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Sample records for colorectal cancer meta-analysis

  1. Soy Consumption and Colorectal Cancer Risk in Humans: A Meta-Analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of the present study was to determine the relationship between soy consumption and colorectal cancer risk in humans by conducting a meta-analysis of available epidemiologic studies. We systematically reviewed publications obtained through a Medline literature search and identified four ...

  2. Passive Smoking and Risk of Colorectal Cancer: A Meta-analysis of Observational Studies.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chen; Wang, Xin; Huang, Chang-Hao; Yuan, Wei-Jie; Chen, Zi-Hua

    2016-07-01

    We conducted this meta-analysis to explore the association between passive smoking and the risk of colorectal cancer. A literature search of online databases, including MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, and Web of Science was performed up to June 30, 2015. A fixed-effects meta-analysis using Stata 12.0 was carried out to estimate the relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the associations. Eleven articles, including 6 case-control studies and 6 cohort studies, were included in our analysis according to inclusion and exclusion criteria. The pooled RR of all studies showed a statistically significant association between passive smoking and colorectal cancer (RR = 1.14; 95% CI = 1.05-1.24). Results of subgroup analysis showed a positive association between passive smoking and rectal cancer ((RR = 1.33; 95% CI = 1.15-1.53) and that male passive smokers were at greater risks of colorectal cancer (RR = 1.73; 95% CI = 1.37-2.19) than females. Results suggested that passive smoking is associated with an increased risk of colorectal cancer. PMID:27217428

  3. Soy consumption and colorectal cancer risk in humans: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Yan, Lin; Spitznagel, Edward L; Bosland, Maarten C

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine the relationship between soy consumption and colorectal cancer risk in humans by conducting a meta-analysis of available epidemiologic studies. We systematically reviewed publications obtained through a Medline literature search and identified four cohort and seven case-control studies on soy and colorectal cancer risk that met the inclusion criteria. We extracted the risk estimate (hazard ratio, relative risk, or odds ratio) of the highest and the lowest reported categories of intake from each study and conducted this analysis using a random-effects model. Our analysis did not find that soy consumption was associated with colorectal cancer risk [combined risk estimate, 0.90; 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 0.79-1.03] nor did the separate analyses on colon cancer (combined risk estimate, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.74-1.06) and rectal cancer (combined risk estimate, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.67-1.14). However, when separately analyzed on the basis of gender, we found that soy was associated with an approximately 21% reduction in colorectal cancer risk in women (combined risk estimate, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.65-0.97; P = 0.026), but not in men (combined risk estimate, 1.10; 95% CI, 0.90-1.33). Thus, consumption of soy foods may be associated with a reduction in colorectal cancer risk in women, but not in men.

  4. Novel Biomarker Candidates for Colorectal Cancer Metastasis: A Meta-analysis of In Vitro Studies

    PubMed Central

    Long, Nguyen Phuoc; Lee, Wun Jun; Huy, Nguyen Truong; Lee, Seul Ji; Park, Jeong Hill; Kwon, Sung Won

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common and lethal cancers. Although numerous studies have evaluated potential biomarkers for early diagnosis, current biomarkers have failed to reach an acceptable level of accuracy for distant metastasis. In this paper, we performed a gene set meta-analysis of in vitro microarray studies and combined the results from this study with previously published proteomic data to validate and suggest prognostic candidates for CRC metastasis. Two microarray data sets included found 21 significant genes. Of these significant genes, ALDOA, IL8 (CXCL8), and PARP4 had strong potential as prognostic candidates. LAMB2, MCM7, CXCL23A, SERPINA3, ABCA3, ALDH3A2, and POLR2I also have potential. Other candidates were more controversial, possibly because of the biologic heterogeneity of tumor cells, which is a major obstacle to predicting metastasis. In conclusion, we demonstrated a meta-analysis approach and successfully suggested ten biomarker candidates for future investigation.

  5. Circulating Resistin Levels and Risk of Colorectal Cancer: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Gui; Fan, Wei; Luo, Baohong; Xu, Zhigao; Wang, Ping; Tang, Shihui; Xu, Peipei

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. Published data on resistin levels in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) were conflicting and heterogeneous. We conducted a meta-analysis of observational studies to examine the association of circulating resistin levels with carcinogenesis of the CRC. Methods. Potentially eligible studies published up to November 2015 were searched through MEDLINE, EMBASE, Science Citation Index Expanded database, CNKI, and WanFang database. The pooled weighted mean differences (WMDs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) calculated by fixed- or random-effect model were used to estimate the effects. Results. A total of 11 studies involving 965 patients were admitted in our meta-analysis. The pooled effects indicated that resistin levels were higher in CRC patients compared to healthy controls (WMD: 1.47 ng/mL; 95% CI: 0.78 to 2.16), with significant heterogeneity across the studies (I2 = 72%, p < 0.0001). Subgroup analyses and sensitivity analyses revealed that study quality, design, sample type, and resistin assays may account for this heterogeneity. No publication bias was observed. Conclusions. Our meta-analysis suggests that increased circulating resistin levels are associated with greater risk of colorectal cancer. Given the limited number of available studies and significant heterogeneity, larger well-designed randomized studies are warranted.

  6. Circulating Resistin Levels and Risk of Colorectal Cancer: A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Gui; Fan, Wei; Luo, Baohong; Xu, Zhigao; Wang, Ping; Tang, Shihui; Xu, Peipei; Yu, Mingxia

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. Published data on resistin levels in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) were conflicting and heterogeneous. We conducted a meta-analysis of observational studies to examine the association of circulating resistin levels with carcinogenesis of the CRC. Methods. Potentially eligible studies published up to November 2015 were searched through MEDLINE, EMBASE, Science Citation Index Expanded database, CNKI, and WanFang database. The pooled weighted mean differences (WMDs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) calculated by fixed- or random-effect model were used to estimate the effects. Results. A total of 11 studies involving 965 patients were admitted in our meta-analysis. The pooled effects indicated that resistin levels were higher in CRC patients compared to healthy controls (WMD: 1.47 ng/mL; 95% CI: 0.78 to 2.16), with significant heterogeneity across the studies (I (2) = 72%, p < 0.0001). Subgroup analyses and sensitivity analyses revealed that study quality, design, sample type, and resistin assays may account for this heterogeneity. No publication bias was observed. Conclusions. Our meta-analysis suggests that increased circulating resistin levels are associated with greater risk of colorectal cancer. Given the limited number of available studies and significant heterogeneity, larger well-designed randomized studies are warranted. PMID:27642602

  7. Circulating Resistin Levels and Risk of Colorectal Cancer: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Gui; Fan, Wei; Luo, Baohong; Xu, Zhigao; Wang, Ping; Tang, Shihui; Xu, Peipei

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. Published data on resistin levels in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) were conflicting and heterogeneous. We conducted a meta-analysis of observational studies to examine the association of circulating resistin levels with carcinogenesis of the CRC. Methods. Potentially eligible studies published up to November 2015 were searched through MEDLINE, EMBASE, Science Citation Index Expanded database, CNKI, and WanFang database. The pooled weighted mean differences (WMDs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) calculated by fixed- or random-effect model were used to estimate the effects. Results. A total of 11 studies involving 965 patients were admitted in our meta-analysis. The pooled effects indicated that resistin levels were higher in CRC patients compared to healthy controls (WMD: 1.47 ng/mL; 95% CI: 0.78 to 2.16), with significant heterogeneity across the studies (I2 = 72%, p < 0.0001). Subgroup analyses and sensitivity analyses revealed that study quality, design, sample type, and resistin assays may account for this heterogeneity. No publication bias was observed. Conclusions. Our meta-analysis suggests that increased circulating resistin levels are associated with greater risk of colorectal cancer. Given the limited number of available studies and significant heterogeneity, larger well-designed randomized studies are warranted. PMID:27642602

  8. Meta-analysis of New Genome-wide Association Studies of Colorectal Cancer Risk

    PubMed Central

    Peters, Ulrike; Hutter, Carolyn M.; Hsu, Li; Schumacher, Fredrick R.; Conti, David V.; Carlson, Christopher S.; Edlund, Christopher K.; Haile, Robert W.; Gallinger, Steven; Zanke, Brent W.; Lemire, Mathieu; Rangrej, Jagadish; Vijayaraghavan, Raakhee; Chan, Andrew T.; Hazra, Aditi; Hunter, David J.; Ma, Jing; Fuchs, Charles S.; Giovannucci, Edward L.; Kraft, Peter; Liu, Yan; Chen, Lin; Jiao, Shuo; Makar, Karen W.; Taverna, Darin; Gruber, Stephen B.; Rennert, Gad; Moreno, Victor; Ulrich, Cornelia M.; Woods, Michael O.; Green, Roger C.; Parfrey, Patrick S.; Prentice, Ross L.; Kooperberg, Charles; Jackson, Rebecca D.; LaCroix, Andrea Z.; Caan, Bette J.; Hayes, Richard B.; Berndt, Sonja I.; Chanock, Stephen J.; Schoen, Robert E.; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Hoffmeister, Michael; Brenner, Hermann; Frank, Bernd; Bézieau, Stéphane; Küry, Sébastien; Slattery, Martha L.; Hopper, John L.; Jenkins, Mark A.; Le Marchand, Loic; Lindor, Noralane M.; Newcomb, Polly A.; Seminara, Daniela; Hudson, Thomas J.; Duggan, David J.; Potter, John D.; Casey, Graham

    2011-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is the second leading cause of cancer death in developed countries. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have successfully identified novel susceptibility loci for colorectal cancer. To follow-up on these findings, and try to identify novel colorectal cancer susceptibility loci, we present results for genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of colorectal cancer (2,906 cases, 3,416 controls) that have not previously published main associations. Specifically, we calculated odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using log-additive models for each study. In order to improve our power to detect novel colorectal cancer susceptibility loci, we performed a meta-analysis combining the results across studies. We selected the most statistically significant single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for replication using 10 independent studies (8,161 cases and 9,101 controls). We again used a meta-analysis to summarize results for the replication studies alone, and for a combined analysis of GWAS and replication studies. We measured 10 SNPs previously identified in colorectal cancer susceptibility loci and found eight to be associated with colorectal cancer (p-value range: 0.02 to 1.8 × 10−8). When we excluded studies that have previously published on these SNPs, five SNPs remained significant at p<0.05 in the combined analysis. No novel susceptibility loci were significant in the replication study after adjustment for multiple testing, and none reached genome-wide significance from a combined analysis of GWAS and replication. We observed marginally significant evidence for a second independent SNP in the BMP2 region at chromosomal location 20p12 (rs4813802; replication p-value 0.03; combined p-value 7.3 × 10−5). In a region on 5p33.15, which includes the coding regions of the TERT-CLPTM1L genes and has been identified in GWAS to be associated with susceptibility to at least seven other cancers, we observed a marginally significant

  9. Folic acid supplements and colorectal cancer risk: meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Tingting; Du, Mulong; Du, Haina; Shu, Yongqian; Wang, Meilin; Zhu, Lingjun

    2015-07-01

    Numerous studies have investigated the effects of folic acid supplementation on colorectal cancer risk, but conflicting results were reported. We herein performed a meta-analysis based on relevant studies to reach a more definitive conclusion. The PubMed and Embase databases were searched for quality randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published before October 2014. Eight articles met the inclusion criteria and were subsequently analyzed. The results suggested that folic acid treatment was not associated with colorectal cancer risk in the total population (relative risk [RR] = 1.00, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.82-1.22, P = 0.974). Moreover, no statistical effect was identified in further subgroup analyses stratified by ethnicity, gender, body mass index (BMI) and potential confounding factors. No significant heterogeneity or publication bias was observed. In conclusion, our meta-analysis demonstrated that folic acid supplementation had no effect on colorectal cancer risk. However, this finding must be validated by further large studies.

  10. Bevacizumab Combined with Chemotherapy Improves Survival for Patients with Metastatic Colorectal Cancer: Evidence from Meta Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Jankovic, Slobodan

    2016-01-01

    Background Colorectal cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer deaths in both sexes in the world. Improvement of existing therapy modalities and implementing new ones in order to improve survival of patients with colorectal cancer represents a great challenge for medicine. The aim of this paper was to assess the impact that adding bevacizumab to chemotherapy has on survival in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer, compared to the use of chemotherapy alone. Methods Hazard ratios (HRs) with their 95% confidence intervals (CI) were determined from the studies and pooled. Two-sided p values were reported and considered to indicate statistical significance if less than 0.05. Results A total of 12 studies that meet the inclusion criteria were identified in the literature search, 3 phase II studies and 9 phase III studies. Based on the random effects meta-analysis, a statistically significant improvement was identified for both overall survival (HR = 0.84; 95% CI: 0.74–0.94; p = 0.003) and progression free survival (HR = 0.64; 95% CI: 0.55–0.73; p<0.00001) in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer when bevacizumab was added to chemotherapy, compared to chemotherapy treatment alone. Conclusion The findings of this meta analysis confirm the benefit of adding bevacizumab to chemotherapy in terms of survival and progression free survival, but the magnitude of this effect is not consistent throughout the included studies. This suggests the need for further research of interaction of bevacizumab with chemotherapeutic agents as well as recognition of patients’ characteristics important for the treatment selection criteria. PMID:27579775

  11. A meta-analysis of MSI frequency and race in colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ashktorab, Hassan; Ahuja, Sadhna; Kannan, Lakshmi; Llor, Xavier; Ellis, Nathan A.; Xicola, Rosa M.; Laiyemo, Adeyinka O.; Carethers, John M.; Brim, Hassan; Nouraie, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE African Americans (AA) are at a higher risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) and some studies report a higher frequency of microsatellite instability (MSI) in this population while others report lower frequency compared to Caucasians. AIM To determine and evaluate the association of race and clinical factors with MSI frequency through meta- analysis. METHODS Twenty-two studies out of 15,105 (1997-2015) were evaluated after a search in different literature databases, using keywords “colorectal cancer, microsatellite instability, African Americans, Caucasians and Hispanics”. We used random effect meta-analysis to calculate the MSI frequency in all studies as well as in African American and Caucasian samples. Meta-regression analysis was used to assess the univariate effect of race, gender, age, tumor location and stage on MSI frequency. RESULTS The overall MSI frequency among CRCs was 17% (95%CI: 15%-19%, I²=91%). In studies with available race data, The MSI rate among AAs, Hispanics and Caucasians were 12%, 12% and 14% respectively and was not significantly different. Sub-group analysis of studies with racial information indicates MSI OR of 0.78 for AAs compared to Caucasians. CONCLUSION CRCs demonstrate an overall MSI frequency of 17%. MSI frequency differences between AAs and Caucasians were not pronounced, suggesting that other factors contribute to the racial disparity. The methodological approaches and biological sources of the variation seen in MSI frequency between different studies need to be further investigated. PMID:27120810

  12. Magnesium intake and risk of colorectal cancer: a meta-analysis of prospective studies.

    PubMed

    Chen, G-C; Pang, Z; Liu, Q-F

    2012-11-01

    Epidemiologic studies have suggested that magnesium intake may be associated with a decreased risk of colorectal cancer (CRC), but the findings have been inconsistent. We aimed to assess this association by conducting a meta-analysis of prospective studies. We performed a literature search on PubMed database through July 2012 to identify prospective studies of magnesium intake in relation to CRC risk. Reference lists of the retrieved articles were also reviewed. A random-effects model was used to compute the summary risk estimates. Eight prospective studies containing 338,979 participants and 8000 CRC cases met the inclusion criteria. The summary relative risk (RR) for the highest vs lowest category of magnesium intake for CRC was 0.89 (95% CI, 0.79-1.00), with little evidence of heterogeneity. Restricting the analysis to six studies that have adjusted for calcium intake yielded a similar result. For colon and rectal cancer, the pooled RR was 0.81 (95% CI, 0.70-0.93) and 0.94 (95% CI, 0.72-1.24), respectively. In the dose-response analyses, the summary RRs for an increment of magnesium intake of 50 mg/day for colorectal, colon and rectal cancer were, respectively, 0.95 (95% CI, 0.89-1.00), 0.93 (95% CI, 0.88-0.99) and 0.93 (95% CI, 0.83-1.04), and there was some evidence of heterogeneity; omitting one study that substantially contributed to the heterogeneity yielded generally similar results, but with low heterogeneity. We detected no indication of publication bias. On the basis of the findings of this meta-analysis, a higher magnesium intake seems to be associated with a modest reduction in the risk of CRC, in particular, colon cancer.

  13. A meta-analysis including dose-response relationship between night shift work and the risk of colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao; Ji, Alin; Zhu, Yi; Liang, Zhen; Wu, Jian; Li, Shiqi; Meng, Shuai; Zheng, Xiangyi; Xie, Liping

    2015-09-22

    A meta-analysis was conducted to quantitatively evaluate the correlation between night shift work and the risk of colorectal cancer. We searched for publications up to March 2015 using PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, EMBASE and the Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure databases, and the references of the retrieved articles and relevant reviews were also checked. OR and 95% CI were used to assess the degree of the correlation between night shift work and risk of colorectal cancer via fixed- or random-effect models. A dose-response meta-analysis was performed as well. The pooled OR estimates of the included studies illustrated that night shift work was correlated with an increased risk of colorectal cancer (OR = 1.318, 95% CI 1.121-1.551). No evidence of publication bias was detected. In the dose-response analysis, the rate of colorectal cancer increased by 11% for every 5 years increased in night shift work (OR = 1.11, 95% CI 1.03-1.20). In conclusion, this meta-analysis indicated that night shift work was associated with an increased risk of colorectal cancer. Further researches should be conducted to confirm our findings and clarify the potential biological mechanisms.

  14. Novel Biomarker Candidates for Colorectal Cancer Metastasis: A Meta-analysis of In Vitro Studies.

    PubMed

    Long, Nguyen Phuoc; Lee, Wun Jun; Huy, Nguyen Truong; Lee, Seul Ji; Park, Jeong Hill; Kwon, Sung Won

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common and lethal cancers. Although numerous studies have evaluated potential biomarkers for early diagnosis, current biomarkers have failed to reach an acceptable level of accuracy for distant metastasis. In this paper, we performed a gene set meta-analysis of in vitro microarray studies and combined the results from this study with previously published proteomic data to validate and suggest prognostic candidates for CRC metastasis. Two microarray data sets included found 21 significant genes. Of these significant genes, ALDOA, IL8 (CXCL8), and PARP4 had strong potential as prognostic candidates. LAMB2, MCM7, CXCL23A, SERPINA3, ABCA3, ALDH3A2, and POLR2I also have potential. Other candidates were more controversial, possibly because of the biologic heterogeneity of tumor cells, which is a major obstacle to predicting metastasis. In conclusion, we demonstrated a meta-analysis approach and successfully suggested ten biomarker candidates for future investigation. PMID:27688707

  15. Novel Biomarker Candidates for Colorectal Cancer Metastasis: A Meta-analysis of In Vitro Studies

    PubMed Central

    Long, Nguyen Phuoc; Lee, Wun Jun; Huy, Nguyen Truong; Lee, Seul Ji; Park, Jeong Hill; Kwon, Sung Won

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common and lethal cancers. Although numerous studies have evaluated potential biomarkers for early diagnosis, current biomarkers have failed to reach an acceptable level of accuracy for distant metastasis. In this paper, we performed a gene set meta-analysis of in vitro microarray studies and combined the results from this study with previously published proteomic data to validate and suggest prognostic candidates for CRC metastasis. Two microarray data sets included found 21 significant genes. Of these significant genes, ALDOA, IL8 (CXCL8), and PARP4 had strong potential as prognostic candidates. LAMB2, MCM7, CXCL23A, SERPINA3, ABCA3, ALDH3A2, and POLR2I also have potential. Other candidates were more controversial, possibly because of the biologic heterogeneity of tumor cells, which is a major obstacle to predicting metastasis. In conclusion, we demonstrated a meta-analysis approach and successfully suggested ten biomarker candidates for future investigation. PMID:27688707

  16. The effectiveness of FOBT vs. FIT: A meta-analysis on colorectal cancer screening test

    PubMed Central

    Mousavinezhad, Maryam; Majdzadeh, Reza; Akbari Sari, Ali; Delavari, Alireza; Mohtasham, Farideh

    2016-01-01

    Background: After lung and prostate cancers, colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer in men and the second most common cancer in women after breast cancer worldwide. Every year, more than one million people are diagnosed with colorectal cancer worldwide and half of these patients die from this disease, making it the fourth leading cause of death in the world. This systematic review aimed to assess the effectiveness of the two colorectal diagnostic tests of FOBT (fecal occult blood test) and FIT (fecal immunochemical test)) in terms of technical performance. Methods: To retrieve the relevant evidence, appropriate medical databases such as Cochrane library, NHSEED, Scopus and Google scholar were searched from February 2013 to July 2014, using free-texts and Mesh. In this study, inclusion/exclusion criteria of the papers, randomized controlled trials, economic evaluations, systematic reviews, meta-analyses and meta-syntheses of the effectiveness of FIT versus FOBT tests in moderate-risk populations (age: 50 to 70 years), which had reported the least of such outcomes as sensitivity, specificity and clinical outcomes were reviewed. The analyses of the effectiveness outcomes were performed in the form of meta-analysis. Results: Five papers were eligible to be included in the final phase of the study for synthesis. FIT showed a better performance in participation and positivity rate. Moreover, in terms of false positive and negative rate, FIT showed fewer rates compared to FOBT (RR:-4.06; 95% CI (-7.89-0.24), and NN-scope (Number need to scope) (2.2% vs. 1.6%), and NN-screen (Number need to screen) (84% vs. 31-49% in different cut off levels) showed significant differences in FOBT vs. FIT, respectively. Conclusion: In the five included studies (3, 11-14), the acceptability of FIT was more than FOBT. However, in our meta-analysis, no difference was found between the two tests. FIT was significant in positivity rate and had a better performance in

  17. Smoking and survival of colorectal cancer patients: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Walter, V; Jansen, L; Hoffmeister, M; Brenner, H

    2014-08-01

    Smoking is a risk factor for colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence and mortality. However, little is known on smoking and its association with survival after CRC diagnosis. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to summarize current evidence. A systematic literature search was carried out in MEDLINE and ISI Web of Science. We included studies that analyzed recurrence-free survival, disease-free survival, all-cause, and CRC-specific mortality according to smoking status. Data were extracted in duplicate. Standard methods of meta-analysis were applied. Sixteen studies from 11 countries were identified, comprising a total sample size of 62 278 CRC patients. Overall, in the 16 included studies, current smoking and, to a lesser extent, former smoking were rather consistently associated with a poorer prognosis compared with never smokers. Meta-analyses yielded random-effects hazard ratio estimates (95% confidence intervals) for all-cause mortality of 1.26 (1.15-1.37) and 1.11 (0.93-1.33) for current and former smokers, compared with never smokers, respectively. In particular, 30-day mortality was found to be increased by between 49% and 100% among current compared with never smokers. Our results support the existence of detrimental effects of smoking on survival also after CRC diagnosis. Perspectives for enhancing prognosis of CRC patients by smoking abstinence deserve increased attention in further research and clinical practice.

  18. The Prognostic Value of Circulating Cell-Free DNA in Colorectal Cancer: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Basnet, Shiva; Zhang, Zhen-yu; Liao, Wen-qiang; Li, Shu-heng; Li, Ping-shu; Ge, Hai-yan

    2016-01-01

    Background: Circulating cell-free DNA (cfDNA) is a promising candidate biomarker for detection, monitoring and survival prediction of colorectal cancer (CRC). However, its prognostic significance for patients with CRC remains controversial. To derive a precise estimation of the prognostic significance of cfDNA, a meta-analysis was performed. Methods: We made a systematic search in data base of the Science Citation Index Embase and Pubmed for studies reporting prognostic data of cfDNA in CRC patients. The data of cfDNA on recurrences-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS) were extracted and measured in hazard rates (HRs) and 95% confident intervals (CIs). Subgroup analyses were carried out as well. Finally, the meta-analysis is accompanied with nine studies including 19 subunits. Results: The pooled HRs with 95% CIs revealed strong associations between cfDNA and RFS (HR [95%CI]=2.78[2.08-3.72], I2=32.23%, n=7) along with OS (HR [95%CI]=3.03[2.51-3.66], I2=29.24%, n=12) in patients with CRC. Entire subgroup analyses indicated strong prognostic value of cfDNA irrespective tumor stage, study size, tumor markers, detection methods and marker origin. Conclusions: All the results exhibits that appearance of cfDNA in blood is an indicator for adverse RFS and OS in CRC patients. PMID:27326254

  19. Meta-Analysis of Mismatch Repair Polymorphisms within the Cogent Consortium for Colorectal Cancer Susceptibility

    PubMed Central

    Chang-Claude, Jenny; Hoffmeister, Michael; Fernández-Rozadilla, Ceres; Carracedo, Angel; Castells, Antoni; Castellví-Bel, Sergi; Juan, Diego Morillas; Raquel, Muñoz; Marisa, Manzano; Francisco, Colina; Jose, Díaz; Carolina, Ibarrola; Guadalupe, López; Alberto, Ibáñez; Antoni, Castells; Virgínia, Piñol; Sergi, Castellví-Bel; Francesc, Balaguer; Victoria, Gonzalo; Teresa, Ocaña; María Dolores, Giráldez; Maria, Pellisé; Anna, Serradesanferm; Leticia, Moreira; Miriam, Cuatrecasas; Josep, M. Piqué; Ángel, Lanas; Javier, Alcedo; Javier, Ortego; Joaquin, Cubiella; Ma, Soledad Díez; Mercedes, Salgado; Eloy, Sánchez; Mariano, Vega; Montserrat, Andreu; Anna, Abuli; Xavier, Bessa; Mar, Iglesias; Agustín, Seoane; Felipe, Bory; Gemma, Navarro; Beatriz, Bellosillo; Josep, Ma Dedeu; Cristina, Álvarez; Marc, Puigvehí; Luis, Bujanda; Ángel, Cosme; Inés, Gil; Mikel, Larzabal; Carlos, Placer; María, del Mar Ramírez; Elisabeth, Hijona; Jose, M. Enríquez-Navascués; Jose, L. Elosegui; Artemio, Payá; Rodrigo, Jover; Cristina, Alenda; Laura, Sempere; Nuria, Acame; Estefanía, Rojas; Lucía, Pérez-Carbonell; Joaquim, Rigau; Ángel, Serrano; Anna, Giménez; Joan, Saló; Eduard, Batiste-Alentorn; Josefina, Autonell; Ramon, Barniol; Ana, María García; Fernando, Carballo; Antonio, Bienvenido; Eduardo, Sanz; Fernando, González; Jaime, Sánchez; Akiko, Ono; Mercedes, Latorre; Enrique, Medina; Jaime, Cuquerella; Pilar, Canelles; Miguel, Martorell; José, Ángel García; Francisco, Quiles; Elisa, Orti; Juan, Clofent; Jaime, Seoane; Antoni, Tardío; Eugenia, Sanchez; Ma, Luisa de Castro; Antoni, Tardío; Juan, Clofent; Vicent, Hernández; Xavier, Llor; Rosa, M. Xicola; Marta, Piñol; Mercè, Rosinach; Anna, Roca; Elisenda, Pons; José, M. Hernández; Miquel, A. Gassull; Fernando, Fernández-Bañares; Josep, M. Viver; Antonio, Salas; Jorge, Espinós; Montserrat, Forné; Maria, Esteve; Josep, M. Reñé; Carmen, Piñol; Juan, Buenestado; Joan, Viñas; Enrique, Quintero; David, Nicolás; Adolfo, Parra; Antonio, Martín; Lidia, Argüello; Vicente, Pons; Virginia, Pertejo; Teresa, Sala; Dolors, Gonzalez; Eva, Roman; Teresa, Ramon; Maria, Poca; Ma, Mar Concepción; Marta, Martin; Lourdes, Pétriz; Daniel, Martinez; Ángel, Carracedo; Clara, Ruiz-Ponte; Ceres, Fernández-Rozadilla; Ma, Magdalena Castro; Sabino, Riestra; Luis, Rodrigo; Javier, Fernández; Jose, Luis Cabriada; Luis, Carreño; Susana, Oquiñena; Federico, Bolado; Elena, Peña; José, Manuel Blas; Gloria, Ceña; Juan, José Sebastián; Antonio, Naranjo; Naccarati, Alessio; Pardini, Barbara; Vodickova, Ludmila; Müller, Heiko; Talseth-Palmer, Bente A.; Stibbard, Geoffrey; Peterlongo, Paolo; Nici, Carmela; Veneroni, Silvia; Li, Li; Casey, Graham; Tenesa, Albert; Farrington, Susan M.; Tomlinson, Ian; Moreno, Victor; van Wezel, Tom; Wijnen, Juul; Dunlop, Malcolm; Radice, Paolo; Scott, Rodney J.; Vodicka, Pavel; Ruiz-Ponte, Clara; Brenner, Hermann; Buch, Stephan; Völzke, Henry; Hampe, Jochen; Schafmayer, Clemens; Lindblom, Annika

    2013-01-01

    In the last four years, Genome-Wide Association Studies (GWAS) have identified sixteen low-penetrance polymorphisms on fourteen different loci associated with colorectal cancer (CRC). Due to the low risks conferred by known common variants, most of the 35% broad-sense heritability estimated by twin studies remains unexplained. Recently our group performed a case-control study for eight Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) in 4 CRC genes. The present investigation is a follow-up of that study. We have genotyped six SNPs that showed a positive association and carried out a meta-analysis based on eight additional studies comprising in total more than 8000 cases and 6000 controls. The estimated recessive odds ratio for one of the SNPs, rs3219489 (MUTYH Q338H), decreased from 1.52 in the original Swedish study, to 1.18 in the Swedish replication, and to 1.08 in the initial meta-analysis. Since the corresponding summary probability value was 0.06, we decided to retrieve additional information for this polymorphism. The incorporation of six further studies resulted in around 13000 cases and 13000 controls. The newly updated OR was 1.03. The results from the present large, multicenter study illustrate the possibility of decreasing effect sizes with increasing samples sizes. Phenotypic heterogeneity, differential environmental exposures, and population specific linkage disequilibrium patterns may explain the observed difference of genetic effects between Sweden and the other investigated cohorts. PMID:24039736

  20. The risk of colorectal cancer in ulcerative colitis: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Eaden, J; Abrams, K; Mayberry, J

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS—Controversy surrounds the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) in ulcerative colitis (UC). Many studies have investigated this risk and reported widely varying rates.
METHODS—A literature search using Medline with the explosion of references identified 194 studies. Of these, 116 met our inclusion criteria from which the number of patients and cancers detected could be extracted. Overall pooled estimates, with 95% confidence intervals (CI), of cancer prevalence and incidence were obtained using a random effects model on either the log odds or log incidence scale, as appropriate.
RESULTS—The overall prevalence of CRC in any UC patient, based on 116 studies, was estimated to be 3.7% (95% CI 3.2-4.2%). Of the 116 studies, 41 reported colitis duration. From these the overall incidence rate was 3/1000 person years duration (pyd), (95% CI 2/1000 to 4/1000). The overall incidence rate for any child was 6/1000 pyd (95% CI 3/1000 to 13/1000). Of the 41 studies, 19 reported results stratified into 10 year intervals of disease duration. For the first 10 years the incidence rate was 2/1000 pyd (95% CI 1/1000 to 2/1000), for the second decade the incidence rate was estimated to be 7/1000 pyd (95% CI 4/1000 to 12/1000), and in the third decade the incidence rate was 12/1000 pyd (95% CI 7/1000 to 19/1000). These incidence rates corresponded to cumulative probabilities of 2% by 10 years, 8% by 20 years, and 18% by 30 years. The worldwide cancer incidence rates varied geographically, being 5/1000 pyd in the USA, 4/1000 pyd in the UK, and 2/1000 pyd in Scandinavia and other countries. Over time the cancer risk has increased since 1955 but this finding was not significant (p=0.8).
CONCLUSIONS—Using new meta-analysis techniques we determined the risk of CRC in UC by decade of disease and defined the risk in pancolitics and children. We found a non-significant increase in risk over time and estimated how risk varies with geography

  1. Cruciferous vegetables intake and the risk of colorectal cancer: a meta-analysis of observational studies

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Q. J.; Yang, Y.; Vogtmann, E.; Wang, J.; Han, L. H.; Li, H. L.; Xiang, Y. B.

    2013-01-01

    Background Epidemiological studies have reported inconsistent associations between cruciferous vegetable (CV) intake and colorectal cancer (CRC) risk. To our knowledge, a comprehensive and quantitative assessment of the association between CV intake and CRC has not been reported. Methods Relevant articles were identified by searching MEDLINE. We pooled the relative risks (RR) from individual studies using a random-effect model and carried out heterogeneity and publication bias analyses. Results Twenty-four case–control and 11 prospective studies were included in our analysis. When all studies were pooled, we yielded a significantly inverse association between CV (RR: 0.82; 95% confidence interval 0.75–0.90) intake and CRC risk. Specific analysis for cabbage and broccoli yielded similar result. When separately analyzed, case–control studies of CV intake yield similar results, and the results from the prospective studies showed borderline statistical significance. Moreover, significant inverse associations were also observed in colon cancer and its distal subsite both among prospective and case–control studies. Conclusions Findings from this meta-analysis provide evidence that high intake of CV was inversely associated with the risk of CRC and colon cancer in humans. Further analysis on other specific CV, food preparation methods, stratified results by anatomic cancer site, and subsite of colon cancer should be extended in future study. PMID:23211939

  2. Soy isoflavone consumption and colorectal cancer risk: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yi; Jing, Xiaoli; Li, Hui; Zhao, Xiang; Wang, Dongping

    2016-05-12

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most predominant solid carcinomas in Western countries. However, there is conflicting information on the effects of soy isoflavone on CRC risk. Therefore, we performed a meta-analysis to assess the association between soy isoflavone consumption and CRC risk in humans using PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library databases. A total of 17 epidemiologic studies, which consisted of thirteen case-control and four prospective cohort studies, met the inclusion criteria. Our research findings revealed that soy isoflavone consumption reduced CRC risk (relative risk, RR: 0.78, 95% CI: 0.72-0.85; I(2) = 34.1%, P = 0.024). Based on subgroup analyses, a significant protective effect was observed with soy foods/products (RR: 0.79; 95% CI: 0.69-0.89), in Asian populations (RR: 0.79; 95% CI: 0.72-0.87), and in case-control studies (RR: 0.76; 95% CI: 0.68-0.84). Therefore, soy isoflavone consumption was significantly associated with a reduced risk of CRC risk, particularly with soy foods/products, in Asian populations, and in case-control studies. However, due to the limited number of studies, other factors may affect this association.

  3. A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Diagnostic and Prognostic Serum Biomarkers of Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhongyu; Zhang, Yingchong; Niu, Yulong; Li, Ke; Liu, Xin; Chen, Huijuan; Gao, Chunfang

    2014-01-01

    Background Our systematic review summarizes the evidence concerning the accuracy of serum diagnostic and prognostic tests for colorectal cancer (CRC). Methods The databases MEDLINE and EMBASE were searched iteratively to identify the relevant literature for serum markers of CRC published from 1950 to August 2012. The articles that provided adequate information to meet the requirements of the meta-analysis of diagnostic and prognostic markers were included. A 2-by-2 table of each diagnostic marker and its hazard ratio (HR) and the confidence interval (CI) of each prognostic marker was directly or indirectly extracted from the included papers, and the pooled sensitivity and specificity of the diagnostic marker and the pooled HR and the CI of the prognostic marker were subsequently calculated using the extracted data. Results In total, 104 papers related to the diagnostic markers and 49 papers related to the prognostic serum markers of CRC were collected, and only 19 of 92 diagnostic markers were investigated in more than two studies, whereas 21 out of 44 prognostic markers were included in two or more studies. All of the pooled sensitivities of the diagnostic markers with > = 3 repetitions were less than 50%, and the meta-analyses of the prognostic markers with more than 3 studies were performed, VEGF with highest (2.245, CI: 1.347–3.744) and MMP-7 with lowest (1.099, CI: 1.018–1.187)) pooled HRs are presented. Conclusions The quality of studies addressing the diagnostic and prognostic accuracy of the tests was poor, and the results were highly heterogeneous. The poor characteristics indicate that these tests are of little value for clinical practice. PMID:25105762

  4. 5-HTTLPR and use of antidepressants after colorectal cancer including a meta-analysis of 5-HTTLPR and depression after cancer

    PubMed Central

    Suppli, N P; Bukh, J D; Moffitt, T E; Caspi, A; Johansen, C; Albieri, V; Tjønneland, A; Kessing, L V; Dalton, S O

    2015-01-01

    The serotonin-transporter-linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) is one of the most extensively investigated candidates to be involved in gene–environment interaction associated with depression. Nevertheless, the interaction remains controversial. In an original study, we tested the hypothesis that risk for use of antidepressants following a diagnosis of colorectal cancer is associated with bi- and triallelic genotypes of 5-HTTLPR. In addition, in an inclusive meta-analysis, we tested the hypothesis that depression following a diagnosis of cancer is associated with biallelic 5-HTTLPR genotype. We created an exposed-only cohort of 849 colorectal cancer patients from the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health cohort study. The hypothesized association was investigated with Cox regression models and competing risk analyses. Five studies comprising a total of 1484 cancer patients were included in the meta-analysis. Nationwide registries provided information on dates of diagnosis of colorectal cancer and use of antidepressants. Unadjusted odds ratios of depression according to the biallelic 5-HTTLPR genotype were included in the meta-analysis. 5-HTTLPR genotypes were not associated with use of antidepressants after colorectal cancer. Estimated hazard ratios ranged 0.92–1.08, and we observed no statistically significant associations across biallelic and triallelic genotypes in crude as well as adjusted models. The meta-analysis showed no statistically significant associations of 5-HTTLPR biallelic genotype with depression after cancer. Our findings in an original study and a meta-analysis do not support the hypothesis of an association between the 5-HTTLPR genotype and depression after cancer. PMID:26327689

  5. A Comprehensive Meta-Analysis of MicroRNAs for Predicting Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Lin; Zhao, Wenhua; Yu, Haihua; Wang, Yansen; Liu, Yuanshui; Xie, Chao

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Colorectal cancer (CRC) has been defined as a common malignancy due to its prevailing incidence in both males and females. Recently, the intrinsic value of microRNAs (miRNAs) with respect to early cancer diagnosis has been contentious as the diagnostic accuracy of miRNAs significantly varied across different studies. As a result of this, this pioneer meta-analysis was proposed to address this issue. Qualified studies were obtained through electronic systematical searching in Medline, Embase, and PubMed. On the basis of the random-effects model, we calculated the pooled sensitivity (SEN), specificity (SPE), and area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (AUC) to assess the diagnostic accuracy of miRNAs. Subgroup analysis and meta-regression were implemented to determine how different confounding factors affect the overall diagnostic accuracy which were considered important sources of heterogeneity. All the statistical analyses were conducted with R 3.2.1 software. We incorporated 103 studies from 36 articles with a total of 3124 CRC patients and 2579 healthy individuals. MiRNAs have a good performance with the following pooled estimates: SEN = 0.769 (95% CI = 0.733–0.802), SPE = 0.806 (95% CI = 0.781–0.829), AUC = 0.857, and partial AUC = 0.773. As suggested by subgroup analyses and meta-regression, multiple miRNAs appeared to be more favorable than single miRNA (AUC: 0.918 > 0.813, partial AUC: 0.848 > 0.701, sensitivity = 0.853 > 0.718, specificity = 0.860 > 0.772). Compared with samples of plasma, blood, tissue, and feces, miRNA obtained from serum samples were more powerful for detecting CRC particularly in Asian. Our study provided exclusive evidence that multiple miRNAs extracted from serum samples had superior diagnostic performance over single miRNA for screening CRC. Therefore, this approach that is characterized by high specificity and noninvasive nature may assist in early diagnosis of CRC

  6. Effectiveness and safety of monoclonal antibodies for metastatic colorectal cancer treatment: systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Rosa, Bruno; de Jesus, Jose Paulo; de Mello, Eduardo L; Cesar, Daniel; Correia, Mauro M

    2015-01-01

    Background The effectiveness of chemotherapy (CT) for select cases of metastatic colorectal cancer (MCRC) has been well established in the literature, however, it provides limited benefits and in many cases constitutes a treatment with high toxicity. The use of specific molecular biological treatments with monoclonal antibodies (MA) has been shown to be relevant, particularly for its potential for increasing the response rate of the host to the tumour, as these have molecular targets present in the cancerous cells and their microenvironment thereby blocking their development. The combination of MA and CT can bring a significant increase in the rate of resectability of metastases, the progression-free survival (PFS), and the global survival (GS) in MCRC patients. Objective To assess the effectiveness and safety of MA in the treatment of MCRC. Methods A systematic review was carried out with a meta-analysis of randomised clinical trials comparing the use of cetuximab, bevacizumab, and panitumumab in the treatment of MCRC. Results Sixteen randomised clinical trials were selected. The quality of the evidence on the question was considered moderate and data from eight randomised clinical trials were included in this meta-analysis. The GS and PFS were greater in the groups which received the MA associated with CT, however, the differences were not statistically significant between the groups (mean of 17.7 months versus 17.1 months; mean difference of 1.09 (CI: 0.10–2.07); p = 0.84; and 7.4 versus 6.9 months. mean difference of 0.76 (CI: 0.08–1.44); p = 0.14 respectively). The meta-analysis was not done for any of the secondary outcomes. Conclusion The addition of MA to CT for patients with metastatic colorectal cancer does not prolong GS and PFS. PMID:26557880

  7. The Role of p-STAT3 as a Prognostic and Clinicopathological Marker in Colorectal Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Qi; Gan, Yong; Ren, Hui; Zhang, Liyan; Wang, Liwei; Li, Xiaoxiu; Wang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Objective High expression of phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (p-STAT3) has been detected in a variety of human tumors. However, the association of positive p-STAT3 expression with clinicopathological parameters and the prognosis of colorectal cancer patients remain controversial. To identify the relationship between p-STAT3 expression and clinicopathological parameters and prognosis in patients with colorectal cancer, a systematic review and meta-analysis were performed. Methods We performed a comprehensive literature search from PubMed, EMBASE, and SinoMed through 27 March, 2016. Hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were combined to evaluate the association between p-STAT3 expression and overall survival of colorectal cancer patients. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% CI were combined to evaluate the association between p-STAT3 expression and clinicopathological parameters in patients with colorectal cancer. Results Seventeen studies including a total of 2,346 colorectal cancer patients were included in this meta-analysis. The combined HR was 1.43 (95% CI: 1.23–1.67, P < 0.001), which suggested a positive relationship between p-STAT3 overexpression and poorer overall survival of colorectal cancer patients. In addition, the results indicated that positive p-STAT3 expression was significantly associated with the presence of lymph node metastasis (OR: 2.43, 95% CI: 1.18–5.01, P = 0.02) but was not associated with TNM stage, tumor differentiation or gender. Conclusion The meta-analysis results suggest that p-STAT3 overexpression is unfavorable for the prognosis of colorectal cancer patients, and p-STAT3 overexpression is associated with the presence of lymph node metastasis among colorectal cancer patients. PMID:27504822

  8. Meta-analysis of chemotherapy with irinotecan or oxaliplatin-involved regimen for untreated metastatic advanced colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Luhong; Bai, Jianling; Huang, Huaying; Tang, Cuiju; Yang, Jinsong; Zhou, Baoning; Gong, Yongling; Duanmu, Zhong; Chen, Jinfei

    2010-01-01

    A large number of randomized controlled trials involving chemotherapy in the management of advanced colorectal cancer were conducted. 5-FU/LV in combination with irinotecan (IRI) or oxaliplatin (OXA) was used. The aim of the meta-analysis was to compare and evaluate the effectiveness and safety of the two therapeutic approaches for patients with advanced colorectal cancer. A literature search, study selection and assessment, data collection, and analysis were undertaken by two reviewers according to the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) or quasi-RCTs comparing IRI versus OXA, in combination with 5-FU/LV in the treatment of advanced colorectal cancer were performed. Seven studies involving 2,107 patients met the inclusion criteria. The OXA + 5-FU/LV regimen showed a significant increase in survival by lower hazard ratios (HR) [HR 1.28; 95% CI (1.13-1.45)] and was associated with lower toxicities. The OXA + 5-FU/LV regimen was superior or equal to the IRI + 5-FU/LV regimen in prolonging time to progression and median survival. The IRI + 5-FU/LV regimen resulted in higher hazard ratios in nausea vomiting/emesis and diarrhea [HR 1.99, 95% CI (1.19-3.31); HR 1.83, 95% CI (1.38-2.44)] and lower hazard ratios in paresthesia, sensory neuropathy, and thrombocytopenia [HR 0.09, 95% CI (0.03-0.23); HR 0.04 95% CI (0.01-0.13); HR 0.19 95% CI (0.05-0.64)] than the OXA + 5-FU/LV regimen. Compared with IRI, OXA is more appropriate for the treatment of advanced colorectal cancer when combined with 5-FU/LV. OXA + 5-FU/LV should be considered as the first-line standard of care for advanced CRC patients.

