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Sample records for color film

  1. Interference Colors in Thin Films.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, H. L.

    1979-01-01

    Explains interference colors in thin films as being due to the removal, or considerable reduction, of a certain color by destructive inteference that results in the complementary color being seen. (GA)

  2. Interference Colors in Thin Films.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, H. L.

    1979-01-01

    Explains interference colors in thin films as being due to the removal, or considerable reduction, of a certain color by destructive inteference that results in the complementary color being seen. (GA)

  3. Digital Color in Cellulose Nanocrystal Films

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) form chiral nematic phases in aqueous suspensions that can be preserved upon evaporation of water. The resulting films show an intense directional coloration determined by their microstructure. Here, microreflection experiments correlated with analysis of the helicoidal nanostructure of the films reveal that the iridescent colors and the ordering of the individual nematic layers are strongly dependent on the polydispersity of the size distribution of the CNCs. We show how this affects the self-assembly process, and hence multidomain color formation in such bioinspired structural films. PMID:25007291

  4. Color film preservation system: Breadboard development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The development of an economically feasible system to prevent and/or substantially reduce the degradation of the color dyes of the retinal reflex images recorded on color slide films is discussed. Three different types of film storage systems were designed, fabricated, and tested. An extruded plastic cylindrical container was pressurized and no observable leakage occurred, indicating that long term storage is possible. An operational breadboard was fabricated. The system offers the capability to determine purging requirements to achieve various levels of oxygen concentration and precise leakage of various container configurations. The system has digitial display of oxygen content of the container, automatic control of the oxygen content as well as of the container to atmosphere pressure differential, and flow rate readout during purging.

  5. Color Imaging management in film processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tremeau, Alain; Konik, Hubert; Colantoni, Philippe

    2003-12-01

    The latest research projects in the laboratory LIGIV concerns capture, processing, archiving and display of color images considering the trichromatic nature of the Human Vision System (HSV). Among these projects one addresses digital cinematographic film sequences of high resolution and dynamic range. This project aims to optimize the use of content for the post-production operators and for the end user. The studies presented in this paper address the use of metadata to optimise the consumption of video content on a device of user's choice independent of the nature of the equipment that captured the content. Optimising consumption includes enhancing the quality of image reconstruction on a display. Another part of this project addresses the content-based adaptation of image display. Main focus is on Regions of Interest (ROI) operations, based on the ROI concepts of MPEG-7. The aim of this second part is to characterize and ensure the conditions of display even if display device or display media changes. This requires firstly the definition of a reference color space and the definition of bi-directional color transformations for each peripheral device (camera, display, film recorder, etc.). The complicating factor is that different devices have different color gamuts, depending on the chromaticity of their primaries and the ambient illumination under which they are viewed. To match the displayed image to the aimed appearance, all kind of production metadata (camera specification, camera colour primaries, lighting conditions) should be associated to the film material. Metadata and content build together rich content. The author is assumed to specify conditions as known from digital graphics arts. To control image pre-processing and image post-processing, these specifications should be contained in the film's metadata. The specifications are related to the ICC profiles but need additionally consider mesopic viewing conditions.

  6. Evaluation of four-color negative aerial films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fent, Livio; Brouwer, Jan M.

    1993-10-01

    Agfa Aviphot Color N200, Agfa Aviphot Color H100, Kodak Aerocolor Negative 2445, and Kodak RAS 686 were subjected to aerial and laboratory testing. The films were exposed at scales of 1:40,000, 1:20,000, and 1:5,000. A number of ground targets common to the four films were identified and measured densitometrically. The densitometric readings were converted to Munsell Color System designations to provide a comparative reference for color and saturation differences. Hue shifts of 5% (1:20,000) to 19% (1:5,000) were encountered between films. Color saturation levels were noted to be higher with the Agfa H100 film. Sensitometric tests using normal, one push, and two push processing were also performed to evaluate average gradients, film speeds, and color bias for the four films. Characteristic curve symmetry was most adversely affected by push processing the Kodak Aerocolor 2445 film and least adversely affected by pushing the Kodak RAS 686 film. EAFS values consistently increased with the Agfa emulsions but remained stable or decreased with the Kodak emulsions during push processing. Color bias generally tended to the red with the C-41 type films and blue-magenta with the Kodak 2445 film. Resolution characteristics were analyzed by photographing a bar ground target at the 1:5,000 scale. Best resolution performance (normal processing) was noted with the Agfa N200 and Kodak RAS 686 films.

  7. A procedure for standardization of color infrared film response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lapado, R. L.; Ekstrand, R. E.

    1973-01-01

    Various problems with color infrared film used for remote sensing applications which relate to the instability or variability of the relative sensitivities of the dye layers within the film and the resultant variations in color balance are indicated. A procedure developed and utilized to optimize film response and to achieve more consistent results is described. The procedure establishes a sensitometric aim point with which all new batches of film are compared. Through the use of color compensation filters and change in basic exposure, the new film is exposed to produce imagery with the response characteristics of the aim curves.

  8. Munsell's 100-hue test applied to color films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCann, John J.

    1999-12-01

    The experiments described in this paper use the Munsell 100 Hue test to measure color film's ability to order chips the same as humans. The procedure is to photograph the chips in daylight and to scan the dye densities in the processed prints. If the film confuses colors, as colorblind and color anomalous humans do, then the dye density sequence will not be monotonic. Local reversals in dye density imply spectral responses different than humans. A triplet of monotonic dye curves would mimic the color response of people with much better than average color discrimination.

  9. Color film spectral properties test experiment for target simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xinyue; Ming, Xing; Fan, Da; Guo, Wenji

    2017-04-01

    In hardware-in-loop test of the aviation spectra camera, the liquid crystal light valve and digital micro-mirror device could not simulate the spectrum characteristics of the landmark. A test system frame was provided based on the color film for testing the spectra camera; and the spectrum characteristics of the color film was test in the paper. The result of the experiment shows that difference was existed between the landmark and the film spectrum curse. However, the spectrum curse peak should change according to the color, and the curse is similar with the standard color traps. So, if the quantity value of error between the landmark and the film was calibrated and the error could be compensated, the film could be utilized in the hardware-in-loop test for the aviation spectra camera.

  10. Patterns, Instabilities, Colors, and Flows in Vertical Foam Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yilixiati, Subinuer; Zhang, Yiran; Wojcik, Ewelina; Sharma, Vivek

    Understanding and controlling the drainage kinetics of thin films is an important problem that underlies the stability, lifetime and rheology of foams and emulsions. We follow the drainage kinetics of vertical foam films using imaging and color science. Interference between light reflected from two surfactant-laden surfaces that are 100 nm - 10 micron apart leads to thickness-dependent iridescent colors in the visible region. Below 50 nm the thin films appear as black. In this study, we utilize the thin film interference colors as markers for identifying patterns, instabilities and flows within vertical foam films. We study the emergence of thickness fluctuations near the borders (i.e. marginal regeneration) and within thinning films. Finally, we elucidate how buoyancy, capillarity, convection and gravity-driven instabilities and flows, are affected by the choice and concentration of constituents. We find fascinating examples of two-dimensional hydrodynamics and unexplained, if not unprecedented, drainage kinetics.

  11. Patterns, Instabilities, Colors, and Flows in Vertical Foam Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yilixiati, Subinuer; Wojcik, Ewelina; Zhang, Yiran; Shah, Krupa; Sharma, Vivek

    2015-11-01

    Understanding and controlling the drainage kinetics of thin films is an important problem that underlies the stability, lifetime and rheology of foams and emulsions. We follow the drainage kinetics of vertical foam films using imaging and color science. Interference between light reflected from two surfactant-laden surfaces that are 100 nm - 10 micron apart leads to thickness-dependent iridescent colors in the visible region. Below 50 nm the thin films appear as black. In this study, we utilize the thin film interference colors as markers for identifying patterns, instabilities and flows within vertical foam films. We study the emergence of thickness fluctuations near the borders (i.e. marginal regeneration) and within thinning films. Finally, we elucidate how buoyancy, capillarity, convection and gravity-driven instabilities and flows, are affected by the choice and concentration of constituents. We find fascinating examples of two-dimensional hydrodynamics and unexplained, if not unprecedented, drainage kinetics.

  12. Free-Standing Photonic Crystal Films with Gradient Structural Colors.

    PubMed

    Ding, Haibo; Liu, Cihui; Ye, Baofen; Fu, Fanfan; Wang, Huan; Zhao, Yuanjin; Gu, Zhongze

    2016-03-23

    Hydrogel colloidal crystal composite materials have a demonstrated value in responsive photonic crystals (PhCs) via controllable stimuli. Although they have been successfully exploited to generate a gradient of color distribution, the soft hydrogels have limitations in terms of stability and storage caused by dependence on environment. Here, we present a practical strategy to fabricate free-standing PhC films with a stable gradient of structural colors using binary polymer networks. A colloidal crystal hydrogel film was prepared for this purpose, with continuously varying photonic band gaps corresponding to the gradient of the press. Then, a second polymer network was used to lock the inside non-close-packed PhC structures and color distribution of the hydrogel film. It was demonstrated that our strategy could bring about a solution to the angle-dependent structural colors of the PhC films by coating the surface with special microstructures.

  13. Lonophore-based lithium ion film optode realizing multiple color variations utilizing digital color analysis.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Koji; Hirayama, Etsuko; Sugiyama, Tsunemi; Yasuda, Keiko; Okabe, Hiroaki; Citterio, Daniel

    2002-11-15

    Digital color analysis (DCA), utilizing colors themselves or digital information of colors, can not only be applied to various quantitative analysis using chromaticity coordinates but can also be used to develop suitable sensors for visual colorimetry based on the characteristics of human visual perception by virtual simulations based on digital color information. To achieve a clear visual color variation for lithium ion determination, we designed and prepared a color-changeable film sensor (film optode) by the use of two kinds of lipophilic dyes, KD-C4 and KD-M11, whose colors and pKa values are different. This film sensor is a plasticized PVC membrane containing the mixture of two kinds of dyes with the lithium ionophore TTD14C4 and the lipophilic anionic additive tetrakis-[3,5-bis(trisfluoromethyl)phenyl]borate sodium salt dihydrate. The simulation of the color variation using the mixed dyes was evaluated by plotting the values on a uniform chromaticity scale diagram in a*b* coordinates, after converting the tristimulus values of each dye into its L*a*b* values. When the lithium ion concentration was actually determined by the PVC film optode containing the mixed dyes whose molecular ratio of KD-C4/KD-Ml 1 was 3:1, the hues of red --> orange --> yellow --> green --> blue could be realized in the range of 10(-6)-1 M. This observed color variation was similar to the result of the virtual simulation based on DCA.

  14. Film Recording of Digital Color Images

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-05-28

    physiological evidence indicating that the retina contains three kinds of color receptors. In fact, various kinds of color blindness have been...fundamental sensitivites of the eye. Fortunately, estimates of the s-(X) can be obtained by alternative methods, such as color blindness studies [4]. A...number of fundamental response curves have been proposed. One set which was deduced from color blindness data, and is in good agreement with more

  15. Soap Film Hydrodynamics: In Color, and In Black and White

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearsall, Collin; Zhang, Yiran; Rush, Jana; Yilixiati, Subinuer; Sharma, Vivek

    2014-03-01

    Iridescent colors of soap bubbles or films arise due to interference between light reflected from two surfactant-laden surfaces that are ~ 100 nm - 10 micron apart. Sandwiched between these interfacial layers is a fluid that drains primarily under the influence of gravitational and capillary or interfacial forces, including disjoining pressure. Below 50 nm the thin films appear as black. We experimentally follow the drainage kinetics of soap films using imaging & color science and UV-Visible spectroscopy. We find fascinating examples of two-dimensional hydrodynamics and unexplained, if not unprecedented, drainage kinetics.

  16. Easy approach to assembling a biomimetic color film with tunable structural colors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wentao; Tang, Bingtao; Ma, Wei; Zhang, Jian; Ju, Benzhi; Zhang, Shufen

    2015-06-01

    The self-assembly of silica microspheres into a close-packed array is a simple method of fabricating three-dimensional photonic crystal structural color films. However, the color is very dull because of the interferences of scattering and background light. In this study, we added a small quantity of surface-modified carbon black (CB) to the system of colloidal silica in n-propanol. The use of n-propanol as a dispersant is beneficial to the rapid development of photonic crystal films during the process of dip-coating. The doping of CB into silica microspheres can absorb background and scattering light, resulting in vivid structural colors.

  17. Colored thin films for specific metal ion detection.

    PubMed

    Schauer, Caroline L; Chen, Mu-San; Price, Ronald R; Schoen, Paul E; Ligler, Frances S

    2004-08-15

    This paper describes the investigation of chitosan and poly(allylamine) (PAH) for the creation of a multi-film, color-based dipstick for the detection of metal ions in solution. Thin, colored films of chitosan and PAH cross-linked with hexamethylene 1,6-di(aminocarboxysulfonate) (HDACS) are created where color is due to film thickness and optical interference effects. The films are investigated for their ability to selectively detect aqueous metal ions via changes in thickness and/or color. Chitosan-HDACS films were selective for Cr(VI) over all other metal ions tested including Cr(acac)3 and Cr(NO3)3 x 9H2O, and PAH-HDACS films were selective for Cu(II) and Cu(I) salts over all other metal ions tested. The irreversible, selective changes due to metal ion solutions were not caused by varying the pH. Potomac River water was also tested using the two films, with results indicating the presence of Cu(II) in the aqueous sample.

  18. Wide color gamut LCDs with narrow green emitting films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Juan; Chen, Haiwei; Chen, Hao; Wang, Yanan; Chen, Jiangshan; Zhu, Ruidong; Wu, Shin-Tson; Dong, Yajie

    2017-02-01

    We demonstrate a series of ultrastable, highly luminescent CH3NH3PbBr3 (MAPbBr3) green emitting organic-inorganic perovskites (OIP) - polymer composite films achieved by a simple yet general strategy, to be used together with red emitters as down-converters for blue LEDs in display technology. These composite films exhibit high photoluminescence quantum yield (PLQY) of up to 48%, high color purity with FWHM (full width at half maximum) as narrow as 18 nm. When combined with blue LED and CdSe-based quantum dots-polymer films or red phosphors as LCD backlight, we can achieve a relatively wide color gamut in Rec. 2020 color space.

  19. Deep Reduced PEDOT Films Support Electrochemical Applications: Biomimetic Color Front

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, Jose G.; Berrueco, Beatriz; Otero, Toribio F.

    2015-01-01

    Most of the literature accepts, despite many controversial results, that during oxidation/reduction films of conducting polymers (CPs) move from electronic conductors to insulators. Thus, engineers and device’s designers are forced to use metallic supports to reoxidize the material for reversible device work. Electrochromic front experiments appear as main visual support of the claimed insulating nature of reduced CPs. Here, we present a different design of the biomimetic electrochromic front that corroborates the electronic and ionic conducting nature of deep reduced films. The direct contact PEDOT metal/electrolyte and film/electrolyte was prevented from electrolyte contact until 1 cm far from the metal contact with protecting Parafilm®. The deep reduced PEDOT film supports the flow of high currents promoting reaction induced electrochromic color changes beginning 1 cm far from the metal-polymer electrical contact and advancing, through the reduced film, toward the metal contact. Reverse color changes during oxidation/reduction always are initiated at the film/electrolyte contact advancing, under the protecting film, toward the film/metal contact. Both reduced and oxidized states of the film demonstrate electronic and ionic conductivities high enough to be used for electronic applications or, as self-supported electrodes, for electrochemical devices. The electrochemically stimulated conformational relaxation model explains those results. PMID:25717472

  20. A method of determining spectral dye densities in color films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friederichs, G. A.; Scarpace, F. L.

    1977-01-01

    A mathematical analysis technique called characteristic vector analysis, reported by Simonds (1963), is used to determine spectral dye densities in multiemulsion film such as color or color-IR imagery. The technique involves examining a number of sets of multivariate data and determining linear transformations of these data to a smaller number of parameters which contain essentially all of the information contained in the original set of data. The steps involved in the actual procedure are outlined. It is shown that integral spectral density measurements of a large number of different color samples can be accurately reconstructed from the calculated spectral dye densities.

  1. A method of determining spectral dye densities in color films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friederichs, G. A.; Scarpace, F. L.

    1977-01-01

    A mathematical analysis technique called characteristic vector analysis, reported by Simonds (1963), is used to determine spectral dye densities in multiemulsion film such as color or color-IR imagery. The technique involves examining a number of sets of multivariate data and determining linear transformations of these data to a smaller number of parameters which contain essentially all of the information contained in the original set of data. The steps involved in the actual procedure are outlined. It is shown that integral spectral density measurements of a large number of different color samples can be accurately reconstructed from the calculated spectral dye densities.

  2. Compact Multilayer Film Structure for Angle Insensitive Color Filtering

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chenying; Shen, Weidong; Zhang, Yueguang; Li, Kan; Fang, Xu; Zhang, Xing; Liu, Xu

    2015-01-01

    Here we report a compact multilayer film structure for angle robust color filtering, which is verified by theoretical calculations and experiment results. The introduction of the amorphous silicon in the proposed unsymmetrical resonant cavity greatly reduces the angular sensitivity of the filters, which is confirmed by the analysis of the phase shift within the structure. The temperature of the substrate during the deposition is expressly investigated to obtain the best optical performance with high peak reflectance and good angle insensitive color filtering by compromising the refractive index of dielectric layer and the surface roughness of the multilayer film. And the outlayer of the structure, worked as the anti-reflection layer, have an enormous impact on the filtering performance. This method, described in this paper, can have enormous potential for diverse applications in display, colorful decoration, anti-counterfeiting and so forth. PMID:25788330

  3. Patterns, Instabilities, Colors, and Flows in Vertical Foam Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yilixiati, Subinuer; Wojcik, Ewelina; Zhang, Yiran; Pearsall, Collin; Sharma, Vivek

    2015-03-01

    Foams find use in many applications in daily life, industry and biology. Examples include beverages, firefighting foam, cosmetics, foams for oil recovery and foams formed by pollutants. Foams are collection of bubbles separated by thin liquid films that are stabilized against drainage by the presence of surfactant molecules. Drainage kinetics and stability of the foam are strongly influenced by surfactant type, addition of particles, proteins and polymers. In this study, we utilize the thin film interference colors as markers for identifying patterns, instabilities and flows within vertical foam films. We experimentally study the emergence of thickness fluctuations near the borders and within thinning films, and study how buoyancy, capillarity and gravity driven instabilities and flows, are affected by variation in bulk and interfacial physicochemical properties dependent on the choice of constituents.

  4. High color-rendering warm-white lamps using quantum-dot color conversion films.

    PubMed

    Lien, Jiun-Yi; Chen, Chih-Jung; Chiang, Ray-Kuang; Wang, Sue-Lein

    2016-07-11

    Colloidal quantum dots are promising next-generation phosphors to enhance the color rendition of light-emitting diodes (LEDs) while minimizing the brightness droop. In order to exploit the beneficial tunability of quantum dots for highly efficient devices, optimization and determination of the performance limit are of crucial importance. In this work, a facile preparation process of red-emission quantum dot films and simulation algorithm for fitting this film with two commercial LED flat lamps to the optimized performance are developed. Based on the algorithm, one lamp improves from cold-white light (8669 K) with poor color rendition (Ra = 72) and luminous efficacy (85 lm/W) to warm-white light (2867 K) with Ra = 90.8 and R9 = 74.9, and the other reaches Ra = 93 ∼ 95. Impressively, the brightness droop is only about 15 ∼ 20% and the luminous efficacy of 68 lm/W is achieved. Furthermore, our device shows reliability over 1000 hours with only PET (polyethylene-terephthalate) films as the barrier, indicating that this auxiliary red-emission film can be easily applied to improve the color rendition of most commercial LED flat lamps.

  5. Unprecedented coloration of rutile titanium dioxide nanocrystalline thin films.

    PubMed

    Mane, Rajaram S; Joo, Oh-Shim; Lee, Won Joo; Han, Sung-Hwan

    2007-01-01

    In this communication, TiO2 nanocrystalline thin films synthesized by a room temperature (27 degrees C) chemical dip process. To our knowledge, this is first report of the preparation of nanoscale rutile TiO2 particles from common inorganic salt at such low temperature. Interestingly, unprecedented dynamic color change accompanies with titanium dioxide grain size, which can be seen with the naked eye that generated curiosity in our mind to check UV-vis absorption, where significant changes were observed. The room temperature synthesized thin films of rutile titanium dioxide make it a potential candidate for high-compatibility material, which can be used in artificial heart valves.

  6. Fabrication of Ultra-thin Color Films with Highly Absorbing Media Using Oblique Angle Deposition.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Young Jin; Lee, Gil Ju; Jang, Kyung-In; Song, Young Min

    2017-08-29

    Ultra-thin film structures have been studied extensively for use as optical coatings, but performance and fabrication challenges remain.  We present an advanced method for fabricating ultra-thin color films with improved characteristics. The proposed process addresses several fabrication issues, including large area processing. Specifically, the protocol describes a process for fabricating ultra-thin color films using an electron beam evaporator for oblique angle deposition of germanium (Ge) and gold (Au) on silicon (Si) substrates.  Film porosity produced by the oblique angle deposition induces color changes in the ultra-thin film. The degree of color change depends on factors such as deposition angle and film thickness. Fabricated samples of the ultra-thin color films showed improved color tunability and color purity. In addition, the measured reflectance of the fabricated samples was converted into chromatic values and analyzed in terms of color. Our ultra-thin film fabricating method is expected to be used for various ultra-thin film applications such as flexible color electrodes, thin film solar cells, and optical filters. Also, the process developed here for analyzing the color of the fabricated samples is broadly useful for studying various color structures.

  7. Imitation of variable structural color in Paracheirodon innesi using colloidal crystal films.

    PubMed

    Cong, Hailin; Yu, Bing; Zhao, Xiu Song

    2011-06-20

    Spacing variation of adjoining reflecting thin films in iridophore is responsible for the variable interference color in the paracheirodon innesi. On the basis of this phenomenon, colloidal crystal thin films with different structures are fabricated from monodisperse poly(styrene-methyl methacrylate-acrylic acid) (PSMA) colloids. The relationship between the colors and structures of the films is investigated and discussed according to the principle of light interference. A two-layer colloidal film having uniform color is researched and it displays diverse colors before and after swelling by styrene (St), which can be used to mimic the variable structural color of the paracheirodon innesi.

  8. Laser coloration of titanium films: New development for jewelry and decoration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veiko, V.; Odintsova, G.; Vlasova, E.; Andreeva, Ya.; Krivonosov, A.; Ageev, E.; Gorbunova, E.

    2017-08-01

    In this work, we studied a technology of color images formation on a surface of titanium film deposited on silver and gold substrates. The coloration takes place due to film oxidation by the action of a fiber laser with nanosecond duration of pulses. Color coordinates for main colors obtained on gold and silver surfaces were calculated. According to measured reflectance spectra the final color resulted from both interference effects in the thin oxide film and substrate optical properties. Mechanical and chemical resistance tests of formed images demonstrated a high degree of adhesion between deposited titanium film and precious metals. Therefore, the proposed technology has a strong potential for jewelry industry implementation.

  9. Influence of colorant and film thickness on thermal aging characteristics of oxo-biodegradable plastic bags

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leuterio, Giselle Lou D.; Pajarito, Bryan B.; Domingo, Carla Marie C.; Lim, Anna Patricia G.

    2016-05-01

    Functional, lightweight, strong and cheap plastic bags incorporated with pro-oxidants undergo accelerated degradation under exposure to heat and oxygen. This work investigated the effect of colorant and film thickness on thermal aging characteristics of commercial oxo-biodegradable plastic bag films at 70 °C. Degradation is monitored through changes in infrared absorption, weight, and tensile properties of thermally aged films. The presence of carbonyl band in infrared spectrum after 672 h of thermal aging supports the degradation behavior of exposed films. Results show that incorporation of colorant and increasing thickness exhibit low maximum weight uptake. Titanium dioxide as white colorant in films lowers the susceptibility of films to oxygen uptake but enhances physical degradation. Higher amount of pro-oxidant loading also contributes to faster degradation. Opaque films are characterized by low tensile strength and high elastic modulus. Decreasing the thickness contributes to lower tensile strength of films. Thermally aged films with colorant and low thickness promote enhanced degradation.

  10. Synthesis of ultrathin TiO2/Ti films with tunable structural color.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanlu; Han, Rushuai; Qi, Liqian; Liu, Lihu; Sun, Huiyuan

    2016-12-10

    A series of ultrathin TiO2/Ti films with iridescent structural colors were fabricated on high-purity titanium sheets via a one-step anodization procedure. Tunable color in the films can be obtained by adjusting the anodization time and can be adjusted across the entire visible range. It was found that all the films displayed highly saturated colors. Trichromatic coordinates of color x, y were delineated, and the color was identified by positioning the x and y values in the Commission International de I'Eclairage chromaticity diagram. Theoretical and experimental results of the changes in the structural color according to the principle of complementary colors are consistent with the experimental results. The TiO2/Ti films may have potential in color displays, decoration, and anticounterfeiting technology.

  11. Color Centers in Silic On-Doped Diamond Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sedov, V. S.; Krivobok, V. S.; Khomich, A. V.; Ralchenko, V. G.; Khomich, A. A.; Martyanov, A. K.; Nikolaev, S. N.; Poklonskaya, O. N.; Konov, V. I.

    2016-05-01

    Silicon-doped microcrystalline diamond films of 1 μm thickness were grown by chemical vapor deposition in microwave plasma from mixtures of methane-hydrogen-silane on substrates of aluminum nitride, tungsten, and silicon. The diamond films were found to contain optically active silicon vacancy (SiV) centers giving rise to the 737-nm band in the photoluminescence spectra. The spectral features of a newly discovered narrow band of comparable intensity at 720-722 nm were studied. It is shown that the band at 720-722 nm occurs in the photoluminescence spectra only in the presence of silica in the diamond, regardless of the substrate material. The temperature dynamics of the photoluminescence spectra in the range of 5-294 K were investigated. The possible nature and mechanisms of formation of the color centers responsible for the 720-722 nm band are discussed.

  12. Full-color cholesteric liquid crystal reflective films with narrow linewidth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Y.; Luo, D.

    2017-02-01

    We demonstrate full-color cholesteric liquid crystal films fabricated by cholesteric liquid crystal and reactive mesogen. The reflection linewidth of these films can be dramatically narrowed with the reduced refractive index birefringence of refilled materials. A full-color reflective display is experimentally demonstrated based on these reflective films that are refilled with small birefringence liquid crystals. The electro-optic performances of displays including response time are experimental investigated. The applications of these films include flexible reflective display, color pixels in digital photographs, printing and colored cladding of variety of objects.

  13. Transpassive Dissolution of Copper and Rapid Formation of Brilliant Colored Copper Oxide Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fredj, Narjes; Burleigh, T. David; New Mexico Tech Team

    2014-03-01

    This investigation describes an electrochemical technique for growing adhesive copper oxide films on copper with attractive colors ranging from gold-brown to pearl with intermediate colors from red violet to gold green. The technique consists of anodically dissolving copper at transpassive potentials in hot sodium hydroxide, and then depositing brilliant color films of Cu2O onto the surface of copper after the anodic potential has been turned off. The color of the copper oxide film depends on the temperature, the anodic potential, the time t1 of polarization, and the time t2, which is the time of immersion after potential has been turned off. The brilliant colored films were characterized using glancing angle x-ray diffraction, and the film was found to be primarily Cu2O. Cyclic voltammetry, chronopotentiometry, scanning electron microscopy, and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy were also used to characterize these films.

  14. Vivid structural colors with low angle dependence from long-range ordered photonic crystal films.

    PubMed

    Su, Xin; Xia, Hongbo; Zhang, Shufen; Tang, Bingtao; Wu, Suli

    2017-03-02

    Structural colored materials have attracted increasing attention due to their vivid color effects and non-photobleaching characteristics. However, the angle dependence of these structural colors severely restricts their practical applications, for example, in display and sensing devices. Here, a new strategy for obtaining low angle dependent structural colors is demonstrated by fabricating long-range ordered photonic crystal films. By using spheres with high refractive indices as building blocks, the angle dependence of the obtained colors has been strongly suppressed. Green, golden yellow and red structural colored films with low angle dependence were obtained by using 145 nm, 165 nm and 187 nm Cu2O spheres as building blocks, respectively. SEM images confirmed the long-range highly ordered arrays of the Cu2O photonic crystal films. Reflectance spectra and digital photographs clearly demonstrate the low angle dependence of these structural colors, which is in sharp comparison with the case of polystyrene (PS) and SiO2 photonic crystal films. Furthermore, these structural colors are vivid with high color saturation, not only under black background, but also under white background and natural light without adding any light-absorbing agents. These low angle dependent structural colors endow Cu2O photonic crystal films with great potential in practical applications. Our findings may broaden the strategies for the design and fabrication of angle independent structural colored materials.

  15. Electrochromic Metallo-Organic Nanoscale Films: Fabrication, Color Range, and Devices.

    PubMed

    Elool Dov, Neta; Shankar, Sreejith; Cohen, Dana; Bendikov, Tatyana; Rechav, Katya; Shimon, Linda J W; Lahav, Michal; van der Boom, Milko E

    2017-08-23

    In this study, we demonstrate a versatile approach for the formation of electrochromic nanoscale assemblies on transparent conductive oxides on both rigid and flexible substrates. Our method is based on the application of alternating spin-coated layers of well-defined metal polypyridyl complexes and a palladium(II) salt to form electrochemically addressable films with a high chromophore density. By varying the central metal ion of the polypyridyl complexes (Os, Ru, and Fe) and their ligands and by mixing these complexes, coatings with a wide range of colors can be achieved. These coatings cover a large area of RGB color space. The coloration intensities of these nanoscale films can be tuned by the number of deposition steps. The materials have very attractive ON/OFF ratios, electrochemical stabilities, and coloration efficiencies. Reversible color-to-colorless and color-to-color transitions were demonstrated, and the films were further integrated into sandwich cells.

  16. Ultra-thin films with highly absorbent porous media fine-tunable for coloration and enhanced color purity.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Young Jin; Lim, Jin Ha; Lee, Gil Ju; Jang, Kyung-In; Song, Young Min

    2017-03-02

    We demonstrate ultra-thin, fine-tunable optical coatings with enhanced color purity based on highly absorbent porous media on a metal substrate. We show that the color range provided by these ultra-thin film coatings can be extended by making the absorptive dielectric layer porous. Oblique angle deposition (OAD) of a thin (10-25 nm) germanium (Ge) film by e-beam evaporation onto a thick gold substrate yields controlled porosity. Reflectance spectra and color representations from both calculations and experiments verify the enhancement of resonance tunability and color purity in the nano-tailored coatings. Angle independent reflection properties, and the applicability of such porous Ge on various metal substrates, indicate the strength of these concepts.

  17. Automatic recognition of light source from color negative films using sorting classification techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanger, Demas S.; Haneishi, Hideaki; Miyake, Yoichi

    1995-08-01

    This paper proposed a simple and automatic method for recognizing the light sources from various color negative film brands by means of digital image processing. First, we stretched the image obtained from a negative based on the standardized scaling factors, then extracted the dominant color component among red, green, and blue components of the stretched image. The dominant color component became the discriminator for the recognition. The experimental results verified that any one of the three techniques could recognize the light source from negatives of any film brands and all brands greater than 93.2 and 96.6% correct recognitions, respectively. This method is significant for the automation of color quality control in color reproduction from color negative film in mass processing and printing machine.

  18. Cross-cultural differences in color preferences: implication for international film distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Kyung Jae

    2002-06-01

    This paper proposes the necessity of manipulating colors of movie contents to fit diverse audiences around the world. Since films are highly color-dependent messages, it is critical to understand how people in different cultures respond differently to color. In recent years, the international market for filmed entertainment has grown more than the U.S. market. However, a lack of research on audience preferences shows no constant guide for the motion picture industry. The film production stage is often disregarded to deliver the appropriate visual color contents for local audience when U.S. films are distributed to foreign markets. Therefore, it is assumed that it would cause distractions for local audiences and it could result in poor ticket sales. When the U.S. produced films are distributed in Asia, colors of original films are always shown without manipulation. It is common that when a U.S. manufactured car is imported to Japan, a driver seat is installed on the right side and also other parts are modified for local customers. Film development is also significantly dependent on audience behavior, so film content also needs to be localized for the different culture. This paper will only address a hypothesis of the implementation of color marketing methodology present in motion pictures.

  19. Structural color films with lotus effects, superhydrophilicity, and tunable stop-bands.

    PubMed

    Sato, Osamu; Kubo, Shoichi; Gu, Zhong-Ze

    2009-01-20

    The structural blue color of a Morpho butterfly originates from the diffraction of light and interference effects due to the presence of the microstructures on the wing of the butterfly. Structural color on the surface of a damselfish reversibly changes between green and blue. Inspired by these creatures, we have been trying to prepare high-quality and functional structural color films. We describe our efforts in this Account. A useful technique to prepare such structural color films in colloidal solution is a "lifting" method, which allows us to quickly fabricate brilliant colloidal crystal films. The thicknesses of the films can be controlled by precisely adjusting the particle concentration and the lifting speed. Moreover, in order to prepare a complicated structure, we have used template methods. Indeed, we have successfully prepared the inverse structure of the wing of a Morpho butterfly with this technique. Initially, however, our structural color films had a whitish appearance due to the scattering of light by defects in the colloidal crystal film. Later, we were able to prepare a non-whitish structural color film by doping an appropriate dye in the colloidal particles to absorb the scattering light. In addition to the structural blue color, the wing of the Morpho butterfly has superhydrophobic properties. According to Wenzel's equation, the hydrophobic and hydrophilic properties are enhanced when the roughness of the hydrophobic and hydrophilic surface is increased, respectively. Based on this mechanism, we have successfully prepared structural color films with superhydrophobic properties, as well as with superhydrophilic properties. Another important property that can be seen in nature is tunable structural color, such as the color change that can be seen on the surface of a damselfish. In order to mimic such color change, we have developed several tunable structural color films. In particular, we have successfully prepared phototunable photonic crystals

  20. Estimation of the composition parameter of electrochemically colored amorphous hydrogen tungsten oxide films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaneko, Hiroko; Miyake, Kiyoshi

    1989-07-01

    The electrical and optical steady state observed in electrochemical coloration has been studied using asymmetric cells consisting of evaporated amorphous tungsten oxide films with 350-6000 Å thickness. The counter electrode used is indium wire, steel wire, or antimony-tin oxide film, and the electrolyte is a 1-N H2SO4 aqueous solution containing 10 vol % glycerol. The current and optical transmittance of the cells decrease with increasing time during coloration, and simultaneously reach a steady state. The optical density (λ=0.5 μm) in the steady state is proportional to the thickness of the tungsten oxide film, and the absorption coefficient at λ=0.5 μm of the colored oxide film in the state is approximately 9.0×104 cm-1. The effective charges which contribute to the coloration of films calculated from the charge injected until the electro-optical steady state were found to be 1.03-1.20×103 C/cm3. Assuming that the evaporated tungsten oxide films used have a distorted ReO3 structure, and that a hydrogen tungsten bronze HxWO3 is formed by coloration, the composition parameter x calculated from the average value of the effective charge, is 0.36, which is comparable with that of hydrogen tungsten bronze H0.33WO3 obtained for the colored crystalline WO3 films.

  1. Effect of Color and Monochrome Versions of a Film on Incidental and Task Relevant Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chute, Alan G.

    1980-01-01

    This study found that color in a film helped fourth- and fifth-grade students of all ability levels learn incidental information, but affected learning of task-relevant information differently depending on ability level. (Author/JEG)

  2. Effect of Color and Monochrome Versions of a Film on Incidental and Task Relevant Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chute, Alan G.

    1980-01-01

    This study found that color in a film helped fourth- and fifth-grade students of all ability levels learn incidental information, but affected learning of task-relevant information differently depending on ability level. (Author/JEG)

  3. Enhancing the color gamut of white displays using novel deep-blue organic fluorescent dyes to form color-changed thin films with improved efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wei-Ting; Huang, Wen-Yao

    2012-10-01

    This study used the novel fluorescence based deep-blue-emitting molecule BPVPDA in an organic fluorescent color thin film to exhibit deep blue color with CIE coordinates of (0.13, 0.16). The developed original organic RGB color thin film technology enables the optimization of the distinctive features of an organic light emitting diode (OLED) and thin-film-transistor (TFT) LCD display. The color filter structure maintains the same high resolution to obtain a higher level of brightness in comparison with conventional organic RGB color thin film. The image-processing engine is designed to achieve a sharp text image for a TFT LCD with organic color thin films. The organic color thin films structure uses an organic dye dopant in a limpid photoresist. With this technology, the following characteristics can be obtained: 1. high color reproduction of gamut ratio, and 2. improved luminous efficiency with organic color fluorescent thin film. This performance is among the best results ever reported for a color-filter used on TFT-LCD or OLED.

  4. High transmission and low color cross-talk plasmonic color filters using triangular-lattice hole arrays in aluminum films.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qin; Cumming, David R S

    2010-06-21

    Three primary color (red, green and blue) filters consisting of subwavelength triangular-lattice hole arrays in an aluminum film on glass were simulated and fabricated. A silicon dioxide cap layer, deposited on the patterned aluminum film, was found to almost double the transmission efficiency for all the filters. The measured peak transmittance for each color filter was above 30%, exhibiting a wavelength spectrum with a full-width at half-maximum of approximately 100 nm. Simulation results of various structures with different cap layers revealed the enhanced coupling between surface plasmon resonances at both sides of the metal film in a symmetrical configuration. It was found that gratings with as few as three periods were sufficient to demonstrate filtering. The effect of metal thickness and hole size was investigated in detail.

  5. Measurement of Spatial and Temporal Changes in Vegetation from Color-IR Film

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, R. M.

    1971-01-01

    The use of color infrared film to measure spatial and temporal changes in vegetation is discussed. The subjects presented are: (1) selection of the sensor, (2) collection of the data, and (3) analysis of the data. The effects of climatology and meteorological parameters on interpretation of the data are analyzed. It is concluded that the color infrared film will enhance the imagery of green plants and will accentuate differences between plants.

  6. Flexibility and color monitoring of cellulose nanocrystal iridescent solid films using anionic or neutral polymers.

    PubMed

    Bardet, Raphael; Belgacem, Naceur; Bras, Julien

    2015-02-25

    One property of sulfated cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) is their ability to self-assemble from a concentrated suspension under specific drying conditions into an iridescent film. Such colored films are very brittle, which makes them difficult to handle or integrate within an industrial process. The goal of this study is (i) to produce flexible films using neutral poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) and (ii) to modulate their coloration using an anionic polyacrylate (PAAS). The first part is dedicated to studying the physicochemical interactions of the two polymers with CNCs using techniques such as zeta potential measurements, dynamic light scattering (DLS), quartz crystal microbalance (QCM), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Iridescent solid films were then produced and characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and UV-visible spectroscopy. The mechanical and thermal properties of films incorporating CNC were measured to evaluate improvements in flexibility. The addition of 10 wt % of PEG makes these films much more flexible (with a doubling of the elongation), with the coloration being preserved and the temperature of degradation increasing by almost 35 °C. Up to 160 μmol/gCNC PAAS can be added to tune the coloration of the CNC films by producing a more narrow, stronger coloration in the visible spectrum (higher absorption) with a well-pronounced fingerprint texture.

  7. Enhancing the color gamut of white displays using novel deep-blue organic fluorescent dyes to form color-changed thin films with improved efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wei-ting; Huang, Wen-Yao

    2012-06-01

    This study used novel fluorescence based deep-blue-emitting molecules, namely BPVPDA, an organic fluorescence color thin film using BPVPDA exhibit deep blue fluorine with CIE coordinates of (0.13,0.16). The developed original Organic RGB color thin film technology enables the optimization of the distinctive features of an organic light emitting diode (OLED) and (TFT) LCD display. The color filter structure maintains the same high resolution to obtain a higher level of brightness, in comparison with conventional organic RGB color thin film. The image-processing engine is designed to achieve a sharp text image for a thin-film-transistor (TFT) LCD with organic color thin films. The organic color thin films structure uses organic dye dopent in limpid photo resist. With this technology , the following characteristics can be obtained: (1) high color reproduction of gamut ratio, and (2) improved luminous efficiency with organic color fluorescence thin film. This performance is among the best results ever reported for a color-filter used on TFT-LCD and OLED.

  8. Thin-film thickness profile measurement by three-wavelength interference color analysis.

    PubMed

    Kitagawa, Katsuichi

    2013-04-01

    Conventional transparent film thickness measurement methods such as spectroscopy are essentially capable of measuring only a single point at a time, and their spatial resolution is limited. We propose a film thickness measurement method that is an extension of the global model-fitting algorithm developed for three-wavelength interferometric surface profiling. It estimates the film thickness distribution from an interference color image captured by a color camera with three-wavelength illumination. The proposed method is validated through computer simulations and experiments.

  9. Bioinspired Non-iridescent Structural Color from Polymer Blend Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nallapaneni, Asritha; Shawkey, Matthew; Karim, Alamgir

    Colors exhibited in biological species are either due to natural pigments, sub-micron structural variation or both. Structural colors thus exhibited can be iridescent (ID) or non-iridescent (NID) in nature. NID colors originate due to interference and coherent scattering of light with quasi-ordered micro- and nano- structures. Specifically, in Eastern Bluebird (Sialia sialis) these nanostructures develop as a result of phase separation of β-keratin from cytoplasm present in cells. We replicate these structures via spinodal blend phase separation of PS-PMMA thin films. Colors of films vary from ultraviolet to blue. Scattering of UV-visible light from selectively leeched phase separated blends are studied in terms of varying domain spacing (200nm to 2 μm) of film. We control these parameters by tuning annealing time and temperature. Angle-resolved spectroscopy studies suggest that the films are weakly iridescent and scattering from phase-separated films is more diffused when compared to well-mixed films. This study offers solutions to several color-based application in paints and coatings industry.

  10. Drude's Model Optical Parameters and the Color of TiNx Films Obtained Through Reflectivity Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alves, L. A.; Sagás, J. C.; Damião, A. J.; Fontana, L. C.

    2015-02-01

    Titanium nitride (TiN) has been applied as decorative coating due to its high reflectivity and goldish color, having high hardness and wear resistance. In the present work, TiNx films were deposited by grid-assisted magnetron sputtering. The color and reflectivity were investigated by spectrophotometry as a function of the working gas ratio N2/Ar used during films deposition. The crystalline phases were identified by X-ray diffraction pattern (XRD). The TiNx plasma frequency ( ω p) and the relaxation time ( τ) were determined by fitting the experimental reflectivity curves, according to the Drude model. The color parameters obtained by the CieLab method were used to compare TiNx films with gold film.

  11. Highly conductive and flexible color filter electrode using multilayer film structure.

    PubMed

    Han, Jun Hee; Kim, Dong-Young; Kim, Dohong; Choi, Kyung Cheol

    2016-07-04

    In this paper, a high performance flexible component that serves as a color filter and an electrode simultaneously is suggested. The suggested highly conductive and flexible color filter electrode (CFE) has a multilayer film structure composed of silver (Ag) and tungsten trioxide (WO3). The CFE maintained its color filtering capability even when the films were bent on a polyethylene terephthalate (PET) film. Low sheet resistance of the CFE was obtained using WO3 as a bridge layer that connects two Ag layers electrically. The sheet resistance was less than 2 Ω/sq. and it was negligibly changed after bending the film, confirming the flexibility of the CFE. The CFE can be easily fabricated using a thermal evaporator and is easily patterned by photolithography or a shadow mask. The proposed CFE has enormous potential for applications involving optical devices including large area devices and flexible devices.

  12. Colored and transparent oxide thin films prepared by magnetron sputtering: the glass blower approach.

    PubMed

    Gil-Rostra, Jorge; Chaboy, Jesús; Yubero, Francisco; Vilajoana, Antoni; González-Elipe, Agustín R

    2013-03-01

    This work describes the reactive magnetron sputtering processing at room temperature of several mixed oxide MxSiyOz thin films (M: Fe, Ni, Co, Mo, W, Cu) intended for optical, coloring, and aesthetic applications. Specific colors can be selected by adjusting the plasma gas composition and the Si-M ratio in the magnetron target. The microstructure and chemistry of the films are characterized by a large variety of techniques including X-ray photoemission spectroscopy, X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), and infrared spectroscopy, while their optical properties are characterized by UV-vis transmission and reflection analysis. Particularly, XAS analysis of the M cations in the amorphous thin films has provided valuable information about their chemical state and local structure. It is concluded that the M cations are randomly distributed within the SiO2 matrix and that both the M concentration and its chemical state are the key parameters to control the final color of the films.

  13. Highly conductive and flexible color filter electrode using multilayer film structure

    PubMed Central

    Han, Jun Hee; Kim, Dong-Young; Kim, Dohong; Choi, Kyung Cheol

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a high performance flexible component that serves as a color filter and an electrode simultaneously is suggested. The suggested highly conductive and flexible color filter electrode (CFE) has a multilayer film structure composed of silver (Ag) and tungsten trioxide (WO3). The CFE maintained its color filtering capability even when the films were bent on a polyethylene terephthalate (PET) film. Low sheet resistance of the CFE was obtained using WO3 as a bridge layer that connects two Ag layers electrically. The sheet resistance was less than 2 Ω/sq. and it was negligibly changed after bending the film, confirming the flexibility of the CFE. The CFE can be easily fabricated using a thermal evaporator and is easily patterned by photolithography or a shadow mask. The proposed CFE has enormous potential for applications involving optical devices including large area devices and flexible devices. PMID:27373804

  14. Highly conductive and flexible color filter electrode using multilayer film structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Jun Hee; Kim, Dong-Young; Kim, Dohong; Choi, Kyung Cheol

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, a high performance flexible component that serves as a color filter and an electrode simultaneously is suggested. The suggested highly conductive and flexible color filter electrode (CFE) has a multilayer film structure composed of silver (Ag) and tungsten trioxide (WO3). The CFE maintained its color filtering capability even when the films were bent on a polyethylene terephthalate (PET) film. Low sheet resistance of the CFE was obtained using WO3 as a bridge layer that connects two Ag layers electrically. The sheet resistance was less than 2 Ω/sq. and it was negligibly changed after bending the film, confirming the flexibility of the CFE. The CFE can be easily fabricated using a thermal evaporator and is easily patterned by photolithography or a shadow mask. The proposed CFE has enormous potential for applications involving optical devices including large area devices and flexible devices.

