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Sample records for color rendering index

  1. Excellent color rendering indexes of multi-package white LEDs.

    PubMed

    Oh, Ji Hye; Yang, Su Ji; Sung, Yeon-Goog; Do, Y R

    2012-08-27

    This study introduces multi-package white light-emitting diodes (LEDs) system with the ability to realize high luminous efficacy and an excellent color rendering index (CRI, R a) using the R B,M A B,M G B,M C B (R B,M A B,M G B,M denoted as a long-pass dichroic filter (LPDF)-capped, monochromatic red, amber and green phosphor converted-LED (pc-LED) pumped by a blue LED chip, and C B denoted as a cyan and blue mixed pc-LED pumped by a blue LED) system. The luminous efficacy and color rendering index (CRI) of multi-package white LED systems are compared while changing the concentration of the cyan phosphor used in the paste of a cyan-blue LED package and the driving current of individual LEDs in multi-package white LEDs at correlated color temperatures (CCTs) ranging from 6,500 K (cold white) to 2,700 K (warm white) using a set of eight CCTs as specified by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) standard number C78.377-2008. A R B,M A B,M G B,M C B white LED system provides high luminous efficacy (≥ 96 lm/W) and a color rendering index (≥ 91) encompassing the complete CCT range. We also compare the optical properties of the R B,M A B,M G B,M C B system with those of the R B,M A B,M G B,M B and RAGB (red, amber, green, and blue semiconductor-type narrow-spectrum-band LEDs) systems. It can be expected that the cyan color added to a blue LED in multi-package white LEDs based on LPDF-capped, phosphor-converted monochromatic LEDs will meet the needs of the high-quality, highly efficient, full-color white LED lighting market in the near future.

  2. Color temperature tunable white-light LED cluster with extrahigh color rendering index.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Minhao; Chen, Yu; He, Guoxing

    2014-01-01

    The correlated color temperature (CCT) tunable white-light LED cluster with extrahigh color rendering property has been found by simulation and fabricated, which consists of three WW LEDs (CCT = 3183 K), one red LED (634.1 nm), one green LED (513.9 nm), and one blue LED (456.2 nm). The experimental results show that this cluster can realize the CCT tunable white-lights with a color rendering index (CRI) above 93, special CRI R9 for strong red above 90, average value of the special CRIs of R9 to R12 for the four saturated colors (red, yellow, green, and blue) above 83, and luminous efficacies above 70 lm/W at CCTs of 2719 K to 6497 K.

  3. [GaN-based white-light-emitting diodes with low color temperature and high color rendering index].

    PubMed

    Wang, Feng; Huang, Xiao-Hui; Wang, Huai-Bing; Liu, Jian-Ping; Fan, Ya-Ming; Zhu, Yun-Zhi; Jin, Zheng

    2011-06-01

    The luminescence properties of high color rendering white LED depending on the proportions of mixed phosphor powders were investigated by adopting green and red phosphors stimulated by a 440 nm InGaN/GaN based blue LED. The results show that when the proportion of A/B type silica gels and green/red phosphor powders is 0.5 : 0.5 : 0.2 : 0.03, two luminance bands are stimulated and their wavelength peaks are 535 and 643 nm, respectively. The minimum color temperature can reach 3 251 K, while the color rendering is as high as 88. 8. Compared with the traditional white LED fabricated by yellow YAG-phosphors-coated high efficiency 460 nm blue LED, the color temperature is lower and the color rendering index can be increased by almost 26%.

  4. Spectral optimization based simultaneously on color-rendering index and color quality scale for white LED illumination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, J. J.; Hu, R.; Yu, X. J.; Xie, B.; Luo, X. B.

    2017-02-01

    Color performance is an important parameter for high-quality light-emitting diode (LED) lighting. Color-rendering index (CRI) and color quality scale (CQS) are two independent parameters to assess the color performance, but high CRI does not correspond to high CQS, and vice versa. Therefore, it's urgent to find a comprehensive and effective metric for assessing the color performance of LEDs that can simultaneously exhibit high color-rendering index (CRI) and high color quality scale (CQS) values. In this study, a genetic algorithm with a penalty function was proposed for realizing spectral optimization by boosting the maximum attainable luminous efficacy of radiation (LER) of spectra while constraining both high CRI and CQS. By simulations, white spectra from LEDs with CRI≥95 and CQS≥95 were achieved at different correlated color temperatures (CCTs) from 2020 K to 7929 K. Further, a real spectra-tunable LED module consisting of four LEDs is fabricated, and high LER (344 lm/W) and color performance (CRI≥90, CQS=90) was realized by tuning driving currents.

  5. Approach for optimization of the color rendering index of light mixtures.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ku Chin

    2010-07-01

    The general CIE color rendering index (CRI) of light is an important index to evaluate the quality of illumination. However, because of the complexity in measurement of the rendering ability under designated constraints, an approach for general mathematical formulation and global optimization of the rendering ability of light emitting diode (LED) light mixtures is difficult to develop. This study is mainly devoted to developing mathematical formulation and a numerical method for the CRI optimization. The method is developed based on the so-called complex method [Computer J.8, 42 (1965); G. V. Reklaitis et al., Engineering Optimization-Methods and Applications (Wiley, 1983)] with modifications. It is first applicable to 3-color light mixtures and then extended to a hierarchical and iterative structure for higher-order light mixtures. The optimization is studied under the constraints of bounded relative intensities of the light mixture, designated correlated color temperature (CCT), and the required approximate white of the light mixture. The problems of inconsistent constraints and solutions are addressed. The CRI is a complicated function of the relative intensities of the compound illuminators of the mixture. The proposed method requires taking no derivatives of the function and is very adequate for the optimization. This is demonstrated by simulation for RGBW LED light mixtures. The results show that global and unique convergence to the optimal within required tolerances for CRI and spatial dispersivity is always achieved.

  6. Entropy, color, and color rendering.

    PubMed

    Price, Luke L A

    2012-12-01

    The Shannon entropy [Bell Syst. Tech J.27, 379 (1948)] of spectral distributions is applied to the problem of color rendering. With this novel approach, calculations for visual white entropy, spectral entropy, and color rendering are proposed, indices that are unreliant on the subjectivity inherent in reference spectra and color samples. The indices are tested against real lamp spectra, showing a simple and robust system for color rendering assessment. The discussion considers potential roles for white entropy in several areas of color theory and psychophysics and nonextensive entropy generalizations of the entropy indices in mathematical color spaces.

  7. 10 CFR Appendix R to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring Average Lamp Efficacy (LE), Color Rendering Index (CRI), and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... (LE), Color Rendering Index (CRI), and Correlated Color Temperature (CCT) of Electric Lamps R Appendix... Correlated Color Temperature (CCT) of Electric Lamps 1. Scope: This appendix applies to the measurement of...; see § 430.3). 4.4Determination of Color Rendering Index and Correlated Color Temperature 4.4.1The...

  8. 10 CFR Appendix R to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring Average Lamp Efficacy (LE), Color Rendering Index (CRI), and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... (LE), Color Rendering Index (CRI), and Correlated Color Temperature (CCT) of Electric Lamps R Appendix... Correlated Color Temperature (CCT) of Electric Lamps 1. Scope: This appendix applies to the measurement of...; see § 430.3). 4.4 Determination of Color Rendering Index and Correlated Color Temperature 4.4.1...

  9. 10 CFR Appendix R to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring Average Lamp Efficacy (LE), Color Rendering Index (CRI), and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... (LE), Color Rendering Index (CRI), and Correlated Color Temperature (CCT) of Electric Lamps R Appendix... Correlated Color Temperature (CCT) of Electric Lamps 1. Scope: This appendix applies to the measurement of...; see § 430.3). 4.4Determination of Color Rendering Index and Correlated Color Temperature 4.4.1The...

  10. Enhance Color Rendering Index via Full Spectrum Employing the Important Key of Cyan Phosphor.

    PubMed

    Fang, Mu-Huai; Ni, Chenchen; Zhang, Xuejie; Tsai, Yi-Ting; Mahlik, Sebastian; Lazarowska, Agata; Grinberg, Marek; Sheu, Hwo-Shuenn; Lee, Jyh-Fu; Cheng, Bing-Ming; Liu, Ru-Shi

    2016-11-16

    A new concept called "full-spectrum lighting" has attracted considerable attention in recent years. Traditional devices are usually combined with ultraviolet-light-emitting diode (LED), red, green, and blue phosphors. However, a cyan cavity exists in the 480-520 nm region. Hence, cyan phosphors are needed to compensate for the cavity. (Sr,Ba)5(PO4)3Cl:Eu(2+) phosphors feature an extremely unique and tunable photoluminescence spectrum. Nevertheless, the tuning mechanisms of these phosphors remain unclear. In this study, we elucidate the mechanism of the cation size-controlled activator uneven-occupation and reoxidation in (Sr,Ba)5(PO4)3Cl:Eu(2+) phosphors. This mechanism could help tune the optical properties of related apatite families and structures with multiple cation sites and strongly uneven occupation of activators and cations. Finally, the package of the LED device is constructed to show that both color rendering index Ra and R9 are higher than 95. Thus, the device could be a potential candidate for full-spectrum lighting.

  11. High color rendering index white organic light-emitting diode using levofloxacin as blue emitter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miao, Yan-Qin; Gao, Zhi-Xiang; Zhang, Ai-Qin; Li, Yuan-Hao; Wang, Hua; Jia, Hu-Sheng; Liu, Xu-Guang; Tsuboi, Taijuf

    2015-05-01

    Levofloxacin (LOFX), which is well-known as an antibiotic medicament, was shown to be useful as a 452-nm blue emitter for white organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). In this paper, the fabricated white OLED contains a 452-nm blue emitting layer (thickness of 30 nm) with 1 wt% LOFX doped in CBP (4,4’-bis(carbazol-9-yl)biphenyl) host and a 584-nm orange emitting layer (thickness of 10 nm) with 0.8 wt% DCJTB (4-(dicyanomethylene)-2-tert-butyl-6-(1,1,7,7-tetramethyljulolidin-4-yl-vinyl)-4H-pyran) doped in CBP, which are separated by a 20-nm-thick buffer layer of TPBi (2,2’,2”-(benzene-1,3,5-triyl)-tri(1-phenyl-1H-benzimidazole). A high color rendering index (CRI) of 84.5 and CIE chromaticity coordinates of (0.33, 0.32), which is close to ideal white emission CIE (0.333, 0.333), are obtained at a bias voltage of 14 V. Taking into account that LOFX is less expensive and the synthesis and purification technologies of LOFX are mature, these results indicate that blue fluorescence emitting LOFX is useful for applications to white OLEDs although the maximum current efficiency and luminance are not high. The present paper is expected to become a milestone to using medical drug materials for OLEDs. Project supported by the Program for New Century Excellent Talents in University of Ministry of Education of China (Grant No. NCET-13-0927), the International Science & Technology Cooperation Program of China (Grant No. 2012DFR50460), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 21101111 and 61274056), and the Shanxi Provincial Key Innovative Research Team in Science and Technology, China (Grant No. 2012041011).

  12. Light-emitting structures based on colloidal quantum dots of cadmium sulphide having a high color rendering index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepanov, E. M.; Tadtaev, P. O.; Vatalev, O. S.; Mikhailov, I. I.; Tarasov, S. A.; Solomonov, A. V.

    2016-11-01

    Quantum dots created by colloidal synthesis (CQDs) were investigated. The paper shows how by changing the size and concentration of CQDs the emission spectrum of the structure with a color rendering index greater than 90 was achieved. Creation of the light- emitting structures involved spin-coating of CdS CQDs onto the glass substrate and consequent high-vacuum annealing. Methods allowing the increase of the emission intensity to achieve better approximation of the radiation spectra shape of white LEDs’ spectra.

  13. Toward an improved color rendering metric

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Wendy; Ohno, Yoshi

    2005-09-01

    Several aspects of the Color Rendering Index (CRI) are flawed, limiting its usefulness in assessing the color rendering capabilities of LEDs for general illumination. At NIST, we are developing recommendations to modify the CRI that would overcome these problems. The current CRI is based on only eight reflective samples, all of which are low to medium chromatic saturation. These colors do not adequately span the range of normal object colors. Some lights that are able to accurately render colors of low saturation perform poorly with highly saturated colors. This is particularly prominent with light sources with peaked spectral distributions as realized by solid-state lighting. We have assembled 15 Munsell samples that overcome these problems and have performed analysis to show the improvement. Additionally, the CRI penalizes lamps for showing increases in object chromatic saturation compared to reference lights, which is actually desirable for most applications. We suggest a new computation scheme for determining the color rendering score that differentiates between hue and saturation shifts and takes their directions into account. The uniform color space used in the CRI is outdated and a replacement will be recommended. The CRI matches the CCT of the reference to that of the test light. This can be problematic when lights are substantially bluish or reddish. Lights of extreme CCTs are frequently poor color renderers, though they can score very high on the current CRI. An improved chromatic adaptation correction calculation would eliminate the need to match CCT and an updated correction is being considered.

  14. CdSe white quantum dots-based white light-emitting diodes with high color rendering index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Yu-Sheng; Hsiao, Chih-Chun; Chung, Shu-Ru

    2016-09-01

    A white light emission CdSe quantum dots (QDs) can be prepared by chemical route under 180°C. An organic oleic acid (OA) is used to react with CdO to form Cd-OA complex. Hexadecylamine (HDA) and 1-Octadecene (ODE) were used as co-surfactants. By controlling the reaction time, a white light emission CdSe QDs can be obtained after reacts for 3 to 10 min. The luminescence spectra compose two obvious emission peaks and entire visible light ranges from 400 to 650 nm. Based on TEM measurement result, spherical morphologies with particle size 2.39+/-0.27 nm can be obtained. The quantum yields (QYs) of white CdSe QD are between 20 and 60 %, which depends on reaction time. A white CdSe QDs were mixed with UV cured gel (OPAS-226) with weight ratios 50.0 wt. %, and putted the mixture into reflective cup (3020, 13 mil) as convert type. The white LEDs have controllable CIE coordinates and correlated color temperature (CCT). The luminous efficacy of the device is less than 3 lm/W, but the color rendering index (CRI) for all devices are higher than 80. Since the luminous efficacy of hybrid devices has a direct dependence on the external QY of the UV-LED as well, the luminous efficacy can be improved by well dispersion of CdSe QDs in UV gel matrix and using optimized LED chips. Therefore, in this study, we provide a new and simple method to prepare high QY of white CdSe QDs and its have a potential to applicate in solid-state lighting.

  15. White emitting polyfluorene functionalized with azide hybridized on near-UV light emitting diode for high color rendering index.

    PubMed

    Huyal, Ilkem Ozge; Ozel, Tuncay; Koldemir, Unsal; Nizamoglu, Sedat; Tuncel, Donus; Demir, Hilmi Volkan

    2008-01-21

    We develop and demonstrate high-quality white light generation that relies on the use of a single-type simple conjugated polymer of polyfluorene functionalized with azide groups (PFA) integrated on a near-UV LED platform. The high-quality white emission from the polyfluorene is achieved by using the azide functionalization to facilitate cross-linking intentionally when cast into solid-state form. Hybridized on n-UV InGaN/GaN LED at 378 nm, the PFA emitters collectively generate a very broad down-converting photoluminescence at longer wavelengths across the entirety of the visible spectrum, yielding high color rendering indices up to 91.

  16. High color rendering index white light emitting diodes fabricated from a combination of carbon dots and zinc copper indium sulfide quantum dots

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Chun; Liu, Wenyan; Zhang, Xiaoyu; Zhang, Yu E-mail: wyu6000@gmail.com; Wang, Yu; Kalytchuk, Sergii; Kershaw, Stephen V.; Rogach, Andrey L.; Zhang, Tieqiang; Zhao, Jun; Yu, William W. E-mail: wyu6000@gmail.com

    2014-06-30

    In a line with most recent trends in developing non-toxic fluorescent nanomaterials, we combined blue emissive carbon dots with green and red emissive zinc copper indium sulfide (ZCIS) core/shell quantum dots (QDs) to achieve white light-emitting diodes (WLEDs) with a high color rendering index of 93. This indicates that ZCIS QDs, with their broad emission bands, can be employed to effectively make up the emission of carbon dots in the yellow and red regions to produce WLEDs in the wide region of color temperature by tuning the volume ratio of these constituting luminophores. Their electroluminescence characteristics including color rendering index, Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage (CIE) color coordinates, and color temperatures were evaluated as a function of forward current. The CIE-1931 chromaticity coordinates of the as-prepared WLEDs, exhibiting good stability, were slightly shifted from (0.321, 0.312) at 10 mA to (0.351, 0.322) at 30 mA, which was mainly caused by the different thermal quenching coefficients of carbon dots and ZCIS QDs.

  17. High color rendering index white light emitting diodes fabricated from a combination of carbon dots and zinc copper indium sulfide quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Chun; Zhang, Yu; Wang, Yu; Liu, Wenyan; Kalytchuk, Sergii; Kershaw, Stephen V.; Zhang, Tieqiang; Zhang, Xiaoyu; Zhao, Jun; Yu, William W.; Rogach, Andrey L.

    2014-06-01

    In a line with most recent trends in developing non-toxic fluorescent nanomaterials, we combined blue emissive carbon dots with green and red emissive zinc copper indium sulfide (ZCIS) core/shell quantum dots (QDs) to achieve white light-emitting diodes (WLEDs) with a high color rendering index of 93. This indicates that ZCIS QDs, with their broad emission bands, can be employed to effectively make up the emission of carbon dots in the yellow and red regions to produce WLEDs in the wide region of color temperature by tuning the volume ratio of these constituting luminophores. Their electroluminescence characteristics including color rendering index, Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage (CIE) color coordinates, and color temperatures were evaluated as a function of forward current. The CIE-1931 chromaticity coordinates of the as-prepared WLEDs, exhibiting good stability, were slightly shifted from (0.321, 0.312) at 10 mA to (0.351, 0.322) at 30 mA, which was mainly caused by the different thermal quenching coefficients of carbon dots and ZCIS QDs.

  18. Fabrication of high color rendering index white LED using Cd-free wavelength tunable Zn doped CuInS2 nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Chung, Wonkeun; Jung, Hyunchul; Lee, Chang Hun; Kim, Sung Hyun

    2012-10-22

    Highly luminescent Cd-free Zn doped CuInS(2) nanocrystals (ZCIS NCs) were synthesized, and their properties were evaluated using X-ray diffraction, Raman, UV, and photoluminescence. The crystal structure of the ZCIS NCs was similar to the zinc blende, and the lattice constant decreased with increasing Zn concentration. By incorporation of Zn, the emission wavelength was tuned from 536 to 637 nm with concomitant enhancement of the quantum yield up to 45%. A white light emitting diodes, integrating dual ZCIS NCs (λ(em) = 567, and 617 nm) and a 460 nm InGaN LED, exhibited a high color rendering index of 84.1 with a warm color temperature of 4256.2K. The CIE-1931 chromaticity coordinates were slightly shifted from (0.3626, 0.3378) at 20 mA to (0.3480, 0.3206) at 50 mA.

  19. An experiment on the color rendering of different light sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fumagalli, Simonetta; Bonanomi, Cristian; Rizzi, Alessandro

    2013-02-01

    The color rendering index (CRI) of a light source attempts to measure how much the color appearance of objects is preserved when they are illuminated by the given light source. This problem is of great importance for various industrial and scientific fields, such as lighting architecture, design, ergonomics, etc. Usually a light source is specified through the Correlated Color Temperature or CCT. However two (or more) light sources with the same CCT but different spectral power distribution can exist. Therefore color samples viewed under two light sources with equal CCTs can appear different. Hence, the need for a method to assess the quality of a given illuminant in relation to color. Recently CRI has had a renewed interest because of the new LED-based lighting systems. They usually have a color rendering index rather low, but good preservation of color appearance and a pleasant visual appearance (visual appeal). Various attempts to develop a new color rendering index have been done so far, but still research is working for a better one. This article describes an experiment performed by human observers concerning the appearance preservation of color under some light sources, comparing it with a range of available color rendering indices.

  20. Bicolor Mn-doped CuInS{sub 2}/ZnS core/shell nanocrystals for white light-emitting diode with high color rendering index

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Bo; Dai, Qian; Zhang, Huichao; Liao, Chen; Cui, Yiping; Zhang, Jiayu; Zhuo, Ningze; Jiang, Qingsong; Shi, Fenghua; Wang, Haibo

    2014-09-07

    We synthesized bicolor Mn-doped CuInS{sub 2} (CIS)/ZnS core/shell nanocrystals (NCs), in which Mn{sup 2+} ions and the CIS core were separated with a ZnS layer, and both Mn{sup 2+} ions and CIS cores could emit simultaneously. Transmission electron microscopy and powder X-ray diffraction measurements indicated the epitaxial growth of ZnS shell on the CuInS{sub 2} core, and electron paramagnetic resonance spectrum indicated that Mn{sup 2+} ions were on the lattice points of ZnS shell. By integrating these bicolor NCs with commercial InGaN-based blue-emitting diodes, tricolor white light-emitting diodes with color rendering index of 83 were obtained.

  1. Enhancement of the Color Rendering Index of White Organic Light-Emitting Devices Based on a Blue and Red Emitting Layer with a Y3Al5O12:Ce3+ Green Phosphor Color-Conversion Layer.

    PubMed

    Jang, J S; Lee, K S; Lee, E J; Kwon, M S; Kim, T W

    2015-01-01

    White organic light-emitting devices (WOLEDs) were fabricated utilizing blue and red emitting organic light-emitting devices and a color conversion layer (CCL) made of yttrium aluminum garnet (YAG:Ce3+) phosphors embedded into polymethylmethacrylate. The good color balance for the color conversion of the WOLEDs was achieved utilizing 20-nm blue and 10-nm red OLEDs. The electroluminescence spectrum for the fabricated device showed a white color consisting of the blue color from the 4,4-bis(2,2-diphenylethen-1-yl)bipheny layer, the red color from the tris-(8-hydroxyquinolinato) aluminum: 4-(dicyanomethylene)-2-methyl-6-(p-dimethylaminostyryl)-4H-pyran layer, and the green color from the YAG:Ce3+ phosphor. The Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage coordinates of the WOLEDs slightly shifted from (0.25, 0.23) of the blue and red emission OLEDs without phosphors to (0.34, 0.35) of the OLEDs with green phosphors, indicative of the pure white color. WOLEDs with a CCL exhibited three wavelength white emissions with a color rendering index of 86.

  2. Warm-white light-emitting diode with high color rendering index fabricated by combining trichromatic InGaN emitter with single red phosphor.

    PubMed

    Sheu, Jinn-Kong; Chen, Fu-Bang; Wang, Yen-Chin; Chang, Chih-Chiang; Huang, Shih-Hsien; Liu, Chun-Nan; Lee, Ming-Lun

    2015-04-06

    We present a trichromatic GaN-based light-emitting diode (LED) that emits near-ultraviolet (n-UV) blue and green peaks combined with red phosphor to generate white light with a low correlated color temperature (CCT) and high color rendering index (CRI). The LED structure, blue and green unipolar InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells (MQWs) stacked with a top p-i-n structure containing an InGaN/GaN MQW emitting n-UV light, was grown epitaxially on a single substrate. The trichromatic LED chips feature a vertical conduction structure on a silicon substrate fabricated through wafer bonding and laser lift-off techniques. The blue and green InGaN/GaN MQWs were pumped with n-UV light to re-emit low-energy photons when the LEDs were electrically driven with a forward current. The emission spectrum included three peaks at approximately 405, 468, and 537 nm. Furthermore, the trichromatic LED chips were combined with red phosphor to generate white light with a CCT and CRI of approximately 2900 and 92, respectively.

  3. Spectral optimization of warm-white light-emitting diode lamp with both color rendering index (CRI) and special CRI of R9 above 90

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Guoxing; Xu, Jing; Yan, Huafeng

    2011-09-01

    The optimal spectra of the warm-white LED (WWLED) lamp consisting of AlGaInP red LED and the p-W LED packaged by combining silicate green and orange phosphors with a InGaN blue LED die was obtained by nonlinear program for maximizing the luminous efficacy of radiation while both color rendering index (CRI) and special CRI of R9 for strong red above 90 at correlated color temeratures (CCTs) of 2700 K. The optimal peak wavelengths of red LED, blue LED die, silicate green and orange phosphors are 626 nm, 454 nm, 535 nm and 584 nm, respectively. Their optimal relative radation fluxs are 9.7%, 33.4 %, 26.1 %, 30.8 %, respectively. The real WWLED lamp with CCT of 2653 K, CRI of 90, R9 of 94 and R(9-12) of 88, as well as luminous efficacy (LE) of 80.2 lm/W have been realized. Furthermore, the WWLED lamp can realized CCT tunable warm-white-light with CRIs of 86 ˜ 93, R9s of 86 ˜ 95 and LEs of 78.2 ˜ 80.3 lm/W at CCTs of 2392 K to 3014 K by adjusting drive current of the red LED.

  4. Image-based color ink diffusion rendering.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chung-Ming; Wang, Ren-Jie

    2007-01-01

    This paper proposes an image-based painterly rendering algorithm for automatically synthesizing an image with color ink diffusion. We suggest a mathematical model with a physical base to simulate the phenomenon of color colloidal ink diffusing into absorbent paper. Our algorithm contains three main parts: a feature extraction phase, a Kubelka-Munk (KM) color mixing phase, and a color ink diffusion synthesis phase. In the feature extraction phase, the information of the reference image is simplified by luminance division and color segmentation. In the color mixing phase, the KM theory is employed to approximate the result when one pigment is painted upon another pigment layer. Then, in the color ink diffusion synthesis phase, the physically-based model that we propose is employed to simulate the result of color ink diffusion in absorbent paper using a texture synthesis technique. Our image-based ink diffusing rendering (IBCIDR) algorithm eliminates the drawback of conventional Chinese ink simulations, which are limited to the black ink domain, and our approach demonstrates that, without using any strokes, a color image can be automatically converted to the diffused ink style with a visually pleasing appearance.

  5. High color rendering index of remote-type white LEDs with multi-layered quantum dot-phosphor films and short-wavelength pass dichroic filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Hee Chang; Oh, Ji Hye; Do, Young Rag

    2014-09-01

    This paper introduces high color rendering index (CRI) white light-emitting diodes (W-LEDs) coated with red emitting (Sr,Ca)AlSiN3:Eu phosphors and yellowish-green emitting AgIn5S8/ZnS (AIS/ZS) quantum dots (QDs) on glass or a short-wavelength pass dichroic filter (SPDF), which transmit blue wavelength regions and reflect yellow wavelength regions. The red emitting (Sr,Ca)AlSiN3:Eu phosphor film is coated on glass and a SPDF using a screen printing method, and then the yellowish-green emitting AIS/ZS QDs are coated on the red phosphor (Sr,Ca)AlSiN3:Eu film-coated glass and SPDF using the electrospray (e-spray) method.To fabricate the red phosphor film, the optimum amount of phosphor is dispersed in a silicon binder to form a red phosphor paste. The AIS/ZS QDs are mixed with dimethylformamide (DMF), toluene, and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) for the e-spray coating. The substrates are spin-coated with poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) to fabricate a conductive surface. The CRI of the white LEDs is improved through inserting the red phosphor film between the QD layer and the glass substrate. Furthermore, the light intensities of the multi-layered phosphor films are enhanced through changing the glass substrate to the SPDF. The correlated color temperatures (CCTs) vary as a function of the phosphor concentration in the phosphor paste. The optical properties of the yellowish-green AIS/ZS QDs and red (Sr,Ca)AlSiN3:Eu phosphors are characterized using photoluminescence (PL), and the multi-layered QD-phosphor films are measured using electroluminescence (EL) with an InGaN blue LED (λmax = 450 nm) at 60 mA.

  6. Two Host-Dopant Emitting Systems Realizing Four-Color Emission: A Simple and Effective Strategy for Highly Efficient Warm-White Organic Light-Emitting Diodes with High Color-Rendering Index at High Luminance.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Xuming; Zhang, Hao; Ye, Kaiqi; Liu, Yu; Wang, Yue

    2016-05-11

    A four-color warm-white organic light-emitting diode employing a simple adjacent two-emitting-layer structure as a blue host-orange dopant/green host-red dopant has been fabricated, which exhibited a stable high electroluminescent performance: an external quantum efficiency of 23.3% and a power efficiency of 63.2 lm W(-1) at an illumination-relevant luminance of 1000 cd m(-2) with a high color-rendering index (CRI) of 92 and maintained high levels of 21.6% and 48.8 lm W(-1) with a CRI value of 93 at the extremely high luminance of 5000 cd m(-2). To our knowledge, this should be the best result so far for a white-light organic light-emitting diode with CRI > 90, simultaneously exhibiting very high efficiencies based on a high luminance level for the solid-state lighting.

  7. Modulating dual-wavelength multiple quantum wells in white light emitting diodes to suppress efficiency droop and improve color rendering index

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Yukun; Wang, Shuai; Zheng, Min; Ding, Wen; Yun, Feng; Su, Xilin; Yang, Xiangrong; Liu, Shuo; Guo, Maofeng; Zhang, Ye

    2015-10-14

    In this paper, gallium nitride (GaN) based white light-emitting diodes (WLEDs) with modulated quantities of blue (In{sub 0.15}Ga{sub 0.85}N) quantum wells (QWs) and cyan QWs (In{sub 0.18}Ga{sub 0.82}N) in multiple QW (MQW) structures have been investigated numerically and experimentally. It is demonstrated that the optical performance of LEDs is sensitive to the quantities of cyan QWs in dual-wavelength MQW structures. Compared to the LEDs with respective 0, 4, and 8 cyan QWs (12 QWs in total), the optical performance of the sample with 6 cyan QWs is the best. The deterioration of the optical performance in the sample with less (4 pairs) cyan QWs or more (8 pairs) cyan QWs than 6 cyan QWs may be ascribed to weakened reservoir effect or more defects induced. Compared to conventional blue LEDs (12 blue QWs), the sample with 6 cyan QWs could effectively suppress the efficiency droop (the experimental droop ratio decreases from 50.3% to 39.5% at 80 A/cm{sup 2}) and significantly improve the color rendering index (CRI, increases from 66.4 to 77.0) simultaneously. We attribute the droop suppression to the strengthened reservoir effect and carrier confinement of deeper QWs (higher indium composition) incorporated in the dual-wavelength MQW structures, which lead to the better hole spreading and enhanced radiative recombination. Meanwhile, the remarkable experimental CRI improvement may result from the wider full-width at half-maximum of electroluminescence spectra and higher cyan intensity in WLED chips with dual-wavelength MQW structures.

  8. Realistic fetus skin color processing for ultrasound volume rendering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yun-Tae; Kim, Kyuhong; Park, Sung-Chan; Kang, Jooyoung; Kim, Jung-Ho

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes realistic fetus skin color processing using a 2D color map and a tone mapping function (TMF) for ultrasound volume rendering. The contributions of this paper are a 2D color map generated through a gamut model of skin color and a TMF that depends on the lighting position. First, the gamut model of fetus skin color is calculated by color distribution of baby images. The 2D color map is created using a gamut model for tone mapping of ray casting. For the translucent effect, a 2D color map in which lightness is inverted is generated. Second, to enhance the contrast of rendered images, the luminance, color, and tone curve TMF parameters are changed using 2D Gaussian function that depends on the lighting position. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method achieves better realistic skin color reproduction than the conventional method.

  9. Sr0.95Zn0.05Se:Eu2+ and CdSe/ZnS nanocrystals hybrid phosphors for enhancing color rendering index of white light emitting diode.

    PubMed

    Chung, Wonkeun; Jung, Hyunchul; Lee, Chang Hun; Kim, Sung Hyun

    2012-07-01

    In this study, the yellow emitting cubic structure of Sr0.95Zn0.05Se:Eu2+ phosphors were prepared by high temperature solid state reaction. The Sr0.95Zn0.05Se:Eu2+ phosphors exhibited strong excitation intensity under 400-460 nm region, and broad band emission appeared at around 545-600 nm due to the d-f transition of Eu2+. To enhance the red emission, HDA/TOP/TOPO capped CdSe/ZnS NCs were synthesized via fast nucleation and slow growth method. The narrow emission peak was located at 615 nm with 69% of high quantum yield. Bright white emission was generated by combining a 460 nm InGaN LED chip with CdSe/ZnS NCs and Sr0.95Zn0.05Se:Eu2+ hybrid phosphors. The fabricated white LEDs showed warm white light with acceptable CIE chromaticity coordinate variation from (0.343, 0.255) at 20 mA to (0.335, 0.250) at 50 mA. The addition of CdSe/ZnS NCs contributed to the extension of white light spectrum by supplement of the red region. The color rendering index was largely enhanced from 41.7 to 79.7 compared to the Sr0.95Zn0.05Se:Eu2+ based phosphors white LED.

  10. Facile Atmospheric Pressure Synthesis of High Thermal Stability and Narrow-Band Red-Emitting SrLiAl3N4:Eu(2+) Phosphor for High Color Rendering Index White Light-Emitting Diodes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xuejie; Tsai, Yi-Ting; Wu, Shin-Mou; Lin, Yin-Chih; Lee, Jyh-Fu; Sheu, Hwo-Shuenn; Cheng, Bing-Ming; Liu, Ru-Shi

    2016-08-03

    Red phosphors (e.g., SrLiAl3N4:Eu(2+)) with high thermal stability and narrow-band properties are urgently explored to meet the next-generation high-power white light-emitting diodes (LEDs). However, to date, synthesis of such phosphors remains an arduous task. Herein, we report, for the first time, a facile method to synthesize SrLiAl3N4:Eu(2+) through Sr3N2, Li3N, Al, and EuN under atmospheric pressure. The as-synthesized narrow-band red-emitting phosphor exhibits excellent thermal stability, including small chromaticity shift and low thermal quenching. Intriguingly, the title phosphor shows an anomalous increase in theoretical lumen equivalent with the increase of temperature as a result of blue shift and band broadening of the emission band, which is crucial for high-power white LEDs. Utilizing the title phosphor, commercial YAG:Ce(3+), and InGaN-based blue LED chip, a proof-of-concept warm white LEDs with a color rendering index (CRI) of 91.1 and R9 = 68 is achieved. Therefore, our results highlight that this method, which is based on atmospheric pressure synthesis, may open a new means to explore narrow-band-emitting nitride phosphor. In addition, the underlying requirements to design Eu(2+)-doped narrow-band-emitting phosphors were also summarized.

  11. Unique hue correction applied to the color rendering of LED light sources.

    PubMed

    Pardo, Pedro J; Cordero, Eduardo; Suero, María Isabel; Pérez, Ángel L

    2016-03-01

    Existing color quality indices for light sources provide broad information about different dimensions related to color quality. Color fidelity, harmony, and gamut area are concepts related to these indices, and industry requests this information. For the last few years, LED light sources have been widely used at home and at work, and now a color rendering index that solves the problem of underestimation of this type of light source is needed to provide a score of subjective assessments made by real observers related to color fidelity. In this work, this problem has been studied in two ways, theoretically and experimentally, and the results show discrepancies between the hue composition calculated theoretically using a color appearance model and hue composition evaluated by real observers. These discrepancies could originate from divergences in the color fidelity score and the subjective evaluation of the naturalness of a scene.

  12. Color rendering of art paintings under CIE illuminants for normal and color deficient observers.

    PubMed

    Maciel Linhares, João Manuel; Araújo Pinto, Paulo Daniel; Cardoso Nascimento, Sérgio Miguel

    2009-07-01

    Color rendering indices are used to access the quality of lighting but, in addition to other well-known limitations, are not defined for color deficient observers. We evaluated the quality of lighting for normal and color deficient observers in the context of art paintings by estimating the number of colors they perceive when looking at the paintings. Hyperspectral data from 11 oil paintings were analyzed to compute the number of discernible colors when the paintings were assumed rendered under 55 CIE illuminants. Models of color perception for normal and color deficient observers were applied in the estimates. It was found that the number of discernible colors for normal and color deficient observers had low correlation with traditional color rendering indices and that some three-band illuminants, like HP4, were found to be good for most cases, except for tritanopes. These results suggest that it may be possible to obtain good lighting conditions for normal and color deficient observers with an appropriate choice of the light source.

  13. Adaptive color rendering of maps for users with color vision deficiencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kvitle, Anne Kristin; Green, Phil; Nussbaum, Peter

    2015-01-01

    A map is an information design object for which canonical colors for the most common elements are well established. For a CVD observer, it may be difficult to discriminate between such elements - for example, it may be hard to distinguish a red road from a green landscape on the basis of color alone. We address this problem through an adaptive color schema in which the conspicuity of elements in a map to the individual user is maximized. This paper outlines a method to perform adaptive color rendering of map information for users with color vision deficiencies. The palette selection method is based on a pseudo-color palette generation technique which constrains colors to those which lie on the boundary of a reference object color gamut. A user performs a color vision discrimination task, and based on the results of the test, a palette of colors is selected using the pseudo-color palette generation method. This ensures that the perceived difference between palette elements is high but which retains the canonical color of well-known elements as far as possible. We show examples of color palettes computed for a selection of normal and CVD observers, together with maps rendered using these palettes.

  14. A practical and predictive two-metric system for characterizing the color rendering properties of light sources used for architectural applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rea, Mark S.

    2010-08-01

    A source of illumination with good color properties, daylight or electric, should reveal a full range of colors, should enable good color discrimination between objects of similar spectral reflectance, and should not distort colors. We presently have only one recognized measure of color rendering in the lighting industry, color rendering index (CRI), developed in the early 1960s. However, CRI should not be used alone as a predictive measure of the color rendering properties of a light source. First, CRI is a poor predictor of color discrimination. Gamut area index (GAI), another measure of color rendering, is consistently better at predicting performance on the Farnsworth-Munsell 100 Hue test than is CRI. GAI is also better at predicting subjective judgments of "vividness" than CRI. On the other hand, when measuring the ability of a light source to display colors "naturally," neither the GAI nor the CRI performs consistently. In fact, sometimes GAI is a better predictor of "naturalness" than CRI, and sometimes the opposite is true. When GAI and CRI are used jointly in characterizing the color rendering characteristics of a light source used for illumination, high values on both metrics appear to ensure subjective impressions of both "naturalness" and "vividness." In general, this two-metric system appears to be predictive of an average individual's "preference." A priori tests of this two-metric system of color rendering were conducted, lending support to the validity of this approach for characterizing the color rendering properties of electric light sources.

  15. Image indexing using color correlograms

    DOEpatents

    Huang, Jing; Kumar, Shanmugasundaram Ravi; Mitra, Mandar; Zhu, Wei-Jing

    2001-01-01

    A color correlogram is a three-dimensional table indexed by color and distance between pixels which expresses how the spatial correlation of color changes with distance in a stored image. The color correlogram may be used to distinguish an image from other images in a database. To create a color correlogram, the colors in the image are quantized into m color values, c.sub.i . . . c.sub.m. Also, the distance values k.epsilon.[d] to be used in the correlogram are determined where [d] is the set of distances between pixels in the image, and where dmax is the maximum distance measurement between pixels in the image. Each entry (i, j, k) in the table is the probability of finding a pixel of color c.sub.i at a selected distance k from a pixel of color c.sub.i. A color autocorrelogram, which is a restricted version of the color correlogram that considers color pairs of the form (i,i) only, may also be used to identify an image.

  16. A two-metric proposal to specify the color-rendering properties of light sources for retail lighting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freyssinier, Jean Paul; Rea, Mark

    2010-08-01

    Lighting plays an important role in supporting retail operations, from attracting customers, to enabling the evaluation of merchandise, to facilitating the completion of the sale. Lighting also contributes to the identity, comfort, and visual quality of a retail store. With the increasing availability and quality of white LEDs, retail lighting specifiers are now considering LED lighting in stores. The color rendering of light sources is a key factor in supporting retail lighting goals and thus influences a light source's acceptance by users and specifiers. However, there is limited information on what consumers' color preferences are, and metrics used to describe the color properties of light sources often are equivocal and fail to predict preference. The color rendering of light sources is described in the industry solely by the color rendering index (CRI), which is only indirectly related to human perception. CRI is intended to characterize the appearance of objects illuminated by the source and is increasingly being challenged because new sources are being developed with increasingly exotic spectral power distributions. This paper discusses how CRI might be augmented to better use it in support of the design objectives for retail merchandising. The proposed guidelines include the use of gamut area index as a complementary metric to CRI for assuring good color rendering.

  17. High Dynamic Range Image rendering of color in chameleons' camouflage using optical thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prusten, Mark

    2008-08-01

    High Dynamic Range Image (HDRI) rendering and animation of color in the camouflage of chameleons is developed utilizing thin film optics. Chameleons are a lizard species, and have the ability to change their skin color. This change in color is an expression of the physical and physiological conditions of the lizard, and plays a part in communication. The different colors that can be produced depending on the species include pink, blue, red, orange, green, black, brown and yellow. The modeling, simulation, and rendering of the color, which their skin incorporates, thin film optical stacks. The skin of a chameleon has four layers, which together produce various colors. The outside transparent layer has chromatophores cells, of two kinds of color, yellow and red. Next there are two more layers that reflect light: one blue and the other white. The innermost layer contains dark pigment granules or melanophore cells that influences the amount of reflected light. All of these pigment cells can rapidly relocate their pigments, thereby influencing the color of the chameleon. Techniques like subsurface scattering, the simulation of volumetric scattering of light underneath the objects surface, and final gathering are defined in custom shaders and material phenomena for the renderer. The workflow developed to model the chameleon's skin is also applied to simulation and rendering of hair and fur camouflage, which does not exist in nature.

  18. Accelerating Time-Varying Hardware Volume Rendering Using TSP Trees and Color-Based Error Metrics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellsworth, David; Chiang, Ling-Jen; Shen, Han-Wei; Kwak, Dochan (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes a new hardware volume rendering algorithm for time-varying data. The algorithm uses the Time-Space Partitioning (TSP) tree data structure to identify regions within the data that have spatial or temporal coherence. By using this coherence, the rendering algorithm can improve performance when the volume data is larger than the texture memory capacity by decreasing the amount of textures required. This coherence can also allow improved speed by appropriately rendering flat-shaded polygons instead of textured polygons, and by not rendering transparent regions. To reduce the polygonization overhead caused by the use of the hierarchical data structure, we introduce an optimization method using polygon templates. The paper also introduces new color-based error metrics, which more accurately identify coherent regions compared to the earlier scalar-based metrics. By showing experimental results from runs using different data sets and error metrics, we demonstrate that the new methods give substantial improvements in volume rendering performance.

  19. The Capacity of Color Histogram Indexing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-01-01

    AD-A279 031 94-13058 0 LT D lE dE AtEL ECTE APR 2 01994 The Capacity of Color Histogram Indexing F Markus Stricker Michael Swain Communications... Technology Laboratory Department of Computer Science Swiss Federal Institute of Technology ETH The University of Chicago CH-8092 Zirich, Switzerland...kinds of color histograms as the features vectors promising way of quickly indexing into a large image to be stored in the index ([Swain and Ballard

  20. [Study of spectrum drifting of primary colors and its impact on color rendering properties].

    PubMed

    Cui, Xiao-yan; Zhang, Xiao-dong

    2012-08-01

    LEDs are currently used widely to display text, graphics and images in large screens. With red, green and blue LEDs as three primary colors, color rendition will be realized through color mixing. However, LEDs' spectrum will produce drifts with the changes in the temperature environment. With the changes in the driving current simulating changes in the temperature, the three primary color LEDs' spectral drifts were tested, and the drift characteristics of the three primary colors were obtained respectively. Based on the typical characteristics of the LEDs and the differences between LEDs with different colors in composition and molecular structure, the paper analyzed the reason for the spectrum drifts and the drift characteristics of different color LEDs, and proposed the equations of spectrum drifts. Putting the experimental data into the spectrum drift equations, the paper analyzed the impacts of primary colors on the mixed color, pointed out a way to reduce the chromatic aberration, and provided the theory for engineering application of color LEDs.

  1. Ammonium hydroxide modulated synthesis of high-quality fluorescent carbon dots for white LEDs with excellent color rendering properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shengda; Zhu, Zhifeng; Chang, Yajing; Wang, Hui; Yuan, Nan; Li, Guopeng; Yu, Dabin; Jiang, Yang

    2016-07-01

    A novel type of aqueous fluorescent carbon dot (CD) was synthesized using citric acid as the only carbon source via an ammonium hydroxide modulated method, providing a blue color gamut. The amino group is considered to be the key factor in the high fluorescence of CDs and a model is established to investigate the mechanism of fluorescence. In addition, white light-emitting diodes (WLEDs) are fabricated by utilizing the prepared CDs and rare earth luminescent materials (SrSi2O2N2:Eu and Sr2Si5N8:Eu) as color conversion layers and UV-LED chips as the excitation light source. The WLEDs produce bright white light with attractive color rendering properties including a color rendering index of up to 95.1, a CIE coordinate of (0.33, 0.37), and a T c of 5447 K under a 100 mA driven current, indicating that the CDs are promising in the field of optoelectronic devices.

  2. Showing their true colors: a practical approach to volume rendering from serial sections

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background In comparison to more modern imaging methods, conventional light microscopy still offers a range of substantial advantages with regard to contrast options, accessible specimen size, and resolution. Currently, tomographic image data in particular is most commonly visualized in three dimensions using volume rendering. To date, this method has only very rarely been applied to image stacks taken from serial sections, whereas surface rendering is still the most prevalent method for presenting such data sets three-dimensionally. The aim of this study was to develop standard protocols for volume rendering of image stacks of serial sections, while retaining the benefits of light microscopy such as resolution and color information. Results Here we provide a set of protocols for acquiring high-resolution 3D images of diverse microscopic samples through volume rendering based on serial light microscopical sections using the 3D reconstruction software Amira (Visage Imaging Inc.). We overcome several technical obstacles and show that these renderings are comparable in quality and resolution to 3D visualizations using other methods. This practical approach for visualizing 3D micro-morphology in full color takes advantage of both the sub-micron resolution of light microscopy and the specificity of histological stains, by combining conventional histological sectioning techniques, digital image acquisition, three-dimensional image filtering, and 3D image manipulation and visualization technologies. Conclusions We show that this method can yield "true"-colored high-resolution 3D views of tissues as well as cellular and sub-cellular structures and thus represents a powerful tool for morphological, developmental, and comparative investigations. We conclude that the presented approach fills an important gap in the field of micro-anatomical 3D imaging and visualization methods by combining histological resolution and differentiation of details with 3D rendering of whole

  3. Improving "color rendering" of LED lighting for the growth of lettuce.

    PubMed

    Han, Tao; Vaganov, Vitaliy; Cao, Shixiu; Li, Qiang; Ling, Lili; Cheng, Xiaoyao; Peng, Lingling; Zhang, Congzhi; Yakovlev, Alexey N; Zhong, Yang; Tu, Mingjing

    2017-04-03

    Light plays a vital role on the growth and development of plant. On the base of white light with high color rendering to the benefit of human survival and life, we proposed to improve "color rendering" of LED lighting for accelerating the growth of lettuce. Seven spectral LED lights were adopted to irradiate the lettuces under 150 μmol·m(-2)·s(-1) for a 16 hd(-1) photoperiod. The leaf area and number profiles, plant biomass, and photosynthetic rate under the as-prepared LED light treatments were investigated. We let the absorption spectrum of fresh leaf be the emission spectrum of ideal light and then evaluate the "color rendering" of as-prepared LED lights by the Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient and CIE chromaticity coordinates. Under the irradiation of red-yellow-blue light with high correlation coefficient of 0.587, the dry weights and leaf growth rate are 2-3 times as high as the sharp red-blue light. The optimized LED light for lettuce growth can be presumed to be limited to the angle (about 75°) between the vectors passed through the ideal light in the CIE chromaticity coordinates. These findings open up a new idea to assess and find the optimized LED light for plant growth.

  4. High color-rendering warm-white lamps using quantum-dot color conversion films.

    PubMed

    Lien, Jiun-Yi; Chen, Chih-Jung; Chiang, Ray-Kuang; Wang, Sue-Lein

    2016-07-11

    Colloidal quantum dots are promising next-generation phosphors to enhance the color rendition of light-emitting diodes (LEDs) while minimizing the brightness droop. In order to exploit the beneficial tunability of quantum dots for highly efficient devices, optimization and determination of the performance limit are of crucial importance. In this work, a facile preparation process of red-emission quantum dot films and simulation algorithm for fitting this film with two commercial LED flat lamps to the optimized performance are developed. Based on the algorithm, one lamp improves from cold-white light (8669 K) with poor color rendition (Ra = 72) and luminous efficacy (85 lm/W) to warm-white light (2867 K) with Ra = 90.8 and R9 = 74.9, and the other reaches Ra = 93 ∼ 95. Impressively, the brightness droop is only about 15 ∼ 20% and the luminous efficacy of 68 lm/W is achieved. Furthermore, our device shows reliability over 1000 hours with only PET (polyethylene-terephthalate) films as the barrier, indicating that this auxiliary red-emission film can be easily applied to improve the color rendition of most commercial LED flat lamps.

  5. Two-Step Design of a Single-Doped White Phosphor with High Color Rendering.

    PubMed

    Gautier, Romain; Li, Xueyan; Xia, Zhiguo; Massuyeau, Florian

    2017-02-01

    A strategy to design step by step an inorganic single-doped white phosphor is demonstrated. The method consists in tuning different contributions of the emission by successively controlling the chemical compositions of the solid solution or nanosegregated host matrix and the oxidation states of the single dopant. We use this approach to design a white phosphor Na4CaMgSc4Si10O30:Eu with excellent color rendering (CRI > 90) that is similar to common mixed-phosphor light sources but for a single-phase. We show that this methodology can also be extended to other phosphors for use in diverse applications such as biomedicine or telecommunications.

  6. High color rendering white light-emitting-diode illuminator using the red-emitting Eu(2+)-activated CaZnOS phosphors excited by blue LED.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Te-Wen; Liu, Wei-Ren; Chen, Teng-Ming

    2010-04-12

    A red phosphor CaZnOS:Eu(2+) was synthesized by solid state reaction and has been evaluated as a candidate for white LEDs. For this material, the XRD, PL, PL excitation (PLE) and diffuse reflection spectra have also been investigated. CaZnOS:Eu(2+) reveals a broad absorption band and good color purity. By utilizing a mixture of red-emitting CaZnOS:Eu(2+), green-emitting (Ba,Sr)(2)SiO(4):Eu(2+) and yellow-emitting Y(3)Al(5)O(12):Ce(3+) as light converters, an intense white InGaN-based blue-LED (~460 nm) was fabricated to exhibit a high color-rendering index Ra of 85 at a correlated color temperature of 4870 K. Based on the results, we are currently evaluating the potential application of CaZnOS:Eu(2+) as a red-emitting blue-chip convertible phosphor.

  7. A novel imaging system of optical detection on cancers and tissues in gastrointestinal endoscope using high-color-rendering white and color tunable LEDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishikawa, Jun; Taguchi, Tsunemasa; Uchida, Yuji; Kurai, Satoshi; Yanai, Hideo; Kiyotoki, Shu; Okamoto, Takeshi; Higaki, Shingo; Sakaida, Isao

    2010-02-01

    The use of white or color tunable LEDs (light-emitting diodes), which can replace a large light source apparatus and light-guiding fiber bundle, enable the miniaturization of the whole endoscope system and remove constraints on the design of its shape. We have developed a novel white LED for a new experimental prototype LED-illuminated gastrointestinal endoscope having the color rendering in the clinically important red range at around 600 nm.­

  8. Spectral estimation from laser scanner data for accurate color rendering of objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baribeau, Rejean

    2002-06-01

    Estimation methods are studied for the recovery of the spectral reflectance across the visible range from the sensing at just three discrete laser wavelengths. Methods based on principal component analysis and on spline interpolation are judged based on the CIE94 color differences for some reference data sets. These include the Macbeth color checker, the OSA-UCS color charts, some artist pigments, and a collection of miscellaneous surface colors. The optimal three sampling wavelengths are also investigated. It is found that color can be estimated with average accuracy ΔE94 = 2.3 when optimal wavelengths 455 nm, 540 n, and 610 nm are used.

  9. A real-time photo-realistic rendering algorithm of ocean color based on bio-optical model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Chunyong; Xu, Shu; Wang, Hongsong; Tian, Fenglin; Chen, Ge

    2016-12-01

    A real-time photo-realistic rendering algorithm of ocean color is introduced in the paper, which considers the impact of ocean bio-optical model. The ocean bio-optical model mainly involves the phytoplankton, colored dissolved organic material (CDOM), inorganic suspended particle, etc., which have different contributions to absorption and scattering of light. We decompose the emergent light of the ocean surface into the reflected light from the sun and the sky, and the subsurface scattering light. We establish an ocean surface transmission model based on ocean bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) and the Fresnel law, and this model's outputs would be the incident light parameters of subsurface scattering. Using ocean subsurface scattering algorithm combined with bio-optical model, we compute the scattering light emergent radiation in different directions. Then, we blend the reflection of sunlight and sky light to implement the real-time ocean color rendering in graphics processing unit (GPU). Finally, we use two kinds of radiance reflectance calculated by Hydrolight radiative transfer model and our algorithm to validate the physical reality of our method, and the results show that our algorithm can achieve real-time highly realistic ocean color scenes.

  10. Chromatic settings and the structural color constancy index.

    PubMed

    Roca-Vila, Jordi; Parraga, C Alejandro; Vanrell, Maria

    2013-03-11

    Color constancy is usually measured by achromatic setting, asymmetric matching, or color naming paradigms, whose results are interpreted in terms of indexes and models that arguably do not capture the full complexity of the phenomenon. Here we propose a new paradigm, chromatic setting, which allows a more comprehensive characterization of color constancy through the measurement of multiple points in color space under immersive adaptation. We demonstrated its feasibility by assessing the consistency of subjects' responses over time. The paradigm was applied to two-dimensional (2-D) Mondrian stimuli under three different illuminants, and the results were used to fit a set of linear color constancy models. The use of multiple colors improved the precision of more complex linear models compared to the popular diagonal model computed from gray. Our results show that a diagonal plus translation matrix that models mechanisms other than cone gain might be best suited to explain the phenomenon. Additionally, we calculated a number of color constancy indices for several points in color space, and our results suggest that interrelations among colors are not as uniform as previously believed. To account for this variability, we developed a new structural color constancy index that takes into account the magnitude and orientation of the chromatic shift in addition to the interrelations among colors and memory effects.

  11. Virtual Exploration and Comparison of Linear Mastoid Drilling Trajectories with True-Color Volume Rendering and the Visible Ear Dataset

    PubMed Central

    KAHRS, Lueder A.; LABADIE, Robert F.

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides instructions for a virtual exploration and self-study of surgical approaches within the temporal bone. Linear drilling trajectories in the sense of keyhole accesses are compared with free true-color rendering techniques to introduce and evaluate new otologic approaches. On the basis of free cyro-histology image data from a temporal bone six different drill canals are presented. Such a virtual method has the potential to be a first step of investigation of new surgical approaches before moving to cadaver testing. PMID:23400159

  12. Improved color rendering of phosphor-converted white light-emitting diodes with dual-blue active layers and n-type AlGaN layer.

