Science.gov

Sample records for color difference formulas

  1. How psychophysical methods influence optimizations of color difference formulas.

    PubMed

    Kirchner, Eric; Dekker, Niels; Lucassen, Marcel; Njo, Lan; van der Lans, Ivo; Urban, Philipp; Huertas, Rafael

    2015-03-01

    For developing color difference formulas, there are several choices to be made on the psychophysical method used for gathering visual (observer) data. We tested three different psychophysical methods: gray scales, constant stimuli, and two-alternative forced choice (2AFC). Our results show that when using gray scales or constant stimuli, assessments of color differences are biased toward lightness differences. This bias is particularly strong in LCD monitor experiments, and also present when using physical paint samples. No such bias is found when using 2AFC. In that case, however, observer responses are affected by other factors that are not accounted for by current color difference formulas. For accurate prediction of relative color differences, our results show, in agreement with other works, that modern color difference formulas do not perform well. We also investigated if the use of digital images as presented on LCD displays is a good alternative to using physical samples. Our results indicate that there are systematic differences between these two media.

  2. Evaluating the uniformity of color spaces and performance of color difference formulae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lian, Yusheng; Liao, Ningfang; Wang, Jiajia; Tan, Boneng; Liu, Zilong

    2010-11-01

    Using small color difference data sets (Macadam ellipses dataset and RIT-DuPont suprathreshold color difference ellipses dataset), and large color difference data sets (Munsell Renovation Data and OSA Uniform Color Scales dataset), the uniformity of several color spaces and performance of color difference formulae based on these color spaces are evaluated. The color spaces used are CIELAB, DIN99d, IPT, and CIECAM02-UCS. It is found that the uniformity of lightness is better than saturation and hue. Overall, for all these color spaces, the uniformity in the blue area is inferior to the other area. The uniformity of CIECAM02-UCS is superior to the other color spaces for the whole color-difference range from small to large. The uniformity of CIELAB and IPT for the large color difference data sets is better than it for the small color difference data sets, but the DIN99d is opposite. Two common performance factors (PF/3 and STRESS) and the statistical F-test are calculated to test the performance of color difference formula. The results show that the performance of color difference formulae based on these four color spaces is consistent with the uniformity of these color spaces.

  3. Lightness-difference data set for evaluation of CIELAB-based color-difference formulae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Dong-Ho; Song, Hee-Kang; Kim, Jae-Pil

    2002-06-01

    A new color-difference data set has been produced to evaluate the lightness difference weighting functions of eight CIELAB-based formulae: CIELAB, CMC, CIE94, DCI-95, LCD97, LCD99, BFD-II and CIEDE2000. Glossy polyester fabric was dyed to prepare 220 color-difference pairs, each having mainly lightness-difference. The gray-scale method was used to assess the color-difference of each pair by an average of twenty-five color normal observers. The test results of the visual data are presented.

  4. Performance of select color-difference formulas in the blue region.

    PubMed

    Shamey, R; Cao, R; Tomasino, T; Zaidy, S S H; Iqbal, K; Lin, J; Lee, S G

    2014-06-01

    The main objective of this work was to test the performance of major formulas for assessment of small suprathreshold color differences in the blue region. The models examined include CIELAB color space based equations, including CIELAB, CIE94, CIEDE2000, CMC (l:c), BFD (l:c), and formulas based on more uniform color spaces, such as DIN99d, CAM02-SCD, CAM02-UCS, OSA-GP, and OSA-Eu in comparison against data obtained via visual assessments. For this purpose, a dataset around the CIE high-chroma blue color center, hereafter called NCSU-B2, was developed. The NCSU-B2 dataset comprised 65 textile substrates and a standard, with a mean ΔE(ab)* color difference of 2.72, ranging from 0.54-5.72. Samples were visually assessed by 26 subjects against the reference gray scale in three separate trials with at least 24 h between assessments. A total of 5070 assessments were obtained. The standardized residual sum of squares (STRESS) index was used to examine the performance of various formulas for this dataset, as well as a previously developed NCSU-B1 low-chroma blue dataset [Color Res. Appl. 36, 27, 2011], and blue centers from other established visual datasets. Results show that formulas based on more recent uniform color spaces provide better agreement with perceptual data compared with models based on CIELAB space.

  5. Visual and instrumental shade matching using CIELAB and CIEDE2000 color difference formulas.

    PubMed

    Pecho, Oscar E; Ghinea, Razvan; Alessandretti, Rodrigo; Pérez, María M; Della Bona, Alvaro

    2016-01-01

    To compare visual and instrumental shade matching performances using two shade guides and three color difference formulas. One hundred dental students (DS) volunteers (35 males and 65 females) with normal color vision participated in the study. The spectral reflectance of 4 extracted human upper central incisors (UCI) and shade tabs from Vita Classical (VC) and Vita Toothguide 3D-Master (3D) shade guides were measured using a spectroradiometer (SP) under D65 illuminant (diffuse/0° geometry) inside a viewing booth with a gray background. Color coordinates (CIE L*, a*, b*, C* and h°) were calculated according to CIE D65 illuminant and CIE 2° Standard Observer. Color coordinates of UCI were also evaluated using a dental spectrophotometer (EA - Easyshade Advance). DS used VC and 3D to visually select the best shade match for each UCI, under same experimental conditions used for the SP evaluation. Three color difference metrics (CIELAB, CIEDE2000(1:1:1) and CIEDE2000(2:1:1)) were used to calculate the best instrumental shade matching based on minimum color difference. The agreement between visual and instrumental shade matching was greater using SP (25-75%) than EA (0-25%). The percentage of best match for the visual assessment was more consistent using VC (23-55%) than 3D (19-34%). Considering the best performance (using SP and VC), the CIEDE2000(2:1:1) color difference formula showed the best estimate to the visual perception from DS. Within the limitations of this study, combining the use of SP, CIEDE2000(2:1:1) and Vita Classical shade guide most closely represented the visual perception of DS. Instrumental shade determination should be accompanied by experienced human visual assessment. Copyright © 2015 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Generalization of color-difference formulas for any illuminant and any observer by assuming perfect color constancy in a color-vision model based on the OSA-UCS system.

    PubMed

    Oleari, Claudio; Melgosa, Manuel; Huertas, Rafael

    2011-11-01

    The most widely used color-difference formulas are based on color-difference data obtained under D65 illumination or similar and for a 10° visual field; i.e., these formulas hold true for the CIE 1964 observer adapted to D65 illuminant. This work considers the psychometric color-vision model based on the Optical Society of America-Uniform Color Scales (OSA-UCS) system previously published by the first author [J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 21, 677 (2004); Color Res. Appl. 30, 31 (2005)] with the additional hypothesis that complete illuminant adaptation with perfect color constancy exists in the visual evaluation of color differences. In this way a computational procedure is defined for color conversion between different illuminant adaptations, which is an alternative to the current chromatic adaptation transforms. This color conversion allows the passage between different observers, e.g., CIE 1964 and CIE 1931. An application of this color conversion is here made in the color-difference evaluation for any observer and in any illuminant adaptation: these transformations convert tristimulus values related to any observer and illuminant adaptation to those related to the observer and illuminant adaptation of the definition of the color-difference formulas, i.e., to the CIE 1964 observer adapted to the D65 illuminant, and then the known color-difference formulas can be applied. The adaptations to the illuminants A, C, F11, D50, Planckian and daylight at any color temperature and for CIE 1931 and CIE 1964 observers are considered as examples, and all the corresponding transformations are given for practical use.

  7. Objective evaluation of visibility in virtual chromoendoscopy for esophageal squamous carcinoma using a color difference formula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, Masahito; Miyake, Yoichi; Odaka, Takeo; Sato, Toru; Watanabe, Yoshiyuki; Sakama, Atsunori; Zenbutsu, Satoki; Yokosuka, Osamu

    2010-09-01

    Computed virtual chromoendoscopy with flexible spectral imaging color enhancement (FICE) is a new dyeless imaging technique that enhances mucosal and vascular patterns. However, a method for selecting a suitable wavelength for a particular condition has not been established. The aim of this study is to evaluate the color difference method for quality assessment of FICE images of the intrapapillary capillary loop in magnifying endoscopy for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. The color difference between 60 microvessels and background mucosa observed using the magnifying endoscope was 8.31+/-2.84 SD under white light and 12.26+/-3.14 (p=0.0031), 11.70+/-4.49 (p=0.0106), and 17.49+/-5.40 (p<0.0001) in FICE modes A, B, and C, respectively. The visibility scores for microvessels observed by medical students were 6.00+/-1.12 points under white light and 11.1+/-2.25 (p<0.0001), 8.65+/-2.06 (p=0.0001), and 12.55+/-2.56 (p<0.0001) in FICE modes A, B, and C, respectively. Furthermore, the measurement of color difference was correlated with the visibility score assigned by medical students (Pearson's correlation coefficient=0.583, p<0.0001) In conclusion, the color difference method corresponds to human vision and is an appropriate method for evaluation of endoscopic images.

  8. Coloring [Formula: see text]-Embeddable [Formula: see text]-Uniform Hypergraphs.

    PubMed

    Heise, Carl Georg; Panagiotou, Konstantinos; Pikhurko, Oleg; Taraz, Anusch

    2014-01-01

    This paper extends the scenario of the Four Color Theorem in the following way. Let [Formula: see text] be the set of all [Formula: see text]-uniform hypergraphs that can be (linearly) embedded into [Formula: see text]. We investigate lower and upper bounds on the maximum (weak) chromatic number of hypergraphs in [Formula: see text]. For example, we can prove that for [Formula: see text] there are hypergraphs in [Formula: see text] on [Formula: see text] vertices whose chromatic number is [Formula: see text], whereas the chromatic number for [Formula: see text]-vertex hypergraphs in [Formula: see text] is bounded by [Formula: see text] for [Formula: see text].

  9. Color difference thresholds in dentistry.

    PubMed

    Paravina, Rade D; Ghinea, Razvan; Herrera, Luis J; Bona, Alvaro D; Igiel, Christopher; Linninger, Mercedes; Sakai, Maiko; Takahashi, Hidekazu; Tashkandi, Esam; Perez, Maria del Mar

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this prospective multicenter study was to determine 50:50% perceptibility threshold (PT) and 50:50% acceptability threshold (AT) of dental ceramic under simulated clinical settings. The spectral radiance of 63 monochromatic ceramic specimens was determined using a non-contact spectroradiometer. A total of 60 specimen pairs, divided into 3 sets of 20 specimen pairs (medium to light shades, medium to dark shades, and dark shades), were selected for psychophysical experiment. The coordinating center and seven research sites obtained the Institutional Review Board (IRB) approvals prior the beginning of the experiment. Each research site had 25 observers, divided into five groups of five observers: dentists-D, dental students-S, dental auxiliaries-A, dental technicians-T, and lay persons-L. There were 35 observers per group (five observers per group at each site ×7 sites), for a total of 175 observers. Visual color comparisons were performed using a viewing booth. Takagi-Sugeno-Kang (TSK) fuzzy approximation was used for fitting the data points. The 50:50% PT and 50:50% AT were determined in CIELAB and CIEDE2000. The t-test was used to evaluate the statistical significance in thresholds differences. The CIELAB 50:50% PT was ΔEab  = 1.2, whereas 50:50% AT was ΔEab  = 2.7. Corresponding CIEDE2000 (ΔE00 ) values were 0.8 and 1.8, respectively. 50:50% PT by the observer group revealed differences among groups D, A, T, and L as compared with 50:50% PT for all observers. The 50:50% AT for all observers was statistically different than 50:50% AT in groups T and L. A 50:50% perceptibility and ATs were significantly different. The same is true for differences between two color difference formulas ΔE00 /ΔEab . Observer groups and sites showed high level of statistical difference in all thresholds. Visual color difference thresholds can serve as a quality control tool to guide the selection of esthetic dental materials, evaluate clinical performance, and

  10. How Color Coding Formulaic Writing Enhances Organization: A Qualitative Approach for Measuring Student Affect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geigle, Bryce A.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to investigate and present the status of student synthesis with color coded formula writing for grade level six through twelve, and to make recommendations for educators to teach writing structure through a color coded formula system in order to increase classroom engagement and lower students' affect. The thesis first…

  11. The Processing on Different Types of English Formulaic Sequences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qian, Li

    2015-01-01

    Formulaic sequences are found to be processed faster than their matched novel phrases in previous studies. Given the variety of formulaic types, few studies have compared processing on different types of formulaic sequences. The present study explored the processing among idioms, speech formulae and written formulae. It has been found that in…

  12. On some binomial [Formula: see text]-difference sequence spaces.

    PubMed

    Meng, Jian; Song, Meimei

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce the binomial sequence spaces [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] by combining the binomial transformation and difference operator. We prove the BK-property and some inclusion relations. Furthermore, we obtain Schauder bases and compute the α-, β- and γ-duals of these sequence spaces. Finally, we characterize matrix transformations on the sequence space [Formula: see text].

  13. Human eye color difference threshold measurement system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Lin; Zhou, Taogeng

    2013-12-01

    The human eye has the ability to distinguish millions of colors, with this feature we can identify very subtle color differences, and the measurement of human eye color difference threshold can provide a visual function diagnosis for testee. In recent years, people begin to focus on studies on visual threshold diagnostic equipment. This paper proposes a human eye color difference threshold measurement system which is based on dual integrating sphere. The system includes two pairs of dual integrating sphere and color control module. Dual integrating sphere uses to mix and produce color, and palette unit which produces primary colors (red (R), green (G), blue (B)) is embedded in dual integrating sphere. At the same time, the embedded palette unit which produces cyan (C), magenta (M), and yellow (Y) expands color area that the system can generate. One optical path based on dual integrating sphere generates standard color, the other path produces the matching color which is similar to a standard color. In the high-precision closed-loop color control module, photoelectric switch records stepper motor's origin position and limits move displacement. Precision stepper motor pushes the light-blocking panel of the palette unit to a predetermined position, while real-time monitoring the position of the light-blocking panel and mixing the ideal controllable color. Two colors that the system generates are projected onto the same target area. Subjects make a judgment on color difference threshold by observing the target eventually.

  14. Probing color coherence effects in pp collisions at [Formula: see text].

    PubMed

    Chatrchyan, S; Khachatryan, V; Sirunyan, A M; Tumasyan, A; Adam, W; Bergauer, T; Dragicevic, M; Erö, J; Fabjan, C; Friedl, M; Frühwirth, R; Ghete, V M; Hörmann, N; Hrubec, J; Jeitler, M; Kiesenhofer, W; Knünz, V; Krammer, M; Krätschmer, I; Liko, D; Mikulec, I; Rabady, D; Rahbaran, B; Rohringer, C; Rohringer, H; Schöfbeck, R; Strauss, J; Taurok, A; Treberer-Treberspurg, W; Waltenberger, W; Wulz, C-E; Mossolov, V; Shumeiko, N; Gonzalez, J Suarez; Alderweireldt, S; Bansal, M; Bansal, S; Cornelis, T; De Wolf, E A; Janssen, X; Knutsson, A; Luyckx, S; Mucibello, L; Ochesanu, S; Roland, B; Rougny, R; Staykova, Z; Van Haevermaet, H; Van Mechelen, P; Van Remortel, N; Van Spilbeeck, A; Blekman, F; Blyweert, S; D'Hondt, J; Kalogeropoulos, A; Keaveney, J; Lowette, S; Maes, M; Olbrechts, A; Tavernier, S; Van Doninck, W; Van Mulders, P; Van Onsem, G P; Villella, I; Caillol, C; Clerbaux, B; De Lentdecker, G; Favart, L; Gay, A P R; Hreus, T; Léonard, A; Marage, P E; Mohammadi, A; Perniè, L; Reis, T; Seva, T; Thomas, L; Vander Velde, C; Vanlaer, P; Wang, J; Adler, V; Beernaert, K; Benucci, L; Cimmino, A; Costantini, S; Dildick, S; Garcia, G; Klein, B; Lellouch, J; Marinov, A; Mccartin, J; Rios, A A Ocampo; Ryckbosch, D; Sigamani, M; Strobbe, N; Thyssen, F; Tytgat, M; Walsh, S; Yazgan, E; Zaganidis, N; Basegmez, S; Beluffi, C; Bruno, G; Castello, R; Caudron, A; Ceard, L; Da Silveira, G G; Delaere, C; du Pree, T; Favart, D; Forthomme, L; Giammanco, A; Hollar, J; Jez, P; Lemaitre, V; Liao, J; Militaru, O; Nuttens, C; Pagano, D; Pin, A; Piotrzkowski, K; Popov, A; Selvaggi, M; Vidal Marono, M; Garcia, J M Vizan; Beliy, N; Caebergs, T; Daubie, E; Hammad, G H; Alves, G A; Correa Martins Junior, M; Martins, T; Pol, M E; Souza, M H G; Aldá Júnior, W L; Carvalho, W; Chinellato, J; Custódio, A; Da Costa, E M; De Jesus Damiao, D; De Oliveira Martins, C; De Souza, S Fonseca; Malbouisson, H; Malek, M; Figueiredo, D Matos; Mundim, L; Nogima, H; Da Silva, W L Prado; Santoro, A; Sznajder, A; Manganote, E J Tonelli; Pereira, A Vilela; Dias, F A; Tomei, T R Fernandez Perez; Lagana, C; Novaes, S F; Padula, Sandra S; Bernardes, C A; Gregores, E M; Mercadante, P G; Genchev, V; Iaydjiev, P; Piperov, S; Rodozov, M; Sultanov, G; Vutova, M; Dimitrov, A; Hadjiiska, R; Kozhuharov, V; Litov, L; Pavlov, B; Petkov, P; Bian, J G; Chen, G M; Chen, H S; Jiang, C H; Liang, D; Liang, S; Meng, X; Tao, J; Wang, X; Wang, Z; Asawatangtrakuldee, C; Ban, Y; Guo, Y; Li, Q; Li, W; Liu, S; Mao, Y; Qian, S J; Wang, D; Zhang, L; Zou, W; Avila, C; Montoya, C A Carrillo; Sierra, L F Chaparro; Gomez, J P; Moreno, B Gomez; Sanabria, J C; Godinovic, N; Lelas, D; Plestina, R; Polic, D; Puljak, I; Antunovic, Z; Kovac, M; Brigljevic, V; Kadija, K; Luetic, J; Mekterovic, D; Morovic, S; Tikvica, L; Attikis, A; Mavromanolakis, G; Mousa, J; Nicolaou, C; Ptochos, F; Razis, P A; Finger, M; Finger, M; Abdelalim, A A; Assran, Y; Elgammal, S; Kamel, A Ellithi; Mahmoud, M A; Radi, A; Kadastik, M; Müntel, M; Murumaa, M; Raidal, M; Rebane, L; Tiko, A; Eerola, P; Fedi, G; Voutilainen, M; Härkönen, J; Karimäki, V; Kinnunen, R; Kortelainen, M J; Lampén, T; Lassila-Perini, K; Lehti, S; Lindén, T; Luukka, P; Mäenpää, T; Peltola, T; Tuominen, E; Tuominiemi, J; Tuovinen, E; Wendland, L; Tuuva, T; Besancon, M; Couderc, F; Dejardin, M; Denegri, D; Fabbro, B; Faure, J L; Ferri, F; Ganjour, S; Givernaud, A; Gras, P; de Monchenault, G Hamel; Jarry, P; Locci, E; Malcles, J; Millischer, L; Nayak, A; Rander, J; Rosowsky, A; Titov, M; Baffioni, S; Beaudette, F; Benhabib, L; Bluj, M; Busson, P; Charlot, C; Daci, N; Dahms, T; Dalchenko, M; Dobrzynski, L; Florent, A; de Cassagnac, R Granier; Haguenauer, M; Miné, P; Mironov, C; Naranjo, I N; Nguyen, M; Ochando, C; Paganini, P; Sabes, D; Salerno, R; Sirois, Y; Veelken, C; Zabi, A; Agram, J-L; Andrea, J; Bloch, D; Brom, J-M; Chabert, E C; Collard, C; Conte, E; Drouhin, F; Fontaine, J-C; Gelé, D; Goerlach, U; Goetzmann, C; Juillot, P; Le Bihan, A-C; Van Hove, P; Gadrat, S; Beauceron, S; Beaupere, N; Boudoul, G; Brochet, S; Chasserat, J; Chierici, R; Contardo, D; Depasse, P; El Mamouni, H; Fan, J; Fay, J; Gascon, S; Gouzevitch, M; Ille, B; Kurca, T; Lethuillier, M; Mirabito, L; Perries, S; Sgandurra, L; Sordini, V; Vander Donckt, M; Verdier, P; Viret, S; Xiao, H; Tsamalaidze, Z; Autermann, C; Beranek, S; Bontenackels, M; Calpas, B; Edelhoff, M; Feld, L; Heracleous, N; Hindrichs, O; Klein, K; Ostapchuk, A; Perieanu, A; Raupach, F; Sammet, J; Schael, S; Sprenger, D; Weber, H; Wittmer, B; Zhukov, V; Ata, M; Caudron, J; Dietz-Laursonn, E; Duchardt, D; Erdmann, M; Fischer, R; Güth, A; Hebbeker, T; Heidemann, C; Hoepfner, K; Klingebiel, D; Knutzen, S; Kreuzer, P; Merschmeyer, M; Meyer, A; Olschewski, M; Padeken, K; Papacz, P; Pieta, H; Reithler, H; Schmitz, S A; Sonnenschein, L; Steggemann, J; Teyssier, D; Thüer, S; Weber, M; Cherepanov, V; Erdogan, Y; Flügge, G; Geenen, H; Geisler, M; Haj Ahmad, W; Hoehle, F; Kargoll, B; Kress, T; Kuessel, Y; Lingemann, J; Nowack, A; Nugent, I M; Perchalla, L; Pooth, O; Stahl, A; Asin, I; Bartosik, N; Behr, J; Behrenhoff, W; Behrens, U; Bell, A J; Bergholz, M; Bethani, A; Borras, K; Burgmeier, A; Cakir, A; Calligaris, L; Campbell, A; Choudhury, S; Costanza, F; Diez Pardos, C; Dooling, S; Dorland, T; Eckerlin, G; Eckstein, D; Flucke, G; Geiser, A; Glushkov, I; Grebenyuk, A; Gunnellini, P; Habib, S; Hauk, J; Hellwig, G; Horton, D; Jung, H; Kasemann, M; Katsas, P; Kleinwort, C; Kluge, H; Krämer, M; Krücker, D; Kuznetsova, E; Lange, W; Leonard, J; Lipka, K; Lohmann, W; Lutz, B; Mankel, R; Marfin, I; Melzer-Pellmann, I-A; Meyer, A B; Mnich, J; Mussgiller, A; Naumann-Emme, S; Novgorodova, O; Nowak, F; Olzem, J; Perrey, H; Petrukhin, A; Pitzl, D; Placakyte, R; Raspereza, A; Cipriano, P M Ribeiro; Riedl, C; Ron, E; Sahin, M Ö; Salfeld-Nebgen, J; Schmidt, R; Schoerner-Sadenius, T; Sen, N; Stein, M; Walsh, R; Wissing, C; Martin, M Aldaya; Blobel, V; Enderle, H; Erfle, J; Garutti, E; Gebbert, U; Görner, M; Gosselink, M; Haller, J; Heine, K; Höing, R S; Kaussen, G; Kirschenmann, H; Klanner, R; Kogler, R; Lange, J; Marchesini, I; Peiffer, T; Pietsch, N; Rathjens, D; Sander, C; Schettler, H; Schleper, P; Schlieckau, E; Schmidt, A; Schröder, M; Schum, T; Seidel, M; Sibille, J; Sola, V; Stadie, H; Steinbrück, G; Thomsen, J; Troendle, D; Usai, E; Vanelderen, L; Barth, C; Baus, C; Berger, J; Böser, C; Butz, E; Chwalek, T; De Boer, W; Descroix, A; Dierlamm, A; Feindt, M; Guthoff, M; Hartmann, F; Hauth, T; Held, H; Hoffmann, K H; Husemann, U; Katkov, I; Komaragiri, J R; Kornmayer, A; Lobelle Pardo, P; Martschei, D; Mozer, M U; Müller, Th; Niegel, M; Nürnberg, A; Oberst, O; Ott, J; Quast, G; Rabbertz, K; Ratnikov, F; Röcker, S; Schilling, F-P; Schott, G; Simonis, H J; Stober, F M; Ulrich, R; Wagner-Kuhr, J; Wayand, S; Weiler, T; Zeise, M; Anagnostou, G; Daskalakis, G; Geralis, T; Kesisoglou, S; Kyriakis, A; Loukas, D; Markou, A; Markou, C; Ntomari, E; Topsis-Giotis, I; Gouskos, L; Panagiotou, A; Saoulidou, N; Stiliaris, E; Aslanoglou, X; Evangelou, I; Flouris, G; Foudas, C; Kokkas, P; Manthos, N; Papadopoulos, I; Paradas, E; Bencze, G; Hajdu, C; Hidas, P; Horvath, D; Sikler, F; Veszpremi, V; Vesztergombi, G; Zsigmond, A J; Beni, N; Czellar, S; Molnar, J; Palinkas, J; Szillasi, Z; Karancsi, J; Raics, P; Trocsanyi, Z L; Ujvari, B; Swain, S K; Beri, S B; Bhatnagar, V; Dhingra, N; Gupta, R; Kaur, M; Mehta, M Z; Mittal, M; Nishu, N; Sharma, A; Singh, J B; Kumar, Ashok; Kumar, Arun; Ahuja, S; Bhardwaj, A; Choudhary, B C; Kumar, A; Malhotra, S; Naimuddin, M; Ranjan, K; Saxena, P; Sharma, V; Shivpuri, R K; Banerjee, S; Bhattacharya, S; Chatterjee, K; Dutta, S; Gomber, B; Jain, Sa; Jain, Sh; Khurana, R; Modak, A; Mukherjee, S; Roy, D; Sarkar, S; Sharan, M; Singh, A P; Abdulsalam, A; Dutta, D; Kailas, S; Kumar, V; Mohanty, A K; Pant, L M; Shukla, P; Topkar, A; Aziz, T; Chatterjee, R M; Ganguly, S; Ghosh, S; Guchait, M; Gurtu, A; Kole, G; Kumar, S; Maity, M; Majumder, G; Mazumdar, K; Mohanty, G B; Parida, B; Sudhakar, K; Wickramage, N; Dugad, S; Arfaei, H; Bakhshiansohi, H; Etesami, S M; Fahim, A; Jafari, A; Khakzad, M; Najafabadi, M Mohammadi; Mehdiabadi, S Paktinat; Safarzadeh, B; Zeinali, M; Grunewald, M; Abbrescia, M; Barbone, L; Calabria, C; Chhibra, S S; Colaleo, A; Creanza, D; De Filippis, N; De Palma, M; Fiore, L; Iaselli, G; Maggi, G; Maggi, M; Marangelli, B; My, S; Nuzzo, S; Pacifico, N; Pompili, A; Pugliese, G; Selvaggi, G; Silvestris, L; Singh, G; Venditti, R; Verwilligen, P; Zito, G; Abbiendi, G; Benvenuti, A C; Bonacorsi, D; Braibant-Giacomelli, S; Brigliadori, L; Campanini, R; Capiluppi, P; Castro, A; Cavallo, F R; Codispoti, G; Cuffiani, M; Dallavalle, G M; Fabbri, F; Fanfani, A; Fasanella, D; Giacomelli, P; Grandi, C; Guiducci, L; Marcellini, S; Masetti, G; Meneghelli, M; Montanari, A; Navarria, F L; Odorici, F; Perrotta, A; Primavera, F; Rossi, A M; Rovelli, T; Siroli, G P; Tosi, N; Travaglini, R; Albergo, S; Cappello, G; Chiorboli, M; Costa, S; Giordano, F; Potenza, R; Tricomi, A; Tuve, C; Barbagli, G; Ciulli, V; Civinini, C; D'Alessandro, R; Focardi, E; Frosali, S; Gallo, E; Gonzi, S; Gori, V; Lenzi, P; Meschini, M; Paoletti, S; Sguazzoni, G; Tropiano, A; Benussi, L; Bianco, S; Fabbri, F; Piccolo, D; Fabbricatore, P; Ferretti, R; Ferro, F; Vetere, M Lo; Musenich, R; Robutti, E; Tosi, S; Benaglia, A; Dinardo, M E; Fiorendi, S; Gennai, S; Ghezzi, A; Govoni, P; Lucchini, M T; Malvezzi, S; Manzoni, R A; Martelli, A; Menasce, D; Moroni, L; Paganoni, M; Pedrini, D; Ragazzi, S; Redaelli, N; de Fatis, T Tabarelli; Buontempo, S; Cavallo, N; De Cosa, A; Fabozzi, F; Iorio, A O M; Lista, L; Meola, S; Merola, M; Paolucci, P; Azzi, P; Bacchetta, N; Bellato, M; Bisello, D; Branca, A; Carlin, R; Checchia, P; Dorigo, T; Dosselli, U; Galanti, M; Gasparini, F; Gasparini, U; Giubilato, P; Gozzelino, A; Kanishchev, K; Lacaprara, S; Lazzizzera, I; Margoni, M; Meneguzzo, A T; Pazzini, J; Pozzobon, N; Ronchese, P; Sgaravatto, M; Simonetto, F; Torassa, E; Tosi, M; Triossi, A; Zotto, P; Zucchetta, A; Zumerle, G; Gabusi, M; Ratti, S P; Riccardi, C; Vitulo, P; Biasini, M; Bilei, G M; Fanò, L; Lariccia, P; Mantovani, G; Menichelli, M; Nappi, A; Romeo, F; Saha, A; Santocchia, A; Spiezia, A; Androsov, K; Azzurri, P; Bagliesi, G; Bernardini, J; Boccali, T; Broccolo, G; Castaldi, R; Ciocci, M A; D'Agnolo, R T; Dell'Orso, R; Fiori, F; Foà, L; Giassi, A; Grippo, M T; Kraan, A; Ligabue, F; Lomtadze, T; Martini, L; Messineo, A; Moon, C S; Palla, F; Rizzi, A; Savoy-Navarro, A; Serban, A T; Spagnolo, P; Squillacioti, P; Tenchini, R; Tonelli, G; Venturi, A; Verdini, P G; Vernieri, C; Barone, L; Cavallari, F; Del Re, D; Diemoz, M; Grassi, M; Longo, E; Margaroli, F; Meridiani, P; Micheli, F; Nourbakhsh, S; Organtini, G; Paramatti, R; Rahatlou, S; Rovelli, C; Soffi, L; Amapane, N; Arcidiacono, R; Argiro, S; Arneodo, M; Bellan, R; Biino, C; Cartiglia, N; Casasso, S; Costa, M; Degano, A; Demaria, N; Mariotti, C; Maselli, S; Migliore, E; Monaco, V; Musich, M; Obertino, M M; Pastrone, N; Pelliccioni, M; Potenza, A; Romero, A; Ruspa, M; Sacchi, R; Solano, A; Staiano, A; Tamponi, U; Belforte, S; Candelise, V; Casarsa, M; Cossutti, F; Ricca, G Della; Gobbo, B; La Licata, C; Marone, M; Montanino, D; Penzo, A; Schizzi, A; Zanetti, A; Chang, S; Kim, T Y; Nam, S K; Kim, D H; Kim, G N; Kim, J E; Kong, D J; Lee, S; Oh, Y D; Park, H; Son, D C; Kim, J Y; Kim, Zero J; Song, S; Choi, S; Gyun, D; Hong, B; Jo, M; Kim, H; Kim, T J; Lee, K S; Park, S K; Roh, Y; Choi, M; Kim, J H; Park, C; Park, I C; Park, S; Ryu, G; Choi, Y; Choi, Y K; Goh, J; Kim, M S; Kwon, E; Lee, B; Lee, J; Seo, H; Yu, I; Grigelionis, I; Juodagalvis, A; Castilla-Valdez, H; De La Cruz-Burelo, E; Heredia-de La Cruz, I; Lopez-Fernandez, R; Martínez-Ortega, J; Sanchez-Hernandez, A; Villasenor-Cendejas, L M; Moreno, S Carrillo; Valencia, F Vazquez; Ibarguen, H A Salazar; Linares, E Casimiro; Pineda, A Morelos; Reyes-Santos, M A; Krofcheck, D; Butler, P H; Doesburg, R; Reucroft, S; Silverwood, H; Ahmad, M; Asghar, M I; Butt, J; Hoorani, H R; Khalid, S; Khan, W A; Khurshid, T; Qazi, S; Shah, M A; Shoaib, M; Bialkowska, H; Boimska, B; Frueboes, T; Górski, M; Kazana, M; Nawrocki, K; Romanowska-Rybinska, K; Szleper, M; Wrochna, G; Zalewski, P; Brona, G; Bunkowski, K; Cwiok, M; Dominik, W; Doroba, K; Kalinowski, A; Konecki, M; Krolikowski, J; Misiura, M; Wolszczak, W; Almeida, N; Bargassa, P; Da Cruz E Silva, C Beirão; Faccioli, P; Parracho, P G Ferreira; Gallinaro, M; Nguyen, F; Antunes, J Rodrigues; Seixas, J; Varela, J; Vischia, P; Afanasiev, S; Bunin, P; Gavrilenko, M; Golutvin, I; Gorbunov, I; Kamenev, A; Karjavin, V; Konoplyanikov, V; Lanev, A; Malakhov, A; Matveev, V; Moisenz, P; Palichik, V; Perelygin, V; Shmatov, S; Skatchkov, N; Smirnov, V; Zarubin, A; Evstyukhin, S; Golovtsov, V; Ivanov, Y; Kim, V; Levchenko, P; Murzin, V; Oreshkin, V; Smirnov, I; Sulimov, V; Uvarov, L; Vavilov, S; Vorobyev, A; Vorobyev, An; Andreev, Yu; Dermenev, A; Gninenko, S; Golubev, N; Kirsanov, M; Krasnikov, N; Pashenkov, A; Tlisov, D; Toropin, A; Epshteyn, V; Erofeeva, M; Gavrilov, V; Lychkovskaya, N; Popov, V; Safronov, G; Semenov, S; Spiridonov, A; Stolin, V; Vlasov, E; Zhokin, A; Andreev, V; Azarkin, M; Dremin, I; Kirakosyan, M; Leonidov, A; Mesyats, G; Rusakov, S V; Vinogradov, A; Boos, E; Dubinin, M; Dudko, L; Ershov, A; Gribushin, A; Klyukhin, V; Kodolova, O; Lokhtin, I; Markina, A; Obraztsov, S; Petrushanko, S; Savrin, V; Snigirev, A; Azhgirey, I; Bayshev, I; Bitioukov, S; Kachanov, V; Kalinin, A; Konstantinov, D; Krychkine, V; Petrov, V; Ryutin, R; Sobol, A; Tourtchanovitch, L; Troshin, S; Tyurin, N; Uzunian, A; Volkov, A; Adzic, P; Djordjevic, M; Ekmedzic, M; Krpic, D; Milosevic, J; Aguilar-Benitez, M; Maestre, J Alcaraz; Battilana, C; Calvo, E; Cerrada, M; Llatas, M Chamizo; Colino, N; De La Cruz, B; Peris, A Delgado; Vázquez, D Domínguez; Bedoya, C Fernandez; Ramos, J P Fernández; Ferrando, A; Flix, J; Fouz, M C; Garcia-Abia, P; Lopez, O Gonzalez; Lopez, S Goy; Hernandez, J M; Josa, M I; Merino, G; De Martino, E Navarro; Pelayo, J Puerta; Olmeda, A Quintario; Redondo, I; Romero, L; Santaolalla, J; Soares, M S; Willmott, C; Albajar, C; de Trocóniz, J F; Brun, H; Cuevas, J; Menendez, J Fernandez; Folgueras, S; Caballero, I Gonzalez; Iglesias, L Lloret; Gomez, J Piedra; Cifuentes, J A Brochero; Cabrillo, I J; Calderon, A; Chuang, S H; Campderros, J Duarte; Fernandez, M; Gomez, G; Sanchez, J Gonzalez; Graziano, A; Jorda, C; Virto, A Lopez; Marco, J; Marco, R; Rivero, C Martinez; Matorras, F; Sanchez, F J Munoz; Rodrigo, T; Rodríguez-Marrero, A Y; Ruiz-Jimeno, A; Scodellaro, L; Vila, I; Cortabitarte, R Vilar; Abbaneo, D; Auffray, E; Auzinger, G; Bachtis, M; Baillon, P; Ball, A H; Barney, D; Bendavid, J; Benitez, J F; Bernet, C; Bianchi, G; Bloch, P; Bocci, A; Bonato, A; Bondu, O; Botta, C; Breuker, H; Camporesi, T; Cerminara, G; Christiansen, T; Perez, J A Coarasa; Colafranceschi, S; D'Alfonso, M; d'Enterria, D; Dabrowski, A; David, A; Guio, F De; De Roeck, A; De Visscher, S; Di Guida, S; Dobson, M; Dupont-Sagorin, N; Elliott-Peisert, A; Eugster, J; Franzoni, G; Funk, W; Georgiou, G; Giffels, M; Gigi, D; Gill, K; Giordano, D; Girone, M; Giunta, M; Glege, F; Garrido, R Gomez-Reino; Gowdy, S; Guida, R; Hammer, J; Hansen, M; Harris, P; Hartl, C; Hinzmann, A; Innocente, V; Janot, P; Karavakis, E; Kousouris, K; Krajczar, K; Lecoq, P; Lee, Y-J; Lourenço, C; Magini, N; Malgeri, L; Mannelli, M; Masetti, L; Meijers, F; Mersi, S; Meschi, E; Moser, R; Mulders, M; Musella, P; Nesvold, E; Orsini, L; Cortezon, E Palencia; Perez, E; Perrozzi, L; Petrilli, A; Pfeiffer, A; Pierini, M; Pimiä, M; Piparo, D; Plagge, M; Quertenmont, L; Racz, A; Reece, W; Rolandi, G; Rovere, M; Sakulin, H; Santanastasio, F; Schäfer, C; Schwick, C; Sekmen, S; Siegrist, P; Silva, P; Simon, M; Sphicas, P; Spiga, D; Stieger, B; Stoye, M; Tsirou, A; Veres, G I; Vlimant, J R; Wöhri, H K; Worm, S D; Zeuner, W D; Bertl, W; Deiters, K; Erdmann, W; Gabathuler, K; Horisberger, R; Ingram, Q; Kaestli, H C; König, S; Kotlinski, D; Langenegger, U; Renker, D; Rohe, T; Bachmair, F; Bäni, L; Bianchini, L; Bortignon, P; Buchmann, M A; Casal, B; Chanon, N; Deisher, A; Dissertori, G; Dittmar, M; Donegà, M; Dünser, M; Eller, P; Freudenreich, K; Grab, C; Hits, D; Lecomte, P; Lustermann, W; Mangano, B; Marini, A C; Del Arbol, P Martinez Ruiz; Meister, D; Mohr, N; Moortgat, F; Nägeli, C; Nef, P; Nessi-Tedaldi, F; Pandolfi, F; Pape, L; Pauss, F; Peruzzi, M; Quittnat, M; Ronga, F J; Rossini, M; Sala, L; Sanchez, A K; Starodumov, A; Takahashi, M; Tauscher, L; Thea, A; Theofilatos, K; Treille, D; Urscheler, C; Wallny, R; Weber, H A; Amsler, C; Chiochia, V; Favaro, C; Rikova, M Ivova; Kilminster, B; Mejias, B Millan; Otiougova, P; Robmann, P; Snoek, H; Taroni, S; Verzetti, M; Yang, Y; Cardaci, M; Chen, K H; Ferro, C; Kuo, C M; Li, S W; Lin, W; Lu, Y J; Volpe, R; Yu, S S; Bartalini, P; Chang, P; Chang, Y H; Chang, Y W; Chao, Y; Chen, K F; Dietz, C; Grundler, U; Hou, W-S; Hsiung, Y; Kao, K Y; Lei, Y J; Lu, R-S; Majumder, D; Petrakou, E; Shi, X; Shiu, J G; Tzeng, Y M; Wang, M; Asavapibhop, B; Suwonjandee, N; Adiguzel, A; Bakirci, M N; Cerci, S; Dozen, C; Dumanoglu, I; Eskut, E; Girgis, S; Gokbulut, G; Gurpinar, E; Hos, I; Kangal, E E; Topaksu, A Kayis; Onengut, G; Ozdemir, K; Ozturk, S; Polatoz, A; Sogut, K; Cerci, D Sunar; Tali, B; Topakli, H; Vergili, M; Akin, I V; Aliev, T; Bilin, B; Bilmis, S; Deniz, M; Gamsizkan, H; Guler, A M; Karapinar, G; Ocalan, K; Ozpineci, A; Serin, M; Sever, R; Surat, U E; Yalvac, M; Zeyrek, M; Gülmez, E; Isildak, B; Kaya, M; Kaya, O; Ozkorucuklu, S; Sonmez, N; Bahtiyar, H; Barlas, E; Cankocak, K; Günaydin, Y O; Vardarlı, F I; Yücel, M; Levchuk, L; Sorokin, P; Brooke, J J; Clement, E; Cussans, D; Flacher, H; Frazier, R; Goldstein, J; Grimes, M; Heath, G P; Heath, H F; Kreczko, L; Lucas, C; Meng, Z; Metson, S; Newbold, D M; Nirunpong, K; Paramesvaran, S; Poll, A; Senkin, S; Smith, V J; Williams, T; Bell, K W; Belyaev, A; Brew, C; Brown, R M; Cockerill, D J A; Coughlan, J A; Harder, K; Harper, S; Ilic, J; Olaiya, E; Petyt, D; Radburn-Smith, B C; Shepherd-Themistocleous, C H; Tomalin, I R; Womersley, W J; Bainbridge, R; Buchmuller, O; Burton, D; Colling, D; Cripps, N; Cutajar, M; Dauncey, P; Davies, G; Negra, M Della; Ferguson, W; Fulcher, J; Futyan, D; Gilbert, A; Bryer, A Guneratne; Hall, G; Hatherell, Z; Hays, J; Iles, G; Jarvis, M; Karapostoli, G; Kenzie, M; Lane, R; Lucas, R; Lyons, L; Magnan, A-M; Marrouche, J; Mathias, B; Nandi, R; Nash, J; Nikitenko, A; Pela, J; Pesaresi, M; Petridis, K; Pioppi, M; Raymond, D M; Rogerson, S; Rose, A; Seez, C; Sharp, P; Sparrow, A; Tapper, A; Acosta, M Vazquez; Virdee, T; Wakefield, S; Wardle, N; Chadwick, M; Cole, J E; Hobson, P R; Khan, A; Kyberd, P; Leggat, D; Leslie, D; Martin, W; Reid, I D; Symonds, P; Teodorescu, L; Turner, M; Dittmann, J; Hatakeyama, K; Kasmi, A; Liu, H; Scarborough, T; Charaf, O; Cooper, S I; Henderson, C; Rumerio, P; Avetisyan, A; Bose, T; Fantasia, C; Heister, A; Lawson, P; Lazic, D; Rohlf, J; Sperka, D; St John, J; Sulak, L; Alimena, J; Christopher, G; Cutts, D; Demiragli, Z; Ferapontov, A; Garabedian, A; Heintz, U; Jabeen, S; Kukartsev, G; Laird, E; Landsberg, G; Luk, M; Narain, M; Segala, M; Sinthuprasith, T; Speer, T; Breedon, R; Breto, G; De La Barca Sanchez, M Calderon; Chauhan, S; Chertok, M; Conway, J; Conway, R; Cox, P T; Erbacher, R; Gardner, M; Houtz, R; Ko, W; Kopecky, A; Lander, R; Miceli, T; Pellett, D; Pilot, J; Ricci-Tam, F; Rutherford, B; Searle, M; Shalhout, S; Smith, J; Squires, M; Tripathi, M; Wilbur, S; Yohay, R; Andreev, V; Cline, D; Cousins, R; Erhan, S; Everaerts, P; Farrell, C; Felcini, M; Hauser, J; Ignatenko, M; Jarvis, C; Rakness, G; Schlein, P; Takasugi, E; Traczyk, P; Valuev, V; Babb, J; Clare, R; Ellison, J; Gary, J W; Hanson, G; Heilman, J; Jandir, P; Liu, H; Long, O R; Luthra, A; Malberti, M; Nguyen, H; Shrinivas, A; Sturdy, J; Sumowidagdo, S; Wilken, R; Wimpenny, S; Andrews, W; Branson, J G; Cerati, G B; Cittolin, S; Evans, D; Holzner, A; Kelley, R; Lebourgeois, M; Letts, J; Macneill, I; Padhi, S; Palmer, C; Petrucciani, G; Pieri, M; Sani, M; Simon, S; Sudano, E; Tadel, M; Tu, Y; Vartak, A; Wasserbaech, S; Würthwein, F; Yagil, A; Yoo, J; Barge, D; Campagnari, C; Danielson, T; Flowers, K; Geffert, P; George, C; Golf, F; Incandela, J; Justus, C; Kovalskyi, D; Krutelyov, V; Villalba, R Magaña; Mccoll, N; Pavlunin, V; Richman, J; Rossin, R; Stuart, D; To, W; West, C; Apresyan, A; Bornheim, A; Bunn, J; Chen, Y; Di Marco, E; Duarte, J; Kcira, D; Ma, Y; Mott, A; Newman, H B; Pena, C; Rogan, C; Spiropulu, M; Timciuc, V; Veverka, J; Wilkinson, R; Xie, S; Zhu, R Y; Azzolini, V; Calamba, A; Carroll, R; Ferguson, T; Iiyama, Y; Jang, D W; Liu, Y F; Paulini, M; Russ, J; Vogel, H; Vorobiev, I; Cumalat, J P; Drell, B R; Ford, W T; Gaz, A; Lopez, E Luiggi; Nauenberg, U; Smith, J G; Stenson, K; Ulmer, K A; Wagner, S R; Alexander, J; Chatterjee, A; Eggert, N; Gibbons, L K; Hopkins, W; Khukhunaishvili, A; Kreis, B; Mirman, N; Kaufman, G Nicolas; Patterson, J R; Ryd, A; Salvati, E; Sun, W; Teo, W D; Thom, J; Thompson, J; Tucker, J; Weng, Y; Winstrom, L; Wittich, P; Winn, D; Abdullin, S; Albrow, M; Anderson, J; Apollinari, G; Bauerdick, L A T; Beretvas, A; Berryhill, J; Bhat, P C; Burkett, K; Butler, J N; Chetluru, V; Cheung, H W K; Chlebana, F; Cihangir, S; Elvira, V D; Fisk, I; Freeman, J; Gao, Y; Gottschalk, E; Gray, L; Green, D; Gutsche, O; Hare, D; Harris, R M; Hirschauer, J; Hooberman, B; Jindariani, S; Johnson, M; Joshi, U; Kaadze, K; Klima, B; Kunori, S; Kwan, S; Linacre, J; Lincoln, D; Lipton, R; Lykken, J; Maeshima, K; Marraffino, J M; Outschoorn, V I Martinez; Maruyama, S; Mason, D; McBride, P; Mishra, K; Mrenna, S; Musienko, Y; Newman-Holmes, C; O'Dell, V; Prokofyev, O; Ratnikova, N; Sexton-Kennedy, E; Sharma, S; Spalding, W J; Spiegel, L; Taylor, L; Tkaczyk, S; Tran, N V; Uplegger, L; Vaandering, E W; Vidal, R; Whitmore, J; Wu, W; Yang, F; Yun, J C; Acosta, D; Avery, P; Bourilkov, D; Chen, M; Cheng, T; Das, S; De Gruttola, M; Di Giovanni, G P; Dobur, D; Drozdetskiy, A; Field, R D; Fisher, M; Fu, Y; Furic, I K; Hugon, J; Kim, B; Konigsberg, J; Korytov, A; Kropivnitskaya, A; Kypreos, T; Low, J F; Matchev, K; Milenovic, P; Mitselmakher, G; Muniz, L; Remington, R; Rinkevicius, A; Skhirtladze, N; Snowball, M; Yelton, J; Zakaria, M; Gaultney, V; Hewamanage, S; Linn, S; Markowitz, P; Martinez, G; Rodriguez, J L; Adams, T; Askew, A; Bochenek, J; Chen, J; Diamond, B; Haas, J; Hagopian, S; Hagopian, V; Johnson, K F; Prosper, H; Veeraraghavan, V; Weinberg, M; Baarmand, M M; Dorney, B; Hohlmann, M; Kalakhety, H; Yumiceva, F; Adams, M R; Apanasevich, L; Bazterra, V E; Betts, R R; Bucinskaite, I; Callner, J; Cavanaugh, R; Evdokimov, O; Gauthier, L; Gerber, C E; Hofman, D J; Khalatyan, S; Kurt, P; Lacroix, F; Moon, D H; O'Brien, C; Silkworth, C; Strom, D; Turner, P; Varelas, N; Akgun, U; Albayrak, E A; Bilki, B; Clarida, W; Dilsiz, K; Duru, F; Griffiths, S; Merlo, J-P; Mermerkaya, H; Mestvirishvili, A; Moeller, A; Nachtman, J; Newsom, C R; Ogul, H; Onel, Y; Ozok, F; Sen, S; Tan, P; Tiras, E; Wetzel, J; Yetkin, T; Yi, K; Barnett, B A; Blumenfeld, B; Bolognesi, S; Giurgiu, G; Gritsan, A V; Hu, G; Maksimovic, P; Martin, C; Swartz, M; Whitbeck, A; Baringer, P; Bean, A; Benelli, G; Kenny, R P; Murray, M; Noonan, D; Sanders, S; Stringer, R; Wood, J S; Barfuss, A F; Chakaberia, I; Ivanov, A; Khalil, S; Makouski, M; Maravin, Y; Saini, L K; Shrestha, S; Svintradze, I; Gronberg, J; Lange, D; Rebassoo, F; Wright, D; Baden, A; Calvert, B; Eno, S C; Gomez, J A; Hadley, N J; Kellogg, R G; Kolberg, T; Lu, Y; Marionneau, M; Mignerey, A C; Pedro, K; Peterman, A; Skuja, A; Temple, J; Tonjes, M B; Tonwar, S C; Apyan, A; Bauer, G; Busza, W; Cali, I A; Chan, M; Di Matteo, L; Dutta, V; Gomez Ceballos, G; Goncharov, M; Gulhan, D; Kim, Y; Klute, M; Lai, Y S; Levin, A; Luckey, P D; Ma, T; Nahn, S; Paus, C; Ralph, D; Roland, C; Roland, G; Stephans, G S F; Stöckli, F; Sumorok, K; Velicanu, D; Wolf, R; Wyslouch, B; Yang, M; Yilmaz, Y; Yoon, A S; Zanetti, M; Zhukova, V; Dahmes, B; De Benedetti, A; Gude, A; Haupt, J; Kao, S C; Klapoetke, K; Kubota, Y; Mans, J; Pastika, N; Rusack, R; Sasseville, M; Singovsky, A; Tambe, N; Turkewitz, J; Acosta, J G; Cremaldi, L M; Kroeger, R; Oliveros, S; Perera, L; Rahmat, R; Sanders, D A; Summers, D; Avdeeva, E; Bloom, K; Bose, S; Claes, D R; Dominguez, A; Eads, M; Suarez, R Gonzalez; Keller, J; Kravchenko, I; Lazo-Flores, J; Malik, S; Meier, F; Snow, G R; Dolen, J; Godshalk, A; Iashvili, I; Jain, S; Kharchilava, A; Rappoccio, S; Wan, Z; Alverson, G; Barberis, E; Baumgartel, D; Chasco, M; Haley, J; Massironi, A; Nash, D; Orimoto, T; Trocino, D; Wood, D; Zhang, J; Anastassov, A; Hahn, K A; Kubik, A; Lusito, L; Mucia, N; Odell, N; Pollack, B; Pozdnyakov, A; Schmitt, M; Stoynev, S; Sung, K; Velasco, M; Won, S; Berry, D; Brinkerhoff, A; Chan, K M; Hildreth, M; Jessop, C; Karmgard, D J; Kolb, J; Lannon, K; Luo, W; Lynch, S; Marinelli, N; Morse, D M; Pearson, T; Planer, M; Ruchti, R; Slaunwhite, J; Valls, N; Wayne, M; Wolf, M; Antonelli, L; Bylsma, B; Durkin, L S; Hill, C; Hughes, R; Kotov, K; Ling, T Y; Puigh, D; Rodenburg, M; Smith, G; Vuosalo, C; Winer, B L; Wolfe, H; Berry, E; Elmer, P; Halyo, V; Hebda, P; Hegeman, J; Hunt, A; Jindal, P; Koay, S A; Lujan, P; Marlow, D; Medvedeva, T; Mooney, M; Olsen, J; Piroué, P; Quan, X; Raval, A; Saka, H; Stickland, D; Tully, C; Werner, J S; Zenz, S C; Zuranski, A; Brownson, E; Lopez, A; Mendez, H; Vargas, J E Ramirez; Alagoz, E; Benedetti, D; Bolla, G; Bortoletto, D; De Mattia, M; Everett, A; Hu, Z; Jones, M; Jung, K; Koybasi, O; Kress, M; Leonardo, N; Pegna, D Lopes; Maroussov, V; Merkel, P; Miller, D H; Neumeister, N; Shipsey, I; Silvers, D; Svyatkovskiy, A; Wang, F; Xie, W; Xu, L; Yoo, H D; Zablocki, J; Zheng, Y; Parashar, N; Adair, A; Akgun, B; Ecklund, K M; Geurts, F J M; Li, W; Michlin, B; Padley, B P; Redjimi, R; Roberts, J; Zabel, J; Betchart, B; Bodek, A; Covarelli, R; de Barbaro, P; Demina, R; Eshaq, Y; Ferbel, T; Garcia-Bellido, A; Goldenzweig, P; Han, J; Harel, A; Miner, D C; Petrillo, G; Vishnevskiy, D; Zielinski, M; Bhatti, A; Ciesielski, R; Demortier, L; Goulianos, K; Lungu, G; Malik, S; Mesropian, C; Arora, S; Barker, A; Chou, J P; Contreras-Campana, C; Contreras-Campana, E; Duggan, D; Ferencek, D; Gershtein, Y; Gray, R; Halkiadakis, E; Hidas, D; Lath, A; Panwalkar, S; Park, M; Patel, R; Rekovic, V; Robles, J; Salur, S; Schnetzer, S; Seitz, C; Somalwar, S; Stone, R; Thomas, S; Thomassen, P; Walker, M; Cerizza, G; Hollingsworth, M; Rose, K; Spanier, S; Yang, Z C; York, A; Bouhali, O; Eusebi, R; Flanagan, W; Gilmore, J; Kamon, T; Khotilovich, V; Montalvo, R; Osipenkov, I; Pakhotin, Y; Perloff, A; Roe, J; Safonov, A; Sakuma, T; Suarez, I; Tatarinov, A; Toback, D; Akchurin, N; Cowden, C; Damgov, J; Dragoiu, C; Dudero, P R; Kovitanggoon, K; Lee, S W; Libeiro, T; Volobouev, I; Appelt, E; Delannoy, A G; Greene, S; Gurrola, A; Johns, W; Maguire, C; Melo, A; Sharma, M; Sheldon, P; Snook, B; Tuo, S; Velkovska, J; Arenton, M W; Boutle, S; Cox, B; Francis, B; Goodell, J; Hirosky, R; Ledovskoy, A; Lin, C; Neu, C; Wood, J; Gollapinni, S; Harr, R; Karchin, P E; Kottachchi Kankanamge Don, C; Lamichhane, P; Sakharov, A; Belknap, D A; Borrello, L; Carlsmith, D; Cepeda, M; Dasu, S; Duric, S; Friis, E; Grothe, M; Hall-Wilton, R; Herndon, M; Hervé, A; Klabbers, P; Klukas, J; Lanaro, A; Loveless, R; Mohapatra, A; Ojalvo, I; Perry, T; Pierro, G A; Polese, G; Ross, I; Sarangi, T; Savin, A; Smith, W H; Swanson, J

    A study of color coherence effects in pp collisions at a center-of-mass energy of 7[Formula: see text] is presented. The data used in the analysis were collected in 2010 with the CMS detector at the LHC and correspond to an integrated luminosity of 36 pb[Formula: see text]. Events are selected that contain at least three jets and where the two jets with the largest transverse momentum exhibit a back-to-back topology. The measured angular correlation between the second- and third-leading jet is shown to be sensitive to color coherence effects, and is compared to the predictions of Monte Carlo models with various implementations of color coherence. None of the models describe the data satisfactorily.

  15. Carotenoid pixels characterization under color space tests and RGB formulas for mesocarp of mango's fruits cultivars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammad, Ahmed Yahya; Kassim, Farid Saad Eid Saad

    2010-01-01

    This study experimented the pulp (mesocarp) of fourteen cultivars were healthy ripe of Mango fruits (Mangifera indica L.) selected after picking from Mango Spp. namely Taimour [Ta], Dabsha [Da], Aromanis [Ar], Zebda [Ze], Fagri Kelan [Fa], Alphonse [Al], Bulbek heart [Bu], Hindi- Sinnara [Hi], Compania [Co], Langra [La], Mestikawi [Me], Ewais [Ew], Montakhab El Kanater [Mo] and Mabroka [Ma] . Under seven color space tests included (RGB: Red, Green and Blue), (CMY: Cyan, Magenta and Yellow), (CMY: Cyan, Magenta and Yellow), (HSL: Hue, Saturation and Lightness), (CMYK%: Cyan%, Magenta%, Yellow% and Black%), (HSV: Hue, Saturation and Value), (HºSB%: Hueº, Saturation% and Brightness%) and (Lab). (CMY: Cyan, Magenta and Yellow), (HSL: Hue, Saturation and Lightness), (CMYK%: Cyan%, Magenta%, Yellow% and Black%), (HSV: Hue, Saturation and Value), (HºSB%: Hueº, Saturation% and Brightness%) and (Lab). Addition, nine formula of color space tests included (sRGB 0÷1, CMY, CMYK, XYZ, CIE-L*ab, CIE-L*CH, CIE-L*uv, Yxy and Hunter-Lab) and (RGB 0÷FF/hex triplet) and Carotenoid Pixels Scale. Utilizing digital color photographs as tool for obtainment the natural color information for each cultivar then the result expounded with chemical pigment estimations. Our location study in the visual yellow to orange color degrees from the visible color of electromagnetic spectrum in wavelength between (~570 to 620) nm and frequency between (~480 to 530) THz. The results found carotene very strong influence in band Red while chlorophyll (a & b) was very lower subsequently, the values in band Green was depressed. Meanwhile, the general ratios percentage for carotenoid pixels in bands Red, Green and Blue were 50%, 39% and 11% as orderliness opposite the ratios percentage for carotene, chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b which were 63%, 22% and 16% approximately. According to that the pigments influence in all color space tests and RGB formulas. Band Yellow% in color test (CMYK%) as signature

  16. Lipid profile of different infant formulas for infants.

    PubMed

    Mendonça, Marcio Antonio; Araújo, Wilma Maria Coelho; Borgo, Luiz Antonio; Alencar, Ernandes de Rodrigues

    2017-01-01

    Situations including premature infants, or those in which there is a rejection to breastfeeding, require the use infant formulas for total or partial replacement of human milk. The objective of this study was to determine the lipid content and to identify the lipid profile of infant formulas. Samples were collected from ten different infant formulas, used as a substitute for breast milk at the Maternal and Child Hospital of Brasilia. The human milk sample consisted of a pool of samples from 10 mature milk donors at the milk bank of the University Hospital of Brasilia. The lipid content and lipid profile of the different infant formulas and human milk were analyzed. The experiment was conducted in a randomized block design, with eleven treatments and three replicates, in triplicate. The data obtained in this study indicated significant differences between infant formulas and human milk, and among the infant formulas analyzed in relation to the percentage of total lipids and the fatty acid profile, except for the fractions of linoleic acid and linolenic acid. Regarding the percentage of polyunsaturated fatty acids in relation to the total unsaturated fatty acids, only the Soy Protein Isolate-based Infant Formula (SPIIF) and Whey Protein Extensively Hydrolyzed Infant Formula (WPEHIF) resembled human milk. It was concluded that despite the observed differences, the use of infant formulas is a viable strategy for the development of infants subjected or not to specific physiological conditions.

  17. Lipid profile of different infant formulas for infants

    PubMed Central

    Mendonça, Marcio Antonio; Araújo, Wilma Maria Coelho; Borgo, Luiz Antonio; Alencar, Ernandes de Rodrigues

    2017-01-01

    Situations including premature infants, or those in which there is a rejection to breastfeeding, require the use infant formulas for total or partial replacement of human milk. The objective of this study was to determine the lipid content and to identify the lipid profile of infant formulas. Samples were collected from ten different infant formulas, used as a substitute for breast milk at the Maternal and Child Hospital of Brasilia. The human milk sample consisted of a pool of samples from 10 mature milk donors at the milk bank of the University Hospital of Brasilia. The lipid content and lipid profile of the different infant formulas and human milk were analyzed. The experiment was conducted in a randomized block design, with eleven treatments and three replicates, in triplicate. The data obtained in this study indicated significant differences between infant formulas and human milk, and among the infant formulas analyzed in relation to the percentage of total lipids and the fatty acid profile, except for the fractions of linoleic acid and linolenic acid. Regarding the percentage of polyunsaturated fatty acids in relation to the total unsaturated fatty acids, only the Soy Protein Isolate-based Infant Formula (SPIIF) and Whey Protein Extensively Hydrolyzed Infant Formula (WPEHIF) resembled human milk. It was concluded that despite the observed differences, the use of infant formulas is a viable strategy for the development of infants subjected or not to specific physiological conditions. PMID:28570611

  18. Colorful solar selective absorber integrated with different colored units.

    PubMed

    Chen, Feiliang; Wang, Shao-Wei; Liu, Xingxing; Ji, Ruonan; Li, Zhifeng; Chen, Xiaoshuang; Chen, Yuwei; Lu, Wei

    2016-01-25

    Solar selective absorbers are the core part for solar thermal technologies such as solar water heaters, concentrated solar power, solar thermoelectric generators and solar thermophotovoltaics. Colorful solar selective absorber can provide new freedom and flexibility beyond energy performance, which will lead to wider utilization of solar technologies. In this work, we present a monolithic integration of colored solar absorber array with different colors on a single substrate based on a multilayered structure of Cu/TiN(x)O(y)/TiO(2)/Si(3)N(4)/SiO(2). A colored solar absorber array with 16 color units is demonstrated experimentally by using combinatorial deposition technique via changing the thickness of SiO(2) layer. The solar absorptivity and thermal emissivity of all the color units is higher than 92% and lower than 5.5%, respectively. The colored solar selective absorber array can have colorful appearance and designable patterns while keeping high energy performance at the same time. It is a new candidate for a number of solar applications, especially for architecture integration and military camouflage.

  19. Color difference threshold determination for acrylic denture base resins.

    PubMed

    Ren, Jiabao; Lin, Hong; Huang, Qingmei; Liang, Qifan; Zheng, Gang

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to set evaluation indicators, i.e., perceptibility and acceptability color difference thresholds, of color stability for acrylic denture base resins for a spectrophotometric assessing method, which offered an alternative to the visual method described in ISO 20795-1:2013. A total of 291 disk specimens 50±1 mm in diameter and 0.5±0.1 mm thick were prepared (ISO 20795-1:2013) and processed through radiation tests in an accelerated aging chamber (ISO 7491:2000) for increasing times of 0 to 42 hours. Color alterations were measured with a spectrophotometer and evaluated using the CIE L*a*b* colorimetric system. Color differences were calculated through the CIEDE2000 color difference formula. Thirty-two dental professionals without color vision deficiencies completed perceptibility and acceptability assessments under controlled conditions in vitro. An S-curve fitting procedure was used to analyze the 50:50% perceptibility and acceptability thresholds. Furthermore, perceptibility and acceptability against the differences of the three color attributes, lightness, chroma, and hue, were also investigated. According to the S-curve fitting procedure, the 50:50% perceptibility threshold was 1.71ΔE00 (r(2)=0.88) and the 50:50% acceptability threshold was 4.00 ΔE00 (r(2)=0.89). Within the limitations of this study, 1.71/4.00 ΔE00 could be used as perceptibility/acceptability thresholds for acrylic denture base resins.

  20. Generation of furosine and color in infant/enteral formula-resembling systems.

    PubMed

    Rufián-Henares, José Angel; García-Villanova, Belén; Guerra-Hernández, Eduardo

    2004-08-25

    The extent of the Maillard reaction was studied by measuring furosine and color formation in infant and enteral formula-resembling model systems prepared by mixing calcium caseinate, laboratory-obtained or commercial whey protein with lactose or dextrinomaltose (ingredients similar to those used in infant and enteral formula manufacture) and heating the mixture at 100, 120, or 140 degrees C for 0-30 min. The furosine determination was performed by HPLC and the color determination by measuring colorimetric parameters L, a, and b in a reflection photometer. The first steps of the Maillard reaction could be followed by furosine determination when initial ingredients had low thermal damage. Hence, furosine may be an indicator of low thermal damage in ingredients with <100 mg/100 g of protein. At the concentrations used in these model systems, similar to those in infant and enteral formulas, furosine values (indirect measure of lysine losses) were higher in lactose than in dextrinomaltose systems, in which only glucose, maltose, maltotriose, and maltotetraose among all of the sugars present showed reactivity with casein. Finally, the advanced steps could be followed by color determination when the initial ingredients had high thermal damage or the model systems were heated at high temperature or for a long time. Among the parameters assayed, b was the most sensitive.

  1. 20 CFR 225.55 - Recomputation to use a new or different PIA formula.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... use a new or different PIA formula. (a) Description—(1) New computation formula. If a new formula for... recomputation under the different formula. (b) Effective date of recomputation—(1) New computation formula. A... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Recomputation to use a new or different PIA...

  2. 20 CFR 225.55 - Recomputation to use a new or different PIA formula.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... use a new or different PIA formula. (a) Description—(1) New computation formula. If a new formula for... recomputation under the different formula. (b) Effective date of recomputation—(1) New computation formula. A... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Recomputation to use a new or different PIA...

  3. 20 CFR 225.55 - Recomputation to use a new or different PIA formula.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... use a new or different PIA formula. (a) Description—(1) New computation formula. If a new formula for... recomputation under the different formula. (b) Effective date of recomputation—(1) New computation formula. A... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Recomputation to use a new or different PIA...

  4. 20 CFR 225.55 - Recomputation to use a new or different PIA formula.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... use a new or different PIA formula. (a) Description—(1) New computation formula. If a new formula for... recomputation under the different formula. (b) Effective date of recomputation—(1) New computation formula. A... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Recomputation to use a new or different PIA...

  5. [Sociometric typologies during adolescence: contrasting different scoring techniques and formulas].

    PubMed

    Muñoz Tinoco, Victoria; Moreno Rodríguez, Ma del Carmen; Jiménez Lagares, Irene

    2008-11-01

    Our aim in this work is to compare the different sociometric classification formulae and to analyze possible connections between each type of formula and each behaviour assessed by peers during adolescence. We classified a total of 1,009 Spanish fourth-grade secondary education students (15-year-olds) using four different systems: two were based on a nomination technique by Coie and Dodge, Newcomb and Bukowski, the third system was a modified version of the latter based on the revision of the neglected status, and a fourth system was based on the qualification scale by Maassen and Laandsheer. Results show a significant relation between all four classifications, but there are also differences among them. The classifications proceeding from the nomination technique share more similarities and also offer a better behavioural characterization of sociometric categories.

  6. Testing the AUDI2000 colour-difference formula for solid colours using some visual datasets with usefulness to automotive industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-García, Juan; Melgosa, Manuel; Gómez-Robledo, Luis; Li, Changjun; Huang, Min; Liu, Haoxue; Cui, Guihua; Luo, M. Ronnier; Dauser, Thomas

    2013-11-01

    Colour-difference formulas are tools employed in colour industries for objective pass/fail decisions of manufactured products. These objective decisions are based on instrumental colour measurements which must reliably predict the subjective colour-difference evaluations performed by observers' panels. In a previous paper we have tested the performance of different colour-difference formulas using the datasets employed at the development of the last CIErecommended colour-difference formula CIEDE2000, and we found that the AUDI2000 colour-difference formula for solid (homogeneous) colours performed reasonably well, despite the colour pairs in these datasets were not similar to those typically employed in the automotive industry (CIE Publication x038:2013, 465-469). Here we have tested again AUDI2000 together with 11 advanced colour-difference formulas (CIELUV, CIELAB, CMC, BFD, CIE94, CIEDE2000, CAM02-UCS, CAM02-SCD, DIN99d, DIN99b, OSA-GP-Euclidean) for three visual datasets we may consider particularly useful to the automotive industry because of different reasons: 1) 828 metallic colour pairs used to develop the highly reliable RIT-DuPont dataset (Color Res. Appl. 35, 274-283, 2010); 2) printed samples conforming 893 colour pairs with threshold colour differences (J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 29, 883-891, 2012); 3) 150 colour pairs in a tolerance dataset proposed by AUDI. To measure the relative merits of the different tested colour-difference formulas, we employed the STRESS index (J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 24, 1823-1829, 2007), assuming a 95% confidence level. For datasets 1) and 2), AUDI2000 was in the group of the best colour-difference formulas with no significant differences with respect to CIE94, CIEDE2000, CAM02-UCS, DIN99b and DIN99d formulas. For dataset 3) AUDI2000 provided the best results, being statistically significantly better than all other tested colour-difference formulas.

  7. New formula for proton-neutron mass difference

    SciTech Connect

    Kimel, I.

    1983-05-01

    A new formula is presented, allowing the computation of the proton-neutron mass difference without the knowledge of the subtraction function in the dispersion integral. The Born terms contribute with the correct sign. The integral over the deep-inelastic region is finite whenever the Weinberg--'t Hooft mechanism is operative, and gives a small value. The net result is in very good agreement with the experimental value.

  8. Evaluation of color mapping algorithms in different color spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bronner, Timothée.-Florian; Boitard, Ronan; Pourazad, Mahsa T.; Nasiopoulos, Panos; Ebrahimi, Touradj

    2016-09-01

    The color gamut supported by current commercial displays is only a subset of the full spectrum of colors visible by the human eye. In High-Definition (HD) television technology, the scope of the supported colors covers 35.9% of the full visible gamut. For comparison, Ultra High-Definition (UHD) television, which is currently being deployed on the market, extends this range to 75.8%. However, when reproducing content with a wider color gamut than that of a television, typically UHD content on HD television, some original color information may lie outside the reproduction capabilities of the television. Efficient gamut mapping techniques are required in order to fit the colors of any source content into the gamut of a given display. The goal of gamut mapping is to minimize the distortion, in terms of perceptual quality, when converting video from one color gamut to another. It is assumed that the efficiency of gamut mapping depends on the color space in which it is computed. In this article, we evaluate 14 gamut mapping techniques, 12 combinations of two projection methods across six color spaces as well as R'G'B' Clipping and wrong gamut interpretation. Objective results, using the CIEDE2000 metric, show that the R'G'B' Clipping is slightly outperformed by only one combination of color space and projection method. However, analysis of images shows that R'G'B' Clipping can result in loss of contrast in highly saturated images, greatly impairing the quality of the mapped image.

  9. Color stability of different composite resin materials.

    PubMed

    Falkensammer, Frank; Arnetzl, Gerwin Vincent; Wildburger, Angelika; Freudenthaler, Josef

    2013-06-01

    Data are needed to better predict the color stability of current composite resin materials. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of different storage solutions on the color stability of different composite resin materials. Different restorative and adhesive composite resin specimens (dual-polymerizing self-adhesive resin cement, autopolymerizing resin-based composite resin, dual-polymerizing resin-based composite resin, nanohybrid composite resin, and microhybrid composite resin) were fabricated and stored in red wine, black tea, chlorhexidine, sodium fluoride, tea tree oil, or distilled water for 4 weeks at 37°C. Color parameters were measured with a colorimeter before and after storage. Total color differences and specific coordinate differences were expressed as ΔE, ΔL, Δa, and Δb. A 2-way and 1-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with Bonferroni adjustment for multiple comparisons were applied for statistical calculations (α=.05). Red wine caused the most severe discoloration (ΔE >10), followed by black tea with perceptible (ΔE >2.6) to clinically unacceptable discoloration (ΔE >5.5). Colored mouth rinses discolored the materials to a lesser extent with clinically acceptable values. Dual-polymerizing resin adhesives showed a higher amount of discoloration. Current restorative and adhesive composite resin materials discolor over time under the influence of different storage solutions. The composition related to the polymerizing mode seemed to be a causative factor. Copyright © 2013 The Editorial Council of the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. 27 CFR 19.392 - Converting denatured alcohol to a different formula.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... alcohol to a different formula. 19.392 Section 19.392 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND... denatured alcohol to a different formula. (a) General. A proprietor may convert specially denatured alcohol (SDA) from one formula of SDA to another formula of SDA if the resultant mixture contains only...

  11. 27 CFR 19.392 - Converting denatured alcohol to a different formula.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... alcohol to a different formula. 19.392 Section 19.392 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND... denatured alcohol to a different formula. (a) General. A proprietor may convert specially denatured alcohol (SDA) from one formula of SDA to another formula of SDA if the resultant mixture contains only...

  12. Color analysis of different ceramic systems.

    PubMed

    Aladag, Akin; Gungor, Mehmet Ali; Artunc, Celal

    2010-01-01

    This study compared the color properties of three different ceramic systems. Three groups of 10 specimens each were prepared: Dental porcelain alloy was used as a framework for conventional and ProBOND metal-ceramic systems, while glass-ceramic ingots were used as a framework for 10 samples using an all-ceramic system. For the former, dentin porcelain was applied and a ceramic veneering material was applied to the ingot frameworks. Using a dental spectrophotometer, the pre- and post-glaze color compatibility between disc specimens and A3 shade was evaluated. The Kruskal-Wallis test was used to compare color differences among groups in this study, while the Mann-Whitney U test was used to make bilateral comparisons among the three different ceramic systems. The values obtained during the dentin stage revealed a significant difference in the all-ceramic group (p < 0.05). After glazing, there was no significant difference between ProBOND samples and all-ceramic samples (p > 0.05). These results suggest that ProBOND can yield esthetically superior results in clinical applications compared to conventional ceramic systems.

  13. Spectrophotometric analysis of color differences between porcelain systems.

    PubMed

    Seghi, R R; Johnston, W M; O'Brien, W J

    1986-07-01

    Spectrophotometric measuring techniques were used to determine the color of four corresponding shades of three brands of metal-fusing porcelain systems. The color was expressed in terms of CIE L*a*b* color coordinates. The relationship of these values to the more commonly used attributes of Hue, lightness (Value), and saturation (Chroma) respectively were discussed. The location of the porcelain shades in the color space and the direction of the color differences found between the different brands of porcelain were evaluated. Color differences for each paired comparison within each shade group were determined from the color data. These values represent the magnitude of color differences found between brands and have a direct relationship to visual perceptibility. For the brands and shades measured, the following conclusions can be made: The CIELAB color system provides an objective technique for evaluating the color of dental porcelains. Corresponding shades of different brands of porcelain can produce perceivably different colors. The perceived color differences between the brands were mostly a result of differences in all three color directions. Greater color differences were found to exist between the corresponding opaque porcelains than between the corresponding layered samples. The addition of 1 mm of body porcelain to the opaque compensated to a large extent for the greater color differences found between the corresponding opaques. The results of this study have significant clinical ramifications. Variations in optical characteristics of porcelains produced by different manufacturers add to the problem of color control in ceramic crown fabrication.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  14. Color-difference evaluation for digital images using a categorical judgment method.

    PubMed

    Liu, Haoxue; Huang, Min; Cui, Guihua; Luo, M Ronnier; Melgosa, Manuel

    2013-04-01

    The CIELAB lightness and chroma values of pixels in five of the eight ISO SCID natural images were modified to produce sample images. Pairs of images were displayed on a calibrated monitor and assessed by a panel of 12 observers with normal color vision using a categorical judgment method. The experimental results showed that assuming the lightness parametric factor k(L)=1 to predict color differences in images, CIELAB performed better than CIEDE2000, CIE94, or CMC, which is a different result to the one found in color-difference literature for homogeneous color pairs. However, observers perceived CIELAB lightness and chroma differences in images in different ways. To fit current experimental data, a specific methodology is proposed to optimize k(L) in the color-difference formulas CIELAB, CIEDE2000, CIE94, and CMC. From the standardized residual sum of squares (STRESS) index, it was found that the optimized formulas, CIEDE2000(2.3:1), CIE94(3.0:1), and CMC(3.4:1), performed significantly better than their corresponding original forms with lightness parametric factor k(L)=1. Specifically, CIEDE2000(2.3:1) performed the best, with a satisfactory average STRESS value of 25.8, which is very similar to the 27.5 value that was found from the CIEDE2000(1:1) formula for the combined weighted dataset of homogeneous color samples employed at the development of this formula [J. Opt. Soc. Am. A25, 1828 (2008), Table 2]. However, fitting our experimental data, none of the four optimized formulas CIELAB(1.5:1), CIEDE2000(2.3:1), CIE94(3.0:1), and CMC(3.4:1) is significantly better than the others. Current results roughly agree with the recent CIE recommendation that color difference in images can be predicted by simply adopting a lightness parametric factor k(L)=2 in CIELAB or CIEDE2000 [CIE Publication 199:2011]. It was also found that the different contents of the five images have considerable influence on the performance of the tested color-difference formulas.