  15. High Dynamic Range Image rendering of color in chameleons' camouflage using optical thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prusten, Mark

    2008-08-01

    High Dynamic Range Image (HDRI) rendering and animation of color in the camouflage of chameleons is developed utilizing thin film optics. Chameleons are a lizard species, and have the ability to change their skin color. This change in color is an expression of the physical and physiological conditions of the lizard, and plays a part in communication. The different colors that can be produced depending on the species include pink, blue, red, orange, green, black, brown and yellow. The modeling, simulation, and rendering of the color, which their skin incorporates, thin film optical stacks. The skin of a chameleon has four layers, which together produce various colors. The outside transparent layer has chromatophores cells, of two kinds of color, yellow and red. Next there are two more layers that reflect light: one blue and the other white. The innermost layer contains dark pigment granules or melanophore cells that influences the amount of reflected light. All of these pigment cells can rapidly relocate their pigments, thereby influencing the color of the chameleon. Techniques like subsurface scattering, the simulation of volumetric scattering of light underneath the objects surface, and final gathering are defined in custom shaders and material phenomena for the renderer. The workflow developed to model the chameleon's skin is also applied to simulation and rendering of hair and fur camouflage, which does not exist in nature.

  16. Coloration and Depth Distribution of Cations Electrochemically-inserted into Electrochromic WO3 Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawai, Miho; Sakida, Shinichi; Benino, Yasuhiko; Nanba, Tokuro

    2011-10-01

    Li+ and H+ ions were electrochemically inserted into amorphous WO3 films prepared on an ITO-coated glass substrate by an R.F. magnetron sputtering method under Ar/O2 flow ratios of 4/1 (SP1)and 1/1 (SP2). The cation distribution was estimated indirectly by depth profiles of refractive-index obtained from prism coupler measurements and was evaluated directly by glow discharge spectrometry (GDS). H+ ions inserted were segregated only at deeper region around ITO electrode, which was independent to the preparing condition. In the case of Li+ insertion into SP1 film, Li+ ions were initially segregated at around ITO electrode, and after further insertions, they were also distributed at around the surface of WO3 film. In SP1 film, Li+ ions at around ITO electrode seemed to contribute to coloration. In SP2 film, however, Li+ ions subsequently inserted, which were uniformly distributed in the film, were only involved in coloration. The difference in depth distribution and coloration was due to the difference in atomic structure of WO3 films.

  17. Color as a variable in making an erotic film more arousing.

    PubMed

    High, R W; Rubin, H B; Henson, D

    1979-05-01

    Eight adult male subjects participated in a counterbalanced, repeated-measures design to determine the relative efficacy of color and black-and-white visual sexual stimuli in eliciting sexual arousing, as objectively measured by a mercury-in-rubber strain gauge transducer. There were no consistent or significant differences in either the intensity of the pattern of penile responding during color and black-and-white presentations of the same film.

  18. Study on the Preparation and Properties of Colored Iron Oxide Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Xianhui; Li, Changhong; Liu, Qiuping; Duan, Yandong; He, Junjing; Liu, Su; Wang, Hai; Liang, Song

    2013-03-01

    Colored iron oxide thin films were prepared using Sol-gel technique. The raw materials were tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS), etoh ehanol (EtOH), iron nitrate, and de-ionized water. Various properties were measured and analysed, including the colour of thin films, surface topography, UV-Visible spectra, corrosion resistance and hydrophobicity. To understand how these properties influenced the structural and optical properties of Fe2O3 thin films, Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), UV Spectrophotometer and other facilities were employed. Many parameters influence the performance of thin films, such as film layers, added H2O content, and the amount of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). When the volume ratio of TEOS, EtOH and H2O was 15: 13: 1, the quality of Fe(NO3)3·9H2O was 6g, and pH value was 3, reddish and uniform Fe2O3 thin films with excellent properties were produced. Obtained thin films possessed corrosion resistance in hydrochloric acid with pH=l and the absorption edge wavelength was ~350.2nm. Different H2O contents could result in different morphologies of Fe2O3 nanoparticles. When 1.5 ml PDMS was added into the Sol, thin films possessed hydrophobiliry without dropping. Coating with different layers, thin films appeared different morphologies. Meanwhile, with the increment of film layers, the absorbance increased gradually.

  19. Comment on "Tunable Design of Structural Colors Produced by Pseudo-1D Photonic Crystals of Graphene Oxide" and Thin-Film Interference from Dried Graphene Oxide Film.

    PubMed

    Hong, Seung-Ho; Song, Jang-Kun

    2017-04-01

    The mechanism of the iridescent color reflection from dried thin graphene oxide (GO) film on Si wafer is clarified. Dissimilarly to the photonic crystalline reflection in aqueous GO dispersion, the color reflection in dried GO film originates from the thin film interference. The peak reflection can reach 23% by optimizing the GO thickness and the substrate. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Colors on Soap Films--An Interference Phenomenon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramme, Goran

    1990-01-01

    A simple experimental arrangement that makes it possible to simultaneously observe and compare on a screen the two interference patterns produced by reflected and transmitted light from incident white light impinging on a soap film directly is described. Procedures and illustrated effects are discussed. (CW)

  1. Method for retarding dye fading during archival storage of developed color photographic film. [inert atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoover, R. B.; Rhodes, C. M. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    Dye fading during archival storage of developed color photographic film is retarded by placing the film in a sealed, opaque vault, introducing a dry, pressurized inert gas into the vault while the latter is vented, and sealing the vault after the air within the vault has been purged and replaced by the inert gas. Preferably, the gas is nitrogen; and the vault is stored at a temperature below room temperature to preserve the color photographic emulsions on the film contained within the vault. For short-term storage, sodium thiocyanate pads charged with water are placed within the vault. For long term storage, the interior of the vault is kept at a low relative humidity.

  2. Structurally colored biopolymer thin films for detection of dissolved metal ions in aqueous solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cathell, Matthew David

    Natural polymers, such as the polysaccharides alginate and chitosan, are noted sorbents of heavy metals. Their polymer backbone structures are rich in ligands that can interact with metal ions through chelation, electrostatics, ion exchange and nonspecific mechanisms. These water-soluble biopolymer materials can be processed into hydrogel thin films, creating high surface area interfaces ideal for binding and sequestering metal ions from solution. By virtue of their uniform nanoscale dimensions (with thicknesses smaller than wavelengths of visible light) polymer thin films exhibit structure-based coloration. This phenomenon, frequently observed in nature, causes the transparent and essentially colorless films to reflect light in a wide array of colors. The lamellar film structures act as one-dimensional photonic crystals, allowing selective reflection of certain wavelengths of light while minimizing other wavelengths by out-of-phase interference. The combination of metal-binding and reflective properties make alginate and chitosan thin films attractive candidates for analyte sensing. Interactions with metal ions can induce changes in film thicknesses and refractive indices, thus altering the path of light reflected through the film. Small changes in dimensional or optical properties can lead to shifts in film color that are perceivable by the unaided eye. These thin films offer the potential for optical sensing of toxic dissolved materials without the need for instrumentation, external power or scientific expertise. With the use of a spectroscopic ellipsometer and a fiber optic reflectance spectrometer, the physical and optical characteristics of biopolymer thin films have been characterized in response to 50 ppm metal ion solutions. It has been determined that metal interactions can lead to measurable changes in both film thicknesses and effective refractive indices. The intrinsic response behaviors of alginate and chitosan, as well as the responses of modified

  3. Spectral reflectance and transmittance of stacks of nonscattering films printed with halftone colors.

    PubMed

    Hébert, Mathieu; Machizaud, Jacques

    2012-11-01

    This paper combines and extends two optical models based on a two-collimated-flux approach that we previously proposed for the reflectance and transmittance of nonscattering elements, i.e., stacked nonscattering plastic films on the one hand, and films printed in halftone on the other hand. Those two models are revisited and combined by introducing different reflectances and transmittances on the two sides of a printed film, a common situation in practice. We then address the special case of stacks of identical films for which we obtain closed-form expressions for the reflectance and transmittance of the stacks as functions of the number of films. Experimental testing has been carried out on several different films printed with an inkjet printer. The accuracy of the model is good up to 16 films in most cases, despite a slight decrease in the case of yellow ink, which is more scattering than the other inks. By transposing the model to thin diffusing layers and considering diffuse fluxes instead of collimated ones, the closed-form expressions yield the well-known Kubelka-Munk reflectance and transmittance formulas. When these stacks of films are backed by a colored specular reflector, the reflectance is in certain conditions independent of the number of films.

  4. Ag/Au bi-metallic film based color surface plasmon resonance biosensor with enhanced sensitivity, color contrast and great linearity.

    PubMed

    Li, Chung-Tien; Lo, Kun-Chi; Chang, Hsin-Yun; Wu, Hsieh-Ting; Ho, Jennifer H; Yen, Ta-Jen

    2012-01-01

    In wavelength surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor, the manipulation of SPR dispersion relation by Ag/Au bi-metallic film was first time implemented. Due to the enhanced resonant wavelength shift and the sharper SPR slope of using Ag/Au bi-metallic film, the illuminated color of reflection shows one order of magnitude greater contrast than conventional SPR biosensors. Such an Ag/Au bi-metallic film based color SPR biosensor (CSPRB) allows the detail bio-interactions, for example 100 nM streptavidin, to be distinguished by directly observing the color change of reflection through naked eyes rather than the analysis of spectrometer. In addition to the enhanced sensitivity and color contrast, this CSPRB also possesses a great linear detection range up to 0.0254 RIU, which leading to the application of point-of-care tests.

  5. Laser Based Color Film Recorder System With GaAs Microlaser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Difrancesco, David J.

    1989-07-01

    In 1984 Pixar's research and development group built and applied to the motion-picture arts at Lucasfilm's ILM facility a three color laser based film scanner/recorder system. The digital film printer is capable of reading and writing 35mm film formats on a variety of film stocks. The system has been used in award-winning special-effects work, and has been operated in a normal production environment since that time. The primary objective was to develop a full color high resolution system, free from scan artifacts, enabling traditionally photographed motion-picture film to be inter-cut with digital raster image photography. Its use is applied to the art of blue-screen traveling-matte cinematography for motion pic-ture special effects. The system was designed using the Pixar Image Computer and conventional gas laser technology as the illumination source. This paper will discuss recent experimental work in the application of GaAs microlaser technology to a digital film printing system of the future.

  6. [Influence of SiO2 films on color reproduction of Ni-Cr alloy porcelain crowns].

    PubMed

    Wu, Dong; Feng, Yunzhi

    2011-08-01

    To study whether SiO2 films will influence the color of Ni-Cr metal ceramic restorations. For the film plating experimental group, Sol-gel method was employed to apply SiO2 films to the surface of the Ni-Cr copings, while no coating was applied for the non-film-plating control group. Veneering porcelains were then applied subsequently, and a total of 12 B2-colored maxillary incisor metal ceramic crowns were fabricated with 6 crowns in each group. A ShadeEye Ncc computer-aided colorimeter was employed to measure the shade of the samples, as well as 6 B2(Vitapan classical vita color tabs) shade standards. The color was expressed as C1E-1976-Lab coordinates. There was a statistically significant color difference between all metal ceramic crowns and the B2 shade standards (delta E>1.5). The L*, a*, b* values of all crowns were higher than those of the B2 shade standards, and the crowns were typically yellower or redder. While neither significant color difference nor difference in shade values was observed between the film plating experimental group and non-film-plating control group (delta E<1.5). SiO2 films applied to the Ni-Cr copings by means of Sol-gel technique do not impact the final color of the metal ceramic restorations.

  7. Color-encoded microcarriers based on nano-silicon dioxide film for multiplexed immunoassays.

    PubMed

    Li, Qiang; Zhang, Kaihuan; Wang, Tongzhou; Zhou, Xinying; Wang, Jia; Wang, Chen; Lin, Haixiao; Li, Xin; Lu, Ying; Huang, Guoliang

    2012-08-21

    Multiplexed analysis allows researchers to obtain high-density information with minimal assay time, sample volume and cost. Currently, microcarrier or particle-based approaches for multiplexed analysis involve complicated or expensive encoding and decoding processes. In this paper, a novel optical encoding technique based on nano-silicon dioxide film is presented. Microcarriers composed of thermally grown silicon dioxide (SiO(2)) film and monocrystalline silicon (Si) substrate were fabricated. The nano-silicon dioxide film exhibited unique surface color by low-coherence interference. Hence the colors can be used for encoding at least 100 microcarriers loaded with films of different thickness. We demonstrated that color-encoded microcarriers loaded with antigens could be used for multiplexed immunoassays to detect goat anti-human IgG, goat anti-mouse IgG and goat anti-rabbit IgG, with fluorescent detection as the interrogating approach. This microcarrier-based method also exhibited improved analytical performance compared with a microarray technique. This approach will provide new opportunities for multiplexed target assay development.

  8. Structured metal thin film as an asymmetric color filter: the forward and reverse plasmonic halos.

    PubMed

    Ye, Fan; Burns, Michael J; Naughton, Michael J

    2014-12-01

    We observe asymmetric color filtering under unpolarized incidence in a structured metallic (Ag) film, where the center of an optically thick circular Ag disk surrounded by a step gap appears dark when observed from one side, and bright from the other. The latter situation corresponds to abnormally high optical transmission through the optically thick film. We explain this by a three-step process: coupling of photons to surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs), wave interference of SPPs forming resonant cavity modes, and out-coupling from SPPs to photons. Full wave electromagnetic simulations based on the finite element method support our findings. These results may have potential applications in areas such as optical color filtering and biosensing via dielectric detection within the step gap plasmonic cavity.

  9. Reclaim System Design of Indium Tin Oxide Thin-Film Removal from Color Filters of Displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pa, Pai-Shan

    2008-09-01

    A newly design precision reclaim system using electrochemical machining as an etching process for indium tin oxide (ITO) thin-film removal from the color filter surface of a displays is presented. Through the ultra precise etching of the nanostructure, the semiconductor industry can effectively recycle defective products, thereby reducing production costs. A large gyration diameter of a cathode combined with a small gap width between the cathode and a workpiece takes less time for the same amount of ITO removed. An adequate feed rate of color filters combined with a sufficient electric power produces fast machining. Pulsed direct current and higher rotational speed of the cathode can improve the effects of dregs discharge and are advantageous to be combined with a high feed rate of workpieces. Electrochemical machining only requires a short time to easily and cleanly remove ITO films.

  10. Enhanced coloration of a methylene blue film on fused quartz by mechanical brushing and bleaching by solvent vapor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Hiroyuki; Takahashi, Mutsuko; Kotani, Masahiro

    2005-05-01

    Broad visible absorption, peaked at ≈596 nm, of a methylene blue (MB) film prepared by dip coating on a quartz plate was found to increase significantly when the film surface was mechanically brushed. This coloration was nearly bleached by exposing the film to ethanol or water vapor. This treatment was reversible for 7-8 times. The enhanced coloration was ascribed to the destruction of the parallel alignment of the MB molecules in the original film by mechanical brushing. Spectroscopic and X-ray diffraction studies revealed that the ordered structure was restored by treatment with solvent vapor. Similar phenomena were observed with several thiazine and oxazine dyes.

  11. Use of color, color infrared, black and white films, and video systems in detecting health, stress, and disease in vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blazquez, Carlos H.

    1991-02-01

    Ground and aerial experiments were conducted with color (NC) color infrared (CIR) and black and white film and video systems to compare the limitations! advantages of each method of image acquisition with photographs of natural vegetation including cypress stands wetlands and cultivated crops such as: tomatoes cucumbers and citrus. Image analysis with a Linear Measuring System (LMS) and a scanning densitometer were used to quantify healthy stressed and diseased foliage!canopy of each crop for comparisons with visual estimates. videography and photography were useful in delineating topographic features and location of vegetation. The NC video systems yielded images that distinctly separated healthy and dying foliage but did not compare with the CIR video or photography in outlining distinct areas of stress and disease. Aerial photography provided a synoptic view of the fields and cypress stands not otherwise possible. CIR images were easier to process with the LMS than NC video or photographic frames. CIR video and photographic systems produced clearer differences between healthy and stressed foliage. Spectral curves produced with the scanning densitometer correlated well with visual grading of health and stress. . 2.

  12. Two-color Laser Desorption of Nanostructured MgO Thin Films

    SciTech Connect

    Beck, Kenneth M.; Joly, Alan G.; Hess, Wayne P.

    2009-09-30

    Neutral magnesium atom emission from nanostructured MgO thin films is induced using two-color nanosecond laser excitation. We find that combined visible/UV excitation, for single-color pulse energies below the desorption threshold, induces neutral Mg-atom emission with hyperthermal kinetic energies in the range of 0.1- 0.2 eV. The observed metal atom emission is consistent with a mechanism involving rapid electron transfer to 3-coordinated Mg surface sites. The two-color Mg-atom signal is significant only for parallel laser polarizations and temporally overlapped laser pulses indicating that intermediate excited states are short-lived compared to the 5 nanosecond laser pulse duration.

  13. Evaluation of color grading impact in restoration process of archive films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fliegel, Karel; Vítek, Stanislav; Páta, Petr; Janout, Petr; Myslík, Jiří; Pecák, Josef; Jícha, Marek

    2016-09-01

    Color grading of archive films is a very particular task in the process of their restoration. The ultimate goal of color grading here is to achieve the same look of the movie as intended at the time of its first presentation. The role of the expert restorer, expert group and a digital colorist in this complicated process is to find the optimal settings of the digital color grading system so that the resulting image look is as close as possible to the estimate of the original reference release print adjusted by the expert group of cinematographers. A methodology for subjective assessment of perceived differences between the outcomes of color grading is introduced, and results of a subjective study are presented. Techniques for objective assessment of perceived differences are discussed, and their performance is evaluated using ground truth obtained from the subjective experiment. In particular, a solution based on calibrated digital single-lens reflex camera and subsequent analysis of image features captured from the projection screen is described. The system based on our previous work is further developed so that it can be used for the analysis of projected images. It allows assessing color differences in these images and predict their impact on the perceived difference in image look.

  14. Stimuli-responsive color films of poly(4-vinylpyridine)-b-poly(ε-caprolactone) complexed with cyano-capped chromophores.

    PubMed

    Liu, Kai-Wei; Li, Chien-Lin; Li, Ming-Chia; Ho, Rong-Ming

    2013-07-16

    Here, we develop a method to fabricate stimuli-responsive color films using block copolymer, poly(4-vinylpyridine)-b-poly(ε-caprolactone) (P4VP-PCL), as a template complexed with functionalized chromophores. The P4VP block in the P4VP-PCL can be associated with a cyano end-capped chromophore via charge transfer, which is a noncovalent interaction that can be conveniently manipulated by external stimuli, giving a specific color. The color of the film can be switched by tuning the charge transfer interaction between the chromophore and P4VP with controlled environmental conditions, such as pH, temperature, and moisture, while maintaining high transmittance for visible light due to the formation of the nanostructure of chromophore/P4VP-PCL complex. However, the association/dissociation process between chromophore and P4VP is diffusion-dominated, which may limit the kinetic response time for color change. A way to create quick and reversible color switching can be achieved by a combination of stimuli. The contrasting color change of the responsive chromophore/P4VP-PCL thin films which exhibit RGB primary colors can provide a sensor film that is flexible, fast-responsive, and convenient.

  15. Brilliant Structurally Colored Films with Invariable Stop-Band and Enhanced Mechanical Robustness Inspired by the Cobbled Road.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xin; Wang, Fen; Wang, Lei; Lin, Ying; Zhu, Jianfeng

    2016-08-31

    Recently, structural colors have attracted great concentrations because the coloration is free from chemical- or photobleaching. However, the color saturation and mechanical robustness are generally competitive properties in the fabrication of PCs (photonic crystals) films. Besides, the structure of PCs and their derivatives are easy to be invaded by liquids and lead to band gap shifts due to the change of refractive index or periodicity. To solve those problems, we infiltrate polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) into the intervals between regularly arrayed hollow SiO2 nanospheres, inspired by the cobbled road prepared by embedding stone in the bulk cement matrix. Consequently, the as-prepared PCs films show brilliant colors, invariable stop-bands, and excellent mechanical robustness. Moreover, the water contact angle even reached 166° after a sandpaper abrasion test. The combination of brilliant colors, invariable stop-bands, and excellent robustness is significant for potential application in paint and external decoration of architectures.

  16. Analysis of Comparison of Human Meibomian Lipid Films and Mixtures with Cholesteryl Esters In Vitro Films using High Resolution Color Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Millar, Thomas J.; King-Smith, P. Ewen

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. The lipid layer of the tears has been studied in vivo using high resolution color microscopy (HRCM). The purpose of these experiments was to gain further insight into the structure of the lipid layer by applying HRCM to in vitro meibomian lipid films. Methods. Films of human meibomian lipids, cholesteryl nervonate, cholesteryl palmitate, or their mixtures, were spread on a Langmuir trough. Changes to the films were monitored using HRCM as the films were compressed to different surface pressures. The penetration of albumin into a meibomian lipid film also was studied. Results. Small amounts of meibomian lipids at low pressures formed very thin films estimated to be 5.2 nm thick. Compression caused spots to appear in the films. At higher concentrations, micro lenses were a feature of the film. Cholesteryl nervonate formed a multilayered oil slick that did not change with surface pressure. Cholesteryl palmitate formed a stiff film that collapsed at high compression. Mixtures of cholesteryl nervonate and meibomian lipids showed that they mixed to increase surface pressures above that of the individual components. HRCM also allowed albumin to be seen penetrating the meibomian lipid film. Conclusions. HRCM combined with in vitro surface pressure measurements using a Langmuir trough is useful for modeling meibomian lipid films. The films often resemble the appearance of the lipid layer of in vivo films. The data indicate that the lipid layer might be modeled best as a duplex film containing an array of liquid crystals. PMID:22695957

  17. Interference color of anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) films for sensor application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yu; Wang, Ming L.; Indacochea, J. Ernesto; Wang, H. Hau

    2009-03-01

    Anodized aluminum oxide (AAO) membranes are fabricated under different anodization potentials in dilute sulfuric acid. Here we report the growth of AAO under 10, 15, 20, and 25V. These AAO membranes consist of nanopores with pore-to-pore distance from 35 to 69 nm. When AAO membranes are kept thin (less than ~500 nm), together with the unreacted aluminum substrate, interference colors are observed. The inference color of the membrane is changed by its thickness and the pore-to-pore distance, which is controlled by the anodization time and voltage, respectively. By using thin film interference model to analyze the UV-Vis reflectance spectra, we can extract the thickness of the membrane. Thus the linear growth of AAO membrane in sulfuric acid with time during the first 15 minutes is validated. Coating poly (styrene sulfonate) (PSS) sodium salt and poly (allylamine hydrochloride) (PAH) layer by layer over the surface of AAO membrane consistently shifts the interference colors. The red shift of the UV-Vis reflectance spectrum is correlated to the number of layers. This color change due to molecular attachment and increasing thickness is a promising method for chemical sensing.

  18. Women of Color in Film and Using Short Film in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Ernece B.

    This paper describes how director Spike Lee changed Hollywood's representations of African Americans in a dramatic way. He returned to traditions of early African American filmakers like Oscar Michaux by casting all-black movies. In his first film, "She's Gotta Have It", he broke with the Hollywood tradition of using a classic beauty…

  19. Initial color development in radiochromic dye films after a short intense pulse of accelerated electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uribe, R. M.; Barcelo, M.; McLaughlin, W. L.; Buenfil, A. E.; Rios, J.

    The radiation response of different dye precursors in several host plastics has been investigated after a single short-pulse irradiation with 2.5-MeV electrons. It was observed that in most films the radiation-initiated color development proceeds mainly during the first 300 seconds, after such high dose-rate irradiation (≈ 10 12 Gy/s). Absorption spectra show that the main absorption band increases at the expense of a shorter-wavelength precursor absorption band, showing an isosbestic point approximately midway between the two absorption bands. It was found that a certain combination of dye precursor and host plastic (namely a polyamide containing an aromatic group) constitutes a film which shows a very fast increase in optical density of the main absorption band, making it suitable for immediate dosimetric analysis in very high dose-rate installations.

  20. Silicon colors: spectral selective perfect light absorption in single layer silicon films on aluminum surface and its thermal tunability.

    PubMed

    Mirshafieyan, Seyed Sadreddin; Guo, Junpeng

    2014-12-15

    Using two most abundant materials in nature: silicon and aluminum, spectral selective perfect light absorption in single layer silicon films on aluminum surface is demonstrated. Perfect light absorption is achieved due to the critical coupling of incident optical wave to the second order resonance mode of the optical cavity made of a thin silicon film on aluminum surface. Spectral selective perfect light absorption results in different optical colors corresponding to different thicknesses of silicon films. The device colors do not change when viewing from large angles with respect to the surface normal. Perfect absorption wavelength can be tuned over a wide wavelength range over 70 nm by thermal annealing. This new technology, which is low cost and compatible with silicon technology platform, paves the way for many applications such as optical color filters and wavelength selective photodetectors.

  1. Analysis of wide color gamut of green/red bilayered freestanding phosphor film-capped white LEDs for LCD backlight.

    PubMed

    Oh, Ji Hye; Kang, Heejoon; Ko, Minji; Do, Young Rag

    2015-07-27

    In this study, we propose green/red bilayered freestanding phosphor film-capped white light-emitting diodes (W-LEDs) using InGaN blue LEDs and narrowband red and green phosphors to realize a wide color gamut in a liquid crystal display (LCD) backlight system. The narrowband K2SiF6:Mn4+ (KSF) red and SrGa2S4:Eu2+ (SGS) green phosphors are synthesized using a facile etching synthetic process and flux-aided solid state reaction under a H2S atmosphere, respectively, and the freestanding phosphor films are fabricated using a delamination method with water-soluble polymer, polystyrene sulfonic acid, PEDOT/PSS, and interlayered phosphor film. Various phosphor concentrations of green/red bilayered freestanding phosphor film-capped W-LEDs exhibit a correlated color temperature (CCT) and luminous efficacy range of 11,390 K ~6,540 K and 99 lm/W ~124 lm/W, respectively, with an applied current of 60 mA. The W-LED with green (12.5 wt%)/red (40 wt%) bilayered phosphor film, which exhibited luminous efficacy of 105 lm/W at the CCT of 8,330 K, is selected and the color gamut of the bare LED and phosphor RG and the filtered RGB triangle is calculated to be more than ~95% and ~86.4%, respectively, relative to the NTSC in the 1931 CIE color coordinates space.

  2. Operando X-ray spectroscopic observations of modulations of local atomic and electronic structures of color switching smart film.

    PubMed

    Lu, Ying-Rui; Wu, Tzung-Zing; Chang, Han-Wei; Chen, Jeng-Lung; Chen, Chi-Liang; Wei, Da-Hau; Chen, Jin-Ming; Chou, Wu-Ching; Dong, Chung-Li

    2017-06-07

    Smart windows, which change color in response to external stimuli, are extensively studied owing to their potential technological applications in sensors and their ability to reduce the energy consumed by buildings. Most related studies focus on the optical properties of smart color switching films that can control the transmission of light and that of heat independently. This study examines the vanadium pentoxide thin film as a model system of a color switchable window. A gasochromic thin film of V2O5 is fabricated using sol-gel spin coating. In operando soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) at the V L-edge is used to determine the evolutions of the electronic and atomic structures of V2O5 thin film under gasochromic color switching. Analysis of the V K-edge with respect to crystalline structural symmetry and valence requires many reference samples, whereas the V L-edge, which involves V 3d orbitals of various symmetries, can provide information about the atomic/electronic structures without many reference samples. A new gas reaction in situ cell was developed to collect the total-electron-yield XAS. The total-electron-yield signal can provide more accurate information about atomic and electronic structures than can the fluorescence-yield signal, which typically exerts a saturation effect. Analytical results reveal that the gasochromic reaction changes the charge state and causes a local atomic structural deformation of the film. The suggestion has been made that in the reaction, the central vanadium atom within the octahedron moves closer to the basal plane such that the apical V-O bond becomes more symmetrical than the film before gasochromic coloration. Unlike the cell that is used for hard XAS, and for which only cation sites can be studied, this in situ gas cell enables the real-time studies of atomic/electronic structures at gas-solid interfaces from viewpoints of both cation and anion sites.

  3. Coloration principles of nymphaline butterflies - thin films, melanin, ommochromes and wing scale stacking.

    PubMed

    Stavenga, Doekele G; Leertouwer, Hein L; Wilts, Bodo D

    2014-06-15

    The coloration of the common butterflies Aglais urticae (small tortoiseshell), Aglais io (peacock) and Vanessa atalanta (red admiral), belonging to the butterfly subfamily Nymphalinae, is due to the species-specific patterning of differently coloured scales on their wings. We investigated the scales' structural and pigmentary properties by applying scanning electron microscopy, (micro)spectrophotometry and imaging scatterometry. The anatomy of the wing scales appears to be basically identical, with an approximately flat lower lamina connected by trabeculae to a highly structured upper lamina, which consists of an array of longitudinal, parallel ridges and transversal crossribs. Isolated scales observed at the abwing (upper) side are blue, yellow, orange, red, brown or black, depending on their pigmentation. The yellow, orange and red scales contain various amounts of 3-OH-kynurenine and ommochrome pigment, black scales contain a high density of melanin, and blue scales have a minor amount of melanin pigment. Observing the scales from their adwing (lower) side always revealed a structural colour, which is blue in the case of blue, red and black scales, but orange for orange scales. The structural colours are created by the lower lamina, which acts as an optical thin film. Its reflectance spectrum, crucially determined by the lamina thickness, appears to be well tuned to the scales' pigmentary spectrum. The colours observed locally on the wing are also due to the degree of scale stacking. Thin films, tuned pigments and combinations of stacked scales together determine the wing coloration of nymphaline butterflies. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  4. High color fidelity thin film multilayer systems for head-up display use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsou, Yi-Jen D.; Ho, Fang C.

    1996-09-01

    Head-up display is gaining increasing access in automotive vehicles for indication and position/navigation purposes. An optical combiner, which allows the driver to receive image information from outside and inside of the automobile, is the essential part of this display device. Two multilayer thin film combiner coating systems with distinctive polarization selectivity and broad band spectral neutrality are discussed. One of the coating systems was designed to be located at the lower portion of the windshield. The coating reduced the exterior glare by approximately 45% and provided about 70% average see-through transmittance in addition to the interior information display. The other coating system was designed to be integrated with the sunshield located at the upper portion of the windshield. The coating reflected the interior information display while reducing direct sunlight penetration to 25%. Color fidelity for both interior and exterior images were maintained in both systems. This facilitated the display of full-color maps. Both coating systems were absorptionless and environmentally durable. Designs, fabrication, and performance of these coating systems are addressed.

  5. Investigating phase separation and structural coloration of self-assembled ternary polymer thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vohra, Varun; Galeotti, Francesco; Giovanella, Umberto; Anzai, Takuya; Kozma, Erika; Botta, Chiara

    2016-09-01

    Poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl) (P3HT) can generate nanoporous structures with variable pore diameters ranging from 150 to 600 nm from spin-coated blends with polystyrene (PS). In the present study, we observe the effect of the addition of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) to P3HT:PS blends to increase the pore-to-pore dimensions up to the micrometer scale. The phase separation in the ternary blend can be directly visualized by replacing the commercial (non-emissive) PS with a boron-dipyrromethene functionalized PS to distinctively locate the red-emitting P3HT and the green-emitting PS phases. In particular, in the ternary blend with high PMMA contents, we observe that PS acts as a compatibilizing agent at the interface between the P3HT and PMMA phases. After selective removal of the PS and PMMA phases using acetone, we demonstrate that, in these P3HT structured thin films, iridescence can be observed as they exhibit angle dependent reflectivity which is further emphasized when covered with a thin metal layer. The metal covered nanostructured P3HT films display bright color switching properties with blue and red emission at low and high reflection angles, respectively.

  6. [Improved color purity of green OLED device based on Au thin film].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan-Fei; Zhao, Su-Ling; Xu, Zheng

    2014-04-01

    Au was used as anode in some kind of organic electroluminescent devices. Sometimes transparent Au electrodes are required, which means that the thickness of Au electrode should be as thin as possible. Therefore, two metals together forming an electrode become a choice. In the present paper, translucent Au/Al layer was inserted to anode side, and OLED device with the structure of ITO/Al (16 nm)/Au (10 nm)/TPD (30 nm)/AlQ (30 nm)/LiF (0.5 nm)/Al was prepared. There is a spectral narrowing phenomenon on the device ITO/TPD (30 nm)/AlQ (30 nm)/LiF (0. 5 nm)/Al, and through analysis and experiment it was found that this phenomenon comes from selective permeability to light of Au thin film rather than the microcavity effect. The device maintains wide viewing angle, without the angular dependence. And the color purity of device with Au thin film is improved.

  7. Defective Color Vision, Filters, Film and the Detection of Camouflaged Targets: An Annotated Bibliography,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    deficient individuals in detecting and identifying targets in varying degrees of concealment. The first section covers color blindness and camouflage, color ... blindness , acquired defects, genetic characteristics, and tests for color blindness . This section contains over 275 annotated references and

  8. Solid polymer films exhibiting handedness-switchable, full-color-tunable selective reflection of circularly polarized light.

    PubMed

    Nagata, Yuuya; Takagi, Keisuke; Suginome, Michinori

    2014-07-16

    Poly(quinoxaline-2,3-diyl)s bearing (S)-2-methylbutyl, n-butyl, and 8-chlorooctyl groups as side chains were synthesized to fabricate dry solid polymer thin films. These films exhibited selective reflection of right-handed circular polarized light (CPL) in the visible region after annealing in CHCl3 vapor at room temperature. The handedness of reflected CPL was inverted to the left after annealing in 1,2-dichloroethane vapor. It was also found that the color of a particular single film along with the handedness of reflected CPL were fully tuned reversibly, upon exposure of the film to the vapor of various mixtures of chloroform and 1,2-dichloroethane in different ratios.

  9. Ultrafast coloring-bleaching performance of nanoporous WO3-SiO2 gasochromic films doped with Pd catalyst.

    PubMed

    Li, Dezeng; Wu, Guangming; Gao, Guohua; Shen, Jun; Huang, Fuqiang

    2011-12-01

    The gasochromic performance and durability of WO(3)-based films can be improved by doping SiO(2) particles within WO(3) matrix forming nanoporous supporting network and dispersing Pd catalyst inside films with enhanced catalytic activity. Nanoporous WO(3)-SiO(2) composite films loaded with Pd catalyst were prepared by sol-gel dip-coating process and served as an active chromogenic layer to fabricate a double-glazed gasochromic device. The structure, morphology, optical properties and gasochromic performance of WO(3)-SiO(2) films were fully investigated. The WO(3)-SiO(2) films exhibit excellent gasochromic performance with ultrafast coloring rate of 14.8% per second (%/s) (WO(3): 2.84%/s) and bleaching rate of 44.1%/s (WO(3): 7.18%/s). The transmittance changed between 17.8 and 74.6% during coloring-bleaching cycles, and totally reversibility and stability were achieved. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  10. First full-color thin film electroluminescent (TFEL) display product: the FC-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laakso, C.; Barrow, W. A.; Coovert, R.; Dickey, Eric; Flegal, T.; Fullman, M.; King, Christopher N.; Tuenge, Richard T.; Sun, Sey-Shing; Schaus, Christian F.

    1995-04-01

    Planar has developed the first manufacturable, full color, high contrast, 320.256 line thin film electroluminescent (TFEL) display; the FC-2. Three primary tasks in developing the FC-2 were (1) blue phosphor improvement, (2) unique panel structure development for enhanced optical properties, and (3) application of high density interconnects. We review progress in the development of the cerium doped, alkaline earth thiogallate compounds for blue emission. ZnS:Mn is filtered for red emission and ZnS:Tb is used for green. The panel structure reported optimizes key performance parameters by enhancing the fill factor, frequency of operation, and power efficiency. It uses a `dual substrate' approach, placing the blue phosphor on one substrate and the red/green on the other. We describe panel fabrication processes and assembly techniques utilized. We also describe the electronic driver and addressing schemes used to maximize the brightness. The high interconnect density in this 5' diagonal display demands an improved driver interconnect scheme. Planar has developed a chip on glass (COG) process with the driver chips bonded directly to the glass substrate and wire bonded to the rows, columns, and control electronics. This approach is compared to conventional tape carrier package (TCP) and flex interconnects. Mechanical, optical and electrical panel performance specifications are reported together with some exiting areas of future development.

  11. Multiple-Color-Generating Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se)2 Thin-Film Solar Cells via Dichroic Film Incorporation for Power-Generating Window Applications.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Gang Yeol; Jeong, Jae-Seung; Lee, Soyoung; Lee, Youngki; Yoon, Hee Chang; Chu, Van Ben; Park, Gi Soon; Hwang, Yun Jeong; Kim, Woong; Min, Byoung Koun; Do, Young Rag

    2017-05-03

    There are four prerequisites when applying all types of thin-film solar cells to power-generating window photovoltaics (PVs): high power-generation efficiency, longevity and high durability, semitransparency or partial-light transmittance, and colorful and aesthetic value. Solid-type thin-film Cu(In,Ga)S2 (CIGS) or Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se)2 (CIGSSe) PVs nearly meet the first two criteria, making them promising candidates for power-generating window applications if they can transmit light to some degree and generate color with good aesthetic value. In this study, the mechanical scribing process removes 10% of the window CIGSSe thin-film solar cell with vacant line patterns to provide a partial-light-transmitting CIGSSe PV module to meet the third requirement. The last concept of creating distinct colors could be met by the addition of reflectance colors of one-dimensional (1D) photonic crystal (PC) dichroic film on the black part of a partial-light-transmitting CIGSSe PV module. Beautiful violets and blues were created on the cover glass of a black CIGSSe PV module via the addition of 1D PC blue-mirror-yellow-pass dichroic film to improve the aesthetic value of the outside appearance. As a general result from the low external quantum efficiency (EQE) and absorption of CIGSSe PVs below a wavelength of 400 nm, the harvesting efficiency and short-circuit photocurrent of CIGSSe PVs were reduced by only ∼10% without reducing the open-circuit voltage (VOC) because of the reduced overlap between the absorption spectrum of CIGSSe PV and the reflectance spectrum of the 1D PC blue-mirror-yellow-pass dichroic film. The combined technology of partial-vacancy-scribed CIGSSe PV modules and blue 1D PC dichroic film can provide a simple strategy to be applied to violet/blue power-generating window applications, as such a strategy can improve the transparency and aesthetic value without significantly sacrificing the harvesting efficiency of the CIGSSe PV modules.

  12. Rapid visible color change and physical swelling during water exposure in triethanolamine-metalcone films formed by molecular layer deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Lemaire, Paul C.; Oldham, Christopher J.; Parsons, Gregory N.

    2016-01-15

    Molecular layer deposition (MLD) of “metalcones,” including alucone, zincone, titanicone, and others, involves self-limiting half-reactions between organic and organometallic (or metal-halide) reactants. Studies have typically focused on metal precursors reacting with ethylene glycol or glycerol to form the films' polymeric O-M-O-(CH{sub x}){sub y}-O-M-O repeat units. The authors report new MLD materials that incorporate tertiary amine groups into the organic linkage. Specifically, reacting triethanolamine (TEA) with either trimethylaluminum or titanium tetrachloride produces TEA-alucone (Al-TEA) and TEA-titanicone (Ti-TEA), respectively, and the amine group leads to unique physical and optical properties. Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) analysis confirms that the films have prominent C-H, C-N, and M-O-C peaks, consistent with the expected bond structure. When exposed to vapors, including water, alcohol, or ammonia, the Ti-TEA films changed their visible color within minutes and increased physical thickness by >35%. The Al-TEA showed significantly less response. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and FTIR suggest that HCl generated during MLD coordinates to the amine forming a quaternary ammonium salt that readily binds adsorbates via hydrogen bonding. The visible color change is reversible, and ellipsometry confirms that the color change results from vapor absorption. The unique absorptive and color-changing properties of the TEA-metalcone films point to new possible applications for MLD materials in filtration, chemical absorption, and multifunctional chemical separations/sensing device systems.

  13. Atomic and electronic aspects of the coloration mechanism of gasochromic Pt/Mo-modified V2O5 smart films: an in situ X-ray spectroscopic study.

    PubMed

    Lu, Ying-Rui; Hsu, Hsin-Hua; Chen, Jeng-Lung; Chang, Han-Wei; Chen, Chi-Liang; Chou, Wu-Ching; Dong, Chung-Li

    2016-02-21

    In this work, gasochromic pristine and Mo-modified V2O5 thin films were prepared by the sol-gel spin coating method. Both films exhibit excellent gasochromic coloration. Synchrotron grazing incidence X-ray diffraction reveals that the Mo-modified V2O5 thin film is more amorphous than the pristine V2O5 thin film. X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) was utilized to elucidate the modifications of the local electronic and atomic structures that are caused by Mo. In situ soft-XAS and in situ hard-XAS were performed to monitor the effect of the adsorption of dihydrogen on the charge state of vanadium and local atomic rearrangement in the gasochromic thin films. The gasochromic V2O5 film has a significantly pyramid-like oxygen-coordinated environment. However, the Mo-modified film exhibits mixed pyramid- and octahedral-like structures. Analytic results indicate that upon gasochromic coloration, adsorption of hydrogen adds electrons to the V 3d t2g orbital, lowering the charge state of vanadium. The films undergo structural modification before the valence is changed. The Mo-modified V2O5 film exhibits faster coloration because the apical V-O bond differs from that in the pristine V2O5 film. This in situ XAS allows real-time monitoring of changes in the element-specific local atomic structure during the gasochromic reaction and enables the elucidation of the gasochromic mechanism.

  14. Mechanism of Electrochemical Deposition and Coloration of Electrochromic V2O5 Nano Thin Films: an In Situ X-Ray Spectroscopy Study.

    PubMed

    Lu, Ying-Rui; Wu, Tzung-Zing; Chen, Chi-Liang; Wei, Da-Hau; Chen, Jeng-Lung; Chou, Wu-Ching; Dong, Chung-Li

    2015-12-01

    Electrochromic switching devices have elicited considerable attention because these thin films are among the most promising materials for energy-saving applications. The vanadium oxide system is simple and inexpensive because only a single-layer film of this material is sufficient for coloration. Vanadium dioxide thin films are fabricated by electrochemical deposition and cyclic voltammetry. Chronoamperometric analyses have indicated that the thin V2O5 film demonstrates faster intercalation and deintercalation of lithium ions than those of the thick V2O5 film, benefiting the coloration rate. Despite substantial research on the synthesis of vanadium oxides, the monitoring of electronic and atomic structures during growth and coloration of such material has not been thoroughly examined. In the present study, in situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) is employed to determine the electronic and atomic structures of V2O5 thin films during electrochemical growth and then electrochromic coloration. In situ XAS results demonstrate the growth mechanism of the electrodeposited V2O5 thin film and suggest that its electrochromic performance strongly depends on the local atomic structure. This study improves our understanding of the electronic and atomic properties of the vanadium oxide system grown by electrochemical deposition and enhances the design of electrochromic materials for potential energy-saving applications.

  15. Mechanism of Electrochemical Deposition and Coloration of Electrochromic V2O5 Nano Thin Films: an In Situ X-Ray Spectroscopy Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Ying-Rui; Wu, Tzung-Zing; Chen, Chi-Liang; Wei, Da-Hau; Chen, Jeng-Lung; Chou, Wu-Ching; Dong, Chung-Li

    2015-10-01

    Electrochromic switching devices have elicited considerable attention because these thin films are among the most promising materials for energy-saving applications. The vanadium oxide system is simple and inexpensive because only a single-layer film of this material is sufficient for coloration. Vanadium dioxide thin films are fabricated by electrochemical deposition and cyclic voltammetry. Chronoamperometric analyses have indicated that the thin V2O5 film demonstrates faster intercalation and deintercalation of lithium ions than those of the thick V2O5 film, benefiting the coloration rate. Despite substantial research on the synthesis of vanadium oxides, the monitoring of electronic and atomic structures during growth and coloration of such material has not been thoroughly examined. In the present study, in situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) is employed to determine the electronic and atomic structures of V2O5 thin films during electrochemical growth and then electrochromic coloration. In situ XAS results demonstrate the growth mechanism of the electrodeposited V2O5 thin film and suggest that its electrochromic performance strongly depends on the local atomic structure. This study improves our understanding of the electronic and atomic properties of the vanadium oxide system grown by electrochemical deposition and enhances the design of electrochromic materials for potential energy-saving applications.

  16. Colored light-quality selective plastic films affect anthocyanin content, enzyme activities, and the expression of flavonoid genes in strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) fruit.

    PubMed

    Miao, Lixiang; Zhang, Yuchao; Yang, Xiaofang; Xiao, Jinping; Zhang, Huiqin; Zhang, Zuofa; Wang, Yuezhi; Jiang, Guihua

    2016-09-15

    The influence of colored light-quality selective plastic films (red, yellow, green, blue, and white) on the content of anthocyanin, the activities of the related enzymes and the transcripts of the flavonoid gene was studied in developing strawberry fruit. The results indicated that colored films had highly significant effects on the total anthocyanin content (TAC) and proportions of individual anthocyanins. Compared with the white control film, the red and yellow films led to the significant increase of TAC, while the green and blue films caused a decrease of TAC. Colored film treatments also significantly affected the related enzyme activity and the expression of structural genes and transcription factor genes, which suggested that the enhancement of TAC by the red and yellow films might have resulted from the activation of related enzymes and transcription factor genes in the flavonoid pathway. Treatment with red and yellow light-quality selective plastic films might be useful as a supplemental cultivation practice for enhancing the anthocyanin content in developing strawberry fruit.

  17. Electrochemical fabrication and optical properties of porous tin oxide films with structural colors

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Hua; Shu, Shiwei; Lee, Chris; Zeng, Shanshan; Lu, Zhouguang; Lu, Jian E-mail: yangli@cityu.edu.hk; Li, Yang Yang E-mail: yangli@cityu.edu.hk

    2014-10-21

    Photonic crystals with porous features not only provide the capability to control light but also enable structural colors that are environmentally sensitive. Here, we report a novel kind of tin oxide-based photonic crystal featuring periodically arranged air pores fabricated by the periodic anodization of tin foil. The existence of a photonic band gap in the fabricated structure is verified by its vivid color, and its reflective spectra which are responsive to environmental stimuli. Furthermore, the sample colors (i.e., the photonic band gap positions) can be easily adjusted by manipulating the anodization parameters. The theoretical modeling results of these tin oxide photonic crystals agree well with the reported experimental ones.

