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Sample records for color difference formulas

  1. How psychophysical methods influence optimizations of color difference formulas.

    PubMed

    Kirchner, Eric; Dekker, Niels; Lucassen, Marcel; Njo, Lan; van der Lans, Ivo; Urban, Philipp; Huertas, Rafael

    2015-03-01

    For developing color difference formulas, there are several choices to be made on the psychophysical method used for gathering visual (observer) data. We tested three different psychophysical methods: gray scales, constant stimuli, and two-alternative forced choice (2AFC). Our results show that when using gray scales or constant stimuli, assessments of color differences are biased toward lightness differences. This bias is particularly strong in LCD monitor experiments, and also present when using physical paint samples. No such bias is found when using 2AFC. In that case, however, observer responses are affected by other factors that are not accounted for by current color difference formulas. For accurate prediction of relative color differences, our results show, in agreement with other works, that modern color difference formulas do not perform well. We also investigated if the use of digital images as presented on LCD displays is a good alternative to using physical samples. Our results indicate that there are systematic differences between these two media. PMID:26366646

  2. Performance of a color-difference formula based on OSA-UCS space using small-medium color differences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huertas, Rafael; Melgosa, Manuel; Oleari, Claudio

    2006-09-01

    An investigation of the color metrics and the complexity of the CIEDE2000 formula shows that CIELAB space is inadequate to represent small-medium color differences. The OSA-UCS (Uniform Color Space) Committee has shown that no space with uniform scale for large color differences exists. Therefore the practical way for color-difference specification is a color-difference formula in a nonuniform space. First, the BFD (Bradford University) ellipses are considered in the OSA-UCS space, and their very high regularity suggests a new and very simple color-difference formula at constant luminance. Then the COM (combined) data set used for the development of the CIEDE2000 formula is considered in the OSA-UCS space, and the color-difference formula is extended to sample pairs with a different luminance factor. The value of the performance factor PF/3 for the proposed OSA-UCS-based formula shows that the formula performs like the more complex CIEDE2000 formula for small-medium color differences.

  3. Lightness-difference data set for evaluation of CIELAB-based color-difference formulae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Dong-Ho; Song, Hee-Kang; Kim, Jae-Pil

    2002-06-01

    A new color-difference data set has been produced to evaluate the lightness difference weighting functions of eight CIELAB-based formulae: CIELAB, CMC, CIE94, DCI-95, LCD97, LCD99, BFD-II and CIEDE2000. Glossy polyester fabric was dyed to prepare 220 color-difference pairs, each having mainly lightness-difference. The gray-scale method was used to assess the color-difference of each pair by an average of twenty-five color normal observers. The test results of the visual data are presented.

  4. Generalization of color-difference formulas for any illuminant and any observer by assuming perfect color constancy in a color-vision model based on the OSA-UCS system.

    PubMed

    Oleari, Claudio; Melgosa, Manuel; Huertas, Rafael

    2011-11-01

    The most widely used color-difference formulas are based on color-difference data obtained under D65 illumination or similar and for a 10° visual field; i.e., these formulas hold true for the CIE 1964 observer adapted to D65 illuminant. This work considers the psychometric color-vision model based on the Optical Society of America-Uniform Color Scales (OSA-UCS) system previously published by the first author [J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 21, 677 (2004); Color Res. Appl. 30, 31 (2005)] with the additional hypothesis that complete illuminant adaptation with perfect color constancy exists in the visual evaluation of color differences. In this way a computational procedure is defined for color conversion between different illuminant adaptations, which is an alternative to the current chromatic adaptation transforms. This color conversion allows the passage between different observers, e.g., CIE 1964 and CIE 1931. An application of this color conversion is here made in the color-difference evaluation for any observer and in any illuminant adaptation: these transformations convert tristimulus values related to any observer and illuminant adaptation to those related to the observer and illuminant adaptation of the definition of the color-difference formulas, i.e., to the CIE 1964 observer adapted to the D65 illuminant, and then the known color-difference formulas can be applied. The adaptations to the illuminants A, C, F11, D50, Planckian and daylight at any color temperature and for CIE 1931 and CIE 1964 observers are considered as examples, and all the corresponding transformations are given for practical use.

  5. Evaluation of threshold color differences using printed samples.

    PubMed

    Huang, Min; Liu, Haoxue; Cui, Guihua; Luo, M Ronnier; Melgosa, Manuel

    2012-06-01

    The performances of uniform color spaces and color-difference formulae for predicting threshold color differences were investigated based on visual assessments of 893 pairs of printed color patches under a D65 source. The average ΔE(ab,10)* of the pairs was 1.1 units. A threshold psychophysical experiment was repeated three times by a panel of 16 observers with normal color vision. The experimental data were used to evaluate nine color-difference formulae and uniform color spaces using the standardized residual sum of squares (STRESS) measure. The results indicated that all formulae and spaces performed very similarly to each other, and outperformed CIELAB for threshold color differences. The chromaticity-discrimination ellipses were used to compare with previous results from small color differences [Color Res. Appl. (2011), doi:10.1002/col.20689], and they agreed with each other, except for the purple color center. PMID:22673417

  6. On the formulae for the colored HOMFLY polynomials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawagoe, Kenichi

    2016-08-01

    We provide methods to compute the colored HOMFLY polynomials of knots and links with symmetric representations based on the linear skein theory. By using diagrammatic calculations, several formulae for the colored HOMFLY polynomials are obtained. As an application, we calculate some examples for hyperbolic knots and links, and we study a generalization of the volume conjecture by means of numerical calculations. In these examples, we observe that asymptotic behaviors of invariants seem to have relations to the volume conjecture.

  7. New finite difference formulas for numerical differentiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Ishtiaq Rasool; Ohba, Ryoji

    2000-12-01

    Conventional numerical differentiation formulas based on interpolating polynomials, operators and lozenge diagrams can be simplified to one of the finite difference approximations based on Taylor series, and closed-form expressions of these finite difference formulas have already been presented. In this paper, we present new finite difference formulas, which are more accurate than the available ones, especially for the oscillating functions having frequency components near the Nyquist frequency. Closed-form expressions of the new formulas are given for arbitrary order. A comparison of the previously available three types of approximations is given with the presented formulas. A computer program written in MATHEMATICA, based on new formulas is given in the appendix for numerical differentiation of a function at a specified mesh point.

  8. How Color Coding Formulaic Writing Enhances Organization: A Qualitative Approach for Measuring Student Affect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geigle, Bryce A.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to investigate and present the status of student synthesis with color coded formula writing for grade level six through twelve, and to make recommendations for educators to teach writing structure through a color coded formula system in order to increase classroom engagement and lower students' affect. The thesis…

  9. Categorical sensitivity to color differences.

    PubMed

    Witzel, Christoph; Gegenfurtner, Karl R

    2013-01-01

    Categorical perception provides a potential link between color perception and the linguistic categories that correspond to the basic color terms. We examined whether the sensory information of the second-stage chromatic mechanisms is further processed so that sensitivity for color differences yields categorical perception. In this case, sensitivity for color differences should be higher across than within category boundaries. We measured discrimination thresholds (JNDs) and color categories around an isoluminant hue circle in Derrington-Krauskopf-Lennie (DKL) color space at three levels of lightness. At isoluminant lightness, the global pattern of JNDs coarsely followed an ellipse. Deviations from the ellipse coincided with the orange-pink and the blue-green category borders, but these minima were also aligned with the second-stage cone-opponent mechanisms. No evidence for categorical perception of color was found for any other category borders. At lower lightness, categories changed substantially, but JNDs did not change accordingly. Our results point to a loose relationship between color categorization and discrimination. However, the coincidence of some boundaries with JND minima is not a general property of color categorical boundaries. Hence, our basic ability to discriminate colors cannot fully explain why we use the particular set of categories to communicate about colors. Moreover, these findings seriously challenge the idea that color naming forms the basis for the categorical perception of colors. With respect to previous studies that concentrated on the green-blue boundary, our results highlight the importance of controlling perceptual distances and examining the full set of categories when investigating category effects on color perception.

  10. Categorical sensitivity to color differences.

    PubMed

    Witzel, Christoph; Gegenfurtner, Karl R

    2013-01-01

    Categorical perception provides a potential link between color perception and the linguistic categories that correspond to the basic color terms. We examined whether the sensory information of the second-stage chromatic mechanisms is further processed so that sensitivity for color differences yields categorical perception. In this case, sensitivity for color differences should be higher across than within category boundaries. We measured discrimination thresholds (JNDs) and color categories around an isoluminant hue circle in Derrington-Krauskopf-Lennie (DKL) color space at three levels of lightness. At isoluminant lightness, the global pattern of JNDs coarsely followed an ellipse. Deviations from the ellipse coincided with the orange-pink and the blue-green category borders, but these minima were also aligned with the second-stage cone-opponent mechanisms. No evidence for categorical perception of color was found for any other category borders. At lower lightness, categories changed substantially, but JNDs did not change accordingly. Our results point to a loose relationship between color categorization and discrimination. However, the coincidence of some boundaries with JND minima is not a general property of color categorical boundaries. Hence, our basic ability to discriminate colors cannot fully explain why we use the particular set of categories to communicate about colors. Moreover, these findings seriously challenge the idea that color naming forms the basis for the categorical perception of colors. With respect to previous studies that concentrated on the green-blue boundary, our results highlight the importance of controlling perceptual distances and examining the full set of categories when investigating category effects on color perception. PMID:23732118

  11. The Processing on Different Types of English Formulaic Sequences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qian, Li

    2015-01-01

    Formulaic sequences are found to be processed faster than their matched novel phrases in previous studies. Given the variety of formulaic types, few studies have compared processing on different types of formulaic sequences. The present study explored the processing among idioms, speech formulae and written formulae. It has been found that in…

  12. Color Preferences Differ with Variations in Color Perception.

    PubMed

    Schloss, Karen B

    2015-10-01

    A recent study demonstrates that color preferences of red-green dichromats differ systematically from color preferences of typical trichromatic observers. These differences can be partially explained by variations in cone-opponent mechanisms of dichromatic and trichromatic observers, but they may also be explained from an ecological perspective. PMID:26340866

  13. Carotenoid pixels characterization under color space tests and RGB formulas for mesocarp of mango's fruits cultivars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammad, Ahmed Yahya; Kassim, Farid Saad Eid Saad

    2010-01-01

    This study experimented the pulp (mesocarp) of fourteen cultivars were healthy ripe of Mango fruits (Mangifera indica L.) selected after picking from Mango Spp. namely Taimour [Ta], Dabsha [Da], Aromanis [Ar], Zebda [Ze], Fagri Kelan [Fa], Alphonse [Al], Bulbek heart [Bu], Hindi- Sinnara [Hi], Compania [Co], Langra [La], Mestikawi [Me], Ewais [Ew], Montakhab El Kanater [Mo] and Mabroka [Ma] . Under seven color space tests included (RGB: Red, Green and Blue), (CMY: Cyan, Magenta and Yellow), (CMY: Cyan, Magenta and Yellow), (HSL: Hue, Saturation and Lightness), (CMYK%: Cyan%, Magenta%, Yellow% and Black%), (HSV: Hue, Saturation and Value), (HºSB%: Hueº, Saturation% and Brightness%) and (Lab). (CMY: Cyan, Magenta and Yellow), (HSL: Hue, Saturation and Lightness), (CMYK%: Cyan%, Magenta%, Yellow% and Black%), (HSV: Hue, Saturation and Value), (HºSB%: Hueº, Saturation% and Brightness%) and (Lab). Addition, nine formula of color space tests included (sRGB 0÷1, CMY, CMYK, XYZ, CIE-L*ab, CIE-L*CH, CIE-L*uv, Yxy and Hunter-Lab) and (RGB 0÷FF/hex triplet) and Carotenoid Pixels Scale. Utilizing digital color photographs as tool for obtainment the natural color information for each cultivar then the result expounded with chemical pigment estimations. Our location study in the visual yellow to orange color degrees from the visible color of electromagnetic spectrum in wavelength between (~570 to 620) nm and frequency between (~480 to 530) THz. The results found carotene very strong influence in band Red while chlorophyll (a & b) was very lower subsequently, the values in band Green was depressed. Meanwhile, the general ratios percentage for carotenoid pixels in bands Red, Green and Blue were 50%, 39% and 11% as orderliness opposite the ratios percentage for carotene, chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b which were 63%, 22% and 16% approximately. According to that the pigments influence in all color space tests and RGB formulas. Band Yellow% in color test (CMYK%) as signature

  14. Gastric motility in premature infants fed two different formulas.

    PubMed

    Hancock, P J; Bancalari, E

    1984-11-01

    The effect of two different formulas on gastric contractions was investigated in 10 preterm infants, of mean birth weight 1,149 g and mean gestational age 30.5 weeks, who were being advanced from a 20 calorie per ounce formula (Enfamil) to a 24 calorie per ounce formula (Similac Special Care 24). The neonates were fed by gravity with a feeding tube on a 2-h schedule. The orogastric tube was connected between feedings to a pressure transducer and recorder system upon which pressure waves reflecting gastric contractions were recorded. In the 1st h after feeding there were significantly fewer gastric contractions with 24 calorie than 20 calorie formula. The mean intensity of the gastric contractions per minute of contraction time was significantly less in the 1st h after feeding with the 24 calorie compared with the 20 calorie formula. In the 2nd h after feeding these values were similar. Gastric contractions are decreased with 24 calorie formula compared with 20 calorie formula during the 1st h after feeding. This difference in contractions may influence tolerance to different formulas.

  15. Colorful solar selective absorber integrated with different colored units.

    PubMed

    Chen, Feiliang; Wang, Shao-Wei; Liu, Xingxing; Ji, Ruonan; Li, Zhifeng; Chen, Xiaoshuang; Chen, Yuwei; Lu, Wei

    2016-01-25

    Solar selective absorbers are the core part for solar thermal technologies such as solar water heaters, concentrated solar power, solar thermoelectric generators and solar thermophotovoltaics. Colorful solar selective absorber can provide new freedom and flexibility beyond energy performance, which will lead to wider utilization of solar technologies. In this work, we present a monolithic integration of colored solar absorber array with different colors on a single substrate based on a multilayered structure of Cu/TiN(x)O(y)/TiO(2)/Si(3)N(4)/SiO(2). A colored solar absorber array with 16 color units is demonstrated experimentally by using combinatorial deposition technique via changing the thickness of SiO(2) layer. The solar absorptivity and thermal emissivity of all the color units is higher than 92% and lower than 5.5%, respectively. The colored solar selective absorber array can have colorful appearance and designable patterns while keeping high energy performance at the same time. It is a new candidate for a number of solar applications, especially for architecture integration and military camouflage. PMID:26832602

  16. Colorful solar selective absorber integrated with different colored units.

    PubMed

    Chen, Feiliang; Wang, Shao-Wei; Liu, Xingxing; Ji, Ruonan; Li, Zhifeng; Chen, Xiaoshuang; Chen, Yuwei; Lu, Wei

    2016-01-25

    Solar selective absorbers are the core part for solar thermal technologies such as solar water heaters, concentrated solar power, solar thermoelectric generators and solar thermophotovoltaics. Colorful solar selective absorber can provide new freedom and flexibility beyond energy performance, which will lead to wider utilization of solar technologies. In this work, we present a monolithic integration of colored solar absorber array with different colors on a single substrate based on a multilayered structure of Cu/TiN(x)O(y)/TiO(2)/Si(3)N(4)/SiO(2). A colored solar absorber array with 16 color units is demonstrated experimentally by using combinatorial deposition technique via changing the thickness of SiO(2) layer. The solar absorptivity and thermal emissivity of all the color units is higher than 92% and lower than 5.5%, respectively. The colored solar selective absorber array can have colorful appearance and designable patterns while keeping high energy performance at the same time. It is a new candidate for a number of solar applications, especially for architecture integration and military camouflage.

  17. Color difference threshold determination for acrylic denture base resins.

    PubMed

    Ren, Jiabao; Lin, Hong; Huang, Qingmei; Liang, Qifan; Zheng, Gang

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to set evaluation indicators, i.e., perceptibility and acceptability color difference thresholds, of color stability for acrylic denture base resins for a spectrophotometric assessing method, which offered an alternative to the visual method described in ISO 20795-1:2013. A total of 291 disk specimens 50±1 mm in diameter and 0.5±0.1 mm thick were prepared (ISO 20795-1:2013) and processed through radiation tests in an accelerated aging chamber (ISO 7491:2000) for increasing times of 0 to 42 hours. Color alterations were measured with a spectrophotometer and evaluated using the CIE L*a*b* colorimetric system. Color differences were calculated through the CIEDE2000 color difference formula. Thirty-two dental professionals without color vision deficiencies completed perceptibility and acceptability assessments under controlled conditions in vitro. An S-curve fitting procedure was used to analyze the 50:50% perceptibility and acceptability thresholds. Furthermore, perceptibility and acceptability against the differences of the three color attributes, lightness, chroma, and hue, were also investigated. According to the S-curve fitting procedure, the 50:50% perceptibility threshold was 1.71ΔE00 (r(2)=0.88) and the 50:50% acceptability threshold was 4.00 ΔE00 (r(2)=0.89). Within the limitations of this study, 1.71/4.00 ΔE00 could be used as perceptibility/acceptability thresholds for acrylic denture base resins.

  18. Generation of furosine and color in infant/enteral formula-resembling systems.

    PubMed

    Rufián-Henares, José Angel; García-Villanova, Belén; Guerra-Hernández, Eduardo

    2004-08-25

    The extent of the Maillard reaction was studied by measuring furosine and color formation in infant and enteral formula-resembling model systems prepared by mixing calcium caseinate, laboratory-obtained or commercial whey protein with lactose or dextrinomaltose (ingredients similar to those used in infant and enteral formula manufacture) and heating the mixture at 100, 120, or 140 degrees C for 0-30 min. The furosine determination was performed by HPLC and the color determination by measuring colorimetric parameters L, a, and b in a reflection photometer. The first steps of the Maillard reaction could be followed by furosine determination when initial ingredients had low thermal damage. Hence, furosine may be an indicator of low thermal damage in ingredients with <100 mg/100 g of protein. At the concentrations used in these model systems, similar to those in infant and enteral formulas, furosine values (indirect measure of lysine losses) were higher in lactose than in dextrinomaltose systems, in which only glucose, maltose, maltotriose, and maltotetraose among all of the sugars present showed reactivity with casein. Finally, the advanced steps could be followed by color determination when the initial ingredients had high thermal damage or the model systems were heated at high temperature or for a long time. Among the parameters assayed, b was the most sensitive.

  19. Hemispherical color differences on Pluto and Charon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Binzel, Richard P.

    1988-01-01

    Time-resolved multicolor photometric observations of Pluto-Charon mutual events have been used to derive individual colors for these two bodies and to investigate the degree of color differences between their synchronous facing and opposite hemispheres. Pluto is significantly redder than Charon, where direct measurements of the anti-Charon hemisphere of Pluto and the Pluto-facing hemisphere of Charon yield B-V magnitudes of 0.867 + or - 0.008 and 0.700 + or - 0.010, respectively. Both Pluto and Charon are found to have relatively uniform longitudinal color distributions with 1-sigma upper limits of 2 percent and 5 percent, respectively, for any large-scale hemispherical color asymmetries. Thus, a previous suspicion of a significant color asymmetry on Charon is not confirmed. Instead the data may be attributed to a direct detection of polar caps on Pluto.

  20. Hemispherical color differences on pluto and charon.

    PubMed

    Binzel, R P

    1988-08-26

    Time-resolved multicolor photometric observations of Pluto-Charon mutual events have been used to derive individual colors for these two bodies and to investigate the degree of color differences between their synchronous facing and opposite hemispheres. Pluto is significantly redder than Charon, where direct measurements of the anti-Charon hemisphere of Pluto and the Pluto-facing hemisphere of Charon yield B-V magnitudes of 0.867 +/- 0.008 and 0.700 +/- 0.010, respectively. Both Pluto and Charon are found to have relatively uniform longitudinal color distributions with lsigma upper limits of 2% and 5%, respectively, for any large-scale hemispherical color asymmetries. Thus, a previous suspicion of a significant color asymmetry on Charon is not confirmed. Instead the data may be attributed to a direct detection of polar caps on Pluto.

  1. New formula for proton-neutron mass difference

    SciTech Connect

    Kimel, I.

    1983-05-01

    A new formula is presented, allowing the computation of the proton-neutron mass difference without the knowledge of the subtraction function in the dispersion integral. The Born terms contribute with the correct sign. The integral over the deep-inelastic region is finite whenever the Weinberg--'t Hooft mechanism is operative, and gives a small value. The net result is in very good agreement with the experimental value.

  2. Testing the AUDI2000 colour-difference formula for solid colours using some visual datasets with usefulness to automotive industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-García, Juan; Melgosa, Manuel; Gómez-Robledo, Luis; Li, Changjun; Huang, Min; Liu, Haoxue; Cui, Guihua; Luo, M. Ronnier; Dauser, Thomas

    2013-11-01

    Colour-difference formulas are tools employed in colour industries for objective pass/fail decisions of manufactured products. These objective decisions are based on instrumental colour measurements which must reliably predict the subjective colour-difference evaluations performed by observers' panels. In a previous paper we have tested the performance of different colour-difference formulas using the datasets employed at the development of the last CIErecommended colour-difference formula CIEDE2000, and we found that the AUDI2000 colour-difference formula for solid (homogeneous) colours performed reasonably well, despite the colour pairs in these datasets were not similar to those typically employed in the automotive industry (CIE Publication x038:2013, 465-469). Here we have tested again AUDI2000 together with 11 advanced colour-difference formulas (CIELUV, CIELAB, CMC, BFD, CIE94, CIEDE2000, CAM02-UCS, CAM02-SCD, DIN99d, DIN99b, OSA-GP-Euclidean) for three visual datasets we may consider particularly useful to the automotive industry because of different reasons: 1) 828 metallic colour pairs used to develop the highly reliable RIT-DuPont dataset (Color Res. Appl. 35, 274-283, 2010); 2) printed samples conforming 893 colour pairs with threshold colour differences (J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 29, 883-891, 2012); 3) 150 colour pairs in a tolerance dataset proposed by AUDI. To measure the relative merits of the different tested colour-difference formulas, we employed the STRESS index (J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24, 1823-1829, 2007), assuming a 95% confidence level. For datasets 1) and 2), AUDI2000 was in the group of the best colour-difference formulas with no significant differences with respect to CIE94, CIEDE2000, CAM02-UCS, DIN99b and DIN99d formulas. For dataset 3) AUDI2000 provided the best results, being statistically significantly better than all other tested colour-difference formulas.

  3. Comparative study of visual color differences using reflective and self-luminous color stimuli

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xin, John H.; Lam, C. C.

    2002-06-01

    In this study, visual color difference assessements were conducted using both reflective colors which are dyed cotton fabrics with no obvious texture pattern and self-luminous colors displayed on a CRT monitor. All together, eighty-two pairs of color samples belonging to five different color centres were used. The average color difference for all pairs is about 5.0 CIELAB units. The values of the color difference for the self-luminous color pairs (ΔEself-luminous) are very close to those of the corresponding reflective color pairs (ΔEreflective), i.e., the reproduction of the reflective color pairs onto the CRT monitor was very accurate. Grey scale method was used in the visual assessment of color difference. The assessments were done using five different viewing conditions, i.e., reference viewing condition recommended by CIE (CIE Technical Report CIE 116-1995) and the other conditions which include a 3-inch gap between samples in a pair, small sized sample corresponding to 2° angle of subtend and two different background colors. In comparison with the visual color differences of the reflective pairs under the reference condition, the results obtained from the CRT color pairs are 15% smaller. Under other viewing conditions, the visual color difference of the CRT color pairs are 13 to 18% smaller than those of hte reflective color pairs. Further comparison was made using chromatic color discrimination ellipses for self-luminous and reflective colors.

  4. Behavior of skin color under varying illumination seen by different cameras at different color spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinkauppi, J. Birgitta; Soriano, Maricor N.; Laaksonen, Mika V.

    2001-04-01

    The appearance of skin colors in the images depends among other things, on the camera, the calibration of the camera, and the illumination under which the image was taken. In this study, we investigate how the skin colors appear in the chromaticity coordinates of different color spaces like HSV/HSL, normalized rgb, YES and TSL. For this purpose, we have taken images of faces under 16 different illumination/camera calibration conditions using simulated illuminants (Horizon, A, fluorescent TL84 and daylight) with different RGB cameras (1CCD web cameras and a 3CCD camera). In the making of this series of 16 images, first the selected camera was calibrated to one of the four light sources and an image was taken. After that the light source was changed to the other light sources and at each time the person was imaged. The process was repeated to the other two light sources. The same procedure was done for all four light sources and for each camera. The skin regions were extracted from these images and this skin data was then converted to different color spaces. We inspected how the chromaticities of different skin color groups in these color spaces overlap in images taken in all 16 different cases and only in those cases in which the selected camera was calibrated to the current illuminant. These investigations were also made between different cameras. In addition to this, we examined the overlapping of all skin chromaticities from the different skin color groups between cameras.

  5. Sex-Related Differences in the Color Lexicon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nowaczyk, Ronald H.

    1982-01-01

    Reports experiments in which college students provided color names for a series of color stimuli, matched color names with the same stimuli, and described colors represented by a series of elaborate color terms. Sex-related differences were found in the matching task. Women used more elaborate descriptions than men. (Author/AMH)

  6. Color analysis of different ceramic systems.

    PubMed

    Aladag, Akin; Gungor, Mehmet Ali; Artunc, Celal

    2010-01-01

    This study compared the color properties of three different ceramic systems. Three groups of 10 specimens each were prepared: Dental porcelain alloy was used as a framework for conventional and ProBOND metal-ceramic systems, while glass-ceramic ingots were used as a framework for 10 samples using an all-ceramic system. For the former, dentin porcelain was applied and a ceramic veneering material was applied to the ingot frameworks. Using a dental spectrophotometer, the pre- and post-glaze color compatibility between disc specimens and A3 shade was evaluated. The Kruskal-Wallis test was used to compare color differences among groups in this study, while the Mann-Whitney U test was used to make bilateral comparisons among the three different ceramic systems. The values obtained during the dentin stage revealed a significant difference in the all-ceramic group (p < 0.05). After glazing, there was no significant difference between ProBOND samples and all-ceramic samples (p > 0.05). These results suggest that ProBOND can yield esthetically superior results in clinical applications compared to conventional ceramic systems. PMID:20478787

  7. Differences Between Kuder-Richardson Formula 20 and Formula 21 Reliability Coefficients for Short Tests with Different Item Variabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lenke, Joanne M.; And Others

    To investigate the effect of violating the assumption of equal item difficulty on Kuder-Richardson (KR) Formula 21 reliability coefficient, 670 eighth-and ninth- grade students were administered 26 short, homogeneous "tests" of mathematics concepts and skills. Both KR Formula 20 and KR Formula 21 were used to estimate reliability on each test. The…

  8. Color-difference evaluation for digital images using a categorical judgment method.

    PubMed

    Liu, Haoxue; Huang, Min; Cui, Guihua; Luo, M Ronnier; Melgosa, Manuel

    2013-04-01

    The CIELAB lightness and chroma values of pixels in five of the eight ISO SCID natural images were modified to produce sample images. Pairs of images were displayed on a calibrated monitor and assessed by a panel of 12 observers with normal color vision using a categorical judgment method. The experimental results showed that assuming the lightness parametric factor k(L)=1 to predict color differences in images, CIELAB performed better than CIEDE2000, CIE94, or CMC, which is a different result to the one found in color-difference literature for homogeneous color pairs. However, observers perceived CIELAB lightness and chroma differences in images in different ways. To fit current experimental data, a specific methodology is proposed to optimize k(L) in the color-difference formulas CIELAB, CIEDE2000, CIE94, and CMC. From the standardized residual sum of squares (STRESS) index, it was found that the optimized formulas, CIEDE2000(2.3:1), CIE94(3.0:1), and CMC(3.4:1), performed significantly better than their corresponding original forms with lightness parametric factor k(L)=1. Specifically, CIEDE2000(2.3:1) performed the best, with a satisfactory average STRESS value of 25.8, which is very similar to the 27.5 value that was found from the CIEDE2000(1:1) formula for the combined weighted dataset of homogeneous color samples employed at the development of this formula [J. Opt. Soc. Am. A25, 1828 (2008), Table 2]. However, fitting our experimental data, none of the four optimized formulas CIELAB(1.5:1), CIEDE2000(2.3:1), CIE94(3.0:1), and CMC(3.4:1) is significantly better than the others. Current results roughly agree with the recent CIE recommendation that color difference in images can be predicted by simply adopting a lightness parametric factor k(L)=2 in CIELAB or CIEDE2000 [CIE Publication 199:2011]. It was also found that the different contents of the five images have considerable influence on the performance of the tested color-difference formulas. PMID:23595320

  9. 3D histogram visualization in different color spaces with application in color clustering classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcu, Gabriel G.; Abe, Satoshi

    1995-04-01

    The paper presents a dynamically visualization procedure for 3D histogram of color images. The procedure runs for RGB, YMC, HSV, HSL device dependent color spaces and for Lab, Luv device independent color spaces and it is easily extendable to other color spaces if the analytical form of color transformations is available. Each histogram value is represented in the color space as a colored ball, in a position corresponding to the place of color in the color space. The paper presents the procedures for nonlinear ball normalization, ordering of drawing, space edges drawing, translation, scaling and rotation of the histogram. The 3D histogram visualization procedure can be used in different applications described in the second part of the paper. It enables to get a clear representation of the range of colors of one image, to derive and compare the efficiency of different clusterization procedures for color classification, to display comparatively the gamut of different color devices, to select the color space for an optimal mapping procedure of the outside gamut colors for minimizing the hue error, to detect bad-alignment in RGB planes for a sequential process.

  10. Femtosecond laser color marking stainless steel surface with different wavelengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Guoqiang; Li, Jiawen; Hu, Yanlei; Zhang, Chenchu; Li, Xiaohong; Chu, Jiaru; Huang, Wenhao

    2015-03-01

    The femtosecond laser color marking stainless steel surfaces with different incident wavelengths were investigated theoretically and experimentally. It indicates that the spectral regions of the colors firstly increase and then reduce with increasing spatial periods of the ripples induced by laser irradiation. Additionally, the colors are gradually changed from blue to red due to the elongation of the diffracted light wavelengths. As a result, the color effects are distinctly different. This study offers a new controllable parameter to produce diverse colors, which may find a wide range of applications in the laser color marking, art designing and so on.

  11. Ecological influences on individual differences in color preference.

    PubMed

    Schloss, Karen B; Hawthorne-Madell, Daniel; Palmer, Stephen E

    2015-11-01

    How can the large, systematic differences that exist between individuals' color preferences be explained? The ecological valence theory (Palmer & Schloss, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 107:8877-8882, 2010) posits that an individual's preference for each particular color is determined largely by his or her preferences for all correspondingly colored objects. Therefore, individuals should differ in their color preferences to the extent that they have different preferences for the same color-associated objects or that they experience different objects. Supporting this prediction, we found that individuals' color preferences were predicted better by their own preferences for correspondingly colored objects than by other peoples' preferences for the same objects. Moreover, the fit between color preferences and affect toward the colored objects was reliably improved when people's own idiosyncratic color-object associations were included in addition to a standard set of color-object associations. These and related results provide evidence that individual differences in color preferences are reliably influenced by people's personal experiences with colored objects in their environment.

  12. Ecological influences on individual differences in color preference.

    PubMed

    Schloss, Karen B; Hawthorne-Madell, Daniel; Palmer, Stephen E

    2015-11-01

    How can the large, systematic differences that exist between individuals' color preferences be explained? The ecological valence theory (Palmer & Schloss, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 107:8877-8882, 2010) posits that an individual's preference for each particular color is determined largely by his or her preferences for all correspondingly colored objects. Therefore, individuals should differ in their color preferences to the extent that they have different preferences for the same color-associated objects or that they experience different objects. Supporting this prediction, we found that individuals' color preferences were predicted better by their own preferences for correspondingly colored objects than by other peoples' preferences for the same objects. Moreover, the fit between color preferences and affect toward the colored objects was reliably improved when people's own idiosyncratic color-object associations were included in addition to a standard set of color-object associations. These and related results provide evidence that individual differences in color preferences are reliably influenced by people's personal experiences with colored objects in their environment. PMID:26272366

  13. Methods of scaling threshold color difference using printed samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Min; Cui, Guihua; Liu, Haoxue; Luo, M. Ronnier

    2012-01-01

    A series of printed samples on substrate of semi-gloss paper and with the magnitude of threshold color difference were prepared for scaling the visual color difference and to evaluate the performance of different method. The probabilities of perceptibly was used to normalized to Z-score and different color differences were scaled to the Z-score. The visual color difference was got, and checked with the STRESS factor. The results indicated that only the scales have been changed but the relative scales between pairs in the data are preserved.

  14. Comparison of naïve and expert subjects in the assessment of small color differences.

    PubMed

    Shamey, Renzo; Cárdenas, Lina M; Hinks, David; Woodard, Roger

    2010-06-01

    Determination of the role of subject experience in the development of accurate color difference formulas is of potentially critical concern. As part of a larger multivariable experiment investigating the minimum inter- and intra-subject variability possible among a set of subjects, a study was conducted to compare the performance of 25 novice versus 25 expert visual assessors for a set of 27 pairs of colored textile samples using a controlled psychophysical method and several statistical techniques including t-test, ANOVA, and Standardized Residual Sum of Squares (STRESS) functions. Experts exhibited approximately 43% higher visual difference ratings than novice subjects when assessing sample pairs having small color differences. In addition, a statistically significant difference at the 95% confidence level was found between the judgments made by novice and expert assessors. According to the STRESS function, however, CMC(1:1) and CIEDE2000(1:1) color difference formulas do not show a significant difference in performance when the visual data from either group of subjects are compared. PMID:20508719

  15. 27 CFR 19.392 - Converting denatured alcohol to a different formula.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Converting denatured alcohol to a different formula. 19.392 Section 19.392 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND... denatured alcohol to a different formula. (a) General. A proprietor may convert specially denatured...

  16. Study on color difference estimation method of medicine biochemical analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chunhong; Zhou, Yue; Zhao, Hongxia; Sun, Jiashi; Zhou, Fengkun

    2006-01-01

    The biochemical analysis in medicine is an important inspection and diagnosis method in hospital clinic. The biochemical analysis of urine is one important item. The Urine test paper shows corresponding color with different detection project or different illness degree. The color difference between the standard threshold and the test paper color of urine can be used to judge the illness degree, so that further analysis and diagnosis to urine is gotten. The color is a three-dimensional physical variable concerning psychology, while reflectance is one-dimensional variable; therefore, the estimation method of color difference in urine test can have better precision and facility than the conventional test method with one-dimensional reflectance, it can make an accurate diagnose. The digital camera is easy to take an image of urine test paper and is used to carry out the urine biochemical analysis conveniently. On the experiment, the color image of urine test paper is taken by popular color digital camera and saved in the computer which installs a simple color space conversion (RGB -> XYZ -> L *a *b *)and the calculation software. Test sample is graded according to intelligent detection of quantitative color. The images taken every time were saved in computer, and the whole illness process will be monitored. This method can also use in other medicine biochemical analyses that have relation with color. Experiment result shows that this test method is quick and accurate; it can be used in hospital, calibrating organization and family, so its application prospect is extensive.

  17. Color associations for days and letters across different languages

    PubMed Central

    Rouw, Romke; Case, Laura; Gosavi, Radhika; Ramachandran, Vilayanur

    2014-01-01

    While colors are commonplace in everyday metaphors, relatively little is known about implicit color associations to linguistic or semantic concepts in a general population. In this study, we test color associations for ordered linguistic concepts (letters and days). The culture and language specificity of these effects was examined in a large group (457) of Dutch-speaking participants, 92 English-speaking participants, and 49 Hindi-speaking participants. Non-random distributions of color choices were revealed; consistencies were found across the three language groups in color preferences for both days and letters. Interestingly, while the Hindi-speaking participants were presented with letter stimuli matched on phonology, their pattern of letter-to-color preferences still showed similarities with Dutch- and English-speaking participants. Furthermore, we found that that the color preferences corresponded between participants indicating to have conscious color experiences with letters or days (putative synesthetes) and participants who do not (non-synesthetes). We also explored possible mechanisms underlying the color preferences. There were a few specific associations, including red for “A,” red for “Monday,” and white for “Sunday.” We also explored more general mechanisms, such as overall color preferences as shown by Simner et al. (2005). While certainly not all variation can be explained or predicted, the results show that regularities are present in color-to-letter or color-to-day preferences in both putative synesthetes and non-synesthetes across languages. Both letter-to-color and day-to-color preferences were influenced by multiple factors. The findings support a notion of abstract concepts (such as days and letters) that are not represented in isolation, but are connected to perceptual representational systems. Interestingly, at least some of these connections to color representations are shared across different language/cultural groups. PMID

  18. Color associations for days and letters across different languages.

    PubMed

    Rouw, Romke; Case, Laura; Gosavi, Radhika; Ramachandran, Vilayanur

    2014-01-01

    While colors are commonplace in everyday metaphors, relatively little is known about implicit color associations to linguistic or semantic concepts in a general population. In this study, we test color associations for ordered linguistic concepts (letters and days). The culture and language specificity of these effects was examined in a large group (457) of Dutch-speaking participants, 92 English-speaking participants, and 49 Hindi-speaking participants. Non-random distributions of color choices were revealed; consistencies were found across the three language groups in color preferences for both days and letters. Interestingly, while the Hindi-speaking participants were presented with letter stimuli matched on phonology, their pattern of letter-to-color preferences still showed similarities with Dutch- and English-speaking participants. Furthermore, we found that that the color preferences corresponded between participants indicating to have conscious color experiences with letters or days (putative synesthetes) and participants who do not (non-synesthetes). We also explored possible mechanisms underlying the color preferences. There were a few specific associations, including red for "A," red for "Monday," and white for "Sunday." We also explored more general mechanisms, such as overall color preferences as shown by Simner et al. (2005). While certainly not all variation can be explained or predicted, the results show that regularities are present in color-to-letter or color-to-day preferences in both putative synesthetes and non-synesthetes across languages. Both letter-to-color and day-to-color preferences were influenced by multiple factors. The findings support a notion of abstract concepts (such as days and letters) that are not represented in isolation, but are connected to perceptual representational systems. Interestingly, at least some of these connections to color representations are shared across different language/cultural groups. PMID:24904447

  19. An experiment on the color rendering of different light sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fumagalli, Simonetta; Bonanomi, Cristian; Rizzi, Alessandro

    2013-02-01

    The color rendering index (CRI) of a light source attempts to measure how much the color appearance of objects is preserved when they are illuminated by the given light source. This problem is of great importance for various industrial and scientific fields, such as lighting architecture, design, ergonomics, etc. Usually a light source is specified through the Correlated Color Temperature or CCT. However two (or more) light sources with the same CCT but different spectral power distribution can exist. Therefore color samples viewed under two light sources with equal CCTs can appear different. Hence, the need for a method to assess the quality of a given illuminant in relation to color. Recently CRI has had a renewed interest because of the new LED-based lighting systems. They usually have a color rendering index rather low, but good preservation of color appearance and a pleasant visual appearance (visual appeal). Various attempts to develop a new color rendering index have been done so far, but still research is working for a better one. This article describes an experiment performed by human observers concerning the appearance preservation of color under some light sources, comparing it with a range of available color rendering indices.

  20. A different form of color vision in mantis shrimp.

    PubMed

    Thoen, Hanne H; How, Martin J; Chiou, Tsyr-Huei; Marshall, Justin

    2014-01-24

    One of the most complex eyes in the animal kingdom can be found in species of stomatopod crustaceans (mantis shrimp), some of which have 12 different photoreceptor types, each sampling a narrow set of wavelengths ranging from deep ultraviolet to far red (300 to 720 nanometers). Functionally, this chromatic complexity has presented a mystery. Why use 12 color channels when three or four are sufficient for fine color discrimination? Behavioral wavelength discrimination tests (Δλ functions) in stomatopods revealed a surprisingly poor performance, ruling out color vision that makes use of the conventional color-opponent coding system. Instead, our experiments suggest that stomatopods use a previously unknown color vision system based on temporal signaling combined with scanning eye movements, enabling a type of color recognition rather than discrimination. PMID:24458639

  1. A different form of color vision in mantis shrimp.

    PubMed

    Thoen, Hanne H; How, Martin J; Chiou, Tsyr-Huei; Marshall, Justin

    2014-01-24

    One of the most complex eyes in the animal kingdom can be found in species of stomatopod crustaceans (mantis shrimp), some of which have 12 different photoreceptor types, each sampling a narrow set of wavelengths ranging from deep ultraviolet to far red (300 to 720 nanometers). Functionally, this chromatic complexity has presented a mystery. Why use 12 color channels when three or four are sufficient for fine color discrimination? Behavioral wavelength discrimination tests (Δλ functions) in stomatopods revealed a surprisingly poor performance, ruling out color vision that makes use of the conventional color-opponent coding system. Instead, our experiments suggest that stomatopods use a previously unknown color vision system based on temporal signaling combined with scanning eye movements, enabling a type of color recognition rather than discrimination.

  2. Preferred memory color difference between the deuteranomalous and normal color vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baek, YeSeul; Kwak, Youngshin; Woo, Sungjoo; Park, Chongwook

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study is to evaluate the difference of the preferred hues of familiar objects between the color deficient observer and the normal observer. Thirteen test color images were chosen covering fruit colors, natural scene and human faces. It contained red, yellow, green, blue, purple and skin color. Two color deficient observer (deuteranomal) and two normal observers were participated in this experiment. They controlled the YCC hue of the objects in the images to obtain the most preferred and the most natural image. The selected images were analyzed using CIELAB values of each pixel. Data analysis results showed that in the case of naturalness, both groups selected the similar hues for the most of image, while, in the case of preference, the color deficient observer preferred more reddish or more greenish images. Since the deuteranomalous observer has relatively week perception for red and green region, they may prefer more reddish or greenish color. The color difference between natural hue and preferred hue of deuteranomal observer is bigger than those of normal observer.

  3. Phenylalanine kinetics differ between formula-fed and human milk-fed preterm infants.

    PubMed

    Darling, Pauline B; Dunn, Michael; Gilani, G Sarwar; Ball, Ronald O; Pencharz, Paul B

    2004-10-01

    Infants fed casein-dominant formulas have higher plasma phenylalanine and tyrosine concentrations than those fed mother's milk. Conversely, elevated plasma threonine concentrations are observed in infants fed whey-dominant formulas. We recently showed that formula-fed preterm infants have a lower capacity to degrade threonine than do preterm infants fed mother's milk. We hypothesized that these same infants (n = 18) would differ in their catabolism of phenylalanine in response to phenylalanine loads provided by formulas with increasing casein content of formulas (whey:casein 60:40, 40:60, and 20:80) compared with preterm infants fed mother's milk. Plasma phenylalanine concentrations significantly rose (49, 46, 79 micromol . L(-1) for whey:casein 60:40, 40:60, and 20:80, respectively, pooled SD 8, P < 0.05); and plasma phenylalanine concentrations in infants fed mother's milk were low (40 +/- 4 micromol . L(-1)). Using [1-(13)C]phenylalanine tracer and (13)CO(2) production in breath we found that although there was a significant positive relation between phenylalanine oxidation and phenylalanine intake in formula-fed infants (r(2) = 0.43, P = 0.03), these infants were not able to increase their oxidation of phenylalanine enough to prevent a significant rise in plasma phenylalanine when fed the 20:80 formula. Compared to infants fed mother's milk, formula-fed infants had significantly lower phenylalanine oxidation (39.1 vs. 30.7% of phenylalanine intake, respectively, P < 0.05). We conclude that one of the mechanisms for the differences in plasma amino acid concentration between formula-fed and mother's milk-fed preterm infants may be in vivo down-regulated catabolism of 2 important essential amino acids (phenylalanine in addition to threonine) in formula-fed preterm infants.

  4. Effects of prenatal exposure to different colors on offsprings mood

    PubMed Central

    Faryadian, Sara; Khosravi, Afra

    2015-01-01

    Objective(s): There is much evidence indicating that depression is influenced by the levels of neurotransmitters such as dopamine, GABA and adrenaline. The current study we designed to investigate the effect of exposure of pregnant rats to different colors on neurotransmitters level, as indicators of mood disorders in off springs. Materials and Methods: Five groups of pregnant female Wistar rats (eight rats in each group) were enrolled in this study. Dopamine, adrenaline and GABA concentration in sera of rats were measured using ELISA. Results: The colors black and red elevated the GABA levels in serum and CSF while the colors green and blue decreased the GABA levels. The colors black and red also decreased the sera and CSF levels of dopamine compared to the control group. The concentration of adrenaline was increased following exposure to the colors black, red and blue but decreased only following color green exposure. These results showed serious changes in neurotransmitter levels due to exposure to different colors which can be translated as mood and behavior changes. Conclusion: It can be concluded that exposure during pregnancy can lead to postpartum behavioral changes even at adulthood and such changes can be made by colors. PMID:26949495

  5. Difference in color and color parameters between dental porcelain and porcelain-repairing resin composite.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung-Hee; Lee, Yong-Keun; Lim, Bum-Soon; Rhee, Sang-Hoon; Yang, Hyeong-Cheol

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study was to measure the differences in color and color parameters between dental porcelain and porcelain-repairing resin composites. The colors of three shades (A2, A3, A3.5) of one brand of dental porcelain, three original shades (A2, A3, A3.5), and three combinations (A2/A3, A3/3.5, A2/A3.5) of three brands of porcelain-repairing resin composites (ABT, FSP, TCR) were measured. The specimens were 2 mm thick, and 1 mm of each shade was layered to make combined shades. Differences in color (DeltaE(ab) (*)), lightness (DeltaL*), chroma (DeltaC(ab) (*)), and hue (DeltaH(*)) between porcelain and resin composite were calculated. Color difference was calculated as DeltaE(ab) (*) = (DeltaL*(2) + Deltaa*(2) + Deltab*(2))(1/2), chroma difference was calculated as DeltaC(ab) (*) = (Deltaa*(2) + Deltab*(2))(1/2), and hue difference was calculated as DeltaH(ab) (*) = (DeltaE(ab) (*2) - DeltaL*(2) - DeltaC(ab) (*2))(1/2). The influence of porcelain shade, brand of resin composites, and shade of resin composites were analyzed by three-way analyses of variance, and the differential influence of color parameters on color difference was analyzed with multiple regression analysis (alpha = 0.05). Differences in color and color parameters were influenced by the porcelain shade, brand and shade of resin composites. The DeltaE(ab) (*) value was in the range of 2.2-16.9. The DeltaE(ab) (*) value was correlated with DeltaC(ab) (*) (standardized correlation coefficient, beta = - 0.85), DeltaL* (beta = - 0.52), and DeltaH(ab) (*) (beta = 0.08). Between the same shade designated pairs of porcelain and repairing composite, color difference was perceptible. Therefore, studies to improve the color matching between porcelain and repairing resin are recommended.

  6. Color Image Segmentation Based on Different Color Space Models Using Automatic GrabCut

    PubMed Central

    Ebied, Hala Mousher; Hussein, Ashraf Saad; Tolba, Mohamed Fahmy

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a comparative study using different color spaces to evaluate the performance of color image segmentation using the automatic GrabCut technique. GrabCut is considered as one of the semiautomatic image segmentation techniques, since it requires user interaction for the initialization of the segmentation process. The automation of the GrabCut technique is proposed as a modification of the original semiautomatic one in order to eliminate the user interaction. The automatic GrabCut utilizes the unsupervised Orchard and Bouman clustering technique for the initialization phase. Comparisons with the original GrabCut show the efficiency of the proposed automatic technique in terms of segmentation, quality, and accuracy. As no explicit color space is recommended for every segmentation problem, automatic GrabCut is applied with RGB, HSV, CMY, XYZ, and YUV color spaces. The comparative study and experimental results using different color images show that RGB color space is the best color space representation for the set of the images used. PMID:25254226

  7. Color Stability of Enamel following Different Acid Etching and Color Exposure Times

    PubMed Central

    Jahanbin, Arezoo; Basafa, Mohammad; Moazzami, Mostafa; Basafa, Behnoush; Eslami, Neda

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different etching times on enamel color stability after immediate versus delayed exposure to colored artificial saliva (CAS). Materials and methods. Human first premolars were divided into five groups of twenty. A colorimeter was used according to the CIE system on the mid-buccal and mid-lingual surfaces to evaluate initial tooth color. Samples in group A remained unetched. In groups B to E, buccal and lingual surfaces were initially etched with phosphoric acid for 15 and 60 seconds, respectively. Then, the samples in groups A and C were immersed in colored artificial saliva (cola+saliva). In group B, the teeth were immersed in simple artificial saliva (AS). Samples in groups D and E were immersed in AS for 24 and 72 hours, respectively before being immersed in colored AS. The teeth were immersed for one month in each solution before color measurement. During the test period, the teeth were retrieved from the staining solution and stored in AS for five minutes. This was repeated 60 times. Color changes of buccal and lingual surfaces were calculated. Kruskal-Wallis and Wilcoxon tests were used for statistical analysis (α ≤0.05). Results. There were no significant differences between the groups in term of ΔE of buccal (P = 0.148) and lingual surfaces (P = 0.73). Conclusion. Extended time of etching did not result in significant enamel color change. Immediate and delayed exposure of etched enamel to staining solutions did not result in clinically detectable tooth color changes. PMID:25093048

  8. Color difference threshold of chromostereopsis induced by flat display emission

    PubMed Central

    Ozolinsh, Maris; Muizniece, Kristine

    2015-01-01

    The study of chromostereopsis has gained attention in the backdrop of the use of computer displays in daily life. In this context, we analyze the illusory depth sense using planar color images presented on a computer screen. We determine the color difference threshold required to induce an illusory sense of depth psychometrically using a constant stimuli paradigm. Isoluminant stimuli are presented on a computer screen, which stimuli are aligned along the blue–red line in the computer display CIE xyY color space. Stereo disparity is generated by increasing the color difference between the central and surrounding areas of the stimuli with both areas consisting of random dots on a black background. The observed altering of illusory depth sense, thus also stereo disparity is validated using the “center-of-gravity” model. The induced illusory sense of the depth effect undergoes color reversal upon varying the binocular lateral eye pupil covering conditions (lateral or medial). Analysis of the retinal image point spread function for the display red and blue pixel radiation validates the altering of chromostereopsis retinal disparity achieved by increasing the color difference, and also the chromostereopsis color reversal caused by varying the eye pupil covering conditions. PMID:25883573

  9. A comparative investigation on recurrence formulae in finite difference methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haberland, Christoph; Lahrmann, Andreas

    1988-06-01

    To solve the transient heat conduction equation, the Pade approximation is introduced into the finite-difference method. But if the time step is chosen too large relative to the element size, the Euler method and the Crank-Nicolson solution lead to significant oscillations. In contrast, the full implicit scheme does not show this oscillatory behavior, but is more inaccurate. Compared to these time-stepping algorithms the weighted-time-step method presented here is seen to offer definite advantages.

  10. Comparison of color stability of a composite resin in different color media

    PubMed Central

    Malekipour, Mohammad Reza; Sharafi, Ala; Kazemi, Shantia; Khazaei, Saber; Shirani, Farzaneh

    2012-01-01

    Background: Color change of composite restorations in different color media during the time is a common problem in esthetic dentistry, causing the need to replace the restoration, and spending a great deal of cost and time to patients. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of different common drinks consumed by patients on one of the widely used composites in dentistry. Materials and Methods: Sixty-five disk-shaped specimens were prepared with a light-cured composite (Z100-shade A2) and divided into five groups of 13 specimens. Samples of each group were immersed in staining solutions (tea, coffee, lemonade, and cola) and distilled water (as control). Color values (L*, a*, b*) were measured relative to the standard illuminant D65 over a white background, using the CIE L*a*b* system. Color change values were calculated before and after 1, 7, and 14 days of immersion. Repeated measures and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and paired t tests were applied for statistical analysis. Results: Tea and coffee produced the most discoloration, whereas, water exhibited the least color change after immersion for 14 days in Z100 (P < 0.05). After one day of immersion, coffee caused the lowest discoloration in the test composite, compared to tea, cola, distilled water, and lemonade (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Staining solutions and immersion time are significant factors that affect color stability of composite resins. PMID:23162586

  11. Surface Tension, Pressure Difference and Laplace Formula for Membranes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koibuchi, Hiroshi; Shobukhov, Andrey

    2015-01-01

    The surface tension γ and the pressure difference Δp for spherical membranes are calculated using Monte Carlo simulation technique. We study the so-called tethered and uid surface discrete models that are defined on the fixed-connectivity (tethered) and dynamically triangulated (uid) lattices respectively. Hamiltonians of the models include a self-avoiding potential, which makes the enclosed volume well defined. We find that there is reasonable accuracy in the technique for the calculation of γ using the real area A if the bending rigidity κ or A/N is sufficiently large. We also find that γ becomes constant in the limit of A/N → ∞ both in the tethered and uid surfaces. The property limA/N→∞ γ = const corresponds to certain experimental results in cell biology.

  12. Causes of Different Vivid Colors in Chalcedonies: Kutahya-Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozcan Kilic, Cumhur; Kagan Kadıoglu, Yusuf

    2016-04-01

    Chalcedony is a silicate mineral which is a mixture of fibrous quartz (trigonal) and granular moganite (monoclinic) minerals. They are both SiO2 in composition but differs in crystal system. Chalcedony is widely used as semi-precious gemstone in many countries. It has many different kinds due to their various colors and structures. The colour changes in mineral depends on different causes. Most important causes are transition metal impurities in minerals chemical composition and charge transfer between ions. Different chalcedony types have different colors due to their elemental composition. Chalcedony can be show almost every colour strating from white, black, gray, red, blue, green to brown or a combinations of more than one color in case of agates and jasper formations. Although they have same major oxide compositions,chrysopras (green chalcedony) have Ni which gives the green color and carnelian (orange chalcedony) have Fe+3 which gives the orange color. Kutahya, Eskisehir, Ankara, Manisa, Balıkesir, Canakkale and Yozgat represent the most cities which chalcedony can be mostly observed in Turkey. In Kutahya, chalcedony occurs in cavity or vein fillings in pyroclastic rocks such as tuff and formed by precipitation of silica bearing fluids in low temperatures. They can be also formed within the hydrothermal alteration zone of ultramafic rocks. Although chalcedonies in Kutahya form under almost same condition, they have various colors within the same unit. To specify the cause of the different colors, chemical analysis and Confocal Raman studies performed on Kutahya chalcedonies. Firstly, samples are crushed to 2 mm. size. After that, different colors of chalcedonies are separated by hand picking under binocular microscope and grouped into different color sets such as white, blue, dark yellow, light orange, dark orange and claret red. Each color set is measured by PED-XRF method to obtain chemical compositions. Also Raman studies performed to identify the effect

  13. Trace element status and zinc homeostasis differ in breast and formula-fed piglets

    PubMed Central

    Miousse, Isabelle R; Mason, Andrew Z; Sharma, Neha; Blackburn, Michael L; Badger, Thomas M

    2015-01-01

    Differences in trace element composition and bioavailability between breast milk and infant formulas may affect metal homeostasis in neonates. However, there is a paucity of controlled studies in this area. Here, piglets were fed soy infant formula (soy), cow’s milk formula (milk), or were allowed to suckle from the sow from PND2 to PND21. Serum iron concentrations were higher in formula-fed compared to breastfed piglets (P < 0.05). Serum zinc values were higher in milk compared to breastfed or soy groups (P < 0.05). Zinc transporter Zip4 mRNA was elevated in small intestine of the soy compared to breastfed group (P < 0.05). Transporter Znt1 mRNA was greater in small intestine of both formula-fed groups and in liver of the milk compared to the breastfed group (P < 0.05). Metallothionein Mt1 mRNA expression was higher in small intestine and liver of milk compared to breastfed and soy groups (P < 0.05). In liver, metallothionein protein levels and protein bound zinc were also highly elevated in the milk compared to other groups (P < 0.05). mRNA encoding the hepatic zinc-regulated gene Gclc was higher in the milk than soy group (P < 0.05). ChIP assay revealed increased binding of the zinc-regulated transcription factor MTF1 to the promoters of hepatic Mt3 and Gclc genes in the milk compared to the soy group. These data provide evidence that trace element status differs in breastfed, milk-fed, and soy-fed piglets and that despite similar levels of dietary supplementation, allows strong causal inference that significant differences in serum zinc after cow’s milk formula compared to soy formula consumption result in compensatory changes in expression of zinc transporters, binding proteins, and zinc-regulated genes. PMID:25179632

  14. Trace element status and zinc homeostasis differ in breast and formula-fed piglets.

    PubMed

    Ronis, Martin J J; Miousse, Isabelle R; Mason, Andrew Z; Sharma, Neha; Blackburn, Michael L; Badger, Thomas M

    2015-01-01

    Differences in trace element composition and bioavailability between breast milk and infant formulas may affect metal homeostasis in neonates. However, there is a paucity of controlled studies in this area. Here, piglets were fed soy infant formula (soy), cow's milk formula (milk), or were allowed to suckle from the sow from PND2 to PND21. Serum iron concentrations were higher in formula-fed compared to breastfed piglets (P < 0.05). Serum zinc values were higher in milk compared to breastfed or soy groups (P < 0.05). Zinc transporter Zip4 mRNA was elevated in small intestine of the soy compared to breastfed group (P < 0.05). Transporter Znt1 mRNA was greater in small intestine of both formula-fed groups and in liver of the milk compared to the breastfed group (P < 0.05). Metallothionein Mt1 mRNA expression was higher in small intestine and liver of milk compared to breastfed and soy groups (P < 0.05). In liver, metallothionein protein levels and protein bound zinc were also highly elevated in the milk compared to other groups (P < 0.05). mRNA encoding the hepatic zinc-regulated gene Gclc was higher in the milk than soy group (P < 0.05). ChIP assay revealed increased binding of the zinc-regulated transcription factor MTF1 to the promoters of hepatic Mt3 and Gclc genes in the milk compared to the soy group. These data provide evidence that trace element status differs in breastfed, milk-fed, and soy-fed piglets and that despite similar levels of dietary supplementation, allows strong causal inference that significant differences in serum zinc after cow's milk formula compared to soy formula consumption result in compensatory changes in expression of zinc transporters, binding proteins, and zinc-regulated genes.

  15. Fracture toughness measurement of dental ceramics using the indentation fracture method with different formulas.

    PubMed

    Maehara, Satoshi; Fujishima, Akihiro; Hotta, Yasuhiro; Miyazaki, Takashi

    2005-09-01

    This study examined fracture toughness (KIC) measurements obtained using the indentation fracture (IF) method with a view to improving their reliability. The KIC values of five dental ceramics were measured using the IF method with five different formulas, and the single-edge precracked beam (SEPB) method was used as a control. The elastic moduli of the dental ceramics were evaluated by dynamic hardness test. Load conditions of the dental ceramics that produced a median/radial crack for the IF method formulas were investigated. Based on the resultant c/a and P/c1.5 values, the indentation load (P) required for median/radial crack occurrence varied greatly from 29.4 to 196 N depending on the ceramic used. Among the five formulas, none of the KIC values obtained by the IF method with Miyoshi's formula differed significantly (p > 0.05) from the values obtained using SEPB method. These results suggested that, after an appropriate indentation load is determined, reliable KIC values for small dental ceramic specimens can be easily obtained using the IF method if Miyoshi's formula is used in combination with the dynamic hardness test.

  16. Geometrically derived difference formulae for the numerical integration of trajectory problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcleod, R. J. Y.; Sanz-Serna, J. M.

    1981-01-01

    The term 'trajectory problem' is taken to include problems that can arise, for instance, in connection with contour plotting, or in the application of continuation methods, or during phase-plane analysis. Geometrical techniques are used to construct difference methods for these problems to produce in turn explicit and implicit circularly exact formulae. Based on these formulae, a predictor-corrector method is derived which, when compared with a closely related standard method, shows improved performance. It is found that this latter method produces spurious limit cycles, and this behavior is partly analyzed. Finally, a simple variable-step algorithm is constructed and tested.

  17. 27 CFR 19.392 - Converting denatured alcohol to a different formula.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Converting denatured alcohol to a different formula. 19.392 Section 19.392 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS...

  18. National Differences in Intelligence, Crime, Income, and Skin Color

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rushton, J. Philippe; Templer, Donald I.

    2009-01-01

    National differences in murder, rape, and serious assault were examined in 113 countries in relation to national IQ, income, skin color, birth rate, life expectancy, infant mortality, and HIV/AIDS. Data were collated from the 1993-1996 International Crime Statistics published by INTERPOL. Violent crime was found to be lower in countries with…

  19. Color stability of acrylic resin adhesives with different initiation modes.

    PubMed

    Tanoue, Naomi; Koishi, Yoshikazu; Yanagida, Hiroaki; Atsuta, Mitsuru; Shimada, Kazuki; Matsumura, Hideo

    2004-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the color stability of two acrylic resin adhesives with different activation systems: a benzoyl peroxide (BPO)-amine redox system and a tri-n-butylborane (TBB) derivative system. The colorimetric values of the two resins in different shades (Clear and Ivory) were determined (n=5) 24 hours after polymerization as a baseline using the L*a*b* system of the Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage (CIE). The specimens were thereafter immersed in distilled water, and the color difference (deltaE*) values were calculated. After 24 weeks, the TBB-initiated material showed a significantly (p<0.05) lower color change than the BPO-amine-initiated material. The deltaE* values for the BPO-amine-initiated materials were 6.9 for Clear and 15.8 for Ivory, whereas those for the TBB-initiated materials were 1.3 and 1.8 respectively. Thus, it was concluded that the TBB-initiated material had superior color stability to that of the BPO-amine-initiated material.