    PubMed

    Yan, Qi-Rong; Zhang, Yong; Li, Shu-Ti; Yan, Qi-Ang; Shi, Pei-Pei; Niu, Qiao-Li; He, Miao; Li, Guo-Ping; Li, Jun-Rui

    2012-05-01

    An InGaN/GaN blue light-emitting diode (LED) structure and an InGaN/GaN blue-violet LED structure were grown sequentially on the same sapphire substrate by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition. It was found that the insertion of an n-type AlGaN layer below the dual blue-emitting active layers showed better spectral stability at the different driving current relative to the traditional p-type AlGaN electron-blocking layer. In addition, color rendering index of a Y3Al5O12:Ce3+ phosphor-converted white LED based on a dual blue-emitting chip with n-type AlGaN reached 91 at 20 mA, and Commission Internationale de L'Eclairage coordinates almost remained at the same point from 5 to 60 mA.

  13. Usage of Data-Encoded Web Maps with Client Side Color Rendering for Combined Data Access, Visualization and Modeling Purposes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pliutau, Denis; Prasad, Narashimha S.

    2013-01-01

    Current approaches to satellite observation data storage and distribution implement separate visualization and data access methodologies which often leads to the need in time consuming data ordering and coding for applications requiring both visual representation as well as data handling and modeling capabilities. We describe an approach we implemented for a data-encoded web map service based on storing numerical data within server map tiles and subsequent client side data manipulation and map color rendering. The approach relies on storing data using the lossless compression Portable Network Graphics (PNG) image data format which is natively supported by web-browsers allowing on-the-fly browser rendering and modification of the map tiles. The method is easy to implement using existing software libraries and has the advantage of easy client side map color modifications, as well as spatial subsetting with physical parameter range filtering. This method is demonstrated for the ASTER-GDEM elevation model and selected MODIS data products and represents an alternative to the currently used storage and data access methods. One additional benefit includes providing multiple levels of averaging due to the need in generating map tiles at varying resolutions for various map magnification levels. We suggest that such merged data and mapping approach may be a viable alternative to existing static storage and data access methods for a wide array of combined simulation, data access and visualization purposes.

  14. FMRI-adaptation to highly-rendered color photographs of animals and manipulable artifacts during a classification task.

    PubMed

    Chouinard, Philippe A; Goodale, Melvyn A

    2012-02-01

    We used fMRI to identify brain areas that adapted to either animals or manipulable artifacts while participants classified highly-rendered color photographs into subcategories. Several key brain areas adapted more strongly to one class of objects compared to the other. Namely, we observed stronger adaptation for animals in the lingual gyrus bilaterally, which are known to analyze the color of objects, and in the right frontal operculum and in the anterior insular cortex bilaterally, which are known to process emotional content. In contrast, the left anterior intraparietal sulcus, which is important for configuring the hand to match the three-dimensional structure of objects during grasping, adapted more strongly to manipulable artifacts. Contrary to what a previous study has found using gray-scale photographs, we did not replicate categorical-specific adaptation in the lateral fusiform gyrus for animals and categorical-specific adaptation in the medial fusiform gyrus for manipulable artifacts. Both categories of objects adapted strongly in the fusiform gyrus without any clear preference in location along its medial-lateral axis. We think that this is because the fusiform gyrus has an important role to play in color processing and hence its responsiveness to color stimuli could be very different than its responsiveness to gray-scale photographs. Nevertheless, on the basis of what we found, we propose that the recognition and subsequent classification of animals may depend primarily on perceptual properties, such as their color, and on their emotional content whereas other factors, such as their function, may play a greater role for classifying manipulable artifacts.

  15. Optimal spectra of the phosphor-coated white LEDs with excellent color rendering property and high luminous efficacy of radiation.

    PubMed

    He, Guoxing; Yan, Huafeng

    2011-01-31

    A model for spectra of the phosphor-coated white LED (p-W LED) with a blue chip, a red chip, and green and yellow phosphors is presented. The optimal spectra of p-W LEDs with correlated color temperatures (CCTs) of 2700-6500 K have been obtained with a nonlinear program for maximizing luminous efficacy of radiation (LER) under conditions of both color-rendering indices (CRIs) and special CRIs of R9 strong red above 98. The simulation results show that p-W LEDs with one InGaN blue (450 nm) chip, one AlGaInP red (634 nm) chip, and green (507 nm) and yellow (580 nm) silicate phosphors can realize white lights with CRIs of about 98 and special CRIs of R9 for strong red above 98. The average of the special CRIs R9 to R12 for the four saturated colors (red, yellow, green, and blue) is above 95. R13 for the skin of women's faces at about 100, as well as LERs above 296 lm/W at CCTs of 2700-6500 K. LERs of excellent CRI p-W LEDs with one InGaN blue chip, one AlGaInP red chip, and green and yellow silicate phosphors increased by 19-49% when compared with that of excellent CRI p-W LEDs with one InGaN blue chip and green and yellow silicate phosphors, as well as red nitride phosphor.

  16. Pseudo-colored visualization of EEG activities on the human cortex using MRI-based volume rendering and Delaunay interpolation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimitrov, Leonid I.

    1995-04-01

    A method for a pseudo-colored smooth representation of evaluated EEG parameters on a three-dimensional reconstruction of a proband's cortex is proposed. The EEG data are obtained through standard measurements and are subsequently Fourier analyzed in order to transform them to parameters representing the signals' power and coherence changes with respect to the averaged EEG at rest. The morphological data for the 3D-reconstruction of the brain is gained through MRI-scans of the head. The three-dimensional reconstruction of the cortex is achieved by means of a graylevel gradient shading method. During rendering, each brain surface voxel (volume element) is associated with a suitable parameter value determined through an inverse distance-weighted interpolation scheme from the values evaluated for its neighbors in the Delaunay triangulation mesh between the electrodes. Following the interpolation, a mapping of the calculated surface value in the HSV color space is employed in order to achieve an expressively colored brain surface with well perceptible distinct activation regions and smooth transitions between them. The presented method provides a possibility for direct, visual comparisons of the activated brain regions of a healthy individual.

  17. Energy transfer in Sr2MgSi2O7:Eu2+ phosphors in nano scale and their application to solid state lighting with excellent color rendering.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Ki Hyuk; Im, Won Bin; Jeon, Duk Young

    2013-06-01

    On the basis of structural information of its host material which shows excellent stability and absorption efficiency in ultra-violet (UV) region, a blue-emitting Sr2MgSi2O7:Eu2+ (SMS:Eu2+) phosphor was synthesized, and its photoluminescence (PL) performance was systematically optimized. In order to enhance its PL properties, Ce3+ was added as a sensitizer based on the energy transfer from the absorption energy of Ce3+ to Eu2+. It was due to the spectral overlap between the photoluminescence excitation spectrum of Ce3+ and the PL spectrum of Eu2+. Moreover, the energy transfer rate from Ce3+ to Eu2+ is generally faster than the emission rate of Ce3+ in the dipole-dipole interaction. Depending upon the amount of Ca2+ substituted into Sr site, their maximum wavelength was varied from -460 to -540 nm in terms of the crystal field effect confirmed by the structural analysis via Rietveld refinement method. Finally, the optimized blue-emitting SMS:Eu2+ and Ca(2+)-substituted yellowish green-emitting SMS:Eu2+ phosphors were applied with Eu(2+)-sensitized red-emitting Ca3Mg3(PO4)4:Mn2+ phosphor introduced in our previous research to UV light emitting diode (LED)-pumped white LEDs. The fabricated white LEDs showed a natural white light with the color coordinate of (0.3298, 0.3280) and the excellent color rendering index of 94.

  18. Volumetric rendering and metrology of spherical gradient refractive index lens imaged by angular scan optical coherence tomography system.

    PubMed

    Yao, Jianing; Thompson, Kevin P; Ma, Bin; Ponting, Michael; Rolland, Jannick P

    2016-08-22

    In this paper, we develop the methodology, including the refraction correction, geometrical thickness correction, coordinate transformation, and layer segmentation algorithms, for 3D rendering and metrology of a layered spherical gradient refractive index (S-GRIN) lens based on the imaging data collected by an angular scan optical coherence tomography (OCT) system. The 3D mapping and rendering enables direct 3D visualization and internal defect inspection of the lens. The metrology provides assessment of the surface geometry, the lens thickness, the radii of curvature of the internal layer interfaces, and the misalignment of the internal S-GRIN distribution with respect to the lens surface. The OCT metrology results identify the manufacturing defects, and enable targeted process development for optimizing the manufacturing parameters. The newly fabricated S-GRIN lenses show up to a 7x spherical aberration reduction that allows a significantly increased utilizable effective aperture.

  19. Dual emissive manganese and copper Co-doped Zn-In-S quantum dots as a single color-converter for high color rendering white-light-emitting diodes.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Xi; Ma, Ruixin; Zhang, Wenjin; Hua, Jie; Meng, Xiangdong; Zhong, Xinhua; Zhang, Jiahua; Zhao, Jialong; Li, Haibo

    2015-04-29

    Novel white light emitting diodes (LEDs) with environmentally friendly dual emissive quantum dots (QDs) as single color-converters are one of the most promising high-quality solid-state lighting sources for meeting the growing global demand for resource sustainability. A facile method was developed for the synthesis of the bright green-red-emitting Mn and Cu codoped Zn-In-S QDs with an absorption bangdgap of 2.56 eV (485 nm), a large Stokes shift of 150 nm, and high emission quantum yield up to 75%, which were suitable for warm white LEDs based on blue GaN chips. The wide photoluminescence (PL) spectra composed of Cu-related green and Mn-related red emissions in the codoped QDs could be controlled by varying the doping concentrations of Mn and Cu ions. The energy transfer processes in Mn and Cu codoped QDs were proposed on the basis of the changes in PL intensity and lifetime measured by means of steady-state and time-resolved PL spectra. By integrating these bicolor QDs with commercial GaN-based blue LEDs, the as-fabricated tricolor white LEDs showed bright natural white light with a color rendering index of 95, luminous efficacy of 73.2 lm/W, and color temperature of 5092 K. These results indicated that (Mn,Cu):Zn-In-S/ZnS QDs could be used as a single color-converting material for the next generation of solid-state lighting.

  20. Indexing Flowers by Color Names using Domain Knowledge-driven Segmentation,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-01-01

    We describe a solution to the problem of indexing images of flowers for searching a flower patents database by color. We use a natural language color...feedback to isolate a flower region from the background. The color of the flower is defined by the color names present in the flower region and their

  1. One-Step Preparation of Blue-Emitting (La,Ca)Si3(O,N)5:Ce3+ Phosphors for High-Color Rendering White Light-Emitting Diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yaguchi, Atsuro; Suehiro, Takayuki; Sato, Tsugio; Hirosaki, Naoto

    2011-02-01

    Highly phase-pure (La,Ca)Si3(O,N)5:Ce3+ blue-emitting phosphors were successfully synthesized via the one-step solid-state reaction from the system La2O3-CaO-CeO2-Si3N4. The synthesized (La,Ca)Si3(O,N)5:Ce3+ exhibits tunable blue broadband emission with the dominant wavelength of 466-479 nm and the external quantum efficiency up to ˜45% under 380 nm near-UV (NUV) excitation. Spectral simulations of the trichromatic white light-emitting diodes (LEDs) using (La,Ca)Si3(O,N)5:Ce3+ demonstrated markedly higher color rendering index Ra values of 93-95, compared to 76-90 attained by the systems using a conventional BAM:Eu2+ phosphor or InGaN blue LED. The present achievement indicates the promising applicability of (La,Ca)Si3(O,N)5:Ce3+ as a blue luminescent source for NUV-converting high-color rendering white LEDs.

  2. Optimizing spectral compositions of multichannel LED light sources by IES color fidelity index and luminous efficacy of radiation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fuzheng; Xu, Haisong; Wang, Zhehong

    2017-03-01

    The trade-off between the color fidelity index (Rf) released recently by the Illuminating Engineering Society of North America (IES) and luminous efficacy of radiation (LER) was investigated by adjusting the peak wavelengths, spectral widths, and intensities of four-channel LEDs utilizing a multiobjective optimization algorithm based on differential evolution in the correlated color temperature (CCT) ranging from 2800 to 6500 K for general lighting. The results indicate that Rf at a specific LER value decreases with the increasing CCT, and vice versa, and that Rf has significant improvements over the Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage (CIE) color rendering index (CRI) in avoiding spectral gaming and evaluating the light sources even with negative CIE general CRI (Ra). Further, the optimal peak wavelengths with regard to Rf were identified as 629 nm, 568 nm, 504 nm, and 447 nm, yielding high color rendering in terms of Rf(93∼94) and Ra(95∼97) and relatively excellent LER (299  lm/W∼339  lm/W) over a wide range of CCTs from 2800 to 6500 K. This suggests that Rf can be compatible with Ra, making it possible to obtain a common set of optimal peak wavelengths for Rf and Ra. Besides, the IES method could assess saturated red and skin tones more fairly than the CIE CRI. With a practical 17-channel LED array covering the resulted four optimal peak wavelengths, the improvements of the IES method over the CIE CRI were validated further.

  3. Parallel rendering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crockett, Thomas W.

    1995-01-01

    This article provides a broad introduction to the subject of parallel rendering, encompassing both hardware and software systems. The focus is on the underlying concepts and the issues which arise in the design of parallel rendering algorithms and systems. We examine the different types of parallelism and how they can be applied in rendering applications. Concepts from parallel computing, such as data decomposition, task granularity, scalability, and load balancing, are considered in relation to the rendering problem. We also explore concepts from computer graphics, such as coherence and projection, which have a significant impact on the structure of parallel rendering algorithms. Our survey covers a number of practical considerations as well, including the choice of architectural platform, communication and memory requirements, and the problem of image assembly and display. We illustrate the discussion with numerous examples from the parallel rendering literature, representing most of the principal rendering methods currently used in computer graphics.

  4. A study of optical modeling and evaluation of color rendering property of a dual-phosphor system (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Yu-Yu; Lin, Michael; Yang, Tsung-Hsun; Chung, Te-Yuan; Lee, Xuan-Hao; Sun, Ching-Cherng

    2016-09-01

    In this thesis, on the basis of the phosphor optical models, green and red phosphor mixture optical model has been well established. Under some specific green to red phosphor doping proportions, this model can be utilized to simulate the chromatic properties, spatial CCT distributions, and packaging efficiency. There are some benefits of applying the phosphor optical model, one is that the confusion about mixture or layer phosphor configuration can perform better could be solved. Another is that the comparison and analysis of these phosphor configurations can be made not only in experiment but also in simulation, and will be more details to be discuss in the simulation. There are several types of packaging structures in high color quality applications. Consequently, the importance of phosphor optical model cannot be overestimated. After few steps above and with the help of experimental analysis and optimized in simulation, a packaging structure with high color quality and high efficiency has been approved. Finally, this light source with high performance will be utilized in the luminaire to improve the color and energy saving properties.

  5. The site occupation and valence of Mn ions in the crystal lattice of Sr{sub 4}Al{sub 14}O{sub 25} and its deep red emission for high color-rendering white light-emitting diodes

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Lei; Xue, Shaochan; Chen, Xiuling; Bahader, Ali; Deng, Xiaorong; Zhao, Erlong; Jiang, Yang; Chen, Shifu; Chan, Ting-Shan; Zhao, Zhi; Zhang, Wenhua

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • Different valences of Mn ions in Sr{sub 4}Al{sub 14}O{sub 25} were identified using XANES and EPR. • Red luminescence was attributed to Mn{sup 4+} occupying the center of AlO{sub 6} octahedron. • The Mn{sup 3+} incorporated in the center of AlO{sub 4} tetrahedron was non-luminescent. • The bond-valence theory was used to analyze the effective valences of cations. • A white LED device with CRI up to Ra 93.23 was packaged by using the red phosphor. - Abstract: The synthesis and component of red phosphor, Sr{sub 4}Al{sub 14}O{sub 25}: Mn, were optimized for application in white light-emitting diodes. The microstructure and morphology were investigated by the X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. Different valences of Mn ions in Sr{sub 4}Al{sub 14}O{sub 25} were discriminated using the electron paramagnetic resonance and X-ray absorption near-edge structure spectroscopy techniques. The bond-valence theory was used to analyze the effective valences of Sr{sup 2+} and Al{sup 3+} in Sr{sub 4}Al{sub 14}O{sub 25}. As a result, the strong covalence of Al{sup 3+} in the AlO{sub 4} tetrahedron other than in the AlO{sub 6} octahedron is disclosed. The deep red emission is attributed to Mn{sup 4+} occupying the center of AlO{sub 6} octahedron. The mechanism of energy transfer is mainly through dipole–dipole interaction, revealed by the analyses of critical distance and concentration quench. A high color rendering white LED prototype with color-rendering index up to Ra 93.23 packaged by using the red phosphor demonstrates its applicability.

  6. SRTM Data Release for Eurasia, Index Map and Colored Height

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    , various landforms place constraints upon land use planning for a great population. Volcanoes in the East Indies, the Philippines, Japan, and the Kamchatka Peninsula form the western part of the 'Ring of Fire' around the Pacific Ocean.

    Many of these regions were previously very poorly mapped due to persistent cloud cover or the inaccessibility of the terrain. Digital elevation data, such as provided by SRTM, are particularly in high demand by scientists studying earthquakes, volcanism, and erosion patterns for use in mapping and modeling hazards to human habitation. But the shape of Earth's surface affects nearly every natural process and human endeavor that occurs there, so elevation data are used in a wide range of applications.

    In this index map color-coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations. The large, very dark green feature in western Asia is the Caspian Sea, which is below sea level. Blue areas on the map represent water within the mapped tiles, each of which includes shorelines or islands.

    Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) of the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD), and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion

  7. SRTM Data Release for Eurasia, Index Map and Colored Height

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    , various landforms place constraints upon land use planning for a great population. Volcanoes in the East Indies, the Philippines, Japan, and the Kamchatka Peninsula form the western part of the 'Ring of Fire' around the Pacific Ocean.

    Many of these regions were previously very poorly mapped due to persistent cloud cover or the inaccessibility of the terrain. Digital elevation data, such as provided by SRTM, are particularly in high demand by scientists studying earthquakes, volcanism, and erosion patterns for use in mapping and modeling hazards to human habitation. But the shape of Earth's surface affects nearly every natural process and human endeavor that occurs there, so elevation data are used in a wide range of applications.

    In this index map color-coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations. The large, very dark green feature in western Asia is the Caspian Sea, which is below sea level. Blue areas on the map represent water within the mapped tiles, each of which includes shorelines or islands.

    Elevation data used in this image was acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to collect three-dimensional measurements of the Earth's surface. To collect the 3-D data, engineers added a 60-meter-long (200-foot) mast, installed additional C-band and X-band antennas, and improved tracking and navigation devices. The mission is a cooperative project between the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) of the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD), and the German and Italian space agencies. It is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion

  8. Indexing Flowers by Color Names Using Domain Knowledge-Driven Segmentation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-01-01

    We describe a solution to the problem of indexing image of flowers for searching a flower patents database by ers iii t color. We use a natural...segmentation algorithm with knowledge natnral driven feedback to isolate a flower region from the background. The color of the flower is defined by the...color names present in the flower region and their relative proportions. The database can be queried by example and by color names. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the strategy on a test database.

  9. Quantum rendering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanzagorta, Marco O.; Gomez, Richard B.; Uhlmann, Jeffrey K.

    2003-08-01

    In recent years, computer graphics has emerged as a critical component of the scientific and engineering process, and it is recognized as an important computer science research area. Computer graphics are extensively used for a variety of aerospace and defense training systems and by Hollywood's special effects companies. All these applications require the computer graphics systems to produce high quality renderings of extremely large data sets in short periods of time. Much research has been done in "classical computing" toward the development of efficient methods and techniques to reduce the rendering time required for large datasets. Quantum Computing's unique algorithmic features offer the possibility of speeding up some of the known rendering algorithms currently used in computer graphics. In this paper we discuss possible implementations of quantum rendering algorithms. In particular, we concentrate on the implementation of Grover's quantum search algorithm for Z-buffering, ray-tracing, radiosity, and scene management techniques. We also compare the theoretical performance between the classical and quantum versions of the algorithms.

  10. a New Red Phosphor of the Mn Activated Non-Stoichiometric Strontium Aluminate 3SrO•5Al2O3 for High Color Rendering White Leds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Lei; Zhang, Yao; Liu, Fayong; Deng, Xiaorong; Xue, Shaochan; Luo, Anqi; Jiang, Yang; Chen, Shifu; Zhang, Wenhua

    2013-05-01

    A new red phosphor of strontium aluminate activated by Mn4+ was developed for high color rendering and warm white light-emitting diodes. The phosphor composition and conditions for synthesis were optimized through solid-state reaction. Meanwhile, the structure and morphology were investigated with XRD and SEM analysis. The results show that the 3SrO•5Al2O3 activated by 0.0005 M Mn fired at 1300°C in air ambient by adopting 2.5 wt.% AlF3 as flux exhibits most efficient luminescence. A white LED device prototype with CIE (0.3291, 0.3571), CCT 5639 K, CRI Ra 92.6, and efficacy 63 lm/W driven at 20 mA has been packaged by pre-coating the red phosphor combined with a yellow one Y3Al5O12:Ce3+ on a blue InGaN chip. The analysis of critical distance and luminescence quench reveal that the mechanism of energy transfer for luminescence is through dipole-dipole interaction.

  11. Color Richness in Cephalopod Chromatophores Originating from High Refractive Index Biomolecules.

    PubMed

    Dinneen, Sean R; Osgood, Richard M; Greenslade, Margaret E; Deravi, Leila F

    2017-01-05

    Cephalopods are arguably one of the most photonically sophisticated marine animals, as they can rapidly adapt their dermal color and texture to their surroundings using both structural and pigmentary coloration. Their chromatophore organs facilitate this process, but the molecular mechanism potentiating color change is not well understood. We hypothesize that the pigments, which are localized within nanostructured granules in the chromatophore, enhance the scattering of light within the dermal tissue. To test this, we extracted the phenoxazone-based pigments from the chromatophore and extrapolated their complex refractive index (RI) from experimentally determined real and approximated imaginary portions of the RI. Mie theory was used to calculate the absorbance and scattering cross sections (cm(2)/particle) across a broad diameter range at λ = 589 nm. We observed that the pigments were more likely to scatter attenuated light than absorb it and that these characteristics may contribute to the color richness of cephalopods.

  12. Standing-wave resonances in plasmonic nanoumbrella cavities for color generation and colorimetric refractive index sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Jiaorong; Li, Zhongyuan; Chen, Zhuojie; Wu, Wengang

    2016-10-01

    We theoretically investigate the hybridization of the elemental surface plasmons in umbrella-shape plasmonic nanostructures and experimentally demonstrate the implementation of plasmonic multicolor metasurfaces as well as their application in colorimetric sensing. The three-dimension metallic umbrella arrays consist of a periodic canopy-capped-nanopillars with metal-coated sidewall and a backplane metal-film to form vertical nanocavity of canopy and film. Plasmonic coupling and energy confinement in nanocavity induce a noticeably resonance narrowing of multispectral reflection. The metasurfaced nanostructures appeared in vibrant and tunable colors with broad gamut derived from color blending mechanism due to multiple, narrow-band resonances. Vivid colors varied from red, yellow, green, blue to violet are easily achieved. It is also shown that such plasmonic metasurfaces can work as the feasible and real-time colorimetric refractive index sensor by measuring the distinct color variation to glucose concentration changes. Our sensor scheme shows its spectral sensitivity in the periodic umbrella array with respect to the refractive index change to be 242.5 nm/RIU with a figure of merit of 7.3. Furthermore, a refractive index resolution of colorimetric sensing up to 0.025 RIU has been accomplished.

  13. Index theorem and Majorana zero modes along a non-Abelian vortex in a color superconductor

    SciTech Connect

    Fujiwara, Takanori; Fukui, Takahiro; Nitta, Muneto; Yasui, Shigehiro

    2011-10-01

    Color superconductivity in high-density QCD exhibits the color-flavor-locked phase. To explore zero modes in the color-flavor-locked phase in the presence of a non-Abelian vortex with an SU(2) symmetry in the vortex core, we apply the index theorem to the Bogoliubov-de Gennes (BdG) Hamiltonian. From the calculation of the topological index, we find that triplet, doublet and singlet sectors of SU(2) have certain number of chiral Majorana zero modes in the limit of vanishing chemical potential. We also solve the BdG equation by the use of the series expansion to show that the number of zero modes and their chirality match the result of the index theorem. From particle-hole symmetry of the BdG Hamiltonian, we conclude that if and only if the index of a given sector is odd, one zero mode survives generically for a finite chemical potential. We argue that this result should hold nonperturbatively even in the high-density limit.

  14. Absolute distance measurement with correction of air refractive index by using two-color dispersive interferometry.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hanzhong; Zhang, Fumin; Liu, Tingyang; Li, Jianshuang; Qu, Xinghua

    2016-10-17

    Two-color interferometry is powerful for the correction of the air refractive index especially in the turbulent air over long distance, since the empirical equations could introduce considerable measurement uncertainty if the environmental parameters cannot be measured with sufficient precision. In this paper, we demonstrate a method for absolute distance measurement with high-accuracy correction of air refractive index using two-color dispersive interferometry. The distances corresponding to the two wavelengths can be measured via the spectrograms captured by a CCD camera pair in real time. In the long-term experiment of the correction of air refractive index, the experimental results show a standard deviation of 3.3 × 10-8 for 12-h continuous measurement without the precise knowledge of the environmental conditions, while the variation of the air refractive index is about 2 × 10-6. In the case of absolute distance measurement, the comparison with the fringe counting interferometer shows an agreement within 2.5 μm in 12 m range.

  15. Color quality scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Wendy; Ohno, Yoshi

    2010-03-01

    The color rendering index (CRI) has been shown to have deficiencies when applied to white light-emitting-diode-based sources. Furthermore, evidence suggests that the restricted scope of the CRI unnecessarily penalizes some light sources with desirable color qualities. To solve the problems of the CRI and include other dimensions of color quality, the color quality scale (CQS) has been developed. Although the CQS uses many of elements of the CRI, there are a number of fundamental differences. Like the CRI, the CQS is a test-samples method that compares the appearance of a set of reflective samples when illuminated by the test lamp to their appearance under a reference illuminant. The CQS uses a larger set of reflective samples, all of high chroma, and combines the color differences of the samples with a root mean square. Additionally, the CQS does not penalize light sources for causing increases in the chroma of object colors but does penalize sources with smaller rendered color gamut areas. The scale of the CQS is converted to span 0-100, and the uniform object color space and chromatic adaptation transform used in the calculations are updated. Supplementary scales have also been developed for expert users.

  16. NONLINEAR COLOR-METALLICITY RELATIONS OF GLOBULAR CLUSTERS. V. NONLINEAR ABSORPTION-LINE INDEX VERSUS METALLICITY RELATIONS AND BIMODAL INDEX DISTRIBUTIONS OF M31 GLOBULAR CLUSTERS

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Sooyoung; Yoon, Suk-Jin; Chung, Chul; Lee, Young-Wook; Caldwell, Nelson; Schiavon, Ricardo P.; Kang, Yongbeom; Rey, Soo-Chang

    2013-05-10

    Recent spectroscopy on the globular cluster (GC) system of M31 with unprecedented precision witnessed a clear bimodality in absorption-line index distributions of old GCs. Such division of extragalactic GCs, so far asserted mainly by photometric color bimodality, has been viewed as the presence of merely two distinct metallicity subgroups within individual galaxies and forms a critical backbone of various galaxy formation theories. Given that spectroscopy is a more detailed probe into stellar population than photometry, the discovery of index bimodality may point to the very existence of dual GC populations. However, here we show that the observed spectroscopic dichotomy of M31 GCs emerges due to the nonlinear nature of metallicity-to-index conversion and thus one does not necessarily have to invoke two separate GC subsystems. We take this as a close analogy to the recent view that metallicity-color nonlinearity is primarily responsible for observed GC color bimodality. We also demonstrate that the metallicity-sensitive magnesium line displays non-negligible metallicity-index nonlinearity and Balmer lines show rather strong nonlinearity. This gives rise to bimodal index distributions, which are routinely interpreted as bimodal metallicity distributions, not considering metallicity-index nonlinearity. Our findings give a new insight into the constitution of M31's GC system, which could change much of the current thought on the formation of GC systems and their host galaxies.

  17. [Research on developping the spectral dataset for Dunhuang typical colors based on color constancy].

    PubMed

    Liu, Qiang; Wan, Xiao-Xia; Liu, Zhen; Li, Chan; Liang, Jin-Xing

    2013-11-01

    The present paper aims at developping a method to reasonably set up the typical spectral color dataset for different kinds of Chinese cultural heritage in color rendering process. The world famous wall paintings dating from more than 1700 years ago in Dunhuang Mogao Grottoes was taken as typical case in this research. In order to maintain the color constancy during the color rendering workflow of Dunhuang culture relics, a chromatic adaptation based method for developping the spectral dataset of typical colors for those wall paintings was proposed from the view point of human vision perception ability. Under the help and guidance of researchers in the art-research institution and protection-research institution of Dunhuang Academy and according to the existing research achievement of Dunhuang Research in the past years, 48 typical known Dunhuang pigments were chosen and 240 representative color samples were made with reflective spectral ranging from 360 to 750 nm was acquired by a spectrometer. In order to find the typical colors of the above mentioned color samples, the original dataset was devided into several subgroups by clustering analysis. The grouping number, together with the most typical samples for each subgroup which made up the firstly built typical color dataset, was determined by wilcoxon signed rank test according to the color inconstancy index comprehensively calculated under 6 typical illuminating conditions. Considering the completeness of gamut of Dunhuang wall paintings, 8 complementary colors was determined and finally the typical spectral color dataset was built up which contains 100 representative spectral colors. The analytical calculating results show that the median color inconstancy index of the built dataset in 99% confidence level by wilcoxon signed rank test was 3.28 and the 100 colors are distributing in the whole gamut uniformly, which ensures that this dataset can provide reasonable reference for choosing the color with highest

  18. Space weathering and the color indexes of minor bodies in the outer Solar System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaňuchová, Z.; Brunetto, R.; Melita, M.; Strazzulla, G.

    2012-09-01

    We present a model based on laboratory results which contributes to the "nature" versus "nurture" debate on the colors of small bodies in the outer Solar System (OSS). According to our model, objects having suffered the same balance of irradiation and impacts follow specific curves in color-color diagrams. Appropriate combination of composition and weathering can reproduce the whole range of colors observed on OSS small bodies

  19. Conodont color alteration index and upper Paleozoic thermal history of the Amazonas Basin, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardoso, Cassiane Negreiros; Sanz-López, Javier; Blanco-Ferrera, Silvia; Lemos, Valesca Brasil; Scomazzon, Ana Karina

    2015-12-01

    The conodont color alteration index (CAI) was determined in elements from core samples of the Frasnian Barreirinha Formation (one well) and of the Pennsylvanian-Permian Tapajós Group (twenty three wells and one limestone quarry) in the Amazonas Basin. The thermal history of the basin is analyzed using the CAI value distribution represented in maps and stratigraphic sections through correlation schemes, and in conjunction with previously published data. The pattern of palaeotemperatures for CAI values of 1.5-3 is coincident with organic matter maturation under a sedimentary overburden providing diagenetic conditions in the oil/gas window. Locally, conodonts show metamorphism (CAI value of 6-7) in relation to the intrusion of diabase bodies in beds including high geothermal gradient evaporites. Microtextural alteration on the surface conodonts commonly shows several types of overgrowth microtextures developed in diagenetic conditions. Locally, recrystallization in conodonts with a high CAI value is congruent with contact metamorphism in relation to Mesozoic intrusions. The CAI values of 1.5 or 2 observed close to the surface in several areas of the basin may be interpreted in relation to a high thermal palaeogradient derived from the magmatic episode or/and to the local denudation of the upper part of the Paleozoic succession prior to this thermal event.

  20. Parallel sphere rendering

    SciTech Connect

    Krogh, M.; Painter, J.; Hansen, C.

    1996-10-01

    Sphere rendering is an important method for visualizing molecular dynamics data. This paper presents a parallel algorithm that is almost 90 times faster than current graphics workstations. To render extremely large data sets and large images, the algorithm uses the MIMD features of the supercomputers to divide up the data, render independent partial images, and then finally composite the multiple partial images using an optimal method. The algorithm and performance results are presented for the CM-5 and the M.

  1. Prediction of fermentation index of cocoa beans (Theobroma cacao L.) based on color measurement and artificial neural networks.

    PubMed

    León-Roque, Noemí; Abderrahim, Mohamed; Nuñez-Alejos, Luis; Arribas, Silvia M; Condezo-Hoyos, Luis

    2016-12-01

    Several procedures are currently used to assess fermentation index (FI) of cocoa beans (Theobroma cacao L.) for quality control. However, all of them present several drawbacks. The aim of the present work was to develop and validate a simple image based quantitative procedure, using color measurement and artificial neural network (ANNs). ANN models based on color measurements were tested to predict fermentation index (FI) of fermented cocoa beans. The RGB values were measured from surface and center region of fermented beans in images obtained by camera and desktop scanner. The FI was defined as the ratio of total free amino acids in fermented versus non-fermented samples. The ANN model that included RGB color measurement of fermented cocoa surface and R/G ratio in cocoa bean of alkaline extracts was able to predict FI with no statistical difference compared with the experimental values. Performance of the ANN model was evaluated by the coefficient of determination, Bland-Altman plot and Passing-Bablok regression analyses. Moreover, in fermented beans, total sugar content and titratable acidity showed a similar pattern to the total free amino acid predicted through the color based ANN model. The results of the present work demonstrate that the proposed ANN model can be adopted as a low-cost and in situ procedure to predict FI in fermented cocoa beans through apps developed for mobile device.

  2. 10 CFR Appendix R to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring Average Lamp Efficacy (LE), Color Rendering Index (CRI), and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... input at equilibrium for the reference condition. 4.2 General Service Incandescent Lamps 4.2.1The... input at equilibrium for the reference condition. The test report shall conform to section 8 of IES LM... computing the ratio of the measured lamp lumen output and lamp electrical power input at equilibrium for...

  3. 10 CFR Appendix R to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring Average Lamp Efficacy (LE), Color Rendering Index (CRI), and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... output and lamp electrical power input at equilibrium for the reference condition. 4.2General Service... computing the ratio of the measured lamp lumen output and lamp electrical power input at equilibrium for the... computing the ratio of the measured lamp lumen output and lamp electrical power input at equilibrium for...

  4. Multivariate volume rendering

    SciTech Connect

    Crawfis, R.A.

    1996-03-01

    This paper presents a new technique for representing multivalued data sets defined on an integer lattice. It extends the state-of-the-art in volume rendering to include nonhomogeneous volume representations. That is, volume rendering of materials with very fine detail (e.g. translucent granite) within a voxel. Multivariate volume rendering is achieved by introducing controlled amounts of noise within the volume representation. Varying the local amount of noise within the volume is used to represent a separate scalar variable. The technique can also be used in image synthesis to create more realistic clouds and fog.

  5. Parallel sphere rendering

    SciTech Connect

    Krogh, M.; Hansen, C.; Painter, J.; de Verdiere, G.C.

    1995-05-01

    Sphere rendering is an important method for visualizing molecular dynamics data. This paper presents a parallel divide-and-conquer algorithm that is almost 90 times faster than current graphics workstations. To render extremely large data sets and large images, the algorithm uses the MIMD features of the supercomputers to divide up the data, render independent partial images, and then finally composite the multiple partial images using an optimal method. The algorithm and performance results are presented for the CM-5 and the T3D.

  6. Space weathering and the color indexes of minor bodies in the outer Solar System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaňuchová, Zuzana; Brunetto, Rosario; Melita, Mario; Strazzulla, Giovanni

    2012-09-01

    The surfaces of small bodies in the outer Solar System are rich in organic compounds and carbonaceous refractories mixed with ices and silicates. As made clear by dedicated laboratory experiments space weathering (e.g. energetic ion bombardment) can produce red colored materials starting from bright and spectrally flat ices. In a classical scenario, the space weathering processes “nurture” alter the small bodies surface spectra but are in competition with resurfacing agents that restore the original colors, and the result of these competing processes continuously modifying the surfaces is supposed to be responsible for the observed spectral variety of those small bodies. However an alternative point of view is that the different colors are due to “nature” i.e. to the different primordial composition of different objects. In this paper we present a model, based on laboratory results, that gives an original contribution to the “nature” vs. “nurture” debate by addressing the case of surfaces showing different fractions of rejuvenated vs. space weathered surface, and calculating the corresponding color variations. We will show how a combination of increasing dose coupled to different resurfacing can reproduce the whole range of observations of small outer Solar System bodies. Here we demonstrate, for the first time that objects having a fully weathered material turn back in the color-color diagrams. At the same time, object with the different ratio of pristine and weathered surface areas lay on specific lines in color-color diagrams, if exposed to the same amount of irradiation.

  7. Lifetime Reduction and Enhanced Emission of Single Photon Color Centers in Nanodiamond via Surrounding Refractive Index Modification

    PubMed Central

    Khalid, Asma; Chung, Kelvin; Rajasekharan, Ranjith; Lau, Desmond W.M.; Karle, Timothy J.; Gibson, Brant C.; Tomljenovic-Hanic, Snjezana

    2015-01-01

    The negatively-charged nitrogen vacancy (NV−) center in diamond is of great interest for quantum information processing and quantum key distribution applications due to its highly desirable long coherence times at room temperature. One of the challenges for their use in these applications involves the requirement to further optimize the lifetime and emission properties of the centers. Our results demonstrate the reduction of the lifetime of NV− centers, and hence an increase in the emission rate, achieved by modifying the refractive index of the environment surrounding the nanodiamond (ND). By coating the NDs in a polymer film, experimental results and numerical calculations show an average of 63% reduction in the lifetime and an average enhancement in the emission rate by a factor of 1.6. This strategy is also applicable for emitters other than diamond color centers where the particle refractive index is greater than the refractive index of the surrounding media. PMID:26109500

  8. High-accuracy self-correction of refractive index of air using two-color interferometry of optical frequency combs.

    PubMed

    Minoshima, Kaoru; Arai, Kaoru; Inaba, Hajime

    2011-12-19

    Long-path pulse-to-pulse interferometers of two-color frequency combs are developed using fundamental and second harmonics of a mode-locked fiber laser. Interferometric phase difference between two-color frequency combs was precisely measured by stabilizing the fundamental fringe phase by controlling the repetition frequency of the comb, and a stability of 10(-10) for 1000 s was achieved in the measurement of an optical path length difference between two wavelengths. In long-term measurements performed for 10 h, results of phase variation of interferometric measurements were highly consistent with the fluctuations in the calculated difference of refractive indices of air at two wavelengths with an accuracy of 10(-10). The difference between the measured optical distances corresponding to two wavelengths and the optical distance corresponding to the fundamental wavelength were used in the two-color method; high-accuracy self-correction of the fluctuation of refractive index of air was performed with an uncertainty of 5 × 10(-8) for 10-h measurements when the maximum refractive index change was on the order of 10(-6).

  9. An automated technique for stellar magnitude, color index, and position measurements of astronomical photographs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, R. F.; Morrill, M. E.

    1978-01-01

    Computer programs have been developed for use in collecting and processing data from a PDS scanning microdensitometer. The goal is to obtain fast and simple algorithms for handling an entire astronomical photograph with one-pass digitization. This capability is realized by a real-time detection scheme that provides a data compression of a factor of 100, and a processing program that produces a catalog of magnitudes, color indices, and positions for up to 90,000 multicolor stellar images.

  10. Sorting and hardware assisted rendering for volume visualization

    SciTech Connect

    Stein, C.; Becker, B.; Max, N.

    1994-03-01

    We present some techniques for volume rendering unstructured data. Interpolation between vertex colors and opacities is performed using hardware assisted texture mapping, and color is integrated for use with a volume rendering system. We also present an O(n{sup 2}) method for sorting n arbitrarily shaped convex polyhedra prior to visualization. It generalizes the Newell, Newell and Sancha sort for polygons to 3-D volume elements.

  11. Rendering the Topological Spines

    SciTech Connect

    Nieves-Rivera, D.

    2015-05-05

    Many tools to analyze and represent high dimensional data already exits yet most of them are not flexible, informative and intuitive enough to help the scientists make the corresponding analysis and predictions, understand the structure and complexity of scientific data, get a complete picture of it and explore a greater number of hypotheses. With this in mind, N-Dimensional Data Analysis and Visualization (ND²AV) is being developed to serve as an interactive visual analysis platform with the purpose of coupling together a number of these existing tools that range from statistics, machine learning, and data mining, with new techniques, in particular with new visualization approaches. My task is to create the rendering and implementation of a new concept called topological spines in order to extend ND²AV's scope. Other existing visualization tools create a representation preserving either the topological properties or the structural (geometric) ones because it is challenging to preserve them both simultaneously. Overcoming such challenge by creating a balance in between them, the topological spines are introduced as a new approach that aims to preserve them both. Its render using OpenGL and C++ and is currently being tested to further on be implemented on ND²AV. In this paper I will present what are the Topological Spines and how they are rendered.

  12. Color Algebras

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulligan, Jeffrey B.

    2017-01-01

    A color algebra refers to a system for computing sums and products of colors, analogous to additive and subtractive color mixtures. We would like it to match the well-defined algebra of spectral functions describing lights and surface reflectances, but an exact correspondence is impossible after the spectra have been projected to a three-dimensional color space, because of metamerism physically different spectra can produce the same color sensation. Metameric spectra are interchangeable for the purposes of addition, but not multiplication, so any color algebra is necessarily an approximation to physical reality. Nevertheless, because the majority of naturally-occurring spectra are well-behaved (e.g., continuous and slowly-varying), color algebras can be formulated that are largely accurate and agree well with human intuition. Here we explore the family of algebras that result from associating each color with a member of a three-dimensional manifold of spectra. This association can be used to construct a color product, defined as the color of the spectrum of the wavelength-wise product of the spectra associated with the two input colors. The choice of the spectral manifold determines the behavior of the resulting system, and certain special subspaces allow computational efficiencies. The resulting systems can be used to improve computer graphic rendering techniques, and to model various perceptual phenomena such as color constancy.

  13. Color temperature tunable white light emitting diodes packaged with an omni-directional reflector.

    PubMed

    Su, Jung-Chieh; Lu, Chun-Lin

    2009-11-23

    This study proposed a correlated color temperature (CCT) tunable phosphor-converted white light emitting diode (LED) with an omni-directional reflector (ODR). Applying current to each individual InGaN based ultraviolet, purple and blue source LED chip of the white LED package, we can achieve the CCT tunability. The optimum color properties of the resulting white light are (0.3347, 0.3384), 5398 K, 81, 3137-8746 K for color coordinates, CCT, color rendering index (CRI) and CCT tuning range, respectively. Roughening the ODR substrate, we solve the non-uniformity color distribution caused by the reflectance of the ODR and positioning of source LED chips.

  14. Vector quantization for volume rendering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ning, Paul; Hesselink, Lambertus

    1992-01-01

    Volume rendering techniques typically process volumetric data in raw, uncompressed form. As algorithmic and architectural advances improve rendering speeds, however, larger data sets will be evaluated requiring consideration of data storage and transmission issues. In this paper, we analyze the data compression requirements for volume rendering applications and present a solution based on vector quantization. The proposed system compresses volumetric data and then renders images directly from the new data format. Tests on a fluid flow data set demonstrate that good image quality may be achieved at a compression ratio of 17:1 with only a 5 percent cost in additional rendering time.

  15. Finishing tooth-colored restorations in vitro: an index of surface alteration and finish-line destruction.

    PubMed

    Schmidlin, Patrick R; Göhring, Till N

    2004-01-01

    Many studies have evaluated the surface characteristics of finishing and polishing instruments on different restorative materials using two- and three-dimensional models based on mechanical and optical techniques. However, only limited data are available regarding the problem of marginal causing detectable surface alterations such as scratches or grooves may also cause marginal damage. This study aimed to correlate the smooth-surface polishing efficacy of different instruments with their potential for destructive effects on restoration margins and enamel finish lines. An index was created that will help to evaluate future polishing instruments and select suitable ones for different clinical situations. A planar inlay system with a 100 microm wide defined gap was simulated in vitro. Pre-fabricated ceramic (n = 40) and composite blocks (n = 40) were connected to bovine enamel without luting material. After standardized pre-polishing, mean surface roughness and marginal quality were assessed using a profilometer and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Enamel and restorative surfaces were colored, and subsequently prepared using one of 10 different finishing and polishing instruments. Four specimens per instrument and material were evaluated, resulting in eight interfaces for each test group. Surface roughness (Ra) and marginal quality (expressed as the percentage fracture-free margin) were measured and compared statistically using unpaired t-tests and two-way ANOVA, respectively. The level of significance was set at 0.05 Eight-micrometer diamond burs and 40-fluted tungsten carbide finishers produced smoother surfaces and less finishing-line destructions than the other instruments under evaluation. The index values developed will prove helpful in evaluating and selecting appropriate instruments.

  16. Parallel hierarchical radiosity rendering

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, M.

    1993-07-01

    In this dissertation, the step-by-step development of a scalable parallel hierarchical radiosity renderer is documented. First, a new look is taken at the traditional radiosity equation, and a new form is presented in which the matrix of linear system coefficients is transformed into a symmetric matrix, thereby simplifying the problem and enabling a new solution technique to be applied. Next, the state-of-the-art hierarchical radiosity methods are examined for their suitability to parallel implementation, and scalability. Significant enhancements are also discovered which both improve their theoretical foundations and improve the images they generate. The resultant hierarchical radiosity algorithm is then examined for sources of parallelism, and for an architectural mapping. Several architectural mappings are discussed. A few key algorithmic changes are suggested during the process of making the algorithm parallel. Next, the performance, efficiency, and scalability of the algorithm are analyzed. The dissertation closes with a discussion of several ideas which have the potential to further enhance the hierarchical radiosity method, or provide an entirely new forum for the application of hierarchical methods.

  17. Sea modeling and rendering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cathala, Thierry; Latger, Jean

    2010-10-01

    More and more defence and civil applications require simulation of marine synthetic environment. Currently, the "Future Anti-Surface-Guided-Weapon" (FASGW) or "anti-navire léger" (ANL) missile needs this kind of modelling. This paper presents a set of technical enhancement of the SE-Workbench that aim at better representing the sea profile and the interaction with targets. The operational scenario variability is a key criterion: the generic geographical area (e.g. Persian Gulf, coast of Somalia,...), the type of situation (e.g. peace keeping, peace enforcement, anti-piracy, drug interdiction,...)., the objectives (political, strategic, or military objectives), the description of the mission(s) (e.g. antipiracy) and operation(s) (e.g. surveillance and reconnaissance, escort, convoying) to achieve the objectives, the type of environment (Weather, Time of day, Geography [coastlines, islands, hills/mountains]). The paper insists on several points such as the dual rendering using either ray tracing [and the GP GPU optimization] or rasterization [and GPU shaders optimization], the modelling of sea-surface based on hypertextures and shaders, the wakes modelling, the buoyancy models for targets, the interaction of coast and littoral, the dielectric infrared modelling of water material.

  18. Method and apparatus for enhanced evanescent fluorescence and color filtering using a high refractive index thin film coating

    DOEpatents

    Kao, Hung Pin; Schoeniger, Joseph; Yang, Nancy

    2001-01-01

    A technique for increasing the excitation and collection of evanescent fluorescence radiation emanating from a fiber optic sensor having a high refractive index (n.sub.r), dielectric thin film coating has been disclosed and described. The invention comprises a clad optical fiber core whose cladding is removed on a distal end, the distal end coated with a thin, non-porous, titanium dioxide sol-gel coating. It has been shown that such a fiber will exhibit increased fluorescence coupling due in part by 1) increasing the intensity of the evanescent field at the fiber core surface by a constructive interference effect on the propagating light, and 2) increasing the depth of penetration of the field in the sample. The interference effect created by the thin film imposes a wavelength dependence on the collection of the fluorescence and also suggests a novel application of thin films for color filtering as well as increasing collected fluorescence in fiber sensors. Collected fluorescence radiation increased by up to 6-fold over that of a bare fused silica fiber having a numerical aperture (N.A.) of O.6.

  19. Color Doppler Sonographic Evaluation of Peak Systolic Velocity and Pulsatility Index in Artery after Pulsed HIFU Exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Feng-Yi; Chiu, Wei-Hsiu; Yeh, Chi-Fang

    2011-09-01

    The objective of current study was to investigate the functional changes in arteries induced by pulsed-HIFU with or without microbubbles. Sonication was applied at an ultrasound frequency of 1 MHz with a burst length of 50 ms and a repetition frequency of 1 Hz. The duration of the whole sonication was 6s. The abdominal aortas of Sprague-Dawley rats were surgically exposed and sonicated with pulsed HIFU; the pulsed HIFU beam was aimed using color images of the blood flow. There was no obvious normalized peak systolic velocity (PSV) change at various acoustic powers of pulsed-HIFU exposure in the absence of ultrasound contrast agent (UCA). However, the normalized PSV change induced by pulsed-HIFU decreased with the injected dose of UCA at acoustic powers. At this time, the normalized pulsatility index (PI) change in the vessel subjected to pulsed-HIFU increased in proportion to UCA dose. Additional research is needed to investigate the detailed mechanical effects of pulsed-HIFU exposure on blood flow and the structure of vessel walls.

  20. De-entangling colorfulness and fidelity for a complete statistical description of color quality.

    PubMed

    Quintero, Jesús M; Hunt, Charles E; Carreras, Josep

    2012-12-01

    In this Letter, the main attributes known to affect color quality are treated statistically over a set of 118 spectra representing the current mainstream lighting technology. The color rendering index (CRI) is used to assess color fidelity while colorfulness is used to complement CRI-R(a), supported by the growing evidence that assessment of light spectra cannot overlook color preference inputs. Colorfulness is evaluated by our optimal color (O(c)) index, through a code that computes the (MacAdam) theoretical maximum volumetric gamut of objects under a given illuminant for all the spectra in our database. Pearson correlation coefficients for CRI-R(a), the (Y. Ohno's) color quality scale (CQS) and O(c) show a high correlation (0.950) between CRI-R(a) and CQS-Q(a), while O(c) shows the lowest correlation (0.577) with CRI-R(a), meaning that O(c) represents the best complement to CRI-R(a) and Q(a) for an in-depth study of color quality.

  1. Time-Critical Volume Rendering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, Arie

    1998-01-01

    For the past twelve months, we have conducted and completed a joint research entitled "Time- Critical Volume Rendering" with NASA Ames. As expected, High performance volume rendering algorithms have been developed by exploring some new faster rendering techniques, including object presence acceleration, parallel processing, and hierarchical level-of-detail representation. Using our new techniques, initial experiments have achieved real-time rendering rates of more than 10 frames per second of various 3D data sets with highest resolution. A couple of joint papers and technique reports as well as an interactive real-time demo have been compiled as the result of this project.

  2. 11. Photographic copy of rendering (February 15, 1913, original rendering ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Photographic copy of rendering (February 15, 1913, original rendering in Archives, Public Affairs Department, Sears Merchandise Group, Hoffman Estates, Illinois), Artist unknown. OVERALL VIEW OF MAIL ORDER PLANT, VIEW TO SOUTH - Sears Roebuck & Company Mail Order Plant, Bounded by Lexington & Grenshaw Streets, Kedzie Avenue & Independence Boulevard, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  3. Color center fluorescence and spin manipulation in single crystal, pyramidal diamond tips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelz, Richard; Fuchs, Philipp; Opaluch, Oliver; Sonusen, Selda; Savenko, Natalia; Podgursky, Vitali; Neu, Elke

    2016-11-01

    We investigate bright fluorescence of nitrogen (NV)- and silicon-vacancy color centers in pyramidal, single crystal diamond tips, which are commercially available as atomic force microscope probes. We coherently manipulate NV electronic spin ensembles with T2 = 7.7(3) μs. Color center lifetimes in different tip heights indicate effective refractive index effects and quenching. Using numerical simulations, we verify enhanced photon rates from emitters close to the pyramid apex rendering them promising as scanning probe sensors.

  4. Daytime Changes of Skin Biophysical Characteristics: A Study of Hydration, Transepidermal Water Loss, pH, Sebum, Elasticity, Erythema, and Color Index on Middle Eastern Skin

    PubMed Central

    Firooz, Alireza; Zartab, Hamed; Sadr, Bardia; Bagherpour, Leili Naraghi; Masoudi, Aidin; Fanian, Ferial; Dowlati, Yahya; Ehsani, Amir Hooshang; Samadi, Aniseh

    2016-01-01

    Background: The exposure of skin to ultraviolet radiation and temperature differs significantly during the day. It is reasonable that biophysical parameters of human skin have periodic daily fluctuation. The objective of this study was to study the fluctuations of various biophysical characteristics of Middle Eastern skin in standardized experimental conditions. Materials and Methods: Seven biophysical parameters of skin including stratum corneum hydration, transepidermal water loss, pH, sebum, elasticity, skin color, and erythema index were measured at three time points (8 a.m., 12 p.m. and 4 p.m.) on the forearm of 12 healthy participants (mean age of 28.4 years) without any ongoing skin disease using the CK MPA 580 device in standard temperature and humidity conditions. Results: A significant difference was observed between means of skin color index at 8 a.m. (175.42 ± 13.92) and 4 p.m. (164.44 ± 13.72, P = 0.025), between the pH at 8 a.m. (5.72 ± 0.48) and 4 p.m. (5.33 ± 0.55, P = 0.001) and pH at 12 p.m. (5.60 ± 0.48) and 4 p.m. (5.33 ± 0.55, P = 0.001). Other comparisons between the means of these parameters at different time points resulted in nonsignificant P values. Conclusion: There are daytime changes in skin color index and pH. Skin color index might be higher and cutaneous pH more basic in the early morning compared to later of the day. PMID:27904203

  5. Enriching text with images and colored light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekulovski, Dragan; Geleijnse, Gijs; Kater, Bram; Korst, Jan; Pauws, Steffen; Clout, Ramon

    2008-01-01

    We present an unsupervised method to enrich textual applications with relevant images and colors. The images are collected by querying large image repositories and subsequently the colors are computed using image processing. A prototype system based on this method is presented where the method is applied to song lyrics. In combination with a lyrics synchronization algorithm the system produces a rich multimedia experience. In order to identify terms within the text that may be associated with images and colors, we select noun phrases using a part of speech tagger. Large image repositories are queried with these terms. Per term representative colors are extracted using the collected images. Hereto, we either use a histogram-based or a mean shift-based algorithm. The representative color extraction uses the non-uniform distribution of the colors found in the large repositories. The images that are ranked best by the search engine are displayed on a screen, while the extracted representative colors are rendered on controllable lighting devices in the living room. We evaluate our method by comparing the computed colors to standard color representations of a set of English color terms. A second evaluation focuses on the distance in color between a queried term in English and its translation in a foreign language. Based on results from three sets of terms, a measure of suitability of a term for color extraction based on KL Divergence is proposed. Finally, we compare the performance of the algorithm using either the automatically indexed repository of Google Images and the manually annotated Flickr.com. Based on the results of these experiments, we conclude that using the presented method we can compute the relevant color for a term using a large image repository and image processing.