  18. Color filters based on enhanced optical transmission of subwavelength-structured metallic film for multicolor organic light-emitting diode display.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xiao; Zhan, Li; Xia, Yuxing

    2008-08-10

    Using metallic film perforated with a subwavelength periodic structure, a novel concept of a color filter for multicolor organic light-emitting diode (OLED) display is proposed. Based on the phase-matching condition for extraordinary optical transmission, three primary color emissions can be obtained by optimizing the structure's periodicity. Two periodic structures, an array of one-dimensional periodic slits and a two-dimensional periodic hole array, are studied using coupled mode theory. Also, the feasibility of applying these structures as color filters is analyzed. The relative intensity at the unwanted wavelength, which is generated by higher resonant transmission, had been calculated to eliminate its effect on the purity of these filters. It is important that this type of color filter simultaneously solves the low emission efficiency problem for OLEDs with the aid of enhanced transmission of metal film.

  19. Physicochemical properties of soy protein isolate/carboxymethyl cellulose blend films crosslinked by Maillard reactions: color, transparency and heat-sealing ability.

    PubMed

    Su, Jun-Feng; Yuan, Xiao-Yan; Huang, Zhen; Wang, Xin-Yu; Lu, Xu-Zhen; Zhang, Li-Dan; Wang, Sheng-Bao

    2012-01-01

    Soy protein isolate (SPI) films have many potential applications in the biomaterial field as surgical dressings for burns, films for reduction of wound inflammation, and facial masks. The appearance and the sealing ability are important physicochemical properties that greatly influence consumer acceptance of such protein-based films. The aim of the present work was to investigate the chemical structure and the physical properties associated with color, transparency and heat-sealing ability for SPI/carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) blend films prepared by solution casting, with weight proportions 90/10, 80/20, 70/30 and 60/40. Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) and solid-state (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra confirmed that Maillard reactions occurred between SPI and CMC. The Hunter color value (L, a, b) and transparency of films were affected by varying the proportions of SPI and CMC. With increasing degree of crosslinking of SPI and CMC, the yellow color of the films was diluted and transparency was improved. Peel strength and tensile strength measurements showed that the Maillard reactions had the main effect of enhancing the heat-sealing ability above the melting temperature. These results indicated that the structure and properties of SPI-based films could be modified and improved by blending with CMC.

  20. Photoluminescence of radiation-induced color centers in lithium fluoride thin films for advanced diagnostics of proton beams

    SciTech Connect

    Piccinini, M. Ampollini, A.; Picardi, L.; Ronsivalle, C.; Bonfigli, F.; Libera, S.; Vincenti, M. A.; Montereali, R. M.; Ambrosini, F.; Nichelatti, E.

    2015-06-29

    Systematic irradiation of thermally evaporated 0.8 μm thick polycrystalline lithium fluoride films on glass was performed by proton beams of 3 and 7 MeV energies, produced by a linear accelerator, in a fluence range from 10{sup 11} to 10{sup 15} protons/cm{sup 2}. The visible photoluminescence spectra of radiation-induced F{sub 2} and F{sub 3}{sup +} laser active color centers, which possess almost overlapping absorption bands at about 450 nm, were measured under laser pumping at 458 nm. On the basis of simulations of the linear energy transfer with proton penetration depth in LiF, it was possible to obtain the behavior of the measured integrated photoluminescence intensity of proton irradiated LiF films as a function of the deposited dose. The photoluminescence signal is linearly dependent on the deposited dose in the interval from 10{sup 3} to about 10{sup 6 }Gy, independently from the used proton energies. This behavior is very encouraging for the development of advanced solid state radiation detectors based on optically transparent LiF thin films for proton beam diagnostics and two-dimensional dose mapping.

  1. Method and apparatus for enhanced evanescent fluorescence and color filtering using a high refractive index thin film coating

    DOEpatents

    Kao, Hung Pin; Schoeniger, Joseph; Yang, Nancy

    2001-01-01

    A technique for increasing the excitation and collection of evanescent fluorescence radiation emanating from a fiber optic sensor having a high refractive index (n.sub.r), dielectric thin film coating has been disclosed and described. The invention comprises a clad optical fiber core whose cladding is removed on a distal end, the distal end coated with a thin, non-porous, titanium dioxide sol-gel coating. It has been shown that such a fiber will exhibit increased fluorescence coupling due in part by 1) increasing the intensity of the evanescent field at the fiber core surface by a constructive interference effect on the propagating light, and 2) increasing the depth of penetration of the field in the sample. The interference effect created by the thin film imposes a wavelength dependence on the collection of the fluorescence and also suggests a novel application of thin films for color filtering as well as increasing collected fluorescence in fiber sensors. Collected fluorescence radiation increased by up to 6-fold over that of a bare fused silica fiber having a numerical aperture (N.A.) of O.6.

  2. Consider the Soil First. Narrative Guide for Color Slide Set and Film Strip C-183.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soil Conservation Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    The importance of soil, its use and suitability for agriculture and building construction, and the need for and value of soil surveys are emphasized in this pamphlet. It serves as the script for a set of color slides and filmstrip produced by the Soil Conservation Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture. Each of the 73 frames is illustrated with…

  3. Composite films of polydopamine-Alcian Blue for colored coating with new physical properties.

    PubMed

    Ponzio, Florian; Bour, Jérôme; Ball, Vincent

    2015-12-01

    Polydopamine (PDA) coatings appear as a universal functionalization methodology allowing to coat the surface of almost all kinds of known materials with a conformal, stable, robust and reactive material. Relatively few investigations were dedicated to the incorporation of other molecules in PDA coatings during their deposition from dopamine solutions under oxidative conditions. Herein we rely on the assumption that the basic building blocks of PDA could be porphyrin like tetramers (as well as higher order oligomers) of 5,6-dihydroxyindole and we investigate the influence of a cationic Cu(II) phtalocyanine, namely Alcian Blue (AB), on the deposition kinetics and on the properties of PDA films. We demonstrate that AB is indeed incorporated in the PDA films to yield a composite PDA-AB coating displaying the optical features of both PDA and AB. The amount of incorporated dye depends on its concentration in solution. The obtained PDA-AB films have a smaller thickness than their related PDA counterparts, a different morphology and a higher permeability to the anionic hexacyanoferrate redox probe. In addition, the incorporation of AB in the films is not homogeneous through their thickness as inferred by means of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The reason for this interesting finding is discussed on the basis of the interactions between AB and PDA as well as on the basis of the structure of PDA films.

  4. Color-sensitive photoconductivity of nanostructured ZnO/fast green dye hybrid films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rani, Mamta; Tripathi, S. K.

    2013-06-01

    Nanostructured ZnO/dye hybrid films prepared by sol gel method have been investigated in conductivity and photoconductivity measurements in view of applications in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC). The absorption of ZnO film sensitized by Fast Green dye (FGF) has been studied by UV spectroscopy which indicates that after the dye is adsorbed on the ZnO electrode, its absorption spectra showed red-shift in the peak position compared to the absorbance spectra of dye in ethanol. The films, in which dye molecules are located within the ZnO crystals, are found to show higher sensitivity to illumination with visible light in photoconductivity measurements due to a high proportion of surface dye molecules are being excited by π-electrons acting as sensitizers.

  5. Bio-inspired colorimetric film based on hygroscopic coloration of longhorn beetles (Tmesisternus isabellae)

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Han-bok; Lee, Seung-Yop

    2017-01-01

    Structure-dependent colour is caused by the interaction of light with photonic crystal structures rather than pigments. The elytra of longhorn beetles Tmesisternus isabellae appear to be iridescent green in a dry state and turn to red when exposed to humidity. Based on the hygroscopic colouration of the longhorn beetle, we have developed centimeter-scale colorimetric opal films using a novel self-assembly method. The micro-channel assisted assembly technique adopts both natural evaporation and rotational forced drying, enhancing the surface binding of silica particles and the packing density by reducing the lattice constant and structural defects. The fabricated large-scale photonic film changes its structural colour from green to red when exposed to water vapour, similarly to the colorimetric feature of the longhorn beetle. The humidity-dependent colour change of the opal film is shown to be reversible and durable over five-hundred cycles of wetting and drying. PMID:28322307

  6. Cheap color evaluation of dye-based pressure sensitive films for plantar studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeong, W. K.; Ng, Tuck Wah

    2005-04-01

    Dye-based pressure sensitive films are advantageous in plantar pressure studies due to their of ease of use, costeffectiveness, and ability to produce measurements within the shoe. To circumvent the use of proprietary equipment and software to relate the dye stained film to load, an alternative approach of using a conventional flatbed scanner and generic image processing software is attempted here instead. The technique revealed high linear increasing and decreasing trends for the respective red and blue normalized intensities (correlation coefficient > 0.95) and low standard deviation in all readings (< 0.06) overall. By subtracting the blue from the red normalized intensity, it was discovered that the measurement sensitivity could be doubled. The results here confirm the viability of using a conventional flatbed scanner and generic image processing software to relate the dye stained pressure films to load. The adoption of this approach promises substantial cost savings.

  7. Recent Advances in Chiral Nematic Structure and Iridescent Color of Cellulose Nanocrystal Films

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Derek G.

    2016-01-01

    One unique property of cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) is their property of forming suspensions with chiral nematic order. This order can be preserved in films cast from the suspensions, raising the possibility of applications as photonic materials and templates. However, it has proved difficult to generate uniform, well-ordered chiral nematic materials from CNC. Recently, the importance of kinetic arrest due to gel formation in the later stages of evaporation has been recognized as a key step in film formation. In this brief review, recent developments regarding the structure of chiral nematic suspensions and films as monitored by polarized light microscopy are outlined, and attention is drawn to the importance of shear forces on the self-organization process. PMID:28335340

  8. Bio-inspired colorimetric film based on hygroscopic coloration of longhorn beetles (Tmesisternus isabellae).

    PubMed

    Seo, Han-Bok; Lee, Seung-Yop

    2017-03-21

    Structure-dependent colour is caused by the interaction of light with photonic crystal structures rather than pigments. The elytra of longhorn beetles Tmesisternus isabellae appear to be iridescent green in a dry state and turn to red when exposed to humidity. Based on the hygroscopic colouration of the longhorn beetle, we have developed centimeter-scale colorimetric opal films using a novel self-assembly method. The micro-channel assisted assembly technique adopts both natural evaporation and rotational forced drying, enhancing the surface binding of silica particles and the packing density by reducing the lattice constant and structural defects. The fabricated large-scale photonic film changes its structural colour from green to red when exposed to water vapour, similarly to the colorimetric feature of the longhorn beetle. The humidity-dependent colour change of the opal film is shown to be reversible and durable over five-hundred cycles of wetting and drying.

  9. Bio-inspired colorimetric film based on hygroscopic coloration of longhorn beetles (Tmesisternus isabellae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Han-Bok; Lee, Seung-Yop

    2017-03-01

    Structure-dependent colour is caused by the interaction of light with photonic crystal structures rather than pigments. The elytra of longhorn beetles Tmesisternus isabellae appear to be iridescent green in a dry state and turn to red when exposed to humidity. Based on the hygroscopic colouration of the longhorn beetle, we have developed centimeter-scale colorimetric opal films using a novel self-assembly method. The micro-channel assisted assembly technique adopts both natural evaporation and rotational forced drying, enhancing the surface binding of silica particles and the packing density by reducing the lattice constant and structural defects. The fabricated large-scale photonic film changes its structural colour from green to red when exposed to water vapour, similarly to the colorimetric feature of the longhorn beetle. The humidity-dependent colour change of the opal film is shown to be reversible and durable over five-hundred cycles of wetting and drying.

  10. Focus on Color Photography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galindez, Peter

    1978-01-01

    Photographs and text describe techniques by which color negative film can be developed and printed. An equipment list, by which black and white printing facilities can be converted to make color prints, is provided. (CP)

  11. Hierarchical NiO microflake films with high coloration efficiency, cyclic stability and low power consumption for applications in a complementary electrochromic device.

    PubMed

    Ma, Dongyun; Shi, Guoying; Wang, Hongzhi; Zhang, Qinghong; Li, Yaogang

    2013-06-07

    We have demonstrated that thin films of hierarchical NiO microflakes assembled from nanoleaves can be grown directly on FTO-coated glass substrates using a facile and template-free hydrothermal technique. This hierarchical structure holds the advantages of both nanometre-sized building blocks and microsized assemblies. Thus, the films exhibit highly enhanced electrochromic performances and cyclic stability due to their high surface area and good electrochemical stability. Moreover, a complementary electrochromic device combining the hierarchical NiO microflake film with a self-weaving WO3 nanoflake film is fabricated to further improve the electrochromic performance. As a result, the complementary electrochromic device shows a high optical modulation (73.2% at 550 nm), large coloration efficiency (146.9 cm(2) C(-1) at 550 nm by applying a low coloration voltage of -1.0 V) and fast switching responses with a coloring time of 1.8 s and a bleaching time of 3.2 s. It is also observed that there is no significant degradation of the electrochromic properties after 2000 continuous coloration/bleaching cycles, making it attractive for practical applications.

  12. Black Impressions of People-of-Color: A Functionalist Approach to Film Imagery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spigner, Clarence

    1991-01-01

    Popular movie depictions of racial minorities as dysfunctional help maintain the present race-linked social stratification by instilling a sense of social disharmony and justifying continuing racial oppression. The enthnocentric bias of the majority of films reinforces stereotypical perceptions of minorities and legitimizes the status quo of white…

  13. Hierarchical NiO microflake films with high coloration efficiency, cyclic stability and low power consumption for applications in a complementary electrochromic device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Dongyun; Shi, Guoying; Wang, Hongzhi; Zhang, Qinghong; Li, Yaogang

    2013-05-01

    We have demonstrated that thin films of hierarchical NiO microflakes assembled from nanoleaves can be grown directly on FTO-coated glass substrates using a facile and template-free hydrothermal technique. This hierarchical structure holds the advantages of both nanometre-sized building blocks and microsized assemblies. Thus, the films exhibit highly enhanced electrochromic performances and cyclic stability due to their high surface area and good electrochemical stability. Moreover, a complementary electrochromic device combining the hierarchical NiO microflake film with a self-weaving WO3 nanoflake film is fabricated to further improve the electrochromic performance. As a result, the complementary electrochromic device shows a high optical modulation (73.2% at 550 nm), large coloration efficiency (146.9 cm2 C-1 at 550 nm by applying a low coloration voltage of -1.0 V) and fast switching responses with a coloring time of 1.8 s and a bleaching time of 3.2 s. It is also observed that there is no significant degradation of the electrochromic properties after 2000 continuous coloration/bleaching cycles, making it attractive for practical applications.We have demonstrated that thin films of hierarchical NiO microflakes assembled from nanoleaves can be grown directly on FTO-coated glass substrates using a facile and template-free hydrothermal technique. This hierarchical structure holds the advantages of both nanometre-sized building blocks and microsized assemblies. Thus, the films exhibit highly enhanced electrochromic performances and cyclic stability due to their high surface area and good electrochemical stability. Moreover, a complementary electrochromic device combining the hierarchical NiO microflake film with a self-weaving WO3 nanoflake film is fabricated to further improve the electrochromic performance. As a result, the complementary electrochromic device shows a high optical modulation (73.2% at 550 nm), large coloration efficiency (146.9 cm2 C-1 at 550 nm by

  14. Test strips for lead(II) based on a unique color change of PVC-film containing O-donor macrocycles and an anionic dye.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Yukiko; Hayashita, Takashi; Suzuki, Toshishige M

    2007-02-01

    Glassy test strips partially coated with PVC-film including O-donor macrocyclic receptors (L), tetrabromophenolphthalein ethyl ester (TBPE(-)), and a plasticizer sensed Pb(2+) in aqueous solutions by a unique color change. Yellow films successively changed color to green, dark-blue and purple with increases of the Pb(2+) concentration. In contrast with the ordinary "optode", a characteristic absorption band at 525 nm was newly appeared independently of the protonation and deprotonation of HTBPE (yellow to blue). The unique color change occurred only when asymmetric receptors with respect to the basal plane were coupled with Pb(2+). This optical-structural correlation is likely to be induced by the H aggregate of two sets of TBPE(-) in the 1:2 ion-pair, [Pb-L](2+).(TBPE(-))(2). The color change, based on metachromasy, was exclusive for Pb(2+) among common metal cations (Ca(2+), Al(3+), Cd(2+), Zn(2+), Fe(3+), Co(2+), Hg(2+)) and anions (Cl(-), SO(4)(2-), PO(4)(3-), S(2)O(3)(2-)).

  15. Gel-based coloration technique for the submillimeter-scale imaging of labile phosphorus in sediments and soils with diffusive gradients in thin films.

    PubMed

    Ding, Shiming; Wang, Yan; Xu, Di; Zhu, Chungang; Zhang, Chaosheng

    2013-07-16

    We report a highly promising technique for the high-resolution imaging of labile phosphorus (P) in sediments and soils in combination with the diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT). This technique was based on the surface coloration of the Zr-oxide binding gel using the conventional molybdenum blue method following the DGT uptake of P to this gel. The accumulated mass of the P in the gel was then measured according to the grayscale intensity on the gel surface using computer-imaging densitometry. A pretreatment of the gel in hot water (85 °C) for 5 d was required to immobilize the phosphate and the formed blue complex in the gel during the color development. The optimal time required for a complete color development was determined to be 45 min. The appropriate volume of the coloring reagent added was 200 times of that of the gel. A calibration equation was established under the optimized conditions, based on which a quantitative measurement of P was obtained when the concentration of P in solutions ranged from 0.04 mg L(-1) to 4.1 mg L(-1) for a 24 h deployment of typical DGT devices at 25 °C. The suitability of the coloration technique was well demonstrated by the observation of small, discrete spots with elevated P concentrations in a sediment profile.

  16. High color rendering index of remote-type white LEDs with multi-layered quantum dot-phosphor films and short-wavelength pass dichroic filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Hee Chang; Oh, Ji Hye; Do, Young Rag

    2014-09-01

    This paper introduces high color rendering index (CRI) white light-emitting diodes (W-LEDs) coated with red emitting (Sr,Ca)AlSiN3:Eu phosphors and yellowish-green emitting AgIn5S8/ZnS (AIS/ZS) quantum dots (QDs) on glass or a short-wavelength pass dichroic filter (SPDF), which transmit blue wavelength regions and reflect yellow wavelength regions. The red emitting (Sr,Ca)AlSiN3:Eu phosphor film is coated on glass and a SPDF using a screen printing method, and then the yellowish-green emitting AIS/ZS QDs are coated on the red phosphor (Sr,Ca)AlSiN3:Eu film-coated glass and SPDF using the electrospray (e-spray) method.To fabricate the red phosphor film, the optimum amount of phosphor is dispersed in a silicon binder to form a red phosphor paste. The AIS/ZS QDs are mixed with dimethylformamide (DMF), toluene, and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) for the e-spray coating. The substrates are spin-coated with poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) to fabricate a conductive surface. The CRI of the white LEDs is improved through inserting the red phosphor film between the QD layer and the glass substrate. Furthermore, the light intensities of the multi-layered phosphor films are enhanced through changing the glass substrate to the SPDF. The correlated color temperatures (CCTs) vary as a function of the phosphor concentration in the phosphor paste. The optical properties of the yellowish-green AIS/ZS QDs and red (Sr,Ca)AlSiN3:Eu phosphors are characterized using photoluminescence (PL), and the multi-layered QD-phosphor films are measured using electroluminescence (EL) with an InGaN blue LED (λmax = 450 nm) at 60 mA.

  17. Nitrite-embedded packaging film effects on fresh and frozen beef color development and stability as influenced by meat age and muscle type.

    PubMed

    Claus, James R; Du, Chen

    2013-11-01

    Muscles (Longissimus lumborum, LL; Psoas major, PM, semitendinosus, ST) were aged (2, 9d postmortem), cut into steaks, anaerobically packaged (nitrite-embedded film, NEF), and displayed (fresh, 19d; frozen, 39d). Fresh NEF increased (P<0.05) in redness (first 48h). Upon opening fresh NEF (d 6) and overwrapping in PVC film, redness declined (P<0.05). NEF cooked LL had more red surface compared to non-NEF. Meat age influenced NEF color. Intact NEF maintained acceptable red color throughout display. Residual nitrite and nitrate associated with fresh NEF and nitrate in NEF cooked LL were found (P<0.05) in the outer layer. Consideration should be given to providing sufficient time for nitric oxide myoglobin development when using NEF which may be influenced by meat age and muscle differences. NEF packaging has potential to extend fresh beef color display life. NEF appears to offer the opportunity to display bright red beef in frozen display by limiting typical effects of photooxidation.

  18. Zr oxide-based coloration technique for two-dimensional imaging of labile Cr(VI) using diffusive gradients in thin films.

    PubMed

    Yao, Yu; Wang, Chao; Wang, Peifang; Miao, Lingzhan; Hou, Jun; Wang, Teng; Liu, Cui

    2016-10-01

    A novel Zr oxide diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT)-based measurement technique for high-resolution imaging of labile Cr (VI) is introduced in this study. The method is based on the diphenylcarbazide coloration technique for Cr (VI) combined with computer-imaging densitometry, which provides a relation between the accumulated mass of Cr (VI) and the grayscale intensity. The Zr oxide gels show good performance in reflecting the accurate measurement of Cr (VI), independent of the effects of pH, ionic strength, and PO4(3-) concentration. Settling of the Zr-oxide gel was identified as a simple and effective method to suppress leaching of the claret-colored compound out of the gel. In addition, the optimal volume of added coloration reagent was 125 times that of the binding gel and 30min was selected as the optimal time for the chromogenic reaction. The relationship between the accumulated Cr (VI) and grayscale intensity was analyzed under the optimized conditions. The Zr oxide DGT technique could also obviously reflect the heterogeneity of sediment. Consequently, Zr oxide DGT-based coloration is certified to be a robust and suitable tool for providing effective and high-resolution information on bioavailable Cr (VI). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Solution-Grown ZnO Films toward Transparent and Smart Dual-Color Light-Emitting Diode.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiaohu; Zhang, Li; Wang, Shijie; Chi, Dongzhi; Chua, Soo Jin

    2016-06-22

    An individual light-emitting diode (LED) capable of emitting different colors of light under different bias conditions not only allows for compact device integration but also extends the functionality of the LED beyond traditional illumination and display. Herein, we report a color-switchable LED based on solution-grown n-type ZnO on p-GaN/n-GaN heterojunction. The LED emits red light with a peak centered at ∼692 nm and a full width at half-maximum of ∼90 nm under forward bias, while it emits green light under reverse bias. These two lighting colors can be switched repeatedly by reversing the bias polarity. The bias-polarity-switched dual-color LED enables independent control over the lighting color and brightness of each emission with two-terminal operation. The results offer a promising strategy toward transparent, miniaturized, and smart LEDs, which hold great potential in optoelectronics and optical communication.

  20. Bio-inspired, colorful, flexible, defrostable light-scattering hybrid films for the effective distribution of LED light.

    PubMed

    An, Seongpil; Jo, Hong Seok; Kim, Yong Il; Song, Kyo Yong; Kim, Min-Woo; Lee, Kyu Bum; Yarin, Alexander L; Yoon, Sam S

    2017-07-06

    Bioluminescent jellyfish has a unique structure derived from fiber/polymer interfaces that is advantageous for effective light scattering in the dark, deep sea water. Herein, we demonstrate the fabrication of bio-inspired hybrid films by mimicry of the jellyfish's structure, leading to excellent light-scattering performance and defrosting capability. A haze value reaching 59.3% and a heating temperature of up to 292 °C were achieved with the films. Accordingly, the developed surface constitutes an attractive optical device for lighting applications, especially for street or vehicle luminaries for freezing Arctic-climate countries. The morphological details of the hybrid films were revealed by scanning electron microscopy. The light-scattering properties of these films were examined by ultraviolet-visible-infrared spectrophotometry and anti-glare effect analyses. The defrosting performance of the hybrid films was evaluated via heating tests and infra-red observations.

  1. A new method for colors characterization of colored stainless steel using CIE and Munsell color systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Keming; Xue, Yongqiang; Cui, Zixiang

    2015-09-01

    It is important to establish an accurate and comprehensive method of characterizing colors of colored stainless steel and understand the changing mechanism and the regularity of colors for the research, production and application of colored stainless steel. In this work, the method which combines reflectance-wavelength with both CIE and Munsell color systems is studied, the changing regularity of hue, brightness and saturation with increasing coloring potential differences is investigated, and the mechanism of color changing is discussed. The results show that by using this method the colors of colored stainless steel can be accurately and comprehensively characterized; with coloring potential differences and colored film thickness increasing, the peaks and troughs of the reflectance curves in visible region move toward long wave, causing the cyclically changing of hue and brightness; the amplitude of reflectance curves increases, resulting in growing of the saturation; the CIE 1931 coordinate curve of colors counterclockwise and cyclically changes around the equal energy light spot.

  2. Films.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Philadelphia Board of Education, PA. Div. of Instructional Materials.

    The Affective Curriculum Research Project produced five films and two records during a series of experimental summer programs. The films and records form part of a curriculum designed to teach to the concerns of students. The films were an effort to describe the Philadelphia Cooperative Schools Program, to explain its importance, and to…

  3. The Technique of Film and Television Make-Up For Color and Black and White. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kehoe, Vincent J-R

    This book is a complete guide to make-up for film and television productions. As such, it emphasizes how make-up will look under the lighting systems that filming requires. Beyond that, however, it is useful to those doing make-up in stage productions as well. It begins with discussions of facial anatomy and of the tools in the make-up kit. Then…

  4. Device to color modulate a stationary light beam gives high intensity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gantz, W. A.

    1966-01-01

    Signal controlled system color modulates a beam of light while also providing high intensity and a stationary beam, either collimated or focused. The color modulation acquired by the presented system can be compatible with any color film by employing color filters formed to provide a color wedge having a color distribution compatible with the films color sensitivity.

  5. Complex chemical composition of colored surface films formed from reactions of propanal in sulfuric acid at upper troposphere/lower stratosphere aerosol acidities

    PubMed Central

    Van Wyngarden, A. L.; Pérez-Montaño, S.; Bui, J. V. H.; Li, E. S. W.; Nelson, T. E.; Ha, K. T.; Leong, L.; Iraci, L. T.

    2016-01-01

    Particles in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UT/LS) consist mostly of concentrated sulfuric acid (40–80 wt %) in water. However, airborne measurements have shown that these particles also contain a significant fraction of organic compounds of unknown chemical composition. Acid-catalyzed reactions of carbonyl species are believed to be responsible for significant transfer of gas phase organic species into tropospheric aerosols and are potentially more important at the high acidities characteristic of UT/LS particles. In this study, experiments combining sulfuric acid (H2SO4) with propanal and with mixtures of propanal with glyoxal and/or methylglyoxal at acidities typical of UT/LS aerosols produced highly colored surface films (and solutions) that may have implications for aerosol properties. In order to identify the chemical processes responsible for the formation of the surface films, attenuated total reflectance–Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) and 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopies were used to analyze the chemical composition of the films. Films formed from propanal were a complex mixture of aldol condensation products, acetals and propanal itself. The major aldol condensation products were the dimer (2-methyl-2-pentenal) and 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene that was formed by cyclization of the linear aldol condensation trimer. Additionally, the strong visible absorption of the films indicates that higher-order aldol condensation products must also be present as minor species. The major acetal species were 2,4,6-triethyl-1,3,5-trioxane and longer-chain linear polyacetals which are likely to separate from the aqueous phase. Films formed on mixtures of propanal with glyoxal and/or methylglyoxal also showed evidence of products of cross-reactions. Since cross-reactions would be more likely than self-reactions under atmospheric conditions, similar reactions of aldehydes like propanal with common aerosol organic species like glyoxal and

  6. Complex chemical composition of colored surface films formed from reactions of propanal in sulfuric acid at upper troposphere/lower stratosphere aerosol acidities.

    PubMed

    Van Wyngarden, A L; Pérez-Montaño, S; Bui, J V H; Li, E S W; Nelson, T E; Ha, K T; Leong, L; Iraci, L T

    Particles in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UT/LS) consist mostly of concentrated sulfuric acid (40-80 wt %) in water. However, airborne measurements have shown that these particles also contain a significant fraction of organic compounds of unknown chemical composition. Acid-catalyzed reactions of carbonyl species are believed to be responsible for significant transfer of gas phase organic species into tropospheric aerosols and are potentially more important at the high acidities characteristic of UT/LS particles. In this study, experiments combining sulfuric acid (H2SO4) with propanal and with mixtures of propanal with glyoxal and/or methylglyoxal at acidities typical of UT/LS aerosols produced highly colored surface films (and solutions) that may have implications for aerosol properties. In order to identify the chemical processes responsible for the formation of the surface films, attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) and (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopies were used to analyze the chemical composition of the films. Films formed from propanal were a complex mixture of aldol condensation products, acetals and propanal itself. The major aldol condensation products were the dimer (2-methyl-2-pentenal) and 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene that was formed by cyclization of the linear aldol condensation trimer. Additionally, the strong visible absorption of the films indicates that higher-order aldol condensation products must also be present as minor species. The major acetal species were 2,4,6-triethyl-1,3,5-trioxane and longer-chain linear polyacetals which are likely to separate from the aqueous phase. Films formed on mixtures of propanal with glyoxal and/or methylglyoxal also showed evidence of products of cross-reactions. Since cross-reactions would be more likely than self-reactions under atmospheric conditions, similar reactions of aldehydes like propanal with common aerosol organic species like glyoxal and

  7. Complex chemical composition of colored surface films formed from reactions of propanal in sulfuric acid at upper troposphere/lower stratosphere aerosol acidities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Wyngarden, A. L.; Pérez-Montaño, S.; Bui, J. V. H.; Li, E. S. W.; Nelson, T. E.; Ha, K. T.; Leong, L.; Iraci, L. T.

    2015-04-01

    Particles in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UT/LS) consist mostly of concentrated sulfuric acid (40-80 wt%) in water. However, airborne measurements have shown that these particles also contain a significant fraction of organic compounds of unknown chemical composition. Acid-catalyzed reactions of carbonyl species are believed to be responsible for significant transfer of gas phase organic species into tropospheric aerosols and are potentially more important at the high acidities characteristic of UT/LS particles. In this study, experiments combining sulfuric acid (H2SO4) with propanal and with mixtures of propanal with glyoxal and/or methylglyoxal at acidities typical of UT/LS aerosols produced highly colored surface films (and solutions) that may have implications for aerosol properties. In order to identify the chemical processes responsible for the formation of the surface films, attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) and 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopies were used to analyze the chemical composition of the films. Films formed from propanal were a complex mixture of aldol condensation products, acetals and propanal itself. The major aldol condensation products were the dimer (2-methyl-2-pentenal) and 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene that was formed by cyclization of the linear aldol condensation trimer. Additionally, the strong visible absorption of the films indicates that higher-order aldol condensation products must also be present as minor species. The major acetal species were 2,4,6-triethyl-1,3,5-trioxane and longer-chain linear polyacetals which are likely to separate from the aqueous phase. Films formed on mixtures of propanal with glyoxal and/or methylglyoxal also showed evidence of products of cross-reactions. Since cross-reactions would be more likely than self-reactions under atmospheric conditions, similar reactions of aldehydes like propanal with common aerosol organic species like glyoxal and

  8. Complex chemical composition of colored surface films formed from reactions of propanal in sulfuric acid at upper troposphere/lower stratosphere aerosol acidities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Wyngarden, A. L.; Pérez-Montaño, S.; Bui, J. V. H.; Li, E. S. W.; Nelson, T. E.; Ha, K. T.; Leong, L.; Iraci, L. T.

    2014-11-01

    Particles in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UT/LS) consist mostly of concentrated sulfuric acid (40-80 wt %) in water. However, airborne measurements have shown that these particles also contain a significant fraction of organic compounds of unknown chemical composition. Acid-catalyzed reactions of carbonyl species are believed to be responsible for significant transfer of gas phase organic species into tropospheric aerosols and are potentially more important at the high acidities characteristic of UT/LS particles. In this study, experiments combining sulfuric acid (H2SO4) with propanal and with mixtures of propanal with glyoxal and/or methylglyoxal at acidities typical of UT/LS aerosols produced highly colored surface films (and solutions) that may have implications for aerosol properties. In order to identify the chemical processes responsible for the formation of the surface films, Attenuated Total Reflectance-Fourier Transform Infrared and 1H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopies were used to analyze the chemical composition of the films. Films formed from propanal were a complex mixture of aldol condensation products, acetals and propanal itself. The major aldol condensation products were the dimer (2-methyl-2-pentenal) and 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene, which was formed by cyclization of the linear aldol condensation trimer. Additionally, the strong visible absorption of the films indicates that higher order aldol condensation products must also be present as minor species. The major acetal species were 2,4,6-triethyl-1,3,5-trioxane and longer-chain linear polyacetals which are likely to separate from the aqueous phase. Films formed on mixtures of propanal with glyoxal and/or methylglyoxal also showed evidence for products of cross-reactions. Since cross-reactions would be more likely than self-reactions under atmospheric conditions, similar reactions of aldehydes like propanal with common aerosol organic species like glyoxal and methylglyoxal

  9. Flexible full color organic light-emitting diode display on polyimide plastic substrate driven by amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide thin-film transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jin-Seong; Kim, Tae-Woong; Stryakhilev, Denis; Lee, Jae-Sup; An, Sung-Guk; Pyo, Yong-Shin; Lee, Dong-Bum; Mo, Yeon Gon; Jin, Dong-Un; Chung, Ho Kyoon

    2009-07-01

    We have fabricated 6.5 in. flexible full-color top-emission active matrix organic light-emitting diode display on a polyimide (PI) substrate driven amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide thin-film transistors (a-IGZO TFTs). The a-IGZO TFTs exhibited field-effect mobility (μFE) of 15.1 cm2/V s, subthreshold slope of 0.25 V/dec, threshold voltage (VTH) of 0.9 V. The electrical characteristics of TFTs on PI substrate, including a bias-stress instability after 1 h long gate bias at 15 V, were indistinguishable from those on glass substrate and showed high degree of spatial uniformity. TFT samples on 10 μm thick PI substrate withstood bending down to R =3 mm under tension and compression without any performance degradation.

  10. Accompanying of parameters of color, gloss and hardness on polymeric films coated with pigmented inks cured by different radiation doses of ultraviolet light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bardi, Marcelo Augusto Gonçalves; Machado, Luci Diva Brocardo

    2012-09-01

    In the search for alternatives to traditional paint systems solvent-based, the curing process of polymer coatings by ultraviolet light (UV) has been widely studied and discussed, especially because of their high content of solids and null emission of VOC. In UV-curing technology, organic solvents are replaced by reactive diluents, such as monomers. This paper aims to investigate variations on color, gloss and hardness of print inks cured by different UV radiation doses. The ratio pigment/clear coating was kept constant. The clear coating presented higher average values for König hardness than pigmented ones, indicating that UV-light absorption has been reduced by the presence of pigments. Besides, they have indicated a slight variation in function of cure degree for the studied radiation doses range. The gloss loss related to UV light exposition allows inferring that some degradation occurred at the surface of print ink films.

  11. Kaolin particle film and water deficit influence red winegrape color under high solar radiation in an arid climate

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Main and interactive effects of a kaolin-based particle film and water deficit severity on vine and berry attributes were evaluated in the warm, semi-arid climate of southwestern Idaho over three growing seasons in the cultivars Cabernet Sauvignon and Malbec. Berry concentrations of total anthocyan...

  12. Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ming; Zhang, Yang; Shao, Yayun; Zeng, Min; Zhang, Zhang; Gao, Xingsen; Lu, Xubing; Liu, J.-M.; Ishiwara, Hiroshi

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, we investigated the microstructure and electrical properties of Bi2SiO5 (BSO) doped SrBi2Ta2O9 (SBT) films deposited by chemical solution deposition. X-ray diffraction observation indicated that the crystalline structures of all the BSO-doped SBT films are nearly the same as those of a pure SBT film. Through BSO doping, the 2Pr and 2Ec values of SBT films were changed from 15.3 μC/cm2 and 138 kV/cm of pure SBT to 1.45 μC/cm2 and 74 kV/cm of 10 wt.% BSO-doped SBT. The dielectric constant at 1 MHz for SBT varied from 199 of pure SBT to 96 of 10 wt.% BSO-doped SBT. The doped SBT films exhibited higher leakage current than that of non-doped SBT films. Nevertheless, all the doped SBT films still had small dielectric loss and low leakage current. Our present work will provide useful insights into the BSO doping effects to the SBT films, and it will be helpful for the material design in the future nonvolatile ferroelectric memories.

  13. Color Blindness

    MedlinePlus

    ... rose in full bloom. If you have a color vision defect, you may see these colors differently than most people. There are three main kinds of color vision defects. Red-green color vision defects are the most ...

  14. White thin-film flip-chip LEDs with uniform color temperature using laser lift-off and conformal phosphor coating technologies.

    PubMed

    Lin, Huan-Ting; Tien, Ching-Ho; Hsu, Chen-Peng; Horng, Ray-Hua

    2014-12-29

    We fabricated a phosphor-conversion white light emitting diode (PC-WLED) using a thin-film flip-chip GaN LED with a roughened u-GaN surface (TFFC-SR-LED) that emits blue light at 450 nm wavelength with a conformal phosphor coating that converts the blue light into yellow light. It was found that the TFFC-SR-LED with the thin-film substrate removal process and surface roughening exhibits a power enhancement of 16.1% when compared with the TFFC-LED without a sapphire substrate. When a TFFC-SR-LED with phosphors on a Cu-metal packaging-base (TFFC-SR-Cu-WLED) was operated at a forward-bias current of 350 mA, luminous flux and luminous efficacy were increased by 17.8 and 11.9%, compared to a TFFC-SR-LED on a Cup-shaped packaging-base (TFFC-SR-Cup-WLED). The angular correlated color temperature (CCT) deviation of a TFFC-SR-Cu-WLED reaches 77 K in the range of -70° to + 70° when the average CCT of white LEDs is around 4300 K. Consequently, the TFFC-SR-LED in a conformal coating phosphor structure on a Cu packaging-base could not only increase the luminous flux output, but also improve the angular-dependent CCT uniformity, thereby reducing the yellow ring effect.

  15. Laser color recording unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, E.

    1984-05-01

    A color recording unit was designed for output and control of digitized picture data within computer controlled reproduction and picture processing systems. In order to get a color proof picture of high quality similar to a color print, together with reduced time and material consumption, a photographic color film material was exposed pixelwise by modulated laser beams of three wavelengths for red, green and blue light. Components of different manufacturers for lasers, acousto-optic modulators and polygon mirrors were tested, also different recording methods as (continuous tone mode or screened mode and with a drum or flatbed recording principle). Besides the application for the graphic arts - the proof recorder CPR 403 with continuous tone color recording with a drum scanner - such a color hardcopy peripheral unit with large picture formats and high resolution can be used in medicine, communication, and satellite picture processing.

  16. Applying Color.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burton, David

    1984-01-01

    Most schools teach the triadic color system, utilizing red, blue, and yellow as primary colors. Other systems, such as additive and subtractive color systems, Munsell's Color Notation System, and the Hering Opponent Color Theory, can broaden children's concepts and free them to better choose color in their own work. (IS)

  17. Thin film interference of colloidal thin films.

    PubMed

    Cong, Hailin; Cao, Weixiao

    2004-09-14

    A stairlike colloidal crystal thin film composed of poly(styrene-methyl methacrylate-acrylic acid) (P(St-MMA-AA)) monodispersed colloids was fabricated on an inclined silicon substrate. Different bright colors were observed on the various parts of the film with different layers as white light irradiated perpendicularly on it. The relationship between the colors and layers of the film was investigated and discussed according to the principle of thin film interference. On the basis of the phenomenon of thin film interference, a one-layer colloidal film having uniform color was researched and it would display diverse colors before and after swollen by styrene (St). A circular stairlike colloidal film was achieved to mimic the colors of the peacock tail feather.

  18. How Does Color Work? divider pages only

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Max, Maximum

    2002-06-01

    Modes of appearance and the physical circumstances which contribute to the perception of surface, volume, film, illumination and illuminant color ... how the eye/brain converts physical stimuli into experiences of color. -- Paul Green-Armytage

  19. Information through color imagery

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Colvocoresses, Alden P.

    1975-01-01

    The color-sensing capability of the human eye is a powerful tool. In remote sensing we should use color to display data more meaningfully, not to re-create the scene. Color disappears with distance, and features change color with viewing angle. Color infrared film lets us apply color with additional meaning even though we introduce a false color response. Although the marginal gray scale on an ERTS (Earth Resources Technology Satellite) image may indicate balance between the green, red, and infrared bands, and although each band may be printed in a primary color, tests show that we are not fully applying the three primary colors. Therefore, contrast in the green band should be raised. For true three-color remote sensing of the Earth, we must find two generally meaningful signatures in the visible spectrum, or perhaps extend our spectral range. Before turning to costly digital processing we should explore analog processing. Most ERTS users deal with relative spectral radiance; the few concerned with absolute radiance could use the computer-compatible tapes or special annotations. NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration), which assigns the range and contrast to the ERTS image, controls processing and could adjust the density range for maximum contrast in any ERTS scene. NASA cannot alter processing for local changes in reflective characteristics of the Earth but could adjust for Sun elevation and optimize the contrast in a given band.

  20. Film: An Introduction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fell, John L.

    "Understanding Film," the opening section of this book, discusses perceptions of and responses to film and the way in which experiences with and knowledge of other media affect film viewing. The second section, "Film Elements," analyzes the basic elements of film: the use of space and time, the impact of editing, sound and color, and the effects…

  1. Experiment M410: Color patch photography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brinkmann, J. R.; Jones, R. L.

    1971-01-01

    A slate that supported four calibrated color targets was photographed during Gemini 10 mission extravehicular activity to determine if existing outdoor-type color films can reproduce colored objects accurately in the space environment. The experiment resulted in the acquisition of sufficient information to confirm that objects can be photographed in space with good color fidelity by the use of existing materials. Available color film is balanced to the solar spectrum in space, and the effect of ultraviolet energy on film degradation appears to be negligible.

  2. Luminescence properties of Ce3+ and Tb3+ co-doped SiOxNy thin films: Prospects for color tunability in silicon-based hosts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramírez, J. M.; Ruiz-Caridad, A.; Wojcik, J.; Gutierrez, A. M.; Estradé, S.; Peiró, F.; Sanchís, P.; Mascher, P.; Garrido, B.

    2016-03-01

    In this work, the role of the nitrogen content, the annealing temperature, and the sample morphology on the luminescence properties of Ce3+ and Tb3+ co-doped SiOxNy thin films has been investigated. An increasing nitrogen atomic percentage has been incorporated in the host matrix by gradually replacing oxygen with nitrogen during fabrication while maintaining the Si content unaltered, obtaining a sequential variation in the film composition from nearly stoichiometric SiO2 to SiOxNy. The study of rare earth doped single layers has allowed us to identify the parameters that yield an optimum optical performance from Ce3+ and Tb3+ ions. Ce3+ ions proved to be highly sensitive to the annealing temperature and the nitrogen content, showing strong PL emission for relatively low nitrogen contents (from 0 to 20%) and moderate annealing temperatures (800-1000 °C) or under high temperature annealing (1180 °C). Tb3+ ions, on the other hand, displayed a mild dependence on those film parameters. Rare earth co-doping has also been investigated by comparing the luminescence properties of three different approaches: (i) a Ce3+ and Tb3+ co-doped SiOxNy single layer, (ii) a bilayer composed of two SiOxNy single layers doped with either Ce3+ or Tb3+ ions, and (iii) a multilayer composed of a series of either Tb3+ or Ce3+-doped SiOxNy thin films with interleaved SiO2 spacers. Bright green emission and efficient energy transfer from either Ce3+ ions or Ce silicates to Tb3+ ions has been observed in the co-doped single layer as a consequence of the strong ion-ion interaction. On the other hand, independent luminescence from Ce3+ and Tb3+ ions has been observed in the Ce3+ and Tb3+ co-doped bilayer and multilayer, providing a good scenario to develop light emitting devices with wide color tunability by varying the number of deposited films that contain each rare earth dopant. Moreover, the optoelectronic properties of Ce3+- and/or Tb3+-doped thin films have been studied by depositing

  3. Color blindness

    MedlinePlus

    ... have trouble telling the difference between red and green. This is the most common type of color ... color blindness often have problems seeing reds and greens, too. The most severe form of color blindness ...

  4. The Chemistry of Color Photography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guida, Wayne C.; Raber, Douglas J.

    1975-01-01

    Presents several topics in color photography which can serve as an introduction of scientific concepts into the classroom, such as: photochemistry (energy transport), organic chemistry (dye formation), physics (nature of light), psychology (color perception), and engineering (isolation of different chemical processes within layers of the film).…

  5. The Chemistry of Color Photography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guida, Wayne C.; Raber, Douglas J.

    1975-01-01

    Presents several topics in color photography which can serve as an introduction of scientific concepts into the classroom, such as: photochemistry (energy transport), organic chemistry (dye formation), physics (nature of light), psychology (color perception), and engineering (isolation of different chemical processes within layers of the film).…

  6. Colorful Chemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Suzanne

    1991-01-01

    Described is an color-making activity where students use food coloring, eyedroppers, and water to make various colored solutions. Included are the needed materials and procedures. Students are asked to write up the formulas for making their favorite color. (KR)

  7. New color filter with negative birefringence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Xibin; Yuan, Jianfeng; Wu, Yuan; Ma, Zhenjun; Li, Baozhong; He, Tianbei; Huang, Xinmin

    1998-02-01

    We have presented a special color film with negative optical-birefringence. It can work as color filter and viewing angle extension film of Normally White Twist Nematic Liquid Crystal Displays (NW TN-LCDs). To fabricate such film we synthesized oil-soluble high-performance polyimide (PI) which can be dissolved in the usual organic solvent and shows negative birefringence after lamination. Mixing PI with certain pigment of green, blue and red color in the solvent with suitable proportion individually and laminating on the glass substrate, we obtained color films of good transmission spectrum and suitable chromatic coordinates. The experimental results show that the color filter can work as compensation films of NW TN-LCDs.