  15. Differences Between Kuder-Richardson Formula 20 and Formula 21 Reliability Coefficients for Short Tests with Different Item Variabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lenke, Joanne M.; And Others

    To investigate the effect of violating the assumption of equal item difficulty on Kuder-Richardson (KR) Formula 21 reliability coefficient, 670 eighth-and ninth- grade students were administered 26 short, homogeneous "tests" of mathematics concepts and skills. Both KR Formula 20 and KR Formula 21 were used to estimate reliability on each…

  16. Differences Between Kuder-Richardson Formula 20 and Formula 21 Reliability Coefficients for Short Tests with Different Item Variabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lenke, Joanne M.; And Others

    To investigate the effect of violating the assumption of equal item difficulty on Kuder-Richardson (KR) Formula 21 reliability coefficient, 670 eighth-and ninth- grade students were administered 26 short, homogeneous "tests" of mathematics concepts and skills. Both KR Formula 20 and KR Formula 21 were used to estimate reliability on each…

  17. Bayesian approach to color-difference models based on threshold and constant-stimuli methods.

    PubMed

    Brusola, Fernando; Tortajada, Ignacio; Lengua, Ismael; Jordá, Begoña; Peris, Guillermo

    2015-06-15

    An alternative approach based on statistical Bayesian inference is presented to deal with the development of color-difference models and the precision of parameter estimation. The approach was applied to simulated data and real data, the latter published by selected authors involved with the development of color-difference formulae using traditional methods. Our results show very good agreement between the Bayesian and classical approaches. Among other benefits, our proposed methodology allows one to determine the marginal posterior distribution of each random individual parameter of the color-difference model. In this manner, it is possible to analyze the effect of individual parameters on the statistical significance calculation of a color-difference equation.

  18. Assessing Tooth Color Differences in Digital Facial Portraits

    PubMed Central

    Lindsey, D.T.; Wee, A.G.

    2010-01-01

    Although a large body of scientific literature shows that background color and luminance affect color perception, previous measurements of tooth color difference thresholds have not taken the effects of viewing context into account. The present study tested the hypothesis that differences in skin/gingival color influence individuals’ judgments of tooth color differences. Perceptibility and acceptability thresholds were determined in 10 individuals using a signal detection paradigm. They evaluated 500 pseudo-random presentations of two facial portraits: an African-American and a Caucasian. These portraits varied trial-to-trial only in the direction (CIELAB +L*, +a*, or +b*) or magnitude of the color difference between a portrait’s two central incisors. The individuals were significantly less sensitive to tooth color differences in the +L* direction in the Caucasian portrait than for any other combination of color direction or portrait type. Furthermore, comparable perceptibility and acceptability thresholds were generally not statistically significant from each other. PMID:20739690

  19. 3CCD camera's capability for measuring color differences: experiment in the nearly neutral region.

    PubMed

    Millán, María S; Valencia, Edison; Corbalán, Montse

    2004-12-20

    A method to assess the discrimination capability of a camera to measure small color differences is proposed. The method helps to fix the working conditions of the camera and analyzes the reliability of the measurements through comparison with a reference instrument. Attention is paid to the camera's performance in the nearly neutral region of color space. The color differences are calculated using the Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage L*a*b* (CIELAB) deltaEab* and CIE 2000 color-difference formula metrics. The Sony DX-9100P 3CCD camera results are very close to those obtained by the Photo Research PR-715 spectroradiometer. Their absolute discrepancy is lower than the suprathreshold of visual discrimination (0.887 CIELAB unit).

  20. Design of the scanning mode coated glass color difference online detection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bi, Weihong; Zhang, Yu; Wang, Dajiang; Zhang, Baojun; Fu, Guangwei

    2008-03-01

    A design of scanning mode coated glass color difference online detection system was introduced. The system consisted of color difference data acquirement part and orbit control part. The function of the color difference data acquirement part was to acquire glass spectral reflectance and then processed them to get the color difference value. Using fiber for light guiding, the reflected light from surface of glass was transmitted into light division part, and the dispersive light was imaged on linear CCD, and then the output signals from the CCD was sampled pixel by pixel, and the spectral reflectance of coated glass was obtained finally. Then, the acquired spectral reflectance signals was sent to industrial personal computer through USB interface, using standard color space and color difference formula nominated by International Commission on Illumination (CIE) in 1976 to process these signals, and the reflected color parameter and color difference of coated glass was gained in the end. The function of the orbit control part was to move the detection probe by way of transverse scanning mode above the glass strip, and control the measuring start-stop time of the color difference data acquirement part at the same time. The color difference data acquirement part of the system was put on the orbit which is after annealing area in coated glass production line, and the protected fiber probe was placed on slide of the orbit. Using single chip microcomputer to control transmission mechanism of the slide, which made the slide move by way of transverse scanning mode on the glass strip, meanwhile, the color difference data acquirement part of the system was also controlled by the single chip microcomputer, and it made the acquirement part measure color difference data when the probe reached the needed working speed and required place on the glass strip. The scanning mode coated glass color difference online detection system can measure color parameter and color difference of

  1. Difference between highlight and object colors enhances glossiness.

    PubMed

    Hanada, Mitsuhiko

    2012-06-01

    The effect of highlight and object colors on perception of glossiness was examined. Ten participants rated glossiness of object images. The color coordinates of objects and highlights were varied while luminance of each pixel was unchanged. Four colors were used for objects and highlights. Objects were perceived as glossier when the highlight color was different from the object color than when they were the same. Objects with some unnatural combinations of highlight and object colors were perceived to be as glossy as those with natural color combinations. The results suggested that differences between highlight and object colors enhance perceived glossiness and that perceived glossiness does not depend on naturalness of color combination for highlights and objects.

  2. Ecological influences on individual differences in color preference.

    PubMed

    Schloss, Karen B; Hawthorne-Madell, Daniel; Palmer, Stephen E

    2015-11-01

    How can the large, systematic differences that exist between individuals' color preferences be explained? The ecological valence theory (Palmer & Schloss, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 107:8877-8882, 2010) posits that an individual's preference for each particular color is determined largely by his or her preferences for all correspondingly colored objects. Therefore, individuals should differ in their color preferences to the extent that they have different preferences for the same color-associated objects or that they experience different objects. Supporting this prediction, we found that individuals' color preferences were predicted better by their own preferences for correspondingly colored objects than by other peoples' preferences for the same objects. Moreover, the fit between color preferences and affect toward the colored objects was reliably improved when people's own idiosyncratic color-object associations were included in addition to a standard set of color-object associations. These and related results provide evidence that individual differences in color preferences are reliably influenced by people's personal experiences with colored objects in their environment.

  3. Trace element status and zinc homeostasis differ in breast and formula-fed piglets

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Differences in trace element composition and bioavailability between breast milk and infant formulas may affect metal homeostasis in neonates. In the current study, piglets were fed soy infant formula (Soy), cow's milk formula (Milk), or were allowed to suckle from the sow from PND2 to PND21. Serum ...

  4. Visual Determination of Industrial Color-Difference Tolerances Using Probit Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-06-01

    determine the median tolerance values of 45 color-difference vectors in CIELAB color space using surface mode viewing of paint samples. Nine different...8 4. Distribution Design for Color Centers in CIELAB Color Space ............................. 13 5. CIE Recommended Color Centers...compared to a near neutral anchor color- difference stimulus. The experiment concentrated on nine color centers systematically distributed in CIELAB color

  5. Just noticeable color difference: implications for display systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desjardins, Daniel D.; Gardner, Patrick

    2015-05-01

    According to MIL-HDBK-87213, the goal in full color displays is to have the color primaries widely separated and/or provide filtering such that they will stay widely separated when exposed to, and mixed with, ambient light. Modern color displays boast a phenomenal number of colors, typically based on the number of luminance (gray) levels per color sub-pixel raised to a power determined by the number of distinct color sub-pixels. Because display color should ("must" per the given handbook) be evaluated to assure that it is fully usable and aesthetically acceptable, this paper reports preliminary findings in the determination of Just Noticeable Differences (JNDs) in luminance for the red, green, and blue color primaries over a given luminance range for a particular Display Under Test (DUT).

  6. Contrast edge colors under different natural illuminations.

    PubMed

    Nieves, Juan Luis; Nascimento, Sérgio M C; Romero, Javier

    2012-02-01

    Essential to sensory processing in the human visual system is natural illumination, which can vary considerably not only across space but also along the day depending on the atmospheric conditions and the sun's position in the sky. In this work, edges derived from the three postreceptoral Luminance, Red-Green, and Blue-Yellow signals were computed from hyperspectral images of natural scenes rendered with daylights of Correlated Color Temperatures (CCTs) from 2735 to 25,889 K; for low CCT, the same analysis was performed using Planckian illuminants up to 800 K. It was found that average luminance and chromatic edge contrasts were maximal for low correlated color temperatures and almost constants above 10,000 K. The magnitude of these contrast changes was, however, only about 2% across the tested daylights. Results suggest that the postreceptoral opponent and nonopponent color vision mechanisms produce almost constant responses for color edge detection under natural illumination.

  7. Effects of different food colorants and polishing techniques on color stability of provisional prosthetic materials.

    PubMed

    Rutkunas, Vygandas; Sabaliauskas, Vaidotas; Mizutani, Hiroshi

    2010-03-01

    The main objective was to investigate the effects of different polishing techniques on the color stability of provisional prosthetic materials upon exposure to different staining agents by mimicking the oral environment in vitro. Fifty-six cylindrical specimens were prepared for each type of material: bis-acryl and light-polymerized composite resins, and methyl methacrylate- and ethyl methacrylatebased resins. The specimens were polished using seven different polishing techniques and then immersed in four different staining agents. Color was measured with a spectrophotometer before and after immersion, and color changes (DeltaE) were calculated. The effects of the type of provisional material, polishing procedure, staining agent, and their interactions on color stability were significant (p<0.05). Amongst these factors, the staining agent exerted the strongest effect on color stability. Amongst the provisional materials tested, methacrylate-based resins exhibited the highest color stability irrespective of polishing technique and staining agent.

  8. Fermentation pattern of infant formulas containing different prebiotics.

    PubMed

    Vanderhoof, Jon; Ferguson, Paul; Pauley-Hunter, Rosemary; Prestridge, Laurel

    2015-05-01

    Prebiotics play a role in the development of intestinal flora. When exposed to unabsorbed food, such as prebiotic carbohydrates, intestinal bacteria produce hydrogen. Increases in hydrogen may signify a slower rate of fermentation or digestion. In this blinded, crossover study, infants (n = 13) consumed formula containing either 4 g/L galactooligosaccharide (GOS) or 4 g/L polydextrose (PDX) + GOS, and breath hydrogen was measured. Breath hydrogen was higher in the PDX/GOS group versus GOS alone (mean ± standard error, 25.35 ± 2.87 ppm vs 13.69 ± 2.87 ppm, P = 0.0001). These results indicate that the formula with PDX/GOS may have undergone slower digestion.

  9. Study on color difference estimation method of medicine biochemical analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Chunhong; Zhou, Yue; Zhao, Hongxia; Sun, Jiashi; Zhou, Fengkun

    2006-01-01

    The biochemical analysis in medicine is an important inspection and diagnosis method in hospital clinic. The biochemical analysis of urine is one important item. The Urine test paper shows corresponding color with different detection project or different illness degree. The color difference between the standard threshold and the test paper color of urine can be used to judge the illness degree, so that further analysis and diagnosis to urine is gotten. The color is a three-dimensional physical variable concerning psychology, while reflectance is one-dimensional variable; therefore, the estimation method of color difference in urine test can have better precision and facility than the conventional test method with one-dimensional reflectance, it can make an accurate diagnose. The digital camera is easy to take an image of urine test paper and is used to carry out the urine biochemical analysis conveniently. On the experiment, the color image of urine test paper is taken by popular color digital camera and saved in the computer which installs a simple color space conversion (RGB -> XYZ -> L *a *b *)and the calculation software. Test sample is graded according to intelligent detection of quantitative color. The images taken every time were saved in computer, and the whole illness process will be monitored. This method can also use in other medicine biochemical analyses that have relation with color. Experiment result shows that this test method is quick and accurate; it can be used in hospital, calibrating organization and family, so its application prospect is extensive.

  10. Color associations for days and letters across different languages

    PubMed Central

    Rouw, Romke; Case, Laura; Gosavi, Radhika; Ramachandran, Vilayanur

    2014-01-01

    While colors are commonplace in everyday metaphors, relatively little is known about implicit color associations to linguistic or semantic concepts in a general population. In this study, we test color associations for ordered linguistic concepts (letters and days). The culture and language specificity of these effects was examined in a large group (457) of Dutch-speaking participants, 92 English-speaking participants, and 49 Hindi-speaking participants. Non-random distributions of color choices were revealed; consistencies were found across the three language groups in color preferences for both days and letters. Interestingly, while the Hindi-speaking participants were presented with letter stimuli matched on phonology, their pattern of letter-to-color preferences still showed similarities with Dutch- and English-speaking participants. Furthermore, we found that that the color preferences corresponded between participants indicating to have conscious color experiences with letters or days (putative synesthetes) and participants who do not (non-synesthetes). We also explored possible mechanisms underlying the color preferences. There were a few specific associations, including red for “A,” red for “Monday,” and white for “Sunday.” We also explored more general mechanisms, such as overall color preferences as shown by Simner et al. (2005). While certainly not all variation can be explained or predicted, the results show that regularities are present in color-to-letter or color-to-day preferences in both putative synesthetes and non-synesthetes across languages. Both letter-to-color and day-to-color preferences were influenced by multiple factors. The findings support a notion of abstract concepts (such as days and letters) that are not represented in isolation, but are connected to perceptual representational systems. Interestingly, at least some of these connections to color representations are shared across different language/cultural groups. PMID

  11. Evaluation of degree of blending colored diluents using color difference signal method.

    PubMed

    Miyazaki, Yasunori; Uchino, Tomonobu; Kagawa, Yoshiyuki

    2014-01-01

    We developed a color difference signal method to evaluate the degree of blending powdered medicines in pharmacies. In the method, the degree of blending is expressed as the relative standard deviation of the color difference signal value (Cb or Cr) of the YCbCr color space after digital photos of the blended medicines are analyzed by image processing. While the method is effective to determine the degree of blending colored medicines, it remains unknown whether it can be applied to uncolored or white-colored medicines. To investigate this, we examined colored diluents to identify an indicator of the degree mixtures are blended. In this study, we applied this method to Pontal® and Prednisolone® powders, which were used as uncolored and white-colored medicines, respectively. Each of these medicines was blended with the colored lactose using a pestle and mortar, and then the uniformity of blending was evaluated. The degree of blending was well-monitored in both mixtures with various blending ratios (1 : 9-9 : 1), showing a sufficient uniformity at 60 rotations of the pestle. Moreover, the Cr values of the mixtures with various blending ratios were correlated with the concentration of active pharmaceutical ingredients in these medicines, which was determined using HPLC. This indicated the usefulness of the color difference signal method for the quantitative determination of medicines. Thus, we demonstrated the applicability and effectiveness of this method to check dispensing powders.

  12. Color Difference in Bering Sea Phytoplankton Blooms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    There is considerable color variation in the phytoplankton blooms in the Bering Sea -- from the aquamarine west of Nunivak Island to the almost reddish patch west of St. Matthew Island to the green eddy astride the International dateline at 60 North latitude and 178 East longitude. Credit: Provided by the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

  13. Color Difference in Bering Sea Phytoplankton Blooms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    There is considerable color variation in the phytoplankton blooms in the Bering Sea -- from the aquamarine west of Nunivak Island to the almost reddish patch west of St. Matthew Island to the green eddy astride the International dateline at 60 North latitude and 178 East longitude. Credit: Provided by the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

  14. Conversion degrees of a colored compomer in different colors utilized by various curing times.

    PubMed

    Atabek, Didem; Bodur, Haluk; Kalayci, Şükrü; Baygin, Özgül; Tirali, Ebru

    2011-07-01

    Compomers are widely used in primary teeth and are manufactured in different colors in order to make dental treatment acceptable in children. The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the degree of conversion (DC) of different colored compomers and of compomers with various curing times. Sixty three cylindrical samples were prepared from a colored compomer (Twinky Star). These samples were of 7 different color groups, with 9 samples of each color. Each group was divided into 3 sub-groups, according to the curing time (20-30-40 seconds) with a light emitting diode light curing unit. The DC values from 3 different regions and depths were evaluated with a Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer before and after curing procedures for all groups. Data were calculated by using the baseline values; statistical analyses were done by using ANOVA test. Significant differences in DC results before and after curing were found among the groups (P<0.05). For all curing times, the silver colored samples showed the poorest DC results, which ranged from 13% to 18%. It was concluded that DC values of different colors were variable. The material properties could be improved by defining the proper polymerization time for each color.

  15. 27 CFR 19.392 - Converting denatured alcohol to a different formula.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Converting denatured alcohol to a different formula. 19.392 Section 19.392 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND... denatured alcohol to a different formula. (a) General. A proprietor may convert specially denatured...

  16. An experiment on the color rendering of different light sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fumagalli, Simonetta; Bonanomi, Cristian; Rizzi, Alessandro

    2013-02-01

    The color rendering index (CRI) of a light source attempts to measure how much the color appearance of objects is preserved when they are illuminated by the given light source. This problem is of great importance for various industrial and scientific fields, such as lighting architecture, design, ergonomics, etc. Usually a light source is specified through the Correlated Color Temperature or CCT. However two (or more) light sources with the same CCT but different spectral power distribution can exist. Therefore color samples viewed under two light sources with equal CCTs can appear different. Hence, the need for a method to assess the quality of a given illuminant in relation to color. Recently CRI has had a renewed interest because of the new LED-based lighting systems. They usually have a color rendering index rather low, but good preservation of color appearance and a pleasant visual appearance (visual appeal). Various attempts to develop a new color rendering index have been done so far, but still research is working for a better one. This article describes an experiment performed by human observers concerning the appearance preservation of color under some light sources, comparing it with a range of available color rendering indices.

  17. Assessing readability formula differences with written health information materials: application, results, and recommendations.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lih-Wern; Miller, Michael J; Schmitt, Michael R; Wen, Frances K

    2013-01-01

    Readability formulas are often used to guide the development and evaluation of literacy-sensitive written health information. However, readability formula results may vary considerably as a result of differences in software processing algorithms and how each formula is applied. These variations complicate interpretations of reading grade level estimates, particularly without a uniform guideline for applying and interpreting readability formulas. This research sought to (1) identify commonly used readability formulas reported in the health care literature, (2) demonstrate the use of the most commonly used readability formulas on written health information, (3) compare and contrast the differences when applying common readability formulas to identical selections of written health information, and (4) provide recommendations for choosing an appropriate readability formula for written health-related materials to optimize their use. A literature search was conducted to identify the most commonly used readability formulas in health care literature. Each of the identified formulas was subsequently applied to word samples from 15 unique examples of written health information about the topic of depression and its treatment. Readability estimates from common readability formulas were compared based on text sample size, selection, formatting, software type, and/or hand calculations. Recommendations for their use were provided. The Flesch-Kincaid formula was most commonly used (57.42%). Readability formulas demonstrated variability up to 5 reading grade levels on the same text. The Simple Measure of Gobbledygook (SMOG) readability formula performed most consistently. Depending on the text sample size, selection, formatting, software, and/or hand calculations, the individual readability formula estimated up to 6 reading grade levels of variability. The SMOG formula appears best suited for health care applications because of its consistency of results, higher level of expected

  18. A different form of color vision in mantis shrimp.

    PubMed

    Thoen, Hanne H; How, Martin J; Chiou, Tsyr-Huei; Marshall, Justin

    2014-01-24

    One of the most complex eyes in the animal kingdom can be found in species of stomatopod crustaceans (mantis shrimp), some of which have 12 different photoreceptor types, each sampling a narrow set of wavelengths ranging from deep ultraviolet to far red (300 to 720 nanometers). Functionally, this chromatic complexity has presented a mystery. Why use 12 color channels when three or four are sufficient for fine color discrimination? Behavioral wavelength discrimination tests (Δλ functions) in stomatopods revealed a surprisingly poor performance, ruling out color vision that makes use of the conventional color-opponent coding system. Instead, our experiments suggest that stomatopods use a previously unknown color vision system based on temporal signaling combined with scanning eye movements, enabling a type of color recognition rather than discrimination.

  19. Preferred memory color difference between the deuteranomalous and normal color vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baek, YeSeul; Kwak, Youngshin; Woo, Sungjoo; Park, Chongwook

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study is to evaluate the difference of the preferred hues of familiar objects between the color deficient observer and the normal observer. Thirteen test color images were chosen covering fruit colors, natural scene and human faces. It contained red, yellow, green, blue, purple and skin color. Two color deficient observer (deuteranomal) and two normal observers were participated in this experiment. They controlled the YCC hue of the objects in the images to obtain the most preferred and the most natural image. The selected images were analyzed using CIELAB values of each pixel. Data analysis results showed that in the case of naturalness, both groups selected the similar hues for the most of image, while, in the case of preference, the color deficient observer preferred more reddish or more greenish images. Since the deuteranomalous observer has relatively week perception for red and green region, they may prefer more reddish or greenish color. The color difference between natural hue and preferred hue of deuteranomal observer is bigger than those of normal observer.

  20. Different pre-term formulas for different pre-term infants.

    PubMed

    Fanaro, Silvia; Ballardini, Elisa; Vigi, Vittorio

    2010-07-01

    Optimal nutrition is one of the most important aspects in the care of pre-term infants, especially for the gestationally youngest ones. These infants should receive a supply of nutrients that can sustain growth similar to that of a third trimester normal foetus. Traditional pre-term formulas do not ensure an optimal protein supply except when fed at high volumes, with an excess of fat and carbohydrates. Formulas with a protein content of 2-2.5 g 100ml(-1) and a protein/energy (P:E) ratio of less than 3g 100 kcal(-1) are not the best choice for the very low birth weight (VLBW) infants. We have tested a new formulation designed for the nutrition of the VLBW infants that is characterised by a protein content of 2.9 g 100ml(-1) and a P:E ratio of 3.5 g 100 kcal(-1). The milk formula was well tolerated and associated with better weight gain compared with fortified breast milk (18.1 vs. 15.2 g kg(-1)day(-1); p=0.0015). These results were obtained with a noticeably lower fluid supply (157 vs. 177 ml kg day(-1); p<0.0001) and lower energy intake (130 vs. 151 kcal kg(-1)day(-1); p<0.0001). Infant length and head circumference did not differ significantly between groups. Currently, the use of a formula with a P:E ratio of 3.5 g 100 kcal(-1) appears to be safe and to represent the best choice available for the gestationally youngest infants. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Quality assessment of color images based on the measure of just noticeable color difference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chou, Chun-Hsien; Hsu, Yun-Hsiang

    2014-01-01

    Accurate assessment on the quality of color images is an important step to many image processing systems that convey visual information of the reproduced images. An accurate objective image quality assessment (IQA) method is expected to give the assessment result highly agreeing with the subjective assessment. To assess the quality of color images, many approaches simply apply the metric for assessing the quality of gray scale images to each of three color channels of the color image, neglecting the correlation among three color channels. In this paper, a metric for assessing color images' quality is proposed, in which the model of variable just-noticeable color difference (VJNCD) is employed to estimate the visibility thresholds of distortion inherent in each color pixel. With the estimated visibility thresholds of distortion, the proposed metric measures the average perceptible distortion in terms of the quantized distortion according to the perceptual error map similar to that defined by National Bureau of Standards (NBS) for converting the color difference enumerated by CIEDE2000 to the objective score of perceptual quality assessment. The perceptual error map in this case is designed for each pixel according to the visibility threshold estimated by the VJNCD model. The performance of the proposed metric is verified by assessing the test images in the LIVE database, and is compared with those of many well-know IQA metrics. Experimental results indicate that the proposed metric is an effective IQA method that can accurately predict the image quality of color images in terms of the correlation between objective scores and subjective evaluation.

  2. [Effect of bagging with different colors on the fruit coloration of 'yunhongli No.2' pear].

    PubMed

    Ma, Ce; Xiao, Chang-Cheng; Hu, Hong-Ju; Huang, Xiao-San; Zhang, Shao-Ling; Wu, Jun

    2014-03-01

    The present study was conducted to reveal the effect of bags with different colors on the fruit coloration of 'Yunhongli No. 2'. The differences in fruit skin color, chlorophyll, flavonoids, total phenol, anthocyanin contents and the activities of related enzymes involved in anthocyanin synthesis among different bagging treatments were evaluated. The results showed that dark treatment at the fruit development stage was beneficial to skin coloration after bag removing. After removing bags, the anthocyanin content in the treatment of natural light was highest and the red coloration of the fruit skin were best, followed by the treatment of white bags. The different bagging treatments significantly affected the contents of chlorophyll, flavonoids, total phenol, anthocyanin in the fruit skin, thereby affected the skin coloration. The activities of related enzymes for anthocyanin synthesis showed significant differences among the different bagging treatments. The correlation analysis suggested that the anthocyanin content was significantly positively related with the activities of dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (DFR) and UDP-glucose flavonoid-3-O-glucosyltransf-erase (UFGT), however, it had no significant correlation with the activity of phenylalanin ammo-nialyase (PAL).

  3. Color Image Segmentation Based on Different Color Space Models Using Automatic GrabCut

    PubMed Central

    Ebied, Hala Mousher; Hussein, Ashraf Saad; Tolba, Mohamed Fahmy

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a comparative study using different color spaces to evaluate the performance of color image segmentation using the automatic GrabCut technique. GrabCut is considered as one of the semiautomatic image segmentation techniques, since it requires user interaction for the initialization of the segmentation process. The automation of the GrabCut technique is proposed as a modification of the original semiautomatic one in order to eliminate the user interaction. The automatic GrabCut utilizes the unsupervised Orchard and Bouman clustering technique for the initialization phase. Comparisons with the original GrabCut show the efficiency of the proposed automatic technique in terms of segmentation, quality, and accuracy. As no explicit color space is recommended for every segmentation problem, automatic GrabCut is applied with RGB, HSV, CMY, XYZ, and YUV color spaces. The comparative study and experimental results using different color images show that RGB color space is the best color space representation for the set of the images used. PMID:25254226

  4. Difference in color and color parameters between dental porcelain and porcelain-repairing resin composite.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung-Hee; Lee, Yong-Keun; Lim, Bum-Soon; Rhee, Sang-Hoon; Yang, Hyeong-Cheol

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this study was to measure the differences in color and color parameters between dental porcelain and porcelain-repairing resin composites. The colors of three shades (A2, A3, A3.5) of one brand of dental porcelain, three original shades (A2, A3, A3.5), and three combinations (A2/A3, A3/3.5, A2/A3.5) of three brands of porcelain-repairing resin composites (ABT, FSP, TCR) were measured. The specimens were 2 mm thick, and 1 mm of each shade was layered to make combined shades. Differences in color (DeltaE(ab) (*)), lightness (DeltaL*), chroma (DeltaC(ab) (*)), and hue (DeltaH(*)) between porcelain and resin composite were calculated. Color difference was calculated as DeltaE(ab) (*) = (DeltaL*(2) + Deltaa*(2) + Deltab*(2))(1/2), chroma difference was calculated as DeltaC(ab) (*) = (Deltaa*(2) + Deltab*(2))(1/2), and hue difference was calculated as DeltaH(ab) (*) = (DeltaE(ab) (*2) - DeltaL*(2) - DeltaC(ab) (*2))(1/2). The influence of porcelain shade, brand of resin composites, and shade of resin composites were analyzed by three-way analyses of variance, and the differential influence of color parameters on color difference was analyzed with multiple regression analysis (alpha = 0.05). Differences in color and color parameters were influenced by the porcelain shade, brand and shade of resin composites. The DeltaE(ab) (*) value was in the range of 2.2-16.9. The DeltaE(ab) (*) value was correlated with DeltaC(ab) (*) (standardized correlation coefficient, beta = - 0.85), DeltaL* (beta = - 0.52), and DeltaH(ab) (*) (beta = 0.08). Between the same shade designated pairs of porcelain and repairing composite, color difference was perceptible. Therefore, studies to improve the color matching between porcelain and repairing resin are recommended.

  5. Color Stability of Enamel following Different Acid Etching and Color Exposure Times

    PubMed Central

    Jahanbin, Arezoo; Basafa, Mohammad; Moazzami, Mostafa; Basafa, Behnoush; Eslami, Neda

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different etching times on enamel color stability after immediate versus delayed exposure to colored artificial saliva (CAS). Materials and methods. Human first premolars were divided into five groups of twenty. A colorimeter was used according to the CIE system on the mid-buccal and mid-lingual surfaces to evaluate initial tooth color. Samples in group A remained unetched. In groups B to E, buccal and lingual surfaces were initially etched with phosphoric acid for 15 and 60 seconds, respectively. Then, the samples in groups A and C were immersed in colored artificial saliva (cola+saliva). In group B, the teeth were immersed in simple artificial saliva (AS). Samples in groups D and E were immersed in AS for 24 and 72 hours, respectively before being immersed in colored AS. The teeth were immersed for one month in each solution before color measurement. During the test period, the teeth were retrieved from the staining solution and stored in AS for five minutes. This was repeated 60 times. Color changes of buccal and lingual surfaces were calculated. Kruskal-Wallis and Wilcoxon tests were used for statistical analysis (α ≤0.05). Results. There were no significant differences between the groups in term of ΔE of buccal (P = 0.148) and lingual surfaces (P = 0.73). Conclusion. Extended time of etching did not result in significant enamel color change. Immediate and delayed exposure of etched enamel to staining solutions did not result in clinically detectable tooth color changes. PMID:25093048

  6. Color difference threshold of chromostereopsis induced by flat display emission

    PubMed Central

    Ozolinsh, Maris; Muizniece, Kristine

    2015-01-01

    The study of chromostereopsis has gained attention in the backdrop of the use of computer displays in daily life. In this context, we analyze the illusory depth sense using planar color images presented on a computer screen. We determine the color difference threshold required to induce an illusory sense of depth psychometrically using a constant stimuli paradigm. Isoluminant stimuli are presented on a computer screen, which stimuli are aligned along the blue–red line in the computer display CIE xyY color space. Stereo disparity is generated by increasing the color difference between the central and surrounding areas of the stimuli with both areas consisting of random dots on a black background. The observed altering of illusory depth sense, thus also stereo disparity is validated using the “center-of-gravity” model. The induced illusory sense of the depth effect undergoes color reversal upon varying the binocular lateral eye pupil covering conditions (lateral or medial). Analysis of the retinal image point spread function for the display red and blue pixel radiation validates the altering of chromostereopsis retinal disparity achieved by increasing the color difference, and also the chromostereopsis color reversal caused by varying the eye pupil covering conditions. PMID:25883573

  7. Color difference threshold of chromostereopsis induced by flat display emission.

    PubMed

    Ozolinsh, Maris; Muizniece, Kristine

    2015-01-01

    The study of chromostereopsis has gained attention in the backdrop of the use of computer displays in daily life. In this context, we analyze the illusory depth sense using planar color images presented on a computer screen. We determine the color difference threshold required to induce an illusory sense of depth psychometrically using a constant stimuli paradigm. Isoluminant stimuli are presented on a computer screen, which stimuli are aligned along the blue-red line in the computer display CIE xyY color space. Stereo disparity is generated by increasing the color difference between the central and surrounding areas of the stimuli with both areas consisting of random dots on a black background. The observed altering of illusory depth sense, thus also stereo disparity is validated using the "center-of-gravity" model. The induced illusory sense of the depth effect undergoes color reversal upon varying the binocular lateral eye pupil covering conditions (lateral or medial). Analysis of the retinal image point spread function for the display red and blue pixel radiation validates the altering of chromostereopsis retinal disparity achieved by increasing the color difference, and also the chromostereopsis color reversal caused by varying the eye pupil covering conditions.

  8. Color categories only affect post-perceptual processes when same- and different-category colors are equally discriminable.

    PubMed

    He, Xun; Witzel, Christoph; Forder, Lewis; Clifford, Alexandra; Franklin, Anna

    2014-04-01

    Prior claims that color categories affect color perception are confounded by inequalities in the color space used to equate same- and different-category colors. Here, we equate same- and different-category colors in the number of just-noticeable differences, and measure event-related potentials (ERPs) to these colors on a visual oddball task to establish if color categories affect perceptual or post-perceptual stages of processing. Category effects were found from 200 ms after color presentation, only in ERP components that reflect post-perceptual processes (e.g., N2, P3). The findings suggest that color categories affect post-perceptual processing, but do not affect the perceptual representation of color.

  9. Color management of the cervical region using different framework materials.

    PubMed

    Abualsaud, Haytham; Zandparsa, Roya; Hirayama, Hiroshi; Sadig, Walid; Aboushelib, Moustafa; Salameh, Ziad

    2011-12-01

    Color-matching of the cervical area between natural teeth and different crown prostheses is a common clinical problem.   The purpose of this study was to compare the color of the cervical region of five commercially available crown systems to an extracted natural tooth and to each other.   The color of the cervical region of an extracted maxillary incisor was measured by means of a colorimeter (ShadeVision, X-Rite). Fifty master dies were fabricated, divided into five groups (N=10) according to the framework material; group 1: high-noble gold alloy, group 2: same as group 1 but treated with gold paste material, group 3: precious reinforced alloy, group 4: white zirconium oxide substructure (Lava 3M ESPE), and group 5: shaded zirconium oxide (Lava). A direct comparison of L*, a*, and b* parameters was accomplished between the control natural tooth and the five crown systems, and the mean color differences (ΔE) was calculated. The data were statistically analyzed with one-way analysis of variance and post hoc multiple comparison (α=0.05).   Compared to the natural tooth, the mean color differences (ΔE) values were clinically unacceptable for all groups (ΔE > 3.7). The detected color differences, among different porcelain systems, were not visually perceptible (ΔE < 3.7).   Within the limitations of this study, the cervical color of an extracted natural tooth could not be duplicated using different crowns systems. Color-matching of the cervical region of different crown systems with natural tooth remains a difficult task. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Remote sensing of lunar color differences using isoluminous enhancement techniques.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yost, E.; Anderson, R.; Goetz, A.

    1972-01-01

    An isoluminous method of processing and viewing multispectral lunar imagery was developed in an effort to enhance the very subtle color variations seen on the lunar surface. The new technique normalizes the achromatic shades of gray to a common value and displays any small spectral reflectivity shifts as vivid colors. The primary advantage of the isoluminous method is its ability to present two objects (having the same spectral distribution) as the exact same color on the viewer screen regardless of any brightness difference which may exist between the two.

  11. Effects of chromatic image statistics on illumination induced color differences.

    PubMed

    Lucassen, Marcel P; Gevers, Theo; Gijsenij, Arjan; Dekker, Niels

    2013-09-01

    We measure the color fidelity of visual scenes that are rendered under different (simulated) illuminants and shown on a calibrated LCD display. Observers make triad illuminant comparisons involving the renderings from two chromatic test illuminants and one achromatic reference illuminant shown simultaneously. Four chromatic test illuminants are used: two along the daylight locus (yellow and blue), and two perpendicular to it (red and green). The observers select the rendering having the best color fidelity, thereby indirectly judging which of the two test illuminants induces the smallest color differences compared to the reference. Both multicolor test scenes and natural scenes are studied. The multicolor scenes are synthesized and represent ellipsoidal distributions in CIELAB chromaticity space having the same mean chromaticity but different chromatic orientations. We show that, for those distributions, color fidelity is best when the vector of the illuminant change (pointing from neutral to chromatic) is parallel to the major axis of the scene's chromatic distribution. For our selection of natural scenes, which generally have much broader chromatic distributions, we measure a higher color fidelity for the yellow and blue illuminants than for red and green. Scrambled versions of the natural images are also studied to exclude possible semantic effects. We quantitatively predict the average observer response (i.e., the illuminant probability) with four types of models, differing in the extent to which they incorporate information processing by the visual system. Results show different levels of performance for the models, and different levels for the multicolor scenes and the natural scenes. Overall, models based on the scene averaged color difference have the best performance. We discuss how color constancy algorithms may be improved by exploiting knowledge of the chromatic distribution of the visual scene.

  12. Causes of Different Vivid Colors in Chalcedonies: Kutahya-Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozcan Kilic, Cumhur; Kagan Kadıoglu, Yusuf

    2016-04-01

    Chalcedony is a silicate mineral which is a mixture of fibrous quartz (trigonal) and granular moganite (monoclinic) minerals. They are both SiO2 in composition but differs in crystal system. Chalcedony is widely used as semi-precious gemstone in many countries. It has many different kinds due to their various colors and structures. The colour changes in mineral depends on different causes. Most important causes are transition metal impurities in minerals chemical composition and charge transfer between ions. Different chalcedony types have different colors due to their elemental composition. Chalcedony can be show almost every colour strating from white, black, gray, red, blue, green to brown or a combinations of more than one color in case of agates and jasper formations. Although they have same major oxide compositions,chrysopras (green chalcedony) have Ni which gives the green color and carnelian (orange chalcedony) have Fe+3 which gives the orange color. Kutahya, Eskisehir, Ankara, Manisa, Balıkesir, Canakkale and Yozgat represent the most cities which chalcedony can be mostly observed in Turkey. In Kutahya, chalcedony occurs in cavity or vein fillings in pyroclastic rocks such as tuff and formed by precipitation of silica bearing fluids in low temperatures. They can be also formed within the hydrothermal alteration zone of ultramafic rocks. Although chalcedonies in Kutahya form under almost same condition, they have various colors within the same unit. To specify the cause of the different colors, chemical analysis and Confocal Raman studies performed on Kutahya chalcedonies. Firstly, samples are crushed to 2 mm. size. After that, different colors of chalcedonies are separated by hand picking under binocular microscope and grouped into different color sets such as white, blue, dark yellow, light orange, dark orange and claret red. Each color set is measured by PED-XRF method to obtain chemical compositions. Also Raman studies performed to identify the effect

  13. Color variation between matched and fabricated shades of different ceramics.

    PubMed

    Ghulman, Motaz Ahmed; Awad, Mohamed Abdelmageed

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the total color difference (ΔE) between natural teeth and fabricated crowns from three ceramic systems with different thicknesses. The color of ninety maxillary central incisors was measured from the middle third of the labial surface with a Vita Easyshade spectrophotometer. All-ceramic crown preparations with different thicknesses (0.8, 1.2, 1.5 mm) were done on selected teeth (n = 30). Prepared teeth were randomly divided into three equal groups to fabricate ceramic crowns from three ceramic systems, Duceram LFC (DLFC), In-Ceram SPINELL (ICS), and IPS Empress (IPSE). Colors of cemented crowns were measured and compared with their corresponding measurements before preparations. Data were statistically analyzed using two-way ANOVA at 5% significance level. A significant difference of ΔE was detected between natural teeth and different thicknesses of crowns constructed from the all-ceramic materials investigated. Comparing the three materials at 0.8 mm thickness revealed that the lowest ΔE was recorded for DLFC, which was significantly different from the other ceramic systems while IPSE showed the highest ΔE. At higher thicknesses there was no difference between natural tooth shade and crowns constructed from different ceramic materials. Reinforcement of ceramics by alumina for In-Ceram and leucite for Empress decreases color production. Level of acceptance between the different ceramic materials and thicknesses varied. DLFC showed the highest color matching at all thicknesses followed by ICS and IPSE in descending order. In general, increasing the thickness of fabricated crowns enhances color match. © 2013 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  14. Image evaluation using a color visual difference predictor (CVDP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lian, Ming-Shih

    2001-06-01

    In order to automate the image evaluation task, an engineering model for predicting the visual differences of color images is developed. The present CVDP consists of a color appearance model, a set of contrast sensitivity functions, the modified cortex transform, and a multichannel interaction model for masking effects. Based ona pixel-by- pixel difference metric similar to the CIELAB color difference, the predictions of the simplified CVDP are found to correlate fairly with the psychophysical test results over 51 pairs of natural images with some detection failures. These failures can be eliminated by including additional image quality metrics: the clarity in the shadow and highlight areas and the graininess in the mid-tone areas. The modified model is found to be able to identify 55 percent of those visually indistinguishable image pairs. The preliminary results using the complete CVDP for selected image pairs indicate that the effects of masking introduce only little changes to the results of the simplified CVDP.

  15. Trace element status and zinc homeostasis differ in breast and formula-fed piglets.

    PubMed

    Ronis, Martin J J; Miousse, Isabelle R; Mason, Andrew Z; Sharma, Neha; Blackburn, Michael L; Badger, Thomas M

    2015-01-01

    Differences in trace element composition and bioavailability between breast milk and infant formulas may affect metal homeostasis in neonates. However, there is a paucity of controlled studies in this area. Here, piglets were fed soy infant formula (soy), cow's milk formula (milk), or were allowed to suckle from the sow from PND2 to PND21. Serum iron concentrations were higher in formula-fed compared to breastfed piglets (P < 0.05). Serum zinc values were higher in milk compared to breastfed or soy groups (P < 0.05). Zinc transporter Zip4 mRNA was elevated in small intestine of the soy compared to breastfed group (P < 0.05). Transporter Znt1 mRNA was greater in small intestine of both formula-fed groups and in liver of the milk compared to the breastfed group (P < 0.05). Metallothionein Mt1 mRNA expression was higher in small intestine and liver of milk compared to breastfed and soy groups (P < 0.05). In liver, metallothionein protein levels and protein bound zinc were also highly elevated in the milk compared to other groups (P < 0.05). mRNA encoding the hepatic zinc-regulated gene Gclc was higher in the milk than soy group (P < 0.05). ChIP assay revealed increased binding of the zinc-regulated transcription factor MTF1 to the promoters of hepatic Mt3 and Gclc genes in the milk compared to the soy group. These data provide evidence that trace element status differs in breastfed, milk-fed, and soy-fed piglets and that despite similar levels of dietary supplementation, allows strong causal inference that significant differences in serum zinc after cow's milk formula compared to soy formula consumption result in compensatory changes in expression of zinc transporters, binding proteins, and zinc-regulated genes.

  16. Trace element status and zinc homeostasis differ in breast and formula-fed piglets

    PubMed Central

    Miousse, Isabelle R; Mason, Andrew Z; Sharma, Neha; Blackburn, Michael L; Badger, Thomas M

    2015-01-01

    Differences in trace element composition and bioavailability between breast milk and infant formulas may affect metal homeostasis in neonates. However, there is a paucity of controlled studies in this area. Here, piglets were fed soy infant formula (soy), cow’s milk formula (milk), or were allowed to suckle from the sow from PND2 to PND21. Serum iron concentrations were higher in formula-fed compared to breastfed piglets (P < 0.05). Serum zinc values were higher in milk compared to breastfed or soy groups (P < 0.05). Zinc transporter Zip4 mRNA was elevated in small intestine of the soy compared to breastfed group (P < 0.05). Transporter Znt1 mRNA was greater in small intestine of both formula-fed groups and in liver of the milk compared to the breastfed group (P < 0.05). Metallothionein Mt1 mRNA expression was higher in small intestine and liver of milk compared to breastfed and soy groups (P < 0.05). In liver, metallothionein protein levels and protein bound zinc were also highly elevated in the milk compared to other groups (P < 0.05). mRNA encoding the hepatic zinc-regulated gene Gclc was higher in the milk than soy group (P < 0.05). ChIP assay revealed increased binding of the zinc-regulated transcription factor MTF1 to the promoters of hepatic Mt3 and Gclc genes in the milk compared to the soy group. These data provide evidence that trace element status differs in breastfed, milk-fed, and soy-fed piglets and that despite similar levels of dietary supplementation, allows strong causal inference that significant differences in serum zinc after cow’s milk formula compared to soy formula consumption result in compensatory changes in expression of zinc transporters, binding proteins, and zinc-regulated genes. PMID:25179632

  17. Efficient color face detection algorithm under different lighting conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chow, Tze-Yin; Lam, Kin-Man; Wong, Kwok-Wai

    2006-01-01

    We present an efficient and reliable algorithm to detect human faces in an image under different lighting conditions. In our algorithm, skin-colored pixels are identified using a region-based approach, which can provide more reliable skin color segmentation under various lighting conditions. In addition, to compensate for extreme lighting conditions, a color compensation scheme is proposed, and the distributions of the skin-color components under various illuminations are modeled by means of the maximum-likelihood method. With the skin-color regions detected, a ratio method is proposed to determine the possible positions of the eyes in the image. Two eye candidates form a possible face region, which is then verified as a face or not by means of a two-stage procedure with an eigenmask. Finally, the face boundary region of a face candidate is further verified by a probabilistic approach to reduce the chance of false alarms. Experimental results based on the HHI MPEG-7 face database, the AR face database, and the CMU pose, illumination, and expression (PIE) database show that this face detection algorithm is efficient and reliable under different lighting conditions and facial expressions.

  18. Numerical expression of color emotion and its application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Tetsuya; Kajiwara, Kanji; Xin, John H.; Hansuebsai, Aran; Nobbs, Jim

    2002-06-01

    Human emotions induced by colors are various but the emotions are expressed through words and languages. In order to analyze the emotions expressed through words and languages, visual assessment tests against color emotions expressed by twelve kinds of word pairs were carried out in Japan, Thailand, Hong Kong and UK. The numerical expression of each color emotion is being tried as a formula with an ellipsoid-shape resembling that of a color difference formula. In this paper, the numerical expression of 'Soft- Hard' color emotion was mainly discussed. The application of color emotions via the empirical color emotions formulae derived from kansei database (database of sensory assessments) was also briefly reported.

  19. National Differences in Intelligence, Crime, Income, and Skin Color

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rushton, J. Philippe; Templer, Donald I.

    2009-01-01

    National differences in murder, rape, and serious assault were examined in 113 countries in relation to national IQ, income, skin color, birth rate, life expectancy, infant mortality, and HIV/AIDS. Data were collated from the 1993-1996 International Crime Statistics published by INTERPOL. Violent crime was found to be lower in countries with…

  20. National Differences in Intelligence, Crime, Income, and Skin Color

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rushton, J. Philippe; Templer, Donald I.

    2009-01-01

    National differences in murder, rape, and serious assault were examined in 113 countries in relation to national IQ, income, skin color, birth rate, life expectancy, infant mortality, and HIV/AIDS. Data were collated from the 1993-1996 International Crime Statistics published by INTERPOL. Violent crime was found to be lower in countries with…

  1. Eye Movement Preferences As Individual Differences in Learning From Color and Non-Color Pictures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caban, Juan Pedro

    An experiment compared the effectiveness of color and non-color (black-and-white) pictures in a paired associate learning task. The study also used individual eye movement quantifications as a predictor of preference for color and non-color pictures. Specifically, eye movement fixation patterns were used as indices of preference for color and…

  2. Reliability of Different RBC Indices and Formulas in Discriminating between β-Thalassemia Minor and other Microcytic Hypochromic Cases

    PubMed Central

    Bordbar, Elahe; Taghipour, Mehdi; Zucconi, Beth E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Different indices and formulas of CBC parameters have been suggested as indicators of early stage screenings to detect couples with β-thalassemia minor (BTMi). In this study, we evaluated the accuracy of five previous published formulas and compared them to our new formula (│80-MCV│×│27-MCH│) in screening of β-thalassemia. Methods All couples in the premarital β-thalassemia screening program of Roodbar, Iran, for whom molecular analysis had been done, were selected during two years. The red blood cell parameters were applied to each formula, and a ROC curve was plotted for each one to check its discriminative effectiveness in β-thalassemia detection. Result None of the studied indices and formulas demonstrated 100% precision. However, we found that the Shine–Lal formula and our formula had the highest sensitivity in identifying BTMi individuals. The highest specificity belonged to our formula and Sirdah formula. Conclusion Previous studies reported different sensitivities and specificities for the formulas. This can be attributed to different kinds of HBB gene mutations in various populations. Undoubtedly, physicians in different areas should evaluate the accuracy of published formulas for their own populations in the discrimination of BTMi from other causes of microcytic hypochromic anemia. PMID:25745549

  3. Geometrically derived difference formulae for the numerical integration of trajectory problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcleod, R. J. Y.; Sanz-Serna, J. M.

    1981-01-01

    The term 'trajectory problem' is taken to include problems that can arise, for instance, in connection with contour plotting, or in the application of continuation methods, or during phase-plane analysis. Geometrical techniques are used to construct difference methods for these problems to produce in turn explicit and implicit circularly exact formulae. Based on these formulae, a predictor-corrector method is derived which, when compared with a closely related standard method, shows improved performance. It is found that this latter method produces spurious limit cycles, and this behavior is partly analyzed. Finally, a simple variable-step algorithm is constructed and tested.

  4. Effect of liquid pancreatic enzymes on the assimilation of fat in different liquid formula diets.

    PubMed

    Hauenschild, Annette; Ewald, Nils; Klauke, Thorsten; Liebchen, Ariane; Bretzel, Reinhard Georg; Kloer, Hans-Ulrich; Hardt, Philip Daniel

    2008-01-01

    In some diseases, patients require high-calorie tube feeding with standard enteral formulas usually administered via temporal feeding tubes. One frequent pathophysiological condition in a relevant number of these patients is exocrine pancreatic insufficiency. Patients unable to swallow capsules might benefit from a liquid pancreatic enzyme (LPE) preparation. LPEs were prepared and mixed with different commercially available formula diets produced for enteral feeding. Lipolysis was then measured by fatty acid titration. Complete lipolysis by liquid enzyme preparations was observed in diverse formula diets. Fat assimilation was even complete when LPE had been prepared 3.5 hours before the experiments, showing that the enzymes had been stable up to that time. The use of LPEs seems to be a good therapeutic option in patients with exocrine pancreatic insufficiency and the need for permanent high-calorie enteral feeding. Pharmaceutical companies should therefore be further encouraged to develop and distribute liquid enzyme preparations.

  5. Origin of the different color of ruby and emerald

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Lastra, J. M.; Barriuso, M. T.; Aramburu, J. A.; Moreno, M.

    2005-09-01

    The different color exhibited by ruby and emerald is a fundamental but still unsolved question. According to recent EXAFS measurements, such a difference can hardly be explained on the basis of a different average distance between Cr3+ and the six oxygen ligands. The puzzling difference in color between the two gemstones is shown in this work to arise essentially from the distinct electrostatic potential imposed by the rest of lattice ions upon the active electrons of the CrO69- unit. Main effects are shown to come from the electric field generated in the neighborhood of the Cr3+ site in ruby which is absent in the case of emerald due to symmetry.

  6. Measurement of the phase difference between short- and long-distance amplitudes in the [Formula: see text] decay.

    PubMed

    Aaij, R; Adeva, B; Adinolfi, M; Ajaltouni, Z; Akar, S; Albrecht, J; Alessio, F; Alexander, M; Ali, S; Alkhazov, G; Alvarez Cartelle, P; Alves, A A; Amato, S; Amerio, S; Amhis, Y; An, L; Anderlini, L; Andreassi, G; Andreotti, M; Andrews, J E; Appleby, R B; Archilli, F; d'Argent, P; Arnau Romeu, J; Artamonov, A; Artuso, M; Aslanides, E; Auriemma, G; Baalouch, M; Babuschkin, I; Bachmann, S; Back, J J; Badalov, A; Baesso, C; Baker, S; Balagura, V; Baldini, W; Barlow, R J; Barschel, C; Barsuk, S; Barter, W; Baszczyk, M; Batozskaya, V; Batsukh, B; Battista, V; Bay, A; Beaucourt, L; Beddow, J; Bedeschi, F; Bediaga, I; Bel, L J; Bellee, V; Belloli, N; Belous, K; Belyaev, I; Ben-Haim, E; Bencivenni, G; Benson, S; Berezhnoy, A; Bernet, R; Bertolin, A; Betancourt, C; Betti, F; Bettler, M-O; van Beuzekom, M; Bezshyiko, Ia; Bifani, S; Billoir, P; Bird, T; Birnkraut, A; Bitadze, A; Bizzeti, A; Blake, T; Blanc, F; Blouw, J; Blusk, S; Bocci, V; Boettcher, T; Bondar, A; Bondar, N; Bonivento, W; Bordyuzhin, I; Borgheresi, A; Borghi, S; Borisyak, M; Borsato, M; Bossu, F; Boubdir, M; Bowcock, T J V; Bowen, E; Bozzi, C; Braun, S; Britsch, M; Britton, T; Brodzicka, J; Buchanan, E; Burr, C; Bursche, A; Buytaert, J; Cadeddu, S; Calabrese, R; Calvi, M; Calvo Gomez, M; Camboni, A; Campana, P; Campora Perez, D H; Capriotti, L; Carbone, A; Carboni, G; Cardinale, R; Cardini, A; Carniti, P; Carson, L; Carvalho Akiba, K; Casse, G; Cassina, L; Castillo Garcia, L; Cattaneo, M; Cavallero, G; Cenci, R; Chamont, D; Charles, M; Charpentier, Ph; Chatzikonstantinidis, G; Chefdeville, M; Chen, S; Cheung, S-F; Chobanova, V; Chrzaszcz, M; Cid Vidal, X; Ciezarek, G; Clarke, P E L; Clemencic, M; Cliff, H V; Closier, J; Coco, V; Cogan, J; Cogneras, E; Cogoni, V; Cojocariu, L; Collazuol, G; Collins, P; Comerma-Montells, A; Contu, A; Cook, A; Coombs, G; Coquereau, S; Corti, G; Corvo, M; Costa Sobral, C M; Couturier, B; Cowan, G A; Craik, D C; Crocombe, A; Cruz Torres, M; Cunliffe, S; Currie, R; D'Ambrosio, C; Da Cunha Marinho, F; Dall'Occo, E; Dalseno, J; David, P N Y; Davis, A; De Bruyn, K; De Capua, S; De Cian, M; De Miranda, J M; De Paula, L; De Serio, M; De Simone, P; Dean, C-T; Decamp, D; Deckenhoff, M; Del Buono, L; Demmer, M; Dendek, A; Derkach, D; Deschamps, O; Dettori, F; Dey, B; Di Canto, A; Dijkstra, H; Dordei, F; Dorigo, M; Dosil Suárez, A; Dovbnya, A; Dreimanis, K; Dufour, L; Dujany, G; Dungs, K; Durante, P; Dzhelyadin, R; Dziurda, A; Dzyuba, A; Déléage, N; Easo, S; Ebert, M; Egede, U; Egorychev, V; Eidelman, S; Eisenhardt, S; Eitschberger, U; Ekelhof, R; Eklund, L; Ely, S; Esen, S; Evans, H M; Evans, T; Falabella, A; Farley, N; Farry, S; Fay, R; Fazzini, D; Ferguson, D; Fernandez Prieto, A; Ferrari, F; Ferreira Rodrigues, F; Ferro-Luzzi, M; Filippov, S; Fini, R A; Fiore, M; Fiorini, M; Firlej, M; Fitzpatrick, C; Fiutowski, T; Fleuret, F; Fohl, K; Fontana, M; Fontanelli, F; Forshaw, D C; Forty, R; Franco Lima, V; Frank, M; Frei, C; Fu, J; Funk, W; Furfaro, E; Färber, C; Gallas Torreira, A; Galli, D; Gallorini, S; Gambetta, S; Gandelman, M; Gandini, P; Gao, Y; Garcia Martin, L M; García Pardiñas, J; Garra Tico, J; Garrido, L; Garsed, P J; Gascon, D; Gaspar, C; Gavardi, L; Gazzoni, G; Gerick, D; Gersabeck, E; Gersabeck, M; Gershon, T; Ghez, Ph; Gianì, S; Gibson, V; Girard, O G; Giubega, L; Gizdov, K; Gligorov, V V; Golubkov, D; Golutvin, A; Gomes, A; Gorelov, I V; Gotti, C; Graciani Diaz, R; Granado Cardoso, L A; Graugés, E; Graverini, E; Graziani, G; Grecu, A; Griffith, P; Grillo, L; Gruberg Cazon, B R; Grünberg, O; Gushchin, E; Guz, Yu; Gys, T; Göbel, C; Hadavizadeh, T; Hadjivasiliou, C; Haefeli, G; Haen, C; Haines, S C; Hall, S; Hamilton, B; Han, X; Hansmann-Menzemer, S; Harnew, N; Harnew, S T; Harrison, J; Hatch, M; He, J; Head, T; Heister, A; Hennessy, K; Henrard, P; Henry, L; van Herwijnen, E; Heß, M; Hicheur, A; Hill, D; Hombach, C; Hopchev, H; Hulsbergen, W; Humair, T; Hushchyn, M; Hutchcroft, D; Idzik, M; Ilten, P; Jacobsson, R; Jaeger, A; Jalocha, J; Jans, E; Jawahery, A; Jiang, F; John, M; Johnson, D; Jones, C R; Joram, C; Jost, B; Jurik, N; Kandybei, S; Karacson, M; Kariuki, J M; Karodia, S; Kecke, M; Kelsey, M; Kenzie, M; Ketel, T; Khairullin, E; Khanji, B; Khurewathanakul, C; Kirn, T; Klaver, S; Klimaszewski, K; Koliiev, S; Kolpin, M; Komarov, I; Koopman, R F; Koppenburg, P; Kosmyntseva, A; Kozachuk, A; Kozeiha, M; Kravchuk, L; Kreplin, K; Kreps, M; Krokovny, P; Kruse, F; Krzemien, W; Kucewicz, W; Kucharczyk, M; Kudryavtsev, V; Kuonen, A K; Kurek, K; Kvaratskheliya, T; Lacarrere, D; Lafferty, G; Lai, A; Lanfranchi, G; Langenbruch, C; Latham, T; Lazzeroni, C; Le Gac, R; van Leerdam, J; Leflat, A; Lefrançois, J; Lefèvre, R; Lemaitre, F; Lemos Cid, E; Leroy, O; Lesiak, T; Leverington, B; Li, T; Li, Y; Likhomanenko, T; Lindner, R; Linn, C; Lionetto, F; Liu, X; Loh, D; Longstaff, I; Lopes, J H; Lucchesi, D; Lucio Martinez, M; Luo, H; Lupato, A; Luppi, E; Lupton, O; Lusiani, A; Lyu, X; Machefert, F; Maciuc, F; Maev, O; Maguire, K; Malde, S; Malinin, A; Maltsev, T; Manca, G; Mancinelli, G; Manning, P; Maratas, J; Marchand, J F; Marconi, U; Marin Benito, C; Marinangeli, M; Marino, P; Marks, J; Martellotti, G; Martin, M; Martinelli, M; Martinez Santos, D; Martinez Vidal, F; Martins Tostes, D; Massacrier, L M; Massafferri, A; Matev, R; Mathad, A; Mathe, Z; Matteuzzi, C; Mauri, A; Maurice, E; Maurin, B; Mazurov, A; McCann, M; McNab, A; McNulty, R; Meadows, B; Meier, F; Meissner, M; Melnychuk, D; Merk, M; Merli, A; Michielin, E; Milanes, D A; Minard, M-N; Mitzel, D S; Mogini, A; Molina Rodriguez, J; Monroy, I A; Monteil, S; Morandin, M; Morawski, P; Mordà, A; Morello, M J; Morgunova, O; Moron, J; Morris, A B; Mountain, R; Muheim, F; Mulder, M; Mussini, M; Müller, D; Müller, J; Müller, K; Müller, V; Naik, P; Nakada, T; Nandakumar, R; Nandi, A; Nasteva, I; Needham, M; Neri, N; Neubert, S; Neufeld, N; Neuner, M; Nguyen, T D; Nguyen-Mau, C; Nieswand, S; Niet, R; Nikitin, N; Nikodem, T; Nogay, A; Novoselov, A; O'Hanlon, D P; Oblakowska-Mucha, A; Obraztsov, V; Ogilvy, S; Oldeman, R; Onderwater, C J G; Otalora Goicochea, J M; Otto, A; Owen, P; Oyanguren, A; Pais, P R; Palano, A; Palombo, F; Palutan, M; Papanestis, A; Pappagallo, M; Pappalardo, L L; Parker, W; Parkes, C; Passaleva, G; Pastore, A; Patel, G D; Patel, M; Patrignani, C; Pearce, A; Pellegrino, A; Penso, G; Pepe Altarelli, M; Perazzini, S; Perret, P; Pescatore, L; Petridis, K; Petrolini, A; Petrov, A; Petruzzo, M; Picatoste Olloqui, E; Pietrzyk, B; Pikies, M; Pinci, D; Pistone, A; Piucci, A; Placinta, V; Playfer, S; Plo Casasus, M; Poikela, T; Polci, F; Poluektov, A; Polyakov, I; Polycarpo, E; Pomery, G J; Popov, A; Popov, D; Popovici, B; Poslavskii, S; Potterat, C; Price, E; Price, J D; Prisciandaro, J; Pritchard, A; Prouve, C; Pugatch, V; Puig Navarro, A; Punzi, G; Qian, W; Quagliani, R; Rachwal, B; Rademacker, J H; Rama, M; Ramos Pernas, M; Rangel, M S; Raniuk, I; Ratnikov, F; Raven, G; Redi, F; Reichert, S; Dos Reis, A C; Remon Alepuz, C; Renaudin, V; Ricciardi, S; Richards, S; Rihl, M; Rinnert, K; Rives Molina, V; Robbe, P; Rodrigues, A B; Rodrigues, E; Rodriguez Lopez, J A; Rodriguez Perez, P; Rogozhnikov, A; Roiser, S; Rollings, A; Romanovskiy, V; Romero Vidal, A; Ronayne, J W; Rotondo, M; Rudolph, M S; Ruf, T; Ruiz Valls, P; Saborido Silva, J J; Sadykhov, E; Sagidova, N; Saitta, B; Salustino Guimaraes, V; Sanchez Mayordomo, C; Sanmartin Sedes, B; Santacesaria, R; Santamarina Rios, C; Santimaria, M; Santovetti, E; Sarti, A; Satriano, C; Satta, A; Saunders, D M; Savrina, D; Schael, S; Schellenberg, M; Schiller, M; Schindler, H; Schlupp, M; Schmelling, M; Schmelzer, T; Schmidt, B; Schneider, O; Schopper, A; Schubert, K; Schubiger, M; Schune, M-H; Schwemmer, R; Sciascia, B; Sciubba, A; Semennikov, A; Sergi, A; Serra, N; Serrano, J; Sestini, L; Seyfert, P; Shapkin, M; Shapoval, I; Shcheglov, Y; Shears, T; Shekhtman, L; Shevchenko, V; Siddi, B G; Silva Coutinho, R; Silva de Oliveira, L; Simi, G; Simone, S; Sirendi, M; Skidmore, N; Skwarnicki, T; Smith, E; Smith, I T; Smith, J; Smith, M; Snoek, H; Soares Lavra, L; Sokoloff, M D; Soler, F J P; Souza De Paula, B; Spaan, B; Spradlin, P; Sridharan, S; Stagni, F; Stahl, M; Stahl, S; Stefko, P; Stefkova, S; Steinkamp, O; Stemmle, S; Stenyakin, O; Stevens, H; Stevenson, S; Stoica, S; Stone, S; Storaci, B; Stracka, S; Straticiuc, M; Straumann, U; Sun, L; Sutcliffe, W; Swientek, K; Syropoulos, V; Szczekowski, M; Szumlak, T; T'Jampens, S; Tayduganov, A; Tekampe, T; Tellarini, G; Teubert, F; Thomas, E; van Tilburg, J; Tilley, M J; Tisserand, V; Tobin, M; Tolk, S; Tomassetti, L; Tonelli, D; Topp-Joergensen, S; Toriello, F; Tournefier, E; Tourneur, S; Trabelsi, K; Traill, M; Tran, M T; Tresch, M; Trisovic, A; Tsaregorodtsev, A; Tsopelas, P; Tully, A; Tuning, N; Ukleja, A; Ustyuzhanin, A; Uwer, U; Vacca, C; Vagnoni, V; Valassi, A; Valat, S; Valenti, G; Vazquez Gomez, R; Vazquez Regueiro, P; Vecchi, S; van Veghel, M; Velthuis, J J; Veltri, M; Veneziano, G; Venkateswaran, A; Vernet, M; Vesterinen, M; Viana Barbosa, J V; Viaud, B; Vieira, D; Vieites Diaz, M; Viemann, H; Vilasis-Cardona, X; Vitti, M; Volkov, V; Vollhardt, A; Voneki, B; Vorobyev, A; Vorobyev, V; Voß, C; de Vries, J A; Vázquez Sierra, C; Waldi, R; Wallace, C; Wallace, R; Walsh, J; Wang, J; Ward, D R; Wark, H M; Watson, N K; Websdale, D; Weiden, A; Whitehead, M; Wicht, J; Wilkinson, G; Wilkinson, M; Williams, M; Williams, M P; Williams, M; Williams, T; Wilson, F F; Wimberley, J; Wishahi, J; Wislicki, W; Witek, M; Wormser, G; Wotton, S A; Wraight, K; Wyllie, K; Xie, Y; Xing, Z; Xu, Z; Yang, Z; Yao, Y; Yin, H; Yu, J; Yuan, X; Yushchenko, O; Zarebski, K A; Zavertyaev, M; Zhang, L; Zhang, Y; Zhang, Y; Zhelezov, A; Zheng, Y; Zhu, X; Zhukov, V; Zucchelli, S

    2017-01-01

    A measurement of the phase difference between the short- and long-distance contributions to the [Formula: see text] decay is performed by analysing the dimuon mass distribution. The analysis is based on pp collision data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 3[Formula: see text] collected by the LHCb experiment in 2011 and 2012. The long-distance contribution to the [Formula: see text] decay is modelled as a sum of relativistic Breit-Wigner amplitudes representing different vector meson resonances decaying to muon pairs, each with their own magnitude and phase. The measured phases of the [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] resonances are such that the interference with the short-distance component in dimuon mass regions far from their pole masses is small. In addition, constraints are placed on the Wilson coefficients, [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text], and the branching fraction of the short-distance component is measured.

  7. Sex differences in color preferences transcend extreme differences in culture and ecology.

    PubMed

    Sorokowski, Piotr; Sorokowska, Agnieszka; Witzel, Christoph

    2014-10-01

    At first glance, color preferences might seem to be the most subjective and context-dependent aspects of color cognition. Yet they are not. The present study compares color preferences of women and men from an industrialized and a remote, nonindustrialized culture. In particular, we investigated preferences in observers from Poland and from the Yali in Papua, respectively. Not surprisingly, we found that color preferences clearly differed between the two communities and also between sexes. However, despite the pronounced cultural differences, the way in which men and women differed from each other was almost the same in both cultures. At the same time, this sexual contrast was not specific to biological components of color vision. Our results reveal a pattern of sexual dimorphism that transcends extreme differences in culture and ecology. They point toward strong cross-cultural constraints beyond the biological predispositions of nature and the cultural particularities of nurture.

  8. Ability of the Harris Benedict formula to predict energy requirements differs with weight history and ethnicity.

    PubMed

    Douglas, Crystal C; Lawrence, Jeannine C; Bush, Nikki C; Oster, Robert A; Gower, Barbara A; Darnell, Betty E

    2007-04-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the effects of weight history status and ethnicity on the ability of the Harris Benedict (HB) formula to: 1) predict measured resting energy expenditure (REE), and, 2) accurately estimate energy needs over a 2-week test period. Subjects were never-overweight (BMI formula multiplied by a 1.35 activity factor. After 2 weeks, weight, REE (by indirect calorimetry), and body composition (by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry) were assessed. Data were analyzed using 2-way ANOVA at p<0.05 significance. The HB formula overestimated REE 1) in each weight history group (by 160 +/-125 kcals among never-overweight, 295 +/-189 kcal among overweight, and 105 +/-135 among weight-reduced) such that there was a group effect on overestimation (P<0.001) and 2) between ethnicities, with a greater overestimation in AA vs. C (P<0.001). There was a significant effect of weight history group on weight change (P<0.001) over 2-weeks, such that weight-reduced women gained more weight than the other two groups (P<0.05). In conclusion, the ability of the HB formula to estimate REE differed with weight history status and ethnicity. The accuracy of the HB formula to predict dietary energy needs was affected by weight history status. These results suggest that formulas used to calculate energy needs should take into account weight history and ethnicity.

  9. Infant milk formulas differ regarding their allergenic activity and induction of T-cell and cytokine responses

    PubMed Central

    Hochwallner, H.; Schulmeister, U.; Swoboda, I.; Focke-Tejkl, M.; Reininger, R.; Civaj, V.; Campana, R.; Thalhamer, J.; Scheiblhofer, S.; Balic, N.; Horak, F.; Ollert, M.; Papadopoulos, N. G.; Quirce, S.; Szepfalusi, Z.; Herz, U.; van Tol, E. A. F.; Spitzauer, S.; Valenta, R.

    2017-01-01

    Background Several hydrolyzed cow’s milk (CM) formulas are available for avoidance of allergic reactions in CM-allergic children and for prevention of allergy development in high-risk infants. Our aim was to compare CM formulas regarding the presence of immunoreactive CM components, IgE reactivity, allergenic activity, ability to induce T-cell proliferation, and cytokine secretion. Methods A blinded analysis of eight CM formulas, one nonhydrolyzed, two partially hydrolyzed (PH), four extensively hydrolyzed (EH), and one amino acid formula, using biochemical techniques and specific antibody probes was conducted. IgE reactivity and allergenic activity of the formulas were tested with sera from CM-allergic patients (n = 26) in RAST-based assays and with rat basophils transfected with the human FcεRI, respectively. The induction of T-cell proliferation and the secretion of cytokines in Peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) culture from CM allergic patients and nonallergic individuals were assessed. Results Immune-reactive α-lactalbumin and β-lactoglobulin were found in the two PH formulas and casein components in one of the EH formulas. One PH formula and the EH formula containing casein components showed remaining IgE reactivity, whereas the other hydrolyzed formulas lacked IgE reactivity. Only two EH formulas and the amino acid formula did not induce T-cell proliferation and proinflammatory cytokine release. The remaining formulas varied regarding the induction of Th2, Th1, and proinflammatory cytokines. Conclusion Our results show that certain CM formulas without allergenic and low proinflammatory properties can be identified and they may also explain different outcomes obtained in clinical studies using CM formulas. PMID:27455132

  10. Large and small color differences: predicting them from hue scaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Hoover; Abramov, Israel; Gordon, James

    1991-06-01

    Color appearance can be specified by a procedure of direct hue scaling. In this procedure, subjects look at a stimulus and then simply state the proportions of their sensations using the four unique hue names red, yellow, green, and blue; to completeness, they also state the apparent saturation. Observers can scale stimuli quickly and reliably, and this is true even if they are relatively inexperienced. Thus stimuli can be rescaled whenever viewing conditions change such that a new specification of appearance is required. The scaled sensory values elicited by a set of stimuli are used to derive the locations of the stimuli on a color diagram that is based on appearance and which we term a Uniform Appearance Diagram (UAD). The orthogonal axes of these space are red-green and yellow-blue; the location of a stimulus specifies its hue and its distance from the origin specifies its apparent saturation. We have investigated the uniformity of this space by using a subject's UAD, for a particular set of viewing conditions, to predict both small and large color differences under comparable viewing conditions. For small-scale differences we compared wavelength discrimination functions derived from UADs with those obtained by direct adjustment of a bipartite field. For large-scale differences, subjects rated the degree of similarity of pairs of different wavelengths; these ratings were compared with the distances separating the same pairs of wavelengths on a UAD. In both cases, the agreements were very good, implying that UAD's are metrically uniform. Thus, UADs could be used to adjust the hues in a pseudo-color display so that all transitions would be equally perceptible or would differ by specified amounts.

  11. Development of an adaptive bilateral filter for evaluating color image difference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhaohui; Hardeberg, Jon Yngve

    2012-04-01

    Spatial filtering, which aims to mimic the contrast sensitivity function (CSF) of the human visual system (HVS), has previously been combined with color difference formulae for measuring color image reproduction errors. These spatial filters attenuate imperceptible information in images, unfortunately including high frequency edges, which are believed to be crucial in the process of scene analysis by the HVS. The adaptive bilateral filter represents a novel approach, which avoids the undesirable loss of edge information introduced by CSF-based filtering. The bilateral filter employs two Gaussian smoothing filters in different domains, i.e., spatial domain and intensity domain. We propose a method to decide the parameters, which are designed to be adaptive to the corresponding viewing conditions, and the quantity and homogeneity of information contained in an image. Experiments and discussions are given to support the proposal. A series of perceptual experiments were conducted to evaluate the performance of our approach. The experimental sample images were reproduced with variations in six image attributes: lightness, chroma, hue, compression, noise, and sharpness/blurriness. The Pearson's correlation values between the model-predicted image difference and the observed difference were employed to evaluate the performance, and compare it with that of spatial CIELAB and image appearance model.

  12. Color Doppler energy: computer analysis of color to assess angle dependency and detection of volume flow differences.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, A; Olofsson, P A; Lorén, I; Carlstedt, L; Nilsson, P

    1997-04-01

    The aims of this study were to assess (1) any angle dependency of color Doppler energy and (2) if computer analysis of the color can distinguish variations in volume flow. Fluid flowing through a silicon tube in a waterbath was insonated and the color in the images analyzed by a computer. The color presentation on the screen decreases rapidly as the angle approaches 90 degrees. At angles that did not produce a saturation of the color in the tube, the computer analysis detected significant differences between different flow volumes. We have concluded that monitoring of volume flow changes by analysis of color Doppler energy is possible, but the angle of insonation must be taken into account.

  13. Color alteration in teeth subjected to different bleaching techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briso, A. L. F.; Fonseca, M. S. M.; de Almeida, L. C. A. G.; Mauro, S. J.; Dos Santos, P. H.

    2010-12-01

    This study evaluated the color alteration of teeth subjected to the action of different bleaching agents and the influence of light sources commonly used in association with these products, In GI, the specimens remained immersed in artificial saliva. The specimens in GII were bleached with a 10% carbamide peroxide gel 4 hours/day during 3 weeks; the teeth in the other three groups were subjected to three sessions of three 10-min applications of 35% hydrogen peroxide gel at 7-day intervals. In GIII, no light was used, while in GIV and GV the gel was associated with a quartz-tungsten-halogen light and a LED/laser source, respectively. The teeth color was evaluated before and 7 days after the bleaching sessions by reflectance spectrophotometry. Data were analyzed statistically by ANOVA and Fisher's test (α = 0.05), and showed that a significant color change was obtained in all treated groups. After the first week of treatment and at the end of it, the bleaching protocols showed similar results. The results of the present study indicate that association of a light source is not necessary to obtain the bleaching effect and that optimal bleaching can be achieved with all techniques tested.

  14. Chromium content in different kinds of Spanish infant formulae and estimation of dietary intake by infants fed on reconstituted powder formulae.

    PubMed

    Sola-Larrañaga, Cristina; Navarro-Blasco, Iñigo

    2006-11-01

    Chromium is well documented as an essential element for humans. Trivalent chromium, the main chemical form found in foods, is essential for maintaining normal glucose metabolism. Owing to analytical difficulties, several literature reports of chromium content of foods, especially for the lower levels, show large variability and should be interpreted with caution. Zeeman background correction, transversely heated graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry was used to determine the chromium content of 104 different infant formulae (cow's milk and soy protein based) marketed in Spain following an acid-digestion sample preparation procedure in a closed, pressurized and microwave digestion unit. The mean and range of chromium values, regarding types and main protein-based infant formulae are presented. Additionally, the influence of the type of container used, the impact of industrial process from different manufacturers and the physical state (powder and liquid formulae) on chromium levels is also discussed. In general, the infant formulae contain a higher chromium concentration than that found in human milk (reference range: 0.20-8.18 microg l-1), particularly in the case of hypoallergenic (18.16 +/- 7.89 microg l-1), lactose-free (11.37 +/- 3.07 microg l-1), pre-term (11.48 +/- 3.15 microg l-1) and soya (10.43 +/- 4.05 microg l-1) formulae. The maximum theoretical estimated intake of infants fed on the studied formulae was lower than the upper limit safety for trivalent chromium of 1 mg kg-1 (14 microg kg-1 b.w. day-1) recommended by the experts of Council for Responsible Nutrition (Hathcock 2004; available at: http://crnusa.org/safety.html), amounting to about 10, 15-18 and 26% of the standard (adapted and follow-up) and toddler, soya, lactose-free and pre-term, and hypoallergenic formulae, respectively. Therefore, manufacturers are called upon to make continued efforts to routinely monitor chromium levels, particularly for specialised and pre-term formulae

  15. The Difference between the Two Representative Kampo Formulas for Treating Dysmenorrhea: An Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Yoshino, Tetsuhiro; Katayama, Kotoe; Horiba, Yuko; Munakata, Kaori; Yamaguchi, Rui; Imoto, Seiya; Miyano, Satoru; Mima, Hideki; Watanabe, Kenji; Mimura, Masaru

    2016-01-01

    In Kampo medicine, two different formulas are effective for treating dysmenorrhea—tokishakuyakusan and keishibukuryogan; however, the criteria by which specialists select the appropriate formula for each patient are not clear. We compared patients treated with tokishakuyakusan and those with keishibukuryogan and proposed a predictive model. The study included 168 primary and secondary dysmenorrhea patients who visited the Kampo Clinic at Keio University Hospital. We collected clinical data from 128 dysmenorrhea patients, compared the two patient groups and selected significantly different factors as potential predictors, and used logistic regression to establish a model. An external validation was performed using 40 dysmenorrhea patients. Lightheadedness, BMI < 18.5, and a weak abdomen were significantly more frequent in the tokishakuyakusan group; tendency to sweat, heat intolerance, leg numbness, a cold sensation in the lower back, a strong abdomen, and paraumbilical tenderness and resistance were more frequent in the keishibukuryogan group. The final model fitted the data well. Internally estimated accuracy was 81.2%, and a leave-one-out cross-validation estimate of accuracy was 80.5%. External validation accuracy was 85.0%. We proposed a model for predicting the use of two Kampo formulas for dysmenorrhea, which should be validated in prospective trials. PMID:27006676

  16. Colorful Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Suzanne

    1991-01-01

    Described is an color-making activity where students use food coloring, eyedroppers, and water to make various colored solutions. Included are the needed materials and procedures. Students are asked to write up the formulas for making their favorite color. (KR)

  17. Orientation of an Asian longhorned beetle, Anoplophora glabripennis, towards objects of different shapes and colors

    Treesearch

    Baode Wang; David R. Lance; Joseph A. Francese; Zhichun Xu; Fengyong Jia; Youqing Luo; Victor C. Mastro

    2003-01-01

    Silhouettes of different colors, shapes and sizes made of bamboo frames covered with cloth, paired in different color sets, were placed equidistantly around the perimeter of a circle with a 7.5 m radius, in an open area.