  20. Eye Movement Preferences As Individual Differences in Learning From Color and Non-Color Pictures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caban, Juan Pedro

    An experiment compared the effectiveness of color and non-color (black-and-white) pictures in a paired associate learning task. The study also used individual eye movement quantifications as a predictor of preference for color and non-color pictures. Specifically, eye movement fixation patterns were used as indices of preference for color and…

  1. Numerical expression of color emotion and its application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Tetsuya; Kajiwara, Kanji; Xin, John H.; Hansuebsai, Aran; Nobbs, Jim

    2002-06-01

    Human emotions induced by colors are various but the emotions are expressed through words and languages. In order to analyze the emotions expressed through words and languages, visual assessment tests against color emotions expressed by twelve kinds of word pairs were carried out in Japan, Thailand, Hong Kong and UK. The numerical expression of each color emotion is being tried as a formula with an ellipsoid-shape resembling that of a color difference formula. In this paper, the numerical expression of 'Soft- Hard' color emotion was mainly discussed. The application of color emotions via the empirical color emotions formulae derived from kansei database (database of sensory assessments) was also briefly reported.

  2. Origin of the different color of ruby and emerald

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Lastra, J. M.; Barriuso, M. T.; Aramburu, J. A.; Moreno, M.

    2005-09-01

    The different color exhibited by ruby and emerald is a fundamental but still unsolved question. According to recent EXAFS measurements, such a difference can hardly be explained on the basis of a different average distance between Cr3+ and the six oxygen ligands. The puzzling difference in color between the two gemstones is shown in this work to arise essentially from the distinct electrostatic potential imposed by the rest of lattice ions upon the active electrons of the CrO69- unit. Main effects are shown to come from the electric field generated in the neighborhood of the Cr3+ site in ruby which is absent in the case of emerald due to symmetry.

  3. Color polymorphic lures target different visual channels in prey.

    PubMed

    White, Thomas E; Kemp, Darrell J

    2016-06-01

    Selection for signal efficacy in variable environments may favor color polymorphism, but little is known about this possibility outside of sexual systems. Here we used the color polymorphic orb-web spider Gasteracantha fornicata, whose yellow- or white-banded dorsal signal attracts dipteran prey, to test the hypothesis that morphs may be tuned to optimize either chromatic or achromatic conspicuousness in their visually noisy forest environments. We used data from extensive observations of naturally existing spiders and precise assessments of visual environments to model signal conspicuousness according to dipteran vision. Modeling supported a distinct bias in the chromatic (yellow morph) or achromatic (white morph) contrast presented by spiders at the times when they caught prey, as opposed to all other times at which they may be viewed. Hence, yellow spiders were most successful when their signal produced maximum color contrast against viewing backgrounds, whereas white spiders were most successful when they presented relatively greatest luminance contrast. Further modeling across a hypothetical range of lure variation confirmed that yellow versus white signals should, respectively, enhance chromatic versus achromatic conspicuousness to flies, in G. fornicata's visual environments. These findings suggest that color polymorphism may be adaptively maintained by selection for conspicuousness within different visual channels in receivers.

  4. Color

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Bruce

    1975-01-01

    The color wheel, because it is an excellent way to teach color theory has become somewhat of a traditional assignment in most basic design courses. Article described a way to change this situation by re-designing and improving upon the basic color wheel. (Author/RK)

  5. The Difference between the Two Representative Kampo Formulas for Treating Dysmenorrhea: An Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Yoshino, Tetsuhiro; Katayama, Kotoe; Horiba, Yuko; Munakata, Kaori; Yamaguchi, Rui; Imoto, Seiya; Miyano, Satoru; Mima, Hideki; Watanabe, Kenji; Mimura, Masaru

    2016-01-01

    In Kampo medicine, two different formulas are effective for treating dysmenorrhea—tokishakuyakusan and keishibukuryogan; however, the criteria by which specialists select the appropriate formula for each patient are not clear. We compared patients treated with tokishakuyakusan and those with keishibukuryogan and proposed a predictive model. The study included 168 primary and secondary dysmenorrhea patients who visited the Kampo Clinic at Keio University Hospital. We collected clinical data from 128 dysmenorrhea patients, compared the two patient groups and selected significantly different factors as potential predictors, and used logistic regression to establish a model. An external validation was performed using 40 dysmenorrhea patients. Lightheadedness, BMI < 18.5, and a weak abdomen were significantly more frequent in the tokishakuyakusan group; tendency to sweat, heat intolerance, leg numbness, a cold sensation in the lower back, a strong abdomen, and paraumbilical tenderness and resistance were more frequent in the keishibukuryogan group. The final model fitted the data well. Internally estimated accuracy was 81.2%, and a leave-one-out cross-validation estimate of accuracy was 80.5%. External validation accuracy was 85.0%. We proposed a model for predicting the use of two Kampo formulas for dysmenorrhea, which should be validated in prospective trials. PMID:27006676

  6. Color alteration in teeth subjected to different bleaching techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briso, A. L. F.; Fonseca, M. S. M.; de Almeida, L. C. A. G.; Mauro, S. J.; Dos Santos, P. H.

    2010-12-01

    This study evaluated the color alteration of teeth subjected to the action of different bleaching agents and the influence of light sources commonly used in association with these products, In GI, the specimens remained immersed in artificial saliva. The specimens in GII were bleached with a 10% carbamide peroxide gel 4 hours/day during 3 weeks; the teeth in the other three groups were subjected to three sessions of three 10-min applications of 35% hydrogen peroxide gel at 7-day intervals. In GIII, no light was used, while in GIV and GV the gel was associated with a quartz-tungsten-halogen light and a LED/laser source, respectively. The teeth color was evaluated before and 7 days after the bleaching sessions by reflectance spectrophotometry. Data were analyzed statistically by ANOVA and Fisher's test (α = 0.05), and showed that a significant color change was obtained in all treated groups. After the first week of treatment and at the end of it, the bleaching protocols showed similar results. The results of the present study indicate that association of a light source is not necessary to obtain the bleaching effect and that optimal bleaching can be achieved with all techniques tested.

  7. Colorful Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Suzanne

    1991-01-01

    Described is an color-making activity where students use food coloring, eyedroppers, and water to make various colored solutions. Included are the needed materials and procedures. Students are asked to write up the formulas for making their favorite color. (KR)

  8. The effect of different drinks on the color stability of different restorative materials after one month

    PubMed Central

    Tuncer, Safa; Demirci, Mustafa; Serim, Merve Efe; Baydemir, Canan

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of three different drinks on the color parameters of four different restorative materials. Materials and Methods Three different composites (Filtek Ultimate Universal Restorative, Filtek Ultimate Flowable, and Filtek Silorane, 3M ESPE) and a polyacid-modified composite resin material (Dyract XP, Dentsply DeTrey GmbH) were evaluated. Eighty-four disc-shaped specimens of 8 mm in diameter and 2 mm in thickness were prepared (n = 21 each). Color coordinates (L*a*b*, ΔL*, Δa*, Δb*, and ΔE*) were measured using a VİTA Easyshade Compact (VİTA Zahnfabrik) after 24 hr of storage (baseline) and after 30 day of storage in three different beverages of black tea, Coca cola, or water (control) (n = 7). In each beverage, the specimens were stored three times a day, one hr each, for 30 day. The color changes (ΔE) were calculated and were analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn multiple comparison test. Results The color difference (ΔE*) of the resin materials ranged between 1.31 and 15.28 after 30 day of immersion in the staining solutions. Dyract XP in Coca cola (15.28 ± 2.61) and black tea (12.22 ± 2.73) showed the highest mean ΔE* value after 30 day, followed by Filtek Ultimate Universal Restorative (5.99 ± 1.25) and Filtek Ultimate Flowable (4.71 ± 1.40) in black tea (p < 0.05). Conclusions The compomers displayed unacceptable color changes at the end of 30 day in all beverages. Among resin composites, the silorane based composite exhibited relatively good color stability than the others. Filtek Ultimate Universal Restorative and Filtek Flowable showed similar color changes in all beverages. PMID:26587410

  9. Waking Up to Difference: Teachers, Color-Blindness, and the Effects on Students of Color

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castro Atwater, Sheri A.

    2008-01-01

    Color-blindness, the ideology that "race should not matter" in how individuals are treated, is often confused with "race does not matter" (Neville, 2000). The historical, social, and political origins of color-blind racial attitudes are outlined here. Developmental and constructivist theories are used to illustrate how teachers' use of the…

  10. Illuminance formation and color difference of mixed-color light emitting diodes in a rectangular light pipe: an analytical approach.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Chu-Ming; Chern, Jyh-Long

    2008-01-20

    We developed an analytical method of illuminance formation for mixed-color LEDs in a rectangular light pipe in order to derive American National Standards Institute (ANSI) light uniformity, ANSI color uniformity, and color difference of light output using photometry, nonimaging, and colorimetry. The analytical results indicate that the distributions of illuminance and color difference vary with different geometric structures of light pipes and the location of the light sources. It was found that both the ANSI light and the ANSI color uniformity on the exit plane of the light pipe are reduced exponentially with the increase in length of the light pipe. It is evident that a length scale L/A greater than unity assures that the mixed-color LED sources on the entrance plane are uniformly illuminated with acceptable uniform brightness and color on the exit plane of the rectangular light pipe, where L is the length of the light pipe, and A is a constant, which is a geometric parameter for the scale unit of the light pipe's input face. Furthermore, the ANSI light uniformity can be minimized, and the ANSI color uniformity can be maximized under the condition of multilight-source locations P=Q= +/- A/4, where P and Q are the coordinates along the long axis and the short axis, respectively, with one being the entrance plane of the light pipe. We can conclude that the optimum form factor of the light pipe is a square shaped cross section, with the length scale L/A being equal to unity and with multilight sources located individually on positions of A/4 in order to achieve very uniform illuminations with the highest light efficiency and compact package for the optical system with mixed-color LEDs, where L is the length of the light pipe.

  11. Effect of adding different thickening agents on the viscosity properties and in vitro mineral availability of infant formula.

    PubMed

    González-Bermúdez, Carlos A; Frontela-Saseta, Carmen; López-Nicolás, Rubén; Ros-Berruezo, Gaspar; Martínez-Graciá, Carmen

    2014-09-15

    The effect of adding different thickening agents (locust bean gum (LBG), modified corn and rice starches (MCS, MRS)) to an infant formula on both in vitro mineral availability (Ca, Fe and Zn), quantified by atomic absorption spectrophotometry (AAS), and formula viscosity, after in vitro gastrointestinal digestion, was investigated. LBG was the most effective agent to increase formula thickness. However, it showed a negative effect on Ca, Fe and Zn in vitro solubility and dialysability. MCS and MRS only affected calcium solubility and dialysability when they were used at ⩾50% of the maximum legal limit. No negative effect was observed for Fe and Zn when modified starches were added at the different concentrations assessed. The phytate content in the thickening ingredients was also analysed. Despite finding a considerable amount of phytic acid in the raw ingredients, its final concentration in the infant formula was insufficient to decrease in vitro mineral availability. PMID:24767020

  12. Teaching Formulaic Sequences: The Same as or Different from Teaching Single Words?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alali, Fatima A.; Schmitt, Norbert

    2012-01-01

    Formulaic language is an important component of discourse and needs to be addressed in teaching pedagogy. Unfortunately, there has been little research into the most effective ways of teaching formulaic language. In this study, Kuwaiti students were taught words and idioms using the same teaching methodologies, and their learning was measured. The…

  13. False Color Processing to Enhance Differences Around Yogi

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    In this scene showing the rover deployed at rock Yogi, the colors have similarly been enhanced to bring out differences. The same three kinds of rocks are recognized as in the distance. Yogi (red arrow), one of the large rocks with a weathered coating, exhibits a fresh face to the northeast, resulting perhaps from eolian scouring or from fracturing off of pieces to expose a fresher surface. Barnacle Bill and Cradle (blue arrows) are typical of the unweathered smaller rocks. During its traverse to Yogi the rover stirred the soil and exposed material from several cm in depth. During one of the turns to deploy Sojourner's Alpha Proton X-Ray Spectrometer (inset and white arrow), the wheels dug particularly deeply and exposed white material. Spectra of this white material show it is virtually identical to Scooby Doo, and such white material may underlie much of the site. The lander's rear ramp, which Sojourner used to descend to the Martian surface, is at lower left.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and managed the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

  14. Difference between seeing a random color dot picture and reading shapes from the same color dot picture in the Ishihara pseudoisochromatic plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ichihara, Yasuyo G.; Nakadomari, Satoshi; Takeuchi, Hiroaki; Miyauchi, Satoru; Kitahara, Kenji

    2002-06-01

    When we are viewing colored picture, what is the difference in our brain between a random Color dot picture and a digit figure pattern picture seen through its colored dots? We created 3 patterns that are a functional magnetic resonance imaging version of the Ishihara plate patterns to test multiple color-sensitive areas in human ventral occipitotemporal cortex. The results showed that area V4 is activated by the stimulus of reading shapes from its color dots in the Ishihara pseudoisochromatic plates but not by the stimulus of seeing a random color dot picture. We suggest that area V4 is activated not by color processing but by segregation.

  15. Selective Pressures Explain Differences in Flower Color among Gentiana lutea Populations.

    PubMed

    Sobral, Mar; Veiga, Tania; Domínguez, Paula; Guitián, Javier A; Guitián, Pablo; Guitián, José M

    2015-01-01

    Flower color variation among plant populations might reflect adaptation to local conditions such as the interacting animal community. In the northwest Iberian Peninsula, flower color of Gentiana lutea varies longitudinally among populations, ranging from orange to yellow. We explored whether flower color is locally adapted and the role of pollinators and seed predators as agents of selection by analyzing the influence of flower color on (i) pollinator visitation rate and (ii) escape from seed predation and (iii) by testing whether differences in pollinator communities correlate with flower color variation across populations. Finally, (iv) we investigated whether variation in selective pressures explains flower color variation among 12 G. lutea populations. Flower color influenced pollinator visits and differences in flower color among populations were related to variation in pollinator communities. Selective pressures on flower color vary among populations and explain part of flower color differences among populations of G. lutea. We conclude that flower color in G. lutea is locally adapted and that pollinators play a role in this adaptation.

  16. Selective Pressures Explain Differences in Flower Color among Gentiana lutea Populations

    PubMed Central

    Domínguez, Paula; Guitián, Javier A.; Guitián, Pablo; Guitián, José M.

    2015-01-01

    Flower color variation among plant populations might reflect adaptation to local conditions such as the interacting animal community. In the northwest Iberian Peninsula, flower color of Gentiana lutea varies longitudinally among populations, ranging from orange to yellow. We explored whether flower color is locally adapted and the role of pollinators and seed predators as agents of selection by analyzing the influence of flower color on (i) pollinator visitation rate and (ii) escape from seed predation and (iii) by testing whether differences in pollinator communities correlate with flower color variation across populations. Finally, (iv) we investigated whether variation in selective pressures explains flower color variation among 12 G. lutea populations. Flower color influenced pollinator visits and differences in flower color among populations were related to variation in pollinator communities. Selective pressures on flower color vary among populations and explain part of flower color differences among populations of G. lutea. We conclude that flower color in G. lutea is locally adapted and that pollinators play a role in this adaptation. PMID:26172378

  17. Three-dimensional histogram visualization in different color spaces and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcu, Gabriel G.; Abe, Satoshi

    1995-10-01

    A visualization procedure for the 3D histogram of color images is presented. The procedure assumes that the histogram is available as a table that associates to a pixel color the number of its appearance in the image. The procedure runs for the RGB, YMC, HSV, HSL, L*a*b, and L*u*v color spaces and it is easily extendable to other color spaces if the analytical form of color transformations is available. Each histogram value is represented in the color space as a colored ball, in a position corresponding to the place of the color in the space. A simple drawing procedure is used instead of more complicated 3D rendering techniques. The 3D histogram visualization offers a clear and intuitive representation of the color distribution of the image. The procedure is applied to derive a clusterization technique for color classification and visualize its results, to display comparatively the gamut of different color devices, and to detect the misalignment of the RGB planes of a color image. Diagrams illustrating the visualization procedure are presented for each application.

  18. Notes on the application of the standardized residual sum of squares index for the assessment of intra- and inter-observer variability in color-difference experiments.

    PubMed

    Melgosa, Manuel; García, Pedro A; Gómez-Robledo, Luis; Shamey, Renzo; Hinks, David; Cui, Guihua; Luo, M Ronnier

    2011-05-01

    The standardized residual sum of squares index was proposed to examine the significant merit of a given color-difference formula over another with respect to a given set of visual color-difference data [J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24, 1823-1829, 2007]. This index can also be employed to determine intra- and inter-observer variability, although the full complexity of this variability cannot be described by just one number. Appropriate utilization of the standardized residual sum of squares index for the assessment of observer variability is described with a view to encourage its use in future color-difference research. The main goal of this paper is to demonstrate that setting the F parameters of the standardized residual sum of squares index to 1 results in a loss of essential properties of the index (for example, symmetry), and is therefore strongly discouraged. PMID:21532709

  19. Color Blindness

    MedlinePlus

    ... rose in full bloom. If you have a color vision defect, you may see these colors differently than most people. There are three main kinds of color vision defects. Red-green color vision defects are the ...

  20. Color Difference and Memory Recall in Free-Flying Honeybees: Forget the Hard Problem.

    PubMed

    Dyer, Adrian G; Garcia, Jair E

    2014-01-01

    Free-flying honeybees acquire color information differently depending upon whether a target color is learnt in isolation (absolute conditioning), or in relation to a perceptually similar color (differential conditioning). Absolute conditioning allows for rapid learning, but color discrimination is coarse. Differential conditioning requires more learning trials, but enables fine discriminations. Currently it is unknown whether differential conditioning to similar colors in honeybees forms a long-term memory, and the stability of memory in a biologically relevant scenario considering similar or saliently different color stimuli. Individual free-flying honeybees (N = 6) were trained to similar color stimuli separated by 0.06 hexagon units for 60 trials and mean accuracy was 81.7% ± 12.2% s.d. Bees retested on subsequent days showed a reduction in the number of correct choices with increasing time from the initial training, and for four of the bees this reduction was significant from chance expectation considering binomially distributed logistic regression models. In contrast, an independent group of 6 bees trained to saliently different colors (>0.14 hexagon units) did not experience any decay in memory retention with increasing time. This suggests that whilst the bees' visual system can permit fine discriminations, flowers producing saliently different colors are more easily remembered by foraging bees over several days.

  1. Funding Formulae where Costs Legitimately Differ: The Case of Higher Education in England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnes, Geraint

    2007-01-01

    The institutional framework for the funding of higher education in the United Kingdom is discussed. In England, much of the financial support for teaching and learning, especially of "home and European Union" undergraduates, is channelled through the Higher Education Funding Council for England (HEFCE). The HEFCE operates a formula funding…

  2. [Analysis of different health status based on characteristics of the facial spectrum photometric color].

    PubMed

    Xu, Jiatuo; Wu, Hongjin; Lu, Luming; Tu, Liping; Zhang, Zhifeng; Chen, Xiao

    2012-12-01

    This paper is aimed to observe the difference of facial color of people with different health status by spectral photometric color measuring technique according to the theory of facial color diagnosis in Internal Classic. We gathered the facial color information about the health status of persons in healthy group (183), sub-healthy group (287) and disease group (370) respectively. The information included L, a, b, C values and reflection of different wavelengths in 400-700nm with CM-2600D spectral photometric color measuring instrument on 8 points. The results indicated that overall complexion color values of the people in the three groups were significantly different. The persons in the disease group looked deep dark in features. The people in the sub-healthy group looked pale in features. The loci L, a, b, C values were with varying degrees of significant differences (P < 0.05) at 6 points among the groups, and the central position of the face in all the groups was the position with most significant differences. Comparing the facial color information at the same point of the people in the three groups, we obtained each group's diagnostic special point. There existed diagnostic values in distinguishing disease status and various status of health in some degree by spectral photometric color measuring technique. The present method provides a prosperous quantitative basis for Chinese medical inspection of the complexion diagnosis. PMID:23469531

  3. [Analysis of different health status based on characteristics of the facial spectrum photometric color].

    PubMed

    Xu, Jiatuo; Wu, Hongjin; Lu, Luming; Tu, Liping; Zhang, Zhifeng; Chen, Xiao

    2012-12-01

    This paper is aimed to observe the difference of facial color of people with different health status by spectral photometric color measuring technique according to the theory of facial color diagnosis in Internal Classic. We gathered the facial color information about the health status of persons in healthy group (183), sub-healthy group (287) and disease group (370) respectively. The information included L, a, b, C values and reflection of different wavelengths in 400-700nm with CM-2600D spectral photometric color measuring instrument on 8 points. The results indicated that overall complexion color values of the people in the three groups were significantly different. The persons in the disease group looked deep dark in features. The people in the sub-healthy group looked pale in features. The loci L, a, b, C values were with varying degrees of significant differences (P < 0.05) at 6 points among the groups, and the central position of the face in all the groups was the position with most significant differences. Comparing the facial color information at the same point of the people in the three groups, we obtained each group's diagnostic special point. There existed diagnostic values in distinguishing disease status and various status of health in some degree by spectral photometric color measuring technique. The present method provides a prosperous quantitative basis for Chinese medical inspection of the complexion diagnosis.

  4. Sex and skill differences in translation of English color words by Chinese students.

    PubMed

    Yang, Y

    2000-12-01

    The present study investigated sex and skill differences in color-word translation by Chinese-speaking students in university English classes. A questionnaire was administered to estimate the correlation between subjects' performance and their color-related hobbies. To conceptualize the issue better, two more groups of correlated parameter (academic achievements plus demographic factors) were introduced in this research as well. 40 English majors (20 women, 20 men), ranging in education from level one to level four, were randomly drawn from a metropolitan university and tested in the experiments as subjects. These university students were asked to provide Chinese equivalents for a list of 33 elaborated English color terms chosen from a thesaurus by mapping on the 11 color-tone categories defined by basic color theory. The results confirm the findings in relevant studies that used native speakers as subjects by observing that (1) women possessed a richer color vocabulary both in their source language and in their target language, (2) women also provided more elaborated Chinese equivalents to the color words used as stimuli, and finally, (3) women showed a superiority in accuracy in this color-lexicon matching or translating task. As a whole, the effects of skill and age were not significant. A significant correlation was found between the learners' proficiency in English and performance in translation of color words, but this relationship was rather weak and only true for the men. Color-related hobbies did not significantly correlate with the color-decoding performance of these language learners. Neither did the demographic factors. Taken together, it is sensible to state that differences reported here were affected primarily by the sex of the learn er. conditionally by language proficiency, and presumably by the cognitive and perceptual sex differences as well. These findings further indicate that the process of color codability is a complicated but unstudied issue

  5. Content based Image Retrieval based on Different Global and Local Color Histogram Methods: A Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suhasini, Pallikonda Sarah; Sri Rama Krishna, K.; Murali Krishna, I. V.

    2016-06-01

    Different global and local color histogram methods for content based image retrieval (CBIR) are investigated in this paper. Color histogram is a widely used descriptor for CBIR. Conventional method of extracting color histogram is global, which misses the spatial content, is less invariant to deformation and viewpoint changes, and results in a very large three dimensional histogram corresponding to the color space used. To address the above deficiencies, different global and local histogram methods are proposed in recent research. Different ways of extracting local histograms to have spatial correspondence, invariant colour histogram to add deformation and viewpoint invariance and fuzzy linking method to reduce the size of the histogram are found in recent papers. The color space and the distance metric used are vital in obtaining color histogram. In this paper the performance of CBIR based on different global and local color histograms in three different color spaces, namely, RGB, HSV, L*a*b* and also with three distance measures Euclidean, Quadratic and Histogram intersection are surveyed, to choose appropriate method for future research.

  6. Infant Formula

    MedlinePlus

    ... it okay to feed my baby formula? Breast milk is the best source of nutrition for your ... will probably recommend a formula made from cow's milk. Some formulas are iron-fortified. This means they ...

  7. Amino acid ratings of different forms of infant formulas based on varying degrees of processing.

    PubMed

    Sarwar, G

    1991-01-01

    Amino acid profiles, protein digestibility and/or amino acid bioavailability for the various forms (powder, liquid concentrate, ready-to-use, etc.) of infant formulas (involving varying degrees of heat processing during preparation) have been determined. Amino acid scores (based on the single most limiting amino acid) were calculated by comparing the essential amino acid data with that of human milk. Amino acid scores were multiplied by total protein (g/100 kcal) to obtain amino acid ratings, which take into account both quality and quantity of protein. Amino acid scores for milk- and soy-based formulas ranged from 49 to 90 and 59 to 81%, respectively, due to deficiencies in methionine plus cystine and/or tryptophan. The deficiency in the limiting amino acids was more marked in liquid concentrate than powder prepared by the same manufacturer. Because of significantly higher total protein contents (g/100 kcal) of soy- (2.65-3.68) and milk-based (2.20-2.95) formulas compared to human milk (1.5), the relative amino acid ratings (human milk = 100) of all formulas except two milk-based liquid concentrates and one ready-to-feed (with values of 77-87%) were greater than 100%. When corrected for protein digestibility, the relative amino acid ratings for all four liquid concentrates were less than 100%. Lower levels of digestible protein and bioavailable amino acids in liquid concentrate compared with powder (prepared by the same manufacturer) would suggest that inferior protein quality of liquid concentrates may be due to more severe heat treatment involved in their preparation.

  8. Different effects of color-based and location-based selection on visual working memory.

    PubMed

    Li, Qi; Saiki, Jun

    2015-02-01

    In the present study, we investigated how feature- and location-based selection influences visual working memory (VWM) encoding and maintenance. In Experiment 1, cue type (color, location) and cue timing (precue, retro-cue) were manipulated in a change detection task. The stimuli were color-location conjunction objects, and binding memory was tested. We found a significantly greater effect for color precues than for either color retro-cues or location precues, but no difference between location pre- and retro-cues, consistent with previous studies (e.g., Griffin & Nobre in Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 15, 1176-1194, 2003). We also found no difference between location and color retro-cues. Experiment 2 replicated the color precue advantage with more complex color-shape-location conjunction objects. Only one retro-cue effect was different from that in Experiment 1: Color retro-cues were significantly less effective than location retro-cues in Experiment 2, which may relate to a structural property of multidimensional VWM representations. In Experiment 3, a visual search task was used, and the result of a greater location than color precue effect suggests that the color precue advantage in a memory task is related to the modulation of VWM encoding rather than of sensation and perception. Experiment 4, using a task that required only memory for individual features but not for feature bindings, further confirmed that the color precue advantage is specific to binding memory. Together, these findings reveal new aspects of the interaction between attention and VWM and provide potentially important implications for the structural properties of VWM representations. PMID:25338537

  9. Color stability of different denture teeth materials against various staining agents.

    PubMed

    Koksal, Temel; Dikbas, Idil

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the color stability of two brands of porcelain teeth and three brands of acrylic denture teeth. Samples were immersed into three staining drinks as test groups and distilled water as a control. Color measurements of teeth were performed by using a spectrophotometer. Before immersion, the initial color value of each tooth was recorded. Color change values were determined after 1 day, 1 week, 2 weeks, and 4 weeks of immersion. Color differences were characterized using the CIE L*a*b* color space. The color stability of all teeth was significantly affected by the immersion period (p<0.0001). Instant coffee was found to be the most chromogenic agent among the solutions tested (p<0.0001). Among the materials tested, porcelain was found to be more resistant to discoloration. It was concluded that acrylic teeth showed a higher degree of color change and that the amount of color change for each group increased proportionally with time. PMID:18309623

  10. Color stability of different denture teeth materials against various staining agents.

    PubMed

    Koksal, Temel; Dikbas, Idil

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the color stability of two brands of porcelain teeth and three brands of acrylic denture teeth. Samples were immersed into three staining drinks as test groups and distilled water as a control. Color measurements of teeth were performed by using a spectrophotometer. Before immersion, the initial color value of each tooth was recorded. Color change values were determined after 1 day, 1 week, 2 weeks, and 4 weeks of immersion. Color differences were characterized using the CIE L*a*b* color space. The color stability of all teeth was significantly affected by the immersion period (p<0.0001). Instant coffee was found to be the most chromogenic agent among the solutions tested (p<0.0001). Among the materials tested, porcelain was found to be more resistant to discoloration. It was concluded that acrylic teeth showed a higher degree of color change and that the amount of color change for each group increased proportionally with time.

  11. Phospholipid Species in Newborn and 4 Month Old Infants after Consumption of Different Formulas or Breast Milk

    PubMed Central

    Uhl, Olaf; Fleddermann, Manja; Hellmuth, Christian; Demmelmair, Hans; Koletzko, Berthold

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Arachidonic acid (AA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are important long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids for neuronal and cognitive development and are ingredients of infant formulae that are recommended but there is no evidence based minimal supplementation level available. The aim of this analysis was to investigate the effect of supplemented AA and DHA on phospholipid metabolism. Methods Plasma samples of a randomized, double-blind infant feeding trial were used for the analyses of phospholipid species by flow-injection mass spectrometry. Healthy term infants consumed isoenergetic formulae (intervention formula with equal amounts of AA and DHA—IF, control formula without additional AA and DHA—CF) from the first month of life until the age of 120 days. A group of breast milk (BM) -fed infants was followed as a reference. Results The plasma profile detected in newborns was different from 4 month old infants, irrespective of study group. Most relevant changes were seen in higher level of LPC16:1, LPC20:4, PC32:1, PC34:1 and PC36:4 and lower level of LPC18:0, LPC18:2, PC32:2, PC36:2 and several ether-linked phosphatidylcholines in newborns. The sum of all AA and DHA species at 4 month old infants in the CF group showed level of 40% (AA) and 51% (DHA) of newborns. The supplemented amount of DHA resulted in phospholipid level comparable to BM infants, but AA phospholipids were lower than in BM infants. Interestingly, relative contribution of DHA was higher in ether-linked phosphatidylcholines in CF fed infants, but IF and BM fed infants showed higher overall ether-linked phosphatidylcholines levels. Conclusion In conclusion, we have shown that infant plasma phospholipid profile changes remarkably from newborn over time and is dependent on the dietary fatty acid composition. A supplementation of an infant formula with AA and DHA resulted in increased related phospholipid species. PMID:27571269

  12. Infants' preferences for toys, colors, and shapes: sex differences and similarities.

    PubMed

    Jadva, Vasanti; Hines, Melissa; Golombok, Susan

    2010-12-01

    Girls and boys differ in their preferences for toys such as dolls and trucks. These sex differences are present in infants, are seen in non-human primates, and relate, in part, to prenatal androgen exposure. This evidence of inborn influences on sex-typed toy preferences has led to suggestions that object features, such as the color or the shape of toys, may be of intrinsically different interest to males and females. We used a preferential looking task to examine preferences for different toys, colors, and shapes in 120 infants, ages 12, 18, or 24 months. Girls looked at dolls significantly more than boys did and boys looked at cars significantly more than girls did, irrespective of color, particularly when brightness was controlled. These outcomes did not vary with age. There were no significant sex differences in infants' preferences for different colors or shapes. Instead, both girls and boys preferred reddish colors over blue and rounded over angular shapes. These findings augment prior evidence of sex-typed toy preferences in infants, but suggest that color and shape do not determine these sex differences. In fact, the direction of influence could be the opposite. Girls may learn to prefer pink, for instance, because the toys that they enjoy playing with are often colored pink. Regarding within sex differences, as opposed to differences between boys and girls, both boys and girls preferred dolls to cars at age 12-months. The preference of young boys for dolls over cars suggests that older boys' avoidance of dolls may be acquired. Similarly, the sex similarities in infants' preferences for colors and shapes suggest that any subsequent sex differences in these preferences may arise from socialization or cognitive gender development rather than inborn factors.

  13. Gender-related differences in physiologic color space: a functional transcranial Doppler (fTCD) study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Simultaneous color contrast and color constancy are memory processes associated with color vision, however, the gender-related differences of 'physiologic color space' remains unknown. Color processing was studied in 16 (8 men and 8 women) right-handed healthy subjects using functional transcranial Doppler (fTCD) technique. Mean flow velocity (MFV) was recorded in both right (RMCA) and left (LMCA) middle cerebral arteries in dark and white light conditions, and during color (blue and yellow) stimulations. The data was plotted in a 3D quadratic curve fit to derive a 'physiologic color space' showing the effects of luminance and chromatic contrasts. In men, wavelength-differencing of opponent pairs (yellow-blue) was adjudged by changes in the RMCA MFV for Yellow plotted on the Y-axis, and the RMCA MFV for Blue plotted on the X-axis. In women, frequency-differencing for opponent pairs (blue-yellow) was adjudged by changes in the LMCA MFV for Yellow plotted on the Y-axis, and the LMCA MFV for Blue plotted on the X-axis. The luminance effect on the LMCA MFV in response to white light with the highest luminous flux, was plotted on the (Z - axis), in both men and women. The 3D-color space for women was a mirror-image of that for men, and showed enhanced color constancy. The exponential function model was applied to the data in men, while the logarithmic function model was applied to the data in women. Color space determination may be useful in the study of color memory, adaptive neuroplasticity, cognitive impairment in stroke and neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:21310045

  14. Assessment of diclofenac permeation with different formulations: anti-inflammatory study of a selected formula.

    PubMed

    Escribano, Elvira; Calpena, Ana Cristina; Queralt, Josep; Obach, Rossend; Doménech, Jose

    2003-07-01

    The aim of this study was to improve the transdermal permeation of sodium diclofenac. Permeation studies were carried out in vitro using human skin (0.4 mm thick) from plastic surgery as a membrane. Four liquid formulations of 1% (w/w) sodium diclofenac were assayed: three ternary solvent systems (M4, M5, M6) and one microemulsion (M3). A 1% (w/w) solution of sodium diclofenac and a commercially available semisolid preparation were tested as reference formulations. The following permeation parameters for diclofenac were assessed: permeability coefficient, flux and drug permeated and retained in the skin at 24 h. The highest values of these parameters were obtained with formula M4, which contains transcutol 59.2%, oleic acid 14.9% and d-limonene 5% (w/w) as permeation enhancers. The anti-inflammatory activity of this formula was compared with that of the semisolid preparation on carrageenan-induced paw edema in rats. As expected from in vitro results, the M4 diclofenac delivery system showed higher activity than the semisolid preparation, both when applied locally (to the inflammation area) and when applied systemically (to the back). Neither treatment irritated the skin when tested on rabbits in a 72-h trial. These results suggest that topical delivery of sodium diclofenac with an absorption enhancer such as a mixture of oleic acid and d-limonene (M4) may be an effective medication for both dermal and subdermal injuries.

  15. Color changes in resin cement polymerized with different curing lights under indirect restorations

    PubMed Central

    Bayindir, Funda; Ilday, Nurcan Ozakar; Bayindir, Yusuf Ziya; Karataş, Ozcan; Gurpinar, Aysel

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of different interface materials and curing units on color changes in a resin cement material. Materials and Methods: Three interface materials and different curing systems, quartz-tungsten-halogen and polywave and monowave light-emitting diode (LED) light curing units, were studied at two-time intervals. Polystyrene strip was used as a control group. All measurements were made on a white background for standard color measurement. According to the CIE L*a*b* color space, the baseline color values of each specimen were measured. Differences between the measurements were calculated as ΔE, ΔL, Δa, and Δb. Data were analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Duncan's tests (α = 0.05) with SPSS 20.0 software (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). ANOVA revealed significance for interface materials and curing units and time for ΔE (P < 0.05). Results: Interaction between polymerizing units, material and time was not significant (P > 0.05). Monowave LED exhibited significantly higher color changes than the other units ([P < 0.05] [ΔE 2.94 ± 0.44]). QTH promoted composite specimens significantly less color change ([P < 0.05] [ΔE 0.87 ± 0.41]). Conclusion: This study concluded that color of resin cement used in the adhesion of indirect restorations was affected by curing device light and indirect restoration material type. PMID:26957793

  16. Reasons of different colors in the ignimbrite lithology: micro-XRF and confocal Raman spectrometry method.

    PubMed

    Koralay, Tamer; Kadioglu, Yusuf Kagan

    2008-03-01

    Medium to large volume ignimbrites usually show vertical changes in terms of color, mineral components, texture and geochemistry. Determination of vertical changes in single extensive ignimbrite flow unit is difficult and requires careful studies. Color changes in ignimbrite flow units are very important for earth scientists. This may cause to identify the same ignimbrite series with different definition. Incesu ignimbrite has a wide distribution in the Central Anatolian Volcanic Province (CAVP). It is classified into three levels as lower, middle and upper according to color and welding degree. There is a sharp contact between the lower and middle level. The lower level is dark brown to black in color and the middle level has pinkish red to red color. The present paper focuses on the investigation of color changes between the ignimbrite levels by using micro-XRF and confocal Raman spectrometry. Micro-XRF and Raman spectrometry studies were performed on the polished thin sections of the lower and middle levels with different compositions. These differences were because of the compositional changes of K and slightly Fe elements distribution within the matrix. The dark brown to black color of the lower level was related to the high concentration of the K and Fe relatively to the middle level. Confocal Raman spectrometry investigations exhibited the matrix of the lower level mainly composed of anorthoclase, supporting the results of the micro-XRF. PMID:17689287

  17. Reasons of different colors in the ignimbrite lithology: micro-XRF and confocal Raman spectrometry method.

    PubMed

    Koralay, Tamer; Kadioglu, Yusuf Kagan

    2008-03-01

    Medium to large volume ignimbrites usually show vertical changes in terms of color, mineral components, texture and geochemistry. Determination of vertical changes in single extensive ignimbrite flow unit is difficult and requires careful studies. Color changes in ignimbrite flow units are very important for earth scientists. This may cause to identify the same ignimbrite series with different definition. Incesu ignimbrite has a wide distribution in the Central Anatolian Volcanic Province (CAVP). It is classified into three levels as lower, middle and upper according to color and welding degree. There is a sharp contact between the lower and middle level. The lower level is dark brown to black in color and the middle level has pinkish red to red color. The present paper focuses on the investigation of color changes between the ignimbrite levels by using micro-XRF and confocal Raman spectrometry. Micro-XRF and Raman spectrometry studies were performed on the polished thin sections of the lower and middle levels with different compositions. These differences were because of the compositional changes of K and slightly Fe elements distribution within the matrix. The dark brown to black color of the lower level was related to the high concentration of the K and Fe relatively to the middle level. Confocal Raman spectrometry investigations exhibited the matrix of the lower level mainly composed of anorthoclase, supporting the results of the micro-XRF.

  18. Two different sensory mechanisms for the control of pupal protective coloration in butterflies.

    PubMed

    Hiraga, Sota

    2005-09-01

    The butterflies Graphium sarpedon nipponum Fruhstorfer and Papilio xuthus Linné show pupal protective color polymorphism, but the two species appear to have different sensory mechanisms for determining pupal coloration. When light was of sufficient illumination, the larvae of Graphium sarpedon became bright yellowish green pupae on white pupation boards and reddish brown pupae on black pupation boards. The pupal coloration thus strongly depended on the brightness of the pupation site. In addition, larvae became bright yellowish green pupae in complete darkness. From these results, measurement of the illumination suggested that pupal color is determined by the illuminant difference between incidence light from the dorsal direction and ventral light from a paper board; i.e., the sum of the reflected light of the board plus the penetrated light passing through the board. The illuminant difference required for reddish brown coloration was 40 lux or more. The optical signals received through the stemmata during a critical period before formation of the thorax garter (band string) were important for coloration. By contrast, in Papilio xuthus, successive tactile signals from a rough surfaced pupation site during a critical period before and after formation of the garter were important for determining brown pupal coloration. PMID:16061248

  19. Two different sensory mechanisms for the control of pupal protective coloration in butterflies.

    PubMed

    Hiraga, Sota

    2005-09-01

    The butterflies Graphium sarpedon nipponum Fruhstorfer and Papilio xuthus Linné show pupal protective color polymorphism, but the two species appear to have different sensory mechanisms for determining pupal coloration. When light was of sufficient illumination, the larvae of Graphium sarpedon became bright yellowish green pupae on white pupation boards and reddish brown pupae on black pupation boards. The pupal coloration thus strongly depended on the brightness of the pupation site. In addition, larvae became bright yellowish green pupae in complete darkness. From these results, measurement of the illumination suggested that pupal color is determined by the illuminant difference between incidence light from the dorsal direction and ventral light from a paper board; i.e., the sum of the reflected light of the board plus the penetrated light passing through the board. The illuminant difference required for reddish brown coloration was 40 lux or more. The optical signals received through the stemmata during a critical period before formation of the thorax garter (band string) were important for coloration. By contrast, in Papilio xuthus, successive tactile signals from a rough surfaced pupation site during a critical period before and after formation of the garter were important for determining brown pupal coloration.

  20. Skin color and makeup strategies of women from different ethnic groups.

    PubMed

    Caisey, L; Grangeat, F; Lemasson, A; Talabot, J; Voirin, A

    2006-12-01

    The development of a world-wide makeup foundation range requires a thorough understanding of skin color features of women around the world. To understand the cosmetic needs of women from different ethnic groups, we measured skin color in five different groups (French and American Caucasian, Japanese, African-American, and Hispanic-American) and compared the data obtained with women's self-perception of skin color, before or after applying their usual foundation product. Skin color was measured using a spectro-radiometer and a spheric lighting device with CCD camera ensuring a highly reliable imaging and data acquisition. The diversity of skin types involved in the study lead to define a large, continuous color space where color spectra from various ethnic groups overlap. Three types of complexion - dark, medium, or light - were distinguished in each group. Only Japanese women did not identify with this lightness scale and considered it makes more sense to classify their skin according to a pink-ocher-beige color scale. The approach however revealed the great variety of skin colors within each ethnic group and the extent of unevenness. A fairly good agreement appeared between women's self-perception and data from color measurements but in Hispanic-American group. Data recorded, after foundation was applied, showed overall consistency with makeup strategy as described by volunteers except for the latter group whose approach looked more uncertain and variable. The findings of the study demonstrate the advantage of combining qualitative and quantitative approach for assessing the cosmetic needs and expectations of women from different ethnic origin and cultural background.

  1. Differences in tooth shade value according to age, gender and skin color: A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Veeraganta, Sumanth K.; Savadi, Ravindra C.; Baroudi, Kusai; Nassani, Mohammad Z.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: The purpose was to investigate the differences in tooth shade value according to age, gender and skin color among a sample of the local population in Bengaluru, India. Methodology: The study comprised 100 subjects belonging to both gender between the age groups of 16 years to 55 years. Tooth shade values of permanent maxillary left or right central incisors were recorded using the Vitapan 3D-Master shade guide. Skin color was matched using the Radiance compact makeup shades as a guide. Results: Chi-square statistical test demonstrated that younger subjects have lighter tooth shade values. No statistically significant differences were recorded in tooth shade value according to gender or skin color. Conclusion: Within the limitations of the current study, it can be concluded that tooth shade value is significantly influenced by age. Gender and skin color appear not to have a significant relation to tooth shade value. PMID:26929500

  2. Influence of three different concentration techniques on evaporation rate, color and phenolics content of blueberry juice.

    PubMed

    Elik, Aysel; Yanık, Derya Koçak; Maskan, Medeni; Göğüş, Fahrettin

    2016-05-01

    The present study was undertaken to assess the effects of three different concentration processes open-pan, rotary vacuum evaporator and microwave heating on evaporation rate, the color and phenolics content of blueberry juice. Kinetics model study for changes in soluble solids content (°Brix), color parameters and phenolics content during evaporation was also performed. The final juice concentration of 65° Brix was achieved in 12, 15, 45 and 77 min, for microwave at 250 and 200 W, rotary vacuum and open-pan evaporation processes, respectively. Color changes associated with heat treatment were monitored using Hunter colorimeter (L*, a* and b*). All Hunter color parameters decreased with time and dependently studied concentration techniques caused color degradation. It was observed that the severity of color loss was higher in open-pan technique than the others. Evaporation also affected total phenolics content in blueberry juice. Total phenolics loss during concentration was highest in open-pan technique (36.54 %) and lowest in microwave heating at 200 W (34.20 %). So, the use of microwave technique could be advantageous in food industry because of production of blueberry juice concentrate with a better quality and short time of operation. A first-order kinetics model was applied to modeling changes in soluble solids content. A zero-order kinetics model was used to modeling changes in color parameters and phenolics content. PMID:27407205

  3. Influence of three different concentration techniques on evaporation rate, color and phenolics content of blueberry juice.

    PubMed

    Elik, Aysel; Yanık, Derya Koçak; Maskan, Medeni; Göğüş, Fahrettin

    2016-05-01

    The present study was undertaken to assess the effects of three different concentration processes open-pan, rotary vacuum evaporator and microwave heating on evaporation rate, the color and phenolics content of blueberry juice. Kinetics model study for changes in soluble solids content (°Brix), color parameters and phenolics content during evaporation was also performed. The final juice concentration of 65° Brix was achieved in 12, 15, 45 and 77 min, for microwave at 250 and 200 W, rotary vacuum and open-pan evaporation processes, respectively. Color changes associated with heat treatment were monitored using Hunter colorimeter (L*, a* and b*). All Hunter color parameters decreased with time and dependently studied concentration techniques caused color degradation. It was observed that the severity of color loss was higher in open-pan technique than the others. Evaporation also affected total phenolics content in blueberry juice. Total phenolics loss during concentration was highest in open-pan technique (36.54 %) and lowest in microwave heating at 200 W (34.20 %). So, the use of microwave technique could be advantageous in food industry because of production of blueberry juice concentrate with a better quality and short time of operation. A first-order kinetics model was applied to modeling changes in soluble solids content. A zero-order kinetics model was used to modeling changes in color parameters and phenolics content.

  4. Optical influence of different standard illuminants on green nephrite's color From Manasi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Hong-mei; Guo, Ying

    2010-11-01

    To evaluate the optical influence of illuminant on green color with low chroma (C*~1~12) of nephrite from Manasi, three different standard illuminant-daylight D65, incandescent light A and fluorescent light F2 (CWF) were applied during the experiment. Two-way ANOVA was used to analyze the illuminants tested considering the coordinates of lightness L* and chromaticity a*, b*. The results indicate significant differences for L*, a* and b* (p<0.05). Only L* between D65 and F2 didn't vary significantly (p=0.691) with the multiple comparisons (LSD- test). The green color with higher C*and L* were found to be easily influenced by illuminant, and the color-difference was larger and the color appearance varied more obviously while the illuminant as changed. The changes in color parameters and visual effects showed that the D65 light illuminant is more suitable for the evaluation of green nephrite's color grading while light source A can be used during trading.

  5. Cross-cultural differences in color preferences: implication for international film distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Kyung Jae

    2002-06-01

    This paper proposes the necessity of manipulating colors of movie contents to fit diverse audiences around the world. Since films are highly color-dependent messages, it is critical to understand how people in different cultures respond differently to color. In recent years, the international market for filmed entertainment has grown more than the U.S. market. However, a lack of research on audience preferences shows no constant guide for the motion picture industry. The film production stage is often disregarded to deliver the appropriate visual color contents for local audience when U.S. films are distributed to foreign markets. Therefore, it is assumed that it would cause distractions for local audiences and it could result in poor ticket sales. When the U.S. produced films are distributed in Asia, colors of original films are always shown without manipulation. It is common that when a U.S. manufactured car is imported to Japan, a driver seat is installed on the right side and also other parts are modified for local customers. Film development is also significantly dependent on audience behavior, so film content also needs to be localized for the different culture. This paper will only address a hypothesis of the implementation of color marketing methodology present in motion pictures.

  6. The effect of repeated firings on the color change of dental ceramics using different glazing methods

    PubMed Central

    Yılmaz, Kerem; Ozturk, Caner

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE Surface color is one of the main criteria to obtain an ideal esthetic. Many factors such as the type of the material, surface specifications, number of firings, firing temperature and thickness of the porcelain are all important to provide an unchanged surface color in dental ceramics. The aim of this study was to evaluate the color changes in dental ceramics according to the material type and glazing methods, during the multiple firings. MATERIALS AND METHODS Three different types of dental ceramics (IPS Classical metal ceramic, Empress Esthetic and Empress 2 ceramics) were used in the study. Porcelains were evaluated under five main groups according to glaze and natural glaze methods. Color changes (ΔE) and changes in color parameters (ΔL, Δa, Δb) were determined using colorimeter during the control, the first, third, fifth, and seventh firings. The statistical analysis of the results was performed using ANOVA and Tukey test. RESULTS The color changes which occurred upon material-method-firing interaction were statistically significant (P<.05). ΔE, ΔL, Δa and Δb values also demonstrated a negative trend. The MC-G group was less affected in terms of color changes compared to other groups. In all-ceramic specimens, the surface color was significantly affected by multiple firings. CONCLUSION Firing detrimentally affected the structure of the porcelain surface and hence caused fading of the color and prominence of yellow and red characters. Compressible all-ceramics were remarkably affected by repeated firings due to their crystalline structure. PMID:25551001

  7. Spectrophotometric evaluation of the color changes of different feldspathic porcelains after exposure to commonly consumed beverages

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Chandni; Bhargava, Akshay; Gupta, Sharad; Rath, Rishi; Nagpal, Abhishek; Kumar, Prince

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to compare color stability and surface topography of three different feldspathic porcelains both qualitatively and quantitatively after exposure to routinely consumed beverages over different time periods using a Spectrophotometer, Stereomicroscope and Surface roughness tester, respectively. Materials and Methods: A total of 90 plastic discs were casted to obtain metal dies for three different newer ceramic applications each on thirty samples. The color and surface roughness of these samples were measured using stereomicroscope and surface roughness tester following which they were kept in different test solutions for different durations and revaluated for color changes and surface roughness in the similar manner. Results and Conclusion: Among all the five test solutions, Coffee showed the maximum staining of the ceramic whereas maximum surface roughness was shown by the Duceram Kiss (1.48 μm) by Orange Juice which could be due to its high titratable acidity. PMID:24883022

  8. Cluster synchronization in colored community network with different order node dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Zhaoyan

    2014-04-01

    In this paper, a colored community network model with different order nodes dynamics is introduced for the first time. The color of nodes or edges are assumed to be identical if they belong to the same community and nonidentical if they belong to different communities. The color of edges between any pair of communities are assumed to be identical if they connect the same pair of communities and nonidentical if they connect different pair of communities. Further, the order of the node dynamics in different communities can be totally different. Firstly, based on the Lyapunov stability theory, adaptive feedback controllers are designed for achieving cluster synchronization. Secondly, periodically intermittent controllers are designed for achieving cluster synchronization and the synchronization conditions are derived by using mathematical induction method and the analysis technique. Finally, several numerical examples are provided to illustrate the effectiveness of the derived theoretical results.

  9. Anomalous trichromats' judgments of surface color in natural scenes under different daylights.

    PubMed

    Baraas, Rigmor C; Foster, David H; Amano, Kinjiro; Nascimento, Sérgio M C

    2006-01-01

    Deuteranomalous trichromacy, which affects medium-wavelength-sensitive cones, is more common than protanomalous trichromacy, which affects long-wavelength-sensitive cones. The aim of the present work was to test the extent to which these two kinds of anomalous trichromacy affect surface-color judgments in the natural world. Simulations of 18 natural scenes under different daylight illuminants were presented on a high-resolution color monitor to 7 deuteranomalous, 7 protanomalous, and 12 normal trichromatic observers, who had to discriminate between reflectance and illuminant changes in the images. Observers' ability to judge surface color was quantified by a standard color-constancy index. Deuteranomalous trichromats performed as well as normal trichromats, but protanomalous trichromats performed more poorly than both. The results are considered in relation to the spectral coverage of cones, rod intrusion, and the characterization of anomalous trichromacy by the Rayleigh match. PMID:16962006

  10. Change in color of a maxillofacial prosthetic silicone elastomer, following investment in molds of different materials

    PubMed Central

    Sethi, Tania; Kheur, Mohit; Coward, Trevor; Patel, Naimesha

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: In the authors’ experience, the color of silicone elastomer following polymerization in molds made of gypsum products is slightly different from the color that was matched in the presence of the patient, before the silicone is packed. It is hypothesized that the investing materials and separating media have an effect on the color during the polymerization process of the silicone. Materials and Methods: This study compares and evaluates the change in color of silicone elastomer packed in three commonly used investing materials - Dental stone (white color), dental stone (green color), and die stone (orange color); coated with three different separating media – Alginate-based medium, soap solution and a resin-based die hardening material. Pigmented silicone samples of dimensions 1.5 cm × 2 cm × 0.5 cm were made from the elastomer in the above-mentioned mold materials using combinations of the mentioned separating media. These served as test group samples. Control group samples were made by packing a mix of the same pigmented elastomer in stainless steel molds. The L*, a*, b* values of the test and control group samples were determined using a spectrophotometer. The change in color (Delta E) was calculated between the control and test groups. Results: The mean L, a, b values for the control group were, 31.8, 26.2, and 36.3, respectively. Average values of change in color (Delta E) for samples packed utilizing alginate-based medium, die hardener, and soap solution, respectively in white dental stone (2.70, 2.74, and 2.88), green dental stone (2.19, 2.23, 2.42), and orange die stone (3.19, 2.72, 2.80) were tabulated. Conclusion: Among the investing materials studied, die stone showed the most color change (3.19), which was statistically significant. Among the separating media, die hardener showed the least color change (2.23). The best combination of an investing material and separating media as per this investigation is a dental stone (green) and alginate

  11. Comparative color space analysis of difference images from adjacent visible human slices for lossless compression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thoma, George R.; Pipkin, Ryan; Mitra, Sunanda

    1997-10-01

    This paper reports the compression ratio performance of the RGB, YIQ, and HSV color plane models for the lossless coding of the National Library of Medicine's Visible Human (VH) color data set. In a previous study the correlation between adjacent VH slices was exploited using the RGB color plane model. The results of that study suggested an investigation into possible improvements using the other two color planes, and alternative differencing methods. YIQ and HSV, also know a HSI, both represent the image by separating the intensity from the color information, and we anticipated higher correlation between the intensity components of adjacent VH slices. However the compression ratio did not improve by the transformation from RGB into the other color plane models, since in order to maintain lossless performance, YIQ and HSV both require more bits to store each pixel. This increase in file size is not offset by the increase in compression due to the higher correlation of the intensity value, the best performance being achieved with the RGB color plane model. This study also explored three methods of differencing: average reference image, alternating reference image, and cascaded difference from single reference. The best method proved to be the first iteration of the cascaded difference from single reference. In this method, a single reference image is chosen, and the difference between it and its neighbor is calculated. Then the difference between the neighbor and its next neighbor is calculated. This method requires that all preceding images up to the reference image be reconstructed before the target image is available. The compression ratios obtained from this method are significantly better than the competing methods.

  12. Effects of a static electric field on two-color photoassociation between different atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Chakraborty, Debashree; Deb, Bimalendu

    2014-01-15

    We study non-perturbative effects of a static electric field on two-color photoassociation of different atoms. A static electric field induces anisotropy in scattering between two different atoms and hybridizes field-free rotational states of heteronuclear dimers or polar molecules. In a previous paper [D. Chakraborty et al., J. Phys. B 44, 095201 (2011)], the effects of a static electric field on one-color photoassociation between different atoms has been described through field-modified ground-state scattering states, neglecting electric field effects on heteronuclear diatomic bound states. To study the effects of a static electric field on heteronuclear bound states, and the resulting influence on Raman-type two-color photoassociation between different atoms in the presence of a static electric field, we develop a non-perturbative numerical method to calculate static electric field-dressed heteronuclear bound states. We show that the static electric field induced scattering anisotropy as well as hybridization of rotational states strongly influence two-color photoassociation spectra, leading to significant enhancement in PA rate and large shift. In particular, for static electric field strengths of a few hundred kV/cm, two-color PA rate involving high-lying bound states in electronic ground-state increases by several orders of magnitude even in the weak photoassociative coupling regime.

  13. Development of the RGB LEDs color mixing mechanism for stability the color temperature at different projection distances.

    PubMed

    Hung, Chih-Ching

    2015-01-01

    In lighting application, the color mixing of the RGB LEDs can provide more color selection in correlated color temperature and color rendering. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to propose a RGB color mixing mechanism by applying the mechanism design. Three sets of lamp-type RGB LEDs are individually installed on three four-bar linkages. A crank is used to drive three groups of RGB LEDs lamp-type to project lights onto a single plane in order to mix the lights. And, simulations of the illuminance and associated color temperatures are conducted by changing the distance to the projection plane, under the assumption that the stability of the color temperature of the projected light does not change according to the projecting height. Thus, the effect of change in the color temperature on color determination by the humans' eyes was avoided. The success of the proposed method will allow medical personnel to choose suitable wavelengths and color temperatures according to the particular requirements of their medical-examination environments. PMID:26444810

  14. Development of the RGB LEDs color mixing mechanism for stability the color temperature at different projection distances.

    PubMed

    Hung, Chih-Ching

    2015-01-01

    In lighting application, the color mixing of the RGB LEDs can provide more color selection in correlated color temperature and color rendering. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to propose a RGB color mixing mechanism by applying the mechanism design. Three sets of lamp-type RGB LEDs are individually installed on three four-bar linkages. A crank is used to drive three groups of RGB LEDs lamp-type to project lights onto a single plane in order to mix the lights. And, simulations of the illuminance and associated color temperatures are conducted by changing the distance to the projection plane, under the assumption that the stability of the color temperature of the projected light does not change according to the projecting height. Thus, the effect of change in the color temperature on color determination by the humans' eyes was avoided. The success of the proposed method will allow medical personnel to choose suitable wavelengths and color temperatures according to the particular requirements of their medical-examination environments.

  15. THE COLOR DIFFERENCES OF KUIPER BELT OBJECTS IN RESONANCE WITH NEPTUNE

    SciTech Connect

    Sheppard, Scott S.

    2012-12-01

    The optical colors of 58 objects in mean motion resonance with Neptune were obtained. The various Neptune resonant populations were found to have significantly different surface color distributions. The 5:3 and 7:4 resonances have semimajor axes near the middle of the main Kuiper Belt and both are dominated by ultra-red material (spectral gradient: S {approx}> 25). The 5:3 and 7:4 resonances have statistically the same color distribution as the low-inclination 'cold' classical belt. The inner 4:3 and distant 5:2 resonances have objects with mostly moderately red colors (S {approx} 15), similar to the scattered and detached disk populations. The 2:1 resonance, which is near the outer edge of the main Kuiper Belt, has a large range of colors with similar numbers of moderately red and ultra-red objects at all inclinations. The 2:1 resonance was also found to have a very rare neutral colored object showing that the 2:1 resonance is really a mix of all object types. The inner 3:2 resonance, like the outer 2:1, has a large range of objects from neutral to ultra-red. The Neptune Trojans (1:1 resonance) are only slightly red (S {approx} 9), similar to the Jupiter Trojans. The inner 5:4 resonance only has four objects with measured colors but shows equal numbers of ultra-red and moderately red objects. The 9:5, 12:5, 7:3, 3:1, and 11:3 resonances do not have reliable color distribution statistics since few objects have been observed in these resonances, though it appears noteworthy that all three of the measured 3:1 objects have only moderately red colors, similar to the 4:3 and 5:2 resonances. The different color distributions of objects in mean motion resonance with Neptune are likely a result from the disruption of the primordial Kuiper Belt from the scattering and migration of the giant planets. The few low-inclination objects known in the outer 2:1 and 5:2 resonances are mostly only moderately red. This suggests if the 2:1 and 5:2 have a cold low-inclination component

  16. Predator perception and the interrelation between different forms of protective coloration.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Martin

    2007-06-22

    Animals possess a range of defensive markings to reduce the risk of predation, including warning colours, camouflage, eyespots and mimicry. These different strategies are frequently considered independently, and with little regard towards predator vision, even though they may be linked in various ways and can be fully understood only in terms of predator perception. For example, camouflage and warning coloration need not be mutually exclusive, and may frequently exploit similar features of visual perception. This paper outlines how different forms of protective markings can be understood from predator perception and illustrates how this is fundamental in determining the mechanisms underlying, and the interrelation between, different strategies. Suggestions are made for future work, and potential mechanisms discussed in relation to various forms of defensive coloration, including disruptive coloration, eyespots, dazzle markings, motion camouflage, aposematism and mimicry. PMID:17426012

  17. Predator perception and the interrelation between different forms of protective coloration.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Martin

    2007-06-22

    Animals possess a range of defensive markings to reduce the risk of predation, including warning colours, camouflage, eyespots and mimicry. These different strategies are frequently considered independently, and with little regard towards predator vision, even though they may be linked in various ways and can be fully understood only in terms of predator perception. For example, camouflage and warning coloration need not be mutually exclusive, and may frequently exploit similar features of visual perception. This paper outlines how different forms of protective markings can be understood from predator perception and illustrates how this is fundamental in determining the mechanisms underlying, and the interrelation between, different strategies. Suggestions are made for future work, and potential mechanisms discussed in relation to various forms of defensive coloration, including disruptive coloration, eyespots, dazzle markings, motion camouflage, aposematism and mimicry.

  18. Differing Perceptions: How Students of Color and White Students Perceive Campus Climate for Underrepresented Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rankin, Susan R.; Reason, Robert D.