  6. Resolution for color photography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubel, Paul M.; Bautsch, Markus

    2006-02-01

    Although it is well known that luminance resolution is most important, the ability to accurately render colored details, color textures, and colored fabrics cannot be overlooked. This includes the ability to accurately render single-pixel color details as well as avoiding color aliasing. All consumer digital cameras on the market today record in color and the scenes people are photographing are usually color. Yet almost all resolution measurements made on color cameras are done using a black and white target. In this paper we present several methods for measuring and quantifying color resolution. The first method, detailed in a previous publication, uses a slanted-edge target of two colored surfaces in place of the standard black and white edge pattern. The second method employs the standard black and white targets recommended in the ISO standard, but records these onto the camera through colored filters thus giving modulation between black and one particular color component; red, green, and blue color separation filters are used in this study. The third method, conducted at Stiftung Warentest, an independent consumer organization of Germany, uses a whitelight interferometer to generate fringe pattern targets of varying color and spatial frequency.

  7. Predictive rendering for accurate material perception: modeling and rendering fabrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bala, Kavita

    2012-03-01

    In computer graphics, rendering algorithms are used to simulate the appearance of objects and materials in a wide range of applications. Designers and manufacturers rely entirely on these rendered images to previsualize scenes and products before manufacturing them. They need to differentiate between different types of fabrics, paint finishes, plastics, and metals, often with subtle differences, for example, between silk and nylon, formaica and wood. Thus, these applications need predictive algorithms that can produce high-fidelity images that enable such subtle material discrimination.

  8. RenderMan design principles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Apodaca, Tony; Porter, Tom

    1989-01-01

    The two worlds of interactive graphics and realistic graphics have remained separate. Fast graphics hardware runs simple algorithms and generates simple looking images. Photorealistic image synthesis software runs slowly on large expensive computers. The time has come for these two branches of computer graphics to merge. The speed and expense of graphics hardware is no longer the barrier to the wide acceptance of photorealism. There is every reason to believe that high quality image synthesis will become a standard capability of every graphics machine, from superworkstation to personal computer. The significant barrier has been the lack of a common language, an agreed-upon set of terms and conditions, for 3-D modeling systems to talk to 3-D rendering systems for computing an accurate rendition of that scene. Pixar has introduced RenderMan to serve as that common language. RenderMan, specifically the extensibility it offers in shading calculations, is discussed.

  9. Fast data parallel polygon rendering

    SciTech Connect

    Ortega, F.A.; Hansen, C.D.

    1993-09-01

    This paper describes a parallel method for polygonal rendering on a massively parallel SIMD machine. This method, based on a simple shading model, is targeted for applications which require very fast polygon rendering for extremely large sets of polygons such as is found in many scientific visualization applications. The algorithms described in this paper are incorporated into a library of 3D graphics routines written for the Connection Machine. The routines are implemented on both the CM-200 and the CM-5. This library enables a scientists to display 3D shaded polygons directly from a parallel machine without the need to transmit huge amounts of data to a post-processing rendering system.

  10. Progress in characterizing the multidimensional color quality properties of white LED light sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teunissen, Kees; Hoelen, Christoph

    2016-03-01

    With the introduction of solid state light sources, the variety in emission spectra is almost unlimited. However, the set of standardized parameters to characterize a white LED light source, such as correlated color temperature (CCT) and CIE general color rendering index (Ra), is known to be limited and insufficient for describing perceived differences between light sources. Several characterization methods have been proposed over the past decades, but their contribution to perceived color quality has not always been validated. To gain more insight in the relevant characteristics of the emission spectra for specific applications, we have conducted a perception experiment to rate the attractiveness of three sets of objects, including fresh food, packaging materials and skin tones. The objects were illuminated with seven different combinations of Red, Green, Blue, Amber and White LEDs, all with the same CCT and illumination level, but with differences in Ra and color saturation. The results show that, in general, object attractiveness does not correlate well with Ra, but shows a positive correlation with saturation increase for two out of three applications. There is no clear relation between saturation and skin tone attractiveness, partly due to differences in preference between males and females. A relative gamut area index (Ga) represents the average change in saturation and a complementary color vector graphic shows the direction and magnitude of chromatic differences for the eight CIE-1974 test-color samples. Together with the CIE general color rendering index (Ra) they provide useful information for designing and optimizing application specific emission spectra.

  11. LED light with enhanced color saturation and improved white light perception.

    PubMed

    Feng, Xiangfen; Xu, Wei; Han, Qiuyi; Zhang, Shanduan

    2016-01-11

    The light emitting diodes (LEDs) with high light quality were investigated to enhance the color appearance of the illuminated objects and increase the white light perception of the ambience. The spectral power distributions of the LED lights were optimized by addition of the RGB components and by shifting the color coordinate below the blackbody line to get desired color rendering index (CRI) and high gamut area index (GAI). The results of the human factor study reveal that the "perfect" white light can be achieved to both enhance color saturation and improve light visual impression. The effects of observer metamerism were studied to clarify the observed phenomenon that the white lights with the same color coordinates were perceived differently by real observers.

  12. Color M-mode Doppler flow propagation velocity is a preload insensitive index of left ventricular relaxation: animal and human validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, M. J.; Smedira, N. G.; Greenberg, N. L.; Main, M.; Firstenberg, M. S.; Odabashian, J.; Thomas, J. D.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine the effect of preload in color M-mode Doppler flow propagation velocity (v(p)). BACKGROUND: The interpretation of Doppler filling patterns is limited by confounding effects of left ventricular (LV) relaxation and preload. Color M-mode v(p) has been proposed as a new index of LV relaxation. METHODS: We studied four dogs before and during inferior caval (IVC) occlusion at five different inotropic stages and 14 patients before and during partial cardiopulmonary bypass. Left ventricular (LV) end-diastolic volumes (LV-EDV), the time constant of isovolumic relaxation (tau), left atrial (LA) pre-A and LV end-diastolic pressures (LV-EDP) were measured. Peak velocity during early filling (E) and v(p) were extracted by digital analysis of color M-mode Doppler images. RESULTS: In both animals and humans, LV-EDV and LV-EDP decreased significantly from baseline to IVC occlusion (both p < 0.001). Peak early filling (E) velocity decreased in animals from 56 +/- 21 to 42 +/- 17 cm/s (p < 0.001) without change in v(p) (from 35 +/- 15 to 35 +/- 16, p = 0.99). Results were similar in humans (from 69 +/- 15 to 53 +/- 22 cm/s, p < 0.001, and 37 +/- 12 to 34 +/- 16, p = 0.30). In both species, there was a strong correlation between LV relaxation (tau) and v(p) (r = 0.78, p < 0.001, r = 0.86, p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that color M-mode Doppler v(p) is not affected by preload alterations and confirms that LV relaxation is its main physiologic determinant in both animals during varying lusitropic conditions and in humans with heart disease.

  13. Microbial pathogen quality criteria of rendered products.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Pramod K; Biswas, Sagor; Kass, Philip

    2016-06-01

    The North American rendering industry processes approximately 24 million metric tons (Mt) of raw materials and produces more than 8 million Mt of rendered products. More than 85 % of rendered products produced annually in the USA are used for producing animal feed. Pathogen contamination in rendered products is an important and topical issue. Although elevated temperatures (115-140 °C) for 40-90 min during the standard rendering processes are mathematically sufficient to completely destroy commonly found pathogens, the presence of pathogens in rendered products has nevertheless been reported. Increased concern over the risk of microbial contamination in rendered products may require additional safeguards for producing pathogen-free rendered products. This study provides an overview of rendered products, existing microbial pathogen quality criteria of rendered products (MPQCR), limitations, and the scope of improving the MPQCR.

  14. The room acoustic rendering equation.

    PubMed

    Siltanen, Samuel; Lokki, Tapio; Kiminki, Sami; Savioja, Lauri

    2007-09-01

    An integral equation generalizing a variety of known geometrical room acoustics modeling algorithms is presented. The formulation of the room acoustic rendering equation is adopted from computer graphics. Based on the room acoustic rendering equation, an acoustic radiance transfer method, which can handle both diffuse and nondiffuse reflections, is derived. In a case study, the method is used to predict several acoustic parameters of a room model. The results are compared to measured data of the actual room and to the results given by other acoustics prediction software. It is concluded that the method can predict most acoustic parameters reliably and provides results as accurate as current commercial room acoustic prediction software. Although the presented acoustic radiance transfer method relies on geometrical acoustics, it can be extended to model diffraction and transmission through materials in future.

  15. Atmospheric correction of ocean color imagery: use of the junge power-law aerosol size distribution with variable refractive index to handle aerosol absorption.

    PubMed

    Chomko, R M; Gordon, H R

    1998-08-20

    When strongly absorbing aerosols are present in the atmosphere, the usual two-step procedure of processing ocean color data-(1) atmospheric correction to provide the water-leaving reflectance (rho(w)), followed by (2) relating rho(w) to the water constituents-fails and simultaneous estimation of the ocean and aerosol optical properties is necessary. We explore the efficacy of using a simple model of the aerosol-a Junge power-law size distribution consisting of homogeneous spheres with arbitrary refractive index-in a nonlinear optimization procedure for estimating the relevant oceanic and atmospheric parameters for case 1 waters. Using simulated test data generated from more realistic aerosol size distributions (sums of log-normally distributed components with different compositions), we show that the ocean's pigment concentration (C) can be retrieved with good accuracy in the presence of weakly or strongly absorbing aerosols. However, because of significant differences in the scattering phase functions for the test and power-law distributions, large error is possible in the estimate of the aerosol optical thickness. The positive result for C suggests that the detailed shape of the aerosol-scattering phase function is not relevant to the atmospheric correction of ocean color sensors. The relevant parameters are the aerosol single-scattering albedo and the spectral variation of the aerosol optical depth. We argue that the assumption of aerosol sphericity should not restrict the validity of the algorithm and suggest an avenue for including colored aerosols, e.g., wind-blown dust, in the procedure. A significant advantage of the new approach is that realistic multicomponent aerosol models are not required for the retrieval of C.

  16. Development of the IES method for evaluating the color rendition of light sources.

    PubMed

    David, Aurelien; Fini, Paul T; Houser, Kevin W; Ohno, Yoshi; Royer, Michael P; Smet, Kevin A G; Wei, Minchen; Whitehead, Lorne

    2015-06-15

    We have developed a two-measure system for evaluating light sources' color rendition that builds upon conceptual progress of numerous researchers over the last two decades. The system quantifies the color fidelity and color gamut (change in object chroma) of a light source in comparison to a reference illuminant. The calculations are based on a newly developed set of reflectance data from real samples uniformly distributed in color space (thereby fairly representing all colors) and in wavelength space (thereby precluding artificial optimization of the color rendition scores by spectral engineering). The color fidelity score R(f) is an improved version of the CIE color rendering index. The color gamut score R(g) is an improved version of the Gamut Area Index. In combination, they provide two complementary assessments to guide the optimization of future light sources. This method summarizes the findings of the Color Metric Task Group of the Illuminating Engineering Society of North America (IES). It is adopted in the upcoming IES TM-30-2015, and is proposed for consideration with the International Commission on Illumination (CIE).

  17. Development of the IES method for evaluating the color rendition of light sources

    DOE PAGES

    David, Aurelien; Fini, Paul T.; Houser, Kevin W.; ...

    2015-06-08

    We have developed a two-measure system for evaluating light sources’ color rendition that builds upon conceptual progress of numerous researchers over the last two decades. The system quantifies the color fidelity and color gamut (change in object chroma) of a light source in comparison to a reference illuminant. The calculations are based on a newly developed set of reflectance data from real samples uniformly distributed in color space (thereby fairly representing all colors) and in wavelength space (thereby precluding artificial optimization of the color rendition scores by spectral engineering). The color fidelity score Rf is an improved version of themore » CIE color rendering index. The color gamut score Rg is an improved version of the Gamut Area Index. In combination, they provide two complementary assessments to guide the optimization of future light sources. This method summarizes the findings of the Color Metric Task Group of the Illuminating Engineering Society of North America (IES). It is adopted in the upcoming IES TM-30-2015, and is proposed for consideration with the International Commission on Illumination (CIE).« less

  18. Development of the IES method for evaluating the color rendition of light sources

    SciTech Connect

    David, Aurelien; Fini, Paul T.; Houser, Kevin W.; Ohno, Yoshi; Royer, Michael P.; USA, Richland Washington; Smet, Kevin A. G.; Whitehead, Lorne

    2015-06-08

    We have developed a two-measure system for evaluating light sources’ color rendition that builds upon conceptual progress of numerous researchers over the last two decades. The system quantifies the color fidelity and color gamut (change in object chroma) of a light source in comparison to a reference illuminant. The calculations are based on a newly developed set of reflectance data from real samples uniformly distributed in color space (thereby fairly representing all colors) and in wavelength space (thereby precluding artificial optimization of the color rendition scores by spectral engineering). The color fidelity score Rf is an improved version of the CIE color rendering index. The color gamut score Rg is an improved version of the Gamut Area Index. In combination, they provide two complementary assessments to guide the optimization of future light sources. This method summarizes the findings of the Color Metric Task Group of the Illuminating Engineering Society of North America (IES). It is adopted in the upcoming IES TM-30-2015, and is proposed for consideration with the International Commission on Illumination (CIE).

  19. Linked-View Parallel Coordinate Plot Renderer

    SciTech Connect

    2011-06-28

    This software allows multiple linked views for interactive querying via map-based data selection, bar chart analytic overlays, and high dynamic range (HDR) line renderings. The major component of the visualization package is a parallel coordinate renderer with binning, curved layouts, shader-based rendering, and other techniques to allow interactive visualization of multidimensional data.

  20. Equivalent Colorings with "Maple"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cecil, David R.; Wang, Rongdong

    2005-01-01

    Many counting problems can be modeled as "colorings" and solved by considering symmetries and Polya's cycle index polynomial. This paper presents a "Maple 7" program link http://users.tamuk.edu/kfdrc00/ that, given Polya's cycle index polynomial, determines all possible associated colorings and their partitioning into equivalence classes. These…

  1. Matching rendered and real world images by digital image processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitjà, Carles; Bover, Toni; Bigas, Miquel; Escofet, Jaume

    2010-05-01

    Recent advances in computer-generated images (CGI) have been used in commercial and industrial photography providing a broad scope in product advertising. Mixing real world images with those rendered from virtual space software shows a more or less visible mismatching between corresponding image quality performance. Rendered images are produced by software which quality performance is only limited by the resolution output. Real world images are taken with cameras with some amount of image degradation factors as lens residual aberrations, diffraction, sensor low pass anti aliasing filters, color pattern demosaicing, etc. The effect of all those image quality degradation factors can be characterized by the system Point Spread Function (PSF). Because the image is the convolution of the object by the system PSF, its characterization shows the amount of image degradation added to any taken picture. This work explores the use of image processing to degrade the rendered images following the parameters indicated by the real system PSF, attempting to match both virtual and real world image qualities. The system MTF is determined by the slanted edge method both in laboratory conditions and in the real picture environment in order to compare the influence of the working conditions on the device performance; an approximation to the system PSF is derived from the two measurements. The rendered images are filtered through a Gaussian filter obtained from the taking system PSF. Results with and without filtering are shown and compared measuring the contrast achieved in different final image regions.

  2. A parallelized screen-based method for rendering polylines and polygons on terrain surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    She, Jiangfeng; Zhou, Yang; Tan, Xin; Li, Xingong; Guo, Xingchen

    2017-02-01

    Two dimensional (2D) vector features, when rendered on terrain as reference or highlight features, can improve the intelligibility of three dimensional (3D) scenes. This research proposes a new screen-space based method to render solid color 2D polylines and polygons on terrain. Using the z-buffer value and window coordinates in screen space, a pixel's spatial extent in real world coordinates can be calculated. The pixel's color is changed, if its spatial extent intersects with a polyline or polygon feature, to reflect the fact that there is a polyline going through or a polygon covering the pixel. Compared to other existing methods, our method eliminates undesirable rendering artifacts. A parallel computing schema was proposed and implemented as well to improve rendering performance.

  3. Color rendition engine.

    PubMed

    Zukauskas, Artūras; Vaicekauskas, Rimantas; Vitta, Pranciškus; Tuzikas, Arūnas; Petrulis, Andrius; Shur, Michael

    2012-02-27

    A source of white light with continuously tuned color rendition properties, such as color fidelity, as well as color saturating and color dulling ability has been developed. The source, which is composed of red (R), amber (A), green (G), and blue (B) light-emitting diodes, has a spectral power distribution varied as a weighted sum of "white" RGB and AGB blends. At the RGB and AGB end-points, the source has a highest color saturating and color dulling ability, respectively, as follows from the statistical analysis of the color-shift vectors for 1269 Munsell samples. The variation of the weight parameter allows for continuously traversing all possible metameric RAGB blends, including that with the highest color fidelity. The source was used in a psychophysical experiment on the estimation of the color appearance of familiar objects, such as vegetables, fruits, and soft-drink cans of common brands, at correlated color temperatures of 3000 K, 4500 K, and 6500 K. By continuously tuning the weight parameter, each of 100 subjects selected RAGB blends that, to their opinion, matched lighting characterized as "most saturating," "most dulling," "most natural," and "preferential". The end-point RGB and AGB blends have been almost unambiguously attributed to "most saturating" and "most dulling" lighting, respectively. RAGB blends that render a highest number of colors with high fidelity have, on average, been attributed to "most natural" lighting. The "preferential" color quality of lighting has, on average, been matched to RAGB blends that provide color rendition with fidelity somewhat reduced in favor of a higher saturation. Our results infer that tunable "color rendition engines" can validate color rendition metrics and provide lighting meeting specific needs and preferences to color quality.

  4. Rendering-oriented multiview video coding based on chrominance information reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Feng; Yu, Mei; Jiang, Gangyi; Zhang, Zhaoyang

    2010-05-01

    Three-dimensional (3-D) video systems are expected to be a next-generation visual application. Since multiview video for 3-D video systems is composed of color and associated depth information, its huge requirement for data storage and transmission is an important problem. We propose a rendering-oriented multiview video coding (MVC) method based on chrominance information reconstruction that incorporates the rendering technique into the MVC process. The proposed method discards certain chrominance information to reduce bitrates, and performs reasonable bitrate allocation between color and depth videos. At the decoder, a chrominance reconstruction algorithm is presented to achieve accurate reconstruction by warping the neighboring views and colorizing the luminance-only pixels. Experimental results show that the proposed method can save nearly 20% on bitrates against the results without discarding the chrominance information. Moreover, under a fixed bitrate budget, the proposed method can greatly improve the rendering quality.

  5. Conodont color alteration index (CAI) map and conodont-based age determinations for the Winchester 30' x 60' Quadrangle and adjacent area, Virginia, West Virginia, and Maryland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harris, Anita G.; Stamm, Nancy R.; Weary, David J.; Repetski, John E.; Stamm, Robert G.; Parker, Ronald A.

    1994-01-01

    Most of the conodont data presented in this report (table 1) were acquired to support 1:100,000-scale geologic mapping of the Winchester 30' X 60' quadrangle by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). Conodonts were chosen to provide a biostratigraphic framework for the Upper Cambrian to Mississippian marine carbonate rocks that make up about 25 percent of the Paleozoic strata exposed in the quadrangle (~2,130 m of the approximately 9,450 m) of Paleozoic strata exposed in the quadrangle). Thickness of stratigraphic units are from McDowell (1991), our own measurements, and from many of the stratigraphic reports and geologic maps listed in the references cited. Conodont biostratigraphic and color alteration index (CAI) analyses help identify stratigraphic units and structural discontinuities, particularly in the Upper Cambrian to Middle Ordovician chiefly carbonate rocks of the Shenandoah Valley and North Mountain fault zone. Conodont biofacies analyses provide additional information about the provincial affinities of the conodonts and the depositional environment of the rocks that contain them. Lithostratigraphic, biostratigraphic, paleoenvironmental, and CAI data for all conodont samples are given in table 1.

  6. RenderToolbox3: MATLAB tools that facilitate physically based stimulus rendering for vision research.

    PubMed

    Heasly, Benjamin S; Cottaris, Nicolas P; Lichtman, Daniel P; Xiao, Bei; Brainard, David H

    2014-02-07

    RenderToolbox3 provides MATLAB utilities and prescribes a workflow that should be useful to researchers who want to employ graphics in the study of vision and perhaps in other endeavors as well. In particular, RenderToolbox3 facilitates rendering scene families in which various scene attributes and renderer behaviors are manipulated parametrically, enables spectral specification of object reflectance and illuminant spectra, enables the use of physically based material specifications, helps validate renderer output, and converts renderer output to physical units of radiance. This paper describes the design and functionality of the toolbox and discusses several examples that demonstrate its use. We have designed RenderToolbox3 to be portable across computer hardware and operating systems and to be free and open source (except for MATLAB itself). RenderToolbox3 is available at https://github.com/DavidBrainard/RenderToolbox3.

  7. RenderToolbox3: MATLAB tools that facilitate physically based stimulus rendering for vision research

    PubMed Central

    Heasly, Benjamin S.; Cottaris, Nicolas P.; Lichtman, Daniel P.; Xiao, Bei; Brainard, David H.

    2014-01-01

    RenderToolbox3 provides MATLAB utilities and prescribes a workflow that should be useful to researchers who want to employ graphics in the study of vision and perhaps in other endeavors as well. In particular, RenderToolbox3 facilitates rendering scene families in which various scene attributes and renderer behaviors are manipulated parametrically, enables spectral specification of object reflectance and illuminant spectra, enables the use of physically based material specifications, helps validate renderer output, and converts renderer output to physical units of radiance. This paper describes the design and functionality of the toolbox and discusses several examples that demonstrate its use. We have designed RenderToolbox3 to be portable across computer hardware and operating systems and to be free and open source (except for MATLAB itself). RenderToolbox3 is available at https://github.com/DavidBrainard/RenderToolbox3. PMID:24511145

  8. Hierarchical image-based rendering using texture mapping hardware

    SciTech Connect

    Max, N

    1999-01-15

    Multi-layered depth images containing color and normal information for subobjects in a hierarchical scene model are precomputed with standard z-buffer hardware for six orthogonal views. These are adaptively selected according to the proximity of the viewpoint, and combined using hardware texture mapping to create ''reprojected'' output images for new viewpoints. (If a subobject is too close to the viewpoint, the polygons in the original model are rendered.) Specific z-ranges are selected from the textures with the hardware alpha test to give accurate 3D reprojection. The OpenGL color matrix is used to transform the precomputed normals into their orientations in the final view, for hardware shading.

  9. A new technique for rendering complex portals.

    PubMed

    Lowe, Nick; Datta, Amitava

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we identify a general paradigm for portal-based rendering and present an image-space algorithm for rendering complex portals. Our general paradigm is an abstraction of portal-based rendering that is independent of scene geometry. It provides a framework for flexible and dynamic scene composition by connecting cells with transformative portals. Our rendering algorithm maintains a visible volume in image-space and uses fragment culling to discard fragments outside of this volume. We discuss our implementation in OpenGL and present results that show it provides correct rendering of complex portals at interactive rates on current hardware. We believe that our work will be useful in many applications that require a means of creating dynamic and meaningful visual connections between different sets of data.

  10. Parallel rendering techniques for massively parallel visualization

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, C.; Krogh, M.; Painter, J.

    1995-07-01

    As the resolution of simulation models increases, scientific visualization algorithms which take advantage of the large memory. and parallelism of Massively Parallel Processors (MPPs) are becoming increasingly important. For large applications rendering on the MPP tends to be preferable to rendering on a graphics workstation due to the MPP`s abundant resources: memory, disk, and numerous processors. The challenge becomes developing algorithms that can exploit these resources while minimizing overhead, typically communication costs. This paper will describe recent efforts in parallel rendering for polygonal primitives as well as parallel volumetric techniques. This paper presents rendering algorithms, developed for massively parallel processors (MPPs), for polygonal, spheres, and volumetric data. The polygon algorithm uses a data parallel approach whereas the sphere and volume render use a MIMD approach. Implementations for these algorithms are presented for the Thinking Ma.chines Corporation CM-5 MPP.

  11. High-flux focusable color-tunable and efficient white-light-emitting diode light engine for stage lighting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakrabarti, Maumita; Pedersen, Henrik Chresten; Petersen, Paul Michael; Poulsen, Christian; Poulsen, Peter Behrensdorff; Dam-Hansen, Carsten

    2016-08-01

    A color mixing light-emitting diode (LED) light engine that can replace 2-kW halogen-Fresnel spotlight with high-luminous flux in excess of 20,000 lm is reported for applications in professional stage and studio lighting. The light engine focuses and mixes the light from 210 LEDs of five different colors through a microlens array (MA) at the gate of Ø50 mm. Hence, it produces homogeneous color-mixed tunable white light from 3000 to 6000 K that can be adjustable from flood to spot position providing 10% translational loss, whereas the corresponding loss from the halogen-Fresnel spotlight is 37%. The design, simulation, and optimization of the light engine is described and compared to the experimental characterization of a prototype. The light engine is optimized through the simulated design of reflector, total internal reflection lens, and MA, as well as the number of LEDs. An optical efficiency of 59% and a luminous efficacy of 33 lm/W are achieved, which is three times higher than the 2-kW halogen-Fresnel spotlight. In addition to having color rendering of color rendering index Ra>85 and television lighting consistency index 12>70, the dimmable and tunable white light can be color controlled during the operational time.

  12. Capturing, processing, and rendering real-world scenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyland, Lars S.; Lastra, Anselmo A.; McAllister, David K.; Popescu, Voicu; McCue, Chris; Fuchs, Henry

    2000-12-01

    While photographs vividly capture a scene from a single viewpoint, it is our goal to capture a scene in such a way that a viewer can freely move to any viewpoint, just as he or she would in an actual scene. We have built a prototype system to quickly digitize a scene using a laser rangefinder and a high-resolution digital camera that accurately captures a panorama of high-resolution range and color information. With real-world scenes, we have provided data to fuel research in many area, including representation, registration, data fusion, polygonization, rendering, simplification, and reillumination. The real-world scene data can be used for many purposes, including immersive environments, immersive training, re-engineering and engineering verification, renovation, crime-scene and accident capture and reconstruction, archaeology and historic preservation, sports and entertainment, surveillance, remote tourism and remote sales. We will describe our acquisition system, the necessary processing to merge data from the multiple input devices and positions. We will also describe high quality rendering using the data we have collected. Issues about specific rendering accelerators and algorithms will also be presented. We will conclude by describing future uses and methods of collection for real- world scene data.

  13. Informatics in radiology: Hesse rendering for computer-aided visualization and analysis of anomalies at chest CT and breast MR imaging.

    PubMed

    Wiemker, Rafael; Dharaiya, Ekta D; Bülow, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    A volume-rendering (VR) technique known as Hesse rendering applies image-enhancement filters to three-dimensional imaging volumes and depicts the filter responses in a color-coded fashion. Unlike direct VR, which makes use of intensities, Hesse rendering operates on the basis of shape properties, such that nodular structures in the resulting renderings have different colors than do tubular structures and thus are easily visualized. The renderings are mouse-click sensitive and can be used to navigate to locations of possible anomalies in the original images. Hesse rendering is meant to complement rather than replace conventional section-by-section viewing or VR. Although it is a pure visualization technique that involves no internal segmentation or explicit object detection, Hesse rendering, like computer-aided detection, may be effective for quickly calling attention to points of interest in large stacks of images and for helping radiologists to avoid oversights.

  14. Object-oriented parallel polygon rendering

    SciTech Connect

    Heiland, R.W.

    1994-09-01

    Since many scientific datasets can be visualized using some polygonal representation, a polygon renderer has broad use for scientific visualization. With today`s high performance computing applications producing very large datasets, a parallel polygon renderer is a necessary tool for keeping the compute-visualize cycle at a minimum. This paper presents a DOIV on renderer that combines the shared-memory and message-passing models of parallel programming. It uses the Global Arrays library, a shared-memory programming toolkit for distributed memory machines. The experience of using an object oriented approach for software design and development is also discussed.

  15. Foundations for Measuring Volume Rendering Quality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Peter L.; Uselton, Samuel P.; Chancellor, Marisa K. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to provide a foundation for objectively comparing volume rendered images. The key elements of the foundation are: (1) a rigorous specification of all the parameters that need to be specified to define the conditions under which a volume rendered image is generated; (2) a methodology for difference classification, including a suite of functions or metrics to quantify and classify the difference between two volume rendered images that will support an analysis of the relative importance of particular differences. The results of this method can be used to study the changes caused by modifying particular parameter values, to compare and quantify changes between images of similar data sets rendered in the same way, and even to detect errors in the design, implementation or modification of a volume rendering system. If one has a benchmark image, for example one created by a high accuracy volume rendering system, the method can be used to evaluate the accuracy of a given image.

  16. Color Blindness

    MedlinePlus

    ... rose in full bloom. If you have a color vision defect, you may see these colors differently than most people. There are three main kinds of color vision defects. Red-green color vision defects are the most ...

  17. OLED-based physiologically-friendly very low-color temperature illumination for night

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jou, Jwo-Huei; Shen, Shih-Ming; Tang, Ming-Chun; Chen, Pin-Chu; Chen, Szu-Hao; Wang, Yi-Shan; Chen, Chien-Chih; Wang, Ching-Chun; Hsieh, Chun-Yu; Lin, Chin-Chiao; Chen, Chien-Tien

    2012-09-01

    Numerous medical research studies reveal intense white or blue light to drastically suppress at night the secretion of melatonin (MLT), a protective oncostatic hormone. Lighting devices with lower color-temperature (CT) possess lesser MLT suppression effect based on the same luminance, explaining why physicians have long been calling for the development of lighting sources with low CT or free from blue emission for use at night to safeguard human health. We will demonstrate in the presentation the fabrication of OLED devices with very-low CT, especially those with CT much lower than that of incandescent bulbs (2500K) or even candles (2000K). Without any light extraction method, OLEDs with an around 1800K CT are easily obtainable with an efficacy of 30 lm/W at 1,000 nits. To also ensure high color-rendering to provide visual comfort, low CT OLEDs composing long wavelength dominant 5-spectrum emission have been fabricated. While keeping the color-rendering index as high as 85 and CT as low as 2100K, the resulting efficacy can also be much greater than that of incandescent bulbs (15 lm/W), proving these low CT OLED devices to be also capable of being energy-saving and high quality. The color-temperature can be further decreased to 1700K or lower upon removing the undesired short wavelength emission but on the cost of losing some color rendering index. It is hoped that the devised energy-saving, high quality low CT OLED could properly echo the call for a physiologically-friendly illumination for night, and more attention could be drawn to the development of MLT suppression-less non-white light.

  18. Rendering and Compositing Infrastructure Improvements to VisIt for Insitu Rendering

    SciTech Connect

    Loring, Burlen; Ruebel, Oliver

    2016-01-28

    Compared to posthoc rendering, insitu rendering often generates larger numbers of images, as a result rendering performance and scalability are critical in the insitu setting. In this work we present improvements to VisIt's rendering and compositing infrastructure that deliver increased performance and scalability in both posthoc and insitu settings. We added the capability for alpha blend compositing and use it with ordered compositing when datasets have disjoint block domain decomposition to optimize the rendering of transparent geometry. We also made improvements that increase overall efficiency by reducing communication and data movement and have addressed a number of performance issues. We structured our code to take advantage of SIMD parallelization and use threads to overlap communication and compositing. We tested our improvements on a 20 core workstation using 8 cores to render geometry generated from a $256^3$ cosmology dataset and on a Cray XC31 using 512 cores to render geometry generated from a $2000^2 \\times 800$ plasma dataset. Our results show that ordered compositing provides a speed up of up to $4 \\times$ over the current sort first strategy. The other improvements resulted in modest speed up with one notable exception where we achieve up to $40 \\times$ speed up of rendering and compositing of opaque geometry when both opaque and transparent geometry are rendered together. We also investigated the use of depth peeling, but found that the implementation provided by VTK is substantially slower,both with and without GPU acceleration, than a local camera order sort.

  19. Equalizer: a scalable parallel rendering framework.

    PubMed

    Eilemann, Stefan; Makhinya, Maxim; Pajarola, Renato

    2009-01-01

    Continuing improvements in CPU and GPU performances as well as increasing multi-core processor and cluster-based parallelism demand for flexible and scalable parallel rendering solutions that can exploit multipipe hardware accelerated graphics. In fact, to achieve interactive visualization, scalable rendering systems are essential to cope with the rapid growth of data sets. However, parallel rendering systems are non-trivial to develop and often only application specific implementations have been proposed. The task of developing a scalable parallel rendering framework is even more difficult if it should be generic to support various types of data and visualization applications, and at the same time work efficiently on a cluster with distributed graphics cards. In this paper we introduce a novel system called Equalizer, a toolkit for scalable parallel rendering based on OpenGL which provides an application programming interface (API) to develop scalable graphics applications for a wide range of systems ranging from large distributed visualization clusters and multi-processor multipipe graphics systems to single-processor single-pipe desktop machines. We describe the system architecture, the basic API, discuss its advantages over previous approaches, present example configurations and usage scenarios as well as scalability results.

  20. Standardized rendering from IR surveillance motion imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prokoski, F. J.

    2014-06-01

    Government agencies, including defense and law enforcement, increasingly make use of video from surveillance systems and camera phones owned by non-government entities.Making advanced and standardized motion imaging technology available to private and commercial users at cost-effective prices would benefit all parties. In particular, incorporating thermal infrared into commercial surveillance systems offers substantial benefits beyond night vision capability. Face rendering is a process to facilitate exploitation of thermal infrared surveillance imagery from the general area of a crime scene, to assist investigations with and without cooperating eyewitnesses. Face rendering automatically generates greyscale representations similar to police artist sketches for faces in surveillance imagery collected from proximate locations and times to a crime under investigation. Near-realtime generation of face renderings can provide law enforcement with an investigation tool to assess witness memory and credibility, and integrate reports from multiple eyewitnesses, Renderings can be quickly disseminated through social media to warn of a person who may pose an immediate threat, and to solicit the public's help in identifying possible suspects and witnesses. Renderings are pose-standardized so as to not divulge the presence and location of eyewitnesses and surveillance cameras. Incorporation of thermal infrared imaging into commercial surveillance systems will significantly improve system performance, and reduce manual review times, at an incremental cost that will continue to decrease. Benefits to criminal justice would include improved reliability of eyewitness testimony and improved accuracy of distinguishing among minority groups in eyewitness and surveillance identifications.

  1. Color reproduction on inkjet printers and paper colorimetric properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez-Reche, Jesus; Uroz, Joan; Diaz, Jose A.; Garcia-Beltran, Antonio

    2003-12-01

    The goal of this work is to study the relationship between the colorimetric characteristics that identify a kind of paper and those that allow us to evaluate its color reproduction capabilities on inkjet printers. A set of 29 different commercial papers from several companies has been tested. The category of those papers ranged from photo quality to prepress proof and ordinary office papers, being their finishing matte, semi-matte or glossy. For each sample, we have measured their reflectance, intrinsic reflectance, opacity, CIE whiteness index and tint. All these measurements followed the procedures established in the international standards about paper and board. Then, we have printed on three different sheet of each paper the color chart proposed in the international standard for color printer characterization ANSI IT8/7.3. When calculated the CIELAB coordinates using the D50 standard illuminant, we studied the dynamic range, color gamut and the rendering linearity. The results show that the colorimetric properties and reproduction capabilities of the 29 commercial papers let us cluster them in accordance with their behavior. However, we found no systematic correlation between color reproduction and specific colorimetric properties of the types of paper: we should search for other physical (not just colorimetric) properties (for instance, gloss or ink absorption capacity).

  2. A Parallel Rendering Algorithm for MIMD Architectures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crockett, Thomas W.; Orloff, Tobias

    1991-01-01

    Applications such as animation and scientific visualization demand high performance rendering of complex three dimensional scenes. To deliver the necessary rendering rates, highly parallel hardware architectures are required. The challenge is then to design algorithms and software which effectively use the hardware parallelism. A rendering algorithm targeted to distributed memory MIMD architectures is described. For maximum performance, the algorithm exploits both object-level and pixel-level parallelism. The behavior of the algorithm is examined both analytically and experimentally. Its performance for large numbers of processors is found to be limited primarily by communication overheads. An experimental implementation for the Intel iPSC/860 shows increasing performance from 1 to 128 processors across a wide range of scene complexities. It is shown that minimal modifications to the algorithm will adapt it for use on shared memory architectures as well.

  3. MEDIFRAME--remote volume rendering visualization framework.

    PubMed

    Unterhinninghofen, Roland; Giesel, Frederik; Dillmann, Rüdiger

    2011-01-01

    Tablet computers, netbooks, and other mobile devices find their way into medical applications. However, advanced visualization such as volume rendering of tomographic data is too demanding for these devices. Hence the concept of remote visualization gains attention again. Using powerful servers views are rendered and transmitted as video-stream to the mobile devices in real-time. In this article we present a new extension to our software framework Mediframe allowing easy setup of remote visualization in the medical imaging domain. We give an overview of the general visualization architecture and explain the remoting component in detail. Tests from different cities in Europe revealed good latency and rendering times as well as a surprisingly smooth user experience. We conclude that our remote visualization framework is a handy, functional extension to medical visualization applications.

  4. Upconversion color tunability and white light generation in Tm 3+/Ho 3+/Yb 3+ doped aluminum germanate glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Hua; Yang, Dianlai; Zhao, Xin; Yun Bun Pun, Edwin; Lin, Hai

    2010-02-01

    Tm 3+/Ho 3+/Yb 3+ triply doped aluminum germanate glasses exhibiting multicolor upconversion fluorescences have been fabricated and characterized. Efficient three-photon blue upconversion emission of Tm 3+ and two-photon green and red upconversion fluorescences of Ho 3+ have been observed. The strong red emission of Ho 3+, which is more than eight times higher than that of the green emission, is desirable in achieving high color rendering index. By varying the excitation power of the 974 nm wavelength laser diode, a series of white fluorescences with a large range of correlated color temperature ( CCT) was obtained, and the fluorescence colors can be tuned from yellowish white to warm white, pure white, cool white, and bluish white with different CCT. The upconversion color tunability via pump power adjustment will promote the development of three-dimensional solid-state displays and upconversion illumination devices.

  5. Parallel text rendering by a PostScript interpreter

    SciTech Connect

    Kritskii, S.P.; Zastavnoi, B.A.

    1994-11-01

    The most radical method of increasing the performance of devices controlled by PostScript interpreters may be the use of multiprocessor controllers. This paper presents a method for parallelizing the operation of a PostScript interpreter for rendering text. The proposed method is based on decomposition of the outlines of letters into horizontal strips covering equal areas. The subroutines thus obtained are distributed to the processors in a network and then filled in by conventional sequential algorithms. A special algorithm has been developed for dividing the outlines of characters into subroutines so that each may be colored independently of the others. The algorithm uses special estimates for estimating the correct partition so that the corresponding outlines are divided into horizontal strips. A method is presented for finding such estimates. Two different processing approaches are presented. In the first, one of the processors performs the decomposition of the outlines and distributes the strips to the remaining processors, which are responsible for the rendering. In the second approach, the decomposition process is itself distributed among the processors in the network.

  6. Fast polyhedral cell sorting for interactive rendering of unstructured grids

    SciTech Connect

    Combra, J; Klosowski, J T; Max, N; Silva, C T; Williams, P L

    1998-10-30

    Direct volume rendering based on projective methods works by projecting, in visibility order, the polyhedral cells of a mesh onto the image plane, and incrementally compositing the cell's color and opacity into the final image. Crucial to this method is the computation of a visibility ordering of the cells. If the mesh is ''well-behaved'' (acyclic and convex), then the MPVO method of Williams provides a very fast sorting algorithm; however, this method only computes an approximate ordering in general datasets, resulting in visual artifacts when rendered. A recent method of Silva et al. removed the assumption that the mesh is convex, by means of a sweep algorithm used in conjunction with the MPVO method; their algorithm is substantially faster than previous exact methods for general meshes. In this paper we propose a new technique, which we call BSP-XMPVO, which is based on a fast and simple way of using binary space partitions on the boundary elements of the mesh to augment the ordering produced by MPVO. Our results are shown to be orders of magnitude better than previous exact methods of sorting cells.

  7. Direct Volume Rendering with Shading via Three-Dimensional Textures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanGelder, Allen; Kim, Kwansik

    1996-01-01

    A new and easy-to-implement method for direct volume rendering that uses 3D texture maps for acceleration, and incorporates directional lighting, is described. The implementation, called Voltx, produces high-quality images at nearly interactive speeds on workstations with hardware support for three-dimensional texture maps. Previously reported methods did not incorporate a light model, and did not address issues of multiple texture maps for large volumes. Our research shows that these extensions impact performance by about a factor of ten. Voltx supports orthographic, perspective, and stereo views. This paper describes the theory and implementation of this technique, and compares it to the shear-warp factorization approach. A rectilinear data set is converted into a three-dimensional texture map containing color and opacity information. Quantized normal vectors and a lookup table provide efficiency. A new tesselation of the sphere is described, which serves as the basis for normal-vector quantization. A new gradient-based shading criterion is described, in which the gradient magnitude is interpreted in the context of the field-data value and the material classification parameters, and not in isolation. In the rendering phase, the texture map is applied to a stack of parallel planes, which effectively cut the texture into many slabs. The slabs are composited to form an image.

  8. Direct volumetric rendering based on point primitives in OpenGL.

    PubMed

    da Rosa, André Luiz Miranda; de Almeida Souza, Ilana; Yuuji Hira, Adilson; Zuffo, Marcelo Knörich

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this project is to present a renderization by software algorithm of acquired volumetric data. The algorithm was implemented in Java language and the LWJGL graphical library was used, allowing the volume renderization by software and thus preventing the necessity to acquire specific graphical boards for the 3D reconstruction. The considered algorithm creates a model in OpenGL, through point primitives, where each voxel becomes a point with the color values related to this pixel position in the corresponding images.

  9. Rapid Decimation for Direct Volume Rendering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibbs, Jonathan; VanGelder, Allen; Verma, Vivek; Wilhelms, Jane

    1997-01-01

    An approach for eliminating unnecessary portions of a volume when producing a direct volume rendering is described. This reduction in volume size sacrifices some image quality in the interest of rendering speed. Since volume visualization is often used as an exploratory visualization technique, it is important to reduce rendering times, so the user can effectively explore the volume. The methods presented can speed up rendering by factors of 2 to 3 with minor image degradation. A family of decimation algorithms to reduce the number of primitives in the volume without altering the volume's grid in any way is introduced. This allows the decimation to be computed rapidly, making it easier to change decimation levels on the fly. Further, because very little extra space is required, this method is suitable for the very large volumes that are becoming common. The method is also grid-independent, so it is suitable for multiple overlapping curvilinear and unstructured, as well as regular, grids. The decimation process can proceed automatically, or can be guided by the user so that important regions of the volume are decimated less than unimportant regions. A formal error measure is described based on a three-dimensional analog of the Radon transform. Decimation methods are evaluated based on this metric and on direct comparison with reference images.

  10. Shapes and textures for rendering coral

    SciTech Connect

    Max, N.L. ); Wyvill, G. )

    1990-10-18

    A growth algorithm has been developed to build coral shapes out of a tree of spheres. A volume density defined by the spheres is contoured to give a soft object.'' The resulting contour surfaces are rendered by ray tracing, using a generalized volume texture to produce shading and bump mapped'' normal perturbations. 16 refs., 8 figs.

  11. ProteinShader: illustrative rendering of macromolecules

    PubMed Central

    Weber, Joseph R

    2009-01-01

    Background Cartoon-style illustrative renderings of proteins can help clarify structural features that are obscured by space filling or balls and sticks style models, and recent advances in programmable graphics cards offer many new opportunities for improving illustrative renderings. Results The ProteinShader program, a new tool for macromolecular visualization, uses information from Protein Data Bank files to produce illustrative renderings of proteins that approximate what an artist might create by hand using pen and ink. A combination of Hermite and spherical linear interpolation is used to draw smooth, gradually rotating three-dimensional tubes and ribbons with a repeating pattern of texture coordinates, which allows the application of texture mapping, real-time halftoning, and smooth edge lines. This free platform-independent open-source program is written primarily in Java, but also makes extensive use of the OpenGL Shading Language to modify the graphics pipeline. Conclusion By programming to the graphics processor unit, ProteinShader is able to produce high quality images and illustrative rendering effects in real-time. The main feature that distinguishes ProteinShader from other free molecular visualization tools is its use of texture mapping techniques that allow two-dimensional images to be mapped onto the curved three-dimensional surfaces of ribbons and tubes with minimum distortion of the images. PMID:19331660

  12. Rendering Visible: Painting and Sexuate Subjectivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daley, Linda

    2015-01-01

    In this essay, I examine Luce Irigaray's aesthetic of sexual difference, which she develops by extrapolating from Paul Klee's idea that the role of painting is to render the non-visible rather than represent the visible. This idea is the premise of her analyses of phenomenology and psychoanalysis and their respective contributions to understanding…

  13. Superposition rendering: Increased realism for interactive walkthroughs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bastos, Rui M. R. De

    1999-11-01

    The light transport equation, conventionally known as the rendering equation in a slightly different form, is an implicit integral equation, which represents the interactions of light with matter and the distribution of light in a scene. This research describes a signals-and- systems approach to light transport and casts the light transport equation in terms of convolution. Additionally, the light transport problem is linearly decomposed into simpler problems with simpler solutions, which are then recombined to approximate the full solution. The central goal is to provide interactive photorealistic rendering of virtual environments. We show how the light transport problem can be cast in terms of signals-and-systems. The light is the signal and the materials are the systems. The outgoing light from a light transfer at a surface point is given by convolving the incoming light with the material's impulse response (the material's BRDF/BTDF). Even though the theoretical approach is presented in directional-space, we present an approximation in screen-space, which enables the exploitation of graphics hardware convolution for approximating the light transport equation. The convolution approach to light transport is not enough to fully solve the light transport problem at interactive rates with current machines. We decompose the light transport problem into simpler problems. The decomposition of the light transport problem is based on distinct characteristics of different parts of the problem: the ideally diffuse, the ideally specular, and the glossy transfers. A technique for interactive rendering of each of these components is presented as well a technique for superposing the independent components in a multipass manner in real time. Given the extensive use of the superposition principle in this research, we name our approach superposition rendering to distinguish it from other standard hardware-aided multipass rendering approaches.

  14. Magnetoresponsive Photonic Microspheres with Structural Color Gradient.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung Yeol; Choi, Jongkook; Jeong, Jong-Ryul; Shin, Jung H; Kim, Shin-Hyun

    2017-02-06

    Photonic Janus particles are created by alternately sputtering silica and titania on microspheres in order to obtain a structural color gradient. In addition, the microspheres are rendered magnetoresponsive. The Janus microspheres with optical and magnetic anisotropy enable on-demand control over orientation and structural color through manipulation of an external magnetic field, thereby being useful as active color pigments for reflection-mode displays.

  15. Polymeric Inverse Glasses for Development of Noniridescent Structural Colors in Full Visible Range.

    PubMed

    Lee, Gun Ho; Sim, Jae Young; Kim, Shin-Hyun

    2016-05-18

    Amorphous colloidal array with short-range order displays noniridescent structural colors due to the isotropic nature of the colloidal arrangement. The low angle dependence renders the colloidal glasses, which is promising for various coloration applications. Nevertheless, the colloidal glasses are difficult to develop red structural color due to strong cavity-like resonance from individual particles in the blue region. To suppress the cavity mode and develop the colors in the full visible range, we prepare inverse glasses composed of amorphous array of air cavities with short-range order. To produce the structures in a simple and reproducible manner, monodisperse silica particles are dispersed in a photocurable resin of poly(ethylene glycol) dimethacrylate (PEGDMA) at a volume fraction of 0.3. The particles spontaneously form the amorphous array with short-range order, which is rapidly captured in polymeric films by photopolymerization of the resin. Selective removal of silica particles from the polymerized resin leaves behind amorphous array of air cavities. The inverse glasses display structural colors with negligible backscattering in blue due to short optical path and low index in each cavity. Therefore, the colors can be tuned in full visible range by simply controlling the cavity size. The photocurable suspensions of silica particles can be patterned by photolithography, which enables the production of freestanding films containing patterned inverse glasses with noniridescent structural colors.

  16. Color blindness

    MedlinePlus

    ... have trouble telling the difference between red and green. This is the most common type of color ... color blindness often have problems seeing reds and greens, too. The most severe form of color blindness ...

  17. Visualization of dyed NAPL concentration in transparent porous media using color space components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kashuk, Sina; Mercurio, Sophia R.; Iskander, Magued

    2014-07-01

    Finding a correlation between image pixel information and non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) saturation is an important issue in bench-scale geo-environmental model studies that employ optical imaging techniques. Another concern is determining the best dye color and its optimum concentration as a tracer for use in mapping NAPL zones. Most bench scale flow studies employ monochromatic gray-scale imaging to analyze the concentration of mostly red dyed NAPL tracers in porous media. However, the use of grayscale utilizes a third of the available information in color images, which typically contain three color-space components. In this study, eight color spaces consisting of 24 color-space components were calibrated against dye concentration for three color-dyes. Additionally, multiple color space components were combined to increase the correlation between color-space data and dyed NAPL concentration. This work is performed to support imaging of NAPL migration in transparent synthetic soils representing the macroscopic behavior of natural soils. The transparent soil used in this study consists of fused quartz and a matched refractive index mineral-oil solution that represents the natural aquifer. The objective is to determine the best color dye concentration and ideal color space components for rendering dyed sucrose-saturated fused quartz that represents contamination of the natural aquifer by a dense NAPL (DNAPL). Calibration was achieved for six NAPL zone lengths using 3456 images (24 color space components × 3 dyes × 48 NAPL combinations) of contaminants within a defined criteria expressed as peak signal to noise ratio. The effect of data filtering was also considered and a convolution average filter is recommended for image conditioning. The technology presented in this paper is fast, accurate, non-intrusive and inexpensive method for quantifying contamination zones using transparent soil models.

  18. Visualization of dyed NAPL concentration in transparent porous media using color space components.

    PubMed

    Kashuk, Sina; Mercurio, Sophia R; Iskander, Magued

    2014-07-01

    Finding a correlation between image pixel information and non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) saturation is an important issue in bench-scale geo-environmental model studies that employ optical imaging techniques. Another concern is determining the best dye color and its optimum concentration as a tracer for use in mapping NAPL zones. Most bench scale flow studies employ monochromatic gray-scale imaging to analyze the concentration of mostly red dyed NAPL tracers in porous media. However, the use of grayscale utilizes a third of the available information in color images, which typically contain three color-space components. In this study, eight color spaces consisting of 24 color-space components were calibrated against dye concentration for three color-dyes. Additionally, multiple color space components were combined to increase the correlation between color-space data and dyed NAPL concentration. This work is performed to support imaging of NAPL migration in transparent synthetic soils representing the macroscopic behavior of natural soils. The transparent soil used in this study consists of fused quartz and a matched refractive index mineral-oil solution that represents the natural aquifer. The objective is to determine the best color dye concentration and ideal color space components for rendering dyed sucrose-saturated fused quartz that represents contamination of the natural aquifer by a dense NAPL (DNAPL). Calibration was achieved for six NAPL zone lengths using 3456 images (24 color space components×3 dyes×48 NAPL combinations) of contaminants within a defined criteria expressed as peak signal to noise ratio. The effect of data filtering was also considered and a convolution average filter is recommended for image conditioning. The technology presented in this paper is fast, accurate, non-intrusive and inexpensive method for quantifying contamination zones using transparent soil models.

  19. NASA 1981 photography index

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    An index of representative photographs is presented. Color transparencies and black and white glossies of major launches, Mariner spacecraft, Pioneer spacecraft, planets and other space phenomena, Skylab, space shuttle, Viking spacecraft, and Voyager spacecraft are included.

  20. Remote rendering using vtk and vic.

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, R.; Papka, M.E.

    2000-09-19

    This paper presents a remote rendering application that involves the extension of the Visualization Toolkit (vtk) and the Video Conferencing Tool (vie) for use in remote rendering complete with interaction from the remote site using the vie user interface. Vtk is an open source C++ library, with Tel, Python, and Java bindings for computer graphics, image processing, and visualization [3]. Vtk provides a higher level of support, beyond the traditional low-level libraries, for creating visualization applications. Vtk includes algorithms to support the visualization of scalars, vectors, and tensors. Vic is a flexible tool built by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory for real-time video conferencing over the Internet [2]. Vie's user interface is built as Tcl/Tk script embedded in the applications. This allows developers to prototype changes to the interface in a simple and straightforward manner.

  1. A rendering approach for stereoscopic web pages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jianlong; Wang, Wenmin; Wang, Ronggang; Chen, Qinshui

    2014-03-01

    Web technology provides a relatively easy way to generate contents for us to recognize the world, and with the development of stereoscopic display technology, the stereoscopic devices will become much more popular. The combination of web technology and stereoscopic display technology will bring revolutionary visual effect. The Stereoscopic 3D (S3D) web pages, in which text, image and video may have different depth, can be displayed on stereoscopic display devices. This paper presents the approach about how to render two viewing S3D web pages including text, images, widgets: first, an algorithm should be developed in order to display stereoscopic elements like text, widgets by using 2D graphic library; second, a method should be presented to render stereoscopic web page based on current framework of the browser; third, a rough solution is invented to fix the problem that comes out in the method.

  2. A Task Adaptive parallel graphics renderer

    SciTech Connect

    Whitman, S.

    1992-12-21

    This paper presents a graphics renderer which incorporates new partitioning methodologies of memory and work for efficient execution on a parallel computer. The Task Adaptive domain decomposition scheme is an image space method involving dynamic partitioning of rectangular pixel area tasks. The author shows that this method requires little overhead, allows coherence within a parallel context, handles worst case scenarios effectively, and executes efficiently with little processor synchronization necessary. Previous research in the area of memory and work decompositions for graphics rendering has been primarily limited to simulation studies and little practical experience. The algorithm presented here has been implemented on a scalable distributed memory multiprocessor and tested on a variety of input scenes. The author presents a theoretical and practical analysis in order to contrast its predicted and actual success. The implementation analysis indicates that load imbalance is the major cause of performance degradation at the higher processor counts. Even so, on a variety of test scenes, an average rendering speedup of 79 was achieved utilizing 96 processors on the BBN TC2000 multiprocessor with a processor efficiency range of 66% to 94%.

  3. Some microbiological aspects of inedible rendering processes.

    PubMed

    Hansen, P I; Olgaard, K

    1984-12-01

    Various aspects of the bacteriology of inedible rendering have been investigated in order to establish a solid basis for future decisions concerning an up-to-date and flexible legislation on rendering. Thermal death (TD)-graphs for spores of B. cereus and Cl. perfrigens, PA 3679 (Fig. 3), and heat transmission equations for animal tissues have been determined. By using the heat transmission data for bones and the TD graphs for the spores it is possible to predict the decimal reductions of spores in the centre of the largest pieces present during a given rendering process, thus establishing conditions for bacteriological safe processes. The calculations show that predrying for 45 min followed by cooking at 125 degrees C for 15 min and final drying ensures destruction of non-sporeforming bacteria and Bacillus anthracis spores even in the centre of 70 mm bone particles while heat resistant spores of clostridia are virtually unaffected. By reducing the particle size to less than 40 mm, the same process will result in a reasonable reduction of heat resistant clostridia spores, too (Table 4). In order to verify such theoretically calculated effects a new technique has been developed in which steel tubes containing a paste inoculated with spores were inserted in bones. These were treated in a cooker, were caught during discharge and examined. The results confirmed the calculations (Table 5). Most modern rendering systems (Carver-Greenfield, Stork-Duke, Wet Pressing) are continuous without pressure cooking and a common feature is a fine mincing minimizing the problem of heat penetration. In order to obtain information regarding the thermal sterilizing effect in such systems investigations were made in a pilot cooker using inoculated meat-and-bone meal mixed with water and/or fat. Regardless of whether fat was added or not sterility was found for samples containing water when the temperature during drying reached 110-120 degrees C, whereas cooking in fat only drastically

  4. 'Burns Cliff' Color Panorama

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on the image for 'Burns Cliff' Color Panorama (QTVR)

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity captured this view of 'Burns Cliff' after driving right to the base of this southeastern portion of the inner wall of 'Endurance Crater.' The view combines frames taken by Opportunity's panoramic camera between the rover's 287th and 294th martian days (Nov. 13 to 20, 2004).

