, and hot embossing. The radiance spectra of the color pairs are measured by spectroradiometer from hot-embossed plastic samples. The CIELAB DeltaE(ab) and CIEDE2000 color differences between radiance spectra of the color pairs are calculated. The CIEDE2000 color differences of color pairs are between 2.6 and 7.2 units in reference viewing conditions. The effects of viewing angle and different light sources are also evaluated. It is found that both the viewing angle and the light source have very strong influences on the color differences of the color pairs.

  3. Comparison of absorption properties of colored dissolved organic matter in six different case 2 water bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nima, Ciren; Frette, Øyvind; Hamre, Børge; Erga, Svein Rune; Chen, Yi-Chun; Zhao, Lu; Muyimbwa, Dennis; Ssenyonga, Taddeo; Ssebiyonga, Nicolausi; Okullo, Willy; Stamnes, Knut; Stamnes, Jakob J.

    2017-02-01

    Colored Dissolved Organic Matter (CDOM) is one of the main factors controlling the penetration of solar radiation in Case 2 water and affecting satellite-based estimation of ocean color. We present absorption properties of CDOM sampled in 6 water bodies including three in Norway (Røst coastal water, Samnangerfjord, Lysefjord), two in China (Bohai Sea, Lake Namtso), and one in Africa (Lake Victoria). These locations, which range from near the equator to subarctic regions, include water types from oligotrophic to eutrophic, and altitudes from sea level to 4,700 m above sea level.

  4. Color Stability of the Bulk-Fill Composite Resins with Different Thickness in Response to Coffee/Water Immersion

    PubMed Central

    Sheikh-Al-Eslamian, Seyedeh Mahsa; Hasani, Elham; Abrandabadi, Ahmad Najafi

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to evaluate the color stability of bulk-fill and conventional composite resin with respect to thickness and storage media. Twenty specimens of a conventional composite resin (6 mm diameter and 2 mm thick) and 40 specimens of the bulk-fill Tetric EvoCeram composite resin at two different thicknesses (6 mm diameter and 2 mm thick or 4 mm thick, n = 20) were prepared. The specimens were stored in distilled water during the study period (28 d). Half of the specimens were remained in distilled water and the other half were immersed in coffee solution 20 min/d and kept in distilled water between the cycles. Color changes (ΔE) were measured using the CIE L⁎a⁎b⁎ color space and a digital imaging system at 1, 7, 14, and 28 days of storage. Data were analyzed using Two-way ANOVA and Tukey's HSD post hoc test (P < 0.05). Composite resins showed significant increase in color changes by time (bulk-fill > conventional; P < 0.001). Coffee exhibited significantly more staining susceptibility than that of distilled water (P < 0.001). There was greater color changes with increasing the increment thickness, which was significant at 14 (P < 0.001) and 28 d (P < 0.01). Color change of bulk-fill composite resin was greater than that of the conventional one after coffee staining and is also a function of increment thicknesses. PMID:27403163

  5. Effect of different disinfecting procedures on the hardness and color stability of two maxillofacial elastomers over time

    PubMed Central

    ELENI, Panagiota N.; KROKIDA, Magdalini K.; POLYZOIS, Gregory L.; GETTLEMAN, Lawrence

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Disinfection procedures often cause deterioration in a maxillofacial prosthesis. Color and hardness alterations could lead to a replacement of the prosthesis. Material and Methods: An experimental chlorinated polyethylene (CPE) and a commercial polydimethyl siloxane (PDMS) sample were treated with four different disinfection procedures for a period which simulates 1 year of clinical service. The applied disinfection procedures included microwave exposure and immersion in three solutions, sodium hypochlorite, neutral soap and a commercial disinfecting soap. Shore A hardness (ΔΗ) and color differences (ΔΕ) were determined before and after each procedure. All data were analyzed by Two Way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and Tukey's post hoc tests at a level of α=0.05. Results: The samples presented significant alterations in color and hardness after the different disinfection treatments. The color differences (ΔΕ) were at least eye detectable in all cases and clinically unacceptable in most of the cases, with values ranging from 1.51 to 4.15 and from 1.54 to 5.92 for the PDMS and CPE material, respectively. Hardness was decreased after all the disinfection procedures in the PDMS, while for the CPE, a decrement was observed after disinfection with sodium hypochlorite and neutral soap and an increment after microwave exposure and the disinfection with a commercial antimicrobial agent. The PDMS samples presented greater alterations in color and hardness after disinfection with sodium hypochlorite solution, while the microwave exposure caused negligible effects. The CPE samples were affected most after disinfection when treated with neutral soap, and more slightly when disinfected with sodium hypochlorite solution. Conclusions: The disinfection procedures caused alterations in color and hardness of the examined materials. The most suitable disinfection procedure for the PDMS material is microwave exposure, while disinfection with sodium hypochlorite

  6. Genetic structure and different color morphotypes suggest the occurrence and bathymetric segregation of two incipient species of Sebastes off Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venerus, Leonardo A.; Ciancio, Javier E.; Riva-Rossi, Carla; Gilbert-Horvath, Elizabeth A.; Gosztonyi, Atila E.; Garza, John Carlos

    2013-07-01

    Rockfishes of the genus Sebastes are extensively distributed in the Pacific and Atlantic oceans. Although the occurrence of two morphologically similar species in the Southern Hemisphere, Sebastes oculatus and Sebastes capensis, is now clearly established, the taxonomic status and phylogeographic patterns for the genus in the region have not yet been completely resolved. In this study, we provide new insights into the taxonomy and evolutionary relationships of rockfishes inhabiting the Southwestern Atlantic Ocean, off the coast of mainland Argentina, by combining mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region sequences, microsatellite data, and color pattern analyses. Differences in coloration ("dark" and "light" fish) together with bathymetric segregation between color morphotypes were evident from fish collection and literature review. In addition, the mtDNA phylogenetic analysis and Bayesian clustering analysis using microsatellite data separated the fish into two distinct groups ( F ST = 0.041), most likely representing incipient species. Our results suggest that speciation-by-depth in the absence of physical barriers could be a widespread mechanism of speciation in Sebastes from both the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. Nevertheless, the degree of genetic differentiation found, added to the large number of individuals displaying high levels of admixture, points to the occurrence of incomplete reproductive barriers between color morphotypes. Beyond the taxonomic and phylogeographic implications of our findings, the occurrence of distinct groups of Sebastes off the coast of Argentina being targeted by different fisheries (angling and trawling) has consequences for the design and implementation of appropriate fishery regulations to avoid overharvest of either group.

  7. Do focal colors look particularly "colorful"?

    PubMed

    Witzel, Christoph; Franklin, Anna

    2014-04-01

    If the most typical red, yellow, green, and blue were particularly colorful (i.e., saturated), they would "jump out to the eye." This would explain why even fundamentally different languages have distinct color terms for these focal colors, and why unique hues play a prominent role in subjective color appearance. In this study, the subjective saturation of 10 colors around each of these focal colors was measured through a pairwise matching task. Results show that subjective saturation changes systematically across hues in a way that is strongly correlated to the visual gamut, and exponentially related to sensitivity but not to focal colors.

  8. Growth profile of Chamaedorea cataractarum (Cascade Palm)seedlings with different colored plastic mulch

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of colored plastic mulch on the growth of Chamaedorea cataractarum Mart. (Cascade Palm). The seedlings placed in soil were compared with those placed in red and blue mulch. The plant growth was monitored for plant height, thickness at the base ...

  9. Contrast Sensitivity Differences between Proficient and Disabled Readers Using Colored Lenses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spafford, Carol S.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    This study examined relationships among lens color, visual grating, visual detection task performance, and peripheral retinal brightness thresholds among four adults and four children with reading disabilities and age-matched controls. Subjects with reading disabilities displayed significantly lower contrast sensitivity when tested with sine-wave…

  10. Variation of thermal parameters in two different color morphs of a diurnal poison toad, Melanophryniscus rubriventris (Anura: Bufonidae).

    PubMed

    Sanabria, Eduardo A; Vaira, Marcos; Quiroga, Lorena B; Akmentins, Mauricio S; Pereyra, Laura C

    2014-04-01

    We study the variation in thermal parameters in two contrasting populations Yungas Redbelly Toads (Melanophryniscus rubriventris) with different discrete color phenotypes comparing field body temperatures, critical thermal maximum and heating rates. We found significant differences in field body temperatures of the different morphs. Temperatures were higher in toads with a high extent of dorsal melanization. No variation was registered in operative temperatures between the study locations at the moment of capture and processing. Critical thermal maximum of toads was positively related with the extent of dorsal melanization. Furthermore, we founded significant differences in heating rates between morphs, where individuals with a high extent of dorsal melanization showed greater heating rates than toads with lower dorsal melanization. The color pattern-thermal parameter relationship observed may influence the activity patterns and body size of individuals. Body temperature is a modulator of physiological and behavioral functions in amphibians, influencing daily and seasonal activity, locomotor performance, digestion rate and growth rate. It is possible that some growth constraints may arise due to the relationship of color pattern-metabolism allowing different morphs to attain similar sizes at different locations instead of body-size clines.

  11. Color Me Understood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Judy J.

    2000-01-01

    Describes the "color system" as a way of grouping children into different personality types based on a certain color: orange, blue, green, and gold. Lists stress producers for specific color people. Asserts that, through making groups of different colors, children begin to see the various specialties others can bring to the group and learn to…

  12. Gene expression divergence and nucleotide differentiation between males of different color morphs and mating strategies in the ruff

    PubMed Central

    Ekblom, Robert; Farrell, Lindsay L; Lank, David B; Burke, Terry

    2012-01-01

    By next generation transcriptome sequencing, it is possible to obtain data on both nucleotide sequence variation and gene expression. We have used this approach (RNA-Seq) to investigate the genetic basis for differences in plumage coloration and mating strategies in a non-model bird species, the ruff (Philomachus pugnax). Ruff males show enormous variation in the coloration of ornamental feathers, used for individual recognition. This polymorphism is linked to reproductive strategies, with dark males (Independents) defending territories on leks against other Independents, whereas white morphs (Satellites) co-occupy Independent's courts without agonistic interactions. Previous work found a strong genetic component for mating strategy, but the genes involved were not identified. We present feather transcriptome data of more than 6,000 de-novo sequenced ruff genes (although with limited coverage for many of them). None of the identified genes showed significant expression divergence between males, but many genetic markers showed nucleotide differentiation between different color morphs and mating strategies. These include several feather keratin genes, splicing factors, and the Xg blood-group gene. Many of the genes with significant genetic structure between mating strategies have not yet been annotated and their functions remain to be elucidated. We also conducted in-depth investigations of 28 pre-identified coloration candidate genes. Two of these (EDNRB and TYR) were specifically expressed in black- and rust-colored males, respectively. We have demonstrated the utility of next generation transcriptome sequencing for identifying and genotyping large number of genetic markers in a non-model species without previous genomic resources, and highlight the potential of this approach for addressing the genetic basis of ecologically important variation. PMID:23145334

  13. Determination of total flavonoids content in fresh Ginkgo biloba leaf with different colors using near infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Shi, Ji-yong; Zou, Xiao-bo; Zhao, Jie-wen; Mel, Holmes; Wang, Kai-liang; Wang, Xue; Chen, Hong

    2012-08-01

    Total flavonoids content is often considered an important quality index of Ginkgo biloba leaf. The feasibility of using near infrared (NIR) spectra at the wavelength range of 10,000-4000cm(-1) for rapid and nondestructive determination of total flavonoids content in G. biloba leaf was investigated. 120 fresh G. biloba leaves in different colors (green, green-yellowish and yellow) were used to spectra acquisition and total flavonoids determination. Partial least squares (PLS), interval partial least squares (iPLS) and synergy interval partial least squares (SiPLS) were used to develop calibration models for total flavonoids content in two colors leaves (green-yellowish and yellow) and three colors leaves (green, green-yellowish and yellow), respectively. The level of total flavonoids content for green, green-yellowish and yellow leaves was in an increasing order. Two characteristic wavelength regions (5840-6090cm(-1) and 6620-6880cm(-1)), which corresponded to the absorptions of two aromatic rings in basic flavonoid structure, were selected by SiPLS. The optimal SiPLS model for total flavonoids content in the two colors leaves (r(2)=0.82, RMSEP=2.62mg g(-1)) had better performance than PLS and iPLS models. It could be concluded that NIR spectroscopy has significant potential in the nondestructive determination of total flavonoids content in fresh G. biloba leaf.

  14. Determination of total flavonoids content in fresh Ginkgo biloba leaf with different colors using near infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Ji-yong; Zou, Xiao-bo; Zhao, Jie-wen; Mel, Holmes; Wang, Kai-liang; Wang, Xue; Chen, Hong

    Total flavonoids content is often considered an important quality index of Ginkgo biloba leaf. The feasibility of using near infrared (NIR) spectra at the wavelength range of 10,000-4000 cm-1 for rapid and nondestructive determination of total flavonoids content in G. biloba leaf was investigated. 120 fresh G. biloba leaves in different colors (green, green-yellowish and yellow) were used to spectra acquisition and total flavonoids determination. Partial least squares (PLS), interval partial least squares (iPLS) and synergy interval partial least squares (SiPLS) were used to develop calibration models for total flavonoids content in two colors leaves (green-yellowish and yellow) and three colors leaves (green, green-yellowish and yellow), respectively. The level of total flavonoids content for green, green-yellowish and yellow leaves was in an increasing order. Two characteristic wavelength regions (5840-6090 cm-1 and 6620-6880 cm-1), which corresponded to the absorptions of two aromatic rings in basic flavonoid structure, were selected by SiPLS. The optimal SiPLS model for total flavonoids content in the two colors leaves (r2 = 0.82, RMSEP = 2.62 mg g-1) had better performance than PLS and iPLS models. It could be concluded that NIR spectroscopy has significant potential in the nondestructive determination of total flavonoids content in fresh G. biloba leaf.

  15. Potential mechanisms of carbon monoxide and high oxygen packaging in maintaining color stability of different bovine muscles.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chenglong; Zhang, Yimin; Yang, Xiaoyin; Liang, Rongrong; Mao, Yanwei; Hou, Xu; Lu, Xiao; Luo, Xin

    2014-06-01

    The objectives were to compare the effects of packaging methods on color stability, metmyoglobin-reducing-activity (MRA), total-reducing-activity and NADH concentration of different bovine muscles and to explore potential mechanisms in the enhanced color stability by carbon monoxide modified atmosphere packaging (CO-MAP, 0.4% CO/30% CO2/69.6% N2). Steaks from longissimus lumborum (LL), psoas major (PM) and longissimus thoracis (LT) packaged in CO-MAP, high-oxygen modified atmosphere packaging (HiOx-MAP, 80% O2/20% CO2) or vacuum packaging were stored for 0day, 4days, 9days, and 14days or stored for 9days then displayed in air for 0day, 1day, or 3days. The CO-MAP significantly increased red color stability of all muscles, and especially for PM. The PM and LT were more red than LL in CO-MAP, whereas PM had lowest redness in HiOx-MAP. The content of MetMb in CO-MAP was lower than in HiOx-MAP. Steaks in CO-MAP maintained a higher MRA compared with those in HiOx-MAP during storage. After opening packages, the red color of steaks in CO-MAP deteriorated more slowly compared with that of steaks in HiOx-MAP.

  16. Red Color Light at Different Intensities Affects the Performance, Behavioral Activities and Welfare of Broilers.

    PubMed

    Senaratna, D; Samarakone, T S; Gunawardena, W W D A

    2016-07-01

    Red light (RL) marked higher weight gain (WG) and preference of broilers compared to other light colors. This study aimed to investigate how different intensities of RL affect the performance, behavior and welfare of broilers. RL treatments were T1 = high intensity (320 lux), T2 = medium intensity (20 lux); T3 = dim intensity (5 lux), T4 = control/white light at (20 lux) provided on 20L:4D schedule and T5 = negative control; 12 hours dark: 12 hours day light. Cobb strain broilers were used in a Complete Randomize Design with 6 replicates. WG, water/feed intake, feed conversion ratio (FCR), mortality, behavior and welfare were assessed. At 35 d, significantly (p<0.05) highest body weight (2,147.06 g±99) was recorded by T3. Lowest body weight (1,640.55 g±56) and FCR (1.34) were recorded by T5. Skin weight was the only carcass parameter showed a significant (p<0.05) influence giving the highest (56.2 g) and the lowest (12.6 g) values for T5 and T1 respectively. Reduced welfare status indicated by significantly (p<0.05) higher foot pad lesions, hock burns and breast blisters was found under T3, due to reduced expression of behavior. Highest walking (2.08%±1%) was performed under T1 in the evening during 29 to 35 days. Highest dust bathing (3.01%±2%) was performed in the morning during 22 to 28 days and highest bird interaction (BI) (4.87%±4%) was observed in the evening by T5 during 14 to 21 days. Light intensity×day session×age interaction was significantly (p<0.05) affected walking, dust bathing and BI. Light intensity significantly (p<0.05) affected certain behaviors such as lying, eating, drinking, standing, walking, preening while lying, wing/leg stretching, sleeping, dozing, BI, vocalization, idling. In conclusion, birds essentially required provision of light in the night for better performance. Exposed to 5 lux contributed to higher WG, potentially indicating compromised welfare status. Further researches are suggested to investigate RL intensity based

  17. Copy number variation and missense mutations of the agouti signaling protein (ASIP) gene in goat breeds with different coat colors.

    PubMed

    Fontanesi, L; Beretti, F; Riggio, V; Gómez González, E; Dall'Olio, S; Davoli, R; Russo, V; Portolano, B

    2009-01-01

    In goats, classical genetic studies reported a large number of alleles at the Agouti locus with effects on coat color and pattern distribution. From these early studies, the dominant A(Wt) (white/tan) allele was suggested to cause the white color of the Saanen breed. Here, we sequenced the coding region of the goat ASIP gene in 6 goat breeds (Girgentana, Maltese, Derivata di Siria, Murciano-Granadina, Camosciata delle Alpi, and Saanen), with different coat colors and patterns. Five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified, 3 of which caused missense mutations in conserved positions of the cysteine-rich carboxy-terminal domain of the protein (p.Ala96Gly, p.Cys126Gly, and p.Val128Gly). Allele and genotype frequencies suggested that these mutations are not associated or not completely associated with coat color in the investigated goat breeds. Moreover, genotyping and sequencing results, deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, as well as allele copy number evaluation from semiquantitative fluorescent multiplex PCR, indicated the presence of copy number variation (CNV) in all investigated breeds. To confirm the presence of CNV and evaluate its extension, we applied a bovine-goat cross-species array comparative genome hybridization (aCGH) experiment using a custom tiling array based on bovine chromosome 13. aCGH results obtained for 8 goat DNA samples confirmed the presence of CNV affecting a region of less that 100 kb including the ASIP and AHCY genes. In Girgentana and Saanen breeds, this CNV might cause the A(Wt) allele, as already suggested for a similar structural mutation in sheep affecting the ASIP and AHCY genes, providing evidence for a recurrent interspecies CNV. However, other mechanisms may also be involved in determining coat color in these 2 breeds.

  18. Preliminary observations on the response of Chironex fleckeri (Cnidaria: Cubozoa: Chirodropida) to different colors of light.

    PubMed

    Gershwin, Lisa-Ann; Dawes, Peter

    2008-08-01

    Cubozoans are well known for their attraction to light and light-colored objects. Two highly venomous types are a public safety concern in Australian waters and elsewhere: Chironex fleckeri, long considered the world's deadliest animal and colloquially called the box jellyfish; and the irukandjis, a group of at least 10 species that cause various degrees of debilitating illness. We were asked by the tourism industry whether there might be a color of light that box jellyfish and irukandjis are not attracted to, such that nighttime diving activities might pose less risk of being stung. Our preliminary trials with Chironex fleckeri indicated a marked positive response to lights of white, red, yellow, green, orange, and blue. All colors elicited a strong and directed attraction to light; however, medusae slowed down their pulsation rate, streamed out their tentacles, and performed a series of figure-eight patterns back and forth through the lighted area when exposed to blue light, which we interpreted as feeding behavior. This compares curiously with a report subsequent to our testing, in which the small, mangrove-inhabiting cubomedusa Tripedalia cystophora and the beach-dwelling Chiropsella bronzie demonstrate a peak sensitivity to blue-green light in the region of 500 nm, and that the former is behaviorally attracted to blue and green light, but ignores red. This leaves open the possibility that Irukandji species, which are more closely related to Tripedalia than to Chironex, may be blind to red.

  19. Recovering fluorescent spectra with an RGB digital camera and color filters using different matrix factorizations.

    PubMed

    Nieves, Juan L; Valero, Eva M; Hernández-Andrés, Javier; Romero, Javier

    2007-07-01

    The aim of a multispectral system is to recover a spectral function at each image pixel, but when a scene is digitally imaged under a light of unknown spectral power distribution (SPD), the image pixels give incomplete information about the spectral reflectances of objects in the scene. We have analyzed how accurately the spectra of artificial fluorescent light sources can be recovered with a digital CCD camera. The red-green-blue (RGB) sensor outputs are modified by the use of successive cutoff color filters. Four algorithms for simplifying the spectra datasets are used: nonnegative matrix factorization (NMF), independent component analysis (ICA), a direct pseudoinverse method, and principal component analysis (PCA). The algorithms are tested using both simulated data and data from a real RGB digital camera. The methods are compared in terms of the minimum rank of factorization and the number of sensors required to derive acceptable spectral and colorimetric SPD estimations; the PCA results are also given for the sake of comparison. The results show that all the algorithms surpass the PCA when a reduced number of sensors is used. The experimental results suggest a significant loss of quality when more than one color filter is used, which agrees with the previous results for reflectances. Nevertheless, an RGB digital camera with or without a prefilter is found to provide good spectral and colorimetric recovery of indoor fluorescent lighting and can be used for color correction without the need of a telespectroradiometer.

  20. Soot particle sizing based on analytical formula derived from laser-induced incandescence decay signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jian; Chen, Linghong; Yan, Mingming; Wu, Xuecheng; Gréhan, Gérard; Cen, Kefa

    2017-01-01

    The laser-induced incandescence (LII) signal during a heat-conduction-dominated cooling process was used to derive an analytical formula to describe the relationship between the soot particle size and the LII signal decay time by exponential fitting. The formula was used to determine particle sizes based on the experimental LII signals at different detection wavelengths for an atmospheric C2H4/air diffusion flame. The results agree with those obtained from temporal temperature measurements. The measurements and numerical calculations demonstrate that particle sizing depends weakly on the maximum temperature in the formula within a typical heat-up temperature range. The results show that based on this formula, a compact single-color LII detection system can be used for particle sizing with low uncertainty under most practical combustion conditions, at least in cases where heat conduction is dominant and occurs in a free molecular regime during particle cooling.

  1. Color Reproduction with a Smartphone

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thoms, Lars-Jochen; Colicchia, Giuseppe; Girwidz, Raimund

    2013-01-01

    The world is full of colors. Most of the colors we see around us can be created on common digital displays simply by superposing light with three different wavelengths. However, no mixture of colors can produce a fully pure color identical to a spectral color. Using a smartphone, students can investigate the main features of primary color addition…

  2. Morphological and Color Differences between Island and Mainland Populations in the Mexican Red Rump Tarantula, Brachypelma vagans

    PubMed Central

    Vilchis-Nestor, Claudia A.; Machkour-M'Rabet, Salima; Barriga-Sosa, Irene de los A.; Winterton, Peter; Hénaut, Yann

    2013-01-01

    The introduction of species into new ecosystems, especially in small and isolated regions such as islands, offers an excellent opportunity to answer questions of the evolutionary processes occurring in natural conditions on a scale that could never be achieved in laboratory conditions. In this study, we examined the Mexican red rump tarantula Brachypelma vagans Ausserer (Mygalomorphae: Theraphosidae), a species that was introduced to Cozumel Island, Mexico, 40 years ago. This introduction provides an exceptional model to study effects such as morphological variation between island populations and those on the mainland in open habitats facing the island. Intraspecific variation related to the color polymorphism was compared. The aim of this study was to determine the phenotypic differences between continental populations of B. vagans and the introduced population on Cozumel Island. Phenotypic difference was evaluated using two approaches: 1) comparison of the morphometric measurements of adult and juvenile individuals at the local scale and between continental and island populations, and 2) comparison of individual color polymorphism between mainland and island populations. Two locations were sampled within the continental part of the Yucatan peninsula and two on the island of Cozumel. The number of samples analyzed at each site was 30 individuals. The morphometric results showed significant differences between continental and island populations, with bigger individuals on the island. In addition, three new variations of the typical color pattern of B. vagans recorded so far were observed. This study opens the door to further investigations to elucidate the origin of the phenotypic variation of the isolated individuals on Cozumel Island. Also, the widest range of color morphs found for a tarantula species is reported. PMID:24224805

  3. Substantial Effect of Melanin Influencing Factors on In vitro Melanogenesis in Muzzle Melanocytes of Differently Colored Hanwoo

    PubMed Central

    Amna, Touseef; Park, Kyoung Mi; Cho, In-Kyung; Choi, Tae Jeong; Lee, Seung Soo; Seo, Kang-Seok; Hwang, Inho

    2012-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the effect of α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH), nitric oxide (NO) and L-cysteine on melanin production and expression of related genes MC1R, Tyr, Tyrp-1 and Tyrp-2 in muzzle melanocytes of differently colored three native Hanwoo cattle. Muzzle samples were taken from black, brindle and brown Hanwoo and purified melanocytes were cultured with α-MSH, nitric oxide and L-cysteine at 100 nM, 50 µM and 0.07 mg/ml of media respectively. The amounts of total melanin, eumelanin and mRNA expression at Tyr, Tyrp-1, Tyrp-2 and MC1R levels were quantified. α-MSH and nitric oxide significantly increased (p<0.05) the amount of total melanin in black and brindle whereas eumelanin production in brown Hanwoo muzzle melanocytes. On the contrary, L-cysteine greatly (p<0.05) depressed the eumelanin production in black color but increased in brown. Simultaneously, up regulation of Tyr by nitric oxide and α-MSH and down regulation of Tyr, Tyrp-2 and MC1R genes by L-cysteine were observed in muzzle melanocytes of all three phenotypes. The results of this study revealed nitric oxide and α-MSH contribute hyper-pigmentation by enhancing eumelanogenesis whereas L-cysteine contributes to pheomelanin production in different colored Hanwoo muzzle melanocytes. PMID:25049660

  4. Carotenoid profiling from 27 types of paprika (Capsicum annuum L.) with different colors, shapes, and cultivation methods.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji-Sun; An, Chul Geon; Park, Jong-Suk; Lim, Yong Pyo; Kim, Suna

    2016-06-15

    In this study, we investigated carotenoid profiles and contents from 27 types of paprika with different colors (red, orange, and yellow), shapes (blocky and conical), and cultivation methods (soil and soilless). We simultaneously analyzed 12 kinds of carotenoids using UPLC equipped with an HSS T3 column for 30 min, and we identified six kinds of carotenoids in red paprika and nine types in orange and yellow paprika. Zeaxanthin concentrations in orange paprika were in the range of 85.06±23.37-151.39±5.94 mg/100 g dry weight (dw), which shows that orange paprika is a great source of zeaxanthin. Generally, red paprika is a great source of capsanthin. However, a new cultivar, 'Mini Goggal Red', contained large amounts of zeaxanthin (121.41±30.10 mg/100 g dw) even though its visible color is red. This is very meaningful considering that consumers have a preference for red color and the potent functional value of zeaxanthin. Carotenoid profiles and concentrations in blocky and conical type paprika were not significantly different in red paprika except the 'Mini Goggal Red' cultivar and yellow paprika. Blocky type orange paprika contains plenty of zeaxanthin, unlike conical type orange paprika. Three new cultivars of the conical type were cultivated in both soil culture and soilless culture in the same province, and carotenoid profiles and concentrations were similar, showing that both cultivations methods can be used.

  5. Genetic structure and different color morphotypes suggest the occurrence and bathymetric segregation of two incipient species of Sebastes off Argentina.

    PubMed

    Venerus, Leonardo A; Ciancio, Javier E; Riva-Rossi, Carla; Gilbert-Horvath, Elizabeth A; Gosztonyi, Atila E; Garza, John Carlos

    2013-07-01

    Rockfishes of the genus Sebastes are extensively distributed in the Pacific and Atlantic oceans. Although the occurrence of two morphologically similar species in the Southern Hemisphere, Sebastes oculatus and Sebastes capensis, is now clearly established, the taxonomic status and phylogeographic patterns for the genus in the region have not yet been completely resolved. In this study, we provide new insights into the taxonomy and evolutionary relationships of rockfishes inhabiting the Southwestern Atlantic Ocean, off the coast of mainland Argentina, by combining mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region sequences, microsatellite data, and color pattern analyses. Differences in coloration ("dark" and "light" fish) together with bathymetric segregation between color morphotypes were evident from fish collection and literature review. In addition, the mtDNA phylogenetic analysis and Bayesian clustering analysis using microsatellite data separated the fish into two distinct groups (F ST = 0.041), most likely representing incipient species. Our results suggest that speciation-by-depth in the absence of physical barriers could be a widespread mechanism of speciation in Sebastes from both the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. Nevertheless, the degree of genetic differentiation found, added to the large number of individuals displaying high levels of admixture, points to the occurrence of incomplete reproductive barriers between color morphotypes. Beyond the taxonomic and phylogeographic implications of our findings, the occurrence of distinct groups of Sebastes off the coast of Argentina being targeted by different fisheries (angling and trawling) has consequences for the design and implementation of appropriate fishery regulations to avoid overharvest of either group.

  6. Development of resting cardiovascular activity during the first 2 years of life differs in breastfed and formula-fed boys and girls

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To investigate whether early infant diet influences cardiovascular development we recorded resting heart-rate (HR) at 3, 6, 9, 12, and 24 mo in awake healthy children who were breastfed (BF) or fed milk formula (MF) or soy formula (SF) during infancy (n = 83-146/group/age). HR, and indices of autono...

  7. Elemental changes in the hippocampal formation following two different formulas of ketogenic diet: an X-ray fluorescence microscopy study.

    PubMed

    Chwiej, J; Patulska, A; Skoczen, A; Janeczko, K; Ciarach, M; Simon, R; Setkowicz, Z

    2015-12-01

    The main purpose of the following study was the determination of elemental changes occurring within hippocampal formation as a result of high-fat and carbohydrate-restricted ketogenic diet (KD). To realize it, X-ray fluorescence microscopy was applied for topographic and quantitative analysis of P, S, K, Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn and Se in hippocampal formations taken from rats fed with two different KDs and naive controls. The detailed comparisons were done for sectors 1 and 3 of the Ammon's, the dentate gyrus and hilus of dentate gyrus. The results of elemental analysis showed that the KDs induced statistically significant changes in the accumulation of P, K, Ca, Zn and Se in particular areas of hippocampal formation and these alterations strongly depended on the composition of the diets. Much greater influence on the hippocampal areal densities of examined elements was found for the KD which was characterized by a lower content of carbohydrates, higher content of fats and increased proportion of unsaturated fatty acids. The levels of P, K and Zn decreased whilst those of Ca and Se increased as a result of the treatment with the KDs.

  8. Modeling of display color parameters and algorithmic color selection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silverstein, Louis D.; Lepkowski, James S.; Carter, Robert C.; Carter, Ellen C.

    1986-01-01

    An algorithmic approach to color selection, which is based on psychophysical models of color processing, is described. The factors that affect color differentiation, such as wavelength separation, color stimulus size, and brightness adaptation level, are discussed. The use of the CIE system of colorimetry and the CIELUV color difference metric for display color modeling is examined. The computer program combines the selection algorithm with internally derived correction factors for color image field size, ambient lighting characteristics, and anomalous red-green color vision deficiencies of display operators. The performance of the program is evaluated and uniform chromaticity scale diagrams for six-color and seven-color selection problems are provided.

  9. Comparison of emitted color by pure Gd2O3 prepared by two different methods by CIE coordinates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamrakar, Raunak Kumar; Bisen, D. P.; Upadhyay, Kanchan; Sahu, Manjulata; Sahu, Ishwar Prasad; Bramhe, N.

    2015-12-01

    Monoclinic and cubic Gd2O3 phosphors were prepared by using two different methods solution combustion synthesis and solid state reaction method. The present paper deals with comparison of specific color emitted by the pure Gd2O3 phosphors prepared by combustion synthesis and solid state reaction methods. The Commission International de I'Eclairage (CIE) coordinates for combustion synthesized Gd2O3 phosphor and for the solid state synthesized Gd2O3 phosphor X = 0.207 and Y = 0.206, and X = 0.29 and Y = 0.29 respectively.

  10. Color vision and color formation in dragonflies.

    PubMed

    Futahashi, Ryo

    2016-10-01

    Dragonflies including damselflies are colorful and large-eyed insects, which show remarkable sexual dimorphism, color transition, and color polymorphism. Recent comprehensive visual transcriptomics has unveiled an extraordinary diversity of opsin genes within the lineage of dragonflies. These opsin genes are differentially expressed between aquatic larvae and terrestrial adults, as well as between dorsal and ventral regions of adult compound eyes. Recent topics of color formation in dragonflies are also outlined. Non-iridescent blue color is caused by coherent light scattering from the quasiordered nanostructures, whereas iridescent color is produced by multilayer structures. Wrinkles or wax crystals sometimes enhances multilayer structural colors. Sex-specific and stage-specific color differences in red dragonflies is attributed to redox states of ommochrome pigments.