    2005-01-01

    Using a campus climate assessment instrument developed by Rankin (1998), we surveyed students (n = 7,347) from 10 campuses to explore whether students from different racial groups experienced their campus climates differently. Students of color experienced harassment at higher rates than Caucasian students, although female White students reported…

  19. Differences in male coloration are predicted by divergent sexual selection between populations of a cichlid fish.

    PubMed

    Selz, O M; Thommen, R; Pierotti, M E R; Anaya-Rojas, J M; Seehausen, O

    2016-05-11

    Female mating preferences can influence both intraspecific sexual selection and interspecific reproductive isolation, and have therefore been proposed to play a central role in speciation. Here, we investigate experimentally in the African cichlid fish Pundamilia nyererei if differences in male coloration between three para-allopatric populations (i.e. island populations with gene flow) of P. nyererei are predicted by differences in sexual selection by female mate choice between populations. Second, we investigate if female mating preferences are based on the same components of male coloration and go in the same direction when females choose among males of their own population, their own and other conspecific populations and a closely related para-allopatric sister-species, P. igneopinnis Mate-choice experiments revealed that females of the three populations mated species-assortatively, that populations varied in their extent of population-assortative mating and that females chose among males of their own population based on different male colours. Females of different populations exerted directional intrapopulation sexual selection on different male colours, and these differences corresponded in two of the populations to the observed differences in male coloration between the populations. Our results suggest that differences in male coloration between populations of P. nyererei can be explained by divergent sexual selection and that population-assortative mating may directly result from intrapopulation sexual selection. PMID:27147097

  20. The effect of different drinks on tooth color after home bleaching

    PubMed Central

    Karadas, Muhammet; Seven, Nilgun

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This study evaluated the influence of coffee, tea, cola, and red wine staining on the color of teeth after home bleaching. Materials and Methods: A total of 45 samples were obtained from 45 sound maxillary central incisors. The home bleaching procedure was performed using 10% carbamide peroxide gel applied to the sample surface for a period of 6 h each day, for 14 days. After bleaching, baseline color measurements were taken, and the samples were immersed in four staining solutions (coffee, tea, cola, and red wine) or artificial saliva (n = 9). Following 15 min and 6 h of immersion on the first day and next day, respectively, the samples were washed with distilled water for 10 s. After 15 min, 6 h, 1 week, and 1 month immersions, the color values of each sample were remeasured and the color change values (∆E) were calculated. Color change analysis was performed using a spectrophotometer. The results were analyzed using analysis of variance and Tukey's honestly significant difference test (P <0.05). Results: Of all the staining solutions, the lowest ∆E values were observed with coffee staining versus artificial saliva (control group), for all time intervals evaluated after whitening. Although no statistically differences were observed between the coffee and control group at all the time points evaluated, there were statistically significant differences between the red wine, cola, and tea solutions. Conclusion: Following tooth whitening, patients should avoid drinks that cause tooth staining, particularly red wine, tea and cola. PMID:24966778

  1. Grapheme-color synesthesia subtypes: Stable individual differences reflected in posterior alpha-band oscillations.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Michael X; Weidacker, Kathrin; Tankink, Judith; Scholte, H Steven; Rouw, Romke

    2015-01-01

    Grapheme-color synesthesia is a condition in which seeing letters and numbers produces sensations of colors (e.g., the letter R may elicit a sky-blue percept). Recent evidence implicates posterior parietal areas, in addition to lower-level sensory processing regions, in the neurobiological mechanisms involved in synesthesia. Furthermore, these mechanisms seem to differ for "projectors" (synesthetes who report seeing the color "out there in the real world") versus "associators" (synesthetes who report the color to be only an internal experience). Relatively little is known about possible electrophysiological characteristics of grapheme-color synesthesia. Here we used EEG to investigate functional oscillatory differences among associators, projectors, and non-synesthetes. Projectors had stronger stimulus-related alpha-band (~10 Hz) power over posterior parietal electrodes, compared to both associators and non-synesthetes. Posterior alpha activity was not statistically significantly different between associators from non-synesthetes. We also performed a test-retest assessment of the projector-associator score and found strong retest reliability, as evidenced by a correlation coefficient of .85. These findings demonstrate that the projector-associator distinction is highly reliable over time and is related to neural oscillations in the alpha band.

  2. Grapheme-color synesthesia subtypes: Stable individual differences reflected in posterior alpha-band oscillations.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Michael X; Weidacker, Kathrin; Tankink, Judith; Scholte, H Steven; Rouw, Romke

    2015-01-01

    Grapheme-color synesthesia is a condition in which seeing letters and numbers produces sensations of colors (e.g., the letter R may elicit a sky-blue percept). Recent evidence implicates posterior parietal areas, in addition to lower-level sensory processing regions, in the neurobiological mechanisms involved in synesthesia. Furthermore, these mechanisms seem to differ for "projectors" (synesthetes who report seeing the color "out there in the real world") versus "associators" (synesthetes who report the color to be only an internal experience). Relatively little is known about possible electrophysiological characteristics of grapheme-color synesthesia. Here we used EEG to investigate functional oscillatory differences among associators, projectors, and non-synesthetes. Projectors had stronger stimulus-related alpha-band (~10 Hz) power over posterior parietal electrodes, compared to both associators and non-synesthetes. Posterior alpha activity was not statistically significantly different between associators from non-synesthetes. We also performed a test-retest assessment of the projector-associator score and found strong retest reliability, as evidenced by a correlation coefficient of .85. These findings demonstrate that the projector-associator distinction is highly reliable over time and is related to neural oscillations in the alpha band. PMID:25833734

  3. The differing magnitude distributions of the two Jupiter Trojan color populations

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, Ian; Brown, Michael E.; Emery, Joshua P.

    2014-12-01

    The Jupiter Trojans are a significant population of minor bodies in the middle solar system that have garnered substantial interest in recent years. Several spectroscopic studies of these objects have revealed notable bimodalities with respect to near-infrared spectra, infrared albedo, and color, which suggest the existence of two distinct groups among the Trojan population. In this paper, we analyze the magnitude distributions of these two groups, which we refer to as the red and less red color populations. By compiling spectral and photometric data from several previous works, we show that the observed bimodalities are self-consistent and categorize 221 of the 842 Trojans with absolute magnitudes in the range H<12.3 into the two color populations. We demonstrate that the magnitude distributions of the two color populations are distinct to a high confidence level (>95%) and fit them individually to a broken power law, with special attention given to evaluating and correcting for incompleteness in the Trojan catalog as well as incompleteness in our categorization of objects. A comparison of the best-fit curves shows that the faint-end power-law slopes are markedly different for the two color populations, which indicates that the red and less red Trojans likely formed in different locations. We propose a few hypotheses for the origin and evolution of the Trojan population based on the analyzed data.

  4. Measurement Error Correction Formula for Cluster-Level Group Differences in Cluster Randomized and Observational Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, Sun-Joo; Preacher, Kristopher J.

    2016-01-01

    Multilevel modeling (MLM) is frequently used to detect cluster-level group differences in cluster randomized trial and observational studies. Group differences on the outcomes (posttest scores) are detected by controlling for the covariate (pretest scores) as a proxy variable for unobserved factors that predict future attributes. The pretest and…

  5. Instrumental color control for metallic coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chou, W.; Han, Bing; Cui, Guihua; Rigg, Bryan; Luo, Ming R.

    2002-06-01

    This paper describes work investigating a suitable color quality control method for metallic coatings. A set of psychological experiments was carried out based upon 50 pairs of samples. The results were used to test the performance of various color difference formulae. Different techniques were developed by optimising the weights and/or the lightness parametric factors of colour differences calculated from the four measuring angles. The results show that the new techniques give a significant improvement compared to conventional techniques.

  6. Effect of different solutions on color stability of acrylic resin-based dentures.

    PubMed

    Goiato, Marcelo Coelho; Nóbrega, Adhara Smith; dos Santos, Daniela Micheline; Andreotti, Agda Marobo; Moreno, Amália

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of thermocycling and immersion in mouthwash or beverage solutions on the color stability of four different acrylic resin-based dentures (Onda Cryl, OC; QC20, QC; Classico, CL; and Lucitone, LU). The factors evaluated were type of acrylic resin, immersion time, and solution (mouthwash or beverage). A total of 224 denture samples were fabricated. For each type of resin, eight samples were immersed in mouthwashes (Plax-Colgate, PC; Listerine, LI; and Oral-B, OB), beverages (coffee, CP; cola, C; and wine, W), and artificial saliva (AS; control). The color change (DE) was evaluated before (baseline) and after thermocycling (T1), and after immersion in solution for 1 h (T2), 3 h (T3), 24 h (T4), 48 h (T5), and 96 h (T6). The CIE Lab system was used to determine the color changes. The thermocycling test was performed for 5000 cycles. Data were submitted to three-way repeated-measures analysis of variance and Tukey's test (p<0.05). When the samples were immersed in each mouthwash, all assessed factors, associated or not, significantly influenced the color change values, except there was no association between the mouthwash and acrylic resin. Similarly, when the samples were immersed in each beverage, all studied factors influenced the color change values. In general, regardless of the solution, LU exhibited the greatest DE values in the period from T1 to T5; and QC presented the greatest DE values at T6. Thus, thermocycling and immersion in the various solutions influenced the color stability of acrylic resins and QC showed the greatest color alteration.

  7. Do normal pupil diameter differences in the population underlie the color selection of #thedress?

    PubMed

    Vemuri, Kavita; Bisla, Kulvinder; Mulpuru, SaiKrishna; Varadharajan, Srinivasa

    2016-03-01

    The fundamental question that arises from the color conundrum of #thedress is "What are the phenomena that underlie the individual differences in the reported colors when all other conditions like light and device for the display are identical?" A survey of 384 participants showed near-equal distribution into blue/black (b/b) and white/gold (w/g) groups. We looked at pupil size differences in a sample population of 53 individuals from these two groups and a group that switched from w/g to b/b. Our results showed that the w/g and switch groups had significantly lower pupil size than the b/b group (w/gdifference in light perception influencing pupil size. A standard infinity focus experiment was then conducted on 18 participants from each group to check if there is bimodality in the population, and we found a statistically significant difference (w/gcolor in the w/g group, 6 participants were administered dilation drops that increased the pupil size by 3-4 mm, but the participants did not report a switch. The results suggest a population difference in normal pupil size influencing color observation which was exposed by the dress. PMID:26974917

  8. Detection of between-eye differences in color: Interactions with luminance.

    PubMed

    Jennings, Ben J; Kingdom, Frederick A A

    2016-01-01

    Between-eye differences in color or luminance result in the appearance of luster, which provides a cue for detecting between-eye differences. We measured thresholds for detecting between-eye differences in both hue and chromatic contrast (saturation) in dichoptically superimposed color patches. Sensitivity was found to be highest at isoluminance and decreased with the addition of task-irrelevant, spatially coextensive, binocular (i.e., same in both eyes) luminance contrast. However, when the members of each dichoptic pair were presented side by side on the screen and viewed with the same eye, the added luminance contrast had no effect on the detection of their differences. If the effect of the luminance contrast was simply to dilute or desaturate the chromatic signals, we would expect thresholds to increase for the within-eye and not just the between-eye (dichoptic) conditions. We suggest that the presence of binocular luminance contrast reduces the interocular suppression between the dichoptic colors, causing the dichoptic color pairs to blend, thus rendering their differences harder to detect.

  9. Nonrandom Composition of Flower Colors in a Plant Community: Mutually Different Co-Flowering Natives and Disturbance by Aliens.

    PubMed

    Makino, Takashi T; Yokoyama, Jun

    2015-01-01

    When pollinators use flower color to locate food sources, a distinct color can serve as a reproductive barrier against co-flowering species. This anti-interference function of flower color may result in a community assembly of plant species displaying mutually different flower colors. However, such color dispersion is not ubiquitous, suggesting a variable selection across communities and existence of some opposing factors. We conducted a 30-week study in a plant community and measured the floral reflectances of 244 species. The reflectances were evaluated in insect color spaces (bees, swallowtails, and flies), and the dispersion was compared with random expectations. We found that co-existing colors were overdispersed for each analyzed pollinator type, and this overdispersion was statistically significant for bees. Furthermore, we showed that exclusion of 32 aliens from the analysis significantly increased the color dispersion of native flowers in every color space. This result indicated that aliens disturbed a native plant-pollinator network via similarly colored flowers. Our results demonstrate the masking effects of aliens in the detection of color dispersion of native flowers and that variations in pollinator vision yield different outcomes. Our results also support the hypothesis that co-flowering species are one of the drivers of color diversification and affect the community assembly.

  10. Nonrandom Composition of Flower Colors in a Plant Community: Mutually Different Co-Flowering Natives and Disturbance by Aliens

    PubMed Central

    Makino, Takashi T.; Yokoyama, Jun

    2015-01-01

    When pollinators use flower color to locate food sources, a distinct color can serve as a reproductive barrier against co-flowering species. This anti-interference function of flower color may result in a community assembly of plant species displaying mutually different flower colors. However, such color dispersion is not ubiquitous, suggesting a variable selection across communities and existence of some opposing factors. We conducted a 30-week study in a plant community and measured the floral reflectances of 244 species. The reflectances were evaluated in insect color spaces (bees, swallowtails, and flies), and the dispersion was compared with random expectations. We found that co-existing colors were overdispersed for each analyzed pollinator type, and this overdispersion was statistically significant for bees. Furthermore, we showed that exclusion of 32 aliens from the analysis significantly increased the color dispersion of native flowers in every color space. This result indicated that aliens disturbed a native plant–pollinator network via similarly colored flowers. Our results demonstrate the masking effects of aliens in the detection of color dispersion of native flowers and that variations in pollinator vision yield different outcomes. Our results also support the hypothesis that co-flowering species are one of the drivers of color diversification and affect the community assembly. PMID:26650121

  11. Effects of different polishing methods on color stability of resin composites after accelerated aging.

    PubMed

    Sirin Karaarslan, Emine; Bulbul, Mehmet; Yildiz, Esma; Secilmis, Asli; Sari, Fatih; Usumez, Aslihan

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of polishing procedures on the color stability of different types of composites after aging. Forty disk-shaped specimens (Ø10×2 mm) were prepared for each composite resin type (an ormocer, a packable, a nanohybrid, and a microhybrid) for a total of 160 specimens. Each composite group was divided into four subgroups according to polishing method (n=10): control (no finishing and polishing), polishing disk, polishing wheel, and glaze material. Color parameters (L*, a*, and b*) and surface roughness were measured before and after accelerated aging. Of the polishing methods, glazed specimens showed the lowest color change (∆E*), ∆L*, and ∆b* values (p<0.05). Of the composite resins, the microhybrid composite showed the lowest ∆E* value, whereas the ormocer showed the highest (p<0.05). For all composite types, the surface roughness of their control groups decreased after aging (p<0.05). In conclusion, all composite resins showed color changes after accelerated aging, with the use of glaze material resulting in the lowest color change.

  12. The "Chocolate Experiment"--A Demonstration of Radiation Absorption by Different Colored Surfaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fung, Dennis

    2015-01-01

    In the typical "cookbook" experiment comparing the radiation absorption rates of different colored surfaces, students' hands are commonly used as a measurement instrument to demonstrate that dull black and silvery surfaces are good and poor absorbers of radiation, respectively. However, college students are often skeptical about using…

  13. Possible Selves among Urban Youths of Color: An Exploration of Peer Beliefs and Gender Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Justin C.; Vance, Kristen S.

    2010-01-01

    Drawing from possible selves theory (H. Markus & P. Nurius, 1986), this study explored the roles of peer beliefs about school and gender differences in the development of academic and occupational visions of the future among 216 urban youths of color. Peer beliefs were not related to career and educational possible selves. No gender-based…

  14. Effect of lipstick on composite resin color at different application times

    PubMed Central

    GALVÃO, Avilmar Passos; JACQUES, Letícia Borges; DANTAS, Luciana; MATHIAS, Paula; MALLMANN, André

    2010-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of the contact of two lipsticks, one with common fixer and one with ultra fixer, on the color of a composite resin immediately, 30 min and 24 h after photoactivation. Material and methods Ninety specimens were prepared with a composite resin, Filtek-Z350. Specimens were polished and divided into 9 groups (n=10) according to time elapsed after photoactivation (A- immediately; B- 30 min; C- 24 h) and the contact with lipstick (UF- lipstick with ultra fixer; F- lipstick with common fixer). The control group was represented by specimens that did not have any contact with lipstick (C- without lipstick). Color measurements of the specimens were carried out using a spectrophotometer (Easyshade - CIE L* a* b* system). For UF and F groups, the baseline color of the specimens was measured immediately before pigmentation and the lipsticks were applied dry after 1 hour. The excess lipstick was removed with absorbent paper and final color checking was performed, including the control group. Differences between the final and baseline color measurements were calculated and data were analyzed statistically by the Kruskal-Wallis test at 5%. Results The means between the differences of color values were: AUF: 16.0; AF: 12.4; AC: 1.07; BUF: 9.51; BF: 8.3; BC: 0.91; CUF: 17.7; CF: 12.41; CC: 0.82. Conclusion Groups where lipstick was applied showed greater staining than the control group at the three evaluation times. The lipstick with ultra fixer stained more than the lipstick with common fixer. Time elapsed between photoactivation and contact with lipstick had a similar influence on the groups that received lipstick application. PMID:21308286

  15. Infant formula.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Nina R

    2009-04-01

    Although the American Academy of Pediatrics and the American Academy of Family Physicians recommend breast milk for optimal infant nutrition, many parents still choose formula as an acceptable alternative. The wide variety of available formulas is confusing to parents and physicians, but formulas can be classified according to three basic criteria: caloric density, carbohydrate source, and protein composition. Most infants require a term formula with iron. There is insufficient evidence to recommend supplementation with docosahexaenoic acid or arachidonic acid. Soy formulas are indicated for congenital lactase deficiency and galactosemia, but are not recommended for colic because of insufficient evidence of benefit. Hypoallergenic formulas with extensively hydrolyzed protein are effective for the treatment of milk protein allergy and the prevention of atopic disease in high-risk infants. Antireflux formulas decrease emesis and regurgitation, but have not been shown to affect growth or development. Most infants with reflux require no treatment. Family physicians can use these guidelines to counsel parents about infant formula, countering consumer advertising that is not evidence-based. PMID:19378873

  16. Tryptophan fortification of adapted formula increases plasma tryptophan concentrations to levels not different from those found in breast-fed infants.

    PubMed

    Fazzolari-Nesci, A; Domianello, D; Sotera, V; Räihä, N C

    1992-05-01

    Several recent studies have demonstrated significantly lower plasma total tryptophan concentrations in formula-fed than in breast-fed infants. We have measured preprandial plasma amino acid concentrations in infants breast-fed or fed a formula with a protein concentration of 1.57 g/dl and with a whey/casein ratio of 60:40 or a formula with a protein concentration of 1.37 g/dl and a whey/casein ratio of 40:60 and fortified with 10 mg/dl (15 mg/100 kcal) of tryptophan. Healthy term infants (10 per group) were either breast-fed from birth or randomly assigned to one of the two study formulas. At 4 and 12 weeks of age, anthropometric measurements were performed and blood samples were obtained. During the study period of 12 weeks, all infants showed normal growth (weight, length, and head circumference) and there were no statistically significant differences between the groups. The plasma concentrations of the essential amino acids phenylalanine, threonine, valine, and lysine were significantly lower in the breast-fed group than in both formula-fed groups. For tyrosine, methionine, leucine, histidine, isoleucine, and arginine, no significant differences could be found between the feeding groups. Concentration of total plasma tryptophan was significantly higher in the breast-fed group than in the group fed the tryptophan-unfortified formula, but no statistically significant difference could be found between the plasma tryptophan concentration in the breast-fed group versus the group fed the tryptophan-fortified formula. The results indicate that tryptophan fortification of adapted formula is necessary to achieve plasma total tryptophan concentrations similar to those found in breast-fed infants.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1517950

  17. Geometrically derived difference formulae for the numerical integration of trajectory problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcleod, R. J. Y.; Sanz-Serna, J. M.

    1982-01-01

    An initial value problem for the autonomous system of ordinary differential equations dy/dt = f(y), where y is a vector, is considered. In a number of practical applications the interest lies in obtaining the curve traced by the solution y. These applications include the computation of trajectories in mechanical problems. The term 'trajectory problem' is employed to refer to these cases. Lambert and McLeod (1979) have introduced a method involving local rotation of the axes in the y-plane for the two-dimensional case. The present investigation continues the study of difference schemes specifically derived for trajectory problems. A simple geometrical way of constructing such methods is presented, and the local accuracy of the schemes is investigated. A circularly exact, fixed-step predictor-corrector algorithm is defined, and a variable-step version of a circularly exact algorithm is presented.

  18. The mathematical formula of the intravaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT) distribution of lifelong premature ejaculation differs from the IELT distribution formula of men in the general male population

    PubMed Central

    Janssen, Paddy K.C.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To find the most accurate mathematical description of the intravaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT) distribution in the general male population. Materials and Methods We compared the fitness of various well-known mathematical distributions with the IELT distribution of two previously published stopwatch studies of the Caucasian general male population and a stopwatch study of Dutch Caucasian men with lifelong premature ejaculation (PE). The accuracy of fitness is expressed by the Goodness of Fit (GOF). The smaller the GOF, the more accurate is the fitness. Results The 3 IELT distributions are gamma distributions, but the IELT distribution of lifelong PE is another gamma distribution than the IELT distribution of men in the general male population. The Lognormal distribution of the gamma distributions most accurately fits the IELT distribution of 965 men in the general population, with a GOF of 0.057. The Gumbel Max distribution most accurately fits the IELT distribution of 110 men with lifelong PE with a GOF of 0.179. There are more men with lifelong PE ejaculating within 30 and 60 seconds than can be extrapolated from the probability density curve of the Lognormal IELT distribution of men in the general population. Conclusions Men with lifelong PE have a distinct IELT distribution, e.g., a Gumbel Max IELT distribution, that can only be retrieved from the general male population Lognormal IELT distribution when thousands of men would participate in a IELT stopwatch study. The mathematical formula of the Lognormal IELT distribution is useful for epidemiological research of the IELT. PMID:26981594

  19. Differences in vitamin E and C profile between infant formula and human milk and relative susceptibility to lipid oxidation.

    PubMed

    Elisia, Ingrid; Kitts, David D

    2013-01-01

    The vitamin E isoforms and vitamin (vit) C content of infant formulas were compared to human milk and related to relative susceptibilities to lipid peroxidation. We report that a highly distinct vitamin E and C profile exists between formula and human milk. Whileα-tocopherol (α-Toc) is the dominant vit E isoform in human milk, formula contains a substantial amount of α-Toc and δ-Toc that was greater than the level found in human milk (12- and 32-fold, respectively). Vitamin C was also two- fold higher in infant formula compared to human milk. Despite the higher vitamin E and C content, we also observed higher rates of lipid oxidation in the formula when compared to human milk. Storing human milk for one day at refrigeration temperatures did not produce hexanal in human milk, but this storage resulted in an increase in hexanal in formulas. We conclude that the higher concentrations of γ-Toc and δ-Toc in infant formulas did not provide similar protection from lipid oxidation as human milk. We also observed that vit C content was reduced during storage in both infant formula and human milk, which did not occur with the Toc isoforms.

  20. Color stability of modern composites subjected to different periods of accelerated artificial aging.

    PubMed

    Drubi-Filho, Brahim; Garcia, Lucas da Fonseca Roberti; Cruvinel, Diogo Rodrigues; Sousa, Ana Beatriz Silva; Pires-de-Souza, Fernanda de Carvalho Panzeri

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the color stability of composites subjected to different periods of accelerated artificial aging (AAA). A polytetrafluorethylene matrix (10 x 2 mm) was used to fabricate 24 test specimens of three different composites (n=8): Tetric Ceram (Ivoclar/Vivadent); Filtek P90 and Z250 (3M ESPE), shade A3. After light activation for 20 s (FlashLite 1401), polishing and initial color readout (Spectrophotometer PCB 687; BYK Gardner), the test specimens were subjected to AAA (C-UV; Comexim), in 8-h cycles: 4 h exposure to UV-B rays at 50°C and 4 h condensation at 50°C. At the end of each cycle, color readouts were taken and the test ended when the mean value of ΔE attained a level ≥3.30. Tetric Ceram presented alteration in ΔE equal to 3.33 in the first aging cycle. For Filtek P90 and Z250, two (ΔE=3.60) and four (ΔE=3.42) AAA cycles were necessary. After each cycle, there was a reduction of luminosity in all the samples (ΔL). It was concluded that a short period of AAA was sufficient to promote clinically unacceptable color alteration in composites, and that this alteration was material-dependent. PMID:23306237

  1. Color stability of modern composites subjected to different periods of accelerated artificial aging.

    PubMed

    Drubi-Filho, Brahim; Garcia, Lucas da Fonseca Roberti; Cruvinel, Diogo Rodrigues; Sousa, Ana Beatriz Silva; Pires-de-Souza, Fernanda de Carvalho Panzeri

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the color stability of composites subjected to different periods of accelerated artificial aging (AAA). A polytetrafluorethylene matrix (10 x 2 mm) was used to fabricate 24 test specimens of three different composites (n=8): Tetric Ceram (Ivoclar/Vivadent); Filtek P90 and Z250 (3M ESPE), shade A3. After light activation for 20 s (FlashLite 1401), polishing and initial color readout (Spectrophotometer PCB 687; BYK Gardner), the test specimens were subjected to AAA (C-UV; Comexim), in 8-h cycles: 4 h exposure to UV-B rays at 50°C and 4 h condensation at 50°C. At the end of each cycle, color readouts were taken and the test ended when the mean value of ΔE attained a level ≥3.30. Tetric Ceram presented alteration in ΔE equal to 3.33 in the first aging cycle. For Filtek P90 and Z250, two (ΔE=3.60) and four (ΔE=3.42) AAA cycles were necessary. After each cycle, there was a reduction of luminosity in all the samples (ΔL). It was concluded that a short period of AAA was sufficient to promote clinically unacceptable color alteration in composites, and that this alteration was material-dependent.

  2. Dependecy of the reaction time from the overlap of signal lights with different colors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klinger, Karsten D.

    2005-02-01

    The rearward signal aspect consists of lights with different colors. With standard technics these signal lights are located at different places. With new technics it is possible to build signal lights with different colors together in one place. The signals overlap. In experiments at the University of Karlsruhe we studied the dependency between reaction time and overlap of signal lights. We can see, that the total overlap from a yellow turn signal and a red brake signal will increase the reaction time. The increase depends of the ratio between the luminance of the turn indicator signal and the luminance of the brake signal. With a ratio from one to one (best case with minimal increase) we found an increase of 300 milli seconds.

  3. Comparison of different approaches to separate analysis of phytoplankton and CDOM contributions to ocean color forming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepochkin, I. E.; Salyuk, P. A.; Golik, I. A.; Burov, D. V.; Bukin, O. A.

    2015-11-01

    Methods of empirical retrieval of chlorophyll - a and CDOM concentrations from hyperspectral ocean color data were described. We have considered cases of different relations between concentrations of these water constituents. Research area includes Japan Sea, East-China Sea, Okhotsk Sea, Barents Sea, Bering Sea, East-Siberian Sea and Chukchi Sea (water areas of different optical types) during the period from 2009 to 2014. Based on derived field data array, we created the method for building of regional empirical algorithms for concentrations of chlorophyll-a and CDOM retrieval taking into account differences of their contributions into water leaving radiance forming. In a similar manner, we have determined the most suitable spectral channels for the main satellite ocean color scanners. At the same time, we received concentrations of chlorophyll-a and CDOM with a help of tuning the semianalytical model for remote sensing reflectance (Rrs). Afterwards we carried out the quality assurance for the both approaches, comparing to shipboard data.

  4. Role of lactate dehydrogenase in metmyoglobin reduction and color stability of different bovine muscles.

    PubMed

    Kim, Y H; Keeton, J T; Smith, S B; Berghman, L R; Savell, J W

    2009-11-01

    The role of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in metmyoglobin reducing activity (MRA) and color stability of different bovine muscles was studied in two consecutive experiments. In experiment 1, three different bovine muscles -M. longissimus lumborum (LL), M. semimembranosus (SM), and M. psoas major (PM) - were obtained (n=7, respectively), cut into steaks, PVC packaged, and then displayed for 7days at 1°C. The LL was the most red over display time and had more (P<0.05) LDH-B activity (catalyzing toward NADH generation), LDH1 isoform expression, NADH, and higher (P<0.05) MRA than the other two muscles studied. The PM had the least color stability and lowest MRA. In experiment 2, LL steaks (n=8) were cut in half, one side syringe-injected with oxamate, and the other injected with distilled water. Inclusion of oxamate decreased (P<0.05) LDH-B activity, NADH, and a* values after 10days display at 1°C. These results suggest that variation in color stability of physiologically different muscles is regulated by different replenishment rates of NADH via different LDH isozymes. PMID:20416707

  5. Grouping normal type Ia supernovae by UV to optical color differences

    SciTech Connect

    Milne, Peter A.; Brown, Peter J.; Roming, Peter W. A.; Bufano, Filomena; Gehrels, Neil

    2013-12-10

    Observations of many Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) for multiple epochs per object with the Swift Ultraviolet Optical Telescope instrument have revealed that there exists order to the differences in the UV-optical colors of optically normal supernovae (SNe). We examine UV-optical color curves for 23 SNe Ia, dividing the SNe into four groups, and find that roughly one-third of 'NUV-blue' SNe Ia have bluer UV-optical colors than the larger 'NUV-red' group. Two minor groups are recognized, 'MUV-blue' and 'irregular' SNe Ia. While we conclude that the latter group is a subset of the NUV-red group, containing the SNe with the broadest optical peaks, we conclude that the 'MUV-blue' group is a distinct group. Separating into the groups and accounting for the time evolution of the UV-optical colors lowers the scatter in two NUV-optical colors (e.g., u – v and uvw1 – v) to the level of the scatter in b – v. This finding is promising for extending the cosmological utilization of SNe Ia into the NUV. We generate spectrophotometry of 33 SNe Ia and determine the correct grouping for each. We argue that there is a fundamental spectral difference in the 2900-3500 Å wavelength range, a region suggested to be dominated by absorption from iron-peak elements. The NUV-blue SNe Ia feature less absorption than the NUV-red SNe Ia. We show that all NUV-blue SNe Ia in this sample also show evidence of unburned carbon in optical spectra, whereas only one NUV-red SN Ia features that absorption line. Every NUV-blue event also exhibits a low gradient of the Si II λ6355 absorption feature. Many NUV-red events also exhibit a low gradient, perhaps suggestive that NUV-blue events are a subset of the larger low-velocity gradient group.

  6. Striking individual differences in color perception uncovered by 'the dress' photograph.

    PubMed

    Lafer-Sousa, Rosa; Hermann, Katherine L; Conway, Bevil R

    2015-06-29

    'The dress' is a peculiar photograph: by themselves the dress' pixels are brown and blue, colors associated with natural illuminants, but popular accounts (#TheDress) suggest the dress appears either white/gold or blue/black. Could the purported categorical perception arise because the original social-media question was an alternative-forced-choice? In a free-response survey (N = 1401), we found that most people, including those naïve to the image, reported white/gold or blue/black, but some said blue/brown. Reports of white/gold over blue/black were higher among older people and women. On re-test, some subjects reported a switch in perception, showing the image can be multistable. In a language-independent measure of perception, we asked subjects to identify the dress' colors from a complete color gamut. The results showed three peaks corresponding to the main descriptive categories, providing additional evidence that the brain resolves the image into one of three stable percepts. We hypothesize that these reflect different internal priors: some people favor a cool illuminant (blue sky), discount shorter wavelengths, and perceive white/gold; others favor a warm illuminant (incandescent light), discount longer wavelengths, and see blue/black. The remaining subjects may assume a neutral illuminant, and see blue/brown. We show that by introducing overt cues to the illumination, we can flip the dress color. PMID:25981795

  7. Anthocyanins contents, profiles, and color characteristics of red cabbage extracts from different cultivars and maturity stages.

    PubMed

    Ahmadiani, Neda; Robbins, Rebecca J; Collins, Thomas M; Giusti, M Monica

    2014-07-30

    Red cabbage (Brassica oleracea L.) is an excellent source of food colorant. This study aimed to evaluate the anthocyanin pigment contents and profiles from seven red cabbage cultivars at two maturity stages (8 weeks apart) and evaluate their color characteristics and behavior under acidic and neutral pH. Anthocyanin concentrations ranged from 1111 to 1780 mg Cy3G/100 g DM and did not increase with time. Cultivar and maturation affected pigment profile. Some varieties accumulated ≥30% of diacylated pigments, and proportions of monoacylated pigments decreased with time. Extracts from selected varieties at first harvesting time produced colors similar (λmax = 520 nm and ΔE = 6.1-8.8) to FD&C Red No. 3 at pH 3.5. At pH 7, extracts from the second harvest with s higher proportion of diacylation produced λmax ≃ 610 nm, similar to FD&C Blue No. 2. Cultivar selection and maturation affected color and stability of red cabbage extracts at different pH values.

  8. Different selective pressures shape the molecular evolution of color vision in chimpanzee and human populations.

    PubMed

    Verrelli, Brian C; Lewis, Cecil M; Stone, Anne C; Perry, George H

    2008-12-01

    A population genetic analysis of the long-wavelength opsin (OPN1LW, "red") color vision gene in a global sample of 236 human nucleotide sequences had previously discovered nine amino acid replacement single nucleotide polymorphisms, which were found at high frequencies in both African and non-African populations and associated with an unusual haplotype diversity. Although this pattern of nucleotide diversity is consistent with balancing selection, it has been argued that a recombination "hot spot" or gene conversion within and between X-linked color vision genes alone may explain these patterns. The current analysis investigates a closely related primate with trichromatism to determine whether color vision gene amino acid polymorphism and signatures of adaptive evolution are characteristic of humans alone. Our population sample of 56 chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) OPN1LW sequences shows three singleton amino acid polymorphisms and no unusual recombination or linkage disequilibrium patterns across the approximately 5.5-kb region analyzed. Our comparative population genetic approach shows that the patterns of OPN1LW variation in humans and chimpanzees are consistent with positive and purifying selection within the two lineages, respectively. Although the complex role of color vision has been greatly documented in primate evolution in general, it is surprising that trichromatism has followed very different selective trajectories even between humans and our closest relatives.

  9. Control over the color transition behavior of polydiacetylene vesicles using different alcohols.

    PubMed

    Pattanatornchai, Thanutpon; Charoenthai, Nipaphat; Wacharasindhu, Sumrit; Sukwattanasinitt, Mongkol; Traiphol, Rakchart

    2013-02-01

    In this contribution, we investigate the color transition behavior of polydiacetylene (PDA) vesicles upon exposure to different chemical stimuli. A series of linear and branched alcohols are used as model additives, allowing systematic control of their molecular shape and polarity. The PDA vesicles are fabricated by using three monomers, 10,12-pentacosadiynoic acid (PCDA), 10,12-tricosadyinoic acid (TCDA), and N-(2-amino ethyl)pentacosa-10,12-dyinamide (AEPCDA). When a series of linear alcohols is used, the longer alcohol length causes color transition of all PDA vesicles. In this system, the penetration of linear alcohols into the inner layer of PDA vesicles is dictated by their polarity. The change of -OH position within the alcohol molecule also affects the degree of penetration. It requires a higher amount of the 2-propanol to induce color transitions of the PDAs compared to that of the 1-propanol. The addition of methyl branches into the hydrophobic tail of alcohols causes an increase in steric effect, which hinders the penetration as well. When the 2,2-dimethyl-1-propanol is used as a stimulus, the color transition of PDAs occurs at much higher alcohol concentration compared to 2-methyl-1-butanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol, and 1-pentanol. The variation of PDA structures also affects their ability to interact with the alcohols. The modified head group of poly(AEPCDA) promotes the ability to distinguish between 1-propanol and 2-propanol or 1-propanol and ethanol.

  10. Striking individual differences in color perception uncovered by 'the dress' photograph.

    PubMed

    Lafer-Sousa, Rosa; Hermann, Katherine L; Conway, Bevil R

    2015-06-29

    'The dress' is a peculiar photograph: by themselves the dress' pixels are brown and blue, colors associated with natural illuminants, but popular accounts (#TheDress) suggest the dress appears either white/gold or blue/black. Could the purported categorical perception arise because the original social-media question was an alternative-forced-choice? In a free-response survey (N = 1401), we found that most people, including those naïve to the image, reported white/gold or blue/black, but some said blue/brown. Reports of white/gold over blue/black were higher among older people and women. On re-test, some subjects reported a switch in perception, showing the image can be multistable. In a language-independent measure of perception, we asked subjects to identify the dress' colors from a complete color gamut. The results showed three peaks corresponding to the main descriptive categories, providing additional evidence that the brain resolves the image into one of three stable percepts. We hypothesize that these reflect different internal priors: some people favor a cool illuminant (blue sky), discount shorter wavelengths, and perceive white/gold; others favor a warm illuminant (incandescent light), discount longer wavelengths, and see blue/black. The remaining subjects may assume a neutral illuminant, and see blue/brown. We show that by introducing overt cues to the illumination, we can flip the dress color.

  11. Prebiotics in infant formula.

    PubMed

    Vandenplas, Yvan; De Greef, Elisabeth; Veereman, Gigi

    2014-01-01

    The gastrointestinal microbiota of breast-fed babies differ from classic standard formula fed infants. While mother's milk is rich in prebiotic oligosaccharides and contains small amounts of probiotics, standard infant formula doesn't. Different prebiotic oligosaccharides are added to infant formula: galacto-oligosaccharides, fructo-oligosaccharide, polydextrose, and mixtures of these. There is evidence that addition of prebiotics in infant formula alters the gastrointestinal (GI) microbiota resembling that of breastfed infants. They are added to infant formula because of their presence in breast milk. Infants on these supplemented formula have a lower stool pH, a better stool consistency and frequency and a higher concentration of bifidobacteria in their intestine compared to infants on a non-supplemented standard formula. Since most studies suggest a trend for beneficial clinical effects, and since these ingredients are very safe, prebiotics bring infant formula one step closer to breastmilk, the golden standard. However, despite the fact that adverse events are rare, the evidence on prebiotics of a significant health benefit throughout the alteration of the gut microbiota is limited. PMID:25535999

  12. Prebiotics in infant formula

    PubMed Central

    Vandenplas, Yvan; Greef, Elisabeth De; Veereman, Gigi

    2014-01-01

    The gastrointestinal microbiota of breast-fed babies differ from classic standard formula fed infants. While mother's milk is rich in prebiotic oligosaccharides and contains small amounts of probiotics, standard infant formula doesn’t. Different prebiotic oligosaccharides are added to infant formula: galacto-oligosaccharides, fructo-oligosaccharide, polydextrose, and mixtures of these. There is evidence that addition of prebiotics in infant formula alters the gastrointestinal (GI) microbiota resembling that of breastfed infants. They are added to infant formula because of their presence in breast milk. Infants on these supplemented formula have a lower stool pH, a better stool consistency and frequency and a higher concentration of bifidobacteria in their intestine compared to infants on a non-supplemented standard formula. Since most studies suggest a trend for beneficial clinical effects, and since these ingredients are very safe, prebiotics bring infant formula one step closer to breastmilk, the golden standard. However, despite the fact that adverse events are rare, the evidence on prebiotics of a significant health benefit throughout the alteration of the gut microbiota is limited. PMID:25535999

  13. Assessing the effects of different pectins addition on color quality and antioxidant properties of blackberry jam

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In the last years pectin and other hydrocolloids were tested for improving the color stability and the retention of bioactive compounds in gelled fruit-based products. In line with these concerns, our study has been directed to quantify the changes in antioxidant status and color indices of blackberry jam obtained with different types of pectin (degree of esterification: DE, degree of amidation: DA) and doses in response to processing and storage for 1, 3 and 6 months at 20°C. Results Blackberry jam was obtained by a traditional procedure used in households or small-scale systems with different commercial pectins (HMP: high-methoxyl pectin, LMP: low-methoxyl pectin and LMAP: low-methoxyl amidated pectin) added to three concentrations (0.3, 0.7 and 1.0%) and investigated in terms of total monomeric anthocyanins (TMA), antioxidant capacity expressed as ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), total phenolics (TP), color density (CD) and percent of polymeric color, PC (%). Thermal processing resulted in significant depreciation of analyzed parameters reported to the corresponding values of fresh fruit as follows: TMA (69-82%), TP (33-55%) and FRAP (18-52%). Biologically active compounds and color were best retained one day post-processing in jams with LMAP followed by samples with LMP and HMP. Storage for 6 months brings along additional dramatic losses reported to the values recorded one day post-processing as follows: TMA (31-56%), TP (29-51%) and FRAP (20-41%). Also, both processing and storage resulted in significant increases in PC (%). The pectin type and dosage are very influential factors for limiting the alterations occurring in response to processing and storage. The best color retention and the highest TMA, TP and FRAP were achieved by LMAP, followed by LMP and HMP. Additionally, a high level of bioactive compounds in jam could be related to a high dose of pectin. LMAP to a level of 1% is the most indicated to provide the highest antioxidant

  14. Optimum color filters for CCD digital cameras.

    PubMed

    Engelhardt, K; Seitz, P

    1993-06-01

    A procedure for the definition of optimum spectral transmission curves for any solid-state (especially silicon-based CCD) color camera is presented. The design of the target curves is based on computer simulation of the camera system and on the use of test colors with known spectral reflectances. Color errors are measured in a uniform color space (CIELUV) and by application of the Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage color difference formula. Dielectric filter stacks were designed by simulated thermal annealing, and a stripe filter pattern was fabricated with transmission properties close to the specifications. Optimization of the color transformation minimizes the residual average color error and an average color error of ~1 just noticeable difference should be feasible. This means that color differences on a side-to-side comparison of original and reproduced color are practically imperceptible. In addition, electrical cross talk within the solid-state imager can be compensated by adapting the color matrixing coefficients. The theoretical findings of this work were employed for the design and fabrication of a high-resolution digital CCD color camera with high calorimetric accuracy. PMID:20829908

  15. Color measurement of tea leaves at different drying periods using hyperspectral imaging technique.

    PubMed

    Xie, Chuanqi; Li, Xiaoli; Shao, Yongni; He, Yong

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the feasibility of using hyperspectral imaging technique for nondestructive measurement of color components (ΔL*, Δa* and Δb*) and classify tea leaves during different drying periods. Hyperspectral images of tea leaves at five drying periods were acquired in the spectral region of 380-1030 nm. The three color features were measured by the colorimeter. Different preprocessing algorithms were applied to select the best one in accordance with the prediction results of partial least squares regression (PLSR) models. Competitive adaptive reweighted sampling (CARS) and successive projections algorithm (SPA) were used to identify the effective wavelengths, respectively. Different models (least squares-support vector machine [LS-SVM], PLSR, principal components regression [PCR] and multiple linear regression [MLR]) were established to predict the three color components, respectively. SPA-LS-SVM model performed excellently with the correlation coefficient (rp) of 0.929 for ΔL*, 0.849 for Δa*and 0.917 for Δb*, respectively. LS-SVM model was built for the classification of different tea leaves. The correct classification rates (CCRs) ranged from 89.29% to 100% in the calibration set and from 71.43% to 100% in the prediction set, respectively. The total classification results were 96.43% in the calibration set and 85.71% in the prediction set. The result showed that hyperspectral imaging technique could be used as an objective and nondestructive method to determine color features and classify tea leaves at different drying periods.

  16. Intersexual allometry differences and ontogenetic shifts of coloration patterns in two aquatic turtles, Graptemys oculifera and Graptemys flavimaculata

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ennen, Joshua R.; Lindeman, Peter V.; Lovich, Jeffrey E.

    2015-01-01

    Coloration can play critical roles in a species' biology. The allometry of color patterns may be useful for elucidating the evolutionary mechanisms responsible for shaping the traits. We measured characteristics relating to eight aspects of color patterns from Graptemys oculifera and G. flavimaculata to investigate the allometric differences among male, female, and unsexed juvenile specimens. Additionally, we investigated ontogenetic shifts by incorporating the unsexed juveniles into the male and female datasets. In general, male color traits were isometric (i.e., color scaled with body size), while females and juvenile color traits were hypoallometric, growing in size more slowly than the increase in body size. When we included unsexed juveniles in our male and female datasets, our linear regression analyses found all relationships to be hypoallometric and our model selection analysis found support for nonlinear models describing the relationship between body size and color patterns, suggestive of an ontogenetic shift in coloration traits for both sexes at maturity. Although color is critical for many species' biology and therefore under strong selective pressure in many other species, our results are likely explained by an epiphenomenon related to the different selection pressures on body size and growth rates between juveniles and adults and less attributable to the evolution of color patterns themselves.

  17. Intersexual allometry differences and ontogenetic shifts of coloration patterns in two aquatic turtles, Graptemys oculifera and Graptemys flavimaculata

    PubMed Central

    Ennen, Joshua R; Lindeman, Peter V; Lovich, Jeffrey E

    2015-01-01

    Coloration can play critical roles in a species' biology. The allometry of color patterns may be useful for elucidating the evolutionary mechanisms responsible for shaping the traits. We measured characteristics relating to eight aspects of color patterns from Graptemys oculifera and G. flavimaculata to investigate the allometric differences among male, female, and unsexed juvenile specimens. Additionally, we investigated ontogenetic shifts by incorporating the unsexed juveniles into the male and female datasets. In general, male color traits were isometric (i.e., color scaled with body size), while females and juvenile color traits were hypoallometric, growing in size more slowly than the increase in body size. When we included unsexed juveniles in our male and female datasets, our linear regression analyses found all relationships to be hypoallometric and our model selection analysis found support for nonlinear models describing the relationship between body size and color patterns, suggestive of an ontogenetic shift in coloration traits for both sexes at maturity. Although color is critical for many species' biology and therefore under strong selective pressure in many other species, our results are likely explained by an epiphenomenon related to the different selection pressures on body size and growth rates between juveniles and adults and less attributable to the evolution of color patterns themselves. PMID:26078863

  18. Color shifts at different viewing eccentricities on flat-panel rear projection displays in steps of perceptibility threshold units

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramamurthy, Mahalakshmi; Hovis, Jeffery; Zsivanov, Delia; Lakshminarayanan, Vasudevan

    2013-08-01

    Nearly all-flat panel video display monitors have luminance and color variations as the angle of view vary from the monitor's perpendicular. The objective of this study was to measure the shift in hue and luminance of a simulated tiled monitor display at different viewing angles. The perceptibility experiment was carried out using three reference colors and 12 vectors heading towards the blue-green region of the L∗a∗b∗ color space. The reference colors used were white, skin-tone, and green. A uniform reference color was presented in three of the four quadrants on a CRT monitor and one quadrant changed color in the direction of the sampled vector. An adaptive, four alternate forced choice procedure was employed to determine thresholds for each of the three reference colors. Across the three reference colors, the thresholds were at least 20% lower than the conventional one ΔEL∗a∗b∗ unit used for calibrating monitors. Color difference thresholds were lowest for the blue-green region of the color space. Our results suggest that a one ΔEL∗a∗b∗ uniformity criterion typically used for calibrating monitors is too lenient for tiled displays.

  19. Color Categories and Color Appearance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webster, Michael A.; Kay, Paul

    2012-01-01

    We examined categorical effects in color appearance in two tasks, which in part differed in the extent to which color naming was explicitly required for the response. In one, we measured the effects of color differences on perceptual grouping for hues that spanned the blue-green boundary, to test whether chromatic differences across the boundary…

  20. Influence of imaging resolution on color fidelity in digital archiving.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Pengchang; Toque, Jay Arre; Ide-Ektessabi, Ari

    2015-11-01

    Color fidelity is of paramount importance in digital archiving. In this paper, the relationship between color fidelity and imaging resolution was explored by calculating the color difference of an IT8.7/2 color chart with a CIELAB color difference formula for scanning and simulation images. Microscopic spatial sampling was used in selecting the image pixels for the calculations to highlight the loss of color information. A ratio, called the relative imaging definition (RID), was defined to express the correlation between image resolution and color fidelity. The results show that in order for color differences to remain unrecognizable, the imaging resolution should be at least 10 times higher than the physical dimension of the smallest feature in the object being studied.

  1. Color Space and Its Divisions: Color Order from Antiquity to the Present

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuehni, Rolf G.

    2003-03-01

    It has been postulated that humans can differentiate between millions of gradations in color. Not surprisingly, no completely adequate, detailed catalog of colors has yet been devised, however the quest to understand, record, and depict color is as old as the quest to understand the fundamentals of the physical world and the nature of human consciousness. Rolf Kuehni's Color Space and Its Divisions: Color Order from Antiquity to the Present represents an ambitious and unprecedented history of man's inquiry into color order, focusing on the practical applications of the most contemporary developments in the field. Kuehni devotes much of his study to geometric, three-dimensional arrangements of color experiences, a type of system developed only in the mid-nineteenth century. Color spaces are of particular interest for color quality-control purposes in the manufacturing and graphics industries. The author analyzes three major color order systems in detail: Munsell, OSA-UCS, and NCS. He presents historical and current information on color space developments in color vision, psychology, psychophysics, and color technology. Chapter topics include: A historical account of color order systems Fundamentals of psychophysics and the relationship between stimuli and experience Results of perceptual scaling of colors according to attributes History of the development of mathematical color space and difference formulas Analysis of the agreements and discrepancies in psychophysical data describing color differences An experimental plan for the reliable, replicated perceptual data necessary to make progress in the field Experts in academia and industry, neuroscientists, designers, art historians, and anyone interested in the nature of color will find Color Space and Its Divisions to be the authoritative reference in its field.

  2. [The formula book. The pharmacies' own formulas].

    PubMed

    Loldrup, Hans-Otto

    2011-01-01

    During the 19th century and part of the 20th, a book of formulas was a useful tool for many Danish pharmacists in their daily work in the pharmacy laboratory. These books were handwritten and contained formulas that supplemented the official formula books, e.g. the pharmacopoeias. They originated from many different sources such as colleagues, the pharmaceutical press, local doctors, veterinarians and dentists. The book of formulas could be a pharmacist's personal document, or it could belong to a pharmacy for general use in the laboratory. The formulas included many drugs, but a number of the products were intended for daily domestic life: ingredients for food and spirits, cosmetics, cleaning and maintenance, etc. Other products were for use by the local hairdresser or photographer, for example. The article provides an overview of 52 formula books in a wide variety of shapes and sizes with instructions for a total of 8,000-10,000 compositions. Part of this large body of practical knowledge by individual pharmacists was collected and published in books in order to be available to all pharmacists. Some of this knowledge was also printed in booklets written for the general public under such pseudonyms as "An old Pharmacist". In the mid-20th century, Sven Holm enjoyed a prominent career as a well-known pharmacist giving advice on the radio and TV and in newspapers and magazines. The need for these formula books declined as pharmacies gradually stopped making up their own medicines towards the end of 20th century and finally ceased altogether in 1990.

  3. General behaviors and perching behaviors of laying hens in cages with different colored perches.

    PubMed

    Chen, D H; Bao, J

    2012-05-01

    Color is one of the perch properties. This study was conducted to investigate the general behaviors and perching behaviors in laying hens under different group size (stocking density), and to understand the perch color (black, white or brown) preference of hens during the night. A total of 390 Hyline Brown laying hens was used, and randomly allocated to three treatments: individual group (G1), group of four hens (G4), and group of eight hens (G8), respectively. There were 30 replicates in each group. The hens in G1, G4 and G8 groups were put into the test cages in which three colored perches were simultaneously provided and allowed for four days of habituation in the new cages. Hens behaviors were recorded using cameras with infrared light sources for the following periods: 8:00 to 10:00; 14:00 to 16:00; 19:00 to 21:00; 23:30 to 0:30 on the fifth day after transferring the birds into the test cages. The behaviors of hens in every time period were collected and analyzed, and hens positions on the test perches during mid-night were recorded. The results showed that, group size (stocking density) had significant effect on most of the general behaviors of laying hens except exploring behavior. There were great differences in most of the general behaviors during different time periods. In the preference test of perch color during night, the hens showed no clear preference for white, black or brown perches. For perching behaviors, perching time and frequency of transferring from one perch to another was higher on black perches than on white or brown perches in individual groups. In G4 groups, the hens spent more time on white perches during daytime and more frequent transferring during night compared with black or brown perches. The frequency of jumping upon and down from white perches was higher in G8 groups. It can be concluded that although the group sizes in the cage significantly affected most of the general behaviors, we found that no preference of perch color was

  4. Effect of marination on CIE L* and pH values of chicken breast pectoralis major with different color lightness

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Color lightness (CIE L* values) and pH are widely used as quality indicators for raw poultry breast fillets (pectoralis major). The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of vacuum-tumbling marination on L* and pH values of raw chicken breast meat with different color lightness. Early ...

  5. Effect of marination on CIE L* and pH values of chicken breast pectoralis major with different color lightness

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Color lightness (CIE L* values) and pH are widely used as quality indicators for raw poultry breast fillets (pectoralis major). The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of vacuum-tumbling marination on L* and pH values of raw chicken breast meat with different color lightness. Early d...

  6. Differences in Bacterial Community Structure in Two Color Morphs of the Hawaiian Reef Coral Montipora capitata.

    PubMed

    Shore-Maggio, Amanda; Runyon, Christina M; Ushijima, Blake; Aeby, Greta S; Callahan, Sean M

    2015-10-01

    Corals harbor diverse bacterial associations that contribute to the health of the host. Using 16S rRNA pyrosequencing, we compared the bacterial communities of red and orange morphs of the Hawaiian coral Montipora capitata. Although both color morphs shared dominant bacterial genera, weighted and unweighted UniFrac analyses showed distinct bacterial communities. A single operational taxonomic unit (OTU), classified as Vibrio, represented the largest driver of differences between the color morphs. This OTU comprised 35.4% (±5.5%) of the orange morph bacterial community yet comprised 1.1% (±0.6%) of the red morph bacterial community. Cultivable bacteria from the two color morphs were also compared and tested for antibacterial activity. Cultured isolates represented 14 genera (7% of the total genera identified from sequencing data), and all but two cultured isolates had a matching OTU from the sequencing data. Half of the isolates tested (8 out of 16) displayed antibacterial activity against other cultured isolates but not against two known bacterial pathogens of M. capitata. The results from this study demonstrate that the specificity of coral-bacterial associations extends beyond the level of coral species. In addition, culture-dependent methods captured bacterial diversity that was representative of both rare and abundant members of the associated bacterial community, as characterized by culture-independent methods. PMID:26253663

  7. Differences in Bacterial Community Structure in Two Color Morphs of the Hawaiian Reef Coral Montipora capitata

    PubMed Central

    Shore-Maggio, Amanda; Runyon, Christina M.; Ushijima, Blake; Aeby, Greta S.

    2015-01-01

    Corals harbor diverse bacterial associations that contribute to the health of the host. Using 16S rRNA pyrosequencing, we compared the bacterial communities of red and orange morphs of the Hawaiian coral Montipora capitata. Although both color morphs shared dominant bacterial genera, weighted and unweighted UniFrac analyses showed distinct bacterial communities. A single operational taxonomic unit (OTU), classified as Vibrio, represented the largest driver of differences between the color morphs. This OTU comprised 35.4% (±5.5%) of the orange morph bacterial community yet comprised 1.1% (±0.6%) of the red morph bacterial community. Cultivable bacteria from the two color morphs were also compared and tested for antibacterial activity. Cultured isolates represented 14 genera (7% of the total genera identified from sequencing data), and all but two cultured isolates had a matching OTU from the sequencing data. Half of the isolates tested (8 out of 16) displayed antibacterial activity against other cultured isolates but not against two known bacterial pathogens of M. capitata. The results from this study demonstrate that the specificity of coral-bacterial associations extends beyond the level of coral species. In addition, culture-dependent methods captured bacterial diversity that was representative of both rare and abundant members of the associated bacterial community, as characterized by culture-independent methods. PMID:26253663

  8. Evaluation of flexural strength and color stability of different denture base materials including flexible material after using different denture cleansers

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Vrinda R.; Shah, Darshana Nilesh; Chauhan, Chirag J.; Doshi, Paras J.; Kumar, Ashish

    2015-01-01

    Aims: Present study aimed at evaluating the colour stability and flexural strength of flexible denture base materials (Valplast) and Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) denture base material (Meliodent) processed by two different methods (Injection moulding and compression moulding) after immersing them in three different denture cleansers with acidic, basic and neutral PH. Methods and Materials: Total 120 specimens (65 × 10 × 3 mm3), 40 specimens of each material (Valplast, Meliodent compression moulding and injection moulding) were immersed in denture cleansers having different PH; Valclean (Acidic), Clinsodent (Basic) and Polident (Neutral) as well as Distilled Water. Color changes were measured with a spectrophotometer after 1 month, 3 months and 6 months of immersion cycle. A flexural 3-point bending test was carried out by using an Instron universal testing machine after 6 months of soaking. Data were analyzed using SPSS software Results: Maximum effect on colour stability was noted with Clinsodent followed by Valclean. Least color changes were observed after immersion in Polident. Colour difference was increased significantly as the immersion time increased. For both Meliodent and Nylon resins, statistically significant change in flexural strength occurred with immersion in all denture cleansers. Clinsodent has greater effect as compared to Valclean and Polident. Conclusions: Polident and Valclean can be safely used as denture cleanser for both nylon and acrylic resin denture base materials as far as colour stability and flexural strength both are concerned. PMID:26929541

  9. Fishy Formulas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bosch, William; Sizzo, Jennifer; Curtis, Anita; Klein, Shannon; Micale, Cheryl; Lin, E-Sin

    1997-01-01

    Describes an activity presented in sports fishing magazines on developing a formula that predicts the weight in pounds of a game fish given its length in inches by using a TI-83 graphing calculator. Highlights the importance of using real-life problems and mathematical explorations. (ASK)

  10. Gene Loss and Parallel Evolution Contribute to Species Difference in Flower Color

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Stacey D.; Rausher, Mark D.

    2011-01-01

    Although the importance of regulatory and functional sequence evolution in generating species differences has been studied to some extent, much less is known about the role of other types of genomic changes, such as fluctuation in gene copy number. Here, we apply analyses of gene function and expression of anthocyanin pigment pathway genes, as well as cosegregation analyses in backcross populations, to examine the genetic changes involved in the shift from blue to red flowers in Andean Iochroma (Solanaceae). We demonstrate that deletion of a gene coding for an anthocyanin pathway enzyme was necessary for the transition to red floral pigmentation. The downregulation of a second pathway gene was also necessary for the novel flower color, and this regulatory pattern parallels the genetic change in the two other red-flowered species in the sister family Convolvulaceae in which flower color change has been examined genetically. Finally, we document a shift in enzymatic function at a third locus, but the importance of this change in the transition to red flowers depends on the exact order with which the three changes occurred. This study shows that gene inactivation or loss can be involved in the origin of phenotypic differences between species, thereby restricting the possibility of reversion to the ancestral state. It also demonstrates that parallel evolution of red flowers in three different species occurs via a common developmental/regulatory change but by mutations in different genes. PMID:21551271

  11. [Expression levels of Slc7a11 in the skin of Kazakh sheep with different coat colors].

    PubMed

    Li, Hong-Tao; He, Xin; Zhou, Zhi-Yong; Zhao, Song-Hua; Zhang, Wen-Xiang; Liu, Gang; Zhao, Zong-Sheng; Jia, Bin

    2012-10-01

    Slc7a11 belongs to solute transporter gene family, encoding cystine/glutamate transporter xCT. It regulates switching between eumelanin and pheomelanin synthesis. In the present study, Real-time PCR was used to detect the mRNA expression levels of Slc7a11 in the skin of Kazakh lambs with different coat colors (black, brown and white), and then the prokaryotic expression plasmid PET-32a-sxCT was constructed to induce the expression of fusion protein. The target pro-tein was purified by Ni-NTA affinity chromatographic separation, and then was used to immunize rabbit in order to produce rabbit anti-sxCT polyclonal antibody. Finally, the expression levels of sxCT were detected in the skin of Kazakh lambs with different hair colors by Western blotting analysis. Results showed that the mRNA expression levels of Slc7a11 differed significantly in the skin of Kazakh lambs with different coat colors, with the highest level in brown coat color, followed by the black, and then the white. The sxCT protein was also detected in the skin of different coat colors by polyclonal antibody, with the highest level in brown coat color, followed by the black, and then the white. It is, therefore, concluded that slc7a11 gene might be associated with the phenotype of coat color in Kazakh sheep.

  12. [Expression levels of Slc7a11 in the skin of Kazakh sheep with different coat colors].

    PubMed

    Li, Hong-Tao; He, Xin; Zhou, Zhi-Yong; Zhao, Song-Hua; Zhang, Wen-Xiang; Liu, Gang; Zhao, Zong-Sheng; Jia, Bin

    2012-10-01

    Slc7a11 belongs to solute transporter gene family, encoding cystine/glutamate transporter xCT. It regulates switching between eumelanin and pheomelanin synthesis. In the present study, Real-time PCR was used to detect the mRNA expression levels of Slc7a11 in the skin of Kazakh lambs with different coat colors (black, brown and white), and then the prokaryotic expression plasmid PET-32a-sxCT was constructed to induce the expression of fusion protein. The target pro-tein was purified by Ni-NTA affinity chromatographic separation, and then was used to immunize rabbit in order to produce rabbit anti-sxCT polyclonal antibody. Finally, the expression levels of sxCT were detected in the skin of Kazakh lambs with different hair colors by Western blotting analysis. Results showed that the mRNA expression levels of Slc7a11 differed significantly in the skin of Kazakh lambs with different coat colors, with the highest level in brown coat color, followed by the black, and then the white. The sxCT protein was also detected in the skin of different coat colors by polyclonal antibody, with the highest level in brown coat color, followed by the black, and then the white. It is, therefore, concluded that slc7a11 gene might be associated with the phenotype of coat color in Kazakh sheep. PMID:23099788

  13. Effects of lights of different color temperature on the nocturnal changes in core temperature and melatonin in humans.

    PubMed

    Morita, T; Tokura, H

    1996-09-01

    A variety of types of artificial illumination has recently become available, differing in the quality of illumination and range of color temperature. In our previous studies we found that in subjects with normal color vision the nocturnal fall in core temperature and the increase of urinary melatonin excretion were suppressed by bright blue or green light, but not by bright red or dim lights. The aim of our present study was to examine from the view point of chronobiology whether the lights of different color temperature often used in everyday life may affect core temperature and urinary melatonin secretion differently. Experiments were carried out on five subjects with normal color vision. They were exposed for 5 hr (from 21:00 h to 2:00 h) to two kinds of bright (1000 lx) light of different color temperature (6500 K, 3000 K) with dim (50 lx) light as a control; after exposure they slept in darkness. Our main results were as follows: The light with a high color temperature of 6500 K more strongly suppressed the nocturnal fall of the core temperature and the nocturnal increase of melatonin secretion than the light with a low color temperature of 3000 K. This difference was particularly evident for core temperature during the sleep period following experimental illumination.

  14. Different patterns of X inactivation in MZ twins discordant for red-green color-vision deficiency.

    PubMed Central

    Jørgensen, A L; Philip, J; Raskind, W H; Matsushita, M; Christensen, B; Dreyer, V; Motulsky, A G

    1992-01-01

    Two female identical twins who were clinically normal were obligatory heterozygotes for X-linked deuteranomaly associated with a green-red fusion gene derived from their deuteranomalous father. On anomaloscopy, one of the twins was phenotypically deuteranomalous while the other had normal color vision. The color vision-defective twin had two sons with normal color vision and one deuteranomalous son. X-inactivation analysis was done with the highly informative probe M27 beta. This probe detects a locus (DXS255) which contains a VNTR and which is somewhat differentially methylated on the active and inactive X chromosomes. In skin cells of the color vision-defective twin, almost all paternal X chromosomes with the abnormal color-vision genes were active, thereby explaining her color-vision defect. In contrast, a different pattern was observed in skin cells from the woman with normal color vision; her maternal X chromosome was mostly active. However, in blood lymphocytes, both twins showed identical patterns with mixtures of inactivated maternal and paternal X chromosomes. Deuteranomaly in one of the twins is explained by extremely skewed X inactivation, as shown in skin cells. Failure to find this skewed pattern in blood cells is explained by the sharing of fetal circulation and exchange of hematopoietic precursor cells between twins. These data give evidence for X inactivation of the color-vision locus and add another MZ twin pair with markedly different X-inactivation patterns for X-linked traits. Images Figure 2 PMID:1642230

  15. No difference indicated in electroencephalographic power spectral analysis in 3- and 6-month-old infants fed soy- or milk-based formula.