  8. Hybrid 2D photonic crystal-assisted Lu3Al5O12:Ce ceramic-plate phosphor and free-standing red film phosphor for white LEDs with high color-rendering index.

    PubMed

    Park, Hoo Keun; Oh, Ji Hye; Kang, Heejoon; Zhang, Jian; Do, Young Rag

    2015-03-04

    This paper reports the combined optical effects of a two-dimensional (2D) SiNx photonic crystal layer (PCL)-assisted Lu3Al5O12:Ce (LuAG:Ce) green ceramic-plate phosphor (CPP) and a free-standing (Sr,Ca)AlSiN3:Eu red film phosphor to enhance luminous efficacy, color rendering index (CRI), and special CRI (R9) of LuAG:Ce CPP-capped white light-emitting diodes (LEDs) for high-power white LEDs at 350 mA. By introducing the 2D SiNx PCL, the luminous efficacy was improved by a factor of 1.25 and 1.15 compared to that of the conventional flat CPP-capped LED and the thickness-increased CPP-capped LED (with a thickness of 0.15 mm), respectively, while maintaining low color-rendering properties. The combining of the free-standing red film phosphor in the flat CPP-capped, the 2D PCL-assisted CPP-capped, and the thickness-increased CPP-capped LEDs led to enhancement of the CRI and the special CRI (R9); it also led to a decrease of the correlated color temperature (CCT) due to broad wavelength coverage via the addition of red emission. High CRI (94), natural white CCT (4450 K), and acceptable luminous efficacy (71.1 lm/W) were attained from the 2D PCL-assisted LuAG:Ce CPP/free-standing red film phosphor-based LED using a red phosphor concentration of 7.5 wt %. It is expected that the combination of the 2D PCL and the free-standing red film phosphor will be a good candidate for achieving a high-power white CPP-capped LED with excellent CRI.

  9. Color realism and color science.

    PubMed

    Byrne, Alex; Hilbert, David R

    2003-02-01

    The target article is an attempt to make some progress on the problem of color realism. Are objects colored? And what is the nature of the color properties? We defend the view that physical objects (for instance, tomatoes, radishes, and rubies) are colored, and that colors are physical properties, specifically, types of reflectance. This is probably a minority opinion, at least among color scientists. Textbooks frequently claim that physical objects are not colored, and that the colors are "subjective" or "in the mind." The article has two other purposes: First, to introduce an interdisciplinary audience to some distinctively philosophical tools that are useful in tackling the problem of color realism and, second, to clarify the various positions and central arguments in the debate. The first part explains the problem of color realism and makes some useful distinctions. These distinctions are then used to expose various confusions that often prevent people from seeing that the issues are genuine and difficult, and that the problem of color realism ought to be of interest to anyone working in the field of color science. The second part explains the various leading answers to the problem of color realism, and (briefly) argues that all views other than our own have serious difficulties or are unmotivated. The third part explains and motivates our own view, that colors are types of reflectances and defends it against objections made in the recent literature that are often taken as fatal.

  10. Urine Color

    MedlinePlus

    ... is often caused by medications, certain foods or food dyes. In some cases, though, changes in urine color ... may be caused by: Dyes. Some brightly colored food dyes can cause green urine. Dyes used for some ...

  11. Entropy, color, and color rendering.

    PubMed

    Price, Luke L A

    2012-12-01

    The Shannon entropy [Bell Syst. Tech J.27, 379 (1948)] of spectral distributions is applied to the problem of color rendering. With this novel approach, calculations for visual white entropy, spectral entropy, and color rendering are proposed, indices that are unreliant on the subjectivity inherent in reference spectra and color samples. The indices are tested against real lamp spectra, showing a simple and robust system for color rendering assessment. The discussion considers potential roles for white entropy in several areas of color theory and psychophysics and nonextensive entropy generalizations of the entropy indices in mathematical color spaces.

  12. Seeing Color

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texley, Juliana

    2005-01-01

    Colors are powerful tools for engaging children, from the youngest years onward. We hang brightly patterned mobiles above their cribs and help them learn the names of colors as they begin to record their own ideas in pictures and words. Colors can also open the door to an invisible world of electromagnetism, even when children can barely imagine…

  13. Color Facsimile.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-02-01

    modification of existing JPEG compression and decompression software available from Independent JPEG Users Group to process CIELAB color images and to use...externally specificed Huffman tables. In addition a conversion program was written to convert CIELAB color space images to red, green, blue color space

  14. Color Algebras

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulligan, Jeffrey B.

    2017-01-01

    A color algebra refers to a system for computing sums and products of colors, analogous to additive and subtractive color mixtures. We would like it to match the well-defined algebra of spectral functions describing lights and surface reflectances, but an exact correspondence is impossible after the spectra have been projected to a three-dimensional color space, because of metamerism physically different spectra can produce the same color sensation. Metameric spectra are interchangeable for the purposes of addition, but not multiplication, so any color algebra is necessarily an approximation to physical reality. Nevertheless, because the majority of naturally-occurring spectra are well-behaved (e.g., continuous and slowly-varying), color algebras can be formulated that are largely accurate and agree well with human intuition. Here we explore the family of algebras that result from associating each color with a member of a three-dimensional manifold of spectra. This association can be used to construct a color product, defined as the color of the spectrum of the wavelength-wise product of the spectra associated with the two input colors. The choice of the spectral manifold determines the behavior of the resulting system, and certain special subspaces allow computational efficiencies. The resulting systems can be used to improve computer graphic rendering techniques, and to model various perceptual phenomena such as color constancy.

  15. Seeing Color

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texley, Juliana

    2005-01-01

    Colors are powerful tools for engaging children, from the youngest years onward. We hang brightly patterned mobiles above their cribs and help them learn the names of colors as they begin to record their own ideas in pictures and words. Colors can also open the door to an invisible world of electromagnetism, even when children can barely imagine…

  16. Water depth penetration film test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lockwood, H. E.; Perry, L.; Sauer, G. E.; Lamar, N. T.

    1974-01-01

    As part of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Earth Resources Program, a comparative and controlled evaluation of nine film-filter combinations was completed to establish the relative effectiveness in recording water subsurface detail if exposed from an aerial platform over a typical water body. The films tested, with one exception, were those which prior was suggested had potential. These included an experimental 2-layer positive color film, a 2-layer (minus blue layer) film, a normal 3-layer color film, a panchromatic black-and-white film, and a black-and-white infrared film. Selective filtration was used with all films.

  17. Water depth penetration film test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lockwood, H. E.; Perry, L.; Sauer, G. E.; Lamar, N. T.

    1974-01-01

    As part of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Earth Resources Program, a comparative and controlled evaluation of nine film-filter combinations was completed to establish the relative effectiveness in recording water subsurface detail if exposed from an aerial platform over a typical water body. The films tested, with one exception, were those which prior was suggested had potential. These included an experimental 2-layer positive color film, a 2-layer (minus blue layer) film, a normal 3-layer color film, a panchromatic black-and-white film, and a black-and-white infrared film. Selective filtration was used with all films.

  18. Color Terms and Color Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidoff, Jules

    2006-01-01

    In their lead articles, both Kowalski and Zimiles (2006) and O'Hanlon and Roberson (2006) declare a general relation between color term knowledge and the ability to conceptually represent color. Kowalski and Zimiles, in particular, argue for a priority for the conceptual representation in color term acquisition. The complexities of the interaction…

  19. Color Categories and Color Appearance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webster, Michael A.; Kay, Paul

    2012-01-01

    We examined categorical effects in color appearance in two tasks, which in part differed in the extent to which color naming was explicitly required for the response. In one, we measured the effects of color differences on perceptual grouping for hues that spanned the blue-green boundary, to test whether chromatic differences across the boundary…

  20. Color Categories and Color Appearance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webster, Michael A.; Kay, Paul

    2012-01-01

    We examined categorical effects in color appearance in two tasks, which in part differed in the extent to which color naming was explicitly required for the response. In one, we measured the effects of color differences on perceptual grouping for hues that spanned the blue-green boundary, to test whether chromatic differences across the boundary…

  1. Color terms and color concepts.

    PubMed

    Davidoff, Jules

    2006-08-01

    In their lead articles, both Kowalski and Zimiles (2006) and O'Hanlon and Roberson (2006) declare a general relation between color term knowledge and the ability to conceptually represent color. Kowalski and Zimiles, in particular, argue for a priority for the conceptual representation in color term acquisition. The complexities of the interaction are taken up in the current commentary, especially with regard to the neuropsychological evidence. Data from aphasic patients also argue for a priority for abstract thought, but nevertheless it may still be that the use of color terms is the only way in which to form color categories even if both linguistic and attentional factors play an important role.

  2. Color image coding for digital projection and d-cinema

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LeHoty, David A.

    2008-01-01

    Color image coding for d-cinema is explored using luminance contour plots of a few standards, a laser-based projection system, and a film stock. The luminance contour plots are in u'v' space. Several color image coding representations are surveyed. And a color image coding system is suggested for efficient perceptual color difference encoding.

  3. Color Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wrolstad, Ronald E.; Smith, Daniel E.

    Color, flavor, and texture are the three principal quality attributes that determine food acceptance, and color has a far greater influence on our judgment than most of us appreciate. We use color to determine if a banana is at our preferred ripeness level, and a discolored meat product can warn us that the product may be spoiled. The marketing departments of our food corporations know that, for their customers, the color must be "right." The University of California Davis scorecard for wine quality designates four points out of 20, or 20% of the total score, for color and appearance (1). Food scientists who establish quality control specifications for their product are very aware of the importance of color and appearance. While subjective visual assessment and use of visual color standards are still used in the food industry, instrumental color measurements are extensively employed. Objective measurement of color is desirable for both research and industrial applications, and the ruggedness, stability, and ease of use of today's color measurement instruments have resulted in their widespread adoption.

  4. Color categories and color appearance

    PubMed Central

    Webster, Michael A.; Kay, Paul

    2011-01-01

    We examined categorical effects in color appearance in two tasks, which in part differed in the extent to which color naming was explicitly required for the response. In one, we measured the effects of color differences on perceptual grouping for hues that spanned the blue–green boundary, to test whether chromatic differences across the boundary were perceptually exaggerated. This task did not require overt judgments of the perceived colors, and the tendency to group showed only a weak and inconsistent categorical bias. In a second case, we analyzed results from two prior studies of hue scaling of chromatic stimuli (De Valois, De Valois, Switkes, & Mahon, 1997; Malkoc, Kay, & Webster, 2005), to test whether color appearance changed more rapidly around the blue–green boundary. In this task observers directly judge the perceived color of the stimuli and these judgments tended to show much stronger categorical effects. The differences between these tasks could arise either because different signals mediate color grouping and color appearance, or because linguistic categories might differentially intrude on the response to color and/or on the perception of color. Our results suggest that the interaction between language and color processing may be highly dependent on the specific task and cognitive demands and strategies of the observer, and also highlight pronounced individual differences in the tendency to exhibit categorical responses. PMID:22176751

  5. Processing of Color Words Activates Color Representations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richter, Tobias; Zwaan, Rolf A.

    2009-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate whether color representations are routinely activated when color words are processed. Congruency effects of colors and color words were observed in both directions. Lexical decisions on color words were faster when preceding colors matched the color named by the word. Color-discrimination responses…

  6. Processing of Color Words Activates Color Representations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richter, Tobias; Zwaan, Rolf A.

    2009-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate whether color representations are routinely activated when color words are processed. Congruency effects of colors and color words were observed in both directions. Lexical decisions on color words were faster when preceding colors matched the color named by the word. Color-discrimination responses…

  7. Structural Colors of Birds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, Cecilia; Dushkina, Natalia

    2016-03-01

    Structural colors create iridescent colors in bird feathers. The goal is to understand why structural colors act the way they do in certain situations. The research conducted over the course of the fall semester was to understand the optical phenomenon producing colors in individual barbules. Through the use of a polarizing optical microscope, certain hypotheses were built to explain certain phenomenon. Using a dark field illumination involving light acting at wide angles in microscopy, the barbules were not affected by polarization. So it can be suggested that the barbules have certain characteristics, possibly internal, which prevents wide-angle polarization. More recently, it was found that the barbules, when stacked upon one another, create a discoloration at the cross over point. It can be suggested that the barbules act as thin films and create a situation of thin film interference. More data will be taken using the Scanning Electron Microscope as well as getting cross sectional data to help understand the internal characteristics of the barbules. From the support of the Neimeyer-Hodgson Grant, Chris Stull, and Millersville University of Pennsylvania.

  8. Colored percolation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kundu, Sumanta; Manna, S. S.

    2017-05-01

    A model called "colored percolation" has been introduced with its infinite number of versions in two dimensions. The sites of a regular lattice are randomly occupied with probability p and are then colored by one of the n distinct colors using uniform probability q =1 /n . Denoting different colors by the letters of the Roman alphabet, we have studied different versions of the model like A B ,A B C ,A B C D ,A B C D E ,... etc. Here, only those lattice bonds having two different colored atoms at the ends are defined as connected. The percolation threshold pc(n ) asymptotically converges to its limiting value of pc as 1 /n . The model has been generalized by introducing a preference towards a subset of colors when m out of n colors are selected with probability q /m each and the rest of the colors are selected with probability (1 -q )/(n -m ) . It has been observed that pc(q ,m ) depends nontrivially on q and has a minimum at qmin=m /n . In another generalization the fractions of bonds between similarly and dissimilarly colored atoms have been treated as independent parameters. Phase diagrams in this parameter space have been drawn exhibiting percolating and nonpercolating phases.

  9. Polar Color

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 3 May 2004 This nighttime visible color image was collected on January 1, 2003 during the Northern Summer season near the North Polar Troughs.

    This daytime visible color image was collected on September 4, 2002 during the Northern Spring season in Vastitas Borealis. The THEMIS VIS camera is capable of capturing color images of the martian surface using its five different color filters. In this mode of operation, the spatial resolution and coverage of the image must be reduced to accommodate the additional data volume produced from the use of multiple filters. To make a color image, three of the five filter images (each in grayscale) are selected. Each is contrast enhanced and then converted to a red, green, or blue intensity image. These three images are then combined to produce a full color, single image. Because the THEMIS color filters don't span the full range of colors seen by the human eye, a color THEMIS image does not represent true color. Also, because each single-filter image is contrast enhanced before inclusion in the three-color image, the apparent color variation of the scene is exaggerated. Nevertheless, the color variation that does appear is representative of some change in color, however subtle, in the actual scene. Note that the long edges of THEMIS color images typically contain color artifacts that do not represent surface variation.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 79, Longitude 346 East (14 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with

  10. Quantum Color

    ScienceCinema

    Lincoln, Don

    2016-07-20

    The idea of electric charges and electricity in general is a familiar one to the science savvy viewer. However, electromagnetism is but one of the four fundamental forces and not the strongest one. The strongest of the fundamental forces is called the strong nuclear force and it has its own associated charge. Physicists call this charge “color” in analogy with the primary colors, although there is no real connection with actual color. In this video, Fermilab’s Dr. Don Lincoln explains why it is that we live in a colorful world.

  11. Marine Science Film Catalogue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Frank L.

    Forty-eight motion picture films and filmstrips in the field of marine science are catalogued in this booklet. Following the alphabetical index, one page is devoted to each film indicating its type, producer, recommended grade level, running time, and presence of color and/or sound. A summary of film content, possible uses, and outstanding…

  12. Structural color mechanism in the Papilio blumei butterfly.

    PubMed

    Lo, Mei-Ling; Lee, Cheng-Chung

    2014-02-01

    The structural color found in biological systems has complicated nanostructure. It is very important to determine its color mechanism. In this study, the 2D photonic crystal structures of the Papilio blumei butterfly were constructed, and the corresponding reflectance spectra were simulated by the finite-difference time-domain method. The structural color of the butterfly depends on the incident angle of light, film thickness, film material (film refractive index), and the size of the air hole (effective refractive index). Analysis of simulations can help us understand the hue, brightness, and saturation of structural color on the butterfly wing. As a result, the analysis can help us fabricate expected structural color.

  13. A platform for colorful solar cells with enhanced absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhindsa, Navneet; Walia, Jaspreet; Singh Saini, Simarjeet

    2016-12-01

    We demonstrate submicron thick platform integrating amorphous silicon nanowires and thin-films achieving vivid colors in transmission and reflection. The platform nearly doubles the absorption efficiency compared to the starting thin-film without much compromising with color diverseness. The structural colors can be changed over a wide range by changing the diameters of the nanowires while still keeping the absorption efficiency higher than starting thin-film. The optical response of the platform is conceptually understood for different diameters combined with different thin-film thicknesses indicating the presence of leaky waveguide modes and coupled cavity modes. Our proposed platform can enable architectural low price colorful solar cells on transparent substrates.

  14. A platform for colorful solar cells with enhanced absorption.

    PubMed

    Dhindsa, Navneet; Walia, Jaspreet; Saini, Simarjeet Singh

    2016-12-09

    We demonstrate submicron thick platform integrating amorphous silicon nanowires and thin-films achieving vivid colors in transmission and reflection. The platform nearly doubles the absorption efficiency compared to the starting thin-film without much compromising with color diverseness. The structural colors can be changed over a wide range by changing the diameters of the nanowires while still keeping the absorption efficiency higher than starting thin-film. The optical response of the platform is conceptually understood for different diameters combined with different thin-film thicknesses indicating the presence of leaky waveguide modes and coupled cavity modes. Our proposed platform can enable architectural low price colorful solar cells on transparent substrates.

  15. Color Metric.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois State Office of Education, Springfield.

    This booklet was designed to convey metric information in pictoral form. The use of pictures in the coloring book enables the more mature person to grasp the metric message instantly, whereas the younger person, while coloring the picture, will be exposed to the metric information long enough to make the proper associations. Sheets of the booklet…

  16. Color Metric.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois State Office of Education, Springfield.

    This booklet was designed to convey metric information in pictoral form. The use of pictures in the coloring book enables the more mature person to grasp the metric message instantly, whereas the younger person, while coloring the picture, will be exposed to the metric information long enough to make the proper associations. Sheets of the booklet…

  17. Spectral and Color Changes of Ag/TiO2 Photochromic Films Deposited on Diffusing Paper and Transparent Flexible Plastic Substrates.

    PubMed

    Diop, Daouda K; Simonot, Lionel; Martínez-García, Juan; Hébert, Mathieu; Lefkir, Yaya; Abadias, Grégory; Guérin, Philippe; Babonneau, David; Destouches, Nathalie

    2016-12-12

    Giving paper and polymer photochromic properties under laser irradiation is challenging due to the low resistance of these materials to heat, their flexibility, and their possibly irregular structure. However, we could successfully deposit TiO2/Ag/TiO2 layers stacking on flexible white glossy paper and transparent polyethylene terephalate (PET) substrates using a reactive magnetron sputtering technique, and tailor coloration changes after laser irradiation, alternating visible and ultraviolet (UV) wavelengths. The sample colors are characterized by a panel of chromas depending on the irradiation conditions. We demonstrate that these chroma changes are due to morphological changes of Ag nanoparticles (NPs) after visible laser irradiation of the colored as-deposited sample. The process exhibits a good reversibility after subsequent UV irradiation due to the growth of new metallic Ag NPs. The colors displayed in diffuse reflection by the paper samples are more saturated than the ones displayed in regular transmission by PET samples. We demonstrate the efficiency of the photochromic process on such support by printing high resolution patterns exhibiting different colors depending on the observation conditions.

  18. A color prediction model for imagery analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skaley, J. E.; Fisher, J. R.; Hardy, E. E.

    1977-01-01

    A simple model has been devised to selectively construct several points within a scene using multispectral imagery. The model correlates black-and-white density values to color components of diazo film so as to maximize the color contrast of two or three points per composite. The CIE (Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage) color coordinate system is used as a quantitative reference to locate these points in color space. Superimposed on this quantitative reference is a perceptional framework which functionally contrasts color values in a psychophysical sense. This methodology permits a more quantitative approach to the manual interpretation of multispectral imagery while resulting in improved accuracy and lower costs.

  19. Quantum Color

    SciTech Connect

    Lincoln, Don

    2016-07-05

    The idea of electric charges and electricity in general is a familiar one to the science savvy viewer. However, electromagnetism is but one of the four fundamental forces and not the strongest one. The strongest of the fundamental forces is called the strong nuclear force and it has its own associated charge. Physicists call this charge “color” in analogy with the primary colors, although there is no real connection with actual color. In this video, Fermilab’s Dr. Don Lincoln explains why it is that we live in a colorful world.

  20. Biomimetic Isotropic Nanostructures for Structural Coloration

    SciTech Connect

    Forster, Jason D.; Noh, Heeso; Liew, Seng Fatt; Saranathan, Vinodkumar; Schreck, Carl F.; Yang, Lin; Park, Jin-Gyu; Prum, Richard O.; Mochrie, Simon G.J.; O'Hern, Corey S.; Cao, Hui; Dufresne, Eric R.

    2010-08-09

    The self-assembly of films that mimic color-producing nanostructures in bird feathers is described. These structures are isotropic and have a characteristic length-scale comparable to the wavelength of visible light. Structural colors are produced when wavelength-independent scattering is suppressed by limiting the optical path length through geometry or absorption.

  1. Photochemical on-off switching of structural color of a multi-bilayered film consisting of azobenzene-polymer liquid crystal and polyvinylalcohol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurihara, Seiji; Moritsugu, Masaki; Kuwahara, Yutaka; Ogata, Tomonari

    2011-10-01

    Photo-responsive multi-bilayered film consisting of azobenzene polymer liquid crystals (PAzo) and polyvinylalcohol (PVA) was prepared on a glass substrate by spin coating of the polymer solutions alternately. The reflectivity of the multi-bilayered film disappeared by annealing at 80 °C. The disappearance of the reflection by the annealing was related to the thermal out-of-plane molecular orientation of PAzo even in the multi-bilayered film, leading to a very small difference in refractive indices between PAzo and PVA. The reflectance of the multi-bilayered film was increased again by UV irradiation because of the transformation from the out-of-plane orientation to the in-plane random orientation, resulting in the restoration of difference in the refractive indices. In this way, the on-off switching of the reflection was achieved by combination of the thermally spontaneous out-of-plane molecular orientation and following photoisomerization of PAzo comprising the multi-bilayered film.

  2. Fabrication of β-cyclodextrin-coated poly (diallyldimethylammonium chloride)-functionalized graphene composite film modified glassy carbon-rotating disk electrode and its application for simultaneous electrochemical determination colorants of sunset yellow and tartrazine.

    PubMed

    Ye, Xiaoliang; Du, Yongling; Lu, Daban; Wang, Chunming

    2013-05-24

    We proposed a green and facile approach for the synthesis of β-cyclodextrin-coated poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride)-functionalized graphene composite film (β-CD-PDDA-Gr) by using L-ascorbic acid (L-AA) as the reducing agent at room temperature. The β-CD-PDDA-Gr composite film modified glassy carbon-rotating disk electrode (GC-RDE) was then developed for the sensitive simultaneous determination of two synthetic food colorants: sunset yellow (SY) and tartrazine (TT). By cyclic voltammetry (CV), the peak currents of SY and TT increased obviously on the developed electrochemical sensor. The kinetic parameters, such as diffusion coefficient D and standard heterogeneous rate constant kb, were estimated by linear sweep voltammetry (LSV). Under the optimal conditions, the differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) signals of SY and TT on the β-CD-PDDA-Gr modified GC-RDE were significantly enhanced. The enhanced anodic peak currents represented the excellent analytical performance of simultaneous detection of SY and TT in the range of 5.0×10(-8) to 2.0×10(-5) mol L(-1), with a low limit of detection (LOD) of 1.25×10(-8) mol L(-1) for SY and 1.43×10(-8) mol L(-1) for TT (SN(-1)=3). This proposed method displayed outstanding selectivity, good stability and acceptable repeatability and reproducibility, and also has been used to simultaneously determine SY and TT in some commercial soft drinks with satisfactory results. The obtained results were compared to HPLC of analysis for those two colorants and no significant differences were found. By the treatment of the experimental data, the electrochemical reaction mechanisms of SY and TT both involved a one-electron-one-proton-transfer process.

  3. Color vision test

    MedlinePlus

    ... present from birth) color vision problems: Achromatopsia -- complete color blindness , seeing only shades of gray Deuteranopia -- difficulty telling ... Vision test - color; Ishihara color vision test Images Color blindness tests References Bowling B. Hereditary fundus dystrophies. In: ...

  4. Shortened processing time technique for color industrial radiography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lapinski, N. P.

    1969-01-01

    Improved processing method reduces time required to generate a color radiograph. Prior to, or after exposure to penetrating radiation, the emulsion side of the film is flashed to a colored light which produces the hue changes in the processed radiograph. Agitation of the film during processing assures uniformity of results.

  5. Color vision.

    PubMed

    Swanson, William H; Cohen, Jay M

    2003-06-01

    Many visual disorders produce acquired color vision defects. Color vision theory emphasizes several stages of visual processing: prereceptoral filters (lens, macular pigment, pupil), cone photopigments (L-, M-, and S-cones), and postreceptoral processes (red-green, S-cone, and luminance channels). Congenital color defects, which affect 8% to 10% of males and 0.4% to 0.5% of females, result from alterations in the photopigment absorption spectra or the absence of one or more photopigments. The most common defects are color vision deficiencies (protan and deutan defects), which are milder than the rarer achromatopsias (complete loss of color vision). Acquired color vision defects can be attributed to a number of different causes: alteration of prereceptoral filters, reduced cone photopigment optical density, greater loss of one cone type than the others, and disruption of postreceptoral processes. Acquired color vision defects have been divided into three classes: type 1, red-green defect with scotopization; type 2, red-green defect without scotopization; and type 3, blue defects (with or without pseudoprotanomaly). Blue defects are usually type 3 acquired defects because congenital tritan defects have an incidence of one in several tens of thousands. Red-green defects can be acquired or congenital, and ruling out acquired defects can require a battery of tests (plates and arrangement tests, anomaloscopy, perhaps genetic analysis). Color vision tests must be administered carefully (with a standard illuminant and protocol), and pupillary miosis or high lens density should be noted and their possible effects considered when interpreting test results. Plate tests provide a simple screening method but do not provide a diagnosis. Arrangement tests and anomaloscope testing take more time and make greater demands on the tester, but they provide a more thorough evaluation. When standard protocols are followed and results are interpreted in terms of prereceptoral filters

  6. Color superconductivity

    SciTech Connect

    Wilczek, F.

    1997-09-22

    The asymptotic freedom of QCD suggests that at high density - where one forms a Fermi surface at very high momenta - weak coupling methods apply. These methods suggest that chiral symmetry is restored and that an instability toward color triplet condensation (color superconductivity) sets in. Here I attempt, using variational methods, to estimate these effects more precisely. Highlights include demonstration of a negative pressure in the uniform density chiral broken phase for any non-zero condensation, which we take as evidence for the philosophy of the MIT bag model; and demonstration that the color gap is substantial - several tens of MeV - even at modest densities. Since the superconductivity is in a pseudoscalar channel, parity is spontaneously broken.

  7. Color Infrared view of Houston, TX, USA

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1991-09-18

    This color infrared view of Houston (29.5N, 95.0W) was taken with a dual camera mount. Compare this scene with STS048-78-034 for an analysis of the unique properties of each film type. Comparative tests such as this aids in determining the kinds of information unique to each film system and evaluates and compares photography taken through hazy atmospheres. Infrared film is best at penetrating haze, vegetation detection and producing a sharp image.

  8. Restoration Of Faded Color Photographs By Digital Image Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gschwind, Rudolf

    1989-10-01

    Color photographs possess a poor stability towards light, chemicals heat and humidity. As a consequence, the colors of photographs deteriorate with time. Because of the complexity of processes that cause the dyes to fade, it is impossible to restore the images by chemical means. It is therefore attempted to restore faded color films by means of digital image processing.

  9. Color Sense

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Heidi S. S.; Maki, Jennifer A.

    2009-01-01

    This article reports a study conducted by members of the WellU Academic Integration Subcommittee of The College of St. Scholastica's College's Healthy Campus Initiative plan whose purpose was to determine whether changing color in the classroom could have a measurable effect on students. One simple improvement a school can make in a classroom is…

  10. Color transparency

    SciTech Connect

    Jennings, B.K.; Miller, G.A.

    1993-11-01

    The anomously large transmission of nucleons through a nucleus following a hard collision is explored. This effect, known as color transparency, is believed to be a prediction of QCD. The necessary conditions for its occurrence and the effects that must be included a realistic calculation are discussed.

  11. Colorful television

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlowicz, Michael

    What are the challenges and rewards for American men and women of color who chose to become scientists? The Public Broadcasting Service intends to show us through an upcoming 6-hour documentary series entitled “Breakthrough: The Changing Face of Science in America.”

  12. FAA Film Catalog.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Aviation Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    Some 75 films from the U.S. Department of Transportation's Federal Aviation Administration are listed in this catalog. Topics dealt with include aerodynamics, airports, aviation history and careers, flying clubs, navigation and weather. Most of the films are 16mm sound and color productions. Filmstrips requiring a 35mm projector and phonograph or…

  13. Colorless, Transparent, Aromatic Polyimide Films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    St. Clair, A. K.; St. Clair, T. L.; Ezzell, K. S.; Ely, R. M.

    1986-01-01

    New process yields aromatic condensation polyimide films essentially colorless. Films between 90- and 100-percent transparent at visible wavelength of 500 nm. Optically transparent polyimide films made from variety of aromatic condensation polyimides. Range from very pale in color to colorless, compared to bright yellow color of conventional/ commercial aromatic polyimide film. Increased transparency achieved at no sacrifice in thermal stability, flexibility, toughness, or mechanical properties. These features extremely attractive as films or coating materials for aerospace applications or for any other applications where high optical transparency or thermal stability is required.

  14. Colorful Bedrock

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-05-03

    This image captured by NASA Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter MRO covers diverse surface units on the floor of eastern Coprates Chasma in eastern Valles Marineris. The bedrock has diverse minerals producing wonderful color contrasts. In over 10 years of orbiting Mars, HiRISE has acquired nearly 50,000 large images, but they cover less than 3 percent of the Martian surface. https://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21606

  15. Colorful drying.

    PubMed

    Lakio, Satu; Heinämäki, Jyrki; Yliruusi, Jouko

    2010-03-01

    Drying is one of the standard unit operations in the pharmaceutical industry and it is important to become aware of the circumstances that dominate during the process. The purpose of this study was to test microcapsulated thermochromic pigments as heat indicators in a fluid bed drying process. The indicator powders were manually granulated with alpha-lactose monohydrate resulting in three particle-size groups. Also, pellets were coated with the indicator powders. The granules and pellets were fluidized in fluid bed dryer to observe the progress of the heat flow in the material and to study the heat indicator properties of the indicator materials. A tristimulus colorimeter was used to measure CIELAB color values. Color indicator for heat detection can be utilized to test if the heat-sensitive API would go through physical changes during the pharmaceutical drying process. Both the prepared granules and pellets can be used as heat indicator in fluid bed drying process. The colored heat indicators give an opportunity to learn new aspects of the process at real time and could be exploded, for example, for scaling-up studies.

  16. What is Color Blindness?

    MedlinePlus

    ... three color cone cells to determine our color perception. Color blindness can occur when one or more ... Anyone who experiences a significant change in color perception should see an ophthalmologist (Eye M.D.). Next ...

  17. Introduction To Color Vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorell, Lisa G.

    1983-08-01

    Several human cognitive studies have reported that color facilitates certain learning, memory and search tasks. Consideration of the color-opponent organization of human color vision and the spatial modulation transfer function for color suggests several simple sensory explanations.

  18. Efficient color display using low-absorption in-pixel color filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Yu (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A display system having a non-absorbing and reflective color filtering array and a reflector to improve light utilization efficiency. One implementation of the color filtering array uses a surface plasmon filter having two symmetric metal-dielectric interfaces coupled with each other to produce a transmission optical wave at a surface plasmon resonance wavelength at one interface from a p-polarized input beam on the other interface. Another implementation of the color filtering array uses a metal-film interference filter having two dielectric layers and three metallic films.

  19. Wetting in Color

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgess, Ian Bruce

    Colorimetric litmus tests such as pH paper have enjoyed wide commercial success due to their inexpensive production and exceptional ease of use. However, expansion of colorimetry to new sensing paradigms is challenging because macroscopic color changes are seldom coupled to arbitrary differences in the physical/chemical properties of a system. In this thesis I present in detail the development of Wetting in Color Technology, focusing primarily on its application as an inexpensive and highly selective colorimetric indicator for organic liquids. The technology exploits chemically-encoded inverse-opal photonic crystals to control the infiltration of fluids to liquid-specific spatial patterns, projecting minute differences in liquids' wettability to macroscopically distinct, easy-to-visualize structural color patterns. It is shown experimentally and corroborated with theoretical modeling using percolation theory that the high selectivity of wetting, upon-which the sensitivity of the indicator relies, is caused by the highly symmetric structure of our large-area, defect-free SiO2 inverse-opals. The regular structure also produces a bright iridescent color, which disappears when infiltrated with liquid - naturally coupling the optical and fluidic responses. Surface modification protocols are developed, requiring only silanization and selective oxidation, to facilitate the deterministic design of an indicator that differentiates a broad range of liquids. The resulting tunable, built-in horizontal and vertical chemistry gradients allow the wettability threshold to be tailored to specific liquids across a continuous range, and make the readout rely only on countable color differences. As wetting is a generic fluidic phenomenon, Wetting in Color technology could be suitable for applications in authentication or identification of unknown liquids across a broad range of industries. However, the generic nature of the response also ensures chemical non-specificity. It is shown

  20. Photonic Shape Memory Polymer with Stable Multiple Colors

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    A photonic shape memory polymer film that shows large color response (∼155 nm) in a wide temperature range has been fabricated from a semi-interpenetrating network of a cholesteric polymer and poly(benzyl acrylate). The large color response is achieved by mechanical embossing of the photonic film above its broad glass transition temperature. The embossed film, as it recovers to its original shape on heating through the broad thermal transition, exhibits multiple structural colors ranging from blue to orange. The relaxation behavior of the embossed film can be fully described using a Kelvin–Voigt model, which reveals that the influence of temperature on the generation of colors is much stronger than that of time, thereby producing stable multiple colors. PMID:28840717

  1. Color space conversion for linear color grading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Dah-Jye

    2000-10-01

    Color grading is an important process for various industries such as food processing, fruit and vegetable grading, etc. Quality and price are often determined by the color of product. For example, darker red color for apples means higher price. In color machine vision applications, image is acquired with a color CCD camera that outputs color information in three channels, red, gree, and blue. When grading color, these three primary colors must be processed to determine the color level for separation. A very popular color space conversion technique for color image processing is RGB-to-HSI, where HSI represents hue, saturation, and intensity, respectively. However, the conversion result is still 3D information that makes determining color grades very difficult. A new color space conversion technique that can be implemented for high-speed real-time processing for color grading is introduced in this paper. Depending on the application, different color space conversion equations must be used. The result of this technique is a simple one-dimensional array that represents different color levels. This linear array makes linear color grading adjustment possible.

  2. Luminescence properties of Ce{sup 3+} and Tb{sup 3+} co-doped SiO{sub x}N{sub y} thin films: Prospects for color tunability in silicon-based hosts

    SciTech Connect

    Ramírez, J. M. Ruiz-Caridad, A.; Estradé, S.; Peiró, F.; Garrido, B.; Wojcik, J.; Mascher, P.; Gutierrez, A. M.; Sanchís, P.

    2016-03-21

    In this work, the role of the nitrogen content, the annealing temperature, and the sample morphology on the luminescence properties of Ce{sup 3+} and Tb{sup 3+} co-doped SiO{sub x}N{sub y} thin films has been investigated. An increasing nitrogen atomic percentage has been incorporated in the host matrix by gradually replacing oxygen with nitrogen during fabrication while maintaining the Si content unaltered, obtaining a sequential variation in the film composition from nearly stoichiometric SiO{sub 2} to SiO{sub x}N{sub y}. The study of rare earth doped single layers has allowed us to identify the parameters that yield an optimum optical performance from Ce{sup 3+} and Tb{sup 3+} ions. Ce{sup 3+} ions proved to be highly sensitive to the annealing temperature and the nitrogen content, showing strong PL emission for relatively low nitrogen contents (from 0 to 20%) and moderate annealing temperatures (800–1000 °C) or under high temperature annealing (1180 °C). Tb{sup 3+} ions, on the other hand, displayed a mild dependence on those film parameters. Rare earth co-doping has also been investigated by comparing the luminescence properties of three different approaches: (i) a Ce{sup 3+} and Tb{sup 3+} co-doped SiO{sub x}N{sub y} single layer, (ii) a bilayer composed of two SiO{sub x}N{sub y} single layers doped with either Ce{sup 3+} or Tb{sup 3+} ions, and (iii) a multilayer composed of a series of either Tb{sup 3+} or Ce{sup 3+}-doped SiO{sub x}N{sub y} thin films with interleaved SiO{sub 2} spacers. Bright green emission and efficient energy transfer from either Ce{sup 3+} ions or Ce silicates to Tb{sup 3+} ions has been observed in the co-doped single layer as a consequence of the strong ion-ion interaction. On the other hand, independent luminescence from Ce{sup 3+} and Tb{sup 3+} ions has been observed in the Ce{sup 3+} and Tb{sup 3+} co-doped bilayer and multilayer, providing a good scenario to develop light emitting devices with wide color tunability by

  3. Hydrothermal-assisted exfoliation of Y/Tb/Eu ternary layered rare-earth hydroxides into tens of micron-sized unilamellar nanosheets for highly oriented and color-tunable nano-phosphor films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Qi; Xu, Zhixin; Li, Ji-Guang; Li, Xiaodong; Qi, Yang; Sun, Xudong

    2015-03-01

    Efficient exfoliation of well-crystallized (Y0.96Tb x Eu0.04- x )2(OH)5NO3 · nH2O (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.04) layered rare-earth hydroxide (LRH) crystals into tens of micron-sized unilamellar nanosheets has been successfully achieved by inserting water insoluble oleate anions (C17H33COO-) into the interlayer of the LRH via hydrothermal anion exchange at 120°C, followed by delaminating in toluene. The intercalation of oleate anions led to extremely expanded interlayer distances (up to approximately 5.2 nm) of the LRH crystals and accordingly disordered stacking of the ab planes along the c-axis and also weakened interlayer interactions, without significantly damaging the ab plane. As a consequence, the thickness of the LRH crystals increased from approximately 1 to 10 μm, exhibiting a behavior similar to that observed from the smectite clay in water. Highly [111]-oriented and approximately 100-nm thick oxide films of (Y0.96Tb x Eu0.04- x ) 2O3 (0 ≤ x ≤ 0.04) have been obtained through spin-coating of the exfoliated colloidal nanosheets on quartz substrate, followed by annealing at 800°C. Upon UV excitation at 266 nm, the oxide transparent films exhibit bright luminescence, with the color-tunable emission from red to orange, yellow, and then green by increasing the Tb3+ content from x = 0 to 0.04.

  4. Application of multispectral color photography to flame flow visualization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoffers, G.

    1979-01-01

    For flames of short duration and low intensity of radiation a spectroscopical flame diagnostics is difficult. In order to find some other means of extracting information about the flame structure from its radiation, the feasibility of using multispectral color photography was successfully evaluated. Since the flame photographs are close-ups, there is a considerable parallax between the single images, when several cameras are used, and additive color viewing is not possible. Each image must be analyzed individually, it is advisable to use color film in all cameras. One can either use color films of different spectral sensitivities or color films of the same type with different color filters. Sharp cutting filters are recommended.

  5. Exposure illuminance dependability in the lithography characteristic of color resist for LCD color filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yashiro, Msanori; Ohta, Masaru

    2008-11-01

    It is known that the photolithography characteristic of the color resist film depends on the variety of the pigments and the exposure condition. Recently, the color filter containing the high density pigments is hoped to make the wide color gamut LCD panel. Then, it is very important to know the composition of the color resist film and the exposure condition to achieve a good balance between the color characteristic and the photolithography characteristic. In this experiment, it is shown that the photolithography characteristics of Red and Blue resist films don't depend on the exposure illuminance easily in a range narrower than the width of the mask for the reason that the UV light goes into deeply without being absorbed by the pigments. However, in a range wider than the width of the mask or at very low exposure illuminance, their characteristics depend on the exposure illuminance by reason that the amount of the light irradiation decreases and the influence of the inhibition by oxygen becomes larger. On the other hand, it is shown that the photolithography characteristic of Green resist film depends on the exposure illuminance regardless of a range and the exposure illuminance value because the UV light can not go deeply into the coating by being absorbed by pigments in the resist. Thus, it is confirmed that the degree of curing and the pattern profile of color resist film is greatly different according to the composition and exposure condition.

  6. The Harvard Project Physics Film Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bork, Alfred M.

    1970-01-01

    States the philosophy behind the Harvard Project Physics (HPP) film program. Describes the three long HPP films. Lists the 48 color film loops covering six broad topics, primarily motion and energy. The 8-mm silent loops are synchronized with the text materials. Explains some of the pedagogical possibilities of these film loops. (RR)

  7. Color blindness and Rorschach color responsivity.

    PubMed

    Corsino, B V

    1985-10-01

    Color vision deficits occur in 10% of the American white male population. Thus, color blindness may invalidate diagnostic hypotheses generated from Rorschach data. The Rorschach protocols of 43 white, college male color-blind subjects were compared to the protocols of normally sighted controls. The color-blind group manifested fewer pure "C" responses. No significant between group differences emerged for any of the other primary Rorschach color variables. Pure "C" responses rarely figure prominently in Rorschach evaluations, and the apparent lowered frequency of these responses by the color-blind is insufficient to warrant modification of current Rorschach practice. The data suggest that color blindness is unlikely to confound Rorschach assessment.

  8. Do focal colors look particularly "colorful"?

    PubMed

    Witzel, Christoph; Franklin, Anna

    2014-04-01

    If the most typical red, yellow, green, and blue were particularly colorful (i.e., saturated), they would "jump out to the eye." This would explain why even fundamentally different languages have distinct color terms for these focal colors, and why unique hues play a prominent role in subjective color appearance. In this study, the subjective saturation of 10 colors around each of these focal colors was measured through a pairwise matching task. Results show that subjective saturation changes systematically across hues in a way that is strongly correlated to the visual gamut, and exponentially related to sensitivity but not to focal colors.

  9. Coloration mechanisms and phylogeny of Morpho butterflies.

    PubMed

    Giraldo, M A; Yoshioka, S; Liu, C; Stavenga, D G

    2016-12-15

    Morpho butterflies are universally admired for their iridescent blue coloration, which is due to nanostructured wing scales. We performed a comparative study on the coloration of 16 Morpho species, investigating the morphological, spectral and spatial scattering properties of the differently organized wing scales. In numerous previous studies, the bright blue Morpho coloration has been fully attributed to the multi-layered ridges of the cover scales' upper laminae, but we found that the lower laminae of the cover and ground scales play an important additional role, by acting as optical thin film reflectors. We conclude that Morpho coloration is a subtle combination of overlapping pigmented and/or unpigmented scales, multilayer systems, optical thin films and sometimes undulated scale surfaces. Based on the scales' architecture and their organization, five main groups can be distinguished within the genus Morpho, largely agreeing with the accepted phylogeny.

  10. Hydrothermally Grown In-doped ZnO Nanorods on p-GaN Films for Color-tunable Heterojunction Light-emitting-diodes

    PubMed Central

    Park, Geun Chul; Hwang, Soo Min; Lee, Seung Muk; Choi, Jun Hyuk; Song, Keun Man; Kim, Hyun You; Kim, Hyun-Suk; Eum, Sung-Jin; Jung, Seung-Boo; Lim, Jun Hyung; Joo, Jinho

    2015-01-01

    The incorporation of doping elements in ZnO nanostructures plays an important role in adjusting the optical and electrical properties in optoelectronic devices. In the present study, we fabricated 1-D ZnO nanorods (NRs) doped with different In contents (0% ~ 5%) on p-GaN films using a facile hydrothermal method, and investigated the effect of the In doping on the morphology and electronic structure of the NRs and the electrical and optical performances of the n-ZnO NRs/p-GaN heterojunction light emitting diodes (LEDs). As the In content increased, the size (diameter and length) of the NRs increased, and the electrical performance of the LEDs improved. From the electroluminescence (EL) spectra, it was found that the broad green-yellow-orange emission band significantly increased with increasing In content due to the increased defect states (oxygen vacancies) in the ZnO NRs, and consequently, the superposition of the emission bands centered at 415 nm and 570 nm led to the generation of white-light. These results suggest that In doping is an effective way to tailor the morphology and the optical, electronic, and electrical properties of ZnO NRs, as well as the EL emission property of heterojunction LEDs. PMID:25988846

  11. Wide-color gamut multi-twist retarders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hornburg, Kathryn J.; Brickson, Leandra L.; Escuti, Michael J.

    2015-03-01

    We show how highly chromatic Multi-Twist Retarder (MTR) films can be used to create a single-film color filter wherein the color may be selected only by the MTR orientation angle. By this approach, we can create multi- color images with just an MTR between polarizers. We study the design method and limits of the available color gamut possibilities in this approach, and experimentally demonstrate several designs of continuous and discrete patterns. This technique may be useful in art, displays, microscopy, and remote sensing.

  12. Ultrathin Nanostructured Metals for Highly Transmissive Plasmonic Subtractive Color Filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Beibei; Gao, Yongkang; Bartoli, Filbert J.

    2013-10-01

    Plasmonic color filters employing a single optically-thick nanostructured metal layer have recently generated considerable interest as an alternative to colorant-based color filtering technologies, due to their reliability, ease of fabrication, and high color tunability. However, their relatively low transmission efficiency (~30%) needs to be significantly improved for practical applications. The present work reports, for the first time, a novel plasmonic subtractive color filtering scheme that exploits the counter-intuitive phenomenon of extraordinary low transmission (ELT) through an ultrathin nanostructured metal film. This approach relies on a fundamentally different color filtering mechanism than that of existing plasmonic additive color filters, and achieves unusually high transmission efficiencies of 60 ~ 70% for simple architectures. Furthermore, owing to short-range interactions of surface plasmon polaritons at ELT resonances, our design offers high spatial resolution color filtering with compact pixel size close to the optical diffraction limit (~λ/2), creating solid applications ranging from imaging sensors to color displays.