  18. Variability and systematic differences in normal, protan, and deutan color naming

    PubMed Central

    Nagy, Balázs V.; Németh, Zoltán; Samu, Krisztián; Ábrahám, György

    2014-01-01

    The congenital color vision deficient (CVD) generally demonstrates difficulties in color naming tasks. In our study we investigated color naming properties and uncertainties of a relatively large group of red–green CVDs using quasi monochromatic stimuli and seven basic color terms. The results show a large variability in color naming for the CVD when contrasted to normal color vision and similar alterations when comparing protans to deutans. Statistically significant differences were found in specific wavelength ranges between the tested groups. In general, protans and deutans have shown better color naming ability than expected, which suggests the use of non-chromatic visual cues. PMID:25538665

  19. Variability and systematic differences in normal, protan, and deutan color naming.

    PubMed

    Nagy, Balázs V; Németh, Zoltán; Samu, Krisztián; Ábrahám, György

    2014-01-01

    The congenital color vision deficient (CVD) generally demonstrates difficulties in color naming tasks. In our study we investigated color naming properties and uncertainties of a relatively large group of red-green CVDs using quasi monochromatic stimuli and seven basic color terms. The results show a large variability in color naming for the CVD when contrasted to normal color vision and similar alterations when comparing protans to deutans. Statistically significant differences were found in specific wavelength ranges between the tested groups. In general, protans and deutans have shown better color naming ability than expected, which suggests the use of non-chromatic visual cues.

  20. The effect of different drinks on the color stability of different restorative materials after one month

    PubMed Central

    Tuncer, Safa; Demirci, Mustafa; Serim, Merve Efe; Baydemir, Canan

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of three different drinks on the color parameters of four different restorative materials. Materials and Methods Three different composites (Filtek Ultimate Universal Restorative, Filtek Ultimate Flowable, and Filtek Silorane, 3M ESPE) and a polyacid-modified composite resin material (Dyract XP, Dentsply DeTrey GmbH) were evaluated. Eighty-four disc-shaped specimens of 8 mm in diameter and 2 mm in thickness were prepared (n = 21 each). Color coordinates (L*a*b*, ΔL*, Δa*, Δb*, and ΔE*) were measured using a VİTA Easyshade Compact (VİTA Zahnfabrik) after 24 hr of storage (baseline) and after 30 day of storage in three different beverages of black tea, Coca cola, or water (control) (n = 7). In each beverage, the specimens were stored three times a day, one hr each, for 30 day. The color changes (ΔE) were calculated and were analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn multiple comparison test. Results The color difference (ΔE*) of the resin materials ranged between 1.31 and 15.28 after 30 day of immersion in the staining solutions. Dyract XP in Coca cola (15.28 ± 2.61) and black tea (12.22 ± 2.73) showed the highest mean ΔE* value after 30 day, followed by Filtek Ultimate Universal Restorative (5.99 ± 1.25) and Filtek Ultimate Flowable (4.71 ± 1.40) in black tea (p < 0.05). Conclusions The compomers displayed unacceptable color changes at the end of 30 day in all beverages. Among resin composites, the silorane based composite exhibited relatively good color stability than the others. Filtek Ultimate Universal Restorative and Filtek Flowable showed similar color changes in all beverages. PMID:26587410

  1. Color difference of composite resins after cementation with different shades of resin luting cement.

    PubMed

    Cengiz, Esra; Kurtulmus-Yilmaz, Sevcan; Karakaya, Izgen; Aktore, Huseyin

    2017-07-26

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the color difference of nanohybrid and ormocer-based composite resins with different thicknesses when 4 different shades of resin luting cement were used. 56 disc specimens of each composite resin (Aelite aesthetic enamel, Ceram-X mono) with 0.5 and 1 mm thicknesses were fabricated. Baseline color measurements were performed using a clinical spectrophotometer. The specimens of each thicknesses of each resin were randomly divided into 4 groups according to the shades of resin luting cement (white/A1, yellow/universal/A3, transparent and white opaque) (n = 7). Mixed resin cement was applied onto the resin specimens using a Teflon mold in 0.1 mm thickness. Color measurements of cemented composite resin specimens were repeated and color difference (∆E) between baseline and after cementation measurements was calculated. ANOVA and Tukey's test were used for statistical analysis. The opaque shade had significantly increased ∆E values as compared to the other shades (p < 0.05). For all shades except white opaque in both thicknesses, ∆E values of aelite aesthetic enamel were higher as compared to Ceram-X mono. There is no significant difference between 2 thicknesses for both resins in terms of ∆E values. The shade of resin cement and the type of the resin affected the final color; however, the thickness of composite resin had no influence on the final color of restoration. Selecting the shade of resin luting cement before cementation of indirect composite laminate restoration is important to achieve final color match.

  2. Waking Up to Difference: Teachers, Color-Blindness, and the Effects on Students of Color

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castro Atwater, Sheri A.

    2008-01-01

    Color-blindness, the ideology that "race should not matter" in how individuals are treated, is often confused with "race does not matter" (Neville, 2000). The historical, social, and political origins of color-blind racial attitudes are outlined here. Developmental and constructivist theories are used to illustrate how…

  3. Waking Up to Difference: Teachers, Color-Blindness, and the Effects on Students of Color

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castro Atwater, Sheri A.

    2008-01-01

    Color-blindness, the ideology that "race should not matter" in how individuals are treated, is often confused with "race does not matter" (Neville, 2000). The historical, social, and political origins of color-blind racial attitudes are outlined here. Developmental and constructivist theories are used to illustrate how…

  4. Spectrophotometric evaluation of color match of three different porcelain systems for all-ceramic zirconia-based restorations.

    PubMed

    Vichi, Alessandro; Fazi, Giovanni; Carrabba, Michele; Corciolani, Gabriele; Louca, Chris; Ferrari, Marco

    2012-08-01

    To determine by a spectrophotometric analysis the variations in color between the intended and the fabricated shades of three different porcelain systems when applied in a standardized thickness on a zirconia core. Three porcelain systems for zirconia based restorations, Ivoclar IPS e.max Ceram, VITA VM9, and Creation Zi-F were tested. Nine disc-shaped (15 mm diameter, 0.5 mm thickness) specimens of VITA YZ zirconia core per group were made comprising a total of 27 discs. Three different shades (A2, A3, A4) of the Vitapan Classical shade guide were investigated. The porcelain veneer total thickness was set at 1.0 mm in all groups. The porcelain stratification was made by applying calibrated layers of porcelain. Thicknesses of single porcelain layers were calculated from drawings retrieved from the manufacturers' instructions. Color parameters (L*, a*, b*) of veneered specimens were measured by a clinical spectrophotometer. Color differences (deltaE) were calculated using a color difference formula. Two-way ANOVA and Tukey's test were used to analyze the data. The mean color differences for the three ceramic systems, Ivoclar IPS e.max Ceram, VITA VM9 and Creation Zi-F were respectively 4.1, 2.7 and 3.2, regardless of the shades. VITA VM9 resulted in the best average shade matching among the porcelain systems, even if results with shade A3 were considerably worse than shades with A2 and A4 (P<0.05). Color matching appeared not to be shade dependent (P>0.05) among the tested shades.

  5. Comparison of Antimicrobial Activity of Child Formula Dentifrices at different Concentrations: An in vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Singla, Shilpy; Shashikiran, ND

    2017-01-01

    Aim The aim of the present in vitro study is to evaluate and compare antimicrobial efficacy of commercially available child’s dental formulas in reduced concentrations containing different forms of fluoride against Streptococcus mutans activity. Materials and methods The selected dentifrices were prepared in dilutions of 1:1, 1:2, 1:4, 1:8, and 1:16 using sterile pyrogen-free distilled water. Various dilutions of the selected toothpaste slurries were incubated in the agar plate containing pure strains of S. mutans, and antimicrobial activity of each was assessed by measuring the diameter of zones of inhibition (in mm). Agar well plate diffusion method and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) determination were the methods used in this study. The inhibitory circle of each dentifrice was measured and MIC was achieved by considering the value of diameter of the circle. Results The results of the study showed that even at a lower concentration of fluoride, inhibition halos were obtained for all the formulations at different dilutions. Conclusion The kid’s formulations having lower fluoride concentration show antimicrobial activity even after dilutions. Thus, commercially, the fluoride concentrations can be further lowered down in the dentifrices, thereby reducing the risk associated with fluoride. How to cite this article Malhotra R, Singla S, Shashikiran ND. Comparison ofAntimicrobial Activity of Child Formula Dentifrices at different Concentrations: An in vitro Study. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2017;10(2):131-135. PMID:28890611

  6. Spearman-Brown prophecy formula and Cronbach's alpha: different faces of reliability and opportunities for new applications.

    PubMed

    de Vet, Henrica C W; Mokkink, Lidwine B; Mosmuller, David G; Terwee, Caroline B

    2017-05-01

    There are similarities between the different forms of reliability, such as internal consistency (internal reliability) and interrater and intrarater reliability. Reliability coefficients that are based on classical test theory can be expressed as intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs), such as Cronbach's alpha. The Spearman-Brown prophecy formula (SB formula) is used to calculate the reliability when the number of items in a questionnaire is changed. This paper aims to increase insight into reliability studies by pointing to the assumptions of reliability coefficients, similarities between various coefficients, and the subsequent new applications of reliability coefficients. The origin and assumptions of Cronbach's alpha and the SB formula are discussed. Cronbach's alpha is written as an ICC formula, using the well-known property that taking the average value of a number of ratings increases the reliability of a measurement. We illustrate with an example that the ICC formulas for average measurements of multiple raters and the SB formula give similar results. This implies that the SB formula can be used to decide on the number of measurements to be averaged and thus on the number of raters required, for obtaining measurements with acceptable reliability, even if the variance components of the ICC formula are not known. Using the same example, we illustrate the principle of "Cronbach's alpha if item deleted" to decide on the poorest performing raters in a set of raters. These applications have different assumptions: the principle of "Cronbach's alpha if item deleted" is based on the assumption of a fixed set of items/raters and the SB formula is based on the assumption of random raters. The example also emphasizes the need for more raters in the design of the reliability study to obtain a robust estimation of reliability. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Natural and sexual selection act on different axes of variation in avian plumage color

    PubMed Central

    Dunn, Peter O.; Armenta, Jessica K.; Whittingham, Linda A.

    2015-01-01

    The bright colors of birds are often attributed to sexual selection on males, but in many species both sexes are colorful and it has been long debated whether sexual selection can also explain this variation. We show that most evolutionary transitions in color have been toward similar plumage in both sexes, and the color of both sexes (for example, bright or dull) was associated with indices of natural selection (for example, habitat type), whereas sexual differences in color were primarily associated with indices of sexual selection on males (for example, polygyny and large testes size). Debate about the evolution of bird coloration can be resolved by recognizing that both natural and sexual selection have been influential, but they have generally acted on two different axes: sexual selection on an axis of sexual differences and natural selection on both sexes for the type of color (for example, bright or dull). PMID:26601146

  8. False Color Processing to Enhance Differences Around Yogi

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    In this scene showing the rover deployed at rock Yogi, the colors have similarly been enhanced to bring out differences. The same three kinds of rocks are recognized as in the distance. Yogi (red arrow), one of the large rocks with a weathered coating, exhibits a fresh face to the northeast, resulting perhaps from eolian scouring or from fracturing off of pieces to expose a fresher surface. Barnacle Bill and Cradle (blue arrows) are typical of the unweathered smaller rocks. During its traverse to Yogi the rover stirred the soil and exposed material from several cm in depth. During one of the turns to deploy Sojourner's Alpha Proton X-Ray Spectrometer (inset and white arrow), the wheels dug particularly deeply and exposed white material. Spectra of this white material show it is virtually identical to Scooby Doo, and such white material may underlie much of the site. The lander's rear ramp, which Sojourner used to descend to the Martian surface, is at lower left.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and managed the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

  9. False Color Processing to Enhance Differences Around Yogi

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    In this scene showing the rover deployed at rock Yogi, the colors have similarly been enhanced to bring out differences. The same three kinds of rocks are recognized as in the distance. Yogi (red arrow), one of the large rocks with a weathered coating, exhibits a fresh face to the northeast, resulting perhaps from eolian scouring or from fracturing off of pieces to expose a fresher surface. Barnacle Bill and Cradle (blue arrows) are typical of the unweathered smaller rocks. During its traverse to Yogi the rover stirred the soil and exposed material from several cm in depth. During one of the turns to deploy Sojourner's Alpha Proton X-Ray Spectrometer (inset and white arrow), the wheels dug particularly deeply and exposed white material. Spectra of this white material show it is virtually identical to Scooby Doo, and such white material may underlie much of the site. The lander's rear ramp, which Sojourner used to descend to the Martian surface, is at lower left.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and managed the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

  10. Teaching Formulaic Sequences: The Same as or Different from Teaching Single Words?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alali, Fatima A.; Schmitt, Norbert

    2012-01-01

    Formulaic language is an important component of discourse and needs to be addressed in teaching pedagogy. Unfortunately, there has been little research into the most effective ways of teaching formulaic language. In this study, Kuwaiti students were taught words and idioms using the same teaching methodologies, and their learning was measured. The…

  11. The Effect of Color on Communication or "A Course of a Different Color."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemons, Frankie; Wall, Larry

    A study examined the influence of the color of an individual's clothing and hair on the feelings and attitudes of others. Subjects, 246 college students, were shown 20 slides, one at a time, and asked to answer 15 questions for each slide. The slides were of four magazine models, two male, two female, with one blonde and one brunette of each sex.…

  12. Neutral oligosaccharides in feces of breastfed and formula-fed infants at different ages.

    PubMed

    Dotz, Viktoria; Adam, Rüdiger; Lochnit, Günter; Schroten, Horst; Kunz, Clemens

    2016-12-01

    Beneficial effects have been proposed for human milk oligosaccharides (HMO), as deduced from in vitro and animal studies. To date, in vivo evidence of the link between certain oligosaccharide structures in milk and their consumption by infant gut microbiota is still missing, although likely. Whereas many studies have described HMO patterns in human milk from larger cohorts, data on the excretion of HMO and possible metabolites produced in the infant gut are still very limited. From smaller-scale studies, an age-dependency according to infant gut maturation and microbiota adaptation has previously been hypothesized. To further investigate this, we profiled neutral fecal oligosaccharides from term-born infants who were exclusively breastfed, formula-fed or mixed-fed at the age of 2 months, and from a follow-up of a subgroup at 7 months of age (INFABIO study). Data on maternal antibiotic exposure was also included. Automated matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry analyses revealed the presence of HMO and metabolites in the feces of most, but not all breastfed infants at 2 months, with highly varying patterns that appeared not to differ with maternal antibiotics exposure. Formula-fed infants at 2 months and most of the breastfed infants at 7 months did not excrete HMO-like structures in their feces, the latter corresponding to the hypothesis of age-dependency. Together with our previous results that were partly contradictory to what has been proposed by others, here, we suggest alternative explanations for the described association of oligosaccharide excretion with age and feeding type in infants below 7 months of age.

  13. Hypergraph coloring complexes.

    PubMed

    Breuer, Felix; Dall, Aaron; Kubitzke, Martina

    2012-08-28

    The aim of this paper is to generalize the notion of the coloring complex of a graph to hypergraphs. We present three different interpretations of those complexes-a purely combinatorial one and two geometric ones. It is shown, that most of the properties, which are known to be true for coloring complexes of graphs, break down in this more general setting, e.g., Cohen-Macaulayness and partitionability. Nevertheless, we are able to provide bounds for the [Formula: see text]- and [Formula: see text]-vectors of those complexes which yield new bounds on chromatic polynomials of hypergraphs. Moreover, though it is proven that the coloring complex of a hypergraph has a wedge decomposition, we provide an example showing that in general this decomposition is not homotopy equivalent to a wedge of spheres. In addition, we can completely characterize those hypergraphs whose coloring complex is connected.

  14. Selective Pressures Explain Differences in Flower Color among Gentiana lutea Populations

    PubMed Central

    Domínguez, Paula; Guitián, Javier A.; Guitián, Pablo; Guitián, José M.

    2015-01-01

    Flower color variation among plant populations might reflect adaptation to local conditions such as the interacting animal community. In the northwest Iberian Peninsula, flower color of Gentiana lutea varies longitudinally among populations, ranging from orange to yellow. We explored whether flower color is locally adapted and the role of pollinators and seed predators as agents of selection by analyzing the influence of flower color on (i) pollinator visitation rate and (ii) escape from seed predation and (iii) by testing whether differences in pollinator communities correlate with flower color variation across populations. Finally, (iv) we investigated whether variation in selective pressures explains flower color variation among 12 G. lutea populations. Flower color influenced pollinator visits and differences in flower color among populations were related to variation in pollinator communities. Selective pressures on flower color vary among populations and explain part of flower color differences among populations of G. lutea. We conclude that flower color in G. lutea is locally adapted and that pollinators play a role in this adaptation. PMID:26172378

  15. Selective Pressures Explain Differences in Flower Color among Gentiana lutea Populations.

    PubMed

    Sobral, Mar; Veiga, Tania; Domínguez, Paula; Guitián, Javier A; Guitián, Pablo; Guitián, José M

    2015-01-01

    Flower color variation among plant populations might reflect adaptation to local conditions such as the interacting animal community. In the northwest Iberian Peninsula, flower color of Gentiana lutea varies longitudinally among populations, ranging from orange to yellow. We explored whether flower color is locally adapted and the role of pollinators and seed predators as agents of selection by analyzing the influence of flower color on (i) pollinator visitation rate and (ii) escape from seed predation and (iii) by testing whether differences in pollinator communities correlate with flower color variation across populations. Finally, (iv) we investigated whether variation in selective pressures explains flower color variation among 12 G. lutea populations. Flower color influenced pollinator visits and differences in flower color among populations were related to variation in pollinator communities. Selective pressures on flower color vary among populations and explain part of flower color differences among populations of G. lutea. We conclude that flower color in G. lutea is locally adapted and that pollinators play a role in this adaptation.

  16. Color Blindness

    MedlinePlus

    ... rose in full bloom. If you have a color vision defect, you may see these colors differently than most people. There are three main kinds of color vision defects. Red-green color vision defects are the most ...

  17. Color scaling of discs and natural objects at different luminance levels.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Thorsten; Gegenfurtner, Karl R

    2006-01-01

    Assigning a basic color name to an object and rating the amount of a particular hue is a fundamental visual capability. Traditional color scaling studies have used increment flashes or isoluminant stimuli of a homogeneous color. Natural objects, however, do not contain a single color but are characterized by a distribution of different chromatic hues. Here we study color scaling using photographs of natural fruit objects. Stimuli were either homogeneous spots, digital photographs of fruit objects (e.g., banana), or outline shapes of the fruit objects. Stimuli were displayed on a CRT monitor on a homogeneous white background; its luminance was varied above and below the medium gray. The chromaticity of the stimuli was varied in 36 equally spaced chromatic directions in the isoluminant plane of the Derrington-Krauskopf-Lennie (DKL) color space. For each stimuli, subjects rated the amount of red, green, blue, and yellow in the stimulus on a scale from 0-8. In agreement with earlier studies we found that the positions of the peak ratings for each color do not coincide with the cardinal axis of DKL color space and are largely invariant under changes of the background luminance. For the average rating we found a dependence on background luminance for all colors: yellow ratings increase with darker backgrounds, whereas ratings for the other colors, in particular green, decrease. For the fruit objects, we found a selective increase in the average color rating for the natural fruit color. For example, the average rating for yellow was 1.7 times higher for the banana images compared to disc stimuli. No such selective increase was found for outline shapes. We conclude that the distribution of hues in natural objects with a characteristic object color can have a profound effect on color scaling and color appearance.

  18. The effect of choosing three different C factor formulae derived from NDVI on a fully raster-based erosion modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sulistyo, Bambang

    2016-11-01

    The research was aimed at studying the efect of choosing three different C factor formulae derived from NDVI on a fully raster-based erosion modelling of The USLE using remote sensing data and GIS technique. Methods applied was by analysing all factors affecting erosion such that all data were in the form of raster. Those data were R, K, LS, C and P factors. Monthly R factor was evaluated based on formula developed by Abdurachman. K factor was determined using modified formula used by Ministry of Forestry based on soil samples taken in the field. LS factor was derived from Digital Elevation Model. Three C factors used were all derived from NDVI and developed by Suriyaprasit (non-linear) and by Sulistyo (linear and non-linear). P factor was derived from the combination between slope data and landcover classification interpreted from Landsat 7 ETM+. Another analysis was the creation of map of Bulk Density used to convert erosion unit. To know the model accuracy, model validation was done by applying statistical analysis and by comparing Emodel with Eactual. A threshold value of ≥ 0.80 or ≥ 80% was chosen to justify. The research result showed that all Emodel using three formulae of C factors have coeeficient of correlation value of > 0.8. The results of analysis of variance showed that there was significantly difference between Emodel and Eactual when using C factor formula developed by Suriyaprasit and Sulistyo (non-linear). Among the three formulae, only Emodel using C factor formula developed by Sulistyo (linear) reached the accuracy of 81.13% while the other only 56.02% as developed by Sulistyo (nonlinear) and 4.70% as developed by Suriyaprasit, respectively.

  19. Color difference of all-ceramic materials by the change of illuminants.

    PubMed

    Yu, Bin; Lee, Yong-Keun

    2009-04-01

    To determine the differences in color and color parameters (lightness, chroma and hue) of simulated layered all-ceramic specimens at a clinically relevant thickness under three CIE standard illuminants. Seven all-ceramic core materials of A2-corresponding shade, one sintering ceramic and one alloy core as references were prepared in clinically relevant thicknesses (0.4 to 0.8 mm). A2- and A3-corresponding shades of each of the recommended veneer ceramics were fabricated so that the thickness of the layered specimens was 1.5 mm. Bovine dentin was also used as a reference. Color was measured relative to the CIE standard illuminants D65, A and F2 with a reflection spectrophotometer. Differences in color and color parameters by the change of illuminants were calculated. Repeated measures two-way ANOVA with the fixed factor of the brand of ceramics on the difference in color and color parameters by the change of illuminants (D65 to A, D65 to F2 and A to F2) was performed (alpha = 0.05). Color difference (deltaE*ab) was in the range of 0.6 to 0.8 for bovine dentin, 1.3 to 3.4 for A2-veneer layered specimens and 1.6 to 4.2 for A3-veneer layered specimens. Differences in color and parameters were significantly influenced by the brand of the ceramics and the combination of illuminants (P < 0.05).

  20. Differences in the Affective Meaning of Color and Black-and-White Pictures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winn, William; Everett, Richard J.

    A total of 73 university freshman and 93 grade 7 and 8 students took part in a study of the differences in the affective meaning of color and black-and-white pictures. Subjects rated black-and-white and color slides on nine seven-point semantic differential scales and a red-blue scale. Results indicated that differences in affective meaning…

  1. Different attitudes during breastfeeding consultations when infant formula was given: a phenomenographic approach

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background WHO and UNICEF believe that both antenatal and maternity care organizations are in an excellent position to protect and, if necessary, reinstate a culture that promotes breastfeeding, and that they are responsible for doing so. In Sweden, the number of breastfeeding women has been decreasing annually since 1996. Thus the aim of this study is to identify, describe and analyze the attitude midwives have towards the mother, child and breastfeeding when infant formula is given. Methods From the theoretical standpoint of Buber's I-Thou and I-It concept, the different attitudes during breastfeeding consultations are interpreted. By using a phenomenographic approach based on 101 accounts of varying lengths from 39 midwives, different attitudes or approaches were identified. Results Four different approaches are distinguished in the breastfeeding consultation. The first is the family as a whole, the second is mother and child as separate and equal, the third views the mother as superior and the fourth views the child as superior. Conclusions The approach of the midwife is related to how she defines the overall perspective of the mother-child relationship and how she looks upon her relationship to the mother-child dyad. Her approach varies depending on whether she meets the mother and child as a subject, similar to herself, or whether she sees one of them as an object. A midwife may also take an outside position, as an object, thus excluding a genuine relationship with the mother. The results also indicate that health care professionals focus on parts of the whole instead of maintaining a holistic perspective. PMID:21281517

  2. Color Difference and Memory Recall in Free-Flying Honeybees: Forget the Hard Problem.

    PubMed

    Dyer, Adrian G; Garcia, Jair E

    2014-07-30

    Free-flying honeybees acquire color information differently depending upon whether a target color is learnt in isolation (absolute conditioning), or in relation to a perceptually similar color (differential conditioning). Absolute conditioning allows for rapid learning, but color discrimination is coarse. Differential conditioning requires more learning trials, but enables fine discriminations. Currently it is unknown whether differential conditioning to similar colors in honeybees forms a long-term memory, and the stability of memory in a biologically relevant scenario considering similar or saliently different color stimuli. Individual free-flying honeybees (N = 6) were trained to similar color stimuli separated by 0.06 hexagon units for 60 trials and mean accuracy was 81.7% ± 12.2% s.d. Bees retested on subsequent days showed a reduction in the number of correct choices with increasing time from the initial training, and for four of the bees this reduction was significant from chance expectation considering binomially distributed logistic regression models. In contrast, an independent group of 6 bees trained to saliently different colors (>0.14 hexagon units) did not experience any decay in memory retention with increasing time. This suggests that whilst the bees' visual system can permit fine discriminations, flowers producing saliently different colors are more easily remembered by foraging bees over several days.

  3. Phytochemicals and antioxidant capacities in rice brans of different color.

    PubMed

    Min, Byungrok; McClung, Anna M; Chen, Ming-Hsuan

    2011-01-01

    Rice bran, a byproduct of the rice milling process, contains most of the phytochemicals. This study aimed at determining the concentrations of lipophilic, solvent-extractable (free), and cell wall-bound (bound) phytochemicals and their antioxidant capacities from brans of white, light brown, brown, purple, and red colors, and broccoli and blueberry for comparison. The concentrations of lipophilic antioxidants of vitamin E (tocopherol and tocotrienols) and γ-oryzanols were 319.67 to 443.73 and 3861.93 to 5911.12 μg/g bran dry weight (DW), respectively, and were not associated with bran color. The total phenolic, total flavonoid, and antioxidant capacities of ORAC (oxygen radical absorbance capacity), DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging, and iron-chelating in the free fraction were correlated with the intensity of bran color, while variations of these in the bound fraction were less than those in the free fraction among brans. Compounds in the bound fraction had higher antioxidant capacity of ORAC than DPPH, relative to those in the free fraction. The bound fraction of light-color brans contributed as much to its total ORAC as the free fraction. Total proanthocyanidin concentration was the highest in red rice bran, while total anthocyanin was highest in purple brans. The predominant anthocyanin was cyanidin-3-glucoside. Red and purple brans had several fold higher total phenolics and flavonoids as well as ORAC and DPPH, from both free and bound fractions, than freeze-dried blueberry and broccoli. These results indicate that rice brans are natural sources of hydrophilic and lipophilic phytochemicals for use in quality control of various food systems as well as for nutraceutical and functional food application.

  4. Escher in color space: individual-differences multidimensional scaling of color dissimilarities collected with a gestalt formation task.

    PubMed

    Bimler, David; Kirkland, John; Pichler, Shaun

    2004-02-01

    The structure of color perception can be examined by collecting judgments about color dissimilarities. In the procedure used here, stimuli are presented three at a time on a computer monitor and the spontaneous grouping of most-similar stimuli into gestalts provides the dissimilarity comparisons. Analysis with multidimensional scaling allows such judgments to be pooled from a number of observers without obscuring the variations among them. The anomalous perceptions of color-deficient observers produce comparisons that are represented well by a geometric model of compressed individual color spaces, with different forms of deficiency distinguished by different directions of compression. The geometrical model is also capable of accommodating the normal spectrum of variation, so that there is greater variation in compression parameters between tests on normal subjects than in those between repeated tests on individual subjects. The method is sufficiently sensitive and the variations sufficiently large that they are not obscured by the use of a range of monitors, even under somewhat loosely controlled conditions.

  5. [Chromaticity and optical spectrum colorimetry of the tongue color in different syndromes of primary hepatic carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Xu, Ying; Zeng, Chang-chun; Cai, Xiu-yu; Guo, Rong-ping; Nie, Guang; Jin, Ying

    2012-11-01

    In this study, the optical data of tongue color of different syndromes in primary hepatic carcinoma (PHC) were detected by optical spectrum colorimetry, and the chromaticity of tongue color was compared and analyzed. The tongue color characteristics of different syndromes in PHC and the relationship between different syndromes and tongue color were also investigated. Tongue color data from 133 eligible PHC patients were collected by optical spectrum colorimetry and the patients were divided into 4 syndrome groups according to their clinical features. The syndrome groups were liver depression and spleen deficiency (LDSD), accumulation of damp-heat (ADH), deficiency of liver and kidney yin (DLKY), and qi stagnation and blood stasis (QSBS). The variation characteristics of chromaticity coordinates, dominant wavelength, excitation purity and the distribution in the International Commission on Illumination (CIE) LAB uniform color space were measured. At the same time, the differences of overall chromatism, clarity, chroma, saturation and hue were also calculated and analyzed. PHC patients in different syndrome groups exhibited differences in chromaticity coordinates. The dominant wavelength of QSBS was distinctly different from that of the other 3 syndromes. Excitation purity in the syndromes of LDSD, ADH and DLKY showed gradual increases (P<0.01). Different syndromes in the CIE LAB color three-dimensional space showed differences in tongue color distribution areas. The CIE hue-angle value of QSBS was negative, and different from that of the other 3 syndromes (P<0.01). CIE chroma in the syndromes of LDSD, ADH and DLKY showed gradual increases (P<0.01), the same as excitation purity. In the comparison of chromatism, tongue color variations in different syndromes were quantified by human observation. This study shows that tongue color diagnosis according to the syndrome classifications of traditional Chinese medicine can be quantified with optical spectrum colorimetry

  6. Sex and skill differences in translation of English color words by Chinese students.

    PubMed

    Yang, Y

    2000-12-01

    The present study investigated sex and skill differences in color-word translation by Chinese-speaking students in university English classes. A questionnaire was administered to estimate the correlation between subjects' performance and their color-related hobbies. To conceptualize the issue better, two more groups of correlated parameter (academic achievements plus demographic factors) were introduced in this research as well. 40 English majors (20 women, 20 men), ranging in education from level one to level four, were randomly drawn from a metropolitan university and tested in the experiments as subjects. These university students were asked to provide Chinese equivalents for a list of 33 elaborated English color terms chosen from a thesaurus by mapping on the 11 color-tone categories defined by basic color theory. The results confirm the findings in relevant studies that used native speakers as subjects by observing that (1) women possessed a richer color vocabulary both in their source language and in their target language, (2) women also provided more elaborated Chinese equivalents to the color words used as stimuli, and finally, (3) women showed a superiority in accuracy in this color-lexicon matching or translating task. As a whole, the effects of skill and age were not significant. A significant correlation was found between the learners' proficiency in English and performance in translation of color words, but this relationship was rather weak and only true for the men. Color-related hobbies did not significantly correlate with the color-decoding performance of these language learners. Neither did the demographic factors. Taken together, it is sensible to state that differences reported here were affected primarily by the sex of the learn er. conditionally by language proficiency, and presumably by the cognitive and perceptual sex differences as well. These findings further indicate that the process of color codability is a complicated but unstudied issue

  7. Multilevel analysis of individual differences in regularities of grapheme-color associations in synesthesia.

    PubMed

    Hamada, Daisuke; Yamamoto, Hiroki; Saiki, Jun

    2017-08-01

    Grapheme-color synesthesia is a neurological phenomenon where visual perception of letters and numbers stimulates perception of a specific color. Grapheme-color correspondences have been shown to be systematically associated with grapheme properties, including visual shape difference, ordinality, and frequency. However, the contributions of grapheme factors differ across individuals. In this study, we applied multilevel analysis to test whether individual differences in regularities of grapheme-color associations could be explained by individual styles of processing grapheme properties. These processing styles are reflected by the type of synesthetic experience. Specifically, we hypothesized that processing focusing on shape differences would be associated with projector synesthetes, while processing focusing on ordinality or familiarity would be associated with associator synesthetes. The analysis revealed that ordinality and familiarity factors were expressed more strongly among associators than among projectors. This finding suggests that grapheme-color associations are partly determined by the type of synesthetic experience. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Content based Image Retrieval based on Different Global and Local Color Histogram Methods: A Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suhasini, Pallikonda Sarah; Sri Rama Krishna, K.; Murali Krishna, I. V.

    2016-06-01

    Different global and local color histogram methods for content based image retrieval (CBIR) are investigated in this paper. Color histogram is a widely used descriptor for CBIR. Conventional method of extracting color histogram is global, which misses the spatial content, is less invariant to deformation and viewpoint changes, and results in a very large three dimensional histogram corresponding to the color space used. To address the above deficiencies, different global and local histogram methods are proposed in recent research. Different ways of extracting local histograms to have spatial correspondence, invariant colour histogram to add deformation and viewpoint invariance and fuzzy linking method to reduce the size of the histogram are found in recent papers. The color space and the distance metric used are vital in obtaining color histogram. In this paper the performance of CBIR based on different global and local color histograms in three different color spaces, namely, RGB, HSV, L*a*b* and also with three distance measures Euclidean, Quadratic and Histogram intersection are surveyed, to choose appropriate method for future research.

  9. Content based Image Retrieval based on Different Global and Local Color Histogram Methods: A Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suhasini, Pallikonda Sarah; Sri Rama Krishna, K.; Murali Krishna, I. V.

    2017-02-01

    Different global and local color histogram methods for content based image retrieval (CBIR) are investigated in this paper. Color histogram is a widely used descriptor for CBIR. Conventional method of extracting color histogram is global, which misses the spatial content, is less invariant to deformation and viewpoint changes, and results in a very large three dimensional histogram corresponding to the color space used. To address the above deficiencies, different global and local histogram methods are proposed in recent research. Different ways of extracting local histograms to have spatial correspondence, invariant colour histogram to add deformation and viewpoint invariance and fuzzy linking method to reduce the size of the histogram are found in recent papers. The color space and the distance metric used are vital in obtaining color histogram. In this paper the performance of CBIR based on different global and local color histograms in three different color spaces, namely, RGB, HSV, L*a*b* and also with three distance measures Euclidean, Quadratic and Histogram intersection are surveyed, to choose appropriate method for future research.

  10. Optical effects of different colors of artificial gingiva on ceramic crowns.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian; Lin, Jin; Gil, Mindy; Da Silva, John D; Wright, Robert; Ishikawa-Nagai, Shigemi

    2013-08-01

    The interaction between gingival color and the shade of ceramic restorations has never been fully studied. The purpose of this study is to investigate the optical effects of altering artificial gingival color on the ceramic crown shade in the cervical area. Thirty-one all-ceramic crowns of different shades were used in this study with six different artificial gingival colors. Using a spectrophotometer (Crystaleye(®) Olympus, Japan), we measured the shade of crowns in cervical areas with each of six different artificial gingiva. The crown color measured in the presence of pink artificial gingiva (control) was compared with the crown color with five other artificial gingiva. color difference values ΔE* were calculated and compared between the control group and test groups and the correlation of the artificial gingival color with the crown color was also assessed. Significant differences were found in the mean L* and a* values of all-ceramic crowns at the cervical regions in all six gingival color groups (p<0.001) and significant Pearson correlations were also found for the mean L* (r=0.987, p<0.001) and a* (r=0.856, p=0.03) values between the artificial gingiva and the ceramic crowns. The mean ΔE* values between the control group and each of the five other gingival groups were all significantly larger than the clinical perceptual threshold of ΔE* 1.6 (p<0.001). Different colors of artificial gingiva generated clinically detectable shade differences in the cervical region of ceramic crowns. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Compositional and Mechanical Properties of Peanuts Roasted to Equivalent Colors using Different Time/Temperature Combinations

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Peanuts in North America and Europe are primarily consumed after dry roasting. Standard industry practice is to roast peanuts to a specific surface color (Hunter L-value) for a given application; however, equivalent surface colors can be attained using different roast temperature/time combinations,...

  12. Different effects of color-based and location-based selection on visual working memory.

    PubMed

    Li, Qi; Saiki, Jun

    2015-02-01

    In the present study, we investigated how feature- and location-based selection influences visual working memory (VWM) encoding and maintenance. In Experiment 1, cue type (color, location) and cue timing (precue, retro-cue) were manipulated in a change detection task. The stimuli were color-location conjunction objects, and binding memory was tested. We found a significantly greater effect for color precues than for either color retro-cues or location precues, but no difference between location pre- and retro-cues, consistent with previous studies (e.g., Griffin & Nobre in Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 15, 1176-1194, 2003). We also found no difference between location and color retro-cues. Experiment 2 replicated the color precue advantage with more complex color-shape-location conjunction objects. Only one retro-cue effect was different from that in Experiment 1: Color retro-cues were significantly less effective than location retro-cues in Experiment 2, which may relate to a structural property of multidimensional VWM representations. In Experiment 3, a visual search task was used, and the result of a greater location than color precue effect suggests that the color precue advantage in a memory task is related to the modulation of VWM encoding rather than of sensation and perception. Experiment 4, using a task that required only memory for individual features but not for feature bindings, further confirmed that the color precue advantage is specific to binding memory. Together, these findings reveal new aspects of the interaction between attention and VWM and provide potentially important implications for the structural properties of VWM representations.

  13. Infant formulas - overview

    MedlinePlus

    ... 6 months of life, infants need only breast milk or formula to meet all their nutritional needs. ... 12 months old who are not drinking breast milk . While there are some differences, infant formulas sold ...

  14. Color difference amplification between gold nanoparticles in colorimetric analysis with actively controlled multiband illumination.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Xiaodong; Dai, Dinggui; Yuan, Zhiqin; Peng, Lan; He, Yan; Yeung, Edward S

    2014-08-05

    Spectral chemical sensing with digital color analysis by using consumer imaging devices could potentially revolutionize personalized healthcare. However, samples with small spectral variations often cannot be differentiated in color due to the nonlinearity of color appearance. In this study, we address this problem by exploiting the color image formation mechanism in digital photography. A close examination of the color image processing pipeline emphasizes that although the color can be represented digitally, it is still a reproducible subjective perception rather than a measurable physical property. That makes it possible to physically manage the color appearance of a nonradiative specimen through engineered illumination. By using scattering light imaging of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) as a model system, we demonstrated via simulation that enlarged color difference between spectrally close samples could be achieved with actively controlled illumination of multiple narrow-band light sources. Experimentally, darkfield imaging results indicate that color separation of single GNPs with various sizes can be significantly improved and the detection limit of GNP aggregation-based colorimetric assays can be much reduced when the conventional spectrally continuous white light was replaced with three independently intensity-controlled laser beams, even though the laser lines were uncorrelated with the LSPR maxima of the GNPs. With low-cost narrow-band light sources widely available today, this actively controlled illumination strategy could be utilized to replace the spectrometer in many spectral sensing applications.

  15. Effect of denture cleansers on color stability, surface roughness, and hardness of different denture base resins.

    PubMed

    Porwal, Anand; Khandelwal, Meenakshi; Punia, Vikas; Sharma, Vivek

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of different denture cleansers on the color stability, surface hardness, and roughness of different denture base resins. Three denture base resin materials (conventional heat cure resin, high impact resin, and polyamide denture base resin) were immersed for 180 days in commercially available two denture cleansers (sodium perborate and sodium hypochlorite). Color, surface roughness, and hardness were measured for each sample before and after immersion procedure. One-way analysis of variance and Tukey's post hoc honestly significant difference test were used to evaluate color, surface roughness, and hardness data before and after immersion in denture cleanser (α =0.05). All denture base resins tested exhibited a change in color, surface roughness, and hardness to some degree in both denture cleansers. Polyamides resin immersed in sodium perborate showed a maximum change in color after immersion for 180 days. Conventional heat cure resin immersed in sodium hypochlorite showed a maximum change in surface roughness and conventional heat cure immersed in sodium perborate showed a maximum change in hardness. Color changes of all denture base resins were within the clinically accepted range for color difference. Surface roughness change of conventional heat cure resin was not within the clinically accepted range of surface roughness. The choice of denture cleanser for different denture base resins should be based on the chemistry of resin and cleanser, denture cleanser concentration, and duration of immersion.

  16. No difference in urinary iodine concentrations between Boston-area breastfed and formula-fed infants.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Joshua H; Leung, Angela M; Hale, Andrea R; Pearce, Elizabeth N; Braverman, Lewis E; He, Xuemei; Belfort, Mandy B; Nelson, Sara M; Brown, Rosalind S

    2014-08-01

    Thyroid hormone is essential for normal mental and physical development in infancy and childhood and is dependent on adequate iodine intake. During the first few months of life, infants are reliant on breastmilk and/or infant formula as their sole sources of dietary iodine. The iodine status of U.S. infants has not been well studied. This was a cross-sectional study of 95 breastfed and/or formula-fed infants less than 3 months of age in the Boston area. We measured iodine content from infants' single spot urine samples and assessed associations with infant feeding type as well as maternal demographic data, salt and multivitamin use, smoking status, and diet. The median infant urine iodine concentration was 197.5 μg/L (range 40-897.5 μg/L). Median infant urine iodine concentrations were similar between infants who were exclusively breastfed (n=39, 203.5 μg/L; range 61.5-395.5 μg/L), formula-fed (n=44, 182.5 μg/L; range 40-897.5 μg/L), and mixed (n=10, 197.8 μg/L; range 123-592.5) (p=0.88). There were no significant correlations of infant urinary iodine with maternal salt or multivitamin use (regularly or in the past 24 hours), active or secondhand cigarette smoke exposures, infant weight, infant length, or recent maternal ingestion of common iodine-containing foods, although the correlations with iodine-containing foods are difficult to accurately determine due to the small sample sizes of these variables. Both breastfed and formula-fed infants less than 3 months of age in the Boston area were generally iodine sufficient. Larger studies are needed to confirm these observations among infants nationwide and elucidate other factors that may contribute to infant iodine nutrition.

  17. Expression differences of anthocyanin biosynthesis genes reveal regulation patterns for red pear coloration.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ya-nan; Yao, Gai-fang; Zheng, Danman; Zhang, Shao-ling; Wang, Chao; Zhang, Ming-yue; Wu, Jun

    2015-02-01

    This research reveals the different expression patterns of anthocyanin biosynthesis enzyme genes and transcription factors in six red-skinned pear cultivars with different genetic backgrounds. Skin color is an important feature of pear fruits, with red skin generally attracting consumers. However, great differences of coloration exist in different pear cultivars. To elucidate the characteristics of pigmentation in pear cultivars with different genetic backgrounds, six cultivars, belonging to P. communis, P. pyrifolia, P. ussuriensis, P. bretschneideri, and a hybrid of P. communis × P. pyrifolia, were used to detect pigment concentrations, expressions of seven anthocyanin biosynthesis enzyme genes, and three related transcription factor genes. Results showed that the occidental pears 'Starkrimson' and 'Red Bartlett' colored at the beginning of fruit setting, but color decreased with fruit maturity; the other four cultivars showed low anthocyanin accumulations and the contents increased during fruit development, but also decreased at later stages. The expression patterns of genes encoding enzymes indicated that ANS and UFGT were decisive genes for anthocyanin biosynthesis for red-skinned pear, and their different expressions led to the coloration differences between occidental and oriental pears. The expression patterns of transcription factors indicated that the different co-expression of MYB10 and bHLH33 genes and the different expressions of WD40 are involved in the differential regulation mechanisms of anthocyanin biosynthesis and coloration pattern between occidental and oriental pears.

  18. Accurate spectral color measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiltunen, Jouni; Jaeaeskelaeinen, Timo; Parkkinen, Jussi P. S.

    1999-08-01

    Surface color measurement is of importance in a very wide range of industrial applications including paint, paper, printing, photography, textiles, plastics and so on. For a demanding color measurements spectral approach is often needed. One can measure a color spectrum with a spectrophotometer using calibrated standard samples as a reference. Because it is impossible to define absolute color values of a sample, we always work with approximations. The human eye can perceive color difference as small as 0.5 CIELAB units and thus distinguish millions of colors. This 0.5 unit difference should be a goal for the precise color measurements. This limit is not a problem if we only want to measure the color difference of two samples, but if we want to know in a same time exact color coordinate values accuracy problems arise. The values of two instruments can be astonishingly different. The accuracy of the instrument used in color measurement may depend on various errors such as photometric non-linearity, wavelength error, integrating sphere dark level error, integrating sphere error in both specular included and specular excluded modes. Thus the correction formulas should be used to get more accurate results. Another question is how many channels i.e. wavelengths we are using to measure a spectrum. It is obvious that the sampling interval should be short to get more precise results. Furthermore, the result we get is always compromise of measuring time, conditions and cost. Sometimes we have to use portable syste or the shape and the size of samples makes it impossible to use sensitive equipment. In this study a small set of calibrated color tiles measured with the Perkin Elmer Lamda 18 and the Minolta CM-2002 spectrophotometers are compared. In the paper we explain the typical error sources of spectral color measurements, and show which are the accuracy demands a good colorimeter should have.

  19. Infants' preferences for toys, colors, and shapes: sex differences and similarities.

    PubMed

    Jadva, Vasanti; Hines, Melissa; Golombok, Susan

    2010-12-01

    Girls and boys differ in their preferences for toys such as dolls and trucks. These sex differences are present in infants, are seen in non-human primates, and relate, in part, to prenatal androgen exposure. This evidence of inborn influences on sex-typed toy preferences has led to suggestions that object features, such as the color or the shape of toys, may be of intrinsically different interest to males and females. We used a preferential looking task to examine preferences for different toys, colors, and shapes in 120 infants, ages 12, 18, or 24 months. Girls looked at dolls significantly more than boys did and boys looked at cars significantly more than girls did, irrespective of color, particularly when brightness was controlled. These outcomes did not vary with age. There were no significant sex differences in infants' preferences for different colors or shapes. Instead, both girls and boys preferred reddish colors over blue and rounded over angular shapes. These findings augment prior evidence of sex-typed toy preferences in infants, but suggest that color and shape do not determine these sex differences. In fact, the direction of influence could be the opposite. Girls may learn to prefer pink, for instance, because the toys that they enjoy playing with are often colored pink. Regarding within sex differences, as opposed to differences between boys and girls, both boys and girls preferred dolls to cars at age 12-months. The preference of young boys for dolls over cars suggests that older boys' avoidance of dolls may be acquired. Similarly, the sex similarities in infants' preferences for colors and shapes suggest that any subsequent sex differences in these preferences may arise from socialization or cognitive gender development rather than inborn factors.

  20. Phospholipid Species in Newborn and 4 Month Old Infants after Consumption of Different Formulas or Breast Milk

    PubMed Central

    Uhl, Olaf; Fleddermann, Manja; Hellmuth, Christian; Demmelmair, Hans; Koletzko, Berthold

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Arachidonic acid (AA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are important long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids for neuronal and cognitive development and are ingredients of infant formulae that are recommended but there is no evidence based minimal supplementation level available. The aim of this analysis was to investigate the effect of supplemented AA and DHA on phospholipid metabolism. Methods Plasma samples of a randomized, double-blind infant feeding trial were used for the analyses of phospholipid species by flow-injection mass spectrometry. Healthy term infants consumed isoenergetic formulae (intervention formula with equal amounts of AA and DHA—IF, control formula without additional AA and DHA—CF) from the first month of life until the age of 120 days. A group of breast milk (BM) -fed infants was followed as a reference. Results The plasma profile detected in newborns was different from 4 month old infants, irrespective of study group. Most relevant changes were seen in higher level of LPC16:1, LPC20:4, PC32:1, PC34:1 and PC36:4 and lower level of LPC18:0, LPC18:2, PC32:2, PC36:2 and several ether-linked phosphatidylcholines in newborns. The sum of all AA and DHA species at 4 month old infants in the CF group showed level of 40% (AA) and 51% (DHA) of newborns. The supplemented amount of DHA resulted in phospholipid level comparable to BM infants, but AA phospholipids were lower than in BM infants. Interestingly, relative contribution of DHA was higher in ether-linked phosphatidylcholines in CF fed infants, but IF and BM fed infants showed higher overall ether-linked phosphatidylcholines levels. Conclusion In conclusion, we have shown that infant plasma phospholipid profile changes remarkably from newborn over time and is dependent on the dietary fatty acid composition. A supplementation of an infant formula with AA and DHA resulted in increased related phospholipid species. PMID:27571269

  1. Phospholipid Species in Newborn and 4 Month Old Infants after Consumption of Different Formulas or Breast Milk.

    PubMed

    Uhl, Olaf; Fleddermann, Manja; Hellmuth, Christian; Demmelmair, Hans; Koletzko, Berthold

    2016-01-01

    Arachidonic acid (AA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are important long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids for neuronal and cognitive development and are ingredients of infant formulae that are recommended but there is no evidence based minimal supplementation level available. The aim of this analysis was to investigate the effect of supplemented AA and DHA on phospholipid metabolism. Plasma samples of a randomized, double-blind infant feeding trial were used for the analyses of phospholipid species by flow-injection mass spectrometry. Healthy term infants consumed isoenergetic formulae (intervention formula with equal amounts of AA and DHA-IF, control formula without additional AA and DHA-CF) from the first month of life until the age of 120 days. A group of breast milk (BM) -fed infants was followed as a reference. The plasma profile detected in newborns was different from 4 month old infants, irrespective of study group. Most relevant changes were seen in higher level of LPC16:1, LPC20:4, PC32:1, PC34:1 and PC36:4 and lower level of LPC18:0, LPC18:2, PC32:2, PC36:2 and several ether-linked phosphatidylcholines in newborns. The sum of all AA and DHA species at 4 month old infants in the CF group showed level of 40% (AA) and 51% (DHA) of newborns. The supplemented amount of DHA resulted in phospholipid level comparable to BM infants, but AA phospholipids were lower than in BM infants. Interestingly, relative contribution of DHA was higher in ether-linked phosphatidylcholines in CF fed infants, but IF and BM fed infants showed higher overall ether-linked phosphatidylcholines levels. In conclusion, we have shown that infant plasma phospholipid profile changes remarkably from newborn over time and is dependent on the dietary fatty acid composition. A supplementation of an infant formula with AA and DHA resulted in increased related phospholipid species.

  2. Effect of different polishing systems and drinks on the color stability of resin composite.

    PubMed

    Berber, Asll; Cakir, Filiz Yalcin; Baseren, Meserret; Gurgan, Sevil

    2013-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the color stability of resin composit using different finishing systems and drinks. Composit disks (5 mm diameter, 2 mm thickness) were prepared for each nanofilled composite using a brass mold. The specimens were divided into 5 finishing system groups Mylar strip (Mylar, DuPont, Wilmington, Del., USA), Soft Lex (3M(™) ESPE(™) St. Paul, MN, USA), Enhance (Dentsply-DeTrey GmbHD Konstanz, Germany), Hiluster (KerrHawe, Bioggio, Switzerland), Opti Disc (KerrHawe, Bioggio, Switzerland) and each group was divided into 10 subgroups (n = 10) and stored for 24 hours at 37°C in different drinks water coffee, coffee with sugar, tea, tea with sugar, diet coke, coke, light sour cherry juice or sour cherry juice. Color of all specimens was measured before and after exposure with a spectrophotometer using CIE L*a*b* relative, and color changes (ΔE*) were then calculated. The data were analyzed with a twoway analysis of variance (ANOVA), and mean values were compared by the Tukey HSD test (p = 0.05). For the drinks, the lowest ΔE* values were observed in the water and highest ΔE* values were observed in sour cherry juice. When drinks with and without sugar were compared, all groups with sugar demonstrated a higher color difference than without sugar. For the different finishing systems, Mylar strip group demonstrated significantly highest color change; Enhance groups demonstrated significantly lowest color change. Finishing treatments and storage solutions significantly affect the color stability of resin composite. The presence of sugar in drinks increased the color difference compared to drinks without composit. Polishing techniques and drinking drinks with sugar may affect the color of esthetic restorations.

  3. Color matching using dot gain and intensity compensation for different papers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Cheol-Hee; Lee, Chae-Soo; Kim, Kyeong-Man; Ha, Yeong-Ho

    1997-04-01

    In a drop-on-demand thermal ink-jet printer, the dot size of an ink droplet expelled from printer depends on the absorption of the paper. This causes severe differences between output images on the different paper materials. In this paper, the color matching algorithm for different papers is proposed. To achieve corresponding color reproduction, dot gain compensation based on saturation was applied to predict color reproduction on printer. If the dot gain of pigment is increased, the white portion of paper decreases while the saturation value increases monotonically. As the result of dot gain compensation, intensity change may be appeared. Therefore, an intensity compensation without any hue variation is followed to match the colors of different substrates.

  4. Cultural Differences in Color/Form Preference and in Classificatory Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, W. H. O.; Nzimande, A.

    1970-01-01

    Cross-cultural data was collected on color/form preference and the ability to classify among Zulu children and adults. Significant differences were found attributable to factors of Western-type schooling, literacy, and urban or rural life. (NH)

  5. Effect of Children's Drinks on Color Stability of Different Dental Composites: An in vitro Study.

    PubMed

    Habib, Ahmed Nour El-Din Ahmed; Abdelmoniem, Soad Abdelmoniem; Mahmoud, Sara Ahmed

    To assess the effect of four different children's drinks on color stability of resin dental composites. A total of one hundred and twenty specimens were prepared from Grandio SO, Filtek Z350 XT and Filtek Z250 XT (forty specimens each). Specimens were thermocycled, then each group was further subdivided into four subgroups (n=10) according to the immersion media which were chocolate milk, mango juice, orange fizzy drink, and water (control). The initial color parameters of each specimen were recorded before immersion (baseline) and color change values were recorded three and seven days after immersion in each solution using a digital spectrophotometer. Atomic force microscope was used to measure the surface roughness in randomly selected samples after one week immersion in children's drinks. All the children's drinks produced color changes in the examined resin dental composites, yet there was no statistical significant difference between the effects of tested drinks on the color changes (mean ΔE) of the three different dental composites (P>0.05). All tested children's drinks caused clinically unacceptable color changes of the tested resin dental composites. Immersion in chocolate milk and orange fizzy led to the highest color changes in the tested resin dental composites.

  6. Color changes in resin cement polymerized with different curing lights under indirect restorations

    PubMed Central

    Bayindir, Funda; Ilday, Nurcan Ozakar; Bayindir, Yusuf Ziya; Karataş, Ozcan; Gurpinar, Aysel

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of different interface materials and curing units on color changes in a resin cement material. Materials and Methods: Three interface materials and different curing systems, quartz-tungsten-halogen and polywave and monowave light-emitting diode (LED) light curing units, were studied at two-time intervals. Polystyrene strip was used as a control group. All measurements were made on a white background for standard color measurement. According to the CIE L*a*b* color space, the baseline color values of each specimen were measured. Differences between the measurements were calculated as ΔE, ΔL, Δa, and Δb. Data were analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Duncan's tests (α = 0.05) with SPSS 20.0 software (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA). ANOVA revealed significance for interface materials and curing units and time for ΔE (P < 0.05). Results: Interaction between polymerizing units, material and time was not significant (P > 0.05). Monowave LED exhibited significantly higher color changes than the other units ([P < 0.05] [ΔE 2.94 ± 0.44]). QTH promoted composite specimens significantly less color change ([P < 0.05] [ΔE 0.87 ± 0.41]). Conclusion: This study concluded that color of resin cement used in the adhesion of indirect restorations was affected by curing device light and indirect restoration material type. PMID:26957793

  7. Two different sensory mechanisms for the control of pupal protective coloration in butterflies.

    PubMed

    Hiraga, Sota

    2005-09-01

    The butterflies Graphium sarpedon nipponum Fruhstorfer and Papilio xuthus Linné show pupal protective color polymorphism, but the two species appear to have different sensory mechanisms for determining pupal coloration. When light was of sufficient illumination, the larvae of Graphium sarpedon became bright yellowish green pupae on white pupation boards and reddish brown pupae on black pupation boards. The pupal coloration thus strongly depended on the brightness of the pupation site. In addition, larvae became bright yellowish green pupae in complete darkness. From these results, measurement of the illumination suggested that pupal color is determined by the illuminant difference between incidence light from the dorsal direction and ventral light from a paper board; i.e., the sum of the reflected light of the board plus the penetrated light passing through the board. The illuminant difference required for reddish brown coloration was 40 lux or more. The optical signals received through the stemmata during a critical period before formation of the thorax garter (band string) were important for coloration. By contrast, in Papilio xuthus, successive tactile signals from a rough surfaced pupation site during a critical period before and after formation of the garter were important for determining brown pupal coloration.

  8. Reasons of different colors in the ignimbrite lithology: micro-XRF and confocal Raman spectrometry method.

    PubMed

    Koralay, Tamer; Kadioglu, Yusuf Kagan

    2008-03-01

    Medium to large volume ignimbrites usually show vertical changes in terms of color, mineral components, texture and geochemistry. Determination of vertical changes in single extensive ignimbrite flow unit is difficult and requires careful studies. Color changes in ignimbrite flow units are very important for earth scientists. This may cause to identify the same ignimbrite series with different definition. Incesu ignimbrite has a wide distribution in the Central Anatolian Volcanic Province (CAVP). It is classified into three levels as lower, middle and upper according to color and welding degree. There is a sharp contact between the lower and middle level. The lower level is dark brown to black in color and the middle level has pinkish red to red color. The present paper focuses on the investigation of color changes between the ignimbrite levels by using micro-XRF and confocal Raman spectrometry. Micro-XRF and Raman spectrometry studies were performed on the polished thin sections of the lower and middle levels with different compositions. These differences were because of the compositional changes of K and slightly Fe elements distribution within the matrix. The dark brown to black color of the lower level was related to the high concentration of the K and Fe relatively to the middle level. Confocal Raman spectrometry investigations exhibited the matrix of the lower level mainly composed of anorthoclase, supporting the results of the micro-XRF.

  9. Opaque contact lens color choices among women of different ethnic groups.

    PubMed

    Gaume, Amber; Prager, Thomas C; Bergmanson, Jan P G; Quintero, Sam; Harden, John; Perrigin, Judith; Piccolo, Marc

    2003-04-01

    The opaque contact lens (OCL) market is profitable and expanding. This pilot study sought to identify OCL color preferences among women of three ethnic groups, African American (A), white (W), and Hispanic Americans (H). Sixty-three brown-eyed female subjects (19 A; 22 W; 22 H), 18 to 35 years of age, with uncorrected near visual accuity of at least 20/50 were recruited. Each subject was presented with OCLs of three different color pattern designs in each of four colors (blue, green, gray, and hazel). The subjects viewed their appearance in a mirror while wearing each lens. Once all lenses had been observed, the subjects chose their lens color preference. Using the nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis test, an ethnic preference was shown for all but the gray contact lenses. In group A 47.4% rated the hazel lens as their first choice whereas 0% chose the blue lens. In contrast, 45.5% of group C chose the blue lens over the other colors but did not favor the hazel lens, which was their first choice only 4.5% of the time. Group H demonstrated the most diversity in color preference, however, 36.4% chose green as their overall lenscolor preference. Distinct differences exist in OCL color preferences among the three ethnic groups studied. Improved understanding of this ethnic difference could increase the efficiency of the trial lens process while possibly decreasing inventory costs when one ethnic group dominates a practice patient base.

  10. Search for new phenomena in different-flavour high-mass dilepton final states in pp collisions at [Formula: see text] Tev with the ATLAS detector.