    PubMed

    Jing, Hongkui; Pivik, R T; Gilchrist, Janet M; Badger, Thomas M

    2008-04-01

    Increasing concern has been recently raised on the possible effects of soy-derived phyto-oestrogens on the development of cognitive functions in infants. However, limited studies have been conducted to date, and no data have been made available for determining whether infant soy formula can affect normal development of the human brain. We compared electroencephalographic (EEG) spectral power derived from high-density recordings of infants fed milk-based or soy formula (46 fed milk-based formula and 39 fed soy formula) at 3 and 6 months of age. The spectral parameters included absolute power, relative power and spectral edge frequency (SEF) at 85%, 90% and 95% levels. The frequency domain contained four bands (0.1-3, 3-6, 6-9 and 9-12 Hz). EEG signals were collected from eight brain areas in each hemisphere. The results showed that the highest spectral power was mainly distributed in the low-frequency bands and was predominant in the frontal and anterior temporal areas. None of the spectral variables significantly differed between the soy- and milk-fed infants (anova, all P > 0.2). However, significant effects were indicated on the SEFs for factors of sex, age and brain area (all P < 0.01). Hemispheric differences in the absolute and relative power were also indicated. Our results suggest that the EEG power spectral development of soy-fed infants does not differ from that of infants fed milk-based formula. In addition, EEG spectral development appears more advanced in female than in male infants at 6 months.

  16. Do Different Colors Absorb Heat Better? Grades PreK-2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rushton, Erik; Ryan, Emily; Swift, Charles

    In this activity, students test whether the color of a material affects how much heat it absorbs. An ice cube is placed in a box made of colored paper (one box per color; white, yellow, red, and black) which is then placed in the sun. Students predict which color will melt the ice cube first and record the order and time required for the ice cubes…

  17. Difference-frequency generation of optical radiation from two-color x-ray pulses.

    PubMed

    Shwartz, E; Shwartz, S

    2015-03-23

    We describe the process of difference-frequency generation of short optical pulses from two-color X-ray pulses. By assuming 10¹¹ photons per X-ray pulse, we predict that the optical count rate can exceed 10⁷ photons per pulse. Similar to other effects involving nonlinear interactions of X-rays and optical radiation, the effect we describe can be used for microscopic studies of chemical bonds and as a probe for light-matter interactions on the atomic scale. Since the X-ray damage threshold is much higher than the optical damage threshold, the efficiency of difference-frequency generation from two X-ray pulses is expected to be orders of magnitude higher than the efficiency of effects such as sum/difference-frequency mixing between X-rays and optical intense short-pulse sources. PMID:25837087

  18. Cytotoxic and bioactive properties of different color tulip flowers and degradation kinetic of tulip flower anthocyanins.

    PubMed

    Sagdic, Osman; Ekici, Lutfiye; Ozturk, Ismet; Tekinay, Turgay; Polat, Busra; Tastemur, Bilge; Bayram, Okan; Senturk, Berna

    2013-08-01

    This study was conducted to determine the potential use of anthocyanin-based extracts (ABEs) of wasted tulip flowers as food/drug colorants. For this aim, wasted tulip flowers were samples and analyzed for their bioactive properties and cytotoxicity. Total phenolic contents of the extracts of the claret red (126.55 mg of gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g dry extract) and orange-red (113.76 mg GAE/g dry extract) flowers were the higher than those of the other tulip flowers. Total anthocyanin levels of the violet, orange-red, claret red and pink tulip flower extracts were determined as 265.04, 236.49, 839.08 and 404.45 mg pelargonidin 3-glucoside/kg dry extract, respectively and these levels were higher than those of the other flowers. The extracts were more effective for the inhibition of Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus and Yersinia enterocolitica compared to other tested bacteria. Additionally, the cytotoxic effects of five different tulip flower extracts on human breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7) cell line were investigated. The results showed that the orange red, pink and violet extracts had no cytotoxic activity against MCF-7 cell lines while yellow and claret red extracts appeared to be toxic for the cells. Overall, the extracts of tulip flowers with different colors possess remarkable bioactive and cytotoxic properties.

  19. Color categories and color appearance

    PubMed Central

    Webster, Michael A.; Kay, Paul

    2011-01-01

    We examined categorical effects in color appearance in two tasks, which in part differed in the extent to which color naming was explicitly required for the response. In one, we measured the effects of color differences on perceptual grouping for hues that spanned the blue–green boundary, to test whether chromatic differences across the boundary were perceptually exaggerated. This task did not require overt judgments of the perceived colors, and the tendency to group showed only a weak and inconsistent categorical bias. In a second case, we analyzed results from two prior studies of hue scaling of chromatic stimuli (De Valois, De Valois, Switkes, & Mahon, 1997; Malkoc, Kay, & Webster, 2005), to test whether color appearance changed more rapidly around the blue–green boundary. In this task observers directly judge the perceived color of the stimuli and these judgments tended to show much stronger categorical effects. The differences between these tasks could arise either because different signals mediate color grouping and color appearance, or because linguistic categories might differentially intrude on the response to color and/or on the perception of color. Our results suggest that the interaction between language and color processing may be highly dependent on the specific task and cognitive demands and strategies of the observer, and also highlight pronounced individual differences in the tendency to exhibit categorical responses. PMID:22176751

  20. The Effects of Highlight Color on Immediate Recall on Subjects of Different Cognitive Styles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worley, Gary M.; Moore, David M.

    2001-01-01

    Discussion of the use of color for enhancing recognition memory focuses on a study of undergraduates that evaluated images as black and white, full color, or highlight color and the effect these characteristics had on recognition memory and recall for learners classified as field-dependent and field-independent in terms of cognitive style. (LRW)

  1. Transcriptome sequencing and characterization of Japanese scallop Patinopecten yessoensis from different shell color lines.

    PubMed

    Ding, Jun; Zhao, Le; Chang, Yaqing; Zhao, Wenming; Du, Zhenlin; Hao, Zhenlin

    2015-01-01

    Shell color is an important trait that is used in breeding the Japanese scallop Patinopecten yessoensis, the most economically important scallop species in China. We constructed four transcriptome libraries from different shell color lines of P. yessoensis: the left and right shell mantles of ordinary strains of P. yessoensis and the left shell mantles of the 'Ivory' and 'Maple' strains. These four libraries were paired-end sequenced using the Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform and contained 54,802,692 sequences, 40,798,962 sequences, 74,019,262 sequences, and 44,466,166 sequences, respectively. A total of 214,087,082 expressed sequence tags were assembled into 73,522 unigenes with an average size of 1,163 bp. When the data were compared against the public Nr and Swiss-Prot databases using BlastX, nearly 30.55% (22,458) of the unigenes were significantly matched to known unique proteins. Gene Ontology annotation and pathway mapping analysis using the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes categorized unigenes according to their diverse biological functions and processes and identified candidate genes that were potentially involved in growth, pigmentation, metal transcription, and immunity. Expression profile analysis was performed on all four libraries and many differentially expressed genes were identified. In addition, 5,772 simple sequence repeats were obtained from the P. yessoensis transcriptomes, and 464,197, 395,646, and 310,649 single nucleotide polymorphisms were revealed in the ordinary strains, the 'Ivory' strain, and the 'Maple' strain, respectively. These results provide valuable information for future genomic studies on P. yessoensis and improve our understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in the growth, immunity, shell coloring, and shell biomineralization of this species. These resources also may be used in a variety of applications, such as trait mapping, marker-assisted breeding, studies of population genetics and genomics, and work on

  2. Transcriptome Sequencing and Characterization of Japanese Scallop Patinopecten yessoensis from Different Shell Color Lines

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Yaqing; Zhao, Wenming; Du, Zhenlin; Hao, Zhenlin

    2015-01-01

    Shell color is an important trait that is used in breeding the Japanese scallop Patinopecten yessoensis, the most economically important scallop species in China. We constructed four transcriptome libraries from different shell color lines of P. yessoensis: the left and right shell mantles of ordinary strains of P. yessoensis and the left shell mantles of the ‘Ivory’ and ‘Maple’ strains. These four libraries were paired-end sequenced using the Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform and contained 54,802,692 sequences, 40,798,962 sequences, 74,019,262 sequences, and 44,466,166 sequences, respectively. A total of 214,087,082 expressed sequence tags were assembled into 73,522 unigenes with an average size of 1,163 bp. When the data were compared against the public Nr and Swiss-Prot databases using BlastX, nearly 30.55% (22,458) of the unigenes were significantly matched to known unique proteins. Gene Ontology annotation and pathway mapping analysis using the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes categorized unigenes according to their diverse biological functions and processes and identified candidate genes that were potentially involved in growth, pigmentation, metal transcription, and immunity. Expression profile analysis was performed on all four libraries and many differentially expressed genes were identified. In addition, 5,772 simple sequence repeats were obtained from the P. yessoensis transcriptomes, and 464,197, 395,646, and 310,649 single nucleotide polymorphisms were revealed in the ordinary strains, the ‘Ivory’ strain, and the ‘Maple’ strain, respectively. These results provide valuable information for future genomic studies on P. yessoensis and improve our understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in the growth, immunity, shell coloring, and shell biomineralization of this species. These resources also may be used in a variety of applications, such as trait mapping, marker-assisted breeding, studies of population genetics and genomics

  3. Plumage coloration and nutritional condition in the great tit Parus major: the roles of carotenoids and melanins differ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senar, Juan Carlos; Figuerola, Jordi; Domènech, Jordi

    2003-05-01

    The size and coloration of some body characters seem to influence mate choice in many species. Most animal colours are either structural or based on melanin or carotenoid pigments. It has recently been suggested that carotenoid-based or structural coloration may be a condition-dependent trait, whereas melanin-based coloration is not; a difference that may be highly relevant when studying the evolution of multiple mating preferences. We tested this hypothesis in the great tit ( Parus major). The size of the melanin breast band was not correlated to nutritional condition as estimated by the rate of tail growth (ptilochronology), controlling for locality, age, sex, year and season effects. However, the correlation was significant for the hue of yellow breast (carotenoid-based coloration), and the slopes of the regressions of the two pigments to growth bars differed significantly. These results suggest that the expression of the two traits may be regulated by different mechanisms.

  4. Physico-chemical and microbiological properties of raw fermented sausages are not influenced by color differences of turkey breast meat.

    PubMed

    Popp, J; Krischek, C; Janisch, S; Wicke, M; Klein, G

    2013-05-01

    It has been suggested that the color of turkey breast meat influences both physico-chemical and microbiological properties of raw fermented sausages. In this study, raw fermented sausages were produced with turkey breast meat in 3 different colors (pale, normal, or dark), which were obtained from 2 fast-growing-genetic-line toms at 2 slaughterhouses. Prior to the sausage production, the breast muscles were sorted into color groups according to the lightness values determined at 24 h postmortem. This meat was subsequently processed to raw fermented sausages using 1.5 or 2.5% curing salt (CS). The pale meat had higher lightness, electrical conductivity, and drip loss, whereas the dark meat showed a darker color only. The physico-chemical (pH, water activity), visual (lightness, redness), and microbial (total plate count) properties of the sausages were not influenced by the color of the turkey breast meat. The sausage made with 2.5% CS had lower aw and higher ash and hardness values than the sausages produced with 1.5% CS. In conclusion, processing of differently colored turkey meat to raw fermented sausages does not influence the quality characteristics of the products. Based on these findings, there is no reason for the sausage producer to separate turkey breast muscles by color before producing raw fermented sausages.

  5. The `Chocolate Experiment' - A Demonstration of Radiation Absorption by Different Colored Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fung, Dennis

    2015-12-01

    In the typical "cookbook" experiment comparing the radiation absorption rates of different colored surfaces, students' hands are commonly used as a measurement instrument to demonstrate that dull black and silvery surfaces are good and poor absorbers of radiation, respectively. However, college students are often skeptical about using their bare hands in this experiment because they learned in early science lessons that skin is not a reliable detector of heat transfer. Moreover, when the experiment is conducted in a school laboratory, it is often difficult for students to perceive the slight differences in heat transfer on the dull black and silvery aluminum leaves attached to their hands. Rather than replacing students' bare hands with such sophisticated apparatus as a data logger and temperature probe, I suggest using a simple (and delicious!) low-cost instrument, i.e., chocolate, which simply melts when it receives radiation.

  6. Encapsulation of the most potent antioxidant betalains in edible matrixes as powders of different colors.

    PubMed

    Gandía-Herrero, Fernando; Cabanes, Juana; Escribano, Josefa; García-Carmona, Francisco; Jiménez-Atiénzar, Mercedes

    2013-05-01

    Betalains are plant pigments with high antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities. While basal activity exists in all betalains, the dihydroxylated molecules present the highest TEAC values of the family of compounds. However, their lability limits possible applications. This work reports the encapsulation of the most active pigments, the yellow miraxanthin V and the violet betanidin in edible matrixes of chitosan and maltodextrin. An appropriate spray-drying procedure is described, with an inlet air temperature of 140 °C. The resulting particles were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, and powder color was analyzed by spectrophotometry using an integrating sphere. Stability of the bioactive compounds was followed by high-performance liquid chromatography, and it was highly promoted by encapsulation, with limited pigment loss after six months' storage. Particles retained the antioxidant and antiradical activities of the soluble pigments measured under the FRAP and ABTS radical assays. A combination of miraxanthin V and betanidin in variable proportions provides a bright palette of encapsulated powders of different colors suitable for food applications.

  7. In vitro cytotoxicity of self-curing acrylic resins of different colors

    PubMed Central

    Retamoso, Luciana Borges; da Cunha, Taís de Morais Alves; Pithon, Matheus Melo; dos Santos, Rogério Lacerda; Martins, Fernanda Otaviano; Romanos, Maria Teresa Villela; Tanaka, Orlando Motohiro

    2014-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to assess the in vitro cytotoxicity of acrylic resins of different colors over time. Methods Specimens were divided into 4 groups (n = 6) according to the color of the acrylic resin (Orto Class, Clássico, Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil): Group 1: clear acrylic resin; group 2: pink acrylic resin; group 3: blue acrylic resin and group 4: green acrylic resin. All specimens were fabricated according to the mass manipulation technique and submitted to mechanical polishing protocol. The control was performed with an amalgam specimen (C+), a glass specimen (C-) and cell control (CC). Specimens were immersed in Minimum Eagle's Medium (MEM) and incubated for 24 h at 37ºC. The extracts from the experimental material were filtered and mixed with L929 fibroblast. Cytotoxicity was evaluated at 4 different times, 24, 48, 72 and 168 h. After contact, cells were incubated for 24 h and added to 100 µ of 0.01% neutral red dye. The cells were incubated for 3 h for pigment incorporation and fixed. Cells viability was determined by a spectroscopic (BioTek, Winooski, Vermont, USA) with a 492-nm wavelength λ=492 nm). Results There were no statistical differences between the experimental groups and the CC and C- groups. Conclusion Clear, pink, blue and green self-curing acrylic resins fabricated by means of the mass manipulation technique and mechanically polished are not cytotoxic. Neither the pigment added to the self-curing acrylic resin nor the factor of time influenced the cytotoxicity of the material. PMID:25279523

  8. Effect of immersion into solutions at various pH on the color stability of composite resins with different shades

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Ji-Deok; Seon, Eun-Mi; Son, Sung-Ae; Jung, Kyoung-Hwa; Kwon, Yong-Hoon

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This study examined the color changes of a resin composite with different shades upon exposure to water with different pH. Materials and Methods Nanohybrid resin composites (Filtek Z350XT, 3M ESPE) with four different shades (A2, A3, B1, and B2) were immersed in water with three different pH (pH 3, 6, and 9) for 14 day. The CIE L*a*b* color coordinates of the specimens were evaluated before and after immersion in the solutions. The color difference (ΔE*) and the translucency parameter (TP) were calculated using the color coordinates. Results ΔE* ranged from 0.33 to 1.58, and the values were affected significantly by the pH. The specimens immersed in a pH 6 solution showed the highest ΔE* values (0.87 - 1.58). The specimens with a B1 shade showed the lowest ΔE* change compared to the other shades. TP ranged from 7.01 to 9.46 depending on the pH and resin shade. The TP difference between before and after immersion in the pH solutions was less than 1.0. Conclusions The resulting change of color of the tested specimens did not appear to be clinically problematic because the color difference was < 1.6 in the acidic, neutral, and alkaline solutions regardless of the resin shade, i.e., the color change was imperceptible. PMID:26587412

  9. Testicular function and pelage color have different critical daylengths in the Djungarian hamster, Phodopus sungorus sungorus.

    PubMed

    Duncan, M J; Goldman, B D; Di Pinto, M N; Stetson, M H

    1985-01-01

    Testicular function and pelage color are regulated by photoperiod in the Djungarian hamster. To investigate the critical daylengths of these functions, adult male hamsters were exposed to one of four photoperiods: 16 h of light, 8 h of darkness (16L:8D), 14L:10D, 12L:12D, or 10L:14D. 10L:14D and 12L:12D induced the winter molt and testicular regression, in contrast to 14L:10D which induced only the latter response, and 16L:8D which maintained the summer pelage and large testes. Melatonin injections administered 4, 2, or 0 h before lights-off to hamsters exposed to 16L:8D mimicked the effects in hamsters exposed to 10:14D, 12L:12D or 14L:10D, respectively, on pelage color and testicular weight. Based on previous observations, the elevated circulating melatonin levels resulting from these injections were expected to extend the endogenous melatonin peak. Thus, this finding suggests that the duration of circadian melatonin elevation is the critical parameter determining its effect not only on the gonads, but also on the pelage. Since 14L:10D induced testicular regression but not the winter molt, this study also investigated whether circulating FSH levels, known to affect testicular function, and PRL levels, which have been shown to affect pelage color, might be affected differently by 14L:10D. Both FSH and PRL levels were found to be suppressed in 14L:10D hamsters compared to those in 16L:8D hamsters, although the interval between the initial decrease and eventual recovery was less than that in 10L:14D hamsters. Thus, the differential responses of the pelage and gonads to 14L:10D do not appear to be based on selective suppression of FSH in this photoperiod. However, different responses to 14L:10D compared to 10L:14D may be related to the shorter period of suppression of both PRL and FSH by the 14L:10D daylengths. PMID:3917252

  10. Differences in color vision make passerines less conspicuous in the eyes of their predators.

    PubMed

    Håstad, Olle; Victorsson, Jonas; Odeen, Anders

    2005-05-01

    Sexual selection often favors brighter and exaggerated traits, which also increase the risk of detection by predators. Signals that are preferentially conspicuous to conspecifics would reduce the predation cost of signaling and, therefore, might facilitate the evolution of stronger sexual and social signals. This selective signaling is possible if predators and prey have differently tuned sensory systems. By using a retinal model to compare reflectance from the plumages of Swedish songbirds to the reflectance of their natural backgrounds, we found their color badges to be significantly more conspicuous to other songbirds (which have a UV-tuned visual system) than to raptors and corvids (which have a violet-tuned system) in both coniferous and deciduous forests, consistent with an adaptive private communication system.

  11. Evaluating the spectral discrimination capabilities of different pollinators and their effect on the evolution of flower colors

    PubMed Central

    Shrestha, Mani; Dyer, Adrian G.; Burd, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Important plant pollinators like bees and birds have very different color visual systems. Previous work has attempted to relate flower syndromes to the respective visual capabilities of the most important pollinators, but has often been limited by the lack of robust means to make between-species comparisons of how flower color signals are processed. In a recent study we solved this dilemma by comparing the raw spectral signals, quantifiable by major inflection points on a wavelength scale, from different flowers whose pollinators were known from direct observation. Here we elaborate on how this method allows robust cross species comparisons that are independent of the requirement to know the complex and often inaccessible physiological data about color processing in different animals. The use of this method should thus allow for the testing of pollinator syndrome hypotheses for different animal pollinators from different regions of the world. PMID:23713140

  12. Use of fluorescent proteins and color-coded imaging to visualize cancer cells with different genetic properties.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Robert M

    2016-03-01

    Fluorescent proteins are very bright and available in spectrally-distinct colors, enable the imaging of color-coded cancer cells growing in vivo and therefore the distinction of cancer cells with different genetic properties. Non-invasive and intravital imaging of cancer cells with fluorescent proteins allows the visualization of distinct genetic variants of cancer cells down to the cellular level in vivo. Cancer cells with increased or decreased ability to metastasize can be distinguished in vivo. Gene exchange in vivo which enables low metastatic cancer cells to convert to high metastatic can be color-coded imaged in vivo. Cancer stem-like and non-stem cells can be distinguished in vivo by color-coded imaging. These properties also demonstrate the vast superiority of imaging cancer cells in vivo with fluorescent proteins over photon counting of luciferase-labeled cancer cells.

  13. Effects of different enzyme treatments in extraction of total folate from infant formula, baby foods and other food products prior to microbiological assay and radioassay

    SciTech Connect

    De Souza, S.C.

    1988-01-01

    Four different enzyme treatments-conjugase alone, conjugase and alpha-amylase, conjugase and Pronase{reg sign} and a triple enzyme combination of conjugase, Pronase {reg sign} and alpha-amylase were applied in the extraction of total folate from infant formula, baby foods and various other foods by microbiological and radioassay methods. Significant increases (P < 0.05) in measurable folate were obtained using the triple enzyme system in spinach, Camembert cheese, soy-based infant formula and cereal-based, meat-based and fruit-based infant foods over the use of conjugase alone by the microbiological method. Increases were also observed in many of the same foods using Pronase{reg sign} or alpha-amylase in addition to conjugase alone. Increases obtained by microbiological assay were confirmed by radioassay in a number of foods studied.

  14. Three-dimensional color Doppler reconstruction of intracardiac blood flow in patients with different heart valve diseases.

    PubMed

    De Simone, R; Glombitza, G; Vahl, C F; Meinzer, H P; Hagl, S

    2000-12-15

    An improved perception of the magnitude and dynamics of intracardiac flow disturbances has been made possible by the advent of 3-dimensional (3-D) color Doppler, a new diagnostic procedure developed at our institution. This study describes the new insights derived from 3-D reconstruction of color Doppler flow patterns in patients with different heart valve diseases. The color Doppler flow data from 153 multiplanar transesophageal or transthoracic echocardiographic examinations has been obtained from 133 patients with heart valve disease; 73 patients had mitral regurgitation, 15 had mitral stenosis, 18 had aortic regurgitation, 26 had aortic stenosis, and 21 patients had tricuspid regurgitation. Four patients had pulmonary regurgitation associated with mitral valve disease. The 3-D reconstructions of color Doppler flow signals were accomplished by means of the "Heidelberg Raytracing model," developed at our institution. The 3-D color Doppler reconstructions were obtained in all patients. The 3-D images revealed for the first time the complex spatial distribution of the blood flow abnormalities in the heart chambers caused by different heart valve diseases. New patterns of intracardiac blood flow disturbances were observed and classified. Three-dimensional color Doppler provides a unique noninvasive method that can be easily applied for studying intracardiac blood flow disturbances in clinical practice. PMID:11113410

  15. Flavonoid composition related to petal color in different lines of Clitoria ternatea.

    PubMed

    Kazuma, Kohei; Noda, Naonobu; Suzuki, Masahiko

    2003-11-01

    Flavonoids in the petals of several C. ternatea lines with different petal colors were investigated with LC/MS/MS. Delphinidin 3-O-(2"-O-alpha-rhamnosyl-6"-O-malonyl)-beta-glucoside was newly isolated from the petals of a mauve line (wm) together with three known anthocyanins. They were identified structurally using UV, MS, and NMR spectroscopy. Although ternatins, a group of 15 (poly)acylated delphinidin glucosides, were identified in all the blue petal lines (WB, BM-1, 'Double Blue' and 'Albiflora'), WM accumulated delphinidin 3-O-(6"-O-malonyl)-beta-glucoside instead. The white petal line (WW) did not contain anthocyanins. Quantitative data showed that the total anthocyanin contents in WB and 'Double Blue' were ca. 8- and 10-fold higher than that in BM-1, a bud mutant of 'Double Blue', respectively. The total anthocyanin content in 'Albiflora' was less than 2 x 10(-3) times those in WB or 'Double Blue'. While all the lines contained the same set of 15 flavonol glycosides in similar relative ratios, the relative ratio of myricetin glycosides in ww and 'Albiflora' was ca. 30-70 times greater than those in the other lines. The change in flower color from blue to mauve was not due to a change in the structure of an anthocyanidin from delphinidin, but to the lack of (polyacylated) glucosyl group substitutions at both the 3'- and 5'-positions of ternatins. This implies that glucosylation at the 3'- and 5'-positions of anthocyanin is a critical step in producing blue petals in C. ternatea. PMID:14568080

  16. Effect of different tetra pack juices on microhardness of direct tooth colored-restorative materials

    PubMed Central

    Fatima, Nazish; Abidi, Syed Yawar Ali; Qazi, Fazal-Ur-Rehaman; Jat, Shahbaz Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To examine the effect of apple and orange juices on the surface hardness of direct tooth-colored restorative materials. Materials and methods The materials included resin-modified glass ionomer cement (Vitremer 3M™ ESPE™ Core buildup restorative) and composite resin (Filtek™ 3M™ ESPE™ Z350). A total of 45 disks of each restorative material were prepared. The disks were divided into groups of 15, which were immersed for 7 days in deionized water (G1/G4, control group), apple juice (G2/G5), or orange juice (G3/G6). The pH of the apple juice was approximately 4.8 and the pH of the orange juice was approximately 4.9. Surface hardness tests were performed before immersion and at various times following immersion. Statistical analysis included two-way ANOVA with repeated measurement and Tukey’s test. Results Exposure to juices significantly reduced the hardness of both materials (p < 0.05), while deionized water did not affect the surface hardness of either material. The ionomer cement experienced a greater reduction than the composite resin (p = 0.000). There was no significant difference in the effect of apple and orange juices. Conclusion Juice box-type fruit juices reduced the hardness of direct tooth-colored restorative materials. Material selection should be considered when planning restorations in patients who have experienced tooth surface loss. In terms of the materials evaluated in this study, the composite material provides greater durability under acidic conditions. PMID:23960552

  17. A Two Colorable Fourth Order Compact Difference Scheme and Parallel Iterative Solution of the 3D Convection Diffusion Equation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Jun; Ge, Lixin; Kouatchou, Jules

    2000-01-01

    A new fourth order compact difference scheme for the three dimensional convection diffusion equation with variable coefficients is presented. The novelty of this new difference scheme is that it Only requires 15 grid points and that it can be decoupled with two colors. The entire computational grid can be updated in two parallel subsweeps with the Gauss-Seidel type iterative method. This is compared with the known 19 point fourth order compact differenCe scheme which requires four colors to decouple the computational grid. Numerical results, with multigrid methods implemented on a shared memory parallel computer, are presented to compare the 15 point and the 19 point fourth order compact schemes.

  18. Not by the Color of Their Skin; The Impact of Racial Differences on the Child's Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Marjorie

    Contents of this book include: Part I: "The Nursery School and Its Racial Integration"--introduction, establishing physical and psychological integration; staff meetings; observing and working through; Part II: "Theory and Practice"--skin color anxiety: the skin and its importance in personality development; skin color anxiety, the visual impact,…

  19. Color Makes a Difference: Two-Dimensional Object Naming in Literate and Illiterate Subjects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reis, Alexandra; Faisca, Luis; Ingvar, Martin; Petersson, Karl Magnus

    2006-01-01

    Previous work has shown that illiterate subjects are better at naming two-dimensional representations of real objects when presented as colored photos as compared to black and white drawings. This raises the question if color or textural details selectively improve object recognition and naming in illiterate compared to literate subjects. In this…

  20. Determination and comparison of mineral elements in traditional Chinese herbal formulae at different decoction times used to improve kidney function--chemometric approach.

    PubMed

    Kolasani, Archana; Xu, Hong; Millikan, Mary

    2011-01-01

    Traditional Chinese herbal formulae Liu wei di huang (LW) (six-ingredient pill with Rehmannia) and Jin gui shen qi wan (JG) (kidney Qi pill from the golden cabinet) were analysed for Ca, Fe, Mg, Mn, Na, K and Zn at different decoction intervals by atomic absorption spectroscopy. LW and JG were used to improve the kidney function. JG was higher in all elements than LW. K (1691.29 - 2372.71 mg l(-1)) was highest in both formulae LW and JG followed by Ca (245.31 - 562.91 mg l(-1)). Ca, Fe, Mg, Mn and K were highest at 40 min for LW and Fe, Mn, Na and K were highest at 40 min for JG. Chemometrics such as principal component analysis, hierarchical cluster analysis and linear discriminate analysis were applied to classify the data and to understand the relation between the elements. Metal intake related to the consumption of decoction has also been studied. Mn made the highest contribution to average daily dietary intakes from the formulae.

  1. Influence of Different Types of Resin Luting Agents on Color Stability of Ceramic Laminate Veneers Subjected to Accelerated Artificial Aging.

    PubMed

    Silami, Francisca Daniele Jardilino; Tonani, Rafaella; Alandia-Román, Carla Cecilia; Pires-de-Souza, Fernanda de Carvalho Panzeri

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of accelerated aging (AAA) on the color stability of resin cements for bonding ceramic laminate veneers of different thicknesses. The occlusal surfaces of 80 healthy human molars were flattened. Ceramic laminate veneers (IPS e-max Ceram) of two thicknesses (0.5 and 1.0 mm) were bonded with three types of luting agents: light-cured, conventional dual and self-adhesive dual cement. Teeth without restorations and cement samples (0.5 mm) were used as control. After initial color evaluations, the samples were subjected to AAA for 580 h. After this, new color readouts were made, and the color stability (ΔE) and luminosity (ΔL) data were analyzed. The greatest color changes (p<0.05) occurred when 0.5 mm veneers were fixed with light-cured cement and the lowest when 1.0 mm veneers were fixed with conventional dual cement. There was no influence of the restoration thickness when the self-adhesive dual cement was used. When veneers were compared with the control groups, it was verified that the cement samples presented the greatest alterations (p<0.05) in comparison with both substrates and restored teeth. Therefore, it was concluded that the thickness of the restoration influences color and luminosity changes for conventional dual and light-cured cements. The changes in self-adhesive cement do not depend on restoration thickness.

  2. Influence of Different Types of Resin Luting Agents on Color Stability of Ceramic Laminate Veneers Subjected to Accelerated Artificial Aging.

    PubMed

    Silami, Francisca Daniele Jardilino; Tonani, Rafaella; Alandia-Román, Carla Cecilia; Pires-de-Souza, Fernanda de Carvalho Panzeri

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of accelerated aging (AAA) on the color stability of resin cements for bonding ceramic laminate veneers of different thicknesses. The occlusal surfaces of 80 healthy human molars were flattened. Ceramic laminate veneers (IPS e-max Ceram) of two thicknesses (0.5 and 1.0 mm) were bonded with three types of luting agents: light-cured, conventional dual and self-adhesive dual cement. Teeth without restorations and cement samples (0.5 mm) were used as control. After initial color evaluations, the samples were subjected to AAA for 580 h. After this, new color readouts were made, and the color stability (ΔE) and luminosity (ΔL) data were analyzed. The greatest color changes (p<0.05) occurred when 0.5 mm veneers were fixed with light-cured cement and the lowest when 1.0 mm veneers were fixed with conventional dual cement. There was no influence of the restoration thickness when the self-adhesive dual cement was used. When veneers were compared with the control groups, it was verified that the cement samples presented the greatest alterations (p<0.05) in comparison with both substrates and restored teeth. Therefore, it was concluded that the thickness of the restoration influences color and luminosity changes for conventional dual and light-cured cements. The changes in self-adhesive cement do not depend on restoration thickness. PMID:27007354

  3. Aluminum concentrations in infant formulae.

    PubMed

    Simmer, K; Fudge, A; Teubner, J; James, S L

    1990-02-01

    The aluminum concentrations in breast milk and in 25 commercially available infant formulae were measured. The mean concentration in breast milk was 49 micrograms/L while concentrations in most of the humanized formulae were less than 500 micrograms/L. Higher concentrations were found in Nan, Prem Enfamil and the three soya formulae. We suggest that all formulae have the potential to be contaminated with aluminium, and to varying degrees in different batches. Until it is known whether aluminium toxicity occurs in normal infants fed these formulae, it seems reasonable to expect manufacturers to routinely measure aluminium and keep aluminium contamination to a minimum. This may be especially important for formula fed to infants with compromised gastrointestinal and renal systems.

  4. Betalain profile, phenolic content, and color characterization of different parts and varieties of Opuntia ficus-indica.

    PubMed

    Cejudo-Bastante, María Jesús; Chaalal, Makhlouf; Louaileche, Hayette; Parrado, Juan; Heredia, Francisco J

    2014-08-20

    Three different varieties of Opuntia ficus-indica (R, red; Y, yellow; RY, red-yellow) have been considered in this study. Attention was focused on differential tristimulus colorimetry and on the analysis of individual betalains (HPLC-DAD-ESI-ToF-MS) and phenolic content, scarcely previously reported in these kinds of samples. The importance of this research stems from the elucidation of the parts and varieties of cactus pear more optimal for use as natural colorants and sources of phenolics and betalains. Thus, the RY pulp was appropriate to obtain colorants with high color intensity (C*(ab) = 66.5), whereas the whole Y fruit and R pulp reached powerful and stable yellow and red colors, respectively (C*(ab)/h(ab), 57.1/84.7 and 61.1°/81.8°). This choice was also based on the visually appreciable differences (ΔE*(ab) > 5) among samples, mainly quantitative (%Δ(2)L, %Δ(2)C). In addition, seeds of all Opuntia varieties showed significantly (p < 0.05) similar phenolic content (around 23.3 mg/g) and color characteristics.

  5. Color rendering indices in global illumination methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geisler-Moroder, David; Dür, Arne

    2009-02-01

    Human perception of material colors depends heavily on the nature of the light sources used for illumination. One and the same object can cause highly different color impressions when lit by a vapor lamp or by daylight, respectively. Based on state-of-the-art colorimetric methods we present a modern approach for calculating color rendering indices (CRI), which were defined by the International Commission on Illumination (CIE) to characterize color reproduction properties of illuminants. We update the standard CIE method in three main points: firstly, we use the CIELAB color space, secondly, we apply a Bradford transformation for chromatic adaptation, and finally, we evaluate color differences using the CIEDE2000 total color difference formula. Moreover, within a real-world scene, light incident on a measurement surface is composed of a direct and an indirect part. Neumann and Schanda1 have shown for the cube model that interreflections can influence the CRI of an illuminant. We analyze how color rendering indices vary in a real-world scene with mixed direct and indirect illumination and recommend the usage of a spectral rendering engine instead of an RGB based renderer for reasons of accuracy of CRI calculations.

  6. Deconfining Phase Transition to a Quark-Gluon Plasma in Different SU(3) Color Representations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mezouar, K.; Ait El Djoudi, A.; Ghenam, L.

    2016-10-01

    For a statistical description of the quark gluon plasma (QGP) considering its internal symmetry, we calculate its partition function using the group theoretical projection method. We project out the partition function of a QGP consisting of gluons, massless up and down quarks, and massive strange quarks onto the singlet representation of the SU(3) color group, as well as onto the color octet and the color 27-plet representations. A comparison of these color representations is done, by studying their effects on the behavior of some thermodynamical quantities characterizing the mixed hadronic gas-QGP system undergoing a thermal deconfining phase transition on one side, and on the free energy during the formation of a QGP droplet from the hot hadronic gas on another side.

  7. An Analysis of Nonfirst-Generation Community College Men of Color: Comparing GPA, Noncognitive, and Campus Ethos Differences across Race

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palacios, Angélica M. G.; Alvarez, Rafael D.

    2016-01-01

    Drawing upon the Community College Socio-Ecological Outcomes model, this study is among the first to have addressed the outcomes of nonfirst-generation community college men of color. The purpose of this study was to investigate differences across ethnicities for key factors in two socioecological domains, including noncognitive and campus ethos…

  8. Shear bond strength of orthodontic color-change adhesives with different light-curing times

    PubMed Central

    Bayani, Shahin; Ghassemi, Amirreza; Manafi, Safa; Delavarian, Mohadeseh

    2015-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of light-curing time on the shear bond strength (SBS) of two orthodontic color-change adhesives (CCAs). Materials and Methods: A total of 72 extracted premolars were randomly assigned into 6 groups of 12 teeth each. Subsequent to primer application, a metal bracket was bonded to the buccal surface using an orthodontic adhesive. Two CCAs (Greengloo and Transbond Plus) were tested and one conventional light-cured adhesive (Resilience) served as control. For each adhesive, the specimens were light-cured for two different times of 20 and 40 s. All the specimens underwent mechanical testing using a universal testing machine to measure the SBS. Adhesive remnant index (ARI) was used to assess the remnant adhesive material on the tooth surface. All statistical analyses were performed using SPSS software. The significance level for all statistical tests was set at P ≤ 0.05. Results: The SBSs of the tested groups were in the range of 14.05-31.25 MPa. Greengloo adhesive showed the highest SBS values when light-cured for 40 s, and Transbond Plus adhesive showed the lowest values when light-cured for 20 s. ARI scores of Transbond Plus adhesive were significantly higher than those of controls, while other differences in ARI values were not significant. Conclusion: Within the limitations of his study, decreasing the light-curing time from 40 to 20 s decreased the SBS of the tested adhesives; however, this decline in SBS was statistically significant only in Transbond Plus adhesive PMID:26005468

  9. Enhanced recognition memory in grapheme-color synaesthesia for different categories of visual stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Jamie; Hovard, Peter; Jones, Alicia; Rothen, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    Memory has been shown to be enhanced in grapheme-color synaesthesia, and this enhancement extends to certain visual stimuli (that don't induce synaesthesia) as well as stimuli comprised of graphemes (which do). Previous studies have used a variety of testing procedures to assess memory in synaesthesia (e.g., free recall, recognition, associative learning) making it hard to know the extent to which memory benefits are attributable to the stimulus properties themselves, the testing method, participant strategies, or some combination of these factors. In the first experiment, we use the same testing procedure (recognition memory) for a variety of stimuli (written words, non-words, scenes, and fractals) and also check which memorization strategies were used. We demonstrate that grapheme-color synaesthetes show enhanced memory across all these stimuli, but this is not found for a non-visual type of synaesthesia (lexical-gustatory). In the second experiment, the memory advantage for scenes is explored further by manipulating the properties of the old and new images (changing color, orientation, or object presence). Again, grapheme-color synaesthetes show a memory advantage for scenes across all manipulations. Although recognition memory is generally enhanced in this study, the largest effects were found for abstract visual images (fractals) and scenes for which color can be used to discriminate old/new status. PMID:24187542

  10. How to Save Money on Infant Formula

    MedlinePlus

    ... samples. Consider generic or store-brand formulas. By law, they must meet the same nutritional and quality standards as brand-name formulas. Avoid using disposable bottles. You will have to use a different liner with each ...

  11. Polar Color

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 3 May 2004 This nighttime visible color image was collected on January 1, 2003 during the Northern Summer season near the North Polar Troughs.

    This daytime visible color image was collected on September 4, 2002 during the Northern Spring season in Vastitas Borealis. The THEMIS VIS camera is capable of capturing color images of the martian surface using its five different color filters. In this mode of operation, the spatial resolution and coverage of the image must be reduced to accommodate the additional data volume produced from the use of multiple filters. To make a color image, three of the five filter images (each in grayscale) are selected. Each is contrast enhanced and then converted to a red, green, or blue intensity image. These three images are then combined to produce a full color, single image. Because the THEMIS color filters don't span the full range of colors seen by the human eye, a color THEMIS image does not represent true color. Also, because each single-filter image is contrast enhanced before inclusion in the three-color image, the apparent color variation of the scene is exaggerated. Nevertheless, the color variation that does appear is representative of some change in color, however subtle, in the actual scene. Note that the long edges of THEMIS color images typically contain color artifacts that do not represent surface variation.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 79, Longitude 346 East (14 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with

  12. Color Stability of the Bulk-Fill Composite Resins with Different Thickness in Response to Coffee/Water Immersion

    PubMed Central

    Sheikh-Al-Eslamian, Seyedeh Mahsa; Hasani, Elham; Abrandabadi, Ahmad Najafi

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to evaluate the color stability of bulk-fill and conventional composite resin with respect to thickness and storage media. Twenty specimens of a conventional composite resin (6 mm diameter and 2 mm thick) and 40 specimens of the bulk-fill Tetric EvoCeram composite resin at two different thicknesses (6 mm diameter and 2 mm thick or 4 mm thick, n = 20) were prepared. The specimens were stored in distilled water during the study period (28 d). Half of the specimens were remained in distilled water and the other half were immersed in coffee solution 20 min/d and kept in distilled water between the cycles. Color changes (ΔE) were measured using the CIE L⁎a⁎b⁎ color space and a digital imaging system at 1, 7, 14, and 28 days of storage. Data were analyzed using Two-way ANOVA and Tukey's HSD post hoc test (P < 0.05). Composite resins showed significant increase in color changes by time (bulk-fill > conventional; P < 0.001). Coffee exhibited significantly more staining susceptibility than that of distilled water (P < 0.001). There was greater color changes with increasing the increment thickness, which was significant at 14 (P < 0.001) and 28 d (P < 0.01). Color change of bulk-fill composite resin was greater than that of the conventional one after coffee staining and is also a function of increment thicknesses. PMID:27403163

  13. Genetic structure and different color morphotypes suggest the occurrence and bathymetric segregation of two incipient species of Sebastes off Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venerus, Leonardo A.; Ciancio, Javier E.; Riva-Rossi, Carla; Gilbert-Horvath, Elizabeth A.; Gosztonyi, Atila E.; Garza, John Carlos

    2013-07-01

    Rockfishes of the genus Sebastes are extensively distributed in the Pacific and Atlantic oceans. Although the occurrence of two morphologically similar species in the Southern Hemisphere, Sebastes oculatus and Sebastes capensis, is now clearly established, the taxonomic status and phylogeographic patterns for the genus in the region have not yet been completely resolved. In this study, we provide new insights into the taxonomy and evolutionary relationships of rockfishes inhabiting the Southwestern Atlantic Ocean, off the coast of mainland Argentina, by combining mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region sequences, microsatellite data, and color pattern analyses. Differences in coloration ("dark" and "light" fish) together with bathymetric segregation between color morphotypes were evident from fish collection and literature review. In addition, the mtDNA phylogenetic analysis and Bayesian clustering analysis using microsatellite data separated the fish into two distinct groups ( F ST = 0.041), most likely representing incipient species. Our results suggest that speciation-by-depth in the absence of physical barriers could be a widespread mechanism of speciation in Sebastes from both the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. Nevertheless, the degree of genetic differentiation found, added to the large number of individuals displaying high levels of admixture, points to the occurrence of incomplete reproductive barriers between color morphotypes. Beyond the taxonomic and phylogeographic implications of our findings, the occurrence of distinct groups of Sebastes off the coast of Argentina being targeted by different fisheries (angling and trawling) has consequences for the design and implementation of appropriate fishery regulations to avoid overharvest of either group.

  14. A Unified Titration Formula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glaister, P.

    1999-01-01

    In a number of standard titrations, a volume of a monoprotic base MOH at a specific concentration is added to a volume of a monoprotic acid HA at a specific concentrations. Four different types of titration are possible, depending on whether the acid and base are strong or weak. In a recent article, some of these cases are discussed in detail. However, a single unifying formula covering all four cases has been determined.

  15. Detection of fruit by the Cerrado's marmoset (Callithrix penicillata): modeling color signals for different background scenarios and ambient light intensities.

    PubMed

    Perini, Eduardo Sosti; Pessoa, Valdir Filgueiras; Pessoa, Daniel Marques de Almeida

    2009-04-01

    Among placental mammals, only primates have trichromatic color vision, however this is not a uniform condition. Under different genetic status, Old World monkeys have routine trichromacy, while New World monkeys show a visual polymorphism, characterized by obligatory male dichromacy. The ecological role of this genetic difference still remains unclear, but some studies show that dichromats and trichromats appear to have different abilities in detecting colored targets against a background of leaves. The Cerrado's marmoset (Callithrix penicillata) is known to forage in brightly illuminated (savanna-like vegetation) and dimly illuminated (forests) environments, exploiting a high amount of dark fruits. Hence, it seems to be a good model for studying the differential advantages enjoyed by each color vision phenotype under natural conditions. Our aim was to verify how the different phenotypes of Cerrado's marmoset detect components of their diet, evaluating the existence of differential phenotype advantages. Under two different light conditions, visual signals of naturally consumed fruits were modeled against different backgrounds scenarios. Even though dichromats and trichromats appear to be equally suited for tasks involving fruit detection, phenotype differential advantages are observed in this marmoset. In many conditions trichromats are predicted to perform better than dichromats, but under low ambient light dichromats manage to outperform trichromats in some scenarios. Phenotypes that carry widely spaced and longer M/L pigments enjoy the most advantage. These differential performances of trichromatic phenotypes, together with overdominance selection, seem to explain the maintenance of the tri-allelic system found in callitrichids. PMID:19296489

  16. Detection of fruit by the Cerrado's marmoset (Callithrix penicillata): modeling color signals for different background scenarios and ambient light intensities.

    PubMed

    Perini, Eduardo Sosti; Pessoa, Valdir Filgueiras; Pessoa, Daniel Marques de Almeida

    2009-04-01

    Among placental mammals, only primates have trichromatic color vision, however this is not a uniform condition. Under different genetic status, Old World monkeys have routine trichromacy, while New World monkeys show a visual polymorphism, characterized by obligatory male dichromacy. The ecological role of this genetic difference still remains unclear, but some studies show that dichromats and trichromats appear to have different abilities in detecting colored targets against a background of leaves. The Cerrado's marmoset (Callithrix penicillata) is known to forage in brightly illuminated (savanna-like vegetation) and dimly illuminated (forests) environments, exploiting a high amount of dark fruits. Hence, it seems to be a good model for studying the differential advantages enjoyed by each color vision phenotype under natural conditions. Our aim was to verify how the different phenotypes of Cerrado's marmoset detect components of their diet, evaluating the existence of differential phenotype advantages. Under two different light conditions, visual signals of naturally consumed fruits were modeled against different backgrounds scenarios. Even though dichromats and trichromats appear to be equally suited for tasks involving fruit detection, phenotype differential advantages are observed in this marmoset. In many conditions trichromats are predicted to perform better than dichromats, but under low ambient light dichromats manage to outperform trichromats in some scenarios. Phenotypes that carry widely spaced and longer M/L pigments enjoy the most advantage. These differential performances of trichromatic phenotypes, together with overdominance selection, seem to explain the maintenance of the tri-allelic system found in callitrichids.

  17. Variation of thermal parameters in two different color morphs of a diurnal poison toad, Melanophryniscus rubriventris (Anura: Bufonidae).

    PubMed

    Sanabria, Eduardo A; Vaira, Marcos; Quiroga, Lorena B; Akmentins, Mauricio S; Pereyra, Laura C

    2014-04-01

    We study the variation in thermal parameters in two contrasting populations Yungas Redbelly Toads (Melanophryniscus rubriventris) with different discrete color phenotypes comparing field body temperatures, critical thermal maximum and heating rates. We found significant differences in field body temperatures of the different morphs. Temperatures were higher in toads with a high extent of dorsal melanization. No variation was registered in operative temperatures between the study locations at the moment of capture and processing. Critical thermal maximum of toads was positively related with the extent of dorsal melanization. Furthermore, we founded significant differences in heating rates between morphs, where individuals with a high extent of dorsal melanization showed greater heating rates than toads with lower dorsal melanization. The color pattern-thermal parameter relationship observed may influence the activity patterns and body size of individuals. Body temperature is a modulator of physiological and behavioral functions in amphibians, influencing daily and seasonal activity, locomotor performance, digestion rate and growth rate. It is possible that some growth constraints may arise due to the relationship of color pattern-metabolism allowing different morphs to attain similar sizes at different locations instead of body-size clines.

  18. Growth profile of Chamaedorea cataractarum (Cascade Palm)seedlings with different colored plastic mulch

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of colored plastic mulch on the growth of Chamaedorea cataractarum Mart. (Cascade Palm). The seedlings placed in soil were compared with those placed in red and blue mulch. The plant growth was monitored for plant height, thickness at the base ...

  19. Endemism and regional color and genetic differences in five putatively cosmopolitan reef fishes.

    PubMed

    Drew, Joshua; Allen, Gerald R; Kaufman, Les; Barber, Paul H

    2008-08-01

    Endemism is thought to be relatively rare in marine systems due to the lack of allopatric barriers and the potential for long-distance colonization via pelagic larval dispersal. Although many species of coral reef fishes exhibit regionally restricted color variants that are suggestive of regional endemism, such variation is typically ascribed to intraspecific variation. We examined the genetic structure in 5 putatively monospecific fishes from the Indo-West Pacific (Amphiprion melanopus, Chrysiptera talboti, and Pomacentrus moluccensis [Pomacentridae] and Cirrhilabrus punctatus, and Labroides dimidiatus [Labridae]) that express regional color variation unique to this area. Mitochondrial-control-region sequence analysis showed shallow to deep genetic divergence in all 5 species (sequence divergence 2-17%), with clades concordant with regional color variation. These results were partially supported by nuclear RAG2 data. An analysis of molecular variation (AMOVA) mirrored the phylogenetic results; Phi(ST) values ranged from 0.91 to 0.7, indicating high levels of geographic partitioning of genetic variation. Concordance of genetics and phenotype demonstrate the genetic uniqueness of southwestern Pacific color variants, indicating that these populations are at a minimum distinct evolutionarily significant units and perhaps distinct regionally endemic species. Our results indicate that the alpha biodiversity of the southwestern Pacific is likely underestimated even in well-studied groups, such as reef fishes, and that regional endemism may be more common in tropical marine systems than previously thought.

  20. A Comparative Study on Visual Choice Reaction Time for Different Colors in Females

    PubMed Central

    Balakrishnan, Grrishma; Uppinakudru, Gurunandan; Girwar Singh, Gaur; Bangera, Shobith; Dutt Raghavendra, Aswini; Thangavel, Dinesh

    2014-01-01

    Reaction time is one of the important methods to study a person's central information processing speed and coordinated peripheral movement response. Visual choice reaction time is a type of reaction time and is very important for drivers, pilots, security guards, and so forth. Previous studies were mainly on simple reaction time and there are very few studies on visual choice reaction time. The aim of our study was to compare the visual choice reaction time for red, green, and yellow colors of 60 healthy undergraduate female volunteers. After giving adequate practice, visual choice reaction time was recorded for red, green, and yellow colors using reaction time machine (RTM 608, Medicaid, Chandigarh). Repeated measures of ANOVA and Bonferroni multiple comparison were used for analysis and P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. The results showed that both red and green had significantly less choice visual choice reaction (P values <0.0001 and 0.0002) when compared with yellow. This could be because individual color mental processing time for yellow color is more than red and green. PMID:25580294

  1. Contrast Sensitivity Differences between Proficient and Disabled Readers Using Colored Lenses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spafford, Carol S.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    This study examined relationships among lens color, visual grating, visual detection task performance, and peripheral retinal brightness thresholds among four adults and four children with reading disabilities and age-matched controls. Subjects with reading disabilities displayed significantly lower contrast sensitivity when tested with sine-wave…

  2. Do focal colors look particularly "colorful"?

    PubMed

    Witzel, Christoph; Franklin, Anna

    2014-04-01

    If the most typical red, yellow, green, and blue were particularly colorful (i.e., saturated), they would "jump out to the eye." This would explain why even fundamentally different languages have distinct color terms for these focal colors, and why unique hues play a prominent role in subjective color appearance. In this study, the subjective saturation of 10 colors around each of these focal colors was measured through a pairwise matching task. Results show that subjective saturation changes systematically across hues in a way that is strongly correlated to the visual gamut, and exponentially related to sensitivity but not to focal colors.

  3. 45 CFR 2522.610 - What is the difference in performance measurements requirements for competitive and formula...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... PARTICIPANTS, PROGRAMS, AND APPLICANTS Evaluation Requirements Performance Measures: Requirements and Procedures § 2522.610 What is the difference in performance measurements requirements for competitive and... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What is the difference in performance...

  4. Gene expression divergence and nucleotide differentiation between males of different color morphs and mating strategies in the ruff

    PubMed Central

    Ekblom, Robert; Farrell, Lindsay L; Lank, David B; Burke, Terry

    2012-01-01

    By next generation transcriptome sequencing, it is possible to obtain data on both nucleotide sequence variation and gene expression. We have used this approach (RNA-Seq) to investigate the genetic basis for differences in plumage coloration and mating strategies in a non-model bird species, the ruff (Philomachus pugnax). Ruff males show enormous variation in the coloration of ornamental feathers, used for individual recognition. This polymorphism is linked to reproductive strategies, with dark males (Independents) defending territories on leks against other Independents, whereas white morphs (Satellites) co-occupy Independent's courts without agonistic interactions. Previous work found a strong genetic component for mating strategy, but the genes involved were not identified. We present feather transcriptome data of more than 6,000 de-novo sequenced ruff genes (although with limited coverage for many of them). None of the identified genes showed significant expression divergence between males, but many genetic markers showed nucleotide differentiation between different color morphs and mating strategies. These include several feather keratin genes, splicing factors, and the Xg blood-group gene. Many of the genes with significant genetic structure between mating strategies have not yet been annotated and their functions remain to be elucidated. We also conducted in-depth investigations of 28 pre-identified coloration candidate genes. Two of these (EDNRB and TYR) were specifically expressed in black- and rust-colored males, respectively. We have demonstrated the utility of next generation transcriptome sequencing for identifying and genotyping large number of genetic markers in a non-model species without previous genomic resources, and highlight the potential of this approach for addressing the genetic basis of ecologically important variation. PMID:23145334

  5. Determination of total flavonoids content in fresh Ginkgo biloba leaf with different colors using near infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Ji-yong; Zou, Xiao-bo; Zhao, Jie-wen; Mel, Holmes; Wang, Kai-liang; Wang, Xue; Chen, Hong

    Total flavonoids content is often considered an important quality index of Ginkgo biloba leaf. The feasibility of using near infrared (NIR) spectra at the wavelength range of 10,000-4000 cm-1 for rapid and nondestructive determination of total flavonoids content in G. biloba leaf was investigated. 120 fresh G. biloba leaves in different colors (green, green-yellowish and yellow) were used to spectra acquisition and total flavonoids determination. Partial least squares (PLS), interval partial least squares (iPLS) and synergy interval partial least squares (SiPLS) were used to develop calibration models for total flavonoids content in two colors leaves (green-yellowish and yellow) and three colors leaves (green, green-yellowish and yellow), respectively. The level of total flavonoids content for green, green-yellowish and yellow leaves was in an increasing order. Two characteristic wavelength regions (5840-6090 cm-1 and 6620-6880 cm-1), which corresponded to the absorptions of two aromatic rings in basic flavonoid structure, were selected by SiPLS. The optimal SiPLS model for total flavonoids content in the two colors leaves (r2 = 0.82, RMSEP = 2.62 mg g-1) had better performance than PLS and iPLS models. It could be concluded that NIR spectroscopy has significant potential in the nondestructive determination of total flavonoids content in fresh G. biloba leaf.

  6. Preferred skin color enhancement for photographic color reproduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Huanzhao; Luo, Ronnier

    2011-01-01

    Skin tones are the most important colors among the memory color category. Reproducing skin colors pleasingly is an important factor in photographic color reproduction. Moving skin colors toward their preferred skin color center improves the color preference of skin color reproduction. Several methods to morph skin colors to a smaller preferred skin color region has been reported in the past. In this paper, a new approach is proposed to further improve the result of skin color enhancement. An ellipsoid skin color model is applied to compute skin color probabilities for skin color detection and to determine a weight for skin color adjustment. Preferred skin color centers determined through psychophysical experiments were applied for color adjustment. Preferred skin color centers for dark, medium, and light skin colors are applied to adjust skin colors differently. Skin colors are morphed toward their preferred color centers. A special processing is applied to avoid contrast loss in highlight. A 3-D interpolation method is applied to fix a potential contouring problem and to improve color processing efficiency. An psychophysical experiment validates that the method of preferred skin color enhancement effectively identifies skin colors, improves the skin color preference, and does not objectionably affect preferred skin colors in original images.

  7. Color Me Understood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Judy J.

    2000-01-01

    Describes the "color system" as a way of grouping children into different personality types based on a certain color: orange, blue, green, and gold. Lists stress producers for specific color people. Asserts that, through making groups of different colors, children begin to see the various specialties others can bring to the group and learn to…

  8. Red Color Light at Different Intensities Affects the Performance, Behavioral Activities and Welfare of Broilers.

    PubMed

    Senaratna, D; Samarakone, T S; Gunawardena, W W D A

    2016-07-01

    Red light (RL) marked higher weight gain (WG) and preference of broilers compared to other light colors. This study aimed to investigate how different intensities of RL affect the performance, behavior and welfare of broilers. RL treatments were T1 = high intensity (320 lux), T2 = medium intensity (20 lux); T3 = dim intensity (5 lux), T4 = control/white light at (20 lux) provided on 20L:4D schedule and T5 = negative control; 12 hours dark: 12 hours day light. Cobb strain broilers were used in a Complete Randomize Design with 6 replicates. WG, water/feed intake, feed conversion ratio (FCR), mortality, behavior and welfare were assessed. At 35 d, significantly (p<0.05) highest body weight (2,147.06 g±99) was recorded by T3. Lowest body weight (1,640.55 g±56) and FCR (1.34) were recorded by T5. Skin weight was the only carcass parameter showed a significant (p<0.05) influence giving the highest (56.2 g) and the lowest (12.6 g) values for T5 and T1 respectively. Reduced welfare status indicated by significantly (p<0.05) higher foot pad lesions, hock burns and breast blisters was found under T3, due to reduced expression of behavior. Highest walking (2.08%±1%) was performed under T1 in the evening during 29 to 35 days. Highest dust bathing (3.01%±2%) was performed in the morning during 22 to 28 days and highest bird interaction (BI) (4.87%±4%) was observed in the evening by T5 during 14 to 21 days. Light intensity×day session×age interaction was significantly (p<0.05) affected walking, dust bathing and BI. Light intensity significantly (p<0.05) affected certain behaviors such as lying, eating, drinking, standing, walking, preening while lying, wing/leg stretching, sleeping, dozing, BI, vocalization, idling. In conclusion, birds essentially required provision of light in the night for better performance. Exposed to 5 lux contributed to higher WG, potentially indicating compromised welfare status. Further researches are suggested to investigate RL intensity based

  9. Red Color Light at Different Intensities Affects the Performance, Behavioral Activities and Welfare of Broilers

    PubMed Central

    Senaratna, D.; Samarakone, T. S.; Gunawardena, W. W. D. A.

    2016-01-01

    Red light (RL) marked higher weight gain (WG) and preference of broilers compared to other light colors. This study aimed to investigate how different intensities of RL affect the performance, behavior and welfare of broilers. RL treatments were T1 = high intensity (320 lux), T2 = medium intensity (20 lux); T3 = dim intensity (5 lux), T4 = control/white light at (20 lux) provided on 20L:4D schedule and T5 = negative control; 12 hours dark: 12 hours day light. Cobb strain broilers were used in a Complete Randomize Design with 6 replicates. WG, water/feed intake, feed conversion ratio (FCR), mortality, behavior and welfare were assessed. At 35 d, significantly (p<0.05) highest body weight (2,147.06 g±99) was recorded by T3. Lowest body weight (1,640.55 g±56) and FCR (1.34) were recorded by T5. Skin weight was the only carcass parameter showed a significant (p<0.05) influence giving the highest (56.2 g) and the lowest (12.6 g) values for T5 and T1 respectively. Reduced welfare status indicated by significantly (p<0.05) higher foot pad lesions, hock burns and breast blisters was found under T3, due to reduced expression of behavior. Highest walking (2.08%±1%) was performed under T1 in the evening during 29 to 35 days. Highest dust bathing (3.01%±2%) was performed in the morning during 22 to 28 days and highest bird interaction (BI) (4.87%±4%) was observed in the evening by T5 during 14 to 21 days. Light intensity×day session×age interaction was significantly (p<0.05) affected walking, dust bathing and BI. Light intensity significantly (p<0.05) affected certain behaviors such as lying, eating, drinking, standing, walking, preening while lying, wing/leg stretching, sleeping, dozing, BI, vocalization, idling. In conclusion, birds essentially required provision of light in the night for better performance. Exposed to 5 lux contributed to higher WG, potentially indicating compromised welfare status. Further researches are suggested to investigate RL intensity based

  10. Red Color Light at Different Intensities Affects the Performance, Behavioral Activities and Welfare of Broilers.

    PubMed

    Senaratna, D; Samarakone, T S; Gunawardena, W W D A

    2016-07-01

    Red light (RL) marked higher weight gain (WG) and preference of broilers compared to other light colors. This study aimed to investigate how different intensities of RL affect the performance, behavior and welfare of broilers. RL treatments were T1 = high intensity (320 lux), T2 = medium intensity (20 lux); T3 = dim intensity (5 lux), T4 = control/white light at (20 lux) provided on 20L:4D schedule and T5 = negative control; 12 hours dark: 12 hours day light. Cobb strain broilers were used in a Complete Randomize Design with 6 replicates. WG, water/feed intake, feed conversion ratio (FCR), mortality, behavior and welfare were assessed. At 35 d, significantly (p<0.05) highest body weight (2,147.06 g±99) was recorded by T3. Lowest body weight (1,640.55 g±56) and FCR (1.34) were recorded by T5. Skin weight was the only carcass parameter showed a significant (p<0.05) influence giving the highest (56.2 g) and the lowest (12.6 g) values for T5 and T1 respectively. Reduced welfare status indicated by significantly (p<0.05) higher foot pad lesions, hock burns and breast blisters was found under T3, due to reduced expression of behavior. Highest walking (2.08%±1%) was performed under T1 in the evening during 29 to 35 days. Highest dust bathing (3.01%±2%) was performed in the morning during 22 to 28 days and highest bird interaction (BI) (4.87%±4%) was observed in the evening by T5 during 14 to 21 days. Light intensity×day session×age interaction was significantly (p<0.05) affected walking, dust bathing and BI. Light intensity significantly (p<0.05) affected certain behaviors such as lying, eating, drinking, standing, walking, preening while lying, wing/leg stretching, sleeping, dozing, BI, vocalization, idling. In conclusion, birds essentially required provision of light in the night for better performance. Exposed to 5 lux contributed to higher WG, potentially indicating compromised welfare status. Further researches are suggested to investigate RL intensity based

  11. Preliminary observations on the response of Chironex fleckeri (Cnidaria: Cubozoa: Chirodropida) to different colors of light.