  13. Investigation on the mechanism of laser colorful marking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jimin; Shao, Jun; Zhao, Hongliang

    2009-08-01

    Laser marking has been found wide application in many fields. However, laser colorful marking has seldom been used because of its complexity of processing. Recently, the researchers have been attracted on this research for its' huge potential market. Nevertheless, the mechanism of laser colorful marking is still not quite clear. In order to explore essence of laser colorful marking on metal, this paper introduces the mechanism of laser colorful marking on stainless steel and titanium and the mechanism of color generation of film processed by laser colorful marking. The mechanism of laser colorful marking on metal is the optical films which are oxide and nitride coated on the surface of metal, are generated by controlling laser energy input and the approach of scanning region. It was found that the films on surface of stainless steel contain ferric oxides and nitrides and the films on surface of titanium contain titanium oxides and nitrides. The composition of films with different color is different in terms of substance.

  14. Optimization of color LC displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosmowski, Bogdan B.

    1995-08-01

    The advancement of the liquid crystal display (LCD) technology, and improvements of the optical and electro-optical properties, have enabled the broad expansion of LCDs application field. The rapid development of the multimedia techniques, new applications in automotive, office, medical domain, forced the demand for the color displays--for the information presentation with the color code. The necessity to fulfil many contradictory and extreme conditions caused the development of the optimization procedures of the color LC displays to be a big problem. Most of the LCDs used nowadays are the twisted nematic, super twisted nematic, and active matrix thin film transistor LCD. The characterization of the achromatic black/white LCDs is made by means of photometric measuring methods, and quantitative measures are used: luminance, reflectance, contrast, contrast ration; as a function of a driving voltage, viewing angle, temperature, etc. The characterization of the color LCD is based on the spectral distributions of the transmittance or reflectance. Quantitative measures are chromatic coordinates and luminance factors are defined according to the colorimetric systems--CIE 1931, CIE 1976, CIELUV, CIELAB. The color difference (Delta) E in the CIELUV system is applied as a optimization parameter for the color display module. The spectral properties of all optical elements of the display module are analyzed and their influence on the set of the optical factors of LCD is evaluated. The correlation between technological parameters and optical characteristics of the LCD has been investigated. The choice of the optimization criterion is discussed and the optimization algorithm is proposed. Results of the color displays evaluation for some examples with different preconditions are presented.

  15. Primary Theme Club. Colors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walmsley, Bonnie Brown; Camp, Anne-Marie

    1997-01-01

    Presents a cross-curricular theme unit on colors that includes a pullout poster and a resource list. Social studies activities highlight flags of the world. Science activities teach about colors of animals and the science of color. Language arts activities describe colorful language. Mathematics activities involve sorting and graphing colors. (SM)

  16. Color Relationalism and Relativism.

    PubMed

    Byrne, Alex; Hilbert, David R

    2017-01-01

    This paper critically examines color relationalism and color relativism, two theories of color that are allegedly supported by variation in normal human color vision. We mostly discuss color relationalism, defended at length in Jonathan Cohen's The Red and the Real, and argue that the theory has insuperable problems.

  17. Activities: Some Colorful Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeTemple, Duane W.; Walker, Dean A.

    1996-01-01

    Describes three activities in discrete mathematics that involve coloring geometric objects: counting colored regions of overlapping simple closed curves, counting colored triangulations of polygons, and determining the number of colors required to paint the plane so that no two points one inch apart are the same color. (MKR)

  18. Full-color OLED on silicon microdisplay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Amalkumar P.

    2002-02-01

    eMagin has developed numerous enhancements to organic light emitting diode (OLED) technology, including a unique, up- emitting structure for OLED-on-silicon microdisplay devices. Recently, eMagin has fabricated full color SVGA+ resolution OLED microdisplays on silicon, with over 1.5 million color elements. The display is based on white light emission from OLED followed by LCD-type red, green and blue color filters. The color filters are patterned directly on OLED devices following suitable thin film encapsulation and the drive circuits are built directly on single crystal silicon. The resultant color OLED technology, with hits high efficiency, high brightness, and low power consumption, is ideally suited for near to the eye applications such as wearable PCS, wireless Internet applications and mobile phone, portable DVD viewers, digital cameras and other emerging applications.

  19. Inkjet Color Printing by Interference Nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Yakovlev, Aleksandr V; Milichko, Valentin A; Vinogradov, Vladimir V; Vinogradov, Alexandr V

    2016-03-22

    Color printing technology is developing rapidly; in less than 40 years, it moved from dot matrix printers with an ink-soaked cloth ribbon to 3D printers used to make three-dimensional color objects. Nevertheless, what remained unchanged over this time is the fact that in each case, dye inks (CMYK or RGB color schemes) were exclusively used for coloring, which inevitably limits the technological possibilities and color reproduction. As a next step in printing color images and storing information, we propose the technology of producing optical nanostructures. In this paper, we report use of inkjet technology to create colored interference layers with high accuracy without the need for high-temperature fixing. This was made possible due to using titania-based colloidal ink yielding monolithic coatings with a high refractive index (2.00 ± 0.08 over the entire visible range) when naturally dried. By controlling the film thickness by using inkjet deposition, we produced images based on controlled interference and implementing color printing with one ink. The lack of dyes in the proposed method has good environmental prospects, because applied systems based on a crystalline anatase sol are nontoxic and biologically inert. The paper explains in detail the principle of producing interference images by the classical inkjet method and shows the advantages of this technique in depositing coatings with uniform thickness, which are required for large-scale interference color imaging even on unprepared polymer films. This article demonstrates the possibility of inkjet printing of nanostructures with a precision in thickness of up to 50 nm, we believe that the proposed approach will be the groundwork for developing interference color printing approach and allow to implement new methods of forming optical nano-objects by widely available techniques.

  20. Hair treatment device for providing dispersed colors by light diffraction

    DOEpatents

    Lamartine, Bruce Carvell; Orler, Bruce E.; Sutton, Richard Matthew Charles; Song, Shuangqi

    2016-01-26

    Hair was coated with polymer-containing fluid and then hot pressed to form a composite of hair and a polymer film imprinted with a nanopattern. Polychromatic light incident on the nanopattern is diffracted into dispersed colored light.

  1. Hair treatment process providing dispersed colors by light diffraction

    DOEpatents

    Lamartine, Bruce Carvell; Orler, E. Bruce; Sutton, Richard Matthew Charles; Song, Shuangqi

    2013-12-17

    Hair was coated with polymer-containing fluid and then hot pressed to form a composite of hair and a polymer film imprinted with a nanopattern. Polychromatic light incident on the nanopattern is diffracted into dispersed colored light.

  2. Hair treatment process providing dispersed colors by light diffraction

    SciTech Connect

    Lamartine, Bruce Carvell; Orler, E. Bruce; Sutton, Richard Matthew Charles; Song, Shuangqi

    2014-11-11

    Hair was coated with polymer-containing fluid and then hot pressed to form a composite of hair and a polymer film imprinted with a nanopattern. Polychromatic light incident on the nanopattern is diffracted into dispersed colored light.

  3. Hollywood's Conversion to Color: The Technological, Economic and Aesthetic Factors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kindem, Forham A.

    1979-01-01

    Discusses the film industry's conversion to color cinematography in the period between the 1920s and 1960s. Cites economic considerations, technological modifications, and aesthetic preferences by audiences as factors in this development. (JMF)

  4. Color vision and color formation in dragonflies.

    PubMed

    Futahashi, Ryo

    2016-10-01

    Dragonflies including damselflies are colorful and large-eyed insects, which show remarkable sexual dimorphism, color transition, and color polymorphism. Recent comprehensive visual transcriptomics has unveiled an extraordinary diversity of opsin genes within the lineage of dragonflies. These opsin genes are differentially expressed between aquatic larvae and terrestrial adults, as well as between dorsal and ventral regions of adult compound eyes. Recent topics of color formation in dragonflies are also outlined. Non-iridescent blue color is caused by coherent light scattering from the quasiordered nanostructures, whereas iridescent color is produced by multilayer structures. Wrinkles or wax crystals sometimes enhances multilayer structural colors. Sex-specific and stage-specific color differences in red dragonflies is attributed to redox states of ommochrome pigments.

  5. LED Color Characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    2012-01-01

    Color quality is an important consideration when evaluating LED-based products for general illumination. This fact sheet reviews the basics regarding light and color and summarizes the most important color issues related to white-light LED systems.

  6. Masking the Color Wheel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Charlene

    1982-01-01

    Describes an art activity in which sixth graders made mirror-image masks using only two primary colors and one secondary color. Students discussed the effect of color combinations and the use of masks in folk and modern cultures. (AM)

  7. Tooth - abnormal colors

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003065.htm Tooth - abnormal colors To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Abnormal tooth color is any color other than white to yellowish- ...

  8. Urine - abnormal color

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003139.htm Urine - abnormal color To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The usual color of urine is straw-yellow. Abnormally colored urine ...

  9. Color Changing Hydrogen Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberson, Luke B.; Williams, Martha; Captain, Janine E.; Mohajeri, Nahid; Raissi, Ali

    2015-01-01

    During the Space Shuttle Program, one of the most hazardous operation that occurred was the loading of liquid hydrogen (LH2) during fueling operations of the spacecraft. Due to hydrogen's low explosive limit, any amount leaked could lead to catastrophic event. Hydrogen's chemical properties make it ideal as a rocket fuel; however, the fuel is deemed unsafe for most commercial use because of the inability to easily detect the gas leaking. The increased use of hydrogen over traditional fossil fuels would reduce greenhouse gases and America's dependency on foreign oil. Therefore a technology that would improve safety at NASA and in the commercial sector while creating a new economic sector would have a huge impact to NASA's mission. The Chemochromic Detector for sensing hydrogen gas leakage is a color-changing detector that is useful in any application where it is important to know not only the presence but also the location of the hydrogen gas leak. This technology utilizes a chemochromicpigment and polymer matrix that can be molded or spun into rigid or pliable shapes useable in variable temperature environments including atmospheres of inert gas, hydrogen gas, or mixtures of gases. A change in color of the detector material indicates where gaseous hydrogen leaks are occurring. The irreversible sensor has a dramatic color change from beige to dark grey and remains dark grey after exposure. A reversible pigment changes from white to blue in the presence of hydrogen and reverts back to white in the presence of oxygen. Both versions of the sensor's pigments were comprised of a mixture of a metal oxide substrate and a hydro-chromic compound (i.e., the compound that changed color in the presence of hydrogen) and immediately notified the operator of the presence of low levels of hydrogen. The detector can be used in a variety of formats including paint, tape, caulking, injection molded parts, textiles and fabrics, composites, and films. This technology brings numerous

  10. Reconstructing color images of astronomical objects using black and white spectroscopic emulsions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dufour, R. I.; Martins, D. H.

    1976-01-01

    A color photograph of the peculiar elliptical galaxy NGC 5128 (Centaurus A) has been reconstructed from three Kodak 103a emulsion type photographs by projecting positives of the three B&W plates through appropriate filters onto a conventional color film. The resulting photograph shows color balance and latitude characteristics superior to color photographs of similar astronomical objects made with commercially available conventional color film. Similar results have been obtained for color reconstructed photographs of the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds. These and other results suggest that these projection-reconstruction techniques can be used to obtain high-quality color photographs of astronomical objects which overcome many of the problems associated with the use of conventional color film for the long exposures required in astronomy.

  11. Color accuracy and reproducibility in whole slide imaging scanners

    PubMed Central

    Shrestha, Prarthana; Hulsken, Bas

    2014-01-01

    Abstract We propose a workflow for color reproduction in whole slide imaging (WSI) scanners, such that the colors in the scanned images match to the actual slide color and the inter-scanner variation is minimum. We describe a new method of preparation and verification of the color phantom slide, consisting of a standard IT8-target transmissive film, which is used in color calibrating and profiling the WSI scanner. We explore several International Color Consortium (ICC) compliant techniques in color calibration/profiling and rendering intents for translating the scanner specific colors to the standard display (sRGB) color space. Based on the quality of the color reproduction in histopathology slides, we propose the matrix-based calibration/profiling and absolute colorimetric rendering approach. The main advantage of the proposed workflow is that it is compliant to the ICC standard, applicable to color management systems in different platforms, and involves no external color measurement devices. We quantify color difference using the CIE-DeltaE2000 metric, where DeltaE values below 1 are considered imperceptible. Our evaluation on 14 phantom slides, manufactured according to the proposed method, shows an average inter-slide color difference below 1 DeltaE. The proposed workflow is implemented and evaluated in 35 WSI scanners developed at Philips, called the Ultra Fast Scanners (UFS). The color accuracy, measured as DeltaE between the scanner reproduced colors and the reference colorimetric values of the phantom patches, is improved on average to 3.5 DeltaE in calibrated scanners from 10 DeltaE in uncalibrated scanners. The average inter-scanner color difference is found to be 1.2 DeltaE. The improvement in color performance upon using the proposed method is apparent with the visual color quality of the tissue scans. PMID:26158041

  12. Representing Color Ensembles.

    PubMed

    Chetverikov, Andrey; Campana, Gianluca; Kristjánsson, Árni

    2017-10-01

    Colors are rarely uniform, yet little is known about how people represent color distributions. We introduce a new method for studying color ensembles based on intertrial learning in visual search. Participants looked for an oddly colored diamond among diamonds with colors taken from either uniform or Gaussian color distributions. On test trials, the targets had various distances in feature space from the mean of the preceding distractor color distribution. Targets on test trials therefore served as probes into probabilistic representations of distractor colors. Test-trial response times revealed a striking similarity between the physical distribution of colors and their internal representations. The results demonstrate that the visual system represents color ensembles in a more detailed way than previously thought, coding not only mean and variance but, most surprisingly, the actual shape (uniform or Gaussian) of the distribution of colors in the environment.

  13. Diffractive parameric colors.

    PubMed

    Orava, Joni; Heikkila, Noora; Jaaskelainen, Timo; Parkkinen, Jussi

    2008-12-01

    A method of producing inkless parameric color pairs is studied. In this method, colors are formed additively using diffraction gratings with differing grating periods as primary colors. Gratings with different grating periods reflect different spectral radiance peaks of a fluorescent lamp to the desired viewing angle, according to the grating equation. Four spectral peaks of a 4000 K fluorescent lamp--red, green, cyan, and blue-are used as the primary colors. The colors are mixed additively by fixing the relative areas of different grating periods inside a pixel. With four primary colors it is possible to mix certain colors with different triplets of primary colors. Thus, it is theoretically possible to produce metameric colors. In this study, three parameric color pairs are fabricated using electron beam lithography, electroplating, and hot embossing. The radiance spectra of the color pairs are measured by spectroradiometer from hot-embossed plastic samples. The CIELAB DeltaE(ab) and CIEDE2000 color differences between radiance spectra of the color pairs are calculated. The CIEDE2000 color differences of color pairs are between 2.6 and 7.2 units in reference viewing conditions. The effects of viewing angle and different light sources are also evaluated. It is found that both the viewing angle and the light source have very strong influences on the color differences of the color pairs.

  14. Two-color double exposure photographic recording technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stricker, Josef

    1989-01-01

    A two-color double exposure technique is proposed for recording two close states of an object on the same photographic film. The idea is to use a two-color laser for illumination, one color for each state of the object, and a single photographic plate. After being developed, the image of each state may be observed separately. The technique is demonstrated for the deferred moire deflectometry where two closely displaced fringe patterns have to be recorded and resolved.

  15. Radiochromic film dosimetry for UV-C treatments of apple fruit

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Radiochromic films were evaluated for their suitability to estimate UV-C doses and dose uniformity on apple fruit surface. Parameters investigated included film type, color changes of the films in response to different UV-C doses, color stability of films, UV-C light intensity, and temperature. In...

  16. PROCEDURES FOR ACCURATE PRODUCTION OF COLOR IMAGES FROM SATELLITE OR AIRCRAFT MULTISPECTRAL DIGITAL DATA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duval, Joseph S.

    1985-01-01

    Because the display and interpretation of satellite and aircraft remote-sensing data make extensive use of color film products, accurate reproduction of the color images is important. To achieve accurate color reproduction, the exposure and chemical processing of the film must be monitored and controlled. By using a combination of sensitometry, densitometry, and transfer functions that control film response curves, all of the different steps in the making of film images can be monitored and controlled. Because a sensitometer produces a calibrated exposure, the resulting step wedge can be used to monitor the chemical processing of the film. Step wedges put on film by image recording machines provide a means of monitoring the film exposure and color balance of the machines.

  17. Uniform color space based on color matching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Shih-Fang; Yang, Tsung-Hsun; Lee, Cheng-Chung

    2007-09-01

    This research intends to explore with a uniform color space based on the CIE 1931 x-y chromatic coordinate system. The goal is to improve the non-uniformity of the CIE 1931 x-y chromaticity diagram such as to approach the human color sensation as possible; however, its simple methodology still can be kept. In spite of the existence of various kinds of the uniform color coordinate systems built up early (CIE u'-v', CIE Lab, CIE LUV, etc.), the establishment of a genuine uniform color space is actually still an important work both for the basic research in color science and the practical applications of colorimetry, especially for recent growing request in illumination engineering and in display technology. In this study, the MacAdam ellipses and the Munsell color chips are utilized for the comparison with the human color sensation. One specific linear transformation matrix is found for the CIE 1931 color matching functions (see manuscript) to become the novel uniform ones. With the aid of the optimization method, the transformation matrix can be easily discovered and makes the 25 MacAdam ellipses are similar to each other in the novel uniform color space. On the other hand, the perfectiveness of the equal-hue curves and the equal-chroma contours from the Mnusell color chips evaluates for the best optimization conditions among several different definitions for the similarity of all the MacAdam ellipses. Finally, the color difference between any two colors can be simply measured by the Euclidean distance in the novel uniform color space and is still fitted to the human color sensation.

  18. Uses for Free Film Cans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batoff, Mitchell E.; Harmen, Jerry

    1973-01-01

    Describes multiple uses of empty film cans for equipping an elementary school science classroom. Instructional units in which film cans may be useful include buoyancy, mobiles, growing seeds, peas and particles, rocks and minerals, structures, field studies, sound, balancing, electricity, pedulums, chemical change, and optics, light, color. (PS)

  19. Uses for Free Film Cans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batoff, Mitchell E.; Harmen, Jerry

    1973-01-01

    Describes multiple uses of empty film cans for equipping an elementary school science classroom. Instructional units in which film cans may be useful include buoyancy, mobiles, growing seeds, peas and particles, rocks and minerals, structures, field studies, sound, balancing, electricity, pedulums, chemical change, and optics, light, color. (PS)

  20. Color management: printing processes - opportunities and limitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ingram, Samuel T.

    2002-06-01

    Digital tools have impacted traditional methods employed to reproduce color images during the past decade. The shift from a purely photomechanical process in color reproduction to colorimetric reproduction offers tremendous opportunity in the graphic arts industry. But good things do not necessarily come to all in the same package. Printing processes possess different reproduction attributes: tone reproduction, gray balance and color correction requirements are as different as the ingredient sets selected for color reproduction. This paper will provide insight toward understanding advantages and limitations offered by the new digital technologies in printing, publishing and packaging. For the past five years the Clemson University Graphic Communications Department has conducted numerous color projects using the new digital colorimetric tools during the previous decade. Several approaches have been used including experimental research and typical production workflows. The use of colorimetric data in color reproduction has given an opportunity to realize real gains in color use, predictability and consistency. Meeting an image's separation and reproduction requirements for a specified printing process can involve disruption of the anticipated workflow. Understanding the printing process requirements and the fit within the specifications of a colorimetric workflow are critical to the successful adoption of a color managed workflow. The paper will also provide an insight into the issues and challenges experienced with a color managed workflow. The printing processes used include offset litho, narrow and wide-web flexography (paper, liner board, corrugated and film), screen printing (paper board and polycarbonates), and digital imaging with toner, ink and inkjet systems. A proposal for technology integration will be the focus of the presentation drawn from documented experiences in over 300 applications of color management tools. Discussion will include the structure of

  1. Color identification testing device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brawner, E. L.; Martin, R.; Pate, W.

    1970-01-01

    Testing device, which determines ability of a technician to identify color-coded electric wires, is superior to standard color blindness tests. It tests speed of wire selection, detects partial color blindness, allows rapid testing, and may be administered by a color blind person.

  2. Color Me Understood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Judy J.

    2000-01-01

    Describes the "color system" as a way of grouping children into different personality types based on a certain color: orange, blue, green, and gold. Lists stress producers for specific color people. Asserts that, through making groups of different colors, children begin to see the various specialties others can bring to the group and learn to…

  3. Color "amnesia" without aphasia.

    PubMed

    Varney, N R; Digre, K

    1983-12-01

    Following an apparent left parietal CVA, a patient developed a severe and nearly complete color amnesia which was not associated with any disturbance in color vision or color perception. Like all previously reported cases with color amnesia, this patient was alexic but, unlike most previously reported cases, he was not aphasic.

  4. Digital Color Image Restoration

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-08-01

    color image recording system is derived and the equations representing the model and the equations of colorimetry are expressed in matrix form. Computer ... algorithms are derived which correct color errors introduced by imperfections in the color recording system. The sources of color error which are

  5. Sensory Drive, Color, and Color Vision.

    PubMed

    Price, Trevor D

    2017-08-01

    Colors often appear to differ in arbitrary ways among related species. However, a fraction of color diversity may be explained because some signals are more easily perceived in one environment rather than another. Models show that not only signals but also the perception of signals should regularly evolve in response to different environments, whether these primarily involve detection of conspecifics or detection of predators and prey. Thus, a deeper understanding of how perception of color correlates with environmental attributes should help generate more predictive models of color divergence. Here, I briefly review our understanding of color vision in vertebrates. Then I focus on opsin spectral tuning and opsin expression, two traits involved in color perception that have become amenable to study. I ask how opsin tuning is correlated with ecological differences, notably the light environment, and how this potentially affects perception of conspecific colors. Although opsin tuning appears to evolve slowly, opsin expression levels are more evolutionarily labile but have been difficult to connect to color perception. The challenge going forward will be to identify how physiological differences involved in color vision, such as opsin expression levels, translate into perceptual differences, the selection pressures that have driven those differences, and ultimately how this may drive evolution of conspecific colors.

  6. Film Language: A Student-Made Dictionary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poteet, G. Howard

    1967-01-01

    The failure of verbal descriptions to convey an understanding of film terminology led to a student production of a 20-minute color film that defines various film methods by illustrating them. A technique is shown on the screen and simultaneous soundtrack narration explains how this technique can be used. When the narration lasts longer than the…

  7. Elimination of color rings on film negatives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleetwood, C. M., Jr.; Rice, S. H.; Spencer, R. S.

    1977-01-01

    Abrasive grinding of glass surface, using grinding-grit size of 22.5 micron, prevents formation of interference ring during photoprocessing. To polish irregularities for improved light transmission, contact surface is bathed in aqueous solution of sulfuric acid and hydrofluoric acid.

  8. Elimination of color rings on film negatives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleetwood, C. M., Jr.; Rice, S. H.; Spencer, R. S.

    1977-01-01

    Abrasive grinding of glass surface, using grinding-grit size of 22.5 micron, prevents formation of interference ring during photoprocessing. To polish irregularities for improved light transmission, contact surface is bathed in aqueous solution of sulfuric acid and hydrofluoric acid.

  9. Color of cyanobacteria: some methodological aspects

    SciTech Connect

    Prieto, Beatriz; Sanmartin, Patricia; Aira, Noelia; Silva, Benita

    2010-04-10

    Although the color of cyanobacteria is a very informative characteristic, no standardized protocol has, so far, been established for defining the color in an objective way, and, therefore, direct comparison of experimental results obtained by different research groups is not possible. In the present study, we used colorimetric measurements and conventional statistical tools to determine the effects on the measurement of the color of cyanobacteria, of the concentration of the microorganisms and their moisture content, as well as of the size of the target area and the minimum number of measurements. It was concluded that the color measurement is affected by every factor studied, but that this can be controlled for by making at least 10 consecutive measurements/9.62 cm{sup 2} at different randomly selected points on the surface of filters completely covered by films of cyanobacteria in which the moisture contents are higher than 50%.

  10. Effects of Color Complexity in Still Photographs on Mental Effort and Memory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, Kathy; Schleuder, Joan

    For each work assignment, photojournalists must decide whether to use black-and-white or color film and how to frame the picture. These decisions are considered crucial, yet little is known about how the presence of color and design complexity affect how people process the information in photographs. A study tested whether color and design…

  11. Effects of Color Complexity in Still Photographs on Mental Effort and Memory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, Kathy; Schleuder, Joan

    For each work assignment, photojournalists must decide whether to use black-and-white or color film and how to frame the picture. These decisions are considered crucial, yet little is known about how the presence of color and design complexity affect how people process the information in photographs. A study tested whether color and design…

  12. Evaluating stream trout habitat on large-scale aerial color photographs

    Treesearch

    Wallace J. Greentree; Robert C. Aldrich

    1976-01-01

    Large-scale aerial color photographs were used to evaluate trout habitat by studying stream and streambank conditions. Ninety-two percent of these conditions could be identified correctly on the color photographs. Color photographs taken 1 year apart showed that rehabilitation efforts resulted in stream vegetation changes. Water depth was correlated with film density:...

  13. Motion Alters Color Appearance

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Sang-Wook; Kang, Min-Suk

    2016-01-01

    Chromatic induction compellingly demonstrates that chromatic context as well as spectral lights reflected from an object determines its color appearance. Here, we show that when one colored object moves around an identical stationary object, the perceived saturation of the stationary object decreases dramatically whereas the saturation of the moving object increases. These color appearance shifts in the opposite directions suggest that normalization induced by the object’s motion may mediate the shift in color appearance. We ruled out other plausible alternatives such as local adaptation, attention, and transient neural responses that could explain the color shift without assuming interaction between color and motion processing. These results demonstrate that the motion of an object affects both its own color appearance and the color appearance of a nearby object, suggesting a tight coupling between color and motion processing. PMID:27824098

  14. Color-avoiding percolation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krause, Sebastian M.; Danziger, Michael M.; Zlatić, Vinko

    2017-08-01

    Many real world networks have groups of similar nodes which are vulnerable to the same failure or adversary. Nodes can be colored in such a way that colors encode the shared vulnerabilities. Using multiple paths to avoid these vulnerabilities can greatly improve network robustness, if such paths exist. Color-avoiding percolation provides a theoretical framework for analyzing this scenario, focusing on the maximal set of nodes which can be connected via multiple color-avoiding paths. In this paper we extend the basic theory of color-avoiding percolation that was published in S. M. Krause et al. [Phys. Rev. X 6, 041022 (2016)], 10.1103/PhysRevX.6.041022. We explicitly account for the fact that the same particular link can be part of different paths avoiding different colors. This fact was previously accounted for with a heuristic approximation. Here we propose a better method for solving this problem which is substantially more accurate for many avoided colors. Further, we formulate our method with differentiated node functions, either as senders and receivers, or as transmitters. In both functions, nodes can be explicitly trusted or avoided. With only one avoided color we obtain standard percolation. Avoiding additional colors one by one, we can understand the critical behavior of color-avoiding percolation. For unequal color frequencies, we find that the colors with the largest frequencies control the critical threshold and exponent. Colors of small frequencies have only a minor influence on color-avoiding connectivity, thus allowing for approximations.

  15. Color-avoiding percolation.

    PubMed

    Krause, Sebastian M; Danziger, Michael M; Zlatić, Vinko

    2017-08-01

    Many real world networks have groups of similar nodes which are vulnerable to the same failure or adversary. Nodes can be colored in such a way that colors encode the shared vulnerabilities. Using multiple paths to avoid these vulnerabilities can greatly improve network robustness, if such paths exist. Color-avoiding percolation provides a theoretical framework for analyzing this scenario, focusing on the maximal set of nodes which can be connected via multiple color-avoiding paths. In this paper we extend the basic theory of color-avoiding percolation that was published in S. M. Krause et al. [Phys. Rev. X 6, 041022 (2016)]2160-330810.1103/PhysRevX.6.041022. We explicitly account for the fact that the same particular link can be part of different paths avoiding different colors. This fact was previously accounted for with a heuristic approximation. Here we propose a better method for solving this problem which is substantially more accurate for many avoided colors. Further, we formulate our method with differentiated node functions, either as senders and receivers, or as transmitters. In both functions, nodes can be explicitly trusted or avoided. With only one avoided color we obtain standard percolation. Avoiding additional colors one by one, we can understand the critical behavior of color-avoiding percolation. For unequal color frequencies, we find that the colors with the largest frequencies control the critical threshold and exponent. Colors of small frequencies have only a minor influence on color-avoiding connectivity, thus allowing for approximations.

  16. Resolution for color photography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubel, Paul M.; Bautsch, Markus

    2006-02-01

    Although it is well known that luminance resolution is most important, the ability to accurately render colored details, color textures, and colored fabrics cannot be overlooked. This includes the ability to accurately render single-pixel color details as well as avoiding color aliasing. All consumer digital cameras on the market today record in color and the scenes people are photographing are usually color. Yet almost all resolution measurements made on color cameras are done using a black and white target. In this paper we present several methods for measuring and quantifying color resolution. The first method, detailed in a previous publication, uses a slanted-edge target of two colored surfaces in place of the standard black and white edge pattern. The second method employs the standard black and white targets recommended in the ISO standard, but records these onto the camera through colored filters thus giving modulation between black and one particular color component; red, green, and blue color separation filters are used in this study. The third method, conducted at Stiftung Warentest, an independent consumer organization of Germany, uses a whitelight interferometer to generate fringe pattern targets of varying color and spatial frequency.

  17. Radiation coloration resistant glass

    DOEpatents

    Tomozawa, M.; Watson, E.B.; Acocella, J.

    1986-11-04

    A radiation coloration resistant glass is disclosed which is used in a radiation environment sufficient to cause coloration in most forms of glass. The coloration resistant glass includes higher proportions by weight of water and has been found to be extremely resistant to color change when exposed to such radiation levels. The coloration resistant glass is free of cerium oxide and has more than about 0.5% by weight water content. Even when exposed to gamma radiation of more than 10[sup 7] rad, the coloration resistant glass does not lose transparency. 3 figs.

  18. Radiation coloration resistant glass

    DOEpatents

    Tomozawa, Minoru; Watson, E. Bruce; Acocella, John

    1986-01-01

    A radiation coloration resistant glass is disclosed which is used in a radiation environment sufficient to cause coloration in most forms of glass. The coloration resistant glass includes higher proportions by weight of water and has been found to be extremely resistant to color change when exposed to such radiation levels. The coloration resistant glass is free of cerium oxide and has more than about 0.5% by weight water content. Even when exposed to gamma radiation of more than 10.sup.7 rad, the coloration resistant glass does not lose transparency.

  19. Correlation between grain orientation and the shade of color etching

    SciTech Connect

    Szabo, Peter J.; Kardos, I.

    2010-08-15

    Color etching is an extremely effective metallographic technique not only for making grains well visible, but also for making them distinguishable for automated image analyzers. During color etching, a thin film is formed on the surface of the specimen. The thickness of this layer is in the order of magnitude of the visible light and since both the metal-film boundary and the film surface reflect light, an interference occurs. A wavelength-component of the white line is eliminated and its complementary color will be seen on the surface. As the thickness changes, the colors also change grain by grain. The thickness of the film is dependent on several factors, mostly on the type of the phase. However, different color shades can be observed on the surfaces of single phase materials, which phenomenon is caused by the different crystallographic orientations of the grains. This paper shows a combined color etching electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) investigation of cast iron. An area of the surface of a gray cast iron specimen was etched. Colors were characterized by their luminescence and their red, green and blue intensity. An EBSD orientation map was taken from the same area and the orientations of the individual grains were determined. Results showed that a strong correlation was found between the luminescence and the R, G, B intensity of the color and the angle between the specimen normal and the < 100> direction, while such correlation was not observed between the color parameters and the < 110 > and < 111> directions, respectively. This indicates that film thickness is sensitive to the < 100> direction of the crystal.

  20. Recent developments in space shuttle remote sensing, using hand-held film cameras

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amsbury, David L.; Bremer, Jeffrey M.

    1992-01-01

    The authors report on the advantages and disadvantages of a number of camera systems which are currently employed for space shuttle remote sensing operations. Systems discussed include the modified Hasselbad, the Rolleiflex 6008, the Linkof 5-inch format system, and the Nikon F3/F4 systems. Film/filter combinations (color positive films, color infrared films, color negative films and polarization filters) are presented.

  1. Color Adaptation for Color Deficient Learners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Donald D.

    1995-01-01

    Describes a corrective method of color adaptation designed to allow most, if not all, individuals to participate in the learning process as well as social and work-related environments. Provides a concise summation of facts and theories concerning color deficiency. Includes anatomical drawings, graphs, and statistical data. (MJP)

  2. Color and Streptomycetes1

    PubMed Central

    Pridham, Thomas G.

    1965-01-01

    A report summarizing the results of an international workshop on determination of color of streptomycetes is presented. The results suggest that the color systems which seem most practically appealing and effective to specialists on actinomycetes are those embracing a limited number of color names and groups. The broad groupings allow placement of isolates into reasonably well-defined categories based on color of aerial mycelium. Attempts to expand such systems (more color groups) lead to difficulties. It is common knowledge that many, if not all, of the individual groups would in these broad systems contain strains that differ in many other respects, e.g., spore-wall ornamentation, color of vegetative (substratal) mycelium, morphology of chains of spores, and numerous physiological criteria. Also, cultures of intermediate color can be found, which makes placement difficult. As it now stands, color as a criterion for characterization of streptomycetes and streptoverticillia is in questionable status. Although much useful color information can be obtained by an individual, the application of this information to that in the literature or its use in communication with other individuals leaves much to be desired. More objective methods of color determination are needed. At present, the most effective method that could be used internationally is the color-wheel system of Tresner and Backus. Furthermore, the significance of color in speciation of these organisms is an open question. Obviously, more critical work on the color problem is needed. PMID:14264847

  3. Neutral color semitransparent microstructured perovskite solar cells.

    PubMed

    Eperon, Giles E; Burlakov, Victor M; Goriely, Alain; Snaith, Henry J

    2014-01-28

    Neutral-colored semitransparent solar cells are commercially desired to integrate solar cells into the windows and cladding of buildings and automotive applications. Here, we report the use of morphological control of perovskite thin films to form semitransparent planar heterojunction solar cells with neutral color and comparatively high efficiencies. We take advantage of spontaneous dewetting to create microstructured arrays of perovskite "islands", on a length-scale small enough to appear continuous to the eye yet large enough to enable unattenuated transmission of light between the islands. The islands are thick enough to absorb most visible light, and the combination of completely absorbing and completely transparent regions results in neutral transmission of light. Using these films, we fabricate thin-film solar cells with respectable power conversion efficiencies. Remarkably, we find that such discontinuous films still have good rectification behavior and relatively high open-circuit voltages due to the inherent rectification between the n- and p-type charge collection layers. Furthermore, we demonstrate the ease of "color-tinting" such microstructured perovksite solar cells with no reduction in performance, by incorporation of a dye within the hole transport medium.

  4. Electrically Tunable Soft-Solid Block Copolymer Structural Color.

    PubMed

    Park, Tae Joon; Hwang, Sun Kak; Park, Sungmin; Cho, Sung Hwan; Park, Tae Hyun; Jeong, Beomjin; Kang, Han Sol; Ryu, Du Yeol; Huh, June; Thomas, Edwin L; Park, Cheolmin

    2015-12-22

    One-dimensional photonic crystals based on the periodic stacking of two different dielectric layers have been widely studied, but the fabrication of mechanically flexible polymer structural color (SC) films, with electro-active color switching, remains challenging. Here, we demonstrate free-standing electric field tunable ionic liquid (IL) swollen block copolymer (BCP) films. Placement of a polymer/ionic liquid film-reservoir adjacent to a self-assembled poly(styrene-block-quaternized 2-vinylpyridine) (PS-b-QP2VP) copolymer SC film allowed the development of red (R), green (G), and blue (B) full-color SC block copolymer films by swelling of the QP2VP domains by the ionic liquid associated with water molecules. The IL-polymer/BCP SC film is mechanically flexible with excellent color stability over several days at ambient conditions. The selective swelling of the QP2VP domains could be controlled by both the ratio of the IL to a polymer in the gel-like IL reservoir layer and by an applied voltage in the range of -3 to +6 V using a metal/IL reservoir/SC film/IL reservoir/metal capacitor type device.

  5. Photographic film image enhancement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horner, J. L.

    1975-01-01

    A series of experiments were undertaken to assess the feasibility of defogging color film by the techniques of optical spatial filtering. A coherent optical processor was built using red, blue, and green laser light input and specially designed Fourier transformation lenses. An array of spatial filters was fabricated on black and white emulsion slides using the coherent optical processor. The technique was first applied to laboratory white light fogged film, and the results were successful. However, when the same technique was applied to some original Apollo X radiation fogged color negatives, the results showed no similar restoration. Examples of each experiment are presented and possible reasons for the lack of restoration in the Apollo films are discussed.

  6. Color accuracy and reproducibility in whole slide imaging scanners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrestha, Prarthana; Hulsken, Bas

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, we propose a work-flow for color reproduction in whole slide imaging (WSI) scanners such that the colors in the scanned images match to the actual slide color and the inter scanner variation is minimum. We describe a novel method of preparation and verification of the color phantom slide, consisting of a standard IT8- target transmissive film, which is used in color calibrating and profiling the WSI scanner. We explore several ICC compliant techniques in color calibration/profiling and rendering intents for translating the scanner specific colors to the standard display (sRGB) color-space. Based on the quality of color reproduction in histopathology tissue slides, we propose the matrix-based calibration/profiling and absolute colorimetric rendering approach. The main advantage of the proposed work-ow is that it is compliant to the ICC standard, applicable to color management systems in different platforms, and involves no external color measurement devices. We measure objective color performance using CIE-DeltaE2000 metric, where DeltaE values below 1 is considered imperceptible. Our evaluation 14 phantom slides, manufactured according to the proposed method, show an average inter-slide color difference below 1 DeltaE. The proposed work-flow is implemented and evaluated in 35 Philips Ultra Fast Scanners (UFS). The results show that the average color difference between a scanner and the reference is 3.5 DeltaE, and among the scanners is 3.1 DeltaE. The improvement on color performance upon using the proposed method is apparent on the visual color quality of the tissues scans.

  7. Light, Color, and Mirrors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tiburzi, Brian; Tamborino, Laurie; Parker, Gordon A.

    2000-01-01

    Describes an exercise in which students can use flashlights, mirrors, and colored paper to discover scientific principles regarding optics. Addresses the concepts of angles of incidence and reflection, colored vs. white light, and mirror images. (WRM)

  8. The Trouble with Color.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merchant, David

    1999-01-01

    Discusses problems with color quality in Web sites. Topics include differences in monitor settings, including contrast; amount of video RAM; user preference settings; browser-safe colors; cross-platform readability; and gamma values. (LRW)

  9. Peripheral Color Demo.

    PubMed

    Tyler, Christopher W

    2015-12-01

    A set of structured demonstrations of the vividness of peripheral color vision is provided by arrays of multicolored disks scaled with eccentricity. These demonstrations are designed to correct the widespread misconception that peripheral color vision is weak or nonexistent.

  10. Eos Chasma - False Color

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-12-16

    The THEMIS VIS camera contains 5 filters. The data from different filters can be combined in multiple ways to create a false color image. This false color image from NASA 2001 Mars Odyssey spacecraft shows part of of Eos Chasma.

  11. Ares Vallis - False Color

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-12-31

    The THEMIS VIS camera contains 5 filters. The data from different filters can be combined in multiple ways to create a false color image. This false color image from NASA 2001 Mars Odyssey spacecraft shows part of of Ares Vallis.

  12. Color rendition engine.

    PubMed

    Zukauskas, Artūras; Vaicekauskas, Rimantas; Vitta, Pranciškus; Tuzikas, Arūnas; Petrulis, Andrius; Shur, Michael

    2012-02-27

    A source of white light with continuously tuned color rendition properties, such as color fidelity, as well as color saturating and color dulling ability has been developed. The source, which is composed of red (R), amber (A), green (G), and blue (B) light-emitting diodes, has a spectral power distribution varied as a weighted sum of "white" RGB and AGB blends. At the RGB and AGB end-points, the source has a highest color saturating and color dulling ability, respectively, as follows from the statistical analysis of the color-shift vectors for 1269 Munsell samples. The variation of the weight parameter allows for continuously traversing all possible metameric RAGB blends, including that with the highest color fidelity. The source was used in a psychophysical experiment on the estimation of the color appearance of familiar objects, such as vegetables, fruits, and soft-drink cans of common brands, at correlated color temperatures of 3000 K, 4500 K, and 6500 K. By continuously tuning the weight parameter, each of 100 subjects selected RAGB blends that, to their opinion, matched lighting characterized as "most saturating," "most dulling," "most natural," and "preferential". The end-point RGB and AGB blends have been almost unambiguously attributed to "most saturating" and "most dulling" lighting, respectively. RAGB blends that render a highest number of colors with high fidelity have, on average, been attributed to "most natural" lighting. The "preferential" color quality of lighting has, on average, been matched to RAGB blends that provide color rendition with fidelity somewhat reduced in favor of a higher saturation. Our results infer that tunable "color rendition engines" can validate color rendition metrics and provide lighting meeting specific needs and preferences to color quality.

  13. A new radiochromic dosimeter film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sidney, L. N.; Lynch, D. C.; Willet, P. S.

    By employing acid-sensitive leuco dyes in a chlorine-containing polymer matrix, a new radiochromic dosimeter film has been developed for gamma, electron beam, and ultraviolet radiation. These dosimeter films undergo a color change from colorless to royal blue, red fuchsia, or black, depending on dye selection, and have been characterized using a visible spectrophotometer over an absorbed dose range of 1 to 100 kGy. The primary features of the film are improved color stability before and after irradiation, whether stored in the dark or under artificial lights, and improved moisture resistance. The effects of absorbed dose, dose rate, and storage conditions on dosimeter performance are discussed. The dosimeter material may be produced as a free film or coated onto a transparent substrate and optionally backed with adhesive. Potential applications for these materials include gamma sterilization indicator films for food and medical products, electron beam dosimeters, and in-line radiation monitors for electron beam and ultraviolet processing.

  14. Color vision deficiencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vannorren, D.

    1982-04-01

    Congenital and acquired color vision defects are described in the context of physiological data. Light sources, photometry, color systems and test methods are described. A list of medicines is also presented. The practical social consequences of color vision deficiencies are discussed.

  15. Color: Implications in dentistry

    PubMed Central

    Sikri, Vimal K

    2010-01-01

    The success of restorative dentistry is determined on the basis of functional and esthetic results. To achieve esthetics, four basic determinants are required in sequence; viz., position, contour, texture and color. The knowledge of the concept of color is essential for achieving good esthetics. This review compiles the various aspects of color, its measurements and shade matching in dentistry. PMID:21217954

  16. Biology of Skin Color.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corcos, Alain

    1983-01-01

    Information from scientific journals on the biology of skin color is discussed. Major areas addressed include: (1) biology of melanin, melanocytes, and melanosomes; (2) melanosome and human diversity; (3) genetics of skin color; and (4) skin color, geography, and natural selection. (JN)

  17. Sweetpotato Color Analyses

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Color is an important attribute that contributes to the appearance of a sweetpotato genotype. A consumer uses color, along with geometric attributes (e.g., gloss, luster, sheen, texture, opaqueness, shape), to subjectively evaluate the appearance of a sweetpotato root. Color can be quantified by t...

  18. Reimagining the Color Wheel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Color wheels are a traditional project for many teachers. The author has used them in art appreciation classes for many years, but one problem she found when her pre-service art education students created colored wheels was that they were boring: simple circles, with pie-shaped pieces, which students either painted or colored in. This article…

  19. The Colors of Vesta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roatsch, Th.; Schröder, S. E.; Mottola, S.; Matz, K.-D.; Kersten, E.; Jaumann, R.; Raymond, C. A.; Russell, C. T.

    2014-02-01

    One of the goals of the Dawn mission was a global color mapping of Vesta. True color was achieved by scaling images acquired through the red, green, and blue filters to RGB values calculated from the CIE color matching functions and a Vesta spectrum.

  20. Reimagining the Color Wheel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Color wheels are a traditional project for many teachers. The author has used them in art appreciation classes for many years, but one problem she found when her pre-service art education students created colored wheels was that they were boring: simple circles, with pie-shaped pieces, which students either painted or colored in. This article…

  1. Color Discrimination Work Sample.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shawsheen Valley Regional Vocational-Technical High School, Billerica, MA.

    This manual contains a work sample intended to assess a handicapped student's ability to see likenesses or differences in colors or shades, identifying or matching certain colors, and selecting colors that go together. Section 1 describes the assessment and lists related occupations and DOT codes. Instructions to the evaluator are provided in the…

  2. Color Television in Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bretz, Rudy

    In spite of repeated research into the matter, no evidence has been discovered to support the claim that color television is superior to black-and-white television as an instructional aid. It is possible that there are advantages to color television which are unmeasured or unmeasurable, but the current claims for color; that it heightens realism,…

  3. Biology of Skin Color.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corcos, Alain

    1983-01-01

    Information from scientific journals on the biology of skin color is discussed. Major areas addressed include: (1) biology of melanin, melanocytes, and melanosomes; (2) melanosome and human diversity; (3) genetics of skin color; and (4) skin color, geography, and natural selection. (JN)

  4. Color Discrimination Work Sample.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shawsheen Valley Regional Vocational-Technical High School, Billerica, MA.

    This manual contains a work sample intended to assess a handicapped student's ability to see likenesses or differences in colors or shades, identifying or matching certain colors, and selecting colors that go together. Section 1 describes the assessment and lists related occupations and DOT codes. Instructions to the evaluator are provided in the…

  5. Specialized Color Targets for Spectral Reflectance Reconstruction of Magnified Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruschwitz, Jennifer D. T.