  9. Expert Opinion on Laparoscopic Surgery for Colorectal Cancer Parallels Evidence from a Cumulative Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Martel, Guillaume; Crawford, Alyson; Barkun, Jeffrey S.; Boushey, Robin P.; Ramsay, Craig R.; Fergusson, Dean A.

    2012-01-01

    Background This study sought to synthesize survival outcomes from trials of laparoscopic and open colorectal cancer surgery, and to determine whether expert acceptance of this technology in the literature has parallel cumulative survival evidence. Study Design A systematic review of randomized trials was conducted. The primary outcome was survival, and meta-analysis of time-to-event data was conducted. Expert opinion in the literature (published reviews, guidelines, and textbook chapters) on the acceptability of laparoscopic colorectal cancer was graded using a 7-point scale. Pooled survival data were correlated in time with accumulating expert opinion scores. Results A total of 5,800 citations were screened. Of these, 39 publications pertaining to 23 individual trials were retained. As well, 414 reviews were included (28 guidelines, 30 textbook chapters, 20 systematic reviews, 336 narrative reviews). In total, 5,782 patients were randomized to laparoscopic (n = 3,031) and open (n = 2,751) colorectal surgery. Survival data were presented in 16 publications. Laparoscopic surgery was not inferior to open surgery in terms of overall survival (HR = 0.94, 95% CI 0.80, 1.09). Expert opinion in the literature pertaining to the oncologic acceptability of laparoscopic surgery for colon cancer correlated most closely with the publication of large RCTs in 2002–2004. Although increasingly accepted since 2006, laparoscopic surgery for rectal cancer remained controversial. Conclusions Laparoscopic surgery for colon cancer is non-inferior to open surgery in terms of overall survival, and has been so since 2004. The majority expert opinion in the literature has considered these two techniques to be equivalent since 2002–2004. Laparoscopic surgery for rectal cancer has been increasingly accepted since 2006, but remains controversial. Knowledge translation efforts in this field appear to have paralleled the accumulation of clinical trial evidence. PMID:22532846

  10. Treatment with Antiangiogenic Drugs in Multiple Lines in Patients with Metastatic Colorectal Cancer: Meta-Analysis of Randomized Trials.

    PubMed

    Hofheinz, R-D; Ronellenfitsch, U; Kubicka, S; Falcone, A; Burkholder, I; Hacker, U T

    2016-01-01

    Background. In metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC), continuing antiangiogenic drugs beyond progression might provide clinical benefit. We synthesized the available evidence in a meta-analysis. Patients and Methods. We conducted a meta-analysis of studies investigating the use of antiangiogenic drugs beyond progression. Eligible studies were randomized phase II/III trials. Primary endpoints were overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS). Secondary endpoints were the impact of continuing antiangiogenic drugs (i) in subgroups, (ii) in different types of compounds targeting the VEGF-axis (monoclonal antibodies versus tyrosine kinase inhibitors), and (iii) on remission rates and prevention of progression. Results. Eight studies (3,668 patients) were included. Continuing antiangiogenic treatment beyond progression significantly improved PFS (HR 0.64; 95%-CI, 0.55-0.75) and OS (HR 0.83; 95%-CI, 0.76-0.89). PFS was significantly improved in all subgroups with comparable HR. OS was improved in all subgroups stratified by age, gender, and ECOG status. The rate of patients achieving at least stable disease was improved with an OR of 2.25 (95%-CI, 1.41-3.58). Conclusions. This analysis shows a significant PFS and OS benefit as well as a benefit regarding disease stabilization when using antiangiogenic drugs beyond progression in mCRC. Future studies should focus on the optimal sequence of administering antiangiogenic drugs. PMID:27656206

  11. Treatment with Antiangiogenic Drugs in Multiple Lines in Patients with Metastatic Colorectal Cancer: Meta-Analysis of Randomized Trials

    PubMed Central

    Kubicka, S.; Falcone, A.; Burkholder, I.; Hacker, U. T.

    2016-01-01

    Background. In metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC), continuing antiangiogenic drugs beyond progression might provide clinical benefit. We synthesized the available evidence in a meta-analysis. Patients and Methods. We conducted a meta-analysis of studies investigating the use of antiangiogenic drugs beyond progression. Eligible studies were randomized phase II/III trials. Primary endpoints were overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS). Secondary endpoints were the impact of continuing antiangiogenic drugs (i) in subgroups, (ii) in different types of compounds targeting the VEGF-axis (monoclonal antibodies versus tyrosine kinase inhibitors), and (iii) on remission rates and prevention of progression. Results. Eight studies (3,668 patients) were included. Continuing antiangiogenic treatment beyond progression significantly improved PFS (HR 0.64; 95%-CI, 0.55–0.75) and OS (HR 0.83; 95%-CI, 0.76–0.89). PFS was significantly improved in all subgroups with comparable HR. OS was improved in all subgroups stratified by age, gender, and ECOG status. The rate of patients achieving at least stable disease was improved with an OR of 2.25 (95%-CI, 1.41–3.58). Conclusions. This analysis shows a significant PFS and OS benefit as well as a benefit regarding disease stabilization when using antiangiogenic drugs beyond progression in mCRC. Future studies should focus on the optimal sequence of administering antiangiogenic drugs. PMID:27656206

  12. Treatment with Antiangiogenic Drugs in Multiple Lines in Patients with Metastatic Colorectal Cancer: Meta-Analysis of Randomized Trials

    PubMed Central

    Kubicka, S.; Falcone, A.; Burkholder, I.; Hacker, U. T.

    2016-01-01

    Background. In metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC), continuing antiangiogenic drugs beyond progression might provide clinical benefit. We synthesized the available evidence in a meta-analysis. Patients and Methods. We conducted a meta-analysis of studies investigating the use of antiangiogenic drugs beyond progression. Eligible studies were randomized phase II/III trials. Primary endpoints were overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS). Secondary endpoints were the impact of continuing antiangiogenic drugs (i) in subgroups, (ii) in different types of compounds targeting the VEGF-axis (monoclonal antibodies versus tyrosine kinase inhibitors), and (iii) on remission rates and prevention of progression. Results. Eight studies (3,668 patients) were included. Continuing antiangiogenic treatment beyond progression significantly improved PFS (HR 0.64; 95%-CI, 0.55–0.75) and OS (HR 0.83; 95%-CI, 0.76–0.89). PFS was significantly improved in all subgroups with comparable HR. OS was improved in all subgroups stratified by age, gender, and ECOG status. The rate of patients achieving at least stable disease was improved with an OR of 2.25 (95%-CI, 1.41–3.58). Conclusions. This analysis shows a significant PFS and OS benefit as well as a benefit regarding disease stabilization when using antiangiogenic drugs beyond progression in mCRC. Future studies should focus on the optimal sequence of administering antiangiogenic drugs.

  13. Dietary legume consumption reduces risk of colorectal cancer: evidence from a meta-analysis of cohort studies

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Beibei; Sun, Yu; Qi, Lu; Zhong, Rong; Miao, Xiaoping

    2015-01-01

    Previous epidemiological studies on the relation between dietary legume consumption and risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) remain controversial. We conducted a meta-analysis based on prospective cohort studies to investigate the association between dietary legume consumption and risk of CRC. Fourteen cohort studies were finally included, containing a total of 1903459 participants and 12261 cases who contributed 11628960 person-years. We found that higher legume consumption was associated with a decreased risk of CRC (RR, relative risk = 0.91; 95% CI, confidence interval = 0.84–0.98). Subgroup analyses suggested that higher legume consumption was inversely associated with CRC risk in Asian (RR = 0.82; 95% CI = 0.74–0.91) and soybean intake was associated with a decreased risk of CRC (RR = 0.85; 95% CI = 0.73–0.99). Findings from our meta-analysis supported an association between higher intake of legume and a reduced risk of CRC. Further studies controlled for appropriate confounders are warranted to validate the associations. PMID:25739376

  14. Association of type 2 diabetes mellitus and the risk of colorectal cancer: A meta-analysis and systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Guraya, Salman Yousuf

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To provide a quantitative assessment of the association between type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). METHODS: Systematic review was conducted thorough MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, and ISI Web of knowledge databases till 31st January 2014. This meta-analysis included the cohort studies that illustrated relative risk (RR) or odds ratio estimates with 95%CI for the predictive risk of CRC by T2DM. Summary relative risks with 95%CI were analyzed by using an effects summary ratio model. Heterogeneity among studies was assessed by the Cochran’s Q and I2 statistics. RESULTS: The meta analysis of 8 finally selected studies showed a positive correlation of T2DM with the risk of CRC as depicted by effects summary RR of 1.21 (95%CI: 1.02-1.42). Diabetic women showed greater risk of developing CRC as their effect summary RR of 1.22 (95%CI: 1.01-49) with significant overall Z test at 5% level of significance was higher than the effect summary RR of 1.17 (95%CI: 1.00-1.37) of men showing insignificant Z test. The effect summary RR of 1.19 with 95%CI of 1.07-1.33 indicate a positive relationship between DM and increased risk of CRC with significant heterogeneity (I2 = 92% and P-value < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Results from this systematic review and meta-analysis report that diabetic people have an increased risk of CRC as compared to non-diabetics. PMID:26019469

  15. Body weight gain and risk of colorectal cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies.

    PubMed

    Schlesinger, S; Lieb, W; Koch, M; Fedirko, V; Dahm, C C; Pischon, T; Nöthlings, U; Boeing, H; Aleksandrova, K

    2015-07-01

    While the relationship between body mass index as an indicator of excess body weight and the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) is well established, the association between body weight gain in adulthood and risk of CRC remains unresolved. We quantified this association in a meta-analysis of 12 observational studies published until November 2014 with a total of 16,151 incident CRC cases. Random effect models were used to obtain summary relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). Between-study heterogeneity was assessed using I(2) statistics. Overall, the summary RR (95% CI) was 1.22 (1.14-1.30) for high body weight gain (midpoint: 15.2 kg) compared with stable weight (P for heterogeneity = 0.182; I(2) = 21.2%). In a dose-response analysis, each 5 kg weight gain was associated with a 4% (95% CI: 2%-5%) higher risk of CRC. The association persisted after adjustment for body weight at younger age and was present for both men and women, as well as for colon and rectal cancer. Differences by sex were detected for colon cancer (P for interaction = 0.003, with higher risk for men than women), but not for rectal cancer (P for interaction = 0.613). In conclusion, these data underscore the importance of body weight management from early adulthood onwards for the prevention of CRC development.

  16. A Systematic Review and Network Meta-Analysis of Biologic Agents in the First Line Setting for Advanced Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kumachev, Alexander; Yan, Marie; Berry, Scott; Ko, Yoo-Joung; Martinez, Maria C. R.; Shah, Keya; Chan, Kelvin K. W.

    2015-01-01

    Background Epithelial growth factor receptor inhibitors (EGFRis) and bevacizumab (BEV) are used in combination with chemotherapy for the treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). However, few randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have directly compared their relative efficacy on progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). Methods We conducted a systematic review of first-line RCTs comparing (1) EGFRis vs. BEV, with chemotherapy in both arms (2) EGFRis + chemotherapy vs. chemotherapy alone, or (3) BEV + chemotherapy vs. chemotherapy alone, using Cochrane methodology. Data on and PFS and OS were extracted using the Parmar method. Pairwise meta-analyses and Bayesian network meta-analyses (NMA) were conducted to estimate the direct, indirect and combined PFS and OS hazard ratios (HRs) comparing EGFRis to BEV. Results Seventeen RCTs contained extractable data for quantitative analysis. Combining direct and indirect data using an NMA did not show a statistical difference between EGFRis versus BEV (PFS HR = 1.11 (95% CR: 0.92–1.36) and OS HR = 0.91 (95% CR: 0.75–1.09)). Direct meta-analysis (3 RCTs), indirect (14 RCTs) and combined (17 RCTs) NMA of PFS HRs were concordant and did not show a difference between EGFRis and BEV. Meta-analysis of OS using direct evidence, largely influenced by one trial, showed an improvement with EGFRis therapy (HR = 0.79 (95% CR: 0.65–0.98)), while indirect and combined NMA of OS did not show a difference between EGFRis and BEV Successive inclusions of trials over time in the combined NMA did not show superiority of EGFRis over BEV. Conclusions Our findings did not support OS or PFS benefits of EGFRis over BEV in first-line mCRC. PMID:26474403

  17. Thromboembolic Events Associated with Bevacizumab plus Chemotherapy for Patients with Colorectal Cancer: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Alahmari, Abdullah K.; Almalki, Ziyad S.; Alahmari, Ahmed K.; Guo, Jeff J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Bevacizumab is a recombinant, humanized monoclonal antibody that hinders the proliferation of new blood vessels required for malignant progression. The drug is considered safe and tolerable; however, some controversy remains about whether it is linked to venous and arterial thromboembolic events (TEEs). Objective To evaluate the risk for overall, venous, and arterial TEEs in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) who are administered bevacizumab plus chemotherapy in randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Methods We searched PubMed and CENTRAL databases to extract reports of relevant trials that were published in English between January 1, 2003, and December 31, 2014. All RCTs in which bevacizumab plus chemotherapy was compared with standard chemotherapy or with placebo plus chemotherapy for the treatment of CRC, and TEEs were reported, were included in a meta-analysis. Risk ratios (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of TEEs were calculated for each RCT. Because the between-study heterogeneities (I2) were insignificant, a fixed-effect model was used to determine the effect size of each TEE. A funnel plot was created to assess publication bias, and 2 forms of sensitivity analyses were performed for each outcome. Results This meta-analysis included 22 RCTs with a total of 13,185 patients. Overall, compared with the control groups, patients with CRC who received bevacizumab were at significant risk for overall TEEs (RR, 1.334; 95% CI, 1.191–1.494; P <.001; I2 = 1.37%). Regarding venous TEEs, a significant risk was observed for patients who received bevacizumab versus control patients (RR, 1.244; 95% CI, 1.091–1.415; P = .001; I2 = 0.0%). Similarly, the risk for arterial TEEs was significant in bevacizumab-treated patients (RR, 1.627; 95% CI, 1.162–2.279; P = .005; I2 = 0.0%). Sensitivity analyses did not affect the level of significance of the effect size for each outcome, and no significant publication bias was observed. Conclusion In all the

  18. Thromboembolic Events Associated with Bevacizumab plus Chemotherapy for Patients with Colorectal Cancer: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Alahmari, Abdullah K.; Almalki, Ziyad S.; Alahmari, Ahmed K.; Guo, Jeff J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Bevacizumab is a recombinant, humanized monoclonal antibody that hinders the proliferation of new blood vessels required for malignant progression. The drug is considered safe and tolerable; however, some controversy remains about whether it is linked to venous and arterial thromboembolic events (TEEs). Objective To evaluate the risk for overall, venous, and arterial TEEs in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) who are administered bevacizumab plus chemotherapy in randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Methods We searched PubMed and CENTRAL databases to extract reports of relevant trials that were published in English between January 1, 2003, and December 31, 2014. All RCTs in which bevacizumab plus chemotherapy was compared with standard chemotherapy or with placebo plus chemotherapy for the treatment of CRC, and TEEs were reported, were included in a meta-analysis. Risk ratios (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of TEEs were calculated for each RCT. Because the between-study heterogeneities (I2) were insignificant, a fixed-effect model was used to determine the effect size of each TEE. A funnel plot was created to assess publication bias, and 2 forms of sensitivity analyses were performed for each outcome. Results This meta-analysis included 22 RCTs with a total of 13,185 patients. Overall, compared with the control groups, patients with CRC who received bevacizumab were at significant risk for overall TEEs (RR, 1.334; 95% CI, 1.191–1.494; P <.001; I2 = 1.37%). Regarding venous TEEs, a significant risk was observed for patients who received bevacizumab versus control patients (RR, 1.244; 95% CI, 1.091–1.415; P = .001; I2 = 0.0%). Similarly, the risk for arterial TEEs was significant in bevacizumab-treated patients (RR, 1.627; 95% CI, 1.162–2.279; P = .005; I2 = 0.0%). Sensitivity analyses did not affect the level of significance of the effect size for each outcome, and no significant publication bias was observed. Conclusion In all the

  19. Effects of Probiotics on Intestinal Mucosa Barrier in Patients With Colorectal Cancer after Operation: Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dun; Jiang, Xiao-Ying; Zhou, Lan-Shu; Song, Ji-Hong; Zhang, Xuan

    2016-04-01

    Many studies have found that probiotics or synbiotics can be used in patients with diarrhea or inflammatory bowel disease for the prevention and treatment of some pathologies by improving gastrointestinal barrier function. However, there are few studies availing the use of probiotics in patients with colorectal cancer. To lay the foundation for the study of nutritional support in colorectal cancer patients, a meta-analysis has been carried out to assess the efficacy of probiotics on the intestinal mucosa barrier in patients with colorectal cancer after operation. To estimate the efficacy of probiotics on the intestinal mucosa barrier in patients with colorectal cancer after operation, a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials has been conducted. Databases including PubMed, Ovid, Embase, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and the China National Knowledge Infrastructure have been searched to identify suitable studies. Stata 12.0 was used for statistical analysis, and sensitivity analysis was also conducted. Six indicators were chosen to evaluate probiotics in protecting the intestinal mucosa barrier in patients with colorectal cancer. Ratios of lactulose to mannitol (L/M) and Bifidobacterium to Escherichia (B/E), occludin, bacterial translocation, and levels of secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and C-reactive protein (CRP) were chosen to evaluate probiotics in protecting the intestinal mucosa barrier in patients with colorectal cancer. Seventeen studies including 1242 patients were selected for meta-analysis, including 5 English studies and 12 Chinese studies. Significant effects were found in ratios of L/M (standardized mean difference = 3.83, P = 0.001) and B/E (standardized mean difference = 3.91, P = 0.000), occludin (standardized mean difference = 4.74, P = 0.000), bacterial translocation (standardized mean difference = 3.12, P = 0.002), and levels of SIgA (standardized mean

  20. Effects of Probiotics on Intestinal Mucosa Barrier in Patients With Colorectal Cancer after Operation: Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dun; Jiang, Xiao-Ying; Zhou, Lan-Shu; Song, Ji-Hong; Zhang, Xuan

    2016-04-01

    Many studies have found that probiotics or synbiotics can be used in patients with diarrhea or inflammatory bowel disease for the prevention and treatment of some pathologies by improving gastrointestinal barrier function. However, there are few studies availing the use of probiotics in patients with colorectal cancer. To lay the foundation for the study of nutritional support in colorectal cancer patients, a meta-analysis has been carried out to assess the efficacy of probiotics on the intestinal mucosa barrier in patients with colorectal cancer after operation. To estimate the efficacy of probiotics on the intestinal mucosa barrier in patients with colorectal cancer after operation, a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials has been conducted. Databases including PubMed, Ovid, Embase, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and the China National Knowledge Infrastructure have been searched to identify suitable studies. Stata 12.0 was used for statistical analysis, and sensitivity analysis was also conducted. Six indicators were chosen to evaluate probiotics in protecting the intestinal mucosa barrier in patients with colorectal cancer. Ratios of lactulose to mannitol (L/M) and Bifidobacterium to Escherichia (B/E), occludin, bacterial translocation, and levels of secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and C-reactive protein (CRP) were chosen to evaluate probiotics in protecting the intestinal mucosa barrier in patients with colorectal cancer. Seventeen studies including 1242 patients were selected for meta-analysis, including 5 English studies and 12 Chinese studies. Significant effects were found in ratios of L/M (standardized mean difference = 3.83, P = 0.001) and B/E (standardized mean difference = 3.91, P = 0.000), occludin (standardized mean difference = 4.74, P = 0.000), bacterial translocation (standardized mean difference = 3.12, P = 0.002), and levels of SIgA (standardized mean

  1. Diagnostic Value of Methylated Septin9 for Colorectal Cancer Screening: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Shirong; Liu, Zijing; Yu, Shuang; Bao, Yixi

    2016-01-01

    Background Septin9 is a member of GTP-binding protein family, and is used as a predictive diagnostic index. However, it has not been widely adopted due to inconsistent results reported in the literature. The present study was performed to determine the diagnostic accuracy of methylated Septin9 (mSEPT9) for colorectal cancer (CRC) and to evaluate its utility in CRC screening. Material/Methods After reviewing relevant studies, accuracy measures (pooled sensitivity and specificity, positive/negative likelihood ratio [PLR/NLR], and diagnostic odds ratio [DOR]) were calculated for mSEPT9 in the diagnosis of CRC. Overall test performance was summarized using summary receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. Potential between-study heterogeneity was explored by use of a meta-regression model. We divided included studies into Epi proColon test and non-Epi proColon test subgroups. We compared the effects of mSEPT9 and fecal occult blood test (FOBT) for CRC screening. Results A total of 9870 subjects in 14 studies were recruited. Pooled sensitivity and specificity, PLR, NLR, DOR, and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) of mSEPT9 for CRC diagnosis were 0.66 (95% CI: 0.64–0.69), 0.91 (95% CI: 0.90–0.91), 5.59 (95% CI: 4.03–7.74), 0.37 (95% CI: 0.29–0.48), and 16.79 (95% CI: 10.54–26.76), respectively. The area under the summary ROC curve (AUC) was 0.8563. The AUCs in the Epi proColon test and non-Epi proColon test for CRC diagnosis were 0.8709 and 0.7968, respectively. In head-to-head comparison, AUC of mSEPT9 and FOBT for CRC diagnosis were 0.7857 and 0.6571, respectively. Conclusions The present study demonstrates that mSEPT9 can be a good diagnostic biomarker complementary to FOBT as a screening tool for CRC. PMID:27665580

  2. Associations of the A66G Methionine Synthase Reductase Polymorphism in Colorectal Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Pabalan, Noel; Singian, Eloisa; Tabangay, Lani; Jarjanazi, Hamdi; Singh, Neetu

    2015-01-01

    Inconsistency in the reported associations between the A66G polymorphism in the methionine synthase reductase (MTRR) gene and colorectal cancer (CRC) prompted a meta-analysis, so that we could obtain a more precise estimate. Databases searches of the published literature yielded 20 case–control studies from 17 articles (8,371 cases and 12,574 controls). We calculated pooled odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals in three genetic comparisons (A allele, G allele, and A/G genotype). We found no evidence of overall associations between MTRR A66G and CRC risk (OR 0.96–1.05, P = 0.12–0.44). This was materially unchanged when reanalyzed without the Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium (HWE)-deviating studies (OR 0.97–1.06, P = 0.11–0.65). In the A allele comparison, however, outlier treatment generated significant protection (OR 0.91, P = 0.01). Combined removal of the outliers and HWE-deviating studies reflected this summary effect (OR 0.90, P = 0.01) as did the pooled OR from high-quality studies (OR 0.90, P = 0.01). Only the Asian subgroup showed significant (both at P = 0.05) A allele (OR 1.13) and A/G genotype (OR 0.88) associations. In conclusion, post-outlier A allele effects were protective. Our study also suggests ethnic-specific associations with Asian susceptibility and protection in the A allele and A/G genotype comparisons, respectively. Folate status showed no association of this polymorphism with CRC. PMID:26549973

  3. Diagnostic Accuracy of BRAF Immunohistochemistry in Colorectal Cancer: a Meta-Analysis and Diagnostic Test Accuracy Review.

    PubMed

    Pyo, Jung-Soo; Sohn, Jin Hee; Kang, Guhyun

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the concordance between the BRAF (V600E) mutation test and immunohistochemistry (IHC) and to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of BRAF IHC for colorectal cancer (CRC) through a systematic review, meta-analysis, and diagnostic test accuracy review. The current study included 1021 CRCs from eight eligible studies. The concordance rates were investigated between BRAF IHC and the mutation test. In addition, diagnostic test accuracy review was conducted and calculated using the value of area under curve (AUC) on the summary receiver operating characteristic (SROC) curve. The positive rate of BRAF IHC was 30.5 % (range; 13.2-66.2 %), and the BRAF mutation was found in 30.2 % (range; 11.7-66.2 %). The overall concordance rate between BRAF IHC and the mutation test was 0.944 (95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.873-0.977). In the BRAF IHC-positive and -negative groups, the concordance rates between BRAF IHC and the mutation test were 0.895 (95 % CI 0.800-0.945) and 0.956 (95 % CI 0.878-0.985), respectively. The pooled sensitivity and specificity were 0.94 (95 % CI 0.91-0.96) and 0.96 (95 % CI 0.95-0.98), respectively. The diagnostic odds ratio was 272.86 (95 % CI 46.11-1614.88), and the value of AUC on SROC curve was 0.9846. Taken together, our results suggest that BRAF IHC is strongly concordant with the BRAF mutation test and has high diagnostic accuracy in BRAF mutation analysis of CRCs. Further cumulative studies on detailed evaluation criteria are needed before application in daily practice.

  4. A new GWAS and meta-analysis with 1000Genomes imputation identifies novel risk variants for colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Al-Tassan, Nada A; Whiffin, Nicola; Hosking, Fay J; Palles, Claire; Farrington, Susan M; Dobbins, Sara E; Harris, Rebecca; Gorman, Maggie; Tenesa, Albert; Meyer, Brian F; Wakil, Salma M; Kinnersley, Ben; Campbell, Harry; Martin, Lynn; Smith, Christopher G; Idziaszczyk, Shelley; Barclay, Ella; Maughan, Timothy S; Kaplan, Richard; Kerr, Rachel; Kerr, David; Buchanan, Daniel D; Buchannan, Daniel D; Win, Aung Ko; Hopper, John; Jenkins, Mark; Lindor, Noralane M; Newcomb, Polly A; Gallinger, Steve; Conti, David; Schumacher, Fred; Casey, Graham; Dunlop, Malcolm G; Tomlinson, Ian P; Cheadle, Jeremy P; Houlston, Richard S

    2015-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of colorectal cancer (CRC) have identified 23 susceptibility loci thus far. Analyses of previously conducted GWAS indicate additional risk loci are yet to be discovered. To identify novel CRC susceptibility loci, we conducted a new GWAS and performed a meta-analysis with five published GWAS (totalling 7,577 cases and 9,979 controls of European ancestry), imputing genotypes utilising the 1000 Genomes Project. The combined analysis identified new, significant associations with CRC at 1p36.2 marked by rs72647484 (minor allele frequency [MAF] = 0.09) near CDC42 and WNT4 (P = 1.21 × 10(-8), odds ratio [OR] = 1.21 ) and at 16q24.1 marked by rs16941835 (MAF = 0.21, P = 5.06 × 10(-8); OR = 1.15) within the long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) RP11-58A18.1 and ~500 kb from the nearest coding gene FOXL1. Additionally we identified a promising association at 10p13 with rs10904849 intronic to CUBN (MAF = 0.32, P = 7.01 × 10(-8); OR = 1.14). These findings provide further insights into the genetic and biological basis of inherited genetic susceptibility to CRC. Additionally, our analysis further demonstrates that imputation can be used to exploit GWAS data to identify novel disease-causing variants. PMID:25990418

  5. Intraoperative radiotherapy in colorectal cancer: Systematic review and meta-analysis of techniques, long-term outcomes, and complications

    PubMed Central

    Mirnezami, Reza; Chang, George J.; Das, Prajnan; Chandrakumaran, Kandiah; Tekkis, Paris; Darzi, Ara; Mirnezami, Alexander H.

    2015-01-01

    Background The precise contribution of IORT to the management of locally advanced and recurrent colorectal cancer (CRC) remains uncertain. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the value of IORT in this setting. Methods Studies published between 1965 and 2011 that reported outcomes after IORT for advanced or recurrent CRC were identified by an electronic literature search. Studies were assessed for methodological quality and design, and evaluated for technique of IORT delivery, oncological outcomes, and complications following IORT. Outcomes were analysed with fixed-effect and random-effect model meta-analyses and heterogeneity and publication bias examined. Results 29 studies comprising 14 prospective and 15 retrospective studies met the inclusion criteria and were assessed, yielding a total of 3003 patients. The indication for IORT was locally advanced disease in 1792 patients and locally recurrent disease in 1211 patients. Despite heterogeneity in methodology and reporting practice, IORT is principally applied for the treatment of close or positive margins. When comparative studies were evaluated, a significant effect favouring improved local control (OR 0.22; 95% CI=0.05-0.86; p=0.03), disease free survival (HR 0.51; 95% CI=0.31-0.85; p=0.009), and overall survival (HR 0.33; 95% CI=0.2-0.54; p=0.001) was noted with no increase in total (OR 1.13; 95% CI=0.77-1.65; p=0.57), urologic (OR 1.35; 95% CI=0.84-2.82; p=0.47), or anastomotic complications (OR 0.94; 95% CI=0.42-2.1; p=0.98). Increased wound complications were noted after IORT (OR 1.86; 95% CI=1.03-3.38; p=0.049). Conclusions Despite methodological weaknesses in the studies evaluated, our results suggest that IORT may improve oncological outcomes in advanced and recurrent CRC. PMID:23270946

  6. Associations of the A66G Methionine Synthase Reductase Polymorphism in Colorectal Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Pabalan, Noel; Singian, Eloisa; Tabangay, Lani; Jarjanazi, Hamdi; Singh, Neetu

    2015-01-01

    Inconsistency in the reported associations between the A66G polymorphism in the methionine synthase reductase (MTRR) gene and colorectal cancer (CRC) prompted a meta-analysis, so that we could obtain a more precise estimate. Databases searches of the published literature yielded 20 case-control studies from 17 articles (8,371 cases and 12,574 controls). We calculated pooled odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals in three genetic comparisons (A allele, G allele, and A/G genotype). We found no evidence of overall associations between MTRR A66G and CRC risk (OR 0.96-1.05, P = 0.12-0.44). This was materially unchanged when reanalyzed without the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE)-deviating studies (OR 0.97-1.06, P = 0.11-0.65). In the A allele comparison, however, outlier treatment generated significant protection (OR 0.91, P = 0.01). Combined removal of the outliers and HWE-deviating studies reflected this summary effect (OR 0.90, P = 0.01) as did the pooled OR from high-quality studies (OR 0.90, P = 0.01). Only the Asian subgroup showed significant (both at P = 0.05) A allele (OR 1.13) and A/G genotype (OR 0.88) associations. In conclusion, post-outlier A allele effects were protective. Our study also suggests ethnic-specific associations with Asian susceptibility and protection in the A allele and A/G genotype comparisons, respectively. Folate status showed no association of this polymorphism with CRC.

  7. A new GWAS and meta-analysis with 1000Genomes imputation identifies novel risk variants for colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Al-Tassan, Nada A.; Whiffin, Nicola; Hosking, Fay J.; Palles, Claire; Farrington, Susan M.; Dobbins, Sara E.; Harris, Rebecca; Gorman, Maggie; Tenesa, Albert; Meyer, Brian F.; Wakil, Salma M.; Kinnersley, Ben; Campbell, Harry; Martin, Lynn; Smith, Christopher G.; Idziaszczyk, Shelley; Barclay, Ella; Maughan, Timothy S.; Kaplan, Richard; Kerr, Rachel; Kerr, David; Buchannan, Daniel D.; Ko Win, Aung; Hopper, John; Jenkins, Mark; Lindor, Noralane M.; Newcomb, Polly A.; Gallinger, Steve; Conti, David; Schumacher, Fred; Casey, Graham; Dunlop, Malcolm G.; Tomlinson, Ian P.; Cheadle, Jeremy P.; Houlston, Richard S.

    2015-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of colorectal cancer (CRC) have identified 23 susceptibility loci thus far. Analyses of previously conducted GWAS indicate additional risk loci are yet to be discovered. To identify novel CRC susceptibility loci, we conducted a new GWAS and performed a meta-analysis with five published GWAS (totalling 7,577 cases and 9,979 controls of European ancestry), imputing genotypes utilising the 1000 Genomes Project. The combined analysis identified new, significant associations with CRC at 1p36.2 marked by rs72647484 (minor allele frequency [MAF] = 0.09) near CDC42 and WNT4 (P = 1.21 × 10−8, odds ratio [OR] = 1.21 ) and at 16q24.1 marked by rs16941835 (MAF = 0.21, P = 5.06 × 10−8; OR = 1.15) within the long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) RP11-58A18.1 and ~500 kb from the nearest coding gene FOXL1. Additionally we identified a promising association at 10p13 with rs10904849 intronic to CUBN (MAF = 0.32, P = 7.01 × 10-8; OR = 1.14). These findings provide further insights into the genetic and biological basis of inherited genetic susceptibility to CRC. Additionally, our analysis further demonstrates that imputation can be used to exploit GWAS data to identify novel disease-causing variants. PMID:25990418

  8. Let-7 microRNA-binding-site polymorphism in the 3′UTR of KRAS and colorectal cancer outcome: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Langevin, Scott M; Christensen, Brock C

    2014-01-01

    There is a small but growing body of literature regarding the predictive utility of a Let-7 microRNA-binding-site polymorphism in the 3′-untranslated region (UTR) of KRAS (KRAS-LCS6) for colorectal cancer outcome, although the results are conflicting. We performed a review and meta-analysis in an attempt to better clarify this relationship. A PubMed search was conducted to identify all studies reporting on KRAS let-7 microRNA-binding site polymorphism (LCS6; rs61764370) and colorectal cancer outcome. Hazard ratios (HR) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) were extracted or estimated from each manuscript. Log HRs and log CIs were combined across studies using the inverse-variance weight to calculate fixed- and random-effects summary estimates and corresponding 95% CIs for overall and progression-free survival. We did not observe any significant association between overall or progression-free survival, neither when considering all colorectal cancer patients nor for subgroup analyses (metastatic, anti-EGFR [epidermal growth factor receptor] treatment, or KRAS wild type). There was substantial heterogeneity across studies, overall and among subgroups analyzed. We have found no clear evidence to support an association between the KRAS-LCS6 genotype and overall or progression-free survival among colorectal cancer patients, even after conducting subgroup analyses by stage and anti-EGFR treatment status. This information helps to clarify the confusing body of literature regarding the clinical implications of the KRAS-LCS6 genetic variant on colorectal cancer outcomes, indicating that it should not be used at the present time to personalize therapeutic strategies (PROSPERO registration number: CRD42013005325). PMID:24890702

  9. The association of three promoter polymorphisms in interleukin-10 gene with the risk for colorectal cancer and hepatocellular carcinoma: A meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Yan-Hui; Zhao, Dong-Mei; Wang, Yue-Fei; Li, Xue; Ji, Man-Ru; Jiang, Dan-Na; Xu, Bai-Ping; Zhou, Li; Lu, Chang-Zhu; Wang, Bin

    2016-01-01

    Mounting evidence supports a potent inhibitory role of interleukin-10 (IL-10) in tumor carcinogenesis, angiogenesis and metastasis. This meta-analysis was designed to examine the association of three promoter polymorphisms (−592C > A, −819C > T and −1082G > A) in IL-10 gene with the risk for colorectal cancer and hepatocellular carcinoma. Qualification assessment and data collection were completed by two authors independently. The random-effects model using the DerSimonian and Laird method was fitted by the STATA software. Twenty-five articles involving 5933 cases and 9724 controls were meta-analyzed. Overall comparisons of the mutant alleles (−592A, −819T and −1082A) of three promoter polymorphisms with alternative wild alleles failed to reveal any statistical significance for both colorectal cancer and hepatocellular carcinoma (P > 0.05), and the likelihood of heterogeneity was low (I2 < 50%). For −592C > A polymorphism, a significant risk for colorectal cancer was identified when analysis was restricted to East Asians (odds ratio or OR = 1.41, 95% confidence interval or CI: 1.18–1.68, P < 0.001) and retrospective studies (OR = 1.23, 95% CI: 1.09–1.39, P = 0.001). As weighed by the Egger’s test and the fill-and-trim method, there was a low probability of publication bias for all studied polymorphisms. Our findings collectively suggest that the −592C > A polymorphism in IL-10 gene might be a susceptibility locus for colorectal cancer in East Asians. PMID:27489033

  10. Diagnostic Performance of DNA Hypermethylation Markers in Peripheral Blood for the Detection of Colorectal Cancer: A Meta-Analysis and Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Li, Bingsheng; Gan, Aihua; Chen, Xiaolong; Wang, Xinying; He, Weifeng; Zhang, Xiaohui; Huang, Renxiang; Zhou, Shuzhu; Song, Xiaoxiao; Xu, Angao

    2016-01-01

    DNA hypermethylation in blood is becoming an attractive candidate marker for colorectal cancer (CRC) detection. To assess the diagnostic accuracy of blood hypermethylation markers for CRC in different clinical settings, we conducted a meta-analysis of published reports. Of 485 publications obtained in the initial literature search, 39 studies were included in the meta-analysis. Hypermethylation markers in peripheral blood showed a high degree of accuracy for the detection of CRC. The summary sensitivity was 0.62 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.56–0.67] and specificity was 0.91 (95% CI, 0.89–0.93). Subgroup analysis showed significantly greater sensitivity for the methylated Septin 9 gene (SEPT9) subgroup (0.75; 95% CI, 0.67–0.81) than for the non-methylated SEPT9 subgroup (0.58; 95% CI, 0.52–0.64). Sensitivity and specificity were not affected significantly by target gene number, CRC staging, study region, or methylation analysis method. These findings show that hypermethylation markers in blood are highly sensitive and specific for CRC detection, with methylated SEPT9 being particularly robust. The diagnostic performance of hypermethylation markers, which have varied across different studies, can be improved by marker optimization. Future research should examine variation in diagnostic accuracy according to non-neoplastic factors. PMID:27158984

  11. BRAF V600E mutation and resistance to anti-EGFR monoclonal antibodies in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Mao, Chen; Liao, Ru-Yan; Qiu, Li-Xin; Wang, Xi-Wen; Ding, Hong; Chen, Qing

    2011-04-01

    Epidemiologic studies have evaluated the association between BRAF mutations and resistance to the treatment of anti-EGFR monoclonal antibodies (MoAb) in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). However, the results are still inconclusive. To derive a more precise estimation of the relationship, we performed this meta-analysis. A total of 11 studies were included in the final meta-analysis. There were seven studies for unselected mCRC patients and four studies for patients with wild type KRAS mCRC. Among unselected mCRC patients, BRAF V600E mutation was detected in 48 of 546 primary tumors (8.8%). The objective response rate (ORR) of patients with mutant BRAF was 29.2% (14/48), whereas the ORR of patients with wild-type BRAF was 33.5% (158/472).The overall RR for ORR of mutant BRAF patients over wild-type BRAF patients was 0.86 (95% CI=0.57-1.30; P=0.48). For patients with KRAS wild-type mCRC, BRAF V600E mutation was detected in 40 of 376 primary tumors (10.6%). The ORR of patients with mutant BRAF was 0.0% (0/40), whereas the ORR of patients with wild-type BRAF was 36.3% (122/336). The pooled RR of mutant BRAF patients over wild-type BRAF patients was 0.14 (95% CI=0.04-0.53; P=0.004). In conclusion, this meta-analysis provides evidence that BRAF V600E mutation is associated with lack of response in wild-type KRAS mCRC treated with anti-EGFR MoAbs. BRAF mutation may be used as an additional biomarker for the selection of mCRC patients who might benefit from anti-EGFR MoAbs therapy.