    PubMed

    Gershwin, Lisa-Ann; Dawes, Peter

    2008-08-01

    Cubozoans are well known for their attraction to light and light-colored objects. Two highly venomous types are a public safety concern in Australian waters and elsewhere: Chironex fleckeri, long considered the world's deadliest animal and colloquially called the box jellyfish; and the irukandjis, a group of at least 10 species that cause various degrees of debilitating illness. We were asked by the tourism industry whether there might be a color of light that box jellyfish and irukandjis are not attracted to, such that nighttime diving activities might pose less risk of being stung. Our preliminary trials with Chironex fleckeri indicated a marked positive response to lights of white, red, yellow, green, orange, and blue. All colors elicited a strong and directed attraction to light; however, medusae slowed down their pulsation rate, streamed out their tentacles, and performed a series of figure-eight patterns back and forth through the lighted area when exposed to blue light, which we interpreted as feeding behavior. This compares curiously with a report subsequent to our testing, in which the small, mangrove-inhabiting cubomedusa Tripedalia cystophora and the beach-dwelling Chiropsella bronzie demonstrate a peak sensitivity to blue-green light in the region of 500 nm, and that the former is behaviorally attracted to blue and green light, but ignores red. This leaves open the possibility that Irukandji species, which are more closely related to Tripedalia than to Chironex, may be blind to red. PMID:18723637

  12. Copy number variation and missense mutations of the agouti signaling protein (ASIP) gene in goat breeds with different coat colors.

    PubMed

    Fontanesi, L; Beretti, F; Riggio, V; Gómez González, E; Dall'Olio, S; Davoli, R; Russo, V; Portolano, B

    2009-01-01

    In goats, classical genetic studies reported a large number of alleles at the Agouti locus with effects on coat color and pattern distribution. From these early studies, the dominant A(Wt) (white/tan) allele was suggested to cause the white color of the Saanen breed. Here, we sequenced the coding region of the goat ASIP gene in 6 goat breeds (Girgentana, Maltese, Derivata di Siria, Murciano-Granadina, Camosciata delle Alpi, and Saanen), with different coat colors and patterns. Five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified, 3 of which caused missense mutations in conserved positions of the cysteine-rich carboxy-terminal domain of the protein (p.Ala96Gly, p.Cys126Gly, and p.Val128Gly). Allele and genotype frequencies suggested that these mutations are not associated or not completely associated with coat color in the investigated goat breeds. Moreover, genotyping and sequencing results, deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, as well as allele copy number evaluation from semiquantitative fluorescent multiplex PCR, indicated the presence of copy number variation (CNV) in all investigated breeds. To confirm the presence of CNV and evaluate its extension, we applied a bovine-goat cross-species array comparative genome hybridization (aCGH) experiment using a custom tiling array based on bovine chromosome 13. aCGH results obtained for 8 goat DNA samples confirmed the presence of CNV affecting a region of less that 100 kb including the ASIP and AHCY genes. In Girgentana and Saanen breeds, this CNV might cause the A(Wt) allele, as already suggested for a similar structural mutation in sheep affecting the ASIP and AHCY genes, providing evidence for a recurrent interspecies CNV. However, other mechanisms may also be involved in determining coat color in these 2 breeds.

  13. New precession formula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukushima, Toshio

    2005-01-01

    First we modified J.G. Williams' formulation of precession/nutation by using the 3-1-3-1 rotation matrix as NP = R1( -ɛ -Δɛ) R1( -ψ -Δψ) R1(ϕ) R1(γ). Next we determined the polynomial formulas of the modified planetary precession angles numerically from the non-linear harmonic analysis of DE405. Then we estimated those of the modified luni-solar precession angles from their corrections converted from the VLBI pole offset observations during 1979-2000 by adopting the above planetary precession formulas and a recent theory of nutation SF2001. The results in the rotational sense are γR = +0.04126 +10.55378 t +0.49318 t2 ϕR = 84381.41461 -46.81325 t +0.04843 t2 ψR = -0.04305 +5038.47776 t +1.55835 t2 ɛR = 84381.40955 -46.83607 t -0.00017 t2 +0.00200 t3 and the differences between the rotational and inertial senses are γR - γI = +0.09366 +0.00060 t ϕR - ϕI = +0.00334 -0.00060 t ψR - ψI = -0.00001 -0.00035 t ɛR - ɛI = +0.00334 -0.00148 t. These consitute a new set of precession formulas referred to ICRF.

  14. Color Reproduction with a Smartphone

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thoms, Lars-Jochen; Colicchia, Giuseppe; Girwidz, Raimund

    2013-01-01

    The world is full of colors. Most of the colors we see around us can be created on common digital displays simply by superposing light with three different wavelengths. However, no mixture of colors can produce a fully pure color identical to a spectral color. Using a smartphone, students can investigate the main features of primary color addition…

  15. Morphological and Color Differences between Island and Mainland Populations in the Mexican Red Rump Tarantula, Brachypelma vagans

    PubMed Central

    Vilchis-Nestor, Claudia A.; Machkour-M'Rabet, Salima; Barriga-Sosa, Irene de los A.; Winterton, Peter; Hénaut, Yann

    2013-01-01

    The introduction of species into new ecosystems, especially in small and isolated regions such as islands, offers an excellent opportunity to answer questions of the evolutionary processes occurring in natural conditions on a scale that could never be achieved in laboratory conditions. In this study, we examined the Mexican red rump tarantula Brachypelma vagans Ausserer (Mygalomorphae: Theraphosidae), a species that was introduced to Cozumel Island, Mexico, 40 years ago. This introduction provides an exceptional model to study effects such as morphological variation between island populations and those on the mainland in open habitats facing the island. Intraspecific variation related to the color polymorphism was compared. The aim of this study was to determine the phenotypic differences between continental populations of B. vagans and the introduced population on Cozumel Island. Phenotypic difference was evaluated using two approaches: 1) comparison of the morphometric measurements of adult and juvenile individuals at the local scale and between continental and island populations, and 2) comparison of individual color polymorphism between mainland and island populations. Two locations were sampled within the continental part of the Yucatan peninsula and two on the island of Cozumel. The number of samples analyzed at each site was 30 individuals. The morphometric results showed significant differences between continental and island populations, with bigger individuals on the island. In addition, three new variations of the typical color pattern of B. vagans recorded so far were observed. This study opens the door to further investigations to elucidate the origin of the phenotypic variation of the isolated individuals on Cozumel Island. Also, the widest range of color morphs found for a tarantula species is reported. PMID:24224805

  16. Morphological and color differences between island and mainland populations in the Mexican red rump tarantula, Brachypelma vagans.

    PubMed

    Vilchis-Nestor, Claudia A; Machkour-M'rabet, Salima; de Los A Barriga-Sosa, Irene; Winterton, Peter; Hénaut, Yann

    2013-01-01

    The introduction of species into new ecosystems, especially in small and isolated regions such as islands, offers an excellent opportunity to answer questions of the evolutionary processes occurring in natural conditions on a scale that could never be achieved in laboratory conditions. In this study, we examined the Mexican red rump tarantula Brachypelma vagans Ausserer (Mygalomorphae: Theraphosidae), a species that was introduced to Cozumel Island, Mexico, 40 years ago. This introduction provides an exceptional model to study effects such as morphological variation between island populations and those on the mainland in open habitats facing the island. Intraspecific variation related to the color polymorphism was compared. The aim of this study was to determine the phenotypic differences between continental populations of B. vagans and the introduced population on Cozumel Island. Phenotypic difference was evaluated using two approaches: 1) comparison of the morphometric measurements of adult and juvenile individuals at the local scale and between continental and island populations, and 2) comparison of individual color polymorphism between mainland and island populations. Two locations were sampled within the continental part of the Yucatan peninsula and two on the island of Cozumel. The number of samples analyzed at each site was 30 individuals. The morphometric results showed significant differences between continental and island populations, with bigger individuals on the island. In addition, three new variations of the typical color pattern of B. vagans recorded so far were observed. This study opens the door to further investigations to elucidate the origin of the phenotypic variation of the isolated individuals on Cozumel Island. Also, the widest range of color morphs found for a tarantula species is reported.

  17. Morphological and color differences between island and mainland populations in the Mexican red rump tarantula, Brachypelma vagans.

    PubMed

    Vilchis-Nestor, Claudia A; Machkour-M'rabet, Salima; de Los A Barriga-Sosa, Irene; Winterton, Peter; Hénaut, Yann

    2013-01-01

    The introduction of species into new ecosystems, especially in small and isolated regions such as islands, offers an excellent opportunity to answer questions of the evolutionary processes occurring in natural conditions on a scale that could never be achieved in laboratory conditions. In this study, we examined the Mexican red rump tarantula Brachypelma vagans Ausserer (Mygalomorphae: Theraphosidae), a species that was introduced to Cozumel Island, Mexico, 40 years ago. This introduction provides an exceptional model to study effects such as morphological variation between island populations and those on the mainland in open habitats facing the island. Intraspecific variation related to the color polymorphism was compared. The aim of this study was to determine the phenotypic differences between continental populations of B. vagans and the introduced population on Cozumel Island. Phenotypic difference was evaluated using two approaches: 1) comparison of the morphometric measurements of adult and juvenile individuals at the local scale and between continental and island populations, and 2) comparison of individual color polymorphism between mainland and island populations. Two locations were sampled within the continental part of the Yucatan peninsula and two on the island of Cozumel. The number of samples analyzed at each site was 30 individuals. The morphometric results showed significant differences between continental and island populations, with bigger individuals on the island. In addition, three new variations of the typical color pattern of B. vagans recorded so far were observed. This study opens the door to further investigations to elucidate the origin of the phenotypic variation of the isolated individuals on Cozumel Island. Also, the widest range of color morphs found for a tarantula species is reported. PMID:24224805

  18. Development of resting cardiovascular activity during the first 2 years of life differs in breastfed and formula-fed boys and girls

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To investigate whether early infant diet influences cardiovascular development we recorded resting heart-rate (HR) at 3, 6, 9, 12, and 24 mo in awake healthy children who were breastfed (BF) or fed milk formula (MF) or soy formula (SF) during infancy (n = 83-146/group/age). HR, and indices of autono...

  19. Elemental changes in the hippocampal formation following two different formulas of ketogenic diet: an X-ray fluorescence microscopy study.

    PubMed

    Chwiej, J; Patulska, A; Skoczen, A; Janeczko, K; Ciarach, M; Simon, R; Setkowicz, Z

    2015-12-01

    The main purpose of the following study was the determination of elemental changes occurring within hippocampal formation as a result of high-fat and carbohydrate-restricted ketogenic diet (KD). To realize it, X-ray fluorescence microscopy was applied for topographic and quantitative analysis of P, S, K, Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn and Se in hippocampal formations taken from rats fed with two different KDs and naive controls. The detailed comparisons were done for sectors 1 and 3 of the Ammon's, the dentate gyrus and hilus of dentate gyrus. The results of elemental analysis showed that the KDs induced statistically significant changes in the accumulation of P, K, Ca, Zn and Se in particular areas of hippocampal formation and these alterations strongly depended on the composition of the diets. Much greater influence on the hippocampal areal densities of examined elements was found for the KD which was characterized by a lower content of carbohydrates, higher content of fats and increased proportion of unsaturated fatty acids. The levels of P, K and Zn decreased whilst those of Ca and Se increased as a result of the treatment with the KDs. PMID:26537249

  20. Plumage color and feather pecking--behavioral differences associated with PMEL17 genotypes in chicken (Gallus gallus).

    PubMed

    Nätt, Daniel; Kerje, Susanne; Andersson, Leif; Jensen, Per

    2007-03-01

    An F (5) generation of an advanced inter-cross between red junglefowl (wild-type) and White Leghorn (domesticated) was used to investigate earlier findings suggesting that a mutation in the plumage color gene PMEL17 protects against victimization to feather pecking (FP). F (4) parents were selected according to genotype to produce PMEL17 homozygous offspring (i/i and I/I respectively). Birds were raised and their behavior recorded in groups of either two wild-type i/i (dark colored) and one white I/I, or two I/I and one i/i. In addition each bird was tested for feather preference, reaction to novelty, open-field activity, fear for humans, and tonic-immobility. In the home-pens, i/i birds were more feather pecked and had poorer feather condition than I/I birds. No pecking preference for immobile dark colored feathers was observed. In the open-field test i/i birds vocalized more and earlier than I/I birds, and in the fear-for-human test I/I birds had higher activity at 21 weeks of age. No other behavior differences were observed, but clearly, genotypes of PMEL17 affected some aspects of behavior. Such behavioral differences might be important aspects of the mechanism which predispose i/i individuals for being victims of FP. PMID:17106652

  1. Carotenoid profiling from 27 types of paprika (Capsicum annuum L.) with different colors, shapes, and cultivation methods.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji-Sun; An, Chul Geon; Park, Jong-Suk; Lim, Yong Pyo; Kim, Suna

    2016-06-15

    In this study, we investigated carotenoid profiles and contents from 27 types of paprika with different colors (red, orange, and yellow), shapes (blocky and conical), and cultivation methods (soil and soilless). We simultaneously analyzed 12 kinds of carotenoids using UPLC equipped with an HSS T3 column for 30 min, and we identified six kinds of carotenoids in red paprika and nine types in orange and yellow paprika. Zeaxanthin concentrations in orange paprika were in the range of 85.06±23.37-151.39±5.94 mg/100 g dry weight (dw), which shows that orange paprika is a great source of zeaxanthin. Generally, red paprika is a great source of capsanthin. However, a new cultivar, 'Mini Goggal Red', contained large amounts of zeaxanthin (121.41±30.10 mg/100 g dw) even though its visible color is red. This is very meaningful considering that consumers have a preference for red color and the potent functional value of zeaxanthin. Carotenoid profiles and concentrations in blocky and conical type paprika were not significantly different in red paprika except the 'Mini Goggal Red' cultivar and yellow paprika. Blocky type orange paprika contains plenty of zeaxanthin, unlike conical type orange paprika. Three new cultivars of the conical type were cultivated in both soil culture and soilless culture in the same province, and carotenoid profiles and concentrations were similar, showing that both cultivations methods can be used.

  2. Simple transmission Raman measurements using a single multivariate model for analysis of pharmaceutical samples contained in capsules of different colors.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yeojin; Kim, Jaejin; Lee, Sanguk; Woo, Young-Ah; Chung, Hoeil

    2012-01-30

    Direct transmission Raman measurements for analysis of pharmaceuticals in capsules are advantageous since they can be used to determine active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) concentrations in a non-destructive manner and with much less fluorescence background interference from the capsules themselves compared to conventional back-scattering measurements. If a single calibration model such as developed from spectra simply collected in glass vials could be used to determine API concentrations of samples contained in capsules of different colors rather than constructing individual models for each capsule color, the utility of transmission measurements would be further enhanced. To evaluate the feasibility, transmission Raman spectra of binary mixtures of ambroxol and lactose were collected in a glass vial and a partial least squares (PLS) model for the determination of ambroxol concentration was developed. Then, the model was directly applied to determine ambroxol concentrations of samples contained in capsules of 4 different colors (blue, green, white and yellow). Although the prediction performance was slightly degraded when the samples were placed in blue or green capsules, due to the presence of weak fluorescence, accurate determination of ambroxol was generally achieved in all cases. The prediction accuracy was also investigated when the thickness of the capsule was varied. PMID:22284467

  3. Silorane, ormocer, methacrylate and compomer long-term staining susceptibility using ΔE and ΔE 00 colour-difference formulas.

    PubMed

    Gregor, Ladislav; Krejci, Ivo; Di Bella, Enrico; Feilzer, Albert J; Ardu, Stefano

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the staining susceptibility of a silorane (Filtek Silorane), an ormocer (Ceram X Duo), a methacrylate (Tetric EvoCeram) and a compomer (Dyract) exposed on the long term to various staining agents by using ΔE and ΔE 00 colour-difference formulas. Thirty-six disc-shaped specimens were made of each of the four chemically different materials, randomly divided in six groups (n = 6) and immersed in five staining solutions (red wine, juice, coke, tea and coffee) or stored dry (control) in an incubator at 37 °C for 99 days. Spectrophotometric measurements by means of a spectrophotometer (Spectroshade Handy Dental, MHT) were repeated over a white (L* = 92.6, a* = -1.2, b* = 2.9) and black (L* = 1.6, a* = 1.2, b* = -1.0) background made of plasticized paper, in order to determine the colour changes according to ΔE, ΔE 00 and translucency formulas. Statistical analysis was performed by means of factorial Anova, Fisher's LSD test (post hoc) and a Spearman rank correlation between ΔE and ΔE 00. When analysed over a white background, mean ΔE 00 values were highly significantly different and varied from 0.8 (Ceram X Duo/air) to 20.9 (Ceram X Duo/red wine). When analysed over a black background, mean ΔE 00 values were highly significantly different and varied from 1.0 (Ceram X Duo and Tetric/air) to 25.2 (Ceram X Duo/red wine). Differences in translucency varied from 0.3 (Ceram X Duo/air) to 21.1 (Ceram X Duo/juice). The correlation between ΔE and ΔE 00 over a white background was 0.9928, while over a black background, it was 0.9886. PMID:26178651

  4. Tolerance of a standard intact protein formula versus a partially hydrolyzed formula in healthy, term infants

    PubMed Central

    Berseth, Carol Lynn; Mitmesser, Susan Hazels; Ziegler, Ekhard E; Marunycz, John D; Vanderhoof, Jon

    2009-01-01

    Background Parents who perceive common infant behaviors as formula intolerance-related often switch formulas without consulting a health professional. Up to one-half of formula-fed infants experience a formula change during the first six months of life. Methods The objective of this study was to assess discontinuance due to study physician-assessed formula intolerance in healthy, term infants. Infants (335) were randomized to receive either a standard intact cow milk protein formula (INTACT) or a partially hydrolyzed cow milk protein formula (PH) in a 60 day non-inferiority trial. Discontinuance due to study physician-assessed formula intolerance was the primary outcome. Secondary outcomes included number of infants who discontinued for any reason, including parent-assessed. Results Formula intolerance between groups (INTACT, 12.3% vs. PH, 13.7%) was similar for infants who completed the study or discontinued due to study physician-assessed formula intolerance. Overall study discontinuance based on parent- vs. study physician-assessed intolerance for all infants (14.4 vs.11.1%) was significantly different (P = 0.001). Conclusion This study demonstrated no difference in infant tolerance of intact vs. partially hydrolyzed cow milk protein formulas for healthy, term infants over a 60-day feeding trial, suggesting nonstandard partially hydrolyzed formulas are not necessary as a first-choice for healthy infants. Parents frequently perceived infant behavior as formula intolerance, paralleling previous reports of unnecessary formula changes. Trial Registration clinicaltrials.gov: NCT00666120 PMID:19545360

  5. Color vision.

    PubMed

    Gegenfurtner, Karl R; Kiper, Daniel C

    2003-01-01

    Color vision starts with the absorption of light in the retinal cone photoreceptors, which transduce electromagnetic energy into electrical voltages. These voltages are transformed into action potentials by a complicated network of cells in the retina. The information is sent to the visual cortex via the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) in three separate color-opponent channels that have been characterized psychophysically, physiologically, and computationally. The properties of cells in the retina and LGN account for a surprisingly large body of psychophysical literature. This suggests that several fundamental computations involved in color perception occur at early levels of processing. In the cortex, information from the three retino-geniculate channels is combined to enable perception of a large variety of different hues. Furthermore, recent evidence suggests that color analysis and coding cannot be separated from the analysis and coding of other visual attributes such as form and motion. Though there are some brain areas that are more sensitive to color than others, color vision emerges through the combined activity of neurons in many different areas.

  6. Modeling of lactose crystallization and color changes in model infant foods.

    PubMed

    Nasirpour, A; Scher, J; Linder, M; Desobry, S

    2006-07-01

    Lactose crystallization and color changes in formulas containing beta-lactoglobulin and gelatinized starch were investigated. Model infant formulas were prepared by colyophilization of 3 components (lactose, beta-lactoglobulin, and gelatinized starch). A mixture design was used to choose the percentage of each mixture component. These formulas were stored for 3 mo at different relative humidities (RH), ranging from approximately 0 to 94.6%, to study the lactose crystallization and color changes. Crystallization kinetics was studied by gravimetric methods, and lactose state (crystalline vs. amorphous) was verified before and after storage by differential scanning calorimetry. Before storage, lyophilized lactose was amorphous, but during storage it crystallized, depending on the RH. The lactose crystallization RH depended on the quantity of beta-lactoglobulin and gelatinized starch, and by increasing these quantities, the crystallization RH increased. For some formulas, the crystallization RH was noted at 3 different RH during storage. The first was noted after 1 d of storage and the second and third were observed later on, showing that crystallization is a time-dependent phenomenon. Nonenzymatic browning was studied in model infant formulas by yellow color changes of samples at 11.3, 43.2, 54.5, and 75.4% RH. In this study, 7 mathematical models were proposed to predict the moisture sorption properties and color changes at different RH, and the models were validated by experimental results. PMID:16772552

  7. Designing State Aid Formulas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Bo; Bradbury, Katharine

    2009-01-01

    This paper designs a new equalization-aid formula based on fiscal gaps of local communities. When states are in transition to a new local aid formula, the issue of whether and how to hold existing aid harmless poses a challenge. The authors show that some previous studies and the formulas derived from them give differential weights to existing and…

  8. Color differences among feral pigeons (Columba livia) are not attributable to sequence variation in the coding region of the melanocortin-1 receptor gene (MC1R)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Genetic variation at the melanocortin-1 receptor (MC1R) gene is correlated with melanin color variation in many birds. Feral pigeons (Columba livia) show two major melanin-based colorations: a red coloration due to pheomelanic pigment and a black coloration due to eumelanic pigment. Furthermore, within each color type, feral pigeons display continuous variation in the amount of melanin pigment present in the feathers, with individuals varying from pure white to a full dark melanic color. Coloration is highly heritable and it has been suggested that it is under natural or sexual selection, or both. Our objective was to investigate whether MC1R allelic variants are associated with plumage color in feral pigeons. Findings We sequenced 888 bp of the coding sequence of MC1R among pigeons varying both in the type, eumelanin or pheomelanin, and the amount of melanin in their feathers. We detected 10 non-synonymous substitutions and 2 synonymous substitution but none of them were associated with a plumage type. It remains possible that non-synonymous substitutions that influence coloration are present in the short MC1R fragment that we did not sequence but this seems unlikely because we analyzed the entire functionally important region of the gene. Conclusions Our results show that color differences among feral pigeons are probably not attributable to amino acid variation at the MC1R locus. Therefore, variation in regulatory regions of MC1R or variation in other genes may be responsible for the color polymorphism of feral pigeons. PMID:23915680

  9. Color reproduction with a smartphone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thoms, Lars-Jochen; Colicchia, Giuseppe; Girwidz, Raimund

    2013-10-01

    The world is full of colors. Most of the colors we see around us can be created on common digital displays simply by superposing light with three different wavelengths. However, no mixture of colors can produce a fully pure color identical to a spectral color. Using a smartphone, students can investigate the main features of primary color addition and understand how colors are made on digital displays.

  10. Effect of different beverages on the color stability and degree of conversion of nano and microhybrid composites.

    PubMed

    Al Kheraif, Abdul Aziz Abdullah; Qasim, Sayed Saad Bin; Ramakrishnaiah, Ravikumar; Ihtesham ur Rehman

    2013-01-01

    This study sought to evaluate the effects of different staining solutions on the colour stability of nanocomposites compared with microhybrid resin and to evaluate the degree of conversion of these two materials. Two different shades of two different composites were cured in polytetraflouroethylene disk rings. Coffee, tea and cola drinks were used as staining solutions, and distilled water was used as a control. Data were statistically analysed using a paired T-test with a significance level of 5%. Nano composite showed the highest degree of conversion (DC) values based on calculation of the bonded and free carbonyl peak intensities in the spectrum. The colour analysis showed that nanohybrid had the highest ΔE values when exposed to coffee solutions; they showed less color stability despite having a higher degree of conversion. Nano resin composite showed significantly higher discoloration than microhybrid composite.

  11. Major Breeding Plumage Color Differences of Male Ruffs (Philomachus pugnax) Are Not Associated With Coding Sequence Variation in the MC1R Gene

    PubMed Central

    Küpper, Clemens; Burke, Terry; Lank, David B.

    2015-01-01

    Sequence variation in the melanocortin-1 receptor (MC1R) gene explains color morph variation in several species of birds and mammals. Ruffs (Philomachus pugnax) exhibit major dark/light color differences in melanin-based male breeding plumage which is closely associated with alternative reproductive behavior. A previous study identified a microsatellite marker (Ppu020) near the MC1R locus associated with the presence/absence of ornamental plumage. We investigated whether coding sequence variation in the MC1R gene explains major dark/light plumage color variation and/or the presence/absence of ornamental plumage in ruffs. Among 821bp of the MC1R coding region from 44 male ruffs we found 3 single nucleotide polymorphisms, representing 1 nonsynonymous and 2 synonymous amino acid substitutions. None were associated with major dark/light color differences or the presence/absence of ornamental plumage. At all amino acid sites known to be functionally important in other avian species with dark/light plumage color variation, ruffs were either monomorphic or the shared polymorphism did not coincide with color morph. Neither ornamental plumage color differences nor the presence/absence of ornamental plumage in ruffs are likely to be caused entirely by amino acid variation within the coding regions of the MC1R locus. Regulatory elements and structural variation at other loci may be involved in melanin expression and contribute to the extreme plumage polymorphism observed in this species. PMID:25534935

  12. Color Blindness

    MedlinePlus

    ... three color cone cells to determine our color perception. Color blindness can occur when one or more ... Anyone who experiences a significant change in color perception should see an ophthalmologist (Eye M.D.). Next ...

  13. Color blindness

    MedlinePlus

    Color deficiency; Blindness - color ... Color blindness occurs when there is a problem with the pigments in certain nerve cells of the eye that sense color. These cells are called cones. They are found ...

  14. Color-rendering indices in global illumination methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geisler-Moroder, David; Dür, Arne

    2009-10-01

    Human perception of material colors depends heavily on the nature of the light sources that are used for illumination. One and the same object can cause highly different color impressions when lit by a vapor lamp or by daylight, respectively. On the basis of state-of-the-art colorimetric methods, we present a modern approach for the calculation of color-rendering indices (CRI), which were defined by the International Commission on Illumination (CIE) to characterize color reproduction properties of illuminants. We update the standard CIE method in three main points: first, we use the CIELAB color space; second, we apply a linearized Bradford transformation for chromatic adaptation; and finally, we evaluate color differences using the CIEDE2000 total color difference formula. Moreover, within a real-world scene, light incident on a measurement surface is composed of a direct and an indirect part. Neumann and Schanda [Proc. CGIV'06 Conf., Leeds, UK, pp. 283-286 (2006)] have shown for the cube model that diffuse interreflections can influence the CRI of a light source. We analyze how color-rendering indices vary in a real-world scene with mixed direct and indirect illumination and recommend the usage of a spectral rendering engine instead of an RGB-based renderer for reasons of accuracy of CRI calculations.

  15. The Trouble with Color.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merchant, David

    1999-01-01

    Discusses problems with color quality in Web sites. Topics include differences in monitor settings, including contrast; amount of video RAM; user preference settings; browser-safe colors; cross-platform readability; and gamma values. (LRW)

  16. Digital color management in full-color holographic three-dimensional printer.

    PubMed

    Yang, Fei; Murakami, Yuri; Yamaguchi, Masahiro

    2012-07-01

    We propose a new method of color management for a full-color holographic, three-dimensional (3D) printer, which produces a volume reflection holographic stereogram using red, green, and blue three-color lasers. For natural color management in the holographic 3D printer, we characterize its color reproduction characteristics based on the spectral measurement of reproduced light. Then the color conversion formula, which comprises a one-dimensional lookup table and a 3×3 matrix, was derived from the measurement data. The color reproducibility was evaluated by printing a color chart hologram, and the average CIELAB ΔE=13.19 is fairly small.

  17. Color Universal Design: analysis of color category dependency on color vision type

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ichihara, Yasuyo G.; Kojima, Natsuki; Ito, Kei

    2010-01-01

    The present study investigates the tendency of individuals to categorize colors. Humans recognize colors by categorizing them with specific color names such as red, blue, and yellow. When an individual having a certain type of color vision observes an object, they categorize its color using a particular color name and assume that other people will perceive the color in an identical manner. However, there are many variations in human color vision caused by photoreceptor differences in the eye, including red and green confusion. Thus, another person with a different type of color vision may categorize the color using another name. To address this issue, we attempt to determine the differences in the ranges of colors that people with different types of color vision categorize using particular color names. In the modern urban environment, most visual information, including warning signs and notice boards, is coded by color. Finding the common color categories among different types of color vision is an important step towards achieving Color Universal Design, a visual communication method that is viewer-friendly irrespective of color vision type. Herein we report on a systematic comparison between people with common (C-type) and deutan (D-type) color vision. Analysis of protan (P-type) color vision will follow in a subsequent report.

  18. Fish and robot dancing together: bluefin killifish females respond differently to the courtship of a robot with varying color morphs.

    PubMed

    Phamduy, P; Polverino, G; Fuller, R C; Porfiri, M

    2014-09-01

    The experimental integration of bioinspired robots in groups of social animals has become a valuable tool to understand the basis of social behavior and uncover the fundamental determinants of animal communication. In this study, we measured the preference of fertile female bluefin killifish (Lucania goodei) for robotic replicas whose aspect ratio, body size, motion pattern, and color morph were inspired by adult male killifish. The motion of the fish replica was controlled via a robotic platform, which simulated the typical courtship behavior observed in killifish males. The positional preferences of females were measured for three different color morphs (red, yellow, and blue). While variation in preference was high among females, females tend to spend more time in the vicinity of the yellow painted robot replicas. This preference may have emerged because the yellow robot replicas were very bright, particularly in the longer wavelengths (550–700 nm) compared to the red and blue replicas. These findings are in agreement with previous observations in mosquitofish and zebrafish on fish preference for artificially enhanced yellow pigmentation.

  19. Biotechnological production of colorants.

    PubMed

    de Boer, Lex

    2014-01-01

    The color of food and drinks is important, as it is associated with freshness and taste. Despite that natural colorants are more expensive to produce, less stable to heat and light, and less consistent in color range, natural colorants have been gaining market share in recent years. The background is that artificial colorants are often associated with negative health aspects. Considerable progress has been made towards the fermentative production of some colorants. Because colorant biosynthesis is under close metabolic control, extensive strain and process development are needed in order to establish an economical production process. Another approach is the synthesis of colors by means of biotransformation of adequate precursors. Algae represent a promising group of microorganisms that have shown a high potential for the production of different colorants, and dedicated fermentation and downstream technologies have been developed. This chapter reviews the available information with respect to these approaches. PMID:24037500

  20. A load factor formula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Roy G

    1927-01-01

    The ultimate test of a load factor formula is experience. The chief advantages of a semi rational formula over arbitrary factors are that it fairs in between points of experience and it differentiates according to variables within a type. Structural failure of an airplane apparently safe according to the formula would call for a specific change in the formula. The best class of airplanes with which to check a load factor formula seems to be those which have experienced structural failure. Table I comprises a list of the airplanes which have experienced failure in flight traceable to the wing structure. The load factor by formula is observed to be greater than the designed strength in each case, without a single exception. Table II comprises the load factor by formula with the designed strength of a number of well-known service types. The formula indicates that by far the majority of these have ample structural strength. One case considered here in deriving a suitable formula is that of a heavy load carrier of large size and practically no reserve power.

  1. Clarifying color category border according to color vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ichihara, Takumi; Ichihara, Yasuyo G.

    2015-01-01

    We usually recognize color by two kinds of processes. In the first, the color is recognized continually and a small difference in color is recognized. In the second, the color is recognized discretely. This process recognizes a similar color of a certain range as being in the same color category. The small difference in color is ignored. Recognition by using the color category is important for communication using color. It is known that a color vision defect confuses colors on the confusion locus of color. However, the color category of a color vision defect has not been thoroughly researched. If the color category of the color vision defect is clarified, it will become an important key for color universal design. In this research, we classified color stimuli into four categories to check the shape and the border of the color categories of varied color vision. The experimental result was as follows. The border of protanopia is the following three on the CIE 1931 (x, y) chromaticity diagram: y = -0.3068x + 0.4795, y = -0.1906x + 0.4021, y = -0.2624x + 0.3896. The border of deuteranopia is the following three on the CIE 1931 (x, y) chromaticity diagram: y = -0.7931x + 0.7036, y = -0.718x + 0.5966, y = -0.6667x + 0.5061.

  2. No difference indicated in electroencephalographic power spectral analysis in 3- and 6-month-old infants fed soy- or milk-based formula

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increasing concern has been recently raised on the possible effects of soy-derived phytoestrogens on the development of cognitive functions in infants. However, limited studies have been conducted to date, and no data have been made available for determining whether infant soy formula can affect nor...

  3. Reasoning about color in Prolog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batchelor, Bruce G.; Whelan, Paul F.

    1994-10-01

    The use of color as a basis for segmenting images is attractive for a wide variety of industrial inspection applications, especially in the manufacturing of domestic goods, food, pharmaceuticals, toiletries and electronics. Human beings define colors, not formulae, or computer programs. Moreover, no two people have an identical view of what a color set, such as 'canary yellow' is. The article argues that teaching by showing is more relevant than the accepted methods of Color Science, in the design of factory-floor vision systems. Fast hardware for color recognition has been available for several years but has not yet received universal acceptance. This article explains how this equipment can be used in conjunction with symbolic processing software, based on the Artificial Intelligence language Prolog. Using this hardware-software system, a programmer is able to express ideas about colors in a natural way. The concepts of color set union, intersection, generalization and interpolation are all discussed.

  4. Theory of quantum frequency translation of light in optical fiber: application to interference of two photons of different color.

    PubMed

    McGuinness, H J; Raymer, M G; McKinstrie, C J

    2011-09-12

    We study quantum frequency translation and two-color photon interference enabled by the Bragg scattering four-wave mixing process in optical fiber. Using realistic model parameters, we computationally and analytically determine the Green function and Schmidt modes for cases with various pump-pulse lengths. These cases can be categorized as either "non-discriminatory" or "discriminatory" in regards to their propensity to exhibit high-efficiency translation or high-visibility two-photon interference for many different shapes of input wave packets or for only a few input wave packets, respectively. Also, for a particular case, the Schmidt mode set was found to be nearly equal to a Hermite-Gaussian function set. The methods and results also apply with little modification to frequency conversion by sum-frequency conversion in optical crystals.

  5. Influences of different gases on the terahertz radiation based on the application of two-color laser pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Moradi, S.; Ganjovi, A.; Shojaei, F.; Saeed, M.

    2015-10-15

    In this work, using a two-dimensional Particle In Cell-Monte Carlo Collision simulation method, a comparative study is performed on the influences of different types of atomic and molecular gases at various background gas pressures on the generation of broadband and intense Terahertz (THz) radiation via the application of two-color laser pulses. These two modes are focused into Argon (Ar), Xenon (Xe), Nitrogen (N{sub 2}), Oxygen (O{sub 2}), and air as the background gaseous media and the plasma channel is created. It is observed that the THz radiation emission dramatically changes due to the propagation effects. A wider THz pulse is emitted from the formed plasma channel at the higher gas pressures. The significant effects of the propagation features of the emitted THz pulse on its energy at the longer lengths of the plasma channel are observed.

  6. Influences of different gases on the terahertz radiation based on the application of two-color laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moradi, S.; Ganjovi, A.; Shojaei, F.; Saeed, M.

    2015-10-01

    In this work, using a two-dimensional Particle In Cell-Monte Carlo Collision simulation method, a comparative study is performed on the influences of different types of atomic and molecular gases at various background gas pressures on the generation of broadband and intense Terahertz (THz) radiation via the application of two-color laser pulses. These two modes are focused into Argon (Ar), Xenon (Xe), Nitrogen (N2), Oxygen (O2), and air as the background gaseous media and the plasma channel is created. It is observed that the THz radiation emission dramatically changes due to the propagation effects. A wider THz pulse is emitted from the formed plasma channel at the higher gas pressures. The significant effects of the propagation features of the emitted THz pulse on its energy at the longer lengths of the plasma channel are observed.

  7. Comparison of live performance and meat quality parameter of cross bred (korean native black pig and landrace) pigs with different coat colors.

    PubMed

    Hur, S J; Jeong, T C; Kim, G D; Jeong, J Y; Cho, I C; Lim, H T; Kim, B W; Joo, S T

    2013-07-01

    Five hundred and forty crossbred (Korean native black pig×Landrace) F2 were selected at a commercial pig farm and then divided into six different coat color groups: (A: Black, B: White, C: Red, D: White spot in black, E: Black spot in white, F: Black spot in red). Birth weight, 21st d weight, 140th d weight and carcass weight varied among the different coat color groups. D group (white spot in black coat) showed a significantly higher body weight at each weigh (birth weight, 140th d weight and carcass weight) than did the other groups, whereas the C group (red coat color) showed a significantly lower body weight at finishing stage (140th d weight and carcass weight) compared to other groups. Meat quality characteristics, shear force, cooking loss and meat color were not significantly different among the different coat color groups, whereas drip loss was significantly higher in F than in other groups. Most blood characteristics were not significantly different among the different groups, except for the red blood cells.

  8. Infant formulas - overview

    MedlinePlus

    ... to cow's milk may also be allergic to soy milk. Soy-based formulas should be used for infants with galactosemia , a rare condition. These formulas can also be used ... have allergies to milk protein and for those with skin rashes or ...

  9. Selected Baking Formulas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bogdany, Melvin

    This manual is designed to help baking students learn to use formulas in the preparation of baking products. Tested and proven formulas are, for the most part, standard ones with only slight modifications. The recipes are taken mainly from bakery product manufacturers and are presented in quantities suitable for school-shop use. Each recipe…

  10. Formula Funding in Illinois.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fonte, Richard

    Formula funding in Illinois reflects decisions on value choices which can be grouped in the categories of enrollment linkage, mission and diversity recognition, equity and fair share, and quality and program improvement. The enrollment linkage of the Illinois formula ties credit hour grants and categorical programs directly to full-time equivalent…

  11. Coloration in different areas of facial skin is a cue to health: The role of cheek redness and periorbital luminance in health perception.

    PubMed

    Jones, Alex L; Porcheron, Aurélie; Sweda, Jennifer R; Morizot, Frederique; Russell, Richard

    2016-06-01

    Looking healthy is a desirable trait, and facial skin color is a predictor of perceived health. However, skin conditions that cause dissatisfaction with appearance are specific to particular facial areas. We investigated whether color variation in facial skin is related to perceived health. Study 1 defined three areas based on color differences between faces perceived as healthy or unhealthy: the forehead, periorbital areas, and the cheeks. Periorbital luminance and cheek redness predicted perceived health, as did global skin yellowness. In Study 2, increased luminance and redness caused faces to be perceived as healthier, but only when the increase was in the periorbital and cheek areas, respectively. Manipulating each area separately in Study 3 revealed cheek redness and periorbital luminance equally increased perceived health, with low periorbital luminance more negatively affecting perceptions. These findings show that color variation in facial skin is a cue for health perception in female faces. PMID:26967010

  12. Comparison of trap types and colors for capturing emerald ash borer adults at different population densities.

    PubMed

    Poland, Therese M; Mccullough, Deborah G

    2014-02-01

    Results of numerous trials to evaluate artificial trap designs and lures for detection of Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, the emerald ash borer, have yielded inconsistent results, possibly because of different A. planipennis population densities in the field sites. In 2010 and 2011, we compared 1) green canopy traps, 2) purple canopy traps, 3) green double-decker traps, and 4) purple double-decker traps in sites representing a range of A. planipennis infestation levels. Traps were baited with cis-3-hexenol in both years, plus an 80:20 mixture of Manuka and Phoebe oil (2010) or Manuka oil alone (2011). Condition of trees bearing canopy traps, A. planipennis infestation level of trees in the vicinity of traps, and number of A. planipennis captured per trap differed among sites in both years. Overall in both years, more females, males, and beetles of both sexes were captured on double-decker traps than canopy traps, and more beetles of both sexes (2010) or females (2011) were captured on purple traps than green traps. In 2010, detection rates were higher for purple (100%) and green double-decker traps (100%) than for purple (82%) or green canopy traps (64%) at sites with very low to low A. planipennis infestation levels. Captures of A. planipennis on canopy traps consistently increased with the infestation level of the canopy trap-bearing trees. Differences among trap types were most pronounced at sites with low A. planipennis densities, where more beetles were captured on purple double-decker traps than on green canopy traps in both years. PMID:24398125

  13. Comparison of trap types and colors for capturing emerald ash borer adults at different population densities.

    PubMed

    Poland, Therese M; Mccullough, Deborah G

    2014-02-01

    Results of numerous trials to evaluate artificial trap designs and lures for detection of Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, the emerald ash borer, have yielded inconsistent results, possibly because of different A. planipennis population densities in the field sites. In 2010 and 2011, we compared 1) green canopy traps, 2) purple canopy traps, 3) green double-decker traps, and 4) purple double-decker traps in sites representing a range of A. planipennis infestation levels. Traps were baited with cis-3-hexenol in both years, plus an 80:20 mixture of Manuka and Phoebe oil (2010) or Manuka oil alone (2011). Condition of trees bearing canopy traps, A. planipennis infestation level of trees in the vicinity of traps, and number of A. planipennis captured per trap differed among sites in both years. Overall in both years, more females, males, and beetles of both sexes were captured on double-decker traps than canopy traps, and more beetles of both sexes (2010) or females (2011) were captured on purple traps than green traps. In 2010, detection rates were higher for purple (100%) and green double-decker traps (100%) than for purple (82%) or green canopy traps (64%) at sites with very low to low A. planipennis infestation levels. Captures of A. planipennis on canopy traps consistently increased with the infestation level of the canopy trap-bearing trees. Differences among trap types were most pronounced at sites with low A. planipennis densities, where more beetles were captured on purple double-decker traps than on green canopy traps in both years.

  14. Color changes in irradiated cooked pork sausage with different fat sources and packaging during storage.

    PubMed

    Jo, C; Jin, S K; Ahn, D U

    2000-05-01

    Pork sausages were prepared with lean pork meat, fat from different sources [backfat (BF), corn oil (CO) or flaxseed oil (FO); 10% of lean meat], NaCl (2%), and ice water (10%). The emulsified meat batters were stuffed into casings (3 cm in diameter) and cooked to an internal temperature of 72°C. Cooked sausages were sliced and vacuum- or aerobic-packaged individually. Sausages were irradiated at a 0, 2.5, or 4.5 kGy dose and stored in a 4°C refrigerator for 8 days. Aerobic-packaged, irradiated cooked sausages prepared with BF and FO showed higher Hunter L-values than nonirradiated controls at day 0, but the difference disappeared at day 8. Irradiation increased the Hunter a-value in vacuum-packaged cooked pork sausages regardless of the fat source used, and the increase of the Hunter a-value was dose-dependent. In contrast, the Hunter a-value decreased by irradiation in aerobic-packaged cooked pork sausages prepared with BF or FO. The Hunter a-value of cooked pork sausage with aerobic packaging was significantly reduced at day 8. Hunter b-values increased at Day 8 in irradiated cooked pork sausages except for the sausage prepared with CO at 2.5 kGy. Cooked pork sausages prepared with CO were lighter, and sausage prepared with FO was redder and more yellow (p<0.05) in vacuum packaging.

  15. Image enhancement methods for turbulence mitigation and the influence of different color spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huebner, Claudia S.

    2015-10-01

    In mid- to long-range horizontal imaging applications it is quite often atmospheric turbulence which limits the performance of an electro-optical system rather than the design and quality of the system itself. Even weak or moderate turbulence conditions can suffice to cause significant image degradation, the predominant effects being image dancing and blurring. To mitigate these effects many different methods have been proposed, most of which use either a hardware approach, such as adaptive optics, or a software approach. A great number of these methods are highly specialized with regard to input data, e.g. aiming exclusively at very short exposure images or at infrared data. So far, only a very limited number of these methods are concerned specifically with the restoration of RGB colour video. Beside motion compensation and deblurring, contrast enhancement plays a vital part in many turbulence mitigation schemes. While most contrast enhancement techniques, such as Contrast Limited Adaptive Histogram Equalization (CLAHE) work quite well on monochrome data or single colour frames, they tend to amplify noise in a colour video stream disproportionately, especially in scenes with low contrast. Therefore, in this paper the impact of different colour spaces (RGB, LAB, HSV) on the application of such typical image enhancement techniques is discussed and evaluated with regard to suppressing temporal noise as well as to their suitability for use in software-based turbulence mitigation algorithms.

  16. Not quite color blind: ethnic and gender differences in attitudes toward older people among college students.

    PubMed

    Laditka, Sarah B; Laditka, James N; Houck, Margaret M; Olatosi, Bankole A

    2011-01-01

    Attitudes toward older people can influence how they are treated and their cognitive and physical health. The populations of the United States and many other countries have become more ethnically diverse, and are aging. Yet little research examines how ethnic diversity affects attitudes toward older people. Our study addresses this research gap. Using the Aging Semantic Differential, 592 university students expressed their attitudes toward older African-American, Hispanic, and White women and men. Repeated measures analysis of variance examined attitude differences by participant ethnicity and gender, and by the ethnicity and gender of evaluated individuals. Both African-American and White students had more positive attitudes toward older women and men of their own ethnic group. Participants had more positive attitudes toward older women than they did toward older men. Findings suggest in-group favoritism, and the usefulness of training those in service industries and public service to treat older individuals equitably.

  17. Comparative action spectrum for ultraviolet light killing of mouse melanocytes from different genetic coat color backgrounds.

    PubMed

    Hill, H Z; Hill, G J; Cieszka, K; Plonka, P M; Mitchell, D L; Meyenhofer, M F; Xin, P; Boissy, R E

    1997-06-01

    The photobiology of mouse melanocyte lines with different pigment genotypes was studied by measuring colony-forming ability after irradiation. The cell lines were wild-type black (melan-a) and the mutants brown (melan-b) and albino (melan-c). Four lamps emitting various UV wavelengths were used. These were germicidal (UVC, 200-280 nm), 82.3% output at 254 nm, TL01 (UVB, 280-320 nm), 64.2% at 310-311 nm, FS20, broadband with peak output at 312 nm and Alisun-S (UVA, 320-400 nm), broadband with peak output at 350-354 nm. Appropriate filtration reduced the contaminating UVC to nonlethal levels for the longer waverange lamps. Wild-type melan-a was resistant to UVC and UVA compared to the other two cell lines, but the differences were small. The melan-c cell line was more resistant to UVB and markedly more resistant to FS20 than the pigmented lines. With the exception of FS20 responses, melan-b was more sensitive than melan-a to killing by the various UV lamps. There were more pyrimidine dimers (cyclobutane dimers and 6-4 photoproducts) produced in melan-a than in melan-c cells by UVC, UVB and FS20 lamps. Unlike melan-c, melan-a and melan-b showed a strong free radical signal of melanin character with a detectable contribution of pheomelanin-like centers. The contribution of pheomelanin was higher in melan-b than in melan-a, while the total melanin content in these two cell lines was comparable. The abundant melanin granules of wild-type melan-a melanocytes were well melanized and ellipsoidal, whereas those of melan-b melanocytes tended to be spherical. In the albino line (melan-c) the melanocytes contained only early-stage melanosomes, all of which were devoid of melanin. The results indicate that pigment does not protect against direct effect DNA damage in the form of pyrimidine dimers nor does it necessarily protect against cell death. High pigment content is not very protective against killing by UVC and UVA, and it may photosensitize in UVB the very wavelength range

  18. Color and Streptomycetes1

    PubMed Central

    Pridham, Thomas G.

    1965-01-01

    A report summarizing the results of an international workshop on determination of color of streptomycetes is presented. The results suggest that the color systems which seem most practically appealing and effective to specialists on actinomycetes are those embracing a limited number of color names and groups. The broad groupings allow placement of isolates into reasonably well-defined categories based on color of aerial mycelium. Attempts to expand such systems (more color groups) lead to difficulties. It is common knowledge that many, if not all, of the individual groups would in these broad systems contain strains that differ in many other respects, e.g., spore-wall ornamentation, color of vegetative (substratal) mycelium, morphology of chains of spores, and numerous physiological criteria. Also, cultures of intermediate color can be found, which makes placement difficult. As it now stands, color as a criterion for characterization of streptomycetes and streptoverticillia is in questionable status. Although much useful color information can be obtained by an individual, the application of this information to that in the literature or its use in communication with other individuals leaves much to be desired. More objective methods of color determination are needed. At present, the most effective method that could be used internationally is the color-wheel system of Tresner and Backus. Furthermore, the significance of color in speciation of these organisms is an open question. Obviously, more critical work on the color problem is needed. PMID:14264847

  19. Color universal design: analysis of color category dependency on color vision type (3)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kojima, Natsuki; Ichihara, Yasuyo G.; Ikeda, Tomohiro; Kamachi, Miyuki G.; Ito, Kei

    2012-01-01

    We report on the results of a study investigating the color perception characteristics of people with red-green color confusion. We believe that this is an important step towards achieving Color Universal Design. In Japan, approximately 5% of men and 0.2% of women have red-green confusion. The percentage for men is higher in Europe and the United States; up to 8% in some countries. Red-green confusion involves a perception of colors different from normal color vision. Colors are used as a means of disseminating clear information to people; however, it may be difficult to convey the correct information to people who have red-green confusion. Consequently, colors should be chosen that minimize accidents and that promote more effective communication. In a previous survey, we investigated color categories common to each color vision type, trichromat (C-type color vision), protan (P-type color vision) and deuteran (D-type color vision). In the present study, first, we conducted experiments in order to verify a previous survey of C-type color vision and P-type color vision. Next, we investigated color difference levels within "CIE 1976 L*a*b*" (the CIELAB uniform color space), where neither C-type nor P-type color vision causes accidents under certain conditions (rain maps/contour line levels and graph color legend levels). As a result, we propose a common chromaticity of colors that the two color vision types are able to categorize by means of color names common to C-type color vision. We also offer a proposal to explain perception characteristics of color differences with normal color vision and red-green confusion using the CIELAB uniform color space. This report is a follow-up to SPIE-IS & T / Vol. 7528 7528051-8 and SPIE-IS & T /vol. 7866 78660J-1-8.

  20. [Effects of UV-radiation on biological characteristics of different body-color biotypes of Sitobion avenae (Fab.)].

    PubMed

    Hu, Zu-Qing; Zhao, Hui-Yan; Kang, Ju-Xia; Hu, Xiang-Shun; Li, Dong-Hong

    2009-04-01

    UV-radiation exerts strong selection stress on the evolution of aphid populations, and thus, leads to their genetic differentiation. However, the effects of UV-radiation on different body-color biotypes of aphids are still ambiguous. In this study, new-born nymphae of red and green biotypes of Sitobion avenae were placed on two wheat varieties (Xiaoyan-22 and Astron), bred in an artificial bioclimatic chamber under strict controlled conditions (at 15 degrees C, 20 degrees C, and 25 degrees C, and treated with 30 W lamp of UV-B for 30 min per day for 5 days), and their development duration, mass, and mean relative growth rate were measured. The results showed that at lower temperature, UV-radiation delayed the growth of green biotype aphid on Xiaoyan-22 and Astron significantly; while at higher temperature, UV-radiation significantly delayed the growth of red biotype aphid on Xiaoyan-22, but had lesser effects on the growth of the two biotypes on Astron, illustrating that different biotypes of aphids had different responses to UV-radiation, and the responses were correlated to temperature and wheat varieties.

  1. Expression vectors for the use of eukaryotic luciferases as bacterial markers with different colors of luminescence.

    PubMed Central

    Cebolla, A; Vázquez, M E; Palomares, A J

    1995-01-01

    An easy way to identify microorganisms is to provide them with gene markers that confer a unique phenotype. Several genetic constructions were developed to use eukaryotic luciferase genes for bacterial tagging. The firefly and click bettle luciferase genes, luc and lucOR, respectively, were cloned under constitutive control and regulated control from different transcriptional units driven by P1, lambda PR, and Ptrc promoters. Comparison of the expression of each gene in Escherichia coli cells from identical promoters showed that bioluminescence produced by luc could be detected luminometrically in a more sensitive manner. In contrast, luminescence from intact lucOR-expressing cells was much more stable and resistant to high temperatures than that from luc-expressing cells. To analyze the behavior of these constructions in other gram-negative bacteria, gene fusions with luc genes were cloned on broad-host-range vectors. Measurements of light emission from Rhizobium meliloti, Agrobacterium tumefaciens, and Pseudomonas putida cells indicated that both luciferases were poorly expressed from P1 in most bacterial hosts. In contrast, the lambda promoter PR yielded constitutively high levels of luciferase expression in all bacterial species tested. PR activity was not regulated by temperature when the thermosensitive repressor cI857 was present in the bacterial species tested, except for E. coli. In contrast, the regulated lacIq-Ptrc::lucOR fusion expression system behaved in a manner similar to that observed in E. coli cells. After IPTG (isopropyl-beta-D-thiogalactopyranoside) induction, this system produced the highest levels of lucOR expression in all bacterial species tested.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7574604

  2. Mathematic modeling the relationship of bacteria number in a dairy product and the color difference measured by a CCD image sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Zhen; Zhao, Zhigang; Chen, Dongkui; Liu, Yuping

    2005-01-01

    Although many methods, such as bacteria plate count, flow cytometry and impedance method have been broadly used in the dairy industry to quantitate bacteria numbers around the world, none of them is a quick, low cost and easy one. In this study, we proposed to apply the color difference theory in this field to establish a mathematic model to quantitate bacteria number in fresh milk. Preliminary testing results not only indicate that the application of the color difference theory to the new system is practical, but also confirm the theoretical relationship between the numbers of bacteria, incubation time and color difference. The proof of the principal study in this article further suggests that the novel method has the potential to replace the traditional methods to determine bacteria numbers for the food industry.

  3. Color planner for designers based on color emotions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Ka-Man; Xin, John H.; Taylor, Gail

    2002-06-01

    During the color perception process, an associated feeling or emotion is induced in our brains, and this kind of emotion is termed as 'color emotion.' The researchers in the field of color emotions have put many efforts in quantifying color emotions with the standard color specifications and evaluating the influence of hue, lightness and chroma to the color emotions of human beings. In this study, a color planner was derived according to these findings so that the correlation of color emotions and standard color specifications was clearly indicated. Since people of different nationalities usually have different color emotions as different cultural and traditional backgrounds, the subjects in this study were all native Hong Kong Chinese and the color emotion words were all written in Chinese language in the visual assessments. Through the color planner, the designers from different areas, no matter fashion, graphic, interior or web site etc., can select suitable colors for inducing target color emotions to the customers or product-users since different colors convey different meanings to them. In addition, the designers can enhance the functionality and increase the attractiveness of their designed products by selecting suitable colors.

  4. Growth, photosynthetic efficiency, and biochemical composition of Tetraselmis suecica F&M-M33 grown with LEDs of different colors.

    PubMed

    Abiusi, Fabian; Sampietro, Giacomo; Marturano, Giovanni; Biondi, Natascia; Rodolfi, Liliana; D'Ottavio, Massimo; Tredici, Mario R

    2014-05-01

    The effect of light quality on cell size and cell cycle, growth rate, productivity, photosynthetic efficiency and biomass composition of the marine prasinophyte Tetraselmis suecica F&M-M33 grown in 2-L flat panel photobioreactors illuminated with light emitting diodes (LEDs) of different colors was investigated. Biomass productivity and photosynthetic efficiency were comparable between white and red light, while under blue and green light productivity decreased to less than half and photosynthetic efficiency to about one third. Differences in cell size and number correlated with the cell cycle phase. Under red light cells were smaller and more motile. Chlorophyll content was strongly reduced with red and enhanced with blue light, while carotenoids and gross biomass composition were not affected by light quality. The eicosapentaenoic acid content increased under red light. Red light can substitute white light without affecting productivity of T. suecica F&M-M33, leading to smaller and more motile cells and increased eicosapentaenoic acid content. Red LEDs can thus be profitably used for the production of this microalga for aquaculture.

  5. Evolution under different storage conditions of anomalous blue coloration of Mozzarella cheese intentionally contaminated with a pigment-producing strain of Pseudomonas fluorescens.

    PubMed

    Cenci-Goga, B T; Karama, M; Sechi, P; Iulietto, M F; Novelli, S; Mattei, S

    2014-11-01

    Several widespread occurrences of anomalous blue coloration of Mozzarella cheese have been recorded in the United States and some European countries. Official laboratory analysis and health authorities have linked the occurrences to contamination of the processing water with strains of Pseudomonas fluorescens, although several experts questioned how to unequivocally link the blue color to the presence of the microorganism. To establish a method to determine whether a given Pseudomonas spp. strain is responsible for the defect and study the evolution of the coloration under different storage conditions, we developed an in vitro system for the evaluation of blue coloration of Mozzarella cheese intentionally contaminated with strains of P. fluorescens. The purpose of the system was to determine whether P.fluorescens strains, isolated from Mozzarella cheese with anomalous blue coloration, were able to reproduce the blue coloration under controlled experimental conditions. Thirty-six trials of experimental inoculation of Mozzarella cheese in different preservation liquids were conducted using various suspensions of P.fluorescens (P. fluorescens ATCC 13525, P.fluorescens CFBP 3150, and P. fluorescens 349 field strain isolated from blue-colored Mozzarella cheese) at different concentrations and incubated at different temperatures. Growth curves of all tested P.fluorescens strains demonstrated that after 3 d of incubation the concentration was generally >10(6) cfu/g of Mozzarella cheese incubated in either tryptic soy broth (control) or conditioning brine. Prolonged incubation for 5 d at either 20 °C or 8 °C led to concentrations up to 10(9) cfu/g of Mozzarella cheese incubated in tryptic soy broth and up to 10(8) cfu/g of Mozzarella cheese incubated in preservation liquid. All Mozzarella cheeses inoculated with the field strain of P. fluorescens, except those opened 1h after packaging and stored at 8 °C, showed the characteristic anomalous blue coloration, which

  6. Breastfeeding vs. Formula Feeding

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Breastfeeding vs. Formula Feeding KidsHealth > For Parents > Breastfeeding vs. ... for you and your baby. continue All About Breastfeeding Nursing can be a wonderful experience for both ...

  7. Readability Formulas: Pluses and Minuses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rygiel, Mary Ann

    1982-01-01

    Examines readability formulas and examples of their misuse. Analyzes an essay by George Orwell which was given a grade 10 readability level by one formula and discusses characteristics of Orwell's style that refute the accuracy of formula rating. (HTH)

  8. Watermarking spot colors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alattar, Osama M.; Reed, Alastair M.

    2003-06-01

    Watermarking of printed materials has usually focused on process inks of cyan, magenta, yellow and black (CMYK). In packaging, almost three out of four printed materials include spot colors. Spot colors are special premixed inks, which can be produced in a vibrant range of colors, often outside the CMYK color gamut. In embedding a watermark into printed material, a common approach is to modify the luminance value of each pixel in the image. In the case of process color work pieces, the luminance change can be scaled to the C, M, Y and K channels using a weighting function, to produce the desired change in luminance. In the case of spot color art designs, there is only one channel available and the luminance change is applied to this channel. In this paper we develop a weighting function to embed the watermark signal across the range of different spot colors. This weighting function normalizes visibility effect and signal robustness across a wide range of different spot colors. It normalizes the signal robustness level over the range of an individual spot color"s intensity levels. Further, it takes into account the sensitivity of the capturing device to the different spot colors.

  9. Effects of neurological damage on production of formulaic language

    PubMed Central

    Sidtis, D.; Canterucci, G.; Katsnelson, D.

    2014-01-01

    Early studies reported preserved formulaic language in left hemisphere damaged subjects and reduced incidence of formulaic expressions in the conversational speech of stroke patients with right hemispheric damage. Clinical observations suggest a possible role also of subcortical nuclei. This study examined formulaic language in the spontaneous speech of stroke patients with left, right, or subcortical damage. Four subjects were interviewed and their speech samples compared to normal speakers. Raters classified formulaic expressions as speech formulae, fillers, sentence stems, and proper nouns. Results demonstrated that brain damage affected novel and formulaic language competence differently, with a significantly smaller proportion of formulaic expressions in subjects with right or subcortical damage compared to left hemisphere damaged or healthy speakers. These findings converge with previous studies that support the proposal of a right hemisphere/subcortical circuit in the management of formulaic expressions, based on a dual-process model of language incorporating novel and formulaic language use. PMID:19382014

  10. Thermochromism in color measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiltunen, Jouni; Mutanen, J.; Jaeaeskelaeinen, Timo; Parkkinen, Jussi P. S.

    2002-06-01

    Accurate color measurements have become more and more important during the past few decades. This is valid not only in physical research but also in industrial production, where the importance of accurate measurements is mainly due to increased quality requirements set by the customers of various goods. The development of technology enables more and more accurate measuring systems. While the accuracy has improved one has noticed, that many unexpected factors affect the color of an object. One of these factors is the temperature of the sample. It is known that for example the reflectance of the ceramic reference tiles used for calibration of colorimeters and spectrophotometers is temperature dependent. This phenomenon is called thermochromism, which is a reversible change of color of the sample as a function of temperature. It may be noticed already at room temperature if the temperature varies few centigrades. Red and orange samples are especially sensitive to temperature variation and may cause difficulties in precise color measurements. We show, how the phenomenon is based on physical processes and not only reflects the instability of red color pigments. We derive simple formulas, which are shown to explain the experimental data. We also discuss the meaning of thermochromism for color measurements, measure the magnitude of it and propose the experimental conditions to avoid this effect.