    This is a composite of 46 different images, each acquired in seven different Pancam filters. It is an approximately true-color rendering generated from the panoramic camera's 750-nanometer, 530-nanometer and 430-nanometer filters. The mosaic spans more than 180 degrees side to side. Because of this wide-angle view, the cliff walls appear to bulge out toward the camera. In reality the walls form a gently curving, continuous surface.

  5. A multi-zoned white organic light-emitting diode with high CRI and low color temperature

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Tao; He, Shou-Jie; Wang, Deng-Ke; Jiang, Nan; Lu, Zheng-Hong

    2016-01-01

    White organic light emitting diodes (WOLEDs) is becoming a new platform technology for a range of applications such as flat-panel displays, solid-state lightings etc., and are under intensive research. For general solid-state illumination applications, a WOLED’s color rendering index (CRI) and correlated color temperature (CCT) are two crucial parameters. This paper reports that WOLED device structures can be constructed using four stacked emission layers which independently emit lights at blue, green, yellow and red color respectively. The intensity of each emission layer is then engineered by funneling excitons to the targeted emission layer to achieve an ultrahigh 92 CRI at 5000 cd/m2, and to reduce CCT to below 2500 K. PMID:26842934

  6. Acoustic-tactile rendering of visual information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, Pubudu Madhawa; Pappas, Thrasyvoulos N.; Atkins, Joshua; West, James E.; Hartmann, William M.

    2012-03-01

    In previous work, we have proposed a dynamic, interactive system for conveying visual information via hearing and touch. The system is implemented with a touch screen that allows the user to interrogate a two-dimensional (2-D) object layout by active finger scanning while listening to spatialized auditory feedback. Sound is used as the primary source of information for object localization and identification, while touch is used both for pointing and for kinesthetic feedback. Our previous work considered shape and size perception of simple objects via hearing and touch. The focus of this paper is on the perception of a 2-D layout of simple objects with identical size and shape. We consider the selection and rendition of sounds for object identification and localization. We rely on the head-related transfer function for rendering sound directionality, and consider variations of sound intensity and tempo as two alternative approaches for rendering proximity. Subjective experiments with visually-blocked subjects are used to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed approaches. Our results indicate that intensity outperforms tempo as a proximity cue, and that the overall system for conveying a 2-D layout is quite promising.

  7. A Multiresolution Image Cache for Volume Rendering

    SciTech Connect

    LaMar, E; Pascucci, V

    2003-02-27

    The authors discuss the techniques and implementation details of the shared-memory image caching system for volume visualization and iso-surface rendering. One of the goals of the system is to decouple image generation from image display. This is done by maintaining a set of impostors for interactive display while the production of the impostor imagery is performed by a set of parallel, background processes. The system introduces a caching basis that is free of the gap/overlap artifacts of earlier caching techniques. instead of placing impostors at fixed, pre-defined positions in world space, the technique is to adaptively place impostors relative to the camera viewpoint. The positions translate with the camera but stay aligned to the data; i.e., the positions translate, but do not rotate, with the camera. The viewing transformation is factored into a translation transformation and a rotation transformation. The impostor imagery is generated using just the translation transformation and visible impostors are displayed using just the rotation transformation. Displayed image quality is improved by increasing the number of impostors and the frequency that impostors are re-rendering is improved by decreasing the number of impostors.

  8. Color realism and color science.

    PubMed

    Byrne, Alex; Hilbert, David R

    2003-02-01

    The target article is an attempt to make some progress on the problem of color realism. Are objects colored? And what is the nature of the color properties? We defend the view that physical objects (for instance, tomatoes, radishes, and rubies) are colored, and that colors are physical properties, specifically, types of reflectance. This is probably a minority opinion, at least among color scientists. Textbooks frequently claim that physical objects are not colored, and that the colors are "subjective" or "in the mind." The article has two other purposes: First, to introduce an interdisciplinary audience to some distinctively philosophical tools that are useful in tackling the problem of color realism and, second, to clarify the various positions and central arguments in the debate. The first part explains the problem of color realism and makes some useful distinctions. These distinctions are then used to expose various confusions that often prevent people from seeing that the issues are genuine and difficult, and that the problem of color realism ought to be of interest to anyone working in the field of color science. The second part explains the various leading answers to the problem of color realism, and (briefly) argues that all views other than our own have serious difficulties or are unmotivated. The third part explains and motivates our own view, that colors are types of reflectances and defends it against objections made in the recent literature that are often taken as fatal.

  9. Color Facsimile.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-02-01

    modification of existing JPEG compression and decompression software available from Independent JPEG Users Group to process CIELAB color images and to use...externally specificed Huffman tables. In addition a conversion program was written to convert CIELAB color space images to red, green, blue color space

  10. Seeing Color

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texley, Juliana

    2005-01-01

    Colors are powerful tools for engaging children, from the youngest years onward. We hang brightly patterned mobiles above their cribs and help them learn the names of colors as they begin to record their own ideas in pictures and words. Colors can also open the door to an invisible world of electromagnetism, even when children can barely imagine…

  11. Age, Health and Attractiveness Perception of Virtual (Rendered) Human Hair

    PubMed Central

    Fink, Bernhard; Hufschmidt, Carla; Hirn, Thomas; Will, Susanne; McKelvey, Graham; Lankhof, John

    2016-01-01

    The social significance of physical appearance and beauty has been documented in many studies. It is known that even subtle manipulations of facial morphology and skin condition can alter people’s perception of a person’s age, health and attractiveness. While the variation in facial morphology and skin condition cues has been studied quite extensively, comparably little is known on the effect of hair on social perception. This has been partly caused by the technical difficulty of creating appropriate stimuli for investigations of people’s response to systematic variation of certain hair characteristics, such as color and style, while keeping other features constant. Here, we present a modeling approach to the investigation of human hair perception using computer-generated, virtual (rendered) human hair. In three experiments, we manipulated hair diameter (Experiment 1), hair density (Experiment 2), and hair style (Experiment 3) of human (female) head hair and studied perceptions of age, health and attractiveness. Our results show that even subtle changes in these features have an impact on hair perception. We discuss our findings with reference to previous studies on condition-dependent quality cues in women that influence human social perception, thereby suggesting that hair is a salient feature of human physical appearance, which contributes to the perception of beauty. PMID:28066276

  12. Age, Health and Attractiveness Perception of Virtual (Rendered) Human Hair.

    PubMed

    Fink, Bernhard; Hufschmidt, Carla; Hirn, Thomas; Will, Susanne; McKelvey, Graham; Lankhof, John

    2016-01-01

    The social significance of physical appearance and beauty has been documented in many studies. It is known that even subtle manipulations of facial morphology and skin condition can alter people's perception of a person's age, health and attractiveness. While the variation in facial morphology and skin condition cues has been studied quite extensively, comparably little is known on the effect of hair on social perception. This has been partly caused by the technical difficulty of creating appropriate stimuli for investigations of people's response to systematic variation of certain hair characteristics, such as color and style, while keeping other features constant. Here, we present a modeling approach to the investigation of human hair perception using computer-generated, virtual (rendered) human hair. In three experiments, we manipulated hair diameter (Experiment 1), hair density (Experiment 2), and hair style (Experiment 3) of human (female) head hair and studied perceptions of age, health and attractiveness. Our results show that even subtle changes in these features have an impact on hair perception. We discuss our findings with reference to previous studies on condition-dependent quality cues in women that influence human social perception, thereby suggesting that hair is a salient feature of human physical appearance, which contributes to the perception of beauty.

  13. Preference for Color and Form in Preschoolers as Related to Color and Form Differentiation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melkman, Rachel; And Others

    1976-01-01

    The preference for color or form as bases for similarity judgments among preschoolers (ages 2-5) and its relationship to the differentiation of form and color concepts as indexed by discrimination, identification, and labeling were investigated. (SB)

  14. ColorSketch: A Drawing Assistant for Generating Color Sketches from Photos.

    PubMed

    Li, Guanbin; Bi, Sai; Wang, Jue; Xu, Yingqing; Yu, Yizhou

    2016-03-18

    A color sketch creates a vivid depiction of a scene using sparse pencil strokes and casual colored brush strokes. In this paper, we introduce an interactive drawing system, called ColorSketch, for helping novice users generate color sketches from photos. Our system is motivated by the fact that novice users are often capable of tracing object boundaries using pencil strokes, but have difficulties to choose proper colors and brush over an image region in a visually pleasing way. To preserve artistic freedom and expressiveness, our system lets users have full control over pencil strokes for depicting object shapes and geometric details at an appropriate level of abstraction, and automatically augment pencil sketches using color brushes, such as color mapping, brush stroke rendering as well as blank area creation. Experimental and user study results demonstrate that users, especially novice ones, can generate much better color sketches more efficiently with our system than using traditional manual tools.

  15. Pet fur color and texture classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yen, Jonathan; Mukherjee, Debarghar; Lim, SukHwan; Tretter, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    Object segmentation is important in image analysis for imaging tasks such as image rendering and image retrieval. Pet owners have been known to be quite vocal about how important it is to render their pets perfectly. We present here an algorithm for pet (mammal) fur color classification and an algorithm for pet (animal) fur texture classification. Per fur color classification can be applied as a necessary condition for identifying the regions in an image that may contain pets much like the skin tone classification for human flesh detection. As a result of the evolution, fur coloration of all mammals is caused by a natural organic pigment called Melanin and Melanin has only very limited color ranges. We have conducted a statistical analysis and concluded that mammal fur colors can be only in levels of gray or in two colors after the proper color quantization. This pet fur color classification algorithm has been applied for peteye detection. We also present here an algorithm for animal fur texture classification using the recently developed multi-resolution directional sub-band Contourlet transform. The experimental results are very promising as these transforms can identify regions of an image that may contain fur of mammals, scale of reptiles and feather of birds, etc. Combining the color and texture classification, one can have a set of strong classifiers for identifying possible animals in an image.

  16. Resolution-independent surface rendering using programmable graphics hardware

    DOEpatents

    Loop, Charles T.; Blinn, James Frederick

    2008-12-16

    Surfaces defined by a Bezier tetrahedron, and in particular quadric surfaces, are rendered on programmable graphics hardware. Pixels are rendered through triangular sides of the tetrahedra and locations on the shapes, as well as surface normals for lighting evaluations, are computed using pixel shader computations. Additionally, vertex shaders are used to aid interpolation over a small number of values as input to the pixel shaders. Through this, rendering of the surfaces is performed independently of viewing resolution, allowing for advanced level-of-detail management. By individually rendering tetrahedrally-defined surfaces which together form complex shapes, the complex shapes can be rendered in their entirety.

  17. Color Categories and Color Appearance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webster, Michael A.; Kay, Paul

    2012-01-01

    We examined categorical effects in color appearance in two tasks, which in part differed in the extent to which color naming was explicitly required for the response. In one, we measured the effects of color differences on perceptual grouping for hues that spanned the blue-green boundary, to test whether chromatic differences across the boundary…

  18. Color Terms and Color Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidoff, Jules

    2006-01-01

    In their lead articles, both Kowalski and Zimiles (2006) and O'Hanlon and Roberson (2006) declare a general relation between color term knowledge and the ability to conceptually represent color. Kowalski and Zimiles, in particular, argue for a priority for the conceptual representation in color term acquisition. The complexities of the interaction…

  19. Very low color-temperature organic light-emitting diodes for lighting at night

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jou, Jwo-Huei; Tang, Ming-Chun; Chen, Pin-Chu; Chen, Szu-Hao; Shen, Shih-Ming; Chen, Chien-Chih; Wang, Ching-Chiun; Chen, Chien-Tien

    2011-12-01

    Light sources with low color temperature (CT) are essential for their markedly less suppression effect on the secretion of melatonin, and high power efficiency is crucial for energy-saving. To provide visual comfort, the light source should also have a reasonably high color rendering index (CRI). In this report, we demonstrate the design and fabrication of low CT and high efficiency organic light-emitting diodes. The best resultant device exhibits a CT of 1,880 K, much lower than that of incandescent bulbs (2,000-2,500 K) and even as low as that of candles, (1,800-2,000 K), a beyond theoretical limit external quantum efficiency 22.7 %, and 36.0 lm/W at 100 cd/m 2. The high efficiency of the proposed device may be attributed to its interlayer, which helps effectively distribute the entering carriers into the available recombination zones.

  20. Does correlated color temperature affect the ability of humans to identify veins?

    PubMed

    Argyraki, Aikaterini; Clemmensen, Line Katrine Harder; Petersen, Paul Michael

    2016-01-01

    In the present study we provide empirical evidence and demonstrate statistically that white illumination settings can affect the human ability to identify veins in the inner hand vasculature. A special light-emitting diode lamp with high color rendering index (CRI 84-95) was developed and the effect of correlated color temperature was evaluated, in the range between 2600 and 5700 K at an illuminance of 40±9  lx on the ability of adult humans to identify veins. It is shown that the ability to identify veins can, on average, be increased up to 24% when white illumination settings that do not resemble incandescent light are applied. The illuminance reported together with the effect of white illumination settings on direct visual perception of biosamples are relevant for clinical investigations during the night.

  1. Color terms and color concepts.

    PubMed

    Davidoff, Jules

    2006-08-01

    In their lead articles, both Kowalski and Zimiles (2006) and O'Hanlon and Roberson (2006) declare a general relation between color term knowledge and the ability to conceptually represent color. Kowalski and Zimiles, in particular, argue for a priority for the conceptual representation in color term acquisition. The complexities of the interaction are taken up in the current commentary, especially with regard to the neuropsychological evidence. Data from aphasic patients also argue for a priority for abstract thought, but nevertheless it may still be that the use of color terms is the only way in which to form color categories even if both linguistic and attentional factors play an important role.

  2. Color Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wrolstad, Ronald E.; Smith, Daniel E.

    Color, flavor, and texture are the three principal quality attributes that determine food acceptance, and color has a far greater influence on our judgment than most of us appreciate. We use color to determine if a banana is at our preferred ripeness level, and a discolored meat product can warn us that the product may be spoiled. The marketing departments of our food corporations know that, for their customers, the color must be "right." The University of California Davis scorecard for wine quality designates four points out of 20, or 20% of the total score, for color and appearance (1). Food scientists who establish quality control specifications for their product are very aware of the importance of color and appearance. While subjective visual assessment and use of visual color standards are still used in the food industry, instrumental color measurements are extensively employed. Objective measurement of color is desirable for both research and industrial applications, and the ruggedness, stability, and ease of use of today's color measurement instruments have resulted in their widespread adoption.

  3. Processing of Color Words Activates Color Representations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richter, Tobias; Zwaan, Rolf A.

    2009-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate whether color representations are routinely activated when color words are processed. Congruency effects of colors and color words were observed in both directions. Lexical decisions on color words were faster when preceding colors matched the color named by the word. Color-discrimination responses…

  4. Biomimetics, color, and the arts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schenk, Franziska

    2015-03-01

    Color as dramatic, dynamic and dazzling as the iridescent hues on the wings of certain butterflies has never been encountered in the art world. Unlike and unmatched by the chemical pigments of the artists' palette, this changeable color is created by transparent, colorless nanostructures that, as with prisms, diffract and reflect light to render spectral color visible. Until now, iridescent colors, by their very nature, have defied artists' best efforts to fully capture these rainbow hues. Now, for the first time, the artist and researcher Franziska Schenk employs latest nature-inspired color-shift technology to actually simulate the iridescence of butterflies and beetles on canvas. Crucially, studying the ingenious ways in which a range of such displays are created by insects has provided the artist with vital clues on how to adapt and adopt these challenging optical nano-materials for painting. And indeed, after years of meticulous and painstaking research both in the lab and studio, the desired effect is achieved. The resulting paintings, like an iridescent insect, do in fact fluctuate in perceived color - depending on the light and viewing angle. In tracing the artist's respective biomimetic approach, the paper not only provides an insight into the new color technology's evolution and innovative artistic possibilities, but also suggests what artists can learn from nature.

  5. Direct volume rendering methods for cell structures.

    PubMed

    Martišek, Dalibor; Martišek, Karel

    2012-01-01

    The study of the complicated architecture of cell space structures is an important problem in biology and medical research. Optical cuts of cells produced by confocal microscopes enable two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) reconstructions of observed cells. This paper discuses new possibilities for direct volume rendering of these data. We often encounter 16 or more bit images in confocal microscopy of cells. Most of the information contained in these images is unsubstantial for the human vision. Therefore, it is necessary to use mathematical algorithms for visualization of such images. Present software tools as OpenGL or DirectX run quickly in graphic station with special graphic cards, run very unsatisfactory on PC without these cards and outputs are usually poor for real data. These tools are black boxes for a common user and make it impossible to correct and improve them. With the method proposed, more parameters of the environment can be set, making it possible to apply 3D filters to set the output image sharpness in relation to the noise. The quality of the output is incomparable to the earlier described methods and is worth increasing the computing time. We would like to offer mathematical methods of 3D scalar data visualization describing new algorithms that run on standard PCs very well.

  6. Lighting design for globally illuminated volume rendering.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yubo; Ma, Kwan-Liu

    2013-12-01

    With the evolution of graphics hardware, high quality global illumination becomes available for real-time volume rendering. Compared to local illumination, global illumination can produce realistic shading effects which are closer to real world scenes, and has proven useful for enhancing volume data visualization to enable better depth and shape perception. However, setting up optimal lighting could be a nontrivial task for average users. There were lighting design works for volume visualization but they did not consider global light transportation. In this paper, we present a lighting design method for volume visualization employing global illumination. The resulting system takes into account view and transfer-function dependent content of the volume data to automatically generate an optimized three-point lighting environment. Our method fully exploits the back light which is not used by previous volume visualization systems. By also including global shadow and multiple scattering, our lighting system can effectively enhance the depth and shape perception of volumetric features of interest. In addition, we propose an automatic tone mapping operator which recovers visual details from overexposed areas while maintaining sufficient contrast in the dark areas. We show that our method is effective for visualizing volume datasets with complex structures. The structural information is more clearly and correctly presented under the automatically generated light sources.

  7. 3D Rendering of High Resolution PolInSAR Urban Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trouve, Nicolas; Colin-Koeniguer, Elise; Cantalloube, Hubert

    2011-03-01

    In the field of urban SAR imaging and mapping, the PolInSAR information potential has not been fully exploited. Until recently available resolution of PolInSAR images were not sufficient to render 3D city landscape using the polarimetric and interferometric information. This paper presents the results of urban reconstruction using single pass full polarimetric and interferometric data using ONERA's Airborne system: RAMSES. It focus on the statistical process designed for the PolInSAR matrices estimation in high resolution urban areas. A region growing algorithm is proposed to design statistically homogeneous region while preserving spatial features of the scene through shape constraints. A companion paper [CKT11] will present the interferometry tools developed to exploit the region growth results. Validation on real data using RAMSES images at X band over Toulouse are presented through 3D colored render results.

  8. The Colors of Saturn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeVogel, Kayla; Chanover, Nancy; Thelen, Alexander

    2015-11-01

    Very little is known about the coloring agents, or chromophores, that color the clouds of Saturn’s belts and zones. Although the clouds of Saturn are more muted in their coloration and do not exhibit the more striking variations seen among Jupiter’s belts, zones, and cyclonic storm features, the physical processes that render Saturn’s clouds a yellowish hue are likely similar to those at work on Jupiter. Thus, a comprehensive color study that includes both Jupiter and Saturn is warranted to advance our understanding of chromophores in the giant planet atmospheres. Here we report on our efforts to characterize the colors of Saturn’s clouds.This study involves the analysis of two imaging data sets: those from Cassini’s Imaging Science Subsystem (ISS), and Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 images taken with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). The HST data were acquired in 1994, 1998, 2002 and 2004 using eleven different filters spanning 255-973 nm. After the images were photometrically and geometrically calibrated, we used them to create low resolution spectra for six different latitude regions: the Equatorial Zone, the Equatorial Belt, the South Equatorial Belt, the South Temperate Zone, the South Temperate Belt and the South South Temperate Belt. The Cassini ISS images were acquired in 2004 and 2011 using twelve different filters spanning 258-938 nm, and corresponding low resolution spectra of the same latitude regions were generated using the ISS images. We compare these low resolution spectra to Saturn’s full-disk spectrum (Karkoschka, E., 1994, Icarus 111, 174) to examine colors of discrete latitudes versus the full-disk spectrum of Saturn. The extensive temporal coverage afforded by the combination of the HST and ISS images will enable us to explore possible seasonal variations in Saturn’s cloud colors. Finally, we examine the color evolution of the major 2011 storm on Saturn using the ISS data.This work was supported by the Discovery Scholars Program in

  9. Quantum Color

    ScienceCinema

    Lincoln, Don

    2016-07-20

    The idea of electric charges and electricity in general is a familiar one to the science savvy viewer. However, electromagnetism is but one of the four fundamental forces and not the strongest one. The strongest of the fundamental forces is called the strong nuclear force and it has its own associated charge. Physicists call this charge “color” in analogy with the primary colors, although there is no real connection with actual color. In this video, Fermilab’s Dr. Don Lincoln explains why it is that we live in a colorful world.

  10. Polar Color

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 3 May 2004 This nighttime visible color image was collected on January 1, 2003 during the Northern Summer season near the North Polar Troughs.

    This daytime visible color image was collected on September 4, 2002 during the Northern Spring season in Vastitas Borealis. The THEMIS VIS camera is capable of capturing color images of the martian surface using its five different color filters. In this mode of operation, the spatial resolution and coverage of the image must be reduced to accommodate the additional data volume produced from the use of multiple filters. To make a color image, three of the five filter images (each in grayscale) are selected. Each is contrast enhanced and then converted to a red, green, or blue intensity image. These three images are then combined to produce a full color, single image. Because the THEMIS color filters don't span the full range of colors seen by the human eye, a color THEMIS image does not represent true color. Also, because each single-filter image is contrast enhanced before inclusion in the three-color image, the apparent color variation of the scene is exaggerated. Nevertheless, the color variation that does appear is representative of some change in color, however subtle, in the actual scene. Note that the long edges of THEMIS color images typically contain color artifacts that do not represent surface variation.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 79, Longitude 346 East (14 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with

  11. Measuring the colour of rendering mortars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Govaerts, Yves; Meulebroeck, Wendy; Verdonck, Ann; de Bouw, Michael

    2014-05-01

    When restoring decorative mortar layers on historic façades, professionals need to determine the colour of these finishes in order to select an appropriate repair mortar. Currently, the appearance of these renders is only assessed from a subjective point of view. To match with the aesthetic aspects of the façade, contractors must constantly adjust their repair mortar composition to avoid a patchwork of different colours, which is detrimental for heritage. This time-consuming (trial-and-error) methodology can be excluded by evaluating `colour' with an objective numerical approach. The challenge of the research was to define and evaluate optimal material dependent boundary conditions for measuring the colour of nonhomogeneous mortars. Four samples with different scale of heterogeneity were measured by two spectrocolorimeters, both with a diffuse illumination geometry. The results were plotted in CIE-L*a*b* colour space. By calculating the colour difference (ΔE*), the influence of measuring with or without specular component was evaluated. We discovered the minimal number of measuring points depends on the scale of heterogeneity and the aperture area. The less homogeneous the mortar sample is and the smaller the aperture area, the more unique measuring points are required. Therefore, it is recommended to choose an aperture head of 25 mm or more to reduce the number of measurements, making your work time-efficient. However, in order to obtain accurate measurements on site, a portable optical spectrum analyser can be used with a 6 mm-diameter aperture, a viewing angle of 10°, SCI mode, illumination source D65, considering a minimum of 15 unique measuring points.

  12. Beyond the Renderer: Software Architecture for Parallel Graphics and Visualization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crockett, Thomas W.

    1996-01-01

    As numerous implementations have demonstrated, software-based parallel rendering is an effective way to obtain the needed computational power for a variety of challenging applications in computer graphics and scientific visualization. To fully realize their potential, however, parallel renderers need to be integrated into a complete environment for generating, manipulating, and delivering visual data. We examine the structure and components of such an environment, including the programming and user interfaces, rendering engines, and image delivery systems. We consider some of the constraints imposed by real-world applications and discuss the problems and issues involved in bringing parallel rendering out of the lab and into production.

  13. Color accuracy and reproducibility in whole slide imaging scanners

    PubMed Central

    Shrestha, Prarthana; Hulsken, Bas

    2014-01-01

    Abstract We propose a workflow for color reproduction in whole slide imaging (WSI) scanners, such that the colors in the scanned images match to the actual slide color and the inter-scanner variation is minimum. We describe a new method of preparation and verification of the color phantom slide, consisting of a standard IT8-target transmissive film, which is used in color calibrating and profiling the WSI scanner. We explore several International Color Consortium (ICC) compliant techniques in color calibration/profiling and rendering intents for translating the scanner specific colors to the standard display (sRGB) color space. Based on the quality of the color reproduction in histopathology slides, we propose the matrix-based calibration/profiling and absolute colorimetric rendering approach. The main advantage of the proposed workflow is that it is compliant to the ICC standard, applicable to color management systems in different platforms, and involves no external color measurement devices. We quantify color difference using the CIE-DeltaE2000 metric, where DeltaE values below 1 are considered imperceptible. Our evaluation on 14 phantom slides, manufactured according to the proposed method, shows an average inter-slide color difference below 1 DeltaE. The proposed workflow is implemented and evaluated in 35 WSI scanners developed at Philips, called the Ultra Fast Scanners (UFS). The color accuracy, measured as DeltaE between the scanner reproduced colors and the reference colorimetric values of the phantom patches, is improved on average to 3.5 DeltaE in calibrated scanners from 10 DeltaE in uncalibrated scanners. The average inter-scanner color difference is found to be 1.2 DeltaE. The improvement in color performance upon using the proposed method is apparent with the visual color quality of the tissue scans. PMID:26158041

  14. DOE CALiPER Program, Report 20.1 Subjective Evaluation of Beam Quality, Shadow Quality, and Color Quality for LED PAR38 Lamps

    SciTech Connect

    Royer, Michael P.; Poplawski, Michael E.; Miller, Naomi J.

    2013-10-01

    This report focuses on human-evaluated characteristics, including beam quality, shadow quality, and color quality. Using a questionnaire that included rank ordering, opinions on 27 of the Report 20 PAR38 lamps were gathered during a demonstration event for members of the local Illuminating Engineering Society (IES) chapter. This was not a rigorous scientific experiment, and the data should not be extrapolated beyond the scope of the demonstration. The results suggest that many of the LED products compared favorably to halogen PAR38 benchmarks in all attributes considered. LED lamps using a single-emitter design were generally preferred for their beam quality and shadow quality, and the IES members ranking of color quality did not always match the rank according to the color rendering index (CRI).

  15. CALiPER Report 20.1: Subjective Evaluation of Beam Quality, Shadow Quality, and Color Quality for LED PAR38 Lamps

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2013-11-07

    This report focuses on human-evaluated characteristics, including beam quality, shadow quality, and color quality. Using a questionnaire that included rank-ordering, opinions on 27 of the Report 20 PAR38 lamps were gathered during a demonstration event for members of the local Illuminating Engineering Society (IES) chapter. This was not a rigorous scientific experiment, and the data should not be extrapolated beyond the scope of the demonstration. The results suggest that many of the LED products compared favorably to halogen PAR38 benchmarks in all attributes considered. LED lamps using a single-emitter design were generally preferred for their beam quality and shadow quality, and the IES members' ranking of color quality did not always match the rank according to the color rendering index (CRI).

  16. Color Metric.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois State Office of Education, Springfield.

    This booklet was designed to convey metric information in pictoral form. The use of pictures in the coloring book enables the more mature person to grasp the metric message instantly, whereas the younger person, while coloring the picture, will be exposed to the metric information long enough to make the proper associations. Sheets of the booklet…

  17. A few modeling and rendering techniques for computer graphics and their implementation on ultra hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bidasaria, Hari

    1989-01-01

    Ultra network is a recently installed very high speed graphic hardware at NASA Langley Research Center. The Ultra Network interfaced to Voyager through its HSX channel is capable of transmitting up to 800 million bits of information per second. It is capable of displaying fifteen to twenty frames of precomputed images of size 1024 x 2368 with 24 bits of color information per pixel per second. Modeling and rendering techniques are being developed in computer graphics and implemented on Ultra hardware. A ray tracer is being developed for use at the Flight Software and Graphic branch. Changes were made to make the ray tracer compatible with Voyager.

  18. Adaptive color visualization for dichromats using a customized hierarchical palette

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez-Pardo, Carlos E.; Sharma, Gaurav

    2011-01-01

    We propose a user-centric methodology for displaying digital color documents, that optimizes color representations in an observer specific and adaptive fashion. We apply our framework to situations involving viewers with common dichromatic color vision deficiencies, who face challenges in perceiving information presented in color images and graphics designed for color normal individuals. For situations involving qualitative data visualization, we present a computationally efficient solution that combines a customized observer-specific hierarchical palette with "display time" selection of the number of colors to generate renderings with colors that are easily discriminated by the intended viewer. The palette design is accomplished via a clustering algorithm, that arranges colors in a hierarchical tree based on their perceived differences for the intended viewer. A desired number of highly discriminable colors are readily obtained from the hierarchical palette via a simple truncation. As an illustration, we demonstrate the application of the methodology to Ishihara style images.

  19. Flexible photonic crystal membranes with nanoparticle high refractive index layers.

    PubMed

    Karrock, Torben; Paulsen, Moritz; Gerken, Martina

    2017-01-01

    Flexible photonic crystal slabs with an area of 2 cm(2) are fabricated by nanoimprint replication of a 400 nm period linear grating nanostructure into a ≈60 µm thick polydimethylsiloxane membrane and subsequent spin coating of a high refractive index titanium dioxide nanoparticle layer. Samples are prepared with different nanoparticle concentrations. Guided-mode resonances with a quality factor of Q ≈ 40 are observed. The highly flexible nature of the membranes allows for stretching of up to 20% elongation. Resonance peak positions for unstretched samples vary from 555 to 630 nm depending on the particle concentration. Stretching results in a resonance shift for these peaks of up to ≈80 nm, i.e., 3.9 nm per % strain. The color impression of the samples observed with crossed-polarization filters changes from the green to the red regime. The high tunability renders these membranes promising for both tunable optical devices as well as visualization devices.

  20. Flexible photonic crystal membranes with nanoparticle high refractive index layers

    PubMed Central

    Paulsen, Moritz; Gerken, Martina

    2017-01-01

    Flexible photonic crystal slabs with an area of 2 cm2 are fabricated by nanoimprint replication of a 400 nm period linear grating nanostructure into a ≈60 µm thick polydimethylsiloxane membrane and subsequent spin coating of a high refractive index titanium dioxide nanoparticle layer. Samples are prepared with different nanoparticle concentrations. Guided-mode resonances with a quality factor of Q ≈ 40 are observed. The highly flexible nature of the membranes allows for stretching of up to 20% elongation. Resonance peak positions for unstretched samples vary from 555 to 630 nm depending on the particle concentration. Stretching results in a resonance shift for these peaks of up to ≈80 nm, i.e., 3.9 nm per % strain. The color impression of the samples observed with crossed-polarization filters changes from the green to the red regime. The high tunability renders these membranes promising for both tunable optical devices as well as visualization devices. PMID:28243558

  1. Wavelength dependence of colorimetric properties of lighting sources based on multi-color LEDs.

    PubMed

    Li, Hongtao; Mao, Xianglong; Han, Yanjun; Luo, Yi

    2013-02-11

    Taking color quality scale (CQS) as color rendering assessment criterion, the parameters including each color LED's peak wavelength λi and fractional radiant flux Ii are optimized using genetic algorithm to maximize the luminous efficacy of radiation (LER) of the spectral power distributions (SPDs) of multi-color white light source with 3 to 7 components while maintaining the deviation of its color and color-rendering capability from that of the reference light source within the specified scope. Then the wavelength dependence of these SPDs is analyzed. It is shown that to achieve a Q(a) greater than 95 (5-color LEDs) or even close to 100 (7-color LEDs), the spectral energy could be concentrated in the range of 410~675 nm, indicating that this wavelength range makes a major contribution to high color rendering properties. Spectra filtering experiments show that spectrum around 580nm is harmful to color rendering. To obtain a white light source composed of 3-color LEDs with CQS Q(a) ≥ 80 and correlated color temperature (CCT) within 2700-6500K, the energy ratios among 410-495nm, 495-595nm, and 595-675nm intervals, can be simplified as that of the reference source with the same CCT.

  2. Photorealistic rendering application to the design of LED flash lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chern, Jyh-Long

    2012-10-01

    LED flash module becomes popular in current mobile communication devices, such as for the smart phones and tablet. As a lighting apparatus for image taking, photo rendering performance is crucial. We explore the LED flash lens design with a stress of photorealistic rendering application toward a high-performance LED flash illumination.

  3. Realistic real-time outdoor rendering in augmented reality.

    PubMed

    Kolivand, Hoshang; Sunar, Mohd Shahrizal

    2014-01-01

    Realistic rendering techniques of outdoor Augmented Reality (AR) has been an attractive topic since the last two decades considering the sizeable amount of publications in computer graphics. Realistic virtual objects in outdoor rendering AR systems require sophisticated effects such as: shadows, daylight and interactions between sky colours and virtual as well as real objects. A few realistic rendering techniques have been designed to overcome this obstacle, most of which are related to non real-time rendering. However, the problem still remains, especially in outdoor rendering. This paper proposed a much newer, unique technique to achieve realistic real-time outdoor rendering, while taking into account the interaction between sky colours and objects in AR systems with respect to shadows in any specific location, date and time. This approach involves three main phases, which cover different outdoor AR rendering requirements. Firstly, sky colour was generated with respect to the position of the sun. Second step involves the shadow generation algorithm, Z-Partitioning: Gaussian and Fog Shadow Maps (Z-GaF Shadow Maps). Lastly, a technique to integrate sky colours and shadows through its effects on virtual objects in the AR system, is introduced. The experimental results reveal that the proposed technique has significantly improved the realism of real-time outdoor AR rendering, thus solving the problem of realistic AR systems.

  4. Method of producing hydrogen, and rendering a contaminated biomass inert

    DOEpatents

    Bingham, Dennis N [Idaho Falls, ID; Klingler, Kerry M [Idaho Falls, ID; Wilding, Bruce M [Idaho Falls, ID

    2010-02-23

    A method for rendering a contaminated biomass inert includes providing a first composition, providing a second composition, reacting the first and second compositions together to form an alkaline hydroxide, providing a contaminated biomass feedstock and reacting the alkaline hydroxide with the contaminated biomass feedstock to render the contaminated biomass feedstock inert and further producing hydrogen gas, and a byproduct that includes the first composition.

  5. Realistic Real-Time Outdoor Rendering in Augmented Reality

    PubMed Central

    Kolivand, Hoshang; Sunar, Mohd Shahrizal

    2014-01-01

    Realistic rendering techniques of outdoor Augmented Reality (AR) has been an attractive topic since the last two decades considering the sizeable amount of publications in computer graphics. Realistic virtual objects in outdoor rendering AR systems require sophisticated effects such as: shadows, daylight and interactions between sky colours and virtual as well as real objects. A few realistic rendering techniques have been designed to overcome this obstacle, most of which are related to non real-time rendering. However, the problem still remains, especially in outdoor rendering. This paper proposed a much newer, unique technique to achieve realistic real-time outdoor rendering, while taking into account the interaction between sky colours and objects in AR systems with respect to shadows in any specific location, date and time. This approach involves three main phases, which cover different outdoor AR rendering requirements. Firstly, sky colour was generated with respect to the position of the sun. Second step involves the shadow generation algorithm, Z-Partitioning: Gaussian and Fog Shadow Maps (Z-GaF Shadow Maps). Lastly, a technique to integrate sky colours and shadows through its effects on virtual objects in the AR system, is introduced. The experimental results reveal that the proposed technique has significantly improved the realism of real-time outdoor AR rendering, thus solving the problem of realistic AR systems. PMID:25268480

  6. 104. Photocopy of architect's rendering from Renwick's office, signed lower ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    104. Photocopy of architect's rendering from Renwick's office, signed lower left 'Painted by Louis R. Townsend July 1848' both renderings displayed in Regents' Room of 'castle.' SOUTH FRONT, SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION. - Smithsonian Institution Building, 1000 Jefferson Drive, between Ninth & Twelfth Streets, Southwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  7. Quantum Color

    SciTech Connect

    Lincoln, Don

    2016-07-05

    The idea of electric charges and electricity in general is a familiar one to the science savvy viewer. However, electromagnetism is but one of the four fundamental forces and not the strongest one. The strongest of the fundamental forces is called the strong nuclear force and it has its own associated charge. Physicists call this charge “color” in analogy with the primary colors, although there is no real connection with actual color. In this video, Fermilab’s Dr. Don Lincoln explains why it is that we live in a colorful world.

  8. Color back projection for fruit maturity evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Dong; Lee, Dah-Jye; Desai, Alok

    2013-12-01

    In general, fruits and vegetables such as tomatoes and dates are harvested before they fully ripen. After harvesting, they continue to ripen and their color changes. Color is a good indicator of fruit maturity. For example, tomatoes change color from dark green to light green and then pink, light red, and dark red. Assessing tomato maturity helps maximize its shelf life. Color is used to determine the length of time the tomatoes can be transported. Medjool dates change color from green to yellow, and the orange, light red and dark red. Assessing date maturity helps determine the length of drying process to help ripen the dates. Color evaluation is an important step in the processing and inventory control of fruits and vegetables that directly affects profitability. This paper presents an efficient color back projection and image processing technique that is designed specifically for real-time maturity evaluation of fruits. This color processing method requires very simple training procedure to obtain the frequencies of colors that appear in each maturity stage. This color statistics is used to back project colors to predefined color indexes. Fruit maturity is then evaluated by analyzing the reprojected color indexes. This method has been implemented and used for commercial production.

  9. Local and Global Illumination in the Volume Rendering Integral

    SciTech Connect

    Max, N; Chen, M

    2005-10-21

    This article is intended as an update of the major survey by Max [1] on optical models for direct volume rendering. It provides a brief overview of the subject scope covered by [1], and brings recent developments, such as new shadow algorithms and refraction rendering, into the perspective. In particular, we examine three fundamentals aspects of direct volume rendering, namely the volume rendering integral, local illumination models and global illumination models, in a wavelength-independent manner. We review the developments on spectral volume rendering, in which visible light are considered as a form of electromagnetic radiation, optical models are implemented in conjunction with representations of spectral power distribution. This survey can provide a basis for, and encourage, new efforts for developing and using complex illumination models to achieve better realism and perception through optical correctness.

  10. Simplification of Visual Rendering in Simulated Prosthetic Vision Facilitates Navigation.

    PubMed

    Vergnieux, Victor; Macé, Marc J-M; Jouffrais, Christophe

    2017-03-21

    Visual neuroprostheses are still limited and simulated prosthetic vision (SPV) is used to evaluate potential and forthcoming functionality of these implants. SPV has been used to evaluate the minimum requirement on visual neuroprosthetic characteristics to restore various functions such as reading, objects and face recognition, object grasping, etc. Some of these studies focused on obstacle avoidance but only a few investigated orientation or navigation abilities with prosthetic vision. The resolution of current arrays of electrodes is not sufficient to allow navigation tasks without additional processing of the visual input. In this study, we simulated a low resolution array (15 × 18 electrodes, similar to a forthcoming generation of arrays) and evaluated the navigation abilities restored when visual information was processed with various computer vision algorithms to enhance the visual rendering. Three main visual rendering strategies were compared to a control rendering in a wayfinding task within an unknown environment. The control rendering corresponded to a resizing of the original image onto the electrode array size, according to the average brightness of the pixels. In the first rendering strategy, vision distance was limited to 3, 6, or 9 m, respectively. In the second strategy, the rendering was not based on the brightness of the image pixels, but on the distance between the user and the elements in the field of view. In the last rendering strategy, only the edges of the environments were displayed, similar to a wireframe rendering. All the tested renderings, except the 3 m limitation of the viewing distance, improved navigation performance and decreased cognitive load. Interestingly, the distance-based and wireframe renderings also improved the cognitive mapping of the unknown environment. These results show that low resolution implants are usable for wayfinding if specific computer vision algorithms are used to select and display appropriate

  11. New approach of color image quantization based on multidimensional directory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Chin-Chen; Su, Yuan-Yuan

    2003-04-01

    Color image quantization is a strategy in which a smaller number of colors are used to represent the image. The objective is to make the quality approximate as closely to the original true-color image. The technology is widely used in non-true-color displays and in color printers that cannot reproduce a large number of different colors. However, the main problem the quantization of color image has to face is how to use less colors to show the color image. Therefore, it is very important to choose one suitable palette for an index color image. In this paper, we shall propose a new approach which employs the concept of Multi-Dimensional Directory (MDD) together with the one cycle LBG algorithm to create a high-quality index color image. Compared with the approaches such as VQ, ISQ, and Photoshop v.5, our approach can not only acquire high quality image but also shorten the operation time.

  12. Complex adaptation-based LDR image rendering for 3D image reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sung-Hak; Kwon, Hyuk-Ju; Sohng, Kyu-Ik

    2014-07-01

    A low-dynamic tone-compression technique is developed for realistic image rendering that can make three-dimensional (3D) images similar to realistic scenes by overcoming brightness dimming in the 3D display mode. The 3D surround provides varying conditions for image quality, illuminant adaptation, contrast, gamma, color, sharpness, and so on. In general, gain/offset adjustment, gamma compensation, and histogram equalization have performed well in contrast compression; however, as a result of signal saturation and clipping effects, image details are removed and information is lost on bright and dark areas. Thus, an enhanced image mapping technique is proposed based on space-varying image compression. The performance of contrast compression is enhanced with complex adaptation in a 3D viewing surround combining global and local adaptation. Evaluating local image rendering in view of tone and color expression, noise reduction, and edge compensation confirms that the proposed 3D image-mapping model can compensate for the loss of image quality in the 3D mode.

  13. Fast rendering scheme for 3D cylindrical ultrasound data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Jung Pill; Ra, Jong Beom

    2000-04-01

    3D ultrasound imaging is an emerging and prospective modality in the ultrasound scanning area. Since 3D ultrasound dat are often acquired by translation or rotation of 2D data acquisition systems, the data can be directly sampled on cylindrical or spherical structured girds rather tan on rectilinear grids. However, visualization of cylindrical or spherical data is more complex than that of rectilinear grids. Therefore, conventional rendering methods resample the grids into rectilinear grids and visualize the resampled rectilinear dat. However, resampling introduces an undesired resolution loss. In this paper a direct rendering scheme of cylindrical ultrasound data is considered. Even though cell sin cylindrical grids have different sizes, they are very similar in shape and contain some regularity. We use this similarity and regularity of cells to reduce rendering time in a projection-based rendering method. To achieve high sped rendering, we prose a simple projection ordering method and a fast projection method using a common edge table. And also, to produce good rendering results, an efficient bilinear interpolation scheme is prosed for the hexahedral projection. In this scheme, since weighting coefficients are calculated in the image plane, we can avoid calculating crossing point sin the object space. Based on the proposed techniques above, we can produce high resolution rendered images directly form a cylindrical 3D ultrasound data set.

  14. Color vision test

    MedlinePlus

    ... from birth) color vision problems: Achromatopsia -- complete color blindness , seeing only shades of gray Deuteranopia -- difficulty telling ... test - color; Ishihara color vision test Images Color blindness tests References Adams AJ, Verdon WA, Spivey BE. ...

  15. Color accuracy and reproducibility in whole slide imaging scanners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shrestha, Prarthana; Hulsken, Bas

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, we propose a work-flow for color reproduction in whole slide imaging (WSI) scanners such that the colors in the scanned images match to the actual slide color and the inter scanner variation is minimum. We describe a novel method of preparation and verification of the color phantom slide, consisting of a standard IT8- target transmissive film, which is used in color calibrating and profiling the WSI scanner. We explore several ICC compliant techniques in color calibration/profiling and rendering intents for translating the scanner specific colors to the standard display (sRGB) color-space. Based on the quality of color reproduction in histopathology tissue slides, we propose the matrix-based calibration/profiling and absolute colorimetric rendering approach. The main advantage of the proposed work-ow is that it is compliant to the ICC standard, applicable to color management systems in different platforms, and involves no external color measurement devices. We measure objective color performance using CIE-DeltaE2000 metric, where DeltaE values below 1 is considered imperceptible. Our evaluation 14 phantom slides, manufactured according to the proposed method, show an average inter-slide color difference below 1 DeltaE. The proposed work-flow is implemented and evaluated in 35 Philips Ultra Fast Scanners (UFS). The results show that the average color difference between a scanner and the reference is 3.5 DeltaE, and among the scanners is 3.1 DeltaE. The improvement on color performance upon using the proposed method is apparent on the visual color quality of the tissues scans.

  16. Color superconductivity

    SciTech Connect

    Wilczek, F.

    1997-09-22

    The asymptotic freedom of QCD suggests that at high density - where one forms a Fermi surface at very high momenta - weak coupling methods apply. These methods suggest that chiral symmetry is restored and that an instability toward color triplet condensation (color superconductivity) sets in. Here I attempt, using variational methods, to estimate these effects more precisely. Highlights include demonstration of a negative pressure in the uniform density chiral broken phase for any non-zero condensation, which we take as evidence for the philosophy of the MIT bag model; and demonstration that the color gap is substantial - several tens of MeV - even at modest densities. Since the superconductivity is in a pseudoscalar channel, parity is spontaneously broken.

  17. Quantifying nonhomogeneous colors in agricultural materials part I: method development.

    PubMed

    Balaban, M O

    2008-11-01

    Measuring the color of food and agricultural materials using machine vision (MV) has advantages not available by other measurement methods such as subjective tests or use of color meters. The perception of consumers may be affected by the nonuniformity of colors. For relatively uniform colors, average color values similar to those given by color meters can be obtained by MV. For nonuniform colors, various image analysis methods (color blocks, contours, and "color change index"[CCI]) can be applied to images obtained by MV. The degree of nonuniformity can be quantified, depending on the level of detail desired. In this article, the development of the CCI concept is presented. For images with a wide range of hue values, the color blocks method quantifies well the nonhomogeneity of colors. For images with a narrow hue range, the CCI method is a better indicator of color nonhomogeneity.

  18. Experiencing "Macbeth": From Text Rendering to Multicultural Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reisin, Gail

    1993-01-01

    Shows how one teacher used innovative methods in teaching William Shakespeare's "Macbeth." Outlines student assignments including text renderings, rewriting a scene from the play, and creating a multicultural scrapbook for the play. (HB)

  19. 11. Architect's rendering of the Arcade Building by Furness, Evans ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Architect's rendering of the Arcade Building by Furness, Evans and Co., from Moses King's Philadelphia and Notable Philadelphians, published 1902 for the City's 220th birthday - Arcade Building, Fifteenth & Market Streets, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  20. 1. Photocopy of architect's rendering of approved design, which was ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Photocopy of architect's rendering of approved design, which was altered in execution Furness, Evans & Co. 1893 General view - Pennsylvania Railroad Station, Broad Street Station, Broad & Market Streets, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  1. View compensated compression of volume rendered images for remote visualization.

    PubMed

    Lalgudi, Hariharan G; Marcellin, Michael W; Bilgin, Ali; Oh, Han; Nadar, Mariappan S

    2009-07-01

    Remote visualization of volumetric images has gained importance over the past few years in medical and industrial applications. Volume visualization is a computationally intensive process, often requiring hardware acceleration to achieve a real time viewing experience. One remote visualization model that can accomplish this would transmit rendered images from a server, based on viewpoint requests from a client. For constrained server-client bandwidth, an efficient compression scheme is vital for transmitting high quality rendered images. In this paper, we present a new view compensation scheme that utilizes the geometric relationship between viewpoints to exploit the correlation between successive rendered images. The proposed method obviates motion estimation between rendered images, enabling significant reduction to the complexity of a compressor. Additionally, the view compensation scheme, in conjunction with JPEG2000 performs better than AVC, the state of the art video compression standard.

  2. Studies on the Contamination of Products Produced by Rendering Plants

    PubMed Central

    Tittiger, F.

    1971-01-01

    Studies on the bacterial contamination in rendered product and the environment of five rendering plants were carried out. From a total of 180 samples examined, total bacterial and anaerobic spore counts were conducted on 135. Plants with melter systems produced a sterile product which was recontaminated before reaching the finished stage. Two plants with continuous rendering systems did not achieve sterilization of the product during the heating process. Spore forming organisms regularly survived heating in the continuous rendering system. Salmonellae were isolated from samples collected in four of the five plants under study. Pathogenic Clostridia, especially Cl. novyi, Cl. septicum and Cl. perfringens were present in samples from all plants. Other pathogens found were Staphylococci, Streptococci, Corynebacteria and Pasteurella. PMID:4253467

  3. Perspective rendering of the competition design for the New Masonic ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Perspective rendering of the competition design for the New Masonic Temple, Philadelphia by architects Fraser, Furness, and Hewitt, 1867 - Masonic Temple, 1 North Broad Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  4. 30. Photocopy of photograph of architectural rendering by office of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. Photocopy of photograph of architectural rendering by office of Clarence H. Johnston, Sr., dated 1929; photograph in Clarence H. Johnston Papers, Northwest Architectural Archives, University of Minnesota; photographer unknown; location of rendering unknown; delineator unknown; THREE-QUARTER VIEW SHOWING WEST SIDE AND SOUTH FRONT; LOOKING NORTHEAST - Northwest Airways Hangar & Administration Building, 590 Bayfield Street, St. Paul Downtown Airport (Holman), Saint Paul, Ramsey County, MN

  5. Java multi-histogram volume rendering framework for medical images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senseney, Justin; Bokinsky, Alexandra; Cheng, Ruida; McCreedy, Evan; McAuliffe, Matthew J.

    2013-03-01

    This work extends the multi-histogram volume rendering framework proposed by Kniss et al. [1] to provide rendering results based on the impression of overlaid triangles on a graph of image intensity versus gradient magnitude. The developed method of volume rendering allows for greater emphasis to boundary visualization while avoiding issues common in medical image acquisition. For example, partial voluming effects in computed tomography and intensity inhomogeneity of similar tissue types in magnetic resonance imaging introduce pixel values that will not reflect differing tissue types when a standard transfer function is applied to an intensity histogram. This new framework uses developing technology to improve upon the Kniss multi-histogram framework by using Java, the GPU, and MIPAV, an open-source medical image processing application, to allow multi-histogram techniques to be widely disseminated. The OpenGL view aligned texture rendering approach suffered from performance setbacks, inaccessibility, and usability problems. Rendering results can now be interactively compared with other rendering frameworks, surfaces can now be extracted for use in other programs, and file formats that are widely used in the field of biomedical imaging can be visualized using this multi-histogram approach. OpenCL and GLSL are used to produce this new multi-histogram approach, leveraging texture memory on the graphics processing unit of desktops to provide a new interactive method for visualizing biomedical images. Performance results for this method are generated and qualitative rendering results are compared. The resulting framework provides the opportunity for further applications in medical imaging, both in volume rendering and in generic image processing.

  6. GPU accelerating technique for rendering implicitly represented vasculatures.

    PubMed

    Hong, Qingqi; Wang, Beizhan; Li, Qingde; Li, Yan; Wu, Qingqiang

    2014-01-01

    With the flooding datasets of medical Computed Tomography (CT) and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), implicit modeling techniques are increasingly applied to reconstruct the human organs, especially the vasculature. However, displaying implicitly represented geometric objects arises heavy computational burden. In this study, a Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) accelerating technique was developed for high performance rendering of implicitly represented objects, especially the vasculatures. The experimental results suggested that the rendering performance was greatly enhanced via exploiting the advantages of modern GPUs.

  7. Fast DRR splat rendering using common consumer graphics hardware.

    PubMed

    Spoerk, Jakob; Bergmann, Helmar; Wanschitz, Felix; Dong, Shuo; Birkfellner, Wolfgang

    2007-11-01

    Digitally rendered radiographs (DRR) are a vital part of various medical image processing applications such as 2D/3D registration for patient pose determination in image-guided radiotherapy procedures. This paper presents a technique to accelerate DRR creation by using conventional graphics hardware for the rendering process. DRR computation itself is done by an efficient volume rendering method named wobbled splatting. For programming the graphics hardware, NVIDIAs C for Graphics (Cg) is used. The description of an algorithm used for rendering DRRs on the graphics hardware is presented, together with a benchmark comparing this technique to a CPU-based wobbled splatting program. Results show a reduction of rendering time by about 70%-90% depending on the amount of data. For instance, rendering a volume of 2 x 10(6) voxels is feasible at an update rate of 38 Hz compared to 6 Hz on a common Intel-based PC using the graphics processing unit (GPU) of a conventional graphics adapter. In addition, wobbled splatting using graphics hardware for DRR computation provides higher resolution DRRs with comparable image quality due to special processing characteristics of the GPU. We conclude that DRR generation on common graphics hardware using the freely available Cg environment is a major step toward 2D/3D registration in clinical routine.

  8. Fast DRR splat rendering using common consumer graphics hardware

    SciTech Connect

    Spoerk, Jakob; Bergmann, Helmar; Wanschitz, Felix; Dong, Shuo; Birkfellner, Wolfgang

    2007-11-15

    Digitally rendered radiographs (DRR) are a vital part of various medical image processing applications such as 2D/3D registration for patient pose determination in image-guided radiotherapy procedures. This paper presents a technique to accelerate DRR creation by using conventional graphics hardware for the rendering process. DRR computation itself is done by an efficient volume rendering method named wobbled splatting. For programming the graphics hardware, NVIDIAs C for Graphics (Cg) is used. The description of an algorithm used for rendering DRRs on the graphics hardware is presented, together with a benchmark comparing this technique to a CPU-based wobbled splatting program. Results show a reduction of rendering time by about 70%-90% depending on the amount of data. For instance, rendering a volume of 2x10{sup 6} voxels is feasible at an update rate of 38 Hz compared to 6 Hz on a common Intel-based PC using the graphics processing unit (GPU) of a conventional graphics adapter. In addition, wobbled splatting using graphics hardware for DRR computation provides higher resolution DRRs with comparable image quality due to special processing characteristics of the GPU. We conclude that DRR generation on common graphics hardware using the freely available Cg environment is a major step toward 2D/3D registration in clinical routine.