  12. Systematic large-scale meta-analysis identifies a panel of two mRNAs as blood biomarkers for colorectal cancer detection.

    PubMed

    Rodia, Maria Teresa; Ugolini, Giampaolo; Mattei, Gabriella; Montroni, Isacco; Zattoni, Davide; Ghignone, Federico; Veronese, Giacomo; Marisi, Giorgia; Lauriola, Mattia; Strippoli, Pierluigi; Solmi, Rossella

    2016-05-24

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer in the world. A significant survival rate is achieved if it is detected at an early stage. A whole blood screening test, without any attempt to isolate blood fractions, could be an important tool to improve early detection of colorectal cancer. We searched for candidate markers with a novel approach based on the Transcriptome Mapper (TRAM), aimed at identifying specific RNAs with the highest differential expression ratio between colorectal cancer tissue and normal blood samples. This tool permits a large-scale systematic meta-analysis of all available data obtained by microarray experiments. The targeting of RNA took into consideration that tumour phenotypic variation is associated with changes in the mRNA levels of genes regulating or affecting this variation.A real time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT- PCR) was applied to the validation of candidate markers in the blood of 67 patients and 67 healthy controls. The expression of genes: TSPAN8, LGALS4, COL1A2 and CEACAM6 resulted as being statistically different.In particular ROC curves attested for TSPAN8 an AUC of 0.751 with a sensitivity of 83.6% and a specificity of 58.2% at a cut off of 10.85, while the panel of the two best genes showed an AUC of 0.861 and a sensitivity of 92.5% with a specificity of 67.2%.Our preliminary study on a total of 134 subjects showed promising results for a blood screening test to be validated in a larger cohort with the staging stratification and in patients with other gastrointestinal diseases. PMID:26993598

  13. Vitamin and multiple-vitamin supplement intake and incidence of colorectal cancer: a meta-analysis of cohort studies.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yan; Yu, Qiuyan; Zhu, Zhenli; Zhang, Jun; Chen, Meilan; Tang, Pingyi; Li, Ke

    2015-01-01

    This paper systematically evaluated the association of intake of different vitamins and multiple-vitamin supplements and the incidence of colorectal cancer. Relevant studies were identified in MEDLINE via PubMed (published up to April 2014). We extracted data from articles on vitamins A, C, D, E, B9 (folate), B2, B3, B6, and B12 and multiple-vitamin supplements. We used multivariable-adjusted relative risks (RRs) and a random-effects model for analysis and random effects. With heterogeneity, we looked for the source of heterogeneity or performed sensitivity and stratified analyses. We found 47 articles meeting the inclusion criteria. The multivariable-adjusted RR for pooled studies for the association between the highest versus lowest vitamin B9 (folate) intake and colorectal cancer was 0.88 [95 % confidence interval (95 % CI) 0.81-0.95]. Vitamin D was 0.87 (95 % CI 0.77-0.99); vitamin B6, 0.88 (95 % CI 0.79-0.99); vitamin B2, 0.86 (95 % CI, 0.76-0.97); vitamin A, 0.87 (95 % CI, 0.75-1.03); vitamin C, 0.92 (95 % CI, 0.80-1.06); vitamin E, 0.94 (95 % CI, 0.82-1.07); vitamin B12, 1.10 (95 % CI, 0.92-1.32); vitamin B3, 1.18 (95 % CI, 0.76-1.84). Vitamin B9 (folate), D, B6, and B2 intake was inversely associated with risk of colorectal cancer, but further study is needed. Our study featured unacceptable heterogeneity for studies of multiple-vitamin supplements, so findings were inconclusive.

  14. Lack of association between the interleukin 6 gene -174G>C polymorphism and colorectal cancer: evidence from a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Hu, J J; Wang, Z T; Zhong, J

    2013-07-08

    Interleukin 6 (IL6) is a pleiotropic cytokine involved in physiological processes and in a variety of human malignancies. It is thus a logical candidate for being a causative factor underlying colorectal cancer (CRC). The association between the IL6 -174G>C polymorphism and CRC has been widely evaluated; yet, there is a lack of agreement between studies on the role of this polymorphism in CRC. We performed a meta-analysis to evaluate this association signal. Articles published before May 10, 2012 were included in the meta-analysis. A total of 11 populations incorporating 6481 cases and 7935 controls were included in our analysis. A random-effect model was applied irrespective of between-study heterogeneity. Data and study quality were assessed in duplicate. Overall, the association of the -174G>C polymorphism with CRC was not significant in an allelic comparison model [odds ratio (OR) = 0.99; 95% confidence interval (95%CI) = 0.90-1.09; P = 0.827], a homozygote model (OR = 0.98; 95%CI = 0.83-1.15; P = 0.805), a dominant model (OR = 0.99; 95%CI = 0.87-1.13; P = 0.906), or a recessive model (OR = 0.97; 95%CI = 0.88-1.08; P = 0.610). Furthermore, the analyses of subgroups created based on common study design, genotyping methods, and ethnicity failed to find a significant association of this polymorphism with CRC. Therefore, our results collectively suggest that the IL6 -174G>C polymorphism might not be a potential candidate for CRC risk.

  15. Association of XPC Gene Polymorphisms with Colorectal Cancer Risk in a Southern Chinese Population: A Case-Control Study and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hua, Rui-Xi; Zhu, Jinhong; Jiang, Dan-Hua; Zhang, Shao-Dan; Zhang, Jiang-Bo; Xue, Wen-Qiong; Li, Xi-Zhao; Zhang, Pei-Fen; He, Jing; Jia, Wei-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Xeroderma pigmentosum group C (XPC) is a key component of the nucleotide excision repair (NER) pathway. Dysfunctional XPC protein may impair NER-mediated DNA repair capacity and further lead to genomic instability and carcinogenesis. Two common nonsynonymous polymorphisms in the XPC gene, Lys939Gln (rs2228001 A > C) and Ala499Val (rs2228000 C > T), have been investigated in various types of cancer. We genotyped these two polymorphisms in 1141 cases with histologically confirmed colorectal cancer (CRC) and 1173 healthy controls to explore their causative association with CRC susceptibility. Overall, no association was observed between these two variants and the risk of CRC. Our meta-analysis also confirmed a lack of overall association. Stratified analyses were performed by age, gender, smoking status, pack-year, drinking status, tumor sites, and Duke’s stages. We found that XPC Lys939Gln polymorphism was significantly associated with an increased CRC risk in subjects at 57 years of age or younger (adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 1.37, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.004–1.86, p = 0.047) and non-drinkers (adjusted OR = 1.53, 95% CI = 1.10–2.12, p = 0.011). Our results indicated that XPC Lys939Gln may be a low-penetrance CRC susceptibility polymorphism. Our findings warrant further validation. PMID:27669310

  16. Association of XPC Gene Polymorphisms with Colorectal Cancer Risk in a Southern Chinese Population: A Case-Control Study and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Hua, Rui-Xi; Zhu, Jinhong; Jiang, Dan-Hua; Zhang, Shao-Dan; Zhang, Jiang-Bo; Xue, Wen-Qiong; Li, Xi-Zhao; Zhang, Pei-Fen; He, Jing; Jia, Wei-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Xeroderma pigmentosum group C (XPC) is a key component of the nucleotide excision repair (NER) pathway. Dysfunctional XPC protein may impair NER-mediated DNA repair capacity and further lead to genomic instability and carcinogenesis. Two common nonsynonymous polymorphisms in the XPC gene, Lys939Gln (rs2228001 A > C) and Ala499Val (rs2228000 C > T), have been investigated in various types of cancer. We genotyped these two polymorphisms in 1141 cases with histologically confirmed colorectal cancer (CRC) and 1173 healthy controls to explore their causative association with CRC susceptibility. Overall, no association was observed between these two variants and the risk of CRC. Our meta-analysis also confirmed a lack of overall association. Stratified analyses were performed by age, gender, smoking status, pack-year, drinking status, tumor sites, and Duke's stages. We found that XPC Lys939Gln polymorphism was significantly associated with an increased CRC risk in subjects at 57 years of age or younger (adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 1.37, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.004-1.86, p = 0.047) and non-drinkers (adjusted OR = 1.53, 95% CI = 1.10-2.12, p = 0.011). Our results indicated that XPC Lys939Gln may be a low-penetrance CRC susceptibility polymorphism. Our findings warrant further validation. PMID:27669310

  17. Oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy combined with traditional medicines for neutropenia in colorectal cancer: A meta-analysis of the contributions of specific plants.

    PubMed

    Chen, Menghua; May, Brian H; Zhou, Iris W; Sze, Daniel Man-Yuen; Xue, Charlie C; Zhang, Anthony L

    2016-09-01

    This review assessed the effects on chemotherapy induced neutropenia (CIN) of combining oxaliplatin regimens with traditional plant-based medicines (TMs) in the management of colorectal cancer (CRC). 32 RCTs (2224 participants) were included. Meta-analysis showed reduced incidence of grade 3/4 CIN (RR 0.45[0.31, 0.65], I(2)=0%). No studies reported serious adverse events or reduction in tumour response rates associated with concurrent use of oxaliplatin and TM. Due to small sample sizes and risk of bias, these results should be interpreted with caution. Analyses of sub-groups of studies that used similar TM interventions assessed the relative contributions of individual plant-based ingredients to the results. Astragalus, Codonopsis, Atractylodes, Poria and Coix, in various combinations were consistently associated with reduced CIN incidence when administered orally. Experimental studies of these plants have reported reduced myelosuppression and/or enhanced immune response. Further studies of these plants may lead to the development of interventions to supplement conventional CIN treatment. PMID:27497028

  18. Meta-analysis comparing maintenance strategies with continuous therapy and complete chemotherapy-free interval strategies in the treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Lei; Wang, Jing; Li, Huihui; Che, Juanjuan; Cao, Bangwei

    2016-05-31

    There is as yet no consensus as to the best choice among the three treatment options (maintenance, complete chemotherapy-free intervals [CFIs], and continuous) for metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC). We performed a meta-analysis of six trials (N = 2, 454 patients) to compare the safety and efficacy of those three treatment strategies. Maintenance appeared to offer an advantage over CFI with respect to progression-free survival (PFS) (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.53, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.40-0.69). PFS and overall survival (OS) were comparable between the maintenance and continuous strategies (HR: 1.18, 95% CI, 0.96-1.46; HR: 1.05, 95% CI, 0.98-1.27, respectively), as was OS between the maintenance and CFI strategies (HR: 0.84; 95% CI, 0.70-1.00). The incidence of grade 3/4 toxicity, including neutropenia, neuropathy, hand-foot syndrome and fatigue, was lower with maintenance than with continuous therapy. A maintenance regimen utilizing bevacizumab-based doublets appeared to confer a slight advantage over bevacizumab monotherapy with respect to PFS (P = 0.011). Maintenance appeared to reduce cumulative grade 3/4 toxicity as compared to the continuous strategy, while showing comparable efficacy. Bevacizumab-based doublets appeared to be of particular value in patients with metastatic CRC.

  19. Association between adult weight gain and colorectal cancer: a dose-response meta-analysis of observational studies.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qi; Wang, Jing; Yang, Jinghui; Jin, Zhichao; Shi, Wentao; Qin, Yingyi; Yu, Feifei; He, Jia

    2015-06-15

    This study investigated the association between adult weight gain and risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). Using terms related to weight gain and CRC, we searched PubMed, Embase and Web of Science for relevant studies published before June 2014. Two evaluators independently selected studies according to the selection criteria, and eight studies were included (three case-control and five cohort studies). Summary estimates were obtained using fixed- or random-effects models. The relative risk (RR) of the association between adult weight gain and CRC was 1.25 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.10-1.43); the RR was 1.30 (95% CI, 1.14-1.49) for colon cancer (CC) and 1.27 (95% CI, 1.02-1.58) for rectal cancer (RC) for the highest versus lowest category. For every 5-kg increase in adult weight, the risk increased by 5% (RR, 1.05; 95% CI, 1.02-1.09) for CRC, 6% (RR, 1.06; 95% CI, 1.02-1.11) for CC and 6% (RR, 1.06; 95% CI, 1.03-1.08) for RC. The subgroup analyses showed a positive association between adult weight gain and risk of CRC only in men, and the RR was 1.65 (95% CI, 1.42-1.92) for the highest versus lowest category of adult weight gain and 1.10 (95% CI, 1.06-1.15) for a 5-kg increase in adult weight. In conclusion, there is evidence that adult weight gain is associated with an increased risk of CRC. However, the positive association between adult weight gain and risk of CRC is stronger among men than among women.

  20. Comparative effectiveness of chemopreventive interventions for colorectal cancer: protocol for a systematic review and network meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    Veettil, Sajesh K.; Saokaew, Surasak; Lim, Kean Ghee; Ching, Siew Mooi; Phisalprapa, Pochamana

    2016-01-01

    Background Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer worldwide and is associated with substantial socioeconomic burden. Despite considerable research, including numerous randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and systematic reviews assessed the effect of various chemopreventive interventions for CRC, there remains uncertainty regarding the comparative effectiveness of these agents. No network meta-analytic study has been published to evaluate the efficacies of these agents for CRC. Therefore, the aim of this study is to summarise the direct and indirect evidence for these interventions to prevent CRC in average-high risk individuals, and to rank these agents for practical consideration. Methods We will acquire eligible studies through a systematic search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Central Registry of Controlled Trials, CINAHL plus, IPA and clinicaltrials.gov website. The Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool will be used to assess the quality of included studies. The primary outcomes are the incidence of CRC, the incidence/recurrence of any adenoma or change in polyp burden (number or size). Quantitative synthesis or meta-analysis will be considered. We will also construct a network meta-analysis (NMA) to improve precision of the comparisons among chemo-preventive interventions by combining direct and indirect evidence. The probability of each treatment being the best and/or safest, the number-needed-to-treat [NNT; 95% credible interval (CrIs)], and the number-needed-to-harm (NNH; 95% CrIs) will be calculated to provide measures of treatment efficacy. The GRADE approach will be used to rate the quality of evidence of estimates derived from NMA. Results This protocol has been registered (registration number: CRD42015025849) with the PROSPERO (International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews). The procedures of this systematic review and NMA will be conducted in accordance with the PRISMA-compliant guideline. The results of this systematic review and

  1. Tracking the Correlation Between CpG Island Methylator Phenotype and Other Molecular Features and Clinicopathological Features in Human Colorectal Cancers: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zong, Liang; Abe, Masanobu; Ji, Jiafu; Zhu, Wei-Guo; Yu, Duonan

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The controversy of CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP) in colorectal cancers (CRCs) persists, despite many studies that have been conducted on its correlation with molecular and clinicopathological features. To drive a more precise estimate of the strength of this postulated relationship, a meta-analysis was performed. Methods: A comprehensive search for studies reporting molecular and clinicopathological features of CRCs stratified by CIMP was performed within the PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library. CIMP was defined by either one of the three panels of gene-specific CIMP markers (Weisenberger panel, classic panel, or a mixture panel of the previous two) or the genome-wide DNA methylation profile. The associations of CIMP with outcome parameters were estimated using odds ratio (OR) or weighted mean difference (WMD) or hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence interval (CI) for each study using a fixed effects or random effects model. Results: A total of 29 studies involving 9,393 CRC patients were included for analysis. We observed more BRAF mutations (OR 34.87; 95% CI, 22.49–54.06) and microsatellite instability (MSI) (OR 12.85 95% CI, 8.84–18.68) in CIMP-positive vs. -negative CRCs, whereas KRAS mutations were less frequent (OR 0.47; 95% CI, 0.30–0.75). Subgroup analysis showed that only the genome-wide methylation profile-defined CIMP subset encompassed all BRAF-mutated CRCs. As expected, CIMP-positive CRCs displayed significant associations with female (OR 0.64; 95% CI, 0.56–0.72), older age at diagnosis (WMD 2.77; 95% CI, 1.15–4.38), proximal location (OR 6.91; 95% CI, 5.17–9.23), mucinous histology (OR 3.81; 95% CI, 2.93–4.95), and poor differentiation (OR 4.22; 95% CI, 2.52–7.08). Although CIMP did not show a correlation with tumor stage (OR 1.10; 95% CI, 0.82–1.46), it was associated with shorter overall survival (HR 1.73; 95% CI, 1.27–2.37). Conclusions: The meta-analysis highlights that CIMP-positive CRCs take their own

  2. Efficacy and toxicity of adding cetuximab to chemotherapy in the treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer: a meta-analysis from 12 randomized controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Lv, Zhong-Chuan; Ning, Jin-Yao; Chen, Hong-Bing

    2014-12-01

    Cetuxiamb, a monoclonal antibody against epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), has been used in combination with chemotherapy for patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). However, the efficacy of combined therapies of cetuximab and different chemotherapy regimens remains controversial. Therefore, we conducted a meta-analysis to evaluate the efficacy and toxicity of adding cetuximab to oxaliplatin-based or irinotecan-based chemotherapeutic regimens for the treatment of patients with mCRC with wild-type/mutated KRAS tumors. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs), published in Pubmed and Embase were systematically reviewed to assess the survival benefits and toxicity profile mCRC patients treated with cetuximab plus chemotherapy. Outcomes included overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), overall response rate (ORR), and toxicities. Results were expressed as the hazard ratio (HR) with 95 % confidence intervals (CI). Pooled estimates were generated by using a fixed-effects model or a randomized-effects model, depending on the heterogeneity among studies. A total of 12 trials involving 6,297 patients met the inclusion criteria and were included in this meta-analysis. All patients were administered oxaliplatin-based or irinotecan-based chemotherapy with or without cetuximab. Pooled results showed that the addition of cetuximab did not significantly improve the OS (HR = 0.99, 95 % CI = 0.89-1.09; Z = 0.28, P = 0.78) or PFS (HR = 0.94, 95 % CI = 0.81-1.10; Z = 0.76, P = 0.49), but did improve ORR (RR = 1.34, 95 % CI = 1.08-1.65; Z = 2.72, P = 0.00), when compared with chemotherapy alone. Subgroup analysis showed the highest PFS benefit in patients with wild-type KRAS tumors (HR = 0.80, 95 % CI = 0.65-0.99; Z = 2.1, P = 0.04) or wild-type KRAS/BRAF tumors (HR = 0.64, 95 % CI = 0.52-0.79; Z = 4.15, P = 0.00). When combined with cetuximab, irinotecan

  3. Colorectal Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... rectum are part of the large intestine. Colorectal cancer occurs when tumors form in the lining of ... men and women. The risk of developing colorectal cancer rises after age 50. You're also more ...

  4. Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors versus bevacizumab in metastatic colorectal cancer: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    LIN, ZEXIN; YANG, YILIN; HUANG, YONGLIANG; LIANG, JUNJIE; LU, FANG; LAO, XUEJUN

    2015-01-01

    Bevacizumab has demonstrated a survival benefit in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) when combined with chemotherapy. Several randomized clinical trials comparing the efficacy and toxicity of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) against bevacizumab have been reported. The present meta-analysis was conducted to identify the potentially significant benefit of the combined treatment regimens in patients with mCRC. PubMed, Embase and Cochrane Library databases were searched for the randomized controlled trials published on or before September 2014, which compared the efficacy and toxicity of VEGFR TKIs with bevacizumab in combination with chemotherapy in patients with mCRC. The primary endpoints included progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS) and overall response rate (ORR), and secondary endpoints were the toxicity profiles. Relative risks (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for response rate and adverse events (AEs) were calculated, as well as hazard ratios (HRs) for PFS and OS. The final analysis included 4 studies comprising a total of 1,929 intent-to-treat patients with mCRC, which compared VEGFR TKIs (cediranib and axitinib) plus chemotherapy with bevacizumab plus chemotherapy. Results demonstrated that VEGFR TKIs plus chemotherapy significantly resulted in a modest but significantly shorter PFS [hazard ratio (HR), 1.12; 95% CI, 1.00–1.25; P=0.05] compared with that of bevacizumab plus chemotherapy but not in OS (HR, 1.10; 95% CI, 0.88–1.17; P=0.87) and ORR (RR, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.85–1.05; P=0.30). VEGFR TKIs treatment showed a less favorable AE profile compared with bevacizumab, with higher rates of grade-III/IV diarrhea, fatigue, hypertension, neutropenia and thrombocytopenia, whereas a higher incidence of peripheral neuropathy associated with the bevacizumab group was observed. In conclusion, the addition of VEGFR TKIs to chemotherapy resulted in a modest but

  5. Dietary acrylamide and cancer risk: an updated meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Pelucchi, Claudio; Bosetti, Cristina; Galeone, Carlotta; La Vecchia, Carlo

    2015-06-15

    The debate on the potential carcinogenic effect of dietary acrylamide is open. In consideration of the recent findings from large prospective investigations, we conducted an updated meta-analysis on acrylamide intake and the risk of cancer at several sites. Up to July 2014, we identified 32 publications. We performed meta-analyses to calculate the summary relative risk (RR) of each cancer site for the highest versus lowest level of intake and for an increment of 10 µg/day of dietary acrylamide, through fixed-effects or random-effects models, depending on the heterogeneity test. Fourteen cancer sites could be examined. No meaningful associations were found for most cancers considered. The summary RRs for high versus low acrylamide intake were 0.87 for oral and pharyngeal, 1.14 for esophageal, 1.03 for stomach, 0.94 for colorectal, 0.93 for pancreatic, 1.10 for laryngeal, 0.88 for lung, 0.96 for breast, 1.06 for endometrial, 1.12 for ovarian, 1.00 for prostate, 0.93 for bladder and 1.13 for lymphoid malignancies. The RR was of borderline significance only for kidney cancer (RR = 1.20; 95% confidence interval, CI, 1.00-1.45). All the corresponding continuous estimates ranged between 0.95 and 1.03, and none of them was significant. Among never-smokers, borderline associations with dietary acrylamide emerged for endometrial (RR = 1.23; 95% CI, 1.00-1.51) and ovarian (RR = 1.39; 95% CI, 0.97-2.00) cancers. This systematic review and meta-analysis of epidemiological studies indicates that dietary acrylamide is not related to the risk of most common cancers. A modest association for kidney cancer, and for endometrial and ovarian cancers in never smokers only, cannot be excluded.

  6. Superoxide dismutase 2 gene and cancer risk: evidence from an updated meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Sang Wook

    2015-01-01

    Superoxide dismutase, one of the antioxidant enzymes, plays an important role in defense against reactive oxygen species. Many previous studies reported the association between SOD2 polymorphism and the cancer risk but the results were divergent. Therefore, we performed a meta-analysis to investigate the association between SOD2 polymorphism and the cancer susceptibility. We searched in Electronic database including Pubmed, Embase, google of scholar, and Korean Studies Information Service System (KISS) for this meta-analysis. Odds ratio (OR), 95 confidence interval (CI), and p value were calculated to evaluate the relation between SOD2 polymorphism and risk of cancer using Comprehensive Meta-analysis software (Corporation, NJ, USA). The fifty-two studies including 26,865 cancer cases and 32,464 control subjects were analyzed for meta-analysis. Our meta-analysis revealed that SOD2 polymorphism statistically increased or decreased the susceptibility of cancer. In the present study, we could find that SOD2 polymorphism was related to the development of non-Hodgkin lymphoma, lung cancer, and colorectal cancer. It suggested that SOD2 polymorphism might be a candidate marker of cancer. PMID:26628947

  7. Meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies identifies common susceptibility polymorphisms for colorectal and endometrial cancer near SH2B3 and TSHZ1

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Timothy HT; Thompson, Deborah; Painter, Jodie; O’Mara, Tracy; Gorman, Maggie; Martin, Lynn; Palles, Claire; Jones, Angela; Buchanan, Daniel D.; Ko Win, Aung; Hopper, John; Jenkins, Mark; Lindor, Noralane M.; Newcomb, Polly A.; Gallinger, Steve; Conti, David; Schumacher, Fred; Casey, Graham; Giles, Graham G; Pharoah, Paul; Peto, Julian; Cox, Angela; Swerdlow, Anthony; Couch, Fergus; Cunningham, Julie M; Goode, Ellen L; Winham, Stacey J; Lambrechts, Diether; Fasching, Peter; Burwinkel, Barbara; Brenner, Hermann; Brauch, Hiltrud; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Salvesen, Helga B.; Kristensen, Vessela; Darabi, Hatef; Li, Jingmei; Liu, Tao; Lindblom, Annika; Hall, Per; de Polanco, Magdalena Echeverry; Sans, Monica; Carracedo, Angel; Castellvi-Bel, Sergi; Rojas-Martinez, Augusto; Aguiar Jnr, Samuel; Teixeira, Manuel R.; Dunning, Alison M; Dennis, Joe; Otton, Geoffrey; Proietto, Tony; Holliday, Elizabeth; Attia, John; Ashton, Katie; Scott, Rodney J; McEvoy, Mark; Dowdy, Sean C; Fridley, Brooke L; Werner, Henrica MJ; Trovik, Jone; Njolstad, Tormund S; Tham, Emma; Mints, Miriam; Runnebaum, Ingo; Hillemanns, Peter; Dörk, Thilo; Amant, Frederic; Schrauwen, Stefanie; Hein, Alexander; Beckmann, Matthias W; Ekici, Arif; Czene, Kamila; Meindl, Alfons; Bolla, Manjeet K; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Tyrer, Jonathan P; Wang, Qin; Ahmed, Shahana; Healey, Catherine S; Shah, Mitul; Annibali, Daniela; Depreeuw, Jeroen; Al-Tassan, Nada A.; Harris, Rebecca; Meyer, Brian F.; Whiffin, Nicola; Hosking, Fay J; Kinnersley, Ben; Farrington, Susan M.; Timofeeva, Maria; Tenesa, Albert; Campbell, Harry; Haile, Robert W.; Hodgson, Shirley; Carvajal-Carmona, Luis; Cheadle, Jeremy P.; Easton, Douglas; Dunlop, Malcolm; Houlston, Richard; Spurdle, Amanda; Tomlinson, Ian

    2015-01-01

    High-risk mutations in several genes predispose to both colorectal cancer (CRC) and endometrial cancer (EC). We therefore hypothesised that some lower-risk genetic variants might also predispose to both CRC and EC. Using CRC and EC genome-wide association series, totalling 13,265 cancer cases and 40,245 controls, we found that the protective allele [G] at one previously-identified CRC polymorphism, rs2736100 near TERT, was associated with EC risk (odds ratio (OR) = 1.08, P = 0.000167); this polymorphism influences the risk of several other cancers. A further CRC polymorphism near TERC also showed evidence of association with EC (OR = 0.92; P = 0.03). Overall, however, there was no good evidence that the set of CRC polymorphisms was associated with EC risk, and neither of two previously-reported EC polymorphisms was associated with CRC risk. A combined analysis revealed one genome-wide significant polymorphism, rs3184504, on chromosome 12q24 (OR = 1.10, P = 7.23 × 10−9) with shared effects on CRC and EC risk. This polymorphism, a missense variant in the gene SH2B3, is also associated with haematological and autoimmune disorders, suggesting that it influences cancer risk through the immune response. Another polymorphism, rs12970291 near gene TSHZ1, was associated with both CRC and EC (OR = 1.26, P = 4.82 × 10−8), with the alleles showing opposite effects on the risks of the two cancers. PMID:26621817

  8. Meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies identifies common susceptibility polymorphisms for colorectal and endometrial cancer near SH2B3 and TSHZ1.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Timothy H T; Thompson, Deborah; Painter, Jodie; O'Mara, Tracy; Gorman, Maggie; Martin, Lynn; Palles, Claire; Jones, Angela; Buchanan, Daniel D; Ko Win, Aung; Hopper, John; Jenkins, Mark; Lindor, Noralane M; Newcomb, Polly A; Gallinger, Steve; Conti, David; Schumacher, Fred; Casey, Graham; Giles, Graham G; Pharoah, Paul; Peto, Julian; Cox, Angela; Swerdlow, Anthony; Couch, Fergus; Cunningham, Julie M; Goode, Ellen L; Winham, Stacey J; Lambrechts, Diether; Fasching, Peter; Burwinkel, Barbara; Brenner, Hermann; Brauch, Hiltrud; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Salvesen, Helga B; Kristensen, Vessela; Darabi, Hatef; Li, Jingmei; Liu, Tao; Lindblom, Annika; Hall, Per; de Polanco, Magdalena Echeverry; Sans, Monica; Carracedo, Angel; Castellvi-Bel, Sergi; Rojas-Martinez, Augusto; Aguiar Jnr, Samuel; Teixeira, Manuel R; Dunning, Alison M; Dennis, Joe; Otton, Geoffrey; Proietto, Tony; Holliday, Elizabeth; Attia, John; Ashton, Katie; Scott, Rodney J; McEvoy, Mark; Dowdy, Sean C; Fridley, Brooke L; Werner, Henrica M J; Trovik, Jone; Njolstad, Tormund S; Tham, Emma; Mints, Miriam; Runnebaum, Ingo; Hillemanns, Peter; Dörk, Thilo; Amant, Frederic; Schrauwen, Stefanie; Hein, Alexander; Beckmann, Matthias W; Ekici, Arif; Czene, Kamila; Meindl, Alfons; Bolla, Manjeet K; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Tyrer, Jonathan P; Wang, Qin; Ahmed, Shahana; Healey, Catherine S; Shah, Mitul; Annibali, Daniela; Depreeuw, Jeroen; Al-Tassan, Nada A; Harris, Rebecca; Meyer, Brian F; Whiffin, Nicola; Hosking, Fay J; Kinnersley, Ben; Farrington, Susan M; Timofeeva, Maria; Tenesa, Albert; Campbell, Harry; Haile, Robert W; Hodgson, Shirley; Carvajal-Carmona, Luis; Cheadle, Jeremy P; Easton, Douglas; Dunlop, Malcolm; Houlston, Richard; Spurdle, Amanda; Tomlinson, Ian

    2015-01-01

    High-risk mutations in several genes predispose to both colorectal cancer (CRC) and endometrial cancer (EC). We therefore hypothesised that some lower-risk genetic variants might also predispose to both CRC and EC. Using CRC and EC genome-wide association series, totalling 13,265 cancer cases and 40,245 controls, we found that the protective allele [G] at one previously-identified CRC polymorphism, rs2736100 near TERT, was associated with EC risk (odds ratio (OR) = 1.08, P = 0.000167); this polymorphism influences the risk of several other cancers. A further CRC polymorphism near TERC also showed evidence of association with EC (OR = 0.92; P = 0.03). Overall, however, there was no good evidence that the set of CRC polymorphisms was associated with EC risk, and neither of two previously-reported EC polymorphisms was associated with CRC risk. A combined analysis revealed one genome-wide significant polymorphism, rs3184504, on chromosome 12q24 (OR = 1.10, P = 7.23 × 10(-9)) with shared effects on CRC and EC risk. This polymorphism, a missense variant in the gene SH2B3, is also associated with haematological and autoimmune disorders, suggesting that it influences cancer risk through the immune response. Another polymorphism, rs12970291 near gene TSHZ1, was associated with both CRC and EC (OR = 1.26, P = 4.82 × 10(-8)), with the alleles showing opposite effects on the risks of the two cancers. PMID:26621817

  9. Methylation of SFRP2 gene as a promising noninvasive biomarker using feces in colorectal cancer diagnosis: a systematic meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Qihua; Huang, Tao; Ye, Guoliang; Wang, Bojun; Zhang, Xinjun

    2016-01-01

    Methylation of secreted frizzled-related protein genes (SFRP) associated with the Wnt signaling pathway has previously been reported. However, the diagnostic role of SFRP methylation in colorectal cancer (CRC) remains unclear. A systematic search was performed to identify eligible articles for analysis. The pooled OR showed that SFRP1, SFRP2, SFRP4 and SFRP5 methylation was significantly higher in CRC and benign mucosal lesions than in normal colonic mucosa. When CRC was compared to benign mucosal lesions, SFRP1 and SFRP2 methylation had a significantly higher OR, but methylated SFRP4 and SFRP5 had a similar OR. Moreover, the pooled sensitivity, specificity and AUC (area under the curve) of methylated SFRP2 in feces of patients with CRC vs. healthy subjects was 0.71, 0.94 and 0.94, respectively. Therefore, methylation of SFRP1 and SFRP2 may be significantly correlated with CRC. However, in a study with small sample size, methylated SFRP4 and SFRP5 were not shown to be closely associated with CRC. Additionally, detection of SFRP2 methylation in feces presents a potential noninvasive biomarker for CRC diagnosis. PMID:27659069

  10. Chinese Herbal Medicine and Fluorouracil-Based Chemotherapy for Colorectal Cancer: A Quality-Adjusted Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials.

    PubMed

    McCulloch, Michael; Ly, Helen; Broffman, Michael; See, Caylie; Clemons, Jen; Chang, Raymond

    2016-09-01

    Background Chinese herbal medicines reportedly increase efficacy and minimize toxicity of chemotherapy; however, little attention has been paid to how poor study quality can bias outcomes. Methods We systematically searched MEDLINE, TCMLARS, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library for randomized controlled trials of Chinese herbal medicines combined with fluorouracil-based chemotherapy compared with the same chemotherapy alone. We screened for eligibility, extracted data, and pooled data with random-effects meta-analysis. Outcome measures were survival, toxicity, tumor response, performance status, quality of life, and Cochrane Risk of Bias (ROB) criteria to critically evaluate the quality of reporting in the randomized trials included in the meta-analysis. Results We found 36 potentially eligible studies, with only 3 (those with low ROB) qualifying for meta-analysis. Two reported chemotherapy-related diarrhea reduced by 57% (relative risk [RR] = 0.43; 95% CI = 0.19-1.01; I(2) test for variation in RR due to heterogeneity = 0.0%), with nonsignificant results. Two reported white blood cell toxicity reduced by 66% (RR = 0.34; 95% CI = 0.16-0.72; I(2) test for variation in RR due to heterogeneity = 0.0%), with statistically significant results. Stratifying analysis by studies with high versus low ROB, we found substantial overestimation of benefit: Studies with high ROB overestimated by nearly 2-fold reduction of platelet toxicity by Chinese herbal medicines (RR = 0.35, 95% CI = 0.15-0.84 vs RR = 0.65, 95% CI = 0.11-3.92). Studies with high ROB overestimated by nearly 2-fold reduction of vomiting toxicity (RR = 0.45, 95% CI = 0.33-0.61 vs RR = 0.87, 95% CI = 0.48-1.58). And, studies with high ROB overestimated by 21% the reduction in diarrhea toxicity (RR = 0.34, 95% CI = 0.20-0.58 vs RR = 0.43, 95% CI = 0.19-1.01). Studies with high ROB also overestimated by 16% improvement in tumor response (RR = 1.39, 95% CI = 1.18-1.63 vs RR = 1.20; 95% CI = 0.81-1.79). Not accounting for

  11. Association of Vitamin D Receptor Cdx-2 Polymorphism With Cancer Risk: A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Dai, Zhi-Ming; Fei, Yu-Lang; Zhang, Wang-Gang; Liu, Jie; Cao, Xing-Mei; Qu, Qiu-Min; Li, Yan-Chun; Lin, Shuai; Wang, Meng; Dai, Zhi-Jun

    2015-08-01

    Vitamin D receptor (VDR) Cdx-2 polymorphism (rs11568820) has been indicated to be associated to cancer susceptibility. However, published studies reported mixed results. This meta-analysis was conducted to get a more accurate estimation of the association between Cdx-2 polymorphism and cancer risk.We identified 25 independent studies with a total of 34,018 subjects published prior to March 2015. Summary odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to evaluate the susceptibility to cancer. Separate analyses were conducted on features of the population such as ethnicity, source of controls, and cancer types.Meta-analysis results showed that Cdx-2 polymorphism significantly increased cancer risk in the homozygous model in overall analysis. According to the further stratified analysis, significant association was found between Cdx-2 variant and cancer risk in American-Africans in the homozygous, recessive, and dominant comparison models. However, no significant associations were found in Caucasians and Asians. When stratified by different cancer types, significant association was observed between Cdx-2 variant and an increased risk of colorectal cancer in the homozygous, recessive, and dominant models. In addition, ovarian cancer susceptibility increased based on the homozygous and dominant comparison models.Our study indicated that VDR Cdx-2 polymorphism was associated with an increased cancer risk, particularly in American-Africans, colorectal, and ovarian cancers. However, other factors may impact on the association. Further multicenter studies are needed to confirm the effects of Cdx-2 polymorphism on cancer susceptibility. PMID:26287424

  12. Polymorphisms in the intercellular adhesion molecule 1 gene and cancer risk: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Weifeng; Wang, Yafeng; Chen, Yuanmei; Gu, Haiyong; Chen, Shuchen; Kang, Mingqiang

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The correlation between intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) common polymorphisms (rs5498 A>G and rs3093030 C>T) and cancer susceptibility has been explored in various ethnic groups and different cancer types; however, these investigations have yielded contradictory results. To address the relationship more precisely, we performed this meta-analysis. Design and methods: EmBase, PubMed and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) databases were searched by two authors independently for eligible publications before April 8, 2015. Random-effects or fixed-effects model was harnessed to calculate the pooled odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) when appropriate. Results: The result suggested that the ICAM-1 rs5498 A>G polymorphism is not associated with cancer susceptibility in overall cancer. In a stratified analysis by ethnicity, a significant increased cancer risk was identified among Asians, but the inverse association was found among Caucasians. In a stratified analysis by cancer type, ICAM-1 rs5498 A>G polymorphism was associated with a significantly increased risk of oral cancer, but with protection from colorectal cancer and melanoma. ICAM-1 rs3093030 C>T polymorphism is not correlated with cancer susceptibility. Conclusions: In summary, this meta-analysis highlights that the ICAM-1 rs5498 A>G polymorphism probably contributes to decreased susceptibility to cancer, especially in Caucasians, in melanoma and colorectal cancer subgroup, but it may be a risk factor for oral cancer and Asians. PMID:26550112

  13. Selenium Exposure and Cancer Risk: an Updated Meta-analysis and Meta-regression

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Xianlei; Wang, Chen; Yu, Wanqi; Fan, Wenjie; Wang, Shan; Shen, Ning; Wu, Pengcheng; Li, Xiuyang; Wang, Fudi

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the associations between selenium exposure and cancer risk. We identified 69 studies and applied meta-analysis, meta-regression and dose-response analysis to obtain available evidence. The results indicated that high selenium exposure had a protective effect on cancer risk (pooled OR = 0.78; 95%CI: 0.73–0.83). The results of linear and nonlinear dose-response analysis indicated that high serum/plasma selenium and toenail selenium had the efficacy on cancer prevention. However, we did not find a protective efficacy of selenium supplement. High selenium exposure may have different effects on specific types of cancer. It decreased the risk of breast cancer, lung cancer, esophageal cancer, gastric cancer, and prostate cancer, but it was not associated with colorectal cancer, bladder cancer, and skin cancer. PMID:26786590

  14. 6 Common Cancers - Colorectal Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues 6 Common Cancers - Colorectal Cancer Past Issues / Spring 2007 Table of Contents For ... colon cancer. Photo: AP Photo/Ron Edmonds Colorectal Cancer Cancer of the colon (large intestine) or rectum ( ...

  15. Human papillomavirus and breast cancer in Iran: a meta- analysis

    PubMed Central

    Haghshenas, Mohammad Reza; Mousavi, Tahoora; Moosazadeh, Mahmood; Afshari, Mahdi

    2016-01-01

    Objective(s): This study aims to investigate the relationship between human papillomavirus (HPV) and breast cancer using meta- analysis. Materials and Methods: Relevant studies were identified reviewing the national and international databases. We also increased the search sensitivity by investigating the references as well as interview with research centers and experts. Finally, quality assessment and implementation of inclusion/exclusion criteria determined the eligible articles for meta-analysis. Based on the heterogeneity observed among the results of the primary studies, random effects model was used to estimate the pooled prevalence of HPV infection and also pooled odds ratio between HPV and developing breast cancer using Stata SE V. 11 software. Results: This meta- analysis included 11 primary studies investigating the HPV infection prevalence among 1539 Iranian women. Pooled prevalence (95% confidence interval) of HPV infection among Iranian women with breast cancer was estimated as of 23.6% (6.7- 40.5), while, the odds ratio (95% confidence interval) between HPV infection and developing breast cancer was estimated as of 5.7% (0.7- 46.8). Conclusion: This meta- analysis showed a high prevalence of HPV infection among women with breast cancer. We also found that the odds of developing breast cancer among women with breast cancer was more than that of women without breast cancer. PMID:27114791

  16. Dietary magnesium intake and risk of cancer: a meta-analysis of epidemiologic studies.

    PubMed

    Ko, Hae Jin; Youn, Chang Ho; Kim, Hyo Min; Cho, Yoon Jeong; Lee, Geon Ho; Lee, Won Kee

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association between dietary magnesium and the risk of overall cancer using a meta-analysis. We searched PubMed, SCOPUS, and the Cochrane Review through November 2012. All the articles searched were independently reviewed by 3 authors based on predetermined selection criterion. A total of 13 epidemiologic studies, 6 case-control studies, and 7 prospective cohort studies involving 1,236,004 participants were included in the final analysis. When all studies were pooled, the relative risk (RR) of overall cancer for the highest level of dietary magnesium intake was 0.801 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.664-0.966) compared with the lowest level of dietary magnesium intake. In subgroup meta-analyses by study design, there was a significant inverse association between dietary magnesium and the risk of cancer in case-control studies (RR = 0.663, 95% CI: 0.475-0.925), whereas there was no significant association in prospective cohort studies (RR = 0.888, 95% CI: 0.745-1.060). Furthermore, there was a significant preventive effect of dietary magnesium for colorectal cancer (RR = 0.775, 95% CI: 0.655-0.919), but not for other cancer. Our meta-analysis showed that higher dietary magnesium intake seems to have a protective effect for cancer, especially colorectal cancer and in females.