    PubMed

    Aaboud, M; Aad, G; Abbott, B; Abdallah, J; Abdinov, O; Abeloos, B; Aben, R; AbouZeid, O S; Abraham, N L; Abramowicz, H; Abreu, H; Abreu, R; Abulaiti, Y; Acharya, B S; Adachi, S; Adamczyk, L; Adams, D L; Adelman, J; Adomeit, S; Adye, T; Affolder, A A; Agatonovic-Jovin, T; Agricola, J; Aguilar-Saavedra, J A; Ahlen, S P; Ahmadov, F; Aielli, G; Akerstedt, H; Åkesson, T P A; Akimov, A V; Alberghi, G L; Albert, J; Albrand, S; Verzini, M J Alconada; Aleksa, M; Aleksandrov, I N; Alexa, C; Alexander, G; Alexopoulos, T; Alhroob, M; Ali, B; Aliev, M; Alimonti, G; Alison, J; Alkire, S P; Allbrooke, B M M; Allen, B W; Allport, P P; Aloisio, A; Alonso, A; Alonso, F; Alpigiani, C; Alshehri, A A; Alstaty, M; Gonzalez, B Alvarez; Piqueras, D Álvarez; Alviggi, M G; Amadio, B T; Amako, K; Coutinho, Y Amaral; Amelung, C; Amidei, D; Santos, S P Amor Dos; Amorim, A; Amoroso, S; Amundsen, G; Anastopoulos, C; Ancu, L S; Andari, N; Andeen, T; Anders, C F; Anders, G; Anders, J K; Anderson, K J; Andreazza, A; Andrei, V; Angelidakis, S; Angelozzi, I; Anger, P; Angerami, A; Anghinolfi, F; Anisenkov, A V; Anjos, N; Annovi, A; Antel, C; Antonelli, M; Antonov, A; Anulli, F; Aoki, M; Bella, L Aperio; Arabidze, G; Arai, Y; Araque, J P; Arce, A T H; Arduh, F A; Arguin, J-F; Argyropoulos, S; Arik, M; Armbruster, A J; Armitage, L J; Arnaez, O; Arnold, H; Arratia, M; Arslan, O; Artamonov, A; Artoni, G; Artz, S; Asai, S; Asbah, N; Ashkenazi, A; Åsman, B; Asquith, L; Assamagan, K; Astalos, R; Atkinson, M; Atlay, N B; Augsten, K; Avolio, G; Axen, B; Ayoub, M K; Azuelos, G; Baak, M A; Baas, A E; Baca, M J; Bachacou, H; Bachas, K; Backes, M; Backhaus, M; Bagiacchi, P; Bagnaia, P; Bai, Y; Baines, J T; Baker, O K; Baldin, E M; Balek, P; Balestri, T; Balli, F; Balunas, W K; Banas, E; Banerjee, Sw; Bannoura, A A E; Barak, L; Barberio, E L; Barberis, D; Barbero, M; Barillari, T; Barisits, M-S; Barklow, T; Barlow, N; Barnes, S L; Barnett, B M; Barnett, R M; Barnovska-Blenessy, Z; Baroncelli, A; Barone, G; Barr, A J; Navarro, L Barranco; Barreiro, F; da Costa, J Barreiro Guimarães; Bartoldus, R; Barton, A E; Bartos, P; Basalaev, A; Bassalat, A; Bates, R L; Batista, S J; Batley, J R; Battaglia, M; Bauce, M; Bauer, F; Bawa, H S; Beacham, J B; Beattie, M D; Beau, T; Beauchemin, P H; Bechtle, P; Beck, H P; Becker, K; Becker, M; Beckingham, M; Becot, C; Beddall, A J; Beddall, A; Bednyakov, V A; Bedognetti, M; Bee, C P; Beemster, L J; Beermann, T A; Begel, M; Behr, J K; Belanger-Champagne, C; Bell, A S; Bella, G; Bellagamba, L; Bellerive, A; Bellomo, M; Belotskiy, K; Beltramello, O; Belyaev, N L; Benary, O; Benchekroun, D; Bender, M; Bendtz, K; Benekos, N; Benhammou, Y; Noccioli, E Benhar; Benitez, J; Benjamin, D P; Bensinger, J R; Bentvelsen, S; Beresford, L; Beretta, M; Berge, D; Kuutmann, E Bergeaas; Berger, N; Beringer, J; Berlendis, S; Bernard, N R; Bernius, C; Bernlochner, F U; Berry, T; Berta, P; Bertella, C; Bertoli, G; Bertolucci, F; Bertram, I A; Bertsche, C; Bertsche, D; Besjes, G J; Bylund, O Bessidskaia; Bessner, M; Besson, N; Betancourt, C; Bethani, A; Bethke, S; Bevan, A J; Bianchi, R M; Bianchini, L; Bianco, M; Biebel, O; Biedermann, D; Bielski, R; Biesuz, N V; Biglietti, M; De Mendizabal, J Bilbao; Billoud, T R V; Bilokon, H; Bindi, M; Binet, S; Bingul, A; Bini, C; Biondi, S; Bisanz, T; Bjergaard, D M; Black, C W; Black, J E; Black, K M; Blackburn, D; Blair, R E; Blanchard, J-B; Blazek, T; Bloch, I; Blocker, C; Blue, A; Blum, W; Blumenschein, U; Blunier, S; Bobbink, G J; Bobrovnikov, V S; Bocchetta, S S; Bocci, A; Bock, C; Boehler, M; Boerner, D; Bogaerts, J A; Bogavac, D; Bogdanchikov, A G; Bohm, C; Boisvert, V; Bokan, P; Bold, T; Boldyrev, A S; Bomben, M; Bona, M; Boonekamp, M; Borisov, A; Borissov, G; Bortfeldt, J; Bortoletto, D; Bortolotto, V; Bos, K; Boscherini, D; Bosman, M; Sola, J D Bossio; Boudreau, J; Bouffard, J; Bouhova-Thacker, E V; Boumediene, D; Bourdarios, C; Boutle, S K; Boveia, A; Boyd, J; Boyko, I R; Bracinik, J; Brandt, A; Brandt, G; Brandt, O; Bratzler, U; Brau, B; Brau, J E; Madden, W D Breaden; Brendlinger, K; Brennan, A J; Brenner, L; Brenner, R; Bressler, S; Bristow, T M; Britton, D; Britzger, D; Brochu, F M; Brock, I; Brock, R; Brooijmans, G; Brooks, T; Brooks, W K; Brosamer, J; Brost, E; Broughton, J H; de Renstrom, P A Bruckman; Bruncko, D; Bruneliere, R; Bruni, A; Bruni, G; Bruni, L S; Brunt, B H; Bruschi, M; Bruscino, N; Bryant, P; Bryngemark, L; Buanes, T; Buat, Q; Buchholz, P; Buckley, A G; Budagov, I A; Buehrer, F; Bugge, M K; Bulekov, O; Bullock, D; Burckhart, H; Burdin, S; Burgard, C D; Burghgrave, B; Burka, K; Burke, S; Burmeister, I; Burr, J T P; Busato, E; Büscher, D; Büscher, V; Bussey, P; Butler, J M; Buttar, C M; Butterworth, J M; Butti, P; Buttinger, W; Buzatu, A; Buzykaev, A R; Urbán, S Cabrera; Caforio, D; Cairo, V M; Cakir, O; Calace, N; Calafiura, P; Calandri, A; Calderini, G; Calfayan, P; Callea, G; Caloba, L P; Lopez, S Calvente; Calvet, D; Calvet, S; Calvet, T P; Toro, R Camacho; Camarda, S; Camarri, P; Cameron, D; Armadans, R Caminal; Camincher, C; Campana, S; Campanelli, M; Camplani, A; Campoverde, A; Canale, V; Canepa, A; Bret, M Cano; Cantero, J; Cao, T; Garrido, M D M Capeans; Caprini, I; Caprini, M; Capua, M; Carbone, R M; Cardarelli, R; Cardillo, F; Carli, I; Carli, T; Carlino, G; Carminati, L; Caron, S; Carquin, E; Carrillo-Montoya, G D; Carter, J R; Carvalho, J; Casadei, D; Casado, M P; Casolino, M; Casper, D W; Castaneda-Miranda, E; Castelijn, R; Castelli, A; Gimenez, V Castillo; Castro, N F; Catinaccio, A; Catmore, J R; Cattai, A; Caudron, J; Cavaliere, V; Cavallaro, E; Cavalli, D; Cavalli-Sforza, M; Cavasinni, V; Ceradini, F; Alberich, L Cerda; Cerio, B C; Cerqueira, A S; Cerri, A; Cerrito, L; Cerutti, F; Cerv, M; Cervelli, A; Cetin, S A; Chafaq, A; Chakraborty, D; Chan, S K; Chan, Y L; Chang, P; Chapman, J D; Charlton, D G; Chatterjee, A; Chau, C C; Barajas, C A Chavez; Che, S; Cheatham, S; Chegwidden, A; Chekanov, S; Chekulaev, S V; Chelkov, G A; Chelstowska, M A; Chen, C; Chen, H; Chen, K; Chen, S; Chen, S; Chen, X; Chen, Y; Cheng, H C; Cheng, H J; Cheng, Y; Cheplakov, A; Cheremushkina, E; Moursli, R Cherkaoui El; Chernyatin, V; Cheu, E; Chevalier, L; Chiarella, V; Chiarelli, G; Chiodini, G; Chisholm, A S; Chitan, A; Chizhov, M V; Choi, K; Chomont, A R; Chouridou, S; Chow, B K B; Christodoulou, V; Chromek-Burckhart, D; Chudoba, J; Chuinard, A J; Chwastowski, J J; Chytka, L; Ciapetti, G; Ciftci, A K; Cinca, D; Cindro, V; Cioara, I A; Ciocca, C; Ciocio, A; Cirotto, F; Citron, Z H; Citterio, M; Ciubancan, M; Clark, A; Clark, B L; Clark, M R; Clark, P J; Clarke, R N; Clement, C; Coadou, Y; Cobal, M; Coccaro, A; Cochran, J; Colasurdo, L; Cole, B; Colijn, A P; Collot, J; Colombo, T; Compostella, G; Muiño, P Conde; Coniavitis, E; Connell, S H; Connelly, I A; Consorti, V; Constantinescu, S; Conti, G; Conventi, F; Cooke, M; Cooper, B D; Cooper-Sarkar, A M; Cormier, K J R; Cornelissen, T; Corradi, M; Corriveau, F; Corso-Radu, A; Cortes-Gonzalez, A; Cortiana, G; Costa, G; Costa, M J; Costanzo, D; Cottin, G; Cowan, G; Cox, B E; Cranmer, K; Crawley, S J; Cree, G; Crépé-Renaudin, S; Crescioli, F; Cribbs, W A; Ortuzar, M Crispin; Cristinziani, M; Croft, V; Crosetti, G; Cueto, A; Donszelmann, T Cuhadar; Cummings, J; Curatolo, M; Cúth, J; Czirr, H; Czodrowski, P; D'amen, G; D'Auria, S; D'Onofrio, M; De Sousa, M J Da Cunha Sargedas; Via, C Da; Dabrowski, W; Dado, T; Dai, T; Dale, O; Dallaire, F; Dallapiccola, C; Dam, M; Dandoy, J R; Dang, N P; Daniells, A C; Dann, N S; Danninger, M; Hoffmann, M Dano; Dao, V; Darbo, G; Darmora, S; Dassoulas, J; Dattagupta, A; Davey, W; David, C; Davidek, T; Davies, M; Davison, P; Dawe, E; Dawson, I; De, K; de Asmundis, R; De Benedetti, A; De Castro, S; De Cecco, S; De Groot, N; de Jong, P; De la Torre, H; De Lorenzi, F; De Maria, A; De Pedis, D; De Salvo, A; De Sanctis, U; De Santo, A; De Regie, J B De Vivie; Dearnaley, W J; Debbe, R; Debenedetti, C; Dedovich, D V; Dehghanian, N; Deigaard, I; Del Gaudio, M; Del Peso, J; Del Prete, T; Delgove, D; Deliot, F; Delitzsch, C M; Dell'Acqua, A; Dell'Asta, L; Dell'Orso, M; Della Pietra, M; Della Volpe, D; Delmastro, M; Delsart, P A; DeMarco, D A; Demers, S; Demichev, M; Demilly, A; Denisov, S P; Denysiuk, D; Derendarz, D; Derkaoui, J E; Derue, F; Dervan, P; Desch, K; Deterre, C; Dette, K; Deviveiros, P O; Dewhurst, A; Dhaliwal, S; Di Ciaccio, A; Di Ciaccio, L; Di Clemente, W K; Di Donato, C; Di Girolamo, A; Di Girolamo, B; Di Micco, B; Di Nardo, R; Di Simone, A; Di Sipio, R; Di Valentino, D; Diaconu, C; Diamond, M; Dias, F A; Diaz, M A; Diehl, E B; Dietrich, J; Cornell, S Díez; Dimitrievska, A; Dingfelder, J; Dita, P; Dita, S; Dittus, F; Djama, F; Djobava, T; Djuvsland, J I; do Vale, M A B; Dobos, D; Dobre, M; Doglioni, C; Dolejsi, J; Dolezal, Z; Donadelli, M; Donati, S; Dondero, P; Donini, J; Dopke, J; Doria, A; Dova, M T; Doyle, A T; Drechsler, E; Dris, M; Du, Y; Duarte-Campderros, J; Duchovni, E; Duckeck, G; Ducu, O A; Duda, D; Dudarev, A; Dudder, A Chr; Duffield, E M; Duflot, L; Dührssen, M; Dumancic, M; Dunford, M; Yildiz, H Duran; Düren, M; Durglishvili, A; Duschinger, D; Dutta, B; Dyndal, M; Eckardt, C; Ecker, K M; Edgar, R C; Edwards, N C; Eifert, T; Eigen, G; Einsweiler, K; Ekelof, T; Kacimi, M El; Ellajosyula, V; Ellert, M; Elles, S; Ellinghaus, F; Elliot, A A; Ellis, N; Elmsheuser, J; Elsing, M; Emeliyanov, D; Enari, Y; Endner, O C; Ennis, J S; Erdmann, J; Ereditato, A; Ernis, G; Ernst, J; Ernst, M; Errede, S; Ertel, E; Escalier, M; Esch, H; Escobar, C; Esposito, B; Etienvre, A I; Etzion, E; Evans, H; Ezhilov, A; Ezzi, M; Fabbri, F; Fabbri, L; Facini, G; Fakhrutdinov, R M; Falciano, S; Falla, R J; Faltova, J; Fang, Y; Fanti, M; Farbin, A; Farilla, A; Farina, C; Farina, E M; Farooque, T; Farrell, S; Farrington, S M; Farthouat, P; Fassi, F; Fassnacht, P; Fassouliotis, D; Giannelli, M Faucci; Favareto, A; Fawcett, W J; Fayard, L; Fedin, O L; Fedorko, W; Feigl, S; Feligioni, L; Feng, C; Feng, E J; Feng, H; Fenyuk, A B; Feremenga, L; Martinez, P Fernandez; Perez, S Fernandez; Ferrando, J; Ferrari, A; Ferrari, P; Ferrari, R; de Lima, D E Ferreira; Ferrer, A; Ferrere, D; Ferretti, C; Parodi, A Ferretto; Fiedler, F; Filipčič, A; Filipuzzi, M; Filthaut, F; Fincke-Keeler, M; Finelli, K D; Fiolhais, M C N; Fiorini, L; Firan, A; Fischer, A; Fischer, C; Fischer, J; Fisher, W C; Flaschel, N; Fleck, I; Fleischmann, P; Fletcher, G T; Fletcher, R R M; Flick, T; Castillo, L R Flores; Flowerdew, M J; Forcolin, G T; Formica, A; Forti, A; Foster, A G; Fournier, D; Fox, H; Fracchia, S; Francavilla, P; Franchini, M; Francis, D; Franconi, L; Franklin, M; Frate, M; Fraternali, M; Freeborn, D; Fressard-Batraneanu, S M; Friedrich, F; Froidevaux, D; Frost, J A; Fukunaga, C; Torregrosa, E Fullana; Fusayasu, T; Fuster, J; Gabaldon, C; Gabizon, O; Gabrielli, A; Gabrielli, A; Gach, G P; Gadatsch, S; Gadomski, S; Gagliardi, G; Gagnon, L G; Gagnon, P; Galea, C; Galhardo, B; Gallas, E J; Gallop, B J; Gallus, P; Galster, G; Gan, K K; Gao, J; Gao, Y; Gao, Y S; Walls, F M Garay; García, C; Navarro, J E García; Garcia-Sciveres, M; Gardner, R W; Garelli, N; Garonne, V; Bravo, A Gascon; Gasnikova, K; Gatti, C; Gaudiello, A; Gaudio, G; Gauthier, L; Gavrilenko, I L; Gay, C; Gaycken, G; Gazis, E N; Gecse, Z; Gee, C N P; Geich-Gimbel, Ch; Geisen, M; Geisler, M P; Gellerstedt, K; Gemme, C; Genest, M H; Geng, C; Gentile, S; Gentsos, C; George, S; Gerbaudo, D; Gershon, A; Ghasemi, S; Ghneimat, M; Giacobbe, B; Giagu, S; Giannetti, P; Gibbard, B; Gibson, S M; Gignac, M; Gilchriese, M; Gillam, T P S; Gillberg, D; Gilles, G; Gingrich, D M; Giokaris, N; Giordani, M P; Giorgi, F M; Giorgi, F M; Giraud, P F; Giromini, P; Giugni, D; Giuli, F; Giuliani, C; Giulini, M; Gjelsten, B K; Gkaitatzis, S; Gkialas, I; Gkougkousis, E L; Gladilin, L K; Glasman, C; Glatzer, J; Glaysher, P C F; Glazov, A; Goblirsch-Kolb, M; Godlewski, J; Goldfarb, S; Golling, T; Golubkov, D; Gomes, A; Gonçalo, R; Costa, J Goncalves Pinto Firmino Da; Gonella, G; Gonella, L; Gongadze, A; de la Hoz, S González; Parra, G Gonzalez; Gonzalez-Sevilla, S; Goossens, L; Gorbounov, P A; Gordon, H A; Gorelov, I; Gorini, B; Gorini, E; Gorišek, A; Gornicki, E; Goshaw, A T; Gössling, C; Gostkin, M I; Goudet, C R; Goujdami, D; Goussiou, A G; Govender, N; Gozani, E; Graber, L; Grabowska-Bold, I; Gradin, P O J; Grafström, P; Gramling, J; Gramstad, E; Grancagnolo, S; Gratchev, V; Gravila, P M; Gray, H M; Graziani, E; Greenwood, Z D; Grefe, C; Gregersen, K; Gregor, I M; Grenier, P; Grevtsov, K; Griffiths, J; Grillo, A A; Grimm, K; Grinstein, S; Gris, Ph; Grivaz, J-F; Groh, S; Grohs, J P; Gross, E; Grosse-Knetter, J; Grossi, G C; Grout, Z J; Guan, L; Guan, W; Guenther, J; Guescini, F; Guest, D; Gueta, O; Guido, E; Guillemin, T; Guindon, S; Gul, U; Gumpert, C; Guo, J; Guo, Y; Gupta, R; Gupta, S; Gustavino, G; Gutierrez, P; Ortiz, N G Gutierrez; Gutschow, C; Guyot, C; Gwenlan, C; Gwilliam, C B; Haas, A; Haber, C; Hadavand, H K; Haddad, N; Hadef, A; Hageböck, S; Hagihara, M; Hajduk, Z; Hakobyan, H; Haleem, M; Haley, J; Halladjian, G; Hallewell, G D; Hamacher, K; Hamal, P; Hamano, K; Hamilton, A; Hamity, G N; Hamnett, P G; Han, L; Hanagaki, K; Hanawa, K; Hance, M; Haney, B; Hanke, P; Hanna, R; Hansen, J B; Hansen, J D; Hansen, M C; Hansen, P H; Hara, K; Hard, A S; Harenberg, T; Hariri, F; Harkusha, S; Harrington, R D; Harrison, P F; Hartjes, F; Hartmann, N M; Hasegawa, M; Hasegawa, Y; Hasib, A; Hassani, S; Haug, S; Hauser, R; Hauswald, L; Havranek, M; Hawkes, C M; Hawkings, R J; Hayakawa, D; Hayden, D; Hays, C P; Hays, J M; Hayward, H S; Haywood, S J; Head, S J; Heck, T; Hedberg, V; Heelan, L; Heim, S; Heim, T; Heinemann, B; Heinrich, J J; Heinrich, L; Heinz, C; Hejbal, J; Helary, L; Hellman, S; Helsens, C; Henderson, J; Henderson, R C W; Heng, Y; Henkelmann, S; Correia, A M Henriques; Henrot-Versille, S; Herbert, G H; Herde, H; Herget, V; Jiménez, Y Hernández; Herten, G; Hertenberger, R; Hervas, L; Hesketh, G G; Hessey, N P; Hetherly, J W; Hickling, R; Higón-Rodriguez, E; Hill, E; Hill, J C; Hiller, K H; Hillier, S J; Hinchliffe, I; Hines, E; Hinman, R R; Hirose, M; Hirschbuehl, D; Hobbs, J; Hod, N; Hodgkinson, M C; Hodgson, P; Hoecker, A; Hoeferkamp, M R; Hoenig, F; Hohn, D; Holmes, T R; Homann, M; Honda, T; Hong, T M; Hooberman, B H; Hopkins, W H; Horii, Y; Horton, A J; Hostachy, J-Y; Hou, S; Hoummada, A; Howarth, J; Hoya, J; Hrabovsky, M; Hristova, I; Hrivnac, J; Hryn'ova, T; Hrynevich, A; Hsu, C; Hsu, P J; Hsu, S-C; Hu, Q; Hu, S; Huang, Y; Hubacek, Z; Hubaut, F; Huegging, F; Huffman, T B; Hughes, E W; Hughes, G; Huhtinen, M; Huo, P; Huseynov, N; Huston, J; Huth, J; Iacobucci, G; Iakovidis, G; Ibragimov, I; Iconomidou-Fayard, L; Ideal, E; Idrissi, Z; Iengo, P; Igonkina, O; Iizawa, T; Ikegami, Y; Ikeno, M; Ilchenko, Y; Iliadis, D; Ilic, N; Ince, T; Introzzi, G; Ioannou, P; Iodice, M; Iordanidou, K; Ippolito, V; Ishijima, N; Ishino, M; Ishitsuka, M; Ishmukhametov, R; Issever, C; Istin, S; Ito, F; Ponce, J M Iturbe; Iuppa, R; Iwanski, W; Iwasaki, H; Izen, J M; Izzo, V; Jabbar, S; Jackson, B; Jackson, P; Jain, V; Jakobi, K B; Jakobs, K; Jakobsen, S; Jakoubek, T; Jamin, D O; Jana, D K; Jansky, R; Janssen, J; Janus, M; Jarlskog, G; Javadov, N; Javůrek, T; Jeanneau, F; Jeanty, L; Jeng, G-Y; Jennens, D; Jenni, P; Jeske, C; Jézéquel, S; Ji, H; Jia, J; Jiang, H; Jiang, Y; Jiggins, S; Pena, J Jimenez; Jin, S; Jinaru, A; Jinnouchi, O; Jivan, H; Johansson, P; Johns, K A; Johnson, W J; Jon-And, K; Jones, G; Jones, R W L; Jones, S; Jones, T J; Jongmanns, J; Jorge, P M; Jovicevic, J; Ju, X; Rozas, A Juste; Köhler, M K; Kaczmarska, A; Kado, M; Kagan, H; Kagan, M; Kahn, S J; Kaji, T; Kajomovitz, E; Kalderon, C W; Kaluza, A; Kama, S; Kamenshchikov, A; Kanaya, N; Kaneti, S; Kanjir, L; Kantserov, V A; Kanzaki, J; Kaplan, B; Kaplan, L S; Kapliy, A; Kar, D; Karakostas, K; Karamaoun, A; Karastathis, N; Kareem, M J; Karentzos, E; Karnevskiy, M; Karpov, S N; Karpova, Z M; Karthik, K; Kartvelishvili, V; Karyukhin, A N; Kasahara, K; Kashif, L; Kass, R D; Kastanas, A; Kataoka, Y; Kato, C; Katre, A; Katzy, J; Kawade, K; Kawagoe, K; Kawamoto, T; Kawamura, G; Kazanin, V F; Keeler, R; Kehoe, R; Keller, J S; Kempster, J J; Keoshkerian, H; Kepka, O; Kerševan, B P; Kersten, S; Keyes, R A; Khader, M; Khalil-Zada, F; Khanov, A; Kharlamov, A G; Kharlamova, T; Khoo, T J; Khovanskiy, V; Khramov, E; Khubua, J; Kido, S; Kilby, C R; Kim, H Y; Kim, S H; Kim, Y K; Kimura, N; Kind, O M; King, B T; King, M; Kirk, J; Kiryunin, A E; Kishimoto, T; Kisielewska, D; Kiss, F; Kiuchi, K; Kivernyk, O; Kladiva, E; Klein, M H; Klein, M; Klein, U; Kleinknecht, K; Klimek, P; Klimentov, A; Klingenberg, R; Klinger, J A; Klioutchnikova, T; Kluge, E-E; Kluit, P; Kluth, S; Knapik, J; Kneringer, E; Knoops, E B F G; Knue, A; Kobayashi, A; Kobayashi, D; Kobayashi, T; Kobel, M; Kocian, M; Kodys, P; Koehler, N M; Koffas, T; Koffeman, E; Koi, T; Kolanoski, H; Kolb, M; Koletsou, I; Komar, A A; Komori, Y; Kondo, T; Kondrashova, N; Köneke, K; König, A C; Kono, T; Konoplich, R; Konstantinidis, N; Kopeliansky, R; Koperny, S; Köpke, L; Kopp, A K; Korcyl, K; Kordas, K; Korn, A; Korol, A A; Korolkov, I; Korolkova, E V; Kortner, O; Kortner, S; Kosek, T; Kostyukhin, V V; Kotwal, A; Kourkoumeli-Charalampidi, A; Kourkoumelis, C; Kouskoura, V; Kowalewska, A B; Kowalewski, R; Kowalski, T Z; Kozakai, C; Kozanecki, W; Kozhin, A S; Kramarenko, V A; Kramberger, G; Krasnopevtsev, D; Krasny, M W; Krasznahorkay, A; Kravchenko, A; Kretz, M; Kretzschmar, J; Kreutzfeldt, K; Krieger, P; Krizka, K; Kroeninger, K; Kroha, H; Kroll, J; Kroseberg, J; Krstic, J; Kruchonak, U; Krüger, H; Krumnack, N; Kruse, M C; Kruskal, M; Kubota, T; Kucuk, H; Kuday, S; Kuechler, J T; Kuehn, S; Kugel, A; Kuger, F; Kuhl, A; Kuhl, T; Kukhtin, V; Kukla, R; Kulchitsky, Y; Kuleshov, S; Kuna, M; Kunigo, T; Kupco, A; Kurashige, H; Kurochkin, Y A; Kus, V; Kuwertz, E S; Kuze, M; Kvita, J; Kwan, T; Kyriazopoulos, D; Rosa, A La; Navarro, J L La Rosa; Rotonda, L La; Lacasta, C; Lacava, F; Lacey, J; Lacker, H; Lacour, D; Lacuesta, V R; Ladygin, E; Lafaye, R; Laforge, B; Lagouri, T; Lai, S; Lammers, S; Lampl, W; Lançon, E; Landgraf, U; Landon, M P J; Lanfermann, M C; Lang, V S; Lange, J C; Lankford, A J; Lanni, F; Lantzsch, K; Lanza, A; Laplace, S; Lapoire, C; Laporte, J F; Lari, T; Manghi, F Lasagni; Lassnig, M; Laurelli, P; Lavrijsen, W; Law, A T; Laycock, P; Lazovich, T; Lazzaroni, M; Le, B; Dortz, O Le; Guirriec, E Le; Quilleuc, E P Le; LeBlanc, M; LeCompte, T; Ledroit-Guillon, F; Lee, C A; Lee, S C; Lee, L; Lefebvre, B; Lefebvre, G; Lefebvre, M; Legger, F; Leggett, C; Lehan, A; Miotto, G Lehmann; Lei, X; Leight, W A; Leister, A G; Leite, M A L; Leitner, R; Lellouch, D; Lemmer, B; Leney, K J C; Lenz, T; Lenzi, B; Leone, R; Leone, S; Leonidopoulos, C; Leontsinis, S; Lerner, G; Leroy, C; Lesage, A A J; Lester, C G; Levchenko, M; Levêque, J; Levin, D; Levinson, L J; Levy, M; Lewis, D; Leyko, A M; Leyton, M; Li, B; Li, C; Li, H; Li, H L; Li, L; Li, L; Li, Q; Li, Q; Li, S; Li, X; Li, Y; Liang, Z; Liberti, B; Liblong, A; Lichard, P; Lie, K; Liebal, J; Liebig, W; Limosani, A; Lin, S C; Lin, T H; Lindquist, B E; Lionti, A E; Lipeles, E; Lipniacka, A; Lisovyi, M; Liss, T M; Lister, A; Litke, A M; Liu, B; Liu, D; Liu, H; Liu, H; Liu, J; Liu, J B; Liu, K; Liu, L; Liu, M; Liu, M; Liu, Y L; Liu, Y; Livan, M; Lleres, A; Merino, J Llorente; Lloyd, S L; Sterzo, F Lo; Lobodzinska, E M; Loch, P; Lockman, W S; Loebinger, F K; Loevschall-Jensen, A E; Loew, K M; Loginov, A; Lohse, T; Lohwasser, K; Lokajicek, M; Long, B A; Long, J D; Long, R E; Longo, L; Looper, K A; López, J A; Mateos, D Lopez; Paredes, B Lopez; Paz, I Lopez; Solis, A Lopez; Lorenz, J; Martinez, N Lorenzo; Losada, M; Lösel, P J; Lou, X; Lounis, A; Love, J; Love, P A; Lu, H; Lu, N; Lubatti, H J; Luci, C; Lucotte, A; Luedtke, C; Luehring, F; Lukas, W; Luminari, L; Lundberg, O; Lund-Jensen, B; Luzi, P M; Lynn, D; Lysak, R; Lytken, E; Lyubushkin, V; Ma, H; Ma, L L; Ma, Y; Maccarrone, G; Macchiolo, A; Macdonald, C M; Maček, B; Miguens, J Machado; Madaffari, D; Madar, R; Maddocks, H J; Mader, W F; Madsen, A; Maeda, J; Maeland, S; Maeno, T; Maevskiy, A; Magradze, E; Mahlstedt, J; Maiani, C; Maidantchik, C; Maier, A A; Maier, T; Maio, A; Majewski, S; Makida, Y; Makovec, N; Malaescu, B; Malecki, Pa; Maleev, V P; Malek, F; Mallik, U; Malon, D; Malone, C; Malone, C; Maltezos, S; Malyukov, S; Mamuzic, J; Mancini, G; Mandelli, L; Mandić, I; Maneira, J; Filho, L Manhaes de Andrade; Ramos, J Manjarres; Mann, A; Manousos, A; Mansoulie, B; Mansour, J D; Mantifel, R; Mantoani, M; Manzoni, S; Mapelli, L; Marceca, G; March, L; Marchiori, G; Marcisovsky, M; Marjanovic, M; Marley, D E; Marroquim, F; Marsden, S P; Marshall, Z; Marti-Garcia, S; Martin, B; Martin, T A; Martin, V J; Latour, B Martin Dit; Martinez, M; Outschoorn, V I Martinez; Martin-Haugh, S; Martoiu, V S; Martyniuk, A C; Marx, M; Marzin, A; Masetti, L; Mashimo, T; Mashinistov, R; Masik, J; Maslennikov, A L; Massa, I; Massa, L; Mastrandrea, P; Mastroberardino, A; Masubuchi, T; Mättig, P; Mattmann, J; Maurer, J; Maxfield, S J; Maximov, D A; Mazini, R; Mazza, S M; Fadden, N C Mc; Goldrick, G Mc; Kee, S P Mc; McCarn, A; McCarthy, R L; McCarthy, T G; McClymont, L I; McDonald, E F; Mcfayden, J A; Mchedlidze, G; McMahon, S J; McPherson, R A; Medinnis, M; Meehan, S; Mehlhase, S; Mehta, A; Meier, K; Meineck, C; Meirose, B; Melini, D; Garcia, B R Mellado; Melo, M; Meloni, F; Mengarelli, A; Menke, S; Meoni, E; Mergelmeyer, S; Mermod, P; Merola, L; Meroni, C; Merritt, F S; Messina, A; Metcalfe, J; Mete, A S; Meyer, C; Meyer, C; Meyer, J-P; Meyer, J; Theenhausen, H Meyer Zu; Miano, F; Middleton, R P; Miglioranzi, S; Mijović, L; Mikenberg, G; Mikestikova, M; Mikuž, M; Milesi, M; Milic, A; Miller, D W; Mills, C; Milov, A; Milstead, D A; Minaenko, A A; Minami, Y; Minashvili, I A; Mincer, A I; Mindur, B; Mineev, M; Minegishi, Y; Ming, Y; Mir, L M; Mistry, K P; Mitani, T; Mitrevski, J; Mitsou, V A; Miucci, A; Miyagawa, P S; Mjörnmark, J U; Mlynarikova, M; Moa, T; Mochizuki, K; Mohapatra, S; Molander, S; Moles-Valls, R; Monden, R; Mondragon, M C; Mönig, K; Monk, J; Monnier, E; Montalbano, A; Berlingen, J Montejo; Monticelli, F; Monzani, S; Moore, R W; Morange, N; Moreno, D; Llácer, M Moreno; Morettini, P; Morgenstern, S; Mori, D; Mori, T; Morii, M; Morinaga, M; Morisbak, V; Moritz, S; Morley, A K; Mornacchi, G; Morris, J D; Mortensen, S S; Morvaj, L; Mosidze, M; Moss, J; Motohashi, K; Mount, R; Mountricha, E; Moyse, E J W; Muanza, S; Mudd, R D; Mueller, F; Mueller, J; Mueller, R S P; Mueller, T; Muenstermann, D; Mullen, P; Mullier, G A; Sanchez, F J Munoz; Quijada, J A Murillo; Murray, W J; Musheghyan, H; Muškinja, M; Myagkov, A G; Myska, M; Nachman, B P; Nackenhorst, O; Nagai, K; Nagai, R; Nagano, K; Nagasaka, Y; Nagata, K; Nagel, M; Nagy, E; Nairz, A M; Nakahama, Y; Nakamura, K; Nakamura, T; Nakano, I; Namasivayam, H; Garcia, R F Naranjo; Narayan, R; Villar, D I Narrias; Naryshkin, I; Naumann, T; Navarro, G; Nayyar, R; Neal, H A; Nechaeva, P Yu; Neep, T J; Negri, A; Negrini, M; Nektarijevic, S; Nellist, C; Nelson, A; Nemecek, S; Nemethy, P; Nepomuceno, A A; Nessi, M; Neubauer, M S; Neumann, M; Neves, R M; Nevski, P; Newman, P R; Nguyen, D H; Manh, T Nguyen; Nickerson, R B; Nicolaidou, R; Nielsen, J; Nikiforov, A; Nikolaenko, V; Nikolic-Audit, I; Nikolopoulos, K; Nilsen, J K; Nilsson, P; Ninomiya, Y; Nisati, A; Nisius, R; Nobe, T; Nomachi, M; Nomidis, I; Nooney, T; Norberg, S; Nordberg, M; Norjoharuddeen, N; Novgorodova, O; Nowak, S; Nozaki, M; Nozka, L; Ntekas, K; Nurse, E; Nuti, F; O'grady, F; O'Neil, D C; O'Rourke, A A; O'Shea, V; Oakham, F G; Oberlack, H; Obermann, T; Ocariz, J; Ochi, A; Ochoa, I; Ochoa-Ricoux, J P; Oda, S; Odaka, S; Ogren, H; Oh, A; Oh, S H; Ohm, C C; Ohman, H; Oide, H; Okawa, H; Okumura, Y; Okuyama, T; Olariu, A; Seabra, L F Oleiro; Pino, S A Olivares; Damazio, D Oliveira; Olszewski, A; Olszowska, J; Onofre, A; Onogi, K; Onyisi, P U E; Oreglia, M J; Oren, Y; Orestano, D; Orlando, N; Orr, R S; Osculati, B; Ospanov, R; Garzon, G Otero Y; Otono, H; Ouchrif, M; Ould-Saada, F; Ouraou, A; Oussoren, K P; Ouyang, Q; Owen, M; Owen, R E; Ozcan, V E; Ozturk, N; Pachal, K; Pages, A Pacheco; Rodriguez, L Pacheco; Aranda, C Padilla; Pagáčová, M; Griso, S Pagan; Paganini, M; Paige, F; Pais, P; Pajchel, K; Palacino, G; Palazzo, S; Palestini, S; Palka, M; Pallin, D; Panagiotopoulou, E St; Pandini, C E; Vazquez, J G Panduro; Pani, P; Panitkin, S; Pantea, D; Paolozzi, L; Papadopoulou, Th D; Papageorgiou, K; Paramonov, A; Hernandez, D Paredes; Parker, A J; Parker, M A; Parker, K A; Parodi, F; Parsons, J A; Parzefall, U; Pascuzzi, V R; Pasqualucci, E; Passaggio, S; Pastore, Fr; Pásztor, G; Pataraia, S; Pater, J R; Pauly, T; Pearce, J; Pearson, B; Pedersen, L E; Pedersen, M; Lopez, S Pedraza; Pedro, R; Peleganchuk, S V; Penc, O; Peng, C; Peng, H; Penwell, J; Peralva, B S; Perego, M M; Perepelitsa, D V; Codina, E Perez; Perini, L; Pernegger, H; Perrella, S; Peschke, R; Peshekhonov, V D; Peters, K; Peters, R F Y; Petersen, B A; Petersen, T C; Petit, E; Petridis, A; Petridou, C; Petroff, P; Petrolo, E; Petrov, M; Petrucci, F; Pettersson, N E; Peyaud, A; Pezoa, R; Phillips, P W; Piacquadio, G; Pianori, E; Picazio, A; Piccaro, E; Piccinini, M; Pickering, M A; Piegaia, R; Pilcher, J E; Pilkington, A D; Pin, A W J; Pinamonti, M; Pinfold, J L; Pingel, A; Pires, S; Pirumov, H; Pitt, M; Plazak, L; Pleier, M-A; Pleskot, V; Plotnikova, E; Plucinski, P; Pluth, D; Poettgen, R; Poggioli, L; Pohl, D; Polesello, G; Poley, A; Policicchio, A; Polifka, R; Polini, A; Pollard, C S; Polychronakos, V; Pommès, K; Pontecorvo, L; Pope, B G; Popeneciu, G A; Poppleton, A; Pospisil, S; Potamianos, K; Potrap, I N; Potter, C J; Potter, C T; Poulard, G; Poveda, J; Pozdnyakov, V; Astigarraga, M E Pozo; Pralavorio, P; Pranko, A; Prell, S; Price, D; Price, L E; Primavera, M; Prince, S; Prokofiev, K; Prokoshin, F; Protopopescu, S; Proudfoot, J; Przybycien, M; Puddu, D; Purohit, M; Puzo, P; Qian, J; Qin, G; Qin, Y; Quadt, A; Quayle, W B; Queitsch-Maitland, M; Quilty, D; Raddum, S; Radeka, V; Radescu, V; Radhakrishnan, S K; Radloff, P; Rados, P; Ragusa, F; Rahal, G; Raine, J A; Rajagopalan, S; Rammensee, M; Rangel-Smith, C; Ratti, M G; Rauscher, F; Rave, S; Ravenscroft, T; Ravinovich, I; Raymond, M; Read, A L; Readioff, N P; Reale, M; Rebuzzi, D M; Redelbach, A; Redlinger, G; Reece, R; Reed, R G; Reeves, K; Rehnisch, L; Reichert, J; Reiss, A; Rembser, C; Ren, H; Rescigno, M; Resconi, S; Rezanova, O L; Reznicek, P; Rezvani, R; Richter, R; Richter, S; Richter-Was, E; Ricken, O; Ridel, M; Rieck, P; Riegel, C J; Rieger, J; Rifki, O; Rijssenbeek, M; Rimoldi, A; Rimoldi, M; Rinaldi, L; Ristić, B; Ritsch, E; Riu, I; Rizatdinova, F; Rizvi, E; Rizzi, C; Robertson, S H; Robichaud-Veronneau, A; Robinson, D; Robinson, J E M; Robson, A; Roda, C; Rodina, Y; Perez, A Rodriguez; Rodriguez, D Rodriguez; Roe, S; Rogan, C S; Røhne, O; Romaniouk, A; Romano, M; Saez, S M Romano; Adam, E Romero; Rompotis, N; Ronzani, M; Roos, L; Ros, E; Rosati, S; Rosbach, K; Rose, P; Rosien, N-A; Rossetti, V; Rossi, E; Rossi, L P; Rosten, J H N; Rosten, R; Rotaru, M; Roth, I; Rothberg, J; Rousseau, D; Rozanov, A; Rozen, Y; Ruan, X; Rubbo, F; Rudolph, M S; Rühr, F; Ruiz-Martinez, A; Rurikova, Z; Rusakovich, N A; Ruschke, A; Russell, H L; Rutherfoord, J P; Ruthmann, N; Ryabov, Y F; Rybar, M; Rybkin, G; Ryu, S; Ryzhov, A; Rzehorz, G F; Saavedra, A F; Sabato, G; Sacerdoti, S; Sadrozinski, H F-W; Sadykov, R; Tehrani, F Safai; Saha, P; Sahinsoy, M; Saimpert, M; Saito, T; Sakamoto, H; Sakurai, Y; Salamanna, G; Salamon, A; Loyola, J E Salazar; Salek, D; De Bruin, P H Sales; Salihagic, D; Salnikov, A; Salt, J; Salvatore, D; Salvatore, F; Salvucci, A; Salzburger, A; Sammel, D; Sampsonidis, D; Sanchez, A; Sánchez, J; Martinez, V Sanchez; Sandaker, H; Sandbach, R L; Sander, H G; Sandhoff, M; Sandoval, C; Sankey, D P C; Sannino, M; Sansoni, A; Santoni, C; Santonico, R; Santos, H; Castillo, I Santoyo; Sapp, K; Sapronov, A; Saraiva, J G; Sarrazin, B; Sasaki, O; Sato, K; Sauvan, E; Savage, G; Savard, P; Savic, N; Sawyer, C; Sawyer, L; Saxon, J; Sbarra, C; Sbrizzi, A; Scanlon, T; Scannicchio, D A; Scarcella, M; Scarfone, V; Schaarschmidt, J; Schacht, P; Schachtner, B M; Schaefer, D; Schaefer, L; Schaefer, R; Schaeffer, J; Schaepe, S; Schaetzel, S; Schäfer, U; Schaffer, A C; Schaile, D; Schamberger, R D; Scharf, V; Schegelsky, V A; Scheirich, D; Schernau, M; Schiavi, C; Schier, S; Schillo, C; Schioppa, M; Schlenker, S; Schmidt-Sommerfeld, K R; Schmieden, K; Schmitt, C; Schmitt, S; Schmitz, S; Schneider, B; Schnoor, U; Schoeffel, L; Schoening, A; Schoenrock, B D; Schopf, E; Schott, M; Schouwenberg, J F P; Schovancova, J; Schramm, S; Schreyer, M; Schuh, N; Schulte, A; Schultens, M J; Schultz-Coulon, H-C; Schulz, H; Schumacher, M; Schumm, B A; Schune, Ph; Schwartzman, A; Schwarz, T A; Schweiger, H; Schwemling, Ph; Schwienhorst, R; Schwindling, J; Schwindt, T; Sciolla, G; Scuri, F; Scutti, F; Searcy, J; Seema, P; Seidel, S C; Seiden, A; Seifert, F; Seixas, J M; Sekhniaidze, G; Sekhon, K; Sekula, S J; Seliverstov, D M; Semprini-Cesari, N; Serfon, C; Serin, L; Serkin, L; Sessa, M; Seuster, R; Severini, H; Sfiligoj, T; Sforza, F; Sfyrla, A; Shabalina, E; Shaikh, N W; Shan, L Y; Shang, R; Shank, J T; Shapiro, M; Shatalov, P B; Shaw, K; Shaw, S M; Shcherbakova, A; Shehu, C Y; Sherwood, P; Shi, L; Shimizu, S; Shimmin, C O; Shimojima, M; Shirabe, S; Shiyakova, M; Shmeleva, A; Saadi, D Shoaleh; Shochet, M J; Shojaii, S; Shope, D R; Shrestha, S; Shulga, E; Shupe, M A; Sicho, P; Sickles, A M; Sidebo, P E; Sidiropoulou, O; Sidorov, D; Sidoti, A; Siegert, F; Sijacki, Dj; Silva, J; Silverstein, S B; Simak, V; Simic, Lj; Simion, S; Simioni, E; Simmons, B; Simon, D; Simon, M; Sinervo, P; Sinev, N B; Sioli, M; Siragusa, G; Sivoklokov, S Yu; Sjölin, J; Skinner, M B; Skottowe, H P; Skubic, P; Slater, M; Slavicek, T; Slawinska, M; Sliwa, K; Slovak, R; Smakhtin, V; Smart, B H; Smestad, L; Smiesko, J; Smirnov, S Yu; Smirnov, Y; Smirnova, L N; Smirnova, O; Smith, M N K; Smith, R W; Smizanska, M; Smolek, K; Snesarev, A A; Snyder, I M; Snyder, S; Sobie, R; Socher, F; Soffer, A; Soh, D A; Sokhrannyi, G; Sanchez, C A Solans; Solar, M; Soldatov, E Yu; Soldevila, U; Solodkov, A A; Soloshenko, A; Solovyanov, O V; Solovyev, V; Sommer, P; Son, H; Song, H Y; Sood, A; Sopczak, A; Sopko, V; Sorin, V; Sosa, D; Sotiropoulou, C L; Soualah, R; Soukharev, A M; South, D; Sowden, B C; Spagnolo, S; Spalla, M; Spangenberg, M; Spanò, F; Sperlich, D; Spettel, F; Spighi, R; Spigo, G; Spiller, L A; Spousta, M; Denis, R D St; Stabile, A; Stamen, R; Stamm, S; Stanecka, E; Stanek, R W; Stanescu, C; Stanescu-Bellu, M; Stanitzki, M M; Stapnes, S; Starchenko, E A; Stark, G H; Stark, J; Staroba, P; Starovoitov, P; Stärz, S; Staszewski, R; Steinberg, P; Stelzer, B; Stelzer, H J; Stelzer-Chilton, O; Stenzel, H; Stewart, G A; Stillings, J A; Stockton, M C; Stoebe, M; Stoicea, G; Stolte, P; Stonjek, S; Stradling, A R; Straessner, A; Stramaglia, M E; Strandberg, J; Strandberg, S; Strandlie, A; Strauss, M; Strizenec, P; Ströhmer, R; Strom, D M; Stroynowski, R; Strubig, A; Stucci, S A; Stugu, B; Styles, N A; Su, D; Su, J; Suchek, S; Sugaya, Y; Suk, M; Sulin, V V; Sultansoy, S; Sumida, T; Sun, S; Sun, X; Sundermann, J E; Suruliz, K; Susinno, G; Sutton, M R; Suzuki, S; Svatos, M; Swiatlowski, M; Sykora, I; Sykora, T; Ta, D; Taccini, C; Tackmann, K; Taenzer, J; Taffard, A; Tafirout, R; Taiblum, N; Takai, H; Takashima, R; Takeshita, T; Takubo, Y; Talby, M; Talyshev, A A; Tan, K G; Tanaka, J; Tanaka, M; Tanaka, R; Tanaka, S; Tanioka, R; Tannenwald, B B; Araya, S Tapia; Tapprogge, S; Tarem, S; Tartarelli, G F; Tas, P; Tasevsky, M; Tashiro, T; Tassi, E; Delgado, A Tavares; Tayalati, Y; Taylor, A C; Taylor, G N; Taylor, P T E; Taylor, W; Teischinger, F A; Teixeira-Dias, P; Temming, K K; Temple, D; Kate, H Ten; Teng, P K; Teoh, J J; Tepel, F; Terada, S; Terashi, K; Terron, J; Terzo, S; Testa, M; Teuscher, R J; Theveneaux-Pelzer, T; Thomas, J P; Thomas-Wilsker, J; Thompson, E N; Thompson, P D; Thompson, A S; Thomsen, L A; Thomson, E; Thomson, M; Tibbetts, M J; Torres, R E Ticse; Tikhomirov, V O; Tikhonov, Yu A; Timoshenko, S; Tipton, P; Tisserant, S; Todome, K; Todorov, T; Todorova-Nova, S; Tojo, J; Tokár, S; Tokushuku, K; Tolley, E; Tomlinson, L; Tomoto, M; Tompkins, L; Toms, K; Tong, B; Tornambe, P; Torrence, E; Torres, H; Pastor, E Torró; Toth, J; Touchard, F; Tovey, D R; Trefzger, T; Tricoli, A; Trigger, I M; Trincaz-Duvoid, S; Tripiana, M F; Trischuk, W; Trocmé, B; Trofymov, A; Troncon, C; Trottier-McDonald, M; Trovatelli, M; Truong, L; Trzebinski, M; Trzupek, A; Tseng, J C-L; Tsiareshka, P V; Tsipolitis, G; Tsirintanis, N; Tsiskaridze, S; Tsiskaridze, V; Tskhadadze, E G; Tsui, K M; Tsukerman, I I; Tsulaia, V; Tsuno, S; Tsybychev, D; Tu, Y; Tudorache, A; Tudorache, V; Tuna, A N; Tupputi, S A; Turchikhin, S; Turecek, D; Turgeman, D; Turra, R; Tuts, P M; Tyndel, M; Ucchielli, G; Ueda, I; Ughetto, M; Ukegawa, F; Unal, G; Undrus, A; Unel, G; Ungaro, F C; Unno, Y; Unverdorben, C; Urban, J; Urquijo, P; Urrejola, P; Usai, G; Vacavant, L; Vacek, V; Vachon, B; Valderanis, C; Santurio, E Valdes; Valencic, N; Valentinetti, S; Valero, A; Valery, L; Valkar, S; Ferrer, J A Valls; Van Den Wollenberg, W; Van Der Deijl, P C; van der Graaf, H; van Eldik, N; van Gemmeren, P; Van Nieuwkoop, J; van Vulpen, I; van Woerden, M C; Vanadia, M; Vandelli, W; Vanguri, R; Vaniachine, A; Vankov, P; Vardanyan, G; Vari, R; Varnes, E W; Varol, T; Varouchas, D; Vartapetian, A; Varvell, K E; Vasquez, J G; Vasquez, G A; Vazeille, F; Schroeder, T Vazquez; Veatch, J; Veeraraghavan, V; Veloce, L M; Veloso, F; Veneziano, S; Ventura, A; Venturi, M; Venturi, N; Venturini, A; Vercesi, V; Verducci, M; Verkerke, W; Vermeulen, J C; Vest, A; Vetterli, M C; Viazlo, O; Vichou, I; Vickey, T; Boeriu, O E Vickey; Viehhauser, G H A; Viel, S; Vigani, L; Villa, M; Perez, M Villaplana; Vilucchi, E; Vincter, M G; Vinogradov, V B; Vittori, C; Vivarelli, I; Vlachos, S; Vlasak, M; Vogel, M; Vokac, P; Volpi, G; Volpi, M; von der Schmitt, H; von Toerne, E; Vorobel, V; Vorobev, K; Vos, M; Voss, R; Vossebeld, J H; Vranjes, N; Milosavljevic, M Vranjes; Vrba, V; Vreeswijk, M; Vuillermet, R; Vukotic, I; Vykydal, Z; Wagner, P; Wagner, W; Wahlberg, H; Wahrmund, S; Wakabayashi, J; Walder, J; Walker, R; Walkowiak, W; Wallangen, V; Wang, C; Wang, C; Wang, F; Wang, H; Wang, H; Wang, J; Wang, J; Wang, K; Wang, R; Wang, S M; Wang, T; Wang, T; Wang, W; Wang, X; Wanotayaroj, C; Warburton, A; Ward, C P; Wardrope, D R; Washbrook, A; Watkins, P M; Watson, A T; Watson, M F; Watts, G; Watts, S; Waugh, B M; Webb, S; Weber, M S; Weber, S W; Weber, S A; Webster, J S; Weidberg, A R; Weinert, B; Weingarten, J; Weiser, C; Weits, H; Wells, P S; Wenaus, T; Wengler, T; Wenig, S; Wermes, N; Werner, M; Werner, M D; Werner, P; Wessels, M; Wetter, J; Whalen, K; Whallon, N L; Wharton, A M; White, A; White, M J; White, R; Whiteson, D; Wickens, F J; Wiedenmann, W; Wielers, M; Wiglesworth, C; Wiik-Fuchs, L A M; Wildauer, A; Wilk, F; Wilkens, H G; Williams, H H; Williams, S; Willis, C; Willocq, S; Wilson, J A; Wingerter-Seez, I; Winklmeier, F; Winston, O J; Winter, B T; Wittgen, M; Wittkowski, J; Wolf, T M H; Wolter, M W; Wolters, H; Worm, S D; Wosiek, B K; Wotschack, J; Woudstra, M J; Wozniak, K W; Wu, M; Wu, M; Wu, S L; Wu, X; Wu, Y; Wyatt, T R; Wynne, B M; Xella, S; Xu, D; Xu, L; Yabsley, B; Yacoob, S; Yamaguchi, D; Yamaguchi, Y; Yamamoto, A; Yamamoto, S; Yamanaka, T; Yamauchi, K; Yamazaki, Y; Yan, Z; Yang, H; Yang, H; Yang, Y; Yang, Z; Yao, W-M; Yap, Y C; Yasu, Y; Yatsenko, E; Wong, K H Yau; Ye, J; Ye, S; Yeletskikh, I; Yen, A L; Yildirim, E; Yorita, K; Yoshida, R; Yoshihara, K; Young, C; Young, C J S; Youssef, S; Yu, D R; Yu, J; Yu, J M; Yu, J; Yuan, L; Yuen, S P Y; Yusuff, I; Zabinski, B; Zaidan, R; Zaitsev, A M; Zakharchuk, N; Zalieckas, J; Zaman, A; Zambito, S; Zanello, L; Zanzi, D; Zeitnitz, C; Zeman, M; Zemla, A; Zeng, J C; Zeng, Q; Zengel, K; Zenin, O; Ženiš, T; Zerwas, D; Zhang, D; Zhang, F; Zhang, G; Zhang, H; Zhang, J; Zhang, L; Zhang, R; Zhang, R; Zhang, X; Zhang, Z; Zhao, X; Zhao, Y; Zhao, Z; Zhemchugov, A; Zhong, J; Zhou, B; Zhou, C; Zhou, L; Zhou, L; Zhou, M; Zhou, N; Zhu, C G; Zhu, H; Zhu, J; Zhu, Y; Zhuang, X; Zhukov, K; Zibell, A; Zieminska, D; Zimine, N I; Zimmermann, C; Zimmermann, S; Zinonos, Z; Zinser, M; Ziolkowski, M; Živković, L; Zobernig, G; Zoccoli, A; Nedden, M Zur; Zwalinski, L

    2016-01-01

    A search is performed for a heavy particle decaying into different flavour dilepton pairs ([Formula: see text], [Formula: see text] or [Formula: see text]), using 3.2 fb[Formula: see text] of proton-proton collision data at [Formula: see text] TeV collected in 2015 by the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider. No excess over the Standard Model prediction is observed. Limits at the 95 % credibility level are set on the mass of a [Formula: see text] boson with lepton-flavour-violating couplings at 3.0, 2.7 and 2.6 TeV, and on the mass of a supersymmetric [Formula: see text] sneutrino with R-parity-violating couplings at 2.3, 2.2 and 1.9 TeV, for [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] final states, respectively. The results are also interpreted as limits on the threshold mass for quantum black hole production.

  11. Exploring Combinations of Different Color and Facial Expression Stimuli for Gaze-Independent BCIs

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Long; Jin, Jing; Daly, Ian; Zhang, Yu; Wang, Xingyu; Cichocki, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    Background: Some studies have proven that a conventional visual brain computer interface (BCI) based on overt attention cannot be used effectively when eye movement control is not possible. To solve this problem, a novel visual-based BCI system based on covert attention and feature attention has been proposed and was called the gaze-independent BCI. Color and shape difference between stimuli and backgrounds have generally been used in examples of gaze-independent BCIs. Recently, a new paradigm based on facial expression changes has been presented, and obtained high performance. However, some facial expressions were so similar that users couldn't tell them apart, especially when they were presented at the same position in a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) paradigm. Consequently, the performance of the BCI is reduced. New Method: In this paper, we combined facial expressions and colors to optimize the stimuli presentation in the gaze-independent BCI. This optimized paradigm was called the colored dummy face pattern. It is suggested that different colors and facial expressions could help users to locate the target and evoke larger event-related potentials (ERPs). In order to evaluate the performance of this new paradigm, two other paradigms were presented, called the gray dummy face pattern and the colored ball pattern. Comparison with Existing Method(s): The key point that determined the value of the colored dummy faces stimuli in BCI systems was whether the dummy face stimuli could obtain higher performance than gray faces or colored balls stimuli. Ten healthy participants (seven male, aged 21–26 years, mean 24.5 ± 1.25) participated in our experiment. Online and offline results of four different paradigms were obtained and comparatively analyzed. Results: The results showed that the colored dummy face pattern could evoke higher P300 and N400 ERP amplitudes, compared with the gray dummy face pattern and the colored ball pattern. Online results showed that

  12. No Difference in Urinary Iodine Concentrations Between Boston-Area Breastfed and Formula-Fed Infants

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Joshua H.; Hale, Andrea R.; Pearce, Elizabeth N.; Braverman, Lewis E.; He, Xuemei; Belfort, Mandy B.; Nelson, Sara M.; Brown, Rosalind S.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Thyroid hormone is essential for normal mental and physical development in infancy and childhood and is dependent on adequate iodine intake. During the first few months of life, infants are reliant on breastmilk and/or infant formula as their sole sources of dietary iodine. The iodine status of U.S. infants has not been well studied. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study of 95 breastfed and/or formula-fed infants less than 3 months of age in the Boston area. We measured iodine content from infants' single spot urine samples and assessed associations with infant feeding type as well as maternal demographic data, salt and multivitamin use, smoking status, and diet. Results: The median infant urine iodine concentration was 197.5 μg/L (range 40–897.5 μg/L). Median infant urine iodine concentrations were similar between infants who were exclusively breastfed (n=39, 203.5 μg/L; range 61.5–395.5 μg/L), formula-fed (n=44, 182.5 μg/L; range 40–897.5 μg/L), and mixed (n=10, 197.8 μg/L; range 123–592.5) (p=0.88). There were no significant correlations of infant urinary iodine with maternal salt or multivitamin use (regularly or in the past 24 hours), active or secondhand cigarette smoke exposures, infant weight, infant length, or recent maternal ingestion of common iodine-containing foods, although the correlations with iodine-containing foods are difficult to accurately determine due to the small sample sizes of these variables. Conclusions: Both breastfed and formula-fed infants less than 3 months of age in the Boston area were generally iodine sufficient. Larger studies are needed to confirm these observations among infants nationwide and elucidate other factors that may contribute to infant iodine nutrition. PMID:24801116

  13. In vitro assessment of tooth color alteration by two different types of endodontic irrigants.

    PubMed

    Koursoumis, Anastasios Dimitrios; Kerezoudis, Nikolaos P; Kakaboura, Afrodite

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess in vitro the tooth color alterations associated with two commonly used endodontic irrigants, the chlorhexidine gluconate (CHX) and the sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) up to 15 days post-treatment. Additionally, the possible influence of endodontic access preparation on tooth color was investigated. Thirty intact human anterior teeth were used. Black adhesive tape with a 4 mm diameter window was used to standardize the enamel surface intended for color analysis. After the access cavity, preparation and the initial root canal negotiation with stainless steel hand files, the root canal shaping was completed with rotary nickel-titanium files. The teeth were divided into three groups (n = 10). Conventional syringe irrigation was performed with one irrigant for each group. The enamel surfaces were colorimetrically evaluated before access cavity, after cavity preparation and at 1, 3, 7 and 15 days post-treatment. The CIE color parameters (L*, a*, b*) were recorded and averaged for each material and the corresponding color differences (ΔE) were calculated and statistically analyzed. The most significant factor in tooth color alteration, during the endodontic treatment, was the access preparation. CHX and NaOCl caused tooth color changes comparable with the saline. CHX and NaOCl did not increase the tooth color changes relative to the values induced by the access preparation. The two endodontic irrigants were not able to induce tooth color alteration to a greater extent than the access preparation. Chlorhexidine and NaOCl cannot be considered as discoloring endodontic materials. The most contributing factor in tooth color alteration during endodontic treatment in the anterior teeth is access preparation.

  14. Skin color and makeup strategies of women from different ethnic groups.

    PubMed

    Caisey, L; Grangeat, F; Lemasson, A; Talabot, J; Voirin, A

    2006-12-01

    The development of a world-wide makeup foundation range requires a thorough understanding of skin color features of women around the world. To understand the cosmetic needs of women from different ethnic groups, we measured skin color in five different groups (French and American Caucasian, Japanese, African-American, and Hispanic-American) and compared the data obtained with women's self-perception of skin color, before or after applying their usual foundation product. Skin color was measured using a spectro-radiometer and a spheric lighting device with CCD camera ensuring a highly reliable imaging and data acquisition. The diversity of skin types involved in the study lead to define a large, continuous color space where color spectra from various ethnic groups overlap. Three types of complexion - dark, medium, or light - were distinguished in each group. Only Japanese women did not identify with this lightness scale and considered it makes more sense to classify their skin according to a pink-ocher-beige color scale. The approach however revealed the great variety of skin colors within each ethnic group and the extent of unevenness. A fairly good agreement appeared between women's self-perception and data from color measurements but in Hispanic-American group. Data recorded, after foundation was applied, showed overall consistency with makeup strategy as described by volunteers except for the latter group whose approach looked more uncertain and variable. The findings of the study demonstrate the advantage of combining qualitative and quantitative approach for assessing the cosmetic needs and expectations of women from different ethnic origin and cultural background.

  15. Color blindness

    MedlinePlus

    ... have trouble telling the difference between red and green. This is the most common type of color ... color blindness often have problems seeing reds and greens, too. The most severe form of color blindness ...

  16. Assessment of diclofenac permeation with different formulations: anti-inflammatory study of a selected formula.

    PubMed

    Escribano, Elvira; Calpena, Ana Cristina; Queralt, Josep; Obach, Rossend; Doménech, Jose

    2003-07-01

    The aim of this study was to improve the transdermal permeation of sodium diclofenac. Permeation studies were carried out in vitro using human skin (0.4 mm thick) from plastic surgery as a membrane. Four liquid formulations of 1% (w/w) sodium diclofenac were assayed: three ternary solvent systems (M4, M5, M6) and one microemulsion (M3). A 1% (w/w) solution of sodium diclofenac and a commercially available semisolid preparation were tested as reference formulations. The following permeation parameters for diclofenac were assessed: permeability coefficient, flux and drug permeated and retained in the skin at 24 h. The highest values of these parameters were obtained with formula M4, which contains transcutol 59.2%, oleic acid 14.9% and d-limonene 5% (w/w) as permeation enhancers. The anti-inflammatory activity of this formula was compared with that of the semisolid preparation on carrageenan-induced paw edema in rats. As expected from in vitro results, the M4 diclofenac delivery system showed higher activity than the semisolid preparation, both when applied locally (to the inflammation area) and when applied systemically (to the back). Neither treatment irritated the skin when tested on rabbits in a 72-h trial. These results suggest that topical delivery of sodium diclofenac with an absorption enhancer such as a mixture of oleic acid and d-limonene (M4) may be an effective medication for both dermal and subdermal injuries.

  17. Variability of the Structural Coloration in Two Butterfly Species with Different Prezygotic Mating Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Kertész, Krisztián; Bálint, Zsolt; Biró, László Péter

    2016-01-01

    Structural coloration variability was investigated in two Blue butterfly species that are common in Hungary. The males of Polyommatus icarus (Common Blue) and Plebejus argus (Silver-studded Blue) use their blue wing coloration for conspecific recognition. Despite living in the same type of habitat, these two species display differences in prezygotic mating strategy: the males of P. icarus are patrolling, while P. argus males have sedentary behavior. Therefore, the species-specific photonic nanoarchitecture, which is the source of the structural coloration, may have been subjected to different evolutionary effects. Despite the increasing interest in photonic nanoarchitectures of biological origin, there is a lack of studies focused on the biological variability of structural coloration that examine a statistically relevant number of individuals from the same species. To investigate possible structural color variation within the same species in populations separated by large geographical distances, climatic differences, or applied experimental conditions, one has to be able to compare these variations to the normal biological variability within a single population. The structural coloration of the four wings of 25 male individuals (100 samples for each species) was measured and compared using different light-collecting setups: perpendicular and with an integrating sphere. Significant differences were found in the near UV wavelength region that are perceptible by these polyommatine butterflies but are invisible to human observers. The differences are attributed to the differences in the photonic nanoarchitecture in the scales of these butterflies. Differences in the intensity of structural coloration were also observed and were tentatively attributed to the different prezygotic mating strategies of these insects. Despite the optical complexity of the scale covered butterfly wings, for sufficiently large sample batches, the averaged normal incidence measurements and

  18. Variability of the Structural Coloration in Two Butterfly Species with Different Prezygotic Mating Strategies.

    PubMed

    Piszter, Gábor; Kertész, Krisztián; Bálint, Zsolt; Biró, László Péter

    2016-01-01

    Structural coloration variability was investigated in two Blue butterfly species that are common in Hungary. The males of Polyommatus icarus (Common Blue) and Plebejus argus (Silver-studded Blue) use their blue wing coloration for conspecific recognition. Despite living in the same type of habitat, these two species display differences in prezygotic mating strategy: the males of P. icarus are patrolling, while P. argus males have sedentary behavior. Therefore, the species-specific photonic nanoarchitecture, which is the source of the structural coloration, may have been subjected to different evolutionary effects. Despite the increasing interest in photonic nanoarchitectures of biological origin, there is a lack of studies focused on the biological variability of structural coloration that examine a statistically relevant number of individuals from the same species. To investigate possible structural color variation within the same species in populations separated by large geographical distances, climatic differences, or applied experimental conditions, one has to be able to compare these variations to the normal biological variability within a single population. The structural coloration of the four wings of 25 male individuals (100 samples for each species) was measured and compared using different light-collecting setups: perpendicular and with an integrating sphere. Significant differences were found in the near UV wavelength region that are perceptible by these polyommatine butterflies but are invisible to human observers. The differences are attributed to the differences in the photonic nanoarchitecture in the scales of these butterflies. Differences in the intensity of structural coloration were also observed and were tentatively attributed to the different prezygotic mating strategies of these insects. Despite the optical complexity of the scale covered butterfly wings, for sufficiently large sample batches, the averaged normal incidence measurements and

  19. Differences in tooth shade value according to age, gender and skin color: A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Veeraganta, Sumanth K.; Savadi, Ravindra C.; Baroudi, Kusai; Nassani, Mohammad Z.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: The purpose was to investigate the differences in tooth shade value according to age, gender and skin color among a sample of the local population in Bengaluru, India. Methodology: The study comprised 100 subjects belonging to both gender between the age groups of 16 years to 55 years. Tooth shade values of permanent maxillary left or right central incisors were recorded using the Vitapan 3D-Master shade guide. Skin color was matched using the Radiance compact makeup shades as a guide. Results: Chi-square statistical test demonstrated that younger subjects have lighter tooth shade values. No statistically significant differences were recorded in tooth shade value according to gender or skin color. Conclusion: Within the limitations of the current study, it can be concluded that tooth shade value is significantly influenced by age. Gender and skin color appear not to have a significant relation to tooth shade value. PMID:26929500

  20. Influence of different post core materials on the color of Empress 2 full ceramic crowns.

    PubMed

    Ge, Jing; Wang, Xin-zhi; Feng, Hai-lan

    2006-10-20

    For esthetic consideration, dentin color post core materials were normally used for all-ceramic crown restorations. However, in some cases, clinicians have to consider combining a full ceramic crown with a metal post core. Therefore, this experiment was conducted to test the esthetical possibility of applying cast metal post core in a full ceramic crown restoration. The color of full ceramic crowns on gold and Nickel-Chrome post cores was compared with the color of the same crowns on tooth colored post cores. Different try-in pastes were used to imitate the influence of a composite cementation on the color of different restorative combinations. The majority of patients could not detect any color difference less than DeltaE 1.8 between the two ceramic samples. So, DeltaE 1.8 was taken as the objective evaluative criterion for the evaluation of color matching and patients' satisfaction. When the Empress 2 crown was combined with the gold alloy post core, the color of the resulting material was similar to that of a glass fiber reinforced resin post core (DeltaE = 0.3). The gold alloy post core and the try-in paste did not show a perceptible color change in the full ceramic crowns, which indicated that the color of the crowns might not be susceptible to change between lab and clinic as well as during the process of composite cementation. Without an opaque covering the Ni-Cr post core would cause an unacceptable color effect on the crown (DeltaE = 2.0), but with opaque covering, the color effect became more clinically satisfactory (DeltaE = 1.8). It may be possible to apply a gold alloy post core in the Empress 2 full ceramic crown restoration when necessary. If a non-extractible Ni-Cr post core exists in the root canal, it might be possible to restore the tooth with an Empress 2 crown after covering the labial surface of the core with one layer of opaque resin cement.

  1. Preschoolers' speed of locating a target symbol under different color conditions.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Krista M; Carlin, Michael; Jagaroo, Vinoth

    2006-06-01

    A pressing decision in AAC concerns the organization of aided visual symbols. One recent proposal suggested that basic principles of visual processing may be important determinants of how easily a symbol is found in an array, and that this, in turn will influence more functional outcomes like symbol identification or use. This study examined the role of color on accuracy and speed of symbol location by 16 preschool children without disabilities. Participants searched for a target stimulus in an array of eight stimuli. In the same-color condition, the eight stimuli were all red; in the guided search condition, four of the stimuli were red and four were yellow; in the unique-color condition, all stimuli were unique colors. Accuracy was higher and reaction time was faster when stimuli were unique colors than when they were all one color. Reaction time and accuracy did not differ under the guided search and the color-unique conditions. The implications for AAC are discussed.

  2. Influence of three different concentration techniques on evaporation rate, color and phenolics content of blueberry juice.

    PubMed

    Elik, Aysel; Yanık, Derya Koçak; Maskan, Medeni; Göğüş, Fahrettin

    2016-05-01

    The present study was undertaken to assess the effects of three different concentration processes open-pan, rotary vacuum evaporator and microwave heating on evaporation rate, the color and phenolics content of blueberry juice. Kinetics model study for changes in soluble solids content (°Brix), color parameters and phenolics content during evaporation was also performed. The final juice concentration of 65° Brix was achieved in 12, 15, 45 and 77 min, for microwave at 250 and 200 W, rotary vacuum and open-pan evaporation processes, respectively. Color changes associated with heat treatment were monitored using Hunter colorimeter (L*, a* and b*). All Hunter color parameters decreased with time and dependently studied concentration techniques caused color degradation. It was observed that the severity of color loss was higher in open-pan technique than the others. Evaporation also affected total phenolics content in blueberry juice. Total phenolics loss during concentration was highest in open-pan technique (36.54 %) and lowest in microwave heating at 200 W (34.20 %). So, the use of microwave technique could be advantageous in food industry because of production of blueberry juice concentrate with a better quality and short time of operation. A first-order kinetics model was applied to modeling changes in soluble solids content. A zero-order kinetics model was used to modeling changes in color parameters and phenolics content.

  3. Color makes a difference: two-dimensional object naming in literate and illiterate subjects.

    PubMed

    Reis, Alexandra; Faísca, Luís; Ingvar, Martin; Petersson, Karl Magnus

    2006-02-01

    Previous work has shown that illiterate subjects are better at naming two-dimensional representations of real objects when presented as colored photos as compared to black and white drawings. This raises the question if color or textural details selectively improve object recognition and naming in illiterate compared to literate subjects. In this study, we investigated whether the surface texture and/or color of objects is used to access stored object knowledge in illiterate subjects. A group of illiterate subjects and a matched literate control group were compared on an immediate object naming task with four conditions: color and black and white (i.e., grey-scaled) photos, as well as color and black and white (i.e., grey-scaled) drawings of common everyday objects. The results show that illiterate subjects perform significantly better when the stimuli are colored and this effect is independent of the photographic detail. In addition, there were significant differences between the literacy groups in the black and white condition for both drawings and photos. These results suggest that color object information contributes to object recognition. This effect was particularly prominent in the illiterate group.

  4. Comparison of two different formulas for body surface area in adults at extremes of height and weight.

    PubMed

    Fancher, Karen M; Sacco, Alicia J; Gwin, Robert C; Gormley, Luke K; Mitchell, Caitlin B

    2016-10-01

    Different equations for predicting body surface area have been derived. The DuBois and Mosteller body surface area equations are considered equivalent, but the accuracy in adult patients at extremes of height and weight is unknown. To compare body surface area in patients at extremes of height and weight using both formulas to determine whether a difference affected chemotherapy dose. Anthropometric data were extracted from the 2012 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Vital and Health Statistics. Data for both males and females were examined. The 50th percentiles of weight and height were used to calculate the body surface area with both formulas. Calculations were repeated using the 5th through 95th percentiles for weight, then the 5th through 95th percentiles for height, and so forth until all extremes of height and weight were examined. Each body surface area was used to calculate a chemotherapy dose. A difference of ≥4.5% in dose was considered clinically significant. Differences were apparent in both males and females. Dosing differences were most apparent in patients in the 50th, 75th or 95th percentile for both height and weight. Differences are also noted in other percentiles, suggesting that patients of smaller stature may also be affected. Guidelines recommend full doses of chemotherapy for patients with curative intent but do not specify which body surface area formula is preferred. Our results imply that the Mosteller equation provides a greater chemotherapy dose, and this difference may be clinically significant in patients who are in the 50th to 95th percentiles for height, weight or both. Further study is necessary to validate these results and determine the impact on patient outcomes. © The Author(s) 2015.

  5. Cross-cultural differences in color preferences: implication for international film distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Kyung Jae

    2002-06-01

    This paper proposes the necessity of manipulating colors of movie contents to fit diverse audiences around the world. Since films are highly color-dependent messages, it is critical to understand how people in different cultures respond differently to color. In recent years, the international market for filmed entertainment has grown more than the U.S. market. However, a lack of research on audience preferences shows no constant guide for the motion picture industry. The film production stage is often disregarded to deliver the appropriate visual color contents for local audience when U.S. films are distributed to foreign markets. Therefore, it is assumed that it would cause distractions for local audiences and it could result in poor ticket sales. When the U.S. produced films are distributed in Asia, colors of original films are always shown without manipulation. It is common that when a U.S. manufactured car is imported to Japan, a driver seat is installed on the right side and also other parts are modified for local customers. Film development is also significantly dependent on audience behavior, so film content also needs to be localized for the different culture. This paper will only address a hypothesis of the implementation of color marketing methodology present in motion pictures.

  6. Optical influence of different standard illuminants on green nephrite's color From Manasi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Hong-mei; Guo, Ying

    2010-11-01

    To evaluate the optical influence of illuminant on green color with low chroma (C*~1~12) of nephrite from Manasi, three different standard illuminant-daylight D65, incandescent light A and fluorescent light F2 (CWF) were applied during the experiment. Two-way ANOVA was used to analyze the illuminants tested considering the coordinates of lightness L* and chromaticity a*, b*. The results indicate significant differences for L*, a* and b* (p<0.05). Only L* between D65 and F2 didn't vary significantly (p=0.691) with the multiple comparisons (LSD- test). The green color with higher C*and L* were found to be easily influenced by illuminant, and the color-difference was larger and the color appearance varied more obviously while the illuminant as changed. The changes in color parameters and visual effects showed that the D65 light illuminant is more suitable for the evaluation of green nephrite's color grading while light source A can be used during trading.

  7. Effect of alloy recasting on the color of opaque porcelain applied on different dental alloy systems.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Burak; Ozcelik, Tuncer B; Johnston, William M; Kurtulmus-Yilmaz, Sevcan; Company, Andrea M

    2012-12-01

    The effect of different proportions of recast dental alloys on the color of overlying opaque porcelain (OP) is unknown. The purpose of this study was to compare the color of OP applied on 2 different proportions (50% and 100%) of recast alloys with the color of commercially available shade tabs of OP. Six different metal alloy systems (2 base: Metalloy CC, Cr-Co [B-MCC]; Heraenium NA, Ni-Cr [B-HNA]; 3 noble: Cerapall 2, Pd-Au [N-CP2]; Triumph, Pd-Ag [N-T]; V-Deltaloy, Au-Pd [N-VD]; and 1 high-noble: V-Gnathos Plus, Au-Pt [HN-GP]) were selected for the fabrication of disk-shaped specimens (10 mm in diameter, 1 mm in thickness). Each alloy was divided into 2 subgroups: 50% new alloy with 50% recast alloy (n=3) and 100% recast alloy (n=3). OP (B1) was applied (0.1 mm) to all specimens. The color coordinates (L*, a*, b*) of each specimen and the corresponding commercially available OP shade tab (control) were measured with a spectroradiometer, and color differences between specimens and control group were calculated. Data were statistically analyzed (2-way ANOVA, Ryan-Einot-Gabriel-Welsch multiple range test, α=.05). For each alloy, ΔL*(L(control)(-)L(recastalloy)) values for the 2 subgroups were not statistically different from each other. The Δa* and Δb* of different proportions of N-CP2, B-HNA, N-VD, and HN-GP were not statistically different within the alloys. However, the a* values of 100% recast N-T and B-MCC were significantly closer to the a* values of the control group, and the b* values of 50% recast B-MCC were significantly closer to the b* values of the control group (P<.05). Delta E(control-recast) alloy values for different proportions of alloys were not statistically different. However, color differences did not meet the criterion of clinical acceptability (ΔE=3.46). According to the results of this study, the different proportions (50% and 100%) of recast alloys used have similar effects on the color of OP. Differences between the final color of OP

  8. The effect of repeated firings on the color change of dental ceramics using different glazing methods

    PubMed Central

    Yılmaz, Kerem; Ozturk, Caner

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE Surface color is one of the main criteria to obtain an ideal esthetic. Many factors such as the type of the material, surface specifications, number of firings, firing temperature and thickness of the porcelain are all important to provide an unchanged surface color in dental ceramics. The aim of this study was to evaluate the color changes in dental ceramics according to the material type and glazing methods, during the multiple firings. MATERIALS AND METHODS Three different types of dental ceramics (IPS Classical metal ceramic, Empress Esthetic and Empress 2 ceramics) were used in the study. Porcelains were evaluated under five main groups according to glaze and natural glaze methods. Color changes (ΔE) and changes in color parameters (ΔL, Δa, Δb) were determined using colorimeter during the control, the first, third, fifth, and seventh firings. The statistical analysis of the results was performed using ANOVA and Tukey test. RESULTS The color changes which occurred upon material-method-firing interaction were statistically significant (P<.05). ΔE, ΔL, Δa and Δb values also demonstrated a negative trend. The MC-G group was less affected in terms of color changes compared to other groups. In all-ceramic specimens, the surface color was significantly affected by multiple firings. CONCLUSION Firing detrimentally affected the structure of the porcelain surface and hence caused fading of the color and prominence of yellow and red characters. Compressible all-ceramics were remarkably affected by repeated firings due to their crystalline structure. PMID:25551001

  9. The effect of repeated firings on the color change of dental ceramics using different glazing methods.

    PubMed

    Yılmaz, Kerem; Gonuldas, Fehmi; Ozturk, Caner

    2014-12-01

    Surface color is one of the main criteria to obtain an ideal esthetic. Many factors such as the type of the material, surface specifications, number of firings, firing temperature and thickness of the porcelain are all important to provide an unchanged surface color in dental ceramics. The aim of this study was to evaluate the color changes in dental ceramics according to the material type and glazing methods, during the multiple firings. Three different types of dental ceramics (IPS Classical metal ceramic, Empress Esthetic and Empress 2 ceramics) were used in the study. Porcelains were evaluated under five main groups according to glaze and natural glaze methods. Color changes (ΔE) and changes in color parameters (ΔL, Δa, Δb) were determined using colorimeter during the control, the first, third, fifth, and seventh firings. The statistical analysis of the results was performed using ANOVA and Tukey test. The color changes which occurred upon material-method-firing interaction were statistically significant (P<.05). ΔE, ΔL, Δa and Δb values also demonstrated a negative trend. The MC-G group was less affected in terms of color changes compared to other groups. In all-ceramic specimens, the surface color was significantly affected by multiple firings. Firing detrimentally affected the structure of the porcelain surface and hence caused fading of the color and prominence of yellow and red characters. Compressible all-ceramics were remarkably affected by repeated firings due to their crystalline structure.

  10. Comparing different formulae to test for gastrointestinal nematode resistance to benzimidazoles in smallholder goat farms in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Torres-Acosta, J F J; Aguilar-Caballero, A J; Le Bigot, C; Hoste, H; Canul-Ku, H L; Santos-Ricalde, R; Gutiérrez-Segura, I

    2005-12-10

    The objective was to examine the coincidence in the prevalence of benzimidazole (Bz) resistance in smallholder goat herds, as determined by three average-based and two individually-based faecal egg count reduction (FECR) tests. Nineteen smallholder goat herds with more than 30 animals were selected from 84 herds in Yucatan. Animals shedding 150 eggs/g of faeces (EPG) on day zero were randomly divided into two groups. The control group did not receive treatment and the treated group received fenbendazole (10mg/kg body weight per os). Feed was withdrawn for 16 h before treatment. Ten days after treatment, both groups were sampled to determine their FEC. Faecal cultures and identification of infective larvae were performed for estimating the proportions of genera of gastrointestinal nematodes (GIN) present. Presence of resistant GIN was determined with three different average-based FECR (FECR(1), FECR(2) and FECR(3)) and two individually-based FECR (iFECR(1) and iFECR(2)). The prevalence of herds with Bz resistant nematodes (and 95% confidence interval (95% CI)) was calculated using each formula. Coincidence among formulae was estimated with Kappa values. The prevalence (+/- 95% CI) of Bz resistance calculated with FECR(1) (57.89 +/- 22.20) had a high coincidence with iFECR(1) and iFECR(2) (Kappa values of 0.86 and 0.79, respectively). The prevalence with FECR(2) (31.58 +/- 20.90) and FECR(3) (21.05 +/- 18.33) had a low coincidence with FECR(1) (Kappa < 0.50). Trichostrongylids found on Bz resistant farms were mainly Haemonchus spp., however, some Trichostrongylus spp. and Oesophagostomum spp. were found too. The high coincidence between the standard average-based FECR(1) and the individually based formulae is encouraging and may suggest that either formula could be applied to smallholder farmers. Further laboratory studies are needed to confirm the resistance status in the herds.

  11. Spectrophotometric evaluation of the color changes of different feldspathic porcelains after exposure to commonly consumed beverages

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Chandni; Bhargava, Akshay; Gupta, Sharad; Rath, Rishi; Nagpal, Abhishek; Kumar, Prince

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to compare color stability and surface topography of three different feldspathic porcelains both qualitatively and quantitatively after exposure to routinely consumed beverages over different time periods using a Spectrophotometer, Stereomicroscope and Surface roughness tester, respectively. Materials and Methods: A total of 90 plastic discs were casted to obtain metal dies for three different newer ceramic applications each on thirty samples. The color and surface roughness of these samples were measured using stereomicroscope and surface roughness tester following which they were kept in different test solutions for different durations and revaluated for color changes and surface roughness in the similar manner. Results and Conclusion: Among all the five test solutions, Coffee showed the maximum staining of the ceramic whereas maximum surface roughness was shown by the Duceram Kiss (1.48 μm) by Orange Juice which could be due to its high titratable acidity. PMID:24883022

  12. The Effect of Learning Style and Variations in Color Coding Strategies (B & W/Color) in Facilitating Student Achievement of Different Educational Objectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alemar, Irma; Dwyer, Francis

    1993-01-01

    Examined the effect of different levels of color and black/gray/white in visuals to facilitate student achievement of facts, concepts, and generalizations. Participants were 244 high school students in Puerto Rico. Results indicated a significant Intelligence-Quotient and learning-style effect on dependent measures and the color-coding effect…

  13. Multivariate statistical analysis of the color-anthocyanin relationships in different soilless-grown strawberry genotypes.

    PubMed

    Hernanz, Dolores; Recamales, Angeles F; Meléndez-Martínez, Antonio J; González-Miret, M Lourdes; Heredia, Francisco J

    2008-04-23

    Apart from the need to assess the color of foods due to its preponderant role in their acceptability, there is currently a new trend consisting in the study of the relationships between the color and the pigments accounting for it. The color of five strawberry varieties cultivated in two different soilless systems has been studied, and an array of multivariate statistical methods have been performed to single out the color parameters that best discriminate among the different samples surveyed and to correlate them with the pigment content. It is concluded that there is not a direct relationship between the external and flesh colorations of the berries. Additionally, after discriminant methods were applied, it was noticed that, taking into account the strawberry varieties, >90% of the cases could be correctly classified, a noticeably lower percentage of correct classification (around 60%) being obtained when the type of cultivation system was selected as the criterion for discrimination. The best correlations of pigment-color coordinates were found between pelargonidin-3-rutinoside and the external a* (r= -0.87) followed by pelargonidin-3-glucoside and the internal L* (r= -0.72).

  14. Genomic expression differences between cutaneous cells from red hair color individuals and black hair color individuals based on bioinformatic analysis.

    PubMed

    Puig-Butille, Joan Anton; Gimenez-Xavier, Pol; Visconti, Alessia; Nsengimana, Jérémie; Garcia-García, Francisco; Tell-Marti, Gemma; Escamez, Maria José; Newton-Bishop, Julia; Bataille, Veronique; Del Río, Marcela; Dopazo, Joaquín; Falchi, Mario; Puig, Susana

    2016-12-24

    The MC1R gene plays a crucial role in pigmentation synthesis. Loss-of-function MC1R variants, which impair protein function, are associated with red hair color (RHC) phenotype and increased skin cancer risk. Cultured cutaneous cells bearing loss-of-function MC1R variants show a distinct gene expression profile compared to wild-type MC1R cultured cutaneous cells. We analysed the gene signature associated with RHC co-cultured melanocytes and keratinocytes by Protein-Protein interaction (PPI) network analysis to identify genes related with non-functional MC1R variants. From two detected networks, we selected 23 nodes as hub genes based on topological parameters. Differential expression of hub genes was then evaluated in healthy skin biopsies from RHC and black hair color (BHC) individuals. We also compared gene expression in melanoma tumors from individuals with RHC versus BHC. Gene expression in normal skin from RHC cutaneous cells showed dysregulation in 8 out of 23 hub genes (CLN3, ATG10, WIPI2, SNX2, GABARAPL2, YWHA, PCNA and GBAS). Hub genes did not differ between melanoma tumors in RHC versus BHC individuals. The study suggests that healthy skin cells from RHC individuals present a constitutive genomic deregulation associated with the red hair phenotype and identify novel genes involved in melanocyte biology.

  15. Effects of sports beverages and polishing systems on color stability of different resin composites

    PubMed Central

    Taşkınsel, Ertan; Özel, Emre; Öztürk, Elif

    2014-01-01

    Background: Consumption of certain acidic beverages may alter the physical and esthetic properties of resin composites. Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of two sports beverages on color stability of two different types of resin composites polished with different composite polishing systems. Materials and Methods: A total of 96 disk-shaped specimens (diameter: 8-mm and thickness: 2-mm) were made from two different resin composites (Cavex Quadrant Universal-LC, and Clearfil-APX). All of the specimens were stored in distilled water for 24 h at 37°C. Color measurements of each specimen were performed using a colorimeter according to the CIEL*a*b* color scale at baseline and after seven days of immersion in two different sports beverages (Powerade and Buzzer). Statistical Analysis Used: The data were evaluated using Kruskal Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests. Results: Significant differences were found between the mean ΔE values of the groups after seven days of immersion (P < 0.05). The highest level of the mean color change was observed in the Clearfil APX specimens immersed in Powerade (ΔE = 3.5 ± 0.9). Control groups stored in distilled water for both composites exhibited small color changes (ΔE-Cavex-bur = 2.1 ± 1; ΔE-Clearfil APX-bur = 2.1 ± 0.4). Conclusion: Sport beverages caused discoloration in the resin composites after seven days. PMID:25125843

  16. Formation of colorized silicon by femtosecond laser pulses in different background gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Hong-Dao; Li, Xiao-Hong; Li, Guo-Qiang; Wen, Cai; Qiu, Rong; Huang, Wen-Hao; Wang, Jun-Bo

    2011-08-01

    A single-crystal silicon(111) wafer surface fixed on an x- y translation stage is scanned with a focused femtosecond laser beam at a wavelength of 800 nm under different atmospheres (air, vacuum, and nitrogen). Different colors from different angles on the surface of the silicon then appear. From the result of the experiments, periodic ripple surface structures emerge on the surface of colorized silicon, and the phenomenon is more obvious in vacuum and nitrogen than in air. The periods of the surface structures on silicon are not the same in the different atmospheres. Under vacuum, the period is the longest and is closer to the wavelength of the laser irradiation. Different from metals, the range of energy density is smaller when the colorized silicon appears with femtosecond laser pulses. Through SEM, TEM, and AFM, we observe in detail the microstructures of colorized silicon that forms in air, vacuum, and nitrogen and analyze the possible physical mechanism. Finally, research into the optical reflection of the colorized silicon indicates that the reflectivity is not higher than 30% in the 250-800 nm range.

  17. Optical Dental Whitening Efficacy of Blue Covarine Toothpaste in Teeth Stained by Different Colors.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Morgana; Fernández, Eduardo; Bortolatto, Janaína; Oliveira Junior, Osmir; Bandeca, Matheus; Khajotia, Sharukh; Florez, Fernando

    2016-03-01

    Evaluate the immediate and cumulative optical whitening efficacy of a blue covarine toothpaste. 180 bovine tooth specimens with similar shade (ΔE < 3.5) were staining of different beverage: black tea(BT), green tea (GT), red wine (RW), orange soda (OS), and brazilian açai juice (AJ), and then submitted to tooth brushing with a blue covarine toothpaste (Op) or a control abrasive toothpaste (Ab). The whitening effect was evaluated at baseline (B), after staining (S), after 1 day (1D) and 7 days of cumulative use of toothpastes (7D). The color shade chances were assessment by Vita Easyshade reflectance spectroscope and the data of CIELab color coordinates (L*, a*, and b*), color difference (ΔE) and the whiteness index optimized (WIO), were analyzed by two-way mixed analysis of variance (ANOVA) for repeated measures and Bonferroni-corrected t-tests (α = 0.05). The analysis showed statistically significant differences before and after staining by colored beverages (p < 0.05), but no differences were found due to the action of toothpaste (p > 0.05), in the CIELab coordinates, ΔE and WIO index. The use of toothpastes (Op or Ab) reduced the dental staining caused by different colored beverage, but the whitening effect of blue covarine toothpaste could not be confirmed (p > 0.05). © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Change in color of a maxillofacial prosthetic silicone elastomer, following investment in molds of different materials

    PubMed Central

    Sethi, Tania; Kheur, Mohit; Coward, Trevor; Patel, Naimesha

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: In the authors’ experience, the color of silicone elastomer following polymerization in molds made of gypsum products is slightly different from the color that was matched in the presence of the patient, before the silicone is packed. It is hypothesized that the investing materials and separating media have an effect on the color during the polymerization process of the silicone. Materials and Methods: This study compares and evaluates the change in color of silicone elastomer packed in three commonly used investing materials - Dental stone (white color), dental stone (green color), and die stone (orange color); coated with three different separating media – Alginate-based medium, soap solution and a resin-based die hardening material. Pigmented silicone samples of dimensions 1.5 cm × 2 cm × 0.5 cm were made from the elastomer in the above-mentioned mold materials using combinations of the mentioned separating media. These served as test group samples. Control group samples were made by packing a mix of the same pigmented elastomer in stainless steel molds. The L*, a*, b* values of the test and control group samples were determined using a spectrophotometer. The change in color (Delta E) was calculated between the control and test groups. Results: The mean L, a, b values for the control group were, 31.8, 26.2, and 36.3, respectively. Average values of change in color (Delta E) for samples packed utilizing alginate-based medium, die hardener, and soap solution, respectively in white dental stone (2.70, 2.74, and 2.88), green dental stone (2.19, 2.23, 2.42), and orange die stone (3.19, 2.72, 2.80) were tabulated. Conclusion: Among the investing materials studied, die stone showed the most color change (3.19), which was statistically significant. Among the separating media, die hardener showed the least color change (2.23). The best combination of an investing material and separating media as per this investigation is a dental stone (green) and alginate

  19. Development of the RGB LEDs color mixing mechanism for stability the color temperature at different projection distances.