    Digital images are used almost exclusively instead of film to capture visual information across many scientific fields. The colorimetric color representation within these digital images can be relayed from the digital counts produced by the camera with the use of a known color target. In image capture of magnified images, there is currently no reliable color target that can be used at multiple magnifications and give the user a solid understanding of the color ground truth within those images. The first part of this dissertation included the design, fabrication, and testing of a color target produced with optical interference coated microlenses for use in an off-axis illumination, compound microscope. An ideal target was designed to increase the color gamut for colorimetric imaging and provide the necessary "Block Dye" spectral reflectance profiles across the visible spectrum to reduce the number of color patches necessary for multiple filter imaging systems that rely on statistical models for spectral reflectance reconstruction. There are other scientific disciplines that can benefit from a specialized color target to determine the color ground truth in their magnified images and perform spectral estimation. Not every discipline has the luxury of having a multi-filter imaging system. The second part of this dissertation developed two unique ways of using an interference coated color mirror target: one that relies on multiple light-source angles, and one that leverages a dynamic color change with time. The source multi-angle technique would be used for the microelectronic discipline where the reconstructed spectral reflectance would be used to determine a dielectric film thickness on a silicon substrate, and the time varying technique would be used for a biomedical example to determine the thickness of human tear film.

  6. Digital images for eternity: color microfilm as archival medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Normand, C.; Gschwind, R.; Fornaro, P.

    2007-01-01

    In the archiving and museum communities, the long-term preservation of artworks has traditionally been guaranteed by making duplicates of the original. For photographic reproductions, digital imaging devices have now become standard, providing better quality control and lower costs than film photography. However, due to the very short life cycle of digital data, losses are unavoidable without repetitive data migrations to new file formats and storage media. We present a solution for the long-term archiving of digital images on color microfilm (Ilfochrome® Micrographic). This extremely stable and high-resolution medium, combined with the use of a novel laser film recorder is particularly well suited for this task. Due to intrinsic limitations of the film, colorimetric reproductions of the originals are not always achievable. The microfilm must be first considered as an information carrier and not primarily as an imaging medium. Color transformations taking into account the film characteristics and possible degradations of the medium due to aging are investigated. An approach making use of readily available color management tools is presented which assures the recovery of the original colors after re-digitization. An extension of this project considering the direct recording of digital information as color bit-code on the film is also introduced.

  7. Pluto in Extended Color

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-09-24

    This cylindrical projection map of Pluto, in enhanced, extended color, is the most detailed color map of Pluto ever made by NASA New Horizons. It uses recently returned color imagery from the New Horizons Ralph camera, which is draped onto a base map of images from the NASA's spacecraft's Long Range Reconnaissance Imager (LORRI). The map can be zoomed in to reveal exquisite detail with high scientific value. Color variations have been enhanced to bring out subtle differences. Colors used in this map are the blue, red, and near-infrared filter channels of the Ralph instrument. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA19956

  8. Color Classification of Coordination Compounds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poncini, Laurence; Wimmer, Franz L.

    1987-01-01

    Proposes that colored compounds be classified by reference to a standard color-order system incorporating a color dictionary. Argues that the colors of new compounds could be incorporated into the characterization process and into computer storage systems. (TW)

  9. Color Classification of Coordination Compounds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poncini, Laurence; Wimmer, Franz L.

    1987-01-01

    Proposes that colored compounds be classified by reference to a standard color-order system incorporating a color dictionary. Argues that the colors of new compounds could be incorporated into the characterization process and into computer storage systems. (TW)

  10. Watermarking spot colors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alattar, Osama M.; Reed, Alastair M.

    2003-06-01

    Watermarking of printed materials has usually focused on process inks of cyan, magenta, yellow and black (CMYK). In packaging, almost three out of four printed materials include spot colors. Spot colors are special premixed inks, which can be produced in a vibrant range of colors, often outside the CMYK color gamut. In embedding a watermark into printed material, a common approach is to modify the luminance value of each pixel in the image. In the case of process color work pieces, the luminance change can be scaled to the C, M, Y and K channels using a weighting function, to produce the desired change in luminance. In the case of spot color art designs, there is only one channel available and the luminance change is applied to this channel. In this paper we develop a weighting function to embed the watermark signal across the range of different spot colors. This weighting function normalizes visibility effect and signal robustness across a wide range of different spot colors. It normalizes the signal robustness level over the range of an individual spot color"s intensity levels. Further, it takes into account the sensitivity of the capturing device to the different spot colors.

  11. Acquired color vision deficiency.

    PubMed

    Simunovic, Matthew P

    2016-01-01

    Acquired color vision deficiency occurs as the result of ocular, neurologic, or systemic disease. A wide array of conditions may affect color vision, ranging from diseases of the ocular media through to pathology of the visual cortex. Traditionally, acquired color vision deficiency is considered a separate entity from congenital color vision deficiency, although emerging clinical and molecular genetic data would suggest a degree of overlap. We review the pathophysiology of acquired color vision deficiency, the data on its prevalence, theories for the preponderance of acquired S-mechanism (or tritan) deficiency, and discuss tests of color vision. We also briefly review the types of color vision deficiencies encountered in ocular disease, with an emphasis placed on larger or more detailed clinical investigations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Evaluation of the Blood Film.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Terry W

    2015-09-01

    Evaluation of hemic cell morphology in stained blood film may be the most important part of the hematologic evaluation of exotic animals. The blood film provides important information regarding red blood cell abnormalities, such as changes in cell shape and color, presence of inclusions, and, in the case of lower vertebrates, changes in the position of the cell nucleus. Stained blood film also provides information about changes in leukocyte numbers and morphology, and shows important hemic features of mammalian platelets and the thrombocytes of lower vertebrates. The blood film is needed in the detection and identification of blood parasites.

  13. Colors, colored overlays, and reading skills

    PubMed Central

    Uccula, Arcangelo; Enna, Mauro; Mulatti, Claudio

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we are concerned with the role of colors in reading written texts. It has been argued that colored overlays applied above written texts positively influence both reading fluency and reading speed. These effects would be particularly evident for those individuals affected by the so called Meares-Irlen syndrome, i.e., who experience eyestrain and/or visual distortions – e.g., color, shape, or movement illusions – while reading. This condition would interest the 12–14% of the general population and up to the 46% of the dyslexic population. Thus, colored overlays have been largely employed as a remedy for some aspects of the difficulties in reading experienced by dyslexic individuals, as fluency and speed. Despite the wide use of colored overlays, how they exert their effects has not been made clear yet. Also, according to some researchers, the results supporting the efficacy of colored overlays as a tool for helping readers are at least controversial. Furthermore, the very nature of the Meares-Irlen syndrome has been questioned. Here we provide a concise, critical review of the literature. PMID:25120525

  14. Colors, colored overlays, and reading skills.

    PubMed

    Uccula, Arcangelo; Enna, Mauro; Mulatti, Claudio

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we are concerned with the role of colors in reading written texts. It has been argued that colored overlays applied above written texts positively influence both reading fluency and reading speed. These effects would be particularly evident for those individuals affected by the so called Meares-Irlen syndrome, i.e., who experience eyestrain and/or visual distortions - e.g., color, shape, or movement illusions - while reading. This condition would interest the 12-14% of the general population and up to the 46% of the dyslexic population. Thus, colored overlays have been largely employed as a remedy for some aspects of the difficulties in reading experienced by dyslexic individuals, as fluency and speed. Despite the wide use of colored overlays, how they exert their effects has not been made clear yet. Also, according to some researchers, the results supporting the efficacy of colored overlays as a tool for helping readers are at least controversial. Furthermore, the very nature of the Meares-Irlen syndrome has been questioned. Here we provide a concise, critical review of the literature.

  15. Color Reproduction with a Smartphone

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thoms, Lars-Jochen; Colicchia, Giuseppe; Girwidz, Raimund

    2013-01-01

    The world is full of colors. Most of the colors we see around us can be created on common digital displays simply by superposing light with three different wavelengths. However, no mixture of colors can produce a fully pure color identical to a spectral color. Using a smartphone, students can investigate the main features of primary color addition…

  16. Color Reproduction with a Smartphone

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thoms, Lars-Jochen; Colicchia, Giuseppe; Girwidz, Raimund

    2013-01-01

    The world is full of colors. Most of the colors we see around us can be created on common digital displays simply by superposing light with three different wavelengths. However, no mixture of colors can produce a fully pure color identical to a spectral color. Using a smartphone, students can investigate the main features of primary color addition…

  17. Miniature Color Display Phase 4

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-05-01

    is used to generate full color. By spectral tuning of the xenon arc-lamp backlight and the color polarizers, a color gamut comparable to that of a...5 1.2 Phase IV Accom plishments ................................... 5 1.2.1 Subtractive Color Gamut ...Technical Achievem ents .............................................. 8 2.1 Subtractive Color Gamut 2.1.1 Sub Color LC Technology

  18. A study of tungsten trioxide and polyaniline composite films; Electrochemical and electrochromic behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, P.K.; Huang, H.T.; Tseung, A.C.C. )

    1992-07-01

    This paper discusses tungstic oxide/polyaniline composite films prepared by a double-pulse electrodeposition technique, and their properties which were investigated by in situ optical and electrochemical techniques. Such composite films are more conducting than pure WO{sub 3} films. The films have an electrochromic window between the anodic coloration of polyaniline and the cathodic coloration of tungsten trioxide. The films should find useful applications as multicolor display devices.

  19. Experimental and theoretical studies of perceptible color fading of decorative paints consisting of mixed pigments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auger, Jean-Claude; McLoughlin, Daragh

    2017-01-01

    We study the color fading of paints films composed of mixtures of white rutile titanium dioxide and yellow arylide pigments dispersed in two polymer binders at different volume concentrations. The samples were exposed to ultraviolet radiations in an accelerated weathering tester during three weeks. The measured patterns in color variations appeared to be independent of the chemistry of the binders. We then developed a theoretical framework, based on the Radiative transfer Equation of light and the One Particle T-Matrix formalism to simulate the color fading process. The loss of color is correlated to the progressive decrease of the original colored pigment volume-filling fraction as the destructive UV radiations penetrate deeper into the films. The calculated patterns of color variations of paints film composed by mixtures of white pigments with yellow Cadmium Sulfate (CdS) and red Cerium Sulfide (Ce2S3) pigments showed the same trend as that seen experimentally.

  20. Optical properties of porous anodic alumina embedded Cu nanocomposite films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Huiyuan; Sun, Huiyuan; Liu, Lihu; Hou, Xue; Jia, Xiaoxuan

    2015-06-01

    Porous anodic alumina embedded Cu with iridescent colors were fabricated in copper sulfate electrolyte. The films display highly saturated colors after being synthesized by an ac electrodeposition method. Tunable color in the films is obtained by adjusting anodization time, and can be adjusted across the entire visible range. Theoretical results of the changes in the structural color according to the Bragg-Snell formula are consistent with the experimental results. The films could be used in many areas including decoration, display and multifunctional anti-counterfeiting applications.

  1. Modeling of display color parameters and algorithmic color selection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silverstein, Louis D.; Lepkowski, James S.; Carter, Robert C.; Carter, Ellen C.

    1986-01-01

    An algorithmic approach to color selection, which is based on psychophysical models of color processing, is described. The factors that affect color differentiation, such as wavelength separation, color stimulus size, and brightness adaptation level, are discussed. The use of the CIE system of colorimetry and the CIELUV color difference metric for display color modeling is examined. The computer program combines the selection algorithm with internally derived correction factors for color image field size, ambient lighting characteristics, and anomalous red-green color vision deficiencies of display operators. The performance of the program is evaluated and uniform chromaticity scale diagrams for six-color and seven-color selection problems are provided.

  2. The nature of colors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Pos, Osvaldo

    2002-06-01

    Color is a visible aspect of objects and lights, and as such is an objective characteristic of our phenomenal world. Correspondingly also objects and lights are objective, although their subjectivity cannot be disregarded since they belong to our phenomenal world. The distinction between perception and sensation deals with colors seen either in complex displays or in isolation. Reality of colors is apparently challenged by virtual reality, while virtual reality is a good example of what colors are. It seems difficult to combine that aspect of reality colors have in our experience and the concept that colors represent something in the external environment: the distinction between stimulation and perceived object is crucial for understanding the relationships between phenomenal world and physical reality. A modern concept of isomorphism seems useful in interpreting the role of colors. The relationship between the psychological structure of colors and the physical stimulation is enlightened by the analysis of pseudocolors. The perceptual, subjective characteristics of colors go along with the subjectivity of scientific concepts. Colors, emotions, and concepts are all in some people's mind: none of them is independent of the subject mind. Nevertheless they can be communicated from person to person by an appropriate scientific terminology.

  3. Selection of small color palette for color image quantization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chau, Wing K.; Wong, S. K. M.; Yang, Xuedong; Wan, Shijie J.

    1992-05-01

    Two issues are involved in color image quantization: color palette selection and color mapping. A common practice for color palette selection is to minimize the color distortion for each pixel (the median-cut, the variance-based and the k-means algorithms). After the color palette has been chosen, a quantized image may be generated by mapping the original color of each pixel onto its nearest color in the color palette. Such an approach can usually produce quantized images of high quality with 128 or more colors. For 32 - 64 colors, the quality of the quantized images is often acceptable with the aid of dithering techniques in the color mapping process. For 8 - 16 color, however, the above statistical method for color selection becomes no longer suitable because of the great reduction of color gamut. In order to preserve the color gamut of the original image, one may want to select the colors in such a way that the convex hull formed by these colors in the RGB color space encloses most colors of the original image. Quantized images generated in such a geometrical way usually preserve a lot of image details, but may contain too much high frequency noises. This paper presents an effective algorithm for the selection of very small color palette by combining the strengths of the above statistical and geometrical approaches. We demonstrate that with the new method images of high quality can be produced by using only 4 to 8 colors.

  4. Quantitative film radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Devine, G.; Dobie, D.; Fugina, J.; Hernandez, J.; Logan, C.; Mohr, P.; Moss, R.; Schumacher, B.; Updike, E.; Weirup, D.

    1991-02-26

    We have developed a system of quantitative radiography in order to produce quantitative images displaying homogeneity of parts. The materials that we characterize are synthetic composites and may contain important subtle density variations not discernible by examining a raw film x-radiograph. In order to quantitatively interpret film radiographs, it is necessary to digitize, interpret, and display the images. Our integrated system of quantitative radiography displays accurate, high-resolution pseudo-color images in units of density. We characterize approximately 10,000 parts per year in hundreds of different configurations and compositions with this system. This report discusses: the method; film processor monitoring and control; verifying film and processor performance; and correction of scatter effects.

  5. Hand-Held Color Meters Based on Interference Filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, G. Jeffrey; Fleurial, Jean-Pierre; Caillat, Thierry; Chen, Gang; Yang, Rong Gui

    2004-01-01

    Small, inexpensive, hand-held optoelectronic color-measuring devices based on metal-film/dielectric-film interference filters are undergoing development. These color meters could be suitable for use in a variety of applications in which there are requirements to quantify or match colors for aesthetic purposes but there is no need for the high spectral resolution of scientific-grade spectrometers. Such applications typically occur in the paint, printing, and cosmetic industries, for example. The figure schematically depicts a color meter of this type being used to measure the color of a sample in terms of the spectrum of light reflected from the sample. Light from a white source (for example, a white light-emitting diode) passes through a collimating lens to the sample. Another lens collects some of the light reflected from the sample and focuses the light onto the input end of optical fiber. Light emerging from the output end of the optical fiber illuminates an array of photodetectors covered with metal/dielectric-film interference filters like those described in Metal/Dielectric-film Interference Color Filters (NPO-20217), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 23, No. 2 (February 1999), page 70. Typically, these are wide-band-pass filters, as shown at the bottom of the figure. The photodetector array need not be of any particular design: it could be something as simple as an assembly containing several photodiodes or something as elaborate as an active-pixel sensor or other imaging device. What is essential is that each of the photodetectors or each of several groups of photodetectors is covered with a metal/dielectric-film filter of a different color. In most applications, it would be desirable to have at least three different filters, each for a spectral band that contains one of the three primary additive red, green, and blue colors. In some applications, it may be necessary to have more than three different color filters in order to characterize subtle differences in color

  6. Color image segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCrae, Kimberley A.; Ruck, Dennis W.; Rogers, Steven K.; Oxley, Mark E.

    1994-03-01

    The most difficult stage of automated target recognition is segmentation. Current segmentation problems include faces and tactical targets; previous efforts to segment these objects have used intensity and motion cues. This paper develops a color preprocessing scheme to be used with the other segmentation techniques. A neural network is trained to identify the color of a desired object, eliminating all but that color from the scene. Gabor correlations and 2D wavelet transformations will be performed on stationary images; and 3D wavelet transforms on multispectral data will incorporate color and motion detection into the machine visual system. The paper will demonstrate that color and motion cues can enhance a computer segmentation system. Results from segmenting faces both from the AFIT data base and from video taped television are presented; results from tactical targets such as tanks and airplanes are also given. Color preprocessing is shown to greatly improve the segmentation in most cases.

  7. Digital color representation

    DOEpatents

    White, James M.; Faber, Vance; Saltzman, Jeffrey S.

    1992-01-01

    An image population having a large number of attributes is processed to form a display population with a predetermined smaller number of attributes which represent the larger number of attributes. In a particular application, the color values in an image are compressed for storage in a discrete lookup table (LUT) where an 8-bit data signal is enabled to form a display of 24-bit color values. The LUT is formed in a sampling and averaging process from the image color values with no requirement to define discrete Voronoi regions for color compression. Image color values are assigned 8-bit pointers to their closest LUT value whereby data processing requires only the 8-bit pointer value to provide 24-bit color values from the LUT.

  8. Facile and Effective Coloration of Dye-Inert Carbon Fiber Fabrics with Tunable Colors and Excellent Laundering Durability.

    PubMed

    Chen, Fengxiang; Yang, Huiyu; Li, Ke; Deng, Bo; Li, Qingsong; Liu, Xin; Dong, Binhai; Xiao, Xingfang; Wang, Dong; Qin, Yong; Wang, Shi-Min; Zhang, Ke-Qin; Xu, Weilin

    2017-09-26

    Carbon fiber is a good candidate in various applications, including in the military, structural, sports equipment, energy storage, and infrastructure. Coloring of carbon fiber has been a big challenge for decades due to their high degrees of crystallization and insufficient chemical affinity to dyes. Here, multicolored carbon fiber fabrics are fabricated using a feasible and effective atomic layer deposition (ALD) technique. The vibrant and uniform structural colors originating from thin-film interference is simply regulated by controlling the thickness of conformal TiO2 coatings on the surface of black carbon fibers. Impressively, the colorful coatings show excellent laundering durability, which can endure 50 cycles of domestic launderings. Moreover, the mechanical properties only drop off slightly after coloring. Overall, these results open an alternative avenue for development of TiO2 nanostructured films with multifunctional features grown using ALD technologies. This technology is speculated to have potential applications in various fields such as color engineering and radiation-proof fabrics and will further guide material design for future innovations in functional optical and color-display devices. More importantly, this research demonstrates a route for the coloring of black carbon fiber-based materials with vibrant colors.

  9. Comparison of Color Model in Cotton Image Under Conditions of Natural Light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, J. H.; Kong, F. T.; Wu, J. Z.; Wang, S. W.; Liu, J. J.; Zhao, P.

    Although the color images contain a large amount of information reflecting the species characteristics, different color models also get different information. The selection of color models is the key to separating crops from background effectively and rapidly. Taking the cotton images collected under natural light as the object, we convert the color components of RGB color model, HSL color model and YIQ color model respectively. Then, we use subjective evaluation and objective evaluation methods, evaluating the 9 color components of conversion. It is concluded that the Q component of the soil, straw and plastic film region gray values remain the same without larger fluctuation when using subjective evaluation method. In the objective evaluation, we use the variance method, average gradient method, gray prediction objective evaluation error statistics method and information entropy method respectively to find the minimum numerical of Q color component suitable for background segmentation.

  10. Accurate spectral color measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiltunen, Jouni; Jaeaeskelaeinen, Timo; Parkkinen, Jussi P. S.

    1999-08-01

    Surface color measurement is of importance in a very wide range of industrial applications including paint, paper, printing, photography, textiles, plastics and so on. For a demanding color measurements spectral approach is often needed. One can measure a color spectrum with a spectrophotometer using calibrated standard samples as a reference. Because it is impossible to define absolute color values of a sample, we always work with approximations. The human eye can perceive color difference as small as 0.5 CIELAB units and thus distinguish millions of colors. This 0.5 unit difference should be a goal for the precise color measurements. This limit is not a problem if we only want to measure the color difference of two samples, but if we want to know in a same time exact color coordinate values accuracy problems arise. The values of two instruments can be astonishingly different. The accuracy of the instrument used in color measurement may depend on various errors such as photometric non-linearity, wavelength error, integrating sphere dark level error, integrating sphere error in both specular included and specular excluded modes. Thus the correction formulas should be used to get more accurate results. Another question is how many channels i.e. wavelengths we are using to measure a spectrum. It is obvious that the sampling interval should be short to get more precise results. Furthermore, the result we get is always compromise of measuring time, conditions and cost. Sometimes we have to use portable syste or the shape and the size of samples makes it impossible to use sensitive equipment. In this study a small set of calibrated color tiles measured with the Perkin Elmer Lamda 18 and the Minolta CM-2002 spectrophotometers are compared. In the paper we explain the typical error sources of spectral color measurements, and show which are the accuracy demands a good colorimeter should have.

  11. True Colors of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This image taken on Mars by the panoramic camera on the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit shows the rover's color calibration target, also known as the MarsDial. The target's mirror and the shadows cast on it by the Sun help scientists determine the degree to which dusty martian skies alter the panoramic camera's perception of color. By adjusting for this effect, Mars can be seen in all its true colors.

  12. Colors in Natural Landscapes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-01-01

    specllcatlons. or other data are used for any purpose other than In connection with a definitely Government-related procure- ment, the United States ...and Morehead (1987) also found this shift toward a hue "indistinguishable from that of the sky" or, occasionally, slightly bluer than the sky. These...color by stating the dominant wavelength of its complementary color, adding a negative sign. The complementary color lies at the intersection of the same

  13. Inpainting the Colors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-05-21

    INPAINTING THE COLORS By Guillermo Sapiro IMA Preprint Series # 1979 ( May 2004 ) INSTITUTE FOR MATHEMATICS AND ITS APPLICATIONS UNIVERSITY OF...2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2004 to 00-00-2004 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Inpainting the Colors 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c...information, while considering the gradient information brought in by the monochrome data. This way, the color is inpainted , constrained both by the

  14. Measurements of ocean color

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hovis, W. A.

    1972-01-01

    An airborne instrument for determining ocean color and measurements made with the instrument are discussed. It was concluded that a clear relationship exists between the chlorophyll concentration and the color of the water. High altitude measurements from 50,000 feet are described and the effects of atmospheric scattering on the energy reaching the sensor are examined. The measured spectrum of ocean color at high and low altitudes is plotted.

  15. Eos Chasma - False Color

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-01-01

    Context image The THEMIS camera contains 5 filters. The data from different filters can be combined in multiple ways to create a false color image. These false color images may reveal subtle variations of the surface not easily identified in a single band image. Today's false color image shows part of Eos Chasma. Orbit Number: 18300 Latitude: -14.9443 Longitude: 312.7 Instrument: VIS Captured: 2006-01-29 02:31. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA20227

  16. Objective Color Measuring System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-09-01

    F. W. Billmeyer , Jr., Comparative performance of color measuring instruments, Appl. Optics 8, 775-783 (1969). 3 F. W. Billmeyer , Jr., E. D. Campbell...comments, Appl. Optics 14, 265 (1975). 4 R. T. Marcus and F. W. Billmeyer , Jr., Statistical study of color-measurement instrumentation, Appl. Optics 13... Billmeyer , Jr. and P. J. Alessi, Assessment of color-manuring instruments for objective textile acceptability judgment, NATICK/TR-79/044, US Army Natick R

  17. Film Reviews.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lance, Larry M.; Atwater, Lynn

    1987-01-01

    Reviews four Human Sexuality films and videos. These are: "Personal Decisions" (Planned Parenthood Federation of America, 1985); "The Touch Film" (Sterling Production, 1986); "Rethinking Rape" (Film Distribution Center, 1985); "Not A Love Story" (National Film Board of Canada, 1981). (AEM)

  18. MonoColor CMOS sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ynjiun P.

    2009-02-01

    A new breed of CMOS color sensor called MonoColor sensor is developed for a barcode reading application in AIDC industry. The RGBW color filter array (CFA) in a MonoColor sensor is arranged in a 8 x 8 pixels CFA with only 4 pixels of them are color (RGB) pixels and the rest of 60 pixels are transparent or monochrome. Since the majority of pixels are monochrome, MonoColor sensor maintains 98% barcode decode performance compared with a pure monochrome CMOS sensor. With the help of monochrome and color pixel fusion technique, the resulting color pictures have similar color quality in terms of Color Semantic Error (CSE) compared with a Bayer pattern (RGB) CMOS color camera. Since monochrome pixels are more sensitive than color pixels, a MonoColor sensor produces in general about 2X brighter color picture and higher luminance pixel resolution.

  19. High-resolution dyed color-filter-material for use in digital photography applications: cyan, magenta, and yellow color photoresists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Gu; Mayo, Jonathan W.; Planje, Curtis; Rieken, Lorie; Brand, Gary

    2002-04-01

    In this study, we have developed a new set of cyan, magenta and yellow (CMY) dyed color filter materials to meet the need of digital photography applications. These new color filter materials consist of a dye, a photo sensitive polymer binder, photo initiators, and acrylic monomers in addition to safe solvents such as propylene glycol methyl ether (PGME) which allow deposition of thin film layers by standard spin-on coating techniques. CMY materials share many desirable properties with standard photoresists, e.g., excellent coating quality, thin film uniformity, and good adhesion to semiconductor substrates. They work as negative resists and are sensitive to i-line UV light with photo speed of 300 mJ/cm2 and below. We have shown, for example, that a 1 micrometers film exposed and developed will exhibit high- resolution feature sizes of 3 micrometers pixels and below. These CMY materials have excellent thermal and light stability and good color characteristics.

  20. Universality of color names.

    PubMed

    Lindsey, Delwin T; Brown, Angela M

    2006-10-31

    We analyzed the World Color Survey (WCS) color-naming data set by using k-means cluster and concordance analyses. Cluster analysis relied on a similarity metric based on pairwise Pearson correlation of the complete chromatic color-naming patterns obtained from individual WCS informants. When K, the number of k-means clusters, varied from 2 to 10, we found that (i) the average color-naming patterns of the clusters all glossed easily to single or composite English patterns, and (ii) the structures of the k-means clusters unfolded in a hierarchical way that was reminiscent of the Berlin and Kay sequence of color category evolution. Gap statistical analysis showed that 8 was the optimal number of WCS chromatic categories: RED, GREEN, YELLOW-OR-ORANGE, BLUE, PURPLE, BROWN, PINK, and GRUE (GREEN-OR-BLUE). Analysis of concordance in color naming within WCS languages revealed small regions in color space that exhibited statistically significantly high concordance across languages. These regions agreed well with five of six primary focal colors of English. Concordance analysis also revealed boundary regions of statistically significantly low concordance. These boundary regions coincided with the boundaries associated with English WARM and COOL. Our results provide compelling evidence for similarities in the mechanisms that guide the lexical partitioning of color space among WCS languages and English.

  1. Gale Crater - False Color

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-02-15

    The THEMIS VIS camera contains 5 filters. The data from different filters can be combined in multiple ways to create a false color image. These false color images may reveal subtle variations of the surface not easily identified in a single band image. Today's false color image shows part of Gale Crater. Basaltic sands are dark blue in this type of false color combination. The Curiosity Rover is located in another portion of Gale Crater, far southwest of this image. Orbit Number: 51803 Latitude: -4.39948 Longitude: 138.116 Instrument: VIS Captured: 2013-08-18 09:04 http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21312

  2. Arabia Terra - False Color

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-10-09

    The THEMIS VIS camera contains 5 filters. The data from different filters can be combined in multiple ways to create a false color image. These false color images may reveal subtle variations of the surface not easily identified in a single band image. Today's false color image shows part of Arabia Terra. A dark blue tone in this false color image is often associated with basaltic sand. Orbit Number: 12307 Latitude: 3.44332 Longitude: 5.97644 Instrument: VIS Captured: 2004-09-22 18:11 http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA19794

  3. Galle Crater - False Color

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-01-22

    The THEMIS VIS camera contains 5 filters. The data from different filters can be combined in multiple ways to create a false color image. These false color images may reveal subtle variations of the surface not easily identified in a single band image. Today's false color image shows part of the floor of Galle Crater. Dark dunes are visible in the center of the image. The dark blue color typically indicates basaltic sand. Orbit Number: 58800 Latitude: -51.5789 Longitude: 328.788 Instrument: VIS Captured: 2015-03-17 07:20 http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA20243

  4. Chryse Planitia - False Color

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-11-10

    The THEMIS VIS camera contains 5 filters. The data from different filters can be combined in multiple ways to create a false color image. These false color images may reveal subtle variations of the surface not easily identified in a single band image. Today's false color image shows part of the margin of Chryse Planitia. Dark blue in this false color combination is mostly likely basaltic material/dunes. Orbit Number: 44280 Latitude: 33.0423 Longitude: 309.853 Instrument: VIS Captured: 2011-12-08 07:16 http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21162

  5. Polarization encoded color camera.

    PubMed

    Schonbrun, Ethan; Möller, Guðfríður; Di Caprio, Giuseppe

    2014-03-15

    Digital cameras would be colorblind if they did not have pixelated color filters integrated into their image sensors. Integration of conventional fixed filters, however, comes at the expense of an inability to modify the camera's spectral properties. Instead, we demonstrate a micropolarizer-based camera that can reconfigure its spectral response. Color is encoded into a linear polarization state by a chiral dispersive element and then read out in a single exposure. The polarization encoded color camera is capable of capturing three-color images at wavelengths spanning the visible to the near infrared.

  6. The Colors of 'Endurance'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This false-color image shows visible mineral changes between the materials that make up the rim of the impact crater known as 'Endurance.' The image was taken by the panoramic camera on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity using all 13 color filters. The cyan blue color denotes basalts, whereas the dark green color denotes a mixture of iron oxide and basaltic materials. Reds and yellows indicate dusty material containing sulfates. Scientists are very interested in exploring the interior and exterior material around the crater's rim for clues to the processes that formed the crater, as well as the rocks and textures that define the crater.

  7. Crater Floor in Color

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 5 May 2004 This daytime visible color image was collected on November 18, 2003 during the Southern Summer season in Terra Cimmeria.

    This daytime visible color image was collected on September 4, 2002 during the Northern Spring season in Vastitas Borealis. The THEMIS VIS camera is capable of capturing color images of the martian surface using its five different color filters. In this mode of operation, the spatial resolution and coverage of the image must be reduced to accommodate the additional data volume produced from the use of multiple filters. To make a color image, three of the five filter images (each in grayscale) are selected. Each is contrast enhanced and then converted to a red, green, or blue intensity image. These three images are then combined to produce a full color, single image. Because the THEMIS color filters don't span the full range of colors seen by the human eye, a color THEMIS image does not represent true color. Also, because each single-filter image is contrast enhanced before inclusion in the three-color image, the apparent color variation of the scene is exaggerated. Nevertheless, the color variation that does appear is representative of some change in color, however subtle, in the actual scene. Note that the long edges of THEMIS color images typically contain color artifacts that do not represent surface variation.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -23.7, Longitude 135.6 East (224.4 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with

  8. Luminance contours can gate afterimage colors and "real" colors.

    PubMed

    Anstis, Stuart; Vergeer, Mark; Van Lier, Rob

    2012-09-06

    It has long been known that colored images may elicit afterimages in complementary colors. We have already shown (Van Lier, Vergeer, & Anstis, 2009) that one and the same adapting image may result in different afterimage colors, depending on the test contours presented after the colored image. The color of the afterimage depends on two adapting colors, those both inside and outside the test. Here, we further explore this phenomenon and show that the color-contour interactions shown for afterimage colors also occur for "real" colors. We argue that similar mechanisms apply for both types of stimulation.

  9. Ocean color imagery: Coastal zone color scanner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hovis, W. A.

    1975-01-01

    Investigations into the feasibility of sensing ocean color from high altitude for determination of chlorophyll and sediment distributions were carried out using sensors on NASA aircraft, coordinated with surface measurements carried out by oceanographic vessels. Spectrometer measurements in 1971 and 1972 led to development of an imaging sensor now flying on a NASA U-2 and the Coastal Zone Color Scanner to fly on Nimbus G in 1978. Results of the U-2 effort show the imaging sensor to be of great value in sensing pollutants in the ocean.

  10. Polar Cap Colors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 12 May 2004 This daytime visible color image was collected on June 6, 2003 during the Southern Spring season near the South Polar Cap Edge.

    The THEMIS VIS camera is capable of capturing color images of the martian surface using its five different color filters. In this mode of operation, the spatial resolution and coverage of the image must be reduced to accommodate the additional data volume produced from the use of multiple filters. To make a color image, three of the five filter images (each in grayscale) are selected. Each is contrast enhanced and then converted to a red, green, or blue intensity image. These three images are then combined to produce a full color, single image. Because the THEMIS color filters don't span the full range of colors seen by the human eye, a color THEMIS image does not represent true color. Also, because each single-filter image is contrast enhanced before inclusion in the three-color image, the apparent color variation of the scene is exaggerated. Nevertheless, the color variation that does appear is representative of some change in color, however subtle, in the actual scene. Note that the long edges of THEMIS color images typically contain color artifacts that do not represent surface variation.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -77.8, Longitude 195 East (165 West). 38 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA

  11. Navigation lights color study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbosa, Jose G.; Alberg, Matthew T.

    2015-05-01

    The chromaticity of navigation lights are defined by areas on the International Commission on Illumination (CIE) 1931 chromaticity diagram. The corner coordinates for these areas are specified in the International Regulations for Prevention of Collisions at Sea, 1972 (72 COLREGS). The navigation light's color of white, red, green, and yellow are bounded by these areas. The chromaticity values specified by the COLREGS for navigation lights were intended for the human visual system (HVS). The HVS can determine the colors of these lights easily under various conditions. For digital color camera imaging systems the colors of these lights are dependent on the camera's color spectral sensitivity, settings, and color correction. At night the color of these lights are used to quickly determine the relative course of vessels. If these lights are incorrectly identified or there is a delay in identifying them this could be a potential safety of ship concern. Vessels that use camera imaging systems exclusively for sight, at night, need to detect, identify, and discriminate navigation lights for navigation and collision avoidance. The introduction of light emitting diode (LED) lights and lights with different spectral signatures have the potential to be imaged very differently with an RGB color filter array (CFA) color camera than with the human eye. It has been found that some green navigation lights' images appear blue verse green. This has an impact on vessels that use camera imaging systems exclusively for navigation. This paper will characterize color cameras ability to properly reproducing navigation lights' color and survey a set of navigation light to determine if they conform to the COLREGS.

  12. Moon - False Color Mosaic

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1996-01-29

    This false-color photograph is a composite of 15 images of the Moon taken through three color filters NASA's Galileo solid-state imaging system during the spacecraft passage through the Earth-Moon system on December 8, 1992. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA00132

  13. Plasmonic color tuning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Byoungho; Yun, Hansik; Lee, Seung-Yeol; Kim, Hwi

    2016-03-01

    In general, color filter is an optical component to permit the transmission of a specific color in cameras, displays, and microscopes. Each filter has its own unchangeable color because it is made by chemical materials such as dyes and pigments. Therefore, in order to express various colorful images in a display, one pixel should have three sub-pixels of red, green, and blue colors. Here, we suggest new plasmonic structure and method to change the color in a single pixel. It is comprised of a cavity and a metal nanoaperture. The optical cavity generally supports standing waves inside it, and various standing waves having different wavelength can be confined together in one cavity. On the other hand, although light cannot transmit sub-wavelength sized aperture, surface plasmons can propagate through the metal nanoaperture with high intensity due to the extraordinary transmission. If we combine the two structures, we can organize the spatial distribution of amplitudes according to wavelength of various standing waves using the cavity, and we can extract a light with specific wavelength and amplitude using the nanoaperture. Therefore, this cavity-aperture structure can simultaneously tune the color and intensity of the transmitted light through the single nanoaperture. We expect that the cavity-apertures have a potential for dynamic color pixels, micro-imaging system, and multiplexed sensors.

  14. Olympus Mons - False Color

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-01-05

    The THEMIS VIS camera contains 5 filters. The data from different filters can be combined to create a false color image. This false color image from NASA 2001 Mars Odyssey spacecraft shows part of the caldera at the summit of Olympus Mons.

  15. Disabled Students of Color.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frank, Zelma Lloyd; Ball-Brown, Brenda

    1993-01-01

    Explores why few disabled students of color use student services. Details why some of these students were unnecessarily placed in special education programs and focuses on the experiences of this group. Addresses general cultural differences that can affect responses between people of color and disability services. Provides guidelines for service…

  16. Color quality scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Wendy; Ohno, Yoshi

    2010-03-01

    The color rendering index (CRI) has been shown to have deficiencies when applied to white light-emitting-diode-based sources. Furthermore, evidence suggests that the restricted scope of the CRI unnecessarily penalizes some light sources with desirable color qualities. To solve the problems of the CRI and include other dimensions of color quality, the color quality scale (CQS) has been developed. Although the CQS uses many of elements of the CRI, there are a number of fundamental differences. Like the CRI, the CQS is a test-samples method that compares the appearance of a set of reflective samples when illuminated by the test lamp to their appearance under a reference illuminant. The CQS uses a larger set of reflective samples, all of high chroma, and combines the color differences of the samples with a root mean square. Additionally, the CQS does not penalize light sources for causing increases in the chroma of object colors but does penalize sources with smaller rendered color gamut areas. The scale of the CQS is converted to span 0-100, and the uniform object color space and chromatic adaptation transform used in the calculations are updated. Supplementary scales have also been developed for expert users.

  17. 3-D Color Wheels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DuBois, Ann

    2010-01-01

    The blending of information from an academic class with projects from art class can do nothing but strengthen the learning power of the student. Creating three-dimensional color wheels provides the perfect opportunity to combine basic geometry knowledge with color theory. In this article, the author describes how her seventh-grade painting…

  18. 3-D Color Wheels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DuBois, Ann

    2010-01-01

    The blending of information from an academic class with projects from art class can do nothing but strengthen the learning power of the student. Creating three-dimensional color wheels provides the perfect opportunity to combine basic geometry knowledge with color theory. In this article, the author describes how her seventh-grade painting…

  19. Colorful Underwater Sea Creatures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCutcheon, Heather

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a project wherein students created colorful underwater sea creatures. This project began with a discussion about underwater sea creatures and how they live. The first step was making the multi-colored tissue paper that would become sea creatures and seaweed. Once students had the shapes of their sea creatures…

  20. Dynamic egg color mimicry.

    PubMed

    Hanley, Daniel; Šulc, Michal; Brennan, Patricia L R; Hauber, Mark E; Grim, Tomáš; Honza, Marcel

    2016-06-01

    Evolutionary hypotheses regarding the function of eggshell phenotypes, from solar protection through mimicry, have implicitly assumed that eggshell appearance remains static throughout the laying and incubation periods. However, recent research demonstrates that egg coloration changes over relatively short, biologically relevant timescales. Here, we provide the first evidence that such changes impact brood parasite-host eggshell color mimicry during the incubation stage. First, we use long-term data to establish how rapidly the Acrocephalus arundinaceus Linnaeus (great reed warbler) responded to natural parasitic eggs laid by the Cuculus canorus Linnaeus (common cuckoo). Most hosts rejected parasitic eggs just prior to clutch completion, but the host response period extended well into incubation (~10 days after clutch completion). Using reflectance spectrometry and visual modeling, we demonstrate that eggshell coloration in the great reed warbler and its brood parasite, the common cuckoo, changes rapidly, and the extent of eggshell color mimicry shifts dynamically over the host response period. Specifically, 4 days after being laid, the host should notice achromatic color changes to both cuckoo and warbler eggs, while chromatic color changes would be noticeable after 8 days. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the perceived match between host and cuckoo eggshell color worsened over the incubation period. These findings have important implications for parasite-host coevolution dynamics, because host egg discrimination may be aided by disparate temporal color changes in host and parasite eggs.

  1. Equivalent Colorings with "Maple"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cecil, David R.; Wang, Rongdong

    2005-01-01

    Many counting problems can be modeled as "colorings" and solved by considering symmetries and Polya's cycle index polynomial. This paper presents a "Maple 7" program link http://users.tamuk.edu/kfdrc00/ that, given Polya's cycle index polynomial, determines all possible associated colorings and their partitioning into equivalence classes. These…

  2. Equivalent Colorings with "Maple"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cecil, David R.; Wang, Rongdong

    2005-01-01

    Many counting problems can be modeled as "colorings" and solved by considering symmetries and Polya's cycle index polynomial. This paper presents a "Maple 7" program link http://users.tamuk.edu/kfdrc00/ that, given Polya's cycle index polynomial, determines all possible associated colorings and their partitioning into equivalence classes. These…

  3. Colorful Underwater Sea Creatures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCutcheon, Heather

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a project wherein students created colorful underwater sea creatures. This project began with a discussion about underwater sea creatures and how they live. The first step was making the multi-colored tissue paper that would become sea creatures and seaweed. Once students had the shapes of their sea creatures…

  4. Color: an exosomatic organ?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Brakel, Jaap; Saunders, Barbara

    2001-12-01

    According to the dominant view in cognitive science, in particular in its more popularized versions, color sensings or perceptions are located in a 'quality space'. This space has three dimensions: hue (the chromatic aspect of color), saturation (the 'intensity' of hue), and brightness. This space is structured further via a small number of primitive hues or landmark colors, usually four (red, yellow, green, blue) or six (if white and black are included). It has also been suggested that there are eleven semantic universals - the six colors previously mentioned plus orange, pink, brown, purple, and grey. Scientific evidence for these widely accepted theories is at best minimal, based on sloppy methodology and at worst non-existent. Against the standard view, it is argued that color might better be regarded as the outcome of a social-historical developmental trajectory in which there is mutual shaping of philosophical presuppositions, scientific theories, experimental practices, technological tools, industrial products, rhetorical frameworks, and their intercalated and recursive interactions with the practices of daily life. That is: color, the domain of color, is the outcome of interactive processes of scientific, instrumental, industrial, and everyday lifeworlds. That is: color might better be called an exosomatic organ, a second nature.

  5. A Semester of Color

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rabinovitch, Andrea

    2006-01-01

    Every Thursday evening, ten high school students meet at the Riverdale Art Project, a New York City-based art program that the author co-founded ten years ago. Students are participating in a semester-long color workshop where they learn about color theory in a structured and engaging way. Focusing on five essential characteristics of color…

  6. Drawing Color Lines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gude, Olivia

    2000-01-01

    Addresses the teaching of color symbolism and asserts that racism is embodied and perpetuated through conventional notions of black and white symbolism. Discusses a project with two eighth grade classes, focusing on the discussion of color symbolism in school and popular culture. Considers the importance of analyzing contemporary languages of…

  7. Color names, color categories, and color-cued visual search: Sometimes, color perception is not categorical

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Angela M; Lindsey, Delwin T; Guckes, Kevin M

    2011-01-01

    The relation between colors and their names is a classic case-study for investigating the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis that categorical perception is imposed on perception by language. Here, we investigate the Sapir-Whorf prediction that visual search for a green target presented among blue distractors (or vice versa) should be faster than search for a green target presented among distractors of a different color of green (or for a blue target among different blue distractors). Gilbert, Regier, Kay & Ivry (2006) reported that this Sapir-Whorf effect is restricted to the right visual field (RVF), because the major brain language centers are in the left cerebral hemisphere. We found no categorical effect at the Green|Blue color boundary, and no categorical effect restricted to the RVF. Scaling of perceived color differences by Maximum Likelihood Difference Scaling (MLDS) also showed no categorical effect, including no effect specific to the RVF. Two models fit the data: a color difference model based on MLDS and a standard opponent-colors model of color discrimination based on the spectral sensitivities of the cones. Neither of these models, nor any of our data, suggested categorical perception of colors at the Green|Blue boundary, in either visual field. PMID:21980188

  8. A Semester of Color

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rabinovitch, Andrea

    2006-01-01

    Every Thursday evening, ten high school students meet at the Riverdale Art Project, a New York City-based art program that the author co-founded ten years ago. Students are participating in a semester-long color workshop where they learn about color theory in a structured and engaging way. Focusing on five essential characteristics of color…

  9. Daga Vallis - False Color

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-12-19

    The THEMIS VIS camera contains 5 filters. The data from different filters can be combined in multiple ways to create a false color image. This false color image from NASA 2001 Mars Odyssey spacecraft shows part of Daga Vallis on Eos Mensa.

  10. TOCM digital color photography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Baoying; Mu, Guoguang; Fang, Zhiliang; Li, Zhengqun; Fang, Hui; Yang, Yong

    2009-11-01

    In this paper, total optical color modulator (TOCM) digital color photography is presented. TOCM has the character of multi-wave superposed in spatial domain and separated in frequency domain. If TOCM is close-contacted with the image plane of a black-and-white (B&W) CCD, the encoding B&W CCD is formed. Image from the encoding B&W CCD are digital encoded by the TOCM. The decoded color image can be obtained by computer program. The program includes four main steps. The first step is Fourier transforming of the encoded image. The second step is filtering the spectra of the first and zero order in frequency domain. The third is inverse Fourier transforming of the filtered spectra. The last is melting the image with zero order. Then the digital color image will be shown on the display of the computer. The experiment proves that this technique is feasible. The principle of encoding color information in B&W image can be applied to color-blind sensors to get digital color image. Furthermore, it can be applied to digital multi-spectra color photography.

  11. Requirements for color technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Ronald B., Jr.

    1993-06-01

    The requirements for color technology in the general office are reviewed. The two most salient factors driving the requirements for color are the information explosion and the virtually negligible growth in white collar productivity in the recent past. Accordingly, the business requirement upon color technology is that it be utilized in an effective and efficient manner to increase office productivity. Recent research on productivity and growth has moved beyond the classical two factor productivity model of labor and capital to explicitly include knowledge as a third and vital factor. Documents are agents of knowledge in the general office. Documents articulate, express, disseminate, and communicate knowledge. The central question addressed here is how can color, in conjunction with other techniques such as graphics and document design, improve the growth of knowledge? The central thesis is that the effective use of color to convert information into knowledge is one of the most powerful ways to increase office productivity. Material on the value of color is reviewed. This material is related to the role of documents. Document services are the way in which users access and utilize color technology. The requirements for color technology are then defined against the services taxonomy.