  17. Colorectal Cancer Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... Genetics of Colorectal Cancer Colorectal cancer is the second leading cause of death from cancer in the ... professional versions have detailed information written in technical language. The patient versions are written in easy-to- ...

  18. Five Myths about Colorectal Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... ACS » Your Local Offices Close + - Text Size Five Myths About Colorectal Cancer In many cases, colorectal cancer ... screening tests you need, when you need them. Myth: Colorectal cancer is a man’s disease. Truth: Colorectal ...

  19. Egg consumption and breast cancer risk: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Si, Ruohuang; Qu, Kunpeng; Jiang, Zebin; Yang, Xiaojun; Gao, Peng

    2014-05-01

    The relationship between egg consumption and breast cancer risk has been inconsistent, so it is necessary to conduct a meta-analysis to evaluate the relationship. PubMed, EMBASE and ISI Web of Knowledge were searched to find cohort studies or case control studies that evaluated the relationship between egg consumption and breast cancer risk. A comprehensive meta-analysis software was used to conduct the meta-analysis. 13 studies were included. The meta-analysis results showed that egg consumption was associated with increased breast cancer risk (RR 1.04, 95 % CI 1.01-1.08). Subgroup analyses showed egg consumption was also associated with increased breast cancer risk based on cohort studies (RR 1.04, 95 % CI 1.00-1.08), among European population (RR 1.05, 95 % CI 1.01-1.09), Asian population (RR 1.09, 95 % CI 1.00-1.18), postmenopausal population (RR 1.06, 95 % CI 1.02-1.10), and those who consumed ≥2, ≤5/week (RR 1.10, 95 % CI 1.02-1.17), but not in case-control studies (RR 1.06, 95 % CI 0.97-1.15), among American population (RR 1.04, 95 % CI 0.94-1.16), premenopausal population (RR 1.04, 95 % CI 0.98-1.11) and those who consumed ≥1, <2/week (RR 1.04, 95 % CI 0.97-1.11) or >5 eggs/week (RR 0.97, 95 % CI 0.88-1.06). Egg consumption was associated with increased breast cancer risk among the European, Asian and postmenopausal population and those who consumed ≥2, ≤5/week. PMID:24504557

  20. Efficacy and safety of anti-epidermal growth factor receptor therapy compared with anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapy for metastatic colorectal cancer in first-line and second-line therapies: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hongchi; Ma, Bin; Gao, Peng; Song, Yongxi; Xu, Qingzhou; Hu, Yaoyuan; Zhang, Cong; Wang, Zhenning

    2016-01-01

    Aim This study aimed to compare anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (anti-EGFR) therapy and anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapy as first-line and second-line therapies in patients with KRAS exon 2 codon 12/13 wild-type (KRAS-WT) metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). Methods Major databases were systematically searched. The hazard ratio (HR), odds ratio (OR), and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were used to estimate the effect measures. Review Manager software version 5.3 was used for statistical analysis. Results Seven trials including ten articles were eligible in the meta-analysis. The patients treated with anti-EGFR as first-line therapy showed a longer overall survival (OS) for KRAS-WT and all RAS wild-type (RAS-WT) mCRC (HR =0.81, 95% CI: 0.72–0.92, P<0.01, n=5; HR =0.78, 95% CI: 0.66–0.93, P<0.01, n=3, respectively). The objective response rate (ORR) was better with the anti-EGFR therapy for KRAS-WT and all RAS-WT mCRC (OR =1.32, 95% CI: 1.11–1.56, P<0.01, n=5; OR =1.55, 95% CI: 1.21–2.00, P<0.01, n=3, respectively). There was no difference in progression-free survival (PFS) for KRAS-WT mCRC and all RAS-WT mCRC between the two groups (HR =1.00; 95% CI: 0.92–1.09, P=0.99, n=4; HR =0.92, 95% CI: 0.71–1.19, P=0.52, n=3, respectively). In addition, two trials provided data on the second-line therapy; there was no significant difference in OS and PFS for the second-line therapy, but a significant improvement in ORR was found in the anti-EGFR group (OR =1.91, 95% CI: 1.16–3.16, P=0.01, n=2). No difference in the conversion therapy (OR =1.34; 95% CI: 0.91–1.99; P=0.14, n=4) was observed between the two therapies. Conclusion Our results indicate that anti-EGFR therapy is superior to anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapy for OS and ORR as a first-line therapy for KRAS-WT mCRC. In the second-line therapy, there was no significant difference in the survival outcomes on the basis of OS and PFS between the two groups. However, ORR

  1. Efficacy and safety of anti-epidermal growth factor receptor therapy compared with anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapy for metastatic colorectal cancer in first-line and second-line therapies: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hongchi; Ma, Bin; Gao, Peng; Song, Yongxi; Xu, Qingzhou; Hu, Yaoyuan; Zhang, Cong; Wang, Zhenning

    2016-01-01

    Aim This study aimed to compare anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (anti-EGFR) therapy and anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapy as first-line and second-line therapies in patients with KRAS exon 2 codon 12/13 wild-type (KRAS-WT) metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). Methods Major databases were systematically searched. The hazard ratio (HR), odds ratio (OR), and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were used to estimate the effect measures. Review Manager software version 5.3 was used for statistical analysis. Results Seven trials including ten articles were eligible in the meta-analysis. The patients treated with anti-EGFR as first-line therapy showed a longer overall survival (OS) for KRAS-WT and all RAS wild-type (RAS-WT) mCRC (HR =0.81, 95% CI: 0.72–0.92, P<0.01, n=5; HR =0.78, 95% CI: 0.66–0.93, P<0.01, n=3, respectively). The objective response rate (ORR) was better with the anti-EGFR therapy for KRAS-WT and all RAS-WT mCRC (OR =1.32, 95% CI: 1.11–1.56, P<0.01, n=5; OR =1.55, 95% CI: 1.21–2.00, P<0.01, n=3, respectively). There was no difference in progression-free survival (PFS) for KRAS-WT mCRC and all RAS-WT mCRC between the two groups (HR =1.00; 95% CI: 0.92–1.09, P=0.99, n=4; HR =0.92, 95% CI: 0.71–1.19, P=0.52, n=3, respectively). In addition, two trials provided data on the second-line therapy; there was no significant difference in OS and PFS for the second-line therapy, but a significant improvement in ORR was found in the anti-EGFR group (OR =1.91, 95% CI: 1.16–3.16, P=0.01, n=2). No difference in the conversion therapy (OR =1.34; 95% CI: 0.91–1.99; P=0.14, n=4) was observed between the two therapies. Conclusion Our results indicate that anti-EGFR therapy is superior to anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapy for OS and ORR as a first-line therapy for KRAS-WT mCRC. In the second-line therapy, there was no significant difference in the survival outcomes on the basis of OS and PFS between the two groups. However, ORR

  2. Meta-Analysis of Massage Therapy on Cancer Pain.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sook-Hyun; Kim, Jong-Yeop; Yeo, Sujung; Kim, Sung-Hoon; Lim, Sabina

    2015-07-01

    Cancer pain is the most common complaint among patients with cancer. Conventional treatment does not always relieve cancer pain satisfactorily. Therefore, many patients with cancer have turned to complementary therapies to help them with their physical, emotional, and spiritual well-being. Massage therapy is increasingly used for symptom relief in patients with cancer. The current study aimed to investigate by meta-analysis the effects of massage therapy for cancer patients experiencing pain. Nine electronic databases were systematically searched for studies published through August 2013 in English, Chinese, and Korean. Methodological quality was assessed using the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) and Cochrane risk-of-bias scales. Twelve studies, including 559 participants, were used in the meta-analysis. In 9 high-quality studies based on the PEDro scale (standardized mean difference, -1.24; 95% confidence interval, -1.72 to -0.75), we observed reduction in cancer pain after massage. Massage therapy significantly reduced cancer pain compared with no massage treatment or conventional care (standardized mean difference, -1.25; 95% confidence interval, -1.63 to -0.87). Our results indicate that massage is effective for the relief of cancer pain, especially for surgery-related pain. Among the various types of massage, foot reflexology appeared to be more effective than body or aroma massage. Our meta-analysis indicated a beneficial effect of massage for relief of cancer pain. Further well-designed, large studies with longer follow-up periods are needed to be able to draw firmer conclusions regarding the effectiveness. PMID:25784669

  3. Red and processed meat intake and risk of colorectal adenomas: a meta-analysis of observational studies.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaodong; Yu, Enda; Gao, Xianhua; Song, Ning; Liu, Lianjie; Wei, Xubiao; Zhang, Wei; Fu, Chuangang

    2013-01-15

    Inconsistent results regarding the association between red and processed meat intake and the risk of colorectal adenoma (CRA), the precursor of colorectal cancer (CRC), have been reported. To provide a quantitative assessment of this association, we summarized the evidence from observational studies. Relevant studies were identified in MEDLINE and EMBASE until December 31, 2011. Summary relative risks (SRRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were pooled with a random-effects model. Between-study heterogeneity was assessed using the Cochran's Q and I(2) statistics. A total of 21 studies (16 case-control studies and five cohort/nested case-control studies) were included in this meta-analysis. The SRRs of CRA were 1.36 (95% CI = 1.17-1.58) for every 100 g/day increase in red meat intake, and 1.24 (95% CI = 1.12-1.36) for the highest versus the lowest level of red meat intake. Nonlinear dose-response meta-analysis indicated that CRA risk increased approximately linearly with increasing intake of red meat up to ~ 90 g/day, where the curve reached its plateau. Subgrouped analyses revealed that the increased risk of CRA with intake of red meat was independent of geographic locations, design and confounders. The SRRs of CRA was 1.28 (95% CI = 1.03-1.60) for per 50 g/day increase in processed meat intake, and 1.17 (95% CI = 1.08-1.26) for the highest versus the lowest level of processed meat intake. Increased intake of red and processed meat is associated with significantly increased risk of CRA.

  4. Endoscopic versus surgical resection for early colorectal cancer—a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    de Moura, Eduardo Guimaraes Hourneaux; Bernardo, Wanderley Marques; Leite de Castro, Vinicius; Morais, Cintia; Baba, Elisa Ryoka; Safatle-Ribeiro, Adriana Vaz

    2016-01-01

    Background To investigate the available data on the treatment of early colorectal cancer (CRC), either endoscopically or surgically. Methods Two independent reviewers searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, CENTRAL COCHRANE, LILACS and EBSCO for articles published up to August 2015. No language or dates filters were applied. Inclusion criteria were studies with published data about patients with early colonic or rectal cancer undergoing either endoscopic resection (i.e., mucosectomy or submucosal dissection) or surgical resection (i.e., open or laparoscopic). Extracted data items undergoing meta-analysis were en bloc resection rate, curative resection rate, and complications. A complementary analysis was performed on procedure time. The risk of bias among studies was evaluated with funnel-plot expressions, and sensitivity analyses were carried out whenever a high heterogeneity was found. The risk of bias within studies was assessed with the Newcastle score. Results A total of 12,819 articles were identified in the preliminary search. After applying inclusion and exclusion criteria, three cohort studies with a total of 768 patients undergoing endoscopic resection and 552 patients undergoing surgical resection were included. The en bloc resection rate risk difference was −11% [−13%, −8% confidence interval (CI)], demonstrating worse outcome results for the endoscopic resection group as compared to the surgical resection group [number need to harm (NNH) =10]. The curative resection rate risk difference was −9% [(−12%, 6% CI)] after a sensitivity analysis was performed, which also demonstrated worse outcomes in the intervention group (NNH =12). The complications rate exhibited a −7% risk difference [(−11%, −4% CI)], denoting a lesser number of complications in the endoscopic group [Number Need to Treat (NNT =15). A complementary analysis of procedure time with two of the selected studies demonstrated a mean difference of −118.32 min [(−127.77, −108.87 CI)], in

  5. NAT1 polymorphisms and cancer risk: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Kunyi; Gao, Lijuan; Wu, Yuqi; Chen, Jianyi; Lin, Chengguang; Liang, Shaohua; Su, Jianxin; Ye, Jinming; He, Xuyu

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the association between the N-acetyltransferase 1 (NAT1) slow and rapid acetylation phenotypes with cancer risk based on a meta-analysis. Methods: Previously published case-control studies were retrieved from PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were determined to assess the relationship between NAT1 polymorphisms and cancer risk. Results: A total of 73 studies (24874 cases and 30226 controls) were included in this meta-analysis. No significant association was identified between NAT1 polymorphisms (slow acetylation versus rapid acetylation genotypes: OR = 0.978, 95% CI = 0.927-1.030, P < 0.001 for heterogeneity, I2 = 45.5%) and cancer risk, whereas a significantly reduced risk of pancreatic cancer was identified in individuals with NAT1 slow acetylation genotype (OR = 0.856, 95% CI = 0.733-0.999, P =0.509 for heterogeneity, I2 = 0). When the NAT1 slow acetylation genotype was analysed on the basis of stratified analyses of ethnicity, a significantly reduced risk of head and neck cancers was found among Asian (OR=0.281, 95% CI = 0.127-0.622). When the NAT1 slow acetylation genotype was analysed on the basis of stratified analyses of source of control, only significantly reduced risks of colorectal cancer (OR = 0.882, 95% CI = 0.798- 0.974, P = 0.212 for heterogeneity, I2 = 22.9) and pancreatic cancer (OR=0.856, 95% CI = 0.733-0.999, P = 0.509 for heterogeneity, I2 = 0) were found among hospital-based studies. Conclusions: No significant association between the NAT1 polymorphisms and the risk of cancer was found except for pancreatic cancer. PMID:26309576

  6. Synchronous trifocal colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Charalampoudis, Petros; Kykalos, Stylianos; Stamopoulos, Paraskevas; Kouraklis, Gregory

    2016-01-01

    Synchronous colorectal cancers (SCRCs) have been increasingly diagnosed due to emerging diagnostic modalities. The presence of three or more synchronous colorectal cancers has, however, only rarely been reported. A 76-year-old white man presented for management of two concurrent colorectal adenocarcinomas in the left colon evidenced on total colonoscopy. Preoperative abdominal ultrasonography and thoracoabdominal computed tomography were negative for metastatic disease. The patient underwent an elective left hemicolectomy. The pathology report ultimately showed the presence of three moderately differentiated, distinct colorectal cancers. The patient experienced an uneventful recovery. PMID:27695171

  7. Synchronous trifocal colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Charalampoudis, Petros; Kykalos, Stylianos; Stamopoulos, Paraskevas; Kouraklis, Gregory

    2016-01-01

    Synchronous colorectal cancers (SCRCs) have been increasingly diagnosed due to emerging diagnostic modalities. The presence of three or more synchronous colorectal cancers has, however, only rarely been reported. A 76-year-old white man presented for management of two concurrent colorectal adenocarcinomas in the left colon evidenced on total colonoscopy. Preoperative abdominal ultrasonography and thoracoabdominal computed tomography were negative for metastatic disease. The patient underwent an elective left hemicolectomy. The pathology report ultimately showed the presence of three moderately differentiated, distinct colorectal cancers. The patient experienced an uneventful recovery.

  8. MICA polymorphisms and cancer risk: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Ji, Mengyao; Wang, Jun; Yuan, Lei; Zhang, Yunting; Zhang, Jixiang; Dong, Weiguo; Peng, Xiulan

    2015-01-01

    The major histocompatibility complex class I chain-related gene A transmembrane (MICA-TM) polymorphism has been implicated in susceptibility to cancer. However, the results are inconsistent. The aim of this meta-analysis is to evaluate the association between the MICA-TM polymorphisms and cancer risk. All eligible case-control studies published up to August 20, 2014 were identified by searching PubMed, Web of Science, CNKI and Wanfang databases. The cancer risk associated with the MICA polymorphism was estimated for each study by odds ratios (OR) together with its 95% confidence interval (CI), respectively. 21 studies from 19 publications with 3620 cases and 4903 controls were included. Overall, no significant associations between the MICA-TM polymorphism and cancer risk were found (A4 allele: OR = 0.97, 95% CI: 0.88-1.07; A5 allele: OR = 0.91, 95% CI: 0.81-1.04; A5.1 allele: OR = 1.03, 95% CI: 0.89-1.18; A6 allele: OR = 1.05, 95% CI: 0.95-1.15; A9 allele: OR = 0.96, 95% CI: 0.80-1.14; A10 allele: OR = 0.88, 95% CI: 0.43-1.79; del: OR = 2.50, 95% CI: 0.73-8.58; A7 allele: OR = 0.93, 95% CI: 0.43-2.00). When stratified by ethnicity, similar results were observed among Asians; however, there were significant association in Caucasian population for A5 (OR = 0.77, 95% CI: 0.68-0.87) and A9 allele (OR = 0.75, 95% CI: 0.66-0.85). This meta-analysis suggests that the MICA-TM A5 and A9 alleles may be an important protective factor for cancer in Caucasian populations.

  9. Colorectal endoscopic submucosal dissection: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Akintoye, Emmanuel; Kumar, Nitin; Aihara, Hiroyuki; Nas, Hala; Thompson, Christopher C.

    2016-01-01

    Background and study aims: Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) is an advanced endoscopic technique that allows en-bloc resection of gastrointestinal tumor. We systematically review the medical literature in order to evaluate the safety and efficacy of colorectal ESD. Patients and methods: We performed a comprehensive literature search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, Ovid, CINAHL, and Cochrane for studies reporting on the clinical efficacy and safety profile of colorectal ESD. Results: Included in this study were 13833 tumors in 13603 patients (42 % female) who underwent colorectal ESD between 1998 and 2014. The R0 resection rate was 83 % (95 % CI, 80 – 86 %) with significant between-study heterogeneity (P < 0.001) which was partly explained by difference in continent (P = 0.004), study design (P = 0.04), duration of the procedure (P = 0.009), and, marginally, by average tumor size (P = 0.09). Endoscopic en bloc and curative resection rates were 92 % (95 % CI, 90 – 94 %) and 86 % (95 % CI, 80 – 90 %), respectively. The rates of immediate and delayed perforation were 4.2 % (95 % CI, 3.5 – 5.0 %) and 0.22 % (95 % CI, 0.11 – 0.46 %), respectively, while rates of immediate and delayed major bleeding were 0.75 % (95 % CI, 0.31 – 1.8 %) and 2.1 % (95 % CI, 1.6 – 2.6 %). After an average postoperative follow up of 19 months, the rate of tumor recurrence was 0.04 % (95 % CI, 0.01 – 0.31) among those with R0 resection and 3.6 % (95 % CI, 1.4 – 8.8 %) among those without R0 resection. Overall, irrespective of the resection status, recurrence rate was 1.0 % (95 % CI, 0.42 – 2.1 %). Conclusions: Our meta-analysis, the largest and most comprehensive assessment of colorectal ESD to date, showed that colorectal ESD is safe and effective for colorectal tumors and warrants consideration as first-line therapy when an expert operator is available. PMID

  10. The effect of neuraxial anesthesia on cancer recurrence and survival after cancer surgery: an updated meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Weng, Meilin; Chen, Wankun; Hou, Wenting; Li, Lihong; Ding, Ming; Miao, Changhong

    2016-01-01

    Several animal and observational studies have evaluated the effects of neuraxial anesthesia on the recurrence and survival of cancer surgery; studies reported benefit, whereas others did not. To provide further evidence that neuraxial anesthesia(combined with or without general anesthesia (GA))may be associated with reduced cancer recurrence and long-term survival after cancer surgery, we conducted this meta-analysis. A total of 21 studies were identified and analyzed, based on searches conducted using PubMed, Web of Science, EMBASE database and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. After data abstraction, adjusted hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to assess the impact of neuraxial anesthesia (combined with or without GA) and GA on oncological outcomes after cancer surgery. For overall survival (OS), a potential association between neuraxial anesthesia and improved OS (HR 0.853, CI 0.741-0.981, P = 0.026, the random-effects model) was observed compared with GA. Specifically, we found a positive association between neuraxial anesthesia and improved OS in colorectal cancer (HR 0.653, CI 0.430-0.991, P = 0.045, the random-effects model). For recurrence-free survival (RFS), a significant association between neuraxial anesthesia and improved RFS (HR 0.846, CI 0.718-0.998, P = 0.047, the random-effects model) was detected compared with GA. Our meta-analysis suggests that neuraxial anesthesia may be associated with improved OS in patients with cancer surgery, especially for those patients with colorectal cancer. It also supports a potential association between neuraxial anesthesia and a reduced risk of cancer recurrence. More prospective studies are needed to elucidate whether the association between neuraxial use and survival is causative. PMID:26918830

  11. Inherited Colorectal Cancer Syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Kastrinos, Fay; Syngal, Sapna

    2011-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is the most common gastrointestinal malignancy and the second leading cause of cancer death in both men and women in the United States. Most colorectal cancer cases diagnosed annually are due to sporadic events but up to 5% are attributed to known monogenic disorders including Lynch syndrome, Familial Adenomatous Polyposis, MYH-associated polyposis, and the rare hamartomatous polyposis syndromes. These inherited colorectal cancer syndromes confer a markedly increased risk for the development of multiple cancers and predictive genetic testing is available to identify mutation carriers and at-risk family members. Through personalized strategies for diagnosis and management, a substantial reduction in morbidity and mortality has been appreciated among patients at highest risk for the development of colorectal cancer. PMID:22157284

  12. Chemoprevention of colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Lang, Michaela; Gasche, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer has become one of the most prevalent malignant diseases for both men and women. Patients with inflammatory bowel diseases or certain inherited cancer syndromes are at high risk of developing colorectal cancer and have naturally the highest need for cancer prevention. In familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) and Lynch syndrome, most of the underlying germline mutations can be detected by DNA sequencing, and medical counselling of affected individuals involves both surveillance tests and chemopreventive measures. However, as the mechanisms leading to colorectal cancer differ in these high-risk groups, the molecular action of chemopreventive drugs needs to be adjusted to the certain pathway of carcinogenesis. In the last decades, a number of drugs have been tested, including sulindac, aspirin, celecoxib, and mesalazine, but some of them are still controversially discussed. This review summarizes the advances and current standards of colorectal cancer prevention in patients with inflammatory bowel disease, FAP and Lynch syndrome. PMID:25531498

  13. Epidemiology of colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Marley, Andrew R; Nan, Hongmei

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is currently the third deadliest cancer in the United States and will claim an estimated 49,190 U.S. lives in 2016. The purpose of this review is to summarize our current understanding of this disease, based on nationally published statistics and information presented in peer-reviewed journal articles. Specifically, this review will cover the following topics: descriptive epidemiology (including time and disease trends both in the United States and abroad), risk factors (environmental, genetic, and gene-environment interactions), screening, prevention and control, and treatment. Landmark discoveries in colorectal cancer risk factor research will also be presented. Based on the information reviewed for this report, we suggest that future U.S. public health efforts aim to increase colorectal cancer screening among African American communities, and that future worldwide colorectal cancer epidemiology studies should focus on researching nutrient-gene interactions towards the goal of improving personalized treatment and prevention strategies. PMID:27766137

  14. The Association between Telomere Length and Cancer Prognosis: Evidence from a Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Lu; Zhou, Ying; Wang, Chao; Hou, Shuxun

    2015-01-01

    Background Telomeres are essential for chromosomal integrity and stability. Shortened telomere length (TL) has been associated with risk of cancers and aging-related diseases. Several studies have explored associations between TL and cancer prognosis, but the results are conflicting. Methods Prospective studies on the relationship between TL and cancer survival were identified by a search of PubMed up to May 25, 2015. There were no restrictions on the cancer type or DNA source. The quality of the included studies was assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Meta-analysis approaches were conducted to determine pooled relative risks and 95% confidence intervals. Results Thirty-three articles containing forty-five independent studies were ultimately involved in our meta-analysis, of which twenty-seven were about overall cancer survival and eighteen were about cancer progression. Short TL was associated with increased cancer mortality risk (RR = 1.30, 95%CI: 1.06–1.59) and poor cancer progression (RR = 1.44, 95%CI: 1.10–1.88), both with high levels of heterogeneity (I2 = 83.5%, P = 0.012for overall survival and I2 = 75.4%, P = 0.008 for progression). TL was an independent predictor of overall cancer survival and progression in chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Besides, short telomeres were also associated with increased colorectal cancer mortality and decreased overall survival of esophageal cancer, but not in other cancers. Cancer progression was associated with TL in Asian and America populations and short TL predicted poor cancer survival in older populations. Compared with tumor tissue cells, TL in blood lymphocyte cells was better for prediction. In addition, the associations remained significant when restricted to studies with adjustments for age, with larger sample sizes, measuring TL using southern blotting or estimating risk effects by hazard ratios. Conclusion Short TL demonstrated a significant association with poor cancer survival, suggesting the

  15. Risks of Colorectal Cancer Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... Genetics of Colorectal Cancer Colorectal cancer is the second leading cause of death from cancer in the ... professional versions have detailed information written in technical language. The patient versions are written in easy-to- ...

  16. Meta-Analysis of the Prognostic Value of Smad4 Immunohistochemistry in Various Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Zebo; Qiu, Tianzhu; Wang, Jian; Zhu, Wei; Wang, Tongshan; Liu, Ping

    2014-01-01

    Background Accumulating evidence indicates that Smad4 (DPC4) plays a fundamental role in the development and prognosis of several types of cancer. The objective of this study was to conduct a meta-analysis to evaluate whether the loss of Smad4 staining could serve as a prognostic marker. Methods A comprehensive meta-analysis was conducted using major useful databases to determine the relationship between the immunohistochemical detection of Smad4 and the survival of patients with various cancers. We used hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence interval (CIs) as the effect estimation to evaluate the association of Smad4 with overall survival (OS), cancer-specific survival (CSS) or recurrence-free survival (RFS). The relationship between the clinical characteristics of patients and Smad4 was also evaluated using the odds ratio (OR). Results A total of 7570 patients from 26 studies were included in the analysis. The pooled results showed that loss of Smad4 staining was a negative predictor of OS with an HR of 1.97 (95% CI: 1.55–2.51; Pheterogeneity<0.001) and CSS/RFS (HR = 1.81; 95% CI: 1.30–2.54; Pheterogeneity<0.001). In addition, loss of Smad4 staining was more likely to be found in older (OR = 1.69, 95% CI: 1.09–2.61; Pheterogeneity = 0.648) colorectal cancer patients with a late tumor stage (OR = 2.31, 95% CI: 1.71–3.10; Pheterogeneity = 0.218) and in gastric cancer patients with lymph node metastasis (OR = 2.11, 95% CI: 1.03–4.34; Pheterogeneity = 0.038). Conclusion Based on these results, our meta-analysis provided evidence that loss of Smad4 staining could act as an unfavorable biomarker in the prognosis of various cancers and should be used as a powerful tool in future clinical trials. PMID:25333693

  17. Association between the FTOrs8050136 polymorphism and cancer risk: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jian; Huang, Xiaoyi; Yang, Mingyuan; Li, Ming; Zheng, Jianming

    2016-01-01

    A meta-analysis on cancer risk relevant to FTOrs8050136 polymorphism. To investigate the comprehensive effect of FTOrs8050136 polymorphism on cancer risk based on a pooled result. Carcinogenesis is closely related to obesity. Both obesity and cancer share common pathogenic factors such as hereditary susceptibility and environmental predisposition. Recently, several studies had reported that the FTOrs8050136 polymorphism, a genetic variation highly associated with obesity, can be a potential cancer risk factor, while these results were inconsistent. With the help of PubMed, EMBASE, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure considerable research was done for potential studies without language restriction. Pooled odds ratio combined with 95 % confidence interval was employed to evaluate the potential correlations, and subgroup analyses were performed based on the cancer types and ethnic populations. There were eight articles comprising 21,810 cases and 85,070 controls met the eligibility criteria. Overall, there was no significant association between the FTOrs8050136 polymorphism and cancer risk (P = 0.163). Subgroup analysis illustrated that no association existed between the FTOrs8050136 polymorphism and cancer risk in Caucasians (P = 0.809), Asians (P = 0.412) and the mixed population (P = 0.093). With regard to cancer types, the result suggested that the FTOrs8050136 polymorphism had no connection with pancreatic cancer (P = 0.089), endometrial cancer (P = 0.353), prostate cancer (P = 0.578), colorectal cancer (P = 0.054) and melanoma (P = 0.357), while the inverse result was obtained in the subgroup of papillary thyroid cancer (P = 0.010). The FTOrs8050136 polymorphism may be not associated with carcinogenesis apart from papillary thyroid cancer, and further studies are needed to investigate the potential correlation.

  18. Tests for Colorectal Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... to look for colorectal cancer Imaging tests use sound waves, x-rays, magnetic fields, or radioactive substances to ... has spread to the liver. Ultrasound Ultrasound uses sound waves and their echoes to create images of the ...

  19. Association Between Consumption of Fruits and Vegetables and Risk of Colorectal Adenoma: A PRISMA-Compliant Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies.

    PubMed

    Ben, Qiwen; Zhong, Jie; Liu, Jun; Wang, Lifu; Sun, Yunwei; Yv, Lifen; Yuan, Yaozong

    2015-10-01

    There have been contradictory results about the association of fruits and vegetables intake with colorectal adenoma (CRA) risk, the precursor lesion of colorectal cancer. Herein, we have conducted a meta-analysis of the published observational studies to have a clear understanding about this association.Eligible studies up to November 30, 2014, were identified and retrieved by searching MEDLINE and EMBASE databases along with the manual review of the reference list of the retrieved studies. The quality of the included studies was evaluated using Newcastle-Ottawa Quality Assessment Scale, and random-effects model was used to calculate summary relative risk (SRR) and corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI).A total of 22 studies involving 11,696 CRA subjects were part of this meta-analysis. The SRR for the highest versus the lowest intake of vegetables alone was 0.91 (95% CI: 0.80-1.02, Pheterogeneity = 0.025), whereas for vegetables and fruits combined, it was 0.82 (95% CI: 0.75-0.91, Pheterogeneity = 0.369), and for fruits alone, it was 0.79 (95% CI: 0.71-0.88, Pheterogeneity = 0.111). In addition, linear dose-response analysis also showed similar results, for example, for per 100 g/d increment of fruits, the SRR was 0.94 (95% CI: 0.92-0.97) and for vegetables it was 0.98 (95% CI: 0.96-1.01). Nonlinear association was only observed for vegetables (Pnonlinearity = 0.024), but not for fruits (Pnonlinearity = 0.583).Thus, this meta-analysis suggested that fruits consumption have a significant protective effect on CRA risk, but not vegetables. Moreover, we recommend additional studies with prospective designs that use validated questionnaires and control for important confounders to further validate the overall results.

  20. Effect of BRAF V600E mutation on tumor response of anti-EGFR monoclonal antibodies for first-line metastatic colorectal cancer treatment: a meta-analysis of randomized studies.

    PubMed

    Cui, Dandan; Cao, Dan; Yang, Yu; Qiu, Meng; Huang, Ying; Yi, Cheng

    2014-03-01

    Anti-EGFR monoclonal antibodies (anti-EGFR MoAbs) in metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) treatment are still not effective in all patients. This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between BRAF V600E mutation and the tumor response of anti-EGFR MoAbs for first-line treatment in mCRC patients. We searched the MEDLINE and EMBASE databases, using the key words that included colorectal cancer, cetuximab, panitumumab, and BRAF mutation and retrieved 445 articles. Among them four were included in the systematic review. Relative risks (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) for response rate were calculated. BRAF mutation carriers had worse ORR than non-carriers in mCRC patients with KRAS wild-type in first-line treatment whether adding anti-EGFR MoAb to chemotherapy or not (RR = 0.43, [95% CI 0.16-0.75]; RR = 0.38, [95% CI 0.20-0.73]). But in the unselected patients whose KRAS mutation were unknown, BRAF mutation carriers had similar ORR whether adding cetuximab to chemotherapy or not (RR = 0.45, [95% CI 0.18-1.09]; RR = 0.57, [95% CI 0.15-2.23]). In BRAF mutation carriers adding anti-EGFR MoAb to chemotherapy was similar to chemotherapy alone whether in patients with wild-type KRAS or unselected patients (RR = 1.61, [95% CI 0.57-4.47]; RR = 0.71, [95% CI 0.18-2.77]). But in the BRAF mutation non-carriers, adding anti-EGFR MoAb produced a clear benefit in response rate than chemotherapy alone and this advantage was restricted to KRAS wild-type patients (RR = 1.48, [95% CI 1.28-1.71]). BRAF mutation decreases tumor response in first-line treatment whether cetuximab was given or not in patients with KRAS wild-type, and anti-EGFR MoAb produces a clear benefit in response rate in patients with BRAF and KRAS wild-type.

  1. Fish consumption and risk of gastrointestinal cancers: A meta-analysis of cohort studies

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xiao-Feng; Zou, Jian; Dong, Jie

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To assess quantitatively the relationship between fish intake and the incidence of gastrointestinal cancers in a meta-analysis of cohort studies. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, Embase, Science Citation Index Expanded, and the bibliographies of retrieved articles. Prospective cohort studies were included if they reported relative risks (RRs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of various cancers with respect to fish intake. When RRs were not available in the published article, they were computed from the exposure distributions. Two investigators extracted the data independently and discrepancies were resolved by discussion with a third investigator. We performed random-effect meta-analyses and meta-regressions of study-specific incremental estimates to determine the risk of cancer associated with a 20-g/d increment of fish consumption. RESULTS: Forty-two studies, comprising 27 independent cohorts, met our inclusion criteria. The studies included 2325040 participants and 24115 incident cases of gastrointestinal cancer, with an average follow-up of 13.6 years. Compared with individuals who did not eat, or seldom ate, fish, the pooled RR of gastrointestinal cancers was 0.93 (95%CI: 0.88-0.98) for regular fish consumers, 0.94 (0.89-0.99) for low to moderate fish consumers, and 0.91 (0.84-0.97) for high fish consumers. Overall, a 20-g increase in fish consumption per day was associated with a 2% reduced risk of gastrointestinal cancers (RR = 0.98; 95%CI: 0.96-1.01). In subgroup analyses, we noted that fish consumption was associated with reduced risk of colorectal (RR = 0.93; 95%CI: 0.87-0.99; P < 0.01), esophageal (RR = 0.91; 95%CI: 0.83-0.99; P < 0.05) and hepatocellular cancers (RR = 0.71; 95%CI: 0.48-0.95; P < 0.01). CONCLUSION: This meta-analysis suggested that fish consumption may reduce total gastrointestinal cancer incidence. Inverse relationships were also detected between fish consumption and specific types of cancers. PMID:25386090

  2. Meta-analysis of microRNA-183 family expression in human cancer studies comparing cancer tissues with noncancerous tissues.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qing-He; Sun, Hong-Min; Zheng, Rui-Zhi; Li, Ying-Chun; Zhang, Qian; Cheng, Pan; Tang, Zhen-Hai; Huang, Fen

    2013-09-15

    MicroRNA-183 (miR-183) family is proposed as promising biomarkers for early cancer detection and accurate prognosis as well as targets for more efficient treatment. The results of their expression feature in cancer tissues are inconsistent and controversy still exists in identifying them as new biomarkers of cancers. Therefore, to systemically evaluate the most frequently reported cancers in which miR-183 family members were up- or down-regulated is critical for further investigation on physiological impact of its aberrant regulation in specific cancers. The published studies that compared the level of miR-183 family expression in cancer tissues with those in noncancerous tissues were reviewed by the meta-analysis with a vote-counting strategy. Among the 49 included studies, a total of 18 cancers were reported, with 11 cancers reported in at least two studies. In the panel of miR-183 family members' expression analysis, colorectal cancer and prostate cancer ranked at the top among consistently reported cancer types with up-regulated feature. Bladder cancer, lung cancer and hepatocellular carcinoma were the third most frequently reported cancer types with significant over-expression of miR-96, miR-182 and miR-183 respectively. Breast cancer and gastric cancer were presented with inconsistent regulations and the members of this family had their own distinct regulated features in other different cancers. MiR-183 family, either individually or as a cluster, may be useful prognostic markers and/or therapeutic targets in several cancers. Further studies and repeat efforts are still required to determine the role of miR-183 family in various cancer progressions.

  3. Accuracy of early detection of colorectal tumours by stool methylation markers: A meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hu; Qi, Jian; Wu, Ya-Qiong; Zhang, Ping; Jiang, Jun; Wang, Qi-Xian; Zhu, You-Qing

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the accuracy of methylation of genes in stool samples for diagnosing colorectal tumours. METHODS: Electronic databases including PubMed, Web of Science, Chinese Journals Full-Text Database and Wanfang Journals Full-Text Database were searched to find relevant original articles about methylated genes to be used in diagnosing colorectal tumours. A quality assessment of diagnostic accuracy studies tool (QADAS) was used to evaluate the quality of the included articles, and the Meta-disc 1.4 and SPSS 13.0 software programs were used for data analysis. RESULTS: Thirty-seven articles met the inclusion criteria, and 4484 patients were included. The sensitivity and specificity for the detection of colorectal cancer (CRC) were 73% (95%CI: 71%-75%) and 92% (95%CI: 90%-93%), respectively. For adenoma, the sensitivity and specificity were 51% (95%CI: 47%-54%) and 92% (95%CI: 90%-93%), respectively. Pooled diagnostic performance of SFRP2 methylation for CRC provided the following results: the sensitivity was 79% (95%CI: 75%-82%), the specificity was 93% (95%CI: 90%-96%), the diagnostic OR was 47.57 (95%CI: 20.08-112.72), the area under the curve was 0.9565. Additionally, the results of accuracy of SFRP2 methylation for detecting colorectal adenomas were as follows: sensitivity was 43% (95%CI: 38%-49%), specificity was 94% (95%CI: 91%-97%), the diagnostic OR was 11.06 (95%CI: 5.77-21.18), and the area under the curve was 0.9563. CONCLUSION: Stool-based DNA testing may be useful for noninvasively diagnosing colorectal tumours and SFRP2 methylation is a promising marker that has great potential in early CRC diagnosis. PMID:25320544

  4. A meta-analysis of the effects of energy intake on risk of digestive cancers

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xiao-Feng; Wang, Yi-Qian; Zou, Jian; Dong, Jie

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To quantitatively assess the relationship between energy intake and the incidence of digestive cancers in a meta-analysis of cohort studies. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, Science Citation Index Expanded, and the bibliographies of retrieved articles. Studies were included if they reported relative risks (RRs) and corresponding 95% CIs of digestive cancers with respect to total energy intake. When RRs were not available in the published article, they were computed from the exposure distributions. Data were extracted independently by two investigators and discrepancies were resolved by discussion with a third investigator. We performed fixed-effects meta-analyses and meta-regressions to compute the summary RR for highest versus lowest category of energy intake and for per unit energy intake and digestive cancer incidence by giving each study-specific RR a weight that was proportional to its precision. RESULTS: Nineteen studies consisting of 13 independent cohorts met the inclusion criteria. The studies included 995 577 participants and 5620 incident cases of digestive cancer with an average follow-up of 11.1 years. A significant inverse association was observed between energy intake and the incidence of digestive cancers. The RR of digestive cancers for the highest compared to the lowest caloric intake category was 0.90 (95% CI 0.81-0.98, P < 0.05). The RR for an increment of 239 kcal/d energy intake was 0.97 (95% CI 0.95-0.99, P < 0.05) in the fixed model. In subgroup analyses, we noted that energy intake was associated with a reduced risk of colorectal cancer (RR 0.90, 95% CI 0.81-0.99, P < 0.05) and an increased risk of gastric cancer (RR 1.19, 95% CI 1.08-1.31, P < 0.01). There appeared to be no association with esophageal (RR 0.96, 95% CI 0.86-1.07, P > 0.05) or pancreatic (RR 0.79, 95% CI 0.49-1.09, P > 0.05) cancer. Associations were also similar in studies from North America and Europe. The RR was 1.02 (95% CI 0.79-1.25, P > 0.05) when

  5. Survival benefit and safety of the combinations of FOLFOXIRI ± bevacizumab versus the combinations of FOLFIRI ± bevacizumab as first-line treatment for unresectable metastatic colorectal cancer: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Wei; Kuang, Meng; Gong, Yang; Cao, Chunxiang; Chen, Jinfei; Tang, Cuiju

    2016-01-01

    Background The survival of patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) could be improved with exposure to three active drugs, irinotecan, fluorouracil/leucovorin, and oxaliplatin, irrespective of their sequence. However, only 50%–80% of patients can be exposed to all the three drugs in a sequential strategy with two-drug combinations. We carried out this systematic assessment to compare the survival benefit and safety of FOLFOXIRI (irinotecan, fluorouracil/leucovorin, and oxaliplatin) ± bevacizumab (with or without bevacizumab) versus FOLFIRI (irinotecan and fluorouracil/leucovorin) ± bevacizumab (with or without bevacizumab) as first-line treatment for unresectable mCRC. Methods PubMed and EMBASE were searched for original articles written in English and published before December 2015. A total of 1,035 patients from three randomized controlled trials were included. Results Our results demonstrated that overall survival (hazard ratio [HR], 0.84; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.73–0.97), progression-free survival (HR, 0.69; 95% CI, 0.59–0.81), and overall response rate (odds ratio, 1.96; 95% CI, 1.28–2.98) were significantly improved in the FOLFOXIRI ± bevacizumab arm compared to the FOLFIRI ± bevacizumab arm. Significantly higher incidences of neutropenia, anemia, diarrhea, stomatitis, and neuropathy were observed in the FOLFOXIRI ± bevacizumab arm. Conclusion Current evidence shows that the combination of FOLFOXIRI ± bevacizumab significantly improves the overall survival, progression-free survival, and overall response rate of patients with mCRC, with an increased but manageable toxicity, compared with the combinations of FOLFIRI ± bevacizumab. The combination of FOLFOXIRI ± bevacizumab should be considered as a treatment option for these patients under the premise of reasonable selection of target population. PMID:27536147

  6. Dietary flavonoid intake and the risk of digestive tract cancers: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Bo, Yacong; Sun, Jinfeng; Wang, Mengmeng; Ding, Jizhe; Lu, Quanjun; Yuan, Ling

    2016-01-01

    Several epidemiological studies have investigated the association between dietary flavonoid intake and digestive tract cancers risk; however, the results remain inconclusive. The aim of our study was to evaluate this association. PubMed and the Web of Knowledge were searched for relevant publications from inception to October 2015. The risk ratio (RR) or odds ratio (OR) with the 95% confidence interval (95% CI) for the highest versus the lowest categories of flavonoid intake were pooled using a fixed-effects model. A total of 15 articles reporting 23 studies were selected for the meta-analysis. In a comparison of the highest versus the lowest categories of dietary flavonoid intake, we found no significant association between flavonoid intake and oesophageal cancer (OR = 0.91, 95% CI = 0.75–1.10; I2 = 0.0%), colorectal cancer (OR = 1.02, 95% CI = 0.92–1.14, I2 = 36.2%) or gastric cancer (OR = 0.88; 95% CI = 0.74–1.04, I2 = 63.6%). The subgroup analysis indicated an association between higher flavonoid intake and a decreased risk of gastric cancer in the European population (OR = 0.78, 95% CI = 0.62–0.97). In conclusion, the results of this meta-analysis do not strongly support an association between dietary flavonoid intake and oesophageal or colorectal cancer. Furthermore, the subgroup analysis suggested an association between higher dietary flavonoid intake and decreased gastric cancer risk in European population. PMID:27112267

  7. Bladder cancer among hairdressers: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Schablon, Anja; Schedlbauer, Grita; Dulon, Madeleine; Nienhaus, Albert

    2010-01-01

    Background Occupational risks for bladder cancer in hairdressers by using hair products have been examined in many epidemiological studies. But owing to small sample sizes of the studies and the resulting lack of statistical power, the results of these studies have been inconsistent and significant associations have rarely been found. Methods We conducted a meta-analysis to determine summary risk ratios (SRRs) for the risk of bladder cancer among hairdressers. Studies were identified by a MEDLINE, EMBASE, CENTRAL search and by the reference lists of articles/relevant reviews. Statistical tests for publication bias and for heterogeneity as well as sensitivity analysis were applied. In addition, the study quality and the risk of bias were assessed using six criteria. Results 42 studies were included and statistically significantly increased risks around 1.3–1.7 were found for all but one analysis. The SRR increased with duration of employment from 1.30 (95% CI 1.15 to 1.48) for ‘ever registered as hairdresser’ to 1.70 (95% CI 1.01 to 2.88) for ‘job held ≥10 years’. No difference was found between the risk for smoking-adjusted data (SRR 1.35, 95% CI 1.13 to 1.61) and no adjustment (SRR 1.33, 95% CI 1.18 to 1.50). Studies assessed as being of high quality (n=11) and of moderate quality (n=31) showed similar SRRs. There was no evidence of publication bias or heterogeneity in all analyses. Conclusion In summary, our results showed an increased and statistically significant risk for bladder cancer among hairdressers, in particular for hairdressers in jobs held ≥10 years. Residual confounding by smoking cannot be totally ruled out. Because of the long latency times of bladder cancer it remains an open question whether hairdressers working prior to 1980 and after 1980, when some aromatic amines were banned as hair dye ingredients, have the same risk for bladder cancer. PMID:20447989

  8. [Nutrition and colorectal cancer].