    PubMed

    Hung, Chih-Ching

    2015-01-01

    In lighting application, the color mixing of the RGB LEDs can provide more color selection in correlated color temperature and color rendering. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to propose a RGB color mixing mechanism by applying the mechanism design. Three sets of lamp-type RGB LEDs are individually installed on three four-bar linkages. A crank is used to drive three groups of RGB LEDs lamp-type to project lights onto a single plane in order to mix the lights. And, simulations of the illuminance and associated color temperatures are conducted by changing the distance to the projection plane, under the assumption that the stability of the color temperature of the projected light does not change according to the projecting height. Thus, the effect of change in the color temperature on color determination by the humans' eyes was avoided. The success of the proposed method will allow medical personnel to choose suitable wavelengths and color temperatures according to the particular requirements of their medical-examination environments.

  20. Comparative color space analysis of difference images from adjacent visible human slices for lossless compression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thoma, George R.; Pipkin, Ryan; Mitra, Sunanda

    1997-10-01

    This paper reports the compression ratio performance of the RGB, YIQ, and HSV color plane models for the lossless coding of the National Library of Medicine's Visible Human (VH) color data set. In a previous study the correlation between adjacent VH slices was exploited using the RGB color plane model. The results of that study suggested an investigation into possible improvements using the other two color planes, and alternative differencing methods. YIQ and HSV, also know a HSI, both represent the image by separating the intensity from the color information, and we anticipated higher correlation between the intensity components of adjacent VH slices. However the compression ratio did not improve by the transformation from RGB into the other color plane models, since in order to maintain lossless performance, YIQ and HSV both require more bits to store each pixel. This increase in file size is not offset by the increase in compression due to the higher correlation of the intensity value, the best performance being achieved with the RGB color plane model. This study also explored three methods of differencing: average reference image, alternating reference image, and cascaded difference from single reference. The best method proved to be the first iteration of the cascaded difference from single reference. In this method, a single reference image is chosen, and the difference between it and its neighbor is calculated. Then the difference between the neighbor and its next neighbor is calculated. This method requires that all preceding images up to the reference image be reconstructed before the target image is available. The compression ratios obtained from this method are significantly better than the competing methods.

  1. Effects of a static electric field on two-color photoassociation between different atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Chakraborty, Debashree; Deb, Bimalendu

    2014-01-15

    We study non-perturbative effects of a static electric field on two-color photoassociation of different atoms. A static electric field induces anisotropy in scattering between two different atoms and hybridizes field-free rotational states of heteronuclear dimers or polar molecules. In a previous paper [D. Chakraborty et al., J. Phys. B 44, 095201 (2011)], the effects of a static electric field on one-color photoassociation between different atoms has been described through field-modified ground-state scattering states, neglecting electric field effects on heteronuclear diatomic bound states. To study the effects of a static electric field on heteronuclear bound states, and the resulting influence on Raman-type two-color photoassociation between different atoms in the presence of a static electric field, we develop a non-perturbative numerical method to calculate static electric field-dressed heteronuclear bound states. We show that the static electric field induced scattering anisotropy as well as hybridization of rotational states strongly influence two-color photoassociation spectra, leading to significant enhancement in PA rate and large shift. In particular, for static electric field strengths of a few hundred kV/cm, two-color PA rate involving high-lying bound states in electronic ground-state increases by several orders of magnitude even in the weak photoassociative coupling regime.

  2. Shade distribution of commercial resin composites and color difference with shade guide tabs.

    PubMed

    Park, Seung-Kook; Lee, Yong-Keun

    2007-10-01

    To determine the shade distribution of varied shades of contemporary resin composites, and to measure the color difference (deltaE*ab) between individual shades of resin composites and the nearest shade tabs, which showed the smallest color difference with each shade of resin composite, in the VITA shade guide. Eight light-curing resin composites, with a total of 41 shades, were studied. Color of specimens was measured on a reflection spectrophotometer over a white background. Ranges and distributions of CIE L*, C*ab, a* and b* values of each brand of resin composites were determined. Color difference between each shade of resin composites and each shade of the shade guide tabs were calculated, and the nearest shade guide tab was selected. The range of CIE L* value for eight brands of resin composites was 3.2-9.0, that of C*ab was 2.5-11.6, that of CIE a* value was 1.1-5.8, and that of CIE b* value was 5.9-11.5. Color differences (deltaE*ab) between each shade of resin composites and the nearest shade tab of the shade guide was 0.9-12.8.

  3. Compositional and mechanical properties of peanuts roasted to equivalent colors using different time/temperature combinations.

    PubMed

    McDaniel, Kristin A; White, Brittany L; Dean, Lisa L; Sanders, Timothy H; Davis, Jack P

    2012-12-01

    Peanuts in North America and Europe are primarily consumed after dry roasting. Standard industry practice is to roast peanuts to a specific surface color (Hunter L-value) for a given application; however, equivalent surface colors can be attained using different roast temperature/time combinations, which could affect product quality. To investigate this potential, runner peanuts from a single lot were systematically roasted using 5 roast temperatures (147, 157, 167, 177, and 187 °C) and to Hunter L-values of 53 ± 1, 48.5 ± 1, and 43 ± 1, corresponding to light, medium, and dark roasts, respectively. Moisture contents (MC) ranged from 0.41% to 1.70% after roasting. At equivalent roast temperatures, MC decreased as peanuts became darker; however, for a given color, MC decreased with decreasing roast temperature due to longer roast times required for specified color formation. Initial total tocopherol contents of expressed oils ranged from 164 to 559 μg/g oil. Peanuts roasted at lower temperatures and darker colors had higher tocopherol contents. Glucose content was roast color and temperature dependent, while fructose was only temperature dependent. Soluble protein was lower at darker roast colors, and when averaged across temperatures, was highest when samples were roasted at 187 °C. Lysine content decreased with increasing roast color but was not dependent on temperature. MC strongly correlated with several components including tocopherols (R(2) = 0.67), soluble protein (R(2) = 0.80), and peak force upon compression (R(2) = 0.64). The variation in characteristics related to roast conditions is sufficient to suggest influences on final product shelf life and consumer acceptability. Journal of Food Science © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists® No claim to original US government works.

  4. Consumer visual preference and value for beef steaks differing in marbling level and color.

    PubMed

    Killinger, K M; Calkins, C R; Umberger, W J; Feuz, D M; Eskridge, K M

    2004-11-01

    To determine visual preference and value for fresh beef steaks differing in marbling level and color, consumers in Chicago and San Francisco (n = 124 per city) evaluated two pairs of steaks in a retail case. Steaks differing in marbling level (Modest/Moderate vs. Slight) and color (bright, cherry-red vs. dark red) were purchased at retail stores in each city. Consumers selected their preferred steak in each pair, described their selection criteria, and provided the price they were willing to pay for each of the four steaks. There was a difference in visual preference in each city, with most consumers preferring (P < 0.01) low (Slight) over high (Moderate/Modest) marbling; however, more (P < 0.01) consumers in Chicago (86.7%) preferred low marbling than in San Francisco (67.0%). Selection criteria were categorized into five groups: marbling, fat, color, appearance, and palatability. Marbling was mentioned by 65.4% of consumers who preferred high marbling, whereas 64.9% of consumers who preferred low marbling mentioned fat as a selection criterion. Bright, cherry-red color was preferred by a higher (P < 0.01) percentage of consumers in both Chicago and San Francisco (67.6 and 76.5%, respectively). Color was mentioned both by consumers who preferred bright, cherry-red color (64.8%) and those who preferred dark red color (63.9%). All preference groups were willing to pay more for their preferred steak (P < 0.01), but consumers who preferred low marbling were willing to pay more (P < 0.01) for their preferred steak than consumers who preferred high marbling. Consumers who preferred bright, cherry-red color were willing to pay more (P < 0.01) for their preferred steak than consumers who preferred dark red color. Consumers who preferred low marbling seemed to desire lean products, and consumers who preferred high marbling seemed to desire products with high eating quality. In this study, consumers were willing to pay more to purchase their preferred product; however, most

  5. THE COLOR DIFFERENCES OF KUIPER BELT OBJECTS IN RESONANCE WITH NEPTUNE

    SciTech Connect

    Sheppard, Scott S.

    2012-12-01

    The optical colors of 58 objects in mean motion resonance with Neptune were obtained. The various Neptune resonant populations were found to have significantly different surface color distributions. The 5:3 and 7:4 resonances have semimajor axes near the middle of the main Kuiper Belt and both are dominated by ultra-red material (spectral gradient: S {approx}> 25). The 5:3 and 7:4 resonances have statistically the same color distribution as the low-inclination 'cold' classical belt. The inner 4:3 and distant 5:2 resonances have objects with mostly moderately red colors (S {approx} 15), similar to the scattered and detached disk populations. The 2:1 resonance, which is near the outer edge of the main Kuiper Belt, has a large range of colors with similar numbers of moderately red and ultra-red objects at all inclinations. The 2:1 resonance was also found to have a very rare neutral colored object showing that the 2:1 resonance is really a mix of all object types. The inner 3:2 resonance, like the outer 2:1, has a large range of objects from neutral to ultra-red. The Neptune Trojans (1:1 resonance) are only slightly red (S {approx} 9), similar to the Jupiter Trojans. The inner 5:4 resonance only has four objects with measured colors but shows equal numbers of ultra-red and moderately red objects. The 9:5, 12:5, 7:3, 3:1, and 11:3 resonances do not have reliable color distribution statistics since few objects have been observed in these resonances, though it appears noteworthy that all three of the measured 3:1 objects have only moderately red colors, similar to the 4:3 and 5:2 resonances. The different color distributions of objects in mean motion resonance with Neptune are likely a result from the disruption of the primordial Kuiper Belt from the scattering and migration of the giant planets. The few low-inclination objects known in the outer 2:1 and 5:2 resonances are mostly only moderately red. This suggests if the 2:1 and 5:2 have a cold low-inclination component

  6. The Color Differences of Kuiper Belt Objects in Resonance with Neptune

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheppard, Scott S.

    2012-12-01

    The optical colors of 58 objects in mean motion resonance with Neptune were obtained. The various Neptune resonant populations were found to have significantly different surface color distributions. The 5:3 and 7:4 resonances have semimajor axes near the middle of the main Kuiper Belt and both are dominated by ultra-red material (spectral gradient: S >~ 25). The 5:3 and 7:4 resonances have statistically the same color distribution as the low-inclination "cold" classical belt. The inner 4:3 and distant 5:2 resonances have objects with mostly moderately red colors (S ~ 15), similar to the scattered and detached disk populations. The 2:1 resonance, which is near the outer edge of the main Kuiper Belt, has a large range of colors with similar numbers of moderately red and ultra-red objects at all inclinations. The 2:1 resonance was also found to have a very rare neutral colored object showing that the 2:1 resonance is really a mix of all object types. The inner 3:2 resonance, like the outer 2:1, has a large range of objects from neutral to ultra-red. The Neptune Trojans (1:1 resonance) are only slightly red (S ~ 9), similar to the Jupiter Trojans. The inner 5:4 resonance only has four objects with measured colors but shows equal numbers of ultra-red and moderately red objects. The 9:5, 12:5, 7:3, 3:1, and 11:3 resonances do not have reliable color distribution statistics since few objects have been observed in these resonances, though it appears noteworthy that all three of the measured 3:1 objects have only moderately red colors, similar to the 4:3 and 5:2 resonances. The different color distributions of objects in mean motion resonance with Neptune are likely a result from the disruption of the primordial Kuiper Belt from the scattering and migration of the giant planets. The few low-inclination objects known in the outer 2:1 and 5:2 resonances are mostly only moderately red. This suggests if the 2:1 and 5:2 have a cold low-inclination component, the objects likely

  7. Why children learn color and size words so differently: evidence from adults' learning of artificial terms.

    PubMed

    Sandhofer, C M; Smith, L B

    2001-12-01

    An adult simulation study examined why children's learning of color and size terms follow different developmental patterns, one in which word comprehension precedes success in nonlinguistic matching tasks versus one in which matching precedes word comprehension. In 4 experiments, adults learned artificial labels for values on novel dimensions. Training mimicked that characteristic for children learning either color words or size words. The results suggest that the learning trajectories arise from the different frames in which different dimensions are trained: Using a comparison (size-like) training regimen helps learners pick out the relevant dimension, and using a categorization (color-like) training regimen helps the learner correctly comprehend and produce dimension terms. The results indicate that the training regimen, not the meanings of the terms or the specific dimensions, determines the pattern of learning.

  8. Predator perception and the interrelation between different forms of protective coloration

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, Martin

    2007-01-01

    Animals possess a range of defensive markings to reduce the risk of predation, including warning colours, camouflage, eyespots and mimicry. These different strategies are frequently considered independently, and with little regard towards predator vision, even though they may be linked in various ways and can be fully understood only in terms of predator perception. For example, camouflage and warning coloration need not be mutually exclusive, and may frequently exploit similar features of visual perception. This paper outlines how different forms of protective markings can be understood from predator perception and illustrates how this is fundamental in determining the mechanisms underlying, and the interrelation between, different strategies. Suggestions are made for future work, and potential mechanisms discussed in relation to various forms of defensive coloration, including disruptive coloration, eyespots, dazzle markings, motion camouflage, aposematism and mimicry. PMID:17426012

  9. Predator perception and the interrelation between different forms of protective coloration.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Martin

    2007-06-22

    Animals possess a range of defensive markings to reduce the risk of predation, including warning colours, camouflage, eyespots and mimicry. These different strategies are frequently considered independently, and with little regard towards predator vision, even though they may be linked in various ways and can be fully understood only in terms of predator perception. For example, camouflage and warning coloration need not be mutually exclusive, and may frequently exploit similar features of visual perception. This paper outlines how different forms of protective markings can be understood from predator perception and illustrates how this is fundamental in determining the mechanisms underlying, and the interrelation between, different strategies. Suggestions are made for future work, and potential mechanisms discussed in relation to various forms of defensive coloration, including disruptive coloration, eyespots, dazzle markings, motion camouflage, aposematism and mimicry.

  10. Different temporal structure for form versus surface cortical color systems--evidence from chromatic non-linear VEP.

    PubMed

    Crewther, David P; Crewther, Sheila G

    2010-12-20

    Physiological studies of color processing have typically measured responses to spatially varying chromatic stimuli such as gratings, while psychophysical studies of color include color naming, color and light, as well as spatial and temporal chromatic sensitivities. This raises the question of whether we have one or several cortical color processing systems. Here we show from non-linear analysis of human visual evoked potentials (VEP) the presence of distinct and independent temporal signatures for form and surface color processing. Surface color stimuli produced most power in the second order Wiener kernel, indicative of a slowly recovering neural system, while chromatic form stimulation produced most power in the first order kernel (showing rapid recovery). We find end-spectral saturation-dependent signals, easily separable from achromatic signals for surface color stimuli. However physiological responses to form color stimuli, though varying somewhat with saturation, showed similar waveform components. Lastly, the spectral dependence of surface and form color VEP was different, with the surface color responses almost vanishing with yellow-grey isoluminant stimulation whereas the form color VEP shows robust recordable signals across all hues. Thus, surface and form colored stimuli engage different neural systems within cortex, pointing to the need to establish their relative contributions under the diverse chromatic stimulus conditions used in the literature.

  11. Different Temporal Structure for Form versus Surface Cortical Color Systems – Evidence from Chromatic Non-Linear VEP

    PubMed Central

    Crewther, David P.; Crewther, Sheila G.

    2010-01-01

    Physiological studies of color processing have typically measured responses to spatially varying chromatic stimuli such as gratings, while psychophysical studies of color include color naming, color and light, as well as spatial and temporal chromatic sensitivities. This raises the question of whether we have one or several cortical color processing systems. Here we show from non-linear analysis of human visual evoked potentials (VEP) the presence of distinct and independent temporal signatures for form and surface color processing. Surface color stimuli produced most power in the second order Wiener kernel, indicative of a slowly recovering neural system, while chromatic form stimulation produced most power in the first order kernel (showing rapid recovery). We find end-spectral saturation-dependent signals, easily separable from achromatic signals for surface color stimuli. However physiological responses to form color stimuli, though varying somewhat with saturation, showed similar waveform components. Lastly, the spectral dependence of surface and form color VEP was different, with the surface color responses almost vanishing with yellow-grey isoluminant stimulation whereas the form color VEP shows robust recordable signals across all hues. Thus, surface and form colored stimuli engage different neural systems within cortex, pointing to the need to establish their relative contributions under the diverse chromatic stimulus conditions used in the literature. PMID:21187960

  12. Differences in male coloration are predicted by divergent sexual selection between populations of a cichlid fish.

    PubMed

    Selz, O M; Thommen, R; Pierotti, M E R; Anaya-Rojas, J M; Seehausen, O

    2016-05-11

    Female mating preferences can influence both intraspecific sexual selection and interspecific reproductive isolation, and have therefore been proposed to play a central role in speciation. Here, we investigate experimentally in the African cichlid fish Pundamilia nyererei if differences in male coloration between three para-allopatric populations (i.e. island populations with gene flow) of P. nyererei are predicted by differences in sexual selection by female mate choice between populations. Second, we investigate if female mating preferences are based on the same components of male coloration and go in the same direction when females choose among males of their own population, their own and other conspecific populations and a closely related para-allopatric sister-species, P. igneopinnis Mate-choice experiments revealed that females of the three populations mated species-assortatively, that populations varied in their extent of population-assortative mating and that females chose among males of their own population based on different male colours. Females of different populations exerted directional intrapopulation sexual selection on different male colours, and these differences corresponded in two of the populations to the observed differences in male coloration between the populations. Our results suggest that differences in male coloration between populations of P. nyererei can be explained by divergent sexual selection and that population-assortative mating may directly result from intrapopulation sexual selection. © 2016 The Author(s).

  13. Differing Perceptions: How Students of Color and White Students Perceive Campus Climate for Underrepresented Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rankin, Susan R.; Reason, Robert D.

    2005-01-01

    Using a campus climate assessment instrument developed by Rankin (1998), we surveyed students (n = 7,347) from 10 campuses to explore whether students from different racial groups experienced their campus climates differently. Students of color experienced harassment at higher rates than Caucasian students, although female White students reported…

  14. Grapheme-color synesthesia subtypes: Stable individual differences reflected in posterior alpha-band oscillations.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Michael X; Weidacker, Kathrin; Tankink, Judith; Scholte, H Steven; Rouw, Romke

    2015-01-01

    Grapheme-color synesthesia is a condition in which seeing letters and numbers produces sensations of colors (e.g., the letter R may elicit a sky-blue percept). Recent evidence implicates posterior parietal areas, in addition to lower-level sensory processing regions, in the neurobiological mechanisms involved in synesthesia. Furthermore, these mechanisms seem to differ for "projectors" (synesthetes who report seeing the color "out there in the real world") versus "associators" (synesthetes who report the color to be only an internal experience). Relatively little is known about possible electrophysiological characteristics of grapheme-color synesthesia. Here we used EEG to investigate functional oscillatory differences among associators, projectors, and non-synesthetes. Projectors had stronger stimulus-related alpha-band (~10 Hz) power over posterior parietal electrodes, compared to both associators and non-synesthetes. Posterior alpha activity was not statistically significantly different between associators from non-synesthetes. We also performed a test-retest assessment of the projector-associator score and found strong retest reliability, as evidenced by a correlation coefficient of .85. These findings demonstrate that the projector-associator distinction is highly reliable over time and is related to neural oscillations in the alpha band.

  15. The effect of different drinks on tooth color after home bleaching

    PubMed Central

    Karadas, Muhammet; Seven, Nilgun

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This study evaluated the influence of coffee, tea, cola, and red wine staining on the color of teeth after home bleaching. Materials and Methods: A total of 45 samples were obtained from 45 sound maxillary central incisors. The home bleaching procedure was performed using 10% carbamide peroxide gel applied to the sample surface for a period of 6 h each day, for 14 days. After bleaching, baseline color measurements were taken, and the samples were immersed in four staining solutions (coffee, tea, cola, and red wine) or artificial saliva (n = 9). Following 15 min and 6 h of immersion on the first day and next day, respectively, the samples were washed with distilled water for 10 s. After 15 min, 6 h, 1 week, and 1 month immersions, the color values of each sample were remeasured and the color change values (∆E) were calculated. Color change analysis was performed using a spectrophotometer. The results were analyzed using analysis of variance and Tukey's honestly significant difference test (P <0.05). Results: Of all the staining solutions, the lowest ∆E values were observed with coffee staining versus artificial saliva (control group), for all time intervals evaluated after whitening. Although no statistically differences were observed between the coffee and control group at all the time points evaluated, there were statistically significant differences between the red wine, cola, and tea solutions. Conclusion: Following tooth whitening, patients should avoid drinks that cause tooth staining, particularly red wine, tea and cola. PMID:24966778

  16. Repeatability in Color Measurements of a Spectrophotometer using Different Positioning Devices.

    PubMed

    Hemming, Michael; Kwon, So Ran; Qian, Fang

    2015-12-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the repeatability of color measurements of an intraoral spectrophotometer with the use of three different methods by two operators. A total of 60 teeth were obtained, comprising 30 human maxillary teeth [central incisors (n = 10); canines (n = 10); molars (n = 10)] and 30 artificial teeth [lateral incisors (n = 10); premolar (n = 20)]. Multiple repeated color measurements were obtained from each tooth using three measuring methods by each of the two operators. Five typodonts with alternating artificial and human teeth were made. Measurements were taken by two operators with the Vita EasyShade spectrophotometer using the custom tray (CT), custom jig (CJ) and free hand (FH) method, twice, at an interval of 2 to 7 days. Friedman test was used to detect difference among the three color measuring methods. Post hoc Wilcoxon signed-rank test with Bonferroni correction applied was used for pair-wise comparison of color measurements among the three methods. Additionally, a paired-sample t-test was used to assess a significant difference between the two duplicated measurements made on the same tooth by the same operator for each color parameter and measuring method. For operator A, mean (SD) overall color change-ΔE* (SD) perceived for FH, CT and CJ were 2.21(2.00), 2.39 (1.58) and 2.86 (1.92), respectively. There was statistically significant difference in perceived ΔE* in FH vs CJ (p = 0.0107). However, there were no significant differences between FH and CT (p = 0.2829) or between CT and CJ (p = 0.1159). For operator B mean ΔE* (SD) for FH, CT and CJ were 3.24 (3.46), 1.95 (1.19) and 2.45 (1.56), respectively. There was a significant difference between FH and CT (p = 0.0031). However, there were no statistically significant differences in ΔE* in FH vs CJ (p = 0.3696) or CT vs CJ (p = 0.0809). The repeatability of color measurements was different among the three measuring methods by operators. Overall, the CT method worked well for both

  17. Instrumental color control for metallic coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chou, W.; Han, Bing; Cui, Guihua; Rigg, Bryan; Luo, Ming R.

    2002-06-01

    This paper describes work investigating a suitable color quality control method for metallic coatings. A set of psychological experiments was carried out based upon 50 pairs of samples. The results were used to test the performance of various color difference formulae. Different techniques were developed by optimising the weights and/or the lightness parametric factors of colour differences calculated from the four measuring angles. The results show that the new techniques give a significant improvement compared to conventional techniques.

  18. Application of passive imaging polarimetry in the discrimination and detection of different color targets of identical shapes using color-blind imaging sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Saba, A. M.; Alam, M. S.; Surpanani, A.

    2006-05-01

    Important aspects of automatic pattern recognition systems are their ability to efficiently discriminate and detect proper targets with low false alarms. In this paper we extend the applications of passive imaging polarimetry to effectively discriminate and detect different color targets of identical shapes using color-blind imaging sensor. For this case of study we demonstrate that traditional color-blind polarization-insensitive imaging sensors that rely only on the spatial distribution of targets suffer from high false detection rates, especially in scenarios where multiple identical shape targets are present. On the other hand we show that color-blind polarization-sensitive imaging sensors can successfully and efficiently discriminate and detect true targets based on their color only. We highlight the main advantages of using our proposed polarization-encoded imaging sensor.

  19. Effect of repeated firings on the color of opaque porcelain applied on different dental alloys.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Burak; Ozçelik, Tuncer Burak; Wee, Alvin G

    2009-06-01

    Although metal ceramic fixed restorations are commonly preferred by clinicians, there remain a limited number of studies on how opaque porcelain color is affected by fabrication procedures, such as the number of firings and types of metal alloys. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of various types of metal alloys on the color of opaque porcelain after repeated firings. Seven different types of metal ceramic alloys (3 base metals: Metalloy CC, chromium cobalt (B-MCC); Heraenium NA, nickel chromium (B-HNA); Argeloy NP, nickel chromium beryllium (B-ANP); 3 noble metals: Ceradelta, palladium silver (N-CD); Cerapall 2, palladium (N-CP2); V-Delta SF, gold palladium (N-VDSF); and 1 high noble metal: V-Gnathos Plus, gold platinum (HN-GP)) were used to support a 0.1-mm-thick layer of opaque porcelain (IPS d.SIGN Opaquer, shade B1) to determine the metal alloys' effect on the opaque porcelain color after repeated porcelain firings. Opaque porcelain was applied on specimens (16 mm x 1 mm) prepared from each type of alloy. The specimens (n=21) were subjected to 1 opaque firing, 4 consecutive dentin firing cycles, and 1 glaze firing cycle. Delta E values were calculated for all metal alloy groups from opaque firing (control group) to each subsequent firing stage within each tested alloy group. One-way ANOVA and Fisher's least significant difference tests were performed to determine the differences between alloys. In addition, DeltaE values calculated after repeated firings were analyzed by 1-way ANOVA and paired t test, to determine whether repeated dentin firing stages affected the color of opaque porcelain (alpha=.05). After the first and second dentin firings, the color shift in opaque porcelain was significant for all tested alloy groups (P<.001). The color of opaque porcelain changed significantly after the third dentin firing for all groups except for B-HNA and N-VDSF (P<.001). After the fourth dentin firing, the color of opaque porcelain changed

  20. The differing magnitude distributions of the two Jupiter Trojan color populations

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, Ian; Brown, Michael E.; Emery, Joshua P.

    2014-12-01

    The Jupiter Trojans are a significant population of minor bodies in the middle solar system that have garnered substantial interest in recent years. Several spectroscopic studies of these objects have revealed notable bimodalities with respect to near-infrared spectra, infrared albedo, and color, which suggest the existence of two distinct groups among the Trojan population. In this paper, we analyze the magnitude distributions of these two groups, which we refer to as the red and less red color populations. By compiling spectral and photometric data from several previous works, we show that the observed bimodalities are self-consistent and categorize 221 of the 842 Trojans with absolute magnitudes in the range H<12.3 into the two color populations. We demonstrate that the magnitude distributions of the two color populations are distinct to a high confidence level (>95%) and fit them individually to a broken power law, with special attention given to evaluating and correcting for incompleteness in the Trojan catalog as well as incompleteness in our categorization of objects. A comparison of the best-fit curves shows that the faint-end power-law slopes are markedly different for the two color populations, which indicates that the red and less red Trojans likely formed in different locations. We propose a few hypotheses for the origin and evolution of the Trojan population based on the analyzed data.

  1. Color dependence with horizontal-viewing angle and colorimetric characterization of two displays using different backlighting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro, José J.; Pozo, Antonio M.; Rubiño, Manuel

    2013-11-01

    In this work we studied the color dependence with a horizontal-viewing angle and colorimetric characterization of two liquid-crystal displays (LCD) using two different backlighting: Cold Cathode Fluorescent Lamps (CCFLs) and light-emitting diodes (LEDs). The LCDs studied had identical resolution, size, and technology (TFT - thin film transistor). The colorimetric measurements were made with the spectroradiometer SpectraScan PR-650 following the procedure recommended in the European guideline EN 61747-6. For each display, we measured at the centre of the screen the chromaticity coordinates at horizontal viewing angles of 0, 20, 40, 60 and 80 degrees for the achromatic (A), red (R), green (G) and blue (B) channels. Results showed a greater color-gamut area for the display with LED backlight, compared with the CCFL backlight, showing a greater range of colors perceptible by human vision. This color-gamut area diminished with viewing angle for both displays. Higher differences between trends for viewing angles were observed in the LED-backlight, especially for the R- and G-channels, demonstrating a higher variability of the chromaticity coordinates with viewing angle. The best additivity was reached by the LED-backlight display (a lower error percentage). LED-backlight display provided better color performance of visualization.

  2. Different colors of light lead to different adaptation and activation as determined by high-density EEG.

    PubMed

    Münch, M; Plomp, G; Thunell, E; Kawasaki, A; Scartezzini, J L; Herzog, M H

    2014-11-01

    Light adaptation is crucial for coping with the varying levels of ambient light. Using high-density electroencephalography (EEG), we investigated how adaptation to light of different colors affects brain responsiveness. In a within-subject design, sixteen young participants were adapted first to dim white light and then to blue, green, red, or white bright light (one color per session in a randomized order). Immediately after both dim and bright light adaptation, we presented brief light pulses and recorded event-related potentials (ERPs). We analyzed ERP response strengths and brain topographies and determined the underlying sources using electrical source imaging. Between 150 and 261 ms after stimulus onset, the global field power (GFP) was higher after dim than bright light adaptation. This effect was most pronounced with red light and localized in the frontal lobe, the fusiform gyrus, the occipital lobe and the cerebellum. After bright light adaptation, within the first 100 ms after light onset, stronger responses were found than after dim light adaptation for all colors except for red light. Differences between conditions were localized in the frontal lobe, the cingulate gyrus, and the cerebellum. These results indicate that very short-term EEG brain responses are influenced by prior light adaptation and the spectral quality of the light stimulus. We show that the early EEG responses are differently affected by adaptation to different colors of light which may contribute to known differences in performance and reaction times in cognitive tests.

  3. A Comparative Study to Assess the Predictability of Different IOL Power Calculation Formulas in Eyes of Short and Long Axial Length

    PubMed Central

    Limdi, Purvi; Parekh, Nilesh; Gohil, Neepa

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Accurate Intraocular Lens (IOL) power calculation in cataract surgery is very important for providing postoperative precise vision. Selection of most appropriate formula is difficult in high myopic and hypermetropic patients. Aim To investigate the predictability of different IOL (Intra Ocular Lens) power calculation formulae in eyes with short and long Axial Length (AL) and to find out most accurate IOL power calculation formula in both groups. Materials and Methods A prospective study was conducted on 80 consecutive patients who underwent phacoemulsification with monofocal IOL implantation after obtaining an informed and written consent. Preoperative keratometry was done by IOL Master. Axial length and anterior chamber depth was measured using A-scan machine ECHORULE 2 (BIOMEDIX). Patients were divided into two groups based on AL. (40 in each group). Group A with AL<22 mm and Group B with AL>24.5 mm. The IOL power calculation in each group was done by Haigis, Hoffer Q, Holladay-I, SRK/T formulae using the software of ECHORULE 2. The actual postoperative Spherical Equivalent (SE), Estimation error (E) and Absolute Error (AE) were calculated at one and half months and were used in data analysis. The predictive accuracy of each formula in each group was analyzed by comparing the Absolute Error (AE). The Kruskal Wallis test was used to compare differences in the (AE) of the formulae. A statistically significant difference was defined as p-value<0.05. Results In Group A, Hoffer Q, Holladay 1 and SRK/T formulae were equally accurate in predicting the postoperative refraction after cataract surgery (IOL power calculation) in eyes with AL less than 22.0 mm and accuracy of these three formulae was significantly higher than Haigis formula. Whereas in Group B, Hoffer Q, Holladay 1, SRK/T and Haigis formulae were equally accurate in predicting the postoperative refraction after cataract surgery (IOL power calculation) in eyes with AL more than 24.5 mm

  4. Comparison of serum creatinine levels in different color/race categories in a Brazilian population.

    PubMed

    Barcellos, Roberto Carlos de Brito; Matos, Jorge Paulo Strogoff de; Kang, Hye Chung; Rosa, Maria Luiza Garcia; Lugon, Jocemir Ronaldo

    2015-07-01

    Serum creatinine (sCr) is usually higher among black people in the United States due to increased muscle mass, justifying the addition of race adjustment in creatinine-based formulas to estimate glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). We aimed to assess if sCr levels are different in low-income communities in Brazil according to their race. A total of 1,303 participants were enrolled (58% females, 50±14 years-old, 33% self-defined as white, 41% as mixed race, and 26% as black). No significant differences in sCr were found between racial groups and no influence of race on sCr was seen in the linear regression analysis. The eGFR, calculated using the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) formula with no race adjustment, was no different between whites, mixed race and blacks. However, using such adjustment, eGFR for mixed race and black individuals was significantly higher than for whites (p < 0.001). In conclusion, no significant differences in sCr levels were found between racial groups, raising doubts as to whether race adjustment in eGFR formula should be used in that population.

  5. Connected formulas for amplitudes in standard model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Song; Zhang, Yong

    2017-03-01

    Witten's twistor string theory has led to new representations of S-matrix in massless QFT as a single object, including Cachazo-He-Yuan formulas in general and connected formulas in four dimensions. As a first step towards more realistic processes of the standard model, we extend the construction to QCD tree amplitudes with massless quarks and those with a Higgs boson. For both cases, we find connected formulas in four dimensions for all multiplicities which are very similar to the one for Yang-Mills amplitudes. The formula for quark-gluon color-ordered amplitudes differs from the pure-gluon case only by a Jacobian factor that depends on flavors and orderings of the quarks. In the formula for Higgs plus multi-parton amplitudes, the massive Higgs boson is effectively described by two additional massless legs which do not appear in the Parke-Taylor factor. The latter also represents the first twistor-string/connected formula for form factors.

  6. Different colors reveal different information: how nutritional stress affects the expression of melanin- and structurally based ornamental plumage.

    PubMed

    McGraw, Kevin J; Mackillop, Emiko A; Dale, James; Hauber, Mark E

    2002-12-01

    Avian plumage colors have emerged recently as model systems for investigating the types of information that can be signaled by showy sexual displays in animals. In many species, the brightness of carotenoid-based plumage reflects the health and condition of individuals and is used in mate selection. The information contained in melanin-based and structurally based ornamental colors in birds is less well resolved, however. We subjected male house sparrows Passer domesticus and brown-headed cowbirds Molothrus ater to stressful nutritional conditions during molt to test the hypothesis that melanin- and structurally based plumage colors are nutritionally condition-dependent. We restricted food access for treatment males during randomized 6 h periods on 4 days per week, while allowing control birds access to food ad libitum throughout the course of the molt. We found that the size and brightness of the melanin-based throat badges in male house sparrows were not affected by nutritional stress. Similarly, there were no differences between treatment and control male cowbirds in the size or brightness of the melanin-based brown hood. However, the structurally based iridescent plumage of cowbirds was indicative of the nutritional condition of males during molt. Nutritionally stressed cowbirds grew significantly less colorful plumage than did males with access to food ad libitum. These results are consistent with observations in other avian species that different types of plumage color communicate different sets of information. Melanin ornaments are less sensitive to nutritional conditions during molt and instead may reflect the hormonal status and/or competitive ability of males, whereas structural coloration appears to be an accurate signal of health and condition.

  7. Nonrandom Composition of Flower Colors in a Plant Community: Mutually Different Co-Flowering Natives and Disturbance by Aliens.

    PubMed

    Makino, Takashi T; Yokoyama, Jun

    2015-01-01

    When pollinators use flower color to locate food sources, a distinct color can serve as a reproductive barrier against co-flowering species. This anti-interference function of flower color may result in a community assembly of plant species displaying mutually different flower colors. However, such color dispersion is not ubiquitous, suggesting a variable selection across communities and existence of some opposing factors. We conducted a 30-week study in a plant community and measured the floral reflectances of 244 species. The reflectances were evaluated in insect color spaces (bees, swallowtails, and flies), and the dispersion was compared with random expectations. We found that co-existing colors were overdispersed for each analyzed pollinator type, and this overdispersion was statistically significant for bees. Furthermore, we showed that exclusion of 32 aliens from the analysis significantly increased the color dispersion of native flowers in every color space. This result indicated that aliens disturbed a native plant-pollinator network via similarly colored flowers. Our results demonstrate the masking effects of aliens in the detection of color dispersion of native flowers and that variations in pollinator vision yield different outcomes. Our results also support the hypothesis that co-flowering species are one of the drivers of color diversification and affect the community assembly.

  8. Nonrandom Composition of Flower Colors in a Plant Community: Mutually Different Co-Flowering Natives and Disturbance by Aliens

    PubMed Central

    Makino, Takashi T.; Yokoyama, Jun

    2015-01-01

    When pollinators use flower color to locate food sources, a distinct color can serve as a reproductive barrier against co-flowering species. This anti-interference function of flower color may result in a community assembly of plant species displaying mutually different flower colors. However, such color dispersion is not ubiquitous, suggesting a variable selection across communities and existence of some opposing factors. We conducted a 30-week study in a plant community and measured the floral reflectances of 244 species. The reflectances were evaluated in insect color spaces (bees, swallowtails, and flies), and the dispersion was compared with random expectations. We found that co-existing colors were overdispersed for each analyzed pollinator type, and this overdispersion was statistically significant for bees. Furthermore, we showed that exclusion of 32 aliens from the analysis significantly increased the color dispersion of native flowers in every color space. This result indicated that aliens disturbed a native plant–pollinator network via similarly colored flowers. Our results demonstrate the masking effects of aliens in the detection of color dispersion of native flowers and that variations in pollinator vision yield different outcomes. Our results also support the hypothesis that co-flowering species are one of the drivers of color diversification and affect the community assembly. PMID:26650121

  9. The effects of different shades of resin luting cement on the color of ceramic veneers.

    PubMed

    Alqahtani, Mohammed Q; Aljurais, Rana M; Alshaafi, Maan M

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantitatively evaluate the effects of different shades of light-polymerized resin cement on the color of two different thicknesses (0.5 mm and 0.7 mm) of three different ceramic materials (Esthetic, e.max, and ZirPress). A spectrophotometer (Color Eye 7000A - CIE (L*a*b*) was used to measure the color of specimens on the control substrate without cement, and then on (Translucent, White Opaque, B0.5, A1, and A3 of RelyX™ Veneer cement). The mean values of color difference (ΔE) were higher for Esthetic, followed by ZirPress, with the lowest values for e.max. The mean values of ΔE decreased when the thickness of ceramic increased from 0.5 mm to 0.7 mm. It was observed that the White Opaque had significantly increased ΔE values when compared with (TR, B0.5, A1, and A3), whereas no significant difference between B0.5 and TR, and between B0.5 and A3.

  10. Detection of between-eye differences in color: Interactions with luminance.

    PubMed

    Jennings, Ben J; Kingdom, Frederick A A

    2016-01-01

    Between-eye differences in color or luminance result in the appearance of luster, which provides a cue for detecting between-eye differences. We measured thresholds for detecting between-eye differences in both hue and chromatic contrast (saturation) in dichoptically superimposed color patches. Sensitivity was found to be highest at isoluminance and decreased with the addition of task-irrelevant, spatially coextensive, binocular (i.e., same in both eyes) luminance contrast. However, when the members of each dichoptic pair were presented side by side on the screen and viewed with the same eye, the added luminance contrast had no effect on the detection of their differences. If the effect of the luminance contrast was simply to dilute or desaturate the chromatic signals, we would expect thresholds to increase for the within-eye and not just the between-eye (dichoptic) conditions. We suggest that the presence of binocular luminance contrast reduces the interocular suppression between the dichoptic colors, causing the dichoptic color pairs to blend, thus rendering their differences harder to detect.

  11. Do normal pupil diameter differences in the population underlie the color selection of #thedress?

    PubMed

    Vemuri, Kavita; Bisla, Kulvinder; Mulpuru, SaiKrishna; Varadharajan, Srinivasa

    2016-03-01

    The fundamental question that arises from the color conundrum of #thedress is "What are the phenomena that underlie the individual differences in the reported colors when all other conditions like light and device for the display are identical?" A survey of 384 participants showed near-equal distribution into blue/black (b/b) and white/gold (w/g) groups. We looked at pupil size differences in a sample population of 53 individuals from these two groups and a group that switched from w/g to b/b. Our results showed that the w/g and switch groups had significantly lower pupil size than the b/b group (w/gdifference in light perception influencing pupil size. A standard infinity focus experiment was then conducted on 18 participants from each group to check if there is bimodality in the population, and we found a statistically significant difference (w/gcolor in the w/g group, 6 participants were administered dilation drops that increased the pupil size by 3-4 mm, but the participants did not report a switch. The results suggest a population difference in normal pupil size influencing color observation which was exposed by the dress.

  12. Correlation between three-dimentional surface topography and color stability of different nanofilled composites.

    PubMed

    Öztürk, Elif; Güder, Gizem

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the 3-dimensional (3D) surface topography and color stability of four different resin composites after immersion in different soft-beverages. One hundred sixty disk-shaped specimens (diameter: 10 mm, and thickness: 2 mm) were made from four different resin composites (i.e., Filtek Z550, Tetric N-Ceram, Clearfil Majesty Esthetic, and Cavex Quadrant Universal LC). Each specimen was cured under mylar strips for 20 sec for both top and bottom surfaces. All of the specimens were stored in distilled water for 24 h at 37°C. Surface measurements were carried out using a noncontact 3D-optical-profilometer in terms of surface topography (Ra values). Color measurements of each specimen were performed with Vita Easy Shade system. All the measurements were performed at baseline and after 30 days of immersion in the selected soft-beverages (Redbull, Coca-Cola and Dimes-Lemonade). Control groups were stored in distilled water during the study. Ra values and color changes (ΔE values) of the groups were recorded. The data were statistically analyzed using a one way ANOVA and Tukey's post-hoc tests (SPSS 18.0). The tested soft-beverages in the present study caused color changes at a 30-day evaluation period for the tested resin composites (p < 0.05). However, 3D surface topography of resin composites was not influenced by the tested soft-beverages (p > 0.05). There was no significant interaction between the composite and beverage type on the Ra values of the resin composites (p > 0.05). No correlation was found between color stability and 3D surface topography of the resin composites. Color stability of resin composites may be affected by soft beverages. © Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Perception of dental esthetics: influence of restoration type, symmetry, and color in four different countries.

    PubMed

    Mehl, Christian; Harder, Sönke; Lin, Jun; Vollrath, Oliver; Kern, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the influence of restoration type, symmetry, and color on the perception of dental appearance was evaluated. An esthetic questionnaire was completed by 29 patients before and after esthetic rehabilitation. In addition, 94 dentists from four countries (Germany, the United Kingdom [UK], China, and Switzerland) evaluated the influence of the above factors using before-and-after rehabilitation pictures. The most invasive treatment was recommended by Chinese dentists, while German, Swiss, and UK dentists recommended comparable treatment options. As for restorative symmetry, restoration type, and color, significant differences could be found among and within the dentists of the four countries (P ± .05).

  14. [Research on quality parameters of scutellariae radix (formula particles) using on-line NIR in pilot with different extraction process].

    PubMed

    Li, Yang; Wu, Zhi-Sheng; Shi, Xin-Yuan; Pan, Xiao-Ning; Zhang, Qiao; Qiao, Yan-Jiang

    2014-10-01

    The on-line monitor for the changes in the content of baicalin in Scutellariae Radix formula particles during the extraction process was conducted by using near infrared spectroscopy (NIR). High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used as a reference method. Kennard-Stone (KS) was used to divide sample sets, so as to compare different pretreatment methods. The synergy interval partial least squares (SiPLS) was used to screen out modeling wave band to establish partial least-squares models. The relative error method was applied to predict forecast set samples of Scutellariae Radix in three extraction phases. The results showed that the model established by Savitzky-Golay smoothing with 11 points (SG11 points) was the best, with the root mean square with cross validation (RMSECV), root mean square error of correction (RMSEC) and root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) of baicalin of 0.092 7, 0.134 4 and 0.114 8, respectively, the determination coefficient R2 of greater than 0.99, and the relative error of baicalin content of less than 5%. This indicates that the on-line near infrared reflectance spectroscopy could be applied in on-line monitor and quality control of the extraction process of Scutellariae Radix formula particles.

  15. The "Chocolate Experiment"--A Demonstration of Radiation Absorption by Different Colored Surfaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fung, Dennis

    2015-01-01

    In the typical "cookbook" experiment comparing the radiation absorption rates of different colored surfaces, students' hands are commonly used as a measurement instrument to demonstrate that dull black and silvery surfaces are good and poor absorbers of radiation, respectively. However, college students are often skeptical about using…

  16. The "Chocolate Experiment"--A Demonstration of Radiation Absorption by Different Colored Surfaces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fung, Dennis

    2015-01-01

    In the typical "cookbook" experiment comparing the radiation absorption rates of different colored surfaces, students' hands are commonly used as a measurement instrument to demonstrate that dull black and silvery surfaces are good and poor absorbers of radiation, respectively. However, college students are often skeptical about using…

  17. Possible Selves among Urban Youths of Color: An Exploration of Peer Beliefs and Gender Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Justin C.; Vance, Kristen S.

    2010-01-01

    Drawing from possible selves theory (H. Markus & P. Nurius, 1986), this study explored the roles of peer beliefs about school and gender differences in the development of academic and occupational visions of the future among 216 urban youths of color. Peer beliefs were not related to career and educational possible selves. No gender-based…

  18. Possible Selves among Urban Youths of Color: An Exploration of Peer Beliefs and Gender Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Justin C.; Vance, Kristen S.

    2010-01-01

    Drawing from possible selves theory (H. Markus & P. Nurius, 1986), this study explored the roles of peer beliefs about school and gender differences in the development of academic and occupational visions of the future among 216 urban youths of color. Peer beliefs were not related to career and educational possible selves. No gender-based…

  19. Effect of lipstick on composite resin color at different application times

    PubMed Central

    GALVÃO, Avilmar Passos; JACQUES, Letícia Borges; DANTAS, Luciana; MATHIAS, Paula; MALLMANN, André

    2010-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of the contact of two lipsticks, one with common fixer and one with ultra fixer, on the color of a composite resin immediately, 30 min and 24 h after photoactivation. Material and methods Ninety specimens were prepared with a composite resin, Filtek-Z350. Specimens were polished and divided into 9 groups (n=10) according to time elapsed after photoactivation (A- immediately; B- 30 min; C- 24 h) and the contact with lipstick (UF- lipstick with ultra fixer; F- lipstick with common fixer). The control group was represented by specimens that did not have any contact with lipstick (C- without lipstick). Color measurements of the specimens were carried out using a spectrophotometer (Easyshade - CIE L* a* b* system). For UF and F groups, the baseline color of the specimens was measured immediately before pigmentation and the lipsticks were applied dry after 1 hour. The excess lipstick was removed with absorbent paper and final color checking was performed, including the control group. Differences between the final and baseline color measurements were calculated and data were analyzed statistically by the Kruskal-Wallis test at 5%. Results The means between the differences of color values were: AUF: 16.0; AF: 12.4; AC: 1.07; BUF: 9.51; BF: 8.3; BC: 0.91; CUF: 17.7; CF: 12.41; CC: 0.82. Conclusion Groups where lipstick was applied showed greater staining than the control group at the three evaluation times. The lipstick with ultra fixer stained more than the lipstick with common fixer. Time elapsed between photoactivation and contact with lipstick had a similar influence on the groups that received lipstick application. PMID:21308286

  20. Color match of two different ceramic systems to selected shades of one shade guide.

    PubMed

    Corciolani, Gabriele; Vichi, Alessandro; Louca, Chris; Ferrari, Marco

    2011-03-01

    There are no consistent indications given by dental manufacturers on how to layer ceramics to achieve a color match to a shade selected from a dental shade guide. The technique for ceramic layering relies primarily on the skill and experience of ceramists and is not easily predictable. The purpose of this study was to evaluate, using a clinical spectrophotometer, the ability to color match shades selected with the 3D-Master shade guide using 2 different ceramic systems. Two ceramic systems were selected for this study, the VITA Omega 900 and VITA VM 13. For both systems, shades 2M3, 3M2, 4M2 of the VITA 3D-Master shade guide were selected. Thirty ceramic discs, 15 mm in diameter, were fabricated with different layer thickness ratios of opaque dentin, dentin, and enamel, maintaining a constant overall thickness. A clinical spectrophotometer (VITA Easyshade) was used for color comparison. The measured ΔE values were statistically analyzed with a 3-way ANOVA and the Tukey HSD test (α=.05). The 3-way ANOVA showed that the ceramic system (P<.001), the selected shade (P<.001), and the layering scheme all significantly influenced the ΔE values (P<.001). Both VITA VM 13 and VITA Omega 900 ceramic systems showed a color match with the shades 2M3, 3M2, and 4M2 of the VITA 3D-Master shade guide to be within the limits for clinical acceptability (ΔE≤ 3.3). VM 13 showed a statistically better color match. The layering scheme influenced the definitive color of the restoration. Copyright © 2011 The Editorial Council of the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of lipstick on composite resin color at different application times.

    PubMed

    Galvão, Avilmar Passos; Jacques, Letícia Borges; Dantas, Luciana; Mathias, Paula; Mallmann, André

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of the contact of two lipsticks, one with common fixer and one with ultra fixer, on the color of a composite resin immediately, 30 min and 24 h after photoactivation. Ninety specimens were prepared with a composite resin, Filtek-Z350. Specimens were polished and divided into 9 groups (n=10) according to time elapsed after photoactivation (A- immediately; B- 30 min; C- 24 h) and the contact with lipstick (UF- lipstick with ultra fixer; F- lipstick with common fixer). The control group was represented by specimens that did not have any contact with lipstick (C- without lipstick). Color measurements of the specimens were carried out using a spectrophotometer (Easyshade - CIE L* a* b* system). For UF and F groups, the baseline color of the specimens was measured immediately before pigmentation and the lipsticks were applied dry after 1 hour. The excess lipstick was removed with absorbent paper and final color checking was performed, including the control group. Differences between the final and baseline color measurements were calculated and data were analyzed statistically by the Kruskal-Wallis test at 5%. The means between the differences of color values were: AUF: 16.0; AF: 12.4; AC: 1.07; BUF: 9.51; BF: 8.3; BC: 0.91; CUF: 17.7; CF: 12.41; CC: 0.82. Groups where lipstick was applied showed greater staining than the control group at the three evaluation times. The lipstick with ultra fixer stained more than the lipstick with common fixer. Time elapsed between photoactivation and contact with lipstick had a similar influence on the groups that received lipstick application.

  2. Influence of pigments and pigmenting methods on color stability of different silicone maxillofacial elastomers after 1-year dark storage.

    PubMed

    Bankoğlu, Merve; Oral, Ihsan; Gül, Esma Başak; Yilmaz, Handan

    2013-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure spectrophotometrically the color changes of pigmented maxillofacial silicone elastomers with different pigments and pigmenting methods after storing 1 year in the dark environment. Three maxillofacial silicones, Cosmesil M511 (CosM511), Cosmesil M522 (CosM522), and Multisil-Epithetic (Mult-Epit), were selected for this study. A total of 240 specimens were fabricated; 80 of each of the 3 elastomers (n = 5) (18 mm in diameter and 2 mm in thickness) were prepared in 6 colorant categories (5 colorant and 1 with no colorant). Specimens were stored in a black box representing a condition of total darkness and placed in a dark environment at ambient room temperature (22°C ± 10°C) and humidity (50% ± 10%) for 1 year. A color spectrophotometer was used to measure the ΔE* values of the test specimens to determine the color changes. The lowest color changes were observed in CosM511 in white color (ΔE* = 1.31) and in Mult-Epit in white color (ΔE* = 1.82) in extrinsic coloration group. The highest color changes were observed in yellow color in CosM511 (ΔE*= 21.61) and CosM522 (ΔE*= 23.78) in silicone pigmented intrinsic coloration method. In coloration methods, intrinsic silicone pigmented groups in all colors except brown in Mult-Epit had the highest ΔE* values. Significant color changes were observed in both pigmented and unpigmented specimens, which were stored in dark environment and not exposed to sunlight.

  3. Incoherent off-axis Fourier holography for different colors using a curved mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muhammad, Dilband; Nguyen, Cuong M.; Lee, Jihoon; Kwon, Hyuk-Sang

    2017-06-01

    Herein we describe an incoherent off-axis Fourier holographic system that uses a curved mirror in conjunction with color filters to capture holograms. Conceptually, our system is similar to both the Fourier incoherent single channel holography (FISCH) and the incoherent off-axis Fourier holographic (IOFH) systems. Our proposed system, which is termed incoherent off-axis Fourier holography with curved mirror (IOFH-CM), is not as robust in its response to environmental changes when compared to single channel light systems because it relies on dual light pathways. However, IOFH-CM and IOFH have the same three advantages over FISCH. First, replacing the spatial light modulator (SLM) with a curved mirror makes it cost-effective and simple. Second, its light throughput is high; and the third advantage is its ability to capture holograms of samples placed on an optical axis by tilting one mirror. A fourth advantage, compared to IOFH, is its use for different colors because, IOFH-CM requires only a filter change to capture different colors and no other movements of any optical component or camera is necessary. Here, we demonstrate the holographic capabilities of IOFH-CM using three different color filters.

  4. Measurement Error Correction Formula for Cluster-Level Group Differences in Cluster Randomized and Observational Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, Sun-Joo; Preacher, Kristopher J.

    2016-01-01

    Multilevel modeling (MLM) is frequently used to detect cluster-level group differences in cluster randomized trial and observational studies. Group differences on the outcomes (posttest scores) are detected by controlling for the covariate (pretest scores) as a proxy variable for unobserved factors that predict future attributes. The pretest and…

  5. Measurement Error Correction Formula for Cluster-Level Group Differences in Cluster Randomized and Observational Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, Sun-Joo; Preacher, Kristopher J.

    2016-01-01

    Multilevel modeling (MLM) is frequently used to detect cluster-level group differences in cluster randomized trial and observational studies. Group differences on the outcomes (posttest scores) are detected by controlling for the covariate (pretest scores) as a proxy variable for unobserved factors that predict future attributes. The pretest and…

  6. The color masking ability of a zirconia ceramic on the substrates with different values

    PubMed Central

    Tabatabaian, Farhad; Javadi Sharif, Mahdiye; Massoumi, Farhood; Namdari, Mahshid

    2017-01-01

    Background. The color masking ability of a restoration plays a significant role in coveringa discolored substructure; however, this optical property of zirconia ceramics has not been clearly determined yet. The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the color masking ability of a zirconia ceramic on substrates with different values. Methods. Ten zirconia disk specimens,0.5 mm in thickness and 10 mm in diameter, were fabricated by a CAD/CAM system. Four substrates with different values were prepared, including: white (control), light grey, dark grey, and black. The disk specimens were placed over the substratesfor spectrophotometric measurements. A spectrophotometer measured the L*, a*, and b* color attributes of the specimens. Additionally, ΔE values were calculated to determine the color differences between each group and the control,and were then compared with the perceptional threshold of ΔE=2.6. Repeated-measures ANOVA, Bonferroni, and one-sample t-test were used to analyze data. All the tests were carried out at 0.05 level of significance. Results. The means and standard deviations of ΔE values for the three groups of light grey, dark grey and black were 9.94±2.11, 10.40±2.09, and 13.34±1.77 units, respectively.Significant differences were detected between the groups in the ΔE values (P<0.0001).The ΔE values in all the groups were more than the predetermined perceptional threshold(ΔE>2.6) (P<0.0001). Conclusion. Within the limitations of this study, it was concluded that the tested zirconia ceramic did not exhibit sufficient color masking ability to hide the grey and black substrates. PMID:28413589

  7. CYTOTOXICITY OF INTERMAXILLARY ORTHODONTIC ELASTICS OF DIFFERENT COLORS: AN IN VITRO STUDY

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos, Rogério Lacerda; Pithon, Matheus Melo; Mendes, Gabriella da Silva; Romanos, Maria Teresa Villela; Ruellas, Antônio Carlos de Oliveira

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: Natural latex does not fall into the category of materials known to be entirely inoffensive. The purpose of this in vitro study was to test the hypothesis that there is no difference in the cytotoxicity between elastics of different colors and those from different manufacturers. Material and Methods: Different latex intraoral elastics of different colors (5/16 = 7.9 mm, mean load) were compared. The sample was divided into 7 groups of 24 elastics each: Group T (TP Orthodontics, natural latex elastics, control); Groups U1, U2, U3, U4, U5 and U6 (Uniden, natural latex elastics and colored elastics, namely, green, pink, yellow, red and purple, respectively). Cytotoxicity assays were performed by using cell culture medium containing epithelioid-type cells (Hep-2 line) derived from human laryngeal carcinoma. The cytotoxicity was evaluated by using the "dye-uptake" test, which was employed at two different moments (0 and 24 h). Data were compared by analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey's test (p<0.05). Results: There was statistically significant difference (p<0.05) between Group T and all other groups (U1, U2, U3, U4, U5 and U6) at 0 and 24 h. No statistically significant difference (p<0.05) was found between Groups U1 and U5, U1 and U6, U2 and U3, U2 and U4, U2 and U5, U2 and U6, U3 and U4, U3 and U5, U3 and U6, U4 and U5, U4 and U6, and U5 and U6 at 0 and 24 h. Conclusions: The TP Orthodontics elastics promoted less cell lysis compared to the Uniden elastics regardless of their color. PMID:19668992

  8. Influence of implant abutment material on the color of different ceramic crown systems.

    PubMed

    Dede, Doğu Ömür; Armağanci, Arzu; Ceylan, Gözlem; Celik, Ersan; Cankaya, Soner; Yilmaz, Burak

    2016-11-01

    Ceramics are widely used for anterior restorations; however, clinical color reproduction still constitutes a challenge particularly when the ceramic crowns are used on titanium implant abutments. The purpose of this in vitro study was to investigate the effect of implant abutment material on the color of different ceramic material systems. Forty disks (11×1.5 mm, shade A2) were fabricated from medium-opacity (mo) and high-translucency (ht) lithium disilicate (IPS e.max) blocks, an aluminous ceramic (VITA In-Ceram Alumina), and a zirconia (Zirkonzahn) ceramic system. Disks were fabricated to represent 3 different implant abutments (zirconia, gold-palladium, and titanium) and dentin (composite resin, A2 shade) as background (11×2 mm). Disk-shaped composite resin specimens in A2 shade were fabricated to represent the cement layer. The color measurements of ceramic specimens were made on composite resin abutment materials using a spectrophotometer. CIELab color coordinates were recorded, and the color coordinates measured on composite resin background served as the control group. Color differences (ΔE00) between the control and test groups were calculated. The data were analyzed with 2-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and compared with the Tukey HSD test (α=.05). The ceramics system, abutment material, and their interaction were significant for ΔE00 values (P<.001). Clinically unacceptable results (ΔE00>2.25) were observed for lithium disilicate ceramics on titanium abutments (2.46-2.50). The ΔE00 values of lithium disilicate ceramics for gold-palladium and titanium abutments were significantly higher than for other groups (P<.05). The color results (ΔE00>2.25) of an implant-supported lithium disilicate ceramic restoration may be clinically unacceptable if it is fabricated over a titanium abutment. Zirconia may be a more suitable abutment material for implant-supported ceramic restorations. Copyright © 2016 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic

  9. Dependecy of the reaction time from the overlap of signal lights with different colors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klinger, Karsten D.

    2005-02-01

    The rearward signal aspect consists of lights with different colors. With standard technics these signal lights are located at different places. With new technics it is possible to build signal lights with different colors together in one place. The signals overlap. In experiments at the University of Karlsruhe we studied the dependency between reaction time and overlap of signal lights. We can see, that the total overlap from a yellow turn signal and a red brake signal will increase the reaction time. The increase depends of the ratio between the luminance of the turn indicator signal and the luminance of the brake signal. With a ratio from one to one (best case with minimal increase) we found an increase of 300 milli seconds.

  10. Comparison of different approaches to separate analysis of phytoplankton and CDOM contributions to ocean color forming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepochkin, I. E.; Salyuk, P. A.; Golik, I. A.; Burov, D. V.; Bukin, O. A.

    2015-11-01

    Methods of empirical retrieval of chlorophyll - a and CDOM concentrations from hyperspectral ocean color data were described. We have considered cases of different relations between concentrations of these water constituents. Research area includes Japan Sea, East-China Sea, Okhotsk Sea, Barents Sea, Bering Sea, East-Siberian Sea and Chukchi Sea (water areas of different optical types) during the period from 2009 to 2014. Based on derived field data array, we created the method for building of regional empirical algorithms for concentrations of chlorophyll-a and CDOM retrieval taking into account differences of their contributions into water leaving radiance forming. In a similar manner, we have determined the most suitable spectral channels for the main satellite ocean color scanners. At the same time, we received concentrations of chlorophyll-a and CDOM with a help of tuning the semianalytical model for remote sensing reflectance (Rrs). Afterwards we carried out the quality assurance for the both approaches, comparing to shipboard data.

  11. Grouping Normal Type Ia Supernovae by UV to Optical Color Differences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milne, Peter A.; Brown, Peter J.; Roming, Peter W. A.; Bufano, Filomena; Gehrels, Neil

    2013-12-01

    Observations of many Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) for multiple epochs per object with the Swift Ultraviolet Optical Telescope instrument have revealed that there exists order to the differences in the UV-optical colors of optically normal supernovae (SNe). We examine UV-optical color curves for 23 SNe Ia, dividing the SNe into four groups, and find that roughly one-third of "NUV-blue" SNe Ia have bluer UV-optical colors than the larger "NUV-red" group. Two minor groups are recognized, "MUV-blue" and "irregular" SNe Ia. While we conclude that the latter group is a subset of the NUV-red group, containing the SNe with the broadest optical peaks, we conclude that the "MUV-blue" group is a distinct group. Separating into the groups and accounting for the time evolution of the UV-optical colors lowers the scatter in two NUV-optical colors (e.g., u - v and uvw1 - v) to the level of the scatter in b - v. This finding is promising for extending the cosmological utilization of SNe Ia into the NUV. We generate spectrophotometry of 33 SNe Ia and determine the correct grouping for each. We argue that there is a fundamental spectral difference in the 2900-3500 Å wavelength range, a region suggested to be dominated by absorption from iron-peak elements. The NUV-blue SNe Ia feature less absorption than the NUV-red SNe Ia. We show that all NUV-blue SNe Ia in this sample also show evidence of unburned carbon in optical spectra, whereas only one NUV-red SN Ia features that absorption line. Every NUV-blue event also exhibits a low gradient of the Si II λ6355 absorption feature. Many NUV-red events also exhibit a low gradient, perhaps suggestive that NUV-blue events are a subset of the larger low-velocity gradient group.

  12. Grouping normal type Ia supernovae by UV to optical color differences

    SciTech Connect

    Milne, Peter A.; Brown, Peter J.; Roming, Peter W. A.; Bufano, Filomena; Gehrels, Neil

    2013-12-10

    Observations of many Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) for multiple epochs per object with the Swift Ultraviolet Optical Telescope instrument have revealed that there exists order to the differences in the UV-optical colors of optically normal supernovae (SNe). We examine UV-optical color curves for 23 SNe Ia, dividing the SNe into four groups, and find that roughly one-third of 'NUV-blue' SNe Ia have bluer UV-optical colors than the larger 'NUV-red' group. Two minor groups are recognized, 'MUV-blue' and 'irregular' SNe Ia. While we conclude that the latter group is a subset of the NUV-red group, containing the SNe with the broadest optical peaks, we conclude that the 'MUV-blue' group is a distinct group. Separating into the groups and accounting for the time evolution of the UV-optical colors lowers the scatter in two NUV-optical colors (e.g., u – v and uvw1 – v) to the level of the scatter in b – v. This finding is promising for extending the cosmological utilization of SNe Ia into the NUV. We generate spectrophotometry of 33 SNe Ia and determine the correct grouping for each. We argue that there is a fundamental spectral difference in the 2900-3500 Å wavelength range, a region suggested to be dominated by absorption from iron-peak elements. The NUV-blue SNe Ia feature less absorption than the NUV-red SNe Ia. We show that all NUV-blue SNe Ia in this sample also show evidence of unburned carbon in optical spectra, whereas only one NUV-red SN Ia features that absorption line. Every NUV-blue event also exhibits a low gradient of the Si II λ6355 absorption feature. Many NUV-red events also exhibit a low gradient, perhaps suggestive that NUV-blue events are a subset of the larger low-velocity gradient group.

  13. Differences in vitamin E and C profile between infant formula and human milk and relative susceptibility to lipid oxidation.

    PubMed

    Elisia, Ingrid; Kitts, David D

    2013-01-01

    The vitamin E isoforms and vitamin (vit) C content of infant formulas were compared to human milk and related to relative susceptibilities to lipid peroxidation. We report that a highly distinct vitamin E and C profile exists between formula and human milk. Whileα-tocopherol (α-Toc) is the dominant vit E isoform in human milk, formula contains a substantial amount of α-Toc and δ-Toc that was greater than the level found in human milk (12- and 32-fold, respectively). Vitamin C was also two- fold higher in infant formula compared to human milk. Despite the higher vitamin E and C content, we also observed higher rates of lipid oxidation in the formula when compared to human milk. Storing human milk for one day at refrigeration temperatures did not produce hexanal in human milk, but this storage resulted in an increase in hexanal in formulas. We conclude that the higher concentrations of γ-Toc and δ-Toc in infant formulas did not provide similar protection from lipid oxidation as human milk. We also observed that vit C content was reduced during storage in both infant formula and human milk, which did not occur with the Toc isoforms.

  14. Striking individual differences in color perception uncovered by 'the dress' photograph.

    PubMed

    Lafer-Sousa, Rosa; Hermann, Katherine L; Conway, Bevil R

    2015-06-29

    'The dress' is a peculiar photograph: by themselves the dress' pixels are brown and blue, colors associated with natural illuminants, but popular accounts (#TheDress) suggest the dress appears either white/gold or blue/black. Could the purported categorical perception arise because the original social-media question was an alternative-forced-choice? In a free-response survey (N = 1401), we found that most people, including those naïve to the image, reported white/gold or blue/black, but some said blue/brown. Reports of white/gold over blue/black were higher among older people and women. On re-test, some subjects reported a switch in perception, showing the image can be multistable. In a language-independent measure of perception, we asked subjects to identify the dress' colors from a complete color gamut. The results showed three peaks corresponding to the main descriptive categories, providing additional evidence that the brain resolves the image into one of three stable percepts. We hypothesize that these reflect different internal priors: some people favor a cool illuminant (blue sky), discount shorter wavelengths, and perceive white/gold; others favor a warm illuminant (incandescent light), discount longer wavelengths, and see blue/black. The remaining subjects may assume a neutral illuminant, and see blue/brown. We show that by introducing overt cues to the illumination, we can flip the dress color.

  15. Different Selective Pressures Shape the Molecular Evolution of Color Vision in Chimpanzee and Human Populations

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Cecil M.; Stone, Anne C.; Perry, George H.

    2008-01-01

    A population genetic analysis of the long-wavelength opsin (OPN1LW, “red”) color vision gene in a global sample of 236 human nucleotide sequences had previously discovered nine amino acid replacement single nucleotide polymorphisms, which were found at high frequencies in both African and non-African populations and associated with an unusual haplotype diversity. Although this pattern of nucleotide diversity is consistent with balancing selection, it has been argued that a recombination “hot spot” or gene conversion within and between X-linked color vision genes alone may explain these patterns. The current analysis investigates a closely related primate with trichromatism to determine whether color vision gene amino acid polymorphism and signatures of adaptive evolution are characteristic of humans alone. Our population sample of 56 chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) OPN1LW sequences shows three singleton amino acid polymorphisms and no unusual recombination or linkage disequilibrium patterns across the ∼5.5-kb region analyzed. Our comparative population genetic approach shows that the patterns of OPN1LW variation in humans and chimpanzees are consistent with positive and purifying selection within the two lineages, respectively. Although the complex role of color vision has been greatly documented in primate evolution in general, it is surprising that trichromatism has followed very different selective trajectories even between humans and our closest relatives. PMID:18832077

  16. Assessing the effects of different pectins addition on color quality and antioxidant properties of blackberry jam.

    PubMed

    Poiana, Mariana-Atena; Munteanu, Melania-Florina; Bordean, Despina-Maria; Gligor, Ramona; Alexa, Ersilia

    2013-01-01

    In the last years pectin and other hydrocolloids were tested for improving the color stability and the retention of bioactive compounds in gelled fruit-based products. In line with these concerns, our study has been directed to quantify the changes in antioxidant status and color indices of blackberry jam obtained with different types of pectin (degree of esterification: DE, degree of amidation: DA) and doses in response to processing and storage for 1, 3 and 6 months at 20°C. Blackberry jam was obtained by a traditional procedure used in households or small-scale systems with different commercial pectins (HMP: high-methoxyl pectin, LMP: low-methoxyl pectin and LMAP: low-methoxyl amidated pectin) added to three concentrations (0.3, 0.7 and 1.0%) and investigated in terms of total monomeric anthocyanins (TMA), antioxidant capacity expressed as ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), total phenolics (TP), color density (CD) and percent of polymeric color, PC (%). Thermal processing resulted in significant depreciation of analyzed parameters reported to the corresponding values of fresh fruit as follows: TMA (69-82%), TP (33-55%) and FRAP (18-52%). Biologically active compounds and color were best retained one day post-processing in jams with LMAP followed by samples with LMP and HMP. Storage for 6 months brings along additional dramatic losses reported to the values recorded one day post-processing as follows: TMA (31-56%), TP (29-51%) and FRAP (20-41%). Also, both processing and storage resulted in significant increases in PC (%). The pectin type and dosage are very influential factors for limiting the alterations occurring in response to processing and storage. The best color retention and the highest TMA, TP and FRAP were achieved by LMAP, followed by LMP and HMP. Additionally, a high level of bioactive compounds in jam could be related to a high dose of pectin. LMAP to a level of 1% is the most indicated to provide the highest antioxidant properties in jam

  17. Assessing the effects of different pectins addition on color quality and antioxidant properties of blackberry jam

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In the last years pectin and other hydrocolloids were tested for improving the color stability and the retention of bioactive compounds in gelled fruit-based products. In line with these concerns, our study has been directed to quantify the changes in antioxidant status and color indices of blackberry jam obtained with different types of pectin (degree of esterification: DE, degree of amidation: DA) and doses in response to processing and storage for 1, 3 and 6 months at 20°C. Results Blackberry jam was obtained by a traditional procedure used in households or small-scale systems with different commercial pectins (HMP: high-methoxyl pectin, LMP: low-methoxyl pectin and LMAP: low-methoxyl amidated pectin) added to three concentrations (0.3, 0.7 and 1.0%) and investigated in terms of total monomeric anthocyanins (TMA), antioxidant capacity expressed as ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), total phenolics (TP), color density (CD) and percent of polymeric color, PC (%). Thermal processing resulted in significant depreciation of analyzed parameters reported to the corresponding values of fresh fruit as follows: TMA (69-82%), TP (33-55%) and FRAP (18-52%). Biologically active compounds and color were best retained one day post-processing in jams with LMAP followed by samples with LMP and HMP. Storage for 6 months brings along additional dramatic losses reported to the values recorded one day post-processing as follows: TMA (31-56%), TP (29-51%) and FRAP (20-41%). Also, both processing and storage resulted in significant increases in PC (%). The pectin type and dosage are very influential factors for limiting the alterations occurring in response to processing and storage. The best color retention and the highest TMA, TP and FRAP were achieved by LMAP, followed by LMP and HMP. Additionally, a high level of bioactive compounds in jam could be related to a high dose of pectin. LMAP to a level of 1% is the most indicated to provide the highest antioxidant

  18. The mathematical formula of the intravaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT) distribution of lifelong premature ejaculation differs from the IELT distribution formula of men in the general male population

    PubMed Central

    Janssen, Paddy K.C.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To find the most accurate mathematical description of the intravaginal ejaculation latency time (IELT) distribution in the general male population. Materials and Methods We compared the fitness of various well-known mathematical distributions with the IELT distribution of two previously published stopwatch studies of the Caucasian general male population and a stopwatch study of Dutch Caucasian men with lifelong premature ejaculation (PE). The accuracy of fitness is expressed by the Goodness of Fit (GOF). The smaller the GOF, the more accurate is the fitness. Results The 3 IELT distributions are gamma distributions, but the IELT distribution of lifelong PE is another gamma distribution than the IELT distribution of men in the general male population. The Lognormal distribution of the gamma distributions most accurately fits the IELT distribution of 965 men in the general population, with a GOF of 0.057. The Gumbel Max distribution most accurately fits the IELT distribution of 110 men with lifelong PE with a GOF of 0.179. There are more men with lifelong PE ejaculating within 30 and 60 seconds than can be extrapolated from the probability density curve of the Lognormal IELT distribution of men in the general population. Conclusions Men with lifelong PE have a distinct IELT distribution, e.g., a Gumbel Max IELT distribution, that can only be retrieved from the general male population Lognormal IELT distribution when thousands of men would participate in a IELT stopwatch study. The mathematical formula of the Lognormal IELT distribution is useful for epidemiological research of the IELT. PMID:26981594

  19. The efficiency of child formula dentifrices containing different calcium and phosphate compounds on artificial enamel caries

    PubMed Central

    Rirattanapong, Praphasri; Vongsavan, Kadkao; Saengsirinavin, Chavengkiat; Khumsub, Ploychompoo

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Fluoride toothpaste has been extensively used to prevent dental caries. However, the risk of fluorosis is concerning, especially in young children. Calcium phosphate has been an effective remineralizing agent and is present in commercial dental products, with no risk of fluorosis to users. This in vitro study aimed to compare the effects of different calcium phosphate compounds and fluoride-containing dentifrices on artificial caries in primary teeth. Materials and Methods: Fifty sound primary incisors were coated with nail varnish, leaving two 1 mm2 windows on the labial surface before immersion in demineralizing solution for 96 hours to produce artificial enamel lesions. Subsequently, one window from each tooth was coated with nail varnish, and all 50 teeth were divided into five groups (n = 10); group A – deionized water; group B – casein phosphopeptide–amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP–ACP) paste (Tooth Mousse); group C – 500 ppm F (Colgate Spiderman®); group D – nonfluoridated toothpaste with triple calcium phosphate (Pureen®); and group E – tricalcium phosphate (TCP). Polarized light microscopy and Image-Pro® Plus software were used to evaluate lesions. Results: After a 7-day pH-cycle, mean lesion depths in groups A, B, C, D, and E had increased by 57.52 ± 10.66%, 33.28 ± 10.16%, 17.04 ± 4.76%, 32.51 ± 8.99%, and 21.76 ± 8.15%, respectively. All data were processed by the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (version 16.0) software package. Comparison of percentage changes using one-way analysis of variance and Fisher's least squares difference tests at a 95% level of confidence demonstrated that group A was significantly different from the other groups (P < 0.001). Lesions in groups B and D had a significant lesion progression when compared with groups C and E. Conclusions: All toothpastes in this study had the potential to delay the demineralization progression of artificial enamel caries in primary teeth. The

  20. The efficiency of child formula dentifrices containing different calcium and phosphate compounds on artificial enamel caries.

    PubMed

    Rirattanapong, Praphasri; Vongsavan, Kadkao; Saengsirinavin, Chavengkiat; Khumsub, Ploychompoo

    2016-01-01

    Fluoride toothpaste has been extensively used to prevent dental caries. However, the risk of fluorosis is concerning, especially in young children. Calcium phosphate has been an effective remineralizing agent and is present in commercial dental products, with no risk of fluorosis to users. This in vitro study aimed to compare the effects of different calcium phosphate compounds and fluoride-containing dentifrices on artificial caries in primary teeth. Fifty sound primary incisors were coated with nail varnish, leaving two 1 mm(2) windows on the labial surface before immersion in demineralizing solution for 96 hours to produce artificial enamel lesions. Subsequently, one window from each tooth was coated with nail varnish, and all 50 teeth were divided into five groups (n = 10); group A - deionized water; group B - casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) paste (Tooth Mousse); group C - 500 ppm F (Colgate Spiderman(®)); group D - nonfluoridated toothpaste with triple calcium phosphate (Pureen(®)); and group E - tricalcium phosphate (TCP). Polarized light microscopy and Image-Pro(®) Plus software were used to evaluate lesions. After a 7-day pH-cycle, mean lesion depths in groups A, B, C, D, and E had increased by 57.52 ± 10.66%, 33.28 ± 10.16%, 17.04 ± 4.76%, 32.51 ± 8.99%, and 21.76 ± 8.15%, respectively. All data were processed by the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (version 16.0) software package. Comparison of percentage changes using one-way analysis of variance and Fisher's least squares difference tests at a 95% level of confidence demonstrated that group A was significantly different from the other groups (P < 0.001). Lesions in groups B and D had a significant lesion progression when compared with groups C and E. All toothpastes in this study had the potential to delay the demineralization progression of artificial enamel caries in primary teeth. The fluoride 500 ppm and TCP toothpastes were equal in the deceleration of

  1. Geometrically derived difference formulae for the numerical integration of trajectory problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcleod, R. J. Y.; Sanz-Serna, J. M.