  12. Plasmonic reflection color filters with metallic random nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Wu, Q J; Jia, H; Hu, X L; Sun, L B; Wang, L S; Yang, S M; Tai, R Z; Fecht, H J; Wang, L Q; Zhang, D X; Jiang, J Z

    2017-02-24

    We develop reflective color filters with randomly distributed nanodisks and nanoholes fabricated with hydrogen silsesquioxane and Ag films on silicon substrate. They exhibit high resolution, angle-independence and easily up-scalable fabrication, which are the most important factors for color filters for industrial applications. We uncover the underlying mechanism after systematically analyzing the localized surface plasmon polariton coupling in the electric-field distribution. The agreement of the experimental results with those from the simulation indicates that tunable colors across the visible spectrum can be obtained by simply varying the diameter of the nanodisks, promoting their applications.

  13. Plasmonic reflection color filters with metallic random nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Q. J.; Jia, H.; Hu, X. L.; Sun, L. B.; Wang, L. S.; Yang, S. M.; Tai, R. Z.; Fecht, H. J.; Wang, L. Q.; Zhang, D. X.; Jiang, J. Z.

    2017-02-01

    We develop reflective color filters with randomly distributed nanodisks and nanoholes fabricated with hydrogen silsesquioxane and Ag films on silicon substrate. They exhibit high resolution, angle-independence and easily up-scalable fabrication, which are the most important factors for color filters for industrial applications. We uncover the underlying mechanism after systematically analyzing the localized surface plasmon polariton coupling in the electric-field distribution. The agreement of the experimental results with those from the simulation indicates that tunable colors across the visible spectrum can be obtained by simply varying the diameter of the nanodisks, promoting their applications.

  14. Color enhancement of nimbus high resolution infrared radiometer data.

    PubMed

    Kreins, E R; Allison, L J

    1970-03-01

    Two examples of Nimbus high resolution infrared radiometer (HRIR) data processed by a color display enhancement system demonstrate possible meteorological, oceanographic, and geomorphological applications of this technique for geophysical research. A commonly used means of displaying radiation temperatures mapped by the HRIR has been a black and white photofacsimile film strip. However, the human eye can distinguish many more colors than shades of gray, and this characteristic permits an analyst to evaluate quantitatively radiation values mapped in color more readily than in black and white.

  15. Magneto-optical color imaging of magnetic field distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagakubo, Yosuke; Liu, Qi; Lou, Gengjian; Ishibashi, Takayuki

    2017-05-01

    The magneto-optical (MO) imaging technique allows magnetic field distributions to be observed in real-time. In this paper, we demonstrate a MO color imaging technique that allows quantitative values of magnetic fields to be determined by the naked eye. MO color imaging is realized using a MO imaging plate, which contains a bismuth-substituted iron garnet film. The imaging plate was prepared by the metal organic decomposition method, and a light source consisting of green and yellow light-emitting diodes or a white light-emitting diode. MO color imaging of the magnetic field distribution of a commercial ferrite magnet is demonstrated.

  16. Image color reduction method for color-defective observers using a color palette composed of 20 particular colors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakamoto, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    This study describes a color enhancement method that uses a color palette especially designed for protan and deutan defects, commonly known as red-green color blindness. The proposed color reduction method is based on a simple color mapping. Complicated computation and image processing are not required by using the proposed method, and the method can replace protan and deutan confusion (p/d-confusion) colors with protan and deutan safe (p/d-safe) colors. Color palettes for protan and deutan defects proposed by previous studies are composed of few p/d-safe colors. Thus, the colors contained in these palettes are insufficient for replacing colors in photographs. Recently, Ito et al. proposed a p/dsafe color palette composed of 20 particular colors. The author demonstrated that their p/d-safe color palette could be applied to image color reduction in photographs as a means to replace p/d-confusion colors. This study describes the results of the proposed color reduction in photographs that include typical p/d-confusion colors, which can be replaced. After the reduction process is completed, color-defective observers can distinguish these confusion colors.

  17. The British Film Catalogue: 1895-1970.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gifford, Denis

    This reference book catalogues nearly every commercial film produced in Britain for public entertainment from 1895 to 1970. The entries are listed chronologically by year and month. Each entry is limited to a single film and contains a cross index code number, exhibition date, main title, length, color system, production company, distribution…

  18. Color spaces for color-gamut mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCann, John J.

    1999-10-01

    Before doing extensive color gamut experiments, we wanted to test the uniformity of CIE L*a*b*. This paper shows surprisingly large discrepancies between CIE L*a*b* and isotropic observation-based color spaces, such as Munsell: (1) L*a*b* chroma exaggerate yellows and underestimate blues. (2) The average discrepancy between L*a*b* and ideal is 27%. (3) Chips with identical L*a*b* hue angles are not the same color. L*a*b* introduces errors larger than many gamut mapping corrections. We have isotropic data in the Munsell Book. Computers allow 3D lookup tables to convert instantly any measured L*a*b* to interpolated Munsell Book values. We call this space ML, Ma, and Mb in honor of Munsell. LUTs have been developed for both LabtoMLab and MLabtoLab. With this zero-error, isotropic space we can return our attention to the original problem of color-gamut image processing.

  19. Baetis Mensa - False Color

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-07-29

    The THEMIS camera contains 5 filters. The data from different filters can be combined in multiple ways to create a false color image. This image from NASA 2001 Mars Odyssey spacecraft shows the northern tip of Baetis Mensa. The THEMIS camera contains 5 filters. The data from different filters can be combined in multiple ways to create a false color image. These false color images may reveal subtle variations of the surface not easily identified in a single band image. Today's false color image shows the northern tip of Baetis Mensa. In false color images dark blue is often basaltic sands. In this image it is possible to trace the sands from the erosion of Beatis Mensa moving down the canyon gullies to the floor of Ophir Chasma. Orbit Number: 42247 Latitude: -4.17728 Longitude: 287.975 Instrument: VIS Captured: 2011-06-23 21:11 http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA20792

  20. Color vision and dentistry.

    PubMed

    Wasson, W; Schuman, N

    1992-05-01

    Color vision is a critical component of restorative and esthetic dentistry, but dentists, as a group, do not have their color vision tested at any time during their careers. A study was undertaken to ascertain the color-vision status of practicing dental personnel at the University of Tennessee, College of Dentistry. One hundred fifty individuals, 75 men and 75 women, were screened. The results corroborated the existing medical data for the general population. It was found that 9.3% of the men and none of the women exhibited color-vision defect. Since most dentists are male, this study demonstrates an area of potential weakness for some practitioners. Once a color-vision problem is found, it is simple to remedy by employing a team approach to shade matching or mechanical means of matching shades (by the practitioner). No ethnic or racial distinctions were detected, although these have been reported in other studies.

  1. Food colorants: anthocyanins.

    PubMed

    Francis, F J

    1989-01-01

    Interest in food colorants as shown by the number of patents has doubled in recent years with natural pigments outnumbering synthetics by five to one. The natural colorant area can be subdivided into anthocyanins, betalains, chlorophylls, carotenoids, flavonoids, polyphenols, Monascus, hemes, quinones, biliproteins, safflower, turmeric, and miscellaneous. All involve different groups of chemical compounds which may be used directly as colorants, or may be chemically modified to produce different hues or increased stability. All usually involve a method of collection, extraction, purification, possibly stabilization, and formulation. A variety of hues can be obtained ranging from green through yellow, orange, red, blue, and violet, depending on the source of colorant. Similarly, water or oil-soluble formulations can be prepared depending on the type of colorant.

  2. Color engineering in the age of digital convergence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacDonald, Lindsay W.

    1998-09-01

    Digital color imaging has developed over the past twenty years from specialized scientific applications into the mainstream of computing. In addition to the phenomenal growth of computer processing power and storage capacity, great advances have been made in the capabilities and cost-effectiveness of color imaging peripherals. The majority of imaging applications, including the graphic arts, video and film have made the transition from analogue to digital production methods. Digital convergence of computing, communications and television now heralds new possibilities for multimedia publishing and mobile lifestyles. Color engineering, the application of color science to the design of imaging products, is an emerging discipline that poses exciting challenges to the international color imaging community for training, research and standards.

  3. The structural color of red rose petals and their duplicates.

    PubMed

    Feng, Lin; Zhang, Yanan; Li, Mingzhu; Zheng, Yongmei; Shen, Weizhi; Jiang, Lei

    2010-09-21

    The observation of the surface of a red rose petal indicates that there are micropapillae on the surface and many nanofolders exist on each papilla. Here, much tinier nanorods with periodic pattern on the nanofolders can be seen by in situ atomic force microscopy (AFM). Angle-resolved UV-vis spectral measurement and reflectance UV-vis spectra by immersion red rose petal in solvents with different refractive indices demonstrate that such periodic nanostructures can induce structural color. The combination of structural color, driven by the nanostructures, and chemical color, driven by pigments, provide flowers bright color and special functions for human and animals' visual system. Biomimic polymer films, that fabricated by duplicating the petal's hierarchical micro/nano structures, exhibit only structural color by UV-vis spectra since there is no pigment introduced.

  4. Perceptual approach for unsupervised digital color restoration of cinematographic archives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chambah, Majed; Rizzi, Alessandro; Gatta, Carlo; Besserer, Bernard; Marini, Daniele

    2003-01-01

    The cinematographic archives represent an important part of our collective memory. We present in this paper some advances in automating the color fading restoration process, especially with regard to the automatic color correction technique. The proposed color correction method is based on the ACE model, an unsupervised color equalization algorithm based on a perceptual approach and inspired by some adaptation mechanisms of the human visual system, in particular lightness constancy and color constancy. There are some advantages in a perceptual approach: mainly its robustness and its local filtering properties, that lead to more effective results. The resulting technique, is not just an application of ACE on movie images, but an enhancement of ACE principles to meet the requirements in the digital film restoration field. The presented preliminary results are satisfying and promising.

  5. Mapping the broad CMY subtractive primary color gamut using a dual-active electrochromic device.

    PubMed

    Bulloch, Rayford H; Kerszulis, Justin A; Dyer, Aubrey L; Reynolds, John R

    2014-05-14

    Although synthetic efforts have been fruitful in coarse color control, variations to an electrochromic polymer (ECP) backbone are less likely to allow for the fine control necessary to access the variations and shades of color needed in display applications. Through the use of thin films of cyan, magenta, and yellow ECPs, non-emissive subtractive color mixing allows the color of an electrochromic device (ECD) to be selected and tailored, increasing access to various subtle shades and allowing for a non-emissive display to exhibit a wide range of colors. Using a dual-active ECD, subtractive color mixing utilizing the cyan-magenta-yellow (CMY) primary system was examined. The bounds of the gamut, or the subset of accessible colors, using these three 3,4-propylenedioxythiophene (PProDOT)-derived materials in combination with the recently recognized 3,4-propylenedioxypyrrole-based minimally color changing polymer (MCCP) were mapped, highlighting the benefit of applying subtractive color mixing toward the development of full-color non-emissive displays. Here, we demonstrate that ECPs are suitable for the generation of a wide gamut of colors through secondary mixing when layered as two distinct films, exhibiting both vibrantly colored and highly transmissive states.

  6. Polaroid Graphics Imaging Direct Digital Color Proofing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Patrick F.

    1989-04-01

    Good morning ladies and gentlemen. I represent Polaroid Graphics Imaging, a wholly owned subsidiary of the Polaroid Corporation. We wish to thank Ken Cloud and the SPIE for the opportunity to speak today. Several criterion are fundamental in the role for Direct Digital Color Proofing (DDCP), First, the DDCP must represent a first generation hardcopy of the exact color information in the production stream. If must, as it's name suggests be an exact, proof (hence the name direct) of the electronic or digital information which would otherwise be directed toward film working. It is after all the most critical means to evaluate the quality of whatever pagination, scanner or color work which has gone be for it. Second, the DDCP must represent an opportunity. That opportunity is to reconvene the production stream and move to film making, optical or magnetic storage, or satellite transmission with the confidence that the DDCP is identical to some conventional counterpart. In the case of film it must match a conventional proof and press sheet, dot for dot. Otherwise it is merely an exercise in interpretation. For magnetic or optical storage and satellite transmission there must be assurance that at any opportunity either a duplicate DDCP or a conventional film/proof could reproduce earlier results. Finally as the printed product is the final goal and direct to press is evolving in direct to plate and direct to gravure printing the DDCP must share the half toner lineage of these products. Thirdly and hardly least, the whole purpose for DDCP is increased productivity. However, our industry struggles to maintain individuality and variety. Somehow DDCP must balance these forces.

  7. Liquid phase deposition of electrochromic thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Richardson, Thomas J.; Rubin, Michael D.

    2000-08-18

    Thin films of titanium, zirconium and nickel oxides were deposited on conductive SnO2:F glass substrates by immersion in aqueous solutions. The films are transparent, conformal, of uniform thickness and appearance, and adhere strongly to the substrates. On electrochemical cycling, TiO2, mixed TiO2-ZrO2, and NiOx films exhibited stable electrochromism with high coloration efficiencies. These nickel oxide films were particularly stable compared with films prepared by other non-vacuum techniques. The method is simple, inexpensive, energy efficient, and readily scalable to larger substrates.

  8. Response of Church Related Adults to the Film, "Parable."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Richard Ed

    The purpose of this study was to investigate response to the film, "Parable," a 20-minute color film which depicts a clown in a circus setting and which has no dialog but evokes strong emotional/affective reactions. Postviewing reactions to the film by 141 adults from age 20 to 70 of United Methodist churches in southern Indiana were researched.…

  9. The First Whole Library Catalog; Access to Film.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1973

    Films available from Films Incorporated are listed in this catalog under the following five headings: Art and Culture, Education and Information, Economy and Society, Health and Medicine, and the World Around Us. Each citation includes such data as the film's producer, director, cast, date, running time and whether it is in color, provides a…

  10. Guide to Films (16 mm) About Negroes. First Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1970

    Over 740 films (16 mm.) concerning the lives, culture, history, and problems of Black people in the United States and in Africa are listed alphabetically by title in this guide. Each entry includes the running time, a synopsis of the film's content, and a source code and tells whether the film is in black-and-white or in color. The guide includes…

  11. Evaluation of color categorization for representing vehicle colors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Nan; Crisman, Jill D.

    1997-02-01

    This paper evaluates the accuracy of three color categorization techniques in describing vehicles colors for a system, AutoColor, which we are developing for Intelligent Transportation Systems. Color categorization is used to efficiently represent 24-bit color images with up to 8 bits of color information. Our inspiration for color categorization is based on the fact that humans typically use only a few color names to describe the numerous colors they perceive. Our Crayon color categorization technique uses a naming scheme for digitized colors which is roughly based on human names for colors. The fastest and most straight forward method for compacting a 24-bit representation into an 8-bit representation is to use the most significant bits (MSB) to represent the colors. In addition, we have developed an Adaptive color categorization technique which can derive a set of color categories for the current imaging conditions. In this paper, we detail the three color categorization techniques, Crayon, MSB, and Adaptive, and we evaluate their performance on representing vehicle colors in our AutoColor system.

  12. Bio-Inspired Structural Colors Produced via Self-Assembly of Synthetic Melanin Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Ming; Li, Yiwen; Allen, Michael C; Deheyn, Dimitri D; Yue, Xiujun; Zhao, Jiuzhou; Gianneschi, Nathan C; Shawkey, Matthew D; Dhinojwala, Ali

    2015-05-26

    Structural colors arising from interactions of light with submicron scale periodic structures have been found in many species across all taxa, serving multiple biological functions including sexual signaling, camouflage, and aposematism. Directly inspired by the extensive use of self-assembled melanosomes to produce colors in avian feathers, we set out to synthesize and assemble polydopamine-based synthetic melanin nanoparticles in an effort to fabricate colored films. We have quantitatively demonstrated that synthetic melanin nanoparticles have a high refractive index and broad absorption spanning across the UV-visible range, similar to natural melanins. Utilizing a thin-film interference model, we demonstrated the coloration mechanism of deposited films and showed that the unique optical properties of synthetic melanin nanoparticles provide advantages for structural colors over other polymeric nanoparticles (i.e., polystyrene colloidal particles).

  13. Shortened procedure for obtaining reproducible copies of 35 mm color slides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, F.

    1968-01-01

    Technique to reduce the steps required to obtain reproducible copies of 35 mm color slides has been developed. A 35 mm slide is projected directly onto a Xerox plate, eliminating the necessity to produce a film positive of the slide.

  14. Stool Color: When to Worry

    MedlinePlus

    Stool color: When to worry Yesterday, my stool color was bright green. Should I be concerned? Answers from Michael ... M.D. Stool comes in a range of colors. All shades of brown and even green are ...

  15. Plastic film recycling: A new beginning

    SciTech Connect

    Goff, J.A.

    1995-02-01

    Only two years ago, plastic film recycling was considered an onerous task. Different resins had to be identified, colors had to be separated, and minute contaminants had to be weeded out almost by hand to produce a quality material. But the tide of plastic film recycling is changing now that new technologies have emerged and more organized collection infrastructure have been developed. Today, plastic film recycling maintains a lucrative market for those with the right combination of equipment and know-how.

  16. Color vision testing.

    PubMed

    Melamud, Alex; Hagstrom, Stephanie; Traboulsi, Elias

    2004-09-01

    The science of color vision testing has evolved since its inception in the late 1700s. Since then, the rudimentary technique of comparing color names has been replaced by more sophisticated methods. Commonly used tests in clinical practice today include isochromatic plates, arrangement tests, anomaloscopes, and lantern tests. Each category has unique attributes that make it suitable for a particular clinical situation. The clinician should be aware of the requirements for administering and grading each test type. Factors such as the quality of the illuminant and the size of the field of view are important elements in setting up a proper color vision laboratory. Currently, no treatment exists for congenital color vision defects. However, studies show that diagnosis of these defects early in life may help children adjust better to tasks at school and may help adults understand their limitations at work. Acquired color vision defects are often used as markers of ocular pathology in the clinical setting. Different color vision tests are appropriate for diagnosing the different categories of defects. Sometimes, a battery of tests may be appropriate. This paper is a review of the current knowledge in the field of color vision testing.

  17. Iridescence color of shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yan

    2002-06-01

    Some shells from both salt water and fresh water show the phenomenon of iridescence color. Pearls and mother-of-pearls also display this phenomenon. In the past, the cause of the iridescence color was attributed to interference. A scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to study the surface structure of the shell of the mollusk Pinctada Margaritifera. There is a groove structure of reflection grating on the surface area in where the iridescence color appears. An optic experiment with a laser obtained a diffraction pattern produced by the reflection grating structure of the shell. The study led to a conclusion that the iridescence color of the shell is caused by diffraction. A SEM image of the shells of an abalone Haliotis Rufescens (red abalone) showed a statistically regularly arranged tile structure that serves as a two-dimensional grating. This grating structure causes the iridescence color of the shell of red abalone. The dominant color of the iridescence of shells is caused by the uneven grating efficiency in the visible wavelength range when a shell functions as a reflection grating. The wavelength of the dominant color should be at or near the wavelength of the maximum efficiency of the grating.

  18. Color in the corners: ITO-free white OLEDs with angular color stability.

    PubMed

    Gaynor, Whitney; Hofmann, Simone; Christoforo, M Greyson; Sachse, Christoph; Mehra, Saahil; Salleo, Alberto; McGehee, Michael D; Gather, Malte C; Lüssem, Björn; Müller-Meskamp, Lars; Peumans, Peter; Leo, Karl

    2013-08-07

    High-efficiency white OLEDs fabricated on silver nanowire-based composite transparent electrodes show almost perfectly Lambertian emission and superior angular color stability, imparted by electrode light scattering. The OLED efficiencies are comparable to those fabricated using indium tin oxide. The transparent electrodes are fully solution-processable, thin-film compatible, and have a figure of merit suitable for large-area devices. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Wash efficiency tests. [silver sulfide as an index of the storability of photographic film

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maas, K. A.

    1972-01-01

    Processed film products were tested for residual thiosulfate by precipitation as colored silver sulfide. The quantity of thiosulfate was determined and correlated with the expected storage life of the film.

  20. Improvement in electrochromic stability of electrodeposited nickel hydroxide thin film

    SciTech Connect

    Natarajan, C.; Matsumoto, H.; Nogami, G.

    1997-01-01

    The electrochromic nickel hydroxide thin film was anodically deposited from an aqueous solution. The effect of solution temperature, postheat-treatment temperature, and addition of cadmium on the electrochromic behavior (color/bleach durability cycle, response time, and coloration efficiency of the nickel hydroxide films in NaOH) were investigated. A significant increase in the color/bleach durability cycle from 500 (for the as-deposited film) to more than 5000 cycles (for the heat-treated film) was observed. The addition of cadmium increased the utilization of the active materials. It was found that the coloration efficiency was 40 cm{sup 2}/C and coloration and bleaching response time were 20 to 30 s and 8 to 10 s, respectively. The change in the electrochromic properties with heat-treatment temperature is discussed based on the physical and electrochemical analysis.

  1. [Optimizing Color Rendering for Mixed-Color White Light LED].

    PubMed

    Yu, Chun-yu; Jin, Peng; Zhou, Qi-feng

    2015-05-01

    To optimize color rendering of mixed-color LEDs, the Gaussian model was used to analyze the color-mixed LED's spectrum power distribution. The peak wavelength "λm", spectral half width "Δλ" and amplitude "A" were basic parameters for optimizing color rendering R9, which is very important for objects to be colorful and vivid under the white light LED's'illuminating. The typical methods for color mixing were used to get white light LEDs. Result was that to get the satisfied color rendering index, one of the color primaries should be certain and then other color primaries would be analyzed through changing three basic parameters step by step. It was concluded that the analysis in this paper would be referential to optimize the color-mixed white LED's color rendering.

  2. Color universal design: analysis of color category dependency on color vision type (3)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kojima, Natsuki; Ichihara, Yasuyo G.; Ikeda, Tomohiro; Kamachi, Miyuki G.; Ito, Kei

    2012-01-01

    We report on the results of a study investigating the color perception characteristics of people with red-green color confusion. We believe that this is an important step towards achieving Color Universal Design. In Japan, approximately 5% of men and 0.2% of women have red-green confusion. The percentage for men is higher in Europe and the United States; up to 8% in some countries. Red-green confusion involves a perception of colors different from normal color vision. Colors are used as a means of disseminating clear information to people; however, it may be difficult to convey the correct information to people who have red-green confusion. Consequently, colors should be chosen that minimize accidents and that promote more effective communication. In a previous survey, we investigated color categories common to each color vision type, trichromat (C-type color vision), protan (P-type color vision) and deuteran (D-type color vision). In the present study, first, we conducted experiments in order to verify a previous survey of C-type color vision and P-type color vision. Next, we investigated color difference levels within "CIE 1976 L*a*b*" (the CIELAB uniform color space), where neither C-type nor P-type color vision causes accidents under certain conditions (rain maps/contour line levels and graph color legend levels). As a result, we propose a common chromaticity of colors that the two color vision types are able to categorize by means of color names common to C-type color vision. We also offer a proposal to explain perception characteristics of color differences with normal color vision and red-green confusion using the CIELAB uniform color space. This report is a follow-up to SPIE-IS & T / Vol. 7528 7528051-8 and SPIE-IS & T /vol. 7866 78660J-1-8.

  3. Noachis Terra - False Color

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-12-30

    The THEMIS camera contains 5 filters. The data from different filters can be combined in multiple ways to create a false color image. These false color images may reveal subtle variations of the surface not easily identified in a single band image. Today's false color images shows an unnamed crater in Noachis Terra. The "dark blue" material is probably basaltic sands. Orbit Number: 17811 Latitude: -77.9919 Longitude: 0.491743 Instrument: VIS Captured: 2005-12-19 20:35. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA20225

  4. Gale Crater - False Color

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-11-14

    The THEMIS VIS camera contains 5 filters. The data from different filters can be combined in multiple ways to create a false color image. These false color images may reveal subtle variations of the surface not easily identified in a single band image. Today's false color image shows part of the interior mound of material within Gale Crater. The dark blue material is most likely basaltic sand. Gale Crater is the home of Curiosity Rover. Orbit Number: 44524 Latitude: -4.64054 Longitude: 137.663 Instrument: VIS Captured: 2011-12-28 07:29 http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21164

  5. Crater - False Color

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-01-07

    The THEMIS camera contains 5 filters. The data from different filters can be combined in multiple ways to create a false color image. These false color images may reveal subtle variations of the surface not easily identified in a single band image. Today's false color images shows an unnamed crater in Acidalia Planitia. The "dark blue" material is likely basaltic sand. Orbit Number: 19321 Latitude: 42.1856 Longitude: 359.705 Instrument: VIS Captured: 2006-04-23 05:40 http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA20231

  6. Nili Fossae - False Color

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-12-28

    The THEMIS camera contains 5 filters. The data from different filters can be combined in multiple ways to create a false color image. These false color images may reveal subtle variations of the surface not easily identified in a single band image. Today's false color image shows part of Nili Fossae. Dark "blue" is interpreted to be basaltic rock/sand. Orbit Number: 17546 Latitude: 24.4543 Longitude: 79.8833 Instrument: VIS Captured: 2005-11-28 02:22. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA20223

  7. Lobo Vallis - False Color

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-10-18

    The THEMIS VIS camera contains 5 filters. The data from different filters can be combined in multiple ways to create a false color image. These false color images may reveal subtle variations of the surface not easily identified in a single band image. Today's false color image shows part of Lobo Vallis, which is part of the larger Kasei Valles. The dark blue material is most likely basaltic sand. Orbit Number: 43756 Latitude: 27.9304 Longitude: 299.541 Instrument: VIS Captured: 2011-10-26 04:14 http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21015

  8. Crater - False Color

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-01-25

    The THEMIS VIS camera contains 5 filters. The data from different filters can be combined in multiple ways to create a false color image. These false color images may reveal subtle variations of the surface not easily identified in a single band image. Today's false color image shows an unnamed crater located on the floor of the much larger Schiaparelli Crater. The dark blue material located in the topographic lows is basaltic sand. Orbit Number: 19495 Latitude: -0.402445 Longitude: 14.3131 Instrument: VIS Captured: 2006-05-07 13:43 http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA20244

  9. Firsoff Crater - False Color

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-10-21

    The THEMIS VIS camera contains 5 filters. The data from different filters can be combined in multiple ways to create a false color image. These false color images may reveal subtle variations of the surface not easily identified in a single band image. Today's false color image shows part of the interior deposit of Firsoff Crater. The dark blue material is most likely basaltic sand. Orbit Number: 43854 Latitude: 2.72924 Longitude: 350.449 Instrument: VIS Captured: 2011-11-03 05:57 http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21018

  10. Firsoff Crater - False Color

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-10-13

    The THEMIS VIS camera contains 5 filters. The data from different filters can be combined in multiple ways to create a false color image. These false color images may reveal subtle variations of the surface not easily identified in a single band image. Today's false color image shows part of the interior deposit in Firsoff Crater. The dark blue material is most likely basaltic sand. Orbit Number: 43467 Latitude: 2.73971 Longitude: 350.606 Instrument: VIS Captured: 2011-10-02 09:29 http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21011

  11. Margaritifer Terra - False Color

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-06-27

    The THEMIS VIS camera contains 5 filters. The data from different filters can be combined in multiple ways to create a false color image. These false color images may reveal variations of the surface not easily identified in a single band image. Today's false color image shows part of Margaritifer Terra. Dark blue in this band configuration often equates with sand or basaltic materials. Orbit Number: 37552 Latitude: 6.87548 Longitude: 345.994 Instrument: VIS Captured: 2010-06-02 09:07 http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA20767

  12. Iani Chaos - False Color

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-01-04

    The THEMIS camera contains 5 filters. The data from different filters can be combined in multiple ways to create a false color image. These false color images may reveal subtle variations of the surface not easily identified in a single band image. Today's false color image shows part of Iani Chaos. The "dark blue" material is likely basaltic sand. Orbit Number: 18037 Latitude: -1.05225 Longitude: 341.26 Instrument: VIS Captured: 2006-01-07 10:45. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA20228

  13. Colors on Jupiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owen, T.; Terrile, R. J.

    1981-01-01

    The colors present in the clouds of Jupiter at the time of the Voyager encounters are described as they appear in high resolution images. It is shown that latitude, altitude and dwelltime are all critical factors in determining which colors appear where, although the identities of the responsible chromophores remain unestablished. Simultaneous ground-based 5 micron observations are used to determine the relative altitudes of the cloud systems which are characterized as white clouds, tawny clouds, dark brown cloud belts, and blue-grey hot spots in equatorial regions. Correlations between cloud color and certain latitudes have been maintained for decades, which suggests the importance of the internal energy source.

  14. Color recognition with bacteriorhodopsin.

    PubMed

    Frydrych, M; Silfsten, P; Parkkinen, S; Parkkinen, J; Jaaskelainen, T

    1998-01-01

    We have studied opto-electric properties of wild type bacteriorhodopsin and its two artificial variants. We have measured opto-electric responses with respect to wavelength for all three proteins and we describe the use of the proteins for color detection. Opto-electric responses of proteins to set of colored lights were measured and it has been shown that bacteriorhodopsin and its variants can be used to recognize color. A simple equation for estimating opto-electric response to arbitrary spectrum is given.

  15. Stork Color Proofing Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ekman, C. Frederick

    1989-04-01

    For the past few years, Stork Colorproofing B.V. has been marketing an analog color proofing system in Europe based on electrophoto-graphic technology it pioneered for the purpose of high resolution, high fidelity color imaging in the field of the Graphic Arts. Based in part on this technology, it will make available on a commercial basis a digital color proofing system in 1989. Proofs from both machines will provide an exact reference for the user and will look, feel, and behave in a reproduction sense like the printed press sheet.

  16. Colors on Jupiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owen, T.; Terrile, R. J.

    1981-01-01

    The colors present in the clouds of Jupiter at the time of the Voyager encounters are described as they appear in high resolution images. It is shown that latitude, altitude and dwelltime are all critical factors in determining which colors appear where, although the identities of the responsible chromophores remain unestablished. Simultaneous ground-based 5 micron observations are used to determine the relative altitudes of the cloud systems which are characterized as white clouds, tawny clouds, dark brown cloud belts, and blue-grey hot spots in equatorial regions. Correlations between cloud color and certain latitudes have been maintained for decades, which suggests the importance of the internal energy source.

  17. Charon in Enhanced Color

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-10-01

    NASA's New Horizons captured this high-resolution enhanced color view of Charon just before closest approach on July 14, 2015. The image combines blue, red and infrared images taken by the spacecraft's Ralph/Multispectral Visual Imaging Camera (MVIC); the colors are processed to best highlight the variation of surface properties across Charon. Charon's color palette is not as diverse as Pluto's; most striking is the reddish north (top) polar region, informally named Mordor Macula. Charon is 754 miles (1,214 kilometers) across; this image resolves details as small as 1.8 miles (2.9 kilometers). http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA19968

  18. Newton Crater - False Color

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-01-04

    The THEMIS VIS camera contains 5 filters. The data from different filters can be combined in multiple ways to create a false color image. These false color images may reveal subtle variations of the surface not easily identified in a single band image. Today's false color image shows some of the floor of Newton Crater. The small dark bluish features are sand dunes. Orbit Number: 50864 Latitude: -41.5788 Longitude: 201.592 Instrument: VIS Captured: 2013-06-02 02:53 http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21280

  19. Newton Crater - False Color

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-07-24

    The THEMIS VIS camera contains 5 filters. THe data from different filters can be combined in multiple ways to create a false color image. These false color images may reveal subtle variations of the surface not easily identified in a single band image. Today's false color image shows part of Newton Crater in Terra Sirenum. Orbit Number: 59753 Latitude: -38.4654 Longitude: 199.631 Instrument: VIS Captured: 2015-06-03 18:38 https://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21793

  20. Newton Crater - False Color

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-07-11

    The THEMIS VIS camera contains 5 filters. The data from different filters can be combined in multiple way to create a false color image. These false color images may reveal subtle variations of the surface not easily identified in a single band image. Today's false color image shows part of Newton Crater in Terra Siremun. Orbit Number: 59678 Latitude: -41.9838 Longitude: 202.593 Instrument: VIS Captured: 2015-05-28 14:26 https://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21703

  1. Newton Crater - False Color

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-05-30

    The THEMIS VIS camera contains 5 filters. The data from different filters can be combined in multiple ways to create a false color image. These false color images may reveal subtle variations of the surface not easily identified in a single band image. Today's false color images shows part of the large ridge on the floor of Newton Crater in Terra Sirenum. Orbit Number: 59416 Latitude: -41.0768 Longitude: 200.911 Instrument: VIS Captured: 2015-05-07 00:38 https://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21672

  2. Colors and contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Bonamonte, Domenico; Foti, Caterina; Romita, Paolo; Vestita, Michelangelo; Angelini, Gianni

    2014-01-01

    The diagnosis of skin diseases relies on several clinical signs, among which color is of paramount importance. In this review, we consider certain clinical presentations of both eczematous and noneczematous contact dermatitis in which color plays a peculiar role orientating toward the right diagnosis. The conditions that will be discussed include specific clinical-morphologic subtypes of eczematous contact dermatitis, primary melanocytic, and nonmelanocytic contact hyperchromia, black dermographism, contact chemical leukoderma, and others. Based on the physical, chemical, and biologic factors underlying a healthy skin color, the various skin shades drawing a disease picture are thoroughly debated, stressing their etiopathogenic origins and histopathologic aspects.

  3. Introduction to Color Imaging Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hsien-Che

    2005-04-01

    Color imaging technology has become almost ubiquitous in modern life in the form of monitors, liquid crystal screens, color printers, scanners, and digital cameras. This book is a comprehensive guide to the scientific and engineering principles of color imaging. It covers the physics of light and color, how the eye and physical devices capture color images, how color is measured and calibrated, and how images are processed. It stresses physical principles and includes a wealth of real-world examples. The book will be of value to scientists and engineers in the color imaging industry and, with homework problems, can also be used as a text for graduate courses on color imaging.

  4. Rupture of vertical soap films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rio, Emmanuelle

    2014-11-01

    Soap films are ephemeral and fragile objects. They tend to thin under gravity, which gives rise to the fascinating variations of colors at their interfaces but leads systematically to rupture. Even a child can create, manipulate and admire soap films and bubbles. Nevertheless, the reason why it suddenly bursts remains a mystery although the soap chosen to stabilize the film as well as the humidity of the air seem very important. One difficulty to study the rupture of vertical soap films is to control the initial solution. To avoid this problem we choose to study the rupture during the generation of the film at a controlled velocity. We have built an experiment, in which we measure the maximum length of the film together with its lifetime. The generation of the film is due to the presence of a gradient of surface concentration of surfactants at the liquid/air interface. This leads to a Marangoni force directed toward the top of the film. The film is expected to burst only when its weight is not balanced anymore by this force. We will show that this leads to the surprising result that the thicker films have shorter lifetimes than the thinner ones. It is thus the ability of the interface to sustain a surface concentration gradient of surfactants which controls its stability.

  5. Homestake Vein, False Color

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-12-07

    This false-color view of a mineral vein called Homestake comes from the panoramic camera Pancam on NASA Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity. The vein is about the width of a thumb and about 18 inches 45 centimeters long.

  6. Colors of the Sky.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohren, Craig F.; Fraser, Alistair B.

    1985-01-01

    Explains the physical principles which result in various colors of the sky. Topics addressed include: blueness, mystical properties of water vapor, ozone, fluctuation theory of scattering, variation of purity and brightness, and red sunsets and sunrises. (DH)

  7. Chemistry, Color, and Art.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orna, Mary Virginia

    2001-01-01

    Describes pigments and artists' colors from a chronological perspective. Explains how chemical analysis can be used to distinguish the differences between artists' palettes, identify the evolution of art, and lead to restoration of an art work. (Contains 13 references.) (YDS)

  8. Hypergraph coloring complexes.

    PubMed

    Breuer, Felix; Dall, Aaron; Kubitzke, Martina

    2012-08-28

    The aim of this paper is to generalize the notion of the coloring complex of a graph to hypergraphs. We present three different interpretations of those complexes-a purely combinatorial one and two geometric ones. It is shown, that most of the properties, which are known to be true for coloring complexes of graphs, break down in this more general setting, e.g., Cohen-Macaulayness and partitionability. Nevertheless, we are able to provide bounds for the [Formula: see text]- and [Formula: see text]-vectors of those complexes which yield new bounds on chromatic polynomials of hypergraphs. Moreover, though it is proven that the coloring complex of a hypergraph has a wedge decomposition, we provide an example showing that in general this decomposition is not homotopy equivalent to a wedge of spheres. In addition, we can completely characterize those hypergraphs whose coloring complex is connected.

  9. Copying and Coloring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kohl, Herb

    1977-01-01

    Investigates what appeals to students in using coloring books and whether they use them in imaginative ways. The intent was to use the information to develop creative book activities that interest and challenge students. (Author/RK)

  10. Ius Chasma - False Color

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-07-28

    The THEMIS camera contains 5 filters. The data from different filters can be combined in multiple ways to create a false color image. These false color images may reveal subtle variations of the surface not easily identified in a single band image. Today's false color image shows the northern tip of Baetis Mensa. In false color images dark blue is often basaltic sands. In this image it is possible to trace the sands from the erosion of Beatis Mensa moving down the canyon gullies to the floor of Ophir Chasma. Orbit Number: 42247 Latitude: -4.17728 Longitude: 287.975 Instrument: VIS Captured: 2011-06-23 21:11 http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA20792

  11. Ganymede Color Global

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1998-08-03

    Natural color view of Ganymede from NASA Galileo spacecraft during its first encounter with the satellite. The dark areas are the older, more heavily cratered regions and the light areas are younger, tectonically deformed regions.

  12. Phoenix Color Targets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    These images of three Phoenix color targets were taken on sols 1 and 2 by the Surface Stereo Imager (SSI) on board the Phoenix lander. The bottom target was imaged in approximate color (SSI's red, green, and blue filters: 600, 530, and 480 nanometers), while the others were imaged with an infrared filter (750 nanometers). All of them will be imaged many times over the mission to monitor the color calibration of the camera. The two at the top show grains 2 to 3 millimeters in size that were likely lifted to the Phoenix deck during landing. Each of the large color chips on each target contains a strong magnet to protect the interior material from Mars' magnetic dust.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  13. Color Blindness Simulations

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov Site Map News Organization Search NWS All NOAA Home Why build an accessible web? How many ... Updates, additions Contact Us For assistance contact your NOAA Line Office Section 508 Coordinator Color blindness Simulations ...

  14. Color Video Petrography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagle, Frederick

    1981-01-01

    Describes the production and use of color videocassettes with an inexpensive, conventional TV camera and an ordinary petrographic microscope. The videocassettes are used in optical mineralogy and petrology courses. (Author/WB)

  15. Hypergraph coloring complexes

    PubMed Central

    Breuer, Felix; Dall, Aaron; Kubitzke, Martina

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to generalize the notion of the coloring complex of a graph to hypergraphs. We present three different interpretations of those complexes–a purely combinatorial one and two geometric ones. It is shown, that most of the properties, which are known to be true for coloring complexes of graphs, break down in this more general setting, e.g., Cohen–Macaulayness and partitionability. Nevertheless, we are able to provide bounds for the f- and h-vectors of those complexes which yield new bounds on chromatic polynomials of hypergraphs. Moreover, though it is proven that the coloring complex of a hypergraph has a wedge decomposition, we provide an example showing that in general this decomposition is not homotopy equivalent to a wedge of spheres. In addition, we can completely characterize those hypergraphs whose coloring complex is connected. PMID:23483700

  16. Phoenix Color Targets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    These images of three Phoenix color targets were taken on sols 1 and 2 by the Surface Stereo Imager (SSI) on board the Phoenix lander. The bottom target was imaged in approximate color (SSI's red, green, and blue filters: 600, 530, and 480 nanometers), while the others were imaged with an infrared filter (750 nanometers). All of them will be imaged many times over the mission to monitor the color calibration of the camera. The two at the top show grains 2 to 3 millimeters in size that were likely lifted to the Phoenix deck during landing. Each of the large color chips on each target contains a strong magnet to protect the interior material from Mars' magnetic dust.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  17. Colors of the Sky.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohren, Craig F.; Fraser, Alistair B.

    1985-01-01

    Explains the physical principles which result in various colors of the sky. Topics addressed include: blueness, mystical properties of water vapor, ozone, fluctuation theory of scattering, variation of purity and brightness, and red sunsets and sunrises. (DH)

  18. Colorful Polar Layered Deposits

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-03-23

    The North Polar layered deposits provide a record of recent climate changes on Mars as seen by NASA Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft. Color variations between layers are due to differences in composition of the dust.

  19. Copying and Coloring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kohl, Herb

    1977-01-01

    Investigates what appeals to students in using coloring books and whether they use them in imaginative ways. The intent was to use the information to develop creative book activities that interest and challenge students. (Author/RK)

  20. Chemistry, Color, and Art.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orna, Mary Virginia

    2001-01-01

    Describes pigments and artists' colors from a chronological perspective. Explains how chemical analysis can be used to distinguish the differences between artists' palettes, identify the evolution of art, and lead to restoration of an art work. (Contains 13 references.) (YDS)

  1. Color harmonization for images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Zhen; Miao, Zhenjiang; Wan, Yanli; Wang, Zhifei

    2011-04-01

    Color harmonization is an artistic technique to adjust a set of colors in order to enhance their visual harmony so that they are aesthetically pleasing in terms of human visual perception. We present a new color harmonization method that treats the harmonization as a function optimization. For a given image, we derive a cost function based on the observation that pixels in a small window that have similar unharmonic hues should be harmonized with similar harmonic hues. By minimizing the cost function, we get a harmonized image in which the spatial coherence is preserved. A new matching function is proposed to select the best matching harmonic schemes, and a new component-based preharmonization strategy is proposed to preserve the hue distribution of the harmonized images. Our approach overcomes several shortcomings of the existing color harmonization methods. We test our algorithm with a variety of images to demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach.

  2. Dopamine-melanin nanofilms for biomimetic structural coloration.

    PubMed

    Wu, Tong-Fei; Hong, Jong-Dal

    2015-02-09

    This article describes the formation of dopamine-melanin thin films (50-200 nm thick) at an air/dopamine solution interface under static conditions. Beneath these films, spherical melanin granules formed in bulk liquid phase. The thickness of dopamine-melanin films at the interface relied mainly on the concentration of dopamine solution and the reaction time. A plausible mechanism underlining dopamine-melanin thin film formation was proposed based on the hydrophobicity of dopamine-melanin aggregates and the mass transport of the aggregates to the air/solution interface as a result of convective flow. The thickness of the interfacial films increased linearly with the dopamine concentration and the reaction time. The dopamine-melanin thin film and granules (formed in bulk liquid phase) with a double-layered structure were transferred onto a solid substrate to mimic the (keratin layer)/(melanin granules) structure present in bird plumage, thereby preparing full dopamine-melanin thin-film reflectors. The reflected color of the thin-film reflectors depended on the film thickness, which could be adjusted according to the dopamine concentration. The reflectance of the resulted reflectors exhibited a maximal reflectance value of 8-11%, comparable to that of bird plumage (∼11%). This study provides a useful, simple, and low-cost approach to the fabrication of biomimetic thin-film reflectors using full dopamine-melanin materials.

  3. Flexible, angle-independent, structural color reflectors inspired by morpho butterfly wings.

    PubMed

    Chung, Kyungjae; Yu, Sunkyu; Heo, Chul-Joon; Shim, Jae Won; Yang, Seung-Man; Han, Moon Gyu; Lee, Hong-Seok; Jin, Yongwan; Lee, Sang Yoon; Park, Namkyoo; Shin, Jung H

    2012-05-08

    Thin-film color reflectors inspired by Morpho butterflies are fabricated. Using a combination of directional deposition, silica microspheres with a wide size distribution, and a PDMS (polydimethylsiloxane) encasing, a large, flexible reflector is created that actually provides better angle-independent color characteristics than Morpho butterflies and which can even be bent and folded freely without losing its Morpho-mimetic photonic properties.

  4. A Pluto Color Combo

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-07-06

    This color version of NASA's New Horizons Long Range Reconnaissance Imager (LORRI) picture of Pluto taken July 3, 2015, was created by adding color data from the Ralph instrument gathered earlier in the mission. The LORRI image was taken from a range of 7.8 million miles (12.5 million km), with a central longitude of 19°. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA19699

  5. Color Laser Microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Awamura, D.; Ode, T.; Yonezawa, M.

    1987-04-01

    A color laser microscope utilizing a new color laser imaging system has been developed for the visual inspection of semiconductors. The light source, produced by three lasers (Red; He-Ne, Green; Ar, Blue; He-Cd), is deflected horizontally by an AOD (Acoustic Optical Deflector) and vertically by a vibration mirror. The laser beam is focused in a small spot which is scanned over the sample at high speed. The light reflected back from the sample is reformed to contain linear information by returning to the original vibration mirror. The linear light is guided to the CCD image sensor where it is converted into a video signal. Individual CCD image sensors are used for each of the three R, G, or B color image signals. The confocal optical system with its laser light source yields a color TV monitor image with no flaring and a much sharper resolution than that of the conventional optical microscope. The AOD makes possible a high speed laser scan and a NTSC or PAL TV video signal is produced in real time without any video memory. Since the light source is composed of R, G, and B laser beams, color separation superior to that of white light illumination is achieved. Because of the photometric linearity of the image detector, the R, G, and B outputs of the system are most suitably used for hue analysis. The CCD linear image sensors in the optical system produce no geometrical distortion, and good color registration is available principally. The output signal can be used for high accuracy line width measuring. The many features of the color laser microscope make it ideally suited for the visual inspection of semiconductor processing. A number of these systems have already been installed in such a capacity. The Color Laser Microscope can also be a very useful tool for the fields of material engineering and biotechnology.

  6. Color of the ocean.

    PubMed

    Plass, G N; Humphreys, T J; Kattawar, G W

    1978-05-01

    The color of the ocean is calculated from a model that realistically takes into account the various types of scattering and absorption events that occur in both the atmosphere and ocean. Solar photons are followed through the atmosphere and into the ocean by a Monte Carlo technique. The reflection and refraction at the ocean surface are included in the calculation. The upward and downward flux is calculated at several different heights in the atmosphere, at thirteen different wavelengths from 0.4 mum to 0.7 mum. These results are compared with two approximate theories: (1) one-dimensional; (2) single scattering. The first of these theories gives results which are accurate within 10% in most cases and are easy to calculate. The chromaticity coordinates as well as the dominant wavelength and purity of the color are calculated from the Monte Carlo results for the variation of upward flux with wavelength. The ocean color near the horizon is almost entirely determined by the color of the sky reflected by the ocean surface. The upwelling light from the ocean can be observed near the nadir if precautions are taken to exclude as much light as possible reflected from the ocean surface. The color of this upwelling light from the ocean contains much information about the hydrosol, chlorophyll, and yellow substance amounts in the ocean water. The model calculations show how the ocean color changes from a deep blue of high purity for relatively pure water to a greenish blue and then to green of low purity as the cholorphyll and yellow substance amounts increase. Further increases in these substances cause the color to change to yellow green of a higher purity. A large increase in the hydrosol amount usually causes a marked decrease in the purity of the color.