  11. Body surface area formulae: an alarming ambiguity.

    PubMed

    Redlarski, Grzegorz; Palkowski, Aleksander; Krawczuk, Marek

    2016-01-01

    Body surface area (BSA) plays a key role in several medical fields, including cancer chemotherapy, transplantology, burn treatment and toxicology. BSA is often a major factor in the determination of the course of treatment and drug dosage. A series of formulae to simplify the process have been developed. Because easy-to-identify, yet general, body coefficient results of those formulae vary considerably, the question arises as to whether the choice of a particular formula is valid and safe for patients. Here we show that discrepancies between most of the known BSA formulae can reach 0.5 m(2) for the standard adult physique. Although many previous studies have demonstrated that certain BSA formulae provide an almost exact fit with the patients examined, all of these studies have been performed on a limited and isolated group of people. Our analysis presents a broader perspective, considering 25 BSA formulae. The analysis revealed that the choice of a particular formula is a difficult task. Differences among calculations made by the formulae are so great that, in certain cases, they may considerably affect patients' mortality, especially for people with an abnormal physique or for children. PMID:27323883

  12. Body surface area formulae: an alarming ambiguity

    PubMed Central

    Redlarski, Grzegorz; Palkowski, Aleksander; Krawczuk, Marek

    2016-01-01

    Body surface area (BSA) plays a key role in several medical fields, including cancer chemotherapy, transplantology, burn treatment and toxicology. BSA is often a major factor in the determination of the course of treatment and drug dosage. A series of formulae to simplify the process have been developed. Because easy-to-identify, yet general, body coefficient results of those formulae vary considerably, the question arises as to whether the choice of a particular formula is valid and safe for patients. Here we show that discrepancies between most of the known BSA formulae can reach 0.5 m2 for the standard adult physique. Although many previous studies have demonstrated that certain BSA formulae provide an almost exact fit with the patients examined, all of these studies have been performed on a limited and isolated group of people. Our analysis presents a broader perspective, considering 25 BSA formulae. The analysis revealed that the choice of a particular formula is a difficult task. Differences among calculations made by the formulae are so great that, in certain cases, they may considerably affect patients’ mortality, especially for people with an abnormal physique or for children. PMID:27323883

  13. Effect of Monochromic Light-emitting Diode Light with Different Color on the Growth and Reproductive Performances of Breeder Geese

    PubMed Central

    Chang, S. C.; Lin, M. J.; Zhuang, Z. X.; Huang, S. Y.; Lin, T. Y.; Jea, Y. S.; Fan, Y. K.; Lee, T. T.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of monochromic light-emitting diode (LED) light with different color on the growth and reproductive performances of white Roman breeder geese. A randomized complete batch design was utilized for the trial, and the replicate was regarded as one batch. Twenty ganders and fifty-five dames were used in batch 1 (started on 2011/6/17 and ended on 2012/1/31), thirty ganders and eighty-four dames were used in batch 2 (started on 2012/3/23 and ended on 2012/10/26), and thirty ganders and seventy-two dames were used in batch 3 (started on 2013/3/12 and ended on 2013/12/20). Two hundred and ninety-one geese were randomly assigned to 6 rooms in an environmentally controlled house. They were randomly allotted into one of three monochromatic light treatments: Blue, red, or white. The results showed that there was no significant difference in body weight among the three lighting groups at any point throughout the experimental period. However, compared to the blue light group, significantly more eggs were produced by the red and white light groups (p<0.05). Furthermore, the laying period of the red light group was significantly longer than that of other two groups (p<0.05). In conclusion, our results suggested that red LED-light has the best effect on reproductive performance (i.e. longer laying period and higher total eggs number) at 30 lux light intensity, and is therefore a better choice for the management of breeding geese than blue or white LED-light. PMID:26954165

  14. Effects of different surface finishing procedures on the change in surface roughness and color of a polymer infiltrated ceramic network material

    PubMed Central

    Arslan, Merve; Türker, Nurullah; Barutcigil, Kubilay

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE Polymer infiltrated ceramic network (PICN) materials, also called hybrid ceramics, are new materials in dental market. The manufacturer of the PICN material VITA Enamic suggests 3 different finishing procedures for this new material. In the present study, surface roughness and color differences caused from different finishing procedures of VITA Enamic were investigated. MATERIALS AND METHODS 120 specimens were prepared in dimensions 2 × 10 × 12 mm from VITA Enamic hybrid ceramic blocks with 'high translucency' and 'translucency 2M2' shades. The specimens were divided into 8 groups. For each group, different finishing procedures suggested by the manufacturer were performed. Surface roughness values were determined by a tactile portable profilometer. Color changes were evaluated using a clinical spectrophotometer. The data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Tukey's post-hoc comparison. The significance level was set at α=0.05. RESULTS The roughest surfaces were observed in Glaze Groups. Their surface roughness values were similar to that of the control group. Clinical Kit and Technical Kit groups did not show a statistically significant difference regarding surface roughness (P>.05). The largest color difference regarding ΔE00 was observed in Clinical Kit finishing groups. There were also statistically significant color changes between the groups (P<.05). However, all the groups showed clinically acceptable color change (ΔE00<2.25) except Clinical Kit Groups (ΔE00>2.25). CONCLUSION Within the limitations of the present study, it may be suggested that finishing the VITA Enamic restorations by Technical Kit instead of Glaze and Clinical Kit gives better clinical performance in regard to surface roughness and shade matching. PMID:26949483

  15. [Usefulness of a soy- and oatmeal-based formula in infant nutrition. Nitrogen balance].

    PubMed

    del Valle Canseco, F; Villanueva Clift, H; Escobedo, M; Reyes Govea, J; Hernández Nevárez, M C; Briones, J; Muñóz, M de J; Talamás Abbud, A

    1980-01-01

    A soy flour and oatmeal formula added with vitamins and minerals is presented. Nitrogen balance is carried out in 6 malnourished infants undergoing recovery as compared with a commercial milk formula, finding no significant statistical differences between the two formulas.

  16. Color Memory of University Students: Influence of Color Experience and Color Characteristic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bynum, Carlisle; Epps, Helen H.; Kaya, Naz

    2006-01-01

    The ability to select a previously viewed color specimen from an array of specimens that differ in hue, value, or chroma varies among individuals, and may be related to one's basic color discrimination ability or to prior experience with color. This study investigated short-term color memory of 40 college students, 20 of whom were interior design…

  17. Hydrolyzed Formula for Every Infant?

    PubMed

    Fleischer, David M; Venter, Carina; Vandenplas, Yvan

    2016-01-01

    Presently, hydrolyzed formulas (HF) are used primarily in infants that cannot be exclusively breastfed, those with cow's milk allergy and for primary prevention of allergic disease, but HFs are increasingly being used worldwide, begging the question if they may be recommended as the optimal choice for all standard-risk, full-term, non-exclusively breastfed infants. Data regarding the nutritional adequacy of modern-day HFs are scarce and lack long-term data suggesting that growth in infants fed HF versus an intact protein formula (IPF) is different. While human breast milk is the optimal source of nutrition for multiple reasons, a 2006 systematic review determined there were no comparable long-term studies regarding prolonged use of HFs versus breastfeeding. Meta-analyses of formula consumption and risk of atopic dermatitis (AD) have found that infants fed partially HF compared to IPF had a lower risk of AD, but there are significant limitations to these studies, making conclusions about the general use of HFs problematic. Costs should be considered in decision-making regarding the choice of the formula, but global comparison of this is difficult given large cost differences in different countries. Despite the issues raised here, the desire to provide concrete recommendations of widespread HF use needs to be balanced carefully in order not to overstate claims of benefit. Long-term studies are needed to investigate the feasibility of HF as a routine feeding option for healthy, standard-risk infants. Because of the paucity of data, routine use of HF as an equivalent option to breastfeeding or IPF cannot be supported at present based on available scientific evidence. PMID:27336594

  18. Hydrolyzed Formula for Every Infant?

    PubMed

    Fleischer, David M; Venter, Carina; Vandenplas, Yvan

    2016-01-01

    Presently, hydrolyzed formulas (HF) are used primarily in infants that cannot be exclusively breastfed, those with cow's milk allergy and for primary prevention of allergic disease, but HFs are increasingly being used worldwide, begging the question if they may be recommended as the optimal choice for all standard-risk, full-term, non-exclusively breastfed infants. Data regarding the nutritional adequacy of modern-day HFs are scarce and lack long-term data suggesting that growth in infants fed HF versus an intact protein formula (IPF) is different. While human breast milk is the optimal source of nutrition for multiple reasons, a 2006 systematic review determined there were no comparable long-term studies regarding prolonged use of HFs versus breastfeeding. Meta-analyses of formula consumption and risk of atopic dermatitis (AD) have found that infants fed partially HF compared to IPF had a lower risk of AD, but there are significant limitations to these studies, making conclusions about the general use of HFs problematic. Costs should be considered in decision-making regarding the choice of the formula, but global comparison of this is difficult given large cost differences in different countries. Despite the issues raised here, the desire to provide concrete recommendations of widespread HF use needs to be balanced carefully in order not to overstate claims of benefit. Long-term studies are needed to investigate the feasibility of HF as a routine feeding option for healthy, standard-risk infants. Because of the paucity of data, routine use of HF as an equivalent option to breastfeeding or IPF cannot be supported at present based on available scientific evidence.

  19. Colored Diffraction Catastrophes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berry, M. V.; Klein, S.

    1996-03-01

    On fine scales, caustics produced with white light show vividly colored diffraction fringes. For caustics described by the elementary catastrophes of singularity theory, the colors are characteristic of the type of singularity. We study the diffraction colors of the fold and cusp catastrophes. The colors can be simulated computationally as the superposition of monochromatic patterns for different wavelengths. Far from the caustic, where the luminosity contrast is negligible, the fringe colors persist; an asymptotic theory explains why. Experiments with caustics produced by refraction through irregular bathroom-window glass show good agreement with theory. Colored fringes near the cusp reveal fine lines that are not present in any of the monochromatic components; these lines are explained in terms of partial decoherence between rays with widely differing path differences.

  20. Colored diffraction catastrophes.

    PubMed Central

    Berry, M V; Klein, S

    1996-01-01

    On fine scales, caustics produced with white light show vividly colored diffraction fringes. For caustics described by the elementary catastrophes of singularity theory, the colors are characteristic of the type of singularity. We study the diffraction colors of the fold and cusp catastrophes. The colors can be simulated computationally as the superposition of monochromatic patterns for different wavelengths. Far from the caustic, where the luminosity contrast is negligible, the fringe colors persist; an asymptotic theory explains why. Experiments with caustics produced by refraction through irregular bathroom-window glass show good agreement with theory. Colored fringes near the cusp reveal fine lines that are not present in any of the monochromatic components; these lines are explained in terms of partial decoherence between rays with widely differing path differences. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 6 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 PMID:11607642

  1. Color universal design: analysis of color category dependency on color vision type (2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kojima, Natsuki; Kamachi, Miyuki G.; Ichihara, Yasuyo G.; Ito, Kei

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigates the tendency of individuals to categorize colors. Humans recognize colors by categorizing them using specific color names, such as red, blue, and yellow. When an individual with a certain type of color vision observes an object, they categorize its color using a particular color name and assume that other people will perceive the color in an identical manner. However, there are some variations in human color vision as a result of differences in photoreceptors in the eye, including red and green confusion. Thus, another person with a different type of color vision may categorize a color using a completely different name. To address this issue, we attempted to determine the differences in the ranges of color that people with different types of color vision observe. This is an important step towards achieving Color Universal Design, a visual communication method that is viewer-friendly irrespective of color vision type. Herein, we report on a systematic comparison among individuals with trichromat (C-type), protan (P-type) and deutan (D-type) color vision. This paper is a follow-up to SPIE-IS & T / Vol. 7528 752805-1.

  2. Laser color recording unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, E.

    1984-05-01

    A color recording unit was designed for output and control of digitized picture data within computer controlled reproduction and picture processing systems. In order to get a color proof picture of high quality similar to a color print, together with reduced time and material consumption, a photographic color film material was exposed pixelwise by modulated laser beams of three wavelengths for red, green and blue light. Components of different manufacturers for lasers, acousto-optic modulators and polygon mirrors were tested, also different recording methods as (continuous tone mode or screened mode and with a drum or flatbed recording principle). Besides the application for the graphic arts - the proof recorder CPR 403 with continuous tone color recording with a drum scanner - such a color hardcopy peripheral unit with large picture formats and high resolution can be used in medicine, communication, and satellite picture processing.

  3. Uncalibrated color

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moroney, Nathan

    2006-01-01

    Color calibration or the use of color measurement processes to characterize the color properties of a device or workflow is often expected or assumed for many color reproduction applications. However it is interesting to consider applications or situations in which color calibration is not as critical. In the first case it is possible to imagine an implicit color calibration resulting from a standardization or convergence of the colorant and substrate spectrum. In the second case it is possible to imagine cases where the device color variability is significantly less than the user color thresholds or expectations for color consistency. There are still general requirements for this form of pragmatic color but they are generally lower than for the higher end of digital color reproduction. Finally it is possible to imagine an implicit calibration that leverages in some way the highly accurate memory color for the hue of common objects. This scenario culminates with a challenge to create a natural capture calibration standard that does not require individual calibration, is spectrally diverse, is inexpensive and is environmentally friendly.

  4. Cave microbial community composition in oceanic islands: disentangling the effect of different colored mats in diversity patterns of Azorean lava caves.

    PubMed

    Riquelme, Cristina; Rigal, François; Hathaway, Jennifer J M; Northup, Diana E; Spilde, Michael N; Borges, Paulo A V; Gabriel, Rosalina; Amorim, Isabel R; Dapkevicius, Maria de Lurdes N E

    2015-12-01

    Processes determining diversity and composition of bacterial communities in island volcanic caves are still poorly understood. Here, we characterized colored microbial mats in 14 volcanic caves from two oceanic islands of the Azores using 16S rRNA gene sequences. Factors determining community diversity (α) and composition (β) were explored, namely colored mats, caves and islands, as well as environmental and chemical characteristics of caves. Additive partitioning of diversity using OTU occurrence showed a greater influence of β-diversity between islands and caves that may relate to differences in rare OTUs (singletons and doubletons) across scales. In contrast, Shannon diversity partitioning revealed the importance of the lowest hierarchical level (α diversity, colored mat), suggesting a dominance of cosmopolitan OTUs (>1%) in most samples. Cosmopolitan OTUs included members involved in nitrogen cycling, supporting the importance of this process in Azorean caves. Environmental and chemical conditions in caves did not show any significant relationship to OTU diversity and composition. The absence of clear differences between mat colors and across scales may be explained by (1) the geological youth of the cave system (cave communities have not had enough time to diverge) or/and (2) community convergence, as the result of selection pressure in extreme environments.

  5. Energetic efficiency of infant formulae: a review.

    PubMed

    Fleddermann, Manja; Demmelmair, Hans; Koletzko, Berthold

    2014-01-01

    Breast-fed and formula-fed infants differ in terms of nutrient intake, growth, and metabolic and endocrine responses. The energetic efficiency, i.e. the weight or length gain per 100 kcal of energy intake, of breast-fed infants is about 11% higher than the energetic efficiency of formula-fed infants. Only limited data is available on the influence of formula composition on the energetic efficiency of infant formulae. We conducted a review of controlled trials to identify the impact of the macronutrient composition of infant formulae on energetic efficiency. An electronic literature search was conducted in February 2014. Intervention trials that investigated the effect of an infant formula with a modified macronutrient composition and reported the weight, length, and nutritional intake of apparently healthy, term, fully formula-fed infants with a normal weight were included. Thirteen trials met the inclusion criteria. The results showed no effect of the total content of energy, carbohydrate, protein, or fat on energetic efficiency. In contrast, small increasing effects of higher glycemic carbohydrates on energetic efficiency were identified. Improved fat absorption via the use of palmitic acid at the sn-2 ester position of triacylglycerol increased the energetic efficiency by 11%. The quality of formula protein, specifically an increased whey-to-casein ratio, an increased α-lactalbumin content, or a higher tryptophan content increased the energetic efficiency by about 13%. We conclude that fat absorption and protein quality have the potential to modulate energetic efficiency and may contribute to the observed differences in growth and metabolism between breast-fed and formula-fed infants.

  6. Color realism and color science.

    PubMed

    Byrne, Alex; Hilbert, David R

    2003-02-01

    The target article is an attempt to make some progress on the problem of color realism. Are objects colored? And what is the nature of the color properties? We defend the view that physical objects (for instance, tomatoes, radishes, and rubies) are colored, and that colors are physical properties, specifically, types of reflectance. This is probably a minority opinion, at least among color scientists. Textbooks frequently claim that physical objects are not colored, and that the colors are "subjective" or "in the mind." The article has two other purposes: First, to introduce an interdisciplinary audience to some distinctively philosophical tools that are useful in tackling the problem of color realism and, second, to clarify the various positions and central arguments in the debate. The first part explains the problem of color realism and makes some useful distinctions. These distinctions are then used to expose various confusions that often prevent people from seeing that the issues are genuine and difficult, and that the problem of color realism ought to be of interest to anyone working in the field of color science. The second part explains the various leading answers to the problem of color realism, and (briefly) argues that all views other than our own have serious difficulties or are unmotivated. The third part explains and motivates our own view, that colors are types of reflectances and defends it against objections made in the recent literature that are often taken as fatal.

  7. Color realism and color science.

    PubMed

    Byrne, Alex; Hilbert, David R

    2003-02-01

    The target article is an attempt to make some progress on the problem of color realism. Are objects colored? And what is the nature of the color properties? We defend the view that physical objects (for instance, tomatoes, radishes, and rubies) are colored, and that colors are physical properties, specifically, types of reflectance. This is probably a minority opinion, at least among color scientists. Textbooks frequently claim that physical objects are not colored, and that the colors are "subjective" or "in the mind." The article has two other purposes: First, to introduce an interdisciplinary audience to some distinctively philosophical tools that are useful in tackling the problem of color realism and, second, to clarify the various positions and central arguments in the debate. The first part explains the problem of color realism and makes some useful distinctions. These distinctions are then used to expose various confusions that often prevent people from seeing that the issues are genuine and difficult, and that the problem of color realism ought to be of interest to anyone working in the field of color science. The second part explains the various leading answers to the problem of color realism, and (briefly) argues that all views other than our own have serious difficulties or are unmotivated. The third part explains and motivates our own view, that colors are types of reflectances and defends it against objections made in the recent literature that are often taken as fatal. PMID:14598439

  8. Composition formulas of binary eutectics

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Y. P.; Dong, D. D.; Dong, C.; Luo, L. J.; Wang, Q.; Qiang, J. B.; Wang, Y. M.

    2015-01-01

    The present paper addresses the long-standing composition puzzle of eutectic points by introducing a new structural tool for the description of short-range-order structural unit, the cluster-plus-glue-atom model. In this model, any structure is dissociated into a 1st-neighbor cluster and a few glue atoms between the clusters, expressed by a cluster formula [cluster]gluex. This model is applied here to establish the structural model for eutectic liquids, assuming that a eutectic liquid consist of two subunits issued from the relevant eutectic phases, each being expressed by the cluster formula for ideal metallic glasses, i.e., [cluster](glue atom)1 or 3. A structural unit is then composed of two clusters from the relevant eutectic phases plus 2, 4, or 6 glue atoms. Such a dual cluster formulism is well validated in all boron-containing (except those located by the extreme phase diagram ends) and in some commonly-encountered binary eutectics, within accuracies below 1 at.%. The dual cluster formulas vary extensively and are rarely identical even for eutectics of close compositions. They are generally formed with two distinctly different cluster types, with special cluster matching rules such as cuboctahedron plus capped trigonal prism and rhombidodecahedron plus octahedral antiprism. PMID:26658618

  9. New Determination of Precession Formulas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukushima, Toshio

    First we modified J.G. Williams' formulation of precession/nutation by using the 3-1-3-1 rotation matrix as NP = R1( -ɛ -Δɛ) R1( -ψ -Δψ) R1(ϕ) R1(γ). Next we determined the polynomial formulas of the modified planetary precession angles numerically from the non-linear harmonic analysis of DE405. Then we estimated those of the modified luni-solar precession angles from their corrections converted from the VLBI pole offset observations during 1979-2000 by adopting the above planetary precession formulas and a recent theory of nutation SF2001. The results in the rotational sense are γR = +0.04126 +10.55378 t +0.49318 t2 ϕR = 84381.41461 -46.81325 t +0.04843 t2 ψR = -0.04305 +5038.47776 t +1.55835 t2 ɛR = 84381.40955 -46.83607 t -0.00017 t2 +0.00200 t3 and the differences between the rotational and inertial senses are γR - γI = +0.09366 +0.00060 t ϕR - ϕI = +0.00334 -0.00060 t ψR - ψI = -0.00001 -0.00035 t ɛR - ɛI = +0.00334 -0.00148 t. These consitute a new set of precession formulas referred to ICRF

  10. The Shift From Color to Form Preference in Young Childre n of Different Ethnic Backgrounds. Part of the Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spellmann, Charles Mac

    Young children prefer to match in terms of color rather than form, and between the ages of 4 and 7 years they shift to a preference for form. A current explanation posits that the shift is an adaptive response by the young child to classroom stimuli, which stresses attention to form. In order to test this hypothesis, 120 children (5- and…

  11. The Formula Essay Reconsidered

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haluska, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Bruce Pirie offers the following criticism about formula essays: "What does a five-paragraph essay teach about writing? It teaches that there are rules, and that those rules take the shape of a preordained form, like a cookie-cutter, into which we can pour ideas and expect them to come out well shaped." He goes on to discredit such essays as being…

  12. The Mystical "Quadratic Formula."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    March, Robert H.

    1993-01-01

    Uses projectile motion to explain the two roots found when using the quadratic formula. An example is provided for finding the time of flight for a projectile which has a negative root implying a negative time of flight. This negative time of flight also has a useful physical meaning. (MVL)

  13. Research Timeline: Formulaic language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wray, Alison

    2013-01-01

    Creating a timeline for formulaic language is far from simple, because several partially independent lines of research have contributed to the emerging picture. Each exhibits cycles of innovation and consolidation over time: domains take a leading role in developing new knowledge and then fall back, while another area comes to the fore. Thus, some…

  14. Salmonella and Escherichia coli O157:H7 Inactivation, Color, and Bioactive Compounds Enhancement on Raspberries during Frozen Storage after Decontamination Using New Formula Sanitizer Washing or Pulsed Light.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wenqing; Chen, Haiqiang; Wu, Changqing

    2016-07-01

    Berries are normally washed before they are frozen. Washing with sanitizer and treatment with pulsed light (PL) were studied for their effectiveness to inactivate foodborne pathogens on raspberries during frozen storage, while maintaining or enhancing major quality parameters. Raspberries were inoculated with Salmonella or Escherichia coli O157:H7 and then underwent a washing treatment with citric acid plus sodium dodecyl sulfate (CA+SDS) or citric acid plus thymol (CA+THY) or treatment with PL (dry PL, water-assisted [wet] PL, and PL-SDS). Pathogen survival was determined immediately after treatments and during frozen storage at -20°C for 3 months. Washing with CA+SDS or CA+THY significantly reduced Salmonella (by 3.6 and 3.2 log CFU/g, respectively) and E. coli O157:H7 (by 4.1 and 3.7 log CFU/g, respectively). At the end of storage, washing with CA+SDS reduced Salmonella to 0.6 log CFU/g and E. coli O157:H7 to 0.5 log CFU/g; washing with CA+THY reduced Salmonella to 0.9 log CFU/g and E. coli O157:H7 to 0.5 log CFU/g. PL-SDS showed decontamination efficacy on raspberries, with 0.7 log CFU/g Salmonella and 0.9 log CFU/g E. coli O157:H7 surviving at the end of storage; in comparison, in the control, 1.6 log CFU/g Salmonella and 1.5 log CFU/g E. coli O157:H7 survived. Pathogen survival in raspberries that had been washed or treated with PL-SDS was significantly lower than in untreated raspberries. Major quality parameters, including color, total phenolic content, total anthocyanin content, total bacterial count, and total yeast and mold counts, were evaluated on raspberries immediately after treatments and during frozen storage. Redness increased in PL-treated raspberries. At the end of storage, PL-treated raspberries had significantly higher total phenolic content and total anthocyanin content compared with control samples. Washing with sanitizers and treatment with PL decreased the total bacterial count and total yeast and mold counts on raspberries and maintained

  15. Salmonella and Escherichia coli O157:H7 Inactivation, Color, and Bioactive Compounds Enhancement on Raspberries during Frozen Storage after Decontamination Using New Formula Sanitizer Washing or Pulsed Light.

    PubMed

    Xu, Wenqing; Chen, Haiqiang; Wu, Changqing

    2016-07-01

    Berries are normally washed before they are frozen. Washing with sanitizer and treatment with pulsed light (PL) were studied for their effectiveness to inactivate foodborne pathogens on raspberries during frozen storage, while maintaining or enhancing major quality parameters. Raspberries were inoculated with Salmonella or Escherichia coli O157:H7 and then underwent a washing treatment with citric acid plus sodium dodecyl sulfate (CA+SDS) or citric acid plus thymol (CA+THY) or treatment with PL (dry PL, water-assisted [wet] PL, and PL-SDS). Pathogen survival was determined immediately after treatments and during frozen storage at -20°C for 3 months. Washing with CA+SDS or CA+THY significantly reduced Salmonella (by 3.6 and 3.2 log CFU/g, respectively) and E. coli O157:H7 (by 4.1 and 3.7 log CFU/g, respectively). At the end of storage, washing with CA+SDS reduced Salmonella to 0.6 log CFU/g and E. coli O157:H7 to 0.5 log CFU/g; washing with CA+THY reduced Salmonella to 0.9 log CFU/g and E. coli O157:H7 to 0.5 log CFU/g. PL-SDS showed decontamination efficacy on raspberries, with 0.7 log CFU/g Salmonella and 0.9 log CFU/g E. coli O157:H7 surviving at the end of storage; in comparison, in the control, 1.6 log CFU/g Salmonella and 1.5 log CFU/g E. coli O157:H7 survived. Pathogen survival in raspberries that had been washed or treated with PL-SDS was significantly lower than in untreated raspberries. Major quality parameters, including color, total phenolic content, total anthocyanin content, total bacterial count, and total yeast and mold counts, were evaluated on raspberries immediately after treatments and during frozen storage. Redness increased in PL-treated raspberries. At the end of storage, PL-treated raspberries had significantly higher total phenolic content and total anthocyanin content compared with control samples. Washing with sanitizers and treatment with PL decreased the total bacterial count and total yeast and mold counts on raspberries and maintained

  16. Color universal design: analysis of color category dependency on color vision type (4)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikeda, Tomohiro; Ichihara, Yasuyo G.; Kojima, Natsuki; Tanaka, Hisaya; Ito, Kei

    2013-02-01

    This report is af ollow-up to SPIE-IS+T / Vol. 7528 7528051-8, SPIE-IS+T / Vol. 7866 78660J-1-8 and SPIE-IS+T / Vol. 8292 829206-1-8. Colors are used to communicate information in various situations, not just for design and apparel. However, visual information given only by color may be perceived differently by individuals with different color vision types. Human color vision is non-uniform and the variation in most cases is genetically linked to L-cones and M-cones. Therefore, color appearance is not the same for all color vision types. Color Universal Design is an easy-to-understand system that was created to convey color-coded information accurately to most people, taking color vision types into consideration. In the present research, we studied trichromat (C-type), prolan (P-type), and deutan (D-type) forms of color vision. We here report the result of two experiments. The first was the validation of the confusion colors using the color chart on CIELAB uniform color space. We made an experimental color chart (total of color cells is 622, the color difference between color cells is 2.5) for fhis experiment, and subjects have P-type or D-type color vision. From the data we were able to determine "the limits with high probability of confusion" and "the limits with possible confusion" around various basing points. The direction of the former matched with the theoretical confusion locus, but the range did not extend across the entire a* range. The latter formed a belt-like zone above and below the theoretical confusion locus. This way we re-analyzed a part of the theoretical confusion locus suggested by Pitt-Judd. The second was an experiment in color classification of the subjects with C-type, P-type, or D-type color vision. The color caps of fhe 100 Hue Test were classified into seven categories for each color vision type. The common and different points of color sensation were compared for each color vision type, and we were able to find a group of color caps

  17. Entropy, color, and color rendering.

    PubMed

    Price, Luke L A

    2012-12-01

    The Shannon entropy [Bell Syst. Tech J.27, 379 (1948)] of spectral distributions is applied to the problem of color rendering. With this novel approach, calculations for visual white entropy, spectral entropy, and color rendering are proposed, indices that are unreliant on the subjectivity inherent in reference spectra and color samples. The indices are tested against real lamp spectra, showing a simple and robust system for color rendering assessment. The discussion considers potential roles for white entropy in several areas of color theory and psychophysics and nonextensive entropy generalizations of the entropy indices in mathematical color spaces.

  18. Design of TiO<formula>_{2}formula> nanotube based X-ray tube with single focusing electrode.

    PubMed

    Alivov, Yahya; Feng, Jun; Molloi, Sabee

    2013-01-01

    We studied in details the effect of various X-ray tube parameters (cathode size, anode size, anode - lens distance, etc.) on TiO<formula>_{2}formula> nanotube field emission electron-beam focal spot size (FSS) and lens voltages for a single electrode lens system. The simulations were performed using commercially available SIMION 8.1 software. A wide range of parameters was simulated to determine conditions when FSS and lens focusing voltage had minimum values. In particular, the dependence of FSS and lens voltages on cathode size (<formula>d_{S}>) was studied for different size lens apertures (<formula>d_{L}>) and different anode voltages. The cathode size <formula>d_{S}> was varied in the range from 0.1 mm to <formula>d_{L}>; the <formula>d_{L}> was changed from 4 to 24 mm in 4 mm increments. The simulations were performed for two different <formula>V_{A}> values 60 kV and 120 kV. It was found that for 20 mm and 24 mm diameter lens apertures the maximum cathode size when the resulting FSS was not greater than 1600 μm (the focal spot size in clinical X-ray CT) were 17.5 mm and 16.2 mm, respectively. The lens voltages <formula>V_{f}> corresponding to 17.5 mm and 16.2 mm cathode size in 20 mm and 24 mm aperture diameter x-ray tubes are 1850 V and -1550 V, respectively.

  19. Seeing Color

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texley, Juliana

    2005-01-01

    Colors are powerful tools for engaging children, from the youngest years onward. We hang brightly patterned mobiles above their cribs and help them learn the names of colors as they begin to record their own ideas in pictures and words. Colors can also open the door to an invisible world of electromagnetism, even when children can barely imagine…

  20. Color constancy in Japanese animation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ichihara, Yasuyo G.

    2006-01-01

    In this study, we measure the colors used in a Japanese Animations. The result can be seen on CIE-xy color spaces. It clearly shows that the color system is not a natural appearance system but an imagined and artistic appearance system. Color constancy of human vision can tell the difference in skin and hair colors between under moonlight and day light. Human brain generates a match to the memorized color of an object from daylight viewing conditions to the color of the object in different viewing conditions. For example, Japanese people always perceive the color of the Rising Sun in the Japanese flag as red even in a different viewing condition such as under moonlight. Color images captured by a camera cannot present those human perceptions. However, Japanese colorists in Animation succeeded in painting the effects of color constancy not only under moonlight but also added the memory matching colors. They aim to create a greater impact on viewer's perceptions by using the effect of the memory matching colors. In this paper, we propose the Imagined Japanese Animation Color System. This system in art is currently a subject of research in Japan. Its importance is that it could also provide an explanation on how human brain perceives the same color under different viewing conditions.

  1. Identification of Phenolic Compounds from Seed Coats of Differently Colored European Varieties of Pea (Pisum sativum L.) and Characterization of Their Antioxidant and In Vitro Anticancer Activities.

    PubMed

    Stanisavljević, Nemanja S; Ilić, Marija D; Matić, Ivana Z; Jovanović, Živko S; Čupić, Tihomir; Dabić, Dragana Č; Natić, Maja M; Tešić, Živoslav Lj

    2016-01-01

    To date little has been done on identification of major phenolic compounds responsible for anticancer and antioxidant properties of pea (Pisum sativum L.) seed coat extracts. In the present study, phenolic profile of the seed coat extracts from 10 differently colored European varieties has been determined using ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography-linear trap quadrupole orbitrap mass spectrometer technique. Extracts of dark colored varieties with high total phenolic content (up to 46.56 mg GAE/g) exhibited strong antioxidant activities (measured by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl or DPPH assay, and ferric ion reducing and ferrous ion chelating capacity assays) which could be attributed to presence of gallic acid, epigallocatechin, naringenin, and apigenin. The aqueous extracts of dark colored varieties exert concentration-dependent cytotoxic effects on all tested malignant cell lines (human colon adenocarcinoma LS174, human breast carcinoma MDA-MB-453, human lung carcinoma A594, and myelogenous leukemia K562). Correlation analysis revealed that intensities of cytotoxic activity of the extracts strongly correlated with contents of epigallocatechin and luteolin. Cell cycle analysis on LS174 cells in the presence of caspase-3 inhibitor points out that extracts may activate other cell death modalities besides caspase-3-dependent apoptosis. The study provides evidence that seed coat extracts of dark colored pea varieties might be used as potential cancer-chemopreventive and complementary agents in cancer therapy. PMID:27348025

  2. Multimodal sexual signals in male ocellated lizards Lacerta lepida: vitamin E in scent and green coloration may signal male quality in different sensory channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martín, José; López, Pilar

    2010-06-01

    The mechanisms that confer honesty to multiple sexual signals of vertebrates remain less known. We suggest that vitamin E in the scent (femoral secretions) and carotenoids in coloration of Lacerta lepida lizards might advertise quality because they are relevant in metabolism as major antioxidants and have a dietary origin. Results showed that there may be similar trade-offs between immunity and both chemical and visual signaling, as males with more vitamin E in secretions and those with more greenish, darker, and saturated carotenoid-dependent colorations had a higher immune response. This suggests that only high-quality males can divert from metabolism and allocate enough vitamin E to secretions and enough carotenoids to coloration. Therefore, information provided by visual and chemical signals is congruent. The use of multiple sensory channels may allow signaling a male quality under different circumstances or reinforce the reliability of the signal when both signals are perceived simultaneously. However, we also found that characteristics of carotenoid-dependent coloration mirror the amounts of vitamin E in secretions. This might support that carotenoids, which are not true antioxidants in the organism, would just reflect and “inform” on the actual contents of metabolic antioxidant vitamin E, which is part of the true system that prevent oxidation. We suggest that the metabolic roles of vitamins might be the actual basis of honesty of many sexual displays, and that carotenoid-based signals might be just the visible part of the whole system.

  3. Color names, color categories, and color-cued visual search: sometimes, color perception is not categorical.

    PubMed

    Brown, Angela M; Lindsey, Delwin T; Guckes, Kevin M

    2011-01-01

    The relation between colors and their names is a classic case study for investigating the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis that categorical perception is imposed on perception by language. Here, we investigate the Sapir-Whorf prediction that visual search for a green target presented among blue distractors (or vice versa) should be faster than search for a green target presented among distractors of a different color of green (or for a blue target among different blue distractors). A. L. Gilbert, T. Regier, P. Kay, and R. B. Ivry (2006) reported that this Sapir-Whorf effect is restricted to the right visual field (RVF), because the major brain language centers are in the left cerebral hemisphere. We found no categorical effect at the Green-Blue color boundary and no categorical effect restricted to the RVF. Scaling of perceived color differences by Maximum Likelihood Difference Scaling (MLDS) also showed no categorical effect, including no effect specific to the RVF. Two models fit the data: a color difference model based on MLDS and a standard opponent-colors model of color discrimination based on the spectral sensitivities of the cones. Neither of these models nor any of our data suggested categorical perception of colors at the Green-Blue boundary, in either visual field.

  4. COMPARISON OF CHILDREN'S FOLLOW-ON INSTANT POWDERED COW'S MILK FORMULA, BUFFALO MILK FORMULA AND CHICKEN-BASED FORMULA ON ENAMEL MICROHARDNESS OF BOVINE TEETH IN VITRO.

    PubMed

    Vongsavan, Kadkao; Rirattanapong, Praphasri; Surarit, Rudee

    2016-03-01

    Dental caries are a major public health problem worldwide. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of children's follow-on instant powdered cow's milk formula, buffalo milk formula and a chicken-based formula on microhardness of bovine enamel with artificial caries-like lesions. Forty bovine teeth were each placed in acrylic blocks and the enamel surfaces were polished to create flat 5 x 5 millimeter surfaces. The teeth surfaces were then demineralized using 0.1M lactic acid (pH 4.5) to achieve an enamel microhardness of 35-65 Vickers Hardness Numbers (VHN). All specimens were then randomly allocated into one of 4 groups (n=10/group). For remineralization, each group was soaked in a different kind of milk formula for 2 hours at 37°C except group 1 which was a negative control (artificial saliva) group. Group 2 was soaked in Murrah™ buffalo milk formula (a positive control ), group 3 in S-26-Promil-Gold™ (cow's milk formula) and group 4 in a chicken-based formula (Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University). The microhardness of the specimens was then measured again. Data were analyzed using a one-way ANOVA and paired t-test with a 95% confidence interval. After exposure to the formula, the mean VHN for each study group was significantly higher (paired t-test, p < 0.05) except for group 1 (p = 0.345). The mean VHN for the the Murrah™ buffalo milk formula, the chicken-based formula and the S-26-Promil-Gold™ formula group were not significantly different from each other (one-way ANOVA, p > 0.05). In conclusion, S-26-Promil-Gold™ follow-on cow milk formula, Murrah™ buffalo milk formula and the chicken-based formula all increased bovine enamel microhardness after soaking for 2 hours. PMID:27244971

  5. Hard color-shrinkage for color-image processing of a digital color camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Takahiro; Ueda, Yasutaka; Fujii, Nobuhiro; Komatsu, Takashi

    2010-01-01

    The classic shrinkage works well for monochrome-image denoising. To utilize inter-channel color correlations, a noisy image undergoes the color-transformation from the RGB to the luminance-and-chrominance color space, and the luminance and the chrominance components are separately denoised. However, this approach cannot cope with signaldependent noise of a digital color camera. To utilize the noise's signal-dependencies, previously we have proposed the soft color-shrinkage where the inter-channel color correlations are directly utilized in the RGB color space. The soft color-shrinkage works well; but involves a large amount of computations. To alleviate the drawback, taking up the l0-l2 optimization problem whose solution yields the hard shrinkage, we introduce the l0 norms of color differences and the l0 norms of color sums into the model, and derive hard color-shrinkage as its solution. For each triplet of three primary colors, the hard color-shrinkage has 24 feasible solutions, and from among them selects the optimal feasible solution giving the minimal energy. We propose a method to control its shrinkage parameters spatially-adaptively according to both the local image statistics and the noise's signal-dependencies, and apply the spatially-adaptive hard color-shrinkage to removal of signal-dependent noise in a shift-invariant wavelet transform domain. The hard color-shrinkage performs mostly better than the soft color-shrinkage, from objective and subjective viewpoints.

  6. The reasons for the color green fluorite Mehmandooye cover using UV spectroscopy and XRF results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pirzadeh, Sara; Zahiri, Reza

    2016-04-01

    Fluorite mineral or fluorine with chemical formula CaF2 is most important mineralfluor in nature. This mineral crystallization to colors yellow, green, pink, blue, purple, colorless and sometimes black andin cubic system crystallized.assemi transparent and glass with polished.fluoritethe purity include 48/9% fluoreand 51/9% calcium. How the creation colors in minerals different greatly indebted to Kurt Nassau research from Bell Labs, Murray Hill, New Jersey.almostall the mechanisms that cause color in minerals, are the result of the interaction of light waves with the electrons The main factors affecting the color generation include the following: 1)the presence of a constructive element inherent (essential ingredient mineral composition) 2)The presence of a minor impurities (such a element as involved in latticesolid solution) 3) appearancedefects in the crystal structure 4) There are some physical boundaries with distances very small and delicate, like blades out of the solution (which may be the play of colors or Chatvyansy) 5) Mixing mechanical impurities dispersed in a host mineral Based on the results of the analysis, XRF and UV spectrum and also based on the results of ICP, because the color green fluorite examined, the focus color (F_center) and also the presence of some elementsintermediate (such as Y (yttrium). [1] Bill, H., Calas, G. Color centres associated rare earth ions and the origin of coloration in natural fluorites// PhysChem Min, (1978), v 3, pp. 117-131.

  7. Color vision test

    MedlinePlus

    ... vision problems: Achromatopsia -- complete color blindness , seeing only shades of gray Deuteranopia -- difficulty telling the difference between red/purple and green/purple Protanopia -- difficulty telling the difference between blue/ ...

  8. Color Terms and Color Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidoff, Jules

    2006-01-01

    In their lead articles, both Kowalski and Zimiles (2006) and O'Hanlon and Roberson (2006) declare a general relation between color term knowledge and the ability to conceptually represent color. Kowalski and Zimiles, in particular, argue for a priority for the conceptual representation in color term acquisition. The complexities of the interaction…

  9. Prebiotic carbohydrates in human milk and formulas.

    PubMed

    Boehm, Günther; Stahl, Bernd; Jelinek, Jürgen; Knol, Jan; Miniello, Vito; Moro, Guido E

    2005-10-01

    Human milk oligosaccharides play an important role, as prebiotic soluble fibres, in the postnatal development of the intestinal flora. Infant formulas are virtually free of prebiotic oligosaccharides. As a consequence, formula-fed infants develop an intestinal flora significantly different to the flora of breastfed infants. Due to the complexity of human milk oligosaccharides, it is necessary to use alternative sources of prebiotic ingredients as components of infant formulas. The present review summarizes the data of experimental research and clinical studies with a prebiotic mixture containing 90% short-chain galacto-oligosaccharides and 10% long-chain fructo-oligosacchrides are summarized. The data demonstrate that, with this prebiotic mixture, the growth of bifidobacteria and lactobacilli can be stimulated, the faecal pH can be decreased, and the presence of pathogens can be reduced to levels similar to those of breastfed infants. Thus, prebiotic oligosaccharides such as the studied mixture provide beneficial effects for formula-fed infants.

  10. Multiplexing encoding method for full-color dynamic 3D holographic display.

    PubMed

    Xue, Gaolei; Liu, Juan; Li, Xin; Jia, Jia; Zhang, Zhao; Hu, Bin; Wang, Yongtian

    2014-07-28

    The multiplexing encoding method is proposed and demonstrated for reconstructing colorful images accurately by using single phase-only spatial light modulator (SLM). It will encode the light waves at different wavelengths into one pure-phase hologram at the same time based on the analytic formulas. The three-dimensional (3D) images can be reconstructed clearly when the light waves at different wavelengths are incident into the encoding hologram. Numerical simulations and optical experiments for 2D and 3D colorful images are performed. The results show that the colorful reconstructed images with high quality are achieved successfully. The proposed multiplexing method is a simple and fast encoding approach and the size of the system is small and compact. It is expected to be used for realizing full-color 3D holographic display in future.

  11. Mass Formulae for Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turu, Michi

    2003-07-01

    May we say?, the distribution of all particle masses are "Random" or "Chaos" or "Fractal" or "Bushing" as a whole. We can say perfectly, it is "Bushing". It's looks like a relationship among the masses of galaxy, sun, earth, moon, lunar orbiter. And also like the structure of contents(section, paragraph, item) in books. Generally, mass structures have the power of it's interaction constants. I state a fundamental formulae about particle masses in this purview.

  12. Exponential Formulae and Effective Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mielnik, Bogdan; Fernandez, David J. C.

    1996-01-01

    One of standard methods to predict the phenomena of squeezing consists in splitting the unitary evolution operator into the product of simpler operations. The technique, while mathematically general, is not so simple in applications and leaves some pragmatic problems open. We report an extended class of exponential formulae, which yield a quicker insight into the laboratory details for a class of squeezing operations, and moreover, can be alternatively used to programme different type of operations, as: (1) the free evolution inversion; and (2) the soft simulations of the sharp kicks (so that all abstract results involving the kicks of the oscillator potential, become realistic laboratory prescriptions).

  13. Adaptive color correction based on object color classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotera, Hiroaki; Morimoto, Tetsuro; Yasue, Nobuyuki; Saito, Ryoichi

    1998-09-01

    An adaptive color management strategy depending on the image contents is proposed. Pictorial color image is classified into different object areas with clustered color distribution. Euclidian or Mahalanobis color distance measures, and maximum likelihood method based on Bayesian decision rule, are introduced to the classification. After the classification process, each clustered pixels are projected onto principal component space by Hotelling transform and the color corrections are performed for the principal components to be matched each other in between the individual clustered color areas of original and printed images.

  14. Introducing Chemical Formulae and Equations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawson, Chris; Rowell, Jack

    1979-01-01

    Discusses when the writing of chemical formula and equations can be introduced in the school science curriculum. Also presents ways in which formulae and equations learning can be aided and some examples for balancing and interpreting equations. (HM)

  15. Color Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wrolstad, Ronald E.; Smith, Daniel E.

    Color, flavor, and texture are the three principal quality attributes that determine food acceptance, and color has a far greater influence on our judgment than most of us appreciate. We use color to determine if a banana is at our preferred ripeness level, and a discolored meat product can warn us that the product may be spoiled. The marketing departments of our food corporations know that, for their customers, the color must be "right." The University of California Davis scorecard for wine quality designates four points out of 20, or 20% of the total score, for color and appearance (1). Food scientists who establish quality control specifications for their product are very aware of the importance of color and appearance. While subjective visual assessment and use of visual color standards are still used in the food industry, instrumental color measurements are extensively employed. Objective measurement of color is desirable for both research and industrial applications, and the ruggedness, stability, and ease of use of today's color measurement instruments have resulted in their widespread adoption.

  16. Goniochromatic difference between effect coatings: Is the whole more than the sum of its parts?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blahová, Jana; Kirchner, Eric; Dekker, Niels; Lucassen, Marcel; Njo, Lan; van der Lans, Ivo; Urban, Philipp; Huertas, Rafael

    2015-03-01

    Special effect coatings have been increasingly used in many industries (e.g. automotive, plastics industry) over the past two decades. The measurement of perceived color differences on such coatings cannot be done by means of traditional color-difference formulas (e.g. CMC(l:c), CIEDE2000, AUDI2000) as they lack to consider distinct optical properties such as coarseness, glint and goniochromatism. However, there is a need to ensure quality and colorimetric accuracy when designing and processing special effect coatings. In this paper, we present a psychophysical experiment intended to serve as a basis for future work on a new generation of color-difference formula(s) for multiple viewing geometries (viewing and illumination angle). We are especially interested in assessing whether judging under a single geometry can lead to different results as judging under several (two) geometries, i.e. whether the sum is more than its part.

  17. Processing of Color Words Activates Color Representations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richter, Tobias; Zwaan, Rolf A.

    2009-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate whether color representations are routinely activated when color words are processed. Congruency effects of colors and color words were observed in both directions. Lexical decisions on color words were faster when preceding colors matched the color named by the word. Color-discrimination responses…

  18. Relationship between photochemical efficiency of photosystem II and the photochemical reflectance index of mango tree: merging data from different illuminations, seasons and leaf colors.

    PubMed

    Weng, Jen-Hsien; Jhaung, Lee-Hau; Lin, Rong-Jhih; Chen, Hong-Yi

    2010-04-01

    In order to elucidate the effects of chlorophyll concentration and seasonal temperature on the relationship between photosystem II (PSII) efficiency and the photochemical reflectance index (PRI) of leaves under different light intensity, mango (Mangifera indica), a low-temperature-sensitive species, was used for the study. From early winter to summer, we selected several days to measure chlorophyll fluorescence and leaf spectral reflectance of mango leaves with dark green to yellow green colors, under natural sunlight from predawn to sunset and under six levels (0, 200, 400, 800, 1200 and 2000 mumol m(-2) s(-1)) of artificial illumination. When leaves were exposed to light, both PRI and PSII efficiency decreased with the increase in illumination, yet the PSII efficiency-PRI relationship varied with temperature and leaf color. Both predawn PRI and the X-intercept of the PSII efficiency-PRI regression equations were higher in dark green leaves and on the day with higher minimum air temperature, and lower on opposite conditions. These were due to the influence of chlorophyll on the reflection of wavebands for detecting PRI, and leaves retained a higher degree of epoxidation state of xanthophyll cycle pigments in cold predawn. Therefore, when data obtained at different seasons and with different leaf colors were pooled for analysis, PRI was not closely related to PSII efficiency. Yet, either in the darkness of predawn or under a given level of illumination, PSII efficiency always showed a significant positive correlation with PRI, with data from different leaf colors and seasons merged for statistics analysis. Because both the intercept and slope of the PSII efficiency-PRI equation showed a negative regression with photosynthetic photon flux (PPF), an empirical regression model, i.e., PSII efficiency = c + d . PPF + e . (PPF)(2) + f . PRI + g . PPF . PRI, could be fitted for multiple regression analysis. Based on the close correlation between the estimated and measured

  19. Influence of different production strategies on the stability of color, oxygen consumption and metmyoglobin reducing activity of meat from Ningxia Tan sheep.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xiaoguang; Wang, Zhenyu; Miao, Jing; Xie, Li; Dai, Yan; Li, Xingmin; Chen, Yong; Luo, Hailing; Dai, Ruitong

    2014-02-01

    Fifty male Ningxia Tan sheep were randomly divided into five groups (10 per group). Different feeding strategies were applied to each group for 120 days prior to slaughter. The sheep belong to five groups were pastured for 0 h (feedlot-fed), 2h, 4h, 8h, 12h per day on a natural grazing ground, respectively. M. semitendinosus muscle from Tan sheep was obtained after slaughter. Instrumental color, pH values, oxygen consumption rate, metmyoglobin reducing activity and relative metmyoglobin percentages were analyzed after 1, 3, 5, 7 and 9 days of refrigerated storage. Long-term daily grazing and herbage-based diet were conducive to maintain a lower oxygen consumption rate, higher metmyoglobin reducing activity and lower metmyoglobin accumulation. The combination of pasture-fed and feedlot-fed was conducive to weight gain, and at the same time, increased the color stability of the meat from Ningxia Tan sheep.

  20. Navigation lights color study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbosa, Jose G.; Alberg, Matthew T.

    2015-05-01

    The chromaticity of navigation lights are defined by areas on the International Commission on Illumination (CIE) 1931 chromaticity diagram. The corner coordinates for these areas are specified in the International Regulations for Prevention of Collisions at Sea, 1972 (72 COLREGS). The navigation light's color of white, red, green, and yellow are bounded by these areas. The chromaticity values specified by the COLREGS for navigation lights were intended for the human visual system (HVS). The HVS can determine the colors of these lights easily under various conditions. For digital color camera imaging systems the colors of these lights are dependent on the camera's color spectral sensitivity, settings, and color correction. At night the color of these lights are used to quickly determine the relative course of vessels. If these lights are incorrectly identified or there is a delay in identifying them this could be a potential safety of ship concern. Vessels that use camera imaging systems exclusively for sight, at night, need to detect, identify, and discriminate navigation lights for navigation and collision avoidance. The introduction of light emitting diode (LED) lights and lights with different spectral signatures have the potential to be imaged very differently with an RGB color filter array (CFA) color camera than with the human eye. It has been found that some green navigation lights' images appear blue verse green. This has an impact on vessels that use camera imaging systems exclusively for navigation. This paper will characterize color cameras ability to properly reproducing navigation lights' color and survey a set of navigation light to determine if they conform to the COLREGS.

  1. The correlationship between the metabolizable energy content, chemical composition and color score in different sources of corn DDGS

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background This study was conducted to evaluate the apparent metabolizable energy (AME) and true metabolizable energy (TME) contents in 30 sources of corn distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) in adult roosters, and establish the prediction equations to estimate the AME and TME value based on its chemical composition and color score. Methods Twenty-eight sources of corn DDGS made from several processing plants in 11 provinces of China and others imported from the United States. DDGS were analyzed for their metabolizable energy (ME) contents, measured for color score and chemical composition (crude protein, crude fat, ash, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber), to predict the equation of ME in DDGS. A precision-fed rooster assay was used, each DDGS sample was tube fed (50 g) to adult roosters. The experiment was conducted as a randomized incomplete block design with 3 periods. Ninety-five adult roosters were used in each period, with 90 being fed the DDGS samples and 5 being fasted to estimate basal endogenous energy losses. Results Results showed that the AME ranged from 5.93 to 12.19 MJ/kg, TME ranged from 7.28 to 13.54 MJ/kg. Correlations were found between ME and ash content (-0.64, P < 0.01) and between ME and yellowness score (0.39, P < 0.05) of the DDGS samples. Furthermore, the best-fit regression equation for AME content of DDGS based on chemical composition and color score was AME = 6.57111 + 0.51475 GE - 0.10003 NDF + 0.13380 ADF + 0.07057 fat - 0.57029 ash - 0.02437 L (R2 = 0.70). The best-fit regression equation for TME content of DDGS was TME = 7.92283 + 0.51475 GE - 0.10003 NDF + 0.13380 ADF + 0.07057 fat - 0.57029 ash - 0.02437 L (R2 = 0.70). Conclusions This experiment suggested that measuring the chemical composition and color score of a corn DDGS sample may provide a quality parameter for identifying corn DDGS sources energy digestibility and metabolizable energy content. PMID

  2. [Hair colorants].

    PubMed

    Urbanek-Karłowska, B; Luks, E; Jedra, M; Kiss, E; Malanowska, M

    1997-01-01

    The properties, mode of action and its duration of the preparations used for hair dyeing are described, together with their chemical components, and also preparations of herbal origin. The chemical reactions are described in detail which lead the development of a color polymer occurring during hair dyeing. The studies are presented which are used for toxicological assessment of the raw materials which are the components of the colorants, and the list is included of hair colorants permitted for use in Poland. PMID:9562811

  3. Crater Floor in Color

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 5 May 2004 This daytime visible color image was collected on November 18, 2003 during the Southern Summer season in Terra Cimmeria.

    This daytime visible color image was collected on September 4, 2002 during the Northern Spring season in Vastitas Borealis. The THEMIS VIS camera is capable of capturing color images of the martian surface using its five different color filters. In this mode of operation, the spatial resolution and coverage of the image must be reduced to accommodate the additional data volume produced from the use of multiple filters. To make a color image, three of the five filter images (each in grayscale) are selected. Each is contrast enhanced and then converted to a red, green, or blue intensity image. These three images are then combined to produce a full color, single image. Because the THEMIS color filters don't span the full range of colors seen by the human eye, a color THEMIS image does not represent true color. Also, because each single-filter image is contrast enhanced before inclusion in the three-color image, the apparent color variation of the scene is exaggerated. Nevertheless, the color variation that does appear is representative of some change in color, however subtle, in the actual scene. Note that the long edges of THEMIS color images typically contain color artifacts that do not represent surface variation.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -23.7, Longitude 135.6 East (224.4 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with

  4. [Preliminary study on pharmacodynamic evaluation method of Houpo formula particles].

    PubMed

    Ma, Lu; Shao, Li-Jie; Tang, Fang

    2014-04-01

    To discuss the feasibility of the pharmacodynamic evaluation method for traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) formula particles, with traditional decoction for reference and the intervention of Magnoliae Officinalis Cortex in rats with ulcerative colitis (UC). First of all, the similarity of traditional Magnoliae Officinalis Cortex decoction and formula particles of different manufacturers was defined by using the IR fingerprint. The UC rat model was established and given Houpo formula particles of different doses and manufacturers, with the decoction for reference, in order to observe disease activity index (DAI), colon mucosa damage index (CMDI), pathologic changes, nitric oxide (NO), endothdin (ET), substance P, vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP). Their intervention effects on UC rats were compared to study the difference between Sanjiu and Tianjiang Houpo formula particles, in order to demonstrate the feasibility of the pharmacodynamic evaluation method for Houpo formula particles. According to the results, Houpo formula particles showed similar pharmacodynamic actions with the traditional decoction. The pharmacodynamic comparison of Houpo formula particles of different manufacturers showed no statistical significance. The experiment showed that on the basis of the TCM compounds, a prescription dismantlement study was conducted to define target points of various drugs. The traditional decoction was selected for reference in the comparison of corresponding formula particles for their pharmacodynamic equivalence. This method could avoid controversies about single or combined boiling of formula particles, and give objective comments on the pharmacodynamic effect of the formula particles. The method is proved to be feasible. PMID:25039188

  5. Quantum Color

    ScienceCinema

    Lincoln, Don

    2016-07-20

    The idea of electric charges and electricity in general is a familiar one to the science savvy viewer. However, electromagnetism is but one of the four fundamental forces and not the strongest one. The strongest of the fundamental forces is called the strong nuclear force and it has its own associated charge. Physicists call this charge “color” in analogy with the primary colors, although there is no real connection with actual color. In this video, Fermilab’s Dr. Don Lincoln explains why it is that we live in a colorful world.

  6. Comparison of PCA and ICA in color recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laamanen, Hannu T.; Jaeaeskelaeinen, Timo; Parkkinen, Jussi P. S.

    2000-10-01

    It has been shown that a large dataset of color spectra can be represented as a linear combination of a few principal spectra. These principal spectra, which form the basis of a vector-subspace, are usually generated by Principal Component Analysis (PCA), the method widely applied to the analysis of spectral data. The objective of the present study was the comparison of PCA and its extenion Independent Component Analysis (ICA). ICA is a statistical signal processing technique, which tries to express measured signals as a linear combination of unknown source signals. Both methods were applied to a set of 1269 reflectance spectra of the chips in the Munsell Book of Color-Matte Finish Collection and a set of 922 reflectance spectra of the samples in the Pantone Color Formula Guide. Several bases with different number of principal spectra were generated. Each Munsell and Pantone basis was used to reconstruct both the Munsell and the Pantone color spectra. The accuracy of the reconstructability was measured mainly by means of color differences (delta) Eab* (CIELAB), but the spectral reconstruction errors were also determined. The dimension of the subspaces leading to a given reconstruction accuracy is discussed in the paper.

  7. MSc degree in color technology for the automotive sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez-Verdu, F.; Perales, E.; Chorro, E.; Viqueira, V.; Gilabert, E.

    2014-07-01

    Nowadays, the measurement and management of color quality of the gonio-apparent materials is complex, but highly demanded in many industrial sectors, as automotive, cosmetics, plastics for consumer electronics, printing inks, architectural coatings, etc. It is necessary to control complex instrumentation and to do visual assessments of texture and color differences to get, for instance, a visual harmony in car bodies; and a profound knowledge of physics and chemistry of special-effect pigments for their optical formulation to obtain attractive visual effects in coatings, plastics, etc, combining among them and with solid pigments. From University of Alicante, for the academic year 2013-14, we are organizing the first MSc degree in Color Technology for the Automotive Sector, with a design of contents embracing CIE colorimetry and visual perception, included the AUDI2000 color difference formula, instrumentation and color management software, fundamentals of coatings and plastics in the automotive sector, and, optical formulation of pigments. The MSc syllabus, with 60 ECTS, is designed to be taught in two semesters: from September to February with on classroom theoretical and practical activities, and, from March to June at virtual level, with internships of training in some companies. Therefore, the MSc Thesis would be the performance report during the internship in companies or research institutions. Some multinational companies, both as car makers and coatings and plastics providers, from European and non-European countries have already shown their support and interest in welcoming students for specific training, even some job offers when the first MSc edition finishes.

  8. Reducing Color/Brightness Interaction in Color Television

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marchman, Robert H.

    1987-01-01

    Proposed digitally sampled scan-conversion scheme for color television reduces unwanted interactions between chrominance and luminance signals. New scheme reduces luminance and chrominance bandwidth to increase frequency separation between signals. To avoid proportionally reducing horizontal brightness resolution and horizontal color resolution, horizontal interlace of luminance signal and two color-difference signals used.

  9. Reduced Stroop Interference for Opponent Colors May Be Due to Input Factors: Evidence from Individual Differences and a Neural Network Simulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laeng, Bruno; Torstein, Lag; Brennen, Tim

    2005-01-01

    Sensory or input factors can influence the strength of interference in the classic Stroop color-word task. Specifically, in a single-trial computerized version of the Stroop task, when color-word pairs were incongruent, opponent color pairs (e.g., the word BLUE in yellow) showed reduced Stroop interference compared with nonopponent color pairs…

  10. Identification of a R2R3-MYB gene regulating anthocyanin biosynthesis and relationships between its variation and flower color difference in lotus (Nelumbo Adans.).

    PubMed

    Sun, Shan-Shan; Gugger, Paul F; Wang, Qing-Feng; Chen, Jin-Ming

    2016-01-01

    The lotus (Nelumbonaceae: Nelumbo Adans.) is a highly desired ornamental plant, comprising only two extant species, the sacred lotus (N. nucifera Gaerten.) with red flowers and the American lotus (N. lutea Willd.) with yellow flowers. Flower color is the most obvious difference of two species. To better understand the mechanism of flower color differentiation, the content of anthocyanins and the expression levels of four key structural genes (e.g., DFR, ANS, UFGT and GST) were analyzed in two species. Our results revealed that anthocyanins were detected in red flowers, not yellow flowers. Expression analysis showed that no transcripts of GST gene and low expression level of three UFGT genes were detected in yellow flowers. In addition, three regulatory genes (NnMYB5, NnbHLH1 and NnTTG1) were isolated from red flowers and showed a high similarity to corresponding regulatory genes of other species. Sequence analysis of MYB5, bHLH1 and TTG1 in two species revealed striking differences in coding region and promoter region of MYB5 gene. Population analysis identified three MYB5 variants in Nelumbo: a functional allele existed in red flowers and two inactive forms existed in yellow flowers. This result revealed that there was an association between allelic variation in MYB5 gene and flower color difference. Yeast two-hybrid experiments showed that NnMYB5 interacts with NnbHLH1, NlbHLH1 and NnTTG1, and NnTTG1 also interacts with NnbHLH1 and NlbHLH1. The over-expression of NnMYB5 led to anthocyanin accumulation in immature seeds and flower stalks and up-regulation of expression of TT19 in Arabidopsis. Therefore, NnMYB5 is a transcription activator of anthocyanin synthesis. This study helps to elucidate the function of NnMYB5 and will contribute to clarify the mechanism of flower coloration and genetic engineering of flower color in lotus.