  9. High-fidelity real-time maritime scene rendering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shyu, Hawjye; Taczak, Thomas M.; Cox, Kevin; Gover, Robert; Maraviglia, Carlos; Cahill, Colin

    2011-06-01

    The ability to simulate authentic engagements using real-world hardware is an increasingly important tool. For rendering maritime environments, scene generators must be capable of rendering radiometrically accurate scenes with correct temporal and spatial characteristics. When the simulation is used as input to real-world hardware or human observers, the scene generator must operate in real-time. This paper introduces a novel, real-time scene generation capability for rendering radiometrically accurate scenes of backgrounds and targets in maritime environments. The new model is an optimized and parallelized version of the US Navy CRUISE_Missiles rendering engine. It was designed to accept environmental descriptions and engagement geometry data from external sources, render a scene, transform the radiometric scene using the electro-optical response functions of a sensor under test, and output the resulting signal to real-world hardware. This paper reviews components of the scene rendering algorithm, and details the modifications required to run this code in real-time. A description of the simulation architecture and interfaces to external hardware and models is presented. Performance assessments of the frame rate and radiometric accuracy of the new code are summarized. This work was completed in FY10 under Office of Secretary of Defense (OSD) Central Test and Evaluation Investment Program (CTEIP) funding and will undergo a validation process in FY11.

  10. Parallel Rendering of Large Time-Varying Volume Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garbutt, Alexander E.

    2005-01-01

    Interactive visualization of large time-varying 3D volume datasets has been and still is a great challenge to the modem computational world. It stretches the limits of the memory capacity, the disk space, the network bandwidth and the CPU speed of a conventional computer. In this SURF project, we propose to develop a parallel volume rendering program on SGI's Prism, a cluster computer equipped with state-of-the-art graphic hardware. The proposed program combines both parallel computing and hardware rendering in order to achieve an interactive rendering rate. We use 3D texture mapping and a hardware shader to implement 3D volume rendering on each workstation. We use SGI's VisServer to enable remote rendering using Prism's graphic hardware. And last, we will integrate this new program with ParVox, a parallel distributed visualization system developed at JPL. At the end of the project, we Will demonstrate remote interactive visualization using this new hardware volume renderer on JPL's Prism System using a time-varying dataset from selected JPL applications.

  11. Remote volume rendering pipeline for mHealth applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutenko, Ievgeniia; Petkov, Kaloian; Papadopoulos, Charilaos; Zhao, Xin; Park, Ji Hwan; Kaufman, Arie; Cha, Ronald

    2014-03-01

    We introduce a novel remote volume rendering pipeline for medical visualization targeted for mHealth (mobile health) applications. The necessity of such a pipeline stems from the large size of the medical imaging data produced by current CT and MRI scanners with respect to the complexity of the volumetric rendering algorithms. For example, the resolution of typical CT Angiography (CTA) data easily reaches 512^3 voxels and can exceed 6 gigabytes in size by spanning over the time domain while capturing a beating heart. This explosion in data size makes data transfers to mobile devices challenging, and even when the transfer problem is resolved the rendering performance of the device still remains a bottleneck. To deal with this issue, we propose a thin-client architecture, where the entirety of the data resides on a remote server where the image is rendered and then streamed to the client mobile device. We utilize the display and interaction capabilities of the mobile device, while performing interactive volume rendering on a server capable of handling large datasets. Specifically, upon user interaction the volume is rendered on the server and encoded into an H.264 video stream. H.264 is ubiquitously hardware accelerated, resulting in faster compression and lower power requirements. The choice of low-latency CPU- and GPU-based encoders is particularly important in enabling the interactive nature of our system. We demonstrate a prototype of our framework using various medical datasets on commodity tablet devices.

  12. Introduction to color facsimile: hardware, software, and standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Daniel T. L.

    1996-03-01

    The design of a color facsimile machine presents a number of unique challenges. From the technical side it requires a very efficient, seamless integration of algorithms and architectures in image scanning, compression, color processing, communications and printing. From the standardization side, it requires that agreements on the color representation space, negotiation protocols and coding methods must be reached through formal international standardization process. This paper presents an introduction to the overall development of color facsimile. An overview of the recent development of the international Color Facsimile Standard is first presented. The standard enables the transmission of continuous-tone colors and gray-scale images in Group 3 (over conventional telephone lines) and Group 4 (over digital lines) facsimile services, with backwards compatibility to current black and white facsimile. The standard provides specifications on color representation and color image encoding methods as well as extensions to current facsimile protocols to enable the transmission of color images. The technical challenges in implementing the color facsimile standard on existing facsimile machines are described next. The integration of algorithms and architectures in color scanning, compression, color processing, transmission and rendering of received hardcopy facsimile in a color imaging pipeline is described. Lastly, the current status on softcopy color facsimile standardization is reported.

  13. Object knowledge changes visual appearance: semantic effects on color afterimages.

    PubMed

    Lupyan, Gary

    2015-10-01

    According to predictive coding models of perception, what we see is determined jointly by the current input and the priors established by previous experience, expectations, and other contextual factors. The same input can thus be perceived differently depending on the priors that are brought to bear during viewing. Here, I show that expected (diagnostic) colors are perceived more vividly than arbitrary or unexpected colors, particularly when color input is unreliable. Participants were tested on a version of the 'Spanish Castle Illusion' in which viewing a hue-inverted image renders a subsequently shown achromatic version of the image in vivid color. Adapting to objects with intrinsic colors (e.g., a pumpkin) led to stronger afterimages than adapting to arbitrarily colored objects (e.g., a pumpkin-colored car). Considerably stronger afterimages were also produced by scenes containing intrinsically colored elements (grass, sky) compared to scenes with arbitrarily colored objects (books). The differences between images with diagnostic and arbitrary colors disappeared when the association between the image and color priors was weakened by, e.g., presenting the image upside-down, consistent with the prediction that color appearance is being modulated by color knowledge. Visual inputs that conflict with prior knowledge appear to be phenomenologically discounted, but this discounting is moderated by input certainty, as shown by the final study which uses conventional images rather than afterimages. As input certainty is increased, unexpected colors can become easier to detect than expected ones, a result consistent with predictive-coding models.

  14. Color transparency

    SciTech Connect

    Jennings, B.K.; Miller, G.A.

    1993-11-01

    The anomously large transmission of nucleons through a nucleus following a hard collision is explored. This effect, known as color transparency, is believed to be a prediction of QCD. The necessary conditions for its occurrence and the effects that must be included a realistic calculation are discussed.

  15. Color Sense

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Heidi S. S.; Maki, Jennifer A.

    2009-01-01

    This article reports a study conducted by members of the WellU Academic Integration Subcommittee of The College of St. Scholastica's College's Healthy Campus Initiative plan whose purpose was to determine whether changing color in the classroom could have a measurable effect on students. One simple improvement a school can make in a classroom is…

  16. Color constancy - A method for recovering surface spectral reflectance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maloney, L. T.; Wandell, B. A.

    1986-01-01

    An algorithm has been developed for estimating the surface reflectance functions of objects in a scene with incomplete knowledge of the spectral power distribution of the ambient light. An image processing system employing this algorithm can assign colors that are constant despite changes in the lighting of the scene; this capability is essential to correct color rendering in photography, TV, and in the construction of artificial visual systems for robotics. Attention is given to the way in which constraints on lights and surfaces in the environment make color-constancy possible for a visual system, and the algorithm's implications for human color vision are discussed.

  17. Problems in publishing accurate color in IEEE journals.

    PubMed

    Vrhel, Michael J; Trussell, H J

    2002-01-01

    To demonstrate the performance of color image processing algorithms, it is desirable to be able to accurately display color images in archival publications. In poster presentations, the authors have substantial control of the printing process, although little control of the illumination. For journal publication, the authors must rely on professional intermediaries (printers) to accurately reproduce their results. Our previous work describes requirements for accurately rendering images using your own equipment. This paper discusses the problems of dealing with intermediaries and offers suggestions for improved communication and rendering.

  18. Contrast edge colors under different natural illuminations.

    PubMed

    Nieves, Juan Luis; Nascimento, Sérgio M C; Romero, Javier

    2012-02-01

    Essential to sensory processing in the human visual system is natural illumination, which can vary considerably not only across space but also along the day depending on the atmospheric conditions and the sun's position in the sky. In this work, edges derived from the three postreceptoral Luminance, Red-Green, and Blue-Yellow signals were computed from hyperspectral images of natural scenes rendered with daylights of Correlated Color Temperatures (CCTs) from 2735 to 25,889 K; for low CCT, the same analysis was performed using Planckian illuminants up to 800 K. It was found that average luminance and chromatic edge contrasts were maximal for low correlated color temperatures and almost constants above 10,000 K. The magnitude of these contrast changes was, however, only about 2% across the tested daylights. Results suggest that the postreceptoral opponent and nonopponent color vision mechanisms produce almost constant responses for color edge detection under natural illumination.

  19. Colorizing metals with femtosecond laser pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Vorobyev, A. Y.; Guo Chunlei

    2008-01-28

    For centuries, it had been the dream of alchemists to turn inexpensive metals into gold. Certainly, it is not enough from an alchemist's point of view to transfer only the appearance of a metal to gold. However, the possibility of rendering a certain metal to a completely different color without coating can be very interesting in its own right. In this work, we demonstrate a femtosecond laser processing technique that allows us to create a variety of colors on a metal that ultimately leads us to control its optical properties from UV to terahertz.

  20. Colorizing metals with femtosecond laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vorobyev, A. Y.; Guo, Chunlei

    2008-01-01

    For centuries, it had been the dream of alchemists to turn inexpensive metals into gold. Certainly, it is not enough from an alchemist's point of view to transfer only the appearance of a metal to gold. However, the possibility of rendering a certain metal to a completely different color without coating can be very interesting in its own right. In this work, we demonstrate a femtosecond laser processing technique that allows us to create a variety of colors on a metal that ultimately leads us to control its optical properties from UV to terahertz.

  1. Architecture for high performance stereoscopic game rendering on Android

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flack, Julien; Sanderson, Hugh; Shetty, Sampath

    2014-03-01

    Stereoscopic gaming is a popular source of content for consumer 3D display systems. There has been a significant shift in the gaming industry towards casual games for mobile devices running on the Android™ Operating System and driven by ARM™ and other low power processors. Such systems are now being integrated directly into the next generation of 3D TVs potentially removing the requirement for an external games console. Although native stereo support has been integrated into some high profile titles on established platforms like Windows PC and PS3 there is a lack of GPU independent 3D support for the emerging Android platform. We describe a framework for enabling stereoscopic 3D gaming on Android for applications on mobile devices, set top boxes and TVs. A core component of the architecture is a 3D game driver, which is integrated into the Android OpenGL™ ES graphics stack to convert existing 2D graphics applications into stereoscopic 3D in real-time. The architecture includes a method of analyzing 2D games and using rule based Artificial Intelligence (AI) to position separate objects in 3D space. We describe an innovative stereo 3D rendering technique to separate the views in the depth domain and render directly into the display buffer. The advantages of the stereo renderer are demonstrated by characterizing the performance in comparison to more traditional render techniques, including depth based image rendering, both in terms of frame rates and impact on battery consumption.

  2. Colorful drying.

    PubMed

    Lakio, Satu; Heinämäki, Jyrki; Yliruusi, Jouko

    2010-03-01

    Drying is one of the standard unit operations in the pharmaceutical industry and it is important to become aware of the circumstances that dominate during the process. The purpose of this study was to test microcapsulated thermochromic pigments as heat indicators in a fluid bed drying process. The indicator powders were manually granulated with alpha-lactose monohydrate resulting in three particle-size groups. Also, pellets were coated with the indicator powders. The granules and pellets were fluidized in fluid bed dryer to observe the progress of the heat flow in the material and to study the heat indicator properties of the indicator materials. A tristimulus colorimeter was used to measure CIELAB color values. Color indicator for heat detection can be utilized to test if the heat-sensitive API would go through physical changes during the pharmaceutical drying process. Both the prepared granules and pellets can be used as heat indicator in fluid bed drying process. The colored heat indicators give an opportunity to learn new aspects of the process at real time and could be exploded, for example, for scaling-up studies.

  3. Introduction To Color Vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorell, Lisa G.

    1983-08-01

    Several human cognitive studies have reported that color facilitates certain learning, memory and search tasks. Consideration of the color-opponent organization of human color vision and the spatial modulation transfer function for color suggests several simple sensory explanations.

  4. [A hybrid volume rendering method using general hardware].

    PubMed

    Li, Bin; Tian, Lianfang; Chen, Ping; Mao, Zongyuan

    2008-06-01

    In order to improve the effect and efficiency of the reconstructed image after hybrid volume rendering of different kinds of volume data from medical sequential slices or polygonal models, we propose a hybrid volume rendering method based on Shear-Warp with economical hardware. First, the hybrid volume data are pre-processed by Z-Buffer method and RLE (Run-Length Encoded) data structure. Then, during the process of compositing intermediate image, a resampling method based on the dual-interpolation and the intermediate slice interpolation methods is used to improve the efficiency and the effect. Finally, the reconstructed image is rendered by the texture-mapping technology of OpenGL. Experiments demonstrate the good performance of the proposed method.

  5. Algorithms for Haptic Rendering of 3D Objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Basdogan, Cagatay; Ho, Chih-Hao; Srinavasan, Mandayam

    2003-01-01

    Algorithms have been developed to provide haptic rendering of three-dimensional (3D) objects in virtual (that is, computationally simulated) environments. The goal of haptic rendering is to generate tactual displays of the shapes, hardnesses, surface textures, and frictional properties of 3D objects in real time. Haptic rendering is a major element of the emerging field of computer haptics, which invites comparison with computer graphics. We have already seen various applications of computer haptics in the areas of medicine (surgical simulation, telemedicine, haptic user interfaces for blind people, and rehabilitation of patients with neurological disorders), entertainment (3D painting, character animation, morphing, and sculpting), mechanical design (path planning and assembly sequencing), and scientific visualization (geophysical data analysis and molecular manipulation).

  6. Virtual Try-On Through Image-based Rendering.

    PubMed

    Hauswiesner, Stefan; Straka, Matthias; Reitmayr, Gerhard

    2013-03-22

    Virtual try-on applications have become popular because they allow users to watch themselves wearing different clothes without the effort of changing them physically. This helps users to make quick buying decisions and thus improves the sales efficiency of retailers. Previous solutions usually involve motion capture, 3D reconstruction or modeling, which are time consuming and not robust for all body poses. Our method avoids these steps by combining image-based renderings of the user and previously recorded garments. It transfers the appearance of a garment recorded from one user to another by matching input and recorded frames, image-based visual hull rendering and online registration methods. Using images of real garments allows for a realistic rendering quality with high performance. It is suitable for a wide range of clothes and complex appearances, allows arbitrary viewing angles and requires only little manual input. Our system is particularly useful for virtual try-on applications as well as interactive games.

  7. Virtual try-on through image-based rendering.

    PubMed

    Hauswiesner, Stefan; Straka, Matthias; Reitmayr, Gerhard

    2013-09-01

    Virtual try-on applications have become popular because they allow users to watch themselves wearing different clothes without the effort of changing them physically. This helps users to make quick buying decisions and, thus, improves the sales efficiency of retailers. Previous solutions usually involve motion capture, 3D reconstruction or modeling, which are time consuming and not robust for all body poses. Our method avoids these steps by combining image-based renderings of the user and previously recorded garments. It transfers the appearance of a garment recorded from one user to another by matching input and recorded frames, image-based visual hull rendering, and online registration methods. Using images of real garments allows for a realistic rendering quality with high performance. It is suitable for a wide range of clothes and complex appearances, allows arbitrary viewing angles, and requires only little manual input. Our system is particularly useful for virtual try-on applications as well as interactive games.

  8. Inconspicuous structural coloration in the elytra of beetles Chlorophila obscuripennis (Coleoptera)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Feng; Yin, Haiwei; Dong, Biqin; Qing, Youhua; Zhao, Li; Meyer, Serge; Liu, Xiaohan; Zi, Jian; Chen, Bin

    2008-01-01

    The elytra of male beetles Chlorophila obscuripennis (Coleoptera) display an inconspicuous iridescent bluish green color. By structural characterizations we find that the outermost elytral surface comprises a sculpted multilayer, which is the origin of structural coloration. In elytra both structural green and cyan colors are observed which arise from the modulations imposed on the multilayer, leading to a bluish green color by color mixing. The adoption of the sculpted multilayer can render structural coloration inconspicuous, which could be advantageous for camouflage. In addition, it can cause light emergence at nonspecular angles.

  9. Chromium Renderserver: Scalable and Open Source Remote RenderingInfrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Paul, Brian; Ahern, Sean; Bethel, E. Wes; Brugger, Eric; Cook,Rich; Daniel, Jamison; Lewis, Ken; Owen, Jens; Southard, Dale

    2007-12-01

    Chromium Renderserver (CRRS) is software infrastructure thatprovides the ability for one or more users to run and view image outputfrom unmodified, interactive OpenGL and X11 applications on a remote,parallel computational platform equipped with graphics hardwareaccelerators via industry-standard Layer 7 network protocolsand clientviewers. The new contributions of this work include a solution to theproblem of synchronizing X11 and OpenGL command streams, remote deliveryof parallel hardware-accelerated rendering, and a performance analysis ofseveral different optimizations that are generally applicable to avariety of rendering architectures. CRRSis fully operational, Open Sourcesoftware.

  10. Morphological study of transpterional-insula approach using volume rendering.

    PubMed

    Jia, Linpei; Su, Lue; Sun, Wei; Wang, Lina; Yao, Jihang; Li, Youqiong; Luo, Qi

    2012-11-01

    This study describes the measurements of inferior circular insular sulcus (ICIS) and the shortest distance from ICIS to the temporal horn and determines the position of the incision, which does less harm to the temporal stem in the transpterional-insula approach using volume-rendering technique. Results of the research showed that one-third point over the anterior side of ICIS may be the ideal penetration point during operation. And there is no difference between 2 hemispheres (P < 0.05). The comparison with the results of ICIS from other Chinese researches demonstrated that volume rendering is a reliable method in insular research that enables mass measurements.

  11. Three-dimensional range data compression using computer graphics rendering pipeline.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Song

    2012-06-20

    This paper presents the idea of naturally encoding three-dimensional (3D) range data into regular two-dimensional (2D) images utilizing computer graphics rendering pipeline. The computer graphics pipeline provides a means to sample 3D geometry data into regular 2D images, and also to retrieve the depth information for each sampled pixel. The depth information for each pixel is further encoded into red, green, and blue color channels of regular 2D images. The 2D images can further be compressed with existing 2D image compression techniques. By this novel means, 3D geometry data obtained by 3D range scanners can be instantaneously compressed into 2D images, providing a novel way of storing 3D range data into its 2D counterparts. We will present experimental results to verify the performance of this proposed technique.

  12. Stereo vision-based depth of field rendering on a mobile device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Qiaosong; Yu, Zhan; Rasmussen, Christopher; Yu, Jingyi

    2014-03-01

    The depth of field (DoF) effect is a useful tool in photography and cinematography because of its aesthetic value. However, capturing and displaying dynamic DoF effect were until recently a quality unique to expensive and bulky movie cameras. A computational approach to generate realistic DoF effects for mobile devices such as tablets is proposed. We first calibrate the rear-facing stereo cameras and rectify the stereo image pairs through FCam API, then generate a low-res disparity map using graph cuts stereo matching and subsequently upsample it via joint bilateral upsampling. Next, we generate a synthetic light field by warping the raw color image to nearby viewpoints, according to the corresponding values in the upsampled high-resolution disparity map. Finally, we render dynamic DoF effect on the tablet screen with light field rendering. The user can easily capture and generate desired DoF effects with arbitrary aperture sizes or focal depths using the tablet only, with no additional hardware or software required. The system has been examined in a variety of environments with satisfactory results, according to the subjective evaluation tests.

  13. Do focal colors look particularly "colorful"?

    PubMed

    Witzel, Christoph; Franklin, Anna

    2014-04-01

    If the most typical red, yellow, green, and blue were particularly colorful (i.e., saturated), they would "jump out to the eye." This would explain why even fundamentally different languages have distinct color terms for these focal colors, and why unique hues play a prominent role in subjective color appearance. In this study, the subjective saturation of 10 colors around each of these focal colors was measured through a pairwise matching task. Results show that subjective saturation changes systematically across hues in a way that is strongly correlated to the visual gamut, and exponentially related to sensitivity but not to focal colors.

  14. Broadband full-color monolithic InGaN light-emitting diodes by self-assembled InGaN quantum dots

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hongjian; Li, Panpan; Kang, Junjie; Ding, Jiianfeng; Ma, Jun; Zhang, Yiyun; Yi, Xiaoyan; Wang, Guohong

    2016-01-01

    We have presented broadband full-color monolithic InGaN light-emitting diodes (LEDs) by self-assembled InGaN quantum dots (QDs) using metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). The electroluminescence spectra of the InGaN QDs LEDs are extremely broad span from 410 nm to 720 nm with a line-width of 164 nm, covering entire visible wavelength range. A color temperature of 3370 K and a color rendering index of 69.3 have been achieved. Temperature-dependent photoluminescence measurements reveal a strong carriers localization effect of the InGaN QDs layer by obvious blue-shift of emission peak from 50 K to 300 K. The broadband luminescence spectrum is believed to be attributed to the injected carriers captured by the different localized states of InGaN QDs with various sizes, shapes and indium compositions, leading to a full visible color emission. The successful realization of our broadband InGaN QDs LEDs provide a convenient and practical method for the fabrication of GaN-based monolithic full-color LEDs in wafer scale. PMID:27734917

  15. Broadband full-color monolithic InGaN light-emitting diodes by self-assembled InGaN quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hongjian; Li, Panpan; Kang, Junjie; Ding, Jiianfeng; Ma, Jun; Zhang, Yiyun; Yi, Xiaoyan; Wang, Guohong

    2016-10-01

    We have presented broadband full-color monolithic InGaN light-emitting diodes (LEDs) by self-assembled InGaN quantum dots (QDs) using metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). The electroluminescence spectra of the InGaN QDs LEDs are extremely broad span from 410 nm to 720 nm with a line-width of 164 nm, covering entire visible wavelength range. A color temperature of 3370 K and a color rendering index of 69.3 have been achieved. Temperature-dependent photoluminescence measurements reveal a strong carriers localization effect of the InGaN QDs layer by obvious blue-shift of emission peak from 50 K to 300 K. The broadband luminescence spectrum is believed to be attributed to the injected carriers captured by the different localized states of InGaN QDs with various sizes, shapes and indium compositions, leading to a full visible color emission. The successful realization of our broadband InGaN QDs LEDs provide a convenient and practical method for the fabrication of GaN-based monolithic full-color LEDs in wafer scale.

  16. 103. Photocopy of architect's rendering from Renwick's office, signed lower ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    103. Photocopy of architect's rendering from Renwick's office, signed lower right 'H. C. Moore Draughtsman May 1848' & signed lower left 'Louis R. Townsend pinxt. June 1848' NORTH FRONT, SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION. - Smithsonian Institution Building, 1000 Jefferson Drive, between Ninth & Twelfth Streets, Southwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  17. Computer-aided detection of colonic polyps using volume rendering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Wei; Qiu, Feng; Marino, Joseph; Kaufman, Arie

    2007-03-01

    This work utilizes a novel pipeline for the computer-aided detection (CAD) of colonic polyps, assisting radiologists in locating polyps when using a virtual colonoscopy system. Our CAD pipeline automatically detects polyps while reducing the number of false positives (FPs). It integrates volume rendering and conformal colon flattening with texture and shape analysis. The colon is first digitally cleansed, segmented, and extracted from the CT dataset of the abdomen. The colon surface is then mapped to a 2D rectangle using conformal mapping. Using this colon flattening method, the CAD problem is converted from 3D into 2D. The flattened image is rendered using a direct volume rendering of the 3D colon dataset with a translucent transfer function. Suspicious polyps are detected by applying a clustering method on the 2D volume rendered image. The FPs are reduced by analyzing shape and texture features of the suspicious areas detected by the clustering step. Compared with shape-based methods, ours is much faster and much more efficient as it avoids computing curvature and other shape parameters for the whole colon wall. We tested our method with 178 datasets and found it to be 100% sensitive to adenomatous polyps with a low rate of FPs. The CAD results are seamlessly integrated into a virtual colonoscopy system, providing the radiologists with visual cues and likelihood indicators of areas likely to contain polyps, and allowing them to quickly inspect the suspicious areas and further exploit the flattened colon view for easy navigation and bookmark placement.

  18. Imaging of Temporomandibular Joint: Approach by Direct Volume Rendering

    PubMed Central

    Caradonna, Carola; Bruschetta, Daniele; Vaccarino, Gianluigi; Milardi, Demetrio

    2014-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to conduct a morphological analysis of the temporomandibular joint, a highly specialized synovial joint that permits movement and function of the mandible. Materials and Methods: We have studied the temporom-andibular joint anatomy, directly on the living, from 3D images obtained by medical imaging Computed Tomography and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance acquisition, and subsequent re-engineering techniques 3D Surface Rendering and Volume Rendering. Data were analysed with the goal of being able to isolate, identify and distinguish the anatomical structures of the joint, and get the largest possible number of information utilizing software for post-processing work. Results: It was possible to reproduce anatomy of the skeletal structures, as well as through acquisitions of Magnetic Resonance Imaging; it was also possible to visualize the vascular, muscular, ligamentous and tendinous components of the articular complex, and also the capsule and the fibrous cartilaginous disc. We managed the Surface Rendering and Volume Rendering, not only to obtain three-dimensional images for colour and for resolution comparable to the usual anatomical preparations, but also a considerable number of anatomical, minuter details, zooming, rotating and cutting the same images with linking, graduating the colour, transparency and opacity from time to time. Conclusion: These results are encouraging to stimulate further studies in other anatomical districts. PMID:25664280

  19. 17 CFR 256.457 - Services rendered to associate companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... companies. 256.457 Section 256.457 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS FOR MUTUAL SERVICE COMPANIES AND SUBSIDIARY SERVICE COMPANIES, PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 1935 Income and Expense Accounts § 256.457 Services rendered to...

  20. 17 CFR 256.457 - Services rendered to associate companies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... companies. 256.457 Section 256.457 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION (CONTINUED) UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS FOR MUTUAL SERVICE COMPANIES AND SUBSIDIARY SERVICE COMPANIES, PUBLIC UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 1935 Income and Expense Accounts § 256.457 Services rendered to...

  1. 10. Historic photo of rendering of rocket engine test facility ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Historic photo of rendering of rocket engine test facility complex, April 28, 1964. On file at NASA Plumbrook Research Center, Sandusky, Ohio. NASA GRC photo number C-69472. - Rocket Engine Testing Facility, NASA Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  2. 11. Historic photo of cutaway rendering of rocket engine test ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Historic photo of cutaway rendering of rocket engine test facility complex, June 11, 1965. On file at NASA Plumbrook Research Center, Sandusky, Ohio. NASA GRC photo number C-74433. - Rocket Engine Testing Facility, NASA Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  3. 18 CFR 1308.17 - Failure to render timely decision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Failure to render timely decision. 1308.17 Section 1308.17 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY... Contracting Officer to issue a decision on a submitted claim within the period required or permitted by §...

  4. 18 CFR 1308.17 - Failure to render timely decision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Failure to render timely decision. 1308.17 Section 1308.17 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY... Contracting Officer to issue a decision on a submitted claim within the period required or permitted by §...

  5. 18 CFR 1308.17 - Failure to render timely decision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Failure to render timely decision. 1308.17 Section 1308.17 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY... Contracting Officer to issue a decision on a submitted claim within the period required or permitted by §...

  6. 7 CFR 54.1016 - Advance information concerning service rendered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT... rendered. Upon request of any applicant, all or any part of the contents of any report issued to...

  7. 7 CFR 54.1016 - Advance information concerning service rendered.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT... rendered. Upon request of any applicant, all or any part of the contents of any report issued to...

  8. Structural color mechanism in the Papilio blumei butterfly.

    PubMed

    Lo, Mei-Ling; Lee, Cheng-Chung

    2014-02-01

    The structural color found in biological systems has complicated nanostructure. It is very important to determine its color mechanism. In this study, the 2D photonic crystal structures of the Papilio blumei butterfly were constructed, and the corresponding reflectance spectra were simulated by the finite-difference time-domain method. The structural color of the butterfly depends on the incident angle of light, film thickness, film material (film refractive index), and the size of the air hole (effective refractive index). Analysis of simulations can help us understand the hue, brightness, and saturation of structural color on the butterfly wing. As a result, the analysis can help us fabricate expected structural color.

  9. Edge Coloring, Polyhedra and Probability

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-11-01

    also \\dBi{v)-\\dB*{v)\\ < i<Jand|m Al(5J)- idef (SJ)| < | . t f ll t t \\8\\ {\\ | X ^ n(J follows from (a) and ±A < |B?| < 3A. D Preparing the marking...chromatic index of G and is denoted by x ’{G). We consider the edge coloring problem in the framework of the relationship between an integer program and its...linear programming relaxation. To do this we first formulate edge coloring as an integer program and let x *(G) be the optimum of the linear

  10. Highly-efficient, tunable green, phosphor-converted LEDs using a long-pass dichroic filter and a series of orthosilicate phosphors for tri-color white LEDs.

    PubMed

    Oh, Ji Hye; Oh, Jeong Rok; Park, Hoo Keun; Sung, Yeon-Goog; Do, Young Rag

    2012-01-02

    This study introduces a long-pass dichroic filter (LPDF) on top of a phosphor-converted LED (pc-LED) packing associated with each corresponding tunable orthosilicate ((Ba,Sr)2SiO4:Eu) phosphor in order to fabricate tunable green pc-LEDs. These LPDF-capped green pc-LEDs provide luminous efficacies between 143–173 lm/W at 60 mA in a wavelength range between 515 and 560 nm. These tunable green pc-LEDs can replace green semiconductor-type III-V LEDs, which present challenges with respect to generating high luminous efficacy. We also introduce the highly-efficient tunable green pc-LEDs into tri-color white LED systems that combine an InGaN blue LED and green/red full down-converted pc-LEDs. The effect of peak wavelength in the tunable green pc-LEDs on the optical properties of a tri-color package white LED is analyzed to determine the proper wavelength of green color for tri-color white LEDs. The tri-color white LED provides excellent luminous efficacy (81.5–109 lm/W) and a good color rendering index (64–87) at 6500 K of correlated color temperature (CCT) with the peak wavelength of green pc-LEDs. The luminous efficacy of the LPDF-capped green monochromatic pc-LED and tri-color package with tunable green pc-LEDs can be increased by improving the external quantum efficiency of blue LEDs and the conversion efficiency of green pc-LEDs.

  11. Efficient rendering and compression for full-parallax computer-generated holographic stereograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kartch, Daniel Aaron

    2000-10-01

    In the past decade, we have witnessed a quantum leap in rendering technology and a simultaneous increase in usage of computer generated images. Despite the advances made thus far, we are faced with an ever increasing desire for technology which can provide a more realistic, more immersive experience. One fledgling technology which shows great promise is the electronic holographic display. Holograms are capable of producing a fully three-dimensional image, exhibiting all the depth cues of a real scene, including motion parallax, binocular disparity, and focal effects. Furthermore, they can be viewed simultaneously by any number of users, without the aid of special headgear or position trackers. However, to date, they have been limited in use because of their computational intractability. This thesis deals with the complex task of computing a hologram for use with such a device. Specifically, we will focus on one particular type of hologram: the holographic stereogram. A holographic stereogram is created by generating a large set of two-dimensional images of a scene as seen from multiple camera points, and then converting them to a holographic interference pattern. It is closely related to the light fields or lumigraphs used in image-based rendering. Most previous algorithms have treated the problem of rendering these images as independent computations, ignoring a great deal of coherency which could be used to our advantage. We present a new computationally efficient algorithm which operates on the image set as a whole, rather than on its individual elements. Scene polygons are mapped by perspective projection into a four-dimensional space, where they are scan-converted into 4D color and depth buffers. We use a set of very simple data structures and basic operations to form an algorithm which will lend itself well to future hardware implementation, so as to drive a real-time holographic display. We also examined issues related to the compression of stereograms

  12. Range and stability of structural colors generated by Morpho-inspired color reflectors.

    PubMed

    Chung, Kyungjae; Shin, Jung H

    2013-05-01

    The range and stability of structural colors generated by Morpho-inspired color reflectors are investigated. We find that despite the internal randomness of such structures that gives rise to their Morpho-like angle-independent iridescence, their colors under ambient lighting condition can be predicted by simple transfer-matrix calculations of corresponding planar multilayer structures. By calculating the possible range of colors generated by multilayers of different structures and material combinations using such transfer-matrix methods, we find that low-refractive index multilayers with intrastructure absorption, such as the melanin-containing chitin/air multilayer structure from the Morpho butterflies, can provide not only the most pure structural colors with the largest color gamut, but also the highest stability of color against variations in multilayer structure.

  13. Volume rendering of visible human data for an anatomical virtual environment.

    PubMed

    Kerr, J; Ratiu, P; Sellberg, M

    1996-01-01

    of specific anatomical structures. We have the capability to generate images that are both accurate and lifelike, much like photographic anatomical atlases. We can also generate images, models, and textures that have the clarity of medical artwork/illustrations, by highlighting the coloring of the ray traced structures with conventional colors instead of the natural color of the specimen. We are currently in the process of generating a comprehensive reference atlas of volume rendered images of the human body, soon to be published by Mosby-Year Book. The segmentation techniques needed to create this atlas also offer the accuracy and realism needed to create surface models and texture maps for a virtual environment for surgery simulation.

  14. Color Relationalism and Relativism.

    PubMed

    Byrne, Alex; Hilbert, David R

    2017-01-01

    This paper critically examines color relationalism and color relativism, two theories of color that are allegedly supported by variation in normal human color vision. We mostly discuss color relationalism, defended at length in Jonathan Cohen's The Red and the Real, and argue that the theory has insuperable problems.

  15. Primary Theme Club. Colors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walmsley, Bonnie Brown; Camp, Anne-Marie

    1997-01-01

    Presents a cross-curricular theme unit on colors that includes a pullout poster and a resource list. Social studies activities highlight flags of the world. Science activities teach about colors of animals and the science of color. Language arts activities describe colorful language. Mathematics activities involve sorting and graphing colors. (SM)

  16. Activities: Some Colorful Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeTemple, Duane W.; Walker, Dean A.

    1996-01-01

    Describes three activities in discrete mathematics that involve coloring geometric objects: counting colored regions of overlapping simple closed curves, counting colored triangulations of polygons, and determining the number of colors required to paint the plane so that no two points one inch apart are the same color. (MKR)

  17. Realizing Rec. 2020 color gamut with quantum dot displays.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Ruidong; Luo, Zhenyue; Chen, Haiwei; Dong, Yajie; Wu, Shin-Tson

    2015-09-07

    We analyze how to realize Rec. 2020 wide color gamut with quantum dots. For photoluminescence, our simulation indicates that we are able to achieve over 97% of the Rec. 2020 standard with quantum dots by optimizing the emission spectra and redesigning the color filters. For electroluminescence, by optimizing the emission spectra of quantum dots is adequate to render over 97% of the Rec. 2020 standard. We also analyze the efficiency and angular performance of these devices, and then compare results with LCDs using green and red phosphors-based LED backlight. Our results indicate that quantum dot display is an outstanding candidate for achieving wide color gamut and high optical efficiency.

  18. Author Indexing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diodato, Virgil P.

    1981-01-01

    Discusses the effectiveness of using author-supplied indexing to increase subject control in information retrieval, and describes a study which compared author indexing for articles published in "American Mathematical Society" journals to indexing of the same articles by an editor of "Mathematical Reviews." Nine references are…

  19. Indexing Flower Patent Images using Domain Knowledge

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-01-01

    approach is illustrated by using it to provide a solution to the problem of indexing images of flowers for searching a flower patents database by color...The flower region is isolated from the background by using an automatic iterative segmentation algorithm with domain knowledge driven feedback. The...color of the flower is defined by the color names present in the flower region and their relative proportions. The database can be queried by example

  20. Improvement of surgical simulation using dynamic volume rendering.

    PubMed

    Radetzky, A; Schröcker, F; Auer, L M

    2000-01-01

    In the last years high efforts have been taken to develop surgical simulators for computer assisted training. However, most of these simulators use simple models of the human's anatomy, which are manually created using modeling software. Nevertheless, medical experts need to perform the training directly with the patient's complex anatomy, which can be received, for example, from digital imaging datasets (CT, MR). A common technique to display these datasets is volume rendering. However, even with high-end hardware only static models can be handled interactively. In surgical simulators a dynamic component is also needed because tissues must be deformed and partially removed. With the combination of springmass models, which are improved by neuro-fuzzy systems, and the recently developed OpenGL Volumizer, surgical simulation using real-time deformable (or dynamic) volume rendering became possible. As an application example the simulator ROBOSIM for minimally invasive neurosurgery is presented.

  1. Chromium Renderserver: scalable and open remote rendering infrastructure.

    PubMed

    Paul, Brian; Ahern, Sean; Bethel, E Wes; Brugger, Eric; Cook, Rich; Daniel, Jamison; Lewis, Ken; Owen, Jens; Southard, Dale

    2008-01-01

    Chromium Renderserver (CRRS) is software infrastructure that provides the ability for one or more users to run and view image output from unmodified, interactive OpenGL and X11 applications on a remote, parallel computational platform equipped with graphics hardware accelerators via industry-standard Layer 7 network protocols and client viewers. The new contributions of this work include a solution to the problem of synchronizing X11 and OpenGL command streams, remote delivery of parallel hardware accelerated rendering, and a performance analysis of several different optimizations that are generally applicable to a variety of rendering architectures. CRRS is fully operational, Open Source software. imagery and sending it to a remote viewer.

  2. Rapid exploration of curvilinear grids using direct volume rendering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vangelder, Allen; Wilhelms, Jane

    1993-01-01

    Fast techniques for direct volume rendering over curvilinear grids of hexahedral cells are developed. This type of 3D grid is common in computational fluid dynamics and finite element analysis. Four new projection methods are presented and compared with each other and with previous methods for tetrahedral grids and rectilinear grids. All four methods use polygon-rendering hardware for speed. A simplified algorithm for visibility ordering, which is based on a combination of breadth-first and depth-first searches, is described. A new multi-pass blending method is described that reduces visual artifacts that are introduced by linear interpolation in hardware where exponential interpolation is needed. Multi-pass blending is of equal interest to hardware-oriented projection methods used on rectilinear grids. Visualization tools that permit rapid data banding and cycling through transfer functions, as well as region restrictions, are described.

  3. Dual-Matrix Sampling for Scalable Translucent Material Rendering.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yu-Ting; Li, Tzu-Mao; Lin, Yu-Hsun; Chuang, Yung-Yu

    2015-03-01

    This paper introduces a scalable algorithm for rendering translucent materials with complex lighting. We represent the light transport with a diffusion approximation by a dual-matrix representation with the Light-to-Surface and Surface-to-Camera matrices. By exploiting the structures within the matrices, the proposed method can locate surface samples with little contribution by using only subsampled matrices and avoid wasting computation on these samples. The decoupled estimation of irradiance and diffuse BSSRDFs also allows us to have a tight error bound, making the adaptive diffusion approximation more efficient and accurate. Experiments show that our method outperforms previous methods for translucent material rendering, especially in large scenes with massive translucent surfaces shaded by complex illumination.

  4. Generalized pipeline for preview and rendering of synthetic holograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pappu, Ravikanth; Sparrell, Carlton J.; Underkoffler, John S.; Kropp, Adam B.; Chen, Benjie; Plesniak, Wendy J.

    1997-04-01

    We describe a general pipeline for the computation and display of either fully-computed holograms or holographic stereograms using the same 3D database. A rendering previewer on a Silicon Graphics Onyx allows a user to specify viewing geometry, database transformations, and scene lighting. The previewer then generates one of two descriptions of the object--a series of perspective views or a polygonal model--which is then used by a fringe rendering engine to compute fringes specific to hologram type. The images are viewed on the second generation MIT Holographic Video System. This allows a viewer to compare holographic stereograms with fully-computed holograms originating from the same database and comes closer to the goal of a single pipeline being able to display the same data in different formats.

  5. Vibration rendering on a thin plate with actuator array at the periphery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woo, Jung-Han; Ih, Jeong-Guon

    2015-08-01

    Vibrations are rendered on the display panel of a mobile electronic device to transfer a tactile sensation to users. Because important electronic components are usually positioned in the central part of the devices, the only practical choice for actuator location is the periphery of the panel although the periphery is not the advantageous position for the excitation. As the basic principle to generate a rendered vibration pattern, two methods to determine the contributions of modes, viz., eigenfunction superposition or traveling wave control method, are implemented individually. The purpose is to generate a pattern of vibration amplitudes that can be felt by fingertip in the hot zone but not in the cold zone, which is outside the hot zone. General inverse methods are applied to obtain the actuator weightings for achieving the target pattern. Proper weighting for both amplitude and phase for each actuator in the array is determined by the relationship between modes or velocity responses and input signals of actuators. Two methods are implemented individually on the display panel of a commercial tablet computer using an array of moving-coil actuators, and the responses on the panel are measured. Performance index referred to as success ratio for evaluating satisfaction of target field constraints is proposed considering the different thresholds of vibration sensation. Reasonable fulfillment of achieving the target vibration pattern is observed experimentally. The success ratio is more than 86% by using the eigenfunction superposition, and more than 97% by using the traveling wave control for rendering 2×2 and 3×3 section.

  6. [Fast volume rendering of echocardiogram with shear-warp algorithm].

    PubMed

    Yang, Liu; Wang, Tianfu; Lin, Jiangli; Li, Deyu; Zheng, Yi; Zheng, Changqiong; Song, Haibo; Tang, Hong; Wang, Xiaoyi

    2004-04-01

    Shear-warp is a volume rendering technology based on object-order. It has the characteristics of high speed and high image quality by comparison with the conventional visualization technology. The authors introduced the principle of this algorithm and applied it to the visualization of 3-D data obtained by interpolating rotary scanning echocardiogram. The 3-D reconstruction of the echocardiogram was efficiently completed with high image quality. This algorithm has a prospective application in medical image visualization.

  7. Low-light-level EMCCD color camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heim, Gerald B.; Burkepile, Jon; Frame, Wayne W.

    2006-05-01

    Video cameras have increased in usefulness in military applications over the past four decades. This is a result of many advances in technology and because no one portion of the spectrum reigns supreme under all environmental and operating conditions. The visible portion of the spectrum has the clear advantage of ease of information interpretation, requiring little or no training. This advantage extends into the Near IR (NIR) spectral region to silicon cutoff with little difficulty. Inclusion of the NIR region is of particular importance due to the rich photon content of natural night illumination. The addition of color capability offers another dimension to target/situation discrimination and hence is highly desirable. A military camera must be small, lightweight and low power. Limiting resolution and sensitivity cannot be sacrificed to achieve color capability. Newly developed electron-multiplication CCD sensors (EMCCDs) open the door to a practical low-light/all-light color camera without an image intensifier. Ball Aerospace & Technologies Corp (BATC) has developed a unique color camera that allows the addition of color with a very small impact on low light level performance and negligible impact on limiting resolution. The approach, which includes the NIR portion of the spectrum along with the visible, requires no moving parts and is based on the addition of a sparse sampling color filter to the surface of an EMCCD. It renders the correct hue in a real time, video rate image with negligible latency. Furthermore, camera size and power impact is slight.

  8. Efficient Encoding and Rendering of Time-Varying Volume Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ma, Kwan-Liu; Smith, Diann; Shih, Ming-Yun; Shen, Han-Wei

    1998-01-01

    Visualization of time-varying volumetric data sets, which may be obtained from numerical simulations or sensing instruments, provides scientists insights into the detailed dynamics of the phenomenon under study. This paper describes a coherent solution based on quantization, coupled with octree and difference encoding for visualizing time-varying volumetric data. Quantization is used to attain voxel-level compression and may have a significant influence on the performance of the subsequent encoding and visualization steps. Octree encoding is used for spatial domain compression, and difference encoding for temporal domain compression. In essence, neighboring voxels may be fused into macro voxels if they have similar values, and subtrees at consecutive time steps may be merged if they are identical. The software rendering process is tailored according to the tree structures and the volume visualization process. With the tree representation, selective rendering may be performed very efficiently. Additionally, the I/O costs are reduced. With these combined savings, a higher level of user interactivity is achieved. We have studied a variety of time-varying volume datasets, performed encoding based on data statistics, and optimized the rendering calculations wherever possible. Preliminary tests on workstations have shown in many cases tremendous reduction by as high as 90% in both storage space and inter-frame delay.

  9. High Performance GPU-Based Fourier Volume Rendering

    PubMed Central

    Abdellah, Marwan; Eldeib, Ayman; Sharawi, Amr

    2015-01-01

    Fourier volume rendering (FVR) is a significant visualization technique that has been used widely in digital radiography. As a result of its 𝒪(N2log⁡N) time complexity, it provides a faster alternative to spatial domain volume rendering algorithms that are 𝒪(N3) computationally complex. Relying on the Fourier projection-slice theorem, this technique operates on the spectral representation of a 3D volume instead of processing its spatial representation to generate attenuation-only projections that look like X-ray radiographs. Due to the rapid evolution of its underlying architecture, the graphics processing unit (GPU) became an attractive competent platform that can deliver giant computational raw power compared to the central processing unit (CPU) on a per-dollar-basis. The introduction of the compute unified device architecture (CUDA) technology enables embarrassingly-parallel algorithms to run efficiently on CUDA-capable GPU architectures. In this work, a high performance GPU-accelerated implementation of the FVR pipeline on CUDA-enabled GPUs is presented. This proposed implementation can achieve a speed-up of 117x compared to a single-threaded hybrid implementation that uses the CPU and GPU together by taking advantage of executing the rendering pipeline entirely on recent GPU architectures. PMID:25866499

  10. High Performance GPU-Based Fourier Volume Rendering.

    PubMed

    Abdellah, Marwan; Eldeib, Ayman; Sharawi, Amr

    2015-01-01

    Fourier volume rendering (FVR) is a significant visualization technique that has been used widely in digital radiography. As a result of its (N (2)log⁡N) time complexity, it provides a faster alternative to spatial domain volume rendering algorithms that are (N (3)) computationally complex. Relying on the Fourier projection-slice theorem, this technique operates on the spectral representation of a 3D volume instead of processing its spatial representation to generate attenuation-only projections that look like X-ray radiographs. Due to the rapid evolution of its underlying architecture, the graphics processing unit (GPU) became an attractive competent platform that can deliver giant computational raw power compared to the central processing unit (CPU) on a per-dollar-basis. The introduction of the compute unified device architecture (CUDA) technology enables embarrassingly-parallel algorithms to run efficiently on CUDA-capable GPU architectures. In this work, a high performance GPU-accelerated implementation of the FVR pipeline on CUDA-enabled GPUs is presented. This proposed implementation can achieve a speed-up of 117x compared to a single-threaded hybrid implementation that uses the CPU and GPU together by taking advantage of executing the rendering pipeline entirely on recent GPU architectures.

  11. Sort-First, Distributed Memory Parallel Visualization and Rendering

    SciTech Connect

    Bethel, E. Wes; Humphreys, Greg; Paul, Brian; Brederson, J. Dean

    2003-07-15

    While commodity computing and graphics hardware has increased in capacity and dropped in cost, it is still quite difficult to make effective use of such systems for general-purpose parallel visualization and graphics. We describe the results of a recent project that provides a software infrastructure suitable for general-purpose use by parallel visualization and graphics applications. Our work combines and extends two technologies: Chromium, a stream-oriented framework that implements the OpenGL programming interface; and OpenRM Scene Graph, a pipelined-parallel scene graph interface for graphics data management. Using this combination, we implement a sort-first, distributed memory, parallel volume rendering application. We describe the performance characteristics in terms of bandwidth requirements and highlight key algorithmic considerations needed to implement the sort-first system. We characterize system performance using a distributed memory parallel volume rendering application, a nd present performance gains realized by using scene specific knowledge to accelerate rendering through reduced network bandwidth. The contribution of this work is an exploration of general-purpose, sort-first architecture performance characteristics as applied to distributed memory, commodity hardware, along with a description of the algorithmic support needed to realize parallel, sort-first implementations.

  12. Scanning color optical tomography (SCOT)

    PubMed Central

    Hosseini, Poorya; Sung, Yongjin; Choi, Youngwoon; Lue, Niyom; Yaqoob, Zahid; So, Peter

    2015-01-01

    We have developed an interferometric optical microscope that provides three-dimensional refractive index map of a specimen by scanning the color of three illumination beams. Our design of the interferometer allows for simultaneous measurement of the scattered fields (both amplitude and phase) of such a complex input beam. By obviating the need for mechanical scanning of the illumination beam or detection objective lens; the proposed method can increase the speed of the optical tomography by orders of magnitude. We demonstrate our method using polystyrene beads of known refractive index value and live cells. PMID:26367632

  13. Color vision and color formation in dragonflies.

    PubMed

    Futahashi, Ryo

    2016-10-01

    Dragonflies including damselflies are colorful and large-eyed insects, which show remarkable sexual dimorphism, color transition, and color polymorphism. Recent comprehensive visual transcriptomics has unveiled an extraordinary diversity of opsin genes within the lineage of dragonflies. These opsin genes are differentially expressed between aquatic larvae and terrestrial adults, as well as between dorsal and ventral regions of adult compound eyes. Recent topics of color formation in dragonflies are also outlined. Non-iridescent blue color is caused by coherent light scattering from the quasiordered nanostructures, whereas iridescent color is produced by multilayer structures. Wrinkles or wax crystals sometimes enhances multilayer structural colors. Sex-specific and stage-specific color differences in red dragonflies is attributed to redox states of ommochrome pigments.

  14. Urine - abnormal color

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003139.htm Urine - abnormal color To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The usual color of urine is straw-yellow. Abnormally colored urine ...

  15. Tooth - abnormal colors

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003065.htm Tooth - abnormal colors To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Abnormal tooth color is any color other than white to yellowish- ...

  16. LED Color Characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    2012-01-01

    Color quality is an important consideration when evaluating LED-based products for general illumination. This fact sheet reviews the basics regarding light and color and summarizes the most important color issues related to white-light LED systems.

  17. Color Blindness Simulations

    MedlinePlus

    ... Coordinator Color blindness Simulations Normal Color Vision Deuteranopia Color blindness marked by confusion of purplish red and green Tritanopia A dichromatism in which the spectrum is seen in tones of red and green. ...

  18. Autophagy supports color vision

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Zhenqing; Vinberg, Frans; Schottler, Frank; Doggett, Teresa A; Kefalov, Vladimir J; Ferguson, Thomas A

    2015-01-01

    Cones comprise only a small portion of the photoreceptors in mammalian retinas. However, cones are vital for color vision and visual perception, and their loss severely diminishes the quality of life for patients with retinal degenerative diseases. Cones function in bright light and have higher demand for energy than rods; yet, the mechanisms that support the energy requirements of cones are poorly understood. One such pathway that potentially could sustain cones under basal and stress conditions is macroautophagy. We addressed the role of macroautophagy in cones by examining how the genetic block of this pathway affects the structural integrity, survival, and function of these neurons. We found that macroautophagy was not detectable in cones under normal conditions but was readily observed following 24 h of fasting. Consistent with this, starvation induced phosphorylation of AMPK specifically in cones indicating cellular starvation. Inhibiting macroautophagy in cones by deleting the essential macroautophagy gene Atg5 led to reduced cone function following starvation suggesting that cones are sensitive to systemic changes in nutrients and activate macroautophagy to maintain their function. ATG5-deficiency rendered cones susceptible to light-induced damage and caused accumulation of damaged mitochondria in the inner segments, shortening of the outer segments, and degeneration of all cone types, revealing the importance of mitophagy in supporting cone metabolic needs. Our results demonstrate that macroautophagy supports the function and long-term survival of cones providing for their unique metabolic requirements and resistance to stress. Targeting macroautophagy has the potential to preserve cone-mediated vision during retinal degenerative diseases. PMID:26292183

  19. Autophagy supports color vision.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhenqing; Vinberg, Frans; Schottler, Frank; Doggett, Teresa A; Kefalov, Vladimir J; Ferguson, Thomas A

    2015-01-01

    Cones comprise only a small portion of the photoreceptors in mammalian retinas. However, cones are vital for color vision and visual perception, and their loss severely diminishes the quality of life for patients with retinal degenerative diseases. Cones function in bright light and have higher demand for energy than rods; yet, the mechanisms that support the energy requirements of cones are poorly understood. One such pathway that potentially could sustain cones under basal and stress conditions is macroautophagy. We addressed the role of macroautophagy in cones by examining how the genetic block of this pathway affects the structural integrity, survival, and function of these neurons. We found that macroautophagy was not detectable in cones under normal conditions but was readily observed following 24 h of fasting. Consistent with this, starvation induced phosphorylation of AMPK specifically in cones indicating cellular starvation. Inhibiting macroautophagy in cones by deleting the essential macroautophagy gene Atg5 led to reduced cone function following starvation suggesting that cones are sensitive to systemic changes in nutrients and activate macroautophagy to maintain their function. ATG5-deficiency rendered cones susceptible to light-induced damage and caused accumulation of damaged mitochondria in the inner segments, shortening of the outer segments, and degeneration of all cone types, revealing the importance of mitophagy in supporting cone metabolic needs. Our results demonstrate that macroautophagy supports the function and long-term survival of cones providing for their unique metabolic requirements and resistance to stress. Targeting macroautophagy has the potential to preserve cone-mediated vision during retinal degenerative diseases.

  20. 75 FR 10808 - CIBA Vision Corp.; Withdrawal of Color Additive Petitions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-09

    ...) CIBA Vision Corp.; Withdrawal of Color Additive Petitions AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS... prejudice to a future filing, of three color additive petitions (CAP 5C0278, CAP 5C0279, and CAP 5C0280) proposing that the color additive regulations be amended to provide for the safe use of Color Index...

  1. Color images of Kansas subsurface geology from well logs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Collins, D.R.; Doveton, J.H.

    1986-01-01

    Modern wireline log combinations give highly diagnostic information that goes beyond the basic shale content, pore volume, and fluid saturation of older logs. Pattern recognition of geology from logs is made conventionally through either the examination of log overlays or log crossplots. Both methods can be combined through the use of color as a medium of information by setting the three color primaries of blue, green, and red light as axes of three dimensional color space. Multiple log readings of zones are rendered as composite color mixtures which, when plotted sequentially with depth, show lithological successions in a striking manner. The method is extremely simple to program and display on a color monitor. Illustrative examples are described from the Kansas subsurface. ?? 1986.

  2. Diffractive parameric colors.

    PubMed

    Orava, Joni; Heikkila, Noora; Jaaskelainen, Timo; Parkkinen, Jussi

    2008-12-01

    A method of producing inkless parameric color pairs is studied. In this method, colors are formed additively using diffraction gratings with differing grating periods as primary colors. Gratings with different grating periods reflect different spectral radiance peaks of a fluorescent lamp to the desired viewing angle, according to the grating equation. Four spectral peaks of a 4000 K fluorescent lamp--red, green, cyan, and blue-are used as the primary colors. The colors are mixed additively by fixing the relative areas of different grating periods inside a pixel. With four primary colors it is possible to mix certain colors with different triplets of primary colors. Thus, it is theoretically possible to produce metameric colors. In this study, three parameric color pairs are fabricated using electron beam lithography, electroplating, and hot embossing. The radiance spectra of the color pairs are measured by spectroradiometer from hot-embossed plastic samples. The CIELAB DeltaE(ab) and CIEDE2000 color differences between radiance spectra of the color pairs are calculated. The CIEDE2000 color differences of color pairs are between 2.6 and 7.2 units in reference viewing conditions. The effects of viewing angle and different light sources are also evaluated. It is found that both the viewing angle and the light source have very strong influences on the color differences of the color pairs.