    1982-01-01

    An initial value problem for the autonomous system of ordinary differential equations dy/dt = f(y), where y is a vector, is considered. In a number of practical applications the interest lies in obtaining the curve traced by the solution y. These applications include the computation of trajectories in mechanical problems. The term 'trajectory problem' is employed to refer to these cases. Lambert and McLeod (1979) have introduced a method involving local rotation of the axes in the y-plane for the two-dimensional case. The present investigation continues the study of difference schemes specifically derived for trajectory problems. A simple geometrical way of constructing such methods is presented, and the local accuracy of the schemes is investigated. A circularly exact, fixed-step predictor-corrector algorithm is defined, and a variable-step version of a circularly exact algorithm is presented.

  2. Geometrically derived difference formulae for the numerical integration of trajectory problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcleod, R. J. Y.; Sanz-Serna, J. M.

    1982-01-01

    An initial value problem for the autonomous system of ordinary differential equations dy/dt = f(y), where y is a vector, is considered. In a number of practical applications the interest lies in obtaining the curve traced by the solution y. These applications include the computation of trajectories in mechanical problems. The term 'trajectory problem' is employed to refer to these cases. Lambert and McLeod (1979) have introduced a method involving local rotation of the axes in the y-plane for the two-dimensional case. The present investigation continues the study of difference schemes specifically derived for trajectory problems. A simple geometrical way of constructing such methods is presented, and the local accuracy of the schemes is investigated. A circularly exact, fixed-step predictor-corrector algorithm is defined, and a variable-step version of a circularly exact algorithm is presented.

  3. Intersexual allometry differences and ontogenetic shifts of coloration patterns in two aquatic turtles, Graptemys oculifera and Graptemys flavimaculata

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ennen, Joshua R.; Lindeman, Peter V.; Lovich, Jeffrey E.

    2015-01-01

    Coloration can play critical roles in a species' biology. The allometry of color patterns may be useful for elucidating the evolutionary mechanisms responsible for shaping the traits. We measured characteristics relating to eight aspects of color patterns from Graptemys oculifera and G. flavimaculata to investigate the allometric differences among male, female, and unsexed juvenile specimens. Additionally, we investigated ontogenetic shifts by incorporating the unsexed juveniles into the male and female datasets. In general, male color traits were isometric (i.e., color scaled with body size), while females and juvenile color traits were hypoallometric, growing in size more slowly than the increase in body size. When we included unsexed juveniles in our male and female datasets, our linear regression analyses found all relationships to be hypoallometric and our model selection analysis found support for nonlinear models describing the relationship between body size and color patterns, suggestive of an ontogenetic shift in coloration traits for both sexes at maturity. Although color is critical for many species' biology and therefore under strong selective pressure in many other species, our results are likely explained by an epiphenomenon related to the different selection pressures on body size and growth rates between juveniles and adults and less attributable to the evolution of color patterns themselves.

  4. Intersexual allometry differences and ontogenetic shifts of coloration patterns in two aquatic turtles, Graptemys oculifera and Graptemys flavimaculata

    PubMed Central

    Ennen, Joshua R; Lindeman, Peter V; Lovich, Jeffrey E

    2015-01-01

    Coloration can play critical roles in a species' biology. The allometry of color patterns may be useful for elucidating the evolutionary mechanisms responsible for shaping the traits. We measured characteristics relating to eight aspects of color patterns from Graptemys oculifera and G. flavimaculata to investigate the allometric differences among male, female, and unsexed juvenile specimens. Additionally, we investigated ontogenetic shifts by incorporating the unsexed juveniles into the male and female datasets. In general, male color traits were isometric (i.e., color scaled with body size), while females and juvenile color traits were hypoallometric, growing in size more slowly than the increase in body size. When we included unsexed juveniles in our male and female datasets, our linear regression analyses found all relationships to be hypoallometric and our model selection analysis found support for nonlinear models describing the relationship between body size and color patterns, suggestive of an ontogenetic shift in coloration traits for both sexes at maturity. Although color is critical for many species' biology and therefore under strong selective pressure in many other species, our results are likely explained by an epiphenomenon related to the different selection pressures on body size and growth rates between juveniles and adults and less attributable to the evolution of color patterns themselves. PMID:26078863

  5. Color Categories and Color Appearance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webster, Michael A.; Kay, Paul

    2012-01-01

    We examined categorical effects in color appearance in two tasks, which in part differed in the extent to which color naming was explicitly required for the response. In one, we measured the effects of color differences on perceptual grouping for hues that spanned the blue-green boundary, to test whether chromatic differences across the boundary…

  6. Color Categories and Color Appearance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webster, Michael A.; Kay, Paul

    2012-01-01

    We examined categorical effects in color appearance in two tasks, which in part differed in the extent to which color naming was explicitly required for the response. In one, we measured the effects of color differences on perceptual grouping for hues that spanned the blue-green boundary, to test whether chromatic differences across the boundary…

  7. Antioxidant activities of different colored sweet bell peppers (Capsicum annuum L.).

    PubMed

    Sun, T; Xu, Z; Wu, C-T; Janes, M; Prinyawiwatkul, W; No, H K

    2007-03-01

    Antioxidant compounds and their antioxidant activity in 4 different colored (green, yellow, orange, and red) sweet bell peppers (Capsicum annuum L.) were investigated. The total phenolics content of green, yellow, orange, and red peppers determined by the Folin-Ciocalteau method were 2.4, 3.3, 3.4, and 4.2 micromol catechin equivalent/g fresh weight, respectively. The red pepper had significantly higher total phenolics content than the green pepper. Among the 4 different colored peppers, red pepper contained a higher level of beta-carotene (5.4 microg/g), capsanthin (8.0 microg/g), quercetin (34.0 microg/g), and luteolin (11.0 microg/g). The yellow pepper had the lowest beta-carotene content (0.2 microg/g), while the green one had undetectable capsanthin and the lowest content of luteolin (2.0 microg/g). The free radical scavenging abilities of peppers determined by the 2,2'-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method were lowest for the green pepper (2.1 micromol Trolox equivalent/g) but not significantly different from the other 3 peppers. All 4 colored peppers exhibited significant abilities in preventing the oxidation of cholesterol or docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) (C22:6) during heating. However, these 4 peppers did not show significant differences in their abilities in preventing cholesterol oxidation. The green pepper showed slightly higher capability in preventing the oxidation of DHA compared to the other 3 peppers.

  8. Color Difference in Placentas with Twin Anemia-Polycythemia Sequence: An Additional Diagnostic Criterion?

    PubMed

    Tollenaar, Lisanne S A; Zhao, Danny P; Middeldorp, Johanna M; Slaghekke, Femke; Oepkes, Dick; Lopriore, Enrico

    2016-01-01

    To determine the color intensity difference between the 2 placental shares in monochorionic placentas with twin anemia-polycythemia sequence (TAPS). We evaluated all digital pictures of TAPS placentas examined at our center and compared them to a control group of uncomplicated monochorionic placentas. We determined the color intensity of individual placental share on the maternal side of each monochorionic placenta using an image processing program and calculated the color difference ratio (CDR). Digital pictures of 19 TAPS and 19 uncomplicated monochorionic placentas were included in this study. The TAPS group consisted of 12 spontaneous TAPS placentas (63%) and 7 post-laser TAPS placentas (37%). The median CDR in the group with TAPS was significantly higher than in the control group, 2.73 (range 1.73-6.36) versus 1.09 (range 1.00-1.35), respectively (p < 0.01). We found a positive correlation between CDR and inter-twin hemoglobin (Hb) difference in the TAPS group (R = 0.66, p < 0.01) but not in the control group (R = 0.04, p = 0.87). TAPS placentas have a significantly higher CDR compared to uncomplicated monochorionic twin placentas. Large inter-twin Hb differences in TAPS are associated with higher CDR. © 2016 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Prebiotics in infant formula.

    PubMed

    Vandenplas, Yvan; De Greef, Elisabeth; Veereman, Gigi

    2014-01-01

    The gastrointestinal microbiota of breast-fed babies differ from classic standard formula fed infants. While mother's milk is rich in prebiotic oligosaccharides and contains small amounts of probiotics, standard infant formula doesn't. Different prebiotic oligosaccharides are added to infant formula: galacto-oligosaccharides, fructo-oligosaccharide, polydextrose, and mixtures of these. There is evidence that addition of prebiotics in infant formula alters the gastrointestinal (GI) microbiota resembling that of breastfed infants. They are added to infant formula because of their presence in breast milk. Infants on these supplemented formula have a lower stool pH, a better stool consistency and frequency and a higher concentration of bifidobacteria in their intestine compared to infants on a non-supplemented standard formula. Since most studies suggest a trend for beneficial clinical effects, and since these ingredients are very safe, prebiotics bring infant formula one step closer to breastmilk, the golden standard. However, despite the fact that adverse events are rare, the evidence on prebiotics of a significant health benefit throughout the alteration of the gut microbiota is limited.

  10. Prebiotics in infant formula

    PubMed Central

    Vandenplas, Yvan; Greef, Elisabeth De; Veereman, Gigi

    2014-01-01

    The gastrointestinal microbiota of breast-fed babies differ from classic standard formula fed infants. While mother's milk is rich in prebiotic oligosaccharides and contains small amounts of probiotics, standard infant formula doesn’t. Different prebiotic oligosaccharides are added to infant formula: galacto-oligosaccharides, fructo-oligosaccharide, polydextrose, and mixtures of these. There is evidence that addition of prebiotics in infant formula alters the gastrointestinal (GI) microbiota resembling that of breastfed infants. They are added to infant formula because of their presence in breast milk. Infants on these supplemented formula have a lower stool pH, a better stool consistency and frequency and a higher concentration of bifidobacteria in their intestine compared to infants on a non-supplemented standard formula. Since most studies suggest a trend for beneficial clinical effects, and since these ingredients are very safe, prebiotics bring infant formula one step closer to breastmilk, the golden standard. However, despite the fact that adverse events are rare, the evidence on prebiotics of a significant health benefit throughout the alteration of the gut microbiota is limited. PMID:25535999

  11. Color Space and Its Divisions: Color Order from Antiquity to the Present

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuehni, Rolf G.

    2003-03-01

    It has been postulated that humans can differentiate between millions of gradations in color. Not surprisingly, no completely adequate, detailed catalog of colors has yet been devised, however the quest to understand, record, and depict color is as old as the quest to understand the fundamentals of the physical world and the nature of human consciousness. Rolf Kuehni's Color Space and Its Divisions: Color Order from Antiquity to the Present represents an ambitious and unprecedented history of man's inquiry into color order, focusing on the practical applications of the most contemporary developments in the field. Kuehni devotes much of his study to geometric, three-dimensional arrangements of color experiences, a type of system developed only in the mid-nineteenth century. Color spaces are of particular interest for color quality-control purposes in the manufacturing and graphics industries. The author analyzes three major color order systems in detail: Munsell, OSA-UCS, and NCS. He presents historical and current information on color space developments in color vision, psychology, psychophysics, and color technology. Chapter topics include: A historical account of color order systems Fundamentals of psychophysics and the relationship between stimuli and experience Results of perceptual scaling of colors according to attributes History of the development of mathematical color space and difference formulas Analysis of the agreements and discrepancies in psychophysical data describing color differences An experimental plan for the reliable, replicated perceptual data necessary to make progress in the field Experts in academia and industry, neuroscientists, designers, art historians, and anyone interested in the nature of color will find Color Space and Its Divisions to be the authoritative reference in its field.

  12. Flesh color association with polymorphism of the tyrosinase gene in different Chinese chicken breeds.

    PubMed

    Zhang, J Q; Chen, H; Sun, Z J; Liu, X L; Qiang-Ba, Y Z; Gu, Y L

    2010-01-01

    In order to study genetic variation of tyrosinase gene in four different flesh color chicken breeds selected from special districts including Guyuan, Wenchang, Tibetan and Hisex chicken, five loci of the TYR gene exon-1 and one locus of 5' flanking region were analyzed in PCR-SSCP and DNA sequencing. The results indicated that there were polymorphisms only at TYR1 and TYR3 locus. At TYR1 locus located in exon-1, there were three genotypes (TT, CC, TC), respectively, in three Chinese chicken breeds, and Genotype CC had not been detected in Hisex chicken. At TYR3 locus located in 5' flanking region, there were three genotypes (GG, AA and GA) in Chinese local chicken breeds and genotype AA had not been detected in Hisex chicken breed. It was concluded that there were many variations of TYR gene in Chinese local chicken breeds. DNA sequencing of PCR products for different genotypes showed that there were two mutation sites, respectively, C to T at TYR1 locus and G to A at TYR3 locus. Mutation at TYR1 locus did not cause any amino acid variation. The chi-square analysis revealed that there were significant statistical differences generally between flesh color and the two loci among four chicken populations (P < 0.01). Our results suggested that the flesh color was related to genotype of TYR gene in Chinese chicken breeds. This study provided original information for elucidating the possible roles of exon-1 of TYR gene and 5' flanking region in chickens with different flesh color chicken.

  13. Pyrgeometer formula.

    PubMed

    Kohsiek, W; van Lammeren, A C

    1997-08-20

    In a recent article [Appl. Opt. 34 , 1598 (1995) a new pyrgeometer formula was proposed. This formula leads to a] bias at isothermal conditions. The origin of the bias is explored by a more rigorous treatment of the radiation processes involved in the energy balance of a pyrgeometer. As a result it is found that, for an accuracy of a few watts per square meter, the spectral transmission characteristics of the dome have to be taken into account.

  14. Efficacy of polishing kits on the surface roughness and color stability of different composite resins.

    PubMed

    Kocaagaoglu, H; Aslan, T; Gürbulak, A; Albayrak, H; Taşdemir, Z; Gumus, H

    2017-05-01

    Different polishing kits may have different effects on the composite resin surfaces. The aim of this study was to evaluate the surface roughness and color stability of four different composites which was applied different polishing technique. Thirty specimens were made for each composite resin group (nanohybrid, GrandioSo-GS; nanohybrid, Clearfil Majesty Esthetic-CME; hybrid, Valux Plus-VP; micro-hybrid, Ruby Comp-RC; [15 mm in diameter and 2 mm height]), with the different monomer composition and particle size from a total of 120 specimens. Each composite group was divided into three subgroups (n = 10). The first subgroup of the each composite subgroups served as control (C) and had no surface treatment. The second subgroup of the each composite resin groups was polished with finishing discs (Bisco Finishing Discs; Bisco Inc., Schaumburg, IL, USA). The third subgroup of the each composite resin was polished with polishing wheel (Enhance and PoGo, Dentsply, Konstanz, Germany). The surface roughness and the color differences measurement of the specimens were made and recorded. The data were compared using Kruskal-Wallis test, and regression analysis was used in order to examine the correlation between surface roughness and color differences of the specimens (α = 0.05). The Kruskal-Wallis test indicated significant difference among the composite resins in terms of ΔE (P < 0.05), and there was no statistically significant difference among composite resins in terms of surface roughness (P > 0.05). Result of the regression analysis indicated statistically significant correlation between Ra and ΔE values (P < 0.05, r2 = 0.74). The findings of the present study have clinical relevance in the choice of polishing kits used.

  15. Gender differences in cerebral metabolism for color processing in mice: A PET/MRI Study

    PubMed Central

    Njemanze, Philip C.; Kranz, Mathias; Amend, Mario; Hauser, Jens; Wehrl, Hans; Brust, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Color processing is a central component of mammalian vision. Gender-related differences of color processing revealed by non-invasive functional transcranial Doppler ultrasound suggested right hemisphere pattern for blue/yellow chromatic opponency by men, and a left hemisphere pattern by women. Materials and Methods The present study measured the accumulation of [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose ([18F]FDG) in mouse brain using small animal positron emission tomography and magnetic resonance imaging (PET/MRI) with statistical parametric mapping (SPM) during light stimulation with blue and yellow filters compared to darkness condition. Results PET revealed a reverse pattern relative to dark condition compared to previous human studies: Male mice presented with left visual cortex dominance for blue through the right eye, while female mice presented with right visual cortex dominance for blue through the left eye. We applied statistical parametric mapping (SPM) to examine gender differences in activated architectonic areas within the orbital and medial prefrontal cortex and related cortical and sub-cortical areas that lead to the striatum, medial thalamus and other brain areas. The metabolic connectivity of the orbital and medial prefrontal cortex evoked by blue stimulation spread through a wide range of brain structures implicated in viscerosensory and visceromotor systems in the left intra-hemispheric regions in male, but in the right-to-left inter-hemispheric regions in female mice. Color functional ocular dominance plasticity was noted in the right eye in male mice but in the left eye in female mice. Conclusions This study of color processing in an animal model could be applied in the study of the role of gender differences in brain disease. PMID:28723938

  16. Calibration Improvements in the Detector-to-Detector Differences for the MODIS Ocean Color Bands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Yonghong; Angal, Amit; Wu, Aisheng; Geng, Xu; Link, Daniel; Xiong, Xiaoxiong

    2016-01-01

    The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), a major instrument within NASAs Earth Observation System missions, has operated for over 16 and 14 years onboard the Terra and Aqua satellites, respectively. Its reflective solar bands (RSB) covering a spectral range from 0.4 to 2.1 micrometers are primarily calibrated using the on-board solar diffuser(SD), with its on-orbit degradation monitored using the Solar Diffuser Stability Monitor. RSB calibrations are supplemented by near-monthly lunar measurements acquired from the instruments space-view port. Nine bands (bands 8-16) in the visible to near infrared spectral range from 0.412 to 0.866 micrometers are primarily used for ocean color observations.During a recent reprocessing of ocean color products, performed by the NASA Ocean Biology Processing Group, detector-to-detector differences of up to 1.5% were observed in bands 13-16 of Terra MODIS. This paper provides an overview of the current approach to characterize the MODIS detector-to-detector differences. An alternative methodology was developed to mitigate the observed impacts for bands 13-16. The results indicated an improvement in the detector residuals and in turn are expected to improve the MODIS ocean color products. This paper also discusses the limitations,subsequent enhancements, and the improvements planned for future MODIS calibration collections.

  17. Calibration improvements in the detector-to-detector differences for the MODIS ocean color bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yonghong; Angal, Amit; Wu, Aisheng; Geng, Xu; Link, Daniel; Xiong, Xiaoxiong J.

    2016-09-01

    The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), a major instrument within NASA's Earth Observation System missions, has operated for over 16 and 14 years onboard the Terra and Aqua satellites, respectively. Its reflective solar bands (RSB) covering a spectral range from 0.4 to 2.1 μm are primarily calibrated using the on-board solar diffuser (SD), with its on-orbit degradation monitored using the Solar Diffuser Stability Monitor. RSB calibrations are supplemented by near-monthly lunar measurements acquired from the instrument's space-view port. Nine bands (bands 8-16) in the visible to near infrared spectral range from 0.412 to 0.866 μm are primarily used for ocean color observations. During a recent reprocessing of ocean color products, performed by the NASA's Ocean Biology Processing Group, detector-to-detector differences of up to 1.5% were observed in bands 13-16 of Terra MODIS. This paper provides an overview of the current approach to characterize the MODIS detector-to-detector differences. An alternative methodology was developed to mitigate the observed impacts for bands 13-16. The results indicated an improvement in the detector residuals and in turn are expected to improve the MODIS ocean color products. This paper also discusses the limitations, subsequent enhancements, and the improvements planned for future MODIS calibration collections.

  18. Trace formulas and Borg-type theorems for matrix-valued Jacobi and Dirac finite difference operators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Steve; Gesztesy, Fritz; Renger, Walter

    Borg-type uniqueness theorems for matrix-valued Jacobi operators H and supersymmetric Dirac difference operators D are proved. More precisely, assuming reflectionless matrix coefficients A,B in the self-adjoint Jacobi operator H=AS++A-S-+B (with S± the right/left shift operators on the lattice Z) and the spectrum of H to be a compact interval [E-,E+], E-difference operators D with spectrum given by -E+1/2,-E-1/2∪E-1/2,E+1/2, 0⩽E-formulas and matrix-valued (exponential) Herglotz representation theorems. As a by-product of our techniques we obtain the extension of Flaschka's Borg-type result for periodic scalar Jacobi operators to the class of reflectionless matrix-valued Jacobi operators.

  19. Effect of marination on CIE L* and pH values of chicken breast pectoralis major with different color lightness

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Color lightness (CIE L* values) and pH are widely used as quality indicators for raw poultry breast fillets (pectoralis major). The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of vacuum-tumbling marination on L* and pH values of raw chicken breast meat with different color lightness. Early ...

  20. Effect of marination on CIE L* and pH values of chicken breast pectoralis major with different color lightness

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Color lightness (CIE L* values) and pH are widely used as quality indicators for raw poultry breast fillets (pectoralis major). The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of vacuum-tumbling marination on L* and pH values of raw chicken breast meat with different color lightness. Early d...

  1. Variations in normal color vision. VI. Factors underlying individual differences in hue scaling and their implications for models of color appearance.

    PubMed

    Emery, Kara J; Volbrecht, Vicki J; Peterzell, David H; Webster, Michael A

    2017-01-03

    Observers with normal color vision vary widely in their judgments of color appearance, such as the specific spectral stimuli they perceive as pure or unique hues. We examined the basis of these individual differences by using factor analysis to examine the variations in hue-scaling functions from both new and previously published data. Observers reported the perceived proportion of red, green, blue or yellow in chromatic stimuli sampling angles at fixed intervals within the LM and S cone-opponent plane. These proportions were converted to hue angles in a perceptual-opponent space defined by red vs. green and blue vs. yellow axes. Factors were then extracted from the correlation matrix using PCA and Varimax rotation. These analyses revealed that inter-observer differences depend on seven or more narrowly-tuned factors. Moreover, although the task required observers to decompose the stimuli into four primary colors, there was no evidence for factors corresponding to these four primaries, or for opponent relationships between primaries. Perceptions of "redness" in orange, red, and purple, for instance, involved separate factors rather than one shared process for red. This pattern was compared to factor analyses of Monte Carlo simulations of the individual differences in scaling predicted by variations in standard opponent mechanisms, such as their spectral tuning or relative sensitivity. The observed factor pattern is inconsistent with these models and thus with conventional accounts of color appearance based on the Hering primaries. Instead, our analysis points to a perceptual representation of color in terms of multiple mechanisms or decision rules that each influence the perception of only a relatively narrow range of hues, potentially consistent with a population code for color suggested by cortical physiology.

  2. [INFLUENCE OF THE NUTRITIONAL COMPOSITION OF DIFFERENT FIBER-ENRICHED ENTERAL NUTRITION FORMULAS ON THE ADMINISTRATION TIME BY GRAVITY AND THE RISK OF TUBE FEEDING OBSTRUCTION].

    PubMed

    Bonada Sanjaume, Anna; Gils Contreras, Anna; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi

    2015-08-01

    the administration of enteral nutrition by gravity is a very useful method in clinical practice; nevertheless, it may not be very precise. Indeed, this method presents some important limitations, such as the difficulty in establishing a precise dripping rate and the possibility for the dripping rate decrease depending on the formula. assess the administration time and the risk of clogging of 5 fiber-enriched enteral nutrition formulas with different protein concentrations and caloric density, all administered by gravity through nasogastric (NG) tubes of different sizes. Assess the influence of the composition on the dripping rate, by gravity, of the tested formulas. 5 fiber-enriched EN formulas were compared by using nasogastric tubes of the calibers 8, 10 and 12 Fr. The fluidity of these gravity-administered NE formulas was estimated by timing the complete passage of each formula at full speed, thus allowing one to calculate the mean time of free fall (MTFF) and to register any possible obstruction. Subsequently, an in vitro simulation of a 1 500 ml administration was performed for each formula at a particular speed, so that the administration time was 5 hours. Slowing flow and stagnated flow were detected as indicators of the risk of obstruction. the two products that especially differed in MTFF were the ones with the highest energy concentration. The passage time in free fall of these two products through the 8 Fr tube exceeded four hours. For the rest of the products and NG tubes used, this time was less than 2 hours and 5 minutes. No slowing flow or tube obstruction was detected in free fall and at maximum speed. When the dripping was adjusted to be administered in 5 hours, three of the studied products (those with the least caloric concentration and viscosity) showed slowing flow and, in some cases, the dripping stopped completely. The most important factor associated to the MTFF was the lipid content, followed by viscosity, energy and protein content. The

  3. Differences in Bacterial Community Structure in Two Color Morphs of the Hawaiian Reef Coral Montipora capitata.

    PubMed

    Shore-Maggio, Amanda; Runyon, Christina M; Ushijima, Blake; Aeby, Greta S; Callahan, Sean M

    2015-10-01

    Corals harbor diverse bacterial associations that contribute to the health of the host. Using 16S rRNA pyrosequencing, we compared the bacterial communities of red and orange morphs of the Hawaiian coral Montipora capitata. Although both color morphs shared dominant bacterial genera, weighted and unweighted UniFrac analyses showed distinct bacterial communities. A single operational taxonomic unit (OTU), classified as Vibrio, represented the largest driver of differences between the color morphs. This OTU comprised 35.4% (±5.5%) of the orange morph bacterial community yet comprised 1.1% (±0.6%) of the red morph bacterial community. Cultivable bacteria from the two color morphs were also compared and tested for antibacterial activity. Cultured isolates represented 14 genera (7% of the total genera identified from sequencing data), and all but two cultured isolates had a matching OTU from the sequencing data. Half of the isolates tested (8 out of 16) displayed antibacterial activity against other cultured isolates but not against two known bacterial pathogens of M. capitata. The results from this study demonstrate that the specificity of coral-bacterial associations extends beyond the level of coral species. In addition, culture-dependent methods captured bacterial diversity that was representative of both rare and abundant members of the associated bacterial community, as characterized by culture-independent methods.

  4. [The formula book. The pharmacies' own formulas].

    PubMed

    Loldrup, Hans-Otto

    2011-01-01

    During the 19th century and part of the 20th, a book of formulas was a useful tool for many Danish pharmacists in their daily work in the pharmacy laboratory. These books were handwritten and contained formulas that supplemented the official formula books, e.g. the pharmacopoeias. They originated from many different sources such as colleagues, the pharmaceutical press, local doctors, veterinarians and dentists. The book of formulas could be a pharmacist's personal document, or it could belong to a pharmacy for general use in the laboratory. The formulas included many drugs, but a number of the products were intended for daily domestic life: ingredients for food and spirits, cosmetics, cleaning and maintenance, etc. Other products were for use by the local hairdresser or photographer, for example. The article provides an overview of 52 formula books in a wide variety of shapes and sizes with instructions for a total of 8,000-10,000 compositions. Part of this large body of practical knowledge by individual pharmacists was collected and published in books in order to be available to all pharmacists. Some of this knowledge was also printed in booklets written for the general public under such pseudonyms as "An old Pharmacist". In the mid-20th century, Sven Holm enjoyed a prominent career as a well-known pharmacist giving advice on the radio and TV and in newspapers and magazines. The need for these formula books declined as pharmacies gradually stopped making up their own medicines towards the end of 20th century and finally ceased altogether in 1990.

  5. Evaluation of flexural strength and color stability of different denture base materials including flexible material after using different denture cleansers.

    PubMed

    Shah, Vrinda R; Shah, Darshana Nilesh; Chauhan, Chirag J; Doshi, Paras J; Kumar, Ashish

    2015-01-01

    Present study aimed at evaluating the colour stability and flexural strength of flexible denture base materials (Valplast) and Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) denture base material (Meliodent) processed by two different methods (Injection moulding and compression moulding) after immersing them in three different denture cleansers with acidic, basic and neutral PH. Total 120 specimens (65 × 10 × 3 mm3), 40 specimens of each material (Valplast, Meliodent compression moulding and injection moulding) were immersed in denture cleansers having different PH; Valclean (Acidic), Clinsodent (Basic) and Polident (Neutral) as well as Distilled Water. Color changes were measured with a spectrophotometer after 1 month, 3 months and 6 months of immersion cycle. A flexural 3-point bending test was carried out by using an Instron universal testing machine after 6 months of soaking. Data were analyzed using SPSS software. Maximum effect on colour stability was noted with Clinsodent followed by Valclean. Least color changes were observed after immersion in Polident. Colour difference was increased significantly as the immersion time increased. For both Meliodent and Nylon resins, statistically significant change in flexural strength occurred with immersion in all denture cleansers. Clinsodent has greater effect as compared to Valclean and Polident. Polident and Valclean can be safely used as denture cleanser for both nylon and acrylic resin denture base materials as far as colour stability and flexural strength both are concerned.

  6. [Expression levels of Slc7a11 in the skin of Kazakh sheep with different coat colors].

    PubMed

    Li, Hong-Tao; He, Xin; Zhou, Zhi-Yong; Zhao, Song-Hua; Zhang, Wen-Xiang; Liu, Gang; Zhao, Zong-Sheng; Jia, Bin

    2012-10-01

    Slc7a11 belongs to solute transporter gene family, encoding cystine/glutamate transporter xCT. It regulates switching between eumelanin and pheomelanin synthesis. In the present study, Real-time PCR was used to detect the mRNA expression levels of Slc7a11 in the skin of Kazakh lambs with different coat colors (black, brown and white), and then the prokaryotic expression plasmid PET-32a-sxCT was constructed to induce the expression of fusion protein. The target pro-tein was purified by Ni-NTA affinity chromatographic separation, and then was used to immunize rabbit in order to produce rabbit anti-sxCT polyclonal antibody. Finally, the expression levels of sxCT were detected in the skin of Kazakh lambs with different hair colors by Western blotting analysis. Results showed that the mRNA expression levels of Slc7a11 differed significantly in the skin of Kazakh lambs with different coat colors, with the highest level in brown coat color, followed by the black, and then the white. The sxCT protein was also detected in the skin of different coat colors by polyclonal antibody, with the highest level in brown coat color, followed by the black, and then the white. It is, therefore, concluded that slc7a11 gene might be associated with the phenotype of coat color in Kazakh sheep.

  7. Color categories and color appearance

    PubMed Central

    Webster, Michael A.; Kay, Paul

    2011-01-01

    We examined categorical effects in color appearance in two tasks, which in part differed in the extent to which color naming was explicitly required for the response. In one, we measured the effects of color differences on perceptual grouping for hues that spanned the blue–green boundary, to test whether chromatic differences across the boundary were perceptually exaggerated. This task did not require overt judgments of the perceived colors, and the tendency to group showed only a weak and inconsistent categorical bias. In a second case, we analyzed results from two prior studies of hue scaling of chromatic stimuli (De Valois, De Valois, Switkes, & Mahon, 1997; Malkoc, Kay, & Webster, 2005), to test whether color appearance changed more rapidly around the blue–green boundary. In this task observers directly judge the perceived color of the stimuli and these judgments tended to show much stronger categorical effects. The differences between these tasks could arise either because different signals mediate color grouping and color appearance, or because linguistic categories might differentially intrude on the response to color and/or on the perception of color. Our results suggest that the interaction between language and color processing may be highly dependent on the specific task and cognitive demands and strategies of the observer, and also highlight pronounced individual differences in the tendency to exhibit categorical responses. PMID:22176751

  8. Effect of Salivary pH on Color Stability of Different Flowable Composites - A Prospective In-vitro Study.

    PubMed

    Batra, Renu; Kataria, Pratik; Kapoor, Sonali

    2016-10-01

    Scientifically and clinically there has been lot of development in the field of aesthetic dentistry. However, there is limited or restricted information regarding the color stability of flowable composite materials. The aim of this study was to evaluate the spectrophotometric color stability of three different flowable composite materials with respect to three different pH of saliva. The study included 90 different samples. Thirty samples in each composite group; (Group A: G-aenial universal flo; Group B: Z 350 XT flowable; Group C: Esthet x flow). All samples from each group were immersed in distilled water for 24 hours. Total color difference (ΔE) was recorded for each sample. After this 10 samples from each group were respectively immersed in 6.5, 7 and 7.5 pH of artificial saliva. All samples were kept in dark room for seven days and then ΔE for each sample was recorded and was compared to previous recorded ΔE for the same sample. Maximum color change was seen irrespective of material in 6.5 pH of saliva. G-aenial universal flo showed least change irrespective of pH of saliva. Thus, the present study reveals that acidic pH level affects the coloration of composite resins by affecting the surface integrity and as reported in previous studies, various coloring agents in beverages and other dietary components assists the process due to absorption of these coloring substances into the resin matrix.

  9. Sensitivity analysis and comparison of various potential evapotranspiration formulae for selected Greek areas with different climate conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paparrizos, Spyridon; Maris, Fotios; Matzarakis, Andreas

    2017-05-01

    Potential evapotranspiration (PET) is one of the most critical parameters in the research on agro-ecological systems. The computational methods for the estimation of PET vary in data demands from very simple (empirically based), requiring only information based on air temperatures, to complex ones (more physically based) that require data on radiation, relative humidity, wind speed, etc. The current research is focused on three study areas in Greece that face different climatic conditions due to their location. Twelve PET formulae were used, analyzed and inter-compared in terms of their sensitivity regarding their input coefficients for the Ardas River basin in north-eastern Greece, Sperchios River basin in Central Greece and Geropotamos River basin in South Greece. The aim was to compare all the methods and conclude to which empirical PET method(s) better represent the PET results in each area and thus should be adopted and used each time and which factors influence the results in each case. The results indicated that for the areas that face Mediterranean climatic conditions, the most appropriate method for the estimation of PET was the temperature-based, Hamon's second version (PETHam2). Furthermore, the PETHam2 was able to estimate PET almost similarly to the average results of the 12 equations. For the Ardas River basin, the results indicated that both PETHam2 and PETHam1 can be used to estimate PET satisfactorily. Moreover, the temperature-based equations have proven to produce better results, followed by the radiation-based equations. Finally, PETASCE, which is the most commonly used PET equation, can also be applied occasionally in order to provide satisfactory results.

  10. Do Different Colors Absorb Heat Better? Grades PreK-2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rushton, Erik; Ryan, Emily; Swift, Charles

    In this activity, students test whether the color of a material affects how much heat it absorbs. An ice cube is placed in a box made of colored paper (one box per color; white, yellow, red, and black) which is then placed in the sun. Students predict which color will melt the ice cube first and record the order and time required for the ice cubes…

  11. Visibility of Various Target-Background Color Combinations under Different Chromatic Ambient Illuminations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-08-24

    displays? This study addressed these three questions. We tested the visibility of seven target colors on four colored backgrounds under three colors... tested in each session. Every subject -performed under every condition. The order of presentation of lighting conditions aprt background colors was...4.6, JJ <.05). The NewmanrKeuls post hoc test showed that the mean RT with blue was significantly faster than with the green background (j><.05

  12. Color Algebras

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulligan, Jeffrey B.

    2017-01-01

    A color algebra refers to a system for computing sums and products of colors, analogous to additive and subtractive color mixtures. We would like it to match the well-defined algebra of spectral functions describing lights and surface reflectances, but an exact correspondence is impossible after the spectra have been projected to a three-dimensional color space, because of metamerism physically different spectra can produce the same color sensation. Metameric spectra are interchangeable for the purposes of addition, but not multiplication, so any color algebra is necessarily an approximation to physical reality. Nevertheless, because the majority of naturally-occurring spectra are well-behaved (e.g., continuous and slowly-varying), color algebras can be formulated that are largely accurate and agree well with human intuition. Here we explore the family of algebras that result from associating each color with a member of a three-dimensional manifold of spectra. This association can be used to construct a color product, defined as the color of the spectrum of the wavelength-wise product of the spectra associated with the two input colors. The choice of the spectral manifold determines the behavior of the resulting system, and certain special subspaces allow computational efficiencies. The resulting systems can be used to improve computer graphic rendering techniques, and to model various perceptual phenomena such as color constancy.

  13. Two-year color changes of light-cured composites: influence of different light-curing units.

    PubMed

    Usumez, Aslihan; Ozturk, Nilgun; Ozturk, Bora

    2005-01-01

    This study determined color changes in a composite cured with various types of curing units after two years. A hybrid (Clearfil AP-X) composite was cured with a conventional halogen, a high intensity halogen, a plasma arc and a light emitting diode unit. The specimens were stored in light-proof boxes after the curing procedure to avoid further exposure to light and stored in 37 degrees C in 100% humidity. Colorimetric values of the specimens immediately after curing and after two years were measured using a colorimeter. The CIE 1976 L*a*b color system was used to determine color differences. Differences from baseline were calculated as deltaE*ab. Data were analyzed with two-way analysis of variance (p<0.05). The deltaE*ab values varied significantly, depending on the curing unit used. The specimens cured with a plasma arc curing unit induced significantly higher color changes than any other specimen and the color differences were also visually appreciable by the non-skilled operator (deltaE*ab >2.5). The specimens cured with a high intensity halogen curing unit produced the lowest color change; however, there were no statistically significant differences among the color changes of specimens cured with conventional halogen, high intensity halogen and the light emitting diode unit, and the color changes were not clinically relevant (deltaE*ab <2.5). The results of this study suggest that composite materials undergo measurable changes due to curing unit exposure. The specimens cured with a plasma arc light showed the highest color changes as compared to specimens cured with other curing units.

  14. Formulae for low-energy secondary electron yield from different kinds of emitters as a function of measurable variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Ai-Gen; Zhon, Kun; Zhao, De-Lin; Xia, Yu-Qing

    2017-04-01

    Based on the characteristics of secondary electron emission and the relationships among parameters of secondary electron yield δ in the low-energy range of Ep0 ≦ Ep0m ≦ 800 eV (low-energy δ), the universal formula for low-energy δ as a function of Ep0, Ep0m and maximum δ(δm) was deduced, where Ep0 and Ep0m are the incident energies of primary electron and of δm, respectively. From the deduced universal formula and experimental low-energy δ from metals, semiconductors and insulators, special formula for low-energy δ from metals as a function of Ep0, Ep0m and δm and that for low-energy δ from semiconductors and insulators as a function of Ep0, Ep0m and δm were deduced, respectively. The results were analyzed, it can be concluded that the two deduced special formulae can be used to calculate low-energy δ from metals, semiconductors and insulators, respectively.

  15. Cytotoxic and bioactive properties of different color tulip flowers and degradation kinetic of tulip flower anthocyanins.

    PubMed

    Sagdic, Osman; Ekici, Lutfiye; Ozturk, Ismet; Tekinay, Turgay; Polat, Busra; Tastemur, Bilge; Bayram, Okan; Senturk, Berna

    2013-08-01

    This study was conducted to determine the potential use of anthocyanin-based extracts (ABEs) of wasted tulip flowers as food/drug colorants. For this aim, wasted tulip flowers were samples and analyzed for their bioactive properties and cytotoxicity. Total phenolic contents of the extracts of the claret red (126.55 mg of gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/g dry extract) and orange-red (113.76 mg GAE/g dry extract) flowers were the higher than those of the other tulip flowers. Total anthocyanin levels of the violet, orange-red, claret red and pink tulip flower extracts were determined as 265.04, 236.49, 839.08 and 404.45 mg pelargonidin 3-glucoside/kg dry extract, respectively and these levels were higher than those of the other flowers. The extracts were more effective for the inhibition of Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus and Yersinia enterocolitica compared to other tested bacteria. Additionally, the cytotoxic effects of five different tulip flower extracts on human breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7) cell line were investigated. The results showed that the orange red, pink and violet extracts had no cytotoxic activity against MCF-7 cell lines while yellow and claret red extracts appeared to be toxic for the cells. Overall, the extracts of tulip flowers with different colors possess remarkable bioactive and cytotoxic properties. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Allelic variation of melanocortin-1 receptor locus in Saudi indigenous sheep exhibiting different color coats

    PubMed Central

    Mahmoud, Ahmed H.; Mashaly, Ashraf M.; Rady, Ahmed M.; Al-Anazi, Khalid M.; Saleh, Amgad A.

    2017-01-01

    Objective This study was designed to characterize the DNA polymorphisms of the melanocortin-1 receptor (MC1R) gene in indigenous Saudi Arabian sheep breeds exhibiting different color coats, along with individuals of the Sawaknee breed, an exotic sheep imported from Sudan. Methods The complete coding region of MC1R gene including parts of 3′ and 5′ untranslated regions was amplified and sequenced from three the indigenous Saudi sheep; Najdi (generally black, n = 41), Naeimi (generally white with brown faces, n = 36) and Herri (generally white, n = 18), in addition to 13 Sawaknee sheep. Results Five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were detected in the MC1R gene: two led to nonsynonymous mutations (c.218 T>A, p.73 Met>Lys and c.361 G>A, p.121 Asp>Asn) and three led to synonymous mutations (c.429 C>T, p.143 Tyr>Tyr; c.600 T>G, p.200 Leu>Leu, and c.735 C>T, p.245 Ile>Ile). Based on these five SNPs, eight haplotypes representing MC1R Ed and E+ alleles were identified among the studied sheep breeds. The most common haplotype (H3) of the dominant Ed allele was associated with either black or brown coat color in Najdi and Sawaknee sheep, respectively. Two other haplotypes (H6 and H7) of Ed allele, with only the nonsynonymous mutation A218T, were detected for the first time in Saudi indigenous sheep. Conclusion In addition to investigating the MC1R allelic variation in Saudi indigenous sheep populations, the present study supports the assumption that the two independent nonsynonymous Met73Lys and Asp121Asn mutations in MC1R gene are associated with black or red coat colors in sheep breeds. PMID:27492350

  17. Transcriptome Sequencing and Characterization of Japanese Scallop Patinopecten yessoensis from Different Shell Color Lines

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Yaqing; Zhao, Wenming; Du, Zhenlin; Hao, Zhenlin

    2015-01-01

    Shell color is an important trait that is used in breeding the Japanese scallop Patinopecten yessoensis, the most economically important scallop species in China. We constructed four transcriptome libraries from different shell color lines of P. yessoensis: the left and right shell mantles of ordinary strains of P. yessoensis and the left shell mantles of the ‘Ivory’ and ‘Maple’ strains. These four libraries were paired-end sequenced using the Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform and contained 54,802,692 sequences, 40,798,962 sequences, 74,019,262 sequences, and 44,466,166 sequences, respectively. A total of 214,087,082 expressed sequence tags were assembled into 73,522 unigenes with an average size of 1,163 bp. When the data were compared against the public Nr and Swiss-Prot databases using BlastX, nearly 30.55% (22,458) of the unigenes were significantly matched to known unique proteins. Gene Ontology annotation and pathway mapping analysis using the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes categorized unigenes according to their diverse biological functions and processes and identified candidate genes that were potentially involved in growth, pigmentation, metal transcription, and immunity. Expression profile analysis was performed on all four libraries and many differentially expressed genes were identified. In addition, 5,772 simple sequence repeats were obtained from the P. yessoensis transcriptomes, and 464,197, 395,646, and 310,649 single nucleotide polymorphisms were revealed in the ordinary strains, the ‘Ivory’ strain, and the ‘Maple’ strain, respectively. These results provide valuable information for future genomic studies on P. yessoensis and improve our understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in the growth, immunity, shell coloring, and shell biomineralization of this species. These resources also may be used in a variety of applications, such as trait mapping, marker-assisted breeding, studies of population genetics and genomics

  18. Transcriptome sequencing and characterization of Japanese scallop Patinopecten yessoensis from different shell color lines.

    PubMed

    Ding, Jun; Zhao, Le; Chang, Yaqing; Zhao, Wenming; Du, Zhenlin; Hao, Zhenlin

    2015-01-01

    Shell color is an important trait that is used in breeding the Japanese scallop Patinopecten yessoensis, the most economically important scallop species in China. We constructed four transcriptome libraries from different shell color lines of P. yessoensis: the left and right shell mantles of ordinary strains of P. yessoensis and the left shell mantles of the 'Ivory' and 'Maple' strains. These four libraries were paired-end sequenced using the Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform and contained 54,802,692 sequences, 40,798,962 sequences, 74,019,262 sequences, and 44,466,166 sequences, respectively. A total of 214,087,082 expressed sequence tags were assembled into 73,522 unigenes with an average size of 1,163 bp. When the data were compared against the public Nr and Swiss-Prot databases using BlastX, nearly 30.55% (22,458) of the unigenes were significantly matched to known unique proteins. Gene Ontology annotation and pathway mapping analysis using the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes categorized unigenes according to their diverse biological functions and processes and identified candidate genes that were potentially involved in growth, pigmentation, metal transcription, and immunity. Expression profile analysis was performed on all four libraries and many differentially expressed genes were identified. In addition, 5,772 simple sequence repeats were obtained from the P. yessoensis transcriptomes, and 464,197, 395,646, and 310,649 single nucleotide polymorphisms were revealed in the ordinary strains, the 'Ivory' strain, and the 'Maple' strain, respectively. These results provide valuable information for future genomic studies on P. yessoensis and improve our understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in the growth, immunity, shell coloring, and shell biomineralization of this species. These resources also may be used in a variety of applications, such as trait mapping, marker-assisted breeding, studies of population genetics and genomics, and work on

  19. Plumage coloration and nutritional condition in the great tit Parus major: the roles of carotenoids and melanins differ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senar, Juan Carlos; Figuerola, Jordi; Domènech, Jordi

    2003-05-01

    The size and coloration of some body characters seem to influence mate choice in many species. Most animal colours are either structural or based on melanin or carotenoid pigments. It has recently been suggested that carotenoid-based or structural coloration may be a condition-dependent trait, whereas melanin-based coloration is not; a difference that may be highly relevant when studying the evolution of multiple mating preferences. We tested this hypothesis in the great tit ( Parus major). The size of the melanin breast band was not correlated to nutritional condition as estimated by the rate of tail growth (ptilochronology), controlling for locality, age, sex, year and season effects. However, the correlation was significant for the hue of yellow breast (carotenoid-based coloration), and the slopes of the regressions of the two pigments to growth bars differed significantly. These results suggest that the expression of the two traits may be regulated by different mechanisms.

  20. Physico-chemical and microbiological properties of raw fermented sausages are not influenced by color differences of turkey breast meat.

    PubMed

    Popp, J; Krischek, C; Janisch, S; Wicke, M; Klein, G

    2013-05-01

    It has been suggested that the color of turkey breast meat influences both physico-chemical and microbiological properties of raw fermented sausages. In this study, raw fermented sausages were produced with turkey breast meat in 3 different colors (pale, normal, or dark), which were obtained from 2 fast-growing-genetic-line toms at 2 slaughterhouses. Prior to the sausage production, the breast muscles were sorted into color groups according to the lightness values determined at 24 h postmortem. This meat was subsequently processed to raw fermented sausages using 1.5 or 2.5% curing salt (CS). The pale meat had higher lightness, electrical conductivity, and drip loss, whereas the dark meat showed a darker color only. The physico-chemical (pH, water activity), visual (lightness, redness), and microbial (total plate count) properties of the sausages were not influenced by the color of the turkey breast meat. The sausage made with 2.5% CS had lower aw and higher ash and hardness values than the sausages produced with 1.5% CS. In conclusion, processing of differently colored turkey meat to raw fermented sausages does not influence the quality characteristics of the products. Based on these findings, there is no reason for the sausage producer to separate turkey breast muscles by color before producing raw fermented sausages.

  1. The `Chocolate Experiment' - A Demonstration of Radiation Absorption by Different Colored Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fung, Dennis

    2015-12-01

    In the typical "cookbook" experiment comparing the radiation absorption rates of different colored surfaces, students' hands are commonly used as a measurement instrument to demonstrate that dull black and silvery surfaces are good and poor absorbers of radiation, respectively. However, college students are often skeptical about using their bare hands in this experiment because they learned in early science lessons that skin is not a reliable detector of heat transfer. Moreover, when the experiment is conducted in a school laboratory, it is often difficult for students to perceive the slight differences in heat transfer on the dull black and silvery aluminum leaves attached to their hands. Rather than replacing students' bare hands with such sophisticated apparatus as a data logger and temperature probe, I suggest using a simple (and delicious!) low-cost instrument, i.e., chocolate, which simply melts when it receives radiation.

  2. Hibiscus sabdariffa L extract drying with different carrier agent: Drying rate evaluation and color analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Djaeni, M.; Utari, F. D.; Kumoro, A. C.

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of different carrier agents on roselle or Hibiscus sabdariffa L.extract drying. Carrier agent was used for reducing stickiness of material and avoiding agglomeration as well as improving stability. The method consisted of two steps involving roselle extraction and drying process. The liquid roselle extract was mixed with carrier agent (maltodextrin-arabic gum) in various composition. The mixture was then dried at different air temperature ranging 40 - 80°C. As a response, moisture content in the extract was observed by gravimetry every 10 minutes during90 minutes. The procedurewas repeated for the drying without carrieragent. The result showed that constant rate of drying with carrier agent was higher up to l.7 times than that of without carrier agent. Based on the color analysis,roselle extract drying with carrier agent also showed reasonable quality.

  3. Encapsulation of the most potent antioxidant betalains in edible matrixes as powders of different colors.

    PubMed

    Gandía-Herrero, Fernando; Cabanes, Juana; Escribano, Josefa; García-Carmona, Francisco; Jiménez-Atiénzar, Mercedes

    2013-05-08

    Betalains are plant pigments with high antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities. While basal activity exists in all betalains, the dihydroxylated molecules present the highest TEAC values of the family of compounds. However, their lability limits possible applications. This work reports the encapsulation of the most active pigments, the yellow miraxanthin V and the violet betanidin in edible matrixes of chitosan and maltodextrin. An appropriate spray-drying procedure is described, with an inlet air temperature of 140 °C. The resulting particles were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, and powder color was analyzed by spectrophotometry using an integrating sphere. Stability of the bioactive compounds was followed by high-performance liquid chromatography, and it was highly promoted by encapsulation, with limited pigment loss after six months' storage. Particles retained the antioxidant and antiradical activities of the soluble pigments measured under the FRAP and ABTS radical assays. A combination of miraxanthin V and betanidin in variable proportions provides a bright palette of encapsulated powders of different colors suitable for food applications.

  4. Multistimuli two-color luminescence switching via different slip-stacking of highly fluorescent molecular sheets.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Seong-Jun; Chung, Jong Won; Gierschner, Johannes; Kim, Kil Suk; Choi, Moon-Gun; Kim, Dongho; Park, Soo Young

    2010-10-06

    Color tuning and switching of the solid-state luminescence of organic materials are attractive subjects for both the fundamental research and practical applications such as optical recording. We report herein cyanostilbene-based highly luminescent molecular sheets which exhibit two-color fluorescence switching in response to pressure, temperature, and solvent vapor. The origin for the multistimuli luminescence switching is the two-directional shear-sliding capability of molecular sheets, which are formed via intermolecular multiple C-H···N and C-H···O hydrogen bonds. The resulting two distinctive crystal phases are promoted by different modes of local dipole coupling, which cause a substantial alternation of π-π overlap. These changes can be directly correlated with the subsequent intermolecular excitonic and excimeric coupling in both phases, as demonstrated by an in-depth theory-assisted spectroscopic and structural study. Finally, we have prepared a first device demonstrator for rewritable fluorescent optical recording media which showed multistimuli luminescence tuning with fast response. Our multistimuli responsive system is unique in terms of the slip-stacking of molecular sheets and thus provides a novel concept of rewritable fluorescent optical recording media.

  5. Effect of two different bleaching regimens on the gloss of tooth colored restorative materials.

    PubMed

    Yalcin, Filiz; Gürgan, Sevil

    2005-05-01

    Vital tooth bleaching with peroxide is one of the most common cosmetic procedures in dentistry and can be accomplished using a variety of methods or regimens. Recently, new generation of tooth color restorative materials were introduced to market. The purpose of this in vitro study was to determine the gloss changes of three different tooth color restorative materials: Flowable composite (Filtek Flow/3M), packable composite (Filtek P60/3M) and ormocer (Definite/DEGUSSA) after two different bleaching regimens (Vivastyle/VIVADENT) and (Crest Professional Whitestrips/PROCTER and GAMBLE). 16 specimens 30 x 30 x 2 mm size were fabricated from each restorative material. After gloss values were measured with gloss meter, at two different angles of illumination (20 and 60 degrees ), 10% carbamide peroxide (Vivastyle) was applied for 2 h per day for fourteen days to the half of the specimens while 6.5% hydrogen peroxide strip bands (Crest Professional Whitestrips) were applied to the remaining eight of the specimens for 30 min twice daily for 14 days. During the test period the specimens were stored in 37 degrees C and 100% relative humidity. At the end of bleaching regimen the gloss measurements were repeated and the data were subjected to statistical analysis. The Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test analysis revealed that the gloss values were affected by both bleaching regimens (P=0.012). Whitestrips decreased the gloss values of Filtek P60 (at 20 and 60 degrees , P<0.001) and Filtek Flow (at 20 degrees , P=0.05 and at 60 degrees , P=0.05) significantly compared to Vivastyle, while the gloss values of Definite did not show any significant change between Vivastyle and Whitestrips application (at 20 degrees P=0.279; at 60 degrees , P=0.279, Mann-Whitney U Test). The gloss values of materials were significantly different before (at 20 degrees P<0.001; at 60 degrees , P=0.003) and after bleaching (at 20 degrees P<0.05; at 60 degrees , P<0.05) with the highest value of Filtek Flow

  6. The effect of different beverages on the color and translucency of flowable composites.

    PubMed

    Karadas, Muhammet

    2016-11-01

    This study examined the changes in color and translucency of flowable composites after immersion in different beverages. Thirty composite samples were prepared from four flowable composites (G-aenial Universal Flo, Filtek Ultimate, Esthelite Flow Quick, and Clearfil Majesty ES Flow) and a microhybrid composite (Filtek Z-250) and stored in distilled water at 37°C for 24 h. The samples were randomly divided into seven groups and then immersed in different beverages (Red Bull, coffee, black tea, Pepsi Cola, orange juice, and distilled water) for 7 days. The CIE L*a*b* values of each sample were measured against white and black backgrounds using a spectrophotometer before and after immersion. Data were analyzed using two-way analysis of variance and Tukey's post-hoc test (p < 0.05). The color changes were significantly different among the composite materials after immersion in beverages (p < 0.05). Filtek Ultimate and Esthelite Flow Quick exhibited less discoloration than did G-aenial Universal Flo and Clearfil Majesty ES Flow. No significant difference was found between Filtek Z-250 and either Filtek Ultimate or Esthelite Flow Quick (p > 0.05). Among the beverages, black tea and coffee caused the highest discoloration of all the materials. Immersion in coffee and black tea resulted in the highest negative changes in the translucency of the materials. The degree of discoloration for the composite resins depended on the material used and drinking beverage. SCANNING 38:701-709, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Uniformities in OSA-UCS and in NCS tested by color difference prediction based on principal hue components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Indow, Tarow

    2002-06-01

    The OSA uniform color system is a 3-D collection of color samples according to the regular rhombohedral structure in which each color is surrounded by its 12 nearest neighbors, all perceptually equally different (local uniformity). The Swedish NCS system is a 3-D collection of color samples that vary gradually in each of the three perceptual attributes. It is not clear that this arrangement implies all neighboring pairs along the respective coordinates being perceptually equally different (local uniformity). Of pairs (j,k) of interest, predicted color differences djk were calculated that have the following property. Suppose an observer selects a pair of Munsell grays (Va, Vb) that matches in size with the color difference between (j,k), then djk=|Va-Vb| is predicted by djk, on the average, with error of 0.34 in Munsell V-unit. Variation of djk in this unit was in the order of 0.22V for nearest neighboring pairs (j,k) in various cleavage planes of OSA-UCS and in the order of 0.11V for neighboring pairs (j,k) along s-coordinate and c-coordinate in sheets with fixed hue of NCS. Both were well within the prediction error range, but some systematic trends in values of djk were found.

  8. Toward a unified color space for perception-based image processing.

    PubMed

    Lissner, Ingmar; Urban, Philipp

    2012-03-01

    Image processing methods that utilize characteristics of the human visual system require color spaces with certain properties to operate effectively. After analyzing different types of perception-based image processing problems, we present a list of properties that a unified color space should have. Due to contradictory perceptual phenomena and geometric issues, a color space cannot incorporate all these properties. We therefore identify the most important properties and focus on creating opponent color spaces without cross contamination between color attributes (i.e., lightness, chroma, and hue) and with maximum perceptual uniformity induced by color-difference formulas. Color lookup tables define simple transformations from an initial color space to the new spaces. We calculate such tables using multigrid optimization considering the Hung and Berns data of constant perceived hue and the CMC, CIE94, and CIEDE2000 color-difference formulas. The resulting color spaces exhibit low cross contamination between color attributes and are only slightly less perceptually uniform than spaces optimized exclusively for perceptual uniformity. We compare the CIEDE2000-based space with commonly used color spaces in two examples of perception-based image processing. In both cases, standard methods show improved results if the new space is used. All color-space transformations and examples are provided as MATLAB codes on our website.

  9. In vitro cytotoxicity of self-curing acrylic resins of different colors.

    PubMed

    Retamoso, Luciana Borges; da Cunha, Taís de Morais Alves; Pithon, Matheus Melo; dos Santos, Rogério Lacerda; Martins, Fernanda Otaviano; Romanos, Maria Teresa Villela; Tanaka, Orlando Motohiro

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the in vitro cytotoxicity of acrylic resins of different colors over time. Specimens were divided into 4 groups (n = 6) according to the color of the acrylic resin (Orto Class, Clássico, Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil): Group 1, clear acrylic resin; Group 2, pink acrylic resin; Group 3, blue acrylic resin; and Group 4, green acrylic resin. All specimens were fabricated according to the mass manipulation technique and submitted to mechanical polishing protocol. The control was performed with an amalgam specimen (C+), a glass specimen (C-) and cell control (CC). Specimens were immersed in Minimum Eagle's Medium (MEM) and incubated for 24 h at 37ºC. The extracts from the experimental material were filtered and mixed with L929 fibroblast. Cytotoxicity was evaluated at four different times, 24, 48, 72 and 168 h. After contact, cells were incubated for 24 h and added to 100 µ of 0.01% neutral red dye. The cells were incubated for 3 h for pigment incorporation and fixed. Cells viability was determined by a spectroscopic (BioTek, Winooski, Vermont, USA) with a 492-nm wavelength λ=492 nm). There were no statistical differences between the experimental groups and the CC and C- groups. Clear, pink, blue and green self-curing acrylic resins fabricated by means of the mass manipulation technique and mechanically polished are not cytotoxic. Neither the pigment added to the self-curing acrylic resin nor the factor of time influenced the cytotoxicity of the material.

  10. In vitro cytotoxicity of self-curing acrylic resins of different colors

    PubMed Central

    Retamoso, Luciana Borges; da Cunha, Taís de Morais Alves; Pithon, Matheus Melo; dos Santos, Rogério Lacerda; Martins, Fernanda Otaviano; Romanos, Maria Teresa Villela; Tanaka, Orlando Motohiro

    2014-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to assess the in vitro cytotoxicity of acrylic resins of different colors over time. Methods Specimens were divided into 4 groups (n = 6) according to the color of the acrylic resin (Orto Class, Clássico, Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil): Group 1: clear acrylic resin; group 2: pink acrylic resin; group 3: blue acrylic resin and group 4: green acrylic resin. All specimens were fabricated according to the mass manipulation technique and submitted to mechanical polishing protocol. The control was performed with an amalgam specimen (C+), a glass specimen (C-) and cell control (CC). Specimens were immersed in Minimum Eagle's Medium (MEM) and incubated for 24 h at 37ºC. The extracts from the experimental material were filtered and mixed with L929 fibroblast. Cytotoxicity was evaluated at 4 different times, 24, 48, 72 and 168 h. After contact, cells were incubated for 24 h and added to 100 µ of 0.01% neutral red dye. The cells were incubated for 3 h for pigment incorporation and fixed. Cells viability was determined by a spectroscopic (BioTek, Winooski, Vermont, USA) with a 492-nm wavelength λ=492 nm). Results There were no statistical differences between the experimental groups and the CC and C- groups. Conclusion Clear, pink, blue and green self-curing acrylic resins fabricated by means of the mass manipulation technique and mechanically polished are not cytotoxic. Neither the pigment added to the self-curing acrylic resin nor the factor of time influenced the cytotoxicity of the material. PMID:25279523

  11. Effect of immersion into solutions at various pH on the color stability of composite resins with different shades

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Ji-Deok; Seon, Eun-Mi; Son, Sung-Ae; Jung, Kyoung-Hwa; Kwon, Yong-Hoon

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This study examined the color changes of a resin composite with different shades upon exposure to water with different pH. Materials and Methods Nanohybrid resin composites (Filtek Z350XT, 3M ESPE) with four different shades (A2, A3, B1, and B2) were immersed in water with three different pH (pH 3, 6, and 9) for 14 day. The CIE L*a*b* color coordinates of the specimens were evaluated before and after immersion in the solutions. The color difference (ΔE*) and the translucency parameter (TP) were calculated using the color coordinates. Results ΔE* ranged from 0.33 to 1.58, and the values were affected significantly by the pH. The specimens immersed in a pH 6 solution showed the highest ΔE* values (0.87 - 1.58). The specimens with a B1 shade showed the lowest ΔE* change compared to the other shades. TP ranged from 7.01 to 9.46 depending on the pH and resin shade. The TP difference between before and after immersion in the pH solutions was less than 1.0. Conclusions The resulting change of color of the tested specimens did not appear to be clinically problematic because the color difference was < 1.6 in the acidic, neutral, and alkaline solutions regardless of the resin shade, i.e., the color change was imperceptible. PMID:26587412

  12. Differences in color vision make passerines less conspicuous in the eyes of their predators

    PubMed Central

    Håstad, Olle; Victorsson, Jonas; Ödeen, Anders

    2005-01-01

    Sexual selection often favors brighter and exaggerated traits, which also increase the risk of detection by predators. Signals that are preferentially conspicuous to conspecifics would reduce the predation cost of signaling and, therefore, might facilitate the evolution of stronger sexual and social signals. This selective signaling is possible if predators and prey have differently tuned sensory systems. By using a retinal model to compare reflectance from the plumages of Swedish songbirds to the reflectance of their natural backgrounds, we found their color badges to be significantly more conspicuous to other songbirds (which have a UV-tuned visual system) than to raptors and corvids (which have a violet-tuned system) in both coniferous and deciduous forests, consistent with an adaptive private communication system. PMID:15851662

  13. Differences in color vision make passerines less conspicuous in the eyes of their predators.

    PubMed

    Håstad, Olle; Victorsson, Jonas; Odeen, Anders

    2005-05-03

    Sexual selection often favors brighter and exaggerated traits, which also increase the risk of detection by predators. Signals that are preferentially conspicuous to conspecifics would reduce the predation cost of signaling and, therefore, might facilitate the evolution of stronger sexual and social signals. This selective signaling is possible if predators and prey have differently tuned sensory systems. By using a retinal model to compare reflectance from the plumages of Swedish songbirds to the reflectance of their natural backgrounds, we found their color badges to be significantly more conspicuous to other songbirds (which have a UV-tuned visual system) than to raptors and corvids (which have a violet-tuned system) in both coniferous and deciduous forests, consistent with an adaptive private communication system.

  14. Determination of industrial color tolerance limits: case studies in the textile industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gay, Jennifer; Hirschler, Robert

    2002-06-01

    The approach and findings during the application of instrumental color quality control in industry are described, where the best tolerance formulae and tolerance limits were determined by correlating visual and instrumental evaluations. A panel of previously tested observers evaluated a collection of samples taken from production and color measurements are then compared to these assessments, according to different color difference formulae. T he formula and the limit giving the best agreement with visual evaluations were determined with two different methods. For a large variety of textile substrates, processes and market situations the CMC(2:1) formula was always the best or one of the bests, but the limits varied widely, according to the individual application. Additional shade sorting, based on the tolerance limit, was also applied in several companies. The ideal box size was also determined by comparing visual and instrumental evaluations. The application as logistical tools was established according to individual necessities.

  15. Pollen aroma fingerprint of two sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) genotypes characterized by different pollen colors.

    PubMed

    Bertoli, Alessandra; Fambrini, Marco; Doveri, Silvia; Leonardi, Michele; Pugliesi, Claudio; Pistelli, Luisa

    2011-09-01

    Samples of fresh pollen grains, collected from capitula in full bloom from two genotypes of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) and characterized by a different color, i.e., white-cream (WC) and orange (O), were analyzed by the HS-SPME (headspacesolid phase microextraction)/GC/MS technique. This study defined for the first time the fingerprint of the sunflower pollen, separated from the disc flowers, to define its contribution to the inflorescence aroma. In the GC/MS fingerprints of the WC and O genotypes, 61 and 62 volatile compounds were identified, respectively. Monoterpene hydrocarbons (34% in O vs. 28% in WC) and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (37% in O vs. 31% in WC) were ubiquitous in all samples analyzed and represented the main chemical classes. α-Pinene (21% in O vs. 20% in WC) and sabinene (11% in O vs. 6% in WC) were the dominant volatiles, but also a full range of aliphatic hydrocarbons and their oxygenated derivatives gave a decisive contribution to the aroma composition (10% in O vs. 12% in WC). In addition, dendrolasin (3% in O vs. 4% in WC) and some minor constituents such as (E)-hex-2-en-1-ol (0.4% in O vs. 0.1% in WC) were pointed out not only for their contribution to the pollen scent, but also for their well-known role in the plant ecological relationships. Having evaluated two pollen morphs with different carotenoid-based colors, the study sought to highlight also the presence of some volatile precursors or derivatives of these pigments in the aroma. However, the pollen aroma of the two selected genotypes made a specific chemical contribution to the sunflower inflorescence scent without any influence on carotenoid derivatives.

  16. Comparison of Molecular Species Distribution of DHA-Containing Triacylglycerols in Milk and Different Infant Formulas by Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhiqian; Cocks, Benjamin G; Rochfort, Simone

    2016-03-16

    Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) are an important nutritional lipid and have potential in being able to promote human health. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6ω3) is often added in infant formulas to meet the nutritional requirement of formula-fed infants. A comprehensive survey on DHA-containing triacylglycerol (DHA-TAG) molecular species has been conducted for seven infant formulas (IFs) sourced from Australia, Europe, and the USA as well as bovine milk and human milk. Using LC-triple quadrupole MS and LC-LTQ-orbitrap MS we were able to identify and quantify 56 DHA-TAG species in these samples; the fatty acid structure of these species was assigned using their MS(2) spectra. The species composition of DHA-TAG was found to be different between bovine milk, human milk, and IFs and also between different brands of IFs. Bovine milk and human milk contain DHA-TAG of smaller molecular size (728-952 Da), whereas five out of the seven IF samples contain species of broader mass range (from 728 to 1035 Da). Our study indicates that two types of DHA were used in the seven IF products surveyed and that there is very large difference in molecular species distribution in different IF products that may influence the fine nutritional profile and biological functions of IF products.

  17. Evaluating the spectral discrimination capabilities of different pollinators and their effect on the evolution of flower colors

    PubMed Central

    Shrestha, Mani; Dyer, Adrian G.; Burd, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Important plant pollinators like bees and birds have very different color visual systems. Previous work has attempted to relate flower syndromes to the respective visual capabilities of the most important pollinators, but has often been limited by the lack of robust means to make between-species comparisons of how flower color signals are processed. In a recent study we solved this dilemma by comparing the raw spectral signals, quantifiable by major inflection points on a wavelength scale, from different flowers whose pollinators were known from direct observation. Here we elaborate on how this method allows robust cross species comparisons that are independent of the requirement to know the complex and often inaccessible physiological data about color processing in different animals. The use of this method should thus allow for the testing of pollinator syndrome hypotheses for different animal pollinators from different regions of the world. PMID:23713140

  18. Evaluating the spectral discrimination capabilities of different pollinators and their effect on the evolution of flower colors.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, Mani; Dyer, Adrian G; Burd, Martin

    2013-05-01

    Important plant pollinators like bees and birds have very different color visual systems. Previous work has attempted to relate flower syndromes to the respective visual capabilities of the most important pollinators, but has often been limited by the lack of robust means to make between-species comparisons of how flower color signals are processed. In a recent study we solved this dilemma by comparing the raw spectral signals, quantifiable by major inflection points on a wavelength scale, from different flowers whose pollinators were known from direct observation. Here we elaborate on how this method allows robust cross species comparisons that are independent of the requirement to know the complex and often inaccessible physiological data about color processing in different animals. The use of this method should thus allow for the testing of pollinator syndrome hypotheses for different animal pollinators from different regions of the world.

  19. Sensory Properties and Color Measurements of Dietary Chocolates with Different Compositions During Storage for Up to 360 Days

    PubMed Central

    Popov-Raljić, Jovanka V.; Laličić-Petronijević, Jovanka G.

    2009-01-01

    In this work sensory characteristics (appearance – color, brilliance, shape and surface; texture – structure, break, firmness and chewiness; aroma – odor and taste) of dietary chocolates of different compositions were evaluated, in parallel with color parameter measurements. Color was determined instrumentally on the top and bottom surfaces, using a “MINOLTA” Chroma meter CR 400 thristimulus colorimeter. Sensory evaluation was performed by a group of experienced panelists immediately after the production (0 – 30 days), and then after 90, 180, 270 and 360 days of storage under ambient conditions (t = 18 – 20°C). Results were statistically analyzed by the two-factorial analysis of variance (MANOVA) and with the LSD – test. It was concluded that the storage time up to one year had statistically highly significant (p < 0.01) effects on the sensory attributes of chocolate, as well as on instrumentally measured color parameters. PMID:22573997

  20. Use of fluorescent proteins and color-coded imaging to visualize cancer cells with different genetic properties.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Robert M

    2016-03-01

    Fluorescent proteins are very bright and available in spectrally-distinct colors, enable the imaging of color-coded cancer cells growing in vivo and therefore the distinction of cancer cells with different genetic properties. Non-invasive and intravital imaging of cancer cells with fluorescent proteins allows the visualization of distinct genetic variants of cancer cells down to the cellular level in vivo. Cancer cells with increased or decreased ability to metastasize can be distinguished in vivo. Gene exchange in vivo which enables low metastatic cancer cells to convert to high metastatic can be color-coded imaged in vivo. Cancer stem-like and non-stem cells can be distinguished in vivo by color-coded imaging. These properties also demonstrate the vast superiority of imaging cancer cells in vivo with fluorescent proteins over photon counting of luciferase-labeled cancer cells.

  1. [Accommodation to monochromatic targets in people with different color vision statuses].

    PubMed

    Qian, Yishan; Huang, Jia; Chu, Renyuan

    2015-01-01

    To compare the accommodation response (AR) to monochromatic targets in subjects with different color vision statuses, and to investigate the role of color vision in the control of accommodation and emmetropization. It was a case-control study. Accommodation was measured with a dynamic infrared optometer while subjects [17 protans, 47 deutans, and 23 normals; mean age: (20.0 ± 4.4) years] viewed a (1) red on black or (2) green on black vertical square-wave gratings of iso-luminance (3 cycles/deg; 0.9 contrast) in a Badal optic system. The grating stepped 1.00 D towards the eye from an initial position of 0 D until 5.00 D. With red-black targets, the AR in the protans (AR = 1.98 D) was worse than that in the normals (AR = 2.55 D) when the accommodation stimulus (AS) was 4.00 D (LSD, P = 0.031). The AR in the deutans were worse than that in the normals when the AS was 3.00, 4.00, and 5.00 D (3.00 D: 1.23 D vs. 1.69 D, P = 0.002; 4.00 D: 1.89 D vs. 2.55 D, P = 0.002; 5.00 D: 2.40 D vs. 3.17 D, P = 0.003). With green-black targets, the AR in the protans were worse than that in the normals when the AS was 3.00 and 4.00 D (3.00 D: 1.13 D vs. 1.61 D, P = 0.004; 4.00 D: 1.80 D vs. 2.34 D, P = 0.021). In the deutans, the AR was worse with stimuli of 3.00, 4.00, and 5.00 D (3.00 D: 1.21 D vs. 1.61 D, P = 0.003; 4.00 D: 1.65 D vs. 2.34 D, P < 0.001; 5.00 D: 2.36 D vs. 2.93 D, P = 0.007). No significant differences between the protans and deutans were found for all the stimulus conditions. In the protans, accommodation to red-black targets was better than that to green-black targets when the stimulus was 2.00, 3.00, and 5.00 D (2.00 D: t = -2.81, P = 0.013; 3.00 D: t = -4.55, P < 0.001; 5.00 D: t = -3.15, P = 0.006). In the deutans, accommodation to red-black targets was better than that to green-black targets when the stimulus was 4.00 D (t = -2.19, P = 0.034). In the normals, accommodation to red-black targets were better than that to green-black targets when the stimulus

  2. Flavonoid composition related to petal color in different lines of Clitoria ternatea.

    PubMed

    Kazuma, Kohei; Noda, Naonobu; Suzuki, Masahiko

    2003-11-01

    Flavonoids in the petals of several C. ternatea lines with different petal colors were investigated with LC/MS/MS. Delphinidin 3-O-(2"-O-alpha-rhamnosyl-6"-O-malonyl)-beta-glucoside was newly isolated from the petals of a mauve line (wm) together with three known anthocyanins. They were identified structurally using UV, MS, and NMR spectroscopy. Although ternatins, a group of 15 (poly)acylated delphinidin glucosides, were identified in all the blue petal lines (WB, BM-1, 'Double Blue' and 'Albiflora'), WM accumulated delphinidin 3-O-(6"-O-malonyl)-beta-glucoside instead. The white petal line (WW) did not contain anthocyanins. Quantitative data showed that the total anthocyanin contents in WB and 'Double Blue' were ca. 8- and 10-fold higher than that in BM-1, a bud mutant of 'Double Blue', respectively. The total anthocyanin content in 'Albiflora' was less than 2 x 10(-3) times those in WB or 'Double Blue'. While all the lines contained the same set of 15 flavonol glycosides in similar relative ratios, the relative ratio of myricetin glycosides in ww and 'Albiflora' was ca. 30-70 times greater than those in the other lines. The change in flower color from blue to mauve was not due to a change in the structure of an anthocyanidin from delphinidin, but to the lack of (polyacylated) glucosyl group substitutions at both the 3'- and 5'-positions of ternatins. This implies that glucosylation at the 3'- and 5'-positions of anthocyanin is a critical step in producing blue petals in C. ternatea.

  3. Colored percolation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kundu, Sumanta; Manna, S. S.

    2017-05-01

    A model called "colored percolation" has been introduced with its infinite number of versions in two dimensions. The sites of a regular lattice are randomly occupied with probability p and are then colored by one of the n distinct colors using uniform probability q =1 /n . Denoting different colors by the letters of the Roman alphabet, we have studied different versions of the model like A B ,A B C ,A B C D ,A B C D E ,... etc. Here, only those lattice bonds having two different colored atoms at the ends are defined as connected. The percolation threshold pc(n ) asymptotically converges to its limiting value of pc as 1 /n . The model has been generalized by introducing a preference towards a subset of colors when m out of n colors are selected with probability q /m each and the rest of the colors are selected with probability (1 -q )/(n -m ) . It has been observed that pc(q ,m ) depends nontrivially on q and has a minimum at qmin=m /n . In another generalization the fractions of bonds between similarly and dissimilarly colored atoms have been treated as independent parameters. Phase diagrams in this parameter space have been drawn exhibiting percolating and nonpercolating phases.

  4. Investigating the biocontrol and anti-biofilm potential of a three phage cocktail against Cronobacter sakazakii in different brands of infant formula.