    PubMed

    Ströhle, Alexander; Maike, Wolters; Hahn, Andreas

    2007-01-01

    Diet plays an important role in the pathogenesis of colorectal cancer. Current prospective cohort studies and metaanalysis enable a reevaluation of how food or nutrients such as fiber and fat influence cancer risk. Based on the evidence criteria of the WHO/FAD, risk reduction by a high intake of fruit is assessed as possible, while a lowered risk by a high vegetable intake is probable. Especially raw vegetables and fruits seem to exert anticancer properties. The evidence of a risk reducing effect of whole grain relating to colorectal cancer is assessed as probable whereas the evidence of an increased risk by high consumption of refined white flour products and sweets is (still) insufficient despite some evidences. There is a probable risk reducing effect of milk and dairy products. e available data on eggs and red meat indicate a possible risk increasing influence. Stronger clues for a risk increasing effect have been shown for meat products leading to an evidence assessed as probable. Owing to varied interpretations of the data on fiber, the evidence of a risk reducing effect relating to colorectal cancer is assessed as possible or insufficient. The available data on alcohol consumption indicate a possible risk increasing effect. In contrast to former evaluations, diets rich in fat seem to increase colorectal cancer risk only indirectly as part of a hypercaloric diet by advancing the obesity risk. Thus, the evidence of obesity, especially visceral obesity, as a risk of colorectal cancer is judged as convincing today. Prospective cohort studies suggest that people who get higher than average amounts of folic acid from multivitamin supplements have lower risks of colorectal cancer. The evidence for a risk reducing effect of calcium, selenium, vitamin D and vitamin E on colorectal cancer is insufficient. As primary prevention, a diet rich in vegetables, fruits, whole grain products, and legumes added by low-fat dairy products, fish, and poultry can be recommended. In

  9. Radioimmunodetection of colorectal cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, E.E.; Deland, F.H.; Casper, S.; Corgan, R.L.; Primus, F.J.; Goldenberg, D.M.

    1980-03-15

    This study examines the accuracy of colorectal cancer radioimmunodetection. Twenty-seven patients with a history of histologically-confirmed colonic or rectal carcinoma received a high-titer, purified goat anti-CEA IgG labelled with /sup 131/I at a total dose of at least 1.0 ..mu..Ci. Various body views were scanned at 24 and 48 hours after administration of the radioantibody. Three additional cases were evaluated; one had a villous adenoma in the rectum and received the /sup 131/I-labeled anti-CEA IgG, while two colonic carcinoma patients received normal goat IgG labelled with /sup 131/I. All of the 7 cases with primary colorectal cancer showed true-positive tumor localization, while 20 of 25 sites of metastatic colorectal cancer detected by immune scintigraphy were corroborated by other detection measures. The sensitivity of the radioimmunodetection of colorectal cancers (primary and metastatic) was found to be 90% (true-positive rate), the putative specificity (true-negative rate) was 94%, and the apparent overall accuracy of the technique was 93%. Neither the case of a villous adenoma receiving the anti-CEA IgG nor the two cases of colonic cancer receiving normal goat IgG showed tumor radiolocalization. Very high circulating CEA titers did not appear to hinder successful tumor radiolocalization. These findings suggest that in colorectal cancers the method of CEA radioimmunodetection may be of value in preoperatively determining the location and extent of disease, in assessing possible recurrence or spread postoperatively, and in localizing the source of CEA production in patients with rising or elevated CEA titers. An ancilliary benefit could be a more tumor-specific detection test for confirming the findings of other, more conventional diagnostic measures.

  10. Radioimmunodetection of colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Kim, E E; Deland, F H; Casper, S; Corgan, R L; Primus, F J; Goldenberg, D M

    1980-03-15

    This study examines the accuracy of colorectal cancer radioimmunodetection. Twenty-seven patients with a history of histologically-confirmed colonic or rectal carcinoma received a high-titer, purified goat anti-CEA IgG labelled with 131-I at a total dose of at least 1.0 muCi. Various body views were scanned at 24 and 48 hours after administration of the radioantibody. Three additional cases were evaluated; one had a villous adenoma in the rectum and received the 131-I-labelled anti-CEA IgG, while two colonic carcinoma patients received normal goat IgG labelled with 131-I. All of the 7 cases with primary colorectal cancer showed true-positive tumor localization, while 20 of 25 sites of metastatic colorectal cancer detected by immune scintigraphy were corroborated by other detection measures. The sensitivity of the radioimmunodetection of colorectal cancers (primary and metastatic) was found to be 90% (true-positive rate), the putative specificity (true-negative rate) was 94%, and the appraent overall accuracy of the technique was 93%. Neither the case of a villous adenoma receiving the anti-CEA IgG nor the two cases of colonic cancer receiving normal goat IgG showed tumor radiolocalization. Very high circulating CEA titers did not appear to hinder successful tumor radiolocalization. These findings suggest that in colorectal cancers the method of CEA radioimmunodetection may be of value in preoperatively determining the location and extent of disease, in assessing possible recurrence or spread postoperatively, and in localizing the source of CEA production in patients with rising or elevated CEA titers. An ancilliary benefit could be a more tumor-specific detection test for confirming the findings of other, more conventional diagnostic measures.

  11. A novel TP53 variant (rs78378222 A > C) in the polyadenylation signal is associated with increased cancer susceptibility: evidence from a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Tianjiao; Lei, Wei; Shen, Zhen-Ya

    2016-01-01

    Polymorphisms in TP53 are involved in the progression of different types of cancer. A rare novel TP53 variant (rs78378222 A > C allele) was found via whole-genome sequencing in 2011. This variant was shown to significantly increase the risk of glioma, colorectal adenoma and prostate cancer. Functional analysis further revealed that this variant hindered TP53 expression and its downstream effect on apoptosis. Several studies have investigated the relationship between rs78378222 and cancer susceptibility. However, the results were not consistent. We conducted the first meta-analysis to give a more credible assessment on the association about this variant and cancer risk. Our meta-analysis included 34 studies consisting of 36599 cases and 91272 controls. These studies were mostly on the basis of high-grade data from Genome-wide association studies (GWASs). The results indicated that TP53 rs78378222 was significantly associated with an increased risk of overall cancer (AC vs. AA: OR = 1.511, 95% CI = 1.285–1.777). Furthermore, stratified analyses indicated that rs78378222 increased the risk of nervous system cancer, skin cancer and other cancer. To summarize, this meta-analysis suggested that rs78378222 C allele is a potent risk factor for overall cancer. PMID:27147571

  12. Cancer risk in patients receiving renal replacement therapy: A meta-analysis of cohort studies

    PubMed Central

    Shang, Weifeng; Huang, Liu; Li, Li; Li, Xiaojuan; Zeng, Rui; Ge, Shuwang; Xu, Gang

    2016-01-01

    It has been reported that patients receiving renal replacement therapy (RRT), including dialysis and kidney transplantation, tend to have an increased risk of cancer; however, studies on the degree of this risk have remained inconclusive. The present meta-analysis was therefore performed to quantify the cancer risk in patients with RRT. Cohort studies assessing overall cancer risk in RRT patients published before May 29, 2015 were included following systematic searches with of PubMed, EMBASE and the reference lists of the studies retrieved. Random-effects meta-analyses were used to pool standardized incidence rates (SIRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Heterogeneity tests, sensitivity analyses and publication bias assessment were performed. A total of 18 studies including 22 cohort studies were eventually identified, which comprised a total of 1,528,719 patients. In comparison with the general population, the pooled SIR for patients with dialysis including non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC), dialysis excluding NMSC, transplantation including NMSC, transplantation excluding NMSC and RRT were 1.40 (95% CI, 1.36–1.45), 1.35 (95% CI, 1.23–1.50), 3.26 (95% CI, 2.29–4.63), 2.08 (95% CI, 1.73–2.50) and 2.01 (95% CI, 1.70–2.38), respectively. The cancer risk was particularly high in subgroups of large sample size trials, female patients, younger patients (age at first dialysis, 0–34 years; age at transplantation, 0–20 years), the first year of RRT and non-Asian transplant patients. A significant association was also found between RRT and the majority of organ-specific cancers. However, neither dialysis nor transplantation was associated with breast, body of uterus, colorectal or prostate cancer. Significant heterogeneity was found regarding the association between RRT and overall cancer as well as the majority of site-specific cancer types. However, this heterogeneity had no substantial influence on the pooled SIR for overall cancer in RRT according to the

  13. β-Blockers Reduce Breast Cancer Recurrence and Breast Cancer Death: A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Childers, W Kurtis; Hollenbeak, Christopher S; Cheriyath, Pramil

    2015-12-01

    The normal physiologic stress mechanism, mediated by the sympathetic nervous system, causes a release of the neurotransmitters epinephrine and norepinephrine. Preclinical data have demonstrated an effect on tumor progression and metastasis via the sympathetic nervous system mediated primarily through the β-adrenergic receptor (β-AR) pathway. In vitro data have shown an increase in tumor growth, migration, tumor angiogenesis, and metastatic spread in breast cancer through activation of the β-AR. Retrospective cohort studies on the clinical outcomes of β-blockers in breast cancer outcomes showed no clear consensus. The purpose of this study was to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of the effect of β-blockers on breast cancer outcomes. A systematic review was performed using the Cochrane library and PubMed. Publications between the dates of January 2010 and December 2013 were identified. Available hazard ratios (HRs) were extracted for breast cancer recurrence, breast cancer death, and all-cause mortality and pooled using a random effects meta-analysis. A total of 7 studies contained results for at least 1 of the outcomes of breast cancer recurrence, breast cancer death, or all-cause mortality in breast cancer patients receiving β-blockers. In the 5 studies that contained results for breast cancer recurrence, there was no statistically significant risk reduction (HR, 0.67; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.39-1.13). Breast cancer death results were contained in 4 studies, which also suggested a significant reduction in risk (HR, 0.50; 95% CI, 0.32-0.80). Among the 4 studies that reported all-cause mortality, there was no significant effect of β-blockers on risk (HR, 1.02; 95% CI, 0.75-1.37). Results of this systematic review and meta-analysis suggest that the use of β-blockers significantly reduced risk of breast cancer death among women with breast cancer. PMID:26516037

  14. Dietary intake of flavonoid subclasses and risk of colorectal cancer: evidence from population studies

    PubMed Central

    He, Xingkang; Sun, Lei-min

    2016-01-01

    Objective To systematically evaluate the relationship between flavonoids intake and colorectal cancer risk by conducting a meta-analysis. Results Our meta-analysis included 18 studies involving 16,917 colorectal cancer cases in 559,486 participants in relations to flavonoids intake during six to twenty-six years of follow-up. Our results indicated that specific flavonoid subclasses, such as procyanidins (OR = 0.75; 95% CI, 0.66–0.86) and isoflavones (OR = 0.87; 95% CI, 0.78–0.98), showed protective effects against colorectal cancer risk. There was no enough evidence indicating that increased consumption of total flavonoids were significantly associated with reduced risk of colorectal cancer (OR = 0.94, 95% CI, 0.81–1.09). There was no publication bias across studies. Methods We performed a systematic search of PubMed, Web of Science and the Cochrane Library databases for relevant articles before December 2015. A random-effects model was used to estimate summary odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for associations between flavonoids and colorectal cancer risk. We assessed heterogeneity among studies by the Cochran Q and I2 statistics. Conclusions Our meta-analysis provides comprehensive evidence and partly supported the hypothesis that higher habitual intake of foods rich in procyanidins and isoflavones may potentially decrease colorectal cancer incidence. More prospective studies are warranted to verify this protective association. PMID:27058896

  15. Role of physical activity and diet after colorectal cancer diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Van Blarigan, Erin L; Meyerhardt, Jeffrey A

    2015-06-01

    This review summarizes the evidence regarding physical activity and diet after colorectal cancer diagnosis in relation to quality of life, disease recurrence, and survival. There have been extensive reports on adiposity, inactivity, and certain diets, particularly those high in red and processed meats, and increased risk of colorectal cancer. Only in the past decade have data emerged on how such lifestyle factors are associated with outcomes in colorectal cancer survivors. Prospective observational studies have consistently reported that physical activity after colorectal cancer diagnosis reduces mortality. A meta-analysis estimated that each 15 metabolic equivalent task-hour per week increase in physical activity after colorectal cancer diagnosis was associated with a 38% lower risk of mortality. No randomized controlled trials have been completed to confirm that physical activity lowers risk of mortality among colorectal cancer survivors; however, trials have shown that physical activity, including structured exercise, is safe for colorectal cancer survivors (localized to metastatic stage, during and after treatment) and improves cardiorespiratory fitness and physical function. In addition, prospective observational studies have suggested that a Western dietary pattern, high carbohydrate intake, and consuming sugar-sweetened beverages after diagnosis may increase risk of colorectal cancer recurrence and mortality, but these data are limited to single analyses from one of two US cohorts. Additional data from prospective studies and randomized controlled trials are needed. Nonetheless, on the basis of the available evidence, it is reasonable to counsel colorectal cancer survivors to engage in regular physical activity and limit consumption of refined carbohydrates, red and processed meats, and sugar-sweetened beverages.

  16. Role of Physical Activity and Diet After Colorectal Cancer Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Van Blarigan, Erin L.; Meyerhardt, Jeffrey A.

    2015-01-01

    This review summarizes the evidence regarding physical activity and diet after colorectal cancer diagnosis in relation to quality of life, disease recurrence, and survival. There have been extensive reports on adiposity, inactivity, and certain diets, particularly those high in red and processed meats, and increased risk of colorectal cancer. Only in the past decade have data emerged on how such lifestyle factors are associated with outcomes in colorectal cancer survivors. Prospective observational studies have consistently reported that physical activity after colorectal cancer diagnosis reduces mortality. A meta-analysis estimated that each 15 metabolic equivalent task-hour per week increase in physical activity after colorectal cancer diagnosis was associated with a 38% lower risk of mortality. No randomized controlled trials have been completed to confirm that physical activity lowers risk of mortality among colorectal cancer survivors; however, trials have shown that physical activity, including structured exercise, is safe for colorectal cancer survivors (localized to metastatic stage, during and after treatment) and improves cardiorespiratory fitness and physical function. In addition, prospective observational studies have suggested that a Western dietary pattern, high carbohydrate intake, and consuming sugar-sweetened beverages after diagnosis may increase risk of colorectal cancer recurrence and mortality, but these data are limited to single analyses from one of two US cohorts. Additional data from prospective studies and randomized controlled trials are needed. Nonetheless, on the basis of the available evidence, it is reasonable to counsel colorectal cancer survivors to engage in regular physical activity and limit consumption of refined carbohydrates, red and processed meats, and sugar-sweetened beverages. PMID:25918293

  17. THBS2 is a Potential Prognostic Biomarker in Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xue; Zhang, Lei; Li, Hui; Sun, WenJie; Zhang, Honghe; Lai, Maode

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is one of the most common leading causes of death worldwide. Prognostic at an early stage is a useful way that decrease and avoid mortality. Although remarkable progress has been made to investigate the underlying mechanism, the understanding of the complicated carcinogenesis process was enormously hindered by large-scale tumor heterogeneity. Here we proposed that the prognosis-related gene THBS2, responsible for cooperativity disorientation, probably contain untapped prognostic resource of colorectal cancer. We originally established Spearman correlation transition, Kaplan–Meier survival analysis and meta-analysis that combine public dataset and clinical samples to quantify the prognostic value of THBS2. THBS2 could be considered as a novel prognostic marker in colorectal cancer. PMID:27632935

  18. THBS2 is a Potential Prognostic Biomarker in Colorectal Cancer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xue; Zhang, Lei; Li, Hui; Sun, WenJie; Zhang, Honghe; Lai, Maode

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is one of the most common leading causes of death worldwide. Prognostic at an early stage is a useful way that decrease and avoid mortality. Although remarkable progress has been made to investigate the underlying mechanism, the understanding of the complicated carcinogenesis process was enormously hindered by large-scale tumor heterogeneity. Here we proposed that the prognosis-related gene THBS2, responsible for cooperativity disorientation, probably contain untapped prognostic resource of colorectal cancer. We originally established Spearman correlation transition, Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and meta-analysis that combine public dataset and clinical samples to quantify the prognostic value of THBS2. THBS2 could be considered as a novel prognostic marker in colorectal cancer. PMID:27632935

  19. Occupational exposures and pancreatic cancer: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ojajarvi, I; Partanen, T.; Ahlbom, A.; Boffetta, P.; Hakulinen, T.; Jourenkova, N.; Kauppinen, T.; Kogevinas, M.; Porta, M.; Vainio, H.; Weiderpass, E.; Wesseling, C.

    2000-01-01

    insecticides, 33%; and to PAHs, 33%.
CONCLUSION—Occupational exposures may increase risk of pancreatic cancer. High quality studies are called for on interactions between occupational, environmental, and lifestyle factors as well as interactions between genes and the environment.


Keywords: pancreatic cancer; occupational exposure; meta-analysis PMID:10769297

  20. Biology of colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Arvelo, Francisco; Sojo, Felipe; Cotte, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is a serious health problem, a challenge for research, and a model for studying the molecular mechanisms involved in its development. According to its incidence, this pathology manifests itself in three forms: family, hereditary, and most commonly sporadic, apparently not associated with any hereditary or familial factor. For the types having inheritance patterns and a family predisposition, the tumours develop through defined stages ranging from adenomatous lesions to the manifestation of a malignant tumour. It has been established that environmental and hereditary factors contribute to the development of colorectal cancer, as indicated by the accumulation of mutations in oncogenes, genes which suppress and repair DNA, signaling the existence of various pathways through which the appearance of tumours may occur. In the case of the suppressive and mutating tracks, these are characterised by genetic disorders related to the phenotypical changes of the morphological progression sequence in the adenoma/carcinoma. Moreover, alternate pathways through mutation in BRAF and KRAS genes are associated with the progression of polyps to cancer. This review surveys the research done at the cellular and molecular level aimed at finding specific alternative therapeutic targets for fighting colorectal cancer. PMID:25932044

  1. Soy Consumption of Prostate Cancer Risk in Men: A Meta-Analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soy is a major plant source of dietary protein to humans. Epidemiologic studies show that consumption of soy foods may be related to a reduction in cancer risk in humans. The purpose of the present study was to conduct a meta-analysis on the association between soy consumption and prostate cancer r...

  2. Soy, Isoflavones, and Prostate Cancer Risk in Men: A Revisit of Meta-Analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soy is a major plant source of dietary protein to humans. Epidemiologic studies show that soy consumption may be associated with a reduction in cancer risk in humans. The purpose of this study was to conduct a meta-analysis on the association between soy and prostate cancer in men. We systematicall...

  3. Association between BHMT gene rs3733890 polymorphism and cancer risk: evidence from a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yue; Yan, Cunye; Hao, Zongyao; Zhou, Jun; Fan, Song; Tai, Sheng; Yang, Cheng; Zhang, Li; Liang, Chaozhao

    2016-01-01

    Background and objective The gene betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase (BHMT) has drawn much attention during the past decades. An increasing number of clinical and genetic investigations have supposed that BHMT rs3733890 polymorphism might be associated with risk of breast cancer and ovarian cancer. As no consistent conclusion has been achieved, we conducted an up-to-date summary of BHMT rs3733890 polymorphism and cancer risk through a meta-analysis. Materials and methods The articles were collected from PubMed, Google Scholar, and CNKI (Chinese) databases up to December 2015. Then, the correlations were determined by reading the titles and abstracts and by further reading the full text to filter the unqualified articles. Odds ratio (OR) and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) were used to assess the results. Results Among 187 articles collected in the analysis, seven studies with a total of 2,832 cases and 3,958 controls were included for evaluation of the association between BHMT rs3733890 polymorphism and susceptibility of cancer risk. The heterogeneity test showed no significant differences. Furthermore, we found that BHMT −742G>A polymorphism in case and control groups showed no statistically significant association with susceptibility in various cancer types except for uterine cervical cancer (A vs G: OR =0.641, 95% CI =0.445–0.923, P=0.017; AA+AG vs GG: OR =0.579, 95% CI =0.362–0.924, P=0.022). In addition, no statistically significant association was uncovered when stratification analyses were conducted by ethnicity and genotyping methods. Conclusion Our results have shown no obvious evidence that rs3733890 polymorphism in BHMT gene affected the susceptibility of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, breast cancer, ovarian cancer, colorectal adenoma, and liver cancer. In contrast, we found the protective role of BHMT −742G>A polymorphism in uterine cervical cancer incidence. Future well-designed studies comprising larger sample size

  4. A genetic variant in MiR-146a modifies digestive system cancer risk: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Li, Ying-Jun; Zhang, Zhen-Yu; Mao, Ying-Ying; Jin, Ming-Juan; Jing, Fang-Yuan; Ye, Zhen-Hua; Chen, Kun

    2014-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) negatively regulate gene expression and act as tumor suppressors or oncogenes in oncogenesis. The association between a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in miR-146a rs2910164 and susceptibility to digestive system cancers was inconsistent in previous studies. In this study, we conducted a literature search of PubMed to identify all relevant studies published before August 31, 2013. A total of 21 independent case-control studies were included in this updated meta-analysis with 9,558 cases and 10,614 controls. We found that the miR-146a rs2910164 polymorphism was significantly associated with decreased risk of digestive system cancers in an allele model (OR=0.90, 95%CI 0.87-0.94), homozygote model (OR=0.84, 95%CI 0.77-0.91), dominant model (OR=0.90, 95%CI 0.84-0.96), and recessive model (OR=0.85, 95%CI 0.79-0.91), while in a heterozygous model (OR = 0.99, 95% CI 0.89-1.11) the association showed marginal significance. Subgroup analysis by cancer site revealed decreased risk in colorectal cancer above allele model (OR=0.90, 95%CI 0.83- 0.97) and homozygote model (OR=0.85, 95%CI 0.72-1.00). Similarly, decreased cancer risk was observed when compared with allele model (OR=0.87, 95%CI 0.81-0.93) and recessive model (OR=0.81, 95%CI 0.72-0.90) in gastric cancer. When stratified by ethnicity, genotyping methods and quality score, decreased cancer risks were also observed. This current meta-analysis indicated that miR-146a rs2910164 polymorphism may decrease the susceptibility to digestive system cancers, especially in Asian populations.

  5. VEGF +405G/C (rs2010963) polymorphisms and digestive system cancer risk: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Guo, Qing; Dai, Sheng-Bin; Shen, Feng; Yu, Di; Shen, Shu-Tong; Zhang, Qu; Huang, Jun-Xing; Wu, Zheng-Dong

    2014-05-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) polymorphisms, specifically +405G/C (rs2010963), reportedly influence the risk for various digestive cancers. However, the consequences of these polymorphisms remain controversial and ambiguous. Therefore, we performed a meta-analysis of 11 studies with VEGF +405G/C genotyping on 2,862 patients and 3,028 controls using the random effects model. We obtained a pooled odds ratio (OR) of 1.04 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.86-1.26) for the recessive genetic model, 1.07 (95% CI = 0.81-1.42) for the dominant genetic model, 1.09 (95% CI = 0.81-1.47) for the homozygote comparison, and 1.03 (95% CI = 0.83-1.27) for the heterozygote comparison. In the subgroup analysis of the recessive model, the OR was 1.20 (95% CI = 1.02-1.40) in colorectal cancer. These results show that VEGF +405G/C polymorphisms are unlikely to be a major determinant of susceptibility to digestive cancer. Furthermore, the subgroup analysis of recessive model indicates that VEGF +405G/C polymorphisms increase the risk for colorectal cancer.

  6. Chemoprevention of colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    LANGMAN, M; BOYLE, P

    1998-01-01

    Department of Medicine, Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Birmingham B15 2TH, UK P BOYLE Colorectal cancer is the fourth commonest form of cancer in men with 678 000 estimated new cases per year worldwide, representing 8.9% of all new cancers. The disease is most frequent in Occidental countries and particularly so in North America, Australia, New Zealand, and parts of Europe. Prospects for colorectal cancer control are bright and a number of possible approaches could prove fruitful. Among these, pharmaceutical measures seem to be valid and logical approaches to the prevention of colorectal cancer and diminishing its impact. Such approaches could concentrate in primary prevention in at-risk subjects or be applied in altering the course of precursor or established disease. Treatments used must fulfil basic requirements of biological plausibility and safety in continued use in large numbers of subjects. Those available include vitamins and minerals, and other drugs with potential as antioxidants, immune modulators or promoters of cell differentiation or apoptosis. Of the various regimens suggested, vitamin A supplementation may even predispose to adverse outcomes, and antioxidant vitamins in general have no coherent body of evidence to support their use. N-acetylcysteine and ursodeoxycholic acid have promising characteristics but there are as yet no clinical data to support the use of the former in gut epithelial cancer, and formal dose ranging studies must be carried out before the latter is submitted to large scale trial. Folate shows promising characteristics but non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and vitamin D seem the most promising agents. Both seem to reduce the incidence of disease, and to reduce growth rates and/or induce differentiation or apoptosis in gut epithelial cancer cells. Both are also well understood pharmacologically. They may be preferred to newer selective compounds in the same class until these newer compounds are confirmed as safe for widespread

  7. LEP gene variant is associated with prostate cancer but not with colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    He, Juan; Xu, Guili

    2013-10-01

    The leptin (LEP) gene has been considered to be implicated in the development of cancer. However, the results have been inconsistent. In this study, we performed a meta-analysis to clarify the association of LEP rs7799039 variant with colorectal and prostate cancer risk. Published literatures from PubMed and Embase were retrieved. Pooled odds ratio (OR) with 95 % confidence interval (CI) was calculated using fixed or random effects model. A total of five studies (2,596 colorectal cancer cases and 3,240 controls) for association of LEP rs7799039 variant with colorectal cancer, and three studies (1,343 prostate cancer cases and 1,238 controls) for association with prostate cancer were included in the meta-analysis. For colorectal cancer, there was no significant association of LEP rs7799039 variant with this disease under homogeneous co-dominant model (OR = 0.88, 95 % CI = 0.75-1.02), heterogeneous co-dominant model (OR = 1.00, 95 % CI = 0.89-1.13) and dominant model (OR = 0.97, 95 % CI = 0.87-1.08); however, there was a marginal association under recessive model (OR = 0.87, 95 % CI = 0.76-0.99). For prostate cancer, there was significant association of LEP rs7799039 variant with this disease under homogeneous co-dominant model (OR = 1.33, 95 % CI = 1.06-1.67) and recessive model (OR = 1.26, 95 % CI = 1.05-1.51), but not under heterogeneous co-dominant model (OR = 1.24, 95 % CI = 0.87-1.77) and dominant model (OR = 1.30, 95 % CI = 1.84). The present meta-analysis demonstrated that the LEP rs7799039 variant was associated with prostate cancer, but not with colorectal cancer.

  8. Association between cadmium exposure and renal cancer risk: a meta-analysis of observational studies

    PubMed Central

    Song, Ju kun; Luo, Hong; Yin, Xin hai; Huang, Guang lei; Luo, Si yang; Lin, Du ren; Yuan, Dong Bo; Zhang, Wei; Zhu, Jian guo

    2015-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a widespread environmental pollutant and has been a recognized carcinogen for several decades. Many observational studies reported Cd exposure might be one cause of renal cancer. However, these findings are inconsistent. We conducted a meta-analysis to evaluate the relationship between cadmium exposure and renal cancer risk. A comprehensive PubMed and Embase search was conducted to retrieve observational studies meeting our meta-analysis criteria. A combined odds ratio (OR) and corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI) were applied to assess the association between Cd exposure and renal cancer risk. The meta-analysis showed that a high Cd exposure significantly increased renal cancer 1.47 times (OR = 1.47; 95% CI = 1.27 to 1.71, for highest versus lowest category of cadmium categories). The significant association remained consistent when stratified by geographic region and gender, however mixed results were produced when stratified by sample size, study design, NOS score, adjustment for covariates, effects measure, and exposure type. Our results indicated that a high Cd exposure was associated with increased renal cancer risk and the association was higher for occupational exposure compared with non-occupational exposure. This meta-analysis suggests that a high Cd exposure may be a risk factor for renal cancer in occupational population. PMID:26656678

  9. Association between cadmium exposure and renal cancer risk: a meta-analysis of observational studies.

    PubMed

    Song, Ju kun; Luo, Hong; Yin, Xin hai; Huang, Guang lei; Luo, Si yang; Lin, Du ren; Yuan, Dong Bo; Zhang, Wei; Zhu, Jian guo

    2015-12-11

    Cadmium (Cd) is a widespread environmental pollutant and has been a recognized carcinogen for several decades. Many observational studies reported Cd exposure might be one cause of renal cancer. However, these findings are inconsistent. We conducted a meta-analysis to evaluate the relationship between cadmium exposure and renal cancer risk. A comprehensive PubMed and Embase search was conducted to retrieve observational studies meeting our meta-analysis criteria. A combined odds ratio (OR) and corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI) were applied to assess the association between Cd exposure and renal cancer risk. The meta-analysis showed that a high Cd exposure significantly increased renal cancer 1.47 times (OR = 1.47; 95% CI = 1.27 to 1.71, for highest versus lowest category of cadmium categories). The significant association remained consistent when stratified by geographic region and gender, however mixed results were produced when stratified by sample size, study design, NOS score, adjustment for covariates, effects measure, and exposure type. Our results indicated that a high Cd exposure was associated with increased renal cancer risk and the association was higher for occupational exposure compared with non-occupational exposure. This meta-analysis suggests that a high Cd exposure may be a risk factor for renal cancer in occupational population.

  10. The association of HMGB1 expression with clinicopathological significance and prognosis in Asian patients with colorectal carcinoma: a meta-analysis and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaoli; Yu, Jinming; Li, Minghuan; Zhu, Hui; Sun, Xindong; Kong, Li

    2016-01-01

    Background The association of high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) expression with clinicopathological significance and prognosis in Asian patients with colorectal carcinoma (CRC) remains controversial. The purpose of this study was to conduct a meta-analysis and literature review to identify the role of HMGB1 in the development and prognosis of CRC in Asians. Methods All eligible studies regarding the association between HMGB1 expression in tissue with clinicopathological significance and prognosis in Asian patients with CRC published up to January 2015 were identified by searching PubMed, Web of Science, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure, and WanFang database. Analysis of pooled data was performed, while odds ratio (OR) or hazard radio with 95% confidence interval (CI) was calculated and summarized to evaluate the strength of this association in fixed- or random-effects model. Results The expression level of HMGB1 in CRC tissues was much higher than normal colorectal tissues (OR =27.35, 95% CI 9.32–80.26, P<0.0001) and para-tumor colorectal tissues (OR =10.06, 95% CI 4.61–21.95, P<0.0001). There was no relation between the HMGB1 expression and sex, age, clinical T stage, tumor size, and location (colon or rectum cancer). However, a significant relation was detected between the HMGB1 expression and clinical stage (American Joint Committee on Cancer 7), lymph node metastasis, distant metastasis, tumor invasion depth, and differentiation rate (P=0.002, P≤0.0001, P<0.0001, P<0.0001, and P=0.007, respectively). Patients with higher HMGB1 expression had shorter overall survival time, whereas patients with lower level of HMGB1 had better survival (hazard ratio =1.40, 95% CI 0.98–1.82, P<0.0001). Conclusion In this meta-analysis, our results illustrated the significant relationship of HMGB1 protein overexpression in tissues with clinicopathological characteristics and prognosis of CRC. Thus, HMGB1 may be a promising marker in predicting the clinical outcome

  11. Adherence to Mediterranean diet and risk of cancer: an updated systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies.

    PubMed

    Schwingshackl, Lukas; Hoffmann, Georg

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the present systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies was to gain further insight into the effects of adherence to Mediterranean Diet (MD) on overall cancer mortality, incidence of different types of cancer, and cancer mortality risk in cancer survivors. Literature search was performed using the electronic databases PubMed, and EMBASE until 2 July 2015. We included either cohort (for specific tumors only incidence cases were used) or case-control studies. Study specific risk ratios, hazard ratios, and odds ratios (RR/HR/OR) were pooled using a random effect model. The updated review process showed 23 observational studies that were not included in the previous meta-analysis (total number of studies evaluated: 56 observational studies). An overall population of 1,784,404 subjects was included in the present update. The highest adherence score to an MD was significantly associated with a lower risk of all-cause cancer mortality (RR: 0.87, 95% CI 0.81-0.93, I(2) = 84%), colorectal cancer (RR: 0.83, 95% CI 0.76-0.89, I(2) = 56%), breast cancer (RR: 0.93, 95% CI 0.87-0.99, I(2) =15%), gastric cancer (RR: 0.73, 95% CI 0.55-0.97, I(2) = 66%), prostate cancer (RR: 0.96, 95% CI 0.92-1.00, I(2) = 0%), liver cancer (RR: 0.58, 95% CI 0.46-0.73, I(2) = 0%), head and neck cancer (RR: 0.40, 95% CI 0.24-0.66, I(2) = 90%), pancreatic cancer (RR: 0.48, 95% CI 0.35-0.66), and respiratory cancer (RR: 0.10, 95% CI 0.01-0.70). No significant association could be observed for esophageal/ovarian/endometrial/and bladder cancer, respectively. Among cancer survivors, the association between the adherence to the highest MD category and risk of cancer mortality, and cancer recurrence was not statistically significant. The updated meta-analyses confirm a prominent and consistent inverse association provided by adherence to an MD in relation to cancer mortality and risk of several cancer types.

  12. Genetic polymorphisms of CASR and cancer risk: evidence from meta-analysis and HuGE review

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Sohyun; Kim, Jae Hyun; Kim, Myeong Gyu; Han, Nayoung; Kim, In-Wha; Kim, Therasa; Oh, Jung Mi

    2016-01-01

    Background CASR gene appears to be involved in cancer biology and physiology. However, a number of studies investigating CASR polymorphisms and cancer risks have presented inconclusive results. Thus, a systematic review and a meta-analysis of the effect of CASR polymorphisms on several cancer risks were performed to suggest a statistical evidence for the association of CASR polymorphisms with cancer risks. Methods MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science, Scopus, and the HuGE databases were searched. Nineteen articles of case–control and cohort studies were included for the final analysis. Results The colorectal cancer risk was reduced in proximal (odds ratio [OR] =0.679, P=0.001) and distal (OR =0.753, P=0.026) colon sites with GG genotype of CASR rs1042636 and increased in distal colon site (OR =1.418, P=0.039) with GG genotype of rs1801726 by additive genetic model. The rs17251221 demonstrated noticeable associations that carrying a homozygote variant increases breast and prostate cancer risk considerably. Conclusion The significant association of CASR polymorphisms with several cancer risks was observed in this review. In particular, the act of CASR polymorphisms as a tumor suppressor or an oncogene differs by cancer site and can be the research target for tumorigenesis. PMID:26929638

  13. Immunotherapy for colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Koido, Shigeo; Ohkusa, Toshifumi; Homma, Sadamu; Namiki, Yoshihisa; Takakura, Kazuki; Saito, Keisuke; Ito, Zensho; Kobayashi, Hiroko; Kajihara, Mikio; Uchiyama, Kan; Arihiro, Seiji; Arakawa, Hiroshi; Okamoto, Masato; Gong, Jianlin; Tajiri, Hisao

    2013-12-14

    The incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC) is on the rise, and the prognosis for patients with recurrent or metastatic disease is extremely poor. Although chemotherapy and radiation therapy can improve survival rates, it is imperative to integrate alternative strategies such as immunotherapy to improve outcomes for patients with advanced CRC. In this review, we will discuss the effect of immunotherapy for inducing cytotoxic T lymphocytes and the major immunotherapeutic approaches for CRC that are currently in clinical trials, including peptide vaccines, dendritic cell-based cancer vaccines, whole tumor cell vaccines, viral vector-based cancer vaccines, adoptive cell transfer therapy, antibody-based cancer immunotherapy, and cytokine therapy. The possibility of combination therapies will also be discussed along with the challenges presented by tumor escape mechanisms. PMID:24379570

  14. Soy Consumption and Prostate Cancer Risk in Men: A Revisit of Meta-Analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Soy is a major plant source of dietary protein to humans. Epidemiologic studies show that consumption of soy foods may be associated with a reduction in cancer risk in humans. Objective: The purpose of this study was to conduct a meta-analysis on the association between soy consumption...

  15. Tea consumption and the risk of five major cancers: a dose–response meta-analysis of prospective studies

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background We conducted a dose–response meta-analysis of prospective studies to summarize evidence of the association between tea consumption and the risk of breast, colorectal, liver, prostate, and stomach cancer. Methods We searched PubMed and two other databases. Prospective studies that reported risk ratios (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of cancer risk for ≥3 categories of tea consumption were included. We estimated an overall RR with 95% CI for an increase of three cups/day of tea consumption, and, usingrestricted cubic splines, we examined a nonlinear association between tea consumption and cancer risk. Results Forty-one prospective studies, with a total of 3,027,702 participants and 49,103 cancer cases, were included. From the pooled overall RRs, no inverse association between tea consumption and risk of five major cancers was observed. However, subgroup analysis showed that increase in consumption of three cups of black tea per day was a significant risk factor for breast cancer (RR, 1.18; 95% CI, 1.05-1.32). Conclusion Ourresults did not show a protective role of tea in five major cancers. Additional large prospective cohort studies are needed to make a convincing case for associations. PMID:24636229

  16. Genetic Polymorphism of DNA Methyltransferase 3A rs1550117 A>G and Risk of Cancer: A Meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wenbo; Xu, Ying; Ma, Gui; Qi, Weidong; Gu, Haiyong; Jiang, Pengcheng

    2015-01-01

    Numerous studies have investigated the association between DNMT3A rs1550117 A>G polymorphism and cancer risk, but the results are inconsistent. To obtain a more precise evaluation of the relationship, we performed a meta-analysis of 10 case-control studies involving a total of 2184 cancer cases and 3420 controls. Our findings demonstrated a significant association between DNMT3A rs1550117 A>G polymorphism and increased risk of cancer in three genetic models: AA vs. AG + GG (OR, 1.79; 95% CI, 1.12-2.88; p = 0.015), AA vs. GG (OR, 1.81; 95% CI, 1.11-2.95; p = 0.018) and AA vs. AG (OR 1.77; 95% CI 1.13-2.79; p = 0.013). In a stratified analysis by cancer type, significant association between DNMT3A rs1550117 A>G polymorphism and increased risk of colorectal cancer was identified in four genetic models: AA vs. AG + GG (OR, 3.07; 95% CI, 1.56-6.06; p = 0.001), AA vs. GG (OR, 3.16; 95% CI, 1.58-6.29; p = 0.001), AA vs. AG (OR, 2.87; 95% CI, 1.41-5.84; p = 0.004), A vs. G (OR, 1.43; 95% CI, 1.11-1.83; p = 0.005). Furthermore, a stratified analysis by ethnicity, significant increased risk of cancer was found among Asians in three genetic models: AA vs. AG + GG (OR, 1.77; 95% CI, 1.09-2.88; p = 0.022), AA vs. GG (OR, 1.78; 95% CI, 1.08-2.96; p = 0.025), AA vs. AG (OR, 1.75; 95% CI, 1.10-2.79; p = 0.019). No significant publication bias was revealed for the meta-analysis. Sensitivity analysis suggested the reliability of our findings. In conclusion, this meta-analysis suggests that DNMT3A rs1550117 A>G polymorphism may be associated with cancer susceptibility.