  3. Development of the RGB LEDs color mixing mechanism for stability the color temperature at different projection distances.

    PubMed

    Hung, Chih-Ching

    2015-01-01

    In lighting application, the color mixing of the RGB LEDs can provide more color selection in correlated color temperature and color rendering. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to propose a RGB color mixing mechanism by applying the mechanism design. Three sets of lamp-type RGB LEDs are individually installed on three four-bar linkages. A crank is used to drive three groups of RGB LEDs lamp-type to project lights onto a single plane in order to mix the lights. And, simulations of the illuminance and associated color temperatures are conducted by changing the distance to the projection plane, under the assumption that the stability of the color temperature of the projected light does not change according to the projecting height. Thus, the effect of change in the color temperature on color determination by the humans' eyes was avoided. The success of the proposed method will allow medical personnel to choose suitable wavelengths and color temperatures according to the particular requirements of their medical-examination environments.

  4. Study on color-tunable phosphor-coated white light-emitting diodes with high S/P ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Ziquan; Shih, Tienmo; Xiao, Jingjing; Lu, Hongli; Lu, Yijun; Wu, Tingzhu; Lin, Yue; Gao, Yulin; Xiao, Hua; Chen, Zhong

    2016-03-01

    In this study, we have investigated the trade-off between the color rendering index (CRI, Ra) and the scotopic/photopic ratio (S/P) for color-tunable phosphor-coated white light-emitting diodes (LEDs) at two CRI limitations (Ra ≥ 70 and Ra ≥ 96). First, luminescent spectra measurements have been conducted to determine experimental results of Ra and S/P under various correlated color temperatures (CCTs). Then, a nonlinear programming method has been adopted for the optimization of Ra and S/P by varying spectral shapes through adjusting spectral parameters, such as peak wavelengths, full-width at half-maxima, and relative intensities. Therefore, polynomial curves of optimal S/P versus CCT at two Ra limitations have been discovered, enabling users to obtain optimal S/P under arbitrary CCTs within [2700 K, 6500 K]. In addition, a comparison study between the present work and our previous work has also been conducted at Ra = 70, and a fair agreement of optimal S/P has been observed.

  5. Uniform color space based on color matching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Shih-Fang; Yang, Tsung-Hsun; Lee, Cheng-Chung

    2007-09-01

    This research intends to explore with a uniform color space based on the CIE 1931 x-y chromatic coordinate system. The goal is to improve the non-uniformity of the CIE 1931 x-y chromaticity diagram such as to approach the human color sensation as possible; however, its simple methodology still can be kept. In spite of the existence of various kinds of the uniform color coordinate systems built up early (CIE u'-v', CIE Lab, CIE LUV, etc.), the establishment of a genuine uniform color space is actually still an important work both for the basic research in color science and the practical applications of colorimetry, especially for recent growing request in illumination engineering and in display technology. In this study, the MacAdam ellipses and the Munsell color chips are utilized for the comparison with the human color sensation. One specific linear transformation matrix is found for the CIE 1931 color matching functions (see manuscript) to become the novel uniform ones. With the aid of the optimization method, the transformation matrix can be easily discovered and makes the 25 MacAdam ellipses are similar to each other in the novel uniform color space. On the other hand, the perfectiveness of the equal-hue curves and the equal-chroma contours from the Mnusell color chips evaluates for the best optimization conditions among several different definitions for the similarity of all the MacAdam ellipses. Finally, the color difference between any two colors can be simply measured by the Euclidean distance in the novel uniform color space and is still fitted to the human color sensation.

  6. Irregular Morphing for Real-Time Rendering of Large Terrain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalem, Sid'Ali; Kourgli, Assia

    2016-06-01

    The following paper proposes an alternative approach to the real-time adaptive triangulation problem. A new region-based multi-resolution approach for terrain rendering is described which improves on-the-fly the distribution of the density of triangles inside the tile after selecting appropriate Level-Of-Detail by an adaptive sampling. This proposed approach organizes the heightmap into a QuadTree of tiles that are processed independently. This technique combines the benefits of both Triangular Irregular Network approach and region-based multi-resolution approach by improving the distribution of the density of triangles inside the tile. Our technique morphs the initial regular grid of the tile to deformed grid in order to minimize approximation error. The proposed technique strives to combine large tile size and real-time processing while guaranteeing an upper bound on the screen space error. Thus, this approach adapts terrain rendering process to local surface characteristics and enables on-the-fly handling of large amount of terrain data. Morphing is based-on the multi-resolution wavelet analysis. The use of the D2WT multi-resolution analysis of the terrain height-map speeds up processing and permits to satisfy an interactive terrain rendering. Tests and experiments demonstrate that Haar B-Spline wavelet, well known for its properties of localization and its compact support, is suitable for fast and accurate redistribution. Such technique could be exploited in client-server architecture for supporting interactive high-quality remote visualization of very large terrain.

  7. Characterization of four-color multi-package white light-emitting diodes combined with various green monochromatic phosphor-converted light-emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Ji Hye; Lee, Keyong Nam; Do, Young Rag

    2012-03-01

    In this study, several combinations of multi-package white light-emitting diodes (LEDs), which combine an InGaN blue LED with green, amber, and red phosphor-converted LEDs (pc-LEDs), were characterized by changing the peak wavelength of green pc-LEDs between 515nm and 560nm (515, 521, 530, 540, 550, 560nm) in color temperature of 6,500K and 3,500K. Various green monochromatic pc-LEDs were fabricated by capping a long-wave pass-filter (LWPF) on top of pc-LEDs to improve luminous efficacy and color purity. LWPF-capped green monochromatic pc-LED can address the drawback of green semiconductor-type III-V LED, such as low luminous efficacy in the region of green gap wavelength. Luminous efficacy and color rendering index (CRI) of multi-package white LEDs are compared with changing the driving current of individual LED in various multi-package white LEDs. This study provides a best combination of four-color multi-package white LEDs which has high luminous efficacy and good CRI.

  8. Application of three-dimensional rendering in joint-related ganglion cysts.

    PubMed

    Spinner, Robert J; Edwards, Phillip K; Amrami, Kimberly K

    2006-05-01

    The origin of para-articular cysts is poorly understood and controversial. The relatively common, simple (extraneural) cysts are presumed to be derived from joints, although joint connections are not always established. Rarer complex cysts are thought by many to form de novo within nerves (intraneural ganglion cysts) or within vessels (adventitial cysts) (degenerative theory). We believe that these simple and complex ganglion cysts are joint-related (articular theory). Joint connections are often not readily appreciated with routine imaging or at surgery. Not identifying and/or treating joint connections frequently leads to cyst recurrence. More sophisticated imaging may enhance visualization of these joint connections. We created a 3D rendering technique to assess potential joint connections of simple and complex cysts localized to the knee and superior tibiofibular joints in patients with fibular (peroneal) neuropathy. Two- and three-dimensional data sets from MRI examinations were segmented semiautomatically by signal intensity with further refinement based on interaction with the user to identify specific anatomic structures, such as small nerves and vessels on serial images. The bone, cysts, nerves, and vessels were each assigned different color representations, and 3D renderings were created in ANALYZE using the data sets closest to isotropic (voxel with equal length in all dimensions) resolution as the primary background rendering. We selected four cases to illustrate the spectrum of pathology. In all of these cases, we demonstrated joint connections and correlated imaging and operative findings. Surgery addressing the cyst and the joint connection resulted in excellent outcomes; postoperative MRIs done more than 6 months later confirmed that there was no recurrence. In addition to highlighting the important relationship of these cysts to neighboring anatomic structures, this 3D technique allows visualization of "occult" connections not readily appreciated

  9. Hardware-based Rendering of Full-parallax Synthetic Holograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritter, Alf; Böttger, Joachim; Deussen, Oliver; König, Matthias; Strothotte, Thomas

    1999-03-01

    We present a method for efficiently calculating the interference of complex-valued two-dimensional wave patterns that is useful during the generation of synthetic holograms. These patterns are represented as a special kind of images (textures), and the interference is calculated in a computer graphics rendering process. This enables us to leverage hardware support for holographic imaging that is implemented in many state-of-the-art computer workstations. Using this approach, we gain a speedup of a factor of 60 90 compared with conventional calculation methods for interfering wave patterns. Our method is evaluated numerically, examples are shown, and the program code is outlined.

  10. The Cube Analysis and Rendering Tool for Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosolowsky, E.; Kern, J.; Federl, P.; Jacobs, J.; Loveland, S.; Taylor, J.; Sivakoff, G.; Taylor, R.

    2015-09-01

    We present the design principles and current status of the Cube Analysis and Rendering Tool for Astronomy (CARTA). The CARTA project is designing a cube visualization tool for the Atacama Large Millimetre/submillimeter array. CARTA will join the domain-specific software already developed for millimetre-wave interferometry with sever-side visualization solution. This connection will enable archive-hosted exploration of three-dimensional data cubes. CARTA will also provide an indistinguishable desktop client. While such a goal is ambitious for a short project, the team is focusing on a well-developed framework which can readily accommodate community code development through plugins.

  11. An example of quantum imaging: rendering an object undetectable

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ataman, Stefan

    2016-06-01

    In this paper we propose and analyse a Gedankenexperiment involving three non-linear crystals and two objects inserted in the idler beams. We show that, besides the behaviour that can be extrapolated from previous experiments involving two crystals and one object, we are able to predict a new effect: under certain circumstances, one of the objects can be rendered undetectable to any single detection rate on the signal photons with discarded idler photons. This effect could find applications in future developments of quantum imaging techniques.

  12. Interactive View-Dependent Rendering of Large Isosurfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Gregorski, B; Duchaineau, M; Lindstrom, P; Pascucci, V; Joy, K I

    2002-11-19

    We present an algorithm for interactively extracting and rendering isosurfaces of large volume datasets in a view-dependent fashion. A recursive tetrahedral mesh refinement scheme, based on longest edge bisection, is used to hierarchically decompose the data into a multiresolution structure. This data structure allows fast extraction of arbitrary isosurfaces to within user specified view-dependent error bounds. A data layout scheme based on hierarchical space filling curves provides access to the data in a cache coherent manner that follows the data access pattern indicated by the mesh refinement.

  13. A survey on hair modeling: styling, simulation, and rendering.

    PubMed

    Ward, Kelly; Bertails, Florence; Kim, Tae-Yong; Marschner, Stephen R; Cani, Marie-Paule; Lin, Ming C

    2007-01-01

    Realistic hair modeling is a fundamental part of creating virtual humans in computer graphics. This paper surveys the state of the art in the major topics of hair modeling: hairstyling, hair simulation, and hair rendering. Because of the difficult, often unsolved problems that arise in all these areas, a broad diversity of approaches are used, each with strengths that make it appropriate for particular applications. We discuss each of these major topics in turn, presenting the unique challenges facing each area and describing solutions that have been presented over the years to handle these complex issues. Finally, we outline some of the remaining computational challenges in hair modeling.

  14. Visualization of semantic indexing similarity over MeSH.

    PubMed

    Du, Haixia; Yoo, Terry S

    2007-10-11

    We present an interactive visualization system for the evaluation of indexing results of the MEDLINE data-base over the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) structure in a graphical radial-tree layout. It displays indexing similarity measurements with 2D color coding and a 3D height field permitting the evaluation of the automatic Medical Text Indexer (MTI), compared with human indexers.

  15. Color identification testing device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brawner, E. L.; Martin, R.; Pate, W.

    1970-01-01

    Testing device, which determines ability of a technician to identify color-coded electric wires, is superior to standard color blindness tests. It tests speed of wire selection, detects partial color blindness, allows rapid testing, and may be administered by a color blind person.

  16. Color Me Understood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Judy J.

    2000-01-01

    Describes the "color system" as a way of grouping children into different personality types based on a certain color: orange, blue, green, and gold. Lists stress producers for specific color people. Asserts that, through making groups of different colors, children begin to see the various specialties others can bring to the group and learn to…

  17. Digital Color Image Restoration

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-08-01

    color image recording system is derived and the equations representing the model and the equations of colorimetry are expressed in matrix form. Computer ... algorithms are derived which correct color errors introduced by imperfections in the color recording system. The sources of color error which are

  18. Semi-parametric color reproduction method for optical see-through head-mounted displays.

    PubMed

    Itoh, Yuta; Dzitsiuk, Maksym; Amano, Toshiyuki; Klinker, Gudrun

    2015-11-01

    The fundamental issues in Augmented Reality (AR) are on how to naturally mediate the reality with virtual content as seen by users. In AR applications with Optical See-Through Head-Mounted Displays (OST-HMD), the issues often raise the problem of rendering color on the OST-HMD consistently to input colors. However, due to various display constraints and eye properties, it is still a challenging task to indistinguishably reproduce the colors on OST-HMDs. An approach to solve this problem is to pre-process the input color so that a user perceives the output color on the display to be the same as the input. We propose a color calibration method for OST-HMDs. We start from modeling the physical optics in the rendering and perception process between the HMD and the eye. We treat the color distortion as a semi-parametric model which separates the non-linear color distortion and the linear color shift. We demonstrate that calibrated images regain their original appearance on two OST-HMD setups with both synthetic and real datasets. Furthermore, we analyze the limitations of the proposed method and remaining problems of the color reproduction in OST-HMDs. We then discuss how to realize more practical color reproduction methods for future HMD-eye system.

  19. Is "Σ" purple or green? Bistable grapheme-color synesthesia induced by ambiguous characters.

    PubMed

    Kim, Suhkyung; Blake, Randolph; Kim, Chai-Youn

    2013-09-01

    People with grapheme-color synesthesia perceive specific colors when viewing different letters or numbers. Previous studies have suggested that synesthetic color experience can be bistable when induced by an ambiguous character. However, the exact relationship between processes underlying the identity of an alphanumeric character and the experience of the induced synesthetic color has not been examined. In the present study, we explored this by focusing on the temporal relation of inducer identification and color emergence using inducers whose identity could be rendered ambiguous upon rotation of the characters. Specifically, achromatic alphabetic letters (W/M) and digits (6/9) were presented at varying angles to 9 grapheme-color synesthetes. Results showed that grapheme identification and synesthetically perceived grapheme color covary with the orientation of the test stimulus and that synesthetes were slower naming the experienced color than identifying the character, particularly at intermediate angles where ambiguity was greatest.

  20. Sparse PDF Volumes for Consistent Multi-Resolution Volume Rendering

    PubMed Central

    Sicat, Ronell; Krüger, Jens; Möller, Torsten; Hadwiger, Markus

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a new multi-resolution volume representation called sparse pdf volumes, which enables consistent multi-resolution volume rendering based on probability density functions (pdfs) of voxel neighborhoods. These pdfs are defined in the 4D domain jointly comprising the 3D volume and its 1D intensity range. Crucially, the computation of sparse pdf volumes exploits data coherence in 4D, resulting in a sparse representation with surprisingly low storage requirements. At run time, we dynamically apply transfer functions to the pdfs using simple and fast convolutions. Whereas standard low-pass filtering and down-sampling incur visible differences between resolution levels, the use of pdfs facilitates consistent results independent of the resolution level used. We describe the efficient out-of-core computation of large-scale sparse pdf volumes, using a novel iterative simplification procedure of a mixture of 4D Gaussians. Finally, our data structure is optimized to facilitate interactive multi-resolution volume rendering on GPUs. PMID:26146475

  1. Realistic haptic rendering of interacting deformable objects in virtual environments.

    PubMed

    Duriez, Christian; Dubois, Frédéric; Kheddar, Abderrahmane; Andriot, Claude

    2006-01-01

    A new computer haptics algorithm to be used in general interactive manipulations of deformable virtual objects is presented. In multimodal interactive simulations, haptic feedback computation often comes from contact forces. Subsequently, the fidelity of haptic rendering depends significantly on contact space modeling. Contact and friction laws between deformable models are often simplified in up to date methods. They do not allow a "realistic" rendering of the subtleties of contact space physical phenomena (such as slip and stick effects due to friction or mechanical coupling between contacts). In this paper, we use Signorini's contact law and Coulomb's friction law as a computer haptics basis. Real-time performance is made possible thanks to a linearization of the behavior in the contact space, formulated as the so-called Delassus operator, and iteratively solved by a Gauss-Seidel type algorithm. Dynamic deformation uses corotational global formulation to obtain the Delassus operator in which the mass and stiffness ratio are dissociated from the simulation time step. This last point is crucial to keep stable haptic feedback. This global approach has been packaged, implemented, and tested. Stable and realistic 6D haptic feedback is demonstrated through a clipping task experiment.

  2. The rendering context for stereoscopic 3D web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Qinshui; Wang, Wenmin; Wang, Ronggang

    2014-03-01

    3D technologies on the Web has been studied for many years, but they are basically monoscopic 3D. With the stereoscopic technology gradually maturing, we are researching to integrate the binocular 3D technology into the Web, creating a stereoscopic 3D browser that will provide users with a brand new experience of human-computer interaction. In this paper, we propose a novel approach to apply stereoscopy technologies to the CSS3 3D Transforms. Under our model, each element can create or participate in a stereoscopic 3D rendering context, in which 3D Transforms such as scaling, translation and rotation, can be applied and be perceived in a truly 3D space. We first discuss the underlying principles of stereoscopy. After that we discuss how these principles can be applied to the Web. A stereoscopic 3D browser with backward compatibility is also created for demonstration purposes. We take advantage of the open-source WebKit project, integrating the 3D display ability into the rendering engine of the web browser. For each 3D web page, our 3D browser will create two slightly different images, each representing the left-eye view and right-eye view, both to be combined on the 3D display to generate the illusion of depth. And as the result turns out, elements can be manipulated in a truly 3D space.

  3. MR360: Mixed Reality Rendering for 360° Panoramic Videos.

    PubMed

    Rhee, Taehyun; Petikam, Lohit; Allen, Benjamin; Chalmers, Andrew

    2017-04-01

    This paper presents a novel immersive system called MR360 that provides interactive mixed reality (MR) experiences using a conventional low dynamic range (LDR) 360° panoramic video (360-video) shown in head mounted displays (HMDs). MR360 seamlessly composites 3D virtual objects into a live 360-video using the input panoramic video as the lighting source to illuminate the virtual objects. Image based lighting (IBL) is perceptually optimized to provide fast and believable results using the LDR 360-video as the lighting source. Regions of most salient lights in the input panoramic video are detected to optimize the number of lights used to cast perceptible shadows. Then, the areas of the detected lights adjust the penumbra of the shadow to provide realistic soft shadows. Finally, our real-time differential rendering synthesizes illumination of the virtual 3D objects into the 360-video. MR360 provides the illusion of interacting with objects in a video, which are actually 3D virtual objects seamlessly composited into the background of the 360-video. MR360 was implemented in a commercial game engine and tested using various 360-videos. Since our MR360 pipeline does not require any pre-computation, it can synthesize an interactive MR scene using a live 360-video stream while providing realistic high performance rendering suitable for HMDs.

  4. Non-photorealistic rendering for minimally invasive procedures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raab, Jens; Schäfer, Henry; Brost, Alexander; Stamminger, Marc; Pfister, Marcus

    2013-03-01

    Abdominal aortic aneurysms are a common disease of the aorta which are treated minimally invasive in about 33 % of the cases. Treatment is done by placing a stent graft in the aorta to prevent the aneurysm from growing. Guidance during the procedure is facilitated by fluoroscopic imaging. Unfortunately, due to low soft tissue contrast in X-ray images, the aorta itself is not visible without the application of contrast agent. To overcome this issue, advanced techniques allow to segment the aorta from pre-operative data, such as CT or MRI. Overlay images are then subsequently rendered from a mesh representation of the segmentation and fused to the live fluoroscopic images with the aim of improving the visibility of the aorta during the procedure. The current overlay images typically use forward projections of the mesh representation. This fusion technique shows deficiencies in both the 3-D information of the overlay and the visibility of the fluoroscopic image underneath. We present a novel approach to improve the visualization of the overlay images using non-photorealistic rendering techniques. Our method preserves the visibility of the devices in the fluoroscopic images while, at the same time, providing 3-D information of the fused volume. The evaluation by clinical experts shows that our method is preferred over current state-of-the-art overlay techniques. We compared three visualization techniques to the standard visualization. Our silhouette approach was chosen by clinical experts with 67 %, clearly showing the superiority of our new approach.

  5. The Use of Color as a Third Dimension on Maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cid, X.; Lopez, R.; Lazarus, S.

    2007-12-01

    As experts, we are trained to understand color schemes used in visualizations in our respective scientific fields. As experts we also forget how complicated graphics can be when viewed for the first time. Previous studies have shown that three-dimensional diagrams can produce a cognitive overload when rendered on a two-dimensional surface, so the same might apply to graphics that use color as a third dimension. This study was conducted to investigate the use of color as a third dimension. We looked at the use of color as a scale height on a basic topographic map, as well as the use of color as temperature. Fifty-four undergraduates from two different physics courses and REU programs during the spring and summer semesters in 2007 were given surveys regarding the use of color. Of these 54 students, eight students were chosen to participate in interviews designed to investigate, in more detail, the responses provided by the students in the hopes to discover where confusions occur. It was found that students have an embedded color scheme for temperatures of red representing hot and blue representing cold as a product of societal influences, which was expected, but there was no embedded color scheme when color was applied to height. We found that students did not have a preference when viewing a topographic map with different color schemes, but did prefer the color scheme of the figure that they viewed first. We observed that the students did have an embedded notion of what the topographic figure was representing, and tried to fit the color scheme shown to match their idea. During the interviews we also found that even the slightest deviations from a specific color scheme gives rise to confusion. These results, therefore, show the importance of detail consistency when using visualizations in a lecture where the population is composed of novices.

  6. Full-Color Biomimetic Photonic Materials with Iridescent and Non-Iridescent Structural Colors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawamura, Ayaka; Kohri, Michinari; Morimoto, Gen; Nannichi, Yuri; Taniguchi, Tatsuo; Kishikawa, Keiki

    2016-09-01

    The beautiful structural colors in bird feathers are some of the brightest colors in nature, and some of these colors are created by arrays of melanin granules that act as both structural colors and scattering absorbers. Inspired by the color of bird feathers, high-visibility structural colors have been created by altering four variables: size, blackness, refractive index, and arrangement of the nano-elements. To control these four variables, we developed a facile method for the preparation of biomimetic core-shell particles with melanin-like polydopamine (PDA) shell layers. The size of the core-shell particles was controlled by adjusting the core polystyrene (PSt) particles’ diameter and the PDA shell thicknesses. The blackness and refractive index of the colloidal particles could be adjusted by controlling the thickness of the PDA shell. The arrangement of the particles was controlled by adjusting the surface roughness of the core-shell particles. This method enabled the production of both iridescent and non-iridescent structural colors from only one component. This simple and novel process of using core-shell particles containing PDA shell layers can be used in basic research on structural colors in nature and their practical applications.

  7. Full-Color Biomimetic Photonic Materials with Iridescent and Non-Iridescent Structural Colors

    PubMed Central

    Kawamura, Ayaka; Kohri, Michinari; Morimoto, Gen; Nannichi, Yuri; Taniguchi, Tatsuo; Kishikawa, Keiki

    2016-01-01

    The beautiful structural colors in bird feathers are some of the brightest colors in nature, and some of these colors are created by arrays of melanin granules that act as both structural colors and scattering absorbers. Inspired by the color of bird feathers, high-visibility structural colors have been created by altering four variables: size, blackness, refractive index, and arrangement of the nano-elements. To control these four variables, we developed a facile method for the preparation of biomimetic core-shell particles with melanin-like polydopamine (PDA) shell layers. The size of the core-shell particles was controlled by adjusting the core polystyrene (PSt) particles’ diameter and the PDA shell thicknesses. The blackness and refractive index of the colloidal particles could be adjusted by controlling the thickness of the PDA shell. The arrangement of the particles was controlled by adjusting the surface roughness of the core-shell particles. This method enabled the production of both iridescent and non-iridescent structural colors from only one component. This simple and novel process of using core-shell particles containing PDA shell layers can be used in basic research on structural colors in nature and their practical applications. PMID:27658446

  8. Full-Color Biomimetic Photonic Materials with Iridescent and Non-Iridescent Structural Colors.

    PubMed

    Kawamura, Ayaka; Kohri, Michinari; Morimoto, Gen; Nannichi, Yuri; Taniguchi, Tatsuo; Kishikawa, Keiki

    2016-09-23

    The beautiful structural colors in bird feathers are some of the brightest colors in nature, and some of these colors are created by arrays of melanin granules that act as both structural colors and scattering absorbers. Inspired by the color of bird feathers, high-visibility structural colors have been created by altering four variables: size, blackness, refractive index, and arrangement of the nano-elements. To control these four variables, we developed a facile method for the preparation of biomimetic core-shell particles with melanin-like polydopamine (PDA) shell layers. The size of the core-shell particles was controlled by adjusting the core polystyrene (PSt) particles' diameter and the PDA shell thicknesses. The blackness and refractive index of the colloidal particles could be adjusted by controlling the thickness of the PDA shell. The arrangement of the particles was controlled by adjusting the surface roughness of the core-shell particles. This method enabled the production of both iridescent and non-iridescent structural colors from only one component. This simple and novel process of using core-shell particles containing PDA shell layers can be used in basic research on structural colors in nature and their practical applications.

  9. 9 CFR 319.703 - Rendered animal fat or mixture thereof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Rendered animal fat or mixture thereof. 319.703 Section 319.703 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... § 319.703 Rendered animal fat or mixture thereof. “Rendered Animal Fat,” or any mixture of...

  10. 9 CFR 319.703 - Rendered animal fat or mixture thereof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Rendered animal fat or mixture thereof. 319.703 Section 319.703 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... § 319.703 Rendered animal fat or mixture thereof. “Rendered Animal Fat,” or any mixture of...

  11. 9 CFR 319.703 - Rendered animal fat or mixture thereof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Rendered animal fat or mixture thereof. 319.703 Section 319.703 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... § 319.703 Rendered animal fat or mixture thereof. “Rendered Animal Fat,” or any mixture of...

  12. 9 CFR 319.703 - Rendered animal fat or mixture thereof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Rendered animal fat or mixture thereof. 319.703 Section 319.703 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... § 319.703 Rendered animal fat or mixture thereof. “Rendered Animal Fat,” or any mixture of...

  13. 9 CFR 319.703 - Rendered animal fat or mixture thereof.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Rendered animal fat or mixture thereof. 319.703 Section 319.703 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... § 319.703 Rendered animal fat or mixture thereof. “Rendered Animal Fat,” or any mixture of...

  14. 9 CFR 314.5 - Inedible rendered fats prepared at official establishments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Inedible rendered fats prepared at... PRODUCTS AT OFFICIAL ESTABLISHMENTS § 314.5 Inedible rendered fats prepared at official establishments. Except as provided in § 325.11(b) of this subchapter, rendered animal fat derived from condemned or...

  15. 9 CFR 314.5 - Inedible rendered fats prepared at official establishments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Inedible rendered fats prepared at... PRODUCTS AT OFFICIAL ESTABLISHMENTS § 314.5 Inedible rendered fats prepared at official establishments. Except as provided in § 325.11(b) of this subchapter, rendered animal fat derived from condemned or...

  16. 9 CFR 314.5 - Inedible rendered fats prepared at official establishments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Inedible rendered fats prepared at... PRODUCTS AT OFFICIAL ESTABLISHMENTS § 314.5 Inedible rendered fats prepared at official establishments. Except as provided in § 325.11(b) of this subchapter, rendered animal fat derived from condemned or...

  17. 9 CFR 314.5 - Inedible rendered fats prepared at official establishments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Inedible rendered fats prepared at... PRODUCTS AT OFFICIAL ESTABLISHMENTS § 314.5 Inedible rendered fats prepared at official establishments. Except as provided in § 325.11(b) of this subchapter, rendered animal fat derived from condemned or...

  18. 9 CFR 314.5 - Inedible rendered fats prepared at official establishments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Inedible rendered fats prepared at... PRODUCTS AT OFFICIAL ESTABLISHMENTS § 314.5 Inedible rendered fats prepared at official establishments. Except as provided in § 325.11(b) of this subchapter, rendered animal fat derived from condemned or...

  19. Motion Alters Color Appearance

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Sang-Wook; Kang, Min-Suk

    2016-01-01

    Chromatic induction compellingly demonstrates that chromatic context as well as spectral lights reflected from an object determines its color appearance. Here, we show that when one colored object moves around an identical stationary object, the perceived saturation of the stationary object decreases dramatically whereas the saturation of the moving object increases. These color appearance shifts in the opposite directions suggest that normalization induced by the object’s motion may mediate the shift in color appearance. We ruled out other plausible alternatives such as local adaptation, attention, and transient neural responses that could explain the color shift without assuming interaction between color and motion processing. These results demonstrate that the motion of an object affects both its own color appearance and the color appearance of a nearby object, suggesting a tight coupling between color and motion processing. PMID:27824098

  20. Spirit Beholds Bumpy Boulder (False Color)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    As NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit began collecting images for a 360-degree panorama of new terrain, the rover captured this view of a dark boulder with an interesting surface texture. The boulder sits about 40 centimeters (16 inches) tall on Martian sand about 5 meters (16 feet) away from Spirit. It is one of many dark, volcanic rock fragments -- many pocked with rounded holes called vesicles -- littering the slope of 'Low Ridge.' The rock surface facing the rover is similar in appearance to the surface texture on the outside of lava flows on Earth.

    Spirit took this false-color image with the panoramic camera on the rover's 810th sol, or Martian day, of exploring Mars (April 13, 2006). This image is a false-color rendering using camera's 753-nanometer, 535-nanometer, and 432-nanometer filters.

  1. Noise-based volume rendering for the visualization of multivariate volumetric data.

    PubMed

    Khlebnikov, Rostislav; Kainz, Bernhard; Steinberger, Markus; Schmalstieg, Dieter

    2013-12-01

    Analysis of multivariate data is of great importance in many scientific disciplines. However, visualization of 3D spatially-fixed multivariate volumetric data is a very challenging task. In this paper we present a method that allows simultaneous real-time visualization of multivariate data. We redistribute the opacity within a voxel to improve the readability of the color defined by a regular transfer function, and to maintain the see-through capabilities of volume rendering. We use predictable procedural noise--random-phase Gabor noise--to generate a high-frequency redistribution pattern and construct an opacity mapping function, which allows to partition the available space among the displayed data attributes. This mapping function is appropriately filtered to avoid aliasing, while maintaining transparent regions. We show the usefulness of our approach on various data sets and with different example applications. Furthermore, we evaluate our method by comparing it to other visualization techniques in a controlled user study. Overall, the results of our study indicate that users are much more accurate in determining exact data values with our novel 3D volume visualization method. Significantly lower error rates for reading data values and high subjective ranking of our method imply that it has a high chance of being adopted for the purpose of visualization of multivariate 3D data.

  2. Predictive rendering of composite materials: a multi-scale approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muller, T.; Callet, P.; da Graça, F.; Paljic, A.; Porral, P.; Hoarau, R.

    2015-03-01

    Predictive rendering of material appearance means going deep into the understanding of the physical interaction between light and matter and how these interactions are perceived by the human brain. In this paper we describe our approach to predict the appearance of composite materials by relying on the multi-scale nature of the involved phenomena. Using recent works on physical modeling of complex materials, we show how to predict the aspect of a composite material based on its composition and its morphology. Specifically, we focus on the materials whose morphological structures are defined at several embedded scales. We rely on the assumption that when the inclusions in a composite material are smaller than the considered wavelength, the optical constants of the corresponding effective media can be computed by a homogenization process (or analytically for special cases) to be used into the Fresnel formulas.

  3. Reduced Inverse Distance Weighting Interpolation for Painterly Rendering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papari, Giuseppe; Petkov, Nicolai

    The interpolation problem of irregularly distributed data in a multidimensional domain is considered. A modification of the inverse distance weighting interpolation formula is proposed, making computation time independent of the number of data points. Only the first K neighbors of a given point are considered, instead of the entire dataset. Additional factors are introduced, preventing discontinuities on points where the set of local neighbors changes. Theoretical analysis provides conditions which guarantee continuity. The proposed approach is efficient and free from magic numbers. Unlike many existing algorithms based on the k-nearest neighbors, the number of neighbors is derived from theoretical principles. The method has been applied to the problem of vector field generation in the context of artistic imaging. Experimental results show its ability to produce brush strokes oriented along object contours and to effectively render meaningful texture details.

  4. Latency in Distributed Acquisition and Rendering for Telepresence Systems.

    PubMed

    Ohl, Stephan; Willert, Malte; Staadt, Oliver

    2015-12-01

    Telepresence systems use 3D techniques to create a more natural human-centered communication over long distances. This work concentrates on the analysis of latency in telepresence systems where acquisition and rendering are distributed. Keeping latency low is important to immerse users in the virtual environment. To better understand latency problems and to identify the source of such latency, we focus on the decomposition of system latency into sub-latencies. We contribute a model of latency and show how it can be used to estimate latencies in a complex telepresence dataflow network. To compare the estimates with real latencies in our prototype, we modify two common latency measurement methods. This presented methodology enables the developer to optimize the design, find implementation issues and gain deeper knowledge about specific sources of latency.

  5. On-the-Fly Decompression and Rendering of Multiresolution Terrain

    SciTech Connect

    Lindstrom, P; Cohen, J D

    2009-04-02

    We present a streaming geometry compression codec for multiresolution, uniformly-gridded, triangular terrain patches that supports very fast decompression. Our method is based on linear prediction and residual coding for lossless compression of the full-resolution data. As simplified patches on coarser levels in the hierarchy already incur some data loss, we optionally allow further quantization for more lossy compression. The quantization levels are adaptive on a per-patch basis, while still permitting seamless, adaptive tessellations of the terrain. Our geometry compression on such a hierarchy achieves compression ratios of 3:1 to 12:1. Our scheme is not only suitable for fast decompression on the CPU, but also for parallel decoding on the GPU with peak throughput over 2 billion triangles per second. Each terrain patch is independently decompressed on the fly from a variable-rate bitstream by a GPU geometry program with no branches or conditionals. Thus we can store the geometry compressed on the GPU, reducing storage and bandwidth requirements throughout the system. In our rendering approach, only compressed bitstreams and the decoded height values in the view-dependent 'cut' are explicitly stored on the GPU. Normal vectors are computed in a streaming fashion, and remaining geometry and texture coordinates, as well as mesh connectivity, are shared and re-used for all patches. We demonstrate and evaluate our algorithms on a small prototype system in which all compressed geometry fits in the GPU memory and decompression occurs on the fly every rendering frame without any cache maintenance.

  6. Discrete Modal Decomposition for surface appearance modelling and rendering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pitard, Gilles; Le Goïc, Gaëtan; Favrelière, Hugues; Samper, Serge; Desage, Simon-Frédéric; Pillet, Maurice

    2015-05-01

    Controlling surface appearance has become essential in the supplier/customer relationship. In this context, many industries have implemented new methods to improve the sensory inspection, particularly in terms of variability. A trend is to develop both hardware and methods for moving towards the automation of appearance inspection and analysis. If devices inspired from dimensional control solutions generally allow to identify defects far apart the expected quality of products, it do not allow to quantify finely appearance anomalies, and decide on their acceptance. To address this issue, new methods devoted to appearance modelling and rendering have been implemented, such as the Reflectance Transformation Imaging (RTI) technique. By varying the illumination positions, the RTI technique aims at enriching the classical information conveyed by images. Thus each pixel is described by a set of values rather than one value classically; each value corresponding to a specific illumination position. This set of values could be interpolated or approximated by a continuous model (function), associated to the reflectance of the pixel, generally based on a second order polynomial (namely, Polynomial Texture Mapping Technique). This paper presents a new approach to evaluate this information from RTI acquisitions. A modal projection based on dynamics (Discrete Modal Decomposition) is used to estimate surface reflectance on each measurement point. After presenting the acquisition device, an application on an industrial surface is proposed in order to validate the approach, and compare it to the more classical polynomial transformation. Results show that the proposed projection basis not only provides closer assessment of surface reflectance (modelling) but also yields to a more realistic rendering.

  7. Technologies Render Views of Earth for Virtual Navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2012-01-01

    On a December night in 1995, 159 passengers and crewmembers died when American Airlines Flight 965 flew into the side of a mountain while in route to Cali, Colombia. A key factor in the tragedy: The pilots had lost situational awareness in the dark, unfamiliar terrain. They had no idea the plane was approaching a mountain until the ground proximity warning system sounded an alarm only seconds before impact. The accident was of the kind most common at the time CFIT, or controlled flight into terrain says Trey Arthur, research aerospace engineer in the Crew Systems and Aviation Operations Branch at NASA s Langley Research Center. In situations such as bad weather, fog, or nighttime flights, pilots would rely on airspeed, altitude, and other readings to get an accurate sense of location. Miscalculations and rapidly changing conditions could contribute to a fully functioning, in-control airplane flying into the ground. To improve aviation safety by enhancing pilots situational awareness even in poor visibility, NASA began exploring the possibilities of synthetic vision creating a graphical display of the outside terrain on a screen inside the cockpit. How do you display a mountain in the cockpit? You have to have a graphics-powered computer, a terrain database you can render, and an accurate navigation solution, says Arthur. In the mid-1990s, developing GPS technology offered a means for determining an aircraft s position in space with high accuracy, Arthur explains. As the necessary technologies to enable synthetic vision emerged, NASA turned to an industry partner to develop the terrain graphical engine and database for creating the virtual rendering of the outside environment.

  8. Distributed Dimensonality-Based Rendering of LIDAR Point Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brédif, M.; Vallet, B.; Ferrand, B.

    2015-08-01

    Mobile Mapping Systems (MMS) are now commonly acquiring lidar scans of urban environments for an increasing number of applications such as 3D reconstruction and mapping, urban planning, urban furniture monitoring, practicability assessment for persons with reduced mobility (PRM)... MMS acquisitions are usually huge enough to incur a usability bottleneck for the increasing number of non-expert user that are not trained to process and visualize these huge datasets through specific softwares. A vast majority of their current need is for a simple 2D visualization that is both legible on screen and printable on a static 2D medium, while still conveying the understanding of the 3D scene and minimizing the disturbance of the lidar acquisition geometry (such as lidar shadows). The users that motivated this research are, by law, bound to precisely georeference underground networks for which they currently have schematics with no or poor absolute georeferencing. A solution that may fit their needs is thus a 2D visualization of the MMS dataset that they could easily interpret and on which they could accurately match features with their user datasets they would like to georeference. Our main contribution is two-fold. First, we propose a 3D point cloud stylization for 2D static visualization that leverages a Principal Component Analysis (PCA)-like local geometry analysis. By skipping the usual and error-prone estimation of a ground elevation, this rendering is thus robust to non-flat areas and has no hard-to-tune parameters such as height thresholds. Second, we implemented the corresponding rendering pipeline so that it can scale up to arbitrary large datasets by leveraging the Spark framework and its Resilient Distributed Dataset (RDD) and Dataframe abstractions.

  9. Radiation coloration resistant glass

    DOEpatents

    Tomozawa, M.; Watson, E.B.; Acocella, J.

    1986-11-04

    A radiation coloration resistant glass is disclosed which is used in a radiation environment sufficient to cause coloration in most forms of glass. The coloration resistant glass includes higher proportions by weight of water and has been found to be extremely resistant to color change when exposed to such radiation levels. The coloration resistant glass is free of cerium oxide and has more than about 0.5% by weight water content. Even when exposed to gamma radiation of more than 10[sup 7] rad, the coloration resistant glass does not lose transparency. 3 figs.

  10. Radiation coloration resistant glass

    DOEpatents

    Tomozawa, Minoru; Watson, E. Bruce; Acocella, John

    1986-01-01

    A radiation coloration resistant glass is disclosed which is used in a radiation environment sufficient to cause coloration in most forms of glass. The coloration resistant glass includes higher proportions by weight of water and has been found to be extremely resistant to color change when exposed to such radiation levels. The coloration resistant glass is free of cerium oxide and has more than about 0.5% by weight water content. Even when exposed to gamma radiation of more than 10.sup.7 rad, the coloration resistant glass does not lose transparency.

  11. A novel approach to visual rendering of astro-photographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marini, D. L. R.; Bonanomi, C.; Rizzi, A.

    2016-08-01

    When we perform a visual analysis of a cosmic object photograph the contrast plays a fundamental role. A linear distribution of the observable values is not necessarily the best possible for the Human Visual System (HVS). In fact HVS has a non-linear response, and exploits contrast locally with different stretching for different lightness areas. As a consequence, according to the observation task, local contrast can be adjusted to make easier the detection of relevant information. The proposed approach is based on Spatial Color Algorithms (SCA) that mimic the HVS behavior. These algorithms compute each pixel value by a spatial comparison with all (or a subset of) the other pixels of the image. The comparison can be implemented as a weighted difference or as a ratio product over given sampling in the neighbor region. A final mapping allows exploiting all the available dynamic range. In the case of color images SCA process separately the three chromatic channels producing an effect of color normalization, without introducing channel cross correlation. We will present very promising results on amateur photographs of deep sky objects. The results are presented for a qualitative and subjective visual evaluation and for a quantitative evaluation through image quality measures, in particular to quantify the effect of algorithms on the noise. Moreover our results help to better characterize contrast measures.

  12. Techniques for efficient cloud modeling, simulation and rendering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Bei

    Realistic cloud simulation and rending find applications in many 3D applications such as high-quality 3D film production and realistic 3D flight simulation. However, the infinite variation in the cloud shape and appearance make cloud simulation and rendering a challenge in terms of complexity and realisticity. The major focus of this work is on efficient and realistic cloud simulation. We adopt a similarity approach to describe the characteristics of simple fluid flow without rigorously solving the governing PDEs. Based on the similarity solution of turbulent thermals, plumes and vortex rings in stable stratified fluids or unstable environments, we propose three methods for cloud simulation and modeling. First, a two-stage cloud simulation method is proposed to model the cloud formation process. At the first stage, instead of solving PDEs for the velocity profile, cloud formation is obtained using a lower level building block; namely, particle simulation. New attributes of particles are incorporated to meet the modeling requirement, e.g., the condensation time and density of particles. For particle motion, the characteristics of the convective process is captured by the thermal similarity solution consistent with the governing Navier-Stoke equation. At the second stage, we consider the process of being condensed into the visible water droplet. The voxel is used to store the water vapor density and the water droplet density. Due to the release of latent heat, we choose to have a small scale convective process. Finally, the cloud droplet density is rendered using a two-pass rendering method and multiple scattering to result in the high albedo property of the cloud. Then, a decoupling cloud simulation method that divides three spatial dimension into independent horizontal and vertical dimensions is proposed. With the assumption that the radial profiles at all heights are similar, we choose several key frame layers only for actual 2D calculation, interpolate other

  13. Transitions between color categories mapped with a reverse Stroop task.

    PubMed

    Smithson, Hannah E; Khan, Sabah S; Sharpe, Lindsay T; Stockman, Andrew

    2006-01-01

    In the reverse Stroop task, observers are instructed to ignore the ink color in which a color word is printed (the distractor color) and to respond to the meaning of the color word (the target). Reaction times (RTs) are faster with congruent combinations when the ink color matches the word than with incongruent combinations when the ink color does not match the word. We manipulated the distracting ink color from congruent to incongruent and measured the transition from facilitation to interference. In Experiment 1, we confirmed that this transition could be assessed independently from the contextual influence of particular sets of stimuli and responses, implying that the color space in which interference and facilitation occurs is generalizable. In Experiment 2, we obtained reverse Stroop data for transitions between red and yellow, yellow and green, green and blue, and blue and red, and compared them with independent estimates of color appearance obtained by hue scaling for the same chromaticity samples. We find that the magnitude of the reverse Stroop effect can provide a reliable index of the similarity of color appearance between the distracting chromaticity and the color category represented by the target color word. Moreover, it will allow us to quantify the mapping between the chromaticity space defined at the cone photoreceptors and a cognitive color space defined at an advanced level of neural processing.

  14. Color Adaptation for Color Deficient Learners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Donald D.

    1995-01-01

    Describes a corrective method of color adaptation designed to allow most, if not all, individuals to participate in the learning process as well as social and work-related environments. Provides a concise summation of facts and theories concerning color deficiency. Includes anatomical drawings, graphs, and statistical data. (MJP)

  15. Hand-tool-tissue interaction forces in neurosurgery for haptic rendering.

    PubMed

    Aggravi, Marco; De Momi, Elena; DiMeco, Francesco; Cardinale, Francesco; Casaceli, Giuseppe; Riva, Marco; Ferrigno, Giancarlo; Prattichizzo, Domenico

    2016-08-01

    Haptics provides sensory stimuli that represent the interaction with a virtual or tele-manipulated object, and it is considered a valuable navigation and manipulation tool during tele-operated surgical procedures. Haptic feedback can be provided to the user via cutaneous information and kinesthetic feedback. Sensory subtraction removes the kinesthetic component of the haptic feedback, having only the cutaneous component provided to the user. Such a technique guarantees a stable haptic feedback loop, while it keeps the transparency of the tele-operation system high, which means that the system faithfully replicates and render back the user's directives. This work focuses on checking whether the interaction forces during a bench model neurosurgery operation can lie in the solely cutaneous perception of the human finger pads. If this assumption is found true, it would be possible to exploit sensory subtraction techniques for providing surgeons with feedback from neurosurgery. We measured the forces exerted to surgical tools by three neurosurgeons performing typical actions on a brain phantom, using contact force sensors, while the forces exerted by the tools to the phantom tissue were recorded using a load cell placed under the brain phantom box. The measured surgeon-tool contact forces were 0.01-3.49 N for the thumb and 0.01-6.6 N for index and middle finger, whereas the measured tool-tissue interaction forces were from six to 11 times smaller than the contact forces, i.e., 0.01-0.59 N. The measurements for the contact forces fit the range of the cutaneous sensitivity for the human finger pad; thus, we can say that, in a tele-operated robotic neurosurgery scenario, it would possible to render forces at the fingertip level by conveying haptic cues solely through the cutaneous channel of the surgeon's finger pads. This approach would allow high transparency and high stability of the haptic feedback loop in a tele-operation system.

  16. Color and Streptomycetes1

    PubMed Central

    Pridham, Thomas G.

    1965-01-01

    A report summarizing the results of an international workshop on determination of color of streptomycetes is presented. The results suggest that the color systems which seem most practically appealing and effective to specialists on actinomycetes are those embracing a limited number of color names and groups. The broad groupings allow placement of isolates into reasonably well-defined categories based on color of aerial mycelium. Attempts to expand such systems (more color groups) lead to difficulties. It is common knowledge that many, if not all, of the individual groups would in these broad systems contain strains that differ in many other respects, e.g., spore-wall ornamentation, color of vegetative (substratal) mycelium, morphology of chains of spores, and numerous physiological criteria. Also, cultures of intermediate color can be found, which makes placement difficult. As it now stands, color as a criterion for characterization of streptomycetes and streptoverticillia is in questionable status. Although much useful color information can be obtained by an individual, the application of this information to that in the literature or its use in communication with other individuals leaves much to be desired. More objective methods of color determination are needed. At present, the most effective method that could be used internationally is the color-wheel system of Tresner and Backus. Furthermore, the significance of color in speciation of these organisms is an open question. Obviously, more critical work on the color problem is needed. PMID:14264847

  17. A Parallel Pipelined Renderer for the Time-Varying Volume Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chiueh, Tzi-Cker; Ma, Kwan-Liu

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents a strategy for efficiently rendering time-varying volume data sets on a distributed-memory parallel computer. Time-varying volume data take large storage space and visualizing them requires reading large files continuously or periodically throughout the course of the visualization process. Instead of using all the processors to collectively render one volume at a time, a pipelined rendering process is formed by partitioning processors into groups to render multiple volumes concurrently. In this way, the overall rendering time may be greatly reduced because the pipelined rendering tasks are overlapped with the I/O required to load each volume into a group of processors; moreover, parallelization overhead may be reduced as a result of partitioning the processors. We modify an existing parallel volume renderer to exploit various levels of rendering parallelism and to study how the partitioning of processors may lead to optimal rendering performance. Two factors which are important to the overall execution time are re-source utilization efficiency and pipeline startup latency. The optimal partitioning configuration is the one that balances these two factors. Tests on Intel Paragon computers show that in general optimal partitionings do exist for a given rendering task and result in 40-50% saving in overall rendering time.

  18. Sixty-five thousand shades of gray: importance of color in surgical pathology diagnoses.

    PubMed

    Campbell, W Scott; Talmon, Geoffrey A; Foster, Kirk W; Lele, Subodh M; Kozel, Jessica A; West, William W

    2015-12-01

    Digital whole slide imaging (WSI) is a diagnostic modality that has gained acceptance as a tool for use in some areas of surgical pathology such as remote consultations. Accurate control of color representation of digitally rendered images of histologic sections is considered an important parameter of WSI. Currently, professional societies, physicians, and other stakeholders are in the process of establishing clinical guidelines outlining the use of these devices, which include color integrity and color calibration of scanners and viewing devices. Although color is a component of surgical pathology diagnoses, it was posited that pathologists could accurately diagnose surgical specimens without color. To test this hypothesis, 5 pathologists were presented breast biopsy specimens from 20 patients consisting of 22 separate tissue specimens and WSI of 158 hematoxylin and eosin-stained slides imaged at ×20. No special stains were included. The pathologists reviewed each case using a 16-bit grayscale monitor and rendered a diagnosis for each case. Diagnoses were compared to the original light microscopy diagnoses and scored for concordance. A 92.7% concordance was observed. Discordant diagnoses represented well-known areas of diagnostic disagreement in breast pathology as well as known limitations of WSI. The research demonstrated that surgical pathologists did not rely primarily on color to render accurate diagnoses of breast biopsy cases but rather used architectural features of tissue and cellular morphology to reach a diagnostic conclusion. This research did not suggest that color is an unimportant factor in pathology diagnosis, but its importance may be overstated.

  19. The Trouble with Color.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merchant, David

    1999-01-01

    Discusses problems with color quality in Web sites. Topics include differences in monitor settings, including contrast; amount of video RAM; user preference settings; browser-safe colors; cross-platform readability; and gamma values. (LRW)

  20. Focus on Color Photography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galindez, Peter

    1978-01-01

    Photographs and text describe techniques by which color negative film can be developed and printed. An equipment list, by which black and white printing facilities can be converted to make color prints, is provided. (CP)

  1. Color filter array demosaicing: an adaptive progressive interpolation based on the edge type

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Qiqi; Liu, Zhaohui

    2015-10-01

    Color filter array (CFA) is one of the key points for single-sensor digital cameras to produce color images. Bayer CFA is the most commonly used pattern. In this array structure, the sampling frequency of green is two times of red or blue, which is consistent with the sensitivity of human eyes to colors. However, each sensor pixel only samples one of three primary color values. To render a full-color image, an interpolation process, commonly referred to CFA demosaicing, is required to estimate the other two missing color values at each pixel. In this paper, we explore an adaptive progressive interpolation based on the edge type algorithm. The proposed demosaicing method consists of two successive steps: an interpolation step that estimates missing color values according to various edges and a post-processing step by iterative interpolation.

  2. Colored 3D surface reconstruction using Kinect sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Lian-peng; Chen, Xiang-ning; Chen, Ying; Liu, Bin

    2015-03-01

    A colored 3D surface reconstruction method which effectively fuses the information of both depth and color image using Microsoft Kinect is proposed and demonstrated by experiment. Kinect depth images are processed with the improved joint-bilateral filter based on region segmentation which efficiently combines the depth and color data to improve its quality. The registered depth data are integrated to achieve a surface reconstruction through the colored truncated signed distance fields presented in this paper. Finally, the improved ray casting for rendering full colored surface is implemented to estimate color texture of the reconstruction object. Capturing the depth and color images of a toy car, the improved joint-bilateral filter based on region segmentation is used to improve the quality of depth images and the peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR) is approximately 4.57 dB, which is better than 1.16 dB of the joint-bilateral filter. The colored construction results of toy car demonstrate the suitability and ability of the proposed method.

  3. Reimagining the Color Wheel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Color wheels are a traditional project for many teachers. The author has used them in art appreciation classes for many years, but one problem she found when her pre-service art education students created colored wheels was that they were boring: simple circles, with pie-shaped pieces, which students either painted or colored in. This article…

  4. Color: Implications in dentistry

    PubMed Central

    Sikri, Vimal K

    2010-01-01

    The success of restorative dentistry is determined on the basis of functional and esthetic results. To achieve esthetics, four basic determinants are required in sequence; viz., position, contour, texture and color. The knowledge of the concept of color is essential for achieving good esthetics. This review compiles the various aspects of color, its measurements and shade matching in dentistry. PMID:21217954

  5. Biology of Skin Color.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corcos, Alain

    1983-01-01

    Information from scientific journals on the biology of skin color is discussed. Major areas addressed include: (1) biology of melanin, melanocytes, and melanosomes; (2) melanosome and human diversity; (3) genetics of skin color; and (4) skin color, geography, and natural selection. (JN)

  6. Color vision deficiencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vannorren, D.

    1982-04-01

    Congenital and acquired color vision defects are described in the context of physiological data. Light sources, photometry, color systems and test methods are described. A list of medicines is also presented. The practical social consequences of color vision deficiencies are discussed.

  7. Color Television in Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bretz, Rudy

    In spite of repeated research into the matter, no evidence has been discovered to support the claim that color television is superior to black-and-white television as an instructional aid. It is possible that there are advantages to color television which are unmeasured or unmeasurable, but the current claims for color; that it heightens realism,…

  8. Color Discrimination Work Sample.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shawsheen Valley Regional Vocational-Technical High School, Billerica, MA.