  7. Ares Vallis - False Color

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-02-25

    The THEMIS VIS camera contains 5 filters. The data from different filters can be combined in multiple ways to create a false color image. This false color image from NASA 2001 Mars Odyssey spacecraft shows part of Ares Vallis. Orbit Number: 4482 Latitude: 6.97956 Longitude: 339.713 Instrument: VIS Captured: 2002-12-18 13:46 http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA19215

  8. Color-Blindness Study: Color Discrimination on the TICCIT System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asay, Calvin S.; Schneider, Edward W.

    The question studied whether the specific seven TICCIT system colors used within color coding schemes can be a source of confusion, or not seen at all, by the color-blind segment of target populations. Subjects were 11 color-blind and three normally sighted students at Brigham Young University. After a preliminary training exercise to acquaint the…

  9. Color planner for designers based on color emotions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Ka-Man; Xin, John H.; Taylor, Gail

    2002-06-01

    During the color perception process, an associated feeling or emotion is induced in our brains, and this kind of emotion is termed as 'color emotion.' The researchers in the field of color emotions have put many efforts in quantifying color emotions with the standard color specifications and evaluating the influence of hue, lightness and chroma to the color emotions of human beings. In this study, a color planner was derived according to these findings so that the correlation of color emotions and standard color specifications was clearly indicated. Since people of different nationalities usually have different color emotions as different cultural and traditional backgrounds, the subjects in this study were all native Hong Kong Chinese and the color emotion words were all written in Chinese language in the visual assessments. Through the color planner, the designers from different areas, no matter fashion, graphic, interior or web site etc., can select suitable colors for inducing target color emotions to the customers or product-users since different colors convey different meanings to them. In addition, the designers can enhance the functionality and increase the attractiveness of their designed products by selecting suitable colors.

  10. Color television system using single gun color cathode ray tube

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaiser, E. E.; Hilborn, E. H.

    1970-01-01

    Two-primary color and single gun system provides quality differential color and variation in brightness for specific colors by varying current and controlling duty cycle of electron beam. Number of video amplifiers, deflection circuits, and guns required to display color TV picture is reduced and less complex tube is required.

  11. Color measurement and discrimination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wandell, B. A.

    1985-01-01

    Theories of color measurement attempt to provide a quantative means for predicting whether two lights will be discriminable to an average observer. All color measurement theories can be characterized as follows: suppose lights a and b evoke responses from three color channels characterized as vectors, v(a) and v(b); the vector difference v(a) - v(b) corresponds to a set of channel responses that would be generated by some real light, call it *. According to theory a and b will be discriminable when * is detectable. A detailed development and test of the classic color measurement approach are reported. In the absence of a luminance component in the test stimuli, a and b, the theory holds well. In the presence of a luminance component, the theory is clearly false. When a luminance component is present discrimination judgements depend largely on whether the lights being discriminated fall in separate, categorical regions of color space. The results suggest that sensory estimation of surface color uses different methods, and the choice of method depends upon properties of the image. When there is significant luminance variation a categorical method is used, while in the absence of significant luminance variation judgments are continuous and consistant with the measurement approach.

  12. Thermochromism in color measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiltunen, Jouni; Mutanen, J.; Jaeaeskelaeinen, Timo; Parkkinen, Jussi P. S.

    2002-06-01

    Accurate color measurements have become more and more important during the past few decades. This is valid not only in physical research but also in industrial production, where the importance of accurate measurements is mainly due to increased quality requirements set by the customers of various goods. The development of technology enables more and more accurate measuring systems. While the accuracy has improved one has noticed, that many unexpected factors affect the color of an object. One of these factors is the temperature of the sample. It is known that for example the reflectance of the ceramic reference tiles used for calibration of colorimeters and spectrophotometers is temperature dependent. This phenomenon is called thermochromism, which is a reversible change of color of the sample as a function of temperature. It may be noticed already at room temperature if the temperature varies few centigrades. Red and orange samples are especially sensitive to temperature variation and may cause difficulties in precise color measurements. We show, how the phenomenon is based on physical processes and not only reflects the instability of red color pigments. We derive simple formulas, which are shown to explain the experimental data. We also discuss the meaning of thermochromism for color measurements, measure the magnitude of it and propose the experimental conditions to avoid this effect.

  13. The color cone.

    PubMed

    Logvinenko, Alexander D

    2015-02-01

    While the notion of a color cone can be found in writings of Maxwell, Helmholtz, Grassmann, and other scientists of the nineteenth century, it has not been clearly defined as yet. In this paper, the color cone is understood as the set of points in the cone excitation space produced by all possible lights. The spectral curve representing all the monochromatic lights is shown not to entirely belong to the color cone boundary, since its ends turn into the color cone interior. The monochromatic lights represented by the fragment of the spectral curve lying on the color cone boundary make up what is called the effective visible spectrum. The color cone is shown to be a convex hull of the conical surface through the fragment of the spectral curve representing the effective visible spectrum. The effective visible spectrum ends are shown to be determined by the photopigment spectral absorbance being independent of the prereceptor filters (e.g., the spectral transmittance of the lense and macular pigment).

  14. Identification of Colors for Building.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Building Research Inst., Inc., Washington, DC.

    A demonstration of how colors may be specified for use by all those trades and professions involved in building science. This is of vital importance in furthering the use of color, not only in structures but in every other aspect of our daily usage. Free enterprise requires a color language in order to expand the use of color, and to allow for…

  15. Color in Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brecher, K.

    2002-05-01

    The vocabulary of astronomy is riddled with color terms. Stars are referred to as red or blue - even brown -- though rarely green. Astronomers say light from a star can be "blueshifted" or that it can be "reddened". Color, however, is not a simple one-dimensional physical parameter equal to wavelength or frequency. It is a complex, psychophysical phenomenon involving at least three degrees of freedom - hue, saturation and brightness -- as well as observational context. Nonetheless, many astronomers treat hue alone or hue plus saturation as the same thing as color. A recent report on "the color of the universe" is a case in point (Baldry and Glazebrook, Bull. Am. As. Soc., 34, No. 1, 571, 2002). Even discounting the authors' initial and (possibly) subsequent errors in arriving at a "color" associated with the composite spectrum derived from the 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey (first reported as "pale turquoise", then "beige"), the method of viewing the light was left vague, and context is important. For example, consider the question "What color is the Moon?" When viewed from Earth, the Moon appears white against the black sky. Place a piece of "average" lunar material in a lighted room, and it will appear dark gray. To most human observers, the 2000 or so naked eye stars observable from the northern hemisphere all appear white, with the few exceptions which look reddish/orange such as Betelgeuse, Arcturus, Aldeberan, Antares and Pollux. Yet the dimmer double star companion to Alberio can appear bluish when viewed beside its much brighter yellowish/orange neighbor if both are viewed by eye through a small aperture, slightly defocused telescope. This presentation will explore several visual phenomena that can help clarify the concept of color in astronomy. Supported in part by NSF grant # DUE-9950551 for "Project LITE: Light Inquiry Through Experiments".

  16. Color Addition and Subtraction Apps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz, Frances; Ruiz, Michael J.

    2015-10-01

    Color addition and subtraction apps in HTML5 have been developed for students as an online hands-on experience so that they can more easily master principles introduced through traditional classroom demonstrations. The evolution of the additive RGB color model is traced through the early IBM color adapters so that students can proceed step by step in understanding mathematical representations of RGB color. Finally, color addition and subtraction are presented for the X11 colors from web design to illustrate yet another real-life application of color mixing.

  17. Color Vision and Computer Vision,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-06-01

    the challenge of recreating, modelling , explaining, or implementing them. Sections 2 and 3 outline concepts from physics and psychophysics. This paper...course ultimately one wants to understand neural function, and to make neural models . Another issue that is not addressed here but seems important and...lightness. Volume color color experienced as property of bulk material. Memory color, a remembered appearance--can influence perceived color. Hue. color

  18. Impact of solid-state lighting on observer performance of color discrimination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Wei-Chung; Tannous, Widad; Badano, Aldo

    2012-02-01

    We studied the impact of the microscope light source on reader's performance using a microscopic version of the Farnsworth-Munsell 100 hue test for photographic slide film. Each pair of two adjacent color caps in the original test kit was reproduced on the film with random order and a 5X objective was used to examine the microscopic color patterns. The subject's visual task was to determine whether the color pair was in the correct hue order or not. The test was repeated for both a light-emitting diode lamp and a conventional halogen lamp. In this paper, we discuss the methodology using preliminary results.

  19. Precision of Synesthetic Color Matching Resembles That for Recollected Colors Rather than Physical Colors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Derek H.; Wegener, Signy V.; Brown, Francesca; Mattingley, Jason B.

    2012-01-01

    Grapheme-color synesthesia is an atypical condition in which individuals experience sensations of color when reading printed graphemes such as letters and digits. For some grapheme-color synesthetes, seeing a printed grapheme triggers a sensation of color, but "hearing" the name of a grapheme does not. This dissociation allowed us to…

  20. Color Memory of University Students: Influence of Color Experience and Color Characteristic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bynum, Carlisle; Epps, Helen H.; Kaya, Naz

    2006-01-01

    The ability to select a previously viewed color specimen from an array of specimens that differ in hue, value, or chroma varies among individuals, and may be related to one's basic color discrimination ability or to prior experience with color. This study investigated short-term color memory of 40 college students, 20 of whom were interior design…

  1. Precision of Synesthetic Color Matching Resembles That for Recollected Colors Rather than Physical Colors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Derek H.; Wegener, Signy V.; Brown, Francesca; Mattingley, Jason B.

    2012-01-01

    Grapheme-color synesthesia is an atypical condition in which individuals experience sensations of color when reading printed graphemes such as letters and digits. For some grapheme-color synesthetes, seeing a printed grapheme triggers a sensation of color, but "hearing" the name of a grapheme does not. This dissociation allowed us to…

  2. Color Memory of University Students: Influence of Color Experience and Color Characteristic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bynum, Carlisle; Epps, Helen H.; Kaya, Naz

    2006-01-01

    The ability to select a previously viewed color specimen from an array of specimens that differ in hue, value, or chroma varies among individuals, and may be related to one's basic color discrimination ability or to prior experience with color. This study investigated short-term color memory of 40 college students, 20 of whom were interior design…

  3. Color adaptation induced from linguistic description of color.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Liling; Huang, Ping; Zhong, Xiao; Li, Tianfeng; Mo, Lei

    2017-01-01

    Recent theories propose that language comprehension can influence perception at the low level of perceptual system. Here, we used an adaptation paradigm to test whether processing language caused color adaptation in the visual system. After prolonged exposure to a color linguistic context, which depicted red, green, or non-specific color scenes, participants immediately performed a color detection task, indicating whether they saw a green color square in the middle of a white screen or not. We found that participants were more likely to perceive the green color square after listening to discourses denoting red compared to discourses denoting green or conveying non-specific color information, revealing that language comprehension caused an adaptation aftereffect at the perceptual level. Therefore, semantic representation of color may have a common neural substrate with color perception. These results are in line with the simulation view of embodied language comprehension theory, which predicts that processing language reactivates the sensorimotor systems that are engaged during real experience.

  4. Limitations of surface-color and apparent-color constancy.

    PubMed

    Kuriki, I; Uchikawa, K

    1996-08-01

    Color-constancy mechanisms have been studied and discussed in a number of investigations. However, there has been little attempt to reveal how color constancy deteriorates as the conditions for it become less than optimal. We carried out a series of asymmetric color-matching experiments, using two criteria: surface-color match and apparent-color match. With brief adaptation the degree of color constancy increased as chromatic cues were added in the surround. In the condition of black surround, the test stimuli appeared self-luminous, and chromaticities of the chosen matching stimuli were the same as the physical chromaticities of the test stimulus, indicating a total deficiency of color constancy. With 15 min of preadaptation to the illuminant, the surface-color matches showed almost perfect color constancy under illuminant change. In both adaptation conditions, the chromatic-shift of matches from what would be expected for perfect color constancy increased gradually between 1,700- and 30,000-K illuminant, as chromaticity of the illuminant departed from 6,500-K illuminant. Under 1,000-K illuminant the surface-color appearance became totally achromatic, and color constancy was completely lost. Our results show that, even with brief adaptation to the illuminant, the contribution of the surrounding stimulus is large enough to achieve a fair degree of color constancy, but complete adaptation to the illuminant helps to achieve almost perfect color constancy.

  5. Color universal design: analysis of color category dependency on color vision type (4)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikeda, Tomohiro; Ichihara, Yasuyo G.; Kojima, Natsuki; Tanaka, Hisaya; Ito, Kei

    2013-02-01

    This report is af ollow-up to SPIE-IS+T / Vol. 7528 7528051-8, SPIE-IS+T / Vol. 7866 78660J-1-8 and SPIE-IS+T / Vol. 8292 829206-1-8. Colors are used to communicate information in various situations, not just for design and apparel. However, visual information given only by color may be perceived differently by individuals with different color vision types. Human color vision is non-uniform and the variation in most cases is genetically linked to L-cones and M-cones. Therefore, color appearance is not the same for all color vision types. Color Universal Design is an easy-to-understand system that was created to convey color-coded information accurately to most people, taking color vision types into consideration. In the present research, we studied trichromat (C-type), prolan (P-type), and deutan (D-type) forms of color vision. We here report the result of two experiments. The first was the validation of the confusion colors using the color chart on CIELAB uniform color space. We made an experimental color chart (total of color cells is 622, the color difference between color cells is 2.5) for fhis experiment, and subjects have P-type or D-type color vision. From the data we were able to determine "the limits with high probability of confusion" and "the limits with possible confusion" around various basing points. The direction of the former matched with the theoretical confusion locus, but the range did not extend across the entire a* range. The latter formed a belt-like zone above and below the theoretical confusion locus. This way we re-analyzed a part of the theoretical confusion locus suggested by Pitt-Judd. The second was an experiment in color classification of the subjects with C-type, P-type, or D-type color vision. The color caps of fhe 100 Hue Test were classified into seven categories for each color vision type. The common and different points of color sensation were compared for each color vision type, and we were able to find a group of color caps

  6. Color image reproduction: the evolution from print to multimedia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacDonald, Lindsay W.

    1997-02-01

    The electronic pre-press industry has undergone a very rapid evolution over the past decade, driven by the accelerating performance of desktop computers and affordable application software for image manipulation, page layout and color separation. These have been supported by the steady development of colo scanners, digital cameras, proof printers, RIPs and image setters, all of which make the process of reproducing color images in print easier than ever before. But is color print itself in decline as a medium? New channels of delivery for digital color images include CD-ROM, wideband networks and the Internet, with soft-copy screen display competing with hard-copy print for applications ranging from corporate brochures to home shopping. Present indications are that the most enduring of the graphic arts skills in the new multimedia world will be image rendering and production control rather than those related to photographic film and ink on paper.

  7. Color education in architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unver, Rengin

    2002-06-01

    Architecture is an interdisciplinary profession that combines and uses the elements of various major fields such as humanities, social and physical sciences, technology and creative arts. The main aim of architectural education is to enable students acquire the skills to create designs sufficient both aesthetically and technically. The goals of the under graduate program can be summarized as; the information transfer on subjects and problems related to the application of the profession, the acquisition of relevant skills, and information on specialist subjects. Color is one of the most important design parameters every architect has to use. Architect candidates should be equipped in the field of color just as they are in other relevant subjects. This paper deals with the significance, goals, methods and the place of color education in the undergraduate program of architectural education.

  8. Pluto Color Map

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-01-20

    This new, detailed global mosaic color map of Pluto is based on a series of three color filter images obtained by the Ralph/Multispectral Visual Imaging Camera aboard New Horizons during the NASA spacecraft's close flyby of Pluto in July 2015. The mosaic shows how Pluto's large-scale color patterns extend beyond the hemisphere facing New Horizons at closest approach- which were imaged at the highest resolution. North is up; Pluto's equator roughly bisects the band of dark red terrains running across the lower third of the map. Pluto's giant, informally named Sputnik Planitia glacier - the left half of Pluto's signature "heart" feature -- is at the center of this map. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA11707

  9. The biology of color.

    PubMed

    Cuthill, Innes C; Allen, William L; Arbuckle, Kevin; Caspers, Barbara; Chaplin, George; Hauber, Mark E; Hill, Geoffrey E; Jablonski, Nina G; Jiggins, Chris D; Kelber, Almut; Mappes, Johanna; Marshall, Justin; Merrill, Richard; Osorio, Daniel; Prum, Richard; Roberts, Nicholas W; Roulin, Alexandre; Rowland, Hannah M; Sherratt, Thomas N; Skelhorn, John; Speed, Michael P; Stevens, Martin; Stoddard, Mary Caswell; Stuart-Fox, Devi; Talas, Laszlo; Tibbetts, Elizabeth; Caro, Tim

    2017-08-04

    Coloration mediates the relationship between an organism and its environment in important ways, including social signaling, antipredator defenses, parasitic exploitation, thermoregulation, and protection from ultraviolet light, microbes, and abrasion. Methodological breakthroughs are accelerating knowledge of the processes underlying both the production of animal coloration and its perception, experiments are advancing understanding of mechanism and function, and measurements of color collected noninvasively and at a global scale are opening windows to evolutionary dynamics more generally. Here we provide a roadmap of these advances and identify hitherto unrecognized challenges for this multi- and interdisciplinary field. Copyright © 2017 The Authors, some rights reserved; exclusive licensee American Association for the Advancement of Science. No claim to original U.S. Government Works.

  10. Occator in False Color

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-12-09

    This representation of Ceres' Occator Crater in false colors shows differences in the surface composition. Red corresponds to a wavelength range around 0.97 micrometers (near infrared), green to a wavelength range around 0.75 micrometers (red, visible light) and blue to a wavelength range of around 0.44 micrometers (blue, visible light). Occator measures about 60 miles (90 kilometers) wide. Scientists use false color to examine differences in surface materials. The color blue on Ceres is generally associated with bright material, found in more than 130 locations, and seems to be consistent with salts, such as sulfates. It is likely that silicate materials are also present. The images were obtained by the framing camera on NASA's Dawn spacecraft from a distance of about 2,700 miles (4,400 kilometers). http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA20180

  11. PROCESS FOR COLORING DIAMONDS

    DOEpatents

    Dugdale, R.A.

    1960-07-19

    A process is given for coloring substantially colorless diamonds in the blue to blue-green range and comprises the steps of irradiating the colorless diamonds with electrons having an energy within the range 0.5 to 2 Mev to obtain an integrated electron flux of between 1 and 2 x 10/sup 18/ thc diamonds may be irradiated 1 hr when they take on a blue color with a slight green tint: After being heated at about 500 deg C for half an hour they become pure blue. Electrons within this energy range contam sufficient energy to displace the diamond atoms from their normal lattice sites into interstitial sites, thereby causing the color changes.

  12. Adaptive color correction based on object color classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotera, Hiroaki; Morimoto, Tetsuro; Yasue, Nobuyuki; Saito, Ryoichi

    1998-09-01

    An adaptive color management strategy depending on the image contents is proposed. Pictorial color image is classified into different object areas with clustered color distribution. Euclidian or Mahalanobis color distance measures, and maximum likelihood method based on Bayesian decision rule, are introduced to the classification. After the classification process, each clustered pixels are projected onto principal component space by Hotelling transform and the color corrections are performed for the principal components to be matched each other in between the individual clustered color areas of original and printed images.

  13. Color Image of Pluto

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-12-31

    Pluto nearly fills the frame in this image from the Long Range Reconnaissance Imager (LORRI) aboard New Horizons, taken on July 13, 2015, when the spacecraft was 476,000 miles (768,000 kilometers) from the surface. This is the last and most detailed image sent to Earth before the spacecraft's closest approach to Pluto on July 14. The color image has been combined with lower-resolution color information from the Ralph instrument that was acquired earlier on July 13. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA20291

  14. Pluto in True Color

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-07-25

    Four images from NASA's New Horizons' Long Range Reconnaissance Imager (LORRI) were combined with color data from the Ralph instrument to create this global view of Pluto. (The lower right edge of Pluto in this view currently lacks high-resolution color coverage.) The images, taken when the spacecraft was 280,000 miles (450,000 kilometers) away, show features as small as 1.4 miles (2.2 kilometers), twice the resolution of the single-image view taken on July 13. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA19857

  15. Ceres in Color

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-11-18

    This image of Ceres approximates how the dwarf planet's colors would appear to the eye. This view of Ceres, produced by the German Aerospace Center in Berlin, combines images taken during Dawn's first science orbit in 2015 using the framing camera's red, green and blue spectral filters. The color was calculated using a reflectance spectrum, which is based on the way that Ceres reflects different wavelengths of light and the solar wavelengths that illuminate Ceres. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21079

  16. The Colors of Saturn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeVogel, Kayla; Chanover, Nancy; Thelen, Alexander

    2015-11-01

    Very little is known about the coloring agents, or chromophores, that color the clouds of Saturn’s belts and zones. Although the clouds of Saturn are more muted in their coloration and do not exhibit the more striking variations seen among Jupiter’s belts, zones, and cyclonic storm features, the physical processes that render Saturn’s clouds a yellowish hue are likely similar to those at work on Jupiter. Thus, a comprehensive color study that includes both Jupiter and Saturn is warranted to advance our understanding of chromophores in the giant planet atmospheres. Here we report on our efforts to characterize the colors of Saturn’s clouds.This study involves the analysis of two imaging data sets: those from Cassini’s Imaging Science Subsystem (ISS), and Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 images taken with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). The HST data were acquired in 1994, 1998, 2002 and 2004 using eleven different filters spanning 255-973 nm. After the images were photometrically and geometrically calibrated, we used them to create low resolution spectra for six different latitude regions: the Equatorial Zone, the Equatorial Belt, the South Equatorial Belt, the South Temperate Zone, the South Temperate Belt and the South South Temperate Belt. The Cassini ISS images were acquired in 2004 and 2011 using twelve different filters spanning 258-938 nm, and corresponding low resolution spectra of the same latitude regions were generated using the ISS images. We compare these low resolution spectra to Saturn’s full-disk spectrum (Karkoschka, E., 1994, Icarus 111, 174) to examine colors of discrete latitudes versus the full-disk spectrum of Saturn. The extensive temporal coverage afforded by the combination of the HST and ISS images will enable us to explore possible seasonal variations in Saturn’s cloud colors. Finally, we examine the color evolution of the major 2011 storm on Saturn using the ISS data.This work was supported by the Discovery Scholars Program in

  17. Crater - False Color

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-04-24

    The THEMIS camera contains 5 filters. The data from different filters can be combined in multiple ways to create a false color image. These false color images may reveal subtle variations of the surface not easily identified in a single band image. This image from NASA 2001 Mars Odyssey spacecraft shows an unnamed crater located on the floor of Newton Crater. Orbit Number: 57962 Latitude: -42.1218 Longitude: 201.814 Instrument: VIS Captured: 2015-01-07 07:47 https://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21539

  18. Light and Color

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Overheim, R. Daniel; Wagner, David L.

    1982-08-01

    Equally valuable as a semester course for non-majors or an introduction for general readers, this text uses only a minimum of science and mathematical background to explain the physical principles of light. It emphasizes color: the properties of light and materials that give rise to it, how it is described and analyzed, how it is produced in nature, and how the eye sees it. Also discusses topics such as geometrical and wave optics and color phenomena, such as rainbows, that appear in nature. Learning aids include problems and exercises at the end of each chapter.

  19. A maximal chromatic expansion method of mapping multichannel imagery into color space. [North Dakota

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juday, R. D.; Abotteen, R. A. (Principal Investigator)

    1978-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. A color film generation method that maximally expands the chromaticity and aligns Kauth brightness with the gray axis was presented. In comparison with the current LACIE film product, the new color film product has more contrast and more colors and appears to be brighter. The field boundaries in the new product were more pronounced than in the current LACIE product. The speckle effect was one problem in the new product. The yellowness speckle can be treated using an equation. This equation can be used to eliminate any speckle introduced by the greenness. This product leads logically toward another that will employ quantitative colorimetry which will account for some of the eye's perception of color stimuli.

  20. Color constancy in Japanese animation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ichihara, Yasuyo G.

    2006-01-01

    In this study, we measure the colors used in a Japanese Animations. The result can be seen on CIE-xy color spaces. It clearly shows that the color system is not a natural appearance system but an imagined and artistic appearance system. Color constancy of human vision can tell the difference in skin and hair colors between under moonlight and day light. Human brain generates a match to the memorized color of an object from daylight viewing conditions to the color of the object in different viewing conditions. For example, Japanese people always perceive the color of the Rising Sun in the Japanese flag as red even in a different viewing condition such as under moonlight. Color images captured by a camera cannot present those human perceptions. However, Japanese colorists in Animation succeeded in painting the effects of color constancy not only under moonlight but also added the memory matching colors. They aim to create a greater impact on viewer's perceptions by using the effect of the memory matching colors. In this paper, we propose the Imagined Japanese Animation Color System. This system in art is currently a subject of research in Japan. Its importance is that it could also provide an explanation on how human brain perceives the same color under different viewing conditions.

  1. The role of Forster resonance energy transfer in luminescent solar concentrator efficiency and color tunability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balaban, Benjamin L.

    Forster-type resonance energy transfer (FRET) is demonstrated in a luminescent solar concentrator (LSC) material containing two air-stable, high quantum yield laser dyes in a PMMA matrix. The concentration regime surrounding the Forster critical distance is determined for the system. Two-dye LSC films employing FRET are shown to increase the absorption of air mass 1.5 solar irradiance without affecting the self absorption properties of the film. The impact of nonradiative transfer efficiency on LSC performance is experimentally demonstrated and evidence is presented suggesting higher concentration two-dye films are have reduced waveguide transport losses under excitation of the shorter wavelength dye when compared to less concentrated films of the same optical density. The impact of FRET efficiency and thus LSC film fluorescence spectra on LSC color determination is investigated and shown to be minimal. LSC color determination is shown to be accurate through the use of standard subtractive color schemes that consider only film absorption, and wide color tunability is shown to be achievable through the use of a subtractive color model, with as few as three appropriately absorbing dyes.

  2. Moon - False Color Mosaic

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1996-01-29

    This false-color mosaic of part of the Moon was constructed from 54 images taken by the imaging system aboard NASA's Galileo as the spacecraft flew past the Moon on December 7, 1992. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA00129

  3. Moon Color Visualizations

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1996-01-29

    These color visualizations of the Moon were obtained by NASA Galileo spacecraft as it left the Earth after completing its first Earth Gravity Assist. The images were acquired Dec. 8-9, 1990. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA00075

  4. Homestake Vein in Color

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-12-07

    This color view from NASA Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity of a mineral vein called Homestake and is found to be rich in calcium and sulfur. Homestake is near the edge of the Cape York segment of the western rim of Endeavour Crater.

  5. Color Counts, Too!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sewell, Julia H.

    1983-01-01

    Students with undetected color blindness can have problems with specific teaching methods and materials. The problem should be ruled out in children with suspected learning disabilities and taken into account in career counseling. Nine examples of simple classroom modifications are described. (CL)

  6. "Color-Blind" Racism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Leslie G.

    Examining race relations in the United States from a historical perspective, this book explains how the constitution is racist and how color blindness is actually a racist ideology. It is argued that Justice Harlan, in his dissenting opinion in Plessy v. Ferguson, meant that the constitution and the law must remain blind to the existence of race…

  7. Color appearance in stereoscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gadia, Davide; Rizzi, Alessandro; Bonanomi, Cristian; Marini, Daniele; Galmonte, Alessandra; Agostini, Tiziano

    2011-03-01

    The relationship between color and lightness appearance and the perception of depth has been studied since a while in the field of perceptual psychology and psycho-physiology. It has been found that depth perception affects the final object color and lightness appearance. In the stereoscopy research field, many studies have been proposed on human physiological effects, considering e.g. geometry, motion sickness, etc., but few has been done considering lightness and color information. Goal of this paper is to realize some preliminar experiments in Virtual Reality in order to determine the effects of depth perception on object color and lightness appearance. We have created a virtual test scene with a simple 3D simultaneous contrast configuration. We have created three different versions of this scene, each with different choices of relative positions and apparent size of the objects. We have collected the perceptual responses of several users after the observation of the test scene in the Virtual Theater of the University of Milan, a VR immersive installation characterized by a semi-cylindrical screen that covers 120° of horizontal field of view from an observation distance of 3.5 m. We present a description of the experiments setup and procedure, and we discuss the obtained results.

  8. Color Wheel Windows

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leonard, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a painting and drawing lesson which was inspired by the beautiful circular windows found in cathedrals and churches (also known as "rose windows"). This two-week lesson would reinforce both the concept of symmetry and students' understanding of the color wheel. (Contains 1 online resource.)

  9. Color Counts, Too!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sewell, Julia H.

    1983-01-01

    Students with undetected color blindness can have problems with specific teaching methods and materials. The problem should be ruled out in children with suspected learning disabilities and taken into account in career counseling. Nine examples of simple classroom modifications are described. (CL)

  10. "Color-Blind" Racism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Leslie G.

    Examining race relations in the United States from a historical perspective, this book explains how the constitution is racist and how color blindness is actually a racist ideology. It is argued that Justice Harlan, in his dissenting opinion in Plessy v. Ferguson, meant that the constitution and the law must remain blind to the existence of race…

  11. Perfect Color Registration Realized.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lovedahl, Gerald G.

    1979-01-01

    Describes apparatus and procedures to design and construct a "printing box" as a graphic arts project to make color prints on T-shirts using photography, indirect and direct photo screen methods, and other types of stencils. Step-by-step photographs illustrate the process. (MF)

  12. SATURN, IN NATURAL COLORS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    NASA's Hubble Space Telescope has provided images of Saturn in many colors, from black-and-white, to orange, to blue, green, and red. But in this picture, image processing specialists have worked to provide a crisp, extremely accurate view of Saturn, which highlights the planet's pastel colors. Bands of subtle color - yellows, browns, grays - distinguish differences in the clouds over Saturn, the second largest planet in the solar system. Saturn's high-altitude clouds are made of colorless ammonia ice. Above these clouds is a layer of haze or smog, produced when ultraviolet light from the sun shines on methane gas. The smog contributes to the planet's subtle color variations. One of Saturn's moons, Enceladus, is seen casting a shadow on the giant planet as it passes just above the ring system. The flattened disk swirling around Saturn is the planet's most recognizable feature, and this image displays it in sharp detail. This is the planet's ring system, consisting mostly of chunks of water ice. Although it appears as if the disk is composed of only a few rings, it actually consists of tens of thousands of thin 'ringlets.' This picture also shows the two classic divisions in the ring system. The narrow Encke Gap is nearest to the disk's outer edge; the Cassini division, is the wide gap near the center. Scientists study Saturn and its ring system to gain insight into the birth of our solar system. Credit: Hubble Heritage Team (AURA/STScI/NASA)

  13. Color Wheel Windows

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leonard, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a painting and drawing lesson which was inspired by the beautiful circular windows found in cathedrals and churches (also known as "rose windows"). This two-week lesson would reinforce both the concept of symmetry and students' understanding of the color wheel. (Contains 1 online resource.)

  14. Hupa Nature Coloring Book.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Ruth, Ed.; And Others

    Animals familiar to the northwest region of California where Hupa Indians reside are depicted in this coloring book which belongs to a series of materials developed to promote the use of the Hupa language. Each page contains a bold pen and ink drawing of an animal and the animal's name in the Unifon alphabet used for writing the Hupa language.…

  15. Moon Color Composite

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1996-02-02

    This color image of the Moon was taken by NASA's Galileo spacecraft at 9:35 a.m. PST Dec. 9, 1990, at a range of about 350,000 miles. The concentric, circular Orientale basin, is near the center; the nearside is to the right, the far side to the left. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA00113

  16. Neptune in False Color

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1996-01-29

    In this false color image of Neptune, objects that are deep in the atmosphere are blue, while those at higher altitudes are white. The image was taken by Voyager 2 wide-angle camera through an orange filter and two different methane filters. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA00051

  17. Color Us American.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin, Virginia; Hodges, Ethel

    A coloring book containing drawings and information on eight different countries is designed to help children obtain cultural understanding of themselves and other persons as individuals and as members of groups within our society. The countries presented are Poland/Germany, the Navajo Nation (Native American), China, Nigeria (Africa), Mexico,…

  18. Colorful Kindergarten Mice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bobick, Bryna; Wheeler, Elizabeth

    2008-01-01

    Developing kindergarten lessons can be very challenging, especially at the beginning of the school year when many students are just learning to cut paper and hold crayons. The author's favorite beginning unit of the year is "mice paintings," a practical introduction to drawing, color theory, and painting. This unit also incorporates children's…

  19. Color Us American.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin, Virginia; Hodges, Ethel

    A coloring book containing drawings and information on eight different countries is designed to help children obtain cultural understanding of themselves and other persons as individuals and as members of groups within our society. The countries presented are Poland/Germany, the Navajo Nation (Native American), China, Nigeria (Africa), Mexico,…

  20. Why Leaves Change Color

    Treesearch

    USDA Forest Service

    For years, scientists have worked to understand the changes that happen to trees and shrubs in the autumn. Although we don't know all the details, we do know enough to explain the basics and help you to enjoy more fully Nature's multicolored autumn farewell. Three factors influence autumn leaf color-leaf pigments, length of night, and weather, but not quite...

  1. Colorful Kindergarten Mice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bobick, Bryna; Wheeler, Elizabeth

    2008-01-01

    Developing kindergarten lessons can be very challenging, especially at the beginning of the school year when many students are just learning to cut paper and hold crayons. The author's favorite beginning unit of the year is "mice paintings," a practical introduction to drawing, color theory, and painting. This unit also incorporates children's…

  2. SATURN, IN NATURAL COLORS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    NASA's Hubble Space Telescope has provided images of Saturn in many colors, from black-and-white, to orange, to blue, green, and red. But in this picture, image processing specialists have worked to provide a crisp, extremely accurate view of Saturn, which highlights the planet's pastel colors. Bands of subtle color - yellows, browns, grays - distinguish differences in the clouds over Saturn, the second largest planet in the solar system. Saturn's high-altitude clouds are made of colorless ammonia ice. Above these clouds is a layer of haze or smog, produced when ultraviolet light from the sun shines on methane gas. The smog contributes to the planet's subtle color variations. One of Saturn's moons, Enceladus, is seen casting a shadow on the giant planet as it passes just above the ring system. The flattened disk swirling around Saturn is the planet's most recognizable feature, and this image displays it in sharp detail. This is the planet's ring system, consisting mostly of chunks of water ice. Although it appears as if the disk is composed of only a few rings, it actually consists of tens of thousands of thin 'ringlets.' This picture also shows the two classic divisions in the ring system. The narrow Encke Gap is nearest to the disk's outer edge; the Cassini division, is the wide gap near the center. Scientists study Saturn and its ring system to gain insight into the birth of our solar system. Credit: Hubble Heritage Team (AURA/STScI/NASA)

  3. Color Between Moons

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-02-05

    Two of Saturn moons straddle the planet rings in this color view from NASA Cassini spacecraft. Mimas is closest to NASA Cassini spacecraft here. Epimetheus is on the far side of the rings. Saturn shadow cuts across the middle of the rings.

  4. Spas color camera

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toffales, C.

    1983-01-01

    The procedures to be followed in assessing the performance of the MOS color camera are defined. Aspects considered include: horizontal and vertical resolution; value of the video signal; gray scale rendition; environmental (vibration and temperature) tests; signal to noise ratios; and white balance correction.

  5. Color Display Design Guide

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-10-01

    22 . 20 - MEAN/ALL COLORS/*. .. %.’ 18 -.-. YELLOW u- 16 . . RED /- ........ WHITE ൖ /- MAGENTA -,f 12 - / / CYAN ’"’- 10 /GREEN BLUE C= Ś S• l I I...Hawaii Laboratory P.O. Box 997 Kailua, Hawaii 96734 Attn: Dr. Ross L. Pepper Department of Psychology Panel Displays Incorporated Vanderbilt University

  6. Ares Vallis - False Color

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-09-18

    The THEMIS VIS camera contains 5 filters. The data from different filters can be combined in multiple ways to create a false color image. This image from NASA 2001 Mars Odyssey spacecraft shows the beginning of Ares Vallis at the edge of Iani Chaos.

  7. Perfect Color Registration Realized.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lovedahl, Gerald G.

    1979-01-01

    Describes apparatus and procedures to design and construct a "printing box" as a graphic arts project to make color prints on T-shirts using photography, indirect and direct photo screen methods, and other types of stencils. Step-by-step photographs illustrate the process. (MF)

  8. Venus Colorized Clouds

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1996-02-01

    This colorized picture of Venus was taken Feb. 14, 1990, from a distance of almost 1.7 million miles, about 6 days after NASA's Galileo made it closest approach to the planet. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA00111

  9. Coastal Zone Color Scanner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, B.

    1988-01-01

    The Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS) spacecraft ocean color instrument is capable of measuring and mapping global ocean surface chlorophyll concentration. It is a scanning radiometer with multiband capability. With new electronics and some mechanical, and optical re-work, it probably can be made flight worthy. Some additional components of a second flight model are also available. An engineering study and further tests are necessary to determine exactly what effort is required to properly prepare the instrument for spaceflight and the nature of interfaces to prospective spacecraft. The CZCS provides operational instrument capability for monitoring of ocean productivity and currents. It could be a simple, low cost alternative to developing new instruments for ocean color imaging. Researchers have determined that with global ocean color data they can: specify quantitatively the role of oceans in the global carbon cycle and other major biogeochemical cycles; determine the magnitude and variability of annual primary production by marine phytoplankton on a global scale; understand the fate of fluvial nutrients and their possible affect on carbon budgets; elucidate the coupling mechanism between upwelling and large scale patterns in ocean basins; answer questions concerning the large scale distribution and timing of spring blooms in the global ocean; acquire a better understanding of the processes associated with mixing along the edge of eddies, coastal currents, western boundary currents, etc., and acquire global data on marine optical properties.

  10. Using Single Colors and Color Pairs to Communicate Basic Tastes

    PubMed Central

    Spence, Charles

    2016-01-01

    Recently, it has been demonstrated that people associate each of the basic tastes (e.g., sweet, sour, bitter, and salty) with specific colors (e.g., red, green, black, and white). In the present study, we investigated whether pairs of colors (both associated with a particular taste or taste word) would give rise to stronger associations relative to pairs of colors that were associated with different tastes. We replicate the findings of previous studies highlighting the existence of a robust crossmodal correspondence between individual colors and basic tastes. However, while there was evidence that pairs of colors could indeed communicate taste information more consistently than single colors, our participants took more than twice as long to match the color pairs with tastes than the single colors. Possible reasons for these results are discussed. PMID:27698979

  11. Using Single Colors and Color Pairs to Communicate Basic Tastes.

    PubMed

    Woods, Andy T; Spence, Charles

    2016-01-01

    Recently, it has been demonstrated that people associate each of the basic tastes (e.g., sweet, sour, bitter, and salty) with specific colors (e.g., red, green, black, and white). In the present study, we investigated whether pairs of colors (both associated with a particular taste or taste word) would give rise to stronger associations relative to pairs of colors that were associated with different tastes. We replicate the findings of previous studies highlighting the existence of a robust crossmodal correspondence between individual colors and basic tastes. However, while there was evidence that pairs of colors could indeed communicate taste information more consistently than single colors, our participants took more than twice as long to match the color pairs with tastes than the single colors. Possible reasons for these results are discussed.

  12. 7 CFR 51.892 - Color terms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Color terms. 51.892 Section 51.892 Agriculture... Definitions § 51.892 Color terms. The color terms well colored, reasonably well colored, and fairly well colored are defined in Table IV. Table IV Color terms Black varieties Red varieties White varieties Well...

  13. 7 CFR 51.892 - Color terms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Color terms. 51.892 Section 51.892 Agriculture... Definitions § 51.892 Color terms. The color terms well colored, reasonably well colored, and fairly well colored are defined in Table IV. Table IV Color terms Black varieties Red varieties White varieties Well...

  14. Tunable structural color in organisms and photonic materials for design of bioinspired materials.

    PubMed

    Fudouzi, Hiroshi

    2011-12-01

    In this paper, the key topics of tunable structural color in biology and material science are overviewed. Color in biology is considered for selected groups of tropical fish, octopus, squid and beetle. It is caused by nanoplates in iridophores and varies with their spacing, tilting angle and refractive index. These examples may provide valuable hints for the bioinspired design of photonic materials. 1D multilayer films and 3D colloidal crystals with tunable structural color are overviewed from the viewpoint of advanced materials. The tunability of structural color by swelling and strain is demonstrated on an example of opal composites.

  15. Tunable structural color in organisms and photonic materials for design of bioinspired materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fudouzi, Hiroshi

    2011-12-01

    In this paper, the key topics of tunable structural color in biology and material science are overviewed. Color in biology is considered for selected groups of tropical fish, octopus, squid and beetle. It is caused by nanoplates in iridophores and varies with their spacing, tilting angle and refractive index. These examples may provide valuable hints for the bioinspired design of photonic materials. 1D multilayer films and 3D colloidal crystals with tunable structural color are overviewed from the viewpoint of advanced materials. The tunability of structural color by swelling and strain is demonstrated on an example of opal composites.

  16. Tunable structural color in organisms and photonic materials for design of bioinspired materials

    PubMed Central

    Fudouzi, Hiroshi

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the key topics of tunable structural color in biology and material science are overviewed. Color in biology is considered for selected groups of tropical fish, octopus, squid and beetle. It is caused by nanoplates in iridophores and varies with their spacing, tilting angle and refractive index. These examples may provide valuable hints for the bioinspired design of photonic materials. 1D multilayer films and 3D colloidal crystals with tunable structural color are overviewed from the viewpoint of advanced materials. The tunability of structural color by swelling and strain is demonstrated on an example of opal composites. PMID:27877454

  17. Electrochromism in copper oxide thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Richardson, T.J.; Slack, J.L.; Rubin, M.D.

    2000-08-15

    Transparent thin films of copper(I) oxide prepared on conductive SnO2:F glass substrates by anodic oxidation of sputtered copper films or by direct electrodeposition of Cu2O transformed reversibly to opaque metallic copper films when reduced in alkaline electrolyte. In addition, the same Cu2O films transform reversibly to black copper(II) oxide when cycled at more anodic potentials. Copper oxide-to-copper switching covered a large dynamic range, from 85% and 10% photopic transmittance, with a coloration efficiency of about 32 cm2/C. Gradual deterioration of the switching range occurred over 20 to 100 cycles. This is tentatively ascribed to coarsening of the film and contact degradation caused by the 65% volume change on conversion of Cu to Cu2O. Switching between the two copper oxides (which have similar volumes) was more stable and more efficient (CE = 60 cm2/C), but covered a smaller transmittance range (60% to 44% T). Due to their large electrochemical storage capacity and tolerance for alkaline electrolytes, these cathodically coloring films may be useful as counter electrodes for anodically coloring electrode films such as nickel oxide or metal hydrides.

  18. Human preference for individual colors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmer, Stephen E.; Schloss, Karen B.

    2010-02-01

    Color preference is an important aspect of human behavior, but little is known about why people like some colors more than others. Recent results from the Berkeley Color Project (BCP) provide detailed measurements of preferences among 32 chromatic colors as well as other relevant aspects of color perception. We describe the fit of several color preference models, including ones based on cone outputs, color-emotion associations, and Palmer and Schloss's ecological valence theory. The ecological valence theory postulates that color serves an adaptive "steering' function, analogous to taste preferences, biasing organisms to approach advantageous objects and avoid disadvantageous ones. It predicts that people will tend to like colors to the extent that they like the objects that are characteristically that color, averaged over all such objects. The ecological valence theory predicts 80% of the variance in average color preference ratings from the Weighted Affective Valence Estimates (WAVEs) of correspondingly colored objects, much more variance than any of the other models. We also describe how hue preferences for single colors differ as a function of gender, expertise, culture, social institutions, and perceptual experience.

  19. Other side of color management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavendel, Larry A.

    1996-03-01

    As we witness the coming to maturity of color management technology, questions still remain: have we really solved the big problem of color use on the computer? Is the current solution in the right solution? What are the real obstacles in making computerized color work productive? Color fidelity between devices has been (still is?) a big problem and much effort and progress has been made towards solving it. Are there other problems with color work on the computer? For most people using color is difficult. Instead of being easier, working with color on the computer is more arduous and complex than when using traditional methods. How can we make working with color less of an effort and more enjoyable for computer users? What are the obstacles preventing computer developers from doing this? How do we really empower computer color users? By transforming the way that color work is done: redefine the place color takes in computer systems, provide real tools to manage color work, and provide tools that make computerized color work natural, creative and satisfying.

  20. Electrically and chemically tunable soft-solid block copolymer structural color (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Cheolmin

    2016-09-01

    1D photonic crystals based on the periodic stacking of two different dielectric layers have been widely studied due to their potential use in low-power reflective mode displays, e-books and sensors, but the fabrication of mechanically flexible polymer structural color (SC) films, with electro-active color switching, remains challenging. Here, we demonstrate free-standing electric field tunable ionic liquid swollen block copolymer films. Placement of a polymer/ionic liquid (IL) film-reservoir adjacent to a self-assembled poly(styrene-block-quaternized 2vinyl pyridine) (PS-b-QP2VP) copolymer SC film allowed the development of R, G and B full-color SC block copolymer films by swelling of the QP2VP domains by the ionic liquid associated with water molecules. The IL-polymer/BCP SC film is mechanically flexible with excellent color stability over several days at ambient conditions. The selective swelling of the QP2VP domains could be controlled by both the ratio of the IL to a polymer in the gel-like IL reservoir layer and by an applied voltage in the range of -3V to +6V using a metal/IL reservoir/SC film/IL reservoir/metal capacitor type device.