  17. Glutathione S-transferase M1 null genotype related to poor prognosis of colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Yan, Shushan; Wang, Zengfang; Wang, Zengyan; Duan, Quanhong; Wang, Xiaochen; Li, Jun; Sun, Beicheng

    2016-08-01

    Published studies showed controversial findings about the relationship between glutathione S-transferase M1 (GSTM1) null genotype and clinical outcomes of patients with colorectal cancer. We performed a meta-analysis to quantitatively assess the association between GSTM1 null genotype and prognosis of patients with colorectal cancer. We systematically searched Pubmed, Embase, and Web of Science to identify prospective or retrospective cohort studies assessing the association of GSTM1 null genotype with overall survival (OS) or disease-free survival (DFS) in colorectal cancer. The hazard ratios (HRs) and 95 % confidence intervals (95 % CIs) were used to assess the association of GSTM1 null genotype with OS or DFS. Finally, 15 studies from 14 publications with 4326 colorectal cancer patients were included into the meta-analysis. There was no heterogeneity in the meta-analysis relating OS (I (2) = 0 %) and DFS (I (2) = 0 %). Overall, GSTM1 null genotype was significantly associated with poor OS in patients with colorectal cancer (HR = 1.18, 95 % CI 1.07-1.30, P = 0.001). In addition, GSTM1 null genotype was also significantly associated with poor DFS in patients with colorectal cancer (HR = 1.15, 95 % CI 1.03-1.28, P = 0.015). No obvious risk of publication bias was observed. GSTM1 null genotype is significantly associated with poor OS and DFS in patients with colorectal cancer, which suggests that GSTM1 null genotype confers poor effect on the prognosis of colorectal cancer.

  18. [Genetics of colorectal cancer].

    PubMed

    Balaguer, Francesc

    2012-09-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most frequent neoplasms in developed countries and up to 5% of all cases occur in the context of a hereditary syndrome. These hereditary forms often require a high index of suspicion for their diagnosis and specific and specialized management. Moreover, a diagnosis of hereditary CRC has major consequences not only for the patient--for whom there are highly effective preventive measures--but also for the patient's relatives, who may carry the same condition. The most significant advances in the field of hereditary CRC have been produced in the diagnosis and characterization of Lynch's syndrome and serrated polyposis syndrome.

  19. [Genetics of colorectal cancer].

    PubMed

    Balaguer, Francesc

    2013-10-01

    Up to 5% of all cases of colorectal cancer (CRC) are due to a known hereditary syndrome. These hereditary forms often require a high degree of suspicion for their diagnosis and specific and specialized management. Moreover, a diagnosis of hereditary CRC has important consequences, not only for patients-for whom highly effective preventive measures are available-, but also for their relatives, who may be carriers of the same condition. The most significant advances in the field of hereditary CRC have been produced in the diagnosis and characterization of these syndromes and in the discovery of new causative genes.

  20. Comparison of Resting Energy Expenditure Between Cancer Subjects and Healthy Controls: A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Thi Yen Vi; Batterham, Marijka J; Edwards, Cheree

    2016-01-01

    There is conflicting evidence surrounding the extent of changes in resting energy expenditure (REE) in cancer. This meta-analysis aimed to establish the mean difference in REE, as kilojoules per kilogram fat-free mass, among cancer patients when compared to healthy control subjects. The secondary aim was to determine differences among different cancer types. PubMed, Cochrane Library, Medline, Science Direct, Scopus, Web of Science, Wiley Online Library, and ProQuest Central were searched from the earliest records until March 2014. Studies were included if measured REE was reported as kilojoules or kilocalories per kilogram fat-free mass (FFM) in adult subjects with cancer. Twenty-seven studies were included in the meta-analysis. Fourteen studies included both cancer (n = 1453) and control (n = 1145) groups. The meta-analysis shows an average increase in REE of 9.66 (95% confidence interval: 3.34, 15.98) kJ/kgFFM/day in cancer patients when compared to control subjects. Heterogeneity was detected (P < 0.001) which suggest variations in REE among cancer types. Elevations are most noticeable in patients with cancers of metabolically demanding organs.

  1. Milk, yogurt, and lactose intake and ovarian cancer risk: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jing; Tang, Wenru; Sang, Lei; Dai, Xiaoli; Wei, Danping; Luo, Ying; Zhang, Jihong

    2015-01-01

    Inconclusive information for the role of dairy food intake in relation to ovarian cancer risk may associate with adverse effects of lactose, which has been hypothesized to increase gonadotropin levels in animal models and ecological studies. Up to now, several studies have indicated the association between dairy food intake and risk of ovarian cancer, but no identified founding was reported. We performed this meta-analysis to derive a more precise estimation of the association between dairy food intake and ovarian cancer risk. Using the data from 19 available publications, we examined dairy food including low-fat/skim milk, whole milk, yogurt and lactose in relation to risk of ovarian cancer by meta-analysis. Pooled odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) were used to assess the association. We observed a slightly increased risk of ovarian cancer with high intake of whole milk, but has no statistical significance (OR = 1.228, 95% CI = 1.031-1.464, P = 0.022). The results of other milk models did not provide evidence of positive association with ovarian cancer risk. This meta-analysis suggests that low-fat/skim milk, whole milk, yogurt and lactose intake has no associated with increased risk of ovarian cancer. Further studies with larger participants worldwide are needed to validate the association between dairy food intake and ovarian cancer.

  2. Association between matrix metalloproteinase 1 -1607 1G>2G polymorphism and cancer risk: a meta-analysis including 19706 subjects.

    PubMed

    Han, Guoda; Wei, Zhijiang; Lu, Zhiliang; Cui, Haibin; Bai, Xiyong; Ge, Huai'e; Zhang, Wei

    2014-01-01

    The association between MMP1 -1607 1G>2G polymorphism and cancer risk has been reported, but results remained controversial and ambiguous. To assess the association between MMP1 -1607 1G>2G polymorphism and cancer risk, a meta-analysis was performed. Based on comprehensive searches of the PubMed, Elsevier Science Direct, Excerpta Medica Database (Embase), and Chinese Biomedical Literature Database (CBM), we identified outcome data from all articles estimating the association between MMP1 -1607 1G>2G polymorphism and cancer risk. The pooled odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. Thirty-eight studies involving 10178 cases and 9528 controls were included. Overall, significant association between MMP1 -1607 1G>2G polymorphism and cancer susceptibility was observed for additive model (OR = 1.21, 95% CI 1.09-1.35), for codominant model (OR = 1.34, 95% CI 1.10-1.63), for dominant model (OR = 1.17, 95% CI 1.01-1.34), for recessive model (OR = 1.31, 95% CI 1.14-1.52). In the subgroup analysis by ethnicity, the significant association was found among Asians but not among Caucasians. In the subgroup analysis by site of cancer, significant associations were found among lung cancer, colorectal cancer, head and neck cancer and bladder cancer. This meta-analysis demonstrated that the MMP1 -1607 1G>2G polymorphism was significantly associated with cancer risk.

  3. Circulating adiponectin levels and risk of endometrial cancer: Systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    LI, ZHI-JUN; YANG, XUE-LING; YAO, YAN; HAN, WEI-QING; LI, BO

    2016-01-01

    Previous epidemiological studies have presented conflicting results regarding associations between circulating adiponectin (APN) levels and the risk of endometrial cancer. Thus a meta-analysis was performed to investigate the association between these factors. Multiple electronic sources, including PubMed, SpringerLink and Google Scholar databases were searched to identify relevant studies for the present meta-analysis. All of the selected studies examined the correlation between circulating APN levels and endometrial cancer. The standardized mean difference (SMD) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated and pooled using meta-analysis methods. Overall, 18 case-control studies met the inclusion criteria. A total of 5,692 participants and 2,337 cases of endometrial cancer were included in this meta-analysis. The SMD of the pooled analysis (95% CI) were −1.96 (−2.60, −1.31), P=0.000. When the cancer grades were compared, the APN values were not significantly different between the grades of endometrial cancer [G1 vs. G3, 1.02 (−0.68, 2.72), P>0.05; G1 vs. G2, 0.34 (−0.86, 1.54), P>0.05]. However, there was a significant association between high APN levels and postmenopausal endometrial cancer cases with an SMD (95% CI) of −2.27 (−4.36, −0.18) and P<0.05, however, no association was observed in premenopausal endometrial cancer cases with an SMD (95% CI) of −1.52 (−3.49, 0.45) and P>0.05. The low circulating APN level increases the risk of endometrial cancer, whereas the high APN level decreases this risk in postmenopausal women. Circulating APN as simple biomarkers may be a promising tool for the prevention, early diagnosis and disease monitoring of endometrial cancer. PMID:27284314

  4. Primary Prevention of Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Andrew T.; Giovannucci, Edward L.

    2010-01-01

    Colorectal cancer has been strongly associated with a Western lifestyle. In the past several decades, much has been learned about the dietary, lifestyle, and medication risk factors for this malignancy. Although there is controversy about the role of specific nutritional factors, consideration of the dietary pattern as a whole appears useful for formulating recommendations. For example, several studies have shown that high intake of red and processed meats, highly refined grains and starches, and sugars is related to increased risk of colorectal cancer. Replacing these factors with poultry, fish, and plant sources as the primary source of protein; unsaturated fats as the primary source of fat; and unrefined grains, legumes and fruits as the primary source of carbohydrates is likely to lower risk of colorectal cancer. Although a role for supplements, including vitamin D, folate, and vitamin B6, remains uncertain, calcium supplementation is likely to be at least modestly beneficial. With respect to lifestyle, compelling evidence indicates that avoidance of smoking and heavy alcohol use, prevention of weight gain, and the maintenance of a reasonable level of physical activity are associated with markedly lower risks of colorectal cancer. Medications such as aspirin and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and post-menopausal hormones for women are associated with significant reductions in colorectal cancer risk, though their utility is affected by associated risks. Taken together, modifications in diet and lifestyle should substantially reduce the risk of colorectal cancer and could complement screening in reducing colorectal cancer incidence. PMID:20420944

  5. Exposure to stainless steel welding fumes and lung cancer: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Sjögren, B; Hansen, K S; Kjuus, H; Persson, P G

    1994-05-01

    Stainless steel welding is associated with exposure to metals including hexavalent chromium and nickel. This study is a meta-analysis of five studies of stainless steel welders and the occurrence of lung cancer. Asbestos exposure and smoking habits have been taken into account. The calculated pooled relative risk estimate was 1.94 with a 95% confidence interval of 1.28-2.93. This result suggests a causal relation between exposure to stainless steel welding and lung cancer.

  6. Exposure to stainless steel welding fumes and lung cancer: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Sjögren, B; Hansen, K S; Kjuus, H; Persson, P G

    1994-01-01

    Stainless steel welding is associated with exposure to metals including hexavalent chromium and nickel. This study is a meta-analysis of five studies of stainless steel welders and the occurrence of lung cancer. Asbestos exposure and smoking habits have been taken into account. The calculated pooled relative risk estimate was 1.94 with a 95% confidence interval of 1.28-2.93. This result suggests a causal relation between exposure to stainless steel welding and lung cancer. PMID:8199684

  7. Colorectal cancer in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Carlos Gouveia; Paquete, Ana Teresa; Pissarra, Irene

    2010-01-01

    Increasing diagnosis and deaths caused by colorectal cancer (CRC) warrant closer examination of affected patients and focus on management of CRC in Portugal. In order to assess the extent and quality of the information available in Portugal, we first analyse Portuguese cancer registries and then the management of CRC by discussing the diagnostic process and medical care provided, especially pharmaceuticals. Other cancer indications are mentioned in order to illustrate current approaches of cancer in Portugal. Current national data on cancer patients are scarce and there are divergencies in methods of data collection and treatment amongst regional cancer registries. However, the available data is sufficient enough to understand the dimension of CRC, with age-standardised incidence of 37 per 100,000 and mortality of 31 per 100,000 annually. An ongoing project is restructuring health services to improve efficiency and quality, however, some problems exist. The regional inequity of access to health care facilities and long waiting times for diagnostic examinations and surgery are major examples. Despite the non-availability of clinical guidelines, a pilot screening programme started at the beginning of 2009 in the Centre Region of the country. It is hoped that this overview will provide the basis for discussion on improvements in CRC management in Portugal and lead to better outcomes.

  8. [Hereditary and familial colorectal cancer].

    PubMed

    Balaguer, Francesc

    2014-09-01

    Up to 5% of all colorectal cancer cases are caused by a known hereditary syndrome. These hereditary types often need a higher degree of clinical suspicion to be diagnosed and require specific and specialized management. In addition, diagnosing hereditary colorectal cancer has significant consequences not only for the patient, for whom there are effective preventative measures, but also for their families, who could be carriers of the condition. The most significant advances in the field of colorectal cancer have come from the diagnosis and characterization of these syndromes.

  9. Risk of renal cancer in liver transplant recipients: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xun; Wang, Jing-zhe; Zhang, Yi; Xu, Min; Chen, Pen; Wang, Cun-zu

    2016-01-01

    Liver transplantation is associated with a significantly increased risk of de novo malignancies, but for renal cancer this risk is less clear. We therefore performed a meta-analysis of published studies to determine whether renal cancer risk in liver transplant recipients (LTRs) was increased. To obtain a more precise conclusion, a systematic search was performed in PubMed and Web of Science databases until June 10, 2015. Standardized incidence ratio (SIR) corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI) were used to estimate risk of renal cancer in LTRs. Heterogeneity test, sensitivity analysis, and publishing bias were also performed. We identified 8 eligible studies and performed a meta-analysis on data of 49,654 LTRs with a total follow-up of 121,514.6 patient-years. The SIR for renal cancer was identified a 3.275-fold higher SIR (95% CI: 1.857-5.777; P < 0.001) in LTRs compared with the general population. This systematic review and meta-analysis demonstrated that the LTRs was associated with a significant increase in the incidence of renal cancer. Such association suggests that yearly routine post-transplant surveillance is need for renal cancer in LTRs.

  10. Population screening for colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    2006-09-01

    Each year in the UK, around 16,000 people die from colorectal cancer. At disease presentation, around 55% of people have advanced cancer that has spread to lymph nodes, metastasised to other organs or is so locally advanced that surgery is unlikely to be curative (Dukes' stage C or D). Overall 5-year survival for colorectal cancer in the UK is around 47-51% (compared to 64% in the USA), but only 7% at most in those presenting with metastatic disease. These facts underlie the current introduction of national bowel screening programmes in the UK. Here we assess the role of screening of the general population in reducing mortality from colorectal cancer. We do not consider the screening arrangements needed for high-risk populations, including those with inflammatory bowel disease or a strong family history of colorectal cancer. PMID:17009566

  11. A Data Similarity-Based Strategy for Meta-analysis of Transcriptional Profiles in Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Xiang, Yuzhu; Shyr, Yu; Chen, Xi; Lehmann, Brian David; Viox, Daniel Joseph; George, Alfred L.; Yi, Yajun

    2013-01-01

    Background Robust transcriptional signatures in cancer can be identified by data similarity-driven meta-analysis of gene expression profiles. An unbiased data integration and interrogation strategy has not previously been available. Methods and Findings We implemented and performed a large meta-analysis of breast cancer gene expression profiles from 223 datasets containing 10,581 human breast cancer samples using a novel data similarity-based approach (iterative EXALT). Cancer gene expression signatures extracted from individual datasets were clustered by data similarity and consolidated into a meta-signature with a recurrent and concordant gene expression pattern. A retrospective survival analysis was performed to evaluate the predictive power of a novel meta-signature deduced from transcriptional profiling studies of human breast cancer. Validation cohorts consisting of 6,011 breast cancer patients from 21 different breast cancer datasets and 1,110 patients with other malignancies (lung and prostate cancer) were used to test the robustness of our findings. During the iterative EXALT analysis, 633 signatures were grouped by their data similarity and formed 121 signature clusters. From the 121 signature clusters, we identified a unique meta-signature (BRmet50) based on a cluster of 11 signatures sharing a phenotype related to highly aggressive breast cancer. In patients with breast cancer, there was a significant association between BRmet50 and disease outcome, and the prognostic power of BRmet50 was independent of common clinical and pathologic covariates. Furthermore, the prognostic value of BRmet50 was not specific to breast cancer, as it also predicted survival in prostate and lung cancers. Conclusions We have established and implemented a novel data similarity-driven meta-analysis strategy. Using this approach, we identified a transcriptional meta-signature (BRmet50) in breast cancer, and the prognostic performance of BRmet50 was robust and applicable across a

  12. Prognostic Significance of Neutrophil-to-Lymphocyte Ratio in Colorectal Liver Metastasis: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Aiqun; Lu, Wenping; Xiang, Canhong; Dong, Jiahong

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objective Inflammation is deemed to play critical roles in tumor progression and metastasis, and an increased neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) has been reported to correlate with poor survivals in various malignancies. However, association between NLR elevation and survival outcome in patients with colorectal liver metastasis (CRLM) remains controversial. The aim of this study was to investigate the prognostic significance of elevated NLR in CRLM. Methods The meta-analysis was conducted in adherence to the MOOSE guidelines. PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, Web of Science and the Chinese SinoMed were systematically searched to identify eligible studies from the initiation of the databases to May, 2016. Overall survival (OS) and recurrence free survival (RFS) were pooled by using hazard ratio (HR) with corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI). Correlation between NLR values and clinicopathological features was synthesized by using odds ratio (OR) with corresponding 95% CI. Results A total of 1685 patients from 8 studies (9 cohorts) were analyzed, consisting 347 (20.59%) in high pretreatment NLR value group and 1338 (79.41%) in low pretreatment NLR value one. The results demonstrated that elevated pretreatment NLR was significantly related to poor OS (HR 2.17, 95% CI 1.82–2.58) and RFS (HR 1.96, 95% CI 1.64–2.35) in patients with CRLM. Conclusion The result of this systematic review and meta-analysis indicated that an elevated pretreatment NLR was closely correlated with poor long-term survival (OS and RFS) in CRLM patients. NLR can be routinely monitored and serve as a useful and cost-effective marker with strong prognostic significance in patients with CRLM. PMID:27427969

  13. Association between the TP53 polymorphisms and lung cancer risk: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Ye, Xiang-Hua; Bu, Zhi-Bin; Feng, Jie; Peng, Ling; Liao, Xin-Biao; Zhu, Xin-Li; Sun, Xiao-Li; Yu, Hao-Gang; Yan, Dan-Fang; Yan, Sen-Xiang

    2014-01-01

    The previous published data on the association between TP53 codon 72, intron 6, and intron 3 16 bp polymorphisms and lung cancer risk remained controversial. This meta-analysis of literatures was performed to derive a more precise estimation of the relationship. 38 publications with 51 studies were selected for this meta-analysis, including 17,337 cases and 16,127 controls for TP53 codon 72 (from 43 studies), 2,201 cases and 2,399 controls for TP53 intron 6 (from four studies), and 4,322 cases and 4,558 controls for TP53 intron 3 16 bp (from four studies). When all the eligible studies were pooled into the meta-analysis of codon 72 polymorphism, there was significant association between lung cancer risk and codon 72 polymorphism in any genetic model (dominant model: OR = 1.13, 95 % CI 1.05-1.21; recessive model: OR = 1.14, 95 % CI 1.02-1.27; additive model: OR = 1.19, 95 % CI 1.05-1.33). In the subgroup analysis by ethnicity, histological type, source of control, and smoking status, significantly increased risks were observed in subgroups such as Asians, Caucasians, lung squamous cell carcinoma patients for Asians, population-based study, hospital-based study, non-smokers, and smokers. When all the eligible studies were pooled into the meta-analysis of intron 6 polymorphism, there was significant association between lung cancer risk and intron 6 polymorphism in dominant model (OR = 1.27, 95 % CI 1.11-1.44). When all the eligible studies were pooled into the meta-analysis of intron 3 16 bp polymorphism, there was significant association between lung cancer risk and intron 3 16 bp polymorphism in dominant model (OR = 1.12, 95 % CI 1.02-1.23) and additive model (OR = 1.41, 95 % CI 1.04-1.90). Additionally, when one study was deleted in the sensitive analysis, the results of TP53 intron 3 16 bp duplication polymorphism were changed in the dominant model (OR = 1.11, 95 % CI 0.87-1.42) and additive model (OR = 1.01, 95 % CI 0.65-1.56). In summary, this meta-analysis

  14. Depression and anxiety in ovarian cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis of prevalence rates

    PubMed Central

    Watts, Sam; Prescott, Philip; Mason, Jessica; McLeod, Natalie; Lewith, George

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To systematically review the literature pertaining to the prevalence of depression and anxiety in patients with ovarian cancer as a function of treatment stage. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis. Participants 3623 patients with ovarian cancer from primary research investigations. Primary outcome measure The prevalence of depression and anxiety in patients with ovarian cancer as a function of treatment stage. Results We identified 24 full journal articles that met the inclusion criteria for entry into the meta-analysis resulting in a pooled sample size of 3623 patients. The meta-analysis of prevalence rates identified pretreatment, on-treatment and post-treatment depression prevalences of 25.34% (CI 22.79% to 28.07%), 22.99% (CI 19.85% to 26.46%) and 12.71% (CI 10.14% to 15.79%), respectively. Pretreatment, on-treatment and post-treatment anxiety prevalences were 19.12% (CI 17.11% to 21.30%), 26.23% (CI 22.30% to 30.56%) and 27.09% (CI 23.10% to 31.49%). Conclusions Our findings suggest that the prevalence of depression and anxiety in women with ovarian cancer, across the treatment spectrum, is significantly greater than in the healthy female population. With the growing emphasis on improving the management of survivorship and quality of life, we conclude that further research is warranted to ensure psychological distress in ovarian cancer is not underdiagnosed and undertreated. PMID:26621509

  15. Role of micronucleus test in predicting breast cancer susceptibility: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Cardinale, F; Bruzzi, P; Bolognesi, C

    2012-01-01

    Background: The cytokinesis-block micronucleus test (MNT), as a marker of chromosomal mutagen sensitivity, was applied in a number of studies enrolling breast cancer (BC) patients and subjects with known or putative genetic predisposition to BC. The large majority of them involve the evaluation of induced micronuclei (MN) frequency in peripheral lymphocytes, after the in vitro challenge with ionising radiations. Methods: The aim of the present systematic review and meta-analysis is to investigate the role of MN assay in the identification of individuals at increased risk of BC and its potential use as prescreening test in women with a family history (FH) of BC. Results: Twelve studies were included in the meta-analysis, covering a time interval 1998–2007, and including 752 cases and 593 controls. Among the cases, 629 are cancer patients and 123 are cancer-free subjects, including 32 first-degree relatives of the susceptible subjects and 91 BRCA1/2 mutation carriers. Our meta-analysis reveals a significant increase of baseline MN frequency related to cancer status, but the association with FH of BC and specifically with BRCA mutations is not clear. A larger difference in MN frequency between cases and controls was observed after in vitro challenge, but response to radiation exposure doesn't appear to better discriminate cancer-susceptible subjects. Conclusion: Our study suggests the presence of some bias affecting many of these studies, reinforcing the suggestion that a more rigorous study design is needed in this area. PMID:22187037

  16. Chlorination, chlorination by-products, and cancer: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Morris, R D; Audet, A M; Angelillo, I F; Chalmers, T C; Mosteller, F

    1992-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. Individual epidemiological investigations into the association between chlorination by-products in drinking water and cancer have been suggestive but inconclusive. Enough studies exist to provide the basis for a meaningful meta-analysis. METHODS. An extensive literature search was performed to identify pertinent case-control studies and cohort studies. Consumption of chlorinated water, surface water, or water with high levels of chloroform was used as a surrogate for exposure to chlorination by-products. Relative risk estimates were abstracted from the individual studies and pooled. RESULTS. A simple meta-analysis of all cancer sites yielded a relative risk estimate for exposure to chlorination by-products of 1.15 (95% CI: 1.09, 1.20). Pooled relative risk estimates for organ-specific neoplasms were 1.21 (95% CI: 1.09, 1.34) for bladder cancer and 1.38 (95% CI: 1.01, 1.87) for rectal cancer. When studies that adjusted for potential confounders were pooled separately, estimates of relative risks did not change substantially. CONCLUSIONS. The results of this meta-analysis suggest a positive association between consumption of chlorination by-products in drinking water and bladder and rectal cancer in humans. PMID:1535181

  17. Green tea, black tea consumption and risk of lung cancer: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Tang, Naping; Wu, Yuemin; Zhou, Bo; Wang, Bin; Yu, Rongbin

    2009-09-01

    Studies investigating the association of green tea and black tea consumption with lung cancer risk have reported inconsistent findings. To provide a quantitative assessment of this association, we conducted a meta-analysis on the topic. Studies were identified by a literature search in PubMed from 1966 to November 2008 and by searching the reference lists of relevant studies. Summary relative risk (RR) estimates and their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated based on random-effects model. Our meta-analysis included 22 studies provided data on consumption of green tea or black tea, or both related to lung cancer risk. For green tea, the summary RR indicated a borderline significant association between highest green tea consumption and reduced risk of lung cancer (RR=0.78, 95% CI=0.61-1.00). Furthermore, an increase in green tea consumption of two cups/day was associated with an 18% decreased risk of developing lung cancer (RR=0.82, 95% CI=0.71-0.96). For black tea, no statistically significant association was observe through the meta-analysis (highest versus non/lowest, RR=0.86, 95% CI=0.70-1.05; an increment of two cups/day, RR=0.82, 95% CI=0.65-1.03). In conclusion, our data suggest that high or an increase in consumption of green tea but not black tea may be related to the reduction of lung cancer risk.

  18. Cancer risk with folic acid supplements: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Wien, Tale Norbye; Pike, Eva; Wisløff, Torbjørn; Staff, Annetine; Smeland, Sigbjørn; Klemp, Marianne

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore if there is an increased cancer risk associated with folic acid supplements given orally. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis of controlled studies of folic acid supplementation in humans reporting cancer incidence and/or cancer mortality. Studies on folic acid fortification of foods were not included. Data sources Cochrane Library, Medline, Embase and Centre of Reviews and Dissemination, clinical trial registries and hand-searching of key journals. Results From 4104 potential references, 19 studies contributed data to our meta-analyses, including 12 randomised controlled trials (RCTs). Meta-analysis of the 10 RCTs reporting overall cancer incidence (N=38 233) gave an RR of developing cancer in patients randomised to folic acid supplements of 1.07 (95% CI 1.00 to 1.14) compared to controls. Overall cancer incidence was not reported in the seven observational studies. Meta-analyses of six RCTs reporting prostate cancer incidence showed an RR of prostate cancer of 1.24 (95% CI 1.03 to 1.49) for the men receiving folic acid compared to controls. No significant difference in cancer incidence was shown between groups receiving folic acid and placebo/control group, for any other cancer type. Total cancer mortality was reported in six RCTs, and a meta-analysis of these did not show any significant difference in cancer mortality in folic acid supplemented groups compared to controls (RR 1.09, 95% CI 0.90 to 1.30). None of the observational studies addressed mortality. Conclusions A meta-analysis of 10 RCTs showed a borderline significant increase in frequency of overall cancer in the folic acid group compared to controls. Overall cancer incidence was not reported in the seven observational studies. Prostate cancer was the only cancer type found to be increased after folic acid supplementation (meta-analyses of six RCTs). Prospective studies of cancer development in populations where food is fortified with folic acid could indicate whether

  19. Nut consumption and risk of cancer and type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhen; Zhu, Jingjing; Murad, Angela L.; Prokop, Larry J.; Murad, Mohammad H.

    2015-01-01

    Context: The identification of foods that can decrease the risk of cancer and type 2 diabetes may be helpful in reducing the burden of these diseases. Although nut consumption has been suggested to have a disease-preventive role, current evidence remains inconsistent. Objective: The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to clarify the association between nut consumption and risk of cancer or type 2 diabetes. Data Sources: Six databases were searched for relevant studies from the time of database inception to August 2014. Reference lists of relevant review articles were hand searched, and authors were contacted when data were insufficient. Study Selection: Eligible studies included epidemiological studies (case–control and cohort) or clinical trials that reported an association between nut consumption and the outcome of type 2 diabetes or specific cancers. Data Extraction: Two investigators independently extracted descriptive, quality, and risk data from included studies. Data Synthesis: Random-effects meta-analysis was used to pool relative risks from the included studies. The I2 statistic was used to assess heterogeneity. A total of 36 eligible observational studies, which included 30 708 patients, were identified. The studies had fair methodological quality, and length of follow-up ranged between 4.6 years and 30 years. Comparison of the highest category of nut consumption with the lowest category revealed significant associations between nut consumption and decreased risk of colorectal cancer (3 studies each with separate estimates for males and females, RR 0.76, 95% confidence interval [95%CI] 0.61–0.96), endometrial cancer (2 studies, RR 0.58, 95%CI 0.43–0.79), and pancreatic cancer (1 study, RR 0.68, 95%CI 0.48–0.96). No significant association was found with other cancers or type 2 diabetes. Overall, nut consumption was significantly associated with a reduced risk of cancer incidence (RR 0.85, 95%CI 0.76–0.95). Conclusions: Nut

  20. Correlations of IFN-γ genetic polymorphisms with susceptibility to breast cancer: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Li, Chun-Jiang; Dai, Yue; Fu, Yan-Jun; Tian, Jia-Ming; Li, Jin-Lun; Lu, Hong-Jun; Duan, Feng; Li, Qing-Wang

    2014-07-01

    The meta-analysis was conducted to evaluate the correlations between common genetic polymorphisms in the IFN-γ gene and susceptibility to breast cancer. The following electronic databases were searched without language restrictions: MEDLINE (1966 ~ 2013), the Cochrane Library Database (issue 12, 2013), EMBASE (1980 ~ 2013), CINAHL (1982 ~ 2013), Web of Science (1945 ~ 2013), and the Chinese Biomedical Database (CBM) (1982 ~ 2013). Meta-analysis was performed with the use of the STATA statistical software. Odds ratios (OR) with their 95 % confidence intervals (95 % CIs) were calculated. Nine clinical case-control studies met all the inclusion criteria and were included in this meta-analysis. A total of 1,182 breast cancer patients and 1,525 healthy controls were involved in this meta-analysis. Three functional polymorphisms were assessed, including rs2069705 C>T, rs2430561 T>A, and CA repeats 2/X. Our meta-analysis results indicated that IFN-γ genetic polymorphisms might be significantly associated with an increased risk of breast cancer (allele model: OR = 1.37, 95 % CI = 1.03 ~ 1.83, P = 0.031; dominant model: OR = 1.55, 95 % CI = 1.01 ~ 2.37, P = 0.046; homozygous model: OR = 2.23, 95 % CI = 1.30 ~ 3.82, P = 0.004; respectively), especially the rs2430561 T>A polymorphism. Subgroup analysis based on ethnicity suggested that genetic polymorphisms in the IFN-γ gene were closely correlated with increased breast cancer risk among Asians (allele model: OR = 1.21, 95 % CI = 1.02 ~ 1.58, P = 0.017; dominant model: OR = 3.44, 95 % CI = 2.07 ~ 5.71, P < 0.001; recessive model: OR = 1.58, 95 % CI = 1.06 ~ 2.37, P = 0.025; homozygous model: OR = 1.83, 95 % CI = 1.19 ~ 2.80, P = 0.006; respectively), but not among Caucasians (all P > 0.05). Our meta-analysis supported the hypothesis that IFN-γ genetic polymorphisms may contribute to an increased risk of breast cancer, especially the rs2430561 T>A polymorphism among Asians.

  1. Animal Models of Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Robert L.; Fleet, James C.

    2012-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is a heterogeneous disease that afflicts a large number of people in the United States. The use of animal models has the potential to increase our understanding of carcinogenesis, tumor biology, and the impact of specific molecular events on colon biology. In addition, animal models with features of specific human colorectal cancers can be used to test strategies for cancer prevention and treatment. In this review we provide an overview of the mechanisms driving human cancer, we discuss the approaches one can take to model colon cancer in animals, and we describe a number of specific animal models that have been developed for the study of colon cancer. We believe that there are many valuable animal models to study various aspects of human colorectal cancer. However, opportunities for improving upon these models exist. PMID:23076650

  2. Animal models of colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Robert L; Fleet, James C

    2013-06-01

    Colorectal cancer is a heterogeneous disease that afflicts a large number of people in the USA. The use of animal models has the potential to increase our understanding of carcinogenesis, tumor biology, and the impact of specific molecular events on colon biology. In addition, animal models with features of specific human colorectal cancers can be used to test strategies for cancer prevention and treatment. In this review, we provide an overview of the mechanisms driving human cancer, we discuss the approaches one can take to model colon cancer in animals, and we describe a number of specific animal models that have been developed for the study of colon cancer. We believe that there are many valuable animal models to study various aspects of human colorectal cancer. However, opportunities for improving upon these models exist.

  3. Hypertension and risk of prostate cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Zhen; Xie, Bo; Li, Jiangfeng; Wang, Xiao; Wang, Song; Meng, Shuai; Ji, Alin; Zhu, Yi; Xu, Xin; Zheng, Xiangyi; Xie, Liping

    2016-01-01

    The previously reported association between hypertension and prostate cancer risk was controversial. We performed this systematic review and meta-analysis of all available studies to summarize evidence on this association. Studies were identified by searching PubMed, Web of Science and Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) databases through January 2016. Pooled relative risks (RRs) with their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using a random-effects model. A total of 21 published studies were included in this meta-analysis. A significant increase in the risk of prostate cancer (RR 1.08, 95% CI 1.02–1.15, P = 0.014) was observed among individuals with hypertension. There was statistically significant heterogeneity among included studies (P < 0.001 for heterogeneity, I2 = 72.1%). No obvious evidence of significant publication bias was detected by either Begg’s test (P = 0.174) or Egger’s test (P = 0.277). In conclusion, this meta-analysis indicates that hypertension may be associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer. Considering the substantial heterogeneity and residual confounding among included studies, further large-scale, well-designed prospective cohorts, as well as mechanistic studies, are urgently needed to confirm our preliminary findings. PMID:27511796

  4. Association Between BRCA Status and P53 Status in Breast Cancer: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Lin; Xu, Tao; Long, Ting; Zuo, Huaiquan

    2016-01-01

    Background Research on BRCA mutation has meaningful clinical implications, such as identifying risk of second primary cancers and risk of hereditary cancers. This study seeks to summarize available data to investigate the association between BRCA status and P53 status by meta-analysis. Material/Methods We searched PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane library databases for relevant studies. Meta-analysis was conducted using STATA software. We summarized odds ratios by fixed-effects or random-effects models. Results This study included a total of 4288 cases from 16 articles, which including 681 BRCA1 mutation carriers (BRCA1Mut), 366 carriers of BRCA2 mutation (BRCA2Mut), and 3241 carriers of normal versions of these genes. BRCA1Mut was significantly associated with P53 over-expression compared with BRCA2Mut (OR 1.851, 95% CI=1.393–2.458) or non-carriers (OR=2.503, 95% CI=1.493–4.198). No difference was found between p53 protein expression in BRCA2 Mut carriers and non-carriers (OR=0.881, 95% CI=0.670–1.158). Conclusions Our meta-analysis suggests that BRCA1Mut breast cancer patients are more likely to have P53 overexpression compared with BRCA2Mut and non-carriers. This information provides valuable information for clinicians who perform related studies in the future. PMID:27272763

  5. Effect of passive smoking on female breast cancer in China: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhenghong; Shao, Jing; Gao, Xiaohong; Li, Xiaofeng

    2015-03-01

    The objective is to explore the relationship between passive smoking and female breast cancer using meta-analysis. Literature on risk factors for female breast cancer published from January 2001 to December 2011 was collected from CBM, CAJD, VIP, WanFangData, and MEDLINE databases. The meta-analysis was performed using Review Manager 5.0.24. A total of 8 studies were included according to inclusion and exclusion standards. The results of the meta-analysis indicated that the combined odds ratio (OR) estimate for those who had been exposed to passive smoke from tobacco was 1.67 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.27-2.21). Results of the subgroup analysis were consistent with an OR = 1.98 (95% CI = 1.63-2.42) for 1:1 paired design research and 1.60 (95% CI = 1.08-2.37) for the group design research. Results suggest a possible association between passive tobacco smoke and female breast cancer in China.

  6. Primary and Secondary Prevention of Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Tárraga López, Pedro J; Albero, Juan Solera; Rodríguez-Montes, José Antonio

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Cancer is a worldwide problem as it will affect one in three men and one in four women during their lifetime. Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most frequent cancer in men, after lung and prostate cancer, and is the second most frequent cancer in women after breast cancer. It is also the third cause of death in men and women separately, and is the second most frequent cause of death by cancer if both genders are considered together. CRC represents approximately 10% of deaths by cancer. Modifiable risk factors of CRC include smoking, physical inactivity, being overweight and obesity, eating processed meat, and drinking alcohol excessively. CRC screening programs are possible only in economically developed countries. However, attention should be paid in the future to geographical areas with ageing populations and a western lifestyle.19,20 Sigmoidoscopy screening done with people aged 55–64 years has been demonstrated to reduce the incidence of CRC by 33% and mortality by CRC by 43%. OBJECTIVE To assess the effect on the incidence and mortality of CRC diet and lifestyle and to determine the effect of secondary prevention through early diagnosis of CRC. METHODOLOGY: A comprehensive search of Medline and Pubmed articles related to primary and secondary prevention of CRC and subsequently, a meta-analysis of the same blocks are performed. RESULTS 225 articles related to primary or secondary prevention of CRC were retrieved. Of these 145 were considered valid on meta-analysis: 12 on epidemiology, 56 on diet and lifestyle, and over 77 different screenings for early detection of CRC. Cancer is a worldwide problem as it will affect one in three men and one in four women during their lifetime. There is no doubt whatsoever which environmental factors, probably diet, may account for these cancer rates. Excessive alcohol consumption and cholesterol-rich diet are associated with a high risk of colon cancer. A diet poor in folic acid and vitamin B6 is also

  7. Impact of formal training in endoscopic submucosal dissection for early gastrointestinal cancer: A systematic review and a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Tanimoto, Miguel A; Guerrero, M Lourdes; Morita, Yoshinori; Aguirre-Valadez, Jonathan; Gomez, Elisa; Moctezuma-Velazquez, Carlos; Estradas-Trujillo, Jose A; Valdovinos, Miguel A; Uscanga, Luis F; Fujita, Rikiya

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To summarize the clinical impact of a formal training for the effectiveness and safety of endoscopic submucosal dissection for gastrointestinal cancer. METHODS: We searched databases including PubMed, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library and Science citation Index updated to August 2014 to include eligible articles. In the Meta-analysis, the main outcome measurements were en bloc resection rate, local recurrence rate (R0) and the incidence of procedure-related complications (perforation, bleeding). RESULTS: En bloc resection was high for both, dissecting stomach tumors with an overall percentage of 93.2% (95%CI: 90.5-95.8) and dissecting colorectal tumors with an overall percentage of 89.4% (95%CI: 85.1-93.7). Although the number of studies reporting R0 resection (the dissected specimen was revealed free of tumor in both vertical and lateral margins) was small, the overall estimates for R0 resection were 81.4% (95%CI: 72-90.8) for stomach and 85.9% (95%CI: 77.5-95.5) for colorectal tumors, respectively. The analysis showed that the percentage of immediate perforation and bleeding were very low; 4.96 (95%CI: 3.6-6.3) and 1.4% (95%CI: 0.8-1.9) for colorectal tumors and 3.1% (95%CI: 2.0-4.1) and 4.8% (95%CI: 2.8-6.7) for stomach tumors, respectively. CONCLUSION: In order to obtain the same rate of success of the analyzed studies it is a necessity to create training centers in the western countries during the “several years” of gastroenterology residence first only to teach EGC diagnose and second only to train endoscopic submucosal dissection. PMID:25901222

  8. Survivorship Care Plan in Promoting Physical Activity in Breast or Colorectal Cancer Survivors in Wisconsin

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-08-19

    Cancer Survivor; Healthy Subject; Stage I Colorectal Cancer; Stage IA Breast Cancer; Stage IB Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIA Colorectal Cancer; Stage IIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIB Colorectal Cancer; Stage IIC Colorectal Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Colorectal Cancer; Stage IIIB Breast Cancer; Stage IIIB Colorectal Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Colorectal Cancer

  9. Plasma prolactin and breast cancer risk: a meta- analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Minghao; Wu, Xiujuan; Chai, Fan; Zhang, Yi; Jiang, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women, and its incidence is on a constant rise. Previous studies suggest that higher levels of plasma prolactin are associated with escalated risk of breast cancer, however, these results are contradictory and inconclusive. PubMed and Medline were used to search and identify published observational studies that assessed the relationship between plasma prolactin levels and the risk of breast cancer. The pooled relative risks (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using a fixed-effects or random-effects model. A total of 7 studies were included in our analysis. For the highest versus lowest levels of plasma prolactin, the pooled RR (95% CI) of breast cancer were 1.16 (1.04, 1.29). In subgroup analyses, we found a positive association between plasma prolactin levels and the risk of breast cancer among the patients who were postmenopausal, ER+/PR+ or in situ and invasive carcinoma. However, this positive association was not detected in the premenopausal and ER-/PR- patients. In conclusion, the present study provides evidence supporting a significantly positive association between plasma prolactin levels and the risk of breast cancer. PMID:27184120

  10. Diagnostic performance of contrast-enhanced ultrasound for ovarian cancer: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ying; Peng, Hongling; Zhao, Xia

    2015-04-01

    This meta-analysis is the first study aimed at assessing the overall diagnostic performance of contrast-enhanced ultrasound for ovarian cancer. PubMed, Embase and Medline databases were systematically searched for relevant articles published up to June 2014. Data were pooled to yield summary sensitivity, specificity, diagnostic odds ratio and receiver operating characteristic curves using Meta-Disc Version 1.4 software. Ten independent studies with 579 ovarian tumors were enrolled in this meta-analysis. The pooled sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic odds ratio statistics were 0.89 (0.83-0.94), 0.91 (0.88-0.93) and 91.70 (41.41-203.05), respectively, and the area under the summary receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.9619 (standard error: 0.0125), all indicating that contrast-enhanced ultrasound has high diagnostic accuracy in differentiation of malignant from benign ovarian tumors.