  11. Color differences among feral pigeons (Columba livia) are not attributable to sequence variation in the coding region of the melanocortin-1 receptor gene (MC1R)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Genetic variation at the melanocortin-1 receptor (MC1R) gene is correlated with melanin color variation in many birds. Feral pigeons (Columba livia) show two major melanin-based colorations: a red coloration due to pheomelanic pigment and a black coloration due to eumelanic pigment. Furthermore, within each color type, feral pigeons display continuous variation in the amount of melanin pigment present in the feathers, with individuals varying from pure white to a full dark melanic color. Coloration is highly heritable and it has been suggested that it is under natural or sexual selection, or both. Our objective was to investigate whether MC1R allelic variants are associated with plumage color in feral pigeons. Findings We sequenced 888 bp of the coding sequence of MC1R among pigeons varying both in the type, eumelanin or pheomelanin, and the amount of melanin in their feathers. We detected 10 non-synonymous substitutions and 2 synonymous substitution but none of them were associated with a plumage type. It remains possible that non-synonymous substitutions that influence coloration are present in the short MC1R fragment that we did not sequence but this seems unlikely because we analyzed the entire functionally important region of the gene. Conclusions Our results show that color differences among feral pigeons are probably not attributable to amino acid variation at the MC1R locus. Therefore, variation in regulatory regions of MC1R or variation in other genes may be responsible for the color polymorphism of feral pigeons. PMID:23915680

  12. Multi-color immune-phenotyping of CD34 subsets reveals unexpected differences between various stem cell sources.

    PubMed

    Dmytrus, J; Matthes-Martin, S; Pichler, H; Worel, N; Geyeregger, R; Frank, N; Frech, C; Fritsch, G

    2016-08-01

    Flow cytometric routine CD34 analysis enumerates hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells irrespective of their subpopulations although this might predict engraftment dynamics and immune reconstitution. We established a multi-color CD34 assay containing CD133, CD45RA, CD10, CD38 and CD33. We examined PBSC, donor bone marrow (BMd) and BM of patients 1 year after allografting (BM1y) regarding their CD34 subset composition, which differed significantly amongst those materials: the early CD45RA(-)CD133(+)CD38(low) subpopulations were significantly more frequent in PBSC than in BMd, and very low in BM1y. Vice versa, clearly more committed CD34 stages prevailed in BM, particularly in BM1y where the proportion of multi-lymphoid and CD38(++) B-lymphoid precursors was highest (mean 59%). CD33 was expressed at different intensity on CD45RA(±)CD133(±) subsets allowing discrimination of earlier from more committed myeloid precursors. Compared with conventional CD34(+) cell enumeration, the presented multi-color phenotyping is a qualitative approach defining different CD34 subtypes in any CD34 source. Its potential impact to predict engraftment kinetics and immune reconstitution has to be evaluated in future studies.

  13. Designing State Aid Formulas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Bo; Bradbury, Katharine

    2009-01-01

    This paper designs a new equalization-aid formula based on fiscal gaps of local communities. When states are in transition to a new local aid formula, the issue of whether and how to hold existing aid harmless poses a challenge. The authors show that some previous studies and the formulas derived from them give differential weights to existing and…

  14. New computer-controlled color vision test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ladunga, Karoly; Wenzel, Klara; Abraham, Gyorgy

    1999-12-01

    A computer controlled color discrimination test is described which enables rapid testing using selected colors from the color space of normal CRT monitors. We have investigated whether difference sin color discrimination between groups of normal and color deficient observers could be detected using a computer-controlled test of color vision. The test accurately identified the differences between the normal and color deficient groups. New color discrimination test have been developed to more efficiently evaluate color vision.

  15. Major breeding plumage color differences of male ruffs (Philomachus pugnax) are not associated with coding sequence variation in the MC1R gene.

    PubMed

    Farrell, Lindsay L; Küpper, Clemens; Burke, Terry; Lank, David B

    2015-01-01

    Sequence variation in the melanocortin-1 receptor (MC1R) gene explains color morph variation in several species of birds and mammals. Ruffs (Philomachus pugnax) exhibit major dark/light color differences in melanin-based male breeding plumage which is closely associated with alternative reproductive behavior. A previous study identified a microsatellite marker (Ppu020) near the MC1R locus associated with the presence/absence of ornamental plumage. We investigated whether coding sequence variation in the MC1R gene explains major dark/light plumage color variation and/or the presence/absence of ornamental plumage in ruffs. Among 821bp of the MC1R coding region from 44 male ruffs we found 3 single nucleotide polymorphisms, representing 1 nonsynonymous and 2 synonymous amino acid substitutions. None were associated with major dark/light color differences or the presence/absence of ornamental plumage. At all amino acid sites known to be functionally important in other avian species with dark/light plumage color variation, ruffs were either monomorphic or the shared polymorphism did not coincide with color morph. Neither ornamental plumage color differences nor the presence/absence of ornamental plumage in ruffs are likely to be caused entirely by amino acid variation within the coding regions of the MC1R locus. Regulatory elements and structural variation at other loci may be involved in melanin expression and contribute to the extreme plumage polymorphism observed in this species.

  16. Effect of different beverages on the color stability and degree of conversion of nano and microhybrid composites.

    PubMed

    Al Kheraif, Abdul Aziz Abdullah; Qasim, Sayed Saad Bin; Ramakrishnaiah, Ravikumar; Ihtesham ur Rehman

    2013-01-01

    This study sought to evaluate the effects of different staining solutions on the colour stability of nanocomposites compared with microhybrid resin and to evaluate the degree of conversion of these two materials. Two different shades of two different composites were cured in polytetraflouroethylene disk rings. Coffee, tea and cola drinks were used as staining solutions, and distilled water was used as a control. Data were statistically analysed using a paired T-test with a significance level of 5%. Nano composite showed the highest degree of conversion (DC) values based on calculation of the bonded and free carbonyl peak intensities in the spectrum. The colour analysis showed that nanohybrid had the highest ΔE values when exposed to coffee solutions; they showed less color stability despite having a higher degree of conversion. Nano resin composite showed significantly higher discoloration than microhybrid composite.

  17. Formula allergy and intolerance.

    PubMed

    Kerner, J A

    1995-03-01

    There are two major types of adverse reactions in infant formulas: (1) formula allergy/hypersensitivity, which is an immunologic response, and (2) formula intolerance, which is a nonimmunologic response. Formula intolerance can occur in infants with an underlying congenital or acquired enzyme deficiency (disaccharidase deficiency, galactosemia, hereditary fructose intolerance). The clinical presentation, diagnosis, and treatment of both reactions are reviewed in this article. The appropriateness of the use of a variety of infant formulas is discussed. Guidelines for the prevention of allergic disease are described as well.

  18. Formulaic Language in Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Bridges, Kelly Ann; Van Lancker Sidtis, Diana

    2013-01-01

    Background Studies of productive language in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) have focused on formal testing of syntax and semantics but have directed less attention to naturalistic discourse and formulaic language. Clinical observations suggest that individuals with AD retain the ability to produce formulaic language long after other cognitive abilities have deteriorated. Aims This study quantifies production of formulaic expressions in the spontaneous speech of individuals with AD. Persons with early- and late-onset forms of the disease were compared. Methods & Procedures Conversational language samples of individuals with early- (n = 5) and late-onset (n = 6) AD and healthy controls (n = 5) were analyzed to determine whether formulaic language, as measured by the number of words in formulaic expressions, differs between groups. Outcomes & Results Results indicate that individuals with AD, regardless of age of onset, used significantly more formulaic expressions than healthy controls. The early- and late-onset AD groups did not differ on formulaic language measures. Conclusions These findings contribute to a dual process model of cerebral function, which proposes differing processing principles for formulaic and novel expressions. In this model, subcortical areas, which remain intact into late in the progression of Alzheimer’s disease, play an important role in the production of formulaic language. Applications to clinical practice include identifying preserved formulaic language and providing informed counseling to patient and family. PMID:24187417

  19. The Trouble with Color.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merchant, David

    1999-01-01

    Discusses problems with color quality in Web sites. Topics include differences in monitor settings, including contrast; amount of video RAM; user preference settings; browser-safe colors; cross-platform readability; and gamma values. (LRW)

  20. Digital color management in full-color holographic three-dimensional printer.

    PubMed

    Yang, Fei; Murakami, Yuri; Yamaguchi, Masahiro

    2012-07-01

    We propose a new method of color management for a full-color holographic, three-dimensional (3D) printer, which produces a volume reflection holographic stereogram using red, green, and blue three-color lasers. For natural color management in the holographic 3D printer, we characterize its color reproduction characteristics based on the spectral measurement of reproduced light. Then the color conversion formula, which comprises a one-dimensional lookup table and a 3×3 matrix, was derived from the measurement data. The color reproducibility was evaluated by printing a color chart hologram, and the average CIELAB ΔE=13.19 is fairly small.

  1. Luminance contours can gate afterimage colors and "real" colors.

    PubMed

    Anstis, Stuart; Vergeer, Mark; Van Lier, Rob

    2012-09-06

    It has long been known that colored images may elicit afterimages in complementary colors. We have already shown (Van Lier, Vergeer, & Anstis, 2009) that one and the same adapting image may result in different afterimage colors, depending on the test contours presented after the colored image. The color of the afterimage depends on two adapting colors, those both inside and outside the test. Here, we further explore this phenomenon and show that the color-contour interactions shown for afterimage colors also occur for "real" colors. We argue that similar mechanisms apply for both types of stimulation.

  2. Microbial composition and in vitro fermentation patterns of human milk oligosaccharides and prebiotics differ between formula-fed and sow-reared piglets.

    PubMed

    Li, Min; Bauer, Laura L; Chen, Xin; Wang, Mei; Kuhlenschmidt, Theresa B; Kuhlenschmidt, Mark S; Fahey, George C; Donovan, Sharon M

    2012-04-01

    The microbial composition and in vitro fermentation characteristics of human milk oligosaccharides (HMO), lacto-N-neotetraose (LNnT), a 2:1 mixture of polydextrose (PDX) and galactooligosaccharides (GOS), and short-chain fructooligosaccharides (scFOS) by pooled ascending colonic microbiota from 9- and 17-d-old formula-fed (FF) and sow-reared (SR) piglets were assessed. pH change and gas, SCFA, and lactate production were determined after 0, 2, 4, 8, and 12 h of incubation. In most donor groups, the pH change was greater for scFOS fermentation and lower for PDX/GOS than for other substrates. LNnT fermentation produced larger amounts of gas, total SCFA, acetate, and butyrate than did the other substrates, whereas HMO and scFOS produced higher amounts of propionate and lactate, respectively. In general, pH change, total SCFA, acetate, and propionate production were greater in pooled inoculum from FF and 9-d-old piglets, whereas SR-derived inoculum produced higher amounts of butyrate and lactate after 4 h fermentation. Gut microbiota were assessed by 16S ribosomal RNA V3 gene denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis and real-time qPCR. Microbial structures differed among the 4 groups before fermentation, with higher counts of Bifidobacterium in SR piglets and higher counts of Clostridium cluster IV, XIVa, and Bacteroides vulgatus in FF piglets. Lactobacillus counts were higher in 9-d-old piglets than in 17-d-old piglets, regardless of diet. Bifidobacterium, Bacteroides, and clostridial species increased after 8 and 12 h fermentation on most substrates. In summary, piglet diet and age affect gut microbiota, leading to different fermentation patterns. HMO have potential prebiotic effects due to their effects on SCFA production and microbial modulation.

  3. Fish and robot dancing together: bluefin killifish females respond differently to the courtship of a robot with varying color morphs.

    PubMed

    Phamduy, P; Polverino, G; Fuller, R C; Porfiri, M

    2014-09-01

    The experimental integration of bioinspired robots in groups of social animals has become a valuable tool to understand the basis of social behavior and uncover the fundamental determinants of animal communication. In this study, we measured the preference of fertile female bluefin killifish (Lucania goodei) for robotic replicas whose aspect ratio, body size, motion pattern, and color morph were inspired by adult male killifish. The motion of the fish replica was controlled via a robotic platform, which simulated the typical courtship behavior observed in killifish males. The positional preferences of females were measured for three different color morphs (red, yellow, and blue). While variation in preference was high among females, females tend to spend more time in the vicinity of the yellow painted robot replicas. This preference may have emerged because the yellow robot replicas were very bright, particularly in the longer wavelengths (550–700 nm) compared to the red and blue replicas. These findings are in agreement with previous observations in mosquitofish and zebrafish on fish preference for artificially enhanced yellow pigmentation.

  4. Measurement of the [Formula: see text] production cross-section in proton-proton collisions via the decay [Formula: see text].

    PubMed

    Aaij, R; Beteta, C Abellán; Adeva, B; Adinolfi, M; Affolder, A; Ajaltouni, Z; Akar, S; Albrecht, J; Alessio, F; Alexander, M; Ali, S; Alkhazov, G; Alvarez Cartelle, P; Alves, A A; Amato, S; Amerio, S; Amhis, Y; An, L; Anderlini, L; Anderson, J; Andreassen, R; Andreotti, M; Andrews, J E; Appleby, R B; Aquines Gutierrez, O; Archilli, F; Artamonov, A; Artuso, M; Aslanides, E; Auriemma, G; Baalouch, M; Bachmann, S; Back, J J; Badalov, A; Baesso, C; Baldini, W; Barlow, R J; Barschel, C; Barsuk, S; Barter, W; Batozskaya, V; Battista, V; Bay, A; Beaucourt, L; Beddow, J; Bedeschi, F; Bediaga, I; Belogurov, S; Belous, K; Belyaev, I; Ben-Haim, E; Bencivenni, G; Benson, S; Benton, J; Berezhnoy, A; Bernet, R; Bettler, M-O; van Beuzekom, M; Bien, A; Bifani, S; Bird, T; Bizzeti, A; Bjørnstad, P M; Blake, T; Blanc, F; Blouw, J; Blusk, S; Bocci, V; Bondar, A; Bondar, N; Bonivento, W; Borghi, S; Borgia, A; Borsato, M; Bowcock, T J V; Bowen, E; Bozzi, C; Brambach, T; Bressieux, J; Brett, D; Britsch, M; Britton, T; Brodzicka, J; Brook, N H; Brown, H; Bursche, A; Busetto, G; Buytaert, J; Cadeddu, S; Calabrese, R; Calvi, M; Calvo Gomez, M; Campana, P; Campora Perez, D; Carbone, A; Carboni, G; Cardinale, R; Cardini, A; Carson, L; Carvalho Akiba, K; Casse, G; Cassina, L; Castillo Garcia, L; Cattaneo, M; Cauet, Ch; Cenci, R; Charles, M; Charpentier, Ph; Chefdeville, M; Chen, S; Cheung, S-F; Chiapolini, N; Chrzaszcz, M; Ciba, K; Cid Vidal, X; Ciezarek, G; Clarke, P E L; Clemencic, M; Cliff, H V; Closier, J; Coco, V; Cogan, J; Cogneras, E; Cogoni, V; Cojocariu, L; Collins, P; Comerma-Montells, A; Contu, A; Cook, A; Coombes, M; Coquereau, S; Corti, G; Corvo, M; Counts, I; Couturier, B; Cowan, G A; Craik, D C; Cruz Torres, M; Cunliffe, S; Currie, R; D'Ambrosio, C; Dalseno, J; David, P; David, P N Y; Davis, A; De Bruyn, K; De Capua, S; De Cian, M; De Miranda, J M; De Paula, L; De Silva, W; De Simone, P; Decamp, D; Deckenhoff, M; Del Buono, L; Déléage, N; Derkach, D; Deschamps, O; Dettori, F; Di Canto, A; Dijkstra, H; Donleavy, S; Dordei, F; Dorigo, M; Dosil Suárez, A; Dossett, D; Dovbnya, A; Dreimanis, K; Dujany, G; Dupertuis, F; Durante, P; Dzhelyadin, R; Dziurda, A; Dzyuba, A; Easo, S; Egede, U; Egorychev, V; Eidelman, S; Eisenhardt, S; Eitschberger, U; Ekelhof, R; Eklund, L; El Rifai, I; Elena, E; Elsasser, Ch; Ely, S; Esen, S; Evans, H-M; Evans, T; Falabella, A; Färber, C; Farinelli, C; Farley, N; Farry, S; Fay, R F; Ferguson, D; Fernandez Albor, V; Ferreira Rodrigues, F; Ferro-Luzzi, M; Filippov, S; Fiore, M; Fiorini, M; Firlej, M; Fitzpatrick, C; Fiutowski, T; Fol, P; Fontana, M; Fontanelli, F; Forty, R; Francisco, O; Frank, M; Frei, C; Frosini, M; Fu, J; Furfaro, E; Gallas Torreira, A; Galli, D; Gallorini, S; Gambetta, S; Gandelman, M; Gandini, P; Gao, Y; García Pardiñas, J; Garofoli, J; Garra Tico, J; Garrido, L; Gaspar, C; Gauld, R; Gavardi, L; Gavrilov, G; Geraci, A; Gersabeck, E; Gersabeck, M; Gershon, T; Ghez, Ph; Gianelle, A; Gianì, S; Gibson, V; Giubega, L; Gligorov, V V; Göbel, C; Golubkov, D; Golutvin, A; Gomes, A; Gotti, C; Grabalosa Gándara, M; Graciani Diaz, R; Granado Cardoso, L A; Graugés, E; Graziani, G; Grecu, A; Greening, E; Gregson, S; Griffith, P; Grillo, L; Grünberg, O; Gui, B; Gushchin, E; Guz, Yu; Gys, T; Hadjivasiliou, C; Haefeli, G; Haen, C; Haines, S C; Hall, S; Hamilton, B; Hampson, T; Han, X; Hansmann-Menzemer, S; Harnew, N; Harnew, S T; Harrison, J; He, J; Head, T; Heijne, V; Hennessy, K; Henrard, P; Henry, L; Hernando Morata, J A; van Herwijnen, E; Heß, M; Hicheur, A; Hill, D; Hoballah, M; Hombach, C; Hulsbergen, W; Hunt, P; Hussain, N; Hutchcroft, D; Hynds, D; Idzik, M; Ilten, P; Jacobsson, R; Jaeger, A; Jalocha, J; Jans, E; Jaton, P; Jawahery, A; Jing, F; John, M; Johnson, D; Jones, C R; Joram, C; Jost, B; Jurik, N; Kaballo, M; Kandybei, S; Kanso, W; Karacson, M; Karbach, T M; Karodia, S; Kelsey, M; Kenyon, I R; Ketel, T; Khanji, B; Khurewathanakul, C; Klaver, S; Klimaszewski, K; Kochebina, O; Kolpin, M; Komarov, I; Koopman, R F; Koppenburg, P; Korolev, M; Kozlinskiy, A; Kravchuk, L; Kreplin, K; Kreps, M; Krocker, G; Krokovny, P; Kruse, F; Kucewicz, W; Kucharczyk, M; Kudryavtsev, V; Kurek, K; Kvaratskheliya, T; La Thi, V N; Lacarrere, D; Lafferty, G; Lai, A; Lambert, D; Lambert, R W; Lanfranchi, G; Langenbruch, C; Langhans, B; Latham, T; Lazzeroni, C; Le Gac, R; van Leerdam, J; Lees, J-P; Lefèvre, R; Leflat, A; Lefrançois, J; Leo, S; Leroy, O; Lesiak, T; Leverington, B; Li, Y; Likhomanenko, T; Liles, M; Lindner, R; Linn, C; Lionetto, F; Liu, B; Lohn, S; Longstaff, I; Lopes, J H; Lopez-March, N; Lowdon, P; Lucchesi, D; Luo, H; Lupato, A; Luppi, E; Lupton, O; Machefert, F; Machikhiliyan, I V; Maciuc, F; Maev, O; Malde, S; Malinin, A; Manca, G; Mancinelli, G; Mapelli, A; Maratas, J; Marchand, J F; Marconi, U; Marin Benito, C; Marino, P; Märki, R; Marks, J; Martellotti, G; Martens, A; Sánchez, A Martín; Martinelli, M; Martinez Santos, D; Martinez Vidal, F; Martins Tostes, D; Massafferri, A; Matev, R; Mathe, Z; Matteuzzi, C; Mazurov, A; McCann, M; McCarthy, J; McNab, A; McNulty, R; McSkelly, B; Meadows, B; Meier, F; Meissner, M; Merk, M; Milanes, D A; Minard, M-N; Moggi, N; Molina Rodriguez, J; Monteil, S; Morandin, M; Morawski, P; Mordà, A; Morello, M J; Moron, J; Morris, A-B; Mountain, R; Muheim, F; Müller, K; Mussini, M; Muster, B; Naik, P; Nakada, T; Nandakumar, R; Nasteva, I; Needham, M; Neri, N; Neubert, S; Neufeld, N; Neuner, M; Nguyen, A D; Nguyen, T D; Nguyen-Mau, C; Nicol, M; Niess, V; Niet, R; Nikitin, N; Nikodem, T; Novoselov, A; O'Hanlon, D P; Oblakowska-Mucha, A; Obraztsov, V; Oggero, S; Ogilvy, S; Okhrimenko, O; Oldeman, R; Onderwater, G; Orlandea, M; Otalora Goicochea, J M; Owen, P; Oyanguren, A; Pal, B K; Palano, A; Palombo, F; Palutan, M; Panman, J; Papanestis, A; Pappagallo, M; Pappalardo, L L; Parkes, C; Parkinson, C J; Passaleva, G; Patel, G D; Patel, M; Patrignani, C; Alvarez, A Pazos; Pearce, A; Pellegrino, A; Pepe Altarelli, M; Perazzini, S; Trigo, E Perez; Perret, P; Perrin-Terrin, M; Pescatore, L; Pesen, E; Petridis, K; Petrolini, A; Picatoste Olloqui, E; Pietrzyk, B; Pilař, T; Pinci, D; Pistone, A; Playfer, S; Plo Casasus, M; Polci, F; Poluektov, A; Polycarpo, E; Popov, A; Popov, D; Popovici, B; Potterat, C; Price, E; Price, J D; Prisciandaro, J; Pritchard, A; Prouve, C; Pugatch, V; Puig Navarro, A; Punzi, G; Qian, W; Rachwal, B; Rademacker, J H; Rakotomiaramanana, B; Rama, M; Rangel, M S; Raniuk, I; Rauschmayr, N; Raven, G; Redi, F; Reichert, S; Reid, M M; Dos Reis, A C; Ricciardi, S; Richards, S; Rihl, M; Rinnert, K; Rives Molina, V; Robbe, P; Rodrigues, A B; Rodrigues, E; Rodriguez Perez, P; Roiser, S; Romanovsky, V; Romero Vidal, A; Rotondo, M; Rouvinet, J; Ruf, T; Ruiz, H; Ruiz Valls, P; Saborido Silva, J J; Sagidova, N; Sail, P; Saitta, B; Salustino Guimaraes, V; Sanchez Mayordomo, C; Sanmartin Sedes, B; Santacesaria, R; Santamarina Rios, C; Santovetti, E; Sarti, A; Satriano, C; Satta, A; Saunders, D M; Savrie, M; Savrina, D; Schiller, M; Schindler, H; Schlupp, M; Schmelling, M; Schmidt, B; Schneider, O; Schopper, A; Schune, M-H; Schwemmer, R; Sciascia, B; Sciubba, A; Seco, M; Semennikov, A; Sepp, I; Serra, N; Serrano, J; Sestini, L; Seyfert, P; Shapkin, M; Shapoval, I; Shcheglov, Y; Shears, T; Shekhtman, L; Shevchenko, V; Shires, A; Silva Coutinho, R; Simi, G; Sirendi, M; Skidmore, N; Skwarnicki, T; Smith, N A; Smith, E; Smith, E; Smith, J; Smith, M; Snoek, H; Sokoloff, M D; Soler, F J P; Soomro, F; Souza, D; De Paula, B Souza; Spaan, B; Sparkes, A; Spradlin, P; Sridharan, S; Stagni, F; Stahl, M; Stahl, S; Steinkamp, O; Stenyakin, O; Stevenson, S; Stoica, S; Stone, S; Storaci, B; Stracka, S; Straticiuc, M; Straumann, U; Stroili, R; Subbiah, V K; Sun, L; Sutcliffe, W; Swientek, K; Swientek, S; Syropoulos, V; Szczekowski, M; Szczypka, P; Szilard, D; Szumlak, T; T'Jampens, S; Teklishyn, M; Tellarini, G; Teubert, F; Thomas, C; Thomas, E; van Tilburg, J; Tisserand, V; Tobin, M; Tolk, S; Tomassetti, L; Tonelli, D; Topp-Joergensen, S; Torr, N; Tournefier, E; Tourneur, S; Tran, M T; Tresch, M; Tsaregorodtsev, A; Tsopelas, P; Tuning, N; Ubeda Garcia, M; Ukleja, A; Ustyuzhanin, A; Uwer, U; Vacca, C; Vagnoni, V; Valenti, G; Vallier, A; Vazquez Gomez, R; Vazquez Regueiro, P; Vázquez Sierra, C; Vecchi, S; Velthuis, J J; Veltri, M; Veneziano, G; Vesterinen, M; Viaud, B; Vieira, D; Vieites Diaz, M; Vilasis-Cardona, X; Vollhardt, A; Volyanskyy, D; Voong, D; Vorobyev, A; Vorobyev, V; Voß, C; Voss, H; de Vries, J A; Waldi, R; Wallace, C; Wallace, R; Walsh, J; Wandernoth, S; Wang, J; Ward, D R; Watson, N K; Websdale, D; Whitehead, M; Wicht, J; Wiedner, D; Wilkinson, G; Williams, M P; Williams, M; Wilschut, H W; Wilson, F F; Wimberley, J; Wishahi, J; Wislicki, W; Witek, M; Wormser, G; Wotton, S A; Wright, S; Wyllie, K; Xie, Y; Xing, Z; Xu, Z; Yang, Z; Yuan, X; Yushchenko, O; Zangoli, M; Zavertyaev, M; Zhang, L; Zhang, W C; Zhang, Y; Zhelezov, A; Zhokhov, A; Zhong, L; Zvyagin, A

    The production of the [Formula: see text] state in proton-proton collisions is probed via its decay to the [Formula: see text] final state with the LHCb detector, in the rapidity range [Formula: see text] and in the meson transverse-momentum range [Formula: see text]. The cross-section for prompt production of [Formula: see text] mesons relative to the prompt [Formula: see text] cross-section is measured, for the first time, to be [Formula: see text] at a centre-of-mass energy [Formula: see text] using data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 0.7 fb[Formula: see text], and [Formula: see text] at [Formula: see text] using 2.0 fb[Formula: see text]. The uncertainties quoted are, in order, statistical, systematic, and that on the ratio of branching fractions of the [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] decays to the [Formula: see text] final state. In addition, the inclusive branching fraction of [Formula: see text]-hadron decays into [Formula: see text] mesons is measured, for the first time, to be [Formula: see text], where the third uncertainty includes also the uncertainty on the [Formula: see text] inclusive branching fraction from [Formula: see text]-hadron decays. The difference between the [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] meson masses is determined to be [Formula: see text].

  5. Uniform color space based on color matching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Shih-Fang; Yang, Tsung-Hsun; Lee, Cheng-Chung

    2007-09-01

    This research intends to explore with a uniform color space based on the CIE 1931 x-y chromatic coordinate system. The goal is to improve the non-uniformity of the CIE 1931 x-y chromaticity diagram such as to approach the human color sensation as possible; however, its simple methodology still can be kept. In spite of the existence of various kinds of the uniform color coordinate systems built up early (CIE u'-v', CIE Lab, CIE LUV, etc.), the establishment of a genuine uniform color space is actually still an important work both for the basic research in color science and the practical applications of colorimetry, especially for recent growing request in illumination engineering and in display technology. In this study, the MacAdam ellipses and the Munsell color chips are utilized for the comparison with the human color sensation. One specific linear transformation matrix is found for the CIE 1931 color matching functions (see manuscript) to become the novel uniform ones. With the aid of the optimization method, the transformation matrix can be easily discovered and makes the 25 MacAdam ellipses are similar to each other in the novel uniform color space. On the other hand, the perfectiveness of the equal-hue curves and the equal-chroma contours from the Mnusell color chips evaluates for the best optimization conditions among several different definitions for the similarity of all the MacAdam ellipses. Finally, the color difference between any two colors can be simply measured by the Euclidean distance in the novel uniform color space and is still fitted to the human color sensation.

  6. Theory of quantum frequency translation of light in optical fiber: application to interference of two photons of different color.

    PubMed

    McGuinness, H J; Raymer, M G; McKinstrie, C J

    2011-09-12

    We study quantum frequency translation and two-color photon interference enabled by the Bragg scattering four-wave mixing process in optical fiber. Using realistic model parameters, we computationally and analytically determine the Green function and Schmidt modes for cases with various pump-pulse lengths. These cases can be categorized as either "non-discriminatory" or "discriminatory" in regards to their propensity to exhibit high-efficiency translation or high-visibility two-photon interference for many different shapes of input wave packets or for only a few input wave packets, respectively. Also, for a particular case, the Schmidt mode set was found to be nearly equal to a Hermite-Gaussian function set. The methods and results also apply with little modification to frequency conversion by sum-frequency conversion in optical crystals.

  7. Influences of different gases on the terahertz radiation based on the application of two-color laser pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Moradi, S.; Ganjovi, A.; Shojaei, F.; Saeed, M.

    2015-10-15

    In this work, using a two-dimensional Particle In Cell-Monte Carlo Collision simulation method, a comparative study is performed on the influences of different types of atomic and molecular gases at various background gas pressures on the generation of broadband and intense Terahertz (THz) radiation via the application of two-color laser pulses. These two modes are focused into Argon (Ar), Xenon (Xe), Nitrogen (N{sub 2}), Oxygen (O{sub 2}), and air as the background gaseous media and the plasma channel is created. It is observed that the THz radiation emission dramatically changes due to the propagation effects. A wider THz pulse is emitted from the formed plasma channel at the higher gas pressures. The significant effects of the propagation features of the emitted THz pulse on its energy at the longer lengths of the plasma channel are observed.

  8. A load factor formula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Roy G

    1927-01-01

    The ultimate test of a load factor formula is experience. The chief advantages of a semi rational formula over arbitrary factors are that it fairs in between points of experience and it differentiates according to variables within a type. Structural failure of an airplane apparently safe according to the formula would call for a specific change in the formula. The best class of airplanes with which to check a load factor formula seems to be those which have experienced structural failure. Table I comprises a list of the airplanes which have experienced failure in flight traceable to the wing structure. The load factor by formula is observed to be greater than the designed strength in each case, without a single exception. Table II comprises the load factor by formula with the designed strength of a number of well-known service types. The formula indicates that by far the majority of these have ample structural strength. One case considered here in deriving a suitable formula is that of a heavy load carrier of large size and practically no reserve power.

  9. Effects of Different Pediatric Drugs on the Color Stability of Various Restorative Materials Applicable in Pediatric Dentistry.

    PubMed

    Tüzüner, Tamer; Turgut, Sedanur; Baygin, Ozgul; Yilmaz, Nagehan; Tuna, Elif Bahar; Ozen, Bugra

    2017-01-01

    Background. The chronic recommendation of pediatric drugs could exhibit erosive and cariogenic problems. Objective. To evaluate the effects of different pediatric drugs on the color stability of various restorative materials. Methods. Five specimens (1 mm × 3 mm) were prepared and immersed in ten different pediatric drugs and agitated every 8 hours daily for 2 min up to 1 week. Between immersion periods, the samples were stored in artificial saliva. After 1-week period, ΔE(⁎) values were calculated. Two-way ANOVA and Fisher's LSD test were used for statistical analysis at a level of p < 0.05. Results. ΔE(⁎) values were only significantly influenced by restorative material factor (p < 0.001) and varied in the range of 2.08 and 6.55 units for all drugs/restorative materials. The highest ΔE(⁎) was found in Ferrosanol B-composite (6.55 ± 1.38) and the lowest one was found in Dolven-glass ionomer (2.08 ± 0.40) pairwise. The most prominent ΔE(⁎) value elevations were obtained in composite material compared to the compomer and/or glass ionomers in Macrol, Ferrosanol B, and Ventolin (p < 0.001; for all) and also for other drugs (p < 0.05). Dolven exhibited significantly higher values compared to Augmentin (p = 0.021), Macrol (p = 0.018), and Ventolin (p = 0.013) in compomer group. Conclusion. The clinically perceptible color changes for tested composite/pediatric drug pairwise can be more problematic than compomer and glass ionomers in pediatric dentistry.

  10. Effects of Different Pediatric Drugs on the Color Stability of Various Restorative Materials Applicable in Pediatric Dentistry

    PubMed Central

    Turgut, Sedanur; Baygin, Ozgul; Ozen, Bugra

    2017-01-01

    Background. The chronic recommendation of pediatric drugs could exhibit erosive and cariogenic problems. Objective. To evaluate the effects of different pediatric drugs on the color stability of various restorative materials. Methods. Five specimens (1 mm × 3 mm) were prepared and immersed in ten different pediatric drugs and agitated every 8 hours daily for 2 min up to 1 week. Between immersion periods, the samples were stored in artificial saliva. After 1-week period, ΔE⁎ values were calculated. Two-way ANOVA and Fisher's LSD test were used for statistical analysis at a level of p < 0.05. Results. ΔE⁎ values were only significantly influenced by restorative material factor (p < 0.001) and varied in the range of 2.08 and 6.55 units for all drugs/restorative materials. The highest ΔE⁎ was found in Ferrosanol B-composite (6.55 ± 1.38) and the lowest one was found in Dolven-glass ionomer (2.08 ± 0.40) pairwise. The most prominent ΔE⁎ value elevations were obtained in composite material compared to the compomer and/or glass ionomers in Macrol, Ferrosanol B, and Ventolin (p < 0.001; for all) and also for other drugs (p < 0.05). Dolven exhibited significantly higher values compared to Augmentin (p = 0.021), Macrol (p = 0.018), and Ventolin (p = 0.013) in compomer group. Conclusion. The clinically perceptible color changes for tested composite/pediatric drug pairwise can be more problematic than compomer and glass ionomers in pediatric dentistry. PMID:28164130

  11. Color Discrimination Work Sample.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shawsheen Valley Regional Vocational-Technical High School, Billerica, MA.

    This manual contains a work sample intended to assess a handicapped student's ability to see likenesses or differences in colors or shades, identifying or matching certain colors, and selecting colors that go together. Section 1 describes the assessment and lists related occupations and DOT codes. Instructions to the evaluator are provided in the…

  12. Positive quadrature formulas III

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peherstorfer, Franz

    2008-12-01

    First we discuss briefly our former characterization theorem for positive interpolation quadrature formulas (abbreviated qf), provide an equivalent characterization in terms of Jacobi matrices, and give links and applications to other qf, in particular to Gauss-Kronrod quadratures and recent rediscoveries. Then for any polynomial t_n which generates a positive qf, a weight function (depending on n ) is given with respect to which t_n is orthogonal to mathbb{P}_{n-1} . With the help of this result an asymptotic representation of the quadrature weights is derived. In general the asymptotic behaviour is different from that of the Gaussian weights. Only under additional conditions do the quadrature weights satisfy the so-called circle law. Corresponding results are obtained for positive qf of Radau and Lobatto type.