    PubMed

    Endersen, Lorraine; Buttimer, Colin; Nevin, Eoghan; Coffey, Aidan; Neve, Horst; Oliveira, Hugo; Lavigne, Rob; O'Mahony, Jim

    2017-07-17

    In recent years, the microbiological safety of powdered infant formula has gained increasing attention due to the identification of contaminating C. sakazakii and its epidemiological link with life-threatening neonatal infections. Current intervention strategies have fallen short of ensuring the production of infant formula that is free from C. sakazakii. In this study, we describe the isolation and characterisation of three bacteriophages (phages) and their application as a phage cocktail to inhibit the growth of C. sakazakii in different brands of infant formula, while also assessing the phages ability to prevent biofilm formation. All three phages, isolated from slurry, possess a relatively broad host range, verified by their ability to infect across genera and species. When all three phages were combined and used as part of a phage cocktail, 73% coverage was obtained across all Cronobacter strains tested. Optimum thermo-tolerance and pH stability were determined between 4°C-37°C, and pH6-8, respectively, well within the normal range of application of infant formula. Genome sequencing and analysis revealed all the phages to be free from lysogenic properties, a trait which renders each favourable for phage therapy applications. As such, the combined-phage preparation (3×10(8)pfu/mL) was found to possess a strong bactericidal effect on C. sakazakii/C. sakazakii LUX cells (≤10(4)cfu/mL), resulting in a significant reduction in cell numbers, to below the limit of detection (<10cfu/mL). This was observed following a 20h challenge in different brands of infant formula, where samples in the absence of the phage cocktail reached concentrations of ~10(9)cfu/mL. The phage cocktail also demonstrated promise in preventing the establishment of biofilm, as biofilm formation could not be detected for up to 48h post treatment. These results highlight the potential application of this phage preparation for biocontrol of C. sakazakii contamination in reconstituted infant

  5. Effect of Salivary pH on Color Stability of Different Flowable Composites – A Prospective In-vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Kataria, Pratik; Kapoor, Sonali

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Scientifically and clinically there has been lot of development in the field of aesthetic dentistry. However, there is limited or restricted information regarding the color stability of flowable composite materials. Aim The aim of this study was to evaluate the spectrophotometric color stability of three different flowable composite materials with respect to three different pH of saliva. Materials and Methods The study included 90 different samples. Thirty samples in each composite group; (Group A: G-aenial universal flo; Group B: Z 350 XT flowable; Group C: Esthet x flow). All samples from each group were immersed in distilled water for 24 hours. Total color difference (ΔE) was recorded for each sample. After this 10 samples from each group were respectively immersed in 6.5, 7 and 7.5 pH of artificial saliva. All samples were kept in dark room for seven days and then ΔE for each sample was recorded and was compared to previous recorded ΔE for the same sample. Results Maximum color change was seen irrespective of material in 6.5 pH of saliva. G-aenial universal flo showed least change irrespective of pH of saliva. Conclusion Thus, the present study reveals that acidic pH level affects the coloration of composite resins by affecting the surface integrity and as reported in previous studies, various coloring agents in beverages and other dietary components assists the process due to absorption of these coloring substances into the resin matrix. PMID:27891456

  6. Not by the Color of Their Skin; The Impact of Racial Differences on the Child's Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Marjorie

    Contents of this book include: Part I: "The Nursery School and Its Racial Integration"--introduction, establishing physical and psychological integration; staff meetings; observing and working through; Part II: "Theory and Practice"--skin color anxiety: the skin and its importance in personality development; skin color anxiety, the visual impact,…

  7. Color Makes a Difference: Two-Dimensional Object Naming in Literate and Illiterate Subjects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reis, Alexandra; Faisca, Luis; Ingvar, Martin; Petersson, Karl Magnus

    2006-01-01

    Previous work has shown that illiterate subjects are better at naming two-dimensional representations of real objects when presented as colored photos as compared to black and white drawings. This raises the question if color or textural details selectively improve object recognition and naming in illiterate compared to literate subjects. In this…

  8. A Two Colorable Fourth Order Compact Difference Scheme and Parallel Iterative Solution of the 3D Convection Diffusion Equation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Jun; Ge, Lixin; Kouatchou, Jules

    2000-01-01

    A new fourth order compact difference scheme for the three dimensional convection diffusion equation with variable coefficients is presented. The novelty of this new difference scheme is that it Only requires 15 grid points and that it can be decoupled with two colors. The entire computational grid can be updated in two parallel subsweeps with the Gauss-Seidel type iterative method. This is compared with the known 19 point fourth order compact differenCe scheme which requires four colors to decouple the computational grid. Numerical results, with multigrid methods implemented on a shared memory parallel computer, are presented to compare the 15 point and the 19 point fourth order compact schemes.

  9. The effect of variations in translucency and background on color differences in CAD/CAM lithium disilicate glass ceramics.

    PubMed

    Al Ben Ali, Abdulaziz; Kang, Kiho; Finkelman, Matthew D; Zandparsa, Roya; Hirayama, Hiroshi

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of variations in translucency and background on color differences (ΔE) for different shades of computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) lithium disilicate glass ceramics. A pilot study suggested n = 10 as an appropriate sample size for the number of lithium disilicate glass ceramic cylinders per group. High-transparency (HT) and low-transparency (LT) cylinders (diameter, 12 mm; length, 13 mm) were fabricated in three ceramic shades (BL1, A2, C3) using CAD/CAM technology and were cut into specimen disks (thickness, 1.2 mm; diameter, 12 mm) for placement on Natural Die (ND1 and ND4) backgrounds. Four combinations of translucency and background color were evaluated in terms of color differences for the three ceramic shades: group 1 (HT ND1, reference), group 2 (HT ND4), group 3 (LT ND1), and group 4 (LT ND4). A spectrophotometer was used to measure the color differences. Nonparametric tests (Kruskal-Wallis tests) were used to evaluate the color differences among the tested groups, and Mann-Whitney U tests with Bonferroni correction were used as post hoc tests. Furthermore, for each ceramic shade, the HT groups were compared to the LT groups using the Mann-Whitney U test. Significant differences were present among the tested groups of the same ceramic shade (p < 0.001). The highest ΔE values were observed in the HT ND4 group for BL1, while the lowest ΔE values were found in the LT ND1 group for both A2 and C3. Further, the HT groups and the groups with a darker background (ND4) showed increased ΔE values compared with the other groups (p < 0.001). Within the limitations of this study, the results suggested that the translucency and background color significantly influenced the lithium disilicate glass ceramic color among the BL1, A2, and C3 ceramic shades. Changing the underlying color from a lighter background to a darker background resulted in increased color differences. © 2013 by the

  10. Influence of Different Types of Resin Luting Agents on Color Stability of Ceramic Laminate Veneers Subjected to Accelerated Artificial Aging.

    PubMed

    Silami, Francisca Daniele Jardilino; Tonani, Rafaella; Alandia-Román, Carla Cecilia; Pires-de-Souza, Fernanda de Carvalho Panzeri

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of accelerated aging (AAA) on the color stability of resin cements for bonding ceramic laminate veneers of different thicknesses. The occlusal surfaces of 80 healthy human molars were flattened. Ceramic laminate veneers (IPS e-max Ceram) of two thicknesses (0.5 and 1.0 mm) were bonded with three types of luting agents: light-cured, conventional dual and self-adhesive dual cement. Teeth without restorations and cement samples (0.5 mm) were used as control. After initial color evaluations, the samples were subjected to AAA for 580 h. After this, new color readouts were made, and the color stability (ΔE) and luminosity (ΔL) data were analyzed. The greatest color changes (p<0.05) occurred when 0.5 mm veneers were fixed with light-cured cement and the lowest when 1.0 mm veneers were fixed with conventional dual cement. There was no influence of the restoration thickness when the self-adhesive dual cement was used. When veneers were compared with the control groups, it was verified that the cement samples presented the greatest alterations (p<0.05) in comparison with both substrates and restored teeth. Therefore, it was concluded that the thickness of the restoration influences color and luminosity changes for conventional dual and light-cured cements. The changes in self-adhesive cement do not depend on restoration thickness.

  11. Effects of different enzyme treatments in extraction of total folate from infant formula, baby foods and other food products prior to microbiological assay and radioassay

    SciTech Connect

    De Souza, S.C.

    1988-01-01

    Four different enzyme treatments-conjugase alone, conjugase and alpha-amylase, conjugase and Pronase{reg sign} and a triple enzyme combination of conjugase, Pronase {reg sign} and alpha-amylase were applied in the extraction of total folate from infant formula, baby foods and various other foods by microbiological and radioassay methods. Significant increases (P < 0.05) in measurable folate were obtained using the triple enzyme system in spinach, Camembert cheese, soy-based infant formula and cereal-based, meat-based and fruit-based infant foods over the use of conjugase alone by the microbiological method. Increases were also observed in many of the same foods using Pronase{reg sign} or alpha-amylase in addition to conjugase alone. Increases obtained by microbiological assay were confirmed by radioassay in a number of foods studied.

  12. A comparative study of triacylglycerol composition in Chinese human milk within different lactation stages and imported infant formula by SFC coupled with Q-TOF-MS.

    PubMed

    Tu, Anqi; Ma, Qiang; Bai, Hua; Du, Zhenxia

    2017-04-15

    Triacylglycerols (TAGs) as the major component of milk fat are significant factors to ensure the healthy growth of infants. An efficient method for identifying TAGs in human milk (HM) and infant formula (IF) was established using supercritical fluid chromatograph (SFC) coupled with quadruple time-of-flight mass spectrometry (Q-TOF-MS). The results indicated the feasibility of this method with satisfactory recoveries (>80%) and correlation coefficients (r(2)⩾0.993). More than 60 TAGs in HM and 50 TAGs in IF were identified. The profiling results demonstrated that TAGs in HM were greatly affected by lactation stage. Significant differences were found between HM and IF, such as much higher medium chain TAGs and saturated TAGs in IF, indicating that the formulas developed by foreign manufacturers were not suitable for Chinese babies. This high-throughput method exhibits a huge potential for analysis of milk samples and the result may serve as an important guide for Chinese infants diet.

  13. Symptomatology and growth in infants with cow's milk protein intolerance using two different whey-protein hydrolysate based formulas in a Primary Health Care setting.

    PubMed

    Verwimp, J J; Bindels, J G; Barents, M; Heymans, H S

    1995-09-01

    Both growth and the course of allergic symptoms were evaluated in 79 infants with cow's milk protein intolerance, aged three months or younger, diagnosed by standard elimination/provocation and treated with a whey-hydrolysate based infant formula: Nutrilon Pept or Pepti Junior. The efficacy of both products, in terms of symptomatology and growth, was compared with each other. The products differ in fat source (Pepti Junior 50% of its fat as MCT, Nutrilon Pepti normal LCT fat blend) and the presence of lactose (Pepti Junior: lactose free; Nutrilon Pepti: 40% of its carbohydrate as lactose). The study was part of a large project that aimed at standardising the approach towards cow's milk protein intolerance in Baby Health Clinics. Nearly 50 Baby Health Clinics participated in this project. In this study, growth and symptomatology (skin, respiratory tract, gastrointestinal tract) were monitored during an intervention period of at least 10 weeks. Infants in both feeding groups showed normal growth, and in at least 80% of the infants an improvement of the overall symptomatology could be seen during the intervention period. Most profound were the decreases in prevalence and severity of eczema and infantile colic. No differences in efficacy were found in this study between the two infant formulas. It was concluded that the exclusive use of either whey hydrolysate based infant formula resulted in an improvement of allergic symptoms and in normal growth in infants diagnosed by elimination/provocation for cow's milk protein intolerance in a Primary Health Care setting.

  14. Colorimetric evaluation of the influence of five different restorative materials on the color of veneered densely sintered alumina.

    PubMed

    Koutayas, Spiridon-Oumvertos; Kakaboura, Aphrodite; Hussein, Amr; Strub, Jörg-Rudolf

    2003-01-01

    Since the introduction of densely sintered alumina ceramic material in prosthetic dentistry for the fabrication of all-ceramic crowns, no scientific data have been presented on the color of these restorations in combination with different restorative materials. The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the influence of five different restorative materials used for implant abutments or posts and cores on the color of veneered densely sintered alumina. Sixty discs, 0.6 mm in thickness and 10 mm in diameter, were made out of densely sintered alumina ceramic material (Procera, Nobel Biocare, Gothenburg, Sweden) and veneered using feldspathic porcelain (AllCeram, Ducera, Rosbach, Germany) for a total thickness of 2 mm. Ten of the discs were evaluated colorimetrically using the CIE, L*, a*, b* system (control group). In addition, 50 discs, 3 mm in thickness and identical diameter, were fabricated using the following restorative materials (five different materials used on 10 specimens each): (1) high-precious gold alloy, (2) aluminum-oxide ceramic material, (3) titanium metal alloy, (4) yttrium-stabilized zirconium dioxide ceramic material, and (5) glass-ceramic material. The 50 veneered densely sintered alumina specimens were bonded to the 50 restorative specimens using an autopolymerizing luting composite. L*, a*, b* color coordinates were measured 10 times for each veneered densely sintered alumina specimen. Color differences were calculated using the equation DeltaE = [(DeltaL*)2 + (Deltaa*)2 + (Deltab*)2] 1/2. DeltaE values correspond to differences between the control group and each of the five materials groups. Mean color differences (DeltaE) and SDs for each group were as follows: DeltaE (1) = 1.42 +/- 0.5, DeltaE (2) = 1.53 +/- 0.5, DeltaE (3) = 1.55 +/- 0.4, DeltaE (4) = 1.95 +/- 0.5, DeltaE (5) = 1.23 +/- 0.3. All restorative materials induced changes to the densely sintered alumina color relative to the original color. One-way analysis of variance

  15. Clinical Relevance of Differences in Glomerular Filtration Rate Estimations in Frail Older People by Creatinine- vs. Cystatin C-Based Formulae.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Anne; Benraad, Carolien; Wetzels, Jack; Rikkert, Marcel Olde; Kramers, Cornelis

    2017-06-01

    The risk of incorrect medication dosing is high in frail older people. Therefore, accurate assessment of the glomerular filtration rate is important. The objective of this study was to compare the estimated glomerular filtration rate using creatinine- and cystatin C-based formulae, the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) equations, in frail older people. We hypothesized that frailty determines the difference between the creatinine- and cystatin C-based formulae. The mean difference between CKD-EPI creatinine and cystatin C was determined using (cross-sectional) data of 55 patients (mean age 73 years) admitted to a psychiatric ward for older adults. The level of agreement of these estimations was assessed by a Bland-Altman analysis. In all patients, the Rockwood's Frailty Index was derived and correlated with the mean difference between CKD-EPI creatinine and cystatin C. The mean difference between CKD-EPI creatinine (mean 71.2 mL/min/1.73 m(2)) and CKD-EPI cystatin C (mean 57.6 mL/min/1.73 m(2)) was 13.6 mL/min/1.73 m(2) (p < 0.0001). The two standard deviation limit in the Bland-Altman plot was large (43.2 mL/min/1.73 m(2)), which represents a low level of agreement. The Frailty Index did not correlate with the mean difference between the creatinine- and cystatin C-based glomerular filtration rate (Pearson correlation coefficient 0.182, p = 0.184). There was a significant gap between a creatinine- and cystatin C-based estimation of glomerular filtration rate, irrespective of frailty. The range of differences between the commonly used estimated glomerular filtration rate formulae might result in clinically relevant differences in drug prescription and differences in chronic kidney disease staging.

  16. Segmentation by fusion of histogram-based k-means clusters in different color spaces.

    PubMed

    Mignotte, Max

    2008-05-01

    This paper presents a new, simple, and efficient segmentation approach, based on a fusion procedure which aims at combining several segmentation maps associated to simpler partition models in order to finally get a more reliable and accurate segmentation result. The different label fields to be fused in our application are given by the same and simple (K-means based) clustering technique on an input image expressed in different color spaces. Our fusion strategy aims at combining these segmentation maps with a final clustering procedure using as input features, the local histogram of the class labels, previously estimated and associated to each site and for all these initial partitions. This fusion framework remains simple to implement, fast, general enough to be applied to various computer vision applications (e.g., motion detection and segmentation), and has been successfully applied on the Berkeley image database. The experiments herein reported in this paper illustrate the potential of this approach compared to the state-of-the-art segmentation methods recently proposed in the literature.

  17. Effects of stimulus color, pattern, and practice on sex differences in mental rotations task performance.

    PubMed

    Alington, D E; Leaf, R C; Monaghan, J R

    1992-09-01

    Redundant color information improved performance for both sexes on the Shepard Mental Rotations Task (MRT; Shepard & Metzler, 1971). Absolute score gains for women were larger than those for men; therefore, relative improvement was greater. Substantial practice effects, also favoring women, were apparent in both studies. Study 1 showed that redundant color improved performance by 0.25 SD. Study 2 demonstrated that redundant black-and-white pattern information did not have any effect; a second visuospatial channel, redundant color, was a critical factor in improving scores of men and women on difficult mental rotations tasks.

  18. Determination and comparison of mineral elements in traditional Chinese herbal formulae at different decoction times used to improve kidney function--chemometric approach.

    PubMed

    Kolasani, Archana; Xu, Hong; Millikan, Mary

    2011-01-01

    Traditional Chinese herbal formulae Liu wei di huang (LW) (six-ingredient pill with Rehmannia) and Jin gui shen qi wan (JG) (kidney Qi pill from the golden cabinet) were analysed for Ca, Fe, Mg, Mn, Na, K and Zn at different decoction intervals by atomic absorption spectroscopy. LW and JG were used to improve the kidney function. JG was higher in all elements than LW. K (1691.29 - 2372.71 mg l(-1)) was highest in both formulae LW and JG followed by Ca (245.31 - 562.91 mg l(-1)). Ca, Fe, Mg, Mn and K were highest at 40 min for LW and Fe, Mn, Na and K were highest at 40 min for JG. Chemometrics such as principal component analysis, hierarchical cluster analysis and linear discriminate analysis were applied to classify the data and to understand the relation between the elements. Metal intake related to the consumption of decoction has also been studied. Mn made the highest contribution to average daily dietary intakes from the formulae.

  19. Betalain profile, phenolic content, and color characterization of different parts and varieties of Opuntia ficus-indica.

    PubMed

    Cejudo-Bastante, María Jesús; Chaalal, Makhlouf; Louaileche, Hayette; Parrado, Juan; Heredia, Francisco J

    2014-08-20

    Three different varieties of Opuntia ficus-indica (R, red; Y, yellow; RY, red-yellow) have been considered in this study. Attention was focused on differential tristimulus colorimetry and on the analysis of individual betalains (HPLC-DAD-ESI-ToF-MS) and phenolic content, scarcely previously reported in these kinds of samples. The importance of this research stems from the elucidation of the parts and varieties of cactus pear more optimal for use as natural colorants and sources of phenolics and betalains. Thus, the RY pulp was appropriate to obtain colorants with high color intensity (C*(ab) = 66.5), whereas the whole Y fruit and R pulp reached powerful and stable yellow and red colors, respectively (C*(ab)/h(ab), 57.1/84.7 and 61.1°/81.8°). This choice was also based on the visually appreciable differences (ΔE*(ab) > 5) among samples, mainly quantitative (%Δ(2)L, %Δ(2)C). In addition, seeds of all Opuntia varieties showed significantly (p < 0.05) similar phenolic content (around 23.3 mg/g) and color characteristics.

  20. Effect of different topical fluoride applications on the surface roughness of a colored compomer

    PubMed Central

    AVŞAR, Aysun; TULOGLU, Nuray

    2010-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of neutral sodium fluoride (NNaF) gel and acidulated phosphate fluoride (APF) gel on the surface roughness of colored compomer (Twinky Star), conventional compomer (Compoglass F) and resin-modified glassionomer cement (RMGIC) (Photac-Fil). Material and Methods A total of 45 standardized disc-shaped specimens were prepared for each material. After 24 h, finishing and polishing of specimens were done with aluminum oxide disc. Surface treatments with topical fluoride agents or distilled water (control) were performed four times, and interspersed with 8 pH cycles, simulating high cariogenic challenges. After the treatment, the surface roughness (Ra) was determined using a profilometer. In each group, specimens with Ra closest to the mean were examined with a scanning electron microscope (SEM) at ×1,000 and ×3,500 magnifications. Two-way ANOVA was used to evaluate Ra measurements, and the differences in Ra values between subgroups for each material and each topical applications were compared by Tukey’s highly significant difference pairwise comparisons. Results No statistically significant difference in Ra between the Twinky Star and Compoglass F was found. However, Photac Fil showed significantly higher Ra than these materials after all surface treatments. There was a general trend of Ra increase from controls to NNaF and APF gels for all materials. SEM observations revealed that the surface micromorphology of Twinky-Star did not differ significantly from that of Compoglass F. Conclusion Both the compomers and the RMGIC showed significantly higher surface roughness when subjected to APF gel application. PMID:20485929

  1. Deconfining Phase Transition to a Quark-Gluon Plasma in Different SU(3) Color Representations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mezouar, K.; Ait El Djoudi, A.; Ghenam, L.

    2016-10-01

    For a statistical description of the quark gluon plasma (QGP) considering its internal symmetry, we calculate its partition function using the group theoretical projection method. We project out the partition function of a QGP consisting of gluons, massless up and down quarks, and massive strange quarks onto the singlet representation of the SU(3) color group, as well as onto the color octet and the color 27-plet representations. A comparison of these color representations is done, by studying their effects on the behavior of some thermodynamical quantities characterizing the mixed hadronic gas-QGP system undergoing a thermal deconfining phase transition on one side, and on the free energy during the formation of a QGP droplet from the hot hadronic gas on another side.

  2. Color space conversion for linear color grading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Dah-Jye

    2000-10-01

    Color grading is an important process for various industries such as food processing, fruit and vegetable grading, etc. Quality and price are often determined by the color of product. For example, darker red color for apples means higher price. In color machine vision applications, image is acquired with a color CCD camera that outputs color information in three channels, red, gree, and blue. When grading color, these three primary colors must be processed to determine the color level for separation. A very popular color space conversion technique for color image processing is RGB-to-HSI, where HSI represents hue, saturation, and intensity, respectively. However, the conversion result is still 3D information that makes determining color grades very difficult. A new color space conversion technique that can be implemented for high-speed real-time processing for color grading is introduced in this paper. Depending on the application, different color space conversion equations must be used. The result of this technique is a simple one-dimensional array that represents different color levels. This linear array makes linear color grading adjustment possible.

  3. Characterization of betalains, saponins and antioxidant power in differently colored quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) varieties.

    PubMed

    Escribano, Josefa; Cabanes, Juana; Jiménez-Atiénzar, Mercedes; Ibañez-Tremolada, Martha; Gómez-Pando, Luz Rayda; García-Carmona, Francisco; Gandía-Herrero, Fernando

    2017-11-01

    Quinoa was the traditional grain crop used by the prehispanic civilizations in America. Grains are white, black, yellow, and red-violet and plants are cultivated in vast areas of Peru, Bolivia and Ecuador. The recent description of the betacyanin pigment betanin in red-violet varieties is here further analyzed detecting the presence of amaranthin not previously identified in quinoa grains. Yellow-orange grains are characterized for the first time and up to four different betaxanthins are found to be responsible for this coloration. The native fluorescence of the identified betaxanthins makes the surface of the yellow quinoa grains glow with green fluorescent light. The presence of betalains is correlated with high antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities measured under the FRAP, ABTS and ORAC assays in grain extracts of 29 Peruvian varieties. TEAC equivalence is as high as 44.1 and 47.4mmol Trolox/kg for the yellow and red-violet varieties analyzed respectively. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. The identification and evaluation of two different color variations of tea.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuchen; Chen, Changsong; Li, Yusheng; Ding, Zhaotang; Shen, Jiazhi; Wang, Yu; Zhao, Lei; Xu, Meng

    2016-12-01

    The tea plant, Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntz, is a perennial woody plant widely cultivated for the production of a popular non-alcoholic beverage. To rapidly identify and evaluate two different color tea varieties (yellowish and purplish), the main phenotypic traits and quality components were tested in the present study. The metabolic profiles of tea shoots and leaves were also analyzed using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The yellowish variation had a higher active level with respect to metabolism of catechins, and the contents of luteolin and kaempferol 3-α-d-glucoside were much higher compared to in the other variations. However, the purplish variation had a low content of theanine and a high content of caffeine. The contents of quercetin and kaempferol 3-α-d-galactoside were highest in purplish leaves. Moreover, the yellowish variation had the highest total quality scores for green teas and black teas, whereas the purplish variation had the highest scores for oolong teas. Both the yellowish variation and the purplish variation represent excellent breeding materials and are worthy of breeding as new tea cultivars. The yellowish variation is more suitable for making high-grade green teas or black teas, whereas the purplish variation is suitable for producing fine quality oolong teas. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Polar Color

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 3 May 2004 This nighttime visible color image was collected on January 1, 2003 during the Northern Summer season near the North Polar Troughs.

    This daytime visible color image was collected on September 4, 2002 during the Northern Spring season in Vastitas Borealis. The THEMIS VIS camera is capable of capturing color images of the martian surface using its five different color filters. In this mode of operation, the spatial resolution and coverage of the image must be reduced to accommodate the additional data volume produced from the use of multiple filters. To make a color image, three of the five filter images (each in grayscale) are selected. Each is contrast enhanced and then converted to a red, green, or blue intensity image. These three images are then combined to produce a full color, single image. Because the THEMIS color filters don't span the full range of colors seen by the human eye, a color THEMIS image does not represent true color. Also, because each single-filter image is contrast enhanced before inclusion in the three-color image, the apparent color variation of the scene is exaggerated. Nevertheless, the color variation that does appear is representative of some change in color, however subtle, in the actual scene. Note that the long edges of THEMIS color images typically contain color artifacts that do not represent surface variation.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 79, Longitude 346 East (14 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with

  6. Diffractive parameric colors.

    PubMed

    Orava, Joni; Heikkila, Noora; Jaaskelainen, Timo; Parkkinen, Jussi

    2008-12-01

    A method of producing inkless parameric color pairs is studied. In this method, colors are formed additively using diffraction gratings with differing grating periods as primary colors. Gratings with different grating periods reflect different spectral radiance peaks of a fluorescent lamp to the desired viewing angle, according to the grating equation. Four spectral peaks of a 4000 K fluorescent lamp--red, green, cyan, and blue-are used as the primary colors. The colors are mixed additively by fixing the relative areas of different grating periods inside a pixel. With four primary colors it is possible to mix certain colors with different triplets of primary colors. Thus, it is theoretically possible to produce metameric colors. In this study, three parameric color pairs are fabricated using electron beam lithography, electroplating, and hot embossing. The radiance spectra of the color pairs are measured by spectroradiometer from hot-embossed plastic samples. The CIELAB DeltaE(ab) and CIEDE2000 color differences between radiance spectra of the color pairs are calculated. The CIEDE2000 color differences of color pairs are between 2.6 and 7.2 units in reference viewing conditions. The effects of viewing angle and different light sources are also evaluated. It is found that both the viewing angle and the light source have very strong influences on the color differences of the color pairs.

  7. The use of visible absorption spectra to evaluate different color reactions for the detection of cyclic ureides.

    PubMed

    Meusel, M; Frizler, M; Ottersbach, P; Peters, L; Gütschow, M

    2007-06-01

    Modifications of the Zwikker- and Parri color detection tests were investigated and compared according to their ability to distinguish between nine different barbituric acids and hydantoins. Solutions of the resulting complexes in 50% DMSO were analyzed spectrophotometrically. 350 spectra have been analyzed and criteria for their assessment have been defined. The evaluation based upon the occurrence of a peak in the visible absorption spectra, in comparison with the spectrum of the blank solution. The results were in accordance to those obtained in the visual assessment using a color palette formerly introduced. Cobalt(II) nitrate and methanolic solution of piperidine, or cyclohexylamine, respectively, were the suitable components to get unmistakable results.

  8. Influence of different staining beverages on color stability, surface roughness and microhardness of silorane and methacrylate-based composite resins.

    PubMed

    Karaman, Emel; Tuncer, Duygu; Firat, Esra; Ozdemir, Oguz Suleyman; Karahan, Sevilay

    2014-05-01

    To investigate the influence of different staining beverages on color stability, surface roughness and microhardness of silorane and methacrylate-based composite resins. Three different composite resins (Filtek Silorane, Filtek P60, Filtek Supreme XT) were tested. Thirty cylindrical specimens (10 × 2 mm) per material were prepared and polished with a series of aluminum-oxide polishing disks. Each group was then randomly subdivided into three groups according to the test beverages: distilled water (control), cola and coffee. The samples were immersed into different beverages for 15 days. Color, surface roughness and microhardness values were measured by a spectrophotometer, prophylometer and Vickers hardness device respectively, at baseline and after 15 days. The data were subjected to statistical analysis. Immersion in coffee resulted in a significant discoloration for all the composites tested, although the color change was lower in Filtek Silorane than that of MBCs (p < 0.05). All the composites tested showed similar surface roughness changes after immersion in different beverages (p > 0.05). Besides coffee caused more roughness change than others. Immersion in coffee caused highest microhardness change in Filtek Supreme XT (p < 0.05). Cola and coffee altered, to some degree, the color, surface roughness and/or microhardness of the tested resin composites, depending on the characteristics of the materials.

  9. An Analysis of Nonfirst-Generation Community College Men of Color: Comparing GPA, Noncognitive, and Campus Ethos Differences across Race

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palacios, Angélica M. G.; Alvarez, Rafael D.

    2016-01-01

    Drawing upon the Community College Socio-Ecological Outcomes model, this study is among the first to have addressed the outcomes of nonfirst-generation community college men of color. The purpose of this study was to investigate differences across ethnicities for key factors in two socioecological domains, including noncognitive and campus ethos…

  10. An Analysis of Nonfirst-Generation Community College Men of Color: Comparing GPA, Noncognitive, and Campus Ethos Differences across Race

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palacios, Angélica M. G.; Alvarez, Rafael D.

    2016-01-01

    Drawing upon the Community College Socio-Ecological Outcomes model, this study is among the first to have addressed the outcomes of nonfirst-generation community college men of color. The purpose of this study was to investigate differences across ethnicities for key factors in two socioecological domains, including noncognitive and campus ethos…

  11. Shear bond strength of orthodontic color-change adhesives with different light-curing times

    PubMed Central

    Bayani, Shahin; Ghassemi, Amirreza; Manafi, Safa; Delavarian, Mohadeseh

    2015-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of light-curing time on the shear bond strength (SBS) of two orthodontic color-change adhesives (CCAs). Materials and Methods: A total of 72 extracted premolars were randomly assigned into 6 groups of 12 teeth each. Subsequent to primer application, a metal bracket was bonded to the buccal surface using an orthodontic adhesive. Two CCAs (Greengloo and Transbond Plus) were tested and one conventional light-cured adhesive (Resilience) served as control. For each adhesive, the specimens were light-cured for two different times of 20 and 40 s. All the specimens underwent mechanical testing using a universal testing machine to measure the SBS. Adhesive remnant index (ARI) was used to assess the remnant adhesive material on the tooth surface. All statistical analyses were performed using SPSS software. The significance level for all statistical tests was set at P ≤ 0.05. Results: The SBSs of the tested groups were in the range of 14.05-31.25 MPa. Greengloo adhesive showed the highest SBS values when light-cured for 40 s, and Transbond Plus adhesive showed the lowest values when light-cured for 20 s. ARI scores of Transbond Plus adhesive were significantly higher than those of controls, while other differences in ARI values were not significant. Conclusion: Within the limitations of his study, decreasing the light-curing time from 40 to 20 s decreased the SBS of the tested adhesives; however, this decline in SBS was statistically significant only in Transbond Plus adhesive PMID:26005468

  12. Shear bond strength of orthodontic color-change adhesives with different light-curing times.

    PubMed

    Bayani, Shahin; Ghassemi, Amirreza; Manafi, Safa; Delavarian, Mohadeseh

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of light-curing time on the shear bond strength (SBS) of two orthodontic color-change adhesives (CCAs). A total of 72 extracted premolars were randomly assigned into 6 groups of 12 teeth each. Subsequent to primer application, a metal bracket was bonded to the buccal surface using an orthodontic adhesive. Two CCAs (Greengloo and Transbond Plus) were tested and one conventional light-cured adhesive (Resilience) served as control. For each adhesive, the specimens were light-cured for two different times of 20 and 40 s. All the specimens underwent mechanical testing using a universal testing machine to measure the SBS. Adhesive remnant index (ARI) was used to assess the remnant adhesive material on the tooth surface. All statistical analyses were performed using SPSS software. The significance level for all statistical tests was set at P ≤ 0.05. The SBSs of the tested groups were in the range of 14.05-31.25 MPa. Greengloo adhesive showed the highest SBS values when light-cured for 40 s, and Transbond Plus adhesive showed the lowest values when light-cured for 20 s. ARI scores of Transbond Plus adhesive were significantly higher than those of controls, while other differences in ARI values were not significant. Within the limitations of his study, decreasing the light-curing time from 40 to 20 s decreased the SBS of the tested adhesives; however, this decline in SBS was statistically significant only in Transbond Plus adhesive.

  13. Quality assessment of a formulated Chinese herbal decoction, Kaixinsan, by using rapid resolution liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry: A chemical evaluation of different historical formulae.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Kevin Y; Fu, Q; Xie, Heidi Q; Xu, Sherry L; Cheung, Anna W H; Zheng, Ken Y Z; Luk, Wilson K W; Choi, Roy C Y; Lau, David T W; Dong, Tina T X; Jiang, Zhi Y; Chen, Ji J; Tsim, Karl W K

    2010-12-01

    Kaixinsan is an ancient Chinese herbal decoction mainly prescribed for patients suffering from mental depression. This decoction was created by Sun Si-miao of Tang Dynasty (A.D. 600) in ancient China, and was composed of four herbs: Radix and Rhizome Ginseng, Radix Polygalae, Rhizoma Acori Tatarinowii and Poria. Historically, this decoction has three different formulations, each recorded at a different point in time. In this study, the chemical compositions of all three Kaixinsan formulae were analyzed. By using rapid resolution LC coupled with a diode-array detector and an ESI triple quadrupole tandem MS (QQQ-MS/MS), the Radix and Rhizome Ginseng-derived ginsenosides including Rb(1), Rd, Re, Rg(1), the Radix Polygalae-derived 3,6'-disinapoyl sucrose, the Rhizoma Acori Tatarinowii-derived α- and β-asarone and the Poria-derived pachymic acid were compared among the three different formulations. The results showed variations in the solubility of different chemicals between one formula and the others. This systematic method developed could be used for the quality assessment of this herbal decoction.

  14. Class V lesions restored with four different tooth-colored materials--3-year results.

    PubMed

    Folwaczny, M; Loher, C; Mehl, A; Kunzelmann, K H; Hickel, R

    2001-03-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the treatment results using four different types of tooth colored materials for restoring class V lesions. A total of 197 class V restorations (n = 197) were placed by one dentist in 37 patients on incisors, canines and premolars. The fillings were placed due to different indications: erosion/non-carious cervical defects (n = 69), primary carious lesions (n = 57), and for replacing defective existing fillings (n = 71). The teeth were assigned on a random basis to four groups for restoration with either a composite (group 1: n = 36; Tetric, Vivadent), or a polyacid-modified resin composite (group 2: n = 79; Dyract, Dentsply), or one of two different resin-modified glass ionomer cements (group 3: n = 51, Fuji II LC,GC; group 4: n = 31, Photac-Fil, Espe). The restorations were evaluated by a single-blind design, according to a modified USPHS system 36 months following placement. Statistical analysis was completed with the Pearson Chi-square test for comparing the results of the four groups (P < 0.05). Additionally, the survival rates were analyzed with the Kaplan-Meier estimator and the Log-rank test (P < 0.05). The Alpha ratings were as follows (Tetric/Dyract/Fuji II LC/Photac Fil): shade match (86%/77%/58%/40%), surface texture (81%/83%/16%/9%), marginal integrity (enamel) (73%/67%/61%/61%), marginal integrity (dentin) (86%/70%/55%/61%), marginal discoloration (enamel) (59%/44%/58%/52%), marginal discoloration (dentin) (82%/84%/71%/48%), anatomic contours (91%/83%/39%/35%). One Tetric restoration, five Dyract restorations, two Fuji II LC restorations and three Photac restorations were dislodged within the study period. The retention of the restorations showed no significant difference among the four materials. However, the clinical performance of the restorations retained over the 3-year period showed distinct differences for the four materials. The best clinical performance was observed for the resin composite, whereas the

  15. Color blindness and Rorschach color responsivity.

    PubMed

    Corsino, B V

    1985-10-01

    Color vision deficits occur in 10% of the American white male population. Thus, color blindness may invalidate diagnostic hypotheses generated from Rorschach data. The Rorschach protocols of 43 white, college male color-blind subjects were compared to the protocols of normally sighted controls. The color-blind group manifested fewer pure "C" responses. No significant between group differences emerged for any of the other primary Rorschach color variables. Pure "C" responses rarely figure prominently in Rorschach evaluations, and the apparent lowered frequency of these responses by the color-blind is insufficient to warrant modification of current Rorschach practice. The data suggest that color blindness is unlikely to confound Rorschach assessment.

  16. Do focal colors look particularly "colorful"?

    PubMed

    Witzel, Christoph; Franklin, Anna

    2014-04-01

    If the most typical red, yellow, green, and blue were particularly colorful (i.e., saturated), they would "jump out to the eye." This would explain why even fundamentally different languages have distinct color terms for these focal colors, and why unique hues play a prominent role in subjective color appearance. In this study, the subjective saturation of 10 colors around each of these focal colors was measured through a pairwise matching task. Results show that subjective saturation changes systematically across hues in a way that is strongly correlated to the visual gamut, and exponentially related to sensitivity but not to focal colors.

  17. Comparison of absorption properties of colored dissolved organic matter in six different case 2 water bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nima, Ciren; Frette, Øyvind; Hamre, Børge; Erga, Svein Rune; Chen, Yi-Chun; Zhao, Lu; Muyimbwa, Dennis; Ssenyonga, Taddeo; Ssebiyonga, Nicolausi; Okullo, Willy; Stamnes, Knut; Stamnes, Jakob J.

    2017-02-01

    Colored Dissolved Organic Matter (CDOM) is one of the main factors controlling the penetration of solar radiation in Case 2 water and affecting satellite-based estimation of ocean color. We present absorption properties of CDOM sampled in 6 water bodies including three in Norway (Røst coastal water, Samnangerfjord, Lysefjord), two in China (Bohai Sea, Lake Namtso), and one in Africa (Lake Victoria). These locations, which range from near the equator to subarctic regions, include water types from oligotrophic to eutrophic, and altitudes from sea level to 4,700 m above sea level.

  18. Color Stability of the Bulk-Fill Composite Resins with Different Thickness in Response to Coffee/Water Immersion.

    PubMed

    Shamszadeh, Sayna; Sheikh-Al-Eslamian, Seyedeh Mahsa; Hasani, Elham; Abrandabadi, Ahmad Najafi; Panahandeh, Narges

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to evaluate the color stability of bulk-fill and conventional composite resin with respect to thickness and storage media. Twenty specimens of a conventional composite resin (6 mm diameter and 2 mm thick) and 40 specimens of the bulk-fill Tetric EvoCeram composite resin at two different thicknesses (6 mm diameter and 2 mm thick or 4 mm thick, n = 20) were prepared. The specimens were stored in distilled water during the study period (28 d). Half of the specimens were remained in distilled water and the other half were immersed in coffee solution 20 min/d and kept in distilled water between the cycles. Color changes (ΔE) were measured using the CIE L (⁎) a (⁎) b (⁎) color space and a digital imaging system at 1, 7, 14, and 28 days of storage. Data were analyzed using Two-way ANOVA and Tukey's HSD post hoc test (P < 0.05). Composite resins showed significant increase in color changes by time (bulk-fill > conventional; P < 0.001). Coffee exhibited significantly more staining susceptibility than that of distilled water (P < 0.001). There was greater color changes with increasing the increment thickness, which was significant at 14 (P < 0.001) and 28 d (P < 0.01). Color change of bulk-fill composite resin was greater than that of the conventional one after coffee staining and is also a function of increment thicknesses.

  19. Color Stability of the Bulk-Fill Composite Resins with Different Thickness in Response to Coffee/Water Immersion

    PubMed Central

    Sheikh-Al-Eslamian, Seyedeh Mahsa; Hasani, Elham; Abrandabadi, Ahmad Najafi

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to evaluate the color stability of bulk-fill and conventional composite resin with respect to thickness and storage media. Twenty specimens of a conventional composite resin (6 mm diameter and 2 mm thick) and 40 specimens of the bulk-fill Tetric EvoCeram composite resin at two different thicknesses (6 mm diameter and 2 mm thick or 4 mm thick, n = 20) were prepared. The specimens were stored in distilled water during the study period (28 d). Half of the specimens were remained in distilled water and the other half were immersed in coffee solution 20 min/d and kept in distilled water between the cycles. Color changes (ΔE) were measured using the CIE L⁎a⁎b⁎ color space and a digital imaging system at 1, 7, 14, and 28 days of storage. Data were analyzed using Two-way ANOVA and Tukey's HSD post hoc test (P < 0.05). Composite resins showed significant increase in color changes by time (bulk-fill > conventional; P < 0.001). Coffee exhibited significantly more staining susceptibility than that of distilled water (P < 0.001). There was greater color changes with increasing the increment thickness, which was significant at 14 (P < 0.001) and 28 d (P < 0.01). Color change of bulk-fill composite resin was greater than that of the conventional one after coffee staining and is also a function of increment thicknesses. PMID:27403163

  20. Effect of different disinfecting procedures on the hardness and color stability of two maxillofacial elastomers over time

    PubMed Central

    ELENI, Panagiota N.; KROKIDA, Magdalini K.; POLYZOIS, Gregory L.; GETTLEMAN, Lawrence

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Disinfection procedures often cause deterioration in a maxillofacial prosthesis. Color and hardness alterations could lead to a replacement of the prosthesis. Material and Methods: An experimental chlorinated polyethylene (CPE) and a commercial polydimethyl siloxane (PDMS) sample were treated with four different disinfection procedures for a period which simulates 1 year of clinical service. The applied disinfection procedures included microwave exposure and immersion in three solutions, sodium hypochlorite, neutral soap and a commercial disinfecting soap. Shore A hardness (ΔΗ) and color differences (ΔΕ) were determined before and after each procedure. All data were analyzed by Two Way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and Tukey's post hoc tests at a level of α=0.05. Results: The samples presented significant alterations in color and hardness after the different disinfection treatments. The color differences (ΔΕ) were at least eye detectable in all cases and clinically unacceptable in most of the cases, with values ranging from 1.51 to 4.15 and from 1.54 to 5.92 for the PDMS and CPE material, respectively. Hardness was decreased after all the disinfection procedures in the PDMS, while for the CPE, a decrement was observed after disinfection with sodium hypochlorite and neutral soap and an increment after microwave exposure and the disinfection with a commercial antimicrobial agent. The PDMS samples presented greater alterations in color and hardness after disinfection with sodium hypochlorite solution, while the microwave exposure caused negligible effects. The CPE samples were affected most after disinfection when treated with neutral soap, and more slightly when disinfected with sodium hypochlorite solution. Conclusions: The disinfection procedures caused alterations in color and hardness of the examined materials. The most suitable disinfection procedure for the PDMS material is microwave exposure, while disinfection with sodium hypochlorite

  1. Distribution and expression of SLC45A2 in the skin of sheep with different coat colors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Haidong; Xue, Linli; Li, Yanan; Zhao, Bingling; Chen, Tianzhi; Liu, Ying; Chang, Lucheng; Wang, Juan

    2016-01-01

    To investigate whether the membrane-associated transporter protein SLC45A2 is differentially expressed in the skin of sheep with different coat colors and to determine its correlation with coat color establishment in sheep. The expression of SLC45A2 in sheep skin samples with different coat colors was qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed by PCR amplification, RT-PCR, immunohistochemical staining and Western blotting. A 193-bp SLC45A2 CDS sequence was successfully amplified from sheep skin samples with diverse coat colors. RT-PCR analysis revealed that SLC45A2 mRNA was expressed in all sheep skin samples tested, with relative expression levels of 512.74 ± 121.51 in black skin, 143.38 ± 119.31 and 1.36 ± 0.09 in black dots and white dots of piebald skin, respectively, and 1.02 ± 0.23 in white skin (p < 0.01**). Positive SLC45A2 protein bands were also detected in all skin samples by Western blot analysis, with relative expression levels of 0.85 ± ± 0.17** in black skin, 0.60 ± 0.05** and 0.34 ± 0.07 in black dots and white dots of piebald skin, respectively, and 0.20 ± 0.05 in white skin (p < 0.01**). Immunohistochemical assays revealed that SLC45A2 was expressed in the hair follicle matrix, the inner and outer root sheath, and the dermal papilla in the skin tissues with different coat colors. These patterns were quantified by optical density (OD) analysis, which yielded relative expression levels of 0.23 ± 0.11 in black skin, 0.19 ± 0.09 and 0.10 ± 0.03 in black dots and white dots of piebald skin, respectively, and 0.08 ± 0.01 in white skin (p < 0.05*). SLC45A2 is detectably expressed in sheep skin of all coat colors, though at significantly different levels. SLC45A2 may participate in the establishment of coat color by regulating the synthesis and trafficking of melanin.

  2. Genetic structure and different color morphotypes suggest the occurrence and bathymetric segregation of two incipient species of Sebastes off Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venerus, Leonardo A.; Ciancio, Javier E.; Riva-Rossi, Carla; Gilbert-Horvath, Elizabeth A.; Gosztonyi, Atila E.; Garza, John Carlos

    2013-07-01

    Rockfishes of the genus Sebastes are extensively distributed in the Pacific and Atlantic oceans. Although the occurrence of two morphologically similar species in the Southern Hemisphere, Sebastes oculatus and Sebastes capensis, is now clearly established, the taxonomic status and phylogeographic patterns for the genus in the region have not yet been completely resolved. In this study, we provide new insights into the taxonomy and evolutionary relationships of rockfishes inhabiting the Southwestern Atlantic Ocean, off the coast of mainland Argentina, by combining mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region sequences, microsatellite data, and color pattern analyses. Differences in coloration ("dark" and "light" fish) together with bathymetric segregation between color morphotypes were evident from fish collection and literature review. In addition, the mtDNA phylogenetic analysis and Bayesian clustering analysis using microsatellite data separated the fish into two distinct groups ( F ST = 0.041), most likely representing incipient species. Our results suggest that speciation-by-depth in the absence of physical barriers could be a widespread mechanism of speciation in Sebastes from both the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. Nevertheless, the degree of genetic differentiation found, added to the large number of individuals displaying high levels of admixture, points to the occurrence of incomplete reproductive barriers between color morphotypes. Beyond the taxonomic and phylogeographic implications of our findings, the occurrence of distinct groups of Sebastes off the coast of Argentina being targeted by different fisheries (angling and trawling) has consequences for the design and implementation of appropriate fishery regulations to avoid overharvest of either group.

  3. Color Me Understood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Judy J.

    2000-01-01

    Describes the "color system" as a way of grouping children into different personality types based on a certain color: orange, blue, green, and gold. Lists stress producers for specific color people. Asserts that, through making groups of different colors, children begin to see the various specialties others can bring to the group and learn to…

  4. The Effect of Luting Agents and Ceramic Thickness on the Color Variation of Different Ceramics against a Chromatic Background

    PubMed Central

    de Azevedo Cubas, Gloria Beatriz; Camacho, Guilherme Brião; Demarco, Flávio Fernando; Pereira-Cenci, Tatiana

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the influence of various ceramic thicknesses and luting agents on color variation in five ceramic systems. Methods: Fifteen disc-shaped ceramic specimens (11 mm diameter; shade A3) were fabricated with each of the six veneering ceramics tested, with 1, 1.5, or 2 mm thickness (n=5). Resin composite discs (Z-250, shade C4) were used as bases to simulate a chromatic background. The cementation of the veneers was carried out with an opaque resin-based cement (Enforce, shade C4), a resin-based cement (Enforce, shade A3), or without cement (C4, control group). Color differences (ΔE*) were determined using a colorimeter. Three-way ANOVA was used to analyze the data, followed by a Tukey post-hoc test (α=.05). Results: The L*a*b* values of the ceramic systems were affected by both the luting agent and the ceramic thickness (P<.05). In general, there was no difference between the control group and the group using the resin-based cement. The use of an opaque luting agent resulted in an increase of the color coordinates a*, b*, L*, producing differences in ΔE* values for all ceramics tested, regardless of the thickness (P<.05). For the 2-mm thick veneers, higher values in the color parameters were obtained for all ceramics and were independent of the luting agent used. Conclusions: The association of 2-mm thickness with opaque cement presented the strongest masking ability of a dark colored background when compared to a non- opaque luting agent and the other thicknesses tested. PMID:21769264

  5. The Effect of Luting Agents and Ceramic Thickness on the Color Variation of Different Ceramics against a Chromatic Background.

    PubMed

    de Azevedo Cubas, Gloria Beatriz; Camacho, Guilherme Brião; Demarco, Flávio Fernando; Pereira-Cenci, Tatiana

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the influence of various ceramic thicknesses and luting agents on color variation in five ceramic systems. Fifteen disc-shaped ceramic specimens (11 mm diameter; shade A3) were fabricated with each of the six veneering ceramics tested, with 1, 1.5, or 2 mm thickness (n=5). Resin composite discs (Z-250, shade C4) were used as bases to simulate a chromatic background. The cementation of the veneers was carried out with an opaque resin-based cement (Enforce, shade C4), a resin-based cement (Enforce, shade A3), or without cement (C4, control group). Color differences (ΔE*) were determined using a colorimeter. Three-way ANOVA was used to analyze the data, followed by a Tukey post-hoc test (α=.05). The L*a*b* values of the ceramic systems were affected by both the luting agent and the ceramic thickness (P<.05). In general, there was no difference between the control group and the group using the resin-based cement. The use of an opaque luting agent resulted in an increase of the color coordinates a*, b*, L*, producing differences in ΔE* values for all ceramics tested, regardless of the thickness (P<.05). For the 2-mm thick veneers, higher values in the color parameters were obtained for all ceramics and were independent of the luting agent used. The association of 2-mm thickness with opaque cement presented the strongest masking ability of a dark colored background when compared to a non- opaque luting agent and the other thicknesses tested.

  6. Growth profile of Chamaedorea cataractarum (Cascade Palm)seedlings with different colored plastic mulch

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of colored plastic mulch on the growth of Chamaedorea cataractarum Mart. (Cascade Palm). The seedlings placed in soil were compared with those placed in red and blue mulch. The plant growth was monitored for plant height, thickness at the base ...

  7. Endemism and regional color and genetic differences in five putatively cosmopolitan reef fishes.

    PubMed

    Drew, Joshua; Allen, Gerald R; Kaufman, Les; Barber, Paul H

    2008-08-01

    Endemism is thought to be relatively rare in marine systems due to the lack of allopatric barriers and the potential for long-distance colonization via pelagic larval dispersal. Although many species of coral reef fishes exhibit regionally restricted color variants that are suggestive of regional endemism, such variation is typically ascribed to intraspecific variation. We examined the genetic structure in 5 putatively monospecific fishes from the Indo-West Pacific (Amphiprion melanopus, Chrysiptera talboti, and Pomacentrus moluccensis [Pomacentridae] and Cirrhilabrus punctatus, and Labroides dimidiatus [Labridae]) that express regional color variation unique to this area. Mitochondrial-control-region sequence analysis showed shallow to deep genetic divergence in all 5 species (sequence divergence 2-17%), with clades concordant with regional color variation. These results were partially supported by nuclear RAG2 data. An analysis of molecular variation (AMOVA) mirrored the phylogenetic results; Phi(ST) values ranged from 0.91 to 0.7, indicating high levels of geographic partitioning of genetic variation. Concordance of genetics and phenotype demonstrate the genetic uniqueness of southwestern Pacific color variants, indicating that these populations are at a minimum distinct evolutionarily significant units and perhaps distinct regionally endemic species. Our results indicate that the alpha biodiversity of the southwestern Pacific is likely underestimated even in well-studied groups, such as reef fishes, and that regional endemism may be more common in tropical marine systems than previously thought.

  8. Changes in surface roughness and color stability of two composites caused by different bleaching agents.

    PubMed

    Mendes, Anna Paula Kalix França; Barceleiro, Marcos de Oliveira; dos Reis, Rodrigo Sant'Anna Aguiar; Bonato, Lucilei Lopes; Dias, Kátia Regina Hostílio Cervantes

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of two bleaching agents (10% and 35% hydrogen peroxide) on the color stability and surface roughness of two composites, one nanohybrid and one nanoparticle. Specimens were polished, aged, stained, bleached and polished again. The action of the bleaching agents on the composites was analyzed using a profilometer (surface roughness) and a spectrophotometer (color stability). The effect of polishing the composites on the surface roughness and the resumption of the composite color was also evaluated. The results were analyzed statistically by ANOVA and Tukey's test at 5% significance level. The analysis indicated that the nanohybrid composite was more affected by staining. The bleaching agents were not able to promote bleaching of either composite over the evaluation period. Surface polishing returned nanohybrid composite to its original color condition, which did not occur for the nanoparticle composite. Additionally, polishing did not return the surface roughness of either composite to its original value. It may be concluded that polishing surface after bleaching should not be the treatment of choice, as it was not possible to reverse the roughness of the composites to their original values, suggesting that a more extensive and irreversible degradation might have occurred.

  9. Contrast Sensitivity Differences between Proficient and Disabled Readers Using Colored Lenses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spafford, Carol S.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    This study examined relationships among lens color, visual grating, visual detection task performance, and peripheral retinal brightness thresholds among four adults and four children with reading disabilities and age-matched controls. Subjects with reading disabilities displayed significantly lower contrast sensitivity when tested with sine-wave…

  10. A comparative study on visual choice reaction time for different colors in females.

    PubMed

    Balakrishnan, Grrishma; Uppinakudru, Gurunandan; Girwar Singh, Gaur; Bangera, Shobith; Dutt Raghavendra, Aswini; Thangavel, Dinesh

    2014-01-01

    Reaction time is one of the important methods to study a person's central information processing speed and coordinated peripheral movement response. Visual choice reaction time is a type of reaction time and is very important for drivers, pilots, security guards, and so forth. Previous studies were mainly on simple reaction time and there are very few studies on visual choice reaction time. The aim of our study was to compare the visual choice reaction time for red, green, and yellow colors of 60 healthy undergraduate female volunteers. After giving adequate practice, visual choice reaction time was recorded for red, green, and yellow colors using reaction time machine (RTM 608, Medicaid, Chandigarh). Repeated measures of ANOVA and Bonferroni multiple comparison were used for analysis and P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. The results showed that both red and green had significantly less choice visual choice reaction (P values <0.0001 and 0.0002) when compared with yellow. This could be because individual color mental processing time for yellow color is more than red and green.

  11. Variation of thermal parameters in two different color morphs of a diurnal poison toad, Melanophryniscus rubriventris (Anura: Bufonidae).

    PubMed

    Sanabria, Eduardo A; Vaira, Marcos; Quiroga, Lorena B; Akmentins, Mauricio S; Pereyra, Laura C

    2014-04-01

    We study the variation in thermal parameters in two contrasting populations Yungas Redbelly Toads (Melanophryniscus rubriventris) with different discrete color phenotypes comparing field body temperatures, critical thermal maximum and heating rates. We found significant differences in field body temperatures of the different morphs. Temperatures were higher in toads with a high extent of dorsal melanization. No variation was registered in operative temperatures between the study locations at the moment of capture and processing. Critical thermal maximum of toads was positively related with the extent of dorsal melanization. Furthermore, we founded significant differences in heating rates between morphs, where individuals with a high extent of dorsal melanization showed greater heating rates than toads with lower dorsal melanization. The color pattern-thermal parameter relationship observed may influence the activity patterns and body size of individuals. Body temperature is a modulator of physiological and behavioral functions in amphibians, influencing daily and seasonal activity, locomotor performance, digestion rate and growth rate. It is possible that some growth constraints may arise due to the relationship of color pattern-metabolism allowing different morphs to attain similar sizes at different locations instead of body-size clines. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. [Household appliances and food insecurity: gender, referred skin color and socioeconomic differences].

    PubMed

    Marin-Leon, Leticia; Francisco, Priscila Maria Stolses Bergamo; Segall-Corrêa, Ana Maria; Panigassi, Giseli

    2011-09-01

    Data from the National Household Survey 2004 was analyzed to compare differences in prevalence among moderate or severe food insecurity. Also, it was compared food security or mild food insecurity households in relation to the assets and other socioeconomic and demographic conditions of the household. Private permanent households, with per capita monthly income of up to one minimum wage and with the Brazilian Food Insecurity Scale answered by a household resident were studied (n=51,357). Association of variables with the dependent variable (food security) was verified using χ² test, with 5% significance level. Crude prevalence ratio, respective 95% confidence interval and adjusted analyses were carried out using Poisson multiple regression Stata 8.0. It considers the weights of the complex sampling design of the survey. The per capita monthly household income was the variable with strongest association to food security. Both in urban and rural areas, there were higher risk of moderate or severe food insecurity prevalence ratio when the head of the household was a female, black color, presence of six or more members in the household, metropolitan area and with absence of some specific assets (stove, water filter, refrigerator, freezer, washing machine and cellular phone). In a model that, among assets, included just the refrigerator, it was observed the highest prevalence ratio for household income of up to ¼ of a minimum wage and after this, the absence of refrigerator among households headed by white and black males and white or black female. Although female and black headed households have greater food restriction, internal differences among these groups were higher for households headed by white males and lower for those headed by black females. At national level and households with monthly income of up to one minimum age, poor socioeconomic conditions are associated to household food insecurity. This situation is worse among those headed by women and black

  13. Color differences among feral pigeons (Columba livia) are not attributable to sequence variation in the coding region of the melanocortin-1 receptor gene (MC1R).

    PubMed

    Derelle, Romain; Kondrashov, Fyodor A; Arkhipov, Vladimir Y; Corbel, Hélène; Frantz, Adrien; Gasparini, Julien; Jacquin, Lisa; Jacob, Gwenaël; Thibault, Sophie; Baudry, Emmanuelle

    2013-08-05

    Genetic variation at the melanocortin-1 receptor (MC1R) gene is correlated with melanin color variation in many birds. Feral pigeons (Columba livia) show two major melanin-based colorations: a red coloration due to pheomelanic pigment and a black coloration due to eumelanic pigment. Furthermore, within each color type, feral pigeons display continuous variation in the amount of melanin pigment present in the feathers, with individuals varying from pure white to a full dark melanic color. Coloration is highly heritable and it has been suggested that it is under natural or sexual selection, or both. Our objective was to investigate whether MC1R allelic variants are associated with plumage color in feral pigeons. We sequenced 888 bp of the coding sequence of MC1R among pigeons varying both in the type, eumelanin or pheomelanin, and the amount of melanin in their feathers. We detected 10 non-synonymous substitutions and 2 synonymous substitution but none of them were associated with a plumage type. It remains possible that non-synonymous substitutions that influence coloration are present in the short MC1R fragment that we did not sequence but this seems unlikely because we analyzed the entire functionally important region of the gene. Our results show that color differences among feral pigeons are probably not attributable to amino acid variation at the MC1R locus. Therefore, variation in regulatory regions of MC1R or variation in other genes may be responsible for the color polymorphism of feral pigeons.

  14. Gene expression divergence and nucleotide differentiation between males of different color morphs and mating strategies in the ruff

    PubMed Central

    Ekblom, Robert; Farrell, Lindsay L; Lank, David B; Burke, Terry

    2012-01-01

    By next generation transcriptome sequencing, it is possible to obtain data on both nucleotide sequence variation and gene expression. We have used this approach (RNA-Seq) to investigate the genetic basis for differences in plumage coloration and mating strategies in a non-model bird species, the ruff (Philomachus pugnax). Ruff males show enormous variation in the coloration of ornamental feathers, used for individual recognition. This polymorphism is linked to reproductive strategies, with dark males (Independents) defending territories on leks against other Independents, whereas white morphs (Satellites) co-occupy Independent's courts without agonistic interactions. Previous work found a strong genetic component for mating strategy, but the genes involved were not identified. We present feather transcriptome data of more than 6,000 de-novo sequenced ruff genes (although with limited coverage for many of them). None of the identified genes showed significant expression divergence between males, but many genetic markers showed nucleotide differentiation between different color morphs and mating strategies. These include several feather keratin genes, splicing factors, and the Xg blood-group gene. Many of the genes with significant genetic structure between mating strategies have not yet been annotated and their functions remain to be elucidated. We also conducted in-depth investigations of 28 pre-identified coloration candidate genes. Two of these (EDNRB and TYR) were specifically expressed in black- and rust-colored males, respectively. We have demonstrated the utility of next generation transcriptome sequencing for identifying and genotyping large number of genetic markers in a non-model species without previous genomic resources, and highlight the potential of this approach for addressing the genetic basis of ecologically important variation. PMID:23145334

  15. Determination of total flavonoids content in fresh Ginkgo biloba leaf with different colors using near infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Shi, Ji-yong; Zou, Xiao-bo; Zhao, Jie-wen; Mel, Holmes; Wang, Kai-liang; Wang, Xue; Chen, Hong

    2012-08-01

    Total flavonoids content is often considered an important quality index of Ginkgo biloba leaf. The feasibility of using near infrared (NIR) spectra at the wavelength range of 10,000-4000cm(-1) for rapid and nondestructive determination of total flavonoids content in G. biloba leaf was investigated. 120 fresh G. biloba leaves in different colors (green, green-yellowish and yellow) were used to spectra acquisition and total flavonoids determination. Partial least squares (PLS), interval partial least squares (iPLS) and synergy interval partial least squares (SiPLS) were used to develop calibration models for total flavonoids content in two colors leaves (green-yellowish and yellow) and three colors leaves (green, green-yellowish and yellow), respectively. The level of total flavonoids content for green, green-yellowish and yellow leaves was in an increasing order. Two characteristic wavelength regions (5840-6090cm(-1) and 6620-6880cm(-1)), which corresponded to the absorptions of two aromatic rings in basic flavonoid structure, were selected by SiPLS. The optimal SiPLS model for total flavonoids content in the two colors leaves (r(2)=0.82, RMSEP=2.62mg g(-1)) had better performance than PLS and iPLS models. It could be concluded that NIR spectroscopy has significant potential in the nondestructive determination of total flavonoids content in fresh G. biloba leaf.

  16. Determination of total flavonoids content in fresh Ginkgo biloba leaf with different colors using near infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Ji-yong; Zou, Xiao-bo; Zhao, Jie-wen; Mel, Holmes; Wang, Kai-liang; Wang, Xue; Chen, Hong

    Total flavonoids content is often considered an important quality index of Ginkgo biloba leaf. The feasibility of using near infrared (NIR) spectra at the wavelength range of 10,000-4000 cm-1 for rapid and nondestructive determination of total flavonoids content in G. biloba leaf was investigated. 120 fresh G. biloba leaves in different colors (green, green-yellowish and yellow) were used to spectra acquisition and total flavonoids determination. Partial least squares (PLS), interval partial least squares (iPLS) and synergy interval partial least squares (SiPLS) were used to develop calibration models for total flavonoids content in two colors leaves (green-yellowish and yellow) and three colors leaves (green, green-yellowish and yellow), respectively. The level of total flavonoids content for green, green-yellowish and yellow leaves was in an increasing order. Two characteristic wavelength regions (5840-6090 cm-1 and 6620-6880 cm-1), which corresponded to the absorptions of two aromatic rings in basic flavonoid structure, were selected by SiPLS. The optimal SiPLS model for total flavonoids content in the two colors leaves (r2 = 0.82, RMSEP = 2.62 mg g-1) had better performance than PLS and iPLS models. It could be concluded that NIR spectroscopy has significant potential in the nondestructive determination of total flavonoids content in fresh G. biloba leaf.

  17. Red Color Light at Different Intensities Affects the Performance, Behavioral Activities and Welfare of Broilers.

    PubMed

    Senaratna, D; Samarakone, T S; Gunawardena, W W D A

    2016-07-01

    Red light (RL) marked higher weight gain (WG) and preference of broilers compared to other light colors. This study aimed to investigate how different intensities of RL affect the performance, behavior and welfare of broilers. RL treatments were T1 = high intensity (320 lux), T2 = medium intensity (20 lux); T3 = dim intensity (5 lux), T4 = control/white light at (20 lux) provided on 20L:4D schedule and T5 = negative control; 12 hours dark: 12 hours day light. Cobb strain broilers were used in a Complete Randomize Design with 6 replicates. WG, water/feed intake, feed conversion ratio (FCR), mortality, behavior and welfare were assessed. At 35 d, significantly (p<0.05) highest body weight (2,147.06 g±99) was recorded by T3. Lowest body weight (1,640.55 g±56) and FCR (1.34) were recorded by T5. Skin weight was the only carcass parameter showed a significant (p<0.05) influence giving the highest (56.2 g) and the lowest (12.6 g) values for T5 and T1 respectively. Reduced welfare status indicated by significantly (p<0.05) higher foot pad lesions, hock burns and breast blisters was found under T3, due to reduced expression of behavior. Highest walking (2.08%±1%) was performed under T1 in the evening during 29 to 35 days. Highest dust bathing (3.01%±2%) was performed in the morning during 22 to 28 days and highest bird interaction (BI) (4.87%±4%) was observed in the evening by T5 during 14 to 21 days. Light intensity×day session×age interaction was significantly (p<0.05) affected walking, dust bathing and BI. Light intensity significantly (p<0.05) affected certain behaviors such as lying, eating, drinking, standing, walking, preening while lying, wing/leg stretching, sleeping, dozing, BI, vocalization, idling. In conclusion, birds essentially required provision of light in the night for better performance. Exposed to 5 lux contributed to higher WG, potentially indicating compromised welfare status. Further researches are suggested to investigate RL intensity based

  18. Biochemical and transcriptomic analyses reveal different metabolite biosynthesis profiles among three color and developmental stages in 'Anji Baicha' (Camellia sinensis).

    PubMed

    Li, Chun-Fang; Xu, Yan-Xia; Ma, Jian-Qiang; Jin, Ji-Qiang; Huang, Dan-Juan; Yao, Ming-Zhe; Ma, Chun-Lei; Chen, Liang

    2016-09-08

    The new shoots of the albino tea cultivar 'Anji Baicha' are yellow or white at low temperatures and turn green as the environmental temperatures increase during the early spring. 'Anji Baicha' metabolite profiles exhibit considerable variability over three color and developmental stages, especially regarding the carotenoid, chlorophyll, and theanine concentrations. Previous studies focused on physiological characteristics, gene expression differences, and variations in metabolite abundances in albino tea plant leaves at specific growth stages. However, the molecular mechanisms regulating metabolite biosynthesis in various color and developmental stages in albino tea leaves have not been fully characterized. We used RNA-sequencing to analyze 'Anji Baicha' leaves at the yellow-green, albescent, and re-greening stages. The leaf transcriptomes differed considerably among the three stages. Functional classifications based on Gene Ontology enrichment and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes enrichment analyses revealed that differentially expressed unigenes were mainly related to metabolic pathways, biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, phenylpropanoid biosynthesis, and carbon fixation in photosynthetic organisms. Chemical analyses revealed higher β-carotene and theanine levels, but lower chlorophyll a levels, in the albescent stage than in the green stage. Furthermore, unigenes involved in carotenoid, chlorophyll, and theanine biosyntheses were identified, and the expression patterns of the differentially expressed unigenes in these biosynthesis pathways were characterized. Through co-expression analyses, we identified the key genes in these pathways. These genes may be responsible for the metabolite biosynthesis differences among the different leaf color and developmental stages of 'Anji Baicha' tea plants. Our study presents the results of transcriptomic and biochemical analyses of 'Anji Baicha' tea plants at various stages. The distinct transcriptome profiles

  19. Color Reproduction with a Smartphone

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thoms, Lars-Jochen; Colicchia, Giuseppe; Girwidz, Raimund

    2013-01-01

    The world is full of colors. Most of the colors we see around us can be created on common digital displays simply by superposing light with three different wavelengths. However, no mixture of colors can produce a fully pure color identical to a spectral color. Using a smartphone, students can investigate the main features of primary color addition…

  20. Color Reproduction with a Smartphone

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thoms, Lars-Jochen; Colicchia, Giuseppe; Girwidz, Raimund

    2013-01-01

    The world is full of colors. Most of the colors we see around us can be created on common digital displays simply by superposing light with three different wavelengths. However, no mixture of colors can produce a fully pure color identical to a spectral color. Using a smartphone, students can investigate the main features of primary color addition…

  1. Spectrophotometric evaluation of the influence of different backgrounds on the color of glass-infiltrated ceramic veneers.

    PubMed

    Charisis, Dimitrios; Koutayas, Spiridon-Oumvertos; Kamposiora, Photini; Doukoudakis, Asterios

    2006-08-01

    The purpose of this spectrophotometric study was to evaluate the influence of different color backgrounds on Vita In-Ceram (Vident) glass-infiltrated ceramic veneers. A total of 50 color background disks were fabricated from Vitadur Alpha 2M2 (n=30) and 5M1 (n=20) dentin porcelain (Vi-dent). Ceramic veneer disks were fabricated from In-Ceram Spinell (n=20) or In-Ceram Alumina (n=20) glass-infiltrated core veneered using Vitadur Alpha 2M2 dentin porcelain. In addition, 10 ceramic veneer disks were fabricated from feldspathic dentin porcelain Vitadur Alpha 2M2. The ceramic veneer specimens were bonded onto the color background specimens using dual-curing luting composite cement, creating the following groups (each n=10): S2M2 (Spinell/2M2), S5M1 (Spinell/5M1), A2M2 (Alumina/2M2), A5M1 (Alumina/5M1), and control (Vitadur Alpha/2M2). L*a*b* color coordinates were measured five times for each specimen using a Vita Easyshade (Vident) spectrophotometer. Mean color differences (deltaE) between each study group and the control group were: 3.79 for S2M2; 7.24 for S5M1; 5.86 for A2M2, and 7.32 for A5M1. Two-way ANOVA showed statistically significant differences in deltaE between all groups. However, a t test revealed that the statistically significant differences only existed between groups S2M2/S5M1, A2M2/A5M1, and S2M2/A2M2. The results suggest that vacuum infiltration with a translucent glass provides the Spinell and Alumina ceramic veneers with increased semi-translucency, which makes them highly influenced by discolored backgrounds. In-Ceram Spinell glass-infiltrated ceramic veneers could be considered as an alternative to conventional feldspathic veneers for the restoration of nondiscolored teeth. Although Spinell and Alumina ceramic veneers could enhance the final color establishment of discolored teeth, the results would not be clinically acceptable.

  2. Soot particle sizing based on analytical formula derived from laser-induced incandescence decay signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Jian; Chen, Linghong; Yan, Mingming; Wu, Xuecheng; Gréhan, Gérard; Cen, Kefa

    2017-01-01

    The laser-induced incandescence (LII) signal during a heat-conduction-dominated cooling process was used to derive an analytical formula to describe the relationship between the soot particle size and the LII signal decay time by exponential fitting. The formula was used to determine particle sizes based on the experimental LII signals at different detection wavelengths for an atmospheric C2H4/air diffusion flame. The results agree with those obtained from temporal temperature measurements. The measurements and numerical calculations demonstrate that particle sizing depends weakly on the maximum temperature in the formula within a typical heat-up temperature range. The results show that based on this formula, a compact single-color LII detection system can be used for particle sizing with low uncertainty under most practical combustion conditions, at least in cases where heat conduction is dominant and occurs in a free molecular regime during particle cooling.

  3. Copy number variation and missense mutations of the agouti signaling protein (ASIP) gene in goat breeds with different coat colors.

    PubMed

    Fontanesi, L; Beretti, F; Riggio, V; Gómez González, E; Dall'Olio, S; Davoli, R; Russo, V; Portolano, B

    2009-01-01

    In goats, classical genetic studies reported a large number of alleles at the Agouti locus with effects on coat color and pattern distribution. From these early studies, the dominant A(Wt) (white/tan) allele was suggested to cause the white color of the Saanen breed. Here, we sequenced the coding region of the goat ASIP gene in 6 goat breeds (Girgentana, Maltese, Derivata di Siria, Murciano-Granadina, Camosciata delle Alpi, and Saanen), with different coat colors and patterns. Five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified, 3 of which caused missense mutations in conserved positions of the cysteine-rich carboxy-terminal domain of the protein (p.Ala96Gly, p.Cys126Gly, and p.Val128Gly). Allele and genotype frequencies suggested that these mutations are not associated or not completely associated with coat color in the investigated goat breeds. Moreover, genotyping and sequencing results, deviation from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, as well as allele copy number evaluation from semiquantitative fluorescent multiplex PCR, indicated the presence of copy number variation (CNV) in all investigated breeds. To confirm the presence of CNV and evaluate its extension, we applied a bovine-goat cross-species array comparative genome hybridization (aCGH) experiment using a custom tiling array based on bovine chromosome 13. aCGH results obtained for 8 goat DNA samples confirmed the presence of CNV affecting a region of less that 100 kb including the ASIP and AHCY genes. In Girgentana and Saanen breeds, this CNV might cause the A(Wt) allele, as already suggested for a similar structural mutation in sheep affecting the ASIP and AHCY genes, providing evidence for a recurrent interspecies CNV. However, other mechanisms may also be involved in determining coat color in these 2 breeds.

  4. Recovering fluorescent spectra with an RGB digital camera and color filters using different matrix factorizations.

    PubMed

    Nieves, Juan L; Valero, Eva M; Hernández-Andrés, Javier; Romero, Javier

    2007-07-01

    The aim of a multispectral system is to recover a spectral function at each image pixel, but when a scene is digitally imaged under a light of unknown spectral power distribution (SPD), the image pixels give incomplete information about the spectral reflectances of objects in the scene. We have analyzed how accurately the spectra of artificial fluorescent light sources can be recovered with a digital CCD camera. The red-green-blue (RGB) sensor outputs are modified by the use of successive cutoff color filters. Four algorithms for simplifying the spectra datasets are used: nonnegative matrix factorization (NMF), independent component analysis (ICA), a direct pseudoinverse method, and principal component analysis (PCA). The algorithms are tested using both simulated data and data from a real RGB digital camera. The methods are compared in terms of the minimum rank of factorization and the number of sensors required to derive acceptable spectral and colorimetric SPD estimations; the PCA results are also given for the sake of comparison. The results show that all the algorithms surpass the PCA when a reduced number of sensors is used. The experimental results suggest a significant loss of quality when more than one color filter is used, which agrees with the previous results for reflectances. Nevertheless, an RGB digital camera with or without a prefilter is found to provide good spectral and colorimetric recovery of indoor fluorescent lighting and can be used for color correction without the need of a telespectroradiometer.

  5. Preliminary observations on the response of Chironex fleckeri (Cnidaria: Cubozoa: Chirodropida) to different colors of light.

    PubMed

    Gershwin, Lisa-Ann; Dawes, Peter

    2008-08-01

    Cubozoans are well known for their attraction to light and light-colored objects. Two highly venomous types are a public safety concern in Australian waters and elsewhere: Chironex fleckeri, long considered the world's deadliest animal and colloquially called the box jellyfish; and the irukandjis, a group of at least 10 species that cause various degrees of debilitating illness. We were asked by the tourism industry whether there might be a color of light that box jellyfish and irukandjis are not attracted to, such that nighttime diving activities might pose less risk of being stung. Our preliminary trials with Chironex fleckeri indicated a marked positive response to lights of white, red, yellow, green, orange, and blue. All colors elicited a strong and directed attraction to light; however, medusae slowed down their pulsation rate, streamed out their tentacles, and performed a series of figure-eight patterns back and forth through the lighted area when exposed to blue light, which we interpreted as feeding behavior. This compares curiously with a report subsequent to our testing, in which the small, mangrove-inhabiting cubomedusa Tripedalia cystophora and the beach-dwelling Chiropsella bronzie demonstrate a peak sensitivity to blue-green light in the region of 500 nm, and that the former is behaviorally attracted to blue and green light, but ignores red. This leaves open the possibility that Irukandji species, which are more closely related to Tripedalia than to Chironex, may be blind to red.

  6. Beyond mean allelic effects: A locus at the major color gene MC1R associates also with differing levels of phenotypic and genetic (co)variance for coloration in barn owls.

    PubMed

    San-Jose, Luis M; Ducret, Valérie; Ducrest, Anne-Lyse; Simon, Céline; Roulin, Alexandre

    2017-09-01

    The mean phenotypic effects of a discovered variant help to predict major aspects of the evolution and inheritance of a phenotype. However, differences in the phenotypic variance associated to distinct genotypes are often overlooked despite being suggestive of processes that largely influence phenotypic evolution, such as interactions between the genotypes with the environment or the genetic background. We present empirical evidence for a mutation at the melanocortin-1-receptor gene, a major vertebrate coloration gene, affecting phenotypic variance in the barn owl, Tyto alba. The white MC1R allele, which associates with whiter plumage coloration, also associates with a pronounced phenotypic and additive genetic variance for distinct color traits. Contrarily, the rufous allele, associated with a rufous coloration, relates to a lower phenotypic and additive genetic variance, suggesting that this allele may be epistatic over other color loci. Variance differences between genotypes entailed differences in the strength of phenotypic and genetic associations between color traits, suggesting that differences in variance also alter the level of integration between traits. This study highlights that addressing variance differences of genotypes in wild populations provides interesting new insights into the evolutionary mechanisms and the genetic architecture underlying the phenotype. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  7. Morphological and Color Differences between Island and Mainland Populations in the Mexican Red Rump Tarantula, Brachypelma vagans

    PubMed Central

    Vilchis-Nestor, Claudia A.; Machkour-M'Rabet, Salima; Barriga-Sosa, Irene de los A.; Winterton, Peter; Hénaut, Yann

    2013-01-01

    The introduction of species into new ecosystems, especially in small and isolated regions such as islands, offers an excellent opportunity to answer questions of the evolutionary processes occurring in natural conditions on a scale that could never be achieved in laboratory conditions. In this study, we examined the Mexican red rump tarantula Brachypelma vagans Ausserer (Mygalomorphae: Theraphosidae), a species that was introduced to Cozumel Island, Mexico, 40 years ago. This introduction provides an exceptional model to study effects such as morphological variation between island populations and those on the mainland in open habitats facing the island. Intraspecific variation related to the color polymorphism was compared. The aim of this study was to determine the phenotypic differences between continental populations of B. vagans and the introduced population on Cozumel Island. Phenotypic difference was evaluated using two approaches: 1) comparison of the morphometric measurements of adult and juvenile individuals at the local scale and between continental and island populations, and 2) comparison of individual color polymorphism between mainland and island populations. Two locations were sampled within the continental part of the Yucatan peninsula and two on the island of Cozumel. The number of samples analyzed at each site was 30 individuals. The morphometric results showed significant differences between continental and island populations, with bigger individuals on the island. In addition, three new variations of the typical color pattern of B. vagans recorded so far were observed. This study opens the door to further investigations to elucidate the origin of the phenotypic variation of the isolated individuals on Cozumel Island. Also, the widest range of color morphs found for a tarantula species is reported. PMID:24224805

  8. Morphological and color differences between island and mainland populations in the Mexican red rump tarantula, Brachypelma vagans.