  11. Meta-analysis of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase polymorphism and lung cancer risk in Chinese

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xin; Yue, Kai; Hao, Liran

    2015-01-01

    Numerous studies have investigated association of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T polymorphism with lung cancer (LC) susceptibility in Chinese; however, the findings are inconsistent. Therefore, we performed a meta-analysis. PubMed, ISI Web of Knowledge, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure, and Wanfang were searched. Pooled ORs and 95% CIs were used to assess the strength of the associations. Overall, 10 studies with 2487 cases and 3228 controls investigating the MTHFR C677T polymorphism and LC risk were included. We did not find a significant association between MTHFR C677T polymorphism and LC risk. However, significantly increased LC risk was found in the population from North China, which was not found in the population from South China. In conclusion, our meta-analysis suggested that MTHFR C677T polymorphism might influence the risk of LC. PMID:25785167

  12. Polychlorinated biphenyls and breast cancer: A congener-specific meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Leng, Ling; Li, Jing; Luo, Xiu-mei; Kim, Jun-young; Li, Yi-meng; Guo, Xue-mei; Chen, Xi; Yang, Qiao-yun; Li, Guang; Tang, Nai-jun

    2016-03-01

    The incidence of breast cancer is related to various risk factors, especially that the environmental and lifestyle factors account for major contribution at the rate of 70% to 95% over all. However, there still remains some controversy over the epidemiological evidence regarding the effects of environmental carcinogens on the risk of breast cancer. We conducted a quantitative meta-analysis aiming at full evaluation of the effects of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) on breast cancer in a congener-specific fashion. Four online literature databases were systematically searched before 1st January 2015, for studies stating correlation between PCB congeners and breast cancer. The Newcastle-Ottawa Scale was used to evaluate the quality of the studies that were included in our analysis. Sixteen studies were included in our final meta-analysis after screening based on the priori inclusion criteria. Nine PCB congeners were reported by more than two studies and they were presented in detail. The pooled Odds Ratios (ORs) showed a significant increase in the risk of breast cancer in individuals with higher plasma/fat levels of PCB 99 (OR: 1.36; 95% CI: 1.02 to 1.80), PCB 183 (OR: 1.56; 95% CI: 1.25 to 1.95) and PCB 187 (OR: 1.18; 95% CI: 1.01 to 1.39). Besides, the outcomes did not support a relationship between dioxin-like PCB congeners and the risk of breast cancer. The results of our meta-analysis imply that PCB 99, PCB 183 and PCB 187 would increase the risk of breast cancer. The mechanism of this increased risk may be by the induction of the CYP2B family in cytochrome P450 enzymes.

  13. Association among Dietary Flavonoids, Flavonoid Subclasses and Ovarian Cancer Risk: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    You, Ruxu; Yang, Yu; Liao, Jing; Chen, Dongsheng; Yu, Lixiu

    2016-01-01

    Background Previous studies have indicated that intake of dietary flavonoids or flavonoid subclasses is associated with the ovarian cancer risk, but presented controversial results. Therefore, we conducted a meta-analysis to derive a more precise estimation of these associations. Methods We performed a search in PubMed, Google Scholar and ISI Web of Science from their inception to April 25, 2015 to select studies on the association among dietary flavonoids, flavonoid subclasses and ovarian cancer risk. The information was extracted by two independent authors. We assessed the heterogeneity, sensitivity, publication bias and quality of the articles. A random-effects model was used to calculate the pooled risk estimates. Results Five cohort studies and seven case-control studies were included in the final meta-analysis. We observed that intake of dietary flavonoids can decrease ovarian cancer risk, which was demonstrated by pooled RR (RR = 0.82, 95% CI = 0.68–0.98). In a subgroup analysis by flavonoid subtypes, the ovarian cancer risk was also decreased for isoflavones (RR = 0.67, 95% CI = 0.50–0.92) and flavonols (RR = 0.68, 95% CI = 0.58–0.80). While there was no compelling evidence that consumption of flavones (RR = 0.86, 95% CI = 0.71–1.03) could decrease ovarian cancer risk, which revealed part sources of heterogeneity. The sensitivity analysis indicated stable results, and no publication bias was observed based on the results of Funnel plot analysis and Egger’s test (p = 0.26). Conclusions This meta-analysis suggested that consumption of dietary flavonoids and subtypes (isoflavones, flavonols) has a protective effect against ovarian cancer with a reduced risk of ovarian cancer except for flavones consumption. Nevertheless, further investigations on a larger population covering more flavonoid subclasses are warranted. PMID:26960146

  14. Mesothelioma and lung cancer among motor vehicle mechanics: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Michael; Teta, M Jane; Hessel, Patrick A; Garabrant, David H; Craven, Valerie A; Scrafford, Carolyn G; Kelsh, Michael A

    2004-06-01

    We conducted a systematic review and analysis of the epidemiological literature that examines the risk of lung cancer and mesothelioma among motor vehicle mechanics who may have been engaged in brake repair and, thus, were potentially exposed to asbestos. All relevant studies were classified into three tiers according to their quality. Tier III (lowest quality) studies were cited for completeness, but were not included in the meta-analysis. Meta relative risks (meta-RRs) were calculated for mesothelioma and lung cancer using both fixed and random effects models for Tiers I and II, separately, followed by stratified analyses based on study design or exposure characterization (garage workers versus brake workers) and, for lung cancer studies, based on adequate adjustment for smoking. The meta-analysis for Tier I (higher quality) and Tier II (lower quality) studies of mesothelioma yielded RR estimates of 0.92 (95% CI 0.55-1.56) and 0.81 (95% CI 0.52-1.28), respectively. Further stratification according to exposure characterization did not affect the results. The meta-analysis for lung cancer produced RR estimates of 1.07 (95% CI 0.88-1.31) for Tier I and 1.17 (95% CI 1.01-1.36) for Tier II. When the lung cancer analysis was limited to studies that used adequate control for smoking, the resulting RR estimate was 1.09 (95% CI 0.92-1.28). Based on these findings, we conclude that employment as a motor vehicle mechanic does not increase the risk of developing mesothelioma. Although some studies showed a small increase in risk of lung cancer among motor vehicle mechanics, the data on balance do not support a conclusion that lung cancer risk in this occupational group is related to asbestos exposure.

  15. An individual patient data meta-analysis of adjuvant therapy with uracil–tegafur (UFT) in patients with curatively resected rectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sakamoto, J; Hamada, C; Yoshida, S; Kodaira, S; Yasutomi, M; Kato, T; Oba, K; Nakazato, H; Saji, S; Ohashi, Y

    2007-01-01

    Uracil–Tegafur (UFT), an oral fluorinated pyrimidine chemotherapeutic agent, has been used for adjuvant chemotherapy in curatively resected colorectal cancer patients. Past trials and meta-analyses indicate that it is somewhat effective in extending survival of patients with rectal cancer. The objective of this study was to perform a reappraisal of randomised clinical trials conducted in this field. We designed an individual patient-based meta-analysis of relevant clinical trials to examine the benefit of UFT for curatively resected rectal cancer in terms of overall survival (OS), disease-free survival (DFS), and local relapse-free survival (LRFS). We analysed individual patient data of five adjuvant therapy randomised clinical trials for rectal cancer, which met the predetermined inclusion criteria. These five trials had a combined total of 2091 patients, UFT as adjuvant chemotherapy compared to surgery-alone, 5-year follow-up, intention-to-treat-based analytic strategy, and similar endpoints (OS and DFS). In a pooled analysis, UFT had significant advantage over surgery-alone in terms of both OS (hazard ratio, 0.82; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.70–0.97; P=0.02) and DFS (hazard ratio, 0.73; 95%CI, 0.63–0.84; P<0.0001). This individual patient-based meta-analysis demonstrated that oral UFT significantly improves both OS and DFS in patients with curatively resected rectal cancer. PMID:17375049

  16. Choline and betaine consumption lowers cancer risk: a meta-analysis of epidemiologic studies

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Shanwen; Li, Xiao; Ren, Anjing; Du, Mulong; Du, Haina; Shu, Yongqian; Zhu, Lingjun; Wang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    A number of human and animal in vitro or in vivo studies have investigated the relationship between dietary choline and betaine and cancer risk, suggesting that choline and betaine consumption may be protective for cancer. There are also a few epidemiologic studies exploring this relationship, however, with inconsistent conclusions. The PubMed and Embase were searched, from their inception to March 2016, to identify relevant studies and we brought 11 articles into this meta-analysis eventually. The pooled relative risks (RRs) of cancer for the highest versus the lowest range were 0.82 (95% CI, 0.70 to 0.97) for choline consumption only, 0.86 (95%CI, 0.76 to 0.97) for betaine consumption only and 0.60 (95%CI, 0.40 to 0.90) for choline plus betaine consumption, respectively. Significant protective effect of dietary choline and betaine for cancer was observed when stratified by study design, location, cancer type, publication year, sex and quality score of study. An increment of 100 mg/day of choline plus betaine intake helped reduce cancer incidence by 11% (0.89, 95% CI, 0.87 to 0.92) through a dose-response analysis. To conclude, choline and betaine consumption lowers cancer incidence in this meta-analysis, but further studies are warranted to verify the results. PMID:27759060

  17. Effect of Carrot Intake in the Prevention of Gastric Cancer: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Fallahzadeh, Hossein; Momayyezi, Mahdieh; Bazm, Soheila

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Gastric cancer is the third leading cause of cancer-related mortality, with the incidence and mortality being higher in men than in women. Various studies have shown that eating carrots may play a major role in the prevention of gastric cancer. We conducted a meta-analysis to determine the relationship between carrot consumption and gastric cancer. Materials and Methods We searched multiple databases including PubMed, Cochrane Library, Scopus, ScienceDirect, and Persian databases like Scientific Information Database (SID) and IranMedx. The following search terms were used: stomach or gastric, neoplasm or cancer, carcinoma or tumor, and carrot. Statistical analyses were performed using Comprehensive Meta Analysis/2.0 software. Results We retrieved 81 articles by searching the databases. After considering the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 5 articles were included in this study. The odds ratio (OR) obtained by fixed effects model showed that a 26% reduction in the risk of gastric cancer has been associated with the consumption of carrots) OR=0.74; 95% confidence interval=0.68~0.81; P<0.0001). According to funnel graph, the results showed that the possibility of a publication bias does not exist in this study. Conclusions The findings of this study showed an inverse relationship between the consumption of carrots and the risk of gastric cancer. PMID:26819805

  18. Wood dust exposure and lung cancer risk: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Hancock, David G; Langley, Mary E; Chia, Kwan Leung; Woodman, Richard J; Shanahan, E Michael

    2015-12-01

    Occupational lung cancers represent a major health burden due to their increasing prevalence and poor long-term outcomes. While wood dust is a confirmed human carcinogen, its association with lung cancer remains unclear due to inconsistent findings in the literature. We aimed to clarify this association using meta-analysis. We performed a search of 10 databases to identify studies published until June 2014. We assessed the lung cancer risk associated with wood dust exposure as the primary outcome and with wood dust-related occupations as a secondary outcome. Random-effects models were used to pool summary risk estimates. 85 publications were included in the meta-analysis. A significantly increased risk for developing lung cancer was observed among studies that directly assessed wood dust exposure (RR 1.21, 95% CI 1.05 to 1.39, n=33) and that assessed wood dust-related occupations (RR 1.15, 95% CI 1.07 to 1.23, n=59). In contrast, a reduced risk for lung cancer was observed among wood dust (RR 0.63, 95% CI 0.39 to 0.99, n=5) and occupation (RR 0.96, 95% CI 0.95 to 0.98, n=1) studies originating in Nordic countries, where softwood dust is the primary exposure. These results were independent of the presence of adjustment for smoking and exposure classification methods. Only minor differences in risk between the histological subtypes were identified. This meta-analysis provides strong evidence for an association between wood dust and lung cancer, which is critically influenced by the geographic region of the study. The reasons for this region-specific effect estimates remain to be clarified, but may suggest a differential effect for hardwood and softwood dusts.

  19. A Healthy Dietary Pattern Reduces Lung Cancer Risk: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yanlai; Li, Zhenxiang; Li, Jianning; Li, Zengjun; Han, Jianjun

    2016-01-01

    Background: Diet and nutrients play an important role in cancer development and progress; a healthy dietary pattern has been found to be associated with several types of cancer. However, the association between a healthy eating pattern and lung cancer risk is still unclear. Objective: Therefore, we conducted a systematic review with meta-analysis to evaluate whether a healthy eating pattern might reduce lung cancer risk. Methods: We identified relevant studies from the PubMed and Embase databases up to October 2015, and the relative risks were extracted and combined by the fixed-effects model when no substantial heterogeneity was observed; otherwise, the random-effects model was employed. Subgroup and publication bias analyses were also performed. Results: Finally, eight observational studies were included in the meta-analysis. The pooled relative risk of lung cancer for the highest vs. lowest category of healthy dietary pattern was 0.81 (95% confidence interval, CI: 0.75–0.86), and no significant heterogeneity was detected. The relative risks (RRs) for non-smokers, former smokers and current smokers were 0.89 (95% CI: 0.63–1.27), 0.74 (95% CI: 0.62–0.89) and 0.86 (95% CI: 0.79–0.93), respectively. The results remained stable in subgroup analyses by other confounders and sensitivity analysis. Conclusions: The results of our meta-analysis suggest that a healthy dietary pattern is associated with a lower lung cancer risk, and they provide more beneficial evidence for changing the diet pattern in the general population. PMID:26959051

  20. Living near nuclear power plants and thyroid cancer risk: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jaeyoung; Bang, Yejin; Lee, Won Jin

    2016-02-01

    There has been public concern regarding the safety of residing near nuclear power plants, and the extent of risk for thyroid cancer among adults living near nuclear power plants has not been fully explored. In the present study, a systematic review and meta-analysis of epidemiologic studies was conducted to investigate the association between living near nuclear power plants and the risk of thyroid cancer. A comprehensive literature search was performed on studies published up to March 2015 on the association between nuclear power plants and thyroid cancer risk. The summary standardized incidence ratio (SIR), standardized mortality ratio (SMR), and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using a random-effect model of meta-analysis. Sensitivity analyses were performed by study quality. Thirteen studies were included in the meta-analysis, covering 36 nuclear power stations in 10 countries. Overall, summary estimates showed no significant increased thyroid cancer incidence or mortality among residents living near nuclear power plants (summary SIR=0.98; 95% CI 0.87-1.11, summary SMR=0.80; 95% CI 0.62-1.04). The pooled estimates did not reveal different patterns of risk by gender, exposure definition, or reference population. However, sensitivity analysis by exposure definition showed that living less than 20 km from nuclear power plants was associated with a significant increase in the risk of thyroid cancer in well-designed studies (summary OR=1.75; 95% CI 1.17-2.64). Our study does not support an association between living near nuclear power plants and risk of thyroid cancer but does support a need for well-designed future studies. PMID:26638017

  1. Living near nuclear power plants and thyroid cancer risk: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jaeyoung; Bang, Yejin; Lee, Won Jin

    2016-02-01

    There has been public concern regarding the safety of residing near nuclear power plants, and the extent of risk for thyroid cancer among adults living near nuclear power plants has not been fully explored. In the present study, a systematic review and meta-analysis of epidemiologic studies was conducted to investigate the association between living near nuclear power plants and the risk of thyroid cancer. A comprehensive literature search was performed on studies published up to March 2015 on the association between nuclear power plants and thyroid cancer risk. The summary standardized incidence ratio (SIR), standardized mortality ratio (SMR), and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using a random-effect model of meta-analysis. Sensitivity analyses were performed by study quality. Thirteen studies were included in the meta-analysis, covering 36 nuclear power stations in 10 countries. Overall, summary estimates showed no significant increased thyroid cancer incidence or mortality among residents living near nuclear power plants (summary SIR=0.98; 95% CI 0.87-1.11, summary SMR=0.80; 95% CI 0.62-1.04). The pooled estimates did not reveal different patterns of risk by gender, exposure definition, or reference population. However, sensitivity analysis by exposure definition showed that living less than 20 km from nuclear power plants was associated with a significant increase in the risk of thyroid cancer in well-designed studies (summary OR=1.75; 95% CI 1.17-2.64). Our study does not support an association between living near nuclear power plants and risk of thyroid cancer but does support a need for well-designed future studies.

  2. Soy intake and breast cancer risk: A meta-analysis of epidemiological studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahrom, Suhaila; Idris, Nik Ruzni Nik

    2016-06-01

    The impact of soy intake on breast cancer risk has been investigated extensively. However, these studies reported conflicting results. The objective of this study is to perform comprehensive review and updated meta-analysis on the association between soy intake and breast cancer risk and to identify significant factors which may contribute to the inconsistencies of results of the individual studies. Based on reviews of existing meta-analysis, we identified four main factors which contributed to the inconsistencies of results of individual studies on the association of soy intake and breast cancer risk namely; region, menopausal status of the patients, soy type and study design. Accordingly, we performed an updated meta-analysis of 57 studies grouped by the identified factors. Pooled ORs of studies carried out in Asian countries suggested that soy isoflavones consumption was inversely associated with the risk of breast cancer among both pre and postmenopausal women (OR=0.63, 95% CI: 0.54-0.74 for premenopausal women; OR=0.63, 95% CI: 0.52-0.75 for postmenopausal women). However, pooled OR of studies carried out in Western countries shows that there is no statistically significant association between soy intake and breast cancer risk (OR=0.98, 95% CI: 0.93-1.03). Our study suggests that soy food intake is associated with significantly reduced risk of breast cancer for women in Asian but not in Western countries. Further epidemiological studies need to be conducted with more comprehensive information about the dietary intake and relative exposure among the women in these two different regions.

  3. Colorectal Cancer Risk Prediction Models

    Cancer.gov

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of developing colorectal cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  4. Immunotherapy of Colorectal Cancer.

    PubMed

    Jäger, Dirk; Halama, Niels; Zörnig, Inka; Klug, Paula; Krauss, Jürgen; Haag, Georg-Martin

    2016-01-01

    It is known that the immune response, reflected by high T cell infiltrates in primary tumors and metastases, influences the clinical course of colorectal cancer (CRC). Therefore, immunotherapy concepts have been adapted from other tumor entities, which typically rely on the activation of T cells in the tumor microenvironment (e.g. blockade of the immune checkpoint molecules PD-1 and CTLA-4). However, most of the strategies using the approved checkpoint inhibitors and/or combination strategies have more or less failed to produce impressive results in early phase trials in CRC. Therefore, a number of novel targets for checkpoint inhibition are currently in early phase clinical testing (TIM-3, Lag-3, OX40, GITR, 4-1BB, CD40, CD70). A simple activation of infiltrating T cells will not, however, lead to a meaningful anti-tumor response without modulating the environmental factors in CRC. Thus, it is absolutely necessary to improve our understanding of the complex regulation of the tumor microenvironment in CRC to design individual combination treatments leading to effective immune control. PMID:27259331

  5. Association between EPHX1 rs1051740 and lung cancer susceptibility: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Peng; Zhang, Youzhi; Yang, Haihua; Li, Wenjing; Chen, Xiaodong; Long, Feng

    2015-01-01

    Background: Microsomal epoxide hydrolase 1 (EPHX1) may play an important role in epigenetic change and DNA repair concerned with lung cancer. Several studies have investigated the association between EPHX1 rs1051740 and lung cancer risk, but there is no consensus. Therefore, we performed a meta-analysis to further identify the relationship. Methods: The Pubmed and Embase databases were searched for eligible studies. An odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) was used to assess the correlation between EPHX1 rs1051740 polymorphism and lung cancer risk through a meta-analysis. Results: Overall, no significant relationship was found between EPHX1 rs1051740 and lung cancer risk (CC vs. TT: OR=1.10, 95% CI=0.88-1.36; CC+CT vs. TT: OR=1.02, 95% CI=0.88-1.18; CC vs. TT+CT: OR=1.08, 95% CI=0.91-1.27; C vs. T: OR=1.04, 95% CI=0.93-1.17; CT vs. TT: OR=0.98, 95% CI=0.85-1.13). Nevertheless, further subgroup analysis by ethnicity demonstrated that EPHX1 rs1051740 with CC genotype or C allele was an increased risk for lung cancer in Asians (CC vs. TT: OR=1.54, 95% CI=1.23-1.94; CC vs. TT+CT: OR=1.43, 95% CI=1.20-1.71; C vs. T: OR=1.26, 95% CI=1.08-1.47). Conclusions: This meta-analysis indicates that EPHX1 rs1051740 with CC genotype or C allele may be a risk factor in Asians. PMID:26770388

  6. Diagnostic significance of diffusion-weighted MRI in patients with cervical cancer: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Hou, Bo; Xiang, Shi-Feng; Yao, Gen-Dong; Yang, Su-Jun; Wang, Yu-Fang; Zhang, Yi-Xin; Wang, Jun-Wei

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this meta-analysis is to demonstrate whether diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI) could assist in the precise diagnosis of cervical cancer or not. Both English and Chinese electronic databases were searched for potential relevant studies followed by a comprehensive literature search without any language restriction. Two reviewers independently assessed the methodological quality of the included trials. Standardized mean difference (SMD) and its corresponding 95 % confidence interval (95 % CI) were calculated in this meta-analysis. We chose Version 12.0 STATA statistical software to analyze our statistical data. Thirteen eligible cohort studies were selected for statistical analysis, including 645 tumor tissues and 504 normal tissues. Combined SMD of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) suggested that the ADC value in cervical cancer tissues was significantly lower than that of normal tissue (SMD = 2.80, 95 % CI = 2.64 ~ 2.96, P < 0.001). Subgroup analysis stratified by ethnicity indicated a higher ADC value in the normal tissues compared to the cancer tissues in both the Asian and Caucasian subgroups (Asians: SMD = 2.83, 95 % CI = 2.64 ~ 3.02, P < 0.001; Caucasians: SMD = 2.73, 95 % CI = 2.45 ~ 3.01, P < 0.001, respectively). The results from the subgroup analysis by MRI machine type revealed a statistically significant difference in ADC value between normal cervical tissue and tumor tissues among all of the six MRI machine type subgroups (all P < 0.05). The main finding from our meta-analysis revealed that increased signal intensity on DWI and decreased signal on ADC seem to be useful in the diagnosis of cervical cancer. DWI could therefore be an important imaging tool in potentially identifying patients with cervical cancer.

  7. Prognostic value of decreased microRNA-133a in solid cancers: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Jian; Zou, Yong; Lu, Xiaoxiao; Xie, Bin; Yu, Qiao; He, Baimei; He, Bixiu; Chen, Qiong

    2016-01-01

    Objective Increasing evidence indicates that the decreased expression of microRNA-133a (miR-133a) may be correlated with poor survival for cancer patients. Thus, we performed this meta-analysis to evaluate the prognostic value of decreased miR-133a in solid cancers. Methods Eligible studies were gathered by searching on PubMed, Web of Science, and Embase. Using the STATA 12.0 software, the pooled hazard ratios (HRs) and their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for total and subgroup analyses were calculated to investigate the possible correlation between decreased miR-133a and overall survival (OS) of patients with cancer. Results Ten studies were enrolled in this meta-analysis. The pooled result showed that decreased expression of miR-133a predicted poor OS in solid cancer patients (HR =1.62, 95% CI: 1.16–2.24, P=0.004). Compared with the total pooled HR, further analyses indicated that the subgroups of digestive system neoplasms (HR =1.73, 95% CI: 1.20–2.51, P=0.003), frozen tissue preservation (HR =1.89, 95% CI: 1.41–2.53, P<0.001), and multivariate analysis (HR =2.07, 95% CI: 1.42–3.02, P<0.001) exhibited stronger connection between decreased miR-133a expression and OS outcome. Conclusion This meta-analysis suggested that decreased miR-133a was associated with poor OS in patients with solid cancer. Because of the data in our study are limited, additional studies are required to verify the poor prognosis of decreased miR-133a in solid tumors. PMID:27703375

  8. Association of rs6983267 Polymorphism and Thyroid Cancer Susceptibility: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Li, Jingdong; Wang, Xiaofei; Dong, Jiahong

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Recent genome-wide association studies have identified rs6983267 polymorphism as a key locus in the 8q24 region associated with multisite cancers. However, the information on its association with thyroid cancer is inconclusive. The aim of this study was to determine whether this locus is a risk factor for susceptibility to thyroid cancer by conducting a meta-analysis. MATERIAL AND METHODS Relevant studies were identified by searching PubMed and Embase databases. The pooled odds ratio (OR) and corresponding 95% confidence interval (95% CI) were calculated. RESULTS A total of 4 studies including 2825 cases and 9684 controls were enrolled to this meta-analysis. The pooled data showed the G allele of the rs6983267 polymorphism is a risk factor for susceptibility to thyroid cancer (OR=1.08, 95%CI: 1.02-1.16, P=0.01). Significant associations were also found in homozygote comparison (GG vs. TT: OR=1.17, 95%CI: 1.03-1.33, P=0.02) and dominant model (GG+GT vs. TT: OR=1.13, 95%CI: 1.01-1.26, P=0.03). Borderline significant associations in similar directions were found in the recessive model (GG vs. GT+TT: OR=1.10, 95%CI: 0.99-1.22, P=0.07) and heterozygote comparison (GT vs. TT: OR=1.10, 95%CI: 0.99-1.24, P=0.09). CONCLUSIONS Our meta-analysis shows that the rs6983267 G>T polymorphism might be associated with higher risk of thyroid cancer. Further research with larger sample sizes and full investigation of confounding risk factors is needed to confirm or revise our conclusions. PMID:27251952

  9. Chinese Herbal Medicine for Symptom Management in Cancer Palliative Care: Systematic Review And Meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Chung, Vincent C H; Wu, Xinyin; Lu, Ping; Hui, Edwin P; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Anthony L; Lau, Alexander Y L; Zhao, Junkai; Fan, Min; Ziea, Eric T C; Ng, Bacon F L; Wong, Samuel Y S; Wu, Justin C Y

    2016-02-01

    Use of Chinese herbal medicines (CHM) in symptom management for cancer palliative care is very common in Chinese populations but clinical evidence on their effectiveness is yet to be synthesized. To conduct a systematic review with meta-analysis to summarize results from CHM randomized controlled trials (RCTs) focusing on symptoms that are undertreated in conventional cancer palliative care.Five international and 3 Chinese databases were searched. RCTs evaluating CHM, either in combination with conventional treatments or used alone, in managing cancer-related symptoms were considered eligible. Effectiveness was quantified by using weighted mean difference (WMD) using random effect model meta-analysis. Fourteen RCTs were included. Compared with conventional intervention alone, meta-analysis showed that combined CHM and conventional treatment significantly reduced pain (3 studies, pooled WMD: -0.90, 95% CI: -1.69 to -0.11). Six trials comparing CHM with conventional medications demonstrated similar effect in reducing constipation. One RCT showed significant positive effect of CHM plus chemotherapy for managing fatigue, but not in the remaining 3 RCTs. The additional use of CHM to chemotherapy does not improve anorexia when compared to chemotherapy alone, but the result was concluded from 2 small trials only. Adverse events were infrequent and mild. CHM may be considered as an add-on to conventional care in the management of pain in cancer patients. CHM could also be considered as an alternative to conventional care for reducing constipation. Evidence on the use of CHM for treating anorexia and fatigue in cancer patients is uncertain, warranting further research.

  10. Chinese Herbal Medicine for Symptom Management in Cancer Palliative Care: Systematic Review And Meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Chung, Vincent C H; Wu, Xinyin; Lu, Ping; Hui, Edwin P; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Anthony L; Lau, Alexander Y L; Zhao, Junkai; Fan, Min; Ziea, Eric T C; Ng, Bacon F L; Wong, Samuel Y S; Wu, Justin C Y

    2016-02-01

    Use of Chinese herbal medicines (CHM) in symptom management for cancer palliative care is very common in Chinese populations but clinical evidence on their effectiveness is yet to be synthesized. To conduct a systematic review with meta-analysis to summarize results from CHM randomized controlled trials (RCTs) focusing on symptoms that are undertreated in conventional cancer palliative care.Five international and 3 Chinese databases were searched. RCTs evaluating CHM, either in combination with conventional treatments or used alone, in managing cancer-related symptoms were considered eligible. Effectiveness was quantified by using weighted mean difference (WMD) using random effect model meta-analysis. Fourteen RCTs were included. Compared with conventional intervention alone, meta-analysis showed that combined CHM and conventional treatment significantly reduced pain (3 studies, pooled WMD: -0.90, 95% CI: -1.69 to -0.11). Six trials comparing CHM with conventional medications demonstrated similar effect in reducing constipation. One RCT showed significant positive effect of CHM plus chemotherapy for managing fatigue, but not in the remaining 3 RCTs. The additional use of CHM to chemotherapy does not improve anorexia when compared to chemotherapy alone, but the result was concluded from 2 small trials only. Adverse events were infrequent and mild. CHM may be considered as an add-on to conventional care in the management of pain in cancer patients. CHM could also be considered as an alternative to conventional care for reducing constipation. Evidence on the use of CHM for treating anorexia and fatigue in cancer patients is uncertain, warranting further research. PMID:26886628

  11. Meta-analysis of studies on individual consumption of chlorinated drinking water and bladder cancer

    PubMed Central

    Villanueva, C; Fernandez, F; Malats, N; Grimalt, J; Kogevinas, M

    2003-01-01

    Design: A bibliographic search was conducted and the authors selected studies evaluating individual consumption of chlorinated drinking water and bladder cancer. The authors extracted from each study risk estimates for intermediate and long term (>40 years) consumption of chlorinated water, stratified by sex when possible, and performed meta-analysis for the two exposure levels. A meta-analysis was also performed of the dose-response regression slopes. Setting: Populations in Europe and North America. Participants: Those included in six case-control studies (6084 incident bladder cancer cases, 10 816 controls) and two cohort studies (124 incident bladder cancer cases) fulfilling the inclusion criteria. Main results: Ever consumption of chlorinated drinking water was associated with an increased risk of bladder cancer in men (combined OR=1.4, 95%CI 1.1 to 1.9) and women (combined OR=1.2, 95%CI 0.7 to 1.8). The combined OR for mid-term exposure in both genders was 1.1 (95% CI 1.0 to 1.2) and for long term exposure was 1.4 (95%CI 1.2 to 1.7). The combined estimate of the slope for a linear increase in risk was 1.13 (95% CI 1.08 to 1.20) for 20 years and 1.27 (95% CI 1.15 to 1.43) for 40 years of exposure in both sexes. Conclusions: This meta-analysis of the best available epidemiological evidence indicates that long term consumption of chlorinated drinking water is associated with bladder cancer, particularly in men. The observed relative risk is only moderately high, but the population attributable risk could be important as the vast majority of the population of industrialised countries is potentially exposed to chlorination byproducts for long time periods. PMID:12594192

  12. Association of rs6983267 Polymorphism and Thyroid Cancer Susceptibility: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jingdong; Wang, Xiaofei; Dong, Jiahong

    2016-01-01

    Background Recent genome-wide association studies have identified rs6983267 polymorphism as a key locus in the 8q24 region associated with multisite cancers. However, the information on its association with thyroid cancer is inconclusive. The aim of this study was to determine whether this locus is a risk factor for susceptibility to thyroid cancer by conducting a meta-analysis. Material/Methods Relevant studies were identified by searching PubMed and Embase databases. The pooled odds ratio (OR) and corresponding 95% confidence interval (95% CI) were calculated. Results A total of 4 studies including 2825 cases and 9684 controls were enrolled to this meta-analysis. The pooled data showed the G allele of the rs6983267 polymorphism is a risk factor for susceptibility to thyroid cancer (OR=1.08, 95%CI: 1.02–1.16, P=0.01). Significant associations were also found in homozygote comparison (GG vs. TT: OR=1.17, 95%CI: 1.03–1.33, P=0.02) and dominant model (GG+GT vs. TT: OR=1.13, 95%CI: 1.01–1.26, P=0.03). Borderline significant associations in similar directions were found in the recessive model (GG vs. GT+TT: OR=1.10, 95%CI: 0.99–1.22, P=0.07) and heterozygote comparison (GT vs. TT: OR=1.10, 95%CI: 0.99–1.24, P=0.09). Conclusions Our meta-analysis shows that the rs6983267 G>T polymorphism might be associated with higher risk of thyroid cancer. Further research with larger sample sizes and full investigation of confounding risk factors is needed to confirm or revise our conclusions. PMID:27251952

  13. Prognosis value of MGMT promoter methylation for patients with lung cancer: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chao; Hua, Haiqing; Han, Chenglong; Cheng, Yuan; Cheng, Yin; Wang, Zhen; Bao, Jutao

    2015-01-01

    The role of MGMT promoter methylation in lung cancer (LC) remains controversial. To clarify the association of MGMT promoter methylation with survival in LC, we performed a meta-analysis of the literature with meta-analysis. Trials were selected for further analysis if they provided an independent assessment of MGMT promoter methylation in LC and reported the survival data in the context of MGMT promoter methylation status. Subgroup analyses were conducted according to the study characteristic. A total of 9 trials, which comprised 859 patients, were included in the meta-analysis. The combined hazard ratio (HR) of 1.27 [95% CI 0.88-1.82; test for heterogeneity P = 0.027] suggests that MGMT promoter methylation has none impact on patient survival. In Stage I-III or younger populations, a significant association was found for MGMT promoter methylation in the prognosis of LC. In addition, the heterogeneity disappeared when the analysis was restricted to Stage I-III LC. Our analysis indicates that MGMT promoter methylation in stage I-III or younger patients was significantly correlated with wore survival. Further study is needed to determine these specific subgroups of LC patients.

  14. Prognosis value of MGMT promoter methylation for patients with lung cancer: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chao; Hua, Haiqing; Han, Chenglong; Cheng, Yuan; Cheng, Yin; Wang, Zhen; Bao, Jutao

    2015-01-01

    The role of MGMT promoter methylation in lung cancer (LC) remains controversial. To clarify the association of MGMT promoter methylation with survival in LC, we performed a meta-analysis of the literature with meta-analysis. Trials were selected for further analysis if they provided an independent assessment of MGMT promoter methylation in LC and reported the survival data in the context of MGMT promoter methylation status. Subgroup analyses were conducted according to the study characteristic. A total of 9 trials, which comprised 859 patients, were included in the meta-analysis. The combined hazard ratio (HR) of 1.27 [95% CI 0.88-1.82; test for heterogeneity P = 0.027] suggests that MGMT promoter methylation has none impact on patient survival. In Stage I-III or younger populations, a significant association was found for MGMT promoter methylation in the prognosis of LC. In addition, the heterogeneity disappeared when the analysis was restricted to Stage I-III LC. Our analysis indicates that MGMT promoter methylation in stage I-III or younger patients was significantly correlated with wore survival. Further study is needed to determine these specific subgroups of LC patients. PMID:26617891

  15. Prognosis value of MGMT promoter methylation for patients with lung cancer: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chao; Hua, Haiqing; Han, Chenglong; Cheng, Yuan; Cheng, Yin; Wang, Zhen; Bao, Jutao

    2015-01-01

    The role of MGMT promoter methylation in lung cancer (LC) remains controversial. To clarify the association of MGMT promoter methylation with survival in LC, we performed a meta-analysis of the literature with meta-analysis. Trials were selected for further analysis if they provided an independent assessment of MGMT promoter methylation in LC and reported the survival data in the context of MGMT promoter methylation status. Subgroup analyses were conducted according to the study characteristic. A total of 9 trials, which comprised 859 patients, were included in the meta-analysis. The combined hazard ratio (HR) of 1.27 [95% CI 0.88-1.82; test for heterogeneity P = 0.027] suggests that MGMT promoter methylation has none impact on patient survival. In Stage I-III or younger populations, a significant association was found for MGMT promoter methylation in the prognosis of LC. In addition, the heterogeneity disappeared when the analysis was restricted to Stage I-III LC. Our analysis indicates that MGMT promoter methylation in stage I-III or younger patients was significantly correlated with wore survival. Further study is needed to determine these specific subgroups of LC patients. PMID:26617891

  16. A Western Dietary Pattern Increases Prostate Cancer Risk: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Fabiani, Roberto; Minelli, Liliana; Bertarelli, Gaia; Bacci, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    Dietary patterns were recently applied to examine the relationship between eating habits and prostate cancer (PC) risk. While the associations between PC risk with the glycemic index and Mediterranean score have been reviewed, no meta-analysis is currently available on dietary patterns defined by “a posteriori” methods. A literature search was carried out (PubMed, Web of Science) to identify studies reporting the relationship between dietary patterns and PC risk. Relevant dietary patterns were selected and the risks estimated were calculated by a random-effect model. Multivariable-adjusted odds ratios (ORs), for a first-percentile increase in dietary pattern score, were combined by a dose-response meta-analysis. Twelve observational studies were included in the meta-analysis which identified a “Healthy pattern” and a “Western pattern”. The Healthy pattern was not related to PC risk (OR = 0.96; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.88–1.04) while the Western pattern significantly increased it (OR = 1.34; 95% CI: 1.08–1.65). In addition, the “Carbohydrate pattern”, which was analyzed in four articles, was positively associated with a higher PC risk (OR = 1.64; 95% CI: 1.35–2.00). A significant linear trend between the Western (p = 0.011) pattern, the Carbohydrate (p = 0.005) pattern, and the increment of PC risk was observed. The small number of studies included in the meta-analysis suggests that further investigation is necessary to support these findings. PMID:27754328

  17. MDM2 T309G polymorphism and esophageal cancer risk: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Lei, Caipeng; Zhang, Weiguo; Fan, Junli; Qiao, Bin; Chen, Qiang; Liu, Qin; Zhao, Chunling

    2015-01-01

    Murine double minute 2 (MDM2) has suggested to play an important role in esophageal cancer. The association between MDM2 T309G polymorphism and esophageal cancer risk was inconclusive. To clarify the possible association, we conducted a meta-analysis. We searched in the PubMed, Embase, and Wanfang databases. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to assess the strength of association. A total of 6 studies with 4909 cases and controls were included based on the search criteria. The MDM2 T309G polymorphism was associated with a significantly decreased risk of esophageal cancer (OR=0.88; 95% CI, 0.81-0.96; I(2)=22%). When stratified by type of race, a significantly decreased esophageal cancer risk were observed in Asians (OR=0.85; 95% CI, 0.78-0.93; I(2)=0%). In conclusion, this meta-analysis suggested that MDM2 T309G polymorphism was associated with a significantly decreased risk of esophageal cancer. PMID:26550276

  18. MDM2 T309G polymorphism and esophageal cancer risk: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Caipeng; Zhang, Weiguo; Fan, Junli; Qiao, Bin; Chen, Qiang; Liu, Qin; Zhao, Chunling

    2015-01-01

    Murine double minute 2 (MDM2) has suggested to play an important role in esophageal cancer. The association between MDM2 T309G polymorphism and esophageal cancer risk was inconclusive. To clarify the possible association, we conducted a meta-analysis. We searched in the PubMed, Embase, and Wanfang databases. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to assess the strength of association. A total of 6 studies with 4909 cases and controls were included based on the search criteria. The MDM2 T309G polymorphism was associated with a significantly decreased risk of esophageal cancer (OR=0.88; 95% CI, 0.81-0.96; I2=22%). When stratified by type of race, a significantly decreased esophageal cancer risk were observed in Asians (OR=0.85; 95% CI, 0.78-0.93; I2=0%). In conclusion, this meta-analysis suggested that MDM2 T309G polymorphism was associated with a significantly decreased risk of esophageal cancer. PMID:26550276

  19. Soy food consumption and risk of prostate cancer: a meta-analysis of observational studies.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Ye Won; Kim, Soo Young; Jee, Sun Ha; Kim, Youn Nam; Nam, Chung Mo

    2009-01-01

    Soybean products have been suggested to have a chemo preventive effect against prostate cancer. The aim of this study was to provide a comprehensive meta-analysis on the extent of the possible association between soy-based food consumption and the risk of prostate cancer. Five cohort studies and 8 case-control studies were identified using MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, Korea Medical Database, KoreaMed, Korean studies Information Service System, Japana Centra Revuo Medicina, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, and a manual search. Summary odds ratios (ORs) comparing high versus low categories of soybean consumptions were calculated on the basis of the random effect model. We analyzed the associations based on the different types of soybean consumptions. The summary ORs (95% CI) for total soy foods were 0.69 (CI = 0.57-0.84) and 0.75 (CI = 0.62-0.89) for nonfermented soy foods. Among individual soy foods, only tofu yielded a significant value of 0.73 (CI = 0.57-0.92). Consumption of soybean milk, miso, or natto did not significantly reduce the risk of prostate cancer. Genistein and daidzein were associated with a lower risk of prostate cancer. This systematic review suggests that soy food consumption could lower the risk of prostate cancer. This conclusion, however, should be interpreted with caution because various biases can affect the results of a meta-analysis.