  13. Comparison of Live Performance and Meat Quality Parameter of Cross Bred (Korean Native Black Pig and Landrace) Pigs with Different Coat Colors

    PubMed Central

    Hur, S. J.; Jeong, T. C.; Kim, G. D.; Jeong, J. Y.; Cho, I. C.; Lim, H. T.; Kim, B. W.; Joo, S. T.

    2013-01-01

    Five hundred and forty crossbred (Korean native black pig×Landrace) F2 were selected at a commercial pig farm and then divided into six different coat color groups: (A: Black, B: White, C: Red, D: White spot in black, E: Black spot in white, F: Black spot in red). Birth weight, 21st d weight, 140th d weight and carcass weight varied among the different coat color groups. D group (white spot in black coat) showed a significantly higher body weight at each weigh (birth weight, 140th d weight and carcass weight) than did the other groups, whereas the C group (red coat color) showed a significantly lower body weight at finishing stage (140th d weight and carcass weight) compared to other groups. Meat quality characteristics, shear force, cooking loss and meat color were not significantly different among the different coat color groups, whereas drip loss was significantly higher in F than in other groups. Most blood characteristics were not significantly different among the different groups, except for the red blood cells. PMID:25049884

  14. Are there different requirements for trace elements in eumelanin- and pheomelanin-based color production? A case study of two passerine species.

    PubMed

    Zduniak, Piotr; Surmacki, Adrian; Erciyas-Yavuz, Kiraz; Chudzińska, Maria; Barałkiewicz, Danuta

    2014-09-01

    Melanin is the most common pigment in animal integuments including bird plumage. It has been shown that several trace elements may play roles in the production and signaling function of melanin-colored plumage. We investigated coloration and content of various metal elements in the rectrices of two insectivorous passerines, Common Redstarts (Phoenicurus phoenicurus) and Blackcaps (Sylvia atricapilla), which have eumelanin- and pheomelanin-based coloration, respectively. We hypothesized that 1) the two species would differ in concentrations of metals important in melanin synthesis (Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn), 2) differences in metal concentration levels would be related to feather coloration. Our study confirmed the first prediction and provides the first evidence that selected elements may play a greater role in pheomelanin than in eumelanin synthesis. Concentrations of three elements considered as important in melanin synthesis (Ca, Fe, Zn) were 52% to 93% higher in rusty colored Common Redstart feathers compared to the dark gray Blackcap feathers. However, element concentrations were not correlated with feather coloration or sex in either species. Our study suggests that, of the two melanin forms, pheomelanin synthesis may bear higher costs associated with the acquisition of specific elements or limited elements may create trade-offs between ornamentation and other physiological functions. Our findings warrant further investigations designed to better understand the roles of macro- and microelements in the synthesis of both forms of melanin.

  15. Design of reflective color filters with high angular tolerance by particle swarm optimization method.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chenying; Hong, Liang; Shen, Weidong; Zhang, Yueguang; Liu, Xu; Zhen, Hongyu

    2013-04-22

    We propose three color filters (red, green, blue) based on a two-dimensional (2D) grating, which maintain the same perceived specular colors for a broad range of incident angles with the average polarization. Particle swarm optimization (PSO) method is employed to design these filters for the first time to our knowledge. Two merit functions involving the reflectance curves and color difference in CIEDE2000 formula are respectively constructed to adjust the structural parameters during the optimization procedure. Three primary color filters located at 637nm, 530nm and 446nm with high saturation are obtained with the peak reflectance of 89%, 83%, 66%. The reflectance curves at different incident angles are coincident and the color difference is less than 8 for the incident angle up to 45°. The electric field distribution of the structure is finally studied to analyze the optical property.

  16. Effects of different packaging atmospheres and injection-enhancement on beef tenderness, sensory attributes, desmin degradation, and display color.

    PubMed

    Grobbel, J P; Dikeman, M E; Hunt, M C; Milliken, G A

    2008-10-01

    The objectives were to determine the effects of packaging atmosphere and injection-enhancement on tenderness, sensory traits, desmin degradation, and display color of different beef muscles. Longissimus lumborum (LL; n = 12 pairs), semitendinosus (ST; n = 12 pairs), and triceps brachii (TB; n = 24 pairs; 12 from the same carcasses as the LL and ST and 12 additional pairs) were obtained from the same USDA Select, A-maturity carcasses. On d 7 postmortem, each muscle from one side of the carcass was injection-enhanced, and each muscle from the other side was nonenhanced. Steaks 2.54-cm thick were cut from the muscles and packaged in vacuum packaging (VP), ultra-low oxygen with CO (ULO(2)CO; 0.4% CO/35% CO(2)/69.6% N(2)) modified atmosphere packaging (MAP), or high-oxygen MAP (HiO(2); 80% O(2)/20% CO(2)) and assigned to 14-d tenderness or display followed by 18- or 28-d tenderness measurement. Steaks packaged in HiO(2) MAP were in dark storage (2 degrees C) for 4 d and all other steaks for 14 d. Steaks for Warner-Bratzler shear force, sensory panel (n = 8 trained panelists), and desmin degradation were cooked to 70 degrees C. Steaks were displayed under fluorescent lighting (2,153 lx, 3,000 K) for 7 d. Trained color panelists (n = 10) assigned display color scores. Enhanced steaks had lower (P < 0.05) Warner-Bratzler shear force values than nonenhanced steaks. Sensory panelists found that nonenhanced steaks packaged in ULO(2)CO MAP or VP were more tender (P < 0.05), had more (P < 0.05) beef flavor, and had less (P < 0.05) off-flavors than steaks packaged in HiO(2) MAP. The LL and TB were more tender (P < 0.05) according to myofibrillar tenderness than the ST. Nonenhanced steaks were less (P < 0.05) juicy than enhanced steaks. The most common off-flavors associated with steaks packaged in HiO(2) MAP were oxidative or rancid. Enhanced steaks had more (P < 0.05) off-flavors than nonenhanced steaks, with typical descriptors of salty, metallic, or chemical, in addition to

  17. Image enhancement methods for turbulence mitigation and the influence of different color spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huebner, Claudia S.

    2015-10-01

    In mid- to long-range horizontal imaging applications it is quite often atmospheric turbulence which limits the performance of an electro-optical system rather than the design and quality of the system itself. Even weak or moderate turbulence conditions can suffice to cause significant image degradation, the predominant effects being image dancing and blurring. To mitigate these effects many different methods have been proposed, most of which use either a hardware approach, such as adaptive optics, or a software approach. A great number of these methods are highly specialized with regard to input data, e.g. aiming exclusively at very short exposure images or at infrared data. So far, only a very limited number of these methods are concerned specifically with the restoration of RGB colour video. Beside motion compensation and deblurring, contrast enhancement plays a vital part in many turbulence mitigation schemes. While most contrast enhancement techniques, such as Contrast Limited Adaptive Histogram Equalization (CLAHE) work quite well on monochrome data or single colour frames, they tend to amplify noise in a colour video stream disproportionately, especially in scenes with low contrast. Therefore, in this paper the impact of different colour spaces (RGB, LAB, HSV) on the application of such typical image enhancement techniques is discussed and evaluated with regard to suppressing temporal noise as well as to their suitability for use in software-based turbulence mitigation algorithms.

  18. A new method for colors characterization of colored stainless steel using CIE and Munsell color systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Keming; Xue, Yongqiang; Cui, Zixiang

    2015-09-01

    It is important to establish an accurate and comprehensive method of characterizing colors of colored stainless steel and understand the changing mechanism and the regularity of colors for the research, production and application of colored stainless steel. In this work, the method which combines reflectance-wavelength with both CIE and Munsell color systems is studied, the changing regularity of hue, brightness and saturation with increasing coloring potential differences is investigated, and the mechanism of color changing is discussed. The results show that by using this method the colors of colored stainless steel can be accurately and comprehensively characterized; with coloring potential differences and colored film thickness increasing, the peaks and troughs of the reflectance curves in visible region move toward long wave, causing the cyclically changing of hue and brightness; the amplitude of reflectance curves increases, resulting in growing of the saturation; the CIE 1931 coordinate curve of colors counterclockwise and cyclically changes around the equal energy light spot.

  19. Color and Streptomycetes1

    PubMed Central

    Pridham, Thomas G.

    1965-01-01

    A report summarizing the results of an international workshop on determination of color of streptomycetes is presented. The results suggest that the color systems which seem most practically appealing and effective to specialists on actinomycetes are those embracing a limited number of color names and groups. The broad groupings allow placement of isolates into reasonably well-defined categories based on color of aerial mycelium. Attempts to expand such systems (more color groups) lead to difficulties. It is common knowledge that many, if not all, of the individual groups would in these broad systems contain strains that differ in many other respects, e.g., spore-wall ornamentation, color of vegetative (substratal) mycelium, morphology of chains of spores, and numerous physiological criteria. Also, cultures of intermediate color can be found, which makes placement difficult. As it now stands, color as a criterion for characterization of streptomycetes and streptoverticillia is in questionable status. Although much useful color information can be obtained by an individual, the application of this information to that in the literature or its use in communication with other individuals leaves much to be desired. More objective methods of color determination are needed. At present, the most effective method that could be used internationally is the color-wheel system of Tresner and Backus. Furthermore, the significance of color in speciation of these organisms is an open question. Obviously, more critical work on the color problem is needed. PMID:14264847

  20. Color universal design: analysis of color category dependency on color vision type (3)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kojima, Natsuki; Ichihara, Yasuyo G.; Ikeda, Tomohiro; Kamachi, Miyuki G.; Ito, Kei

    2012-01-01

    We report on the results of a study investigating the color perception characteristics of people with red-green color confusion. We believe that this is an important step towards achieving Color Universal Design. In Japan, approximately 5% of men and 0.2% of women have red-green confusion. The percentage for men is higher in Europe and the United States; up to 8% in some countries. Red-green confusion involves a perception of colors different from normal color vision. Colors are used as a means of disseminating clear information to people; however, it may be difficult to convey the correct information to people who have red-green confusion. Consequently, colors should be chosen that minimize accidents and that promote more effective communication. In a previous survey, we investigated color categories common to each color vision type, trichromat (C-type color vision), protan (P-type color vision) and deuteran (D-type color vision). In the present study, first, we conducted experiments in order to verify a previous survey of C-type color vision and P-type color vision. Next, we investigated color difference levels within "CIE 1976 L*a*b*" (the CIELAB uniform color space), where neither C-type nor P-type color vision causes accidents under certain conditions (rain maps/contour line levels and graph color legend levels). As a result, we propose a common chromaticity of colors that the two color vision types are able to categorize by means of color names common to C-type color vision. We also offer a proposal to explain perception characteristics of color differences with normal color vision and red-green confusion using the CIELAB uniform color space. This report is a follow-up to SPIE-IS & T / Vol. 7528 7528051-8 and SPIE-IS & T /vol. 7866 78660J-1-8.

  1. Selected Baking Formulas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bogdany, Melvin

    This manual is designed to help baking students learn to use formulas in the preparation of baking products. Tested and proven formulas are, for the most part, standard ones with only slight modifications. The recipes are taken mainly from bakery product manufacturers and are presented in quantities suitable for school-shop use. Each recipe…

  2. Extragalactic Extinction Laws and Quasar Structure from Color differences Between Images of Lensed Quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mediavilla, Evencio

    2011-11-01

    The action of the mean gravitational field of an intervening galaxy sufficiently aligned with a distant quasar can form several images of this object (multiple imaged quasar). Random fluctuations of the gravitational field induced by the highly inhomogeneous granulation of stars or in dark matter clumps of the lens galaxy mass distribution can subdivide the images in scales of microarcsecs (microlensing by stars) or miliarcsecs (mililensing by dark matter clumps). Anomalies induced by microlensing in the flux brightness of the images can be very strong for small sources or be averaged out by sufficiently large sources. Thus, microlensing magnification of the flux of a radially stratified source can be wavelength dependent (chromaticity). On the other hand, in their path through the lens galaxy the photons of the quasar images are also affected by the patchily distributed interstellar medium (dust extinction). Thus, the wavelength dependence of extinction can be obtained from the flux ratios between two images. In this work we review the use of quasar spectra to disentangle microlensing and dust extinction (based in the comparison between the continuum and emission line flux ratios for different images of the quasar) discussing the impact of the intrinsic source variability in this procedure. We will also review some results derived using this technique like the low fraction of mass in MACHOS in the dark halos of lens galaxies, the unexpected large sizes of the accretion disks present in the central region of lensed quasars or the derivation of extinction curves in the extragalactic domain that reveals a variability in dust properties similar to the one found in the Local Group of galaxies.

  3. Color planner for designers based on color emotions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Ka-Man; Xin, John H.; Taylor, Gail

    2002-06-01

    During the color perception process, an associated feeling or emotion is induced in our brains, and this kind of emotion is termed as 'color emotion.' The researchers in the field of color emotions have put many efforts in quantifying color emotions with the standard color specifications and evaluating the influence of hue, lightness and chroma to the color emotions of human beings. In this study, a color planner was derived according to these findings so that the correlation of color emotions and standard color specifications was clearly indicated. Since people of different nationalities usually have different color emotions as different cultural and traditional backgrounds, the subjects in this study were all native Hong Kong Chinese and the color emotion words were all written in Chinese language in the visual assessments. Through the color planner, the designers from different areas, no matter fashion, graphic, interior or web site etc., can select suitable colors for inducing target color emotions to the customers or product-users since different colors convey different meanings to them. In addition, the designers can enhance the functionality and increase the attractiveness of their designed products by selecting suitable colors.

  4. Formulas for sediment porosity and settling velocity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The formulas of Komura (1963) and Han et al. (1981) for the initial porosity of sediment deposits were tested using data sets collected in different countries and regions. It was found that Komura’s formula slightly underestimates the dry density for sand and gravel deposits and overestimates those ...

  5. Non-photochemical Quenching Plays a Key Role in Light Acclimation of Rice Plants Differing in Leaf Color

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Xia; Chen, Tingting; Feng, Baohua; Zhang, Caixia; Peng, Shaobing; Zhang, Xiufu; Fu, Guanfu; Tao, Longxing

    2017-01-01

    Non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) is an important photoprotective mechanism in rice; however, little is known regarding its role in the photosynthetic response of rice plants with differing in leaf color to different irradiances. In this study, two rice genotypes containing different chlorophyll contents, namely Zhefu802 (high chlorophyll) and Chl-8 (low chlorophyll), were subjected to moderate or high levels of light intensity at the 6-leaf stage. Chl-8 possessed a lower chlorophyll content and higher chlorophyll a:b ratio compared with Zhefu802, while Pn, Fv/Fm, and ΦPSII contents were higher in Chl-8. Further results indicated that no significant differences were observed in the activities of Rubisco, Mg2+-ATPase, and Ca2+-ATPase between these genotypes. This suggested that no significant difference in the capacity for CO2 assimilation exists between Zhe802 and Chl-8. Additionally, no significant differences in stomatal limitation were observed between the genotypes. Interestingly, higher NPQ and energy quenching (qE), as well as lower photoinhibitory quenching (qI) and production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was observed in Chl-8 compared with Zhefu802 under both moderate and high light treatments. This indicated that NPQ could improve photosynthesis in rice under both moderate and high light intensities, particularly the latter, whereby NPQ alleviates photodamage by reducing ROS production. Both zeaxanthin content and the expression of PsbS1 were associated with the induction of NPQ under moderate light, while only zeaxanthin was associated with NPQ induction under high light. In summary, NPQ could improve photosynthesis in rice under moderate light and alleviate photodamage under high light via a decrease in ROS generation. PMID:28119700

  6. Non-photochemical Quenching Plays a Key Role in Light Acclimation of Rice Plants Differing in Leaf Color.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xia; Chen, Tingting; Feng, Baohua; Zhang, Caixia; Peng, Shaobing; Zhang, Xiufu; Fu, Guanfu; Tao, Longxing

    2016-01-01

    Non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) is an important photoprotective mechanism in rice; however, little is known regarding its role in the photosynthetic response of rice plants with differing in leaf color to different irradiances. In this study, two rice genotypes containing different chlorophyll contents, namely Zhefu802 (high chlorophyll) and Chl-8 (low chlorophyll), were subjected to moderate or high levels of light intensity at the 6-leaf stage. Chl-8 possessed a lower chlorophyll content and higher chlorophyll a:b ratio compared with Zhefu802, while Pn, Fv/Fm, and ΦPSII contents were higher in Chl-8. Further results indicated that no significant differences were observed in the activities of Rubisco, Mg(2+)-ATPase, and Ca(2+)-ATPase between these genotypes. This suggested that no significant difference in the capacity for CO2 assimilation exists between Zhe802 and Chl-8. Additionally, no significant differences in stomatal limitation were observed between the genotypes. Interestingly, higher NPQ and energy quenching (qE), as well as lower photoinhibitory quenching (qI) and production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was observed in Chl-8 compared with Zhefu802 under both moderate and high light treatments. This indicated that NPQ could improve photosynthesis in rice under both moderate and high light intensities, particularly the latter, whereby NPQ alleviates photodamage by reducing ROS production. Both zeaxanthin content and the expression of PsbS1 were associated with the induction of NPQ under moderate light, while only zeaxanthin was associated with NPQ induction under high light. In summary, NPQ could improve photosynthesis in rice under moderate light and alleviate photodamage under high light via a decrease in ROS generation.

  7. Growth, photosynthetic efficiency, and biochemical composition of Tetraselmis suecica F&M-M33 grown with LEDs of different colors.

    PubMed

    Abiusi, Fabian; Sampietro, Giacomo; Marturano, Giovanni; Biondi, Natascia; Rodolfi, Liliana; D'Ottavio, Massimo; Tredici, Mario R

    2014-05-01

    The effect of light quality on cell size and cell cycle, growth rate, productivity, photosynthetic efficiency and biomass composition of the marine prasinophyte Tetraselmis suecica F&M-M33 grown in 2-L flat panel photobioreactors illuminated with light emitting diodes (LEDs) of different colors was investigated. Biomass productivity and photosynthetic efficiency were comparable between white and red light, while under blue and green light productivity decreased to less than half and photosynthetic efficiency to about one third. Differences in cell size and number correlated with the cell cycle phase. Under red light cells were smaller and more motile. Chlorophyll content was strongly reduced with red and enhanced with blue light, while carotenoids and gross biomass composition were not affected by light quality. The eicosapentaenoic acid content increased under red light. Red light can substitute white light without affecting productivity of T. suecica F&M-M33, leading to smaller and more motile cells and increased eicosapentaenoic acid content. Red LEDs can thus be profitably used for the production of this microalga for aquaculture.

  8. Watermarking spot colors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alattar, Osama M.; Reed, Alastair M.

    2003-06-01

    Watermarking of printed materials has usually focused on process inks of cyan, magenta, yellow and black (CMYK). In packaging, almost three out of four printed materials include spot colors. Spot colors are special premixed inks, which can be produced in a vibrant range of colors, often outside the CMYK color gamut. In embedding a watermark into printed material, a common approach is to modify the luminance value of each pixel in the image. In the case of process color work pieces, the luminance change can be scaled to the C, M, Y and K channels using a weighting function, to produce the desired change in luminance. In the case of spot color art designs, there is only one channel available and the luminance change is applied to this channel. In this paper we develop a weighting function to embed the watermark signal across the range of different spot colors. This weighting function normalizes visibility effect and signal robustness across a wide range of different spot colors. It normalizes the signal robustness level over the range of an individual spot color"s intensity levels. Further, it takes into account the sensitivity of the capturing device to the different spot colors.

  9. Evolution under different storage conditions of anomalous blue coloration of Mozzarella cheese intentionally contaminated with a pigment-producing strain of Pseudomonas fluorescens.

    PubMed

    Cenci-Goga, B T; Karama, M; Sechi, P; Iulietto, M F; Novelli, S; Mattei, S

    2014-11-01

    Several widespread occurrences of anomalous blue coloration of Mozzarella cheese have been recorded in the United States and some European countries. Official laboratory analysis and health authorities have linked the occurrences to contamination of the processing water with strains of Pseudomonas fluorescens, although several experts questioned how to unequivocally link the blue color to the presence of the microorganism. To establish a method to determine whether a given Pseudomonas spp. strain is responsible for the defect and study the evolution of the coloration under different storage conditions, we developed an in vitro system for the evaluation of blue coloration of Mozzarella cheese intentionally contaminated with strains of P. fluorescens. The purpose of the system was to determine whether P.fluorescens strains, isolated from Mozzarella cheese with anomalous blue coloration, were able to reproduce the blue coloration under controlled experimental conditions. Thirty-six trials of experimental inoculation of Mozzarella cheese in different preservation liquids were conducted using various suspensions of P.fluorescens (P. fluorescens ATCC 13525, P.fluorescens CFBP 3150, and P. fluorescens 349 field strain isolated from blue-colored Mozzarella cheese) at different concentrations and incubated at different temperatures. Growth curves of all tested P.fluorescens strains demonstrated that after 3 d of incubation the concentration was generally >10(6) cfu/g of Mozzarella cheese incubated in either tryptic soy broth (control) or conditioning brine. Prolonged incubation for 5 d at either 20 °C or 8 °C led to concentrations up to 10(9) cfu/g of Mozzarella cheese incubated in tryptic soy broth and up to 10(8) cfu/g of Mozzarella cheese incubated in preservation liquid. All Mozzarella cheeses inoculated with the field strain of P. fluorescens, except those opened 1h after packaging and stored at 8 °C, showed the characteristic anomalous blue coloration, which

  10. Different visible colors and green fluorescence were obtained from the mutated purple chromoprotein isolated from sea anemone.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Cheng-Yi; Chen, Yi-Lin; Tsai, Huai-Jen

    2014-08-01

    Green fluorescent protein (GFP)-like proteins have been studied with the aim of developing fluorescent proteins. Since the property of color variation is understudied, we isolated a novel GFP-like chromoprotein from the carpet anemone Stichodactyla haddoni, termed shCP. Its maximum absorption wavelength peak (λ(max)) is located at 574 nm, resulting in a purple color. The shCP protein consists of 227 amino acids (aa), sharing 96 % identity with the GFP-like chromoprotein of Heteractis crispa. We mutated aa residues to examine any alteration in color. When E63, the first aa of the chromophore, was replaced by serine (E63S), the λ(max) of the mutated protein shCP-E63S was shifted to 560 nm and exhibited a pink color. When Q39, T194, and I196, which reside in the surrounding 5 Å of the chromophore's microenvironment, were mutated, we found that (1) the λ(max) of the mutated protein shCP-Q39S was shifted to 518 nm and exhibited a red color, (2) shCP-T194I exhibited a purple-blue color, and (3) an additional mutation at I196H of the mutated protein shCP-E63L exhibited green fluorescence. In contrast, when the aa located neither at the chromophore nor within its microenvironment were mutated, the resultant proteins shCP-L122H, -E138G, -S137D, -T95I, -D129N, -T194V, -E138Q, -G75E, -I183V, and -I70V never altered their purple color, suggesting that mutations at the shCP chromophore and the surrounding 5 Å microenvironment mostly control changes in color expression or cause fluorescence to develop. Additionally, we found that the cDNAs of shCP and its mutated varieties are faithfully and stably expressed both in Escherichia coli and zebrafish embryos.

  11. Breastfeeding vs. Formula Feeding

    MedlinePlus

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Breastfeeding vs. Formula Feeding KidsHealth > For Parents > Breastfeeding vs. ... for you and your baby. continue All About Breastfeeding Nursing can be a wonderful experience for both ...

  12. Breastfeeding vs. Formula Feeding

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000803.htm Breastfeeding vs. Formula Feeding To use the sharing features ... best for you and your family. Benefits of Breastfeeding Breastfeeding is a wonderful way to bond with ...

  13. Readability Formulas: Pluses and Minuses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rygiel, Mary Ann

    1982-01-01

    Examines readability formulas and examples of their misuse. Analyzes an essay by George Orwell which was given a grade 10 readability level by one formula and discusses characteristics of Orwell's style that refute the accuracy of formula rating. (HTH)

  14. Consistent Numerical Expressions for Precession Formulae.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soma, M.

    The precession formulae by Lieske et al. (1977) have been used since 1984 for calculating apparent positions and reducing astrometric observations of celestial objects. These formulae are based on the IAU (1976) Astronomical Constants, some of which deviate from their recently determined values. They are also derived using the secular variations of the ecliptic pole from Newcomb's theory, which is not consistent with the recent planetary theories. Accordingly Simon et al. (1994) developed new precession formulae using the recently determined astronomical constants and also being based on the new planetary theory VSOP87. There are two differing definitions of the ecliptic: ecliptic in the inertial sense and ecliptic in the rotating sense (Standish 1981). The ecliptic given by the VSOP87 theory is that in the inertial sense, but the value for obliquity Simon et al. used is the obliquity in the rotating sense. Therefore their precession formulae has inconsistency. This paper gives corrections for consistent precession formulae.

  15. Color Memory of University Students: Influence of Color Experience and Color Characteristic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bynum, Carlisle; Epps, Helen H.; Kaya, Naz

    2006-01-01

    The ability to select a previously viewed color specimen from an array of specimens that differ in hue, value, or chroma varies among individuals, and may be related to one's basic color discrimination ability or to prior experience with color. This study investigated short-term color memory of 40 college students, 20 of whom were interior design…

  16. Effect of Monochromic Light-emitting Diode Light with Different Color on the Growth and Reproductive Performances of Breeder Geese

    PubMed Central

    Chang, S. C.; Lin, M. J.; Zhuang, Z. X.; Huang, S. Y.; Lin, T. Y.; Jea, Y. S.; Fan, Y. K.; Lee, T. T.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of monochromic light-emitting diode (LED) light with different color on the growth and reproductive performances of white Roman breeder geese. A randomized complete batch design was utilized for the trial, and the replicate was regarded as one batch. Twenty ganders and fifty-five dames were used in batch 1 (started on 2011/6/17 and ended on 2012/1/31), thirty ganders and eighty-four dames were used in batch 2 (started on 2012/3/23 and ended on 2012/10/26), and thirty ganders and seventy-two dames were used in batch 3 (started on 2013/3/12 and ended on 2013/12/20). Two hundred and ninety-one geese were randomly assigned to 6 rooms in an environmentally controlled house. They were randomly allotted into one of three monochromatic light treatments: Blue, red, or white. The results showed that there was no significant difference in body weight among the three lighting groups at any point throughout the experimental period. However, compared to the blue light group, significantly more eggs were produced by the red and white light groups (p<0.05). Furthermore, the laying period of the red light group was significantly longer than that of other two groups (p<0.05). In conclusion, our results suggested that red LED-light has the best effect on reproductive performance (i.e. longer laying period and higher total eggs number) at 30 lux light intensity, and is therefore a better choice for the management of breeding geese than blue or white LED-light. PMID:26954165

  17. Effects of different surface finishing procedures on the change in surface roughness and color of a polymer infiltrated ceramic network material

    PubMed Central

    Arslan, Merve; Türker, Nurullah; Barutcigil, Kubilay

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE Polymer infiltrated ceramic network (PICN) materials, also called hybrid ceramics, are new materials in dental market. The manufacturer of the PICN material VITA Enamic suggests 3 different finishing procedures for this new material. In the present study, surface roughness and color differences caused from different finishing procedures of VITA Enamic were investigated. MATERIALS AND METHODS 120 specimens were prepared in dimensions 2 × 10 × 12 mm from VITA Enamic hybrid ceramic blocks with 'high translucency' and 'translucency 2M2' shades. The specimens were divided into 8 groups. For each group, different finishing procedures suggested by the manufacturer were performed. Surface roughness values were determined by a tactile portable profilometer. Color changes were evaluated using a clinical spectrophotometer. The data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Tukey's post-hoc comparison. The significance level was set at α=0.05. RESULTS The roughest surfaces were observed in Glaze Groups. Their surface roughness values were similar to that of the control group. Clinical Kit and Technical Kit groups did not show a statistically significant difference regarding surface roughness (P>.05). The largest color difference regarding ΔE00 was observed in Clinical Kit finishing groups. There were also statistically significant color changes between the groups (P<.05). However, all the groups showed clinically acceptable color change (ΔE00<2.25) except Clinical Kit Groups (ΔE00>2.25). CONCLUSION Within the limitations of the present study, it may be suggested that finishing the VITA Enamic restorations by Technical Kit instead of Glaze and Clinical Kit gives better clinical performance in regard to surface roughness and shade matching. PMID:26949483

  18. Body surface area formulae: an alarming ambiguity

    PubMed Central

    Redlarski, Grzegorz; Palkowski, Aleksander; Krawczuk, Marek

    2016-01-01

    Body surface area (BSA) plays a key role in several medical fields, including cancer chemotherapy, transplantology, burn treatment and toxicology. BSA is often a major factor in the determination of the course of treatment and drug dosage. A series of formulae to simplify the process have been developed. Because easy-to-identify, yet general, body coefficient results of those formulae vary considerably, the question arises as to whether the choice of a particular formula is valid and safe for patients. Here we show that discrepancies between most of the known BSA formulae can reach 0.5 m2 for the standard adult physique. Although many previous studies have demonstrated that certain BSA formulae provide an almost exact fit with the patients examined, all of these studies have been performed on a limited and isolated group of people. Our analysis presents a broader perspective, considering 25 BSA formulae. The analysis revealed that the choice of a particular formula is a difficult task. Differences among calculations made by the formulae are so great that, in certain cases, they may considerably affect patients’ mortality, especially for people with an abnormal physique or for children. PMID:27323883

  19. Body surface area formulae: an alarming ambiguity.

    PubMed

    Redlarski, Grzegorz; Palkowski, Aleksander; Krawczuk, Marek

    2016-06-21

    Body surface area (BSA) plays a key role in several medical fields, including cancer chemotherapy, transplantology, burn treatment and toxicology. BSA is often a major factor in the determination of the course of treatment and drug dosage. A series of formulae to simplify the process have been developed. Because easy-to-identify, yet general, body coefficient results of those formulae vary considerably, the question arises as to whether the choice of a particular formula is valid and safe for patients. Here we show that discrepancies between most of the known BSA formulae can reach 0.5 m(2) for the standard adult physique. Although many previous studies have demonstrated that certain BSA formulae provide an almost exact fit with the patients examined, all of these studies have been performed on a limited and isolated group of people. Our analysis presents a broader perspective, considering 25 BSA formulae. The analysis revealed that the choice of a particular formula is a difficult task. Differences among calculations made by the formulae are so great that, in certain cases, they may considerably affect patients' mortality, especially for people with an abnormal physique or for children.

  20. An edible vaccine for malaria using transgenic tomatoes of varying sizes, shapes and colors to carry different antigens.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Kamal; Bagasra, Omar

    2007-01-01

    different antigens as a single dose. Besides, if immunization schedules could be arranged, the stability of vaccines carrying different malarial antigens, their transport, and the logistics of vaccination would be an almost impossible task to achieve under the current fiscal constraints. We are proposing a unique way to circumvent these logistical difficulties to deliver the malaria vaccines to every susceptible home at a small fraction of a cost. We hypothesize that the anti-malaria edible vaccines in transgenic tomato plants where different transgenic plants expressing different antigenic type(s). Immunizing individuals against 2-3 antigens and against each stage of the life cycle of the multistage parasites would be an efficient, inexpensive and safe way of vaccination. Tomatoes with varying sizes, shapes and colors carrying different antigens would make the vaccines easily identifiable by lay individuals.

  1. [Evaluation of image quality using the normalized-rank approach for primary class liquid-crystal display (LCD) monitors with different colors and resolution].

    PubMed

    Kuroki, Hidefumi; Katayama, Reiji; Sakaguchi, Taro; Maeda, Takashi; Morishita, Junji; Hayabuchi, Naofumi

    2010-11-20

    The purposes of this study were to evaluate the image quality of five types of liquid-crystal display (LCD) monitors by utilizing the normalized-rank approach and to investigate the effect of LCD monitor specifications, such as display colors, luminance, and resolution, on the evaluators' ranking. The LCD monitors used in this study were 2, 3 and 5 mega-pixel monochrome LCD monitors, and 2 and 3 mega-pixel color LCD monitors (Eizo Nanao Corporation). All LCD monitors were calibrated to the grayscale standard display function (GSDF) with different maximum luminance (recommended luminance) settings. Also, four kinds of radiographs were used for observer study based on the normalized-rank approach: three adult chest radiographs, three pediatric chest radiographs, three ankle joint radiographs, and four double-contrasted upper gastrointestinal radiographs. Ten radiological technologists participated in the observer study. Monochrome LCD monitors exhibited superior ranking with statistically significant differences (p<0.05) compared to color LCD monitors in all kinds of radiographs. The major difference between monochrome and color monitors was luminance. Therefore, it is considered that the luminance of LCD monitors affects observers' evaluations based on image quality. Moreover, in the case of radiographs that include high frequency image components, the monitor resolution also affects the evaluation. In clinical practice, it is necessary to optimize the luminance and choose appropriate LCD monitors for diagnostic images.

  2. Color realism and color science.

    PubMed

    Byrne, Alex; Hilbert, David R

    2003-02-01

    The target article is an attempt to make some progress on the problem of color realism. Are objects colored? And what is the nature of the color properties? We defend the view that physical objects (for instance, tomatoes, radishes, and rubies) are colored, and that colors are physical properties, specifically, types of reflectance. This is probably a minority opinion, at least among color scientists. Textbooks frequently claim that physical objects are not colored, and that the colors are "subjective" or "in the mind." The article has two other purposes: First, to introduce an interdisciplinary audience to some distinctively philosophical tools that are useful in tackling the problem of color realism and, second, to clarify the various positions and central arguments in the debate. The first part explains the problem of color realism and makes some useful distinctions. These distinctions are then used to expose various confusions that often prevent people from seeing that the issues are genuine and difficult, and that the problem of color realism ought to be of interest to anyone working in the field of color science. The second part explains the various leading answers to the problem of color realism, and (briefly) argues that all views other than our own have serious difficulties or are unmotivated. The third part explains and motivates our own view, that colors are types of reflectances and defends it against objections made in the recent literature that are often taken as fatal.