  11. Identification of a R2R3-MYB gene regulating anthocyanin biosynthesis and relationships between its variation and flower color difference in lotus (Nelumbo Adans.)

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Shan-Shan

    2016-01-01

    The lotus (Nelumbonaceae: Nelumbo Adans.) is a highly desired ornamental plant, comprising only two extant species, the sacred lotus (N. nucifera Gaerten.) with red flowers and the American lotus (N. lutea Willd.) with yellow flowers. Flower color is the most obvious difference of two species. To better understand the mechanism of flower color differentiation, the content of anthocyanins and the expression levels of four key structural genes (e.g., DFR, ANS, UFGT and GST) were analyzed in two species. Our results revealed that anthocyanins were detected in red flowers, not yellow flowers. Expression analysis showed that no transcripts of GST gene and low expression level of three UFGT genes were detected in yellow flowers. In addition, three regulatory genes (NnMYB5, NnbHLH1 and NnTTG1) were isolated from red flowers and showed a high similarity to corresponding regulatory genes of other species. Sequence analysis of MYB5, bHLH1 and TTG1 in two species revealed striking differences in coding region and promoter region of MYB5 gene. Population analysis identified three MYB5 variants in Nelumbo: a functional allele existed in red flowers and two inactive forms existed in yellow flowers. This result revealed that there was an association between allelic variation in MYB5 gene and flower color difference. Yeast two-hybrid experiments showed that NnMYB5 interacts with NnbHLH1, NlbHLH1 and NnTTG1, and NnTTG1 also interacts with NnbHLH1 and NlbHLH1. The over-expression of NnMYB5 led to anthocyanin accumulation in immature seeds and flower stalks and up-regulation of expression of TT19 in Arabidopsis. Therefore, NnMYB5 is a transcription activator of anthocyanin synthesis. This study helps to elucidate the function of NnMYB5 and will contribute to clarify the mechanism of flower coloration and genetic engineering of flower color in lotus. PMID:27635336

  12. Identification of a R2R3-MYB gene regulating anthocyanin biosynthesis and relationships between its variation and flower color difference in lotus (Nelumbo Adans.)

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Shan-Shan

    2016-01-01

    The lotus (Nelumbonaceae: Nelumbo Adans.) is a highly desired ornamental plant, comprising only two extant species, the sacred lotus (N. nucifera Gaerten.) with red flowers and the American lotus (N. lutea Willd.) with yellow flowers. Flower color is the most obvious difference of two species. To better understand the mechanism of flower color differentiation, the content of anthocyanins and the expression levels of four key structural genes (e.g., DFR, ANS, UFGT and GST) were analyzed in two species. Our results revealed that anthocyanins were detected in red flowers, not yellow flowers. Expression analysis showed that no transcripts of GST gene and low expression level of three UFGT genes were detected in yellow flowers. In addition, three regulatory genes (NnMYB5, NnbHLH1 and NnTTG1) were isolated from red flowers and showed a high similarity to corresponding regulatory genes of other species. Sequence analysis of MYB5, bHLH1 and TTG1 in two species revealed striking differences in coding region and promoter region of MYB5 gene. Population analysis identified three MYB5 variants in Nelumbo: a functional allele existed in red flowers and two inactive forms existed in yellow flowers. This result revealed that there was an association between allelic variation in MYB5 gene and flower color difference. Yeast two-hybrid experiments showed that NnMYB5 interacts with NnbHLH1, NlbHLH1 and NnTTG1, and NnTTG1 also interacts with NnbHLH1 and NlbHLH1. The over-expression of NnMYB5 led to anthocyanin accumulation in immature seeds and flower stalks and up-regulation of expression of TT19 in Arabidopsis. Therefore, NnMYB5 is a transcription activator of anthocyanin synthesis. This study helps to elucidate the function of NnMYB5 and will contribute to clarify the mechanism of flower coloration and genetic engineering of flower color in lotus.

  13. Identification of a R2R3-MYB gene regulating anthocyanin biosynthesis and relationships between its variation and flower color difference in lotus (Nelumbo Adans.).

    PubMed

    Sun, Shan-Shan; Gugger, Paul F; Wang, Qing-Feng; Chen, Jin-Ming

    2016-01-01

    The lotus (Nelumbonaceae: Nelumbo Adans.) is a highly desired ornamental plant, comprising only two extant species, the sacred lotus (N. nucifera Gaerten.) with red flowers and the American lotus (N. lutea Willd.) with yellow flowers. Flower color is the most obvious difference of two species. To better understand the mechanism of flower color differentiation, the content of anthocyanins and the expression levels of four key structural genes (e.g., DFR, ANS, UFGT and GST) were analyzed in two species. Our results revealed that anthocyanins were detected in red flowers, not yellow flowers. Expression analysis showed that no transcripts of GST gene and low expression level of three UFGT genes were detected in yellow flowers. In addition, three regulatory genes (NnMYB5, NnbHLH1 and NnTTG1) were isolated from red flowers and showed a high similarity to corresponding regulatory genes of other species. Sequence analysis of MYB5, bHLH1 and TTG1 in two species revealed striking differences in coding region and promoter region of MYB5 gene. Population analysis identified three MYB5 variants in Nelumbo: a functional allele existed in red flowers and two inactive forms existed in yellow flowers. This result revealed that there was an association between allelic variation in MYB5 gene and flower color difference. Yeast two-hybrid experiments showed that NnMYB5 interacts with NnbHLH1, NlbHLH1 and NnTTG1, and NnTTG1 also interacts with NnbHLH1 and NlbHLH1. The over-expression of NnMYB5 led to anthocyanin accumulation in immature seeds and flower stalks and up-regulation of expression of TT19 in Arabidopsis. Therefore, NnMYB5 is a transcription activator of anthocyanin synthesis. This study helps to elucidate the function of NnMYB5 and will contribute to clarify the mechanism of flower coloration and genetic engineering of flower color in lotus. PMID:27635336

  14. Can Coloring Mandalas Reduce Anxiety?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curry, Nancy A.; Kasser, Tim

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of different types of art activities in the reduction of anxiety. After undergoing a brief anxiety-induction, 84 undergraduate students were randomly assigned to color a mandala, to color a plaid form, or to color on a blank piece of paper. Results demonstrated that anxiety levels declined approximately the…

  15. Astronomy with the Color Blind

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Donald A.; Melrose, Justyn

    2014-01-01

    The standard method to create dramatic color images in astrophotography is to record multiple black and white images, each with a different color filter in the optical path, and then tint each frame with a color appropriate to the corresponding filter. When combined, the resulting image conveys information about the sources of emission in the…

  16. Color reproduction system based on color appearance model and gamut mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Fang-Hsuan; Yang, Chih-Yuan

    2000-06-01

    By the progress of computer, computer peripherals such as color monitor and printer are often used to generate color image. However, cross media color reproduction by human perception is usually different. Basically, the influence factors are device calibration and characterization, viewing condition, device gamut and human psychology. In this thesis, a color reproduction system based on color appearance model and gamut mapping is proposed. It consists of four parts; device characterization, color management technique, color appearance model and gamut mapping.

  17. Are corals colorful?

    PubMed

    Matz, Mikhail V; Marshall, N Justin; Vorobyev, Misha

    2006-01-01

    Using in situ spectrometry data and visual system modeling, we investigate whether the colors conferred to the reef-building corals by GFP-like proteins would look colorful not only to humans, but also to fish occupying different ecological niches on the reef. Some GFP-like proteins, most notably fluorescent greens and nonfluorescent chromoproteins, indeed generate intense color signals. An unexpected finding was that fluorescent proteins might also make corals appear less colorful to fish, counterbalancing the effect of absorption by the photosynthetic pigments of the endosymbiotic algae, which might be a form of protection against herbivores. We conclude that GFP-determined coloration of corals may be an important factor in visual ecology of the reef fishes.

  18. Polar Cap Colors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 12 May 2004 This daytime visible color image was collected on June 6, 2003 during the Southern Spring season near the South Polar Cap Edge.

    The THEMIS VIS camera is capable of capturing color images of the martian surface using its five different color filters. In this mode of operation, the spatial resolution and coverage of the image must be reduced to accommodate the additional data volume produced from the use of multiple filters. To make a color image, three of the five filter images (each in grayscale) are selected. Each is contrast enhanced and then converted to a red, green, or blue intensity image. These three images are then combined to produce a full color, single image. Because the THEMIS color filters don't span the full range of colors seen by the human eye, a color THEMIS image does not represent true color. Also, because each single-filter image is contrast enhanced before inclusion in the three-color image, the apparent color variation of the scene is exaggerated. Nevertheless, the color variation that does appear is representative of some change in color, however subtle, in the actual scene. Note that the long edges of THEMIS color images typically contain color artifacts that do not represent surface variation.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -77.8, Longitude 195 East (165 West). 38 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA

  19. Chemistry, Color, and Art.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orna, Mary Virginia

    2001-01-01

    Describes pigments and artists' colors from a chronological perspective. Explains how chemical analysis can be used to distinguish the differences between artists' palettes, identify the evolution of art, and lead to restoration of an art work. (Contains 13 references.) (YDS)

  20. Using color for face verification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leszczynski, Mariusz

    2009-06-01

    This paper presents research on importance of color information in face verification system. Four most popular color spaces where used: RGB, YIQ, YCbCr, luminance and compared using four types of discriminant classifiers. Experiments conducted on facial databases with complex background, different poses and light condition show that color information can improve the verification accuracy compared to the traditionally used luminance information. To achieve the best performance we recommend to use multi frames verification encoded to YIQ color space.

  1. Effect of oxygen concentration in modified atmosphere packaging on color and texture of beef patties cooked to different temperatures.

    PubMed

    Bao, Yulong; Puolanne, Eero; Ertbjerg, Per

    2016-11-01

    Patties were made from raw minced beef after storage for 6days in modified atmosphere (0, 20, 40, 60, and 80% oxygen) to study the combined effect of oxygen concentration and cooking temperature on hardness and color. Increased oxygen concentrations generally led to larger (P<0.01) thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) values, greater (P<0.01) loss of free thiols and more formation of cross-linked myosin heavy chain. Hardness of cooked patties was generally lower (P<0.01) without oxygen. Premature browning of cooked patties was observed already at a relative low oxygen concentration of 20%. The internal redness of cooked patties decreased (P<0.05) with increasing oxygen concentrations and increasing cooking temperatures. Mean particle size (D(3,2)) of homogenized cooked meat generally increased (P<0.05) with increasing cooking temperatures and increasing oxygen concentrations, and particle size was correlated (r=0.80) with hardness of cooked patties. PMID:27341620

  2. Using Single Colors and Color Pairs to Communicate Basic Tastes

    PubMed Central

    Spence, Charles

    2016-01-01

    Recently, it has been demonstrated that people associate each of the basic tastes (e.g., sweet, sour, bitter, and salty) with specific colors (e.g., red, green, black, and white). In the present study, we investigated whether pairs of colors (both associated with a particular taste or taste word) would give rise to stronger associations relative to pairs of colors that were associated with different tastes. We replicate the findings of previous studies highlighting the existence of a robust crossmodal correspondence between individual colors and basic tastes. However, while there was evidence that pairs of colors could indeed communicate taste information more consistently than single colors, our participants took more than twice as long to match the color pairs with tastes than the single colors. Possible reasons for these results are discussed.

  3. Using Single Colors and Color Pairs to Communicate Basic Tastes

    PubMed Central

    Spence, Charles

    2016-01-01

    Recently, it has been demonstrated that people associate each of the basic tastes (e.g., sweet, sour, bitter, and salty) with specific colors (e.g., red, green, black, and white). In the present study, we investigated whether pairs of colors (both associated with a particular taste or taste word) would give rise to stronger associations relative to pairs of colors that were associated with different tastes. We replicate the findings of previous studies highlighting the existence of a robust crossmodal correspondence between individual colors and basic tastes. However, while there was evidence that pairs of colors could indeed communicate taste information more consistently than single colors, our participants took more than twice as long to match the color pairs with tastes than the single colors. Possible reasons for these results are discussed. PMID:27698979

  4. Color contrast enhancement for color night vision based on color mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Xiaoyan; Han, Lei; Wang, Yujin; Wang, Bangfeng

    2013-03-01

    The increasing availability and deployment of imaging sensors operating in multiple spectral bands has led to a large research effort in image fusion, bringing a lot of pixel-level color fusion algorithms. Color constancy and color contrast are two important topics for color image fusion. However, there is no work considering these two aspects in the meanwhile. The paper focuses on enhancing the color contrast between targets and their backgrounds and maintaining the color constancy. Firstly, a group of visible and infrared images are rendered with natural colors with color contrast enhancement algorithm. Then a color reference palette is derived from source images and their corresponding fused results. To enrich this palette, the nearest Euclidean distance determines the absent colors. The complete palette can be deployed in real-time to different multi-band image sequences of similar scenes. Experimental results based on different data sets show that the targets are popped out with intense colors while backgrounds present natural color appearance. Some objective analysis also shows that the presented method not only inherits more detail information from source images but also brings bigger color distance when comparing with the existing algorithms.

  5. Types of Infant Formulas Consumed in the United States.

    PubMed

    Rossen, Lauren M; Simon, Alan E; Herrick, Kirsten A

    2016-03-01

    We examined consumption of different types of infant formula (eg, cow's milk, soy, gentle/lactose-reduced, and specialty) and regular milk among a nationally representative sample of 1864 infants, 0 to 12 months old, from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2003-2010. Among the 81% of infants who were fed formula or regular milk, 69% consumed cow's milk formula, 12% consumed soy formula, 5% consumed gentle/ lactose-reduced formulas, 6% consumed specialty formulas, and 13% consumed regular milk products. There were differences by household education and income in the percentage of infants consuming cow's milk formula and regular milk products. The majority of infants in the United States who were fed formula or regular milk consumed cow's milk formula (69%), with lower percentages receiving soy, specialty, gentle/sensitive, or lactose-free/reduced formulas. Contrary to national recommendations, 13% of infants younger than 1 year consumed regular milk, and the percentage varied by household education and income levels. PMID:26149849

  6. Number of discernible object colors is a conundrum.

    PubMed

    Masaoka, Kenichiro; Berns, Roy S; Fairchild, Mark D; Moghareh Abed, Farhad

    2013-02-01

    Widely varying estimates of the number of discernible object colors have been made by using various methods over the past 100 years. To clarify the source of the discrepancies in the previous, inconsistent estimates, the number of discernible object colors is estimated over a wide range of color temperatures and illuminance levels using several chromatic adaptation models, color spaces, and color difference limens. Efficient and accurate models are used to compute optimal-color solids and count the number of discernible colors. A comprehensive simulation reveals limitations in the ability of current color appearance models to estimate the number of discernible colors even if the color solid is smaller than the optimal-color solid. The estimates depend on the color appearance model, color space, and color difference limen used. The fundamental problem lies in the von Kries-type chromatic adaptation transforms, which have an unknown effect on the ranking of the number of discernible colors at different color temperatures.

  7. Human preference for individual colors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmer, Stephen E.; Schloss, Karen B.

    2010-02-01

    Color preference is an important aspect of human behavior, but little is known about why people like some colors more than others. Recent results from the Berkeley Color Project (BCP) provide detailed measurements of preferences among 32 chromatic colors as well as other relevant aspects of color perception. We describe the fit of several color preference models, including ones based on cone outputs, color-emotion associations, and Palmer and Schloss's ecological valence theory. The ecological valence theory postulates that color serves an adaptive "steering' function, analogous to taste preferences, biasing organisms to approach advantageous objects and avoid disadvantageous ones. It predicts that people will tend to like colors to the extent that they like the objects that are characteristically that color, averaged over all such objects. The ecological valence theory predicts 80% of the variance in average color preference ratings from the Weighted Affective Valence Estimates (WAVEs) of correspondingly colored objects, much more variance than any of the other models. We also describe how hue preferences for single colors differ as a function of gender, expertise, culture, social institutions, and perceptual experience.

  8. Simple perceptual color space for color specification and real-time processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotsarenko, Yuriy; Ramos, Fernando

    2011-08-01

    In this work an alternative color space is described that defines the color elements in terms of approximated brightness, hue and saturation, similar to other color spaces commonly used in computer applications. The classical color spaces such as HSL and HSV in the form that is widely used are made for convenience, and do not model colors based on human perception. Other classical color spaces such as CIELAB, DIN99 and even more recent CIECAM-based color spaces are too cumbersome and difficult to work with. The proposed alternative, on the other hand, is simple to work with and has its "lightness" component tuned up to represent the perceived brightness closer to the reality. It is based on how luma is calculated in color spaces such as YUV and YIQ among others, but instead of using constant coefficients, it uses Euclidean distance formula with weighting coefficients. Several experiments are described that illustrate the proposed color space visualized in 3D and compared to other color spaces in perceptual terms and performance benchmarks. This is aided by a novel technique that allows normalizing the chroma of existing color spaces within a fixed interval. The experiments show that the proposed color space is a viable alternative for applications that already use HSV and HSL. A practical application is described, where the color space is used for 3D illumination with specular reflections running on dedicated graphics processor unit using shaders. This resolves visual defects present in the classical approaches that use RGB color space.

  9. Color Blind or Color Conscious?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tatum, Beverly Daniel

    1999-01-01

    A color-blind approach often signifies that an educator has not considered what racial/ethnic identity means to youngsters. Students want to find themselves reflected in the faces of teachers and other students. Color-conscious teachers seek out materials that positively reflect students' identities and initiate discussions about race and racism.…

  10. Illuminant color estimation based on pigmentation separation from human skin color

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Satomi; Kakinuma, Akihiro; Kamijo, Naohiro; Takahashi, Hiroshi; Tsumura, Norimichi

    2015-03-01

    Human has the visual system called "color constancy" that maintains the perceptive colors of same object across various light sources. The effective method of color constancy algorithm was proposed to use the human facial color in a digital color image, however, this method has wrong estimation results by the difference of individual facial colors. In this paper, we present the novel color constancy algorithm based on skin color analysis. The skin color analysis is the method to separate the skin color into the components of melanin, hemoglobin and shading. We use the stationary property of Japanese facial color, and this property is calculated from the components of melanin and hemoglobin. As a result, we achieve to propose the method to use subject's facial color in image and not depend on the individual difference among Japanese facial color.

  11. Difference in dynamic properties of photoreceptors in a butterfly, Papilio xuthus: possible segregation of motion and color processing.

    PubMed

    Kawasaki, Masashi; Kinoshita, Michiyo; Weckström, Matti; Arikawa, Kentaro

    2015-12-01

    The eyes of the Japanese yellow swallowtail butterfly, Papilio xuthus, contain six spectral classes of photoreceptors, each sensitive either in the ultraviolet, violet, blue, green, red or broadband wavelength regions. The green-sensitive receptors can be divided into two subtypes, distal and proximal. Previous behavioral and anatomical studies have indicated that the distal subtype appears to be involved in motion vision, while the proximal subtype is important for color vision. Here, we studied the dynamic properties of Papilio photoreceptors using light stimulation with randomly modulated intensity and light pulses. Frequency response (gain) of all photoreceptor classes shared a general profile-a broad peak around 10 Hz with a declining slope towards higher frequency range. At 100 Hz, the mean relative gain of the distal green receptors was significantly larger than any other receptor classes, indicating that they are the fastest. Photoreceptor activities under dim light were higher in the ultraviolet and violet receptors, suggesting higher transduction sensitivities. Responses to pulse stimuli also distinguished the green receptors from others by their shorter response latencies. We thus concluded that the distal green receptors carry high frequency information in the visual system of Papilio xuthus.

  12. Difference in dynamic properties of photoreceptors in a butterfly, Papilio xuthus: possible segregation of motion and color processing.

    PubMed

    Kawasaki, Masashi; Kinoshita, Michiyo; Weckström, Matti; Arikawa, Kentaro

    2015-12-01

    The eyes of the Japanese yellow swallowtail butterfly, Papilio xuthus, contain six spectral classes of photoreceptors, each sensitive either in the ultraviolet, violet, blue, green, red or broadband wavelength regions. The green-sensitive receptors can be divided into two subtypes, distal and proximal. Previous behavioral and anatomical studies have indicated that the distal subtype appears to be involved in motion vision, while the proximal subtype is important for color vision. Here, we studied the dynamic properties of Papilio photoreceptors using light stimulation with randomly modulated intensity and light pulses. Frequency response (gain) of all photoreceptor classes shared a general profile-a broad peak around 10 Hz with a declining slope towards higher frequency range. At 100 Hz, the mean relative gain of the distal green receptors was significantly larger than any other receptor classes, indicating that they are the fastest. Photoreceptor activities under dim light were higher in the ultraviolet and violet receptors, suggesting higher transduction sensitivities. Responses to pulse stimuli also distinguished the green receptors from others by their shorter response latencies. We thus concluded that the distal green receptors carry high frequency information in the visual system of Papilio xuthus. PMID:26329322

  13. Changes in White college students' color-blind racial ideology over 4 years: do diversity experiences make a difference?

    PubMed

    Neville, Helen A; Poteat, V Paul; Lewis, Jioni A; Spanierman, Lisa B

    2014-04-01

    In this longitudinal study, we explored how White students' (N = 857) color-blind racial ideology (CBRI; i.e., beliefs that serve to deny, minimize, and/or distort the existence of racism) changed over time and the factors associated with these patterns of change. Specifically, we investigated whether gender, diversity attitudes (i.e., openness to diversity and interest in social issues), and college diversity experiences (i.e., diversity-related courses/activities and close interracial friendships) predicted patterns of CBRI change. Findings indicated that gender and diversity attitudes were related to initial levels of CBRI, such that women and students who were more open to diversity issues at the beginning of college were more likely to report lower levels of CBRI; gender was also related to a greater decrease in CBRI changes over the college experience. Furthermore, college diversity experiences predicted changes in CBRI over time, such that students who completed a greater number of diversity courses and activities and those who had a greater number of close Black friends showed a significantly greater decrease in CBRI over their 4 years in college; interestingly, students who reported having no Latino friends compared with having some close Latino friends showed a significantly greater decrease in CBRI over time.

  14. Infant formulas with increased concentrations of alpha-lactalbumin.

    PubMed

    Lien, Eric L

    2003-06-01

    Human and bovine milk differ substantially in the ratio of whey to casein protein (approximately 60:40 in human milk and approximately 20:80 in bovine milk) and in the proportions of specific proteins. Although current infant formulas closely mimic the ratio of total whey to casein inhuman milk, the concentration of a-lactalbumin (the dominant protein in human milk) is relatively low in formula, whereas beta-lactoglobulin, a protein not found in human milk, is the most dominant whey protein in formula. Because of the differences in the protein profiles of human milk and infant formula, amino acid profiles also differ. To meet all essential amino acid requirements of infants, formula concentrations of protein must be higher than those in human milk. Recently, whey sources with elevated concentrations of alpha-lactalbumin have become available, which permitted the development of formulas with increased concentrations of this protein and decreased concentrations of beta-lactoglobulin. alpha-Lactalbumin is rich in tryptophan, which is typically the limiting amino acid in formula, and as a result, formulas have been developed with lower protein but higher tryptophan concentrations. This type of formula may offer a number of advantages to the neonate, which include producing plasma tryptophan concentrations equal to those found in breastfed infants and obviating the need for the body to dispose of excess nitrogen loads.

  15. Preclinical assessment of infant formula.

    PubMed

    Lönnerdal, Bo

    2012-01-01

    Infant formulas are the sole or predominant source of nutrition for many infants and are fed during a sensitive period of development and may therefore have short- and long-term consequences for infant health. Preclinical safety assessment therefore needs to include both short-term and long-term studies in animals. It is recommended that procedures are instituted by which experts may serve as independent scientists for companies developing novel products, without having their integrity compromised, and later serve the legislative institutions. A two-level assessment approach to determine the potential toxicity of a novel ingredient, its metabolites, and their effects in the matrix on developing organ systems has been suggested by IOM. This appears reasonable, as novel ingredients can be of different levels of concern. The use of modern methods in genomics and proteomics should be considered in these evaluation processes as well as novel methods to evaluate outcomes, including metabolomics and molecular techniques to assess the microbiome.

  16. How allergenic are hypoallergenic infant formulae?

    PubMed

    Rugo, E; Wahl, R; Wahn, U

    1992-06-01

    In a comparative study six different protein hydrolysates, marketed as 'hypoallergenic' infant formulae were investigated by skin prick tests, RAST, RAST inhibition and titrated provocation tests. When hydrolysates containing a high percentage of larger peptides were found to have the highest capacity to induce positive skin tests, provocation tests and to bind to human serum IgE antibodies of cow's milk allergic children. Casein hydrolysates appeared to have the least residual allergenic activity. We recommend that 'hypoallergenic' formulae should be tested in each case, before being prescribed to cow's milk sensitive children.

  17. Juice, pulp and seeds fractionated from dry climate primocane raspberry cultivars (Rubus idaeus) have significantly different antioxidant capacity, anthocyanin content and color.

    PubMed

    Snyder, Shannon M; Low, Richard M; Stocks, Janet C; Eggett, Dennis L; Parker, Tory L

    2012-12-01

    Raspberries contain flavonoid antioxidants whose relative concentrations may vary between the juice, pulp, and seed fractions. Oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), total anthocyanin content, and berry color were determined for six cultivars of primocane raspberries grown in a dry climate (Utah, USA). Significant ORAC differences were found between juice (18.4 ± 0.39 μmol TE/g), pulp (24.45 ± 0.43), and seeds (273.27 ± 11.15) with all Utah cultivars combined. A significantly higher concentration of anthocyanins was present in Utah raspberry juice (20.86 ± 0.35 mg cyanidin-3-glucoside eq./100 g), compared to pulp (13.96 ± 0.35). Anthocyanin content of juice and pulp were significantly positively correlated with dark color (L*). This is the first report of fractional differences in dry climate raspberries, and has implications for the juice and supplement industries.

  18. Neutron Rich Nuclei in a New Binding Energy Formula and the Astrophysical r-PROCESS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lahiri, Chirashree; Gangopadhyay, G.

    Neutron rich nuclei has been studied with a new phenomenological mass formula. Predictions of different mass formulas for the location of the neutron drip line are compared with those from the present calculation. The implications of the new mass formula for r-process nucleosynthesis are discussed. It is found that though the neutron drip line obtained from this formula differs substantially from other formulas, the r-process abundance upto mass 200 are unlikely to be significantly different. The errors inherent in the mass formula are found to play an insignificant role beyond mass A = 80.

  19. Effect of two anti-fungal treatments (metrafenone and boscalid plus kresoxim-methyl) applied to vines on the color and phenol profile of different red wines.

    PubMed

    Briz-Cid, Noelia; Figueiredo-González, María; Rial-Otero, Raquel; Cancho-Grande, Beatriz; Simal-Gándara, Jesús

    2014-01-01

    The effect of two anti-fungal treatments (metrafenone and boscalid + kresoxim-methyl) on the color and phenolic profile of Tempranillo and Graciano red wines has been studied. To evaluate possible modifications in color and phenolic composition of wines, control and wines elaborated with treated grapes under good agricultural practices were analyzed. Color was assessed by Glories and CIELab parameters. Color changes were observed for treated wines with boscalid + kresoxim-methyl, leading to the production of wines with less color vividness. Phenolic profile was characterized by HPLC analysis. Boscalid + kresoxim-methyl treatment promoted the greatest decrease on the phenolic content in wines. PMID:24936710

  20. Effect of two anti-fungal treatments (metrafenone and boscalid plus kresoxim-methyl) applied to vines on the color and phenol profile of different red wines.

    PubMed

    Briz-Cid, Noelia; Figueiredo-González, María; Rial-Otero, Raquel; Cancho-Grande, Beatriz; Simal-Gándara, Jesús

    2014-06-16

    The effect of two anti-fungal treatments (metrafenone and boscalid + kresoxim-methyl) on the color and phenolic profile of Tempranillo and Graciano red wines has been studied. To evaluate possible modifications in color and phenolic composition of wines, control and wines elaborated with treated grapes under good agricultural practices were analyzed. Color was assessed by Glories and CIELab parameters. Color changes were observed for treated wines with boscalid + kresoxim-methyl, leading to the production of wines with less color vividness. Phenolic profile was characterized by HPLC analysis. Boscalid + kresoxim-methyl treatment promoted the greatest decrease on the phenolic content in wines.

  1. Effects of enhancement with varying phosphate types and concentrations, at two different pump rates on beef biceps femoris instrumental color characteristics.

    PubMed

    Baublits, R T; Pohlman, F W; Brown, A H; Johnson, Z B

    2005-10-01

    The effect of enhancing beef biceps femoris muscles (n=45) with solutions comprising 2.0% sodium chloride and either sodium hexametaphosphate (SHMP), sodium tripolyphosphate (STPP), or tetrasodium pyrophosphate (TSPP) at either 0.2% or 0.4% of product weight on instrumental color during simulated retail display was investigated. All solutions were injected into muscle samples at either 112% (12% pump) or 118% (18% pump) of raw product weight. Muscles treated with all three phosphate types had lower (P<0.05) L* and b* values compared to untreated muscles (CNT). Steaks enhanced with STPP had similar (P>0.05) a* values as CNT, whereas SHMP- and TSPP-treated steaks generally had lower a* values than CNT. Across phosphate type, excluding day 3 of display, steaks treated with phosphate at 0.4% had similar (P>0.05) a* values as CNT, whereas those with 0.2% phosphate addition had lower (P<0.05) a* values than CNT. Across five days of display, STPP maintained higher (P<0.05) a* values than steaks treated only with sodium chloride, whereas SHMP did not differ (P>0.05) from sodium chloride-treated steaks. While STPP maintained a similar (P>0.05) saturation index as CNT, SHMP and TSPP generally had decreased (P<0.05) vividness during display. Additionally, excluding day 3 of display, phosphate concentration at 0.4% maintained similar vividness as CNT, whereas 0.2% phosphate concentration caused decreased (P<0.05) vividness, compared to CNT. The 630/580nm ratio results indicated that SHMP had less (P<0.05) oxymyoglobin than CNT throughout display. Disregarding day 3 of display, both STPP and TSPP had similar (P>0.05) oxymyoglobin proportions as CNT. These results indicate that STPP was the most effective phosphate type for maintaining color. Additionally, 0.4% phosphate concentrations can maintain color better than 0.2% phosphate concentrations. However, none of the phosphate/salt combinations produced superior color, compared to untreated steaks.

  2. Color discrimination, color naming and color preferences in 80-year olds.

    PubMed

    Wijk, H; Berg, S; Sivik, L; Steen, B

    1999-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate color discrimination, color naming and color preference in a random sample of 80-year-old men and women. Knowledge of color perception in old age can be of value when using color contrast, cues and codes in the environment to promote orientation and function. The color naming test indicated that the colors white, black, yellow, red, blue and green promoted recognition to the highest degree among all subjects. A gender-related difference, in favor of women, occurred in naming five of the mixed colors. Women also used more varied color names than men. Color discrimination was easier in the red and yellow area than in the blue and green area. This result correlates positively with visual function on far sight, and negatively with diagnosis of a cataract. The preference order for seven colors put blue, green and red at the top, and brown at the bottom, hence agreeing with earlier studies, and indicating that the preference order for colors remains relatively stable also in old age. This result should be considered when designing environments for old people.

  3. Hypergraph coloring complexes

    PubMed Central

    Breuer, Felix; Dall, Aaron; Kubitzke, Martina

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to generalize the notion of the coloring complex of a graph to hypergraphs. We present three different interpretations of those complexes–a purely combinatorial one and two geometric ones. It is shown, that most of the properties, which are known to be true for coloring complexes of graphs, break down in this more general setting, e.g., Cohen–Macaulayness and partitionability. Nevertheless, we are able to provide bounds for the f- and h-vectors of those complexes which yield new bounds on chromatic polynomials of hypergraphs. Moreover, though it is proven that the coloring complex of a hypergraph has a wedge decomposition, we provide an example showing that in general this decomposition is not homotopy equivalent to a wedge of spheres. In addition, we can completely characterize those hypergraphs whose coloring complex is connected. PMID:23483700

  4. Training synesthetic letter-color associations by reading in color.

    PubMed

    Colizoli, Olympia; Murre, Jaap M J; Rouw, Romke

    2014-02-20

    Synesthesia is a rare condition in which a stimulus from one modality automatically and consistently triggers unusual sensations in the same and/or other modalities. A relatively common and well-studied type is grapheme-color synesthesia, defined as the consistent experience of color when viewing, hearing and thinking about letters, words and numbers. We describe our method for investigating to what extent synesthetic associations between letters and colors can be learned by reading in color in nonsynesthetes. Reading in color is a special method for training associations in the sense that the associations are learned implicitly while the reader reads text as he or she normally would and it does not require explicit computer-directed training methods. In this protocol, participants are given specially prepared books to read in which four high-frequency letters are paired with four high-frequency colors. Participants receive unique sets of letter-color pairs based on their pre-existing preferences for colored letters. A modified Stroop task is administered before and after reading in order to test for learned letter-color associations and changes in brain activation. In addition to objective testing, a reading experience questionnaire is administered that is designed to probe for differences in subjective experience. A subset of questions may predict how well an individual learned the associations from reading in color. Importantly, we are not claiming that this method will cause each individual to develop grapheme-color synesthesia, only that it is possible for certain individuals to form letter-color associations by reading in color and these associations are similar in some aspects to those seen in developmental grapheme-color synesthetes. The method is quite flexible and can be used to investigate different aspects and outcomes of training synesthetic associations, including learning-induced changes in brain function and structure.

  5. Reduced Stroop interference for opponent colors may be due to input factors: evidence from individual differences and a neural network simulation.

    PubMed

    Laeng, Bruno; Låg, Torstein; Brennen, Tim

    2005-06-01

    Sensory or input factors can influence the strength of interference in the classic Stroop color-word task. Specifically, in a single-trial computerized version of the Stroop task, when color-word pairs were incongruent, opponent color pairs (e.g., the word BLUE in yellow) showed reduced Stroop interference compared with nonopponent color pairs (e.g., BLUE in red). In addition, participants' color discrimination ability was measured by standard color vision tests (i.e., Farnsworth-Munsell 100-Hue Test and Ishihara plates). Error rates in the Farnsworth-Munsell test correlated positively with the amount of Stroop interference. Neural network simulations (variants of J. D. Cohen, K. Dunbar, & J. L. McClelland's, 1990, model) showed that only a distributed trichromatic input layer was able to simulate these findings. Thus, sensory input from the color system needs to be incorporated into current accounts of the Stroop effect. PMID:15982124

  6. Color universal design : Towards barrier-free design for diverse color visions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, Kei

    More than 5 million people in Japan sense colors differently because of the diversity in genes and diseases in the eyes. They have problems of distinguishing certain combination of colors, noticing red signs, and telling color names. Hardware and software simulation tools are provided to experience such difficulties. When designing documents and products that use color, it is important to take color universal design into consideration by choosing least confusing combination of colors, conveying information redundantly with colors and different shapes, and displaying color names, so that the information should be recognized by as diverse people as possible.

  7. Photoinduced color changes in two different qualities of riboflavin in the solid state and in various tablet formulations photoreactivity of biologically active compounds. XX.

    PubMed

    Sue-Chu, M; Kristensen, S; Tønnesen, H H

    2009-07-01

    There has been a gradual change in the relative amounts of synthetic and biosynthetic bulk riboflavin (RF) supplied to the overall market over the past years. The two sources of drug substance seem to have different photochemical properties that cannot be readily predicted. Alternating between the two qualities of RF therefore seems to influence the photochemical properties of the final product in a rather unpredictable way. A change in production method introduces the possibility of a change in polymorphic form which may alter the photoreactivity of the substance. The drug substance and tablets become green upon light exposure. The biosynthetic bulk material appears to be less photostable than the synthetic bulk material after inadvertent exposure to radiation or at elevated humidity. The observed color change cannot be explained by the formation of degradation products but is strongly dependent on the humidity level within the drug substance or preparation. The change in color was dramatically increased (by a factor up to 7) when the drug substance was formulated as tablets. Interactions were observed between RF and individual tablet components by mixing and compression at low pressure prior to exposure.

  8. Color measurement and discrimination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wandell, B. A.

    1985-01-01

    Theories of color measurement attempt to provide a quantative means for predicting whether two lights will be discriminable to an average observer. All color measurement theories can be characterized as follows: suppose lights a and b evoke responses from three color channels characterized as vectors, v(a) and v(b); the vector difference v(a) - v(b) corresponds to a set of channel responses that would be generated by some real light, call it *. According to theory a and b will be discriminable when * is detectable. A detailed development and test of the classic color measurement approach are reported. In the absence of a luminance component in the test stimuli, a and b, the theory holds well. In the presence of a luminance component, the theory is clearly false. When a luminance component is present discrimination judgements depend largely on whether the lights being discriminated fall in separate, categorical regions of color space. The results suggest that sensory estimation of surface color uses different methods, and the choice of method depends upon properties of the image. When there is significant luminance variation a categorical method is used, while in the absence of significant luminance variation judgments are continuous and consistant with the measurement approach.

  9. Task-dependent color discrimination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poirson, Allen B.; Wandell, Brian A.

    1990-01-01

    When color video displays are used in time-critical applications (e.g., head-up displays, video control panels), the observer must discriminate among briefly presented targets seen within a complex spatial scene. Color-discrimination threshold are compared by using two tasks. In one task the observer makes color matches between two halves of a continuously displayed bipartite field. In a second task the observer detects a color target in a set of briefly presented objects. The data from both tasks are well summarized by ellipsoidal isosensitivity contours. The fitted ellipsoids differ both in their size, which indicates an absolute sensitivity difference, and orientation, which indicates a relative sensitivity difference.

  10. Color stabilizes textbook visual processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paeglis, Roberts; Orlovska, Madara; Bluss, Kristaps

    2011-05-01

    We report that pages with color illustrations elicit more homogeneous duration of fixations in 12 elementary school children. For six first graders, we compared the reading of the color cover and a greyscale illustrated text page of an abcbook. For six second grade pupils, we demonstrated a color and a greyscale fairytale book page. The fixations we recorded are concordant with the duration for preschoolers reported elsewhere. Average duration of fixations on a page with color elements are shorter than on greyscale ones, 425 (SE=13.4) and 461 (18.3) ms, respectively. The correlation analysis lends support that a color page is processed differently than its greyscale version. Fixation duration for color and greyscale condition was correlated neither for text (r=.567, p=.241) nor for images (r=.517, p=.294) for the second graders. Our research suggests that color elements on textbook pages encourage emergent readers to perform better in acquisition.

  11. Enriching tortoises: assessing color preference.

    PubMed

    Passos, Luiza F; Mello, Humberto Espirito Santo; Young, Robert John

    2014-01-01

    Environmental enrichment is a principle that is used to enhance the quality of care for nonhuman animals in captivity. To achieve this, it is necessary to understand the animal's needs. This study focused on color preference to provide food stimuli as a source of environmental enrichment for the tortoise, Chelonoidis denticulata. During this study, the stimuli green-, blue-, yellow-, and red-colored bananas and plaster blocks were randomly offered to the tortoises. Analysis of the data showed that the tortoises had a preference for the stimuli dyed with colors red and yellow over the other presented colors. It was possible to conclude that presenting food in different colors stimulated the animals to evaluate their environment and make choices in relation to their color preference. Thus, this experiment introduced an element of choice into their lives, beyond identifying color food preferences for the tortoises. The element of choice is known to be important to animal welfare.

  12. "Your Eye Is Sparkling": Formulaic Expressions and Routines in Turkish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dogancay, Seran

    There are certain pre-coded (formulaic) utterances conventionally triggered by certain communication situations, and their use is expected and deemed appropriate because they are seen as part of everyday politeness formulas. Lack of an English equivalent indicates cultural differences governing their use. Some routines are taught explicitly and…

  13. But Can They Read It? A Look at Readability Formulas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ricker, Kenneth S.

    1978-01-01

    Examines six science books in reference to their reading levels as determined by the Fry, SMOG, and Fog formulas. A disparity in calculated values is noted and explained to be the result of the use of different comprehension levels by the formulas. Suggestions concerning the selection of science reading materials for the classroom are provided.…

  14. Color superconductivity

    SciTech Connect

    Wilczek, F.

    1997-09-22

    The asymptotic freedom of QCD suggests that at high density - where one forms a Fermi surface at very high momenta - weak coupling methods apply. These methods suggest that chiral symmetry is restored and that an instability toward color triplet condensation (color superconductivity) sets in. Here I attempt, using variational methods, to estimate these effects more precisely. Highlights include demonstration of a negative pressure in the uniform density chiral broken phase for any non-zero condensation, which we take as evidence for the philosophy of the MIT bag model; and demonstration that the color gap is substantial - several tens of MeV - even at modest densities. Since the superconductivity is in a pseudoscalar channel, parity is spontaneously broken.

  15. Computing symmetric colorings of the dihedral group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zelenyuk, Yuliya

    2016-06-01

    A symmetry on a group G is a mapping G ∋ x ↦ gx-1 g ∈ G, where g ∈ G. A subset A ⊆ G is symmetric if it is invariant under some symmetry, that is, A = gA-1g. The notion of symmetry has interesting relations to enumerative combinatorics. A coloring is symmetric if χ(gx-1g) = χ(x) for some g ∈ G. We discuss an approach how to compute the number of symmetric r-colorings for any finite group. Using this approach we derive the formula for the number of symmetric r-colorings of the dihedral group D3.

  16. Categorical encoding of color in the brain.

    PubMed

    Bird, Chris M; Berens, Samuel C; Horner, Aidan J; Franklin, Anna

    2014-03-25

    The areas of the brain that encode color categorically have not yet been reliably identified. Here, we used functional MRI adaptation to identify neuronal populations that represent color categories irrespective of metric differences in color. Two colors were successively presented within a block of trials. The two colors were either from the same or different categories (e.g., "blue 1 and blue 2" or "blue 1 and green 1"), and the size of the hue difference was varied. Participants performed a target detection task unrelated to the difference in color. In the middle frontal gyrus of both hemispheres and to a lesser extent, the cerebellum, blood-oxygen level-dependent response was greater for colors from different categories relative to colors from the same category. Importantly, activation in these regions was not modulated by the size of the hue difference, suggesting that neurons in these regions represent color categorically, regardless of metric color difference. Representational similarity analyses, which investigated the similarity of the pattern of activity across local groups of voxels, identified other regions of the brain (including the visual cortex), which responded to metric but not categorical color differences. Therefore, categorical and metric hue differences appear to be coded in qualitatively different ways and in different brain regions. These findings have implications for the long-standing debate on the origin and nature of color categories, and also further our understanding of how color is processed by the brain.

  17. Ultrasonographic patterns of reproductive organs in infants fed soy formula: Comparisons to infants fed breast milk and milk formula

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our objective was to determine if differences exist in hormone sensitive organ size between infants fed soy formula (SF), milk formula (MF), or breast milk (BF). Breast buds, uterus, ovaries, prostate, and testicular volumes were assessed by ultrasonography in 40 BF, 41 MF, and 39 SF infants at age ...

  18. Recognition of Partially Occluded Objects Based on the Three Different Color Spaces (RGB, YCbCr, HSV)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soleimanizadeh, Shiva; Mohamad, Dzulkifli; Saba, Tanzila; Rehman, Amjad

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study is to propose an algorithm that can recognize partially occluded objects under different variations by computing three histograms of colour spaces (RGB, HSV, YCbCr). The dataset used in this research are from kitchen apparatuses. It is created by the researcher and include two parts: referenced objects (18 single objects) and tested objects (occluded objects) made from two single objects to represent the occluded object under different variations (scale, rotation, transformation) with varying percentage of occlusion (30-90 %). Three different colour spaces histogram (RGB, HIS, YCbCr) are used for extracting the features. Histogram intersection distance works for matching objects. Computation histograms and matching process are used to each block of image that given by image division process and finally compared the performance of each colour space by evaluating the accuracy. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm is robust for identifying occluded objects and it could work at high occlusion.

  19. Accompanying of parameters of color, gloss and hardness on polymeric films coated with pigmented inks cured by different radiation doses of ultraviolet light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bardi, Marcelo Augusto Gonçalves; Machado, Luci Diva Brocardo

    2012-09-01

    In the search for alternatives to traditional paint systems solvent-based, the curing process of polymer coatings by ultraviolet light (UV) has been widely studied and discussed, especially because of their high content of solids and null emission of VOC. In UV-curing technology, organic solvents are replaced by reactive diluents, such as monomers. This paper aims to investigate variations on color, gloss and hardness of print inks cured by different UV radiation doses. The ratio pigment/clear coating was kept constant. The clear coating presented higher average values for König hardness than pigmented ones, indicating that UV-light absorption has been reduced by the presence of pigments. Besides, they have indicated a slight variation in function of cure degree for the studied radiation doses range. The gloss loss related to UV light exposition allows inferring that some degradation occurred at the surface of print ink films.

  20. Measuring color quality of light sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Wendy

    2006-08-01

    The successful commercialization of solid-state lighting for general illumination will require an effective method to characterize the color quality of these sources. The distinctive spectral characteristics of solid-state lighting sources present both unique challenges and opportunities with regards to color quality. Color quality is difficult to define, much less measure. Several aspects of color quality, including color fidelity (rendering), chromatic discrimination, and general population preferences must be considered. In some instances, these factors are contradictory. For example, observers tend to prefer lamps that increase object color chroma (vividness), though such chroma increases are deviations from color fidelity. In addition to devising a way to balance the influence of these different dimensions of color quality, consideration must be given to ways of communicating color quality in a simple way, which permits comparison between products. At NIST we're approaching this problem by developing a computational method that takes inspiration from the Color Rendering Index (CRI), but incorporates other aspects of color quality. The output of this Color Quality Scale (CQS) is a composite score incorporating a lamp's ability to accurately render object colors, permit precise discrimination between different colors, and display object colors in a way that is visually pleasing to typical consumers. Visual experimentation will be vital to improve and validate this method, which was initially developed with colorimetric simulations. Preliminary experimentation has begun, focusing on the issues most relevant to the development of commercial standards for color quality.

  1. Color Sense

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Heidi S. S.; Maki, Jennifer A.

    2009-01-01

    This article reports a study conducted by members of the WellU Academic Integration Subcommittee of The College of St. Scholastica's College's Healthy Campus Initiative plan whose purpose was to determine whether changing color in the classroom could have a measurable effect on students. One simple improvement a school can make in a classroom is…

  2. Variation of L-DOPA in the leaf and flower tissues of seven faba bean accessions with different flower colors.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Faba bean (Vicia faba L.) has been selected to adapt to a wide range of environments worldwide and is grown for different end-uses such as food, feed, forage and green manure. Particularly noteworthy in faba bean is the medicinally important component L-3,4-dihydroxy phenylalanine (L-DOPA), the majo...

  3. Variation of L-DOPA in the leaf and flower tissues of seven faba bean accessions with different flower colors

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Faba bean (Vicia faba L.) has been selected to adapt to a wide range of environments worldwide and is grown for different end-uses such as food, feed, forage and green manure. Particularly noteworthy in faba bean is the medicinally important component L-3,4-dihydroxy phenylalanine (L-DOPA), the majo...

  4. Using Single Colors and Color Pairs to Communicate Basic Tastes II: Foreground–Background Color Combinations

    PubMed Central

    Marmolejo-Ramos, Fernando; Velasco, Carlos; Spence, Charles

    2016-01-01

    People associate basic tastes (e.g., sweet, sour, bitter, and salty) with specific colors (e.g., pink or red, green or yellow, black or purple, and white or blue). In the present study, we investigated whether a color bordered by another color (either the same or different) would give rise to stronger taste associations relative to a single patch of color. We replicate previous findings, highlighting the existence of a robust crossmodal correspondence between individual colors and basic tastes. On occasion, color pairs were found to communicate taste expectations more consistently than were single color patches. Furthermore, and in contrast to a recent study in which the color pairs were shown side-by-side, participants took no longer to match the color pairs with tastes than the single colors (they had taken twice as long to respond to the color pairs in the previous study). Possible reasons for these results are discussed, and potential applications for the results, and for the testing methodology developed, are outlined. PMID:27708752

  5. Color in home furnishings (Abstract Only)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stein, Catherine

    2002-06-01

    Ms. Stein, President and Creative Director of The Color Council took us through a fast paced international tour via slide presentations of the latest furnishings, fabrics, lighting, gifts and accessories for the home. She explained that color events and predictions occur simultaneously with no time lag in spreading color news throughout industries, perhaps due to technology and the Internet. She noted a global network for distinctive pockets of color wherein little difference of color exists between Europe and New York.

  6. Evolution of color vision.

    PubMed

    Pichaud, F; Briscoe, A; Desplan, C

    1999-10-01

    Color vision is achieved by comparing the inputs from retinal photoreceptor neurons that differ in their wavelength sensitivity. Recent studies have elucidated the distribution and phylogeny of opsins, the family of light-sensitive molecules involved in this process. Interesting new findings suggest that animals have evolved a strategy to achieve specific sensitivity through the mutually exclusive expression of different opsin genes in photoreceptors.

  7. A Salary Formula for Principals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, Michael B.

    1975-01-01

    When each administrative salary contract is negotiated individually, inequities creep in, many administrators feel. This article suggests a formula for determining principals' salaries based on education and experience, days of work, and responsibilities. (Editor)

  8. Heron's Remarkable Triangle Area Formula.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Bernard M.

    1993-01-01

    Presents Heron's original geometric proof to his formula to calculate the area of a triangle. Attempts to improve on this proof by supplying a chain of reasoning that leads quickly from premises to the conclusion. (MDH)

  9. Formulas for Image Factor Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hakstian, A. Ralph

    1973-01-01

    Formulas are presented in this paper for computing scores associated with factors of G, the image covariance matrix, under three conditions. The subject of the paper is restricted to "pure" image analysis. (Author/NE)

  10. A Formula for Writing Poetry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Peter O.

    1983-01-01

    Presents the formula for writing poetry as containing three elements: the content of the poet's mind; the poetic medium--language; and the creative spark that fuses experience and language, or content and medium, into poetry. (MM)

  11. Infant Formula - Buying, Preparing, Storing, and Feeding

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000806.htm Infant Formula – Buying, Preparing, Storing, and Feeding To use the ... using infant formula . Buying, Preparing, and Storing Infant Formula The following tips can help you buy, prepare, ...

  12. Quantum computing of semiclassical formulas.

    PubMed

    Georgeot, B; Giraud, O

    2008-04-01

    We show that semiclassical formulas such as the Gutzwiller trace formula can be implemented on a quantum computer more efficiently than on a classical device. We give explicit quantum algorithms which yield quantum observables from classical trajectories, and which alternatively test the semiclassical approximation by computing classical actions from quantum evolution. The gain over classical computation is in general quadratic, and can be larger in some specific cases.

  13. A formula for charmonium suppression

    SciTech Connect

    Pena, C. Blaschke, D.

    2012-07-15

    In this work a formula for charmonium suppression obtained by Matsui in 1989 is analytically generalized for the case of complex cc-barpotential described by a 3-dimensional and isotropic time-dependent harmonic oscillator (THO). It is suggested that under certain scheme the formula can be applied to describe J/{psi} suppression in heavy-ion collisions at CERN-SPS, RHIC, and LHC with the advantage of analytical tractability.

  14. Evaluation of antifungal activity of white-colored mineral trioxide aggregate on different strains of Candida albicans in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Bhardwaj, Archana; Bhardwaj, Abhishek; Rao, Nageshwar

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antifungal action of various concentrations of white mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) against seven different strains of Candida albicans using the tube dilution test. Materials and Methods: Fresh mix of MTA was prepared at concentrations of 100, 50, 25, and 12.5 mg/ml and added to a broth tube containing Sabouraud's liquid medium. A total of 1287 broth tubes were prepared and divided into experimental and control groups. Stock cultures of seven strains of C. albicans were obtained. Fresh inoculate of the microorganism was prepared by growing overnight cultures. Aliquots of the test C. albicans were taken and added to the test tubes. All tubes were incubated at 37°C for 1-, 24-, 72-, and 168-h time periods. At each time period, the presence of C. albicans colonies was assessed. Statistical analysis used: Differences among the groups were statistically analyzed using Kruskal–Wallis and Mann–Whitney U tests. Results: Results showed that one strain showed resistance even after 3 days at the lower MTA concentrations of 12.5 and 25 mg/ml. Growth reoccurred with three strains at MTA concentration of 12.5 mg/ml after 7 days. A significant difference was found between strain 3 and other strains at MTA concentrations of 12.5 and 25 mg/ml at the 3-days time period and between tubes containing 12.5 mg/ml and tubes containing higher concentrations of MTA at the 7-days time period. Conclusion: White MTA in concentrations of 100 and 50 mg/ml is effective in inhibiting the seven tested strains of C. albicans for periods up to 1 week. PMID:24944454

  15. The color of night: surface color categorization by color defective observers under dim illuminations.

    PubMed

    Pokorny, Joel; Lutze, Margaret; Cao, Dingcai; Zele, Andrew J

    2008-01-01

    People with normal trichromatic color vision experience variegated hue percepts under dim illuminations where only rod photoreceptors mediate vision. Here, hue perceptions were determined for persons with congenital color vision deficiencies over a wide range of light levels, including very low light levels where rods alone mediate vision. Deuteranomalous trichromats, deuteranopes and protanopes served as observers. The appearances of 24 paper color samples from the OSA Uniform Color Scales were gauged under successively dimmer illuminations from 10 to 0.0003 Lux (1.0 to -3.5 log Lux). Triads of samples were chosen representing each of eight basic color categories; "red," "pink," "orange," "yellow," "green," "blue," "purple," and "gray." Samples within each triad varied in lightness. Observers sorted samples into groups that they could categorize with specific color names. Above -0.5 log Lux, the dichromatic and anomalous trichromatic observers sorted the samples into the original representative color groups, with some exceptions. At light levels where rods alone mediate vision, the color names assigned by the deuteranomalous trichromats were similar to the color names used by color normals; higher scotopic reflectance samples were classified as blue-green-grey and lower reflectance samples as red-orange. Color names reported by the dichromats at the dimmest light levels had extensive overlap in their sample scotopic lightness distributions. Dichromats did not assign scotopic color names based on the sample scotopic lightness, as did deuteranomalous trichromats and colour-normals. We reasoned that the reduction in color gamut that a dichromat experiences at photopic light levels leads to a limited association of rod color perception with objects differing in scotopic reflectance. PMID:18598421

  16. Ultraviolet colors of W Ursae Majoris - Gravity darkening, temperature differences, and the cause of W-type light curves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eaton, J. A.; Wu, C.-C.; Rucinski, S. M.

    1980-01-01

    The paper presents photometry of the prototype W UMa binary system in three ultraviolet bands with the ANS satellite. It was found that W UMa has low-gravity darkening beta of 0.03; that temperature differences between the components not established by gravity darkening are insignificant; and that the bolometric albedo is not very large. It was also found that W UMa is limb-darkened in the ultraviolet region, and that the inner hemisphere of the less massive component is hotter than that predicted by gravity darkening and the reflection effect. It was concluded that about 20% of the surface area of the component responsible for large gravity darkening is covered by dark spots distributed uniformly in the longitudinal direction. An observational value of the convective darkening exponent of 0.054 plus or minus 0.02 is proposed.

  17. Color correction optimization with hue regularization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Heng; Liu, Huaping; Quan, Shuxue

    2011-01-01

    Previous work has suggested that observers are capable of judging the quality of an image without any knowledge of the original scene. When no reference is available, observers can extract the apparent objects in an image and compare them with the typical colors of similar objects recalled from their memories. Some generally agreed upon research results indicate that although perfect colorimetric rendering is not conspicuous and color errors can be well tolerated, the appropriate rendition of certain memory colors such as skin, grass, and sky is an important factor in the overall perceived image quality. These colors are appreciated in a fairly consistent manner and are memorized with slightly different hues and higher color saturation. The aim of color correction for a digital color pipeline is to transform the image data from a device dependent color space to a target color space, usually through a color correction matrix which in its most basic form is optimized through linear regressions between the two sets of data in two color spaces in the sense of minimized Euclidean color error. Unfortunately, this method could result in objectionable distortions if the color error biased certain colors undesirably. In this paper, we propose a color correction optimization method with preferred color reproduction in mind through hue regularization and present some experimental results.

  18. Preclinical assessment of infant formula.

    PubMed

    Lönnerdal, Bo

    2012-01-01

    Infant formulas are the sole or predominant source of nutrition for many infants and are fed during a sensitive period of development and may therefore have short- and long-term consequences for infant health. Preclinical safety assessment therefore needs to include both short-term and long-term studies in animals. It is recommended that procedures are instituted by which experts may serve as independent scientists for companies developing novel products, without having their integrity compromised, and later serve the legislative institutions. A two-level assessment approach to determine the potential toxicity of a novel ingredient, its metabolites, and their effects in the matrix on developing organ systems has been suggested by IOM. This appears reasonable, as novel ingredients can be of different levels of concern. The use of modern methods in genomics and proteomics should be considered in these evaluation processes as well as novel methods to evaluate outcomes, including metabolomics and molecular techniques to assess the microbiome. PMID:22699767

  19. Evaluation and prediction of color-tunable organic light-emitting diodes based on carrier/exciton adjusting interlayer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shengqiang; Li, Jie; Du, Chunlei; Yu, Junsheng

    2015-07-01

    A color tuning index (ICT) parameter for evaluating the color change capability of color-tunable organic light-emitting diodes (CT-OLEDs) was proposed and formulated. And a series of CT-OLEDs, consisting of five different carrier/exciton adjusting interlayers (C/EALs) inserted between two complementary emitting layers, were fabricated and applied to disclose the relationship between ICT and C/EALs. The result showed that the trend of electroluminescence spectra behavior in CT-OLEDs has good accordance with ICT values, indicating that the ICT parameter is feasible for the evaluation of color variation. Meanwhile, by changing energy level and C/EAL thickness, the optimized device with the widest color tuning range was based on N,N'-dicarbazolyl-3,5-benzene C/EAL, exhibiting the highest ICT value of 41.2%. Based on carrier quadratic hopping theory and exciton transfer model, two fitting ICT formulas derived from the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) energy level and triplet energy level were simulated. Finally, a color tuning prediction (CTP) model was developed to deduce the ICT via C/EAL HOMO and triplet energy levels, and verified by the fabricated OLEDs with five different C/EALs. We believe that the CTP model assisted with ICT parameter will be helpful for fabricating high performance CT-OLEDs with a broad range of color tuning.

  20. Contrasting coloration in terrestrial mammals

    PubMed Central

    Caro, Tim

    2008-01-01

    Here I survey, collate and synthesize contrasting coloration in 5000 species of terrestrial mammals focusing on black and white pelage. After briefly reviewing alternative functional hypotheses for coloration in mammals, I examine nine colour patterns and combinations on different areas of the body and for each mammalian taxon to try to identify the most likely evolutionary drivers of contrasting coloration. Aposematism and perhaps conspecific signalling are the most consistent explanations for black and white pelage in mammals; background matching may explain white pelage. Evidence for contrasting coloration is being involved in crypsis through pattern blending, disruptive coloration or serving other functions, such as signalling dominance, lures, reducing eye glare or in temperature regulation has barely moved beyond anecdotal stages of investigation. Sexual dichromatism is limited in this taxon and its basis is unclear. Astonishingly, the functional significance of pelage coloration in most large charismatic black and white mammals that were new to science 150 years ago still remains a mystery. PMID:18990666

  1. Color and the worldwide web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinlock, Raymond S.

    2002-06-01

    Guidelines to publishing and transmitting color via the Internet. An introduction to how individuals can cope with color issues using off the shelf package solutions and a glimpse to what there is on the development frontier. Topics to be discussed include: (1) Optimizing your files for transfer via the net with an off the shelf software package. (2) Embedded color management packages in some off the shelf packages. (3) Mac and Window differences. (4) A look at compression pros and cons. (5) An introduction to some of the high end color calibration systems and equipment.

  2. [Study of spectrum drifting of primary colors and its impact on color rendering properties].

    PubMed

    Cui, Xiao-yan; Zhang, Xiao-dong

    2012-08-01

    LEDs are currently used widely to display text, graphics and images in large screens. With red, green and blue LEDs as three primary colors, color rendition will be realized through color mixing. However, LEDs' spectrum will produce drifts with the changes in the temperature environment. With the changes in the driving current simulating changes in the temperature, the three primary color LEDs' spectral drifts were tested, and the drift characteristics of the three primary colors were obtained respectively. Based on the typical characteristics of the LEDs and the differences between LEDs with different colors in composition and molecular structure, the paper analyzed the reason for the spectrum drifts and the drift characteristics of different color LEDs, and proposed the equations of spectrum drifts. Putting the experimental data into the spectrum drift equations, the paper analyzed the impacts of primary colors on the mixed color, pointed out a way to reduce the chromatic aberration, and provided the theory for engineering application of color LEDs.

  3. Color naming by boys and girls.

    PubMed

    Machen, V

    2002-02-01

    The present study describes a field experiment conducted to test the hypothesis that color naming varies for 56 adolescent boys and 39 girls. No standard color chart such as Munsell, Pantone, or Crayola was used. Instead, subjects identified 15 computer-generated color samples assigned a score based on thescale devised by Rich in 1977 of four color descriptor categories. Findings differed from those of most previous studies, in which women aged over 16 years showed a more elaborate color vocabulary than men. Among the 14- to 16-yr.-old subjects, there was no significant difference in color naming. PMID:11883586

  4. Introduction To Color Vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorell, Lisa G.

    1983-08-01

    Several human cognitive studies have reported that color facilitates certain learning, memory and search tasks. Consideration of the color-opponent organization of human color vision and the spatial modulation transfer function for color suggests several simple sensory explanations.