    This manual contains a work sample intended to assess a handicapped student's ability to see likenesses or differences in colors or shades, identifying or matching certain colors, and selecting colors that go together. Section 1 describes the assessment and lists related occupations and DOT codes. Instructions to the evaluator are provided in the…

  9. Rendering Future Vegetation Change across Large Regions of the US

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sant'Anna Dias, Felipe; Gu, Yuting; Agarwalla, Yashika; Cheng, Yiwei; Patil, Sopan; Stieglitz, Marc; Turk, Greg

    2015-04-01

    We use two Machine Learning techniques, Decision Trees (DT) and Neural Networks (NN), to provide classified images and photorealistic renderings of future vegetation cover at three large regions in the US. The training data used to generate current vegetation cover include Landsat surface reflectance images, USGS Land Cover maps, 50 years of mean annual temperature and precipitation for the period 1950 - 2000, elevation, aspect and slope data. Present vegetation cover was generated on a 100m grid. Future vegetation cover for the period 2061- 2080 was predicted using the 1 km resolution bias corrected data from the NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies Global Climate Model E simulation. The three test regions encompass a wide range of climatic gradients, topographic variation, and vegetation cover. The central Oregon site covers 19,182 square km and includes the Ochoco and Malheur National Forest. Vegetation cover is 50% evergreen forest and 50% shrubs and scrubland. The northwest Washington site covers 14,182 square km. Vegetation cover is 60% evergreen forest, 14% scrubs, 7% grassland, and 7% barren land. The remainder of the area includes deciduous forest, perennial snow cover, and wetlands. The third site, the Jemez mountain region of north central New Mexico, covers 5,500 square km. Vegetation cover is 47% evergreen forest, 31% shrubs, 13% grasses, and 3% deciduous forest. The remainder of the area includes developed and cultivated areas and wetlands. Using the above mentioned data sets we first trained our DT and NN models to reproduce current vegetation. The land cover classified images were compared directly to the USGS land cover data. The photorealistic generated vegetation images were compared directly to the remotely sensed surface reflectance maps. For all three sites, similarity between generated and observed vegetation cover was quite remarkable. The three trained models were then used to explore what the equilibrium vegetation would look like for

  10. Inkjet Color Printing by Interference Nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Yakovlev, Aleksandr V; Milichko, Valentin A; Vinogradov, Vladimir V; Vinogradov, Alexandr V

    2016-03-22

    Color printing technology is developing rapidly; in less than 40 years, it moved from dot matrix printers with an ink-soaked cloth ribbon to 3D printers used to make three-dimensional color objects. Nevertheless, what remained unchanged over this time is the fact that in each case, dye inks (CMYK or RGB color schemes) were exclusively used for coloring, which inevitably limits the technological possibilities and color reproduction. As a next step in printing color images and storing information, we propose the technology of producing optical nanostructures. In this paper, we report use of inkjet technology to create colored interference layers with high accuracy without the need for high-temperature fixing. This was made possible due to using titania-based colloidal ink yielding monolithic coatings with a high refractive index (2.00 ± 0.08 over the entire visible range) when naturally dried. By controlling the film thickness by using inkjet deposition, we produced images based on controlled interference and implementing color printing with one ink. The lack of dyes in the proposed method has good environmental prospects, because applied systems based on a crystalline anatase sol are nontoxic and biologically inert. The paper explains in detail the principle of producing interference images by the classical inkjet method and shows the advantages of this technique in depositing coatings with uniform thickness, which are required for large-scale interference color imaging even on unprepared polymer films. This article demonstrates the possibility of inkjet printing of nanostructures with a precision in thickness of up to 50 nm, we believe that the proposed approach will be the groundwork for developing interference color printing approach and allow to implement new methods of forming optical nano-objects by widely available techniques.

  11. Dissipative rendering and neural network control system design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gonzalez, Oscar R.

    1995-01-01

    Model-based control system designs are limited by the accuracy of the models of the plant, plant uncertainty, and exogenous signals. Although better models can be obtained with system identification, the models and control designs still have limitations. One approach to reduce the dependency on particular models is to design a set of compensators that will guarantee robust stability to a set of plants. Optimization over the compensator parameters can then be used to get the desired performance. Conservativeness of this approach can be reduced by integrating fundamental properties of the plant models. This is the approach of dissipative control design. Dissipative control designs are based on several variations of the Passivity Theorem, which have been proven for nonlinear/linear and continuous-time/discrete-time systems. These theorems depend not on a specific model of a plant, but on its general dissipative properties. Dissipative control design has found wide applicability in flexible space structures and robotic systems that can be configured to be dissipative. Currently, there is ongoing research to improve the performance of dissipative control designs. For aircraft systems that are not dissipative active control may be used to make them dissipative and then a dissipative control design technique can be used. It is also possible that rendering a system dissipative and dissipative control design may be combined into one step. Furthermore, the transformation of a non-dissipative system to dissipative can be done robustly. One sequential design procedure for finite dimensional linear time-invariant systems has been developed. For nonlinear plants that cannot be controlled adequately with a single linear controller, model-based techniques have additional problems. Nonlinear system identification is still a research topic. Lacking analytical models for model-based design, artificial neural network algorithms have recently received considerable attention. Using

  12. IRAS colors of carbon stars - An optical spectroscopic test

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, M.; Wainscoat, R.J.; Walker, H.J.; Volk, K.; Schwartz, D.E.; Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence Institute, Los Altos, CA )

    1989-06-01

    Optical spectra are obtained of 57 photographic counterparts to IRAS sources not previously studied spectroscopically, and expected on the basis of their IRAS colors to be M or C type stars. Confirmed carbon stars are found only in a restricted range of 12-25 index, and constitute a striking vertical sequence in the 12-25-60 micron color-color diagram. This sequence is in accord with evolutionary models for AGB stars that convert M into C stars by dredge-up, and follow loops in the color-color plane. Optically visible and optically invisible carbon stars occupy different color-color locations consistent with their representations of different evolutionary states in the life of relatively low-mass stars. 16 refs.

  13. IRAS colors of carbon stars - An optical spectroscopic test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Martin; Wainscoat, Richard J.; Walker, Helen J.; Volk, Kevin; Schwartz, Deborah E.

    1989-01-01

    Optical spectra are obtained of 57 photographic counterparts to IRAS sources not previously studied spectroscopically, and expected on the basis of their IRAS colors to be M or C type stars. Confirmed carbon stars are found only in a restricted range of 12-25 index, and constitute a striking 'vertical' sequence in the 12-25-60 micron color-color diagram. This sequence is in accord with evolutionary models for AGB stars that convert M into C stars by dredge-up, and follow loops in the color-color plane. Optically visible and optically invisible carbon stars occupy different color-color locations consistent with their representations of different evolutionary states in the life of relatively low-mass stars.

  14. Mars in True Color (almost)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 14 November 2003

    This spectacular view of the sunlit cliffs and basaltic sand dunes in southern Melas Chasma shows Mars in a way rarely seen: in full, realistic color. The colorization is the result of a collaboration between THEMIS team members at Cornell University and space artist Don Davis, who is an expert on true-color renderings of planetary and astronomical objects. Davis began with calibrated and co-registered THEMIS VIS multi-band radiance files produced by the Cornell group. Using as a guide true-color imaging from the Hubble Space Telescope and his own personal experience at Mt. Wilson and other observatories, he performed a manual color balance to match more closely the colors of previous visual Mars observations. He also did some manual smoothing and other image processing to minimize the effects of residual scattered light in the images. The result is a view of Mars that invites comparisons to Earth; a scene that one might observe out the window on a flight over the southwest United States, but not quite. The basaltic dunes are commonplace on Mars but a rare feature on Earth. The rounded knobs and elongated mesas on the canyon floor show an erosional style as exotic as Utah's Bryce Canyon but wholly familiar on Mars. Although the inhospitable Martian atmosphere cannot be seen, the magnificent Martian landscape on display in this image beckons space-suited human explorers and the sightseers who will follow.

    Initial image processing and calibration by THEMIS team members J. Bell, T. McConnochie, and D. Savransky at Cornell University; additional processing and final color balance by space artist Don Davis.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -12.7, Longitude 288.6 East (71.4 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed

  15. INDEXING MECHANISM

    DOEpatents

    Kock, L.J.

    1959-09-22

    A device is presented for loading and unloading fuel elements containing material fissionable by neutrons of thermal energy. The device comprises a combination of mechanical features Including a base, a lever pivotally attached to the base, an Indexing plate on the base parallel to the plane of lever rotation and having a plurality of apertures, the apertures being disposed In rows, each aperture having a keyway, an Index pin movably disposed to the plane of lever rotation and having a plurality of apertures, the apertures being disposed in rows, each aperture having a keyway, an index pin movably disposed on the lever normal to the plane rotation, a key on the pin, a sleeve on the lever spaced from and parallel to the index pin, a pair of pulleys and a cable disposed between them, an open collar rotatably attached to the sleeve and linked to one of the pulleys, a pin extending from the collar, and a bearing movably mounted in the sleeve and having at least two longitudinal grooves in the outside surface.

  16. Indexing of multidimensional lookup tables in embedded systems.

    PubMed

    Vrhel, Michael J

    2004-10-01

    The proliferation of color devices and the desire to have them accurately communicate color information has led to a need for embedded systems that perform color conversions. A common method for performing color space conversions is to characterize the device with a multidimensional lookup table (MLUT). To reduce cost, many of the embedded systems have limited computational abilities. This leads to a need for the design of efficient methods for performing MLUT indexing and interpolation. This paper examines and compares two methods of MLUT indexing within embedded systems. The comparison is made in terms of colorimetric accuracy and computational cost.

  17. Colour rendering of indoor lighting with CIE illuminants and white LEDs for normal and colour deficient observers.

    PubMed

    Linhares, João M M; Felgueiras, Paulo E R; Pinto, Paulo D; Nascimento, S M C

    2010-09-01

    The goal of this work was to evaluate the colour rendering of indoor lighting with CIE illuminants and white LEDs by estimating the chromatic diversity produced for normal and colour deficient observers. Reflectance spectra of a collection of scenes made of objects typically found indoors were obtained with hyperspectral imaging. Chromatic diversity was computed for 55 CIE illuminants and five LED light sources by estimating the number of different colours perceived in the scenes analysed. A considerable variation in chromatic diversity was found across illuminants, with the best producing about 50% more colours than the worst. For normal observers, the best illuminant was CIE FL3.8 which produced about 8% more colours than CIE illuminant A and D(65); for colour deficient observers, the best illuminants varied with the type of deficiency. When the number of colours produced with a specific illuminant was compared against its colour rendering index (CRI) and gamut area index (GAI), weak correlations were obtained. Together, these results suggest that normal and colour deficient observers may benefit from a careful choice of the illuminant, and this choice may not necessarily be based only on the CRI or GAI.

  18. Fast surface and volume rendering based on shear-warp factorization for a surgical simulator.

    PubMed

    Kim, Keun Ho; Kwon, Min Jeong; Kwon, Sung Min; Ra, Jong Beom; Park, HyunWook

    2002-01-01

    Fast simultaneous visualization of 3D medical images and medical instruments is necessary for a surgical simulator. Because unconstrained motion of a medical instrument is more frequent than that of the patient, the visualization of medical instruments is performed in real time using surface rendering. However, volume rendering is usually used for realistic visualization of the 3D medical image. We have developed an algorithm to combine a volume-rendered image and a surface-rendered image using a Z-buffer for depth cueing, which is applied to a surgical simulator. Surface rendering is used for visualization of a medical instrument, whereas 3D medical images such as CT and MRI are usually visualized by volume rendering, because segmentation of the medical image is difficult. In this study, when the volume-rendered image is combined with the surface-rendered image, the amount of computation is reduced by early ray termination and instrument-region masking in the sheared image space. Using these methods, a fast combination of volume-rendered and surface-rendered images is performed with high image quality. The method is appropriate for real-time visualization of 3D medical images and medical instrument motion in the images, and can be applied to image-guided therapy and surgical simulators.

  19. Lighting System for Visual Perception Enhancement in Volume Rendering.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Kaufman, Arie E

    2013-01-01

    We introduce a lighting system that enhances the visual cues in a rendered image for the perception of 3D volumetric objects. We divide the lighting effects into global and local effects, and deploy three types of directional lights: the key light and accessory lights (fill and detail lights). The key light provides both lighting effects and carries the visual cues for the perception of local and global shapes and depth. The cues for local shapes are conveyed by gradient; those for global shapes are carried by shadows; and those for depth are provided by shadows and translucent objects. Fill lights produce global effects to increase the perceptibility. Detail lights generate local effects to improve the cues for local shapes. Our method quantifies the perception and uses an exhaustive search to set the lights. It configures accessory lights with the consideration of preserving the global impression conveyed by the key light. It ensures the feeling of smooth light movements in animations. With simplification, it achieves interactive frame rates and produces results that are visually indistinguishable from results using the nonsimplified algorithm. The major contributions of this paper are our lighting system, perception measurement and lighting design algorithm with our indistinguishable simplification.

  20. Fast rendering of forest ecosystems with dynamic global illumination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steele, Jay Edward

    Real-time rendering of large-scale, forest ecosystems remains a challenging problem, in that important global illumination effects, such as leaf transparency and inter-object light scattering, are difficult to capture, given tight timing constraints and scenes that typically contain hundreds of millions of primitives. We propose a new lighting model, adapted from a model previously used to light convective clouds and other participating media, together with GPU ray tracing, in order to achieve these global illumination effects while maintaining near real-time performance. The lighting model is based on a lattice-Boltzmann method in which reflectance, transmittance, and absorption parameters are taken from measurements of real plants. The lighting model is solved as a preprocessing step, requires only seconds on a single GPU, and allows dynamic lighting changes at run-time. The ray tracing engine, which runs on one or multiple GPUs, combines multiple acceleration structures to achieve near real-time performance for large, complex scenes. Both the preprocessing step and the ray tracing engine make extensive use of NVIDIA's Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA).

  1. WikiPrints: rendering enterprise Wiki content for printing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berkner, Kathrin

    2010-02-01

    Wikis have become a tool of choice for collaborative, informative communication. In contrast to the immense Wikipedia, that serves as a reference web site and typically covers only one topic per web page, enterprise wikis are often used as project management tools and contain several closely related pages authored by members of one project. In that scenario it is useful to print closely related content for review or teaching purposes. In this paper we propose a novel technique for rendering enterprise wiki content for printing called WikiPrints, that creates a linearized version of wiki content formatted as a mixture between web layout and conventional document layout suitable for printing. Compared to existing print options for wiki content, Wikiprints automatically selects content from different wiki pages given user preferences and usage scenarios. Meta data such as content authors or time of content editing are considered. A preview of the linearized content is shown to the user and an interface for making manual formatting changes provided.

  2. TransCut: interactive rendering of translucent cutouts.

    PubMed

    Li, Dongping; Sun, Xin; Ren, Zhong; Lin, Stephen; Tong, Yiying; Guo, Baining; Zhou, Kun

    2013-03-01

    We present TransCut, a technique for interactive rendering of translucent objects undergoing fracturing and cutting operations. As the object is fractured or cut open, the user can directly examine and intuitively understand the complex translucent interior, as well as edit material properties through painting on cross sections and recombining the broken pieces—all with immediate and realistic visual feedback. This new mode of interaction with translucent volumes is made possible with two technical contributions. The first is a novel solver for the diffusion equation (DE) over a tetrahedral mesh that produces high-quality results comparable to the state-of-art finite element method (FEM) of Arbree et al. but at substantially higher speeds. This accuracy and efficiency is obtained by computing the discrete divergences of the diffusion equation and constructing the DE matrix using analytic formulas derived for linear finite elements. The second contribution is a multiresolution algorithm to significantly accelerate our DE solver while adapting to the frequent changes in topological structure of dynamic objects. The entire multiresolution DE solver is highly parallel and easily implemented on the GPU. We believe TransCut provides a novel visual effect for heterogeneous translucent objects undergoing fracturing and cutting operations.

  3. Perception of Perspective Distortions in Image-Based Rendering

    PubMed Central

    Vangorp, Peter; Richardt, Christian; Cooper, Emily A.; Chaurasia, Gaurav; Banks, Martin S.; Drettakis, George

    2013-01-01

    Image-based rendering (IBR) creates realistic images by enriching simple geometries with photographs, e.g., mapping the photograph of a building façade onto a plane. However, as soon as the viewer moves away from the correct viewpoint, the image in the retina becomes distorted, sometimes leading to gross misperceptions of the original geometry. Two hypotheses from vision science state how viewers perceive such image distortions, one claiming that they can compensate for them (and therefore perceive scene geometry reasonably correctly), and one claiming that they cannot compensate (and therefore can perceive rather significant distortions). We modified the latter hypothesis so that it extends to street-level IBR. We then conducted a rigorous experiment that measured the magnitude of perceptual distortions that occur with IBR for façade viewing. We also conducted a rating experiment that assessed the acceptability of the distortions. The results of the two experiments were consistent with one another. They showed that viewers’ percepts are indeed distorted, but not as severely as predicted by the modified vision science hypothesis. From our experimental results, we develop a predictive model of distortion for street-level IBR, which we use to provide guidelines for acceptability of virtual views and for capture camera density. We perform a confirmatory study to validate our predictions, and illustrate their use with an application that guides users in IBR navigation to stay in regions where virtual views yield acceptable perceptual distortions. PMID:24273376

  4. Color Classification of Coordination Compounds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poncini, Laurence; Wimmer, Franz L.

    1987-01-01

    Proposes that colored compounds be classified by reference to a standard color-order system incorporating a color dictionary. Argues that the colors of new compounds could be incorporated into the characterization process and into computer storage systems. (TW)

  5. Watermarking spot colors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alattar, Osama M.; Reed, Alastair M.

    2003-06-01

    Watermarking of printed materials has usually focused on process inks of cyan, magenta, yellow and black (CMYK). In packaging, almost three out of four printed materials include spot colors. Spot colors are special premixed inks, which can be produced in a vibrant range of colors, often outside the CMYK color gamut. In embedding a watermark into printed material, a common approach is to modify the luminance value of each pixel in the image. In the case of process color work pieces, the luminance change can be scaled to the C, M, Y and K channels using a weighting function, to produce the desired change in luminance. In the case of spot color art designs, there is only one channel available and the luminance change is applied to this channel. In this paper we develop a weighting function to embed the watermark signal across the range of different spot colors. This weighting function normalizes visibility effect and signal robustness across a wide range of different spot colors. It normalizes the signal robustness level over the range of an individual spot color"s intensity levels. Further, it takes into account the sensitivity of the capturing device to the different spot colors.

  6. True Colors Shining Through

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This image mosaic illustrates how scientists use the color calibration targets (upper left) located on both Mars Exploration Rovers to fine-tune the rovers' sense of color. In the center, spectra, or light signatures, acquired in the laboratory of the colored chips on the targets are shown as lines. Actual data from Mars Exploration Rover Spirit's panoramic camera is mapped on top of these lines as dots. The plot demonstrates that the observed colors of Mars match the colors of the chips, and thus approximate the red planet's true colors. This finding is further corroborated by the picture taken on Mars of the calibration target, which shows the colored chips as they would appear on Earth.

  7. Acquired color vision deficiency.

    PubMed

    Simunovic, Matthew P

    2016-01-01

    Acquired color vision deficiency occurs as the result of ocular, neurologic, or systemic disease. A wide array of conditions may affect color vision, ranging from diseases of the ocular media through to pathology of the visual cortex. Traditionally, acquired color vision deficiency is considered a separate entity from congenital color vision deficiency, although emerging clinical and molecular genetic data would suggest a degree of overlap. We review the pathophysiology of acquired color vision deficiency, the data on its prevalence, theories for the preponderance of acquired S-mechanism (or tritan) deficiency, and discuss tests of color vision. We also briefly review the types of color vision deficiencies encountered in ocular disease, with an emphasis placed on larger or more detailed clinical investigations.

  8. Colors, colored overlays, and reading skills.

    PubMed

    Uccula, Arcangelo; Enna, Mauro; Mulatti, Claudio

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we are concerned with the role of colors in reading written texts. It has been argued that colored overlays applied above written texts positively influence both reading fluency and reading speed. These effects would be particularly evident for those individuals affected by the so called Meares-Irlen syndrome, i.e., who experience eyestrain and/or visual distortions - e.g., color, shape, or movement illusions - while reading. This condition would interest the 12-14% of the general population and up to the 46% of the dyslexic population. Thus, colored overlays have been largely employed as a remedy for some aspects of the difficulties in reading experienced by dyslexic individuals, as fluency and speed. Despite the wide use of colored overlays, how they exert their effects has not been made clear yet. Also, according to some researchers, the results supporting the efficacy of colored overlays as a tool for helping readers are at least controversial. Furthermore, the very nature of the Meares-Irlen syndrome has been questioned. Here we provide a concise, critical review of the literature.

  9. Colors, colored overlays, and reading skills

    PubMed Central

    Uccula, Arcangelo; Enna, Mauro; Mulatti, Claudio

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we are concerned with the role of colors in reading written texts. It has been argued that colored overlays applied above written texts positively influence both reading fluency and reading speed. These effects would be particularly evident for those individuals affected by the so called Meares-Irlen syndrome, i.e., who experience eyestrain and/or visual distortions – e.g., color, shape, or movement illusions – while reading. This condition would interest the 12–14% of the general population and up to the 46% of the dyslexic population. Thus, colored overlays have been largely employed as a remedy for some aspects of the difficulties in reading experienced by dyslexic individuals, as fluency and speed. Despite the wide use of colored overlays, how they exert their effects has not been made clear yet. Also, according to some researchers, the results supporting the efficacy of colored overlays as a tool for helping readers are at least controversial. Furthermore, the very nature of the Meares-Irlen syndrome has been questioned. Here we provide a concise, critical review of the literature. PMID:25120525

  10. Miniature Color Display Phase 4

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-05-01

    is used to generate full color. By spectral tuning of the xenon arc-lamp backlight and the color polarizers, a color gamut comparable to that of a...5 1.2 Phase IV Accom plishments ................................... 5 1.2.1 Subtractive Color Gamut ...Technical Achievem ents .............................................. 8 2.1 Subtractive Color Gamut 2.1.1 Sub Color LC Technology

  11. Color Reproduction with a Smartphone

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thoms, Lars-Jochen; Colicchia, Giuseppe; Girwidz, Raimund

    2013-01-01

    The world is full of colors. Most of the colors we see around us can be created on common digital displays simply by superposing light with three different wavelengths. However, no mixture of colors can produce a fully pure color identical to a spectral color. Using a smartphone, students can investigate the main features of primary color addition…

  12. Interactive bibliographical database on color

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caivano, Jose L.

    2002-06-01

    The paper describes the methodology and results of a project under development, aimed at the elaboration of an interactive bibliographical database on color in all fields of application: philosophy, psychology, semiotics, education, anthropology, physical and natural sciences, biology, medicine, technology, industry, architecture and design, arts, linguistics, geography, history. The project is initially based upon an already developed bibliography, published in different journals, updated in various opportunities, and now available at the Internet, with more than 2,000 entries. The interactive database will amplify that bibliography, incorporating hyperlinks and contents (indexes, abstracts, keywords, introductions, or eventually the complete document), and devising mechanisms for information retrieval. The sources to be included are: books, doctoral dissertations, multimedia publications, reference works. The main arrangement will be chronological, but the design of the database will allow rearrangements or selections by different fields: subject, Decimal Classification System, author, language, country, publisher, etc. A further project is to develop another database, including color-specialized journals or newsletters, and articles on color published in international journals, arranged in this case by journal name and date of publication, but allowing also rearrangements or selections by author, subject and keywords.

  13. Modeling of display color parameters and algorithmic color selection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silverstein, Louis D.; Lepkowski, James S.; Carter, Robert C.; Carter, Ellen C.

    1986-01-01

    An algorithmic approach to color selection, which is based on psychophysical models of color processing, is described. The factors that affect color differentiation, such as wavelength separation, color stimulus size, and brightness adaptation level, are discussed. The use of the CIE system of colorimetry and the CIELUV color difference metric for display color modeling is examined. The computer program combines the selection algorithm with internally derived correction factors for color image field size, ambient lighting characteristics, and anomalous red-green color vision deficiencies of display operators. The performance of the program is evaluated and uniform chromaticity scale diagrams for six-color and seven-color selection problems are provided.

  14. New light field camera based on physical based rendering tracing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Ming-Han; Chang, Shan-Ching; Lee, Chih-Kung

    2014-03-01

    Even though light field technology was first invented more than 50 years ago, it did not gain popularity due to the limitation imposed by the computation technology. With the rapid advancement of computer technology over the last decade, the limitation has been uplifted and the light field technology quickly returns to the spotlight of the research stage. In this paper, PBRT (Physical Based Rendering Tracing) was introduced to overcome the limitation of using traditional optical simulation approach to study the light field camera technology. More specifically, traditional optical simulation approach can only present light energy distribution but typically lack the capability to present the pictures in realistic scenes. By using PBRT, which was developed to create virtual scenes, 4D light field information was obtained to conduct initial data analysis and calculation. This PBRT approach was also used to explore the light field data calculation potential in creating realistic photos. Furthermore, we integrated the optical experimental measurement results with PBRT in order to place the real measurement results into the virtually created scenes. In other words, our approach provided us with a way to establish a link of virtual scene with the real measurement results. Several images developed based on the above-mentioned approaches were analyzed and discussed to verify the pros and cons of the newly developed PBRT based light field camera technology. It will be shown that this newly developed light field camera approach can circumvent the loss of spatial resolution associated with adopting a micro-lens array in front of the image sensors. Detailed operational constraint, performance metrics, computation resources needed, etc. associated with this newly developed light field camera technique were presented in detail.

  15. Information through color imagery

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Colvocoresses, Alden P.

    1975-01-01

    The color-sensing capability of the human eye is a powerful tool. In remote sensing we should use color to display data more meaningfully, not to re-create the scene. Color disappears with distance, and features change color with viewing angle. Color infrared film lets us apply color with additional meaning even though we introduce a false color response. Although the marginal gray scale on an ERTS (Earth Resources Technology Satellite) image may indicate balance between the green, red, and infrared bands, and although each band may be printed in a primary color, tests show that we are not fully applying the three primary colors. Therefore, contrast in the green band should be raised. For true three-color remote sensing of the Earth, we must find two generally meaningful signatures in the visible spectrum, or perhaps extend our spectral range. Before turning to costly digital processing we should explore analog processing. Most ERTS users deal with relative spectral radiance; the few concerned with absolute radiance could use the computer-compatible tapes or special annotations. NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration), which assigns the range and contrast to the ERTS image, controls processing and could adjust the density range for maximum contrast in any ERTS scene. NASA cannot alter processing for local changes in reflective characteristics of the Earth but could adjust for Sun elevation and optimize the contrast in a given band.

  16. The nature of colors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Pos, Osvaldo

    2002-06-01

    Color is a visible aspect of objects and lights, and as such is an objective characteristic of our phenomenal world. Correspondingly also objects and lights are objective, although their subjectivity cannot be disregarded since they belong to our phenomenal world. The distinction between perception and sensation deals with colors seen either in complex displays or in isolation. Reality of colors is apparently challenged by virtual reality, while virtual reality is a good example of what colors are. It seems difficult to combine that aspect of reality colors have in our experience and the concept that colors represent something in the external environment: the distinction between stimulation and perceived object is crucial for understanding the relationships between phenomenal world and physical reality. A modern concept of isomorphism seems useful in interpreting the role of colors. The relationship between the psychological structure of colors and the physical stimulation is enlightened by the analysis of pseudocolors. The perceptual, subjective characteristics of colors go along with the subjectivity of scientific concepts. Colors, emotions, and concepts are all in some people's mind: none of them is independent of the subject mind. Nevertheless they can be communicated from person to person by an appropriate scientific terminology.

  17. Selection of small color palette for color image quantization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chau, Wing K.; Wong, S. K. M.; Yang, Xuedong; Wan, Shijie J.

    1992-05-01

    Two issues are involved in color image quantization: color palette selection and color mapping. A common practice for color palette selection is to minimize the color distortion for each pixel (the median-cut, the variance-based and the k-means algorithms). After the color palette has been chosen, a quantized image may be generated by mapping the original color of each pixel onto its nearest color in the color palette. Such an approach can usually produce quantized images of high quality with 128 or more colors. For 32 - 64 colors, the quality of the quantized images is often acceptable with the aid of dithering techniques in the color mapping process. For 8 - 16 color, however, the above statistical method for color selection becomes no longer suitable because of the great reduction of color gamut. In order to preserve the color gamut of the original image, one may want to select the colors in such a way that the convex hull formed by these colors in the RGB color space encloses most colors of the original image. Quantized images generated in such a geometrical way usually preserve a lot of image details, but may contain too much high frequency noises. This paper presents an effective algorithm for the selection of very small color palette by combining the strengths of the above statistical and geometrical approaches. We demonstrate that with the new method images of high quality can be produced by using only 4 to 8 colors.

  18. Tetrachromacy of human vision: spectral channels and primary colors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavrik, Vitali V.

    2002-06-01

    Full-color imaging requires four channels as, in contrast to a colorimeter, can add no primary to matched scene colors themselves. An ideal imaging channel should have the same spectral sensitivity of scene recording as a retinal receptor and evoke the same primary color sensation. The alternating matching functions of a triad of real primaries are inconsistent with the three cones but explicable of two pairs of independent opponent receptors with their alternating blue-yellow and green-red chromatic axes in the color space. Much other controversy of trichromatic approach can also be explained with the recently proposed intra- receptor processes in the photopic rod and cone, respectively. Each of their four primary sensations, unmixed around 465, 495, 575, and 650 nm, is evoked within a different spectral region. The current trichromatic photographic systems have been found separately to approximate the blue and red receptors, as well as their spectral opponency against the respective yellow and blue- green receptors simulated with a single middle-wave imaging channel. The channel sensitivities are delimited by the neutral points of rod and cone and cannot simulate the necessary overlap of non-opponent channels for properly to render some mixed colors. The yellow and cyan positive dyes closely control the brightness of blue and red sensations, respectively. Those red and blue respectively to control the yellow and blue-green sensations on brightness scales are replaced by magenta dye, controlling them together. Accurate rendering of natural saturation metameric colors, problematic blue-green, purple-red, and low-illumination colors requires to replace the hybrid 'green' channel with the blue-green and yellow channels.

  19. Thermal behavior of a quantum dot nanocomposite as a color converting material and its application to white LED.

    PubMed

    Woo, Ju Yeon; Kim, Kyung Nam; Jeong, Sohee; Han, Chang-Soo

    2010-12-10

    We present a novel nanocomposite, a mixture of a CdSe/CdS/ZnS red quantum dot (QD), an Sr(2)SiO(4):Eu green phosphor and silicone resin for a color converting material. The temperature rise and the optical characteristics of the nanocomposite due to the addition of the QD have been investigated in terms of QD content ratio and the mixing components. The experimental results suggested that a small addition of QDs generated a large amount of heat during light conversion at the wavelength of QD emission. Considering the temperature rise in a nanocomposite, we applied 0.2 wt% QDs on an InGaN blue LED chip. As a result, we could achieve a white LED device with a high color rendering index of 83.2, a high luminance of 65.86 lm W(-1) and a moderate temperature increase of 94 °C. The white LED converted by the newly developed QD-phosphor nanocomposite has great potential in future illumination.

  20. Thermal behavior of a quantum dot nanocomposite as a color converting material and its application to white LED

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woo, Ju Yeon; Kim, Kyung Nam; Jeong, Sohee; Han, Chang-Soo

    2010-12-01

    We present a novel nanocomposite, a mixture of a CdSe/CdS/ZnS red quantum dot (QD), an Sr2SiO4:Eu green phosphor and silicone resin for a color converting material. The temperature rise and the optical characteristics of the nanocomposite due to the addition of the QD have been investigated in terms of QD content ratio and the mixing components. The experimental results suggested that a small addition of QDs generated a large amount of heat during light conversion at the wavelength of QD emission. Considering the temperature rise in a nanocomposite, we applied 0.2 wt% QDs on an InGaN blue LED chip. As a result, we could achieve a white LED device with a high color rendering index of 83.2, a high luminance of 65.86 lm W - 1 and a moderate temperature increase of 94 °C. The white LED converted by the newly developed QD-phosphor nanocomposite has great potential in future illumination.

  1. Fusion Render Cloud System for 3D Contents Using a Super Computer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, E.-Jung; Kim, Seoksoo

    This study develops a SOHO RenderFarm system suitable for a lab environment through data collection and professional education, implements a user environment which is the same as a super computer, analyzes rendering problems that may arise from use of a super computer and then designs a FRC(Fusion Render Cloud) system. Also, clients can access the SOHO RenderFarm system through networks, and the FRC system completed in a test environment can be interlinked with external networks of a super computer.

  2. Real-time volume rendering of digital medical images on an iOS device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noon, Christian; Holub, Joseph; Winer, Eliot

    2013-03-01

    Performing high quality 3D visualizations on mobile devices, while tantalizingly close in many areas, is still a quite difficult task. This is especially true for 3D volume rendering of digital medical images. Allowing this would empower medical personnel a powerful tool to diagnose and treat patients and train the next generation of physicians. This research focuses on performing real time volume rendering of digital medical images on iOS devices using custom developed GPU shaders for orthogonal texture slicing. An interactive volume renderer was designed and developed with several new features including dynamic modification of render resolutions, an incremental render loop, a shader-based clipping algorithm to support OpenGL ES 2.0, and an internal backface culling algorithm for properly sorting rendered geometry with alpha blending. The application was developed using several application programming interfaces (APIs) such as OpenSceneGraph (OSG) as the primary graphics renderer coupled with iOS Cocoa Touch for user interaction, and DCMTK for DICOM I/O. The developed application rendered volume datasets over 450 slices up to 50-60 frames per second, depending on the specific model of the iOS device. All rendering is done locally on the device so no Internet connection is required.

  3. Digital color representation

    DOEpatents

    White, James M.; Faber, Vance; Saltzman, Jeffrey S.

    1992-01-01

    An image population having a large number of attributes is processed to form a display population with a predetermined smaller number of attributes which represent the larger number of attributes. In a particular application, the color values in an image are compressed for storage in a discrete lookup table (LUT) where an 8-bit data signal is enabled to form a display of 24-bit color values. The LUT is formed in a sampling and averaging process from the image color values with no requirement to define discrete Voronoi regions for color compression. Image color values are assigned 8-bit pointers to their closest LUT value whereby data processing requires only the 8-bit pointer value to provide 24-bit color values from the LUT.

  4. True Colors of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This image taken on Mars by the panoramic camera on the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit shows the rover's color calibration target, also known as the MarsDial. The target's mirror and the shadows cast on it by the Sun help scientists determine the degree to which dusty martian skies alter the panoramic camera's perception of color. By adjusting for this effect, Mars can be seen in all its true colors.

  5. Accurate spectral color measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiltunen, Jouni; Jaeaeskelaeinen, Timo; Parkkinen, Jussi P. S.

    1999-08-01

    Surface color measurement is of importance in a very wide range of industrial applications including paint, paper, printing, photography, textiles, plastics and so on. For a demanding color measurements spectral approach is often needed. One can measure a color spectrum with a spectrophotometer using calibrated standard samples as a reference. Because it is impossible to define absolute color values of a sample, we always work with approximations. The human eye can perceive color difference as small as 0.5 CIELAB units and thus distinguish millions of colors. This 0.5 unit difference should be a goal for the precise color measurements. This limit is not a problem if we only want to measure the color difference of two samples, but if we want to know in a same time exact color coordinate values accuracy problems arise. The values of two instruments can be astonishingly different. The accuracy of the instrument used in color measurement may depend on various errors such as photometric non-linearity, wavelength error, integrating sphere dark level error, integrating sphere error in both specular included and specular excluded modes. Thus the correction formulas should be used to get more accurate results. Another question is how many channels i.e. wavelengths we are using to measure a spectrum. It is obvious that the sampling interval should be short to get more precise results. Furthermore, the result we get is always compromise of measuring time, conditions and cost. Sometimes we have to use portable syste or the shape and the size of samples makes it impossible to use sensitive equipment. In this study a small set of calibrated color tiles measured with the Perkin Elmer Lamda 18 and the Minolta CM-2002 spectrophotometers are compared. In the paper we explain the typical error sources of spectral color measurements, and show which are the accuracy demands a good colorimeter should have.

  6. MonoColor CMOS sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ynjiun P.

    2009-02-01

    A new breed of CMOS color sensor called MonoColor sensor is developed for a barcode reading application in AIDC industry. The RGBW color filter array (CFA) in a MonoColor sensor is arranged in a 8 x 8 pixels CFA with only 4 pixels of them are color (RGB) pixels and the rest of 60 pixels are transparent or monochrome. Since the majority of pixels are monochrome, MonoColor sensor maintains 98% barcode decode performance compared with a pure monochrome CMOS sensor. With the help of monochrome and color pixel fusion technique, the resulting color pictures have similar color quality in terms of Color Semantic Error (CSE) compared with a Bayer pattern (RGB) CMOS color camera. Since monochrome pixels are more sensitive than color pixels, a MonoColor sensor produces in general about 2X brighter color picture and higher luminance pixel resolution.

  7. The Colors of 'Endurance'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This false-color image shows visible mineral changes between the materials that make up the rim of the impact crater known as 'Endurance.' The image was taken by the panoramic camera on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity using all 13 color filters. The cyan blue color denotes basalts, whereas the dark green color denotes a mixture of iron oxide and basaltic materials. Reds and yellows indicate dusty material containing sulfates. Scientists are very interested in exploring the interior and exterior material around the crater's rim for clues to the processes that formed the crater, as well as the rocks and textures that define the crater.

  8. Universality of color names.

    PubMed

    Lindsey, Delwin T; Brown, Angela M

    2006-10-31

    We analyzed the World Color Survey (WCS) color-naming data set by using k-means cluster and concordance analyses. Cluster analysis relied on a similarity metric based on pairwise Pearson correlation of the complete chromatic color-naming patterns obtained from individual WCS informants. When K, the number of k-means clusters, varied from 2 to 10, we found that (i) the average color-naming patterns of the clusters all glossed easily to single or composite English patterns, and (ii) the structures of the k-means clusters unfolded in a hierarchical way that was reminiscent of the Berlin and Kay sequence of color category evolution. Gap statistical analysis showed that 8 was the optimal number of WCS chromatic categories: RED, GREEN, YELLOW-OR-ORANGE, BLUE, PURPLE, BROWN, PINK, and GRUE (GREEN-OR-BLUE). Analysis of concordance in color naming within WCS languages revealed small regions in color space that exhibited statistically significantly high concordance across languages. These regions agreed well with five of six primary focal colors of English. Concordance analysis also revealed boundary regions of statistically significantly low concordance. These boundary regions coincided with the boundaries associated with English WARM and COOL. Our results provide compelling evidence for similarities in the mechanisms that guide the lexical partitioning of color space among WCS languages and English.

  9. Crater Floor in Color

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 5 May 2004 This daytime visible color image was collected on November 18, 2003 during the Southern Summer season in Terra Cimmeria.

    This daytime visible color image was collected on September 4, 2002 during the Northern Spring season in Vastitas Borealis. The THEMIS VIS camera is capable of capturing color images of the martian surface using its five different color filters. In this mode of operation, the spatial resolution and coverage of the image must be reduced to accommodate the additional data volume produced from the use of multiple filters. To make a color image, three of the five filter images (each in grayscale) are selected. Each is contrast enhanced and then converted to a red, green, or blue intensity image. These three images are then combined to produce a full color, single image. Because the THEMIS color filters don't span the full range of colors seen by the human eye, a color THEMIS image does not represent true color. Also, because each single-filter image is contrast enhanced before inclusion in the three-color image, the apparent color variation of the scene is exaggerated. Nevertheless, the color variation that does appear is representative of some change in color, however subtle, in the actual scene. Note that the long edges of THEMIS color images typically contain color artifacts that do not represent surface variation.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -23.7, Longitude 135.6 East (224.4 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with

  10. Role of Task-Directed Attention in Nonconscious and Conscious Response Priming by Form and Color

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tapia, Evelina; Breitmeyer, Bruno G.; Shooner, Christopher R.

    2010-01-01

    Prior research on visual priming suggests that during nonconscious processing attention can be directed to single stimulus dimensions such as form or color. In the current experiment, nonconscious priming was compared to conscious priming by employing masking techniques that render primes invisible (masked) or visible (unmasked) to the observers.…

  11. Luminance contours can gate afterimage colors and "real" colors.

    PubMed

    Anstis, Stuart; Vergeer, Mark; Van Lier, Rob

    2012-09-06

    It has long been known that colored images may elicit afterimages in complementary colors. We have already shown (Van Lier, Vergeer, & Anstis, 2009) that one and the same adapting image may result in different afterimage colors, depending on the test contours presented after the colored image. The color of the afterimage depends on two adapting colors, those both inside and outside the test. Here, we further explore this phenomenon and show that the color-contour interactions shown for afterimage colors also occur for "real" colors. We argue that similar mechanisms apply for both types of stimulation.

  12. Evaluating Light Source Color Rendition using the IES TM-30-15 Method

    SciTech Connect

    Houser, Kevin W.; Royer, Michael P.; David, Aurelien

    2015-11-30

    A system for evaluating the color rendition of light sources was recently published as IES TM-30-15 IES Method for Evaluating Light Source Color Rendition. The system includes a fidelity index (Rf) to quantify similarity to a reference illuminant, a relative-gamut index (Rg) to quantify saturation relative to a reference illuminant, and a color vector icon that visually presents information about color rendition. The calculation employs CAM02-UCS and uses a newly-developed set of reflectance functions, comprising 99 color evaluation samples (CES). The CES were down-selected from 105,000 real object samples and are uniformly distributed in color space (fairly representing different colors) and wavelength space (avoiding artificial increase of color rendition values by selective optimization).

  13. Ocean color imagery: Coastal zone color scanner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hovis, W. A.

    1975-01-01

    Investigations into the feasibility of sensing ocean color from high altitude for determination of chlorophyll and sediment distributions were carried out using sensors on NASA aircraft, coordinated with surface measurements carried out by oceanographic vessels. Spectrometer measurements in 1971 and 1972 led to development of an imaging sensor now flying on a NASA U-2 and the Coastal Zone Color Scanner to fly on Nimbus G in 1978. Results of the U-2 effort show the imaging sensor to be of great value in sensing pollutants in the ocean.

  14. Polar Cap Colors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 12 May 2004 This daytime visible color image was collected on June 6, 2003 during the Southern Spring season near the South Polar Cap Edge.

    The THEMIS VIS camera is capable of capturing color images of the martian surface using its five different color filters. In this mode of operation, the spatial resolution and coverage of the image must be reduced to accommodate the additional data volume produced from the use of multiple filters. To make a color image, three of the five filter images (each in grayscale) are selected. Each is contrast enhanced and then converted to a red, green, or blue intensity image. These three images are then combined to produce a full color, single image. Because the THEMIS color filters don't span the full range of colors seen by the human eye, a color THEMIS image does not represent true color. Also, because each single-filter image is contrast enhanced before inclusion in the three-color image, the apparent color variation of the scene is exaggerated. Nevertheless, the color variation that does appear is representative of some change in color, however subtle, in the actual scene. Note that the long edges of THEMIS color images typically contain color artifacts that do not represent surface variation.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude -77.8, Longitude 195 East (165 West). 38 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA

  15. Navigation lights color study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbosa, Jose G.; Alberg, Matthew T.

    2015-05-01

    The chromaticity of navigation lights are defined by areas on the International Commission on Illumination (CIE) 1931 chromaticity diagram. The corner coordinates for these areas are specified in the International Regulations for Prevention of Collisions at Sea, 1972 (72 COLREGS). The navigation light's color of white, red, green, and yellow are bounded by these areas. The chromaticity values specified by the COLREGS for navigation lights were intended for the human visual system (HVS). The HVS can determine the colors of these lights easily under various conditions. For digital color camera imaging systems the colors of these lights are dependent on the camera's color spectral sensitivity, settings, and color correction. At night the color of these lights are used to quickly determine the relative course of vessels. If these lights are incorrectly identified or there is a delay in identifying them this could be a potential safety of ship concern. Vessels that use camera imaging systems exclusively for sight, at night, need to detect, identify, and discriminate navigation lights for navigation and collision avoidance. The introduction of light emitting diode (LED) lights and lights with different spectral signatures have the potential to be imaged very differently with an RGB color filter array (CFA) color camera than with the human eye. It has been found that some green navigation lights' images appear blue verse green. This has an impact on vessels that use camera imaging systems exclusively for navigation. This paper will characterize color cameras ability to properly reproducing navigation lights' color and survey a set of navigation light to determine if they conform to the COLREGS.

  16. Radar Cross Section Visualization Using Sample Buffer Progressive Refinement Volume Rendering

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-12-01

    BUFFER PROGRESSIVE REFINEMENT VOLUME RENDERING THESIS Presented to the Faculty of the Graduate School of Engineering of the Air Force Institute of...Technology Air University In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Science in Computer Engineering Alain L. M. Jones, B.S.C.S...Generator ................................................................................ 15 Rendering Engine

  17. Approaching the exa-scale: a real-world evaluation of rendering extremely large data sets

    SciTech Connect

    Patchett, John M; Ahrens, James P; Lo, Li - Ta; Browniee, Carson S; Mitchell, Christopher J; Hansen, Chuck

    2010-10-15

    Extremely large scale analysis is becoming increasingly important as supercomputers and their simulations move from petascale to exascale. The lack of dedicated hardware acceleration for rendering on today's supercomputing platforms motivates our detailed evaluation of the possibility of interactive rendering on the supercomputer. In order to facilitate our understanding of rendering on the supercomputing platform, we focus on scalability of rendering algorithms and architecture envisioned for exascale datasets. To understand tradeoffs for dealing with extremely large datasets, we compare three different rendering algorithms for large polygonal data: software based ray tracing, software based rasterization and hardware accelerated rasterization. We present a case study of strong and weak scaling of rendering extremely large data on both GPU and CPU based parallel supercomputers using Para View, a parallel visualization tool. Wc use three different data sets: two synthetic and one from a scientific application. At an extreme scale, algorithmic rendering choices make a difference and should be considered while approaching exascale computing, visualization, and analysis. We find software based ray-tracing offers a viable approach for scalable rendering of the projected future massive data sizes.

  18. 1. Photocopy of early 20th century rendering showing aerial veiw, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Photocopy of early 20th century rendering showing aerial veiw, looking south. Rendering owned by the Crawford Auto-Aviation Museum, 10825 East Blvd., Cleveland, Ohio. - Peerless Motor Car Company, East Ninety-third Street & Quincy Avenue, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  19. 9 CFR 315.1 - Carcasses and parts passed for cooking; rendering into lard or tallow.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Carcasses and parts passed for cooking... PARTS PASSED FOR COOKING § 315.1 Carcasses and parts passed for cooking; rendering into lard or tallow. Carcasses and parts passed for cooking may be rendered into lard in accordance with § 319.702 of...

  20. 47 CFR 1.814 - Reports regarding free service rendered the Government for national defense.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Miscellaneous Reports § 1.814 Reports regarding free service rendered the Government for national defense... Government shall file reports in accordance with part 2 of this chapter. ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Reports regarding free service rendered...

  1. 47 CFR 1.814 - Reports regarding free service rendered the Government for national defense.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Miscellaneous Reports § 1.814 Reports regarding free service rendered the Government for national defense... Government shall file reports in accordance with part 2 of this chapter. ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Reports regarding free service rendered...

  2. 47 CFR 1.814 - Reports regarding free service rendered the Government for national defense.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Miscellaneous Reports § 1.814 Reports regarding free service rendered the Government for national defense... Government shall file reports in accordance with part 2 of this chapter. ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Reports regarding free service rendered...

  3. 47 CFR 1.814 - Reports regarding free service rendered the Government for national defense.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Miscellaneous Reports § 1.814 Reports regarding free service rendered the Government for national defense... Government shall file reports in accordance with part 2 of this chapter. ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reports regarding free service rendered...

  4. 47 CFR 1.814 - Reports regarding free service rendered the Government for national defense.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Miscellaneous Reports § 1.814 Reports regarding free service rendered the Government for national defense... Government shall file reports in accordance with part 2 of this chapter. ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Reports regarding free service rendered...

  5. Up and down: color conversion for solid-state lighting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartmann, Paul; Pachler, Peter; Payrer, Elisabeth L.; Tasch, Stefan

    2009-02-01

    White light of superior quality is characterized by high efficiency, high color rendering, and suitable spectral shape. Color conversion from semiconductor light sources by use of phosphors appears to be a promising route to cover the customer needs, and in the past a lot of different approaches have been pursued. There are not so many really successful phosphor systems on the market, which is due to the industrial focus on blue LEDs as the excitation source, the increasingly high demands on thermal and photochemical stability (high-power LEDs provide enormous irradiances), and patent limitations. This paper reviews some concepts on color conversion including not only broadly used downconversion but also novel up-conversion principles and discusses the pro's and con's of these approaches.

  6. Method and system for rendering and interacting with an adaptable computing environment

    DOEpatents

    Osbourn, Gordon Cecil [Albuquerque, NM; Bouchard, Ann Marie [Albuquerque, NM

    2012-06-12

    An adaptable computing environment is implemented with software entities termed "s-machines", which self-assemble into hierarchical data structures capable of rendering and interacting with the computing environment. A hierarchical data structure includes a first hierarchical s-machine bound to a second hierarchical s-machine. The first hierarchical s-machine is associated with a first layer of a rendering region on a display screen and the second hierarchical s-machine is associated with a second layer of the rendering region overlaying at least a portion of the first layer. A screen element s-machine is linked to the first hierarchical s-machine. The screen element s-machine manages data associated with a screen element rendered to the display screen within the rendering region at the first layer.

  7. 3-D Color Wheels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DuBois, Ann

    2010-01-01

    The blending of information from an academic class with projects from art class can do nothing but strengthen the learning power of the student. Creating three-dimensional color wheels provides the perfect opportunity to combine basic geometry knowledge with color theory. In this article, the author describes how her seventh-grade painting…

  8. Drawing Color Lines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gude, Olivia

    2000-01-01

    Addresses the teaching of color symbolism and asserts that racism is embodied and perpetuated through conventional notions of black and white symbolism. Discusses a project with two eighth grade classes, focusing on the discussion of color symbolism in school and popular culture. Considers the importance of analyzing contemporary languages of…

  9. Color: an exosomatic organ?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Brakel, Jaap; Saunders, Barbara

    2001-12-01

    According to the dominant view in cognitive science, in particular in its more popularized versions, color sensings or perceptions are located in a 'quality space'. This space has three dimensions: hue (the chromatic aspect of color), saturation (the 'intensity' of hue), and brightness. This space is structured further via a small number of primitive hues or landmark colors, usually four (red, yellow, green, blue) or six (if white and black are included). It has also been suggested that there are eleven semantic universals - the six colors previously mentioned plus orange, pink, brown, purple, and grey. Scientific evidence for these widely accepted theories is at best minimal, based on sloppy methodology and at worst non-existent. Against the standard view, it is argued that color might better be regarded as the outcome of a social-historical developmental trajectory in which there is mutual shaping of philosophical presuppositions, scientific theories, experimental practices, technological tools, industrial products, rhetorical frameworks, and their intercalated and recursive interactions with the practices of daily life. That is: color, the domain of color, is the outcome of interactive processes of scientific, instrumental, industrial, and everyday lifeworlds. That is: color might better be called an exosomatic organ, a second nature.

  10. A Semester of Color

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rabinovitch, Andrea

    2006-01-01

    Every Thursday evening, ten high school students meet at the Riverdale Art Project, a New York City-based art program that the author co-founded ten years ago. Students are participating in a semester-long color workshop where they learn about color theory in a structured and engaging way. Focusing on five essential characteristics of color…

  11. Dynamic egg color mimicry.

    PubMed

    Hanley, Daniel; Šulc, Michal; Brennan, Patricia L R; Hauber, Mark E; Grim, Tomáš; Honza, Marcel

    2016-06-01

    Evolutionary hypotheses regarding the function of eggshell phenotypes, from solar protection through mimicry, have implicitly assumed that eggshell appearance remains static throughout the laying and incubation periods. However, recent research demonstrates that egg coloration changes over relatively short, biologically relevant timescales. Here, we provide the first evidence that such changes impact brood parasite-host eggshell color mimicry during the incubation stage. First, we use long-term data to establish how rapidly the Acrocephalus arundinaceus Linnaeus (great reed warbler) responded to natural parasitic eggs laid by the Cuculus canorus Linnaeus (common cuckoo). Most hosts rejected parasitic eggs just prior to clutch completion, but the host response period extended well into incubation (~10 days after clutch completion). Using reflectance spectrometry and visual modeling, we demonstrate that eggshell coloration in the great reed warbler and its brood parasite, the common cuckoo, changes rapidly, and the extent of eggshell color mimicry shifts dynamically over the host response period. Specifically, 4 days after being laid, the host should notice achromatic color changes to both cuckoo and warbler eggs, while chromatic color changes would be noticeable after 8 days. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the perceived match between host and cuckoo eggshell color worsened over the incubation period. These findings have important implications for parasite-host coevolution dynamics, because host egg discrimination may be aided by disparate temporal color changes in host and parasite eggs.

  12. Disabled Students of Color.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frank, Zelma Lloyd; Ball-Brown, Brenda

    1993-01-01

    Explores why few disabled students of color use student services. Details why some of these students were unnecessarily placed in special education programs and focuses on the experiences of this group. Addresses general cultural differences that can affect responses between people of color and disability services. Provides guidelines for service…

  13. Plasmonic color tuning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Byoungho; Yun, Hansik; Lee, Seung-Yeol; Kim, Hwi

    2016-03-01

    In general, color filter is an optical component to permit the transmission of a specific color in cameras, displays, and microscopes. Each filter has its own unchangeable color because it is made by chemical materials such as dyes and pigments. Therefore, in order to express various colorful images in a display, one pixel should have three sub-pixels of red, green, and blue colors. Here, we suggest new plasmonic structure and method to change the color in a single pixel. It is comprised of a cavity and a metal nanoaperture. The optical cavity generally supports standing waves inside it, and various standing waves having different wavelength can be confined together in one cavity. On the other hand, although light cannot transmit sub-wavelength sized aperture, surface plasmons can propagate through the metal nanoaperture with high intensity due to the extraordinary transmission. If we combine the two structures, we can organize the spatial distribution of amplitudes according to wavelength of various standing waves using the cavity, and we can extract a light with specific wavelength and amplitude using the nanoaperture. Therefore, this cavity-aperture structure can simultaneously tune the color and intensity of the transmitted light through the single nanoaperture. We expect that the cavity-apertures have a potential for dynamic color pixels, micro-imaging system, and multiplexed sensors.

  14. Colorful Underwater Sea Creatures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCutcheon, Heather

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a project wherein students created colorful underwater sea creatures. This project began with a discussion about underwater sea creatures and how they live. The first step was making the multi-colored tissue paper that would become sea creatures and seaweed. Once students had the shapes of their sea creatures…

  15. TOCM digital color photography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Baoying; Mu, Guoguang; Fang, Zhiliang; Li, Zhengqun; Fang, Hui; Yang, Yong

    2009-11-01

    In this paper, total optical color modulator (TOCM) digital color photography is presented. TOCM has the character of multi-wave superposed in spatial domain and separated in frequency domain. If TOCM is close-contacted with the image plane of a black-and-white (B&W) CCD, the encoding B&W CCD is formed. Image from the encoding B&W CCD are digital encoded by the TOCM. The decoded color image can be obtained by computer program. The program includes four main steps. The first step is Fourier transforming of the encoded image. The second step is filtering the spectra of the first and zero order in frequency domain. The third is inverse Fourier transforming of the filtered spectra. The last is melting the image with zero order. Then the digital color image will be shown on the display of the computer. The experiment proves that this technique is feasible. The principle of encoding color information in B&W image can be applied to color-blind sensors to get digital color image. Furthermore, it can be applied to digital multi-spectra color photography.

  16. Image color reduction method for color-defective observers using a color palette composed of 20 particular colors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakamoto, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    This study describes a color enhancement method that uses a color palette especially designed for protan and deutan defects, commonly known as red-green color blindness. The proposed color reduction method is based on a simple color mapping. Complicated computation and image processing are not required by using the proposed method, and the method can replace protan and deutan confusion (p/d-confusion) colors with protan and deutan safe (p/d-safe) colors. Color palettes for protan and deutan defects proposed by previous studies are composed of few p/d-safe colors. Thus, the colors contained in these palettes are insufficient for replacing colors in photographs. Recently, Ito et al. proposed a p/dsafe color palette composed of 20 particular colors. The author demonstrated that their p/d-safe color palette could be applied to image color reduction in photographs as a means to replace p/d-confusion colors. This study describes the results of the proposed color reduction in photographs that include typical p/d-confusion colors, which can be replaced. After the reduction process is completed, color-defective observers can distinguish these confusion colors.