  3. Comparative study of the enological potential of different winemaking byproducts: implications in the antioxidant activity and color expression of red wine anthocyanins in a model solution.

    PubMed

    Jara-Palacios, M José; Gordillo, Belén; González-Miret, M Lourdes; Hernanz, Dolores; Escudero-Gilete, M Luisa; Heredia, Francisco J

    2014-07-23

    Different white winemaking byproducts (pomace, skins, seeds, and stems) were compared as natural sources of phenolic compounds having biological and sensory properties of enological interest. Antioxidant and copigmentation effects of these byproducts were studied in a wine-like model solution. RRLC-DAD was used to establish differences in the phenolic composition, and the ABTS method was used to compare the antioxidant activities. Spectrophotometric and colorimetric analyses were performed to assess the magnitude of copigmentation and the changes induced in the color expression of red wine anthocyanins. Antioxidant and copigmentation properties significantly varied depending on the type of byproduct, which was related to their qualitative and quantitative phenolic composition. Seeds and pomace showed the highest antioxidant potential, whereas skins and pomace led to the strongest and visually perceptible color effects on red wine anthocyanins by multiple copigmentation (darker, more saturated, and vivid bluish colors). Results open the possibility of technological applications for the wine industry based on reusing winemaking byproducts to improve the biological value and color characteristics of red wines.

  4. Cave microbial community composition in oceanic islands: disentangling the effect of different colored mats in diversity patterns of Azorean lava caves.

    PubMed

    Riquelme, Cristina; Rigal, François; Hathaway, Jennifer J M; Northup, Diana E; Spilde, Michael N; Borges, Paulo A V; Gabriel, Rosalina; Amorim, Isabel R; Dapkevicius, Maria de Lurdes N E

    2015-12-01

    Processes determining diversity and composition of bacterial communities in island volcanic caves are still poorly understood. Here, we characterized colored microbial mats in 14 volcanic caves from two oceanic islands of the Azores using 16S rRNA gene sequences. Factors determining community diversity (α) and composition (β) were explored, namely colored mats, caves and islands, as well as environmental and chemical characteristics of caves. Additive partitioning of diversity using OTU occurrence showed a greater influence of β-diversity between islands and caves that may relate to differences in rare OTUs (singletons and doubletons) across scales. In contrast, Shannon diversity partitioning revealed the importance of the lowest hierarchical level (α diversity, colored mat), suggesting a dominance of cosmopolitan OTUs (>1%) in most samples. Cosmopolitan OTUs included members involved in nitrogen cycling, supporting the importance of this process in Azorean caves. Environmental and chemical conditions in caves did not show any significant relationship to OTU diversity and composition. The absence of clear differences between mat colors and across scales may be explained by (1) the geological youth of the cave system (cave communities have not had enough time to diverge) or/and (2) community convergence, as the result of selection pressure in extreme environments.

  5. Color universal design: analysis of color category dependency on color vision type (4)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikeda, Tomohiro; Ichihara, Yasuyo G.; Kojima, Natsuki; Tanaka, Hisaya; Ito, Kei

    2013-02-01

    This report is af ollow-up to SPIE-IS+T / Vol. 7528 7528051-8, SPIE-IS+T / Vol. 7866 78660J-1-8 and SPIE-IS+T / Vol. 8292 829206-1-8. Colors are used to communicate information in various situations, not just for design and apparel. However, visual information given only by color may be perceived differently by individuals with different color vision types. Human color vision is non-uniform and the variation in most cases is genetically linked to L-cones and M-cones. Therefore, color appearance is not the same for all color vision types. Color Universal Design is an easy-to-understand system that was created to convey color-coded information accurately to most people, taking color vision types into consideration. In the present research, we studied trichromat (C-type), prolan (P-type), and deutan (D-type) forms of color vision. We here report the result of two experiments. The first was the validation of the confusion colors using the color chart on CIELAB uniform color space. We made an experimental color chart (total of color cells is 622, the color difference between color cells is 2.5) for fhis experiment, and subjects have P-type or D-type color vision. From the data we were able to determine "the limits with high probability of confusion" and "the limits with possible confusion" around various basing points. The direction of the former matched with the theoretical confusion locus, but the range did not extend across the entire a* range. The latter formed a belt-like zone above and below the theoretical confusion locus. This way we re-analyzed a part of the theoretical confusion locus suggested by Pitt-Judd. The second was an experiment in color classification of the subjects with C-type, P-type, or D-type color vision. The color caps of fhe 100 Hue Test were classified into seven categories for each color vision type. The common and different points of color sensation were compared for each color vision type, and we were able to find a group of color caps

  6. Entropy, color, and color rendering.

    PubMed

    Price, Luke L A

    2012-12-01

    The Shannon entropy [Bell Syst. Tech J.27, 379 (1948)] of spectral distributions is applied to the problem of color rendering. With this novel approach, calculations for visual white entropy, spectral entropy, and color rendering are proposed, indices that are unreliant on the subjectivity inherent in reference spectra and color samples. The indices are tested against real lamp spectra, showing a simple and robust system for color rendering assessment. The discussion considers potential roles for white entropy in several areas of color theory and psychophysics and nonextensive entropy generalizations of the entropy indices in mathematical color spaces.

  7. Microscopic mass formulas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duflo, J.; Zuker, A. P.

    1995-07-01

    By assuming the existence of a pseudopotential smooth enough to do Hartree-Fock variations and good enough to describe nuclear structure, we construct mass formulas that rely on general scaling arguments and on a schematic reading of shell model calculations. Fits to 1751 known binding energies for N,Z>=8 lead to rms errors of 375 keV with 28 parameters. Tests of the extrapolation properties are passed successfully. The Bethe-Weizsäcker formula is shown to be the asymptotic limit of the present one(s). The surface energy of nuclear matter turns out to be probably smaller than currently accepted.

  8. The power formula for atmospheric Stirling engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolin, Ivo; Lista, Paolo; Naso, Vincenzo

    A new proposed formula allows the evaluation of the indicated power of an atmospheric Stirling engine by means of minimum working fluid volume, mean arithmetical pressure difference and correction factors for dead space and compression ratio, grounded on the simplest geometrical and design characteristics. The practical example given in this paper presents the comparison among the Beale formula and other similar equations, developed by other authors, showing various degrees of accuracy. Closer approximation has been reached by the proposed formula in comparison with other expressions.

  9. Color Facsimile.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-02-01

    modification of existing JPEG compression and decompression software available from Independent JPEG Users Group to process CIELAB color images and to use...externally specificed Huffman tables. In addition a conversion program was written to convert CIELAB color space images to red, green, blue color space

  10. Seeing Color

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texley, Juliana

    2005-01-01

    Colors are powerful tools for engaging children, from the youngest years onward. We hang brightly patterned mobiles above their cribs and help them learn the names of colors as they begin to record their own ideas in pictures and words. Colors can also open the door to an invisible world of electromagnetism, even when children can barely imagine…

  11. Sequence characterization of the MC1R gene in yak (Poephagus grunniens) breeds with different coat colors.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shi-Yi; Huang, Yi; Zhu, Qing; Fontanesi, Luca; Yao, Yong-Gang; Liu, Yi-Ping

    2009-01-01

    Melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) gene plays a key role in determining coat color in several species, including the cattle. However, up to now there is no report regarding the MC1R gene and the potential association of its mutations with coat colors in yak (Poephagus grunniens). In this study, we sequenced the encoding region of the MC1R gene in three yak breeds with completely white (Tianzhu breed) or black coat color (Jiulong and Maiwa breeds). The predicted coding region of the yak MC1R gene resulted of 954 bp, the same to that of the wild-type cattle sequence, with >99% identity. None of the mutation events reported in cattle was found. Comparing the yak obtained sequences, five nucleotide substitutions were detected, which defined three haplotypes (E(Y1), E(Y2), and E(Y3)). Of the five mutations, two, characterizing the E(Y1) haplotype, were nonsynonymous substitutions (c.340C>A and c.871G>A) causing amino acid changes located in the first extracellular loop (p.Q114K) and in the seventh transmembrane region (p.A291T). In silico prediction might indicate a functional effect of the latter substitution. However, all three haplotypes were present in the three yak breeds with relatively consistent frequency distribution, despite of their distinguished coat colors, which suggested that there was no across-breed association between haplotypes or genotypes and black/white phenotypes, at least in the investigated breeds. Other genes may be involved in affecting coat color in the analyzed yaks.

  12. Skeletal modifications of [Formula: see text]-carboline alkaloids and their antiviral activity profile.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yan; Huang, Yuanqiong; Song, Hongjian; Liu, Yuxiu; Wang, Lizhong; Wang, Qingmin

    2016-11-01

    To study the effect of the variation of fused ring size and substitution on the antiviral activity of [Formula: see text]-carboline alkaloids, four types of structurally novel [Formula: see text]-carboline alkaloids analogues, with indole-fused six- to nine-membered-rings motifs, were designed, synthesized, and evaluated for the inhibition of tobacco mosaic virus (TMV). Bioassay results indicated that most of these analogues had significant anti-TMV activity; especially I-14 (54 [Formula: see text] 3 % at 500 [Formula: see text]g/mL in vitro; 51 [Formula: see text] 2, 45 [Formula: see text] 2, and 42 [Formula: see text] 1 % at 500 [Formula: see text]g/mL in vivo), II-4 (53 [Formula: see text] 1 % at 500 [Formula: see text]g/mL in vitro; 49 [Formula: see text] 2, 57 [Formula: see text] 2, and 48 [Formula: see text] 1 % at 500 [Formula: see text]g/mL in vivo), and II-8 (48 [Formula: see text] 1 % at 500 [Formula: see text]g/mL in vitro; 53 [Formula: see text] 2 %, 56 [Formula: see text] 2 %, and 46 [Formula: see text] 1 % at 500 [Formula: see text]g/mL in vivo), which were more potent vs. TMV than was ribavirin (36 [Formula: see text] 1 % at 500 [Formula: see text]g/mL in vitro; 37 [Formula: see text] 2, 41 [Formula: see text] 2, and 38 [Formula: see text] 1 % at 500 [Formula: see text]g/mL in vivo). The size of the fused ring has important effects on anti-TMV potency, which may be ascribed to conformational differences. The X-ray structures of I-1, I-6, II-8, and III show differing conformational preferences. The most potent compounds can be used as leads for further optimization as antiphytoviral agents.

  13. Color constancy in Japanese animation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ichihara, Yasuyo G.

    2006-01-01

    In this study, we measure the colors used in a Japanese Animations. The result can be seen on CIE-xy color spaces. It clearly shows that the color system is not a natural appearance system but an imagined and artistic appearance system. Color constancy of human vision can tell the difference in skin and hair colors between under moonlight and day light. Human brain generates a match to the memorized color of an object from daylight viewing conditions to the color of the object in different viewing conditions. For example, Japanese people always perceive the color of the Rising Sun in the Japanese flag as red even in a different viewing condition such as under moonlight. Color images captured by a camera cannot present those human perceptions. However, Japanese colorists in Animation succeeded in painting the effects of color constancy not only under moonlight but also added the memory matching colors. They aim to create a greater impact on viewer's perceptions by using the effect of the memory matching colors. In this paper, we propose the Imagined Japanese Animation Color System. This system in art is currently a subject of research in Japan. Its importance is that it could also provide an explanation on how human brain perceives the same color under different viewing conditions.

  14. Salmonella and Escherichia coli O157:H7 Inactivation, Color, and Bioactive Compounds Enhancement on Raspberries during Frozen Storage after Decontamination Using New Formula Sanitizer Washing or Pulsed Light.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wenqing; Chen, Haiqiang; Wu, Changqing

    2016-07-01

    Berries are normally washed before they are frozen. Washing with sanitizer and treatment with pulsed light (PL) were studied for their effectiveness to inactivate foodborne pathogens on raspberries during frozen storage, while maintaining or enhancing major quality parameters. Raspberries were inoculated with Salmonella or Escherichia coli O157:H7 and then underwent a washing treatment with citric acid plus sodium dodecyl sulfate (CA+SDS) or citric acid plus thymol (CA+THY) or treatment with PL (dry PL, water-assisted [wet] PL, and PL-SDS). Pathogen survival was determined immediately after treatments and during frozen storage at -20°C for 3 months. Washing with CA+SDS or CA+THY significantly reduced Salmonella (by 3.6 and 3.2 log CFU/g, respectively) and E. coli O157:H7 (by 4.1 and 3.7 log CFU/g, respectively). At the end of storage, washing with CA+SDS reduced Salmonella to 0.6 log CFU/g and E. coli O157:H7 to 0.5 log CFU/g; washing with CA+THY reduced Salmonella to 0.9 log CFU/g and E. coli O157:H7 to 0.5 log CFU/g. PL-SDS showed decontamination efficacy on raspberries, with 0.7 log CFU/g Salmonella and 0.9 log CFU/g E. coli O157:H7 surviving at the end of storage; in comparison, in the control, 1.6 log CFU/g Salmonella and 1.5 log CFU/g E. coli O157:H7 survived. Pathogen survival in raspberries that had been washed or treated with PL-SDS was significantly lower than in untreated raspberries. Major quality parameters, including color, total phenolic content, total anthocyanin content, total bacterial count, and total yeast and mold counts, were evaluated on raspberries immediately after treatments and during frozen storage. Redness increased in PL-treated raspberries. At the end of storage, PL-treated raspberries had significantly higher total phenolic content and total anthocyanin content compared with control samples. Washing with sanitizers and treatment with PL decreased the total bacterial count and total yeast and mold counts on raspberries and maintained

  15. Composition formulas of binary eutectics.

    PubMed

    Ma, Y P; Dong, D D; Dong, C; Luo, L J; Wang, Q; Qiang, J B; Wang, Y M

    2015-12-14

    The present paper addresses the long-standing composition puzzle of eutectic points by introducing a new structural tool for the description of short-range-order structural unit, the cluster-plus-glue-atom model. In this model, any structure is dissociated into a 1(st)-neighbor cluster and a few glue atoms between the clusters, expressed by a cluster formula [cluster]gluex. This model is applied here to establish the structural model for eutectic liquids, assuming that a eutectic liquid consist of two subunits issued from the relevant eutectic phases, each being expressed by the cluster formula for ideal metallic glasses, i.e., [cluster](glue atom)(1 or 3). A structural unit is then composed of two clusters from the relevant eutectic phases plus 2, 4, or 6 glue atoms. Such a dual cluster formulism is well validated in all boron-containing (except those located by the extreme phase diagram ends) and in some commonly-encountered binary eutectics, within accuracies below 1 at.%. The dual cluster formulas vary extensively and are rarely identical even for eutectics of close compositions. They are generally formed with two distinctly different cluster types, with special cluster matching rules such as cuboctahedron plus capped trigonal prism and rhombidodecahedron plus octahedral antiprism.

  16. Composition formulas of binary eutectics

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Y. P.; Dong, D. D.; Dong, C.; Luo, L. J.; Wang, Q.; Qiang, J. B.; Wang, Y. M.

    2015-01-01

    The present paper addresses the long-standing composition puzzle of eutectic points by introducing a new structural tool for the description of short-range-order structural unit, the cluster-plus-glue-atom model. In this model, any structure is dissociated into a 1st-neighbor cluster and a few glue atoms between the clusters, expressed by a cluster formula [cluster]gluex. This model is applied here to establish the structural model for eutectic liquids, assuming that a eutectic liquid consist of two subunits issued from the relevant eutectic phases, each being expressed by the cluster formula for ideal metallic glasses, i.e., [cluster](glue atom)1 or 3. A structural unit is then composed of two clusters from the relevant eutectic phases plus 2, 4, or 6 glue atoms. Such a dual cluster formulism is well validated in all boron-containing (except those located by the extreme phase diagram ends) and in some commonly-encountered binary eutectics, within accuracies below 1 at.%. The dual cluster formulas vary extensively and are rarely identical even for eutectics of close compositions. They are generally formed with two distinctly different cluster types, with special cluster matching rules such as cuboctahedron plus capped trigonal prism and rhombidodecahedron plus octahedral antiprism. PMID:26658618

  17. Multimodal sexual signals in male ocellated lizards Lacerta lepida: vitamin E in scent and green coloration may signal male quality in different sensory channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martín, José; López, Pilar

    2010-06-01

    The mechanisms that confer honesty to multiple sexual signals of vertebrates remain less known. We suggest that vitamin E in the scent (femoral secretions) and carotenoids in coloration of Lacerta lepida lizards might advertise quality because they are relevant in metabolism as major antioxidants and have a dietary origin. Results showed that there may be similar trade-offs between immunity and both chemical and visual signaling, as males with more vitamin E in secretions and those with more greenish, darker, and saturated carotenoid-dependent colorations had a higher immune response. This suggests that only high-quality males can divert from metabolism and allocate enough vitamin E to secretions and enough carotenoids to coloration. Therefore, information provided by visual and chemical signals is congruent. The use of multiple sensory channels may allow signaling a male quality under different circumstances or reinforce the reliability of the signal when both signals are perceived simultaneously. However, we also found that characteristics of carotenoid-dependent coloration mirror the amounts of vitamin E in secretions. This might support that carotenoids, which are not true antioxidants in the organism, would just reflect and “inform” on the actual contents of metabolic antioxidant vitamin E, which is part of the true system that prevent oxidation. We suggest that the metabolic roles of vitamins might be the actual basis of honesty of many sexual displays, and that carotenoid-based signals might be just the visible part of the whole system.

  18. The Mystical "Quadratic Formula."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    March, Robert H.

    1993-01-01

    Uses projectile motion to explain the two roots found when using the quadratic formula. An example is provided for finding the time of flight for a projectile which has a negative root implying a negative time of flight. This negative time of flight also has a useful physical meaning. (MVL)

  19. The Formula Essay Reconsidered

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haluska, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Bruce Pirie offers the following criticism about formula essays: "What does a five-paragraph essay teach about writing? It teaches that there are rules, and that those rules take the shape of a preordained form, like a cookie-cutter, into which we can pour ideas and expect them to come out well shaped." He goes on to discredit such essays as being…

  20. Research Timeline: Formulaic language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wray, Alison

    2013-01-01

    Creating a timeline for formulaic language is far from simple, because several partially independent lines of research have contributed to the emerging picture. Each exhibits cycles of innovation and consolidation over time: domains take a leading role in developing new knowledge and then fall back, while another area comes to the fore. Thus, some…

  1. The reasons for the color green fluorite Mehmandooye cover using UV spectroscopy and XRF results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pirzadeh, Sara; Zahiri, Reza

    2016-04-01

    Fluorite mineral or fluorine with chemical formula CaF2 is most important mineralfluor in nature. This mineral crystallization to colors yellow, green, pink, blue, purple, colorless and sometimes black andin cubic system crystallized.assemi transparent and glass with polished.fluoritethe purity include 48/9% fluoreand 51/9% calcium. How the creation colors in minerals different greatly indebted to Kurt Nassau research from Bell Labs, Murray Hill, New Jersey.almostall the mechanisms that cause color in minerals, are the result of the interaction of light waves with the electrons The main factors affecting the color generation include the following: 1)the presence of a constructive element inherent (essential ingredient mineral composition) 2)The presence of a minor impurities (such a element as involved in latticesolid solution) 3) appearancedefects in the crystal structure 4) There are some physical boundaries with distances very small and delicate, like blades out of the solution (which may be the play of colors or Chatvyansy) 5) Mixing mechanical impurities dispersed in a host mineral Based on the results of the analysis, XRF and UV spectrum and also based on the results of ICP, because the color green fluorite examined, the focus color (F_center) and also the presence of some elementsintermediate (such as Y (yttrium). [1] Bill, H., Calas, G. Color centres associated rare earth ions and the origin of coloration in natural fluorites// PhysChem Min, (1978), v 3, pp. 117-131.

  2. Color Terms and Color Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidoff, Jules

    2006-01-01

    In their lead articles, both Kowalski and Zimiles (2006) and O'Hanlon and Roberson (2006) declare a general relation between color term knowledge and the ability to conceptually represent color. Kowalski and Zimiles, in particular, argue for a priority for the conceptual representation in color term acquisition. The complexities of the interaction…

  3. Disabled Students of Color.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frank, Zelma Lloyd; Ball-Brown, Brenda

    1993-01-01

    Explores why few disabled students of color use student services. Details why some of these students were unnecessarily placed in special education programs and focuses on the experiences of this group. Addresses general cultural differences that can affect responses between people of color and disability services. Provides guidelines for service…

  4. Multiplexing encoding method for full-color dynamic 3D holographic display.

    PubMed

    Xue, Gaolei; Liu, Juan; Li, Xin; Jia, Jia; Zhang, Zhao; Hu, Bin; Wang, Yongtian

    2014-07-28

    The multiplexing encoding method is proposed and demonstrated for reconstructing colorful images accurately by using single phase-only spatial light modulator (SLM). It will encode the light waves at different wavelengths into one pure-phase hologram at the same time based on the analytic formulas. The three-dimensional (3D) images can be reconstructed clearly when the light waves at different wavelengths are incident into the encoding hologram. Numerical simulations and optical experiments for 2D and 3D colorful images are performed. The results show that the colorful reconstructed images with high quality are achieved successfully. The proposed multiplexing method is a simple and fast encoding approach and the size of the system is small and compact. It is expected to be used for realizing full-color 3D holographic display in future.

  5. Differences in pollination success between local and foreign flower color phenotypes: a translocation experiment with Gentiana lutea (Gentianaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Sobral, Mar; Veiga, Tania; Guitián, Pablo; Guitián, José M.

    2017-01-01

    Background The adaptive maintenance of flower color variation is frequently attributed to pollinators partly because they preferentially visit certain flower phenotypes. We tested whether Gentiana lutea—which shows a flower color variation (from orange to yellow) in the Cantabrian Mountains range (north of Spain)—is locally adapted to the pollinator community. Methods We transplanted orange-flowering individuals to a population with yellow-flowering individuals and vice versa, in order to assess whether there is a pollination advantage in the local morph by comparing its visitation rate with the foreign morph. Results Our reciprocal transplant experiment did not show clear local morph advantage in overall visitation rate: local orange flowers received more visits than foreign yellow flowers in the orange population, while both local and foreign flowers received the same visits in the yellow population; thus, there is no evidence of local adaptation in Gentiana lutea to the pollinator assemblage. However, some floral visitor groups (such as Bombus pratorum, B. soroensis ancaricus and B. lapidarius decipiens) consistently preferred the local morph to the foreign morph whereas others (such as Bombus terrestris) consistently preferred the foreign morph. Discussion We concluded that there is no evidence of local adaptation to the pollinator community in each of the two G. lutea populations studied. The consequences for local adaptation to pollinator on G. lutea flower color would depend on the variation along the Cantabrian Mountains range in morph frequency and pollinator community composition. PMID:28194308

  6. COMPARISON OF CHILDREN'S FOLLOW-ON INSTANT POWDERED COW'S MILK FORMULA, BUFFALO MILK FORMULA AND CHICKEN-BASED FORMULA ON ENAMEL MICROHARDNESS OF BOVINE TEETH IN VITRO.

    PubMed

    Vongsavan, Kadkao; Rirattanapong, Praphasri; Surarit, Rudee

    2016-03-01

    Dental caries are a major public health problem worldwide. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of children's follow-on instant powdered cow's milk formula, buffalo milk formula and a chicken-based formula on microhardness of bovine enamel with artificial caries-like lesions. Forty bovine teeth were each placed in acrylic blocks and the enamel surfaces were polished to create flat 5 x 5 millimeter surfaces. The teeth surfaces were then demineralized using 0.1M lactic acid (pH 4.5) to achieve an enamel microhardness of 35-65 Vickers Hardness Numbers (VHN). All specimens were then randomly allocated into one of 4 groups (n=10/group). For remineralization, each group was soaked in a different kind of milk formula for 2 hours at 37°C except group 1 which was a negative control (artificial saliva) group. Group 2 was soaked in Murrah™ buffalo milk formula (a positive control ), group 3 in S-26-Promil-Gold™ (cow's milk formula) and group 4 in a chicken-based formula (Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University). The microhardness of the specimens was then measured again. Data were analyzed using a one-way ANOVA and paired t-test with a 95% confidence interval. After exposure to the formula, the mean VHN for each study group was significantly higher (paired t-test, p < 0.05) except for group 1 (p = 0.345). The mean VHN for the the Murrah™ buffalo milk formula, the chicken-based formula and the S-26-Promil-Gold™ formula group were not significantly different from each other (one-way ANOVA, p > 0.05). In conclusion, S-26-Promil-Gold™ follow-on cow milk formula, Murrah™ buffalo milk formula and the chicken-based formula all increased bovine enamel microhardness after soaking for 2 hours.

  7. Color terms and color concepts.

    PubMed

    Davidoff, Jules

    2006-08-01

    In their lead articles, both Kowalski and Zimiles (2006) and O'Hanlon and Roberson (2006) declare a general relation between color term knowledge and the ability to conceptually represent color. Kowalski and Zimiles, in particular, argue for a priority for the conceptual representation in color term acquisition. The complexities of the interaction are taken up in the current commentary, especially with regard to the neuropsychological evidence. Data from aphasic patients also argue for a priority for abstract thought, but nevertheless it may still be that the use of color terms is the only way in which to form color categories even if both linguistic and attentional factors play an important role.

  8. Adaptive color correction based on object color classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotera, Hiroaki; Morimoto, Tetsuro; Yasue, Nobuyuki; Saito, Ryoichi

    1998-09-01

    An adaptive color management strategy depending on the image contents is proposed. Pictorial color image is classified into different object areas with clustered color distribution. Euclidian or Mahalanobis color distance measures, and maximum likelihood method based on Bayesian decision rule, are introduced to the classification. After the classification process, each clustered pixels are projected onto principal component space by Hotelling transform and the color corrections are performed for the principal components to be matched each other in between the individual clustered color areas of original and printed images.

  9. Color Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wrolstad, Ronald E.; Smith, Daniel E.

    Color, flavor, and texture are the three principal quality attributes that determine food acceptance, and color has a far greater influence on our judgment than most of us appreciate. We use color to determine if a banana is at our preferred ripeness level, and a discolored meat product can warn us that the product may be spoiled. The marketing departments of our food corporations know that, for their customers, the color must be "right." The University of California Davis scorecard for wine quality designates four points out of 20, or 20% of the total score, for color and appearance (1). Food scientists who establish quality control specifications for their product are very aware of the importance of color and appearance. While subjective visual assessment and use of visual color standards are still used in the food industry, instrumental color measurements are extensively employed. Objective measurement of color is desirable for both research and industrial applications, and the ruggedness, stability, and ease of use of today's color measurement instruments have resulted in their widespread adoption.

  10. Processing of Color Words Activates Color Representations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richter, Tobias; Zwaan, Rolf A.

    2009-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate whether color representations are routinely activated when color words are processed. Congruency effects of colors and color words were observed in both directions. Lexical decisions on color words were faster when preceding colors matched the color named by the word. Color-discrimination responses…

  11. Navigation lights color study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbosa, Jose G.; Alberg, Matthew T.

    2015-05-01

    The chromaticity of navigation lights are defined by areas on the International Commission on Illumination (CIE) 1931 chromaticity diagram. The corner coordinates for these areas are specified in the International Regulations for Prevention of Collisions at Sea, 1972 (72 COLREGS). The navigation light's color of white, red, green, and yellow are bounded by these areas. The chromaticity values specified by the COLREGS for navigation lights were intended for the human visual system (HVS). The HVS can determine the colors of these lights easily under various conditions. For digital color camera imaging systems the colors of these lights are dependent on the camera's color spectral sensitivity, settings, and color correction. At night the color of these lights are used to quickly determine the relative course of vessels. If these lights are incorrectly identified or there is a delay in identifying them this could be a potential safety of ship concern. Vessels that use camera imaging systems exclusively for sight, at night, need to detect, identify, and discriminate navigation lights for navigation and collision avoidance. The introduction of light emitting diode (LED) lights and lights with different spectral signatures have the potential to be imaged very differently with an RGB color filter array (CFA) color camera than with the human eye. It has been found that some green navigation lights' images appear blue verse green. This has an impact on vessels that use camera imaging systems exclusively for navigation. This paper will characterize color cameras ability to properly reproducing navigation lights' color and survey a set of navigation light to determine if they conform to the COLREGS.

  12. Exponential Formulae and Effective Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mielnik, Bogdan; Fernandez, David J. C.

    1996-01-01

    One of standard methods to predict the phenomena of squeezing consists in splitting the unitary evolution operator into the product of simpler operations. The technique, while mathematically general, is not so simple in applications and leaves some pragmatic problems open. We report an extended class of exponential formulae, which yield a quicker insight into the laboratory details for a class of squeezing operations, and moreover, can be alternatively used to programme different type of operations, as: (1) the free evolution inversion; and (2) the soft simulations of the sharp kicks (so that all abstract results involving the kicks of the oscillator potential, become realistic laboratory prescriptions).

  13. Crater Floor in Color

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 5 May 2004 This daytime visible color image was collected on November 18, 2003 during the Southern Summer season in Terra Cimmeria.

    This daytime visible color image was collected on September 4, 2002 during the Northern Spring season in Vastitas Borealis. The THEMIS VIS camera is capable of capturing color images of the martian surface using its five different color filters. In this mode of operation, the spatial resolution and coverage of the image must be reduced to accommodate the additional data volume produced from the use of multiple filters. To make a color image, three of the five filter images (each in grayscale) are selected. Each is contrast enhanced and then converted to a red, green, or blue intensity image. These three images are then combined to produce a full color, single image. Because the THEMIS color filters don't span the full range of colors seen by the human eye, a color THEMIS image does not represent true color. Also, because each single-filter image is contrast enhanced before inclusion in the three-color image, the apparent color variation of the scene is exaggerated. Nevertheless, the color variation that does appear is representative of some change in color, however subtle, in the actual scene. Note that the long edges of THEMIS color images typically contain color artifacts that do not represent surface variation.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -23.7, Longitude 135.6 East (224.4 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with

  14. Influence of different production strategies on the stability of color, oxygen consumption and metmyoglobin reducing activity of meat from Ningxia Tan sheep.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xiaoguang; Wang, Zhenyu; Miao, Jing; Xie, Li; Dai, Yan; Li, Xingmin; Chen, Yong; Luo, Hailing; Dai, Ruitong

    2014-02-01

    Fifty male Ningxia Tan sheep were randomly divided into five groups (10 per group). Different feeding strategies were applied to each group for 120 days prior to slaughter. The sheep belong to five groups were pastured for 0 h (feedlot-fed), 2h, 4h, 8h, 12h per day on a natural grazing ground, respectively. M. semitendinosus muscle from Tan sheep was obtained after slaughter. Instrumental color, pH values, oxygen consumption rate, metmyoglobin reducing activity and relative metmyoglobin percentages were analyzed after 1, 3, 5, 7 and 9 days of refrigerated storage. Long-term daily grazing and herbage-based diet were conducive to maintain a lower oxygen consumption rate, higher metmyoglobin reducing activity and lower metmyoglobin accumulation. The combination of pasture-fed and feedlot-fed was conducive to weight gain, and at the same time, increased the color stability of the meat from Ningxia Tan sheep.

  15. Two-color STED microscopy reveals different degrees of colocalization between hexokinase-I and the three human VDAC isoforms.

    PubMed

    Neumann, Daniel; Bückers, Johanna; Kastrup, Lars; Hell, Stefan W; Jakobs, Stefan

    2010-03-05

    The voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC, also known as mitochondrial porin) is the major transport channel mediating the transport of metabolites, including ATP, across the mitochondrial outer membrane. Biochemical data demonstrate the binding of the cytosolic protein hexokinase-I to VDAC, facilitating the direct access of hexokinase-I to the transported ATP. In human cells, three hVDAC isoforms have been identified. However, little is known on the distribution of these isoforms within the outer membrane of mitochondria and to what extent they colocalize with hexokinase-I. In this study we show that whereas hVDAC1 and hVDAC2 are localized predominantly within the same distinct domains in the outer membrane, hVDAC3 is mostly uniformly distributed over the surface of the mitochondrion. We used two-color stimulated emission depletion (STED) microscopy enabling a lateral resolution of ~40 nm to determine the detailed sub-mitochondrial distribution of the three hVDAC isoforms and hexokinase-I. Individual hVDAC and hexokinase-I clusters could thus be resolved which were concealed in the confocal images. Quantitative colocalization analysis of two-color STED images demonstrates that within the attained resolution, hexokinase-I and hVDAC3 exhibit a higher degree of colocalization than hexokinase-I with either hVDAC1 or hVDAC2. Furthermore, a substantial fraction of the mitochondria-bound hexokinase-I pool does not colocalize with any of the three hVDAC isoforms, suggesting a more complex interplay of these proteins than previously anticipated. This study demonstrates that two-color STED microscopy in conjunction with quantitative colocalization analysis is a powerful tool to study the complex distribution of membrane proteins in organelles such as mitochondria.PACS: 87.16.Tb, 87.85.Rs.

  16. Introducing Chemical Formulae and Equations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawson, Chris; Rowell, Jack

    1979-01-01

    Discusses when the writing of chemical formula and equations can be introduced in the school science curriculum. Also presents ways in which formulae and equations learning can be aided and some examples for balancing and interpreting equations. (HM)

  17. Quantum Color

    ScienceCinema

    Lincoln, Don

    2016-07-20

    The idea of electric charges and electricity in general is a familiar one to the science savvy viewer. However, electromagnetism is but one of the four fundamental forces and not the strongest one. The strongest of the fundamental forces is called the strong nuclear force and it has its own associated charge. Physicists call this charge “color” in analogy with the primary colors, although there is no real connection with actual color. In this video, Fermilab’s Dr. Don Lincoln explains why it is that we live in a colorful world.

  18. Reducing Color/Brightness Interaction in Color Television

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marchman, Robert H.