    PubMed

    Vilchis-Nestor, Claudia A; Machkour-M'rabet, Salima; de Los A Barriga-Sosa, Irene; Winterton, Peter; Hénaut, Yann

    2013-01-01

    The introduction of species into new ecosystems, especially in small and isolated regions such as islands, offers an excellent opportunity to answer questions of the evolutionary processes occurring in natural conditions on a scale that could never be achieved in laboratory conditions. In this study, we examined the Mexican red rump tarantula Brachypelma vagans Ausserer (Mygalomorphae: Theraphosidae), a species that was introduced to Cozumel Island, Mexico, 40 years ago. This introduction provides an exceptional model to study effects such as morphological variation between island populations and those on the mainland in open habitats facing the island. Intraspecific variation related to the color polymorphism was compared. The aim of this study was to determine the phenotypic differences between continental populations of B. vagans and the introduced population on Cozumel Island. Phenotypic difference was evaluated using two approaches: 1) comparison of the morphometric measurements of adult and juvenile individuals at the local scale and between continental and island populations, and 2) comparison of individual color polymorphism between mainland and island populations. Two locations were sampled within the continental part of the Yucatan peninsula and two on the island of Cozumel. The number of samples analyzed at each site was 30 individuals. The morphometric results showed significant differences between continental and island populations, with bigger individuals on the island. In addition, three new variations of the typical color pattern of B. vagans recorded so far were observed. This study opens the door to further investigations to elucidate the origin of the phenotypic variation of the isolated individuals on Cozumel Island. Also, the widest range of color morphs found for a tarantula species is reported.

  9. Effects of surface-finishing protocols on the roughness, color change, and translucency of different ceramic systems.

    PubMed

    Akar, Gülcan Coşkun; Pekkan, Gürel; Çal, Ebru; Eskitaşçıoğlu, Gürcan; Özcan, Mutlu

    2014-08-01

    Surface-finishing protocols have a mechanical impact on ceramic surfaces that could eventually affect surface topography and light scattering. An optimum protocol is needed to avoid damaging the optical properties of ceramics. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of different surface-finishing protocols on the surface roughness, color change, and translucency of ceramic and metal ceramic restorations. Standardized disk-shaped specimens (1.5 × 10 mm, n=128) were fabricated from 3 different ceramic core materials (aluminum oxide [Al2O3]-AL, zirconium oxide [ZrO2]-ZR, lithium disilicate [Li2Si2O5]-LIT), veneered (V) with dentin ceramics (n=32 per group), and placed in the following groups: ALV, ZRV, and LITV. The metal ceramic group acted as the control (n=32). Four different surface-finishing methods were tested. Airborne-particle abrasion with 50 μm Al2O3, polishing with adjustment kit, polishing with adjustment kit plus diamond polishing paste, and autoglazing (n=8 subgroup) were applied on the veneering ceramics. The specimens were analyzed with a profilometer for surface roughness, and color change and translucency were measured with a clinical spectrophotometer. Statistical analyses were performed with 1-way ANOVA and the Tukey honest significant difference tests (α=.05). Specimens treated with the airborne particle abrasion method showed significantly higher mean profilometer for surface roughness values in all groups (P<.05). The polishing with adjustment kit and autoglazing methods revealed statistically similar surface roughness values in all groups (P>.05). With the diamond polishing paste method, lower surface roughness values were achieved in the ZRV and metal ceramic groups acted as the control groups. Different surface-finishing methods affected the color change of the ceramic systems, except for ZRV. Surface-finishing protocols significantly affected the translucency values of the ALV, LITV, and metal ceramic groups (P<.05). No

  10. Carotenoid profiling from 27 types of paprika (Capsicum annuum L.) with different colors, shapes, and cultivation methods.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji-Sun; An, Chul Geon; Park, Jong-Suk; Lim, Yong Pyo; Kim, Suna

    2016-06-15

    In this study, we investigated carotenoid profiles and contents from 27 types of paprika with different colors (red, orange, and yellow), shapes (blocky and conical), and cultivation methods (soil and soilless). We simultaneously analyzed 12 kinds of carotenoids using UPLC equipped with an HSS T3 column for 30 min, and we identified six kinds of carotenoids in red paprika and nine types in orange and yellow paprika. Zeaxanthin concentrations in orange paprika were in the range of 85.06±23.37-151.39±5.94 mg/100 g dry weight (dw), which shows that orange paprika is a great source of zeaxanthin. Generally, red paprika is a great source of capsanthin. However, a new cultivar, 'Mini Goggal Red', contained large amounts of zeaxanthin (121.41±30.10 mg/100 g dw) even though its visible color is red. This is very meaningful considering that consumers have a preference for red color and the potent functional value of zeaxanthin. Carotenoid profiles and concentrations in blocky and conical type paprika were not significantly different in red paprika except the 'Mini Goggal Red' cultivar and yellow paprika. Blocky type orange paprika contains plenty of zeaxanthin, unlike conical type orange paprika. Three new cultivars of the conical type were cultivated in both soil culture and soilless culture in the same province, and carotenoid profiles and concentrations were similar, showing that both cultivations methods can be used.

  11. Substantial Effect of Melanin Influencing Factors on In vitro Melanogenesis in Muzzle Melanocytes of Differently Colored Hanwoo

    PubMed Central

    Amna, Touseef; Park, Kyoung Mi; Cho, In-Kyung; Choi, Tae Jeong; Lee, Seung Soo; Seo, Kang-Seok; Hwang, Inho

    2012-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the effect of α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH), nitric oxide (NO) and L-cysteine on melanin production and expression of related genes MC1R, Tyr, Tyrp-1 and Tyrp-2 in muzzle melanocytes of differently colored three native Hanwoo cattle. Muzzle samples were taken from black, brindle and brown Hanwoo and purified melanocytes were cultured with α-MSH, nitric oxide and L-cysteine at 100 nM, 50 µM and 0.07 mg/ml of media respectively. The amounts of total melanin, eumelanin and mRNA expression at Tyr, Tyrp-1, Tyrp-2 and MC1R levels were quantified. α-MSH and nitric oxide significantly increased (p<0.05) the amount of total melanin in black and brindle whereas eumelanin production in brown Hanwoo muzzle melanocytes. On the contrary, L-cysteine greatly (p<0.05) depressed the eumelanin production in black color but increased in brown. Simultaneously, up regulation of Tyr by nitric oxide and α-MSH and down regulation of Tyr, Tyrp-2 and MC1R genes by L-cysteine were observed in muzzle melanocytes of all three phenotypes. The results of this study revealed nitric oxide and α-MSH contribute hyper-pigmentation by enhancing eumelanogenesis whereas L-cysteine contributes to pheomelanin production in different colored Hanwoo muzzle melanocytes. PMID:25049660

  12. Genetic structure and different color morphotypes suggest the occurrence and bathymetric segregation of two incipient species of Sebastes off Argentina.

    PubMed

    Venerus, Leonardo A; Ciancio, Javier E; Riva-Rossi, Carla; Gilbert-Horvath, Elizabeth A; Gosztonyi, Atila E; Garza, John Carlos

    2013-07-01

    Rockfishes of the genus Sebastes are extensively distributed in the Pacific and Atlantic oceans. Although the occurrence of two morphologically similar species in the Southern Hemisphere, Sebastes oculatus and Sebastes capensis, is now clearly established, the taxonomic status and phylogeographic patterns for the genus in the region have not yet been completely resolved. In this study, we provide new insights into the taxonomy and evolutionary relationships of rockfishes inhabiting the Southwestern Atlantic Ocean, off the coast of mainland Argentina, by combining mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region sequences, microsatellite data, and color pattern analyses. Differences in coloration ("dark" and "light" fish) together with bathymetric segregation between color morphotypes were evident from fish collection and literature review. In addition, the mtDNA phylogenetic analysis and Bayesian clustering analysis using microsatellite data separated the fish into two distinct groups (F ST = 0.041), most likely representing incipient species. Our results suggest that speciation-by-depth in the absence of physical barriers could be a widespread mechanism of speciation in Sebastes from both the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. Nevertheless, the degree of genetic differentiation found, added to the large number of individuals displaying high levels of admixture, points to the occurrence of incomplete reproductive barriers between color morphotypes. Beyond the taxonomic and phylogeographic implications of our findings, the occurrence of distinct groups of Sebastes off the coast of Argentina being targeted by different fisheries (angling and trawling) has consequences for the design and implementation of appropriate fishery regulations to avoid overharvest of either group.

  13. Aluminium content of Spanish infant formula.

    PubMed

    Navarro-Blasco, I; Alvarez-Galindo, J I

    2003-05-01

    Levels of aluminium in 82 different infant formulae from nine different manufacturers in Spain were determined by acid-microwave digestion and graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The influence of aluminium content in tap water in reconstituted powder formulae was examined and an estimate was made of the theoretical toxic aluminium intake in comparison with the provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI). Possible interactions between aluminium and certain essential trace elements added to infant formulations have been studied according to the type or main protein-based infant formula. In general, the infant formulae contained a higher aluminium content than that found in human milk, especially in the case of soya, preterm or hydrolysed casein-based formulae. Standard formulae gave lower aluminium intakes amounting to about 4% PTWI. Specialized and preterm formulae resulted in a moderate intake (11-12 and 8-10% PTWI, respectively) and soya formulae contributed the highest intake (15% PTWI). Aluminium exposure from drinking water used for powder formula reconstitution was not considered a potential risk. In accordance with the present state of knowledge about aluminium toxicity, it seems prudent to call for continued efforts to standardize routine quality control and reduce aluminium levels in infant formula as well as to keep the aluminium concentration under 300 microg l(-1) for all infant formulae, most specifically those formulae for premature and low birth neonates.

  14. Mammalian target of rapamycin signaling and ubiquitin proteasome-related gene expression in 3 different skeletal muscles of colostrum- versus formula-fed calves.

    PubMed

    Sadri, H; Steinhoff-Wagner, J; Hammon, Harald M; Bruckmaier, R M; Görs, S; Sauerwein, H

    2017-09-13

    The rates of protein turnover are higher during the neonatal period than at any other time in postnatal life. The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and the ubiquitin-proteasome system are key pathways regulating cellular protein turnover. The objectives of this study were (1) to elucidate the effect of feeding colostrum versus milk-based formula on the mRNA abundance of key components of the mTOR pathway and of the ubiquitin-proteasome system in skeletal muscle of neonatal calves and (2) to compare different muscles. German Holstein calves were fed either colostrum (COL; n = 7) or milk-based formula (FOR; n = 7) up to 4 d of life. The nutrient content in formula and colostrum was similar, but formula had lower concentrations of free branched-chain AA (BCAA) and free total AA, insulin, and insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I than colostrum. Blood samples were taken from d 1 to 4 before morning feeding and before and 2 h after the last feeding on d 4. Muscle samples from M. longissimus dorsi (MLD), M. semitendinosus (MST), and M. masseter (MM) were collected after slaughter on d 4 at 2 h after feeding. The preprandial concentrations of free total AA and BCAA, insulin, and IGF-I in plasma changed over time but did not differ between groups. Plasma free total AA and BCAA concentrations decreased in COL, whereas they increased in FOR after feeding, resulting in higher postprandial plasma total AA and BCAA concentrations in FOR than in COL. Plasma insulin concentrations increased after feeding in both groups but were higher in COL than in FOR. Plasma IGF-I concentrations decreased in COL, whereas they remained unchanged in FOR after feeding. The mRNA abundance of mTOR and ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1 (S6K1) in 3 different skeletal muscles was greater in COL than in FOR, whereas that of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E binding protein 1 (4E-BP1) was unaffected by diet. The mRNA abundance of ubiquitin activating enzyme (UBA1) and ubiquitin conjugating enzyme

  15. Effect of different photoinitiators and reducing agents on cure efficiency and color stability of resin-based composites using different LED wavelengths.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Dayane Carvalho Ramos Salles; Rocha, Mateus Garcia; Gatti, Alexandre; Correr, Americo Bortolazzo; Ferracane, Jack Liborio; Sinhoret, Mario Alexandre Coelho

    2015-12-01

    To evaluate the effect of photoinitiators and reducing agents on cure efficiency and color stability of resin-based composites using different LED wavelengths. Model resin-based composites were associated with diphenyl(2,4,6-trimethylbenzoyl) phosphine oxide (TPO), phenylbis(2,4,6-trimethylbenzoyl) phosphine oxide (BAPO) or camphorquinone (CQ) associated with 2-(dimethylamino) ethyl methacrylate (DMAEMA), ethyl 4-(dimethyamino) benzoate (EDMAB) or 4-(N,N-dimethylamino) phenethyl alcohol (DMPOH). A narrow (Smartlite, Dentisply) and a broad spectrum (Bluephase G2, Ivoclar Vivadent) LEDs were used for photo-activation (20 J/cm(2)). Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) was used to evaluate the cure efficiency for each composite, and CIELab parameters to evaluated color stability (ΔE00) after aging. The UV-vis absorption spectrophotometric analysis of each photoinitiator and reducing agent was determined. Data were analyzed using two-way ANOVA and Tukey's test for multiple comparisons (α=0.05). Higher cure efficiency was found for type-I photoinitiators photo-activated with a broad spectrum light, and for CQ-systems with a narrow band spectrum light, except when combined with an aliphatic amine (DMAEMA). Also, when combined with aromatic amines (EDMAB and DMPOH), similar cure efficiency with both wavelength LEDs was found. TPO had no cure efficiency when light-cured exclusively with a blue narrowband spectrum. CQ-systems presented higher color stability than type-I photoinitiators, especially when combined with DMPOH. After aging, CQ-based composites became more yellow and BAPO and TPO lighter and less yellow. However, CQ-systems presented higher color stability than type-I photoinitiators, as BAPO- and TPO-, despite their higher cure efficiency when photo-activated with corresponding wavelength range. Color matching is initially important, but color change over time will be one of the major reasons for replacing esthetic restorations; despite the less

  16. Perceived surface color in binocularly viewed scenes with two light sources differing in chromaticity.

    PubMed

    Boyaci, Huseyin; Doerschner, Katja; Maloney, Laurence T

    2004-08-23

    We examined the effect of perceived orientation on the perceived color of matte surfaces in rendered three-dimensional scenes illuminated by a blue diffuse light and a yellow punctate light. On each trial, observers first adjusted the color of a matte test patch, placed near the center of the scene, until it appeared achromatic, and then estimated its orientation by adjusting a monocular gradient probe. The orientation of the test patch was varied from trial to trial by the experimental program, effectively varying the chromaticity of the light mixture from the two light sources that would be absorbed and reemitted by a neutral test patch. We found that observers' achromatic settings varied with perceived orientation but that observers only partially discounted orientation in making achromatic settings. We developed an equivalent illuminant model for our task in which we assumed that observers discount orientation using possibly erroneous estimates of the chromaticities of the light sources and/or their spatial distribution. We found that the observers' failures could be explained by two factors: errors in estimating the direction to the punctate light source and errors in estimating the chromaticities of the two light sources. We discuss the pattern of errors in estimating these factors across observers.

  17. Modeling of display color parameters and algorithmic color selection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silverstein, Louis D.; Lepkowski, James S.; Carter, Robert C.; Carter, Ellen C.

    1986-01-01

    An algorithmic approach to color selection, which is based on psychophysical models of color processing, is described. The factors that affect color differentiation, such as wavelength separation, color stimulus size, and brightness adaptation level, are discussed. The use of the CIE system of colorimetry and the CIELUV color difference metric for display color modeling is examined. The computer program combines the selection algorithm with internally derived correction factors for color image field size, ambient lighting characteristics, and anomalous red-green color vision deficiencies of display operators. The performance of the program is evaluated and uniform chromaticity scale diagrams for six-color and seven-color selection problems are provided.

  18. Development of resting cardiovascular activity during the first 2 years of life differs in breastfed and formula-fed boys and girls

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    To investigate whether early infant diet influences cardiovascular development we recorded resting heart-rate (HR) at 3, 6, 9, 12, and 24 mo in awake healthy children who were breastfed (BF) or fed milk formula (MF) or soy formula (SF) during infancy (n = 83-146/group/age). HR, and indices of autono...

  19. Modeling of lactose crystallization and color changes in model infant foods.

    PubMed

    Nasirpour, A; Scher, J; Linder, M; Desobry, S

    2006-07-01

    Lactose crystallization and color changes in formulas containing beta-lactoglobulin and gelatinized starch were investigated. Model infant formulas were prepared by colyophilization of 3 components (lactose, beta-lactoglobulin, and gelatinized starch). A mixture design was used to choose the percentage of each mixture component. These formulas were stored for 3 mo at different relative humidities (RH), ranging from approximately 0 to 94.6%, to study the lactose crystallization and color changes. Crystallization kinetics was studied by gravimetric methods, and lactose state (crystalline vs. amorphous) was verified before and after storage by differential scanning calorimetry. Before storage, lyophilized lactose was amorphous, but during storage it crystallized, depending on the RH. The lactose crystallization RH depended on the quantity of beta-lactoglobulin and gelatinized starch, and by increasing these quantities, the crystallization RH increased. For some formulas, the crystallization RH was noted at 3 different RH during storage. The first was noted after 1 d of storage and the second and third were observed later on, showing that crystallization is a time-dependent phenomenon. Nonenzymatic browning was studied in model infant formulas by yellow color changes of samples at 11.3, 43.2, 54.5, and 75.4% RH. In this study, 7 mathematical models were proposed to predict the moisture sorption properties and color changes at different RH, and the models were validated by experimental results.

  20. Elemental changes in the hippocampal formation following two different formulas of ketogenic diet: an X-ray fluorescence microscopy study.

    PubMed

    Chwiej, J; Patulska, A; Skoczen, A; Janeczko, K; Ciarach, M; Simon, R; Setkowicz, Z

    2015-12-01

    The main purpose of the following study was the determination of elemental changes occurring within hippocampal formation as a result of high-fat and carbohydrate-restricted ketogenic diet (KD). To realize it, X-ray fluorescence microscopy was applied for topographic and quantitative analysis of P, S, K, Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn and Se in hippocampal formations taken from rats fed with two different KDs and naive controls. The detailed comparisons were done for sectors 1 and 3 of the Ammon's, the dentate gyrus and hilus of dentate gyrus. The results of elemental analysis showed that the KDs induced statistically significant changes in the accumulation of P, K, Ca, Zn and Se in particular areas of hippocampal formation and these alterations strongly depended on the composition of the diets. Much greater influence on the hippocampal areal densities of examined elements was found for the KD which was characterized by a lower content of carbohydrates, higher content of fats and increased proportion of unsaturated fatty acids. The levels of P, K and Zn decreased whilst those of Ca and Se increased as a result of the treatment with the KDs.

  1. Overview of infant and pediatric formulas.

    PubMed

    Joeckel, Rebecca J; Phillips, Sharon K

    2009-01-01

    Because every child has individual needs, there are a variety of infant and pediatric formulas from which to choose. Not only are there several categories of formulas including milk protein-based, soy protein-based, hydrolyzed protein, and amino acid-based, but there are differences between products within each category. Research is being done in the area of formula design for the prevention or treatment of disease. In this article, the authors review types of formulas and their indications for use for infants and children, and review current literature on formula trends.

  2. Color vision and color formation in dragonflies.

    PubMed

    Futahashi, Ryo

    2016-10-01

    Dragonflies including damselflies are colorful and large-eyed insects, which show remarkable sexual dimorphism, color transition, and color polymorphism. Recent comprehensive visual transcriptomics has unveiled an extraordinary diversity of opsin genes within the lineage of dragonflies. These opsin genes are differentially expressed between aquatic larvae and terrestrial adults, as well as between dorsal and ventral regions of adult compound eyes. Recent topics of color formation in dragonflies are also outlined. Non-iridescent blue color is caused by coherent light scattering from the quasiordered nanostructures, whereas iridescent color is produced by multilayer structures. Wrinkles or wax crystals sometimes enhances multilayer structural colors. Sex-specific and stage-specific color differences in red dragonflies is attributed to redox states of ommochrome pigments.

  3. Expression Differences of Pigment Structural Genes and Transcription Factors Explain Flesh Coloration in Three Contrasting Kiwifruit Cultivars

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yanfei; Zhou, Bin; Qi, Yingwei; Chen, Xin; Liu, Cuihua; Liu, Zhande; Ren, Xiaolin

    2017-01-01

    Fruits of kiwifruit cultivars (Actinidia chinensis and A. deliciosa) generally have green or yellow flesh when ripe. A small number of genotypes have red flesh but this coloration is usually restricted to the inner pericarp. Three kiwifruit cultivars having red (‘Hongyang’), or yellow (‘Jinnong-2’), or green (‘Hayward’) flesh were investigated for their color characteristics and pigment contents during development and ripening. The results show the yellow of the ‘Jinnong-2’ fruit is due to the combined effects of chlorophyll degradation and of beta-carotene accumulation. The red inner pericarps of ‘Hongyang’ fruit are due to anthocyanin accumulation. Expression differences of the pathway genes in the inner pericarps of the three different kiwifruits suggest that stay-green (SGR) controls the degradation of chlorophylls, while lycopene beta-cyclase (LCY-β) controls the biosynthesis of beta-carotene. The abundance of anthocyanin in the inner pericarps of the ‘Hongyang’ fruit is the results of high expressions of UDP flavonoid glycosyltransferases (UFGT). At the same time, expressions of anthocyanin transcription factors show that AcMYBF110 expression parallels changes in anthocyanin concentration, so seems to be a key R2R3 MYB, regulating anthocyanin biosynthesis. Further, transient color assays reveal that AcMYBF110 can autonomously induce anthocyanin accumulation in Nicotiana tabacum leaves by activating the transcription of dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (NtDFR), anthocyanidin synthase (NtANS) and NtUFGT. For basic helix-loop-helix proteins (bHLHs) and WD-repeat proteins (WD40s), expression differences show these may depend on AcMYBF110 forming a MYB-bHLH-WD40 complex to regulate anthocyanin biosynthesis, instead of it having a direct involvement. PMID:28919902

  4. Comparison of emitted color by pure Gd2O3 prepared by two different methods by CIE coordinates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamrakar, Raunak Kumar; Bisen, D. P.; Upadhyay, Kanchan; Sahu, Manjulata; Sahu, Ishwar Prasad; Bramhe, N.

    2015-12-01

    Monoclinic and cubic Gd2O3 phosphors were prepared by using two different methods solution combustion synthesis and solid state reaction method. The present paper deals with comparison of specific color emitted by the pure Gd2O3 phosphors prepared by combustion synthesis and solid state reaction methods. The Commission International de I'Eclairage (CIE) coordinates for combustion synthesized Gd2O3 phosphor and for the solid state synthesized Gd2O3 phosphor X = 0.207 and Y = 0.206, and X = 0.29 and Y = 0.29 respectively.

  5. Color differences among feral pigeons (Columba livia) are not attributable to sequence variation in the coding region of the melanocortin-1 receptor gene (MC1R)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Genetic variation at the melanocortin-1 receptor (MC1R) gene is correlated with melanin color variation in many birds. Feral pigeons (Columba livia) show two major melanin-based colorations: a red coloration due to pheomelanic pigment and a black coloration due to eumelanic pigment. Furthermore, within each color type, feral pigeons display continuous variation in the amount of melanin pigment present in the feathers, with individuals varying from pure white to a full dark melanic color. Coloration is highly heritable and it has been suggested that it is under natural or sexual selection, or both. Our objective was to investigate whether MC1R allelic variants are associated with plumage color in feral pigeons. Findings We sequenced 888 bp of the coding sequence of MC1R among pigeons varying both in the type, eumelanin or pheomelanin, and the amount of melanin in their feathers. We detected 10 non-synonymous substitutions and 2 synonymous substitution but none of them were associated with a plumage type. It remains possible that non-synonymous substitutions that influence coloration are present in the short MC1R fragment that we did not sequence but this seems unlikely because we analyzed the entire functionally important region of the gene. Conclusions Our results show that color differences among feral pigeons are probably not attributable to amino acid variation at the MC1R locus. Therefore, variation in regulatory regions of MC1R or variation in other genes may be responsible for the color polymorphism of feral pigeons. PMID:23915680

  6. Designing State Aid Formulas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Bo; Bradbury, Katharine

    2009-01-01

    This paper designs a new equalization-aid formula based on fiscal gaps of local communities. When states are in transition to a new local aid formula, the issue of whether and how to hold existing aid harmless poses a challenge. The authors show that some previous studies and the formulas derived from them give differential weights to existing and…

  7. Designing State Aid Formulas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhao, Bo; Bradbury, Katharine

    2009-01-01

    This paper designs a new equalization-aid formula based on fiscal gaps of local communities. When states are in transition to a new local aid formula, the issue of whether and how to hold existing aid harmless poses a challenge. The authors show that some previous studies and the formulas derived from them give differential weights to existing and…

  8. New computer-controlled color vision test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ladunga, Karoly; Wenzel, Klara; Abraham, Gyorgy

    1999-12-01

    A computer controlled color discrimination test is described which enables rapid testing using selected colors from the color space of normal CRT monitors. We have investigated whether difference sin color discrimination between groups of normal and color deficient observers could be detected using a computer-controlled test of color vision. The test accurately identified the differences between the normal and color deficient groups. New color discrimination test have been developed to more efficiently evaluate color vision.

  9. Multi-color immune-phenotyping of CD34 subsets reveals unexpected differences between various stem cell sources.

    PubMed

    Dmytrus, J; Matthes-Martin, S; Pichler, H; Worel, N; Geyeregger, R; Frank, N; Frech, C; Fritsch, G

    2016-08-01

    Flow cytometric routine CD34 analysis enumerates hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells irrespective of their subpopulations although this might predict engraftment dynamics and immune reconstitution. We established a multi-color CD34 assay containing CD133, CD45RA, CD10, CD38 and CD33. We examined PBSC, donor bone marrow (BMd) and BM of patients 1 year after allografting (BM1y) regarding their CD34 subset composition, which differed significantly amongst those materials: the early CD45RA(-)CD133(+)CD38(low) subpopulations were significantly more frequent in PBSC than in BMd, and very low in BM1y. Vice versa, clearly more committed CD34 stages prevailed in BM, particularly in BM1y where the proportion of multi-lymphoid and CD38(++) B-lymphoid precursors was highest (mean 59%). CD33 was expressed at different intensity on CD45RA(±)CD133(±) subsets allowing discrimination of earlier from more committed myeloid precursors. Compared with conventional CD34(+) cell enumeration, the presented multi-color phenotyping is a qualitative approach defining different CD34 subtypes in any CD34 source. Its potential impact to predict engraftment kinetics and immune reconstitution has to be evaluated in future studies.

  10. Egg shell penetration tendency of different Salmonella serotypes by attached ring color method.

    PubMed

    Javed, T; Hameed, A; Siddique, M

    1994-01-01

    To investigate the extent of Salmonella penetration through the egg shell, 200 eggs were dipped in red (for 3 minutes) and then in green (for 6 minutes) aqueous bland food color solution for the detection of positive penetration test areas. Each egg with positive penetration area, 5 spots of 1 cm in diameter, was marked for the attachment of steel cylinders (1 cm in diameter and height). These cylinders were filled with the test strain of Salmonella. Among 19 serotypes S. pullorum and S. gallinarum were nonmotile while the other 17 were motile. Among a total of 180 eggs (900 points) maximum (30%) penetration was in area III, where salmonellae invaded through cuticle, shell, inner and outer shell membranes, followed by area II (14.77%) and area I (4.6%). It was very well evident that penetration of salmonellae to the contents of eggs was maximum, while in area II the penetration was to outer shell membrane and in the least cases through the cuticle and shell. Penetration in area I is not significant and to some extent in area II as well, while invasion in area III is highly significant.

  11. Physicochemical and Antioxidant Properties of Rice Bran Oils Produced from Colored Rice Using Different Extraction Methods.

    PubMed

    Mingyai, Sukanya; Kettawan, Aikkarach; Srikaeo, Khongsak; Singanusong, Riantong

    2017-06-01

    This study investigated the physicochemical and antioxidant properties of rice bran oil (RBO) produced from the bran of three rice varities; Khao Dawk Mali 105 (white rice), Red Jasmine rice (red rice) and Hom-nin rice (black rice) using three extraction methods including cold-press extraction (CPE), solvent extraction (SE) and supercritical CO2 extraction (SC-CO2). Yields, color, acid value (AV), free fatty acid (FFA), peroxide value (PV), iodine value (IV), total phenolic compound (TPC), γ-oryzanol, α-tocopherol and fatty acid profile were analyzed. It was found that the yields obtained from SE, SC-CO2 and CPE extractions were 17.35-20.19%, 14.76-18.16% and 3.22-6.22%, respectively. The RBO from the bran of red and black rice samples exhibited high antioxidant activities. They also contained higher amount of γ-oryzanol and α-tocopherol than those of white rice sample. In terms of extraction methods, SC-CO2 provided better qualities of RBO as evidenced by their physicochemical and antioxidant properties. This study found that RBO produced from the bran of black rice samples using SC-CO2 extraction method showed the best physicochemical and antioxidant properties.

  12. Primary thyroid lymphoma has different sonographic and color Doppler features compared to nodular goiter.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhongqing; Fu, Bin; Xiao, Ying; Liao, Jintang; Xie, Ping

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the specific sonographic features of primary thyroid lymphoma and its color Doppler pattern compared to nodular goiter. The sonographic findings for 13 surgically proven primary thyroid lymphomas were analyzed and compared to those for 27 nodular goiters. In accordance with the suggested pathologic patterns, the sonographic patterns of primary thyroid lymphoma could be classified into diffuse and nodular or segmental types based on the distribution of hypoechoic and echogenic structures within the lesions. Some common sonographic characteristics suggesting thyroid malignancy could not facilitate differentiation of primary thyroid lymphoma from nodular goiter. However, a central blood flow pattern would favor the diagnosis of primary thyroid lymphoma, whereas a peripheral pattern would suggest the diagnosis of nodular goiter. Primary thyroid lymphoma has characteristic sonographic and Doppler flow features. Along with several other parameters, a central blood flow pattern would highly suggest the diagnosis of primary thyroid lymphoma rather than nodular goiter. © 2015 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  13. Applying Color.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burton, David

    1984-01-01

    Most schools teach the triadic color system, utilizing red, blue, and yellow as primary colors. Other systems, such as additive and subtractive color systems, Munsell's Color Notation System, and the Hering Opponent Color Theory, can broaden children's concepts and free them to better choose color in their own work. (IS)

  14. Sensory Drive, Color, and Color Vision.

    PubMed

    Price, Trevor D

    2017-08-01

    Colors often appear to differ in arbitrary ways among related species. However, a fraction of color diversity may be explained because some signals are more easily perceived in one environment rather than another. Models show that not only signals but also the perception of signals should regularly evolve in response to different environments, whether these primarily involve detection of conspecifics or detection of predators and prey. Thus, a deeper understanding of how perception of color correlates with environmental attributes should help generate more predictive models of color divergence. Here, I briefly review our understanding of color vision in vertebrates. Then I focus on opsin spectral tuning and opsin expression, two traits involved in color perception that have become amenable to study. I ask how opsin tuning is correlated with ecological differences, notably the light environment, and how this potentially affects perception of conspecific colors. Although opsin tuning appears to evolve slowly, opsin expression levels are more evolutionarily labile but have been difficult to connect to color perception. The challenge going forward will be to identify how physiological differences involved in color vision, such as opsin expression levels, translate into perceptual differences, the selection pressures that have driven those differences, and ultimately how this may drive evolution of conspecific colors.

  15. Improving of red colorants production by a new Penicillium purpurogenum strain in submerged culture and the effect of different parameters in their stability.

    PubMed

    Santos-Ebinuma, Valéria Carvalho; Roberto, Inês Conceição; Simas Teixeira, Maria Francisca; Pessoa, Adalberto

    2013-01-01

    There is a worldwide interest in the development of processes for colorants production from natural sources such as microorganism. The aim of this study was to optimize red colorants production by Penicillium purpurogenum DPUA 1275 and to evaluate the effect of pH, temperature, salts and polymers on the stability of these colorants. Under optimized conditions, a 78% increase in red colorants production was achieved. The best pH and temperature conditions were obtained at pH 8.0 and 70°C, respectively. In the presence of salts NaCl and Na2 SO4 , both at concentrations of 0.1 and 0.5 M in Mcllvaine buffer (pH 8.0), the red colorants showed good stability. In the presence of both polymers polyethylene glycol and sodium polyacrylate, the red colorants kept their color intensity. Thus, this study presents characteristics of red colorants produced by P. purpurogenum that can be applied in different industries after toxicological examination. © 2013 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  16. Digital color management in full-color holographic three-dimensional printer.

    PubMed

    Yang, Fei; Murakami, Yuri; Yamaguchi, Masahiro

    2012-07-01

    We propose a new method of color management for a full-color holographic, three-dimensional (3D) printer, which produces a volume reflection holographic stereogram using red, green, and blue three-color lasers. For natural color management in the holographic 3D printer, we characterize its color reproduction characteristics based on the spectral measurement of reproduced light. Then the color conversion formula, which comprises a one-dimensional lookup table and a 3×3 matrix, was derived from the measurement data. The color reproducibility was evaluated by printing a color chart hologram, and the average CIELAB ΔE=13.19 is fairly small.

  17. The Trouble with Color.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merchant, David

    1999-01-01

    Discusses problems with color quality in Web sites. Topics include differences in monitor settings, including contrast; amount of video RAM; user preference settings; browser-safe colors; cross-platform readability; and gamma values. (LRW)

  18. Eos Chasma - False Color

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-12-16

    The THEMIS VIS camera contains 5 filters. The data from different filters can be combined in multiple ways to create a false color image. This false color image from NASA 2001 Mars Odyssey spacecraft shows part of of Eos Chasma.

  19. Ares Vallis - False Color

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-12-31

    The THEMIS VIS camera contains 5 filters. The data from different filters can be combined in multiple ways to create a false color image. This false color image from NASA 2001 Mars Odyssey spacecraft shows part of of Ares Vallis.

  20. Value of high resolution compression elastography and color doppler sonography in characterisation of breast lesions: comparison of different high-frequency transducers.

    PubMed

    Rjosk-Dendorfer, D; Gürtler, V M; Sommer, W H; Reiser, M; Clevert, D A

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the additional effect of higher frequent linear probes than 12.5 MHz in color Doppler sonography and free hand sonoelastography of benign and malignant breast masses and to compare different color encodings in sonoelastography. From December 2012 to March 2013, 37 patients with benign or malignant breast masses were prospectively included in this study. All solid masses have been histologically proven. Two readers assessed sonoelastographic findings at 12.5 MHz vs. 17 MHz according to the tsukuba elasticity score and additionally different color encodings were compared. Results of Doppler sonography using a score of 0, 1 or 2, depending on the degree of perfusion, also were assessed at 12.5 MHz vs. 17 MHz. Among the 37 examined breast masses there were 10 cysts, 16 fibroadenomas and 11 carcinomas. Median participant age was 49.0 years. Use of color Doppler sonography enabled to distinguish cysts from solid breast masses (p < 0.001), without an improvement at 17 MHz. Additional sonoelastography significantly improved the specificity in solid breast masses (p < 0.001). No changes could be seen using different colors in sonoelastography. Combination of color Doppler sonography and sonoelastography can increase the accuracy in distinguishing benign from malignant breast masses. The use of linear probes with a higher frequency than 12.5 MHz does not show any benefit, neither in color Doppler sonography nor in sonoelastography.

  1. Major breeding plumage color differences of male ruffs (Philomachus pugnax) are not associated with coding sequence variation in the MC1R gene.

    PubMed

    Farrell, Lindsay L; Küpper, Clemens; Burke, Terry; Lank, David B

    2015-01-01

    Sequence variation in the melanocortin-1 receptor (MC1R) gene explains color morph variation in several species of birds and mammals. Ruffs (Philomachus pugnax) exhibit major dark/light color differences in melanin-based male breeding plumage which is closely associated with alternative reproductive behavior. A previous study identified a microsatellite marker (Ppu020) near the MC1R locus associated with the presence/absence of ornamental plumage. We investigated whether coding sequence variation in the MC1R gene explains major dark/light plumage color variation and/or the presence/absence of ornamental plumage in ruffs. Among 821bp of the MC1R coding region from 44 male ruffs we found 3 single nucleotide polymorphisms, representing 1 nonsynonymous and 2 synonymous amino acid substitutions. None were associated with major dark/light color differences or the presence/absence of ornamental plumage. At all amino acid sites known to be functionally important in other avian species with dark/light plumage color variation, ruffs were either monomorphic or the shared polymorphism did not coincide with color morph. Neither ornamental plumage color differences nor the presence/absence of ornamental plumage in ruffs are likely to be caused entirely by amino acid variation within the coding regions of the MC1R locus. Regulatory elements and structural variation at other loci may be involved in melanin expression and contribute to the extreme plumage polymorphism observed in this species.

  2. Formula allergy and intolerance.

    PubMed

    Kerner, J A

    1995-03-01

    There are two major types of adverse reactions in infant formulas: (1) formula allergy/hypersensitivity, which is an immunologic response, and (2) formula intolerance, which is a nonimmunologic response. Formula intolerance can occur in infants with an underlying congenital or acquired enzyme deficiency (disaccharidase deficiency, galactosemia, hereditary fructose intolerance). The clinical presentation, diagnosis, and treatment of both reactions are reviewed in this article. The appropriateness of the use of a variety of infant formulas is discussed. Guidelines for the prevention of allergic disease are described as well.

  3. Color vision.

    PubMed

    Swanson, William H; Cohen, Jay M

    2003-06-01

    Many visual disorders produce acquired color vision defects. Color vision theory emphasizes several stages of visual processing: prereceptoral filters (lens, macular pigment, pupil), cone photopigments (L-, M-, and S-cones), and postreceptoral processes (red-green, S-cone, and luminance channels). Congenital color defects, which affect 8% to 10% of males and 0.4% to 0.5% of females, result from alterations in the photopigment absorption spectra or the absence of one or more photopigments. The most common defects are color vision deficiencies (protan and deutan defects), which are milder than the rarer achromatopsias (complete loss of color vision). Acquired color vision defects can be attributed to a number of different causes: alteration of prereceptoral filters, reduced cone photopigment optical density, greater loss of one cone type than the others, and disruption of postreceptoral processes. Acquired color vision defects have been divided into three classes: type 1, red-green defect with scotopization; type 2, red-green defect without scotopization; and type 3, blue defects (with or without pseudoprotanomaly). Blue defects are usually type 3 acquired defects because congenital tritan defects have an incidence of one in several tens of thousands. Red-green defects can be acquired or congenital, and ruling out acquired defects can require a battery of tests (plates and arrangement tests, anomaloscopy, perhaps genetic analysis). Color vision tests must be administered carefully (with a standard illuminant and protocol), and pupillary miosis or high lens density should be noted and their possible effects considered when interpreting test results. Plate tests provide a simple screening method but do not provide a diagnosis. Arrangement tests and anomaloscope testing take more time and make greater demands on the tester, but they provide a more thorough evaluation. When standard protocols are followed and results are interpreted in terms of prereceptoral filters

  4. Luminance contours can gate afterimage colors and "real" colors.

    PubMed

    Anstis, Stuart; Vergeer, Mark; Van Lier, Rob

    2012-09-06

    It has long been known that colored images may elicit afterimages in complementary colors. We have already shown (Van Lier, Vergeer, & Anstis, 2009) that one and the same adapting image may result in different afterimage colors, depending on the test contours presented after the colored image. The color of the afterimage depends on two adapting colors, those both inside and outside the test. Here, we further explore this phenomenon and show that the color-contour interactions shown for afterimage colors also occur for "real" colors. We argue that similar mechanisms apply for both types of stimulation.

  5. Formulaic Language in Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Bridges, Kelly Ann; Van Lancker Sidtis, Diana

    2013-01-01

    Background Studies of productive language in Alzheimer’s disease (AD) have focused on formal testing of syntax and semantics but have directed less attention to naturalistic discourse and formulaic language. Clinical observations suggest that individuals with AD retain the ability to produce formulaic language long after other cognitive abilities have deteriorated. Aims This study quantifies production of formulaic expressions in the spontaneous speech of individuals with AD. Persons with early- and late-onset forms of the disease were compared. Methods & Procedures Conversational language samples of individuals with early- (n = 5) and late-onset (n = 6) AD and healthy controls (n = 5) were analyzed to determine whether formulaic language, as measured by the number of words in formulaic expressions, differs between groups. Outcomes & Results Results indicate that individuals with AD, regardless of age of onset, used significantly more formulaic expressions than healthy controls. The early- and late-onset AD groups did not differ on formulaic language measures. Conclusions These findings contribute to a dual process model of cerebral function, which proposes differing processing principles for formulaic and novel expressions. In this model, subcortical areas, which remain intact into late in the progression of Alzheimer’s disease, play an important role in the production of formulaic language. Applications to clinical practice include identifying preserved formulaic language and providing informed counseling to patient and family. PMID:24187417

  6. Color-avoiding percolation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krause, Sebastian M.; Danziger, Michael M.; Zlatić, Vinko

    2017-08-01

    Many real world networks have groups of similar nodes which are vulnerable to the same failure or adversary. Nodes can be colored in such a way that colors encode the shared vulnerabilities. Using multiple paths to avoid these vulnerabilities can greatly improve network robustness, if such paths exist. Color-avoiding percolation provides a theoretical framework for analyzing this scenario, focusing on the maximal set of nodes which can be connected via multiple color-avoiding paths. In this paper we extend the basic theory of color-avoiding percolation that was published in S. M. Krause et al. [Phys. Rev. X 6, 041022 (2016)], 10.1103/PhysRevX.6.041022. We explicitly account for the fact that the same particular link can be part of different paths avoiding different colors. This fact was previously accounted for with a heuristic approximation. Here we propose a better method for solving this problem which is substantially more accurate for many avoided colors. Further, we formulate our method with differentiated node functions, either as senders and receivers, or as transmitters. In both functions, nodes can be explicitly trusted or avoided. With only one avoided color we obtain standard percolation. Avoiding additional colors one by one, we can understand the critical behavior of color-avoiding percolation. For unequal color frequencies, we find that the colors with the largest frequencies control the critical threshold and exponent. Colors of small frequencies have only a minor influence on color-avoiding connectivity, thus allowing for approximations.

  7. Color-avoiding percolation.

    PubMed

    Krause, Sebastian M; Danziger, Michael M; Zlatić, Vinko

    2017-08-01

    Many real world networks have groups of similar nodes which are vulnerable to the same failure or adversary. Nodes can be colored in such a way that colors encode the shared vulnerabilities. Using multiple paths to avoid these vulnerabilities can greatly improve network robustness, if such paths exist. Color-avoiding percolation provides a theoretical framework for analyzing this scenario, focusing on the maximal set of nodes which can be connected via multiple color-avoiding paths. In this paper we extend the basic theory of color-avoiding percolation that was published in S. M. Krause et al. [Phys. Rev. X 6, 041022 (2016)]2160-330810.1103/PhysRevX.6.041022. We explicitly account for the fact that the same particular link can be part of different paths avoiding different colors. This fact was previously accounted for with a heuristic approximation. Here we propose a better method for solving this problem which is substantially more accurate for many avoided colors. Further, we formulate our method with differentiated node functions, either as senders and receivers, or as transmitters. In both functions, nodes can be explicitly trusted or avoided. With only one avoided color we obtain standard percolation. Avoiding additional colors one by one, we can understand the critical behavior of color-avoiding percolation. For unequal color frequencies, we find that the colors with the largest frequencies control the critical threshold and exponent. Colors of small frequencies have only a minor influence on color-avoiding connectivity, thus allowing for approximations.

  8. Experimental study of the method of recording color volume security holograms on different photosensitive materials on the base of the diffuser with a narrow indicatrix of laser radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lushnikov, D. S.; Zherdev, A. Y.; Odinokov, S. B.; Markin, V. V.; Smirnov, A. V.

    2016-10-01

    The paper presents the practical results of recording holographic stereograms. Advantages and disadvantages of methods for producing holographic stereograms using diffusers with different indicatrices scattering of the radiation in the object branch and without the use of a diffuser are presented. A new security element - multi-color microtext, is presented. Shows how to use multi-color microtext as a hidden security element. The method of multi-color microtext visualization is shown. The work was partially funded under the Agreement with the RF Ministry of Education and Science no. 14.577.21.0197, grant RFMEFI57715X0197.

  9. Fish and robot dancing together: bluefin killifish females respond differently to the courtship of a robot with varying color morphs.

    PubMed

    Phamduy, P; Polverino, G; Fuller, R C; Porfiri, M

    2014-09-01

    The experimental integration of bioinspired robots in groups of social animals has become a valuable tool to understand the basis of social behavior and uncover the fundamental determinants of animal communication. In this study, we measured the preference of fertile female bluefin killifish (Lucania goodei) for robotic replicas whose aspect ratio, body size, motion pattern, and color morph were inspired by adult male killifish. The motion of the fish replica was controlled via a robotic platform, which simulated the typical courtship behavior observed in killifish males. The positional preferences of females were measured for three different color morphs (red, yellow, and blue). While variation in preference was high among females, females tend to spend more time in the vicinity of the yellow painted robot replicas. This preference may have emerged because the yellow robot replicas were very bright, particularly in the longer wavelengths (550–700 nm) compared to the red and blue replicas. These findings are in agreement with previous observations in mosquitofish and zebrafish on fish preference for artificially enhanced yellow pigmentation.

  10. Uniform color space based on color matching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Shih-Fang; Yang, Tsung-Hsun; Lee, Cheng-Chung

    2007-09-01

    This research intends to explore with a uniform color space based on the CIE 1931 x-y chromatic coordinate system. The goal is to improve the non-uniformity of the CIE 1931 x-y chromaticity diagram such as to approach the human color sensation as possible; however, its simple methodology still can be kept. In spite of the existence of various kinds of the uniform color coordinate systems built up early (CIE u'-v', CIE Lab, CIE LUV, etc.), the establishment of a genuine uniform color space is actually still an important work both for the basic research in color science and the practical applications of colorimetry, especially for recent growing request in illumination engineering and in display technology. In this study, the MacAdam ellipses and the Munsell color chips are utilized for the comparison with the human color sensation. One specific linear transformation matrix is found for the CIE 1931 color matching functions (see manuscript) to become the novel uniform ones. With the aid of the optimization method, the transformation matrix can be easily discovered and makes the 25 MacAdam ellipses are similar to each other in the novel uniform color space. On the other hand, the perfectiveness of the equal-hue curves and the equal-chroma contours from the Mnusell color chips evaluates for the best optimization conditions among several different definitions for the similarity of all the MacAdam ellipses. Finally, the color difference between any two colors can be simply measured by the Euclidean distance in the novel uniform color space and is still fitted to the human color sensation.

  11. Measurement of the [Formula: see text] production cross-section in proton-proton collisions via the decay [Formula: see text].

    PubMed

    Aaij, R; Beteta, C Abellán; Adeva, B; Adinolfi, M; Affolder, A; Ajaltouni, Z; Akar, S; Albrecht, J; Alessio, F; Alexander, M; Ali, S; Alkhazov, G; Alvarez Cartelle, P; Alves, A A; Amato, S; Amerio, S; Amhis, Y; An, L; Anderlini, L; Anderson, J; Andreassen, R; Andreotti, M; Andrews, J E; Appleby, R B; Aquines Gutierrez, O; Archilli, F; Artamonov, A; Artuso, M; Aslanides, E; Auriemma, G; Baalouch, M; Bachmann, S; Back, J J; Badalov, A; Baesso, C; Baldini, W; Barlow, R J; Barschel, C; Barsuk, S; Barter, W; Batozskaya, V; Battista, V; Bay, A; Beaucourt, L; Beddow, J; Bedeschi, F; Bediaga, I; Belogurov, S; Belous, K; Belyaev, I; Ben-Haim, E; Bencivenni, G; Benson, S; Benton, J; Berezhnoy, A; Bernet, R; Bettler, M-O; van Beuzekom, M; Bien, A; Bifani, S; Bird, T; Bizzeti, A; Bjørnstad, P M; Blake, T; Blanc, F; Blouw, J; Blusk, S; Bocci, V; Bondar, A; Bondar, N; Bonivento, W; Borghi, S; Borgia, A; Borsato, M; Bowcock, T J V; Bowen, E; Bozzi, C; Brambach, T; Bressieux, J; Brett, D; Britsch, M; Britton, T; Brodzicka, J; Brook, N H; Brown, H; Bursche, A; Busetto, G; Buytaert, J; Cadeddu, S; Calabrese, R; Calvi, M; Calvo Gomez, M; Campana, P; Campora Perez, D; Carbone, A; Carboni, G; Cardinale, R; Cardini, A; Carson, L; Carvalho Akiba, K; Casse, G; Cassina, L; Castillo Garcia, L; Cattaneo, M; Cauet, Ch; Cenci, R; Charles, M; Charpentier, Ph; Chefdeville, M; Chen, S; Cheung, S-F; Chiapolini, N; Chrzaszcz, M; Ciba, K; Cid Vidal, X; Ciezarek, G; Clarke, P E L; Clemencic, M; Cliff, H V; Closier, J; Coco, V; Cogan, J; Cogneras, E; Cogoni, V; Cojocariu, L; Collins, P; Comerma-Montells, A; Contu, A; Cook, A; Coombes, M; Coquereau, S; Corti, G; Corvo, M; Counts, I; Couturier, B; Cowan, G A; Craik, D C; Cruz Torres, M; Cunliffe, S; Currie, R; D'Ambrosio, C; Dalseno, J; David, P; David, P N Y; Davis, A; De Bruyn, K; De Capua, S; De Cian, M; De Miranda, J M; De Paula, L; De Silva, W; De Simone, P; Decamp, D; Deckenhoff, M; Del Buono, L; Déléage, N; Derkach, D; Deschamps, O; Dettori, F; Di Canto, A; Dijkstra, H; Donleavy, S; Dordei, F; Dorigo, M; Dosil Suárez, A; Dossett, D; Dovbnya, A; Dreimanis, K; Dujany, G; Dupertuis, F; Durante, P; Dzhelyadin, R; Dziurda, A; Dzyuba, A; Easo, S; Egede, U; Egorychev, V; Eidelman, S; Eisenhardt, S; Eitschberger, U; Ekelhof, R; Eklund, L; El Rifai, I; Elena, E; Elsasser, Ch; Ely, S; Esen, S; Evans, H-M; Evans, T; Falabella, A; Färber, C; Farinelli, C; Farley, N; Farry, S; Fay, R F; Ferguson, D; Fernandez Albor, V; Ferreira Rodrigues, F; Ferro-Luzzi, M; Filippov, S; Fiore, M; Fiorini, M; Firlej, M; Fitzpatrick, C; Fiutowski, T; Fol, P; Fontana, M; Fontanelli, F; Forty, R; Francisco, O; Frank, M; Frei, C; Frosini, M; Fu, J; Furfaro, E; Gallas Torreira, A; Galli, D; Gallorini, S; Gambetta, S; Gandelman, M; Gandini, P; Gao, Y; García Pardiñas, J; Garofoli, J; Garra Tico, J; Garrido, L; Gaspar, C; Gauld, R; Gavardi, L; Gavrilov, G; Geraci, A; Gersabeck, E; Gersabeck, M; Gershon, T; Ghez, Ph; Gianelle, A; Gianì, S; Gibson, V; Giubega, L; Gligorov, V V; Göbel, C; Golubkov, D; Golutvin, A; Gomes, A; Gotti, C; Grabalosa Gándara, M; Graciani Diaz, R; Granado Cardoso, L A; Graugés, E; Graziani, G; Grecu, A; Greening, E; Gregson, S; Griffith, P; Grillo, L; Grünberg, O; Gui, B; Gushchin, E; Guz, Yu; Gys, T; Hadjivasiliou, C; Haefeli, G; Haen, C; Haines, S C; Hall, S; Hamilton, B; Hampson, T; Han, X; Hansmann-Menzemer, S; Harnew, N; Harnew, S T; Harrison, J; He, J; Head, T; Heijne, V; Hennessy, K; Henrard, P; Henry, L; Hernando Morata, J A; van Herwijnen, E; Heß, M; Hicheur, A; Hill, D; Hoballah, M; Hombach, C; Hulsbergen, W; Hunt, P; Hussain, N; Hutchcroft, D; Hynds, D; Idzik, M; Ilten, P; Jacobsson, R; Jaeger, A; Jalocha, J; Jans, E; Jaton, P; Jawahery, A; Jing, F; John, M; Johnson, D; Jones, C R; Joram, C; Jost, B; Jurik, N; Kaballo, M; Kandybei, S; Kanso, W; Karacson, M; Karbach, T M; Karodia, S; Kelsey, M; Kenyon, I R; Ketel, T; Khanji, B; Khurewathanakul, C; Klaver, S; Klimaszewski, K; Kochebina, O; Kolpin, M; Komarov, I; Koopman, R F; Koppenburg, P; Korolev, M; Kozlinskiy, A; Kravchuk, L; Kreplin, K; Kreps, M; Krocker, G; Krokovny, P; Kruse, F; Kucewicz, W; Kucharczyk, M; Kudryavtsev, V; Kurek, K; Kvaratskheliya, T; La Thi, V N; Lacarrere, D; Lafferty, G; Lai, A; Lambert, D; Lambert, R W; Lanfranchi, G; Langenbruch, C; Langhans, B; Latham, T; Lazzeroni, C; Le Gac, R; van Leerdam, J; Lees, J-P; Lefèvre, R; Leflat, A; Lefrançois, J; Leo, S; Leroy, O; Lesiak, T; Leverington, B; Li, Y; Likhomanenko, T; Liles, M; Lindner, R; Linn, C; Lionetto, F; Liu, B; Lohn, S; Longstaff, I; Lopes, J H; Lopez-March, N; Lowdon, P; Lucchesi, D; Luo, H; Lupato, A; Luppi, E; Lupton, O; Machefert, F; Machikhiliyan, I V; Maciuc, F; Maev, O; Malde, S; Malinin, A; Manca, G; Mancinelli, G; Mapelli, A; Maratas, J; Marchand, J F; Marconi, U; Marin Benito, C; Marino, P; Märki, R; Marks, J; Martellotti, G; Martens, A; Sánchez, A Martín; Martinelli, M; Martinez Santos, D; Martinez Vidal, F; Martins Tostes, D; Massafferri, A; Matev, R; Mathe, Z; Matteuzzi, C; Mazurov, A; McCann, M; McCarthy, J; McNab, A; McNulty, R; McSkelly, B; Meadows, B; Meier, F; Meissner, M; Merk, M; Milanes, D A; Minard, M-N; Moggi, N; Molina Rodriguez, J; Monteil, S; Morandin, M; Morawski, P; Mordà, A; Morello, M J; Moron, J; Morris, A-B; Mountain, R; Muheim, F; Müller, K; Mussini, M; Muster, B; Naik, P; Nakada, T; Nandakumar, R; Nasteva, I; Needham, M; Neri, N; Neubert, S; Neufeld, N; Neuner, M; Nguyen, A D; Nguyen, T D; Nguyen-Mau, C; Nicol, M; Niess, V; Niet, R; Nikitin, N; Nikodem, T; Novoselov, A; O'Hanlon, D P; Oblakowska-Mucha, A; Obraztsov, V; Oggero, S; Ogilvy, S; Okhrimenko, O; Oldeman, R; Onderwater, G; Orlandea, M; Otalora Goicochea, J M; Owen, P; Oyanguren, A; Pal, B K; Palano, A; Palombo, F; Palutan, M; Panman, J; Papanestis, A; Pappagallo, M; Pappalardo, L L; Parkes, C; Parkinson, C J; Passaleva, G; Patel, G D; Patel, M; Patrignani, C; Alvarez, A Pazos; Pearce, A; Pellegrino, A; Pepe Altarelli, M; Perazzini, S; Trigo, E Perez; Perret, P; Perrin-Terrin, M; Pescatore, L; Pesen, E; Petridis, K; Petrolini, A; Picatoste Olloqui, E; Pietrzyk, B; Pilař, T; Pinci, D; Pistone, A; Playfer, S; Plo Casasus, M; Polci, F; Poluektov, A; Polycarpo, E; Popov, A; Popov, D; Popovici, B; Potterat, C; Price, E; Price, J D; Prisciandaro, J; Pritchard, A; Prouve, C; Pugatch, V; Puig Navarro, A; Punzi, G; Qian, W; Rachwal, B; Rademacker, J H; Rakotomiaramanana, B; Rama, M; Rangel, M S; Raniuk, I; Rauschmayr, N; Raven, G; Redi, F; Reichert, S; Reid, M M; Dos Reis, A C; Ricciardi, S; Richards, S; Rihl, M; Rinnert, K; Rives Molina, V; Robbe, P; Rodrigues, A B; Rodrigues, E; Rodriguez Perez, P; Roiser, S; Romanovsky, V; Romero Vidal, A; Rotondo, M; Rouvinet, J; Ruf, T; Ruiz, H; Ruiz Valls, P; Saborido Silva, J J; Sagidova, N; Sail, P; Saitta, B; Salustino Guimaraes, V; Sanchez Mayordomo, C; Sanmartin Sedes, B; Santacesaria, R; Santamarina Rios, C; Santovetti, E; Sarti, A; Satriano, C; Satta, A; Saunders, D M; Savrie, M; Savrina, D; Schiller, M; Schindler, H; Schlupp, M; Schmelling, M; Schmidt, B; Schneider, O; Schopper, A; Schune, M-H; Schwemmer, R; Sciascia, B; Sciubba, A; Seco, M; Semennikov, A; Sepp, I; Serra, N; Serrano, J; Sestini, L; Seyfert, P; Shapkin, M; Shapoval, I; Shcheglov, Y; Shears, T; Shekhtman, L; Shevchenko, V; Shires, A; Silva Coutinho, R; Simi, G; Sirendi, M; Skidmore, N; Skwarnicki, T; Smith, N A; Smith, E; Smith, E; Smith, J; Smith, M; Snoek, H; Sokoloff, M D; Soler, F J P; Soomro, F; Souza, D; De Paula, B Souza; Spaan, B; Sparkes, A; Spradlin, P; Sridharan, S; Stagni, F; Stahl, M; Stahl, S; Steinkamp, O; Stenyakin, O; Stevenson, S; Stoica, S; Stone, S; Storaci, B; Stracka, S; Straticiuc, M; Straumann, U; Stroili, R; Subbiah, V K; Sun, L; Sutcliffe, W; Swientek, K; Swientek, S; Syropoulos, V; Szczekowski, M; Szczypka, P; Szilard, D; Szumlak, T; T'Jampens, S; Teklishyn, M; Tellarini, G; Teubert, F; Thomas, C; Thomas, E; van Tilburg, J; Tisserand, V; Tobin, M; Tolk, S; Tomassetti, L; Tonelli, D; Topp-Joergensen, S; Torr, N; Tournefier, E; Tourneur, S; Tran, M T; Tresch, M; Tsaregorodtsev, A; Tsopelas, P; Tuning, N; Ubeda Garcia, M; Ukleja, A; Ustyuzhanin, A; Uwer, U; Vacca, C; Vagnoni, V; Valenti, G; Vallier, A; Vazquez Gomez, R; Vazquez Regueiro, P; Vázquez Sierra, C; Vecchi, S; Velthuis, J J; Veltri, M; Veneziano, G; Vesterinen, M; Viaud, B; Vieira, D; Vieites Diaz, M; Vilasis-Cardona, X; Vollhardt, A; Volyanskyy, D; Voong, D; Vorobyev, A; Vorobyev, V; Voß, C; Voss, H; de Vries, J A; Waldi, R; Wallace, C; Wallace, R; Walsh, J; Wandernoth, S; Wang, J; Ward, D R; Watson, N K; Websdale, D; Whitehead, M; Wicht, J; Wiedner, D; Wilkinson, G; Williams, M P; Williams, M; Wilschut, H W; Wilson, F F; Wimberley, J; Wishahi, J; Wislicki, W; Witek, M; Wormser, G; Wotton, S A; Wright, S; Wyllie, K; Xie, Y; Xing, Z; Xu, Z; Yang, Z; Yuan, X; Yushchenko, O; Zangoli, M; Zavertyaev, M; Zhang, L; Zhang, W C; Zhang, Y; Zhelezov, A; Zhokhov, A; Zhong, L; Zvyagin, A

    The production of the [Formula: see text] state in proton-proton collisions is probed via its decay to the [Formula: see text] final state with the LHCb detector, in the rapidity range [Formula: see text] and in the meson transverse-momentum range [Formula: see text]. The cross-section for prompt production of [Formula: see text] mesons relative to the prompt [Formula: see text] cross-section is measured, for the first time, to be [Formula: see text] at a centre-of-mass energy [Formula: see text] using data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 0.7 fb[Formula: see text], and [Formula: see text] at [Formula: see text] using 2.0 fb[Formula: see text]. The uncertainties quoted are, in order, statistical, systematic, and that on the ratio of branching fractions of the [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] decays to the [Formula: see text] final state. In addition, the inclusive branching fraction of [Formula: see text]-hadron decays into [Formula: see text] mesons is measured, for the first time, to be [Formula: see text], where the third uncertainty includes also the uncertainty on the [Formula: see text] inclusive branching fraction from [Formula: see text]-hadron decays. The difference between the [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] meson masses is determined to be [Formula: see text].

  12. Microbial composition and in vitro fermentation patterns of human milk oligosaccharides and prebiotics differ between formula-fed and sow-reared piglets.

    PubMed

    Li, Min; Bauer, Laura L; Chen, Xin; Wang, Mei; Kuhlenschmidt, Theresa B; Kuhlenschmidt, Mark S; Fahey, George C; Donovan, Sharon M

    2012-04-01

    The microbial composition and in vitro fermentation characteristics of human milk oligosaccharides (HMO), lacto-N-neotetraose (LNnT), a 2:1 mixture of polydextrose (PDX) and galactooligosaccharides (GOS), and short-chain fructooligosaccharides (scFOS) by pooled ascending colonic microbiota from 9- and 17-d-old formula-fed (FF) and sow-reared (SR) piglets were assessed. pH change and gas, SCFA, and lactate production were determined after 0, 2, 4, 8, and 12 h of incubation. In most donor groups, the pH change was greater for scFOS fermentation and lower for PDX/GOS than for other substrates. LNnT fermentation produced larger amounts of gas, total SCFA, acetate, and butyrate than did the other substrates, whereas HMO and scFOS produced higher amounts of propionate and lactate, respectively. In general, pH change, total SCFA, acetate, and propionate production were greater in pooled inoculum from FF and 9-d-old piglets, whereas SR-derived inoculum produced higher amounts of butyrate and lactate after 4 h fermentation. Gut microbiota were assessed by 16S ribosomal RNA V3 gene denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis and real-time qPCR. Microbial structures differed among the 4 groups before fermentation, with higher counts of Bifidobacterium in SR piglets and higher counts of Clostridium cluster IV, XIVa, and Bacteroides vulgatus in FF piglets. Lactobacillus counts were higher in 9-d-old piglets than in 17-d-old piglets, regardless of diet. Bifidobacterium, Bacteroides, and clostridial species increased after 8 and 12 h fermentation on most substrates. In summary, piglet diet and age affect gut microbiota, leading to different fermentation patterns. HMO have potential prebiotic effects due to their effects on SCFA production and microbial modulation.

  13. Color Discrimination Work Sample.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shawsheen Valley Regional Vocational-Technical High School, Billerica, MA.

    This manual contains a work sample intended to assess a handicapped student's ability to see likenesses or differences in colors or shades, identifying or matching certain colors, and selecting colors that go together. Section 1 describes the assessment and lists related occupations and DOT codes. Instructions to the evaluator are provided in the…

  14. Color Discrimination Work Sample.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shawsheen Valley Regional Vocational-Technical High School, Billerica, MA.

    This manual contains a work sample intended to assess a handicapped student's ability to see likenesses or differences in colors or shades, identifying or matching certain colors, and selecting colors that go together. Section 1 describes the assessment and lists related occupations and DOT codes. Instructions to the evaluator are provided in the…

  15. Influences of different gases on the terahertz radiation based on the application of two-color laser pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Moradi, S.; Ganjovi, A.; Shojaei, F.; Saeed, M.

    2015-10-15

    In this work, using a two-dimensional Particle In Cell-Monte Carlo Collision simulation method, a comparative study is performed on the influences of different types of atomic and molecular gases at various background gas pressures on the generation of broadband and intense Terahertz (THz) radiation via the application of two-color laser pulses. These two modes are focused into Argon (Ar), Xenon (Xe), Nitrogen (N{sub 2}), Oxygen (O{sub 2}), and air as the background gaseous media and the plasma channel is created. It is observed that the THz radiation emission dramatically changes due to the propagation effects. A wider THz pulse is emitted from the formed plasma channel at the higher gas pressures. The significant effects of the propagation features of the emitted THz pulse on its energy at the longer lengths of the plasma channel are observed.

  16. Theory of quantum frequency translation of light in optical fiber: application to interference of two photons of different color.

    PubMed

    McGuinness, H J; Raymer, M G; McKinstrie, C J

    2011-09-12

    We study quantum frequency translation and two-color photon interference enabled by the Bragg scattering four-wave mixing process in optical fiber. Using realistic model parameters, we computationally and analytically determine the Green function and Schmidt modes for cases with various pump-pulse lengths. These cases can be categorized as either "non-discriminatory" or "discriminatory" in regards to their propensity to exhibit high-efficiency translation or high-visibility two-photon interference for many different shapes of input wave packets or for only a few input wave packets, respectively. Also, for a particular case, the Schmidt mode set was found to be nearly equal to a Hermite-Gaussian function set. The methods and results also apply with little modification to frequency conversion by sum-frequency conversion in optical crystals.

  17. Effects of Different Pediatric Drugs on the Color Stability of Various Restorative Materials Applicable in Pediatric Dentistry

    PubMed Central

    Turgut, Sedanur; Baygin, Ozgul; Ozen, Bugra

    2017-01-01

    Background. The chronic recommendation of pediatric drugs could exhibit erosive and cariogenic problems. Objective. To evaluate the effects of different pediatric drugs on the color stability of various restorative materials. Methods. Five specimens (1 mm × 3 mm) were prepared and immersed in ten different pediatric drugs and agitated every 8 hours daily for 2 min up to 1 week. Between immersion periods, the samples were stored in artificial saliva. After 1-week period, ΔE⁎ values were calculated. Two-way ANOVA and Fisher's LSD test were used for statistical analysis at a level of p < 0.05. Results. ΔE⁎ values were only significantly influenced by restorative material factor (p < 0.001) and varied in the range of 2.08 and 6.55 units for all drugs/restorative materials. The highest ΔE⁎ was found in Ferrosanol B-composite (6.55 ± 1.38) and the lowest one was found in Dolven-glass ionomer (2.08 ± 0.40) pairwise. The most prominent ΔE⁎ value elevations were obtained in composite material compared to the compomer and/or glass ionomers in Macrol, Ferrosanol B, and Ventolin (p < 0.001; for all) and also for other drugs (p < 0.05). Dolven exhibited significantly higher values compared to Augmentin (p = 0.021), Macrol (p = 0.018), and Ventolin (p = 0.013) in compomer group. Conclusion. The clinically perceptible color changes for tested composite/pediatric drug pairwise can be more problematic than compomer and glass ionomers in pediatric dentistry. PMID:28164130

  18. Effects of Different Pediatric Drugs on the Color Stability of Various Restorative Materials Applicable in Pediatric Dentistry.

    PubMed

    Tüzüner, Tamer; Turgut, Sedanur; Baygin, Ozgul; Yilmaz, Nagehan; Tuna, Elif Bahar; Ozen, Bugra

    2017-01-01

    Background. The chronic recommendation of pediatric drugs could exhibit erosive and cariogenic problems. Objective. To evaluate the effects of different pediatric drugs on the color stability of various restorative materials. Methods. Five specimens (1 mm × 3 mm) were prepared and immersed in ten different pediatric drugs and agitated every 8 hours daily for 2 min up to 1 week. Between immersion periods, the samples were stored in artificial saliva. After 1-week period, ΔE(⁎) values were calculated. Two-way ANOVA and Fisher's LSD test were used for statistical analysis at a level of p < 0.05. Results. ΔE(⁎) values were only significantly influenced by restorative material factor (p < 0.001) and varied in the range of 2.08 and 6.55 units for all drugs/restorative materials. The highest ΔE(⁎) was found in Ferrosanol B-composite (6.55 ± 1.38) and the lowest one was found in Dolven-glass ionomer (2.08 ± 0.40) pairwise. The most prominent ΔE(⁎) value elevations were obtained in composite material compared to the compomer and/or glass ionomers in Macrol, Ferrosanol B, and Ventolin (p < 0.001; for all) and also for other drugs (p < 0.05). Dolven exhibited significantly higher values compared to Augmentin (p = 0.021), Macrol (p = 0.018), and Ventolin (p = 0.013) in compomer group. Conclusion. The clinically perceptible color changes for tested composite/pediatric drug pairwise can be more problematic than compomer and glass ionomers in pediatric dentistry.

  19. Positive quadrature formulas III

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peherstorfer, Franz

    2008-12-01

    First we discuss briefly our former characterization theorem for positive interpolation quadrature formulas (abbreviated qf), provide an equivalent characterization in terms of Jacobi matrices, and give links and applications to other qf, in particular to Gauss-Kronrod quadratures and recent rediscoveries. Then for any polynomial t_n which generates a positive qf, a weight function (depending on n ) is given with respect to which t_n is orthogonal to mathbb{P}_{n-1} . With the help of this result an asymptotic representation of the quadrature weights is derived. In general the asymptotic behaviour is different from that of the Gaussian weights. Only under additional conditions do the quadrature weights satisfy the so-called circle law. Corresponding results are obtained for positive qf of Radau and Lobatto type.

  20. Design of reflective color filters with high angular tolerance by particle swarm optimization method.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chenying; Hong, Liang; Shen, Weidong; Zhang, Yueguang; Liu, Xu; Zhen, Hongyu

    2013-04-22

    We propose three color filters (red, green, blue) based on a two-dimensional (2D) grating, which maintain the same perceived specular colors for a broad range of incident angles with the average polarization. Particle swarm optimization (PSO) method is employed to design these filters for the first time to our knowledge. Two merit functions involving the reflectance curves and color difference in CIEDE2000 formula are respectively constructed to adjust the structural parameters during the optimization procedure. Three primary color filters located at 637nm, 530nm and 446nm with high saturation are obtained with the peak reflectance of 89%, 83%, 66%. The reflectance curves at different incident angles are coincident and the color difference is less than 8 for the incident angle up to 45°. The electric field distribution of the structure is finally studied to analyze the optical property.

  1. A new method for colors characterization of colored stainless steel using CIE and Munsell color systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Keming; Xue, Yongqiang; Cui, Zixiang

    2015-09-01

    It is important to establish an accurate and comprehensive method of characterizing colors of colored stainless steel and understand the changing mechanism and the regularity of colors for the research, production and application of colored stainless steel. In this work, the method which combines reflectance-wavelength with both CIE and Munsell color systems is studied, the changing regularity of hue, brightness and saturation with increasing coloring potential differences is investigated, and the mechanism of color changing is discussed. The results show that by using this method the colors of colored stainless steel can be accurately and comprehensively characterized; with coloring potential differences and colored film thickness increasing, the peaks and troughs of the reflectance curves in visible region move toward long wave, causing the cyclically changing of hue and brightness; the amplitude of reflectance curves increases, resulting in growing of the saturation; the CIE 1931 coordinate curve of colors counterclockwise and cyclically changes around the equal energy light spot.

  2. Comparison Of trap types and colors for capturing emerald ash borer adults at different population densities

    Treesearch

    Therese M. Poland; Deborah G. Mccullough

    2014-01-01

    Results of numerous trials to evaluate artificial trap designs and lures for detection of Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, the emerald ash borer, have yielded inconsistent results, possibly because of different A. planipennis population densities in the field sites. In 2010 and 2011, we compared 1) green canopy traps, 2) purple...

  3. Discussing Difference: Color-Blind Collectivism and Dynamic Dissonance in Two-Way Immersion Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stolte, Laurel

    2017-01-01

    This comparative case study (based on observational, interview, and picture-sort data) examines how teachers and students talk about cultural, linguistic, racial, and socioeconomic difference in two elementary Spanish-English two-way immersion programs. In addition, I analyze how those discourses are associated with both contextual conditions and…

  4. Coloration in different areas of facial skin is a cue to health: The role of cheek redness and periorbital luminance in health perception.

    PubMed

    Jones, Alex L; Porcheron, Aurélie; Sweda, Jennifer R; Morizot, Frederique; Russell, Richard

    2016-06-01

    Looking healthy is a desirable trait, and facial skin color is a predictor of perceived health. However, skin conditions that cause dissatisfaction with appearance are specific to particular facial areas. We investigated whether color variation in facial skin is related to perceived health. Study 1 defined three areas based on color differences between faces perceived as healthy or unhealthy: the forehead, periorbital areas, and the cheeks. Periorbital luminance and cheek redness predicted perceived health, as did global skin yellowness. In Study 2, increased luminance and redness caused faces to be perceived as healthier, but only when the increase was in the periorbital and cheek areas, respectively. Manipulating each area separately in Study 3 revealed cheek redness and periorbital luminance equally increased perceived health, with low periorbital luminance more negatively affecting perceptions. These findings show that color variation in facial skin is a cue for health perception in female faces. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Color and Streptomycetes1

    PubMed Central

    Pridham, Thomas G.

    1965-01-01

    A report summarizing the results of an international workshop on determination of color of streptomycetes is presented. The results suggest that the color systems which seem most practically appealing and effective to specialists on actinomycetes are those embracing a limited number of color names and groups. The broad groupings allow placement of isolates into reasonably well-defined categories based on color of aerial mycelium. Attempts to expand such systems (more color groups) lead to difficulties. It is common knowledge that many, if not all, of the individual groups would in these broad systems contain strains that differ in many other respects, e.g., spore-wall ornamentation, color of vegetative (substratal) mycelium, morphology of chains of spores, and numerous physiological criteria. Also, cultures of intermediate color can be found, which makes placement difficult. As it now stands, color as a criterion for characterization of streptomycetes and streptoverticillia is in questionable status. Although much useful color information can be obtained by an individual, the application of this information to that in the literature or its use in communication with other individuals leaves much to be desired. More objective methods of color determination are needed. At present, the most effective method that could be used internationally is the color-wheel system of Tresner and Backus. Furthermore, the significance of color in speciation of these organisms is an open question. Obviously, more critical work on the color problem is needed. PMID:14264847

  6. Comparison of Live Performance and Meat Quality Parameter of Cross Bred (Korean Native Black Pig and Landrace) Pigs with Different Coat Colors

    PubMed Central

    Hur, S. J.; Jeong, T. C.; Kim, G. D.; Jeong, J. Y.; Cho, I. C.; Lim, H. T.; Kim, B. W.; Joo, S. T.

    2013-01-01

    Five hundred and forty crossbred (Korean native black pig×Landrace) F2 were selected at a commercial pig farm and then divided into six different coat color groups: (A: Black, B: White, C: Red, D: White spot in black, E: Black spot in white, F: Black spot in red). Birth weight, 21st d weight, 140th d weight and carcass weight varied among the different coat color groups. D group (white spot in black coat) showed a significantly higher body weight at each weigh (birth weight, 140th d weight and carcass weight) than did the other groups, whereas the C group (red coat color) showed a significantly lower body weight at finishing stage (140th d weight and carcass weight) compared to other groups. Meat quality characteristics, shear force, cooking loss and meat color were not significantly different among the different coat color groups, whereas drip loss was significantly higher in F than in other groups. Most blood characteristics were not significantly different among the different groups, except for the red blood cells. PMID:25049884

  7. [Analysis of the color difference between discolored teeth and corresponding shade tabs in Vitapan Classical shade guide].

    PubMed

    Xu, Yingxin

    2015-08-01

    To analyze whether Vitapan Classical shade guide could be used to evaluate effectively the effect of tooth whitening. A total of 67 patients underwent Beyond cold light tooth whitening between February 2009 and July 2014. The effect of treatment was evaluated by Vitapan Classical shade guide. The percentage of discolored teeth that could not be matched by the aforementioned shade guide was calculated. By contrast, the color difference between discolored teeth and corresponding shade tabs was calculated for discolored teeth that could be matched by the shade guide. Approximately 64% (16/25) of tetracycline teeth and 28% (17/61) of mottled-enamel teeth could not be matched using the Vitapan Classical shade guide, but yellow teeth were all matched, and the difference between any pair of teeth was statistically significant (P=0.000). For discolored teeth that could be matched, statistically significant difference was found in the ΔL*, Δb*, and ΔE between tetracycline and yellow teeth, as well as between tetracycline and mottled-enamel teeth. However, no statistically significant difference was found