  17. Combinatorial gene therapy renders increased survival in cirrhotic rats

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Liver fibrosis ranks as the second cause of death in México's productive-age population. This pathology is characterized by acummulation of fibrillar proteins in hepatic parenchyma causing synthetic and metabolic disfunction. Remotion of excessive fibrous proteins might result in benefit for subjects increasing survival index. The goal of this work was to find whether the already known therapeutical effect of human urokinase Plasminogen Activator and human Matrix Metalloprotease 8 extends survival index in cirrhotic animals. Methods Wistar rats (80 g) underwent chronic intoxication with CCl4: mineral oil for 8 weeks. Cirrhotic animals were injected with a combined dose of Ad-delta-huPA plus Ad-MMP8 (3 × 1011 and 1.5 × 1011 vp/Kg, respectively) or with Ad-beta-Gal (4.5 × 1011) and were killed after 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 days. Then, liver and serum were collected. An additional set of cirrhotic animals injected with combined gene therapy was also monitored for their probability of survival. Results Only the cirrhotic animals treated with therapeutical genes (Ad-delta-huPA+Ad-MMP-8) showed improvement in liver fibrosis. These results correlated with hydroxyproline determinations. A significant decrement in alpha-SMA and TGF-beta1 gene expression was also observed. Cirrhotic rats treated with Ad-delta-huPA plus Ad-MMP8 had a higher probability of survival at 60 days with respect to Ad-beta-Gal-injected animals. Conclusion A single administration of Ad-delta-huPA plus Ad-MMP-8 is efficient to induce fibrosis regression and increase survival in experimental liver fibrosis. PMID:20509929

  18. Color spaces for color-gamut mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCann, John J.

    1999-10-01

    Before doing extensive color gamut experiments, we wanted to test the uniformity of CIE L*a*b*. This paper shows surprisingly large discrepancies between CIE L*a*b* and isotropic observation-based color spaces, such as Munsell: (1) L*a*b* chroma exaggerate yellows and underestimate blues. (2) The average discrepancy between L*a*b* and ideal is 27%. (3) Chips with identical L*a*b* hue angles are not the same color. L*a*b* introduces errors larger than many gamut mapping corrections. We have isotropic data in the Munsell Book. Computers allow 3D lookup tables to convert instantly any measured L*a*b* to interpolated Munsell Book values. We call this space ML, Ma, and Mb in honor of Munsell. LUTs have been developed for both LabtoMLab and MLabtoLab. With this zero-error, isotropic space we can return our attention to the original problem of color-gamut image processing.

  19. Color vision and dentistry.

    PubMed

    Wasson, W; Schuman, N

    1992-05-01

    Color vision is a critical component of restorative and esthetic dentistry, but dentists, as a group, do not have their color vision tested at any time during their careers. A study was undertaken to ascertain the color-vision status of practicing dental personnel at the University of Tennessee, College of Dentistry. One hundred fifty individuals, 75 men and 75 women, were screened. The results corroborated the existing medical data for the general population. It was found that 9.3% of the men and none of the women exhibited color-vision defect. Since most dentists are male, this study demonstrates an area of potential weakness for some practitioners. Once a color-vision problem is found, it is simple to remedy by employing a team approach to shade matching or mechanical means of matching shades (by the practitioner). No ethnic or racial distinctions were detected, although these have been reported in other studies.

  20. Interactive high-quality visualization of color volume datasets using GPU-based refinements of segmentation data.

    PubMed

    Lee, Byeonghun; Kwon, Koojoo; Shin, Byeong-Seok

    2016-04-24

    Data sets containing colored anatomical images of the human body, such as Visible Human or Visible Korean, show realistic internal organ structures. However, imperfect segmentations of these color images, which are typically generated manually or semi-automatically, produces poor-quality rendering results. We propose an interactive high-quality visualization method using GPU-based refinements to aid in the study of anatomical structures. In order to represent the boundaries of a region-of-interest (ROI) smoothly, we apply Gaussian filtering to the opacity values of the color volume. Morphological grayscale erosion operations are performed to reduce the region size, which is expanded by Gaussian filtering. Pseudo-coloring and color blending are also applied to the color volume in order to give more informative rendering results. We implement these operations on GPUs to speed up the refinements. As a result, our method delivered high-quality result images with smooth boundaries and provided considerably faster refinements. The speed of these refinements is sufficient to be used with interactive renderings as the ROI changes, especially compared to CPU-based methods. Moreover, the pseudo-coloring methods used presented anatomical structures clearly.

  1. Evaluation of color categorization for representing vehicle colors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Nan; Crisman, Jill D.

    1997-02-01

    This paper evaluates the accuracy of three color categorization techniques in describing vehicles colors for a system, AutoColor, which we are developing for Intelligent Transportation Systems. Color categorization is used to efficiently represent 24-bit color images with up to 8 bits of color information. Our inspiration for color categorization is based on the fact that humans typically use only a few color names to describe the numerous colors they perceive. Our Crayon color categorization technique uses a naming scheme for digitized colors which is roughly based on human names for colors. The fastest and most straight forward method for compacting a 24-bit representation into an 8-bit representation is to use the most significant bits (MSB) to represent the colors. In addition, we have developed an Adaptive color categorization technique which can derive a set of color categories for the current imaging conditions. In this paper, we detail the three color categorization techniques, Crayon, MSB, and Adaptive, and we evaluate their performance on representing vehicle colors in our AutoColor system.

  2. Plant tissue and the color infrared record

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pease, R. W.

    1969-01-01

    Green plant tissue should not be considered as having a uniguely high near-infrared reflectance but rather a low visual reflectance. Leaf tissue without chloroplasts appears to reflect well both visual and near infrared wavelengths. The sensitometry of color infrared film is such that a spectral imbalance strongly favoring infrared reflection is necessary to yield a red record. It is the absorption of visual light by chlorophyll that creates the imbalance that makes the typical red record for plants possible. Reflectance measurements of leaves that have been chemically blanched or which have gone into natural chloride decline strongly suggests that it is the rise in the visual reflectance that is most important in removing the imbalance and degrading the red CIR record. The role of water in leaves appears to be that of rendering epidermal membranes translucent so that the underlying chlorophyll controls the reflection rather than the leaf surface.

  3. Spirit Scans Winter Haven (False Color)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    At least three different kinds of rocks await scientific analysis at the place where NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit will likely spend several months of Martian winter. They are visible in this picture, which the panoramic camera on Spirit acquired during the rover's 809th sol, or Martian day, of exploring Mars (April 12, 2006). Paper-thin layers of light-toned, jagged-edged rocks protrude horizontally from beneath small sand drifts; a light gray rock with smooth, rounded edges sits atop the sand drifts; and several dark gray to black, angular rocks with vesicles (small holes) typical of hardened lava lie scattered across the sand.

    This view is a false-color rendering that combines images taken through the panoramic camera's 753-nanometer, 535-nanometer, and 432-nanometer filters.

  4. WANTED: Fully Automated Indexing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purcell, Royal

    1991-01-01

    Discussion of indexing focuses on the possibilities of fully automated indexing. Topics discussed include controlled indexing languages such as subject heading lists and thesauri, free indexing languages, natural indexing languages, computer-aided indexing, expert systems, and the need for greater creativity to further advance automated indexing.…

  5. Stool Color: When to Worry

    MedlinePlus

    ... to worry Yesterday, my stool color was bright green. Should I be concerned? Answers from Michael F. ... of colors. All shades of brown and even green are considered normal. Only rarely does stool color ...

  6. Interference Colors in Thin Films.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, H. L.

    1979-01-01

    Explains interference colors in thin films as being due to the removal, or considerable reduction, of a certain color by destructive inteference that results in the complementary color being seen. (GA)

  7. An Architecture For Shared Multi-User Client Rendering Of Massive Geodatasets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Naser, A.; Brooke, J.; Rasheed, M.; Irving, D. H.

    2012-12-01

    result of user geological interpretations with what we call 'features'. A feature is a logical subset of the original data with each key-value pair tagged as belonging to a particular spatial feature. Thus, instead of a surface being considered as composed of polygons it is now a tagged subset of the data. Our architecture requires an intermediate stage which builds in real-time a volume in a format which can be directly rendered on a client GPU. We call this a Feature-Embedded Spatial Volume (FESVo). In this stage we utilize the indexing and parallel capabilities of the database to perform parallel queries, and on-the-fly down-sampling if lower resolution is required, at a complexity of O(k), where k is the number of data units fetched from the database, similar to searching complexity with the bitmapping index method. Also, user interactions with the visualization are saved back to the database as point tags allowing immediate knowledge sharing. We present a technical and functional architecture for a data-centric approach and how it scales to overcome access and analytical latency in client-server data interactions. Preliminary experimental evaluation shows potential advantages of such a system in terms of security and centralised data management for subsurface data visualization systems. Also, we believe that our architecture can lead to a web-based visualization environment for geoscientific data.

  8. COMPANION ANIMALS SYMPOSIUM: Rendered ingredients significantly influence sustainability, quality, and safety of pet food.

    PubMed

    Meeker, D L; Meisinger, J L

    2015-03-01

    The rendering industry collects and safely processes approximately 25 million t of animal byproducts each year in the United States. Rendering plants process a variety of raw materials from food animal production, principally offal from slaughterhouses, but include whole animals that die on farms or in transit and other materials such as bone, feathers, and blood. By recycling these byproducts into various protein, fat, and mineral products, including meat and bone meal, hydrolyzed feather meal, blood meal, and various types of animal fats and greases, the sustainability of food animal production is greatly enhanced. The rendering industry is conscious of its role in the prevention of disease and microbiological control and providing safe feed ingredients for livestock, poultry, aquaculture, and pets. The processing of otherwise low-value OM from the livestock production and meat processing industries through rendering drastically reduces the amount of waste. If not rendered, biological materials would be deposited in landfills, burned, buried, or inappropriately dumped with large amounts of carbon dioxide, ammonia, and other compounds polluting air and water. The majority of rendered protein products are used as animal feed. Rendered products are especially valuable to the livestock and pet food industries because of their high protein content, digestible AA levels (especially lysine), mineral availability (especially calcium and phosphorous), and relatively low cost in relation to their nutrient value. The use of these reclaimed and recycled materials in pet food is a much more sustainable model than using human food for pets.

  9. Elasticity-based three dimensional ultrasound real-time volume rendering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boctor, Emad M.; Matinfar, Mohammad; Ahmad, Omar; Rivaz, Hassan; Choti, Michael; Taylor, Russell H.

    2009-02-01

    Volumetric ultrasound imaging has not gained wide recognition, despite the availability of real-time 3D ultrasound scanners and the anticipated potential of 3D ultrasound imaging in diagnostic and interventional radiology. Their use, however, has been hindered by the lack of real-time visualization methods that are capable of producing high quality 3D rendering of the target/surface of interest. Volume rendering is a known visualization method, which can display clear surfaces out of the acquired volumetric data, and has an increasing number of applications utilizing CT and MRI data. The key element of any volume rendering pipeline is the ability to classify the target/surface of interest by setting an appropriate opacity function. Practical and successful real-time 3D ultrasound volume rendering can be achieved in Obstetrics and Angio applications where setting these opacity functions can be done rapidly, and reliably. Unfortunately, 3D ultrasound volume rendering of soft tissues is a challenging task due to the presence of significant amount of noise and speckle. Recently, several research groups have shown the feasibility of producing 3D elasticity volume from two consecutive 3D ultrasound scans. This report describes a novel volume rendering pipeline utilizing elasticity information. The basic idea is to compute B-mode voxel opacity from the rapidly calculated strain values, which can also be mixed with conventional gradient based opacity function. We have implemented the volume renderer using GPU unit, which gives an update rate of 40 volume/sec.

  10. Color universal design: analysis of color category dependency on color vision type (3)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kojima, Natsuki; Ichihara, Yasuyo G.; Ikeda, Tomohiro; Kamachi, Miyuki G.; Ito, Kei

    2012-01-01

    We report on the results of a study investigating the color perception characteristics of people with red-green color confusion. We believe that this is an important step towards achieving Color Universal Design. In Japan, approximately 5% of men and 0.2% of women have red-green confusion. The percentage for men is higher in Europe and the United States; up to 8% in some countries. Red-green confusion involves a perception of colors different from normal color vision. Colors are used as a means of disseminating clear information to people; however, it may be difficult to convey the correct information to people who have red-green confusion. Consequently, colors should be chosen that minimize accidents and that promote more effective communication. In a previous survey, we investigated color categories common to each color vision type, trichromat (C-type color vision), protan (P-type color vision) and deuteran (D-type color vision). In the present study, first, we conducted experiments in order to verify a previous survey of C-type color vision and P-type color vision. Next, we investigated color difference levels within "CIE 1976 L*a*b*" (the CIELAB uniform color space), where neither C-type nor P-type color vision causes accidents under certain conditions (rain maps/contour line levels and graph color legend levels). As a result, we propose a common chromaticity of colors that the two color vision types are able to categorize by means of color names common to C-type color vision. We also offer a proposal to explain perception characteristics of color differences with normal color vision and red-green confusion using the CIELAB uniform color space. This report is a follow-up to SPIE-IS & T / Vol. 7528 7528051-8 and SPIE-IS & T /vol. 7866 78660J-1-8.

  11. Stork Color Proofing Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ekman, C. Frederick

    1989-04-01

    For the past few years, Stork Colorproofing B.V. has been marketing an analog color proofing system in Europe based on electrophoto-graphic technology it pioneered for the purpose of high resolution, high fidelity color imaging in the field of the Graphic Arts. Based in part on this technology, it will make available on a commercial basis a digital color proofing system in 1989. Proofs from both machines will provide an exact reference for the user and will look, feel, and behave in a reproduction sense like the printed press sheet.

  12. Colors on Jupiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owen, T.; Terrile, R. J.

    1981-01-01

    The colors present in the clouds of Jupiter at the time of the Voyager encounters are described as they appear in high resolution images. It is shown that latitude, altitude and dwelltime are all critical factors in determining which colors appear where, although the identities of the responsible chromophores remain unestablished. Simultaneous ground-based 5 micron observations are used to determine the relative altitudes of the cloud systems which are characterized as white clouds, tawny clouds, dark brown cloud belts, and blue-grey hot spots in equatorial regions. Correlations between cloud color and certain latitudes have been maintained for decades, which suggests the importance of the internal energy source.

  13. Colors and contact dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Bonamonte, Domenico; Foti, Caterina; Romita, Paolo; Vestita, Michelangelo; Angelini, Gianni

    2014-01-01

    The diagnosis of skin diseases relies on several clinical signs, among which color is of paramount importance. In this review, we consider certain clinical presentations of both eczematous and noneczematous contact dermatitis in which color plays a peculiar role orientating toward the right diagnosis. The conditions that will be discussed include specific clinical-morphologic subtypes of eczematous contact dermatitis, primary melanocytic, and nonmelanocytic contact hyperchromia, black dermographism, contact chemical leukoderma, and others. Based on the physical, chemical, and biologic factors underlying a healthy skin color, the various skin shades drawing a disease picture are thoroughly debated, stressing their etiopathogenic origins and histopathologic aspects.

  14. Three-dimensional rendering of segmented object using matlab - biomed 2010.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Jeffrey R; Barrett, Steven F

    2010-01-01

    The three-dimensional rendering of microscopic objects is a difficult and challenging task that often requires specialized image processing techniques. Previous work has been described of a semi-automatic segmentation process of fluorescently stained neurons collected as a sequence of slice images with a confocal laser scanning microscope. Once properly segmented, each individual object can be rendered and studied as a three-dimensional virtual object. This paper describes the work associated with the design and development of Matlab files to create three-dimensional images from the segmented object data previously mentioned. Part of the motivation for this work is to integrate both the segmentation and rendering processes into one software application, providing a seamless transition from the segmentation tasks to the rendering and visualization tasks. Previously these tasks were accomplished on two different computer systems, windows and Linux. This transition basically limits the usefulness of the segmentation and rendering applications to those who have both computer systems readily available. The focus of this work is to create custom Matlab image processing algorithms for object rendering and visualization, and merge these capabilities to the Matlab files that were developed especially for the image segmentation task. The completed Matlab application will contain both the segmentation and rendering processes in a single graphical user interface, or GUI. This process for rendering three-dimensional images in Matlab requires that a sequence of two-dimensional binary images, representing a cross-sectional slice of the object, be reassembled in a 3D space, and covered with a surface. Additional segmented objects can be rendered in the same 3D space. The surface properties of each object can be varied by the user to aid in the study and analysis of the objects. This inter-active process becomes a powerful visual tool to study and understand microscopic objects.

  15. A new method for colors characterization of colored stainless steel using CIE and Munsell color systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Keming; Xue, Yongqiang; Cui, Zixiang

    2015-09-01

    It is important to establish an accurate and comprehensive method of characterizing colors of colored stainless steel and understand the changing mechanism and the regularity of colors for the research, production and application of colored stainless steel. In this work, the method which combines reflectance-wavelength with both CIE and Munsell color systems is studied, the changing regularity of hue, brightness and saturation with increasing coloring potential differences is investigated, and the mechanism of color changing is discussed. The results show that by using this method the colors of colored stainless steel can be accurately and comprehensively characterized; with coloring potential differences and colored film thickness increasing, the peaks and troughs of the reflectance curves in visible region move toward long wave, causing the cyclically changing of hue and brightness; the amplitude of reflectance curves increases, resulting in growing of the saturation; the CIE 1931 coordinate curve of colors counterclockwise and cyclically changes around the equal energy light spot.

  16. Methods for Quantifying and Characterizing Errors in Pixel-Based 3D Rendering.

    PubMed

    Hagedorn, John G; Terrill, Judith E; Peskin, Adele P; Filliben, James J

    2008-01-01

    We present methods for measuring errors in the rendering of three-dimensional points, line segments, and polygons in pixel-based computer graphics systems. We present error metrics for each of these three cases. These methods are applied to rendering with OpenGL on two common hardware platforms under several rendering conditions. Results are presented and differences in measured errors are analyzed and characterized. We discuss possible extensions of this error analysis approach to other aspects of the process of generating visual representations of synthetic scenes.

  17. TractRender: a new generalized 3D medical image visualization and output platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Darryl H.; Tsao, Sinchai; Gajawelli, Niharika; Law, Meng; Lepore, Natasha

    2015-01-01

    Diffusion MRI allows us not only voxelized diffusion characteristics but also the potential to delineate neuronal fiber path through tractography. There is a dearth of flexible open source tractography software programs for visualizing these complicated 3D structures. Moreover, rendering these structures using various shading, lighting, and representations will result in vastly different graphical feel. In addition, the ability to output these objects in various formats increases the utility of this platform. We have created TractRender that leverages openGL features through Matlab, allowing for maximum ease of use but still maintain the flexibility of custom scene rendering.

  18. Asymmetric color image encryption based on singular value decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Lili; Yuan, Caojin; Qiang, Junjie; Feng, Shaotong; Nie, Shouping

    2017-02-01

    A novel asymmetric color image encryption approach by using singular value decomposition (SVD) is proposed. The original color image is encrypted into a ciphertext shown as an indexed image by using the proposed method. The red, green and blue components of the color image are subsequently encoded into a complex function which is then separated into U, S and V parts by SVD. The data matrix of the ciphertext is obtained by multiplying orthogonal matrices U and V while implementing phase-truncation. Diagonal entries of the three diagonal matrices of the SVD results are abstracted and scrambling combined to construct the colormap of the ciphertext. Thus, the encrypted indexed image covers less space than the original image. For decryption, the original color image cannot be recovered without private keys which are obtained from phase-truncation and the orthogonality of V. Computer simulations are presented to evaluate the performance of the proposed algorithm. We also analyze the security of the proposed system.

  19. Hyperspectral imaging of cuttlefish camouflage indicates good color match in the eyes of fish predators.

    PubMed

    Chiao, Chuan-Chin; Wickiser, J Kenneth; Allen, Justine J; Genter, Brock; Hanlon, Roger T

    2011-05-31

    Camouflage is a widespread phenomenon throughout nature and an important antipredator tactic in natural selection. Many visual predators have keen color perception, and thus camouflage patterns should provide some degree of color matching in addition to other visual factors such as pattern, contrast, and texture. Quantifying camouflage effectiveness in the eyes of the predator is a challenge from the perspectives of both biology and optical imaging technology. Here we take advantage of hyperspectral imaging (HSI), which records full-spectrum light data, to simultaneously visualize color match and pattern match in the spectral and the spatial domains, respectively. Cuttlefish can dynamically camouflage themselves on any natural substrate and, despite their colorblindness, produce body patterns that appear to have high-fidelity color matches to the substrate when viewed directly by humans or with RGB images. Live camouflaged cuttlefish on natural backgrounds were imaged using HSI, and subsequent spectral analysis revealed that most reflectance spectra of individual cuttlefish and substrates were similar, rendering the color match possible. Modeling color vision of potential di- and trichromatic fish predators of cuttlefish corroborated the spectral match analysis and demonstrated that camouflaged cuttlefish show good color match as well as pattern match in the eyes of fish predators. These findings (i) indicate the strong potential of HSI technology to enhance studies of biological coloration and (ii) provide supporting evidence that cuttlefish can produce color-coordinated camouflage on natural substrates despite lacking color vision.

  20. Hyperspectral imaging of cuttlefish camouflage indicates good color match in the eyes of fish predators

    PubMed Central

    Chiao, Chuan-Chin; Wickiser, J. Kenneth; Allen, Justine J.; Genter, Brock; Hanlon, Roger T.

    2011-01-01

    Camouflage is a widespread phenomenon throughout nature and an important antipredator tactic in natural selection. Many visual predators have keen color perception, and thus camouflage patterns should provide some degree of color matching in addition to other visual factors such as pattern, contrast, and texture. Quantifying camouflage effectiveness in the eyes of the predator is a challenge from the perspectives of both biology and optical imaging technology. Here we take advantage of hyperspectral imaging (HSI), which records full-spectrum light data, to simultaneously visualize color match and pattern match in the spectral and the spatial domains, respectively. Cuttlefish can dynamically camouflage themselves on any natural substrate and, despite their colorblindness, produce body patterns that appear to have high-fidelity color matches to the substrate when viewed directly by humans or with RGB images. Live camouflaged cuttlefish on natural backgrounds were imaged using HSI, and subsequent spectral analysis revealed that most reflectance spectra of individual cuttlefish and substrates were similar, rendering the color match possible. Modeling color vision of potential di- and trichromatic fish predators of cuttlefish corroborated the spectral match analysis and demonstrated that camouflaged cuttlefish show good color match as well as pattern match in the eyes of fish predators. These findings (i) indicate the strong potential of HSI technology to enhance studies of biological coloration and (ii) provide supporting evidence that cuttlefish can produce color-coordinated camouflage on natural substrates despite lacking color vision. PMID:21576487

  1. Color Video Petrography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagle, Frederick

    1981-01-01

    Describes the production and use of color videocassettes with an inexpensive, conventional TV camera and an ordinary petrographic microscope. The videocassettes are used in optical mineralogy and petrology courses. (Author/WB)

  2. Copying and Coloring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kohl, Herb

    1977-01-01

    Investigates what appeals to students in using coloring books and whether they use them in imaginative ways. The intent was to use the information to develop creative book activities that interest and challenge students. (Author/RK)

  3. Phoenix Color Targets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    These images of three Phoenix color targets were taken on sols 1 and 2 by the Surface Stereo Imager (SSI) on board the Phoenix lander. The bottom target was imaged in approximate color (SSI's red, green, and blue filters: 600, 530, and 480 nanometers), while the others were imaged with an infrared filter (750 nanometers). All of them will be imaged many times over the mission to monitor the color calibration of the camera. The two at the top show grains 2 to 3 millimeters in size that were likely lifted to the Phoenix deck during landing. Each of the large color chips on each target contains a strong magnet to protect the interior material from Mars' magnetic dust.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  4. Colored Contact Lens Dangers

    MedlinePlus

    ... Halloween Hazard: The Hidden Dangers of Buying Decorative Contact Lenses Without a Prescription Sep. 26, 2013 It ... the truth." Real People, Real Problems with Colored Contact Lenses Julian: Teenager Blinded In One Eye By ...

  5. Colors of the Sky.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohren, Craig F.; Fraser, Alistair B.

    1985-01-01

    Explains the physical principles which result in various colors of the sky. Topics addressed include: blueness, mystical properties of water vapor, ozone, fluctuation theory of scattering, variation of purity and brightness, and red sunsets and sunrises. (DH)

  6. Chemistry, Color, and Art.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orna, Mary Virginia

    2001-01-01

    Describes pigments and artists' colors from a chronological perspective. Explains how chemical analysis can be used to distinguish the differences between artists' palettes, identify the evolution of art, and lead to restoration of an art work. (Contains 13 references.) (YDS)

  7. Color harmonization for images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Zhen; Miao, Zhenjiang; Wan, Yanli; Wang, Zhifei

    2011-04-01

    Color harmonization is an artistic technique to adjust a set of colors in order to enhance their visual harmony so that they are aesthetically pleasing in terms of human visual perception. We present a new color harmonization method that treats the harmonization as a function optimization. For a given image, we derive a cost function based on the observation that pixels in a small window that have similar unharmonic hues should be harmonized with similar harmonic hues. By minimizing the cost function, we get a harmonized image in which the spatial coherence is preserved. A new matching function is proposed to select the best matching harmonic schemes, and a new component-based preharmonization strategy is proposed to preserve the hue distribution of the harmonized images. Our approach overcomes several shortcomings of the existing color harmonization methods. We test our algorithm with a variety of images to demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach.

  8. Evaluation of VIIRS ocean color products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Menghua; Liu, Xiaoming; Jiang, Lide; Son, SeungHyun; Sun, Junqiang; Shi, Wei; Tan, Liqin; Naik, Puneeta; Mikelsons, Karlis; Wang, Xiaolong; Lance, Veronica

    2014-11-01

    ocean color products in support of science research and operational applications. The VIIRS evaluation and monitoring results can be found at the website: http://www.star.nesdis.noaa.gov/sod/mecb/color/index.html.

  9. The NLM Indexing Initiative's Medical Text Indexer.

    PubMed

    Aronson, Alan R; Mork, James G; Gay, Clifford W; Humphrey, Susanne M; Rogers, Willie J

    2004-01-01

    The Medical Text Indexer (MTI) is a program for producing MeSH indexing recommendations. It is the major product of NLM's Indexing Initiative and has been used in both semi-automated and fully automated indexing environments at the Library since mid 2002. We report here on an experiment conducted with MEDLINE indexers to evaluate MTI's performance and to generate ideas for its improvement as a tool for user-assisted indexing. We also discuss some filtering techniques developed to improve MTI's accuracy for use primarily in automatically producing the indexing for several abstracts collections.

  10. Color of the ocean.

    PubMed

    Plass, G N; Humphreys, T J; Kattawar, G W

    1978-05-01

    The color of the ocean is calculated from a model that realistically takes into account the various types of scattering and absorption events that occur in both the atmosphere and ocean. Solar photons are followed through the atmosphere and into the ocean by a Monte Carlo technique. The reflection and refraction at the ocean surface are included in the calculation. The upward and downward flux is calculated at several different heights in the atmosphere, at thirteen different wavelengths from 0.4 mum to 0.7 mum. These results are compared with two approximate theories: (1) one-dimensional; (2) single scattering. The first of these theories gives results which are accurate within 10% in most cases and are easy to calculate. The chromaticity coordinates as well as the dominant wavelength and purity of the color are calculated from the Monte Carlo results for the variation of upward flux with wavelength. The ocean color near the horizon is almost entirely determined by the color of the sky reflected by the ocean surface. The upwelling light from the ocean can be observed near the nadir if precautions are taken to exclude as much light as possible reflected from the ocean surface. The color of this upwelling light from the ocean contains much information about the hydrosol, chlorophyll, and yellow substance amounts in the ocean water. The model calculations show how the ocean color changes from a deep blue of high purity for relatively pure water to a greenish blue and then to green of low purity as the cholorphyll and yellow substance amounts increase. Further increases in these substances cause the color to change to yellow green of a higher purity. A large increase in the hydrosol amount usually causes a marked decrease in the purity of the color.

  11. Color Laser Microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Awamura, D.; Ode, T.; Yonezawa, M.

    1987-04-01

    A color laser microscope utilizing a new color laser imaging system has been developed for the visual inspection of semiconductors. The light source, produced by three lasers (Red; He-Ne, Green; Ar, Blue; He-Cd), is deflected horizontally by an AOD (Acoustic Optical Deflector) and vertically by a vibration mirror. The laser beam is focused in a small spot which is scanned over the sample at high speed. The light reflected back from the sample is reformed to contain linear information by returning to the original vibration mirror. The linear light is guided to the CCD image sensor where it is converted into a video signal. Individual CCD image sensors are used for each of the three R, G, or B color image signals. The confocal optical system with its laser light source yields a color TV monitor image with no flaring and a much sharper resolution than that of the conventional optical microscope. The AOD makes possible a high speed laser scan and a NTSC or PAL TV video signal is produced in real time without any video memory. Since the light source is composed of R, G, and B laser beams, color separation superior to that of white light illumination is achieved. Because of the photometric linearity of the image detector, the R, G, and B outputs of the system are most suitably used for hue analysis. The CCD linear image sensors in the optical system produce no geometrical distortion, and good color registration is available principally. The output signal can be used for high accuracy line width measuring. The many features of the color laser microscope make it ideally suited for the visual inspection of semiconductor processing. A number of these systems have already been installed in such a capacity. The Color Laser Microscope can also be a very useful tool for the fields of material engineering and biotechnology.

  12. Color-Blindness Study: Color Discrimination on the TICCIT System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asay, Calvin S.; Schneider, Edward W.

    The question studied whether the specific seven TICCIT system colors used within color coding schemes can be a source of confusion, or not seen at all, by the color-blind segment of target populations. Subjects were 11 color-blind and three normally sighted students at Brigham Young University. After a preliminary training exercise to acquaint the…

  13. Color planner for designers based on color emotions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Ka-Man; Xin, John H.; Taylor, Gail

    2002-06-01

    During the color perception process, an associated feeling or emotion is induced in our brains, and this kind of emotion is termed as 'color emotion.' The researchers in the field of color emotions have put many efforts in quantifying color emotions with the standard color specifications and evaluating the influence of hue, lightness and chroma to the color emotions of human beings. In this study, a color planner was derived according to these findings so that the correlation of color emotions and standard color specifications was clearly indicated. Since people of different nationalities usually have different color emotions as different cultural and traditional backgrounds, the subjects in this study were all native Hong Kong Chinese and the color emotion words were all written in Chinese language in the visual assessments. Through the color planner, the designers from different areas, no matter fashion, graphic, interior or web site etc., can select suitable colors for inducing target color emotions to the customers or product-users since different colors convey different meanings to them. In addition, the designers can enhance the functionality and increase the attractiveness of their designed products by selecting suitable colors.

  14. Color television system using single gun color cathode ray tube

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaiser, E. E.; Hilborn, E. H.

    1970-01-01

    Two-primary color and single gun system provides quality differential color and variation in brightness for specific colors by varying current and controlling duty cycle of electron beam. Number of video amplifiers, deflection circuits, and guns required to display color TV picture is reduced and less complex tube is required.

  15. Color measurement and discrimination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wandell, B. A.

    1985-01-01

    Theories of color measurement attempt to provide a quantative means for predicting whether two lights will be discriminable to an average observer. All color measurement theories can be characterized as follows: suppose lights a and b evoke responses from three color channels characterized as vectors, v(a) and v(b); the vector difference v(a) - v(b) corresponds to a set of channel responses that would be generated by some real light, call it *. According to theory a and b will be discriminable when * is detectable. A detailed development and test of the classic color measurement approach are reported. In the absence of a luminance component in the test stimuli, a and b, the theory holds well. In the presence of a luminance component, the theory is clearly false. When a luminance component is present discrimination judgements depend largely on whether the lights being discriminated fall in separate, categorical regions of color space. The results suggest that sensory estimation of surface color uses different methods, and the choice of method depends upon properties of the image. When there is significant luminance variation a categorical method is used, while in the absence of significant luminance variation judgments are continuous and consistant with the measurement approach.

  16. 1. PHOTOCOPY OF RENDERING OF PSFS BUILDING BY D.E. SUTTON. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. PHOTOCOPY OF RENDERING OF PSFS BUILDING BY D.E. SUTTON. Date possibly 1929 or 1930, when construction started. - Philadelphia Saving Fund Society, Twelfth & Market Streets, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  17. Hybrid Rendering Architecture for Realtime and Photorealistic Simulation of Robot-Assisted Surgery.

    PubMed

    Müller, Sebastijan; Bihlmaier, Andreas; Irgenfried, Stephan; Wörn, Heinz

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we present a method for combining realtime and non-realtime (photorealistic) rendering with open source software. Realtime rendering provides sufficient realism and is a good choice for most simulation and regression testing purposes in robot-assisted surgery. However, for proper end-to-end testing of the system, some computer vision algorithms require high fidelity images that capture more minute details of the real scene. One of the central practical obstacles to combining both worlds in a uniform way is creating models that are suitable for both kinds of rendering paradigms. We build a modeling pipeline using open source tools that builds on established, open standards for data exchange. The result is demonstrated through a unified model of the medical OpenHELP phantom used in the Gazebo robotics simulator, which can at the same time be rendered with more visual fidelity in the Cycles raytracer.

  18. Multi-Grained Level of Detail for Rendering Complex Meshes Using a Hierarchical Seamless Texture Atlas

    SciTech Connect

    Niski, K; Purnomo, B; Cohen, J

    2006-11-06

    Previous algorithms for view-dependent level of detail provide local mesh refinements either at the finest granularity or at a fixed, coarse granularity. The former provides triangle-level adaptation, often at the expense of heavy CPU usage and low triangle rendering throughput; the latter improves CPU usage and rendering throughput by operating on groups of triangles. We present a new multiresolution hierarchy and associated algorithms that provide adaptive granularity. This multi-grained hierarchy allows independent control of the number of hierarchy nodes processed on the CPU and the number of triangles to be rendered on the GPU. We employ a seamless texture atlas style of geometry image as a GPU-friendly data organization, enabling efficient rendering and GPU-based stitching of patch borders. We demonstrate our approach on both large triangle meshes and terrains with up to billions of vertices.

  19. ROI-based transmission method for stereoscopic video to maximize rendered 3D video quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hewage, Chaminda T. E. R.; Martini, Maria G.; Appuhami, Harsha D.

    2012-03-01

    A technique to improve the rendering quality of novel views for colour plus depth based 3D video is proposed. Most depth discontinuities occur around the edges of depth map objects. If information around edges of both colour and depth map images is lost during transmission, this will affect the quality of the rendered views. Therefore this work proposes a technique to categorize edge and surrounding areas into two different regions (Region Of Interests (ROIs)) and later protect them separately to provide Unequal Error Protection (UEP) during transmission. In this way the most important edge areas (vital for novel view rendering) will be more protected than other surrounding areas. This method is tested over a H.264/AVC based simulcast encoding and transmission setup. The results show improved rendered quality with the proposed ROI-based UEP method compared to Equal Error Protection (EEP) method.

  20. Paper whiteness and its effect on the reproduction of colors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norberg, Ole

    2007-02-01

    The whiteness level of a printing paper is considered as an important quality measure. High paper whiteness improves the contrast to printed areas providing a more distinct appearance of printed text and colors and increases the number of reproducible colors. Its influence on perceived color rendering quality is however not completely explained. The intuitive interpretation of paper whiteness is a material with high light reflection for all wavelengths in the visual part of the color spectrum. However, a slightly bluish shade is perceived as being whiter than a neutral white. Accordingly, papers with high whiteness values incline toward bluish-white. In paper production, a high whiteness level is achieved by the use of highly bleached pulp together with high light scattering filler pigment. To further increase whiteness levels expensive additives such as Fluorescent Whitening Agents (FWA) and shading dyes are needed. During the last years, the CIE whiteness level of some commercial available office paper has exceeded 170 CIE units, a level that can only be reached by the addition of significant amounts of FWA. Although paper whiteness is considered as an important paper quality criterion, its influence on printed color images is complicated. The dynamic mechanisms of the human visual system strive to optimize the visual response to each particular viewing condition. One of these mechanisms is chromatic adaptation, where colored objects get the same appearance under different light sources, i.e. a white paper appears white under tungsten, fluorescent and day light. In the process of judging printed color images, paper whiteness will be part of the chromatic adaptation. This implies that variations in paper whiteness would be discounted by the human visual system. On the other hand, high paper whiteness improves the contrast as well as the color gamut, both important parameters for the perceived color reproduction quality. In order to quantify the influence of paper

  1. Real-time volume rendering of 4D image using 3D texture mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Jinwoo; Kim, June-Sic; Kim, Jae Seok; Kim, In Young; Kim, Sun Il

    2001-05-01

    Four dimensional image is 3D volume data that varies with time. It is used to express deforming or moving object in virtual surgery of 4D ultrasound. It is difficult to render 4D image by conventional ray-casting or shear-warp factorization methods because of their time-consuming rendering time or pre-processing stage whenever the volume data are changed. Even 3D texture mapping is used, repeated volume loading is also time-consuming in 4D image rendering. In this study, we propose a method to reduce data loading time using coherence between currently loaded volume and previously loaded volume in order to achieve real time rendering based on 3D texture mapping. Volume data are divided into small bricks and each brick being loaded is tested for similarity to one which was already loaded in memory. If the brick passed the test, it is defined as 3D texture by OpenGL functions. Later, the texture slices of the brick are mapped into polygons and blended by OpenGL blending functions. All bricks undergo this test. Continuously deforming fifty volumes are rendered in interactive time with SGI ONYX. Real-time volume rendering based on 3D texture mapping is currently available on PC.

  2. Metacontrast masking is processed before grapheme-color synesthesia.

    PubMed

    Bacon, Michael Patrick; Bridgeman, Bruce; Ramachandran, Vilayanur S

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the physiological mechanism of grapheme-color synesthesia using metacontrast masking. A metacontrast target is rendered invisible by a mask that is delayed by about 60 ms; the target and mask do not overlap in space or time. Little masking occurs, however, if the target and mask are simultaneous. This effect must be cortical, because it can be obtained dichoptically. To compare the data for synesthetes and controls, we developed a metacontrast design in which nonsynesthete controls showed weaker dichromatic masking (i.e., the target and mask were in different colors) than monochromatic masking. We accomplished this with an equiluminant target, mask, and background for each observer. If synesthetic color affected metacontrast, synesthetes should show monochromatic masking more similar to the weak dichromatic masking among controls, because synesthetes could add their synesthetic color to the monochromatic condition. The target-mask pairs used for each synesthete were graphemes that elicited strong synesthetic colors. We found stronger monochromatic than dichromatic U-shaped metacontrast for both synesthetes and controls, with optimal masking at an asynchrony of 66 ms. The difference in performance between the monochromatic and dichromatic conditions in the synesthetes indicates that synesthesia occurs at a later processing stage than does metacontrast masking.

  3. Color in Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brecher, K.

    2002-05-01

    The vocabulary of astronomy is riddled with color terms. Stars are referred to as red or blue - even brown -- though rarely green. Astronomers say light from a star can be "blueshifted" or that it can be "reddened". Color, however, is not a simple one-dimensional physical parameter equal to wavelength or frequency. It is a complex, psychophysical phenomenon involving at least three degrees of freedom - hue, saturation and brightness -- as well as observational context. Nonetheless, many astronomers treat hue alone or hue plus saturation as the same thing as color. A recent report on "the color of the universe" is a case in point (Baldry and Glazebrook, Bull. Am. As. Soc., 34, No. 1, 571, 2002). Even discounting the authors' initial and (possibly) subsequent errors in arriving at a "color" associated with the composite spectrum derived from the 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey (first reported as "pale turquoise", then "beige"), the method of viewing the light was left vague, and context is important. For example, consider the question "What color is the Moon?" When viewed from Earth, the Moon appears white against the black sky. Place a piece of "average" lunar material in a lighted room, and it will appear dark gray. To most human observers, the 2000 or so naked eye stars observable from the northern hemisphere all appear white, with the few exceptions which look reddish/orange such as Betelgeuse, Arcturus, Aldeberan, Antares and Pollux. Yet the dimmer double star companion to Alberio can appear bluish when viewed beside its much brighter yellowish/orange neighbor if both are viewed by eye through a small aperture, slightly defocused telescope. This presentation will explore several visual phenomena that can help clarify the concept of color in astronomy. Supported in part by NSF grant # DUE-9950551 for "Project LITE: Light Inquiry Through Experiments".

  4. Color Addition and Subtraction Apps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz, Frances; Ruiz, Michael J.

    2015-10-01

    Color addition and subtraction apps in HTML5 have been developed for students as an online hands-on experience so that they can more easily master principles introduced through traditional classroom demonstrations. The evolution of the additive RGB color model is traced through the early IBM color adapters so that students can proceed step by step in understanding mathematical representations of RGB color. Finally, color addition and subtraction are presented for the X11 colors from web design to illustrate yet another real-life application of color mixing.

  5. Synthesis and characterization of green Zn-Ag-In-S and red Zn-Cu-In-S quantum dots for ultrahigh color quality of down-converted white LEDs.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Hee Chang; Oh, Ji Hye; Ko, Minji; Yoo, Heeyeon; Do, Young Rag

    2015-04-08

    Eco-friendly green Zn-Ag-In-S (ZAIS) and red Zn-Cu-In-S (ZCIS) core/shell-like alloyed quantum dots (QDs) have been synthesized by a facile hot-injection method with a multiple injection approach. Broad full-width at half-maximum (fwhm) of the photoluminescence (PL) emission and tunability of the green ZAIS and red ZCIS QDs were obtained by adopting a low-temperature core growth and high-temperature multiple alloyed reaction. The alloyed green ZAIS and red ZCIS QDs reached PL quantum yields as high as 0.61 and 0.53; fwhm of the PL peaks were as wide as 81 and 106 nm, respectively. This demonstrates the practical realization of white down-converted light-emitting diodes (DC-LEDs), fully covering the whole visible wavelength range and the cyan gap, using two broad fwhm green ZAIS and red ZCIS QDs. We also characterized the vision and color performance using luminous efficacy (LE), color rendering index (CRI), special CRI for strong red (R9), and color quality scale (CQS) of white DC-LEDs incorporated with green ZAIS and red ZCIS QDs at the correlated color temperature (CCT) range of 2700-10 000 K. The tricolor white DC-LED using broad fwhm green-emitting ZAIS and red-emitting ZCIS core/shell-like alloyed QDs exhibits a moderate LE (31.2 lm/W) and ultrahigh color qualities (CRI = 97, R9 = 97, and CQS = 94) with warm white at a CCT of 3500 K.

  6. Color Memory of University Students: Influence of Color Experience and Color Characteristic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bynum, Carlisle; Epps, Helen H.; Kaya, Naz

    2006-01-01

    The ability to select a previously viewed color specimen from an array of specimens that differ in hue, value, or chroma varies among individuals, and may be related to one's basic color discrimination ability or to prior experience with color. This study investigated short-term color memory of 40 college students, 20 of whom were interior design…

  7. Precision of Synesthetic Color Matching Resembles That for Recollected Colors Rather than Physical Colors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Derek H.; Wegener, Signy V.; Brown, Francesca; Mattingley, Jason B.

    2012-01-01

    Grapheme-color synesthesia is an atypical condition in which individuals experience sensations of color when reading printed graphemes such as letters and digits. For some grapheme-color synesthetes, seeing a printed grapheme triggers a sensation of color, but "hearing" the name of a grapheme does not. This dissociation allowed us to…

  8. Color universal design: analysis of color category dependency on color vision type (4)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikeda, Tomohiro; Ichihara, Yasuyo G.; Kojima, Natsuki; Tanaka, Hisaya; Ito, Kei

    2013-02-01

    This report is af ollow-up to SPIE-IS+T / Vol. 7528 7528051-8, SPIE-IS+T / Vol. 7866 78660J-1-8 and SPIE-IS+T / Vol. 8292 829206-1-8. Colors are used to communicate information in various situations, not just for design and apparel. However, visual information given only by color may be perceived differently by individuals with different color vision types. Human color vision is non-uniform and the variation in most cases is genetically linked to L-cones and M-cones. Therefore, color appearance is not the same for all color vision types. Color Universal Design is an easy-to-understand system that was created to convey color-coded information accurately to most people, taking color vision types into consideration. In the present research, we studied trichromat (C-type), prolan (P-type), and deutan (D-type) forms of color vision. We here report the result of two experiments. The first was the validation of the confusion colors using the color chart on CIELAB uniform color space. We made an experimental color chart (total of color cells is 622, the color difference between color cells is 2.5) for fhis experiment, and subjects have P-type or D-type color vision. From the data we were able to determine "the limits with high probability of confusion" and "the limits with possible confusion" around various basing points. The direction of the former matched with the theoretical confusion locus, but the range did not extend across the entire a* range. The latter formed a belt-like zone above and below the theoretical confusion locus. This way we re-analyzed a part of the theoretical confusion locus suggested by Pitt-Judd. The second was an experiment in color classification of the subjects with C-type, P-type, or D-type color vision. The color caps of fhe 100 Hue Test were classified into seven categories for each color vision type. The common and different points of color sensation were compared for each color vision type, and we were able to find a group of color caps

  9. Extending color psychology to the personality realm: interpersonal hostility varies by red preferences and perceptual biases.

    PubMed

    Fetterman, Adam K; Liu, Tianwei; Robinson, Michael D

    2015-02-01

    The color psychology literature has made a convincing case that color is not just about aesthetics, but also about meaning. This work has involved situational manipulations of color, rendering it uncertain as to whether color-meaning associations can be used to characterize how people differ from each other. The present research focuses on the idea that the color red is linked to, or associated with, individual differences in interpersonal hostility. Across four studies (N = 376 undergraduates), red preferences and perceptual biases were measured along with individual differences in interpersonal hostility. It was found that (a) a preference for the color red was higher as interpersonal hostility increased, (b) hostile people were biased to see the color red more frequently than nonhostile people, and (c) there was a relationship between a preference for the color red and hostile social decision making. These studies represent an important extension of the color psychology literature, highlighting the need to attend to person-based, as well as situation-based, factors.

  10. PROCESS FOR COLORING DIAMONDS

    DOEpatents

    Dugdale, R.A.

    1960-07-19

    A process is given for coloring substantially colorless diamonds in the blue to blue-green range and comprises the steps of irradiating the colorless diamonds with electrons having an energy within the range 0.5 to 2 Mev to obtain an integrated electron flux of between 1 and 2 x 10/sup 18/ thc diamonds may be irradiated 1 hr when they take on a blue color with a slight green tint: After being heated at about 500 deg C for half an hour they become pure blue. Electrons within this energy range contam sufficient energy to displace the diamond atoms from their normal lattice sites into interstitial sites, thereby causing the color changes.

  11. Color education in architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unver, Rengin

    2002-06-01

    Architecture is an interdisciplinary profession that combines and uses the elements of various major fields such as humanities, social and physical sciences, technology and creative arts. The main aim of architectural education is to enable students acquire the skills to create designs sufficient both aesthetically and technically. The goals of the under graduate program can be summarized as; the information transfer on subjects and problems related to the application of the profession, the acquisition of relevant skills, and information on specialist subjects. Color is one of the most important design parameters every architect has to use. Architect candidates should be equipped in the field of color just as they are in other relevant subjects. This paper deals with the significance, goals, methods and the place of color education in the undergraduate program of architectural education.

  12. Adaptive color correction based on object color classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotera, Hiroaki; Morimoto, Tetsuro; Yasue, Nobuyuki; Saito, Ryoichi

    1998-09-01

    An adaptive color management strategy depending on the image contents is proposed. Pictorial color image is classified into different object areas with clustered color distribution. Euclidian or Mahalanobis color distance measures, and maximum likelihood method based on Bayesian decision rule, are introduced to the classification. After the classification process, each clustered pixels are projected onto principal component space by Hotelling transform and the color corrections are performed for the principal components to be matched each other in between the individual clustered color areas of original and printed images.

  13. Light and Color

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Overheim, R. Daniel; Wagner, David L.

    1982-08-01

    Equally valuable as a semester course for non-majors or an introduction for general readers, this text uses only a minimum of science and mathematical background to explain the physical principles of light. It emphasizes color: the properties of light and materials that give rise to it, how it is described and analyzed, how it is produced in nature, and how the eye sees it. Also discusses topics such as geometrical and wave optics and color phenomena, such as rainbows, that appear in nature. Learning aids include problems and exercises at the end of each chapter.

  14. Color and genomic ancestry in Brazilians

    PubMed Central

    Parra, Flavia C.; Amado, Roberto C.; Lambertucci, José R.; Rocha, Jorge; Antunes, Carlos M.; Pena, Sérgio D. J.

    2003-01-01

    This work was undertaken to ascertain to what degree the physical appearance of a Brazilian individual was predictive of genomic African ancestry. Using a panel of 10 population-specific alleles, we assigned to each person an African ancestry index (AAI). The procedure was able to tell apart, with no overlaps, 20 males from northern Portugal from 20 males from São Tomé Island on the west coast of Africa. We also tested 10 Brazilian Amerindians and observed that their AAI values fell in the same range as the Europeans. Finally, we studied two different Brazilian population samples. The first consisted of 173 individuals from a rural Southeastern community, clinically classified according to their Color (white, black, or intermediate) with a multivariate evaluation based on skin pigmentation in the medial part of the arm, hair color and texture, and the shape of the nose and lips. In contrast to the clear-cut results with the African and European samples, our results showed large variances and extensive overlaps among the three Color categories. We next embarked on a study of 200 unrelated Brazilian white males who originated from cosmopolitan centers of the four major geographic regions of the country. The results showed AAI values intermediate between Europeans and Africans, even in southern Brazil, a region predominantly peopled by European immigrants. Our data suggest that in Brazil, at an individual level, color, as determined by physical evaluation, is a poor predictor of genomic African ancestry, estimated by molecular markers. PMID:12509516

  15. Indexing Consistency and Quality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zunde, Pranas; Dexter, Margaret E.

    A measure of indexing consistency is developed based on the concept of 'fuzzy sets'. It assigns a higher consistency value if indexers agree on the more important terms than if they agree on less important terms. Measures of the quality of an indexer's work and exhaustivity of indexing are also proposed. Experimental data on indexing consistency…

  16. Color constancy in Japanese animation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ichihara, Yasuyo G.

    2006-01-01

    In this study, we measure the colors used in a Japanese Animations. The result can be seen on CIE-xy color spaces. It clearly shows that the color system is not a natural appearance system but an imagined and artistic appearance system. Color constancy of human vision can tell the difference in skin and hair colors between under moonlight and day light. Human brain generates a match to the memorized color of an object from daylight viewing conditions to the color of the object in different viewing conditions. For example, Japanese people always perceive the color of the Rising Sun in the Japanese flag as red even in a different viewing condition such as under moonlight. Color images captured by a camera cannot present those human perceptions. However, Japanese colorists in Animation succeeded in painting the effects of color constancy not only under moonlight but also added the memory matching colors. They aim to create a greater impact on viewer's perceptions by using the effect of the memory matching colors. In this paper, we propose the Imagined Japanese Animation Color System. This system in art is currently a subject of research in Japan. Its importance is that it could also provide an explanation on how human brain perceives the same color under different viewing conditions.

  17. Stability of color-flavor-locking cores in hybrid stars

    SciTech Connect

    Pagliara, G.; Schaffner-Bielich, J.

    2008-03-15

    We study the equation of state strongly interacting quark matter within a Nambu-Jona-Lasinio-like model in which the chiral condensates and the color superconducting gaps are computed self-consistently as a function of the baryon density. A vector interaction term is added to the Lagrangian in order to render the quark matter equation of state stiffer. For the low density hadronic phase we use a relativistic mean field model. The phase transition to quark matter is computed by a Maxwell construction. We show that stable color-flavor-locking (CFL) cores in hybrid stars are possible if the superconducting gap is sufficiently large. Moreover we find stable stellar configurations in which two phase transitions occur, a first transition from hadronic matter to 2SC quark matter and a second transition from 2SC quark matter to CFL quark matter.

  18. An object-color space.

    PubMed

    Logvinenko, Alexander D

    2009-10-05

    Putting aside metaphorical meanings of the term, color space is understood as a vector space, where lights having the same color (i.e., subjectively indistinguishable) are represented as a point. The CIE 1931 color space, empirically based on trichromatic color measurements, is a classical example. Its derivatives, such as CIELAB and sRGB, have been successfully used in many applications (e.g., in color management). However, having been designed for presenting the color of self-luminous objects, these spaces are less suitable for presenting color of reflecting objects. Specifically, they can be used to represent color of objects only for a fixed illumination. Here I put forward a color space to represent the color of objects independently of illumination. It is based on an ideal color atlas comprising the reflectance spectra taking two values: k or 1 - k (0 < or = k < or = 1), with two transitions (at wavelengths lambda(1) and lambda(2)) across the spectrum. This color atlas is complete; that is, every reflecting object is metameric to some element of the atlas. When illumination alters, the classes of metameric reflectance spectra are reshuffled but in each class there is exactly one element of the atlas. Hence, the atlas can uniquely represent the metameric classes irrespective of illumination. Each element of the atlas (thus, object color) is specified by three numbers: (i) lambda = (lambda(1) + lambda(2))/2, which correlates well with hue of object color (as dominant wavelength correlates with hue of light color); (ii) delta =/lambda(1) - lambda/, which correlates with whiteness/blackness; and (iii) alpha =/1 - 2k/, which correlates with chroma of object color (as colorimetric purity correlates with saturation of light color). Using a geographical coordinate system, each element of the atlas (thus, each object color) is geometrically represented as a radius vector so that its length equals alpha, the latitude and longitude being proportional to delta and lambda

  19. Direct Visuo-Haptic 4D Volume Rendering Using Respiratory Motion Models.

    PubMed

    Fortmeier, Dirk; Wilms, Matthias; Mastmeyer, Andre; Handels, Heinz

    2015-01-01

    This article presents methods for direct visuo-haptic 4D volume rendering of virtual patient models under respiratory motion. Breathing models are computed based on patient-specific 4D CT image data sequences. Virtual patient models are visualized in real-time by ray casting based rendering of a reference CT image warped by a time-variant displacement field, which is computed using the motion models at run-time. Furthermore, haptic interaction with the animated virtual patient models is provided by using the displacements computed at high rendering rates to translate the position of the haptic device into the space of the reference CT image. This concept is applied to virtual palpation and the haptic simulation of insertion of a virtual bendable needle. To this aim, different motion models that are applicable in real-time are presented and the methods are integrated into a needle puncture training simulation framework, which can be used for simulated biopsy or vessel puncture in the liver. To confirm real-time applicability, a performance analysis of the resulting framework is given. It is shown that the presented methods achieve mean update rates around 2,000 Hz for haptic simulation and interactive frame rates for volume rendering and thus are well suited for visuo-haptic rendering of virtual patients under respiratory motion.

  20. Color Wheel Windows

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leonard, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a painting and drawing lesson which was inspired by the beautiful circular windows found in cathedrals and churches (also known as "rose windows"). This two-week lesson would reinforce both the concept of symmetry and students' understanding of the color wheel. (Contains 1 online resource.)