    1987-01-01

    Proposed digitally sampled scan-conversion scheme for color television reduces unwanted interactions between chrominance and luminance signals. New scheme reduces luminance and chrominance bandwidth to increase frequency separation between signals. To avoid proportionally reducing horizontal brightness resolution and horizontal color resolution, horizontal interlace of luminance signal and two color-difference signals used.

  19. Color quality scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Wendy; Ohno, Yoshi

    2010-03-01

    The color rendering index (CRI) has been shown to have deficiencies when applied to white light-emitting-diode-based sources. Furthermore, evidence suggests that the restricted scope of the CRI unnecessarily penalizes some light sources with desirable color qualities. To solve the problems of the CRI and include other dimensions of color quality, the color quality scale (CQS) has been developed. Although the CQS uses many of elements of the CRI, there are a number of fundamental differences. Like the CRI, the CQS is a test-samples method that compares the appearance of a set of reflective samples when illuminated by the test lamp to their appearance under a reference illuminant. The CQS uses a larger set of reflective samples, all of high chroma, and combines the color differences of the samples with a root mean square. Additionally, the CQS does not penalize light sources for causing increases in the chroma of object colors but does penalize sources with smaller rendered color gamut areas. The scale of the CQS is converted to span 0-100, and the uniform object color space and chromatic adaptation transform used in the calculations are updated. Supplementary scales have also been developed for expert users.

  20. MSc degree in color technology for the automotive sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez-Verdu, F.; Perales, E.; Chorro, E.; Viqueira, V.; Gilabert, E.

    2014-07-01

    Nowadays, the measurement and management of color quality of the gonio-apparent materials is complex, but highly demanded in many industrial sectors, as automotive, cosmetics, plastics for consumer electronics, printing inks, architectural coatings, etc. It is necessary to control complex instrumentation and to do visual assessments of texture and color differences to get, for instance, a visual harmony in car bodies; and a profound knowledge of physics and chemistry of special-effect pigments for their optical formulation to obtain attractive visual effects in coatings, plastics, etc, combining among them and with solid pigments. From University of Alicante, for the academic year 2013-14, we are organizing the first MSc degree in Color Technology for the Automotive Sector, with a design of contents embracing CIE colorimetry and visual perception, included the AUDI2000 color difference formula, instrumentation and color management software, fundamentals of coatings and plastics in the automotive sector, and, optical formulation of pigments. The MSc syllabus, with 60 ECTS, is designed to be taught in two semesters: from September to February with on classroom theoretical and practical activities, and, from March to June at virtual level, with internships of training in some companies. Therefore, the MSc Thesis would be the performance report during the internship in companies or research institutions. Some multinational companies, both as car makers and coatings and plastics providers, from European and non-European countries have already shown their support and interest in welcoming students for specific training, even some job offers when the first MSc edition finishes.

  1. Reduced Stroop Interference for Opponent Colors May Be Due to Input Factors: Evidence from Individual Differences and a Neural Network Simulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laeng, Bruno; Torstein, Lag; Brennen, Tim

    2005-01-01

    Sensory or input factors can influence the strength of interference in the classic Stroop color-word task. Specifically, in a single-trial computerized version of the Stroop task, when color-word pairs were incongruent, opponent color pairs (e.g., the word BLUE in yellow) showed reduced Stroop interference compared with nonopponent color pairs…

  2. Effect of different cooking methods on color, phytochemical concentration, and antioxidant capacity of raw and frozen brassica vegetables.

    PubMed

    Pellegrini, Nicoletta; Chiavaro, Emma; Gardana, Claudio; Mazzeo, Teresa; Contino, Daniele; Gallo, Monica; Riso, Patrizia; Fogliano, Vincenzo; Porrini, Marisa

    2010-04-14

    This study evaluated the effect of common cooking practices (i.e., boiling, microwaving, and basket and oven steaming) on the phytochemical content (carotenoids, chlorophylls, glucosinolates, polyphenols, and ascorbic acid), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), and color changes of three generally consumed Brassica vegetables analyzed fresh and frozen. Among cooking procedures, boiling determined an increase of fresh broccoli carotenoids and fresh Brussels sprout polyphenols, whereas a decrease of almost all other phytochemicals in fresh and frozen samples was observed. Steaming procedures determined a release of polyphenols in both fresh and frozen samples. Microwaving was the best cooking method for maintaining the color of both fresh and frozen vegetables and obtaining a good retention of glucosinolates. During all cooking procedures, ascorbic acid was lost in great amount from all vegetables. Chlorophylls were more stable in frozen samples than in fresh ones, even though steaming methods were able to better preserve these compounds in fresh samples than others cooking methods applied. The overall results of this study demonstrate that fresh Brassica vegetables retain phytochemicals and TAC better than frozen samples.

  3. Astronomy with the Color Blind

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Donald A.; Melrose, Justyn

    2014-01-01

    The standard method to create dramatic color images in astrophotography is to record multiple black and white images, each with a different color filter in the optical path, and then tint each frame with a color appropriate to the corresponding filter. When combined, the resulting image conveys information about the sources of emission in the…

  4. Typography, Color, and Information Structure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keyes, Elizabeth

    1993-01-01

    Focuses on how typography and color complement and differ from each other in signaling an underlying content structure; the synergism between typography, color, and page layout (use of white space) that aids audience understanding and use; and the characteristics of typography and of color that are most important in these contexts. (SR)

  5. Can Coloring Mandalas Reduce Anxiety?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curry, Nancy A.; Kasser, Tim

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of different types of art activities in the reduction of anxiety. After undergoing a brief anxiety-induction, 84 undergraduate students were randomly assigned to color a mandala, to color a plaid form, or to color on a blank piece of paper. Results demonstrated that anxiety levels declined approximately the…

  6. Reproduction of various colors on Jacquard textiles by only eight kinds of color wefts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osaki, Keiji

    2002-06-01

    By making use of the information of the textile color blocks, reproduction of high-precision colors on fabrics that we call 'Color Image Fabrics' could be woven by Jacquard loom. Color components for each pixel on digitized original image are transformed into weaving data on textile by minimizing the color difference in CIEL*a*b* representation between the original image color and the simulated textile color.

  7. Identification of a R2R3-MYB gene regulating anthocyanin biosynthesis and relationships between its variation and flower color difference in lotus (Nelumbo Adans.).

    PubMed

    Sun, Shan-Shan; Gugger, Paul F; Wang, Qing-Feng; Chen, Jin-Ming

    2016-01-01

    The lotus (Nelumbonaceae: Nelumbo Adans.) is a highly desired ornamental plant, comprising only two extant species, the sacred lotus (N. nucifera Gaerten.) with red flowers and the American lotus (N. lutea Willd.) with yellow flowers. Flower color is the most obvious difference of two species. To better understand the mechanism of flower color differentiation, the content of anthocyanins and the expression levels of four key structural genes (e.g., DFR, ANS, UFGT and GST) were analyzed in two species. Our results revealed that anthocyanins were detected in red flowers, not yellow flowers. Expression analysis showed that no transcripts of GST gene and low expression level of three UFGT genes were detected in yellow flowers. In addition, three regulatory genes (NnMYB5, NnbHLH1 and NnTTG1) were isolated from red flowers and showed a high similarity to corresponding regulatory genes of other species. Sequence analysis of MYB5, bHLH1 and TTG1 in two species revealed striking differences in coding region and promoter region of MYB5 gene. Population analysis identified three MYB5 variants in Nelumbo: a functional allele existed in red flowers and two inactive forms existed in yellow flowers. This result revealed that there was an association between allelic variation in MYB5 gene and flower color difference. Yeast two-hybrid experiments showed that NnMYB5 interacts with NnbHLH1, NlbHLH1 and NnTTG1, and NnTTG1 also interacts with NnbHLH1 and NlbHLH1. The over-expression of NnMYB5 led to anthocyanin accumulation in immature seeds and flower stalks and up-regulation of expression of TT19 in Arabidopsis. Therefore, NnMYB5 is a transcription activator of anthocyanin synthesis. This study helps to elucidate the function of NnMYB5 and will contribute to clarify the mechanism of flower coloration and genetic engineering of flower color in lotus.

  8. Identification of a R2R3-MYB gene regulating anthocyanin biosynthesis and relationships between its variation and flower color difference in lotus (Nelumbo Adans.)

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Shan-Shan

    2016-01-01

    The lotus (Nelumbonaceae: Nelumbo Adans.) is a highly desired ornamental plant, comprising only two extant species, the sacred lotus (N. nucifera Gaerten.) with red flowers and the American lotus (N. lutea Willd.) with yellow flowers. Flower color is the most obvious difference of two species. To better understand the mechanism of flower color differentiation, the content of anthocyanins and the expression levels of four key structural genes (e.g., DFR, ANS, UFGT and GST) were analyzed in two species. Our results revealed that anthocyanins were detected in red flowers, not yellow flowers. Expression analysis showed that no transcripts of GST gene and low expression level of three UFGT genes were detected in yellow flowers. In addition, three regulatory genes (NnMYB5, NnbHLH1 and NnTTG1) were isolated from red flowers and showed a high similarity to corresponding regulatory genes of other species. Sequence analysis of MYB5, bHLH1 and TTG1 in two species revealed striking differences in coding region and promoter region of MYB5 gene. Population analysis identified three MYB5 variants in Nelumbo: a functional allele existed in red flowers and two inactive forms existed in yellow flowers. This result revealed that there was an association between allelic variation in MYB5 gene and flower color difference. Yeast two-hybrid experiments showed that NnMYB5 interacts with NnbHLH1, NlbHLH1 and NnTTG1, and NnTTG1 also interacts with NnbHLH1 and NlbHLH1. The over-expression of NnMYB5 led to anthocyanin accumulation in immature seeds and flower stalks and up-regulation of expression of TT19 in Arabidopsis. Therefore, NnMYB5 is a transcription activator of anthocyanin synthesis. This study helps to elucidate the function of NnMYB5 and will contribute to clarify the mechanism of flower coloration and genetic engineering of flower color in lotus. PMID:27635336

  9. Polar Cap Colors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 12 May 2004 This daytime visible color image was collected on June 6, 2003 during the Southern Spring season near the South Polar Cap Edge.

    The THEMIS VIS camera is capable of capturing color images of the martian surface using its five different color filters. In this mode of operation, the spatial resolution and coverage of the image must be reduced to accommodate the additional data volume produced from the use of multiple filters. To make a color image, three of the five filter images (each in grayscale) are selected. Each is contrast enhanced and then converted to a red, green, or blue intensity image. These three images are then combined to produce a full color, single image. Because the THEMIS color filters don't span the full range of colors seen by the human eye, a color THEMIS image does not represent true color. Also, because each single-filter image is contrast enhanced before inclusion in the three-color image, the apparent color variation of the scene is exaggerated. Nevertheless, the color variation that does appear is representative of some change in color, however subtle, in the actual scene. Note that the long edges of THEMIS color images typically contain color artifacts that do not represent surface variation.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -77.8, Longitude 195 East (165 West). 38 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA

  10. Color Metric.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois State Office of Education, Springfield.

    This booklet was designed to convey metric information in pictoral form. The use of pictures in the coloring book enables the more mature person to grasp the metric message instantly, whereas the younger person, while coloring the picture, will be exposed to the metric information long enough to make the proper associations. Sheets of the booklet…

  11. Chemistry, Color, and Art.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orna, Mary Virginia

    2001-01-01

    Describes pigments and artists' colors from a chronological perspective. Explains how chemical analysis can be used to distinguish the differences between artists' palettes, identify the evolution of art, and lead to restoration of an art work. (Contains 13 references.) (YDS)

  12. A Group of Grapevine MYBA Transcription Factors Located in Chromosome 14 Control Anthocyanin Synthesis in Vegetative Organs with Different Specificities Compared to the Berry Color Locus.

    PubMed

    Matus, José Tomás; Cavallini, Erika; Loyola, Rodrigo; Höll, Janine; Finezzo, Laura; Dal Santo, Silvia; Vialet, Sandrine; Commisso, Mauro; Roman, Federica; Schubert, Andrea; Alcalde, José Antonio; Bogs, Jochen; Ageorges, Agnès; Tornielli, Giovanni Battista; Arce-Johnson, Patricio

    2017-04-02

    Grapevine organs accumulate anthocyanins in a cultivar-specific and environmentally induced manner. The MYBA1-A2 genes within the berry color locus in chromosome 2 represent the major genetic determinants of fruit color. The simultaneous occurrence of transposon insertions and point mutations in these genes is responsible for most white-skinned phenotypes. However, red pigmentation found in vegetative organs suggests the presence of additional regulators. This work describes a genomic region of chromosome 14 containing three closely related R2R3-MYB genes, named MYBA5, MYBA6 and MYBA7. Ectopic expression of the latter two in grapevine hairy roots promoted anthocyanin accumulation without affecting other phenylpropanoids. Transcriptomic profiling of HR expressing MYBA1, MYBA6 and MYBA7 showed that these regulators share the activation of late biosynthetic and modification/transport-related genes but differ in the activation of the FLAVONOID-3'5'-HYDROXYLASE (F3'5'H) family. However, an alternatively spliced MYBA6 variant was incapable of activating anthocyanin synthesis due to the lack of a MYC1 interaction domain. MYBA1, MYBA6.1 and MYBA7 activated the promoters of UDP-GLUCOSE:FLAVONOID 3-O-GLUCOSYLTRANSFERASE (UFGT) and ANTHOCYANIN 3-O-GLUCOSIDE-6″-O-ACYLTRANSFERASE (3AT) but only MYBA1 induced F3'5'H in concordance with the low proportion of tri-hydroxylated anthocyanins found in MYBA6-A7 HR. This putative new color locus is related to the red/cyanidic pigmentation of vegetative organs in black and white-skinned cultivars and forms part of the UV-B radiation response pathway orchestrated by ELONGATED HYPOCOTYL 5 (VviHY5). These results demonstrate the involvement of additional anthocyanin regulators in grapevine and suggest an evolutionary divergence between the two grape color loci for controlling additional targets of the flavonoid pathway. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  13. Plasmonic color tuning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Byoungho; Yun, Hansik; Lee, Seung-Yeol; Kim, Hwi

    2016-03-01

    In general, color filter is an optical component to permit the transmission of a specific color in cameras, displays, and microscopes. Each filter has its own unchangeable color because it is made by chemical materials such as dyes and pigments. Therefore, in order to express various colorful images in a display, one pixel should have three sub-pixels of red, green, and blue colors. Here, we suggest new plasmonic structure and method to change the color in a single pixel. It is comprised of a cavity and a metal nanoaperture. The optical cavity generally supports standing waves inside it, and various standing waves having different wavelength can be confined together in one cavity. On the other hand, although light cannot transmit sub-wavelength sized aperture, surface plasmons can propagate through the metal nanoaperture with high intensity due to the extraordinary transmission. If we combine the two structures, we can organize the spatial distribution of amplitudes according to wavelength of various standing waves using the cavity, and we can extract a light with specific wavelength and amplitude using the nanoaperture. Therefore, this cavity-aperture structure can simultaneously tune the color and intensity of the transmitted light through the single nanoaperture. We expect that the cavity-apertures have a potential for dynamic color pixels, micro-imaging system, and multiplexed sensors.

  14. Using Single Colors and Color Pairs to Communicate Basic Tastes.

    PubMed

    Woods, Andy T; Spence, Charles

    2016-01-01

    Recently, it has been demonstrated that people associate each of the basic tastes (e.g., sweet, sour, bitter, and salty) with specific colors (e.g., red, green, black, and white). In the present study, we investigated whether pairs of colors (both associated with a particular taste or taste word) would give rise to stronger associations relative to pairs of colors that were associated with different tastes. We replicate the findings of previous studies highlighting the existence of a robust crossmodal correspondence between individual colors and basic tastes. However, while there was evidence that pairs of colors could indeed communicate taste information more consistently than single colors, our participants took more than twice as long to match the color pairs with tastes than the single colors. Possible reasons for these results are discussed.

  15. Using Single Colors and Color Pairs to Communicate Basic Tastes

    PubMed Central

    Spence, Charles

    2016-01-01

    Recently, it has been demonstrated that people associate each of the basic tastes (e.g., sweet, sour, bitter, and salty) with specific colors (e.g., red, green, black, and white). In the present study, we investigated whether pairs of colors (both associated with a particular taste or taste word) would give rise to stronger associations relative to pairs of colors that were associated with different tastes. We replicate the findings of previous studies highlighting the existence of a robust crossmodal correspondence between individual colors and basic tastes. However, while there was evidence that pairs of colors could indeed communicate taste information more consistently than single colors, our participants took more than twice as long to match the color pairs with tastes than the single colors. Possible reasons for these results are discussed. PMID:27698979

  16. Number of discernible object colors is a conundrum.

    PubMed

    Masaoka, Kenichiro; Berns, Roy S; Fairchild, Mark D; Moghareh Abed, Farhad

    2013-02-01

    Widely varying estimates of the number of discernible object colors have been made by using various methods over the past 100 years. To clarify the source of the discrepancies in the previous, inconsistent estimates, the number of discernible object colors is estimated over a wide range of color temperatures and illuminance levels using several chromatic adaptation models, color spaces, and color difference limens. Efficient and accurate models are used to compute optimal-color solids and count the number of discernible colors. A comprehensive simulation reveals limitations in the ability of current color appearance models to estimate the number of discernible colors even if the color solid is smaller than the optimal-color solid. The estimates depend on the color appearance model, color space, and color difference limen used. The fundamental problem lies in the von Kries-type chromatic adaptation transforms, which have an unknown effect on the ranking of the number of discernible colors at different color temperatures.

  17. Human preference for individual colors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmer, Stephen E.; Schloss, Karen B.

    2010-02-01

    Color preference is an important aspect of human behavior, but little is known about why people like some colors more than others. Recent results from the Berkeley Color Project (BCP) provide detailed measurements of preferences among 32 chromatic colors as well as other relevant aspects of color perception. We describe the fit of several color preference models, including ones based on cone outputs, color-emotion associations, and Palmer and Schloss's ecological valence theory. The ecological valence theory postulates that color serves an adaptive "steering' function, analogous to taste preferences, biasing organisms to approach advantageous objects and avoid disadvantageous ones. It predicts that people will tend to like colors to the extent that they like the objects that are characteristically that color, averaged over all such objects. The ecological valence theory predicts 80% of the variance in average color preference ratings from the Weighted Affective Valence Estimates (WAVEs) of correspondingly colored objects, much more variance than any of the other models. We also describe how hue preferences for single colors differ as a function of gender, expertise, culture, social institutions, and perceptual experience.

  18. Color Processing in Synesthesia: What Synesthesia Can and Cannot Tell Us About Mechanisms of Color Processing.

    PubMed

    Janik McErlean, Agnieszka B; Banissy, Michael J

    2017-01-01

    Synesthetic experiences of color have been traditionally conceptualized as a perceptual phenomenon. However, recent evidence suggests a role of higher order cognition in the formation of synesthetic experiences. Here, we discuss how synesthetic experiences of color differ from and influence veridical color processing, and how non-perceptual processes such as imagery and color memory might play a role in eliciting synesthetic color experience.

  19. Color Naming Universals: The Case of Berinmo

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kay, Paul; Regier, Terry

    2007-01-01

    Proponents of a self-identified "relativist" view of cross-language color naming have confounded two questions: (1) Is color naming largely subject to local linguistic convention? and (2) Are cross-language color naming differences reflected in comparable differences in color cognition by their speakers? The "relativist"…

  20. Illuminant color estimation based on pigmentation separation from human skin color

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Satomi; Kakinuma, Akihiro; Kamijo, Naohiro; Takahashi, Hiroshi; Tsumura, Norimichi

    2015-03-01

    Human has the visual system called "color constancy" that maintains the perceptive colors of same object across various light sources. The effective method of color constancy algorithm was proposed to use the human facial color in a digital color image, however, this method has wrong estimation results by the difference of individual facial colors. In this paper, we present the novel color constancy algorithm based on skin color analysis. The skin color analysis is the method to separate the skin color into the components of melanin, hemoglobin and shading. We use the stationary property of Japanese facial color, and this property is calculated from the components of melanin and hemoglobin. As a result, we achieve to propose the method to use subject's facial color in image and not depend on the individual difference among Japanese facial color.

  1. What's in the Bottle? A Review of Infant Formulas.

    PubMed

    Green Corkins, Kelly; Shurley, Teresa

    2016-09-19

    Infant formulas are designed to be a substitute for breast milk. Since they are sole source of nutrition for growing and developing infants, they are highly regulated by the government. All ingredients in infant formulas must be considered "generally recognized as safe." Manufacturers are continually modifying their products to make them more like breast milk. Functional ingredients added to infant formula include long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, nucleotides, prebiotics, and probiotics. The most common breast milk substitutes are standard cow's milk-based term infant formulas, which include subcategories of organic and breast milk supplementation, and come in standard dilutions of 19 or 20 calories per ounce. In addition to standard cow's milk-based term infant formulas, there is a line of term infant formulas marketed for signs and symptoms of intolerance. These products include modifications in lactose content, partially hydrolyzed protein, added probiotics, or added rice starch. There are also specialized formulas for medical conditions such as prematurity, gastrointestinal disorders, allergy, disorders of fat metabolism, and renal insufficiency. Infants on specialty formulas should be monitored closely by medical professionals. Formulas come in ready-to-feed, liquid concentrate, and powder forms. Each offers advantages and disadvantages. Each step in the formula mixing process or each manipulation required for the feeding is another opportunity to introduce bacteria to the formula. There are guidelines for preparing formula in institutions. Standard dilution and mixing instructions are different for each formula, so individual recipes are needed. Caregivers should also be educated on proper hygiene when preparing formula at home.

  2. Types of Infant Formulas Consumed in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Rossen, Lauren M.; Simon, Alan E.; Herrick, Kirsten A.

    2015-01-01

    We examined consumption of different types of infant formula (eg, cow’s milk, soy, gentle/lactose-reduced, and specialty) and regular milk among a nationally representative sample of 1864 infants, 0 to 12 months old, from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2003–2010. Among the 81% of infants who were fed formula or regular milk, 69% consumed cow’s milk formula, 12% consumed soy formula, 5% consumed gentle/ lactose-reduced formulas, 6% consumed specialty formulas, and 13% consumed regular milk products. There were differences by household education and income in the percentage of infants consuming cow’s milk formula and regular milk products. The majority of infants in the United States who were fed formula or regular milk consumed cow’s milk formula (69%), with lower percentages receiving soy, specialty, gentle/sensitive, or lactose-free/reduced formulas. Contrary to national recommendations, 13% of infants younger than 1 year consumed regular milk, and the percentage varied by household education and income levels. PMID:26149849

  3. Types of Infant Formulas Consumed in the United States.

    PubMed

    Rossen, Lauren M; Simon, Alan E; Herrick, Kirsten A

    2016-03-01

    We examined consumption of different types of infant formula (eg, cow's milk, soy, gentle/lactose-reduced, and specialty) and regular milk among a nationally representative sample of 1864 infants, 0 to 12 months old, from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2003-2010. Among the 81% of infants who were fed formula or regular milk, 69% consumed cow's milk formula, 12% consumed soy formula, 5% consumed gentle/ lactose-reduced formulas, 6% consumed specialty formulas, and 13% consumed regular milk products. There were differences by household education and income in the percentage of infants consuming cow's milk formula and regular milk products. The majority of infants in the United States who were fed formula or regular milk consumed cow's milk formula (69%), with lower percentages receiving soy, specialty, gentle/sensitive, or lactose-free/reduced formulas. Contrary to national recommendations, 13% of infants younger than 1 year consumed regular milk, and the percentage varied by household education and income levels.

  4. Quantum Color

    SciTech Connect

    Lincoln, Don

    2016-07-05

    The idea of electric charges and electricity in general is a familiar one to the science savvy viewer. However, electromagnetism is but one of the four fundamental forces and not the strongest one. The strongest of the fundamental forces is called the strong nuclear force and it has its own associated charge. Physicists call this charge “color” in analogy with the primary colors, although there is no real connection with actual color. In this video, Fermilab’s Dr. Don Lincoln explains why it is that we live in a colorful world.

  5. Characterization of color texture: color texture based sorting of tiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourada, Y.; Lafon, Dominique; Eterradossi, O.

    1998-09-01

    Many materials used by the building industry show a color texture which affects the product commercial value. This texture can be seen as the spatial arrangement of regions of acceptable color differences. This work describes an appearance based automated sorting via color texture analysis, using ceramic tiles as example. Textural analysis of the tiles digital images expressed in CIEL*a*b* color system is performed through the analysis of intrinsic features of each region and relationships between regions. Results obtained through the automated process are compared to a visual sorting which leads to calculation of application dependant color and texture tolerances.

  6. Essential Oils from Fruits with Different Colors and Leaves of Neomitranthes obscura (DC.) N. Silveira: An Endemic Species from Brazilian Atlantic Forest

    PubMed Central

    Amaral, Raquel R.; Fernandes, Caio P.; Caramel, Otávio P.; Tietbohl, Luis A. C.; Santos, Marcelo G.; Carvalho, José C. T.; Rocha, Leandro

    2013-01-01

    Neomitranthes obscura (DC.) N. Silveira is an endemic plant of Brazilian Atlantic Forest and widely spread in the sandbanks of “Restinga de Jurubatiba” National Park. It is popularly known by local population as “camboim-de-cachorro” or “cambuí-preto” and recognized by its black ripe fruits. However, specimens with yellow ripe fruits were localized in the “Restinga de Jurubatiba” National Park. The aim of the present study was to evaluate chemical composition of essential oils obtained from leaves and fruits of N. obscura specimens with different fruit color (black and yellow) by GC and GC-MS. Essential oils from leaves of specimens with black and yellow fruits indicated a predominance of sesquiterpenes (81.1% and 84.8%, resp.). Meanwhile, essential oil from black fruits presented a predominance of monoterpenes (50.5%), while essential oil from yellow fruits had sesquiterpenes (39.9%) as major substances. Despite previous studies about this species, including essential oil extraction, to our knowledge this is the first report on N. obscura fruits with different colors. Our results suggest the occurrence of unless two different varieties for this species. PMID:23484148

  7. Changes in White college students' color-blind racial ideology over 4 years: do diversity experiences make a difference?

    PubMed

    Neville, Helen A; Poteat, V Paul; Lewis, Jioni A; Spanierman, Lisa B

    2014-04-01

    In this longitudinal study, we explored how White students' (N = 857) color-blind racial ideology (CBRI; i.e., beliefs that serve to deny, minimize, and/or distort the existence of racism) changed over time and the factors associated with these patterns of change. Specifically, we investigated whether gender, diversity attitudes (i.e., openness to diversity and interest in social issues), and college diversity experiences (i.e., diversity-related courses/activities and close interracial friendships) predicted patterns of CBRI change. Findings indicated that gender and diversity attitudes were related to initial levels of CBRI, such that women and students who were more open to diversity issues at the beginning of college were more likely to report lower levels of CBRI; gender was also related to a greater decrease in CBRI changes over the college experience. Furthermore, college diversity experiences predicted changes in CBRI over time, such that students who completed a greater number of diversity courses and activities and those who had a greater number of close Black friends showed a significantly greater decrease in CBRI over their 4 years in college; interestingly, students who reported having no Latino friends compared with having some close Latino friends showed a significantly greater decrease in CBRI over time.

  8. Measurement of [Formula: see text] production with additional jet activity, including [Formula: see text] quark jets, in the dilepton decay channel using pp collisions at [Formula: see text].

    PubMed

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Redjimi, R; Roberts, J; Rorie, J; Tu, Z; Zabel, J; Betchart, B; Bodek, A; de Barbaro, P; Demina, R; Eshaq, Y; Ferbel, T; Galanti, M; Galanti, M; Garcia-Bellido, A; Han, J; Harel, A; Hindrichs, O; Hindrichs, O; Khukhunaishvili, A; Petrillo, G; Tan, P; Verzetti, M; Arora, S; Barker, A; Chou, J P; Contreras-Campana, C; Contreras-Campana, E; Duggan, D; Ferencek, D; Gershtein, Y; Gray, R; Halkiadakis, E; Hidas, D; Hughes, E; Kaplan, S; Kunnawalkam Elayavalli, R; Lath, A; Nash, K; Panwalkar, S; Park, M; Salur, S; Schnetzer, S; Sheffield, D; Somalwar, S; Stone, R; Thomas, S; Thomassen, P; Walker, M; Foerster, M; Riley, G; Rose, K; Spanier, S; York, A; Bouhali, O; Castaneda Hernandez, A; Dalchenko, M; De Mattia, M; Delgado, A; Dildick, S; Dildick, S; Eusebi, R; Gilmore, J; Kamon, T; Krutelyov, V; Krutelyov, V; Mueller, R; Osipenkov, I; Pakhotin, Y; Patel, R; Patel, R; Perloff, A; Rose, A; Safonov, A; Tatarinov, A; Ulmer, K A; Akchurin, N; Cowden, C; Damgov, J; Dragoiu, C; Dudero, P R; Faulkner, J; Kunori, S; Lamichhane, K; Lee, S W; Libeiro, T; Undleeb, S; Volobouev, I; Appelt, E; Delannoy, A G; Greene, S; Gurrola, A; Janjam, R; Johns, W; Maguire, C; Mao, Y; Melo, A; Ni, H; Sheldon, P; Snook, B; Tuo, S; Velkovska, J; Xu, Q; Arenton, M W; Cox, B; Francis, B; Goodell, J; Hirosky, R; Ledovskoy, A; Li, H; Lin, C; Neu, C; Sinthuprasith, T; Sun, X; Wang, Y; Wolfe, E; Wood, J; Xia, F; Clarke, C; Harr, R; Karchin, P E; Kottachchi Kankanamge Don, C; Lamichhane, P; Sturdy, J; Belknap, D A; Carlsmith, D; Cepeda, M; Dasu, S; Dodd, L; Duric, S; Gomber, B; Grothe, M; Hall-Wilton, R; Herndon, M; Hervé, A; Klabbers, P; Lanaro, A; Levine, A; Long, K; Loveless, R; Mohapatra, A; Ojalvo, I; Perry, T; Pierro, G A; Polese, G; Ruggles, T; Sarangi, T; Savin, A; Sharma, A; Smith, N; Smith, W H; Taylor, D; Woods, N; Collaboration, Authorinst The Cms

    2016-01-01

    Jet multiplicity distributions in top quark pair ([Formula: see text]) events are measured in pp collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 8 TeV with the CMS detector at the LHC using a data set corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 19.7[Formula: see text]. The measurement is performed in the dilepton decay channels ([Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], and [Formula: see text]). The absolute and normalized differential cross sections for [Formula: see text] production are measured as a function of the jet multiplicity in the event for different jet transverse momentum thresholds and the kinematic properties of the leading additional jets. The differential [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] cross sections are presented for the first time as a function of the kinematic properties of the leading additional [Formula: see text] jets. Furthermore, the fraction of events without additional jets above a threshold is measured as a function of the transverse momenta of the leading additional jets and the scalar sum of the transverse momenta of all additional jets. The data are compared and found to be consistent with predictions from several perturbative quantum chromodynamics event generators and a next-to-leading order calculation.

  9. Juice, pulp and seeds fractionated from dry climate primocane raspberry cultivars (Rubus idaeus) have significantly different antioxidant capacity, anthocyanin content and color.

    PubMed

    Snyder, Shannon M; Low, Richard M; Stocks, Janet C; Eggett, Dennis L; Parker, Tory L

    2012-12-01

    Raspberries contain flavonoid antioxidants whose relative concentrations may vary between the juice, pulp, and seed fractions. Oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), total anthocyanin content, and berry color were determined for six cultivars of primocane raspberries grown in a dry climate (Utah, USA). Significant ORAC differences were found between juice (18.4 ± 0.39 μmol TE/g), pulp (24.45 ± 0.43), and seeds (273.27 ± 11.15) with all Utah cultivars combined. A significantly higher concentration of anthocyanins was present in Utah raspberry juice (20.86 ± 0.35 mg cyanidin-3-glucoside eq./100 g), compared to pulp (13.96 ± 0.35). Anthocyanin content of juice and pulp were significantly positively correlated with dark color (L*). This is the first report of fractional differences in dry climate raspberries, and has implications for the juice and supplement industries.

  10. An Evaluation of Color Sets for CRT Displays

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-12-31

    color sets covered a wide range in color difference values (AE* in CIELUV , 1976). Performance with some color sets was significantly better than that...difference value, AE*. This value, Part of the 1976 CIELUV system, is an estimate of the perceptual color difference between any two colors of known...1:* in CIELUV , 1976). Performance with some color sets was significantly better than that with others on a task where color discrimination was

  11. Preclinical assessment of infant formula.

    PubMed

    Lönnerdal, Bo

    2012-01-01

    Infant formulas are the sole or predominant source of nutrition for many infants and are fed during a sensitive period of development and may therefore have short- and long-term consequences for infant health. Preclinical safety assessment therefore needs to include both short-term and long-term studies in animals. It is recommended that procedures are instituted by which experts may serve as independent scientists for companies developing novel products, without having their integrity compromised, and later serve the legislative institutions. A two-level assessment approach to determine the potential toxicity of a novel ingredient, its metabolites, and their effects in the matrix on developing organ systems has been suggested by IOM. This appears reasonable, as novel ingredients can be of different levels of concern. The use of modern methods in genomics and proteomics should be considered in these evaluation processes as well as novel methods to evaluate outcomes, including metabolomics and molecular techniques to assess the microbiome.

  12. Color vision test

    MedlinePlus

    ... from birth) color vision problems: Achromatopsia -- complete color blindness , seeing only shades of gray Deuteranopia -- difficulty telling ... test - color; Ishihara color vision test Images Color blindness tests References Adams AJ, Verdon WA, Spivey BE. ...