  5. Formula feed preparation: helping reduce the risks; a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Renfrew, M; Ansell, P; Macleod, K

    2003-01-01

    Aims: To assess what is known about the risks associated with errors in reconstituting the present generation of infant formula feeds, and to examine which methods are likely to be safest. Methods: Systematic review, and examination of the range of infant formula products currently on sale in the UK. Studies from developed countries conducted after 1977 were included. All studies investigating the reconstitution of formula feeds for full term, healthy babies were eligible. Parameters studied were: measures of accuracy of feed reconstitution including fat, protein, total solids, energy content, and osmolality of feed; weight of powder in scoop; and reported method of preparing feed and measuring powder. Formula products were collected from one large UK supermarket in 2002. Number of different types of infant formula preparations available for sale were determined, together with scoop sizes for powdered preparations. Results: Only five studies were identified, none of adequate quality or size. All found errors in reconstitution, with a tendency to over-concentrate feeds; under-concentration also occurred. Thirty one different formula preparations were available for sale in one UK supermarket, with a range of scoop sizes. Some preparations had never been tested. Conclusions: There is a paucity of evidence available to inform the proper use of breast milk substitutes, and a large array of different preparations for sale. Given the impact incorrect reconstitution of formula feeds can have on the health of large numbers of babies, there is an important and urgent need to examine ways of minimising the risks of feed preparation. PMID:14500301

  6. Color images in telepathology: how many colors do we need?

    PubMed

    Doolittle, M H; Doolittle, K W; Winkelman, Z; Weinberg, D S

    1997-01-01

    It is generally assumed that for telepathology, accurate depiction of microscopic images requires the use of "true color" (ie, 24 bits, eight bits each for red, green, and blue) in the digitized image used for transmission. If such a 24-bit color image file, which provides a palette of 16.7 million colors, could be reduced in size by decreasing the possible numbers of colors displayed in the image to 8 bits (palette of 256 colors), the image files would require less storage space, could be transmitted more rapidly, and would require less telecommunications bandwidth. However, such color reduction must not result in detectable image degradation, especially if the images are to be used for diagnosis. Therefore, we performed a carefully controlled study to determine whether pathologists could detect differences in the quality of microscopic images that were reduced from 24 to 8 bits of color. Thirty pathologists were each asked to view a set of 30 image pairs displayed on a computer monitor. Each image pair consisted of the original 24-bit color version and an 8-bit color-reduced version, derived using an adaptive color reduction algorithm with diffusion dithering. Observers were asked whether they could detect any difference in quality between the image pairs. Then, regardless of their answer, they were asked to choose the better quality image of the pair. Overall, there was not a statistically significant ability to consciously detect differences between the image pairs (P < .750). However, when forced to choose, there was a significant preference for the 8-bit images as being of "better quality" (P < .005). We conclude that telepathology applications may be able to take advantage of adaptive color reduction algorithms to reduce image file size without sacrificing image quality. Additional studies must be performed to determine the minimal image requirements for accurate diagnosis by telepatholgy.

  7. Modeling, Measuring, and Compensating Color Weak Vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oshima, Satoshi; Mochizuki, Rika; Lenz, Reiner; Chao, Jinhui

    2016-06-01

    We use methods from Riemann geometry to investigate transformations between the color spaces of color-normal and color weak observers. The two main applications are the simulation of the perception of a color weak observer for a color normal observer and the compensation of color images in a way that a color weak observer has approximately the same perception as a color normal observer. The metrics in the color spaces of interest are characterized with the help of ellipsoids defined by the just-noticable-differences between color which are measured with the help of color-matching experiments. The constructed mappings are isometries of Riemann spaces that preserve the perceived color-differences for both observers. Among the two approaches to build such an isometry, we introduce normal coordinates in Riemann spaces as a tool to construct a global color-weak compensation map. Compared to previously used methods this method is free from approximation errors due to local linearizations and it avoids the problem of shifting locations of the origin of the local coordinate system. We analyse the variations of the Riemann metrics for different observers obtained from new color matching experiments and describe three variations of the basic method. The performance of the methods is evaluated with the help of semantic differential (SD) tests.

  8. Color Us American.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin, Virginia; Hodges, Ethel

    A coloring book containing drawings and information on eight different countries is designed to help children obtain cultural understanding of themselves and other persons as individuals and as members of groups within our society. The countries presented are Poland/Germany, the Navajo Nation (Native American), China, Nigeria (Africa), Mexico,…

  9. The Chemistry of Color Photography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guida, Wayne C.; Raber, Douglas J.

    1975-01-01

    Presents several topics in color photography which can serve as an introduction of scientific concepts into the classroom, such as: photochemistry (energy transport), organic chemistry (dye formation), physics (nature of light), psychology (color perception), and engineering (isolation of different chemical processes within layers of the film).…

  10. Edge detection of color images using the HSL color space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weeks, Arthur R.; Felix, Carlos E.; Myler, Harley R.

    1995-03-01

    Various edge detectors have been proposed as well as several different types of adaptive edge detectors, but the performance of many of these edge detectors depends on the features and the noise present in the grayscale image. Attempts have been made to extend edge detection to color images by applying grayscale edge detection methods to each of the individual red, blue, and green color components as well as to the hue, saturation, and intensity color components of the color image. The modulus 2(pi) nature of the hue color component makes its detection difficult. For example, a hue of 0 and 2(pi) yields the same color tint. Normal edge detection of a color image containing adjacent pixels with hue of 0 and 2(pi) could yield the presence of an edge when an edge is really not present. This paper presents a method of mapping the 2(pi) modulus hue space to a linear space enabling the edge detection of the hue color component using the Sobel edge detector. The results of this algorithm are compared against the edge detection methods using the red, blue, and green color components. By combining the hue edge image with the intensity and saturation edge images, more edge information is observed.

  11. Spectral sharpening of color sensors: diagonal color constancy and beyond.

    PubMed

    Vazquez-Corral, Javier; Bertalmío, Marcelo

    2014-02-26

    It has now been 20 years since the seminal work by Finlayson et al. on the use of spectral sharpening of sensors to achieve diagonal color constancy. Spectral sharpening is still used today by numerous researchers for different goals unrelated to the original goal of diagonal color constancy e.g., multispectral processing, shadow removal, location of unique hues. This paper reviews the idea of spectral sharpening through the lens of what is known today in color constancy, describes the different methods used for obtaining a set of sharpening sensors and presents an overview of the many different uses that have been found for spectral sharpening over the years.

  12. 27 CFR 17.121 - Product formulas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Product formulas. 17.121... PRODUCTS Formulas and Samples § 17.121 Product formulas. (a) General. Except as provided in §§ 17.132 and 17.182, manufacturers shall file quantitative formulas for all preparations for which they intend...

  13. Formula Budgeting: An Approach to Facilities Funding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClintock, David L.

    Formula budgeting for college and university facilities maintenance is recommended because: (1) formulas inject objectivity into the budgeting process by using quantified data; (2) formulas tend to improve the equitability of treatment of comparable institutions; (3) formulas are intended to provide adequate but economical budgets; and (4)…

  14. 24 CFR 92.50 - Formula allocation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Formula allocation. 92.50 Section... Development HOME INVESTMENT PARTNERSHIPS PROGRAM Allocation Formula § 92.50 Formula allocation. (a) Jurisdictions eligible for a formula allocation. HUD will provide allocations of funds in amounts determined...

  15. Readability Formulas--Fact or Fiction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Arthur V.

    Four readability formulas were analyzed to determine the reading grade equivalence of instructional materials at the middle grades and above: the Dale-Chall formula, the Gunning-Fog Index, the Flesch Reading Ease Formula, and the McLaughlin SMOG Grading. In addition, Spache and Wheeler/Smith formulas were analyzed for evaluating primary grade…

  16. Hidden Color

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, C.-R.

    2014-10-01

    With the acceptance of QCD as the fundamental theory of strong interactions, one of the basic problems in the analysis of nuclear phenomena became how to consistently account for the effects of the underlying quark/gluon structure of nucleons and nuclei. Besides providing more detailed understanding of conventional nuclear physics, QCD may also point to novel phenomena accessible by new or upgraded nuclear experimental facilities. We discuss a few interesting applications of QCD to nuclear physics with an emphasis on the hidden color degrees of freedom.

  17. Simple formula for determining the location of the equator.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seunghyun; Suh, Youngwoo; Cho, Yoonae A

    2005-04-01

    The determination of the position of the equator is very important during strabismus surgery for safe maximum recession. The purpose of this study is to present a simple formula for estimating the location of the equator (E = axial length x pi/4 - corneal diameter/2). A previous formula (E = 2(pi)r[beta/360]), although well presented, proved relatively complex to understand and apply to the clinical situation. There was no significant difference between the values calculated by the new formula and the previous formula when the horizontal corneal diameter was between 10.0 and 11.5 mm (P = 0.23, r = 0.998). In this range, the mean difference between the values calculated by the two formulae was only 0.1 +/- 0.08 mm (range 0-0.35 mm). Another advantage of the new formula is that the actual measured values of corneal diameter and axial length can be used. It is hoped that this simple formula can be used as an alternative for determining the location of the equator.

  18. Color constancy by category correlation.

    PubMed

    Vazquez-Corral, Javier; Vanrell, Maria; Baldrich, Ramon; Tous, Francesc

    2012-04-01

    Finding color representations that are stable to illuminant changes is still an open problem in computer vision. Until now, most approaches have been based on physical constraints or statistical assumptions derived from the scene, whereas very little attention has been paid to the effects that selected illuminants have on the final color image representation. The novelty of this paper is to propose perceptual constraints that are computed on the corrected images. We define the category hypothesis, which weights the set of feasible illuminants according to their ability to map the corrected image onto specific colors. Here, we choose these colors as the universal color categories related to basic linguistic terms, which have been psychophysically measured. These color categories encode natural color statistics, and their relevance across different cultures is indicated by the fact that they have received a common color name. From this category hypothesis, we propose a fast implementation that allows the sampling of a large set of illuminants. Experiments prove that our method rivals current state-of-art performance without the need for training algorithmic parameters. Additionally, the method can be used as a framework to insert top-down information from other sources, thus opening further research directions in solving for color constancy.

  19. Comparison of IOL power calculation formulae for pediatric eyes.

    PubMed

    Vasavada, V; Shah, S K; Vasavada, V A; Vasavada, A R; Trivedi, R H; Srivastava, S; Vasavada, S A

    2016-09-01

    PurposeTo evaluate and compare the accuracy of modern intraocular lens (IOL) power calculation formulae in pediatric eyes and compare prediction error (PE) obtained with manufacturer's vs personalized lens constant.Patients and methodsAn observational case study was conducted in 117 eyes (117 patients) undergoing pediatric cataract surgery with IOL implantation. PE was calculated as predicted refraction minus actual postoperative refraction, and absolute PE as absolute difference independent of the sign, (APE)=predicted refraction minus actual postoperative refraction. This was done for each formula using manufacturer's and personalized lens constant. Further, PE and APE were evaluated according to axial length (AL).ResultsMean age of children was 2.97 years. About 66/117 eyes (56.4%) were below 2 years of age. Using Holladay 2, Holladay 1, Hoffer Q, and SRK/T formulae with manufacturer's lens constant, mean PE was 0.36, 0.41, 0.69, and 0.28 diopter (D), respectively. With personalized lens constant, it was 0.16, 0.15, 0.50, and -0.12 D, respectively. Difference in mean PE between the formulae was statistically significant (P<0.0001). SRK/T and Holladay 2 formulae had the least PE, both with manufacturer's and personalized constant. For eyes with AL<20 mm, SRK/T and Holladay 2 formulae gave the least PE. Personalizing the lens constant led to a decrease in mean PE in all formulae, except the Hoffer Q formula. However, personalizing the lens constant did not significantly improve the APE. At least 21% eyes had an APE of >2 D with all formulae, even with personalized lens constants.ConclusionIn pediatric eyes, SRK/T and the Holladay 2 formulae had the least PE. Personalizing the lens formula constant did reduce the PE significantly for all formulae except Hoffer Q. In extremely short eyes (AL<20 mm), SRK/T and Holladay 2 formulae gave the best PE. PMID:27494083

  20. Color extended visual cryptography using error diffusion.

    PubMed

    Kang, InKoo; Arce, Gonzalo R; Lee, Heung-Kyu

    2011-01-01

    Color visual cryptography (VC) encrypts a color secret message into n color halftone image shares. Previous methods in the literature show good results for black and white or gray scale VC schemes, however, they are not sufficient to be applied directly to color shares due to different color structures. Some methods for color visual cryptography are not satisfactory in terms of producing either meaningless shares or meaningful shares with low visual quality, leading to suspicion of encryption. This paper introduces the concept of visual information pixel (VIP) synchronization and error diffusion to attain a color visual cryptography encryption method that produces meaningful color shares with high visual quality. VIP synchronization retains the positions of pixels carrying visual information of original images throughout the color channels and error diffusion generates shares pleasant to human eyes. Comparisons with previous approaches show the superior performance of the new method.

  1. Transfer color to night vision images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Shaoyuan; Jing, Zhongliang; Liu, Gang; Li, Zhenhua

    2005-08-01

    Natural color appearance is the key problem of color night vision field. In this paper, the color mood of daytime color image is transferred to the monochromic night vision image. This method gives the night image a natural color appearance. For each pixel in the night vision image, the best matching pixel in the color image is found based on texture similarity measure. Entropy, energy, contrast, homogeneity, and correlation features based on co-occurrence matrix are combined as texture similarity measure to find the corresponding pixels between the two images. We use a genetic algorithm (GA) to find the optimistic weighting factors assigned to the five different features. GA is also employed in searching the matching pixels to make the color transfer algorithm faster. When the best matching pixel in the color image is found, the chromaticity values are transferred to the corresponding pixel of the night vision image. The experiment results demonstrate the efficiency of this natural color transfer technique.

  2. Three Fresh Exposures, Enhanced Color

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This enhanced-color panoramic camera image from the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity features three holes created by the rock abrasion tool between sols 143 and 148 (June 18 and June 23, 2004) inside 'Endurance Crater.' The enhanced image makes the red colors a little redder and blue colors a little bluer, allowing viewers to see differences too subtle to be seen without the exaggeration. When compared with an approximately true color image, the tailings from the rock abrasion tool and the interior of the abraded holes are more prominent in this view. Being able to discriminate color variations helps scientists determine rocks' compositional differences and texture variations. This image was created using the 753-, 535- and 432-nanometer filters.

  3. Effects of enhancement with differing phosphate types, concentrations, and pump rates, without sodium chloride, on beef biceps femoris instrumental color characteristics.

    PubMed

    Baublits, R T; Pohlman, F W; Brown, A H; Johnson, Z B

    2006-03-01

    Enhancement of beef biceps femoris muscles (n=45) with solutions comprising sodium hexametaphosphate (SHMP), sodium tripolyphosphate (STPP), or tetrasodium pyrophosphate (TSPP) at either 0.2% or 0.4% of product weight, with the exclusion of sodium chloride, was performed to observe the independent phosphate effects on instrumental color during simulated retail display. All solutions were injected into muscle samples at either 112% (12% pump) or 118% (18% pump) of raw product weight. All three phosphate types maintained higher (P<0.05) L* values than untreated steaks (CNT) through 5 days-of-display, and SHMP had higher (P<0.05) L* values than STPP and TSPP through 7 days-of-display. Additionally, steaks with 0.2% phosphate inclusion were lighter (L*; P<0.05) than CNT throughout display, and were lighter (P<0.05) than steaks enhanced with 0.4% phosphates through 7 days of display. Steaks enhanced with TSPP had higher (P<0.05) a* values than CNT on days 5 and 7 of display, whereas SHMP- or STPP-enhanced steaks generally had similar (P>0.05) a* values as CNT after 3d of display. Direct comparison of phosphate concentrations revealed no differences (P>0.05) in a* values. Only steaks enhanced with TSPP were more vivid (P<0.05) and had higher (P<0.05) proportions of oxymyoglobin than CNT on days 5 and 7 of display. However, direct comparison of phosphate types indicated that TSPP- and STPP-enhanced steaks had similar (P>0.05) oxymyoglobin proportions during display. Phosphate inclusion at 0.4% maintained higher (P<0.05) oxymyoglobin proportions than 0.2% phosphate inclusion through 5 days-of-display. These results indicate that while 0.2% phosphate concentrations maintain lighter color, 0.4% concentrations can more effectively retain oxymyoglobin during display. Additionally, only steaks enhanced with TSPP were redder, more vivid, and had higher oxymyoglobin proportions than untreated steaks during the latter stages of display.

  4. Effects of white light-emitting diode (LED) light exposure with different correlated color temperatures (CCTs) on human lens epithelial cells in culture.

    PubMed

    Xie, Chen; Li, Xiuyi; Tong, Jianping; Gu, Yangshun; Shen, Ye

    2014-01-01

    Cataract is the major cause for legal blindness in the world. Oxidative stress on the lens epithelial cells (hLECs) is the most important factor in cataract formation. Cumulative light-exposure from widely used light-emitting diodes (LEDs) may pose a potential oxidative threat to the lens epithelium, due to the high-energy blue light component in the white-light emission from diodes. In the interest of perfecting biosafety standards for LED domestic lighting, this study analyzed the photobiological effect of white LED light with different correlated color temperatures (CCTs) on cultured hLECs. The hLECs were cultured and cumulatively exposed to multichromatic white LED light with CCTs of 2954, 5624, and 7378 K. Cell viability of hLECs was measured by Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) assay. DNA damage was determined by alkaline comet assay. Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, cell cycle, and apoptosis were quantified by flow cytometry. Compared with 2954 and 5624 K LED light, LED light having a CCT of 7378 K caused overproduction of intracellular ROS and severe DNA damage, which triggered G2 /M arrest and apoptosis. These results indicate that white LEDs with a high CCT could cause significant photobiological damage to hLECs.

  5. Controlling the contributions to high-order harmonic generation from different nuclei of N2 with an orthogonally polarized two-color laser field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Hui; Pan, Xue-Fei; Liu, Hai-Feng; Zhang, Hong-Dan; Zhang, Jun; Guo, Jing; Liu, Xue-Shen

    2016-09-01

    The generation of high-order harmonic and the attosecond pulse of the N2 molecule with an orthogonally polarized two-color laser field are investigated by the strong-field Lewenstein model. We show that the control of contributions to high-order harmonic generation (HHG) from different nuclei is realized by properly selecting the relative phase. When the relative phase is chosen to be φ = 0.4π, the contribution to HHG from one nucleus is much more than that from another. Interference between two nuclei can be suppressed greatly; a supercontinuum spectrum of HHG appears from 40 eV to 125 eV. The underlying physical mechanism is well explained by the time–frequency analysis and the semi-classical three-step model with a finite initial transverse velocity. By superposing several orders of harmonics, an isolated attosecond pulse with a duration of 80 as can be generated. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11271158, 61575077, and 11574117).

  6. Intra-leaf gradients of photoinhibition induced by different color lights: implications for the dual mechanisms of photoinhibition and for the application of conventional chlorophyll fluorometers.

    PubMed

    Oguchi, Riichi; Douwstra, Peter; Fujita, Takashi; Chow, Wah Soon; Terashima, Ichiro

    2011-07-01

    • We studied how different color lights cause gradients of photoinhibition within a leaf, to attempt to resolve the controversy of whether photon absorption by chlorophyll or by manganese (Mn) is the primary cause of photoinhibition, as suggested by the excess-energy hypothesis or the two-step hypothesis, respectively. • Lincomycin-treated leaf discs were photoinhibited by white, blue, green or red light. Combining a microfiber fluorometer, a fiber-thinning technique and a micro-manipulator enabled us to measure the chlorophyll fluorescence signals within a leaf. Photoinhibition gradients were also compared with results from various conventional fluorometers to estimate their depth of signal detection. • The severity of photoinhibition was in the descending order of blue, red and green light near the adaxial surface, and in the descending order of blue, green and red light in the deeper tissue, which correlated with the chlorophyll and the Mn absorption spectrums, respectively. These results cannot be explained by either hypothesis alone. • These data strongly suggest that both the excess-energy and the two-step mechanisms occur in photoinhibition, and fluorometers with red or blue measuring light give overestimated or underestimated F(v)/F(m) values of photoinhibited leaves compared with the whole tissue average, respectively; that is, they measured deeper or shallower leaf tissue, respectively. PMID:21418065

  7. Controlling the contributions to high-order harmonic generation from different nuclei of N2 with an orthogonally polarized two-color laser field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Hui; Pan, Xue-Fei; Liu, Hai-Feng; Zhang, Hong-Dan; Zhang, Jun; Guo, Jing; Liu, Xue-Shen

    2016-09-01

    The generation of high-order harmonic and the attosecond pulse of the N2 molecule with an orthogonally polarized two-color laser field are investigated by the strong-field Lewenstein model. We show that the control of contributions to high-order harmonic generation (HHG) from different nuclei is realized by properly selecting the relative phase. When the relative phase is chosen to be φ = 0.4π, the contribution to HHG from one nucleus is much more than that from another. Interference between two nuclei can be suppressed greatly; a supercontinuum spectrum of HHG appears from 40 eV to 125 eV. The underlying physical mechanism is well explained by the time-frequency analysis and the semi-classical three-step model with a finite initial transverse velocity. By superposing several orders of harmonics, an isolated attosecond pulse with a duration of 80 as can be generated. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11271158, 61575077, and 11574117).

  8. Moebius inversion formula and inverting lattice sums

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millane, Rick P.

    2000-11-01

    The Mobius inversion formula is an interesting theorem from number theory that has application to a number inverse problems, particularly lattice problems. Specific inverse problems, however, often require related Mobius inversion formulae that can be derived from the fundamental formula. Derivation of such formulae is not easy for the non- specialist, however. Examples of the kinds of inversion formulae that can be derived and their application to inverse lattice problems are described.

  9. A color-ratio map of Mercury

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hapke, B.; Christman, C.; Rava, B.; Mosher, J.

    1980-01-01

    Orange and UV frames are used to construct a color-ratio map of the portion of Mercury imaged by Mariner 10, with at least two independent color-ratio images being used for each region in order to prevent spurious, blemish-induced color. Color differences appear to be smaller than those of the moon, and many apparently fresh craters and their ray systems tend to be bluer than their surroundings. Regions of interesting color contrast are noted, and it is concluded that there is little evident correlation of color with either geology or topography.

  10. Cognitive aspects of color

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derefeldt, Gunilla A. M.; Menu, Jean-Pierre; Swartling, Tiina

    1995-04-01

    This report surveys cognitive aspects of color in terms of behavioral, neuropsychological, and neurophysiological data. Color is usually defined as psychophysical color or as perceived color. Behavioral data on categorical color perception, absolute judgement of colors, color coding, visual search, and visual awareness refer to the more cognitive aspects of color. These are of major importance in visual synthesis and spatial organization, as already shown by the Gestalt psychologists. Neuropsychological and neurophysiological findings provide evidence for an interrelation between cognitive color and spatial organization. Color also enhances planning strategies, as has been shown by studies on color and eye movements. Memory colors and the color- language connections in the brain also belong among the cognitive aspects of color.

  11. Color appearance in stereoscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gadia, Davide; Rizzi, Alessandro; Bonanomi, Cristian; Marini, Daniele; Galmonte, Alessandra; Agostini, Tiziano

    2011-03-01

    The relationship between color and lightness appearance and the perception of depth has been studied since a while in the field of perceptual psychology and psycho-physiology. It has been found that depth perception affects the final object color and lightness appearance. In the stereoscopy research field, many studies have been proposed on human physiological effects, considering e.g. geometry, motion sickness, etc., but few has been done considering lightness and color information. Goal of this paper is to realize some preliminar experiments in Virtual Reality in order to determine the effects of depth perception on object color and lightness appearance. We have created a virtual test scene with a simple 3D simultaneous contrast configuration. We have created three different versions of this scene, each with different choices of relative positions and apparent size of the objects. We have collected the perceptual responses of several users after the observation of the test scene in the Virtual Theater of the University of Milan, a VR immersive installation characterized by a semi-cylindrical screen that covers 120° of horizontal field of view from an observation distance of 3.5 m. We present a description of the experiments setup and procedure, and we discuss the obtained results.

  12. New analytic formula for edge bootstrap current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, C. S.; Koh, S.; Menard, J.; Weitzner, H.; Choe, W.

    2012-10-01

    The edge bootstrap current plays a critical role in the equilibrium and stability of the steep edge pedestal plasma. The pedestal plasma has an unconventional and difficult neoclassical property, as compared with the core plasma. A drift-kinetic particle code XGC0, equipped with a mass-momentum-energy conserving collision operator, is used to study the edge bootstrap current in a realistic diverted magnetic field geometry with a self-consistent radial electric field. When the edge electrons are in the low collisionality banana regime, surprisingly, the present kinetic simulation confirms that the existing analytic expressions (represented by O. Sauter, et. al., Phys. Plasmas 6, 1999) are still valid in this unconventional region, except in a thin radial layer in contact with the magnetic separatrix. However, when the pedestal electrons are in plateau-collisional regime, there is a significant deviation of numerical results from the existing analytic formulas. The deviation occurs in different ways between a conventional aspect ratio tokamak and a tight aspect ratio tokamak. A new analytic fitting formula, as a simple modification to the Sauter formula, is obtained to bring the analytic expression to a better agreement with the edge kinetic simulation results.

  13. Developing the Vertex Formula Meaningfully

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nebesniak, Amy L.; Burgoa, A. Aaron

    2015-01-01

    As teachers working with students in entry-level algebra classes, authors Amy Nebesniak and A. Aaron Burgoa realized that their instruction was a major factor in how their students viewed mathematics. They often presented students with abstract formulas that seemed to appear out of thin air. One instance occurred while they were teaching students…

  14. Neonatal weight loss in breast and formula fed infants

    PubMed Central

    Macdonald, P; Ross, S; Grant, L; Young, D

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To define the range of neonatal weight loss in a population relative to feeding method. Design: Prospective observational cohort study. Setting: Maternity service providing geographically defined, community based newborn follow up. Participants: 971 consecutive term newborns of birth weight ⩾ 2500 g during the first 2–3 weeks of life; 34 excluded (inadequate data). 937 included: 45% breast fed, 42% formula fed, 13% breast and formula fed. Outcome measures: Maximum weight loss and timing, age on regaining birth weight. Results: Median weight loss: formula fed 3.5%, breast fed 6.6%. Upper centiles for maximum weight loss differ considerably (95th centiles: breast fed = 11.8%, formula fed = 8.4%; 97.5th centiles: breast fed = 12.8%, formula fed = 9.5%). Median time of maximum weight loss: 2.7 days for breast fed and formula fed. Recovery of birth weight: breast fed median 8.3 days, 95th centile 18.7 days, 97.5th centile 21.0 days; formula fed median 6.5 days, 95th centile 14.5 days, 97.5th centile 16.7 days. The time taken to regain birth weight correlates with both the degree and timing of initial weight loss for all groups. Conclusions: Early neonatal weight loss is defined allowing identification of infants who merit closer assessment and support. PMID:14602693

  15. Recent experiments investigating the harmony interval based color space of the coloroid color system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemcsics, Antal

    2002-06-01

    Coloroid Color System has been created for people dealing with colors constructively, first of all architects and artists. Its color space is being based on experiments measuring harmony threshold, being perceptively uniform. This uniformity is the uniformity of big color differences rather than that of small color differences, it is being based on human judgement capability rather than color differentiating capability of human eye. During its elaboration we have investigated aesthetic uniformity of hues along color circles of colors with different saturation and lightness, and - in different hue planes - that of saturation and lightness sequences. During mathematical formulation of the establishment of harmony relations in Coloroid color space it has been necessary to refine aesthetic uniformity of Coloroid color space. In the interest of it we have started a new, large scale series of experiments. Within the framework of experiments we produced aesthetically uniform changing scales between distant points of Coloroid color space, possessing different lightness - partly by painting, partly by selection from a considerable number of color samples. We then investigated, which path those color scales in the color space describe.

  16. Microwave heating of infant formula: a dilemma resolved.

    PubMed

    Sigman-Grant, M; Bush, G; Anantheswaran, R

    1992-09-01

    Microwave heating of infant formula is a common practice despite concerns of infant scalding. Beyond the issue of physical safety, little is known about the effects on nutrient content of microwave heating of infant formula. Casein-predominant infant formula in 120- and 240-mL glass and plastic nursing bottles of varying colors were heated for 40 seconds and 60 seconds, respectively. Temperature profiling was monitored during the heating cycle. Analysis of riboflavin and vitamin C was made prior to and after heating. Topmost portions reached a mean temperature of 44.7 +/- 1.7 degrees C and 43.0 +/- 2.4 degrees C for all types of 240-mL and 120-mL bottles, respectively. Topmost temperatures were significantly hotter than temperatures reached at other sites. Routine mixing resulted in formula temperatures which could safely be fed to infants (35.4 +/- 0.3 degrees C and 33.9 +/- 0.2 degrees C for 240-mL and 120-mL bottles, respectively). There was no significant loss of either riboflavin or vitamin C. Protocols for microwave heating are given.

  17. Fast color contrast enhancement method for color night vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Xiaoyan; Wang, Yujin; Wang, Bangfeng

    2012-01-01

    The increasing availability and deployment of imaging sensors operating in multiple spectral bands has led to a large research effort in color image fusion, resulting in a plethora of pixel-level image fusion algorithms. In this study a simple and fast fusion approach for color night vision is presented. The contrast of infrared and visible images is adjusted by local histogram equalization. Then the two enhanced images are fused into the three components of a Lab image in terms of a simple linear fusion strategy. To obtain false color images possessing a natural day-time color appearance, this paper adopts an approach which transfers color from the reference to the fused images in a simplified Lab space. To enhance the contrast between the target and the background, a stretch factor is introduced into the transferring equation in the b channel. Experimental results based on three different data sets show that the hot targets are popped out with intense colors while the background details present natural color appearance. Target detection experiments also show that the presented method has a better performance than the former methods, owing to the target recognition area, detection rate, color distance and running time.

  18. Nuclear binding energy using semi empirical mass formula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ankita, Suthar, B.

    2016-05-01

    In the present communication, semi empirical mass formula using the liquid drop model has been presented. Nuclear binding energies are calculated using semi empirical mass formula with various constants given by different researchers. We also compare these calculated values with experimental data and comparative study for finding suitable constants is added using the error plot. The study is extended to find the more suitable constant to reduce the error.

  19. Digestate color and light intensity affect nutrient removal and competition phenomena in a microalgal-bacterial ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Marcilhac, Cyril; Sialve, Bruno; Pourcher, Anne-Marie; Ziebal, Christine; Bernet, Nicolas; Béline, Fabrice

    2014-11-01

    During anaerobic digestion, nutrients are mineralized and may require post-treatment for optimum valorization. The cultivation of autotrophic microalgae using the digestate supernatant is a promising solution; however the dark color of the influent poses a serious problem. First, the color of the digestates was studied and the results obtained using three different digestates demonstrated a strong heterogeneity although their color remained rather constant over time. The digestates absorbed light over the whole visible spectrum and remained colored even after a ten-fold dilution. Secondly, the impact of light and of substrate color on the growth of Scenedesmus sp. and on nitrogen removal were assessed. These experiments led to the construction of a model for predicting the impact of influent color and light intensity on N removal. Maximum N removal (8.5 mgN- [Formula: see text]  L(-1) d(-1)) was observed with an initial optical density of 0.221 and 244 μmolE m(-)² s(-1) light and the model allows to determine N removal between 15.9 and 22.7 mgN- [Formula: see text]  L(-1) d(-1) in real conditions according to the dilution level of the influent and related color. Changes in the microalgae community were monitored and revealed the advantage of Chlorella over Scenedesmus under light-limitation. Additionally microalgae outcompeted nitrifying bacteria and experiments showed how microalgae become better competitors for nutrients when phosphorus is limiting. Furthermore, nitrification was limited by microalgae growth, even when P was not limiting.

  20. LED color mixing with diffractive structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonenberger, Theresa; Baumgart, Jörg; Wendel, Simon; Neumann, Cornelius

    2013-03-01

    Lighting solutions with colored LEDs provide many opportunities for illumination. One of these opportunities is to create a color tunable light source. In this way different kinds of white light (color temperature) as well as discrete colors may be realized. This opens the field for applications as mood lighting. But there is always a spatial separation of the distinct LEDs that might get converted into an angular separation by any collimating optics. This angular separation causes such problems like color fringes and colored shadows that cannot be accepted in most applications. Conventional methods to solve these problems include e.g. mixing rods or dichroic filters. A new approach is the use of the dispersive effect of a diffractive structure to compensate the angular separation of the different colors. In this contribution the potential and limitations of diffractive structures in LED color mixing applications are discussed. Ray tracing simulations were performed to analyze such important parameters like efficiency, color performance and the cross section of the color mixing optics. New means for the estimation of color mixing performance were developed. A software tool makes it possible to detect the color distribution within ray trace data and it provides a quality factor to estimate the color mixing performance. It can be shown that the spectral band width has a large influence on the mixing process. Ray tracing simulations are compared with results of an experimental setup such that both measured as well as simulated data is presented.

  1. White Rock in False Color

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    The THEMIS VIS camera is capable of capturing color images of the Martian surface using five different color filters. In this mode of operation, the spatial resolution and coverage of the image must be reduced to accommodate the additional data volume produced from using multiple filters. To make a color image, three of the five filter images (each in grayscale) are selected. Each is contrast enhanced and then converted to a red, green, or blue intensity image. These three images are then combined to produce a full color, single image. Because the THEMIS color filters don't span the full range of colors seen by the human eye, a color THEMIS image does not represent true color. Also, because each single-filter image is contrast enhanced before inclusion in the three-color image, the apparent color variation of the scene is exaggerated. Nevertheless, the color variation that does appear is representative of some change in color, however subtle, in the actual scene. Note that the long edges of THEMIS color images typically contain color artifacts that do not represent surface variation.

    This false color image shows the wind eroded deposit in Pollack Crater called 'White Rock'. This image was collected during the Southern Fall Season.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -8, Longitude 25.2 East (334.8 West). 0 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of

  2. Iani Chaos in False Color

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    The THEMIS VIS camera is capable of capturing color images of the Martian surface using five different color filters. In this mode of operation, the spatial resolution and coverage of the image must be reduced to accommodate the additional data volume produced from using multiple filters. To make a color image, three of the five filter images (each in grayscale) are selected. Each is contrast enhanced and then converted to a red, green, or blue intensity image. These three images are then combined to produce a full color, single image. Because the THEMIS color filters don't span the full range of colors seen by the human eye, a color THEMIS image does not represent true color. Also, because each single-filter image is contrast enhanced before inclusion in the three-color image, the apparent color variation of the scene is exaggerated. Nevertheless, the color variation that does appear is representative of some change in color, however subtle, in the actual scene. Note that the long edges of THEMIS color images typically contain color artifacts that do not represent surface variation.

    This false color image of a portion of the Iani Chaos region was collected during the Southern Fall season.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -2.6 Longitude 342.4 East (17.6 West). 36 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The

  3. False-color Dalmatian Terrain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 10 May 2004 This daytime visible color image was collected on May 18, 2003 during the Southern Spring season in Noachis Terra.

    The THEMIS VIS camera is capable of capturing color images of the martian surface using its five different color filters. In this mode of operation, the spatial resolution and coverage of the image must be reduced to accommodate the additional data volume produced from the use of multiple filters. To make a color image, three of the five filter images (each in grayscale) are selected. Each is contrast enhanced and then converted to a red, green, or blue intensity image. These three images are then combined to produce a full color, single image. Because the THEMIS color filters don't span the full range of colors seen by the human eye, a color THEMIS image does not represent true color. Also, because each single-filter image is contrast enhanced before inclusion in the three-color image, the apparent color variation of the scene is exaggerated. Nevertheless, the color variation that does appear is representative of some change in color, however subtle, in the actual scene. Note that the long edges of THEMIS color images typically contain color artifacts that do not represent surface variation.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -74, Longitude 351.9 East (8.1 West). 38 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space

  4. Two-color particle velocimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goss, Larry P.; Post, M. E.; Sarka, B.; Trump, D. D.

    1990-11-01

    A novel method for determining two-dimensional velocity flowfields has been developed. The technique, two-color particle-image velocimetry (PIV), is similar to existing PIV techniques except that two different-color laser sources are used to form the light sheets required for exposing the position of particles in a seeded flowfield. A green-colored laser sheet (formed by a doubled Nd:YAG laser) and a red-colored laser sheet (formed by Nd:YAG-pumped dye laser) are employed sequentially to expose the particle positions which are recorded on 35-mm color film. Analysis of the resulting images involves digitizing the exposed film with color filters to separate the green- and red-particle image fields and processing the digitized images with velocity-displacement software. The two-color PIV technique has the advantage that direction, as well as particle displacement, is uniquely determined because the green-particle image occurs before the red one by a known time increment. Velocity measurements utilizing the two-color PIV technique on a propane jet diffusion flame have been made and are discussed.

  5. Two-color particle velocimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goss, L. P.; Post, M. E.; Trump, D. D.; Sarka, B.

    A novel method for determining two-dimensional velocity flowfields has been developed. The technique, two-color particle-image velocimetry (PIV), is similar to existing PIV techniques except that two different-color laser sources are used to form the light sheets required for exposing the position of particles in a seeded flowfield. A green-colored laser sheet (formed by a doubled Nd:YAG laser) and a red-colored laser sheet (formed by Nd:YAG-pumped dye laser) are employed sequentially to expose the particle positions which are recorded on 35-mm color film. Analysis of the resulting images involves digitizing the exposed film with color filters to separate the green- and red-particle image fields and processing the digitized images with velocity-displacement software. The two-color PIV technique has the advantage that direction, as well as particle displacement, is uniquely determined because the green-particle image occurs before the red one by a known time increment. Velocity measurements utilizing the two-color PIV technique on a propane jet diffusion flame have been made and are discussed.

  6. Color preferences of art students: surface colors: II.

    PubMed

    Götz, K O; Götz, K

    1975-08-01

    In a previous study (Götz & Götz, 1974b) the preferences of 14 surface colors were analyzed. While this set contained only one red, one blue, one yellow, etc., the color set of the present investigation was extended, and the preferences of 5 different reds, blues, yellow, etc. were analyzed. Between the five variations of red and yellow, respectively, the greatest affective differences were found, while the opposite was true for the 5 oranges, pinks, and grays. The most preferred colors are 2 reds, 2 blues, and 2 yellows; least preferred are a greenish yellow, a penetrating red-violet, and all 5 pinks. Significant sex differences were found for 8 colors.

  7. The ATA-67 Formula for Direct Operating Cost

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Faulkner, H. B.

    1972-01-01

    The ATA formulas for direct operating cost were developed for the purpose of comparing different aircraft, existing or not, on the same route or the same aircraft on different routes. Such characteristics of the airline as crew pay, maintenance procedures, and depreciation schedules are kept constant. In air transportation systems analysis the 1967 ATA formula is usually used with appropriate exceptions or modifications, such as: different maintenance labor rate, total maintenance multiplied by a factor, maintenance burden deleted, different depreciation schedule, or different spares percentages.

  8. Growth of breast-fed and formula-fed infants.

    PubMed

    Ziegler, Ekhard E

    2006-01-01

    Growth and nutrition during infancy are being viewed with renewed interest because of the possibility that they may be linked to cardiovascular and metabolic health in later life. Of particular interest are differences between breast- and formula-fed infants with regard to nutrient intake and growth because breastfeeding has been shown to be associated with a reduced risk of obesity in later life. During the first 6-8 weeks of life there is little difference in growth (gain in weight and length) between breast- and formula-fed infants. However, from about 2 months of age to the end of the first year of life formula-fed infants gain weight and length more rapidly than breast-fed infants. There are no consistent differences in adiposity during the first 4-5 months of life, but during the later part of the first year of life the preponderance of the evidence suggests that breast-fed infants are leaner than formula-fed infants. Formula-fed infants at 4-5 months of age show higher plasma levels of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), insulin and certain amino acids than breast-fed infants. Whereas the protein intake of breast-fed infants decreases with age and closely matches the requirements for protein during the early months of life, the protein intake of formula-fed infants exceeds requirements after the first 1-2 months of life. The data are consistent with the hypothesis that differences in protein intake are mainly responsible for differences in growth between breast- and formula-fed infants. Differences in energy intake probably are responsible for differences in adiposity observed in older infants.

  9. THE RADIAL AND AZIMUTHAL PROFILES OF Mg II ABSORPTION AROUND 0.5 < z < 0.9 zCOSMOS GALAXIES OF DIFFERENT COLORS, MASSES, AND ENVIRONMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Bordoloi, R.; Lilly, S. J.; Knobel, C.; Kampczyk, P.; Carollo, C. M.; Bolzonella, M.; Zucca, E.; Zamorani, G.; Bardelli, S.; Iovino, A.; Contini, T.; Kneib, J.-P.; Le Fevre, O.; Renzini, A.; Scodeggio, M.; Balestra, I.; Bongiorno, A.; Caputi, K.; Cucciati, O.; and others

    2011-12-10

    We map the radial and azimuthal distribution of Mg II gas within {approx} 200 kpc (physical) of {approx} 4000 galaxies at redshifts 0.5 < z < 0.9 using co-added spectra of more than 5000 background galaxies at z > 1. We investigate the variation of Mg II rest-frame equivalent width (EW) as a function of the radial impact parameter for different subsets of foreground galaxies selected in terms of their rest-frame colors and masses. Blue galaxies have a significantly higher average Mg II EW at close galactocentric radii as compared to the red galaxies. Among the blue galaxies, there is a correlation between Mg II EW and galactic stellar mass of the host galaxy. We also find that the distribution of Mg II absorption around group galaxies is more extended than that for non-group galaxies, and that groups as a whole have more extended radial profiles than individual galaxies. Interestingly, these effects can be satisfactorily modeled by a simple superposition of the absorption profiles of individual member galaxies, assuming that these are the same as those of non-group galaxies, suggesting that the group environment may not significantly enhance or diminish the Mg II absorption of individual galaxies. We show that there is a strong azimuthal dependence of the Mg II absorption within 50 kpc of inclined disk-dominated galaxies, indicating the presence of a strongly bipolar outflow aligned along the disk rotation axis. There is no significant dependence of Mg II absorption on the apparent inclination angle of disk-dominated galaxies.

  10. Characterization of resistance, evaluation of the attractiveness of plant odors, and effect of leaf color on different onion cultivars to onion thrips (Thysanoptera: Thripidae).

    PubMed

    Diaz-Montano, John; Fail, József; Deutschlander, Mark; Nault, Brian A; Shelton, Anthony M

    2012-04-01

    Onion thrips, Thrips tabaci Lindeman (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), is a worldwide pest of onion, Allium cepa L. In field studies on onion resistance conducted in 2007 and 2008 using 49 cultivars, 11 showed low leaf damage by T. tabaci. In laboratory studies, the 11 cultivars, along with two susceptible checks and four additional cultivars, were evaluated to characterize resistance to T. tabaci and to determine if color and/or light reflectance were associated with resistance to T tabaci. No-choice tests were performed with adults and the numbers of eggs and larvae were counted on each cultivar after three and 10 d, respectively. In choice tests in which all cultivars were planted together in a circle in a single pot, 100 adults were released and the number of adults on each plant was evaluated 24 h later. The behavioral response of walking T. tabaci adults to plant odors was studied in a glass Y-tube olfactometer. The reflectance spectrum of leaves was measured using a UV-VIS spectrophotometer. Results indicate that resistant cultivars showed an intermediate-high antibiotic effect to T. tabaci and all of them showed a very strong antixenotic effect. There were no significant preferences in the response of walking T. tabaci adults to plant odors. The two susceptible cultivars had the highest values of leaf reflectance for the first (275-375 nm) and second (310-410 nm) theoretical photopigment-system of T. tabaci, and these values were significantly different from most resistant cultivars. These results suggest a strong response of T. tabaci to onion cultivars with higher reflectance in the ultraviolet range (270-400 nm). Overall, these results appear promising in helping to identify categories of resistance to T. tabaci in onions that can be used in breeding programs.

  11. An improved bootstrap current formula for edge pedestal plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hager, Robert; Chang, C.-S.

    2014-10-01

    An improved version of a bootstrap current formula based on the results of the neoclassical guiding-center particle-in-cell code XGC0 is presented. The original formula improved the accuracy of the predicted bootstrap current in the edge pedestal, where the ion orbit width can be comparable to the pressure gradient scale length, the passing particle region is narrow, and the ions experience orbit loss. We improved two aspects of this formula. We corrected the asymptotic behavior of the bootstrap current coefficients at higher collisionality from what was inherited from the Sauter formula. We also improved the jumpy aspect-ratio dependence of the transition between an enhanced (NSTX) and reduced (DIII-D) bootstrap current regime found by Koh et al. In addition, we elucidate the physical origins of the improvement and of the difference from a local analysis that includes the importance of finite ion orbit excursion effects on the electron current in the edge pedestal.

  12. Factorization and resummation for single color-octet scalar production at the LHC

    SciTech Connect

    Idilbi, Ahmad; Kim, Chul; Mehen, Thomas

    2009-06-01

    Heavy colored scalar particles appear in a variety of new physics (NP) models and could be produced at the Large Hadron Collider. Knowing the total production cross section is important for searching for these states and establishing bounds on their masses and couplings. Using soft-collinear effective theory, we derive a factorization theorem for the process pp{yields}SX, where S is a color-octet scalar, that is applicable to any NP model provided the dominant production mechanism is gluon-gluon fusion. The factorized result for the inclusive cross section is similar to that for the standard model Higgs production; however, differences arise due to color exchange between initial and final states. We provide formulas for the total cross section with large (partonic) threshold logarithms resummed to next-to-leading logarithm accuracy. The resulting K factors are similar to those found in Higgs production. We apply our formalism to the Manohar-Wise model and find that the next-to-leading logarithm cross section is roughly 2 times (3 times) as large as the leading order cross section for a color-octet scalar of mass of 500 GeV (3 TeV). A similar enhancement should appear in any NP model with color-octet scalars.

  13. Empiric formulae combustor flow losses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Mingqi

    1991-07-01

    Approaches to calculation of the flow losses in components of the combustor, such as diffuser, swirler, and flame tube and the flow losses in combustor under combustion conditions are investigated. The empiric formulas are derived from tests. They feature simplicity and sufficient accuracy and are applicable to design and redesign of combustor. The tests were conducted on the models of four types of diffusers, ten kinds of swirlers, seven types of flame tubes, and seven simulators of inlet flowfield distortion. In comparison with the existing methods, the presented method considerably improves the calculation of the flow losses in the diffuser. For the swirler, the correlation between flow resistance and the discharge coefficient and the formula for heating losses are determined.

  14. Koide's Mass Formula for Neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brannen, Carl

    2006-05-01

    We derive Koide's mass formula as an eigenvector equation. We show that to within current experimental error, the square roots of the masses of the charged leptons follow the simple equation (m^-n)^0.5 = μ1(1 + √2(δ1+ 2nπ/3)) where δ1 is the interesting number .22222204717(48) and μ1 is a constant. Next we generalize the Koide formula to the neutrinos by assuming that the square root of the mass of the smallest neutrino must be taken to be negative. Then masses of the simple form (m^0n)^0.5 = μ0(1 + √2(δ1+ π/12 + 2nπ/3)) where 3;μ0= 3^12 ;μ1, satisfy recent neutrino oscillation measurements close to the centers of the error bars. Finally, we discuss the preon model for the fermions that led to the above discovery.

  15. Trace formula for broken symmetry

    SciTech Connect

    Creagh, S.C.

    1996-05-01

    We derive a trace formula for systems that exhibit an approximate continuous symmetry. It interpolates between the sum over continuous families of periodic orbits that holds in the case of exact continuous symmetry, and the discrete sum over isolated orbits that holds when the symmetry is completely broken. It is based on a simple perturbation expansion of the classical dynamics, centered around the case of exact symmetry, and gives an approximation to the usual Gutzwiller formula when the perturbation is large. We illustrate the computation with some 2-dimensional examples: the deformation of the circular billiard into an ellipse, and anisotropic and anharmonic perturbations of a harmonic oscillator. Copyright {copyright} 1996 Academic Press, Inc.

  16. Blackhole formula and example relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Philip

    Black hole formula 1) Second dimension (x,y) f(x)=y Energy E=m*c2 2) Third dimension (x,y,z) really x=y=z Black hole formula Root(c2)=c=Root(E/m) As mass go the velocity of light, mass become black hole so there are energy as multiply by mass. Example relativity When E=m*c2 1) Root(c2)=c=Root(E/m) 2) 3*c*Root(c2)=3*c*Root(E/m)=3*c2 From 1) to 2) as an example, As velocity is faster, mass increased. It means when velocity is increased, sec(time) is slower, and m(distance) is increased. The number is good to study physics.

  17. 'Burns Cliff' Color Panorama

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for 'Burns Cliff' Color Panorama (QTVR)

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity captured this view of 'Burns Cliff' after driving right to the base of this southeastern portion of the inner wall of 'Endurance Crater.' The view combines frames taken by Opportunity's panoramic camera between the rover's 287th and 294th martian days (Nov. 13 to 20, 2004).

    This is a composite of 46 different images, each acquired in seven different Pancam filters. It is an approximately true-color rendering generated from the panoramic camera's 750-nanometer, 530-nanometer and 430-nanometer filters. The mosaic spans more than 180 degrees side to side. Because of this wide-angle view, the cliff walls appear to bulge out toward the camera. In reality the walls form a gently curving, continuous surface.

  18. Preferred color correction for digital LCD TVs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kyoung Tae; Kim, Choon-Woo; Ahn, Ji-Young; Kang, Dong-Woo; Shin, Hyun-Ho

    2009-01-01

    Instead of colorimetirc color reproduction, preferred color correction is applied for digital TVs to improve subjective image quality. First step of the preferred color correction is to survey the preferred color coordinates of memory colors. This can be achieved by the off-line human visual tests. Next step is to extract pixels of memory colors representing skin, grass and sky. For the detected pixels, colors are shifted towards the desired coordinates identified in advance. This correction process may result in undesirable contours on the boundaries between the corrected and un-corrected areas. For digital TV applications, the process of extraction and correction should be applied in every frame of the moving images. This paper presents a preferred color correction method in LCH color space. Values of chroma and hue are corrected independently. Undesirable contours on the boundaries of correction are minimized. The proposed method change the coordinates of memory color pixels towards the target color coordinates. Amount of correction is determined based on the averaged coordinate of the extracted pixels. The proposed method maintains the relative color difference within memory color areas. Performance of the proposed method is evaluated using the paired comparison. Results of experiments indicate that the proposed method can reproduce perceptually pleasing images to viewers.

  19. Masking the Color Wheel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Charlene

    1982-01-01

    Describes an art activity in which sixth graders made mirror-image masks using only two primary colors and one secondary color. Students discussed the effect of color combinations and the use of masks in folk and modern cultures. (AM)

  20. LED Color Characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    2012-01-01

    Color quality is an important consideration when evaluating LED-based products for general illumination. This fact sheet reviews the basics regarding light and color and summarizes the most important color issues related to white-light LED systems.

  1. Pathfinder Landing Site in Color

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 14 May 2004 This image of the Mars Pathfinder Landing site was acquired July 17, 2002, during northern spring.

    The THEMIS VIS camera is capable of capturing color images of the martian surface using its five different color filters. In this mode of operation, the spatial resolution and coverage of the image must be reduced to accommodate the additional data volume produced from the use of multiple filters. To make a color image, three of the five filter images (each in grayscale) are selected. Each is contrast enhanced and then converted to a red, green, or blue intensity image. These three images are then combined to produce a full color, single image. Because the THEMIS color filters don't span the full range of colors seen by the human eye, a color THEMIS image does not represent true color. Also, because each single-filter image is contrast enhanced before inclusion in the three-color image, the apparent color variation of the scene is exaggerated. Nevertheless, the color variation that does appear is representative of some change in color, however subtle, in the actual scene. Note that the long edges of THEMIS color images typically contain color artifacts that do not represent surface variation.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 19.4, Longitude 326.8 East (33.2 West). 38 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science

  2. Feature encoding for color image segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ning; Li, Youfu

    2001-09-01

    An approach for color image segmentation is proposed based on the contributions of color features to segmentation rather than the choice of a particular color space. It is different from the pervious methods where SOFM is used for construct the feature encoding so that the feature-encoding can self-organize the effective features for different color images. Fuzzy clustering is applied for the final segmentation when the well-suited color features and the initial parameter are available. The proposed method has been applied in segmenting different types of color images and the experimental results show that it outperforms the classical clustering method. Our study shows that the feature encoding approach offers great promise in automating and optimizing color image segmentation.

  3. Wetting in Color

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgess, Ian Bruce

    Colorimetric litmus tests such as pH paper have enjoyed wide commercial success due to their inexpensive production and exceptional ease of use. However, expansion of colorimetry to new sensing paradigms is challenging because macroscopic color changes are seldom coupled to arbitrary differences in the physical/chemical properties of a system. In this thesis I present in detail the development of Wetting in Color Technology, focusing primarily on its application as an inexpensive and highly selective colorimetric indicator for organic liquids. The technology exploits chemically-encoded inverse-opal photonic crystals to control the infiltration of fluids to liquid-specific spatial patterns, projecting minute differences in liquids' wettability to macroscopically distinct, easy-to-visualize structural color patterns. It is shown experimentally and corroborated with theoretical modeling using percolation theory that the high selectivity of wetting, upon-which the sensitivity of the indicator relies, is caused by the highly symmetric structure of our large-area, defect-free SiO2 inverse-opals. The regular structure also produces a bright iridescent color, which disappears when infiltrated with liquid - naturally coupling the optical and fluidic responses. Surface modification protocols are developed, requiring only silanization and selective oxidation, to facilitate the deterministic design of an indicator that differentiates a broad range of liquids. The resulting tunable, built-in horizontal and vertical chemistry gradients allow the wettability threshold to be tailored to specific liquids across a continuous range, and make the readout rely only on countable color differences. As wetting is a generic fluidic phenomenon, Wetting in Color technology could be suitable for applications in authentication or identification of unknown liquids across a broad range of industries. However, the generic nature of the response also ensures chemical non-specificity. It is shown

  4. Basic Color Theory and Color in Computers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stroh, Charles

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the nature of light and its relationship to color, particularly two models of color production: the additive and subtractive models. Explains the importance of these models for understanding how computers and printers generate colors. Argues that it is important to understand these processes given the prevalence of computers in art. (DSK)

  5. Simple and Clear Proofs of Stirling's Formula

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niizeki, Shozo; Araki, Makoto

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of our article is to show two simpler and clearer methods of proving Stirling's formula than the traditional and conventional ones. The distinction of our method is to use the simple trapezoidal formula.

  6. Manipulating Color and Other Visual Information Influences Picture Naming at Different Levels of Processing: Evidence from Alzheimer Subjects and Normal Controls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zannino, Gian Daniele; Perri, Roberta; Salamone, Giovanna; Di Lorenzo, Concetta; Caltagirone, Carlo; Carlesimo, Giovanni A.

    2010-01-01

    There is now a large body of evidence suggesting that color and photographic detail exert an effect on recognition of visually presented familiar objects. However, an unresolved issue is whether these factors act at the visual, the semantic or lexical level of the recognition process. In the present study, we investigated this issue by having…

  7. Incomplete Kochen-Specker coloring

    SciTech Connect

    Granstroem, Helena

    2007-09-15

    A particular incomplete Kochen-Specker coloring, suggested by Appleby [Stud. Hist. Philos. Mod. Phys. 36, 1 (2005)] in dimension three, is generalized to arbitrary dimension. We investigate its effectivity as a function of dimension, using two different measures. A limit is derived for the fraction of the sphere that can be colored using the generalized Appleby construction as the number of dimensions approaches infinity. The second, and physically more relevant measure of effectivity, is to look at the fraction of properly colored ON bases. Using this measure, we derive a ''lower bound for the upper bound'' in three and four real dimensions.

  8. Improved Jänecke mass formula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Z.; Bao, M.; Zhao, Y. M.; Arima, A.

    2014-11-01

    In this paper we improve an empirical mass formula constructed by Jänecke and collaborators. This formula is enlightened by the Garvey-Kelson mass relations. The new version of the Jänecke formula reproduces 2275 atomic masses with neutron number N ≥10 and proton number Z ≥6 , at an average accuracy of 128 keV, by employing 576 parameters. The predictive power of our formula is exemplified by comparison with predicted results of other mass models.

  9. Binet's formula for generalized tribonacci numbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cereceda, José Luis

    2015-11-01

    In this note, we derive Binet's formula for the general term ? of the generalized tribonacci sequence. This formula gives ? explicitly as a function of the index n, the roots of the associated characteristic equation, and the initial terms ?, ?, and ?. By way of illustration, we obtain Binet's formula for the Cordonnier, Perrin, and Van der Laan numbers. In addition, we establish a double identity that can be regarded as a parent of Binet's formula for generalized tribonacci numbers.

  10. Color constancy supports cross-illumination color selection

    PubMed Central

    Radonjić, Ana; Cottaris, Nicolas P.; Brainard, David H.

    2015-01-01

    We rely on color to select objects as the targets of our actions (e.g., the freshest fish, the ripest fruit). To be useful for selection, color must provide accurate guidance about object identity across changes in illumination. Although the visual system partially stabilizes object color appearance across illumination changes, how such color constancy supports object selection is not understood. To study how constancy operates in real-life tasks, we developed a novel paradigm in which subjects selected which of two test objects presented under a test illumination appeared closer in color to a target object presented under a standard illumination. From subjects' choices, we inferred a selection-based match for the target via a variant of maximum likelihood difference scaling, and used it to quantify constancy. Selection-based constancy was good when measured using naturalistic stimuli, but was dramatically reduced when the stimuli were simplified, indicating that a naturalistic stimulus context is critical for good constancy. Overall, our results suggest that color supports accurate object selection across illumination changes when both stimuli and task match how color is used in real life. We compared our selection-based constancy results with data obtained using a classic asymmetric matching task and found that the adjustment-based matches predicted selection well for our stimuli and instructions, indicating that the appearance literature provides useful guidance for the emerging study of constancy in natural tasks. PMID:26024460

  11. Development of an XYZ Digital Camera with Embedded Color Calibration System for Accurate Color Acquisition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kretkowski, Maciej; Jablonski, Ryszard; Shimodaira, Yoshifumi

    Acquisition of accurate colors is important in the modern era of widespread exchange of electronic multimedia. The variety of device-dependent color spaces causes troubles with accurate color reproduction. In this paper we present the outlines of accomplished digital camera system with device-independent output formed from tristimulus XYZ values. The outstanding accuracy and fidelity of acquired color is achieved in our system by employing an embedded color calibration system based on emissive device generating reference calibration colors with user-defined spectral distribution and chromaticity coordinates. The system was tested by calibrating the camera using 24 reference colors spectrally reproduced from 24 color patches of the Macbeth Chart. The average color difference (CIEDE2000) has been found to be ΔE =0.83, which is an outstanding result compared to commercially available digital cameras.

  12. 27 CFR 24.201 - Formula required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Formula required. 24.201... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Production of Agricultural Wine § 24.201 Formula required. Before producing any agricultural wine, the proprietor shall obtain an approval of the formula and process by...

  13. 7 CFR 251.7 - Formula adjustments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Formula adjustments. 251.7 Section 251.7 Agriculture... GENERAL REGULATIONS AND POLICIES-FOOD DISTRIBUTION THE EMERGENCY FOOD ASSISTANCE PROGRAM § 251.7 Formula adjustments. Formula adjustments. (a) Commodity adjustments. The Department will make annual adjustments...

  14. 27 CFR 26.31 - Formula.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Formula. 26.31 Section 26... States From Areas Other Than Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands § 26.31 Formula. (a) The amount of excise.... The formula shall be as follows: (1) Multiply the total excise taxes collected on rum brought into...

  15. 27 CFR 24.211 - Formula required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Formula required. 24.211... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Production of Other Than Standard Wine § 24.211 Formula required. The proprietor who desires to produce wine other than standard wine shall first obtain approval of the formula...

  16. 27 CFR 19.452 - Formulas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Denaturation § 19.452 Formulas. Spirits shall be denatured in accordance with formulas as authorized in 27 CFR... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Formulas. 19.452 Section 19.452 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT...

  17. 27 CFR 20.91 - Formula.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Formula. 20.91 Section 20... TREASURY LIQUORS DISTRIBUTION AND USE OF DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Formulas and Statements of Process § 20.91 Formula. (a) Each article made with specially denatured spirits shall be made in accordance...

  18. A Quick Guide to Readability Formulas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cramer, Eugene H.

    1978-01-01

    Six of the most widely used readability scales are briefly reviewed and their original source cited: the Dale-Chall Readability Formula, the Flesch "Reading Ease" Formula, the Fog Index, the Fry Readability Graph, the SMOG Grading Plan, and the Spache Readability Formula. (SJL)

  19. The Funding of Community Colleges: Formulas & Governance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullin, Christopher M.; Honeyman, David S.

    2008-01-01

    This study identified governing state entities charged with the development of a funding formula for community colleges. Analysis of the data revealed that 40 states utilized a funding formula. Twenty-one states had a "Higher Education" entity with governing control of the formula, 5 states had a "Community College" entity with distinct funding…

  20. New approach to color calibration of high fidelity color digital camera by using unique wide gamut color generator based on LED diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kretkowski, M.; Shimodaira, Y.; Jabłoński, R.

    2008-11-01

    Development of a high accuracy color reproduction system requires certain instrumentation and reference for color calibration. Our research led to development of a high fidelity color digital camera with implemented filters that realize the color matching functions. The output signal returns XYZ values which provide absolute description of color. In order to produce XYZ output a mathematical conversion must be applied to CCD output values introducing a conversion matrix. The conversion matrix coefficients are calculated by using a color reference with known XYZ values and corresponding output signals from the CCD sensor under each filter acquisition from a certain amount of color samples. The most important feature of the camera is its ability to acquire colors from the complete theoretically visible color gamut due to implemented filters. However market available color references such as various color checkers are enclosed within HDTV gamut, which is insufficient for calibration in the whole operating color range. This led to development of a unique color reference based on LED diodes called the LED Color Generator (LED CG). It is capable of displaying colors in a wide color gamut estimated by chromaticity coordinates of 12 primary colors. The total amount of colors possible to produce is 25512. The biggest advantage is a possibility of displaying colors with desired spectral distribution (with certain approximations) due to multiple primary colors it consists. The average color difference obtained for test colors was found to be ▵E~0.78 for calibration with LED CG. The result is much better and repetitive in comparison with the Macbeth ColorCheckerTM which typically gives ▵E~1.2 and in the best case ▵E~0.83 with specially developed techniques.