  13. High aluminium content of infant milk formulas.

    PubMed Central

    Weintraub, R; Hams, G; Meerkin, M; Rosenberg, A R

    1986-01-01

    The aluminium content of several commercially available infant milk formulas was measured by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. Results were compared with those for fresh breast milk, cow's milk, and local tap water. Differences in aluminium concentration of greater than 150-fold were found, with the lowest concentrations in breast milk. PMID:3767424

  14. Measurements of the branching fractions of [Formula: see text] decays.

    PubMed

    Aaij, R; Abellan Beteta, C; Adametz, A; Adeva, B; Adinolfi, M; Adrover, C; Affolder, A; Ajaltouni, Z; Albrecht, J; Alessio, F; Alexander, M; Ali, S; Alkhazov, G; Alvarez Cartelle, P; Alves, A A; Amato, S; Amhis, Y; Anderlini, L; Anderson, J; Andreassen, R; Appleby, R B; Aquines Gutierrez, O; Archilli, F; Artamonov, A; Artuso, M; Aslanides, E; Auriemma, G; Bachmann, S; Back, J J; Baesso, C; Balagura, V; Baldini, W; Barlow, R J; Barschel, C; Barsuk, S; Barter, W; Bauer, Th; Bay, A; Beddow, J; Bediaga, I; Belogurov, S; Belous, K; Belyaev, I; Ben-Haim, E; Benayoun, M; Bencivenni, G; Benson, S; Benton, J; Berezhnoy, A; Bernet, R; Bettler, M-O; van Beuzekom, M; Bien, A; Bifani, S; Bird, T; Bizzeti, A; Bjørnstad, P M; Blake, T; Blanc, F; Blanks, C; Blouw, J; Blusk, S; Bobrov, A; Bocci, V; Bondar, A; Bondar, N; Bonivento, W; Borghi, S; Borgia, A; Bowcock, T J V; Bowen, E; Bozzi, C; Brambach, T; van den Brand, J; Bressieux, J; Brett, D; Britsch, M; Britton, T; Brook, N H; Brown, H; Burducea, I; Bursche, A; Buytaert, J; Cadeddu, S; Callot, O; Calvi, M; Calvo Gomez, M; Camboni, A; Campana, P; Carbone, A; Carboni, G; Cardinale, R; Cardini, A; Carranza-Mejia, H; Carson, L; Carvalho Akiba, K; Casse, G; Cattaneo, M; Cauet, Ch; Charles, M; Charpentier, Ph; Chen, P; Chiapolini, N; Chrzaszcz, M; Ciba, K; Cid Vidal, X; Ciezarek, G; Clarke, P E L; Clemencic, M; Cliff, H V; Closier, J; Coca, C; Coco, V; Cogan, J; Cogneras, E; Collins, P; Comerma-Montells, A; Contu, A; Cook, A; Coombes, M; Coquereau, S; Corti, G; Couturier, B; Cowan, G A; Craik, D; Cunliffe, S; Currie, R; D'Ambrosio, C; David, P; David, P N Y; De Bonis, I; De Bruyn, K; De Capua, S; De Cian, M; De Miranda, J M; De Paula, L; De Silva, W; De Simone, P; Decamp, D; Deckenhoff, M; Degaudenzi, H; Del Buono, L; Deplano, C; Derkach, D; Deschamps, O; Dettori, F; Di Canto, A; Dickens, J; Dijkstra, H; Dogaru, M; Domingo Bonal, F; Donleavy, S; Dordei, F; Dosil Suárez, A; Dossett, D; Dovbnya, A; Dupertuis, F; Dzhelyadin, R; Dziurda, A; Dzyuba, A; Easo, S; Egede, U; Egorychev, V; Eidelman, S; van Eijk, D; Eisenhardt, S; Eitschberger, U; Ekelhof, R; Eklund, L; El Rifai, I; Elsasser, Ch; Elsby, D; Falabella, A; Färber, C; Fardell, G; Farinelli, C; Farry, S; Fave, V; Ferguson, D; Fernandez Albor, V; Ferreira Rodrigues, F; Ferro-Luzzi, M; Filippov, S; Fitzpatrick, C; Fontana, M; Fontanelli, F; Forty, R; Francisco, O; Frank, M; Frei, C; Frosini, M; Furcas, S; Furfaro, E; Gallas Torreira, A; Galli, D; Gandelman, M; Gandini, P; Gao, Y; Garofoli, J; Garosi, P; Garra Tico, J; Garrido, L; Gaspar, C; Gauld, R; Gersabeck, E; Gersabeck, M; Gershon, T; Ghez, Ph; Gibson, V; Gligorov, V V; Göbel, C; Golubkov, D; Golutvin, A; Gomes, A; Gordon, H; Grabalosa Gándara, M; Graciani Diaz, R; Granado Cardoso, L A; Graugés, E; Graziani, G; Grecu, A; Greening, E; Gregson, S; Grünberg, O; Gui, B; Gushchin, E; Guz, Yu; Gys, T; Hadjivasiliou, C; Haefeli, G; Haen, C; Haines, S C; Hall, S; Hampson, T; Hansmann-Menzemer, S; Harnew, N; Harnew, S T; Harrison, J; Harrison, P F; Hartmann, T; He, J; Heijne, V; Hennessy, K; Henrard, P; Hernando Morata, J A; van Herwijnen, E; Hicks, E; Hill, D; Hoballah, M; Hombach, C; Hopchev, P; Hulsbergen, W; Hunt, P; Huse, T; Hussain, N; Hutchcroft, D; Hynds, D; Iakovenko, V; Ilten, P; Jacobsson, R; Jaeger, A; Jans, E; Jansen, F; Jaton, P; Jing, F; John, M; Johnson, D; Jones, C R; Jost, B; Kaballo, M; Kandybei, S; Karacson, M; Karbach, T M; Kenyon, I R; Kerzel, U; Ketel, T; Keune, A; Khanji, B; Kochebina, O; Komarov, I; Koopman, R F; Koppenburg, P; Korolev, M; Kozlinskiy, A; Kravchuk, L; Kreplin, K; Kreps, M; Krocker, G; Krokovny, P; Kruse, F; Kucharczyk, M; Kudryavtsev, V; Kvaratskheliya, T; La Thi, V N; Lacarrere, D; Lafferty, G; Lai, A; Lambert, D; Lambert, R W; Lanciotti, E; Lanfranchi, G; Langenbruch, C; Latham, T; Lazzeroni, C; Le Gac, R; van Leerdam, J; Lees, J-P; Lefèvre, R; Leflat, A; Lefrançois, J; Leroy, O; Li, Y; Li Gioi, L; Liles, M; Lindner, R; Linn, C; Liu, B; Liu, G; von Loeben, J; Lopes, J H; Lopez Asamar, E; Lopez-March, N; Lu, H; Luisier, J; Luo, H; Machefert, F; Machikhiliyan, I V; Maciuc, F; Maev, O; Malde, S; Manca, G; Mancinelli, G; Mangiafave, N; Marconi, U; Märki, R; Marks, J; Martellotti, G; Martens, A; Martin, L; Martín Sánchez, A; Martinelli, M; Martinez Santos, D; Martins Tostes, D; Massafferri, A; Matev, R; Mathe, Z; Matteuzzi, C; Matveev, M; Maurice, E; Mazurov, A; McCarthy, J; McNulty, R; Meadows, B; Meier, F; Meissner, M; Merk, M; Milanes, D A; Minard, M-N; Molina Rodriguez, J; Monteil, S; Moran, D; Morawski, P; Mountain, R; Mous, I; Muheim, F; Müller, K; Muresan, R; Muryn, B; Muster, B; Naik, P; Nakada, T; Nandakumar, R; Nasteva, I; Needham, M; Neufeld, N; Nguyen, A D; Nguyen, T D; Nguyen-Mau, C; Nicol, M; Niess, V; Niet, R; Nikitin, N; Nikodem, T; Nisar, S; Nomerotski, A; Novoselov, A; Oblakowska-Mucha, A; Obraztsov, V; Oggero, S; Ogilvy, S; Okhrimenko, O; Oldeman, R; Orlandea, M; Otalora Goicochea, J M; Owen, P; Pal, B K; Palano, A; Palutan, M; Panman, J; Papanestis, A; Pappagallo, M; Parkes, C; Parkinson, C J; Passaleva, G; Patel, G D; Patel, M; Patrick, G N; Patrignani, C; Pavel-Nicorescu, C; Pazos Alvarez, A; Pellegrino, A; Penso, G; Pepe Altarelli, M; Perazzini, S; Perego, D L; Perez Trigo, E; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, A; Perret, P; Perrin-Terrin, M; Pessina, G; Petridis, K; Petrolini, A; Phan, A; Picatoste Olloqui, E; Pietrzyk, B; Pilař, T; Pinci, D; Playfer, S; Plo Casasus, M; Polci, F; Polok, G; Poluektov, A; Polycarpo, E; Popov, D; Popovici, B; Potterat, C; Powell, A; Prisciandaro, J; Pugatch, V; Puig Navarro, A; Qian, W; Rademacker, J H; Rakotomiaramanana, B; Rangel, M S; Raniuk, I; Rauschmayr, N; Raven, G; Redford, S; Reid, M M; Dos Reis, A C; Ricciardi, S; Richards, A; Rinnert, K; Rives Molina, V; Roa Romero, D A; Robbe, P; Rodrigues, E; Rodriguez Perez, P; Rogers, G J; Roiser, S; Romanovsky, V; Romero Vidal, A; Rouvinet, J; Ruf, T; Ruiz, H; Sabatino, G; Saborido Silva, J J; Sagidova, N; Sail, P; Saitta, B; Salzmann, C; Sanmartin Sedes, B; Sannino, M; Santacesaria, R; Santamarina Rios, C; Santovetti, E; Sapunov, M; Sarti, A; Satriano, C; Satta, A; Savrie, M; Savrina, D; Schaack, P; Schiller, M; Schindler, H; Schleich, S; Schlupp, M; Schmelling, M; Schmidt, B; Schneider, O; Schopper, A; Schune, M-H; Schwemmer, R; Sciascia, B; Sciubba, A; Seco, M; Semennikov, A; Senderowska, K; Sepp, I; Serra, N; Serrano, J; Seyfert, P; Shapkin, M; Shapoval, I; Shatalov, P; Shcheglov, Y; Shears, T; Shekhtman, L; Shevchenko, O; Shevchenko, V; Shires, A; Silva Coutinho, R; Skwarnicki, T; Smith, N A; Smith, E; Smith, M; Sobczak, K; Sokoloff, M D; Soler, F J P; Soomro, F; Souza, D; Souza De Paula, B; Spaan, B; Sparkes, A; Spradlin, P; Stagni, F; Stahl, S; Steinkamp, O; Stoica, S; Stone, S; Storaci, B; Straticiuc, M; Straumann, U; Subbiah, V K; Swientek, S; Syropoulos, V; Szczekowski, M; Szczypka, P; Szumlak, T; T'Jampens, S; Teklishyn, M; Teodorescu, E; Teubert, F; Thomas, C; Thomas, E; van Tilburg, J; Tisserand, V; Tobin, M; Tolk, S; Tonelli, D; Topp-Joergensen, S; Torr, N; Tournefier, E; Tourneur, S; Tran, M T; Tresch, M; Tsaregorodtsev, A; Tsopelas, P; Tuning, N; Ubeda Garcia, M; Ukleja, A; Urner, D; Uwer, U; Vagnoni, V; Valenti, G; Vazquez Gomez, R; Vazquez Regueiro, P; Vecchi, S; Velthuis, J J; Veltri, M; Veneziano, G; Vesterinen, M; Viaud, B; Vieira, D; Vilasis-Cardona, X; Vollhardt, A; Volyanskyy, D; Voong, D; Vorobyev, A; Vorobyev, V; Voß, C; Voss, H; Waldi, R; Wallace, R; Wandernoth, S; Wang, J; Ward, D R; Watson, N K; Webber, A D; Websdale, D; Whitehead, M; Wicht, J; Wiechczynski, J; Wiedner, D; Wiggers, L; Wilkinson, G; Williams, M P; Williams, M; Wilson, F F; Wishahi, J; Witek, M; Wotton, S A; Wright, S; Wu, S; Wyllie, K; Xie, Y; Xing, F; Xing, Z; Yang, Z; Young, R; Yuan, X; Yushchenko, O; Zangoli, M; Zavertyaev, M; Zhang, F; Zhang, L; Zhang, W C; Zhang, Y; Zhelezov, A; Zhong, L; Zvyagin, A

    The branching fractions of the decay [Formula: see text] for different intermediate states are measured using data, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 1.0 fb(-1), collected by the LHCb experiment. The total branching fraction, its charmless component [Formula: see text] and the branching fractions via the resonant [Formula: see text] states ηc (1S) and ψ(2S) relative to the decay via a J/ψ intermediate state are [Formula: see text] Upper limits on the B(+) branching fractions into the ηc (2S) meson and into the charmonium-like states X(3872) and X(3915) are also obtained.

  15. Color measurement and discrimination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wandell, B. A.

    1985-01-01

    Theories of color measurement attempt to provide a quantative means for predicting whether two lights will be discriminable to an average observer. All color measurement theories can be characterized as follows: suppose lights a and b evoke responses from three color channels characterized as vectors, v(a) and v(b); the vector difference v(a) - v(b) corresponds to a set of channel responses that would be generated by some real light, call it *. According to theory a and b will be discriminable when * is detectable. A detailed development and test of the classic color measurement approach are reported. In the absence of a luminance component in the test stimuli, a and b, the theory holds well. In the presence of a luminance component, the theory is clearly false. When a luminance component is present discrimination judgements depend largely on whether the lights being discriminated fall in separate, categorical regions of color space. The results suggest that sensory estimation of surface color uses different methods, and the choice of method depends upon properties of the image. When there is significant luminance variation a categorical method is used, while in the absence of significant luminance variation judgments are continuous and consistant with the measurement approach.

  16. Mosquito fauna of the Guapiaçu Ecological Reserve, Cachoeiras de Macacu, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, collected under the influence of different color CDC light traps.

    PubMed

    Silva, Júlia dos Santos; Souto Couri, Márcia; de Leão Giupponi, Alessandro Ponce; Alencar, Jeronimo

    2014-12-01

    The objective of the present study was to identify mosquito fauna and to evaluate whether different light bulb colors influence the attraction of light traps in the Guapiaçu Ecological Reserve. Samples were obtained monthly during the period of February, 2012 to January, 2013. Centers for Disease Control (CDC) light traps with incandescent light bulbs and LED (ultraviolet, blue, green, and red) bulbs were utilized. In total, 8,170 specimens were captured, including 59 species. The presence of Anopheles nimbus (Theobald 1902) and Orthopodomyia fascipes Coquillet 1906 were recorded for the first time in the state of Rio de Janeiro. The green LED trap attracted the highest number of specimens and presented the highest diversity and mosquito average. The blue and green LED traps attracted the highest number of species. However, the differences between lights were not significant. The most common species were Coquillettidia juxtamansonia (Chagas 1907), Culex declarator Dyar and Knab 1906, and Culex ribeirensis Forattini and Sallum 1985.

  17. Enriching tortoises: assessing color preference.

    PubMed

    Passos, Luiza F; Mello, Humberto Espirito Santo; Young, Robert John

    2014-01-01

    Environmental enrichment is a principle that is used to enhance the quality of care for nonhuman animals in captivity. To achieve this, it is necessary to understand the animal's needs. This study focused on color preference to provide food stimuli as a source of environmental enrichment for the tortoise, Chelonoidis denticulata. During this study, the stimuli green-, blue-, yellow-, and red-colored bananas and plaster blocks were randomly offered to the tortoises. Analysis of the data showed that the tortoises had a preference for the stimuli dyed with colors red and yellow over the other presented colors. It was possible to conclude that presenting food in different colors stimulated the animals to evaluate their environment and make choices in relation to their color preference. Thus, this experiment introduced an element of choice into their lives, beyond identifying color food preferences for the tortoises. The element of choice is known to be important to animal welfare.

  18. Task-dependent color discrimination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poirson, Allen B.; Wandell, Brian A.

    1990-01-01

    When color video displays are used in time-critical applications (e.g., head-up displays, video control panels), the observer must discriminate among briefly presented targets seen within a complex spatial scene. Color-discrimination threshold are compared by using two tasks. In one task the observer makes color matches between two halves of a continuously displayed bipartite field. In a second task the observer detects a color target in a set of briefly presented objects. The data from both tasks are well summarized by ellipsoidal isosensitivity contours. The fitted ellipsoids differ both in their size, which indicates an absolute sensitivity difference, and orientation, which indicates a relative sensitivity difference.

  19. Attributes of color represented by a spherical model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Tieling; Ma, Jun; Deng, Zhongmin

    2013-10-01

    The paper introduces a spherical coordinate system-based color model and studies the color change in the model. A circular cone with a spherical top tightly circumscribing the RGB color cube is equipped with a properly rotated spherical coordinate system. Similar to the commonly used color models with a hue component such as the HSV model, the spherical model specifies color by describing the color attributes recognized by human vision, using the components of the spherical coordinate system. The formulas of conversions between the spherical model and the RGB color model are provided, which are mathematically simpler and more intuitively understandable than those for commonly used models with a hue component. Most importantly, color changes are perceptually smoother in the spherical model. Comparisons between the spherical model and the HSV model on color changes are made in the paper.

  20. Final state interactions in [Formula: see text] decays: [Formula: see text] rule vs. [Formula: see text].

    PubMed

    Buras, Andrzej J; Gérard, Jean-Marc

    2017-01-01

    Dispersive effects from strong [Formula: see text] rescattering in the final state interaction (FSI) of weak [Formula: see text] decays are revisited with the goal to have a global view on their relative importance for the [Formula: see text] rule and the ratio [Formula: see text] in the standard model (SM). We point out that this goal cannot be reached within a pure effective (meson) field approach like chiral perturbation theory in which the dominant current-current operators governing the [Formula: see text] rule and the dominant density-density (four-quark) operators governing [Formula: see text] cannot be disentangled from each other. But in the context of a dual QCD approach, which includes both long-distance dynamics and the UV completion, that is, QCD at short-distance scales, such a distinction is possible. We find then that beyond the strict large N limit, N being the number of colours, FSIs are likely to be important for the [Formula: see text] rule but much less relevant for [Formula: see text]. The latter finding diminishes significantly hopes that improved calculations of [Formula: see text] would bring its SM prediction to agree with the experimental data, opening thereby an arena for important new physics contributions to this ratio.

  1. Color of the ocean.

    PubMed

    Plass, G N; Humphreys, T J; Kattawar, G W

    1978-05-01

    The color of the ocean is calculated from a model that realistically takes into account the various types of scattering and absorption events that occur in both the atmosphere and ocean. Solar photons are followed through the atmosphere and into the ocean by a Monte Carlo technique. The reflection and refraction at the ocean surface are included in the calculation. The upward and downward flux is calculated at several different heights in the atmosphere, at thirteen different wavelengths from 0.4 mum to 0.7 mum. These results are compared with two approximate theories: (1) one-dimensional; (2) single scattering. The first of these theories gives results which are accurate within 10% in most cases and are easy to calculate. The chromaticity coordinates as well as the dominant wavelength and purity of the color are calculated from the Monte Carlo results for the variation of upward flux with wavelength. The ocean color near the horizon is almost entirely determined by the color of the sky reflected by the ocean surface. The upwelling light from the ocean can be observed near the nadir if precautions are taken to exclude as much light as possible reflected from the ocean surface. The color of this upwelling light from the ocean contains much information about the hydrosol, chlorophyll, and yellow substance amounts in the ocean water. The model calculations show how the ocean color changes from a deep blue of high purity for relatively pure water to a greenish blue and then to green of low purity as the cholorphyll and yellow substance amounts increase. Further increases in these substances cause the color to change to yellow green of a higher purity. A large increase in the hydrosol amount usually causes a marked decrease in the purity of the color.

  2. The spatial distribution in high-order harmonic generation of H2+ with different time delays of the two-color laser fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jun; Pan, Xue-Fei; Du, Hui; Xu, Tong-Tong; Guo, Jing; Liu, Xue-Shen

    2017-01-01

    We theoretically investigate the high-order harmonic generation (HHG) and the spatial distribution in HHG of the H2+ molecule by introducing a time-delayed two-color laser field which consists of the mid-infrared and near-infrared laser field. For the different time delays of the two-color laser fields, the pulse shapes are changed which result in the variation of the electron recombined with the nuclei along the positive- or negative-z direction. When the time delay is 0 fs (1.34 fs), a smooth harmonic plateau from the electron recombined with the nuclei along the negative (positive)-z direction can be achieved. An isolated attosecond pulse with a duration of about 99 as is generated when the time delay is 1.34 fs. We perform the classical analysis which is consistent with the numerical results from the one-dimensional non-Born-Oppenheimer time dependent Schrödinger equation (TDSE). We also investigate emission time of harmonics in terms of a time-frequency analysis to further understand the underlying physical mechanism.

  3. The interaction between surface color and color knowledge: behavioral and electrophysiological evidence.

    PubMed

    Bramão, Inês; Faísca, Luís; Forkstam, Christian; Inácio, Filomena; Araújo, Susana; Petersson, Karl Magnus; Reis, Alexandra

    2012-02-01

    In this study, we used event-related potentials (ERPs) to evaluate the contribution of surface color and color knowledge information in object identification. We constructed two color-object verification tasks - a surface and a knowledge verification task - using high color diagnostic objects; both typical and atypical color versions of the same object were presented. Continuous electroencephalogram was recorded from 26 subjects. A cluster randomization procedure was used to explore the differences between typical and atypical color objects in each task. In the color knowledge task, we found two significant clusters that were consistent with the N350 and late positive complex (LPC) effects. Atypical color objects elicited more negative ERPs compared to typical color objects. The color effect found in the N350 time window suggests that surface color is an important cue that facilitates the selection of a stored object representation from long-term memory. Moreover, the observed LPC effect suggests that surface color activates associated semantic knowledge about the object, including color knowledge representations. We did not find any significant differences between typical and atypical color objects in the surface color verification task, which indicates that there is little contribution of color knowledge to resolve the surface color verification. Our main results suggest that surface color is an important visual cue that triggers color knowledge, thereby facilitating object identification.

  4. Color superconductivity

    SciTech Connect

    Wilczek, F.

    1997-09-22

    The asymptotic freedom of QCD suggests that at high density - where one forms a Fermi surface at very high momenta - weak coupling methods apply. These methods suggest that chiral symmetry is restored and that an instability toward color triplet condensation (color superconductivity) sets in. Here I attempt, using variational methods, to estimate these effects more precisely. Highlights include demonstration of a negative pressure in the uniform density chiral broken phase for any non-zero condensation, which we take as evidence for the philosophy of the MIT bag model; and demonstration that the color gap is substantial - several tens of MeV - even at modest densities. Since the superconductivity is in a pseudoscalar channel, parity is spontaneously broken.

  5. Computing symmetric colorings of the dihedral group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zelenyuk, Yuliya

    2016-06-01

    A symmetry on a group G is a mapping G ∋ x ↦ gx-1 g ∈ G, where g ∈ G. A subset A ⊆ G is symmetric if it is invariant under some symmetry, that is, A = gA-1g. The notion of symmetry has interesting relations to enumerative combinatorics. A coloring is symmetric if χ(gx-1g) = χ(x) for some g ∈ G. We discuss an approach how to compute the number of symmetric r-colorings for any finite group. Using this approach we derive the formula for the number of symmetric r-colorings of the dihedral group D3.

  6. The Remainder in Taylor's Formula.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poffald, Esteban I.

    1990-01-01

    Presented is a mean-value theorem that generalizes the Taylor-Lagrange formula. Discussed is the asymptotic behavior of the remainder term of the formula. Several numerical schemes are derived to approximate the solution to initial-valued first order differential equations. (KR)

  7. The modern Japanese color lexicon.

    PubMed

    Kuriki, Ichiro; Lange, Ryan; Muto, Yumiko; Brown, Angela M; Fukuda, Kazuho; Tokunaga, Rumi; Lindsey, Delwin T; Uchikawa, Keiji; Shioiri, Satoshi

    2017-03-01

    Despite numerous prior studies, important questions about the Japanese color lexicon persist, particularly about the number of Japanese basic color terms and their deployment across color space. Here, 57 native Japanese speakers provided monolexemic terms for 320 chromatic and 10 achromatic Munsell color samples. Through k-means cluster analysis we revealed 16 statistically distinct Japanese chromatic categories. These included eight chromatic basic color terms (aka/red, ki/yellow, midori/green, ao/blue, pink, orange, cha/brown, and murasaki/purple) plus eight additional terms: mizu ("water")/light blue, hada ("skin tone")/peach, kon ("indigo")/dark blue, matcha ("green tea")/yellow-green, enji/maroon, oudo ("sand or mud")/mustard, yamabuki ("globeflower")/gold, and cream. Of these additional terms, mizu was used by 98% of informants, and emerged as a strong candidate for a 12th Japanese basic color term. Japanese and American English color-naming systems were broadly similar, except for color categories in one language (mizu, kon, teal, lavender, magenta, lime) that had no equivalent in the other. Our analysis revealed two statistically distinct Japanese motifs (or color-naming systems), which differed mainly in the extension of mizu across our color palette. Comparison of the present data with an earlier study by Uchikawa & Boynton (1987) suggests that some changes in the Japanese color lexicon have occurred over the last 30 years.

  8. Difference in thermotolerance between green and red color variants of the Japanese sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus Selenka: Hsp70 and heat-hardening effect.

    PubMed

    Dong, Yun-Wei; Ji, Ting-Ting; Meng, Xian-Liang; Dong, Shuang-Lin; Sun, Wei-Ming

    2010-02-01

    We studied thermal tolerance limits, heat-hardening, and Hsp70 to elucidate the difference in thermotolerance between two color variants of the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus. Green and Red variants occupy different habitats and have different aestivation responses to high temperature in summer. In the absence of heat-hardening, the variants showed no difference in the temperature at which 50% of the individuals died: Green, 31.49 degrees C; Red, 31.39 degrees C. However, Green specimens acquired higher thermotolerance than Red after a prior sublethal heat exposure. After 72 h of recovery from a heat-hardening treatment (30 degrees C for 2 h), the survival of Green variants was more than 50% and that of Red was less than 5% when they were treated at 33 degrees C for 2 h. Levels of mRNA and protein for Hsp70 were significantly higher in Green than Red after the heat shock of 30 degrees C, and the stability of hsp70 mRNA of Green was significantly higher than that of Red. Our findings suggest that within the same species, different variants that have similar thermal limits in the absence of heat-hardening can acquire different thermotolerances after a prior sublethal heat shock. The difference in induced thermotolerance between Green and Red is closely related to the expression pattern of Hsp70, which was partly governed by the stability of hsp70 mRNA.

  9. Categorical encoding of color in the brain

    PubMed Central

    Bird, Chris M.; Berens, Samuel C.; Horner, Aidan J.; Franklin, Anna

    2014-01-01

    The areas of the brain that encode color categorically have not yet been reliably identified. Here, we used functional MRI adaptation to identify neuronal populations that represent color categories irrespective of metric differences in color. Two colors were successively presented within a block of trials. The two colors were either from the same or different categories (e.g., “blue 1 and blue 2” or “blue 1 and green 1”), and the size of the hue difference was varied. Participants performed a target detection task unrelated to the difference in color. In the middle frontal gyrus of both hemispheres and to a lesser extent, the cerebellum, blood-oxygen level-dependent response was greater for colors from different categories relative to colors from the same category. Importantly, activation in these regions was not modulated by the size of the hue difference, suggesting that neurons in these regions represent color categorically, regardless of metric color difference. Representational similarity analyses, which investigated the similarity of the pattern of activity across local groups of voxels, identified other regions of the brain (including the visual cortex), which responded to metric but not categorical color differences. Therefore, categorical and metric hue differences appear to be coded in qualitatively different ways and in different brain regions. These findings have implications for the long-standing debate on the origin and nature of color categories, and also further our understanding of how color is processed by the brain. PMID:24591602

  10. Categorical encoding of color in the brain.

    PubMed

    Bird, Chris M; Berens, Samuel C; Horner, Aidan J; Franklin, Anna

    2014-03-25

    The areas of the brain that encode color categorically have not yet been reliably identified. Here, we used functional MRI adaptation to identify neuronal populations that represent color categories irrespective of metric differences in color. Two colors were successively presented within a block of trials. The two colors were either from the same or different categories (e.g., "blue 1 and blue 2" or "blue 1 and green 1"), and the size of the hue difference was varied. Participants performed a target detection task unrelated to the difference in color. In the middle frontal gyrus of both hemispheres and to a lesser extent, the cerebellum, blood-oxygen level-dependent response was greater for colors from different categories relative to colors from the same category. Importantly, activation in these regions was not modulated by the size of the hue difference, suggesting that neurons in these regions represent color categorically, regardless of metric color difference. Representational similarity analyses, which investigated the similarity of the pattern of activity across local groups of voxels, identified other regions of the brain (including the visual cortex), which responded to metric but not categorical color differences. Therefore, categorical and metric hue differences appear to be coded in qualitatively different ways and in different brain regions. These findings have implications for the long-standing debate on the origin and nature of color categories, and also further our understanding of how color is processed by the brain.

  11. But Can They Read It? A Look at Readability Formulas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ricker, Kenneth S.

    1978-01-01

    Examines six science books in reference to their reading levels as determined by the Fry, SMOG, and Fog formulas. A disparity in calculated values is noted and explained to be the result of the use of different comprehension levels by the formulas. Suggestions concerning the selection of science reading materials for the classroom are provided.…

  12. Timing formulas for dissection algorithms on vector computers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poole, W. G., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    The use of the finite element and finite difference methods often leads to the problem of solving large, sparse, positive definite systems of linear equations. MACSYMA plays a major role in the generation of formulas representing the time required for execution of the dissection algorithms. The use of MACSYMA in the generation of those formulas is described.

  13. Glycation products in infant formulas: chemical, analytical and physiological aspects.

    PubMed

    Pischetsrieder, Monika; Henle, Thomas

    2012-04-01

    Infant formulas are milk-based products, which are adapted to the composition of human milk. To ensure microbiological safety and long shelf life, infant formulas usually undergo rigid heat treatment. As a consequence of the special composition and the heat regimen, infant formulas are more prone to thermally induced degradation reactions than regular milk products. Degradation reactions observed during milk processing comprise lactosylation yielding the Amadori product lactulosyllysine, the formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs), and protein-free sugar degradation products, as well as protein or lipid oxidation. Several methods have been developed to estimate the heat impact applied during the manufacturing of infant formulas, including indirect methods such as fluorescence analysis as well as the analysis of defined reaction products. Most studies confirm a higher degree of damage in infant formulas compared to regular milk products. Differences between various types of infant formulas, such as liquid, powdered or hypoallergenic formulas depend on the analyzed markers and brands. A considerable portion of protein degradation products in infant formulas can be avoided when process parameters and the quality of the ingredients are carefully controlled. The nutritional consequences of thermal degradation products in infant formulas are largely unknown.

  14. Using Single Colors and Color Pairs to Communicate Basic Tastes II: Foreground-Background Color Combinations.

    PubMed

    Woods, Andy T; Marmolejo-Ramos, Fernando; Velasco, Carlos; Spence, Charles

    2016-01-01

    People associate basic tastes (e.g., sweet, sour, bitter, and salty) with specific colors (e.g., pink or red, green or yellow, black or purple, and white or blue). In the present study, we investigated whether a color bordered by another color (either the same or different) would give rise to stronger taste associations relative to a single patch of color. We replicate previous findings, highlighting the existence of a robust crossmodal correspondence between individual colors and basic tastes. On occasion, color pairs were found to communicate taste expectations more consistently than were single color patches. Furthermore, and in contrast to a recent study in which the color pairs were shown side-by-side, participants took no longer to match the color pairs with tastes than the single colors (they had taken twice as long to respond to the color pairs in the previous study). Possible reasons for these results are discussed, and potential applications for the results, and for the testing methodology developed, are outlined.

  15. Using Single Colors and Color Pairs to Communicate Basic Tastes II: Foreground–Background Color Combinations

    PubMed Central

    Marmolejo-Ramos, Fernando; Velasco, Carlos; Spence, Charles

    2016-01-01

    People associate basic tastes (e.g., sweet, sour, bitter, and salty) with specific colors (e.g., pink or red, green or yellow, black or purple, and white or blue). In the present study, we investigated whether a color bordered by another color (either the same or different) would give rise to stronger taste associations relative to a single patch of color. We replicate previous findings, highlighting the existence of a robust crossmodal correspondence between individual colors and basic tastes. On occasion, color pairs were found to communicate taste expectations more consistently than were single color patches. Furthermore, and in contrast to a recent study in which the color pairs were shown side-by-side, participants took no longer to match the color pairs with tastes than the single colors (they had taken twice as long to respond to the color pairs in the previous study). Possible reasons for these results are discussed, and potential applications for the results, and for the testing methodology developed, are outlined. PMID:27708752

  16. Color transparency

    SciTech Connect

    Jennings, B.K.; Miller, G.A.

    1993-11-01

    The anomously large transmission of nucleons through a nucleus following a hard collision is explored. This effect, known as color transparency, is believed to be a prediction of QCD. The necessary conditions for its occurrence and the effects that must be included a realistic calculation are discussed.

  17. Color Sense

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Heidi S. S.; Maki, Jennifer A.

    2009-01-01

    This article reports a study conducted by members of the WellU Academic Integration Subcommittee of The College of St. Scholastica's College's Healthy Campus Initiative plan whose purpose was to determine whether changing color in the classroom could have a measurable effect on students. One simple improvement a school can make in a classroom is…

  18. Recognition of Partially Occluded Objects Based on the Three Different Color Spaces (RGB, YCbCr, HSV)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soleimanizadeh, Shiva; Mohamad, Dzulkifli; Saba, Tanzila; Rehman, Amjad

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study is to propose an algorithm that can recognize partially occluded objects under different variations by computing three histograms of colour spaces (RGB, HSV, YCbCr). The dataset used in this research are from kitchen apparatuses. It is created by the researcher and include two parts: referenced objects (18 single objects) and tested objects (occluded objects) made from two single objects to represent the occluded object under different variations (scale, rotation, transformation) with varying percentage of occlusion (30-90 %). Three different colour spaces histogram (RGB, HIS, YCbCr) are used for extracting the features. Histogram intersection distance works for matching objects. Computation histograms and matching process are used to each block of image that given by image division process and finally compared the performance of each colour space by evaluating the accuracy. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm is robust for identifying occluded objects and it could work at high occlusion.

  19. How colorful are fruits? Limited color diversity in fleshy fruits on local and global scales.

    PubMed

    Stournaras, Kalliope E; Lo, Eugenia; Böhning-Gaese, Katrin; Cazetta, Eliana; Dehling, D Matthias; Schleuning, Matthias; Stoddard, Mary Caswell; Donoghue, Michael J; Prum, Richard O; Schaefer, H Martin

    2013-04-01

    The colors of fleshy fruits are considered to be a signal to seed-dispersing animals, but their diversity remains poorly understood. Using an avian color space to derive a sensory morphospace for fruit color, we tested four hypotheses of fruit color diversity: fruit colors occupy a limited area of the color space; they are less diverse than flower colors; fruit colors within localities are similar to each other; and fruit color diversity reflects phylogeny. The global fruit color diversity of 948 primarily bird-dispersed plant species and the color diversity of localities were compared with null models of random, unconstrained evolution of fruit color. Fruit color diversity was further compared with the diversity of 1300 flower colors. Tests of phylogenetic effects on fruit color were used to assess the degree of correspondence with phylogeny. Global and local fruit color diversity was limited compared with null models and fruits have achieved only half the color diversity of flowers. Interestingly, we found little indication of phylogenetic conservatism. Constraints resulting from the chemical properties of pigments probably limit global fruit and flower color diversity. Different types of selection on fruits and flowers may further explain the smaller color diversity of fruits.

  20. Ultrasonographic patterns of reproductive organs in infants fed soy formula: Comparisons to infants fed breast milk and milk formula

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our objective was to determine if differences exist in hormone sensitive organ size between infants fed soy formula (SF), milk formula (MF), or breast milk (BF). Breast buds, uterus, ovaries, prostate, and testicular volumes were assessed by ultrasonography in 40 BF, 41 MF, and 39 SF infants at age ...

  1. Study of sunless tanning formulas using molted snake skin as an alternative membrane model.

    PubMed

    Balogh, T S; Pedriali, C A; Gama, R M; de Oliveira Pinto, C A S; Bedin, V; Villa, R T; Kaneko, T M; Consiglieri, V O; Velasco, M V R; Baby, A R

    2011-08-01

    Sunless tanning formulas have become increasingly popular in recent years for their ability to give people convincing tans without the dangers of skin cancer. Most sunless tanners currently on the market contain dihydroxyacetone (DHA), a keto sugar with three carbons. The temporary pigment provided by these formulas is designed to resemble a UV-induced tan. This study evaluated the effectiveness of carbomer gels and cold process self emulsifying bases on skin pigmentation, using different concentrations of a chemical system composed of DHA and N-acetyl tyrosine, which are found in moulted snake skins and their effectiveness was tested by Mexameter(®) MX 18. Eight different sunless tanning formulas were developed, four of which were gels and four of which were emulsions (base, base plus 4.0%, 5.0% and 6.0% (w/w) of a system of DHA and N-acetyl tyrosine). Tests to determine the extent of artificial tanning were done by applying 30 mg cm(-2) of each formula onto standard sizes of moulted snake skin (2.0 cm × 3.0 cm). A Mexameter(®) MX 18 was used to evaluate the extent of coloration in the moulted snake skin at T(0) (before the application) and after 24, 48, 72, 168, 192 and 216 h. The moulted snake skins can be used as an alternative membrane model for in vitro sunless tanning efficacy tests due to their similarity to the human stratum corneum. The DHA concentration was found to influence the initiation of the pigmentation in both sunless tanning systems (emulsion and gel) as well as the time required to increases by a given amount on the tanning index. In the emulsion system, the DHA concentration also influenced the final value on the tanning index. The type of system (emulsion or gel) has no influence on the final value in the tanning index after 216 h for samples with the same DHA concentration.

  2. Variation of L-DOPA in the leaf and flower tissues of seven faba bean accessions with different flower colors

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Faba bean (Vicia faba L.) has been selected to adapt to a wide range of environments worldwide and is grown for different end-uses such as food, feed, forage and green manure. Particularly noteworthy in faba bean is the medicinally important component L-3,4-dihydroxy phenylalanine (L-DOPA), the majo...

  3. Variation of L-DOPA in the leaf and flower tissues of seven faba bean accessions with different flower colors.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Faba bean (Vicia faba L.) has been selected to adapt to a wide range of environments worldwide and is grown for different end-uses such as food, feed, forage and green manure. Particularly noteworthy in faba bean is the medicinally important component L-3,4-dihydroxy phenylalanine (L-DOPA), the majo...

  4. Boosting color feature selection for color face recognition.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jae Young; Ro, Yong Man; Plataniotis, Konstantinos N

    2011-05-01

    This paper introduces the new color face recognition (FR) method that makes effective use of boosting learning as color-component feature selection framework. The proposed boosting color-component feature selection framework is designed for finding the best set of color-component features from various color spaces (or models), aiming to achieve the best FR performance for a given FR task. In addition, to facilitate the complementary effect of the selected color-component features for the purpose of color FR, they are combined using the proposed weighted feature fusion scheme. The effectiveness of our color FR method has been successfully evaluated on the following five public face databases (DBs): CMU-PIE, Color FERET, XM2VTSDB, SCface, and FRGC 2.0. Experimental results show that the results of the proposed method are impressively better than the results of other state-of-the-art color FR methods over different FR challenges including highly uncontrolled illumination, moderate pose variation, and small resolution face images.

  5. Note on color preference and color vision test performance.

    PubMed

    Buckalew, L W; Buckalew, N M; Ross, S

    1989-12-01

    The incidence of color deficient vision was investigated using the Pseudo-Isochromatic Plates on a relatively large and representative group. In the sample of 112 adults aged 20 to 80 yr. and comprised of 53% women and 12% minorities, 8% of men and 3% of women were color deficient. Over-all performance indicated no effects for sex or race. Nearly half of the plates were nondiscriminating among sex, minority/majority, and "normal" and "defective" color vision groups. Named color preferences within the "normal" group strongly favored blues and reflected no sex differences.

  6. The infant formula industry, the Infant Formula Act of 1980, and quality control.

    PubMed

    Gelardi, R C

    1982-11-01

    Throughout the months following the discovery of the low-chloride problem in infant formula, the industry undertook independent and voluntary measures to ensure the compositional quality of formulas. Members of the Infant Formula Council reviewed industry procedures, practices, and policies, and submitted a detailed description of its quality control and clinical testing procedures to the Food and Drug Administration. New product concepts and product reformulation proposals are based on medical and nutritional findings, on changes in medical concepts for nutritional support, on availability of improved nutrient sources, or on improved ingredients or processing technologies. Quality control is maintained throughout the manufacturing process through inspection of raw materials, analysis of major and minor constituents, equipment and process controls, and continuous product monitoring. However, despite cooperation of the infant formula industry with FDA and Congress during the development of the infant formula bills, the proposed document was too rigid and did not take into account that manufacturing methods of a given manufacturer often vary for the same product, for different products, and on different production equipment. The statistical criteria established uneven and inconsistent requirements for various manufacturers. Congress did not forsee that the proposed regulatory procedures would significantly affect industry.

  7. Color vision, cones, and color-coding in the cortex.

    PubMed

    Conway, Bevil R

    2009-06-01

    Color processing begins with the absorption of light by cone photoreceptors, and progresses through a series of hierarchical stages: Retinal signals carrying color information are transmitted through the lateral geniculate nucleus of the thalamus (LGN) up to the primary visual cortex (V1). From V1, the signals are processed by the second visual area (V2); then by cells located in subcompartments ("globs") within the posterior inferior temporal (PIT) cortex, a brain region that encompasses area V4 and brain regions immediately anterior to V4. Color signals are then processed by regions deep within the inferior temporal (IT) cortex including area TE. As a heuristic, one can consider each of these stages to be involved in constructing a distinct aspect of the color percept. The three cone types are the basis for trichromacy; retinal ganglion cells that respond in an opponent fashion to activation of different cone classes are the basis for color opponency (these "cone-opponent" cells increase their firing rate above baseline to activation of one cone class and decrease their firing rate below baseline to activation of a different cone class); double-opponent neurons in the V1 generate local color contrast and are the building blocks for color constancy; glob cells elaborate the perception of hue; and IT integrates color perception in the context of behavior. Finally, though nothing is known, these signals presumably interface with motor programs and emotional centers of the brain to mediate the widely acknowledged emotional salience of color.

  8. Ultraviolet colors of W Ursae Majoris - Gravity darkening, temperature differences, and the cause of W-type light curves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eaton, J. A.; Wu, C.-C.; Rucinski, S. M.

    1980-01-01

    The paper presents photometry of the prototype W UMa binary system in three ultraviolet bands with the ANS satellite. It was found that W UMa has low-gravity darkening beta of 0.03; that temperature differences between the components not established by gravity darkening are insignificant; and that the bolometric albedo is not very large. It was also found that W UMa is limb-darkened in the ultraviolet region, and that the inner hemisphere of the less massive component is hotter than that predicted by gravity darkening and the reflection effect. It was concluded that about 20% of the surface area of the component responsible for large gravity darkening is covered by dark spots distributed uniformly in the longitudinal direction. An observational value of the convective darkening exponent of 0.054 plus or minus 0.02 is proposed.

  9. Formulas for Image Factor Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hakstian, A. Ralph

    1973-01-01

    Formulas are presented in this paper for computing scores associated with factors of G, the image covariance matrix, under three conditions. The subject of the paper is restricted to "pure" image analysis. (Author/NE)

  10. Heron's Remarkable Triangle Area Formula.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Bernard M.

    1993-01-01

    Presents Heron's original geometric proof to his formula to calculate the area of a triangle. Attempts to improve on this proof by supplying a chain of reasoning that leads quickly from premises to the conclusion. (MDH)

  11. The Landau-Zener formula.

    PubMed

    Wittig, Curt

    2005-05-05

    The Landau-Zener formula for the probability that a nonadiabatic transition has taken place is derived without solving directly the usual second-order differential equation. This is achieved in just a few steps by using contour integration.

  12. Quantum computing of semiclassical formulas.

    PubMed

    Georgeot, B; Giraud, O

    2008-04-01

    We show that semiclassical formulas such as the Gutzwiller trace formula can be implemented on a quantum computer more efficiently than on a classical device. We give explicit quantum algorithms which yield quantum observables from classical trajectories, and which alternatively test the semiclassical approximation by computing classical actions from quantum evolution. The gain over classical computation is in general quadratic, and can be larger in some specific cases.

  13. The influence of traditional herbal formulas on cytokine activity.

    PubMed

    Burns, J J; Zhao, Lijun; Taylor, Ethan Will; Spelman, Kevin

    2010-11-28

    Many of the botanical "immunomodulators", a class of herbal medicines widely recognized in traditional medical systems such as Chinese Medicine (TCM) and Ayurvedic Medicine, alter immune function and may offer clinically relevant therapeutics or leads to therapeutics. Many of these traditional remedies are prepared from combinations of medicinal plants which may influence numerous molecular pathways. These effects may differ from the sum of effects from the individual plants and therefore, research demonstrating the effects of the formula is crucial for insights into the effects of traditional remedies. In this review we surveyed the primary literature for research that focused on combinations of medicinal plants and effects on cytokine activity. The results demonstrate that many extracts of herb mixtures have effects on at least one cytokine. The most commonly studies cytokines were IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, TNF and IFN-γ. The majority of the formulas researched derived from TCM. The following formulas had activity on at least three cytokines; Chizukit N, CKBM, Daeganghwal-tang, Food Allergy Formula, Gamcho-Sasim-Tang, Hachimi-jio-gan, Herbkines, Hochuekki, Immune System Formula, Jeo-Dang-Tang, Juzen-taiho-to, Kakkon-to, Kan jang, Mao-Bushi-Saishin-to, MSSM-002, Ninjin-youei-to, PG201, Protec, Qing-huo-bai-du-yin, Qingfu Guanjieshu, Sambucol Active Defense, Seng-fu-tang, Shin-Xiao-Xiang, Tien Hsien, Thuja formula, Unkei-to, Vigconic, Wheeze-relief-formula, Xia-Bai-San, Yangyuk-Sanhwa-Tang, Yi-fey Ruenn-hou, and Yuldahansotang. Of the western based combinations, formulas with Echinacea spp. were common and showed multiple activities. Numerous formulas demonstrated activity on both gene and protein expression. The research demonstrates that the reviewed botanical formulas modulate cytokine activity, although the bulk of the research is in vitro. Therapeutic success using these formulas may be partially due to their effects on cytokines. Further study of phytotherapy on

  14. Colorful drying.

    PubMed

    Lakio, Satu; Heinämäki, Jyrki; Yliruusi, Jouko

    2010-03-01

    Drying is one of the standard unit operations in the pharmaceutical industry and it is important to become aware of the circumstances that dominate during the process. The purpose of this study was to test microcapsulated thermochromic pigments as heat indicators in a fluid bed drying process. The indicator powders were manually granulated with alpha-lactose monohydrate resulting in three particle-size groups. Also, pellets were coated with the indicator powders. The granules and pellets were fluidized in fluid bed dryer to observe the progress of the heat flow in the material and to study the heat indicator properties of the indicator materials. A tristimulus colorimeter was used to measure CIELAB color values. Color indicator for heat detection can be utilized to test if the heat-sensitive API would go through physical changes during the pharmaceutical drying process. Both the prepared granules and pellets can be used as heat indicator in fluid bed drying process. The colored heat indicators give an opportunity to learn new aspects of the process at real time and could be exploded, for example, for scaling-up studies.

  15. Evaluation and prediction of color-tunable organic light-emitting diodes based on carrier/exciton adjusting interlayer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shengqiang; Li, Jie; Du, Chunlei; Yu, Junsheng

    2015-07-01

    A color tuning index (ICT) parameter for evaluating the color change capability of color-tunable organic light-emitting diodes (CT-OLEDs) was proposed and formulated. And a series of CT-OLEDs, consisting of five different carrier/exciton adjusting interlayers (C/EALs) inserted between two complementary emitting layers, were fabricated and applied to disclose the relationship between ICT and C/EALs. The result showed that the trend of electroluminescence spectra behavior in CT-OLEDs has good accordance with ICT values, indicating that the ICT parameter is feasible for the evaluation of color variation. Meanwhile, by changing energy level and C/EAL thickness, the optimized device with the widest color tuning range was based on N,N'-dicarbazolyl-3,5-benzene C/EAL, exhibiting the highest ICT value of 41.2%. Based on carrier quadratic hopping theory and exciton transfer model, two fitting ICT formulas derived from the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) energy level and triplet energy level were simulated. Finally, a color tuning prediction (CTP) model was developed to deduce the ICT via C/EAL HOMO and triplet energy levels, and verified by the fabricated OLEDs with five different C/EALs. We believe that the CTP model assisted with ICT parameter will be helpful for fabricating high performance CT-OLEDs with a broad range of color tuning.

  16. Contrasting coloration in terrestrial mammals

    PubMed Central

    Caro, Tim

    2008-01-01

    Here I survey, collate and synthesize contrasting coloration in 5000 species of terrestrial mammals focusing on black and white pelage. After briefly reviewing alternative functional hypotheses for coloration in mammals, I examine nine colour patterns and combinations on different areas of the body and for each mammalian taxon to try to identify the most likely evolutionary drivers of contrasting coloration. Aposematism and perhaps conspecific signalling are the most consistent explanations for black and white pelage in mammals; background matching may explain white pelage. Evidence for contrasting coloration is being involved in crypsis through pattern blending, disruptive coloration or serving other functions, such as signalling dominance, lures, reducing eye glare or in temperature regulation has barely moved beyond anecdotal stages of investigation. Sexual dichromatism is limited in this taxon and its basis is unclear. Astonishingly, the functional significance of pelage coloration in most large charismatic black and white mammals that were new to science 150 years ago still remains a mystery. PMID:18990666

  17. Natural colorants from filamentous fungi.

    PubMed

    Torres, Fábio Aurélio Esteves; Zaccarim, Bruna Regina; de Lencastre Novaes, Letícia Celia; Jozala, Angela Faustino; Dos Santos, Carolina Alves; Teixeira, Maria Francisca Simas; Santos-Ebinuma, Valéria Carvalho

    2016-03-01

    In the last years, there is a trend towards the replacement of synthetic colorants by natural ones, mainly due to the increase of consumer demand for natural products. The natural colorants are used to enhance the appearance of pharmaceutical products, food, and different materials, making them preferable or attractive. This review intends to provide and describe a comprehensive overview of the history of colorants, from prehistory to modern time, of their market and their applications, as well as of the most important aspects of the fermentation process to obtain natural colorants. Focus is given to colorants produced by filamentous fungal species, aiming to demonstrate the importance of these microorganisms and biocompounds, highlighting the production performance to get high yields and the aspects of conclusion that should be taken into consideration in future studies about natural colorants.

  18. [Study of spectrum drifting of primary colors and its impact on color rendering properties].

    PubMed

    Cui, Xiao-yan; Zhang, Xiao-dong

    2012-08-01

    LEDs are currently used widely to display text, graphics and images in large screens. With red, green and blue LEDs as three primary colors, color rendition will be realized through color mixing. However, LEDs' spectrum will produce drifts with the changes in the temperature environment. With the changes in the driving current simulating changes in the temperature, the three primary color LEDs' spectral drifts were tested, and the drift characteristics of the three primary colors were obtained respectively. Based on the typical characteristics of the LEDs and the differences between LEDs with different colors in composition and molecular structure, the paper analyzed the reason for the spectrum drifts and the drift characteristics of different color LEDs, and proposed the equations of spectrum drifts. Putting the experimental data into the spectrum drift equations, the paper analyzed the impacts of primary colors on the mixed color, pointed out a way to reduce the chromatic aberration, and provided the theory for engineering application of color LEDs.

  19. Fragment formula calculator (FFC): determination of chemical formulas for fragment ions in mass spectrometric data.

    PubMed

    Wegner, André; Weindl, Daniel; Jäger, Christian; Sapcariu, Sean C; Dong, Xiangyi; Stephanopoulos, Gregory; Hiller, Karsten

    2014-02-18

    The accurate determination of mass isotopomer distributions (MID) is of great significance for stable isotope-labeling experiments. Most commonly, MIDs are derived from gas chromatography/electron ionization mass spectrometry (GC/EI-MS) measurements. The analysis of fragment ions formed during EI, which contain only specific parts of the original molecule can provide valuable information on the positional distribution of the label. The chemical formula of a fragment ion is usually applied to derive the correction matrix for accurate MID calculation. Hence, the correct assignment of chemical formulas to fragment ions is of crucial importance for correct MIDs. Moreover, the positional distribution of stable isotopes within a fragment ion is of high interest for stable isotope-assisted metabolomics techniques. For example, (13)C-metabolic flux analyses ((13)C-MFA) are dependent on the exact knowledge of the number and position of retained carbon atoms of the unfragmented molecule. Fragment ions containing different carbon atoms are of special interest, since they can carry different flux information. However, the process of mass spectral fragmentation is complex, and identifying the substructures and chemical formulas for these fragment ions is nontrivial. For that reason, we developed an algorithm, based on a systematic bond cleavage, to determine chemical formulas and retained atoms for EI derived fragment ions. Here, we present the fragment formula calculator (FFC) algorithm that can calculate chemical formulas for fragment ions where the chemical bonding (e.g., Lewis structures) of the intact molecule is known. The proposed algorithm is able to cope with general molecular rearrangement reactions occurring during EI in GC/MS measurements. The FFC algorithm is able to integrate stable isotope labeling experiments into the analysis and can automatically exclude candidate formulas that do not fit the observed labeling patterns.1 We applied the FFC algorithm to create

  20. Introduction To Color Vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorell, Lisa G.

    1983-08-01

    Several human cognitive studies have reported that color facilitates certain learning, memory and search tasks. Consideration of the color-opponent organization of human color vision and the spatial modulation transfer function for color suggests several simple sensory explanations.

  1. Modeling, Measuring, and Compensating Color Weak Vision.

    PubMed

    Oshima, Satoshi; Mochizuki, Rika; Lenz, Reiner; Chao, Jinhui

    2016-06-01

    We use methods from Riemann geometry to investigate transformations between the color spaces of color-normal and color-weak observers. The two main applications are the simulation of the perception of a color weak observer for a color-normal observer, and the compensation of color images in a way that a color-weak observer has approximately the same perception as a color-normal observer. The metrics in the color spaces of interest are characterized with the help of ellipsoids defined by the just-noticeable-differences between the colors which are measured with the help of color-matching experiments. The constructed mappings are the isometries of Riemann spaces that preserve the perceived color differences for both observers. Among the two approaches to build such an isometry, we introduce normal coordinates in Riemann spaces as a tool to construct a global color-weak compensation map. Compared with the previously used methods, this method is free from approximation errors due to local linearizations, and it avoids the problem of shifting locations of the origin of the local coordinate system. We analyze the variations of the Riemann metrics for different observers obtained from new color-matching experiments and describe three variations of the basic method. The performance of the methods is evaluated with the help of semantic differential tests.

  2. Modelling, Measuring and Compensating Color Weak Vision.

    PubMed

    Oshima, Satoshi; Mochizuki, Rika; Lenz, Reiner; Chao, Jinhui

    2016-03-08

    We use methods from Riemann geometry to investigate transformations between the color spaces of color-normal and color weak observers. The two main applications are the simulation of the perception of a color weak observer for a color normal observer and the compensation of color images in a way that a color weak observer has approximately the same perception as a color normal observer. The metrics in the color spaces of interest are characterized with the help of ellipsoids defined by the just-noticable-differences between color which are measured with the help of color-matching experiments. The constructed mappings are isometries of Riemann spaces that preserve the perceived color-differences for both observers. Among the two approaches to build such an isometry, we introduce normal coordinates in Riemann spaces as a tool to construct a global color-weak compensation map. Compared to previously used methods this method is free from approximation errors due to local linearizations and it avoids the problem of shifting locations of the origin of the local coordinate system. We analyse the variations of the Riemann metrics for different observers obtained from new color matching experiments and describe three variations of the basic method. The performance of the methods is evaluated with the help of semantic differential (SD) tests.

  3. Social jet lag: Sleep-corrected formula.

    PubMed

    Jankowski, Konrad S

    2017-03-20

    Social jet lag is a term describing misalignment between social and biological times. In this article, it is argued that the currently used formula for social jet lag captures not only this misalignment, but also sleep debt resulting from sleep deprivation during workdays. It is proposed to adopt the sleep-corrected formula for social jet lag, which takes the form of the difference between the sleep onset on free days and workdays in the case of subjects with longer sleep and later (or equal) sleep onset on free days compared to workdays; it takes the form of the difference between the sleep offset on free days and workdays for subjects with longer sleep and earlier (or equal) sleep offset on workdays compared to free days.

  4. Generalized formulas for ray-tracing and longitudinal spherical aberration.

    PubMed

    Elagha, Hassan A

    2017-03-01

    In this work, we generalize the paraxial ray-tracing formulas to include nonparaxial rays. For a refracting (reflecting) spherical surface, a new single meridional formula is derived. This formula can be easily reduced to a paraxial formula. It can also be applied to any aspheric (or general) surface with a known equation. Also, a new exact ray-tracing procedure for a centered system of spherical surfaces is derived. In this procedure, we apply just two simple equations for each surface of the system, which, to the best of our knowledge, makes it the shortest analytical ray-tracing technique ever. This procedure can be applied in some other applications. For example, it can be reduced to a new single paraxial formula that can be easily used to trace a paraxial ray propagating through a system of spherical surfaces. Also, it is applied to derive an exact meridional formula for both thick and thin lenses that can also be reduced to a new paraxial formula different from the Gaussian one. These results led us to easily derive an exact formula for the longitudinal spherical aberration for both thick and thin lenses and also for a single refracting (reflecting) spherical surface. Numerical examples are provided and discussed.

  5. The Chemistry of Color Photography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guida, Wayne C.; Raber, Douglas J.

    1975-01-01

    Presents several topics in color photography which can serve as an introduction of scientific concepts into the classroom, such as: photochemistry (energy transport), organic chemistry (dye formation), physics (nature of light), psychology (color perception), and engineering (isolation of different chemical processes within layers of the film).…

  6. Color Us American.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin, Virginia; Hodges, Ethel

    A coloring book containing drawings and information on eight different countries is designed to help children obtain cultural understanding of themselves and other persons as individuals and as members of groups within our society. The countries presented are Poland/Germany, the Navajo Nation (Native American), China, Nigeria (Africa), Mexico,…

  7. Sequence variation in the melanocortin-1 receptor (MC1R) does not explain continent-wide plumage color differences in the Australian Magpie (Cracticus tibicen).

    PubMed

    Dobson, Ana E; Schmidt, Daniel J; Hughes, Jane M

    2012-01-01

    The genetic basis of plumage color variation has already been determined for many model species; however, the genetic mechanisms responsible for intraspecific color variation in the majority of wild-bird species are yet to be uncovered. The Australian magpie (Cracticus tibicen) is a large black and white passerine which is widely distributed across the Australian continent. The proportion of melanized back plumage varies between regionally delineated subspecies; where back-color forms overlap, intermediate color phenotypes are produced. This study examined the majority (861 bp) of the coding region of the melanocortin-1 receptor (MC1R), a candidate gene for plumage color differentiation in 98 magpies from across the Australian continent, to determine if the gene is associated with magpie back-color variation and explore phylogeographic signal within the gene. Neutrality and selection tests (Tajima's D, Fu's F (S), MKT) indicate the gene is unlikely to be currently under selection pressure and, together with other lines of evidence, suggest a past demographic expansion event within the species congruent with the results of previous mitochondrial phylogeographic work on this species. None of the 15 synonymous and four nonsynonymous substitutions within MC1R were found to be associated with plumage variation. Our results suggest that genes or regulatory elements other than MC1R may determine back-color variation in C. tibicen.

  8. Anxiety induced by simulated public speaking and stroop color word test in healthy subjects: effects of different trait-anxiety levels.

    PubMed

    Palma, S M; Guimarães, F S; Zuardi, A W

    1994-12-01

    1. The objective of the present study was to compare the effects of two anxiety-inducing tests, simulated public speaking (SPS) and the stroop color word test (SCWT), in healthy subjects with different trait-anxiety levels. 2. The mean (+/- SD) trait-anxiety score of 524 university students, measured by Spielberger's state-trait anxiety inventory (STAI), was 40.8 +/- 8.9. Based on these scores, 26 students from our sample were divided into low (score less than 1 SD from the mean, N = 10), medium (score between -1 and +1 SD from the mean, N = 7) and high (score more than 1 SD from the mean, N = 9) trait anxiety. 3. Each subject was submitted to the SPS and SCWT tests in the same experimental session. The sequence of test presentation was randomized between subjects. No effect of test order presentation was found. 4. SPS induced significant increases in the anxiety factor of Norris' visual analogue mood scale (VAMS) in all groups, without difference between them. The SCWT, on the other hand, did not induce an increase in subjective anxiety in any group. In the high trait group, however, there was a general increase in anxiety feelings that was evident even before the test, and might have been caused by the presence of the experimenter. 5. The results suggest that SPS is a more effective anxiety-inducing test, and is not dependent on previous trait-anxiety levels.

  9. Spectral sharpening of color sensors: diagonal color constancy and beyond.

    PubMed

    Vazquez-Corral, Javier; Bertalmío, Marcelo

    2014-02-26

    It has now been 20 years since the seminal work by Finlayson et al. on the use of spectral sharpening of sensors to achieve diagonal color constancy. Spectral sharpening is still used today by numerous researchers for different goals unrelated to the original goal of diagonal color constancy e.g., multispectral processing, shadow removal, location of unique hues. This paper reviews the idea of spectral sharpening through the lens of what is known today in color constancy, describes the different methods used for obtaining a set of sharpening sensors and presents an overview of the many different uses that have been found for spectral sharpening over the years.

  10. The Colors of Saturn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeVogel, Kayla; Chanover, Nancy; Thelen, Alexander

    2015-11-01

    Very little is known about the coloring agents, or chromophores, that color the clouds of Saturn’s belts and zones. Although the clouds of Saturn are more muted in their coloration and do not exhibit the more striking variations seen among Jupiter’s belts, zones, and cyclonic storm features, the physical processes that render Saturn’s clouds a yellowish hue are likely similar to those at work on Jupiter. Thus, a comprehensive color study that includes both Jupiter and Saturn is warranted to advance our understanding of chromophores in the giant planet atmospheres. Here we report on our efforts to characterize the colors of Saturn’s clouds.This study involves the analysis of two imaging data sets: those from Cassini’s Imaging Science Subsystem (ISS), and Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 images taken with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). The HST data were acquired in 1994, 1998, 2002 and 2004 using eleven different filters spanning 255-973 nm. After the images were photometrically and geometrically calibrated, we used them to create low resolution spectra for six different latitude regions: the Equatorial Zone, the Equatorial Belt, the South Equatorial Belt, the South Temperate Zone, the South Temperate Belt and the South South Temperate Belt. The Cassini ISS images were acquired in 2004 and 2011 using twelve different filters spanning 258-938 nm, and corresponding low resolution spectra of the same latitude regions were generated using the ISS images. We compare these low resolution spectra to Saturn’s full-disk spectrum (Karkoschka, E., 1994, Icarus 111, 174) to examine colors of discrete latitudes versus the full-disk spectrum of Saturn. The extensive temporal coverage afforded by the combination of the HST and ISS images will enable us to explore possible seasonal variations in Saturn’s cloud colors. Finally, we examine the color evolution of the major 2011 storm on Saturn using the ISS data.This work was supported by the Discovery Scholars Program in

  11. The health implications of soy infant formula.

    PubMed

    Badger, Thomas M; Gilchrist, Janet M; Pivik, R Terry; Andres, Aline; Shankar, Kartik; Chen, Jin-Ran; Ronis, Martin J

    2009-05-01

    Soy formula (SF) has been fed to millions of infants worldwide. It has been shown to promote growth and development as well as milk-based formula (MF). Controversy has developed over the adequacy and safety of SF. Most concerns are based on in vivo and in vitro data that raise the possibility of estrogenic effects of isoflavones contained in SF. There are few studies of children who were fed SF, and thus insufficient data are available to judge if SF feeding results in clinically significant developmental effects and if there are any long-term health consequences (adverse or beneficial). However, the Arkansas Children's Nutrition Center is conducting a prospective longitudinal study comparing growth, development, and health of breastfed children with formula-fed (SF and MF) children from birth through age 6 y. After 5 y of study, children in all 3 groups (n > 300) are growing and developing within normal limits, and there are no indications of adverse effects in the soy-fed children. Neonatal pig studies comparing SF, MF, and breast milk (BM) have shown diet-specific gene expression profiles in various target tissues. Therefore, although SF differed significantly from BM, MF also differed from BM, and SF differed from MF. Nonetheless, these animals grew and developed normally, and SF piglets had several health benefits (eg, increased bone quality) and no observable adverse effects. Thus, to date, our results suggest that SF supports normal growth and may have advantages in promoting bone development.

  12. Interaction between facial expression and color

    PubMed Central

    Nakajima, Kae; Minami, Tetsuto; Nakauchi, Shigeki

    2017-01-01

    Facial color varies depending on emotional state, and emotions are often described in relation to facial color. In this study, we investigated whether the recognition of facial expressions was affected by facial color and vice versa. In the facial expression task, expression morph continua were employed: fear-anger and sadness-happiness. The morphed faces were presented in three different facial colors (bluish, neutral, and reddish color). Participants identified a facial expression between the two endpoints (e.g., fear or anger) regardless of its facial color. The results showed that the perception of facial expression was influenced by facial color. In the fear-anger morphs, intermediate morphs of reddish-colored and bluish colored faces had a greater tendency to be identified as angry faces and fearful faces, respectively. In the facial color task, two bluish-to-reddish colored face continua were presented in three different facial expressions (fear-neutral-anger and sadness-neutral-happiness). Participants judged whether the facial color was reddish or bluish regardless of its expression. The faces with sad expression tended to be identified as more bluish, while the faces with other expressions did not affect facial color judgment. These results suggest that an interactive but disproportionate relationship exists between facial color and expression in face perception. PMID:28117349

  13. Measurement of [Formula: see text] polarisation in [Formula: see text] collisions at [Formula: see text] = 7 TeV.

    PubMed

    Aaij, R; Adeva, B; Adinolfi, M; Affolder, A; Ajaltouni, Z; Albrecht, J; Alessio, F; Alexander, M; Ali, S; Alkhazov, G; Alvarez Cartelle, P; Alves, A A; Amato, S; Amerio, S; Amhis, Y; An, L; Anderlini, L; Anderson, J; Andreassen, R; Andreotti, M; Andrews, J E; Appleby, R B; Aquines Gutierrez, O; Archilli, F; Artamonov, A; Artuso, M; Aslanides, E; Auriemma, G; Baalouch, M; Bachmann, S; Back, J J; Badalov, A; Balagura, V; Baldini, W; Barlow, R J; Barschel, C; Barsuk, S; Barter, W; Batozskaya, V; Bauer, Th; Bay, A; Beddow, J; Bedeschi, F; Bediaga, I; Belogurov, S; Belous, K; Belyaev, I; Ben-Haim, E; Bencivenni, G; Benson, S; Benton, J; Berezhnoy, A; Bernet, R; Bettler, M-O; van Beuzekom, M; Bien, A; Bifani, S; Bird, T; Bizzeti, A; Bjørnstad, P M; Blake, T; Blanc, F; Blouw, J; Blusk, S; Bocci, V; Bondar, A; Bondar, N; Bonivento, W; Borghi, S; Borgia, A; Borsato, M; Bowcock, T J V; Bowen, E; Bozzi, C; Brambach, T; van den Brand, J; Bressieux, J; Brett, D; Britsch, M; Britton, T; Brook, N H; Brown, H; Bursche, A; Busetto, G; Buytaert, J; Cadeddu, S; Calabrese, R; Callot, O; Calvi, M; Calvo Gomez, M; Camboni, A; Campana, P; Campora Perez, D; Carbone, A; Carboni, G; Cardinale, R; Cardini, A; Carranza-Mejia, H; Carson, L; Carvalho Akiba, K; Casse, G; Cassina, L; Castillo Garcia, L; Cattaneo, M; Cauet, Ch; Cenci, R; Charles, M; Charpentier, Ph; Cheung, S-F; Chiapolini, N; Chrzaszcz, M; Ciba, K; Cid Vidal, X; Ciezarek, G; Clarke, P E L; Clemencic, M; Cliff, H V; Closier, J; Coca, C; Coco, V; Cogan, J; Cogneras, E; Collins, P; Comerma-Montells, A; Contu, A; Cook, A; Coombes, M; Coquereau, S; Corti, G; Corvo, M; Counts, I; Couturier, B; Cowan, G A; Craik, D C; Cruz Torres, M; Cunliffe, S; Currie, R; D'Ambrosio, C; Dalseno, J; David, P; David, P N Y; Davis, A; De Bruyn, K; De Capua, S; De Cian, M; De Miranda, J M; De Paula, L; De Silva, W; De Simone, P; Decamp, D; Deckenhoff, M; Del Buono, L; Déléage, N; Derkach, D; Deschamps, O; Dettori, F; Di Canto, A; Dijkstra, H; Donleavy, S; Dordei, F; Dorigo, M; Dosil Suárez, A; Dossett, D; Dovbnya, A; Dupertuis, F; Durante, P; Dzhelyadin, R; Dziurda, A; Dzyuba, A; Easo, S; Egede, U; Egorychev, V; Eidelman, S; Eisenhardt, S; Eitschberger, U; Ekelhof, R; Eklund, L; El Rifai, I; Elsasser, Ch; Esen, S; Evans, T; Falabella, A; Färber, C; Farinelli, C; Farry, S; Ferguson, D; Fernandez Albor, V; Ferreira Rodrigues, F; Ferro-Luzzi, M; Filippov, S; Fiore, M; Fiorini, M; Firlej, M; Fitzpatrick, C; Fiutowski, T; Fontana, M; Fontanelli, F; Forty, R; Francisco, O; Frank, M; Frei, C; Frosini, M; Fu, J; Furfaro, E; Gallas Torreira, A; Galli, D; Gandelman, M; Gandini, P; Gao, Y; Garofoli, J; Garra Tico, J; Garrido, L; Gaspar, C; Gauld, R; Gavardi, L; Gersabeck, E; Gersabeck, M; Gershon, T; Ghez, Ph; Gianelle, A; Giani, S; Gibson, V; Giubega, L; Gligorov, V V; Göbel, C; Golubkov, D; Golutvin, A; Gomes, A; Gordon, H; Gotti, C; Grabalosa Gándara, M; Graciani Diaz, R; Granado Cardoso, L A; Graugés, E; Graziani, G; Grecu, A; Greening, E; Gregson, S; Griffith, P; Grillo, L; Grünberg, O; Gui, B; Gushchin, E; Guz, Yu; Gys, T; Hadjivasiliou, C; Haefeli, G; Haen, C; Haines, S C; Hall, S; Hamilton, B; Hampson, T; Han, X; Hansmann-Menzemer, S; Harnew, N; Harnew, S T; Harrison, J; Hartmann, T; He, J; Head, T; Heijne, V; Hennessy, K; Henrard, P; Henry, L; Hernando Morata, J A; van Herwijnen, E; Heß, M; Hicheur, A; Hill, D; Hoballah, M; Hombach, C; Hulsbergen, W; Hunt, P; Hussain, N; Hutchcroft, D; Hynds, D; Iakovenko, V; Idzik, M; Ilten, P; Jacobsson, R; Jaeger, A; Jalocha, J; Jans, E; Jaton, P; Jawahery, A; Jezabek, M; Jing, F; John, M; Johnson, D; Jones, C R; Joram, C; Jost, B; Jurik, N; Kaballo, M; Kandybei, S; Kanso, W; Karacson, M; Karbach, T M; Kelsey, M; Kenyon, I R; Ketel, T; Khanji, B; Khurewathanakul, C; Klaver, S; Kochebina, O; Kolpin, M; Komarov, I; Koopman, R F; Koppenburg, P; Korolev, M; Kozlinskiy, A; Kravchuk, L; Kreplin, K; Kreps, M; Krocker, G; Krokovny, P; Kruse, F; Kucharczyk, M; Kudryavtsev, V; Kurek, K; Kvaratskheliya, T; La Thi, V N; Lacarrere, D; Lafferty, G; Lai, A; Lambert, D; Lambert, R W; Lanciotti, E; Lanfranchi, G; Langenbruch, C; Latham, T; Lazzeroni, C; Le Gac, R; van Leerdam, J; Lees, J-P; Lefèvre, R; Leflat, A; Lefrançois, J; Leo, S; Leroy, O; Lesiak, T; Leverington, B; Li, Y; Liles, M; Lindner, R; Linn, C; Lionetto, F; Liu, B; Liu, G; Lohn, S; Longstaff, I; Longstaff, I; Lopes, J H; Lopez-March, N; Lowdon, P; Lu, H; Lucchesi, D; Luisier, J; Luo, H; Lupato, A; Luppi, E; Lupton, O; Machefert, F; Machikhiliyan, I V; Maciuc, F; Maev, O; Malde, S; Manca, G; Mancinelli, G; Manzali, M; Maratas, J; Marchand, J F; Marconi, U; Marino, P; Märki, R; Marks, J; Martellotti, G; Martens, A; Martín Sánchez, A; Martinelli, M; Martinez Santos, D; Martinez Vidal, F; Martins Tostes, D; Massafferri, A; Matev, R; Mathe, Z; Matteuzzi, C; Mazurov, A; McCann, M; McCarthy, J; McNab, A; McNulty, R; McSkelly, B; Meadows, B; Meier, F; Meissner, M; Merk, M; Milanes, D A; Minard, M-N; Molina Rodriguez, J; Monteil, S; Moran, D; Morandin, M; Morawski, P; Mordà, A; Morello, M J; Moron, J; Mountain, R; Muheim, F; Müller, K; Muresan, R; Muster, B; Naik, P; Nakada, T; Nandakumar, R; Nasteva, I; Needham, M; Neri, N; Neubert, S; Neufeld, N; Neuner, M; Nguyen, A D; Nguyen, T D; Nguyen-Mau, C; Nicol, M; Niess, V; Niet, R; Nikitin, N; Nikodem, T; Novoselov, A; Oblakowska-Mucha, A; Obraztsov, V; Oggero, S; Ogilvy, S; Okhrimenko, O; Oldeman, R; Onderwater, G; Orlandea, M; Otalora Goicochea, J M; Owen, P; Oyanguren, A; Pal, B K; Palano, A; Palombo, F; Palutan, M; Panman, J; Papanestis, A; Pappagallo, M; Parkes, C; Parkinson, C J; Passaleva, G; Patel, G D; Patel, M; Patrignani, C; Pazos Alvarez, A; Pearce, A; Pellegrino, A; Penso, G; Pepe Altarelli, M; Perazzini, S; Perez Trigo, E; Perret, P; Perrin-Terrin, M; Pescatore, L; Pesen, E; Petridis, K; Petrolini, A; Picatoste Olloqui, E; Pietrzyk, B; Pilař, T; Pinci, D; Pistone, A; Playfer, S; Plo Casasus, M; Polci, F; Polok, G; Poluektov, A; Polycarpo, E; Popov, A; Popov, D; Popovici, B; Potterat, C; Powell, A; Prisciandaro, J; Pritchard, A; Prouve, C; Pugatch, V; Puig Navarro, A; Punzi, G; Qian, W; Rachwal, B; Rademacker, J H; Rakotomiaramanana, B; Rama, M; Rangel, M S; Raniuk, I; Rauschmayr, N; Raven, G; Redford, S; Reichert, S; Reid, M M; Dos Reis, A C; Ricciardi, S; Richards, A; Rinnert, K; Rives Molina, V; Roa Romero, D A; Robbe, P; Rodrigues, A B; Rodrigues, E; Rodriguez Perez, P; Roiser, S; Romanovsky, V; Romero Vidal, A; Rotondo, M; Rouvinet, J; Ruf, T; Ruffini, F; Ruiz, H; Ruiz Valls, P; Sabatino, G; Saborido Silva, J J; Sagidova, N; Sail, P; Saitta, B; Salustino Guimaraes, V; Sanchez Mayordomo, C; Sanmartin Sedes, B; Santacesaria, R; Santamarina Rios, C; Santovetti, E; Sapunov, M; Sarti, A; Satriano, C; Satta, A; Savrie, M; Savrina, D; Schiller, M; Schindler, H; Schlupp, M; Schmelling, M; Schmidt, B; Schneider, O; Schopper, A; Schune, M-H; Schwemmer, R; Sciascia, B; Sciubba, A; Seco, M; Semennikov, A; Senderowska, K; Sepp, I; Serra, N; Serrano, J; Sestini, L; Seyfert, P; Shapkin, M; Shapoval, I; Shcheglov, Y; Shears, T; Shekhtman, L; Shevchenko, V; Shires, A; Silva Coutinho, R; Simi, G; Sirendi, M; Skidmore, N; Skwarnicki, T; Smith, N A; Smith, E; Smith, E; Smith, J; Smith, M; Snoek, H; Sokoloff, M D; Soler, F J P; Soomro, F; Souza, D; Souza De Paula, B; Spaan, B; Sparkes, A; Spinella, F; Spradlin, P; Stagni, F; Stahl, S; Steinkamp, O; Stenyakin, O; Stevenson, S; Stoica, S; Stone, S; Storaci, B; Stracka, S; Straticiuc, M; Straumann, U; Stroili, R; Subbiah, V K; Sun, L; Sutcliffe, W; Swientek, K; Swientek, S; Syropoulos, V; Szczekowski, M; Szczypka, P; Szilard, D; Szumlak, T; T'Jampens, S; Teklishyn, M; Tellarini, G; Teodorescu, E; Teubert, F; Thomas, C; Thomas, E; van Tilburg, J; Tisserand, V; Tobin, M; Tolk, S; Tomassetti, L; Tonelli, D; Topp-Joergensen, S; Torr, N; Tournefier, E; Tourneur, S; Tran, M T; Tresch, M; Tsaregorodtsev, A; Tsopelas, P; Tuning, N; Ubeda Garcia, M; Ukleja, A; Ustyuzhanin, A; Uwer, U; Vagnoni, V; Valenti, G; Vallier, A; Vazquez Gomez, R; Vazquez Regueiro, P; Vázquez Sierra, C; Vecchi, S; Velthuis, J J; Veltri, M; Veneziano, G; Vesterinen, M; Viaud, B; Vieira, D; Vieites Diaz, M; Vilasis-Cardona, X; Vollhardt, A; Volyanskyy, D; Voong, D; Vorobyev, A; Vorobyev, V; Voß, C; Voss, H; de Vries, J A; Waldi, R; Wallace, C; Wallace, R; Walsh, J; Wandernoth, S; Wang, J; Ward, D R; Watson, N K; Webber, A D; Websdale, D; Whitehead, M; Wicht, J; Wiedner, D; Wiggers, L; Wilkinson, G; Williams, M P; Williams, M; Wilson, F F; Wimberley, J; Wishahi, J; Wislicki, W; Witek, M; Wormser, G; Wotton, S A; Wright, S; Wu, S; Wyllie, K; Xie, Y; Xing, Z; Xu, Z; Yang, Z; Yuan, X; Yushchenko, O; Zangoli, M; Zavertyaev, M; Zhang, F; Zhang, L; Zhang, W C; Zhang, Y; Zhelezov, A; Zhokhov, A; Zhong, L; Zvyagin, A

    The polarisation of prompt [Formula: see text] mesons is measured by performing an angular analysis of [Formula: see text] decays using proton-proton collision data, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 1.0[Formula: see text], collected by the LHCb detector at a centre-of-mass energy of 7 TeV. The polarisation is measured in bins of transverse momentum [Formula: see text] and rapidity [Formula: see text] in the kinematic region [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text], and is compared to theoretical models. No significant polarisation is observed.

  14. Illusory color mixing upon perceptual fading and filling-in does not result in 'forbidden colors'.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, P-J; Tse, P U

    2006-07-01

    A retinally stabilized object readily undergoes perceptual fading. It is commonly believed that the color of the apparently vanished object is filled in with the color of the background because the features of the filled-in area are determined by features located outside the stabilized boundary. Crane, H. D., & Piantanida, T. P. (1983) (On seeing reddish green and yellowish blue. Science, 221, 1078-1080) reported that the colors that are perceived upon full or partial perceptual fading can be 'forbidden' in the sense that they violate color opponency theory. For example, they claimed that their subjects could perceive "reddish greens" and "yellowish blues." Here we use visual stimuli composed of spatially alternating stripes of two different colors to investigate the characteristics of color mixing during perceptual filling-in, and to determine whether 'forbidden colors' really occur. Our results show that (1) the filled-in color is not solely determined by the background color, but can be the mixture of the background and the foreground color; (2) apparent color mixing can occur even when the two colors are presented to different eyes, implying that color mixing during filling-in is in part a cortical phenomenon; and (3) perceived colors are not 'forbidden colors' at all, but rather intermediate colors.

  15. New supplements to infant formulas.

    PubMed

    Eshach Adiv, Orly; Berant, Moshe; Shamir, Raanan

    2004-12-01

    Foods, which, in addition to their nutritional attributes, contain also elements that are considered to be health-promoting, have been termed "functional foods". In this regard, human milk has gained recognition as being the ultimate functional food for infants - by its biological compatibility, nutritional value and the undisputed added value of its health promoting qualities. Intensive research activity has recently evolved in a quest to identify and define the components of human milk that might confer disease-preventing and health-enhancing properties and to determine the instances and clinical conditions in which these factors become particularly important. The outcome of such research would also provide a rationale for advocating the supplementation of commercial infant formulas with such substances. In effect, the body of data accumulated from scientific and clinical studies on nucleotides, probiotics, prebiotics and long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in human milk and as additives to infant formula, has become regarded as convincing enough by the infant formula industry so as to launch into the market formulas supplemented with one or more of these factors - in an effort to emulate human milk and its beneficial effects. The following review is intended for the reader to obtain a general idea of the new supplements that have been introduced to infant formulas. We summarize the pertinent experimental and clinical observations concerning each of the supplements, pointing out their potential specific benefits, their possible disadvantages and the issues that still remain unresolved.

  16. Color as a language in architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smedal, Grete

    2002-06-01

    This paper takes into consideration the role of color as a non-verbal language between human beings and the environment. The communication is based on the function of the color vision to separate and identify. A language about color can be based on the same. The concept behind the Natural Color System is color differentiation and color identification, which I find very useful both in color education of design students and in environmental color design work. A commission to plan the exterior use of color for a whole mining town on 78 degree(s) North in Longyearbyen, Spitsbergen, will illustrate my ideas. This will serve as an example of how these different 'languages' can work together. After a twenty years ongoing process this work is now almost fulfilled and the result will be shown in the presentation.

  17. Three Fresh Exposures, Enhanced Color

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This enhanced-color panoramic camera image from the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity features three holes created by the rock abrasion tool between sols 143 and 148 (June 18 and June 23, 2004) inside 'Endurance Crater.' The enhanced image makes the red colors a little redder and blue colors a little bluer, allowing viewers to see differences too subtle to be seen without the exaggeration. When compared with an approximately true color image, the tailings from the rock abrasion tool and the interior of the abraded holes are more prominent in this view. Being able to discriminate color variations helps scientists determine rocks' compositional differences and texture variations. This image was created using the 753-, 535- and 432-nanometer filters.

  18. Selection of color additives: a regulatory view.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Anuj; Dureja, Harish; Madan, Anil K

    2012-01-01

    Color additives have a unique place in the categories of the excipients. However, most of the color additives are complex heterogeneous organic compounds. In pharmaceuticals, colors are used in various oral (solid, liquid) and topical dosage form. Different regulatory authorities have their own specific set of regulation for registration, approval, and control of color additives. However, at this time of globalization, selection of appropriate color is not an easy task when a company wants to sale its product in many countries. In this article, the authors have explored various important factors which should be considered in the selection of color additives.

  19. Formula Budgeting for Higher Education: State Practices in 1979-80. Working Paper Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Francis M.

    Budget formulas used by states for state-supported colleges and universities are described, along with budgeting guidelines. A comparative analysis of the budget formulas in use in 1979-1980 reveals the similarities and differences in design among 19 states. Functional areas of expenditure used in the formula calculation are also compared for each…

  20. Host-sensitized luminescence in LaNbO4:Ln(3+) (Ln(3+) = Eu(3+)/Tb(3+)/Dy(3+)) with different emission colors.

    PubMed

    Li, Kai; Zhang, Yang; Li, Xuejiao; Shang, Mengmeng; Lian, Hongzhou; Lin, Jun

    2015-02-14

    In this work, a series of Eu(3+), Tb(3+), and Dy(3+) singly-doped and co-doped LaNbO4 (LNO) phosphors have been synthesized by a high-temperature solid-state reaction route. X-ray diffraction (XRD) along with Rietveld refinement, diffuse reflection spectra, photoluminescence (PL) and cathodoluminescence (CL) properties, decay lifetimes, and PL quantum yields (QYs) were exploited to characterize the phosphors. Under UV excitation, energy transfer process from the host to the activators exists in the singly-doped samples, which leads to tunable emission color from blue to red for LNO:Eu(3+), green for LNO:Tb(3+), and yellow including white for LNO:Dy(3+). In Eu(3+) and Tb(3+) co-doped phosphors, LNO:Eu(3+), Tb(3+), the energy transfers from the host to the activators and Tb(3+) to Eu(3+) ions have also been deduced from the PL spectra, resulting in tunable emission color from green to red by adjusting the concentration ratio of Eu(3+) and Tb(3+) ions. The decay times monitored at host emission and Tb(3+) emission confirm the existence of energy transfer in the as-prepared samples. The best quantum efficiency can reach 43.2% for LNO:0.01Tb(3+) among all the as-prepared phosphors. In addition, the CL spectra of LNO:Eu(3+)/Tb(3+)/Dy(3+) are a little different from their PL spectra because another emission envelope around 530 nm appears in the samples, which is attributed to the bombardment of higher energy excitation source of low-voltage electron beam. However, the characteristic emissions similar to PL spectra were reserved. Moreover, the CL spectrum of LNO:0.02Tb(3+) has stronger emission intensity than that of ZnO:Zn commercial product. These results from the PL and CL properties of LNO:Eu(3+)/Tb(3+)/Dy(3+) suggest their potential in solid-state lighting and display fields.

  1. Effects of white light-emitting diode (LED) light exposure with different correlated color temperatures (CCTs) on human lens epithelial cells in culture.

    PubMed

    Xie, Chen; Li, Xiuyi; Tong, Jianping; Gu, Yangshun; Shen, Ye

    2014-01-01

    Cataract is the major cause for legal blindness in the world. Oxidative stress on the lens epithelial cells (hLECs) is the most important factor in cataract formation. Cumulative light-exposure from widely used light-emitting diodes (LEDs) may pose a potential oxidative threat to the lens epithelium, due to the high-energy blue light component in the white-light emission from diodes. In the interest of perfecting biosafety standards for LED domestic lighting, this study analyzed the photobiological effect of white LED light with different correlated color temperatures (CCTs) on cultured hLECs. The hLECs were cultured and cumulatively exposed to multichromatic white LED light with CCTs of 2954, 5624, and 7378 K. Cell viability of hLECs was measured by Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) assay. DNA damage was determined by alkaline comet assay. Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, cell cycle, and apoptosis were quantified by flow cytometry. Compared with 2954 and 5624 K LED light, LED light having a CCT of 7378 K caused overproduction of intracellular ROS and severe DNA damage, which triggered G2 /M arrest and apoptosis. These results indicate that white LEDs with a high CCT could cause significant photobiological damage to hLECs.

  2. Evaluation of effect of ultrasonic scaling on surface roughness of four different tooth-colored class V restorations: An in-vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Shenoi, Pratima R.; Badole, Gautam P.; Khode, Rajiv T.; Morey, Elakshi S.; Singare, Pooja G.

    2014-01-01

    Aims: This study evaluated the effect of ultrasonic scaling on surface roughness of four different tooth-colored class V restorations. Materials and Methods: Out of 100 human extracted teeth, 20 were randomly selected for each group, marked with the outline of class V cavity. Class V cavities were prepared on facial surface of teeth of all groups except control group. These cavities were then restored with GC 2, GC 9, GC 2 LC, and Filtek Z 250 XT. All the specimens were stored in artificial saliva at 37°C for 1 month. Initial surface roughness values (Ra in μm) of restorations were evaluated with the surface roughness tester. Ultrasonic instrumentation was then carried out for 60 s on the restoration surface and final roughness values were evaluated. Data were analyzed with Paired t-test, One-way ANOVA, Tukey's test. Results: Mean Pre-instrumentation surface roughness was highest with GC 2, whereas it was least in case of Filtek Z 250 XT. Mean post-instrumentation surface roughness was highest with GC 2, whereas it is least in case of Filtek Z 250 XT. Conclusion: GC 2 LC showed highest and Filtek Z 250 XT showed least susceptibility to ultrasonic scaling. PMID:25298651

  3. Intra-leaf gradients of photoinhibition induced by different color lights: implications for the dual mechanisms of photoinhibition and for the application of conventional chlorophyll fluorometers.

    PubMed

    Oguchi, Riichi; Douwstra, Peter; Fujita, Takashi; Chow, Wah Soon; Terashima, Ichiro

    2011-07-01

    • We studied how different color lights cause gradients of photoinhibition within a leaf, to attempt to resolve the controversy of whether photon absorption by chlorophyll or by manganese (Mn) is the primary cause of photoinhibition, as suggested by the excess-energy hypothesis or the two-step hypothesis, respectively. • Lincomycin-treated leaf discs were photoinhibited by white, blue, green or red light. Combining a microfiber fluorometer, a fiber-thinning technique and a micro-manipulator enabled us to measure the chlorophyll fluorescence signals within a leaf. Photoinhibition gradients were also compared with results from various conventional fluorometers to estimate their depth of signal detection. • The severity of photoinhibition was in the descending order of blue, red and green light near the adaxial surface, and in the descending order of blue, green and red light in the deeper tissue, which correlated with the chlorophyll and the Mn absorption spectrums, respectively. These results cannot be explained by either hypothesis alone. • These data strongly suggest that both the excess-energy and the two-step mechanisms occur in photoinhibition, and fluorometers with red or blue measuring light give overestimated or underestimated F(v)/F(m) values of photoinhibited leaves compared with the whole tissue average, respectively; that is, they measured deeper or shallower leaf tissue, respectively.

  4. Controlling the contributions to high-order harmonic generation from different nuclei of N2 with an orthogonally polarized two-color laser field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Hui; Pan, Xue-Fei; Liu, Hai-Feng; Zhang, Hong-Dan; Zhang, Jun; Guo, Jing; Liu, Xue-Shen

    2016-09-01

    The generation of high-order harmonic and the attosecond pulse of the N2 molecule with an orthogonally polarized two-color laser field are investigated by the strong-field Lewenstein model. We show that the control of contributions to high-order harmonic generation (HHG) from different nuclei is realized by properly selecting the relative phase. When the relative phase is chosen to be φ = 0.4π, the contribution to HHG from one nucleus is much more than that from another. Interference between two nuclei can be suppressed greatly; a supercontinuum spectrum of HHG appears from 40 eV to 125 eV. The underlying physical mechanism is well explained by the time-frequency analysis and the semi-classical three-step model with a finite initial transverse velocity. By superposing several orders of harmonics, an isolated attosecond pulse with a duration of 80 as can be generated. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11271158, 61575077, and 11574117).

  5. Readability Formulas--Fact or Fiction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Arthur V.

    Four readability formulas were analyzed to determine the reading grade equivalence of instructional materials at the middle grades and above: the Dale-Chall formula, the Gunning-Fog Index, the Flesch Reading Ease Formula, and the McLaughlin SMOG Grading. In addition, Spache and Wheeler/Smith formulas were analyzed for evaluating primary grade…

  6. Formula Budgeting: An Approach to Facilities Funding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClintock, David L.

    Formula budgeting for college and university facilities maintenance is recommended because: (1) formulas inject objectivity into the budgeting process by using quantified data; (2) formulas tend to improve the equitability of treatment of comparable institutions; (3) formulas are intended to provide adequate but economical budgets; and (4)…

  7. Simple formula for determining the location of the equator.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seunghyun; Suh, Youngwoo; Cho, Yoonae A

    2005-04-01

    The determination of the position of the equator is very important during strabismus surgery for safe maximum recession. The purpose of this study is to present a simple formula for estimating the location of the equator (E = axial length x pi/4 - corneal diameter/2). A previous formula (E = 2(pi)r[beta/360]), although well presented, proved relatively complex to understand and apply to the clinical situation. There was no significant difference between the values calculated by the new formula and the previous formula when the horizontal corneal diameter was between 10.0 and 11.5 mm (P = 0.23, r = 0.998). In this range, the mean difference between the values calculated by the two formulae was only 0.1 +/- 0.08 mm (range 0-0.35 mm). Another advantage of the new formula is that the actual measured values of corneal diameter and axial length can be used. It is hoped that this simple formula can be used as an alternative for determining the location of the equator.

  8. The algorithm to generate color point-cloud with the registration between panoramic image and laser point-cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Fanyang; Zhong, Ruofei

    2014-03-01

    Laser point cloud contains only intensity information and it is necessary for visual interpretation to obtain color information from other sensor. Cameras can provide texture, color, and other information of the corresponding object. Points with color information of corresponding pixels in digital images can be used to generate color point-cloud and is conducive to the visualization, classification and modeling of point-cloud. Different types of digital cameras are used in different Mobile Measurement Systems (MMS).the principles and processes for generating color point-cloud in different systems are not the same. The most prominent feature of the panoramic images is the field of 360 degrees view angle in the horizontal direction, to obtain the image information around the camera as much as possible. In this paper, we introduce a method to generate color point-cloud with panoramic image and laser point-cloud, and deduce the equation of the correspondence between points in panoramic images and laser point-clouds. The fusion of panoramic image and laser point-cloud is according to the collinear principle of three points (the center of the omnidirectional multi-camera system, the image point on the sphere, the object point). The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm and formulae in this paper are correct.

  9. Color appearance in stereoscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gadia, Davide; Rizzi, Alessandro; Bonanomi, Cristian; Marini, Daniele; Galmonte, Alessandra; Agostini, Tiziano

    2011-03-01

    The relationship between color and lightness appearance and the perception of depth has been studied since a while in the field of perceptual psychology and psycho-physiology. It has been found that depth perception affects the final object color and lightness appearance. In the stereoscopy research field, many studies have been proposed on human physiological effects, considering e.g. geometry, motion sickness, etc., but few has been done considering lightness and color information. Goal of this paper is to realize some preliminar experiments in Virtual Reality in order to determine the effects of depth perception on object color and lightness appearance. We have created a virtual test scene with a simple 3D simultaneous contrast configuration. We have created three different versions of this scene, each with different choices of relative positions and apparent size of the objects. We have collected the perceptual responses of several users after the observation of the test scene in the Virtual Theater of the University of Milan, a VR immersive installation characterized by a semi-cylindrical screen that covers 120° of horizontal field of view from an observation distance of 3.5 m. We present a description of the experiments setup and procedure, and we discuss the obtained results.

  10. Ball color, eye color, and a reactive motor skill.

    PubMed

    Rowe, P J; Evans, P

    1994-08-01

    Researchers investigating performance differences between light- and dark-eyed individuals have indicated that dark-eyed individuals perform better on reactive activities than light-eyed individuals. College students (61 men, 64 women) performed a forehand rally with different colored racquetballs. Eye color, sex, and total hits were recorded for each subject. Men scored significantly better with balls of each color than did women. Dark-eyed men performed better than other subjects and performance was better with blue balls than yellow or green balls.

  11. The influence of surface color information and color knowledge information in object recognition.

    PubMed

    Bramão, Inês; Faísca, Luís; Petersson, Karl Magnus; Reis, Alexandra

    2010-01-01

    In order to clarify whether the influence of color knowledge information in object recognition depends on the presence of the appropriate surface color, we designed a name-object verification task. The relationship between color and shape information provided by the name and by the object photo was manipulated in order to assess color interference independently of shape interference. We tested three different versions for each object: typically colored, black and white, and nontypically colored. The response times on the nonmatching trials were used to measure the interference between the name and the photo. We predicted that the more similar the name and the photo are, the longer it would take to respond. Overall, the color similarity effect disappeared in the black-and-white and nontypical color conditions, suggesting that the influence of color knowledge on object recognition depends on the presence of the appropriate surface color information.

  12. LED color mixing with diffractive structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonenberger, Theresa; Baumgart, Jörg; Wendel, Simon; Neumann, Cornelius

    2013-03-01

    Lighting solutions with colored LEDs provide many opportunities for illumination. One of these opportunities is to create a color tunable light source. In this way different kinds of white light (color temperature) as well as discrete colors may be realized. This opens the field for applications as mood lighting. But there is always a spatial separation of the distinct LEDs that might get converted into an angular separation by any collimating optics. This angular separation causes such problems like color fringes and colored shadows that cannot be accepted in most applications. Conventional methods to solve these problems include e.g. mixing rods or dichroic filters. A new approach is the use of the dispersive effect of a diffractive structure to compensate the angular separation of the different colors. In this contribution the potential and limitations of diffractive structures in LED color mixing applications are discussed. Ray tracing simulations were performed to analyze such important parameters like efficiency, color performance and the cross section of the color mixing optics. New means for the estimation of color mixing performance were developed. A software tool makes it possible to detect the color distribution within ray trace data and it provides a quality factor to estimate the color mixing performance. It can be shown that the spectral band width has a large influence on the mixing process. Ray tracing simulations are compared with results of an experimental setup such that both measured as well as simulated data is presented.

  13. Digit ratio (2D:4D) in Lithuania once and now: testing for sex differences, relations with eye and hair color, and a possible secular change.

    PubMed

    Voracek, Martin; Bagdonas, Albinas; Dressler, Stefan G

    2007-09-01

    The second-to-fourth digit ratio (2D:4D) is a sexually dimorphic somatic trait and has been proposed as a biomarker for the organizational, i.e., permanent, effects of prenatal testosterone on the human brain. Accordingly, recent research has related 2D:4D to a variety of sex-dependent, hormonally influenced traits and phenotypes. The geographical variation in typical 2D:4D is marked and presently poorly understood. This study presents the first investigation into the 2D:4D ratio in a Baltic country. A contemporary sample of 109 Lithuanian men and women was compared with data from a historical sample of 100 Lithuanian men and women, collected and published in the 1880s and rediscovered only now. The findings included the following lines of evidence: (i) seen in an international perspective, the average 2D:4D in Lithuania is low; (ii) there was a sex difference in 2D:4D in the expected direction in both samples; (iii) a previously adduced hypothesis of an association of lighter eye and hair color with higher, i.e., more feminized, 2D:4D received no support in both samples; and (iv) the average 2D:4D in the contemporary sample was higher than in the historical sample. In view of a hypothesized increase in 2D:4D in modern populations, owing to increased environmental levels of endocrine disruptors such as xenoestrogens, this latter finding appears to be of particular notice. However, because finger-length measurement methods differed across the samples, it cannot be safely ruled out that the apparent time trend in Lithuanian 2D:4D in truth is an artifact. The puzzling geographical pattern seen in the 2D:4D ratio and the question of possible time trends therein deserve further investigations.

  14. Digestate color and light intensity affect nutrient removal and competition phenomena in a microalgal-bacterial ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Marcilhac, Cyril; Sialve, Bruno; Pourcher, Anne-Marie; Ziebal, Christine; Bernet, Nicolas; Béline, Fabrice

    2014-11-01

    During anaerobic digestion, nutrients are mineralized and may require post-treatment for optimum valorization. The cultivation of autotrophic microalgae using the digestate supernatant is a promising solution; however the dark color of the influent poses a serious problem. First, the color of the digestates was studied and the results obtained using three different digestates demonstrated a strong heterogeneity although their color remained rather constant over time. The digestates absorbed light over the whole visible spectrum and remained colored even after a ten-fold dilution. Secondly, the impact of light and of substrate color on the growth of Scenedesmus sp. and on nitrogen removal were assessed. These experiments led to the construction of a model for predicting the impact of influent color and light intensity on N removal. Maximum N removal (8.5 mgN- [Formula: see text]  L(-1) d(-1)) was observed with an initial optical density of 0.221 and 244 μmolE m(-)² s(-1) light and the model allows to determine N removal between 15.9 and 22.7 mgN- [Formula: see text]  L(-1) d(-1) in real conditions according to the dilution level of the influent and related color. Changes in the microalgae community were monitored and revealed the advantage of Chlorella over Scenedesmus under light-limitation. Additionally microalgae outcompeted nitrifying bacteria and experiments showed how microalgae become better competitors for nutrients when phosphorus is limiting. Furthermore, nitrification was limited by microalgae growth, even when P was not limiting.

  15. What It's Like to Be Color Blind

    MedlinePlus

    ... a green leaf might look tan or gray. Color Blindness Is Passed Down Color blindness is almost always an inherited (say: in-HER- ... Eye doctors (and some school nurses) test for color blindness by showing a picture made up of different ...

  16. Color View of Ceres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    This is a NASA Hubble Space Telescope color image of Ceres, the largest object in the asteroid belt.

    Astronomers enhanced the sharpness in these Advanced Camera for Surveys images to bring out features on Ceres' surface, including brighter and darker regions that could be asteroid impact features. The observations were made in visible and ultraviolet light between December 2003 and January 2004.

    The colors represent the differences between relatively red and blue regions. These differences may simply be due to variation on the surface among different types of material.

    Ceres' round shape suggests that its interior is layered like those of terrestrial planets such as Earth. Ceres may have a rocky inner core, an icy mantle, and a thin, dusty outer crust inferred from its density and rotation rate of 9 hours. Ceres is approximately 590 miles (950 kilometers) across and was first discovered in 1801.

  17. White Rock in False Color

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    The THEMIS VIS camera is capable of capturing color images of the Martian surface using five different color filters. In this mode of operation, the spatial resolution and coverage of the image must be reduced to accommodate the additional data volume produced from using multiple filters. To make a color image, three of the five filter images (each in grayscale) are selected. Each is contrast enhanced and then converted to a red, green, or blue intensity image. These three images are then combined to produce a full color, single image. Because the THEMIS colo