  20. The association between polycystic ovary syndrome and breast cancer: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Shobeiri, Fatemeh

    2016-01-01

    Objective The results of epidemiological studies investigated the association between polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and the breast cancer are inconsistent. This meta-analysis was conducted to estimate the association between PCOS and the breast cancer risk. We searched PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus for observational studies until June 2015. Data were independently extracted and analyzed using 95% odds ratio, and confidence intervals (CIs) based on the random-effects models. Methods We identified 970 references and conducted eight studies with 45,470 participants and 243,064 person- year. Results The association between PCOS and the breast cancer risk in case-control studies 0.87 (95% CI, 0.44 to 1.31) and that of cohort studies was estimated 1.18 (95% CI, 0.93 to 1.43). Conclusion This meta-analysis demonstrated that PCOS no does increase the risk of breast cancer. Further prospective cohort studies are needed to provide convincing evidence in order to PCOS can increase or not effect on the risk of the breast cancer. PMID:27668199

  1. Flavonoids, Flavonoid Subclasses, and Esophageal Cancer Risk: A Meta-Analysis of Epidemiologic Studies

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Lingling; Liu, Xinxin; Tian, Yalan; Xie, Chen; Li, Qianwen; Cui, Han; Sun, Changqing

    2016-01-01

    Flavonoids have been suggested to play a chemopreventive role in carcinogenesis. However, the epidemiologic studies assessing dietary intake of flavonoids and esophageal cancer risk have yielded inconsistent results. This study was designed to examine the association between flavonoids, each flavonoid subclass, and the risk of esophageal cancer with a meta-analysis approach. We searched for all relevant studies with a prospective cohort or case-control study design published from January 1990 to April 2016, using PUBMED, EMBASE, and Web of Science. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) were calculated using fixed or random-effect models. In total, seven articles including 2629 cases and 481,193 non-cases were selected for the meta-analysis. Comparing the highest-intake patients with the lowest-intake patients for total flavonoids and for each flavonoid subclass, we found that anthocyanidins (OR = 0.60, 95% CI: 0.49–0.74), flavanones (OR = 0.65, 95% CI: 0.49–0.86), and flavones (OR = 0.78, 95% CI 0.64–0.95) were inversely associated with the risk of esophageal cancer. However, total flavonoids showed marginal association with esophageal cancer risk (OR = 0.78, 95% CI: 0.59–1.04). In conclusion, our study suggested that dietary intake of total flavonoids, anthocyanidins, flavanones, and flavones might reduce the risk of esophageal cancer. PMID:27338463

  2. The association between polycystic ovary syndrome and breast cancer: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Shobeiri, Fatemeh

    2016-01-01

    Objective The results of epidemiological studies investigated the association between polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and the breast cancer are inconsistent. This meta-analysis was conducted to estimate the association between PCOS and the breast cancer risk. We searched PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus for observational studies until June 2015. Data were independently extracted and analyzed using 95% odds ratio, and confidence intervals (CIs) based on the random-effects models. Methods We identified 970 references and conducted eight studies with 45,470 participants and 243,064 person- year. Results The association between PCOS and the breast cancer risk in case-control studies 0.87 (95% CI, 0.44 to 1.31) and that of cohort studies was estimated 1.18 (95% CI, 0.93 to 1.43). Conclusion This meta-analysis demonstrated that PCOS no does increase the risk of breast cancer. Further prospective cohort studies are needed to provide convincing evidence in order to PCOS can increase or not effect on the risk of the breast cancer.

  3. Impact of XRCC2 Arg188His Polymorphism on Cancer Susceptibility: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Xiangbing; Wei, Mingtian; Wu, Qingbin; Yang, Tinghan; Zhou, Yanhong; Wang, Ziqiang

    2014-01-01

    Background Association between the single nucleotide polymorphism rs3218536 (known as Arg188His) located in the X-ray repair cross complementing group 2 (XRCC2) gene and cancer susceptibility has been widely investigated. However, results thus far have remained controversial. A meta-analysis was performed to identify the impact of this polymorphism on cancer susceptibility. Methods PubMed and Embase databases were searched systematically until September 7, 2013 to obtain all the records evaluating the association between the XRCC2 Arg188His polymorphism and the risk of all types of cancers. We used the odds ratio (OR) as measure of effect, and pooled the data in a Mantel-Haenszel weighed random-effects meta-analysis to provide a summary estimate of the impact of this polymorphism on breast cancer, ovarian cancer and other cancers. All the analyses were carried out in STATA 12.0. Results With 30868 cases and 38656 controls, a total of 45 case-control studies from 26 publications were eventually included in our meta-analysis. No significant association was observed between the XRCC2 Arg188His polymorphism and breast cancer susceptibility (dominant model: OR = 0.94, 95%CI = 0.86–1.04, P = 0.232). However, a significant impact of this polymorphism was detected on decreased ovarian cancer risk (dominant model: OR = 0.83, 95%CI = 0.73–0.95, P = 0.007). In addition, we found this polymorphism was associated with increased upper aerodigestive tract (UADT) cancer susceptibility (dominant model: OR = 1.51, 95%CI = 1.04–2.20, P = 0.032). Conclusion The Arg188His polymorphism might play different roles in carcinogenesis of various cancer types. Current evidence did not suggest that this polymorphism was directly associated with breast cancer susceptibility. However, this polymorphism might contribute to decreased gynecological cancer risk and increased UADT cancer risk. More preclinical and epidemiological studies were still imperative

  4. Vasectomy and the risk of prostate cancer: a meta-analysis of cohort studies

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiao-Long; Yan, Jia-Jun; Pan, Shou-Hua; Pan, Jian-Gang; Ying, Xiang-Rong; Zhang, Guan-Fu

    2015-01-01

    Background: The relationship of vasectomy to prostate cancer has great public health significance. However, the results of observational studies were conflicting. To determine whether vasectomy is associated with the risk of prostate cancer, we performed a meta-analysis of cohort studies. Methods: A literature search was carried out using Pubmed, Embase, Cochrane Libraryl, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) between January 1966 and July 2013. Before meta-analysis, between-study heterogeneity and publication bias were assessed using adequate statistical tests. Fixed-effect and random-effect models were used to estimate summary relative risks (RR) and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Potential sources of heterogeneity were detected by meta-regression. Subgroup analyses and sensitivity analysis were also performed. Results: A total of nine cohort studies contributed to the analysis. There was heterogeneity among the studies but no publication bias. Pooled results indicated that vasectomy was not associated with a significant increase of total prostate cancer risk (RR = 1.07, 95% CI [0.79, 1.46]). When stratified the various studies by geographic location, we found a significant association between vasectomy and increased PCa risk among studies conducted in the USA (RR = 1.54, 95% CI [1.23, 1.93]), however, there was no significant association between vasectomy and PCa risk among studies conducted in non-USA countries (RR = 0.74, 95% CI [0.50, 1.09]). Furthermore, sensitivity analysis confirmed the stability of the results. Conclusions: In conclusion, the present meta-analysis of cohort studies suggested that vasectomy was not associated with increased risk of prostate cancer. More in-depth studies are warranted to report more detailed results, including stratified results by age at vasectomy, tumor grade, and tumor stage. PMID:26770392

  5. Association of TLR2 and TLR4 Polymorphisms with Risk of Cancer: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Tao; Wang, Ruixia; Ma, Hongxia; Zhang, Shuangyue

    2013-01-01

    Backgrounds The activation of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) may be an important event in the immune evasion of tumor cell. Recently, numerous studies have investigated the associations between TLR2 −196 to −174 del and two SNPs of TLR4 (rs4986790 and rs4986791) and the susceptibility to different types of cancer; however, the results remain conflicting. The aim of this study was to assess the association between TLR2 and TLR4 polymorphisms and cancer risk in a meta-analysis with eligible published studies. Methodology/Principle Findings A dataset composed of 14627 cases and 17438 controls from 34 publications were included in a meta-analysis to evaluate the association between overall cancer risk or cancer-specific risk and three SNPs of TLRs (TLR2 −196 to −174 del, TLR4 rs4986790 and rs4986791). The results showed that all of these three polymorphisms were significantly associated with the increased cancer risk (dominant model: OR = 1.64, 95% CI: 1.04–2.60 for TLR2 −196 to −174 del; OR = 1.19, 95% CI: 1.01–1.41 for TLR4 rs4986790; and OR = 1.47, 95% CI: 1.120–1.80 for TLR4 rs4986791; respectively). In stratified analysis, we found the effect of TLR2 −196 to −174 del on cancer risk remained significant in the subgroup of Caucasians and South Asians, but not in East Asians. However, the association between rs4986791 and cancer risk was significant in both South Asians and East Asians, but not in Caucasians. Furthermore, the association between rs4986790 and cancer risk was statistically significant in digestive cancers (dominant model: OR = 1.76, 95% CI: 1.13–2.73) and female-specific cancers (dominant model: OR = 1.50, 95% CI: 1.16–1.94). However, no significant association with risk of digestive system cancers was observed for TLR2 −196 to −174 del and TLR4 rs4986791. Conclusions/Significance This meta-analysis presented additional evidence for the association between TLR2 and TLR4 polymorphisms and cancer risk

  6. Colorectal cancers and chlorinated water

    PubMed Central

    El-Tawil, Ahmed Mahmoud

    2016-01-01

    Published reports have revealed increased risk of colorectal cancers in people exposed to chlorinated drinking water or chemical derivatives of chlorination. Oestrogen plays a dual positive functions for diminishing the possibilities of such risk by reducing the entrance, and increasing the excretion, of these chemicals. In addition, there are supplementary measures that could be employed in order to reduce this risk further, such as boiling the drinking water, revising the standard concentrations of calcium, magnesium and iron in the public drinking water and prescribing oestrogen in susceptible individuals. Hypo-methylation of genomic DNA could be used as a biological marker for screening for the potential development of colorectal cancers. PMID:27096035

  7. Dairy consumption and lung cancer risk: a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yi; Li, Hui; Xu, Kaiwu; Li, Xin; Hu, Chunlin; Wei, Hongyan; Zeng, Xiaoyun; Jing, Xiaoli

    2016-01-01

    Background Lung cancer risk is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. We conducted a meta-analysis to evaluate the relationship between dairy consumption and lung cancer risk. Methods The databases included EMBASE, Medline (PubMed), and Web of Science. The relationship between dairy consumption and lung cancer risk was analyzed by relative risk or odds ratio estimates with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). We identified eight prospective cohort studies, which amounted to 10,344 cases and 61,901 participants. Results For milk intake, relative risk was 0.95 (95% CI: 0.76–1.15); heterogeneity was 70.2% (P=0.003). For total dairy product intake, relative risk was 0.96 (95% CI: 0.89–1.03), heterogeneity was 68.4% (P=0.004). Conclusion There was no significant association between dairy consumption and lung cancer risk. PMID:26766916

  8. Colorectal Cancer Coalition

    MedlinePlus

    ... Reports Press Room Contact Us Sign Up We fight for Moms Dads Uncles Aunts Friends Brothers Sisters ... on Congress. Take Action Your Guide in the Fight Free resource for stage III & stage IV colorectal ...

  9. Pharmacological and dietary prevention for colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a leading cause of cancer morbidity and mortality. People at higher risk are those individuals with a family history of CRC and familial adenomatous polyposis. Prevention and screening are two milestones for this disease. The aim of this study is to evaluate the chemopreventive role of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), including aspirin and cyclooxygenase 2 inhibitors, some micronutrients (folic acid, calcium, selenium, antioxidants) and probiotics. Discussion The studies on aspiring reported promising results, but it is debatable whether aspirin should be used as chemoprevention, because of its side effects and because of poor efficacy evident in subjects at high risk. Similar results were reported for other non-aspirin NSAIDs, such as sulindac and celecoxib, which the potential adverse effects limit their use. Selenium role in prevention of various types of cancer as well as in colon adenomas are often inconclusive or controversial. Several studies suggested that calcium may have a possible chemopreventive effect on colon adenomas and CRC, although contrasting results are reported for the latter. A recent meta-analysis including 13 randomized trial suggested that folic acid supplementation had not a chemiopreventive action on CRC. Several studies investigated the association between antioxidants, administered alone or in combination, and CRC risk, both among general and at risk population, but only few of them supported statistically significant results. Conclusion The results of this literature review showed an unclear role in CRC prevention of both pharmacological and dietary intervention. Despite several options are available to prevent colon cancer, it is challenging to identify a correct strategy to prevent CRC through pharmacological and dietary intervention due to the long latency of cancer promotion and development. Since some of the drugs investigated may have uncertain individual effects, it can be

  10. Cancer and occupational exposure to inorganic lead compounds: a meta-analysis of published data.

    PubMed Central

    Fu, H; Boffetta, P

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To review and summarise the epidemiological evidence on the carcinogenicity of occupational exposure to inorganic lead. METHODS--Case-control and cohort studies were reviewed and combined for meta-analysis. Fixed and random effect methods were used to estimate the summary effects. RESULTS--The combined results show a significant excess risk of overall cancer, stomach cancer, lung cancer, and bladder cancer, with relative risk ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) in the meta-analysis of 1.11 (1.05-1.17), 1.33 (1.18-1.49), 1.29 (1.10-1.50), and 1.41 (1.16-1.71) respectively. The RR (95% CI) for kidney cancer was also high, but did not reach significance (1.19 (0.96-1.48)). A separate analysis of studies of heavily exposed workers provided slightly increased RRs for cancers of the stomach (1.50) and lung (1.42). CONCLUSIONS--The findings from the workers with heavy exposure to lead provided some evidence to support the hypothesis of an association between stomach and lung cancer and exposure to lead. The main limitation of the present analysis is that the excess risks do not take account of potential confounders, because little information was available for other occupational exposures, smoking, and dietary habits. To some extent, the risk of lung cancer might be explained by confounders such as tobacco smoking and exposure to other occupational carcinogens. The excess risk of stomach cancer may also be explained, at least in part, by non-occupational factors. For bladder and kidney cancers, the excess risks are only suggestive of a true effect because of possible publication bias. PMID:7757170

  11. Age at menarche and risk of ovarian cancer: a meta-analysis of epidemiological studies.

    PubMed

    Gong, Ting-Ting; Wu, Qi-Jun; Vogtmann, Emily; Lin, Bei; Wang, Yong-Lai

    2013-06-15

    Epidemiological studies have reported inconsistent associations between menarcheal age and ovarian cancer risk. To our knowledge, a meta-analysis for the association between menarcheal age and ovarian cancer has not been reported. Relevant published studies of menarcheal age and ovarian cancer were identified using MEDLINE, EMBASE and Web of Science through the end of April 2012. Two authors (T-T.G. and Q-J.W.) independently assessed eligibility and extracted data. We pooled the relative risks (RRs) from individual studies using a random-effects model and performed heterogeneity and publication bias analyses. A total of 27 observational studies consisting of 22 case-control and five cohort studies were included in our analysis. In a pooled analysis of all studies, a statistically significant inverse association was observed between menarcheal age (for the oldest compared to the youngest category) and ovarian cancer risk (RR = 0.85; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.75-0.97). The pooled RRs of ovarian cancer for the oldest versus the youngest categories of menarcheal age in prospective and case-control studies were 0.89 (95% CI = 0.76-1.03) and 0.84 (95% CI = 0.70-0.99), respectively. Inverse associations between menarcheal age and ovarian cancer risk were observed in most subgroups; however, the significant association was restricted to invasive and borderline serous ovarian cancer. In conclusion, findings from this meta-analysis support that menarcheal age was inversely associated with the risk of ovarian cancer. More large studies are warranted to stratify these results by different cancer grading and histotype of ovarian cancer.

  12. Association between two interleukin-2 gene polymorphisms and cancer susceptibility: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Meng; Tan, Xiuxiu; Huang, Junjie; Xie, Lijuan; Wang, Hao; Shi, Jizhou; Lu, Wei; Lv, Zhaojie; Mei, Hongbing; Liang, Chaozhao

    2016-01-01

    Background Several epidemiological studies have illustrated that polymorphisms in interleukin-2 (IL-2) were associated with diverse cancer types. However, recently published statistics were inconsistent and inconclusive. Therefore, the current meta-analysis was performed to elaborate the effects of IL-2 polymorphisms (rs2069762 and rs2069763) on cancer susceptibility. Material and methods A total of 5,601 cancer cases and 7,809 controls from 21 published case–control studies were enrolled in our meta-analysis. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated to assess the association between IL-2 polymorphisms and cancer susceptibility. Results Our study demonstrated an increased susceptibility to cancer in rs2069762 (G vs T: OR =1.268, 95% CI =1.113–1.445; GG vs TT: OR =1.801, 95% CI =1.289–2.516; GT vs TT: OR =1.250, 95% CI =1.061–1.473; GG + GT vs TT: OR =1.329, 95% CI =1.118–1.579; GG vs GT + TT: OR =1.536, 95% CI =1.162–2.030). In the subgroup analysis, increased susceptibility to cancer was identified in the hospital-based group and PHWE<0.05 (P-value of the Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium [HWE]) group. In addition, a positive association with cancer susceptibility was observed among both Chinese and non-Chinese. However, no relationship was detected between the rs2069763 polymorphism of IL-2 and cancer susceptibility. Conclusion To conclude, rs2069762 polymorphism of IL-2 contributed to an increased susceptibility to cancer, whereas no association was identified between rs2069763 polymorphism and cancer susceptibility. Further detailed studies are warranted to confirm our findings. PMID:27143914

  13. Interleukin-8 -251A/T gene polymorphism and lung cancer susceptibility: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-Bin; Li, Yun-Song; Li, Jie; Han, Yi; Liu, Zhi-Dong

    2015-06-01

    Many studies have examined the association between the interleukin-8 -251T/A (rs4073) gene polymorphism and lung cancer risk in various populations, but the results have been inconsistent. In this meta-analysis, PubMed was searched for case-control studies published through 01 December 2013. The data were extracted, and pooled odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated. We assessed six published studies on the association between the interleukin-8 -251T/A polymorphism and lung cancer risk. The included studies yielded a total of 3265 lung cancer cases and 3607 controls. For the homozygous A/A and A allele carriers (T/A + A/A), the pooled ORs for all studies combining 3265 cases and 3607 controls were 1.03 (95% CI = 0.92-1.14; P = 0.235 for heterogeneity) and 1.07 (95% CI = 0.96-1.19; P = 0.245 for heterogeneity) when compared with the homozygous wild-type genotype (T/T). When the analysis was stratified by ethnicity, significant risks were found among Asians for both the A allele carriers and the homozygous A/A individuals. However, no significant associations were found in non-Asian populations using any of the genetic models. This meta-analysis suggests that the interleukin-8 -251A allele confer an increased risk for the development of lung cancer among Asians.

  14. Coffee Consumption and Pancreatic Cancer Risk: An Update Meta-analysis of Cohort Studies

    PubMed Central

    Ran, Heng-Quan; Wang, Jun-Zhou; Sun, Chang-Qin

    2016-01-01

    Background & Objective: The results of epidemiologic studies on the relationship between the coffee consumption and pancreatic cancer risk were inconsistent. Thus, we performed an update meta-analysis of cohort studies to quantitatively summarize the association between coffee consumption and pancreatic cancer risk. Methods: We searched CBM (China Biology Medicine disc) and MEDLINE for studies of coffee consumption and pancreatic cancer risk up to June 2015. A total of 20 cohort studies were identified in this meta-analysis, and we analyzed these studies using random effects model. The dose-response analysis was conducted too. Results: The overall relative risk (RR) for highest coffee consumption versus lowest coffee consumption was 0.75 (95% Confidence Interval (CI), 0.63-0.86). Statistic significant heterogeneity was found among these studies (I2 =37.8%, P for heterogeneity =0.045). The pooled RR for increment of 1 cup/day of coffee consumption was 0.99 (95%CI, 0.96-1.03) for the nine studies, without statistically significant. Conclusions: High coffee consumption is associated with a reduced pancreatic cancer risk. However, the result should be accepted with caution, due to the potential confounder and bias could not be excluded. Further well designed studies are needed to confirm the finding. PMID:27022386

  15. Effects of Serum Triglycerides on Prostate Cancer and Breast Cancer Risk: A Meta-Analysis of Prospective Studies.

    PubMed

    Ma, Hong-Qun; Cui, Lian-Hua; Li, Cheng-Cheng; Yu, Zhuang; Piao, Jin-Mei

    2016-10-01

    Epidemiological studies show conflicting results regarding the link between serum triglyceride and the risk of prostate cancer and breast cancer. Therefore, we performed a meta-analysis of prospective studies to clarify this association. We searched PubMed, EMBASE, the Chinese Biomedical Database (CBM), and the China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) database to identify relevant prospective studies of the relationship between serum triglyceride and prostate cancer and breast cancer risk. Study-specific estimates adjusting for potential confounders were combined to evaluate a summary relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) using a fixed- or random-effects model. A total of 11 prospective studies (619,410 subjects and 15,691 incident prostate cancer patients) and 8 prospective studies (590,878 subjects and 12,177 incident breast cancer patients) were respectively included in our meta-analysis to assess the associations of serum triglyceride with prostate cancer and breast cancer risk. The pooled adjusted RR estimates for prostate cancer and breast cancer for the highest versus the lowest exposure levels of serum triglycerides were 0.95 (95% CI: 0.87-1.04) and 0.94 (95% CI: 0.87-1.00), respectively. Additionally, a dose-response analysis revealed that serum levels of triglycerides were not associated with the risk of prostate cancer and breast cancer. We found that serum triglyceride was not related to the risk of prostate cancer and breast cancer. PMID:27618148

  16. The TLR4 gene polymorphisms and susceptibility to cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kui; Zhou, Bin; Wang, Yanyun; Rao, Li; Zhang, Lin

    2013-03-01

    Growing studies revealed the association between polymorphisms in Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and susceptibility to cancer, however, the results remained inconsistent. To assess the effect of six selected SNPs (rs1927914, rs4986790, rs4986791, rs11536889, rs1927911 and rs2149356) in TLR4 on cancer, we conducted a meta-analysis, up to February 2012, 22 case-control studies were available. Summary odds ratios (OR) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for polymorphisms in TLR4 and cancer risk were estimated. Our meta-analysis identified that two SNPs (rs4986790 and rs4986791) in TLR4 were associated with increased cancer risk (for rs4986790: OR=1.24, 95% CI=1.01-1.52 in dominant model; OR=1.24, 95% CI=1.02-1.52 in overdominant model; for rs4986791: OR=1.81, 95% CI=1.18-2.77 in allele comparison; OR=1.79, 95% CI=1.15-2.80 in dominant model; OR=1.70, 95% CI=1.09-2.67 in overdominant model) and one SNP (rs1927911) in TLR4 was associated with decreased cancer risk (for rs1927911: OR=0.63, 95% CI=0.41-0.99 in allele comparison; OR=0.57, 95% CI=0.35-0.95 in dominant model; OR=0.67, 95% CI=0.46-0.97 in codominant model). Moreover, in terms of stratified analyses by cancer type for SNP rs4986790, significantly elevated risk was observed to be associated with G allele in gastric cancer and 'other cancers'. These findings indicate that polymorphisms in TLR4 may play a role, although modest, in cancer development.

  17. Survival benefit from S-1 as compared to Fluorouracil in Asian patients with advanced gastrointestinal cancer: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Cao, Chunxiang; Zhang, Xunlei; Kuang, Meng; Gu, Dongying; He, Mingliang; Chen, Jinfei; Tang, Cuiju

    2014-08-01

    Whether S-1 could replace 5-Fluorouracil (5-Fu) or not in the treatment of advanced gastrointestinal (GI) cancer (including advanced gastric cancer [AGS] and metastatic colorectal cancer [mCRC]) in Asian patients has been controversial. This meta-analysis was performed to compare the activity, efficacy and toxicity of S-1-based versus 5-Fu-based chemotherapy in those Asian patients. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were identified by electronic search of Pubmed. Relevant abstracts were manually searched to identify relevant trials. A total of 2182 patients from eight RCTs were included, and our results demonstrated that S-1-based chemotherapy significantly improved overall survival (OS) (hazard ratio [HR], 0.87; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.77-1.00) and overall response rate (ORR) (odds ratio [OR], 1.72; 95% CI, 1.09-2.70), but no significant progression-free survival (PFS) benefit was found between arms (HR, 0.87; 95% CI, 0.72-1.06). Subgroup analyses revealed that S-1-based chemotherapy significantly improved OS and ORR in subgroups of patients with non-platinum containing regimens (P = 0.041; P = 0.034) and patients with no prior chemotherapy history (P = 0.025; P = 0.016). Statistically significant improvements of PFS and ORR in the S-1-based chemotherapy were observed in the subgroup of patients with AGC (P < 0.001; P = 0.005). S-1-based chemotherapy was characterized by significantly higher incidences of diarrhea, fatigue and thrombocytopenia, and a lower incidence of nausea. This analysis provided strong evidence for survival benefits of S-1, and S-1-based chemotherapy could be considered to replace 5-Fu-based therapy for the treatment of advanced GI cancer in Asian patients.

  18. Pleiotropic effects of genetic risk variants for other cancers on colorectal cancer risk: PAGE, GECCO, and CCFR Consortia

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Iona; Kocarnik, Jonathan M; Dumitrescu, Logan; Lindor, Noralane M; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Avery, Christy L.; Caberto, Christian P; Love, Shelly-Ann; Slattery, Martha L; Chan, Andrew T; Baron, John A; Hindorff, Lucia A; Park, Sungshim Lani; Schumacher, Fredrick R; Hoffmeister, Michael; Kraft, Peter; Butler, Anne; Duggan, David; Hou, Lifang; Carlson, Chris S; Monroe, Kristine R; Lin, Yi; Carty, Cara L; Mann, Sue; Ma, Jing; Giovannucci, Edward L; Fuchs, Charles S; Newcomb, Polly A; Jenkins, Mark A; Hopper, John L; Haile, Robert W; Conti, David V; Campbell, Peter T; Potter, John D; Caan, Bette J; Schoen, Robert E; Hayes, Richard B; Chanock, Stephen J; Berndt, Sonja I; Kury, Sebastien; Bezieau, Stephane; Ambite, Jose Luis; Kumaraguruparan, Gowri; Richardson, Danielle; Goodloe, Robert J; Dilks, Holli H; Baker, Paxton; Zanke, Brent W; Lemire, Mathieu; Gallinger, Steven; Hsu, Li; Jiao, Shuo; Harrison, Tabitha; Seminara, Daniela; Haiman, Christopher A; Kooperberg, Charles; Wilkens, Lynne R; Hutter, Carolyn M; White, Emily; Crawford, Dana C; Heiss, Gerardo; Hudson, Thomas J; Brenner, Hermann; Bush, William S; Casey, Graham; Marchand, Loic Le; Peters, Ulrike

    2013-01-01

    Objective Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified a large number of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with a wide array of cancer sites. Several of these variants demonstrate associations with multiple cancers, suggesting pleiotropic effects and shared biological mechanisms across some cancers. We hypothesized that SNPs previously associated with other cancers may additionally be associated with colorectal cancer. In a large-scale study, we examined 171 SNPs previously associated with 18 different cancers for their associations with colorectal cancer. Design We examined 13,338 colorectal cancer cases and 40,967 controls from three consortia: Population Architecture using Genetics and Epidemiology (PAGE), Genetic Epidemiology of Colorectal Cancer (GECCO), and the Colon Cancer Family Registry (CCFR). Study-specific logistic regression results, adjusted for age, sex, principal components of genetic ancestry, and/or study specific factors (as relevant) were combined using fixed-effect meta-analyses to evaluate the association between each SNP and colorectal cancer risk. A Bonferroni-corrected p-value of 2.92×10−4 was used to determine statistical significance of the associations. Results Two correlated SNPs— rs10090154 and rs4242382—in Region 1 of chromosome 8q24, a prostate cancer susceptibility region, demonstrated statistically significant associations with colorectal cancer risk. The most significant association was observed with rs4242382 (meta-analysis OR=1.12; 95% CI: 1.07–1.18; P=1.74×10−5), which also demonstrated similar associations across racial/ethnic populations and anatomical sub-sites. Conclusion This is the first study to clearly demonstrate Region 1 of chromosome 8q24 as a susceptibility locus for colorectal cancer, thus adding colorectal cancer to the list of cancer sites linked to this particular multi-cancer risk region at 8q24. PMID:23935004

  19. Positron Emission Tomography in Prostate Cancer: Summary of Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Jadvar, Hossein

    2015-01-01

    Prostate cancer is a prevalent public health problem worldwide. Over the past decade, there has been tremendous research activity in the potential use of positron emission tomography with a number of radiotracers targeted to various biological aspects of this complex tumor. Systematic reviews and meta-analysis are important contributions to the relevant literature that summarize the evidence while reducing the effect of various sources of bias in the published data. The accumulation of relevant data in this clinical setting has recently provided the opportunity for systematic reviews. In this brief article, I summarize the published systematic reviews and meta-analysis of positron emission tomography in prostate cancer. Most robust evidence suggests a probable role for first-line use of positron emission tomography with radiolabeled choline in restating patients with biochemical relapse of prostate cancer with the diagnostic performance that appears to be positively associated with the serum prostate specific antigen level and velocity. Future systematic reviews will be needed for other emerging radiotracers such as those based on prostate specific membrane antigen and gastrin-releasing peptide receptor. PMID:26726317

  20. Citrus fruit intake and bladder cancer risk: a meta-analysis of observational studies.

    PubMed

    Liang, Sudong; Lv, Gaofei; Chen, Weikai; Jiang, Jianxin; Wang, Jingqun

    2014-11-01

    Epidemiological studies have investigated the association between citrus fruit and bladder cancer risk; however, the results are inconsistent. To assess these issues, we conducted a meta-analysis of currently available studies. We identified relevant articles by searching the MEDLINE and EMBASE databases. We calculated the summary relative risk (RR) with 95% confidence interval (95% CI) using a random effect model. We included eight case-control studies and six cohort studies in the meta-analysis. There was a significant inverse association between citrus fruit intake and bladder cancer risk in all pooled studies (RR: 0.85; 95% CI, 0.76-0.94) and case-control studies (RR: 0.77; 95% CI, 0.64-0.92), but not in the cohort studies (RR: 0.96; 95% CI, 0.87-1.07). Our results suggest that citrus fruit intake is related to decreased bladder cancer risk. Subsequent well-designed, large prospective studies are needed to obtain better understanding of this relationship.

  1. Prognostic significance of interleukin 17 in cancer: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiao; Weng, Wenhao; Xu, Wen; Wang, Yulan; Yu, Wenjun; Tang, Xun; Ma, Lifang; Pan, Qiuhui; Wang, Jiayi; Sun, Fenyong

    2014-01-01

    The prognostic value of Interleukin 17 (IL-17) in cancer patients is currently under debate and remains inconclusive. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the role of IL-17 as a prognostic marker in cancer. Hazard ratios (HRs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were combined to measure the effective value of IL-17 expression on prognosis. Nineteen eligible studies enrolling 2390 patients were identified. We found expression of IL-17 was not significantly correlated with overall survival (OS) in cancer (HR=1.29, 95% Cl: 0.94-1.76; P=0.12). Furthermore, compared to the data from our analysis that high expression of IL-17 predicted poor OS in both non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) (HR=2.30; 95% CI: 1.45-3.64; P<0.001; I2=0%) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) (HR=2.02; 95% CI: 1.44-2.83; P<0.001; I2=0%), high expression of IL-17 was associated with favorable OS in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) (HR=0.63; 95% CI: 0.51-0.79; P<0.001; I2=0%). This meta-analysis showed that IL-17 has the potential to become a novel prognostic marker in HCC, NSCLC and ESCC. It could potentially help to monitor patients’ prognosis and assess therapeutic efficacy in clinical treatment. PMID:25419357

  2. Prognostic value of endocan expression in cancers: evidence from meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Xing; Chen, Chen; Wang, Xin; Zhang, Jing-yuan; Ren, Bin-hui; Ma, Da-wei; Xia, Lei; Xu, Xin-yu; Xu, Lin

    2016-01-01

    Endocan is a 50 kDa dermatan sulfate proteoglycan. Numerous previous studies have indicated that endocan might be an attractive prognostic tumor biomarker. However, the results of different studies are inconsistent. We conducted a meta-analysis to explore the association between endocan expression and cancer prognosis. A systematic, comprehensive search of the PubMed, Embase, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure databases was performed. Expression of endocan and its association with overall survival were evaluated by pooled hazard ratios (HRs) and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs). In total, 15 eligible studies of 1,464 patients were finally included in this meta-analysis. A significant association was found between elevated endocan expression and poorer overall survival (pooled HR: 2.48, 95% CI: 2.12–2.90, P<0.001). In the cancer-type subgroup, significant associations were detected for gastrointestinal (HR: 2.27, 95% CI: 1.77–2.91, P<0.001) and hepatocellular (HR: 2.61, 95% CI: 1.96–3.48, P<0.001) carcinoma. Our results demonstrate that endocan could be useful to exploit as a novel prognostic biomarker for patients with cancer. PMID:27785077

  3. Association between three exonuclease 1 polymorphisms and cancer risks: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zi-Yu; Zheng, Si-Rong; Zhong, Jie-Hui; Zhuang, Xiao-Duan; Zhou, Jue-Yu

    2016-01-01

    To date, the results of studies exploring the relation between exonuclease 1 (Exo1) polymorphisms and cancer risks have differed. In this study, we performed a meta-analysis to investigate the effect of the three most extensively studied Exo1 polymorphisms (Pro757Leu, Glu589Lys, and Glu670Gly) on cancer susceptibility. The related studies published before August 5, 2015, were collected by searching the PubMed and EMBASE databases. We found 16 publications containing studies that were eligible for our study, including 10 studies for Pro757Leu polymorphism (4,093 cases and 3,834 controls), 12 studies for Glu589Lys polymorphism (6,479 cases and 6,550 controls), and 7 studies for Glu670Gly polymorphism (3,700 cases and 3,496 controls). Pooled odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were used to assess the strength of the associations, and all the statistical analyses were calculated using the software program STATA version 12.0. Our results revealed that the Pro757Leu polymorphism was significantly associated with a reduced cancer risk, whereas an inverse association was found for the Glu589Lys polymorphism. Furthermore, subgroup analysis of smoking status indicated that the Glu589Lys polymorphism was significantly associated with an increased cancer risk in smokers, but not in nonsmokers. However, no evidence was found for an association between the Glu670Gly polymorphism and cancer risk. In conclusion, this meta-analysis suggests that the Pro757Leu polymorphism may provide protective effects against cancer, while the Glu589Lys polymorphism may be a risk factor for cancer. Moreover, the Glu670Gly polymorphism may have no influence on cancer susceptibility. In the future, large-scaled and well-designed studies are needed to achieve a more precise and comprehensive result. PMID:26966378

  4. General aspects of colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Centelles, Josep J

    2012-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the main causes of death. Cancer is initiated by several DNA damages, affecting proto-oncogenes, tumour suppressor genes, and DNA repairing genes. The molecular origins of CRC are chromosome instability (CIN), microsatellite instability (MSI), and CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP). A brief description of types of CRC cancer is presented, including sporadic CRC, hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) or Lynch syndromes, familiar adenomatous polyposis (FAP), MYH-associated polyposis (MAP), Peutz-Jeghers syndrome (PJS), and juvenile polyposis syndrome (JPS). Some signalling systems for CRC are also described, including Wnt-β-catenin pathway, tyrosine kinase receptors pathway, TGF-β pathway, and Hedgehog pathway. Finally, this paper describes also some CRC treatments.

  5. Distress in Couples Coping with Cancer: A Meta-Analysis and Critical Review of Role and Gender Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagedoorn, Mariet; Sanderman, Robbert; Bolks, Hilde N.; Tuinstra, Jolanda; Coyne, James C.

    2008-01-01

    Research concerning distress in couples coping with cancer was integrated using meta-analysis and narrative critical appraisal. Individual levels of distress were determined more by gender than by the role of being the person with cancer versus that person's partner. That is, women reported consistently more distress than men regardless of their…

  6. Efficacy of Vitamin C Supplements in Prevention of Cancer: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Bobae; Oh, Seung-Won

    2015-01-01

    Background Previous randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have reported inconsistent findings regarding the association between vitamin C supplementation and the risk of cancer. Methods We performed a meta-analysis of RCTs to investigate the efficacy of vitamin C supplements for prevention of cancer. We searched the PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library databases in November 2014 using common keywords related to vitamin C supplements and cancer. Results Among 785 articles, a total of seven trials were identified, which included 62,619 participants; 31,326 and 31,293 were randomized to vitamin C supplementation and control or placebo groups, respectively, which were included in the final analysis. A fixed-effects meta-analysis of all seven RCTs revealed no significant association between vitamin C supplementation and cancer (relative risk, 1.00; 95% confidence intervals, 0.95-1.05). Similarly, subgroup meta-analysis by dose of vitamin C administered singly or in combination with other supplements, follow-up period, methodological quality, cancer mortality, gender, smoking status, country, and type of cancer also showed no efficacy of vitamin C supplementation for cancer prevention. Conclusion This meta-analysis shows that there is no evidence to support the use of vitamin C supplements for prevention of cancer. PMID:26634093

  7. Role of Epidural Analgesia within an ERAS Program after Laparoscopic Colorectal Surgery: A Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomised Controlled Studies

    PubMed Central

    Francis, Nader Kamal; Chapuis, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Epidural analgesia has been a cornerstone of any ERAS program for open colorectal surgery. With the improvements in anesthetic and analgesic techniques as well as the introduction of the laparoscopy for colorectal resection, the role of epidural analgesia has been questioned. The aim of the review was to assess through a meta-analysis the impact of epidural analgesia compared to other analgesic techniques for colorectal laparoscopic surgery within an ERAS program. Methods. Literature research was performed on PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library. All randomised clinical trials that reported data on hospital stay, postoperative complications, and readmissions rates within an ERAS program with and without an epidural analgesia after a colorectal laparoscopic resection were included. Results. Five randomised clinical trials were selected and a total of 168 patients submitted to epidural analgesia were compared to 163 patients treated by an alternative analgesic technique. Pooled data show a longer hospital stay in the epidural group with a mean difference of 1.07 (95% CI 0.06–2.08) without any significant differences in postoperative complications and readmissions rates. Conclusion. Epidural analgesia does not seem to offer any additional clinical benefits to patients undergoing laparoscopic colorectal surgery within an ERAS program.

  8. Role of Epidural Analgesia within an ERAS Program after Laparoscopic Colorectal Surgery: A Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomised Controlled Studies.

    PubMed

    Borzellino, Giuseppe; Francis, Nader Kamal; Chapuis, Olivier; Krastinova, Evguenia; Dyevre, Valérie; Genna, Michele

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Epidural analgesia has been a cornerstone of any ERAS program for open colorectal surgery. With the improvements in anesthetic and analgesic techniques as well as the introduction of the laparoscopy for colorectal resection, the role of epidural analgesia has been questioned. The aim of the review was to assess through a meta-analysis the impact of epidural analgesia compared to other analgesic techniques for colorectal laparoscopic surgery within an ERAS program. Methods. Literature research was performed on PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library. All randomised clinical trials that reported data on hospital stay, postoperative complications, and readmissions rates within an ERAS program with and without an epidural analgesia after a colorectal laparoscopic resection were included. Results. Five randomised clinical trials were selected and a total of 168 patients submitted to epidural analgesia were compared to 163 patients treated by an alternative analgesic technique. Pooled data show a longer hospital stay in the epidural group with a mean difference of 1.07 (95% CI 0.06-2.08) without any significant differences in postoperative complications and readmissions rates. Conclusion. Epidural analgesia does not seem to offer any additional clinical benefits to patients undergoing laparoscopic colorectal surgery within an ERAS program. PMID:27642630

  9. Role of Epidural Analgesia within an ERAS Program after Laparoscopic Colorectal Surgery: A Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomised Controlled Studies

    PubMed Central

    Francis, Nader Kamal; Chapuis, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Epidural analgesia has been a cornerstone of any ERAS program for open colorectal surgery. With the improvements in anesthetic and analgesic techniques as well as the introduction of the laparoscopy for colorectal resection, the role of epidural analgesia has been questioned. The aim of the review was to assess through a meta-analysis the impact of epidural analgesia compared to other analgesic techniques for colorectal laparoscopic surgery within an ERAS program. Methods. Literature research was performed on PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library. All randomised clinical trials that reported data on hospital stay, postoperative complications, and readmissions rates within an ERAS program with and without an epidural analgesia after a colorectal laparoscopic resection were included. Results. Five randomised clinical trials were selected and a total of 168 patients submitted to epidural analgesia were compared to 163 patients treated by an alternative analgesic technique. Pooled data show a longer hospital stay in the epidural group with a mean difference of 1.07 (95% CI 0.06–2.08) without any significant differences in postoperative complications and readmissions rates. Conclusion. Epidural analgesia does not seem to offer any additional clinical benefits to patients undergoing laparoscopic colorectal surgery within an ERAS program. PMID:27642630

  10. Environmental Polychlorinated Biphenyl Exposure and Breast Cancer Risk: A Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jingwen; Huang, Yue; Wang, Xiaoling; Lin, Kun; Wu, Kusheng

    2015-01-01

    Background Association between polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) exposure and breast cancer risk has been widely studied, but the results remain controversial. We performed a meta-analysis to evaluate the evidences from observational studies on PCB exposure and breast cancer risk. Methods Relevant studies with data on internal PCB dose were identified from PubMed, EMBASE, CBM and CNKI databases through November 2014. Multivariable-adjusted odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were applied to assess the association between PCB exposure and breast cancer risk. Heterogeneity test, sensitivity analysis, subgroup analysis and publication bias test were also performed. To further explore the association between specific groups of PCB congeners and breast cancer, we examined the PCB congeners classified, according to their structural, biological and pharmacokinetics properties, as group I (potentially estrogenic), group II (potentially anti-estrogenic and immunotoxic, dioxin-like), and group III (phenobarbital, CYP1A and CYP2B inducers, biologically persistent). Results Of 660 studies screened, 25 studies which met criteria were selected, involving a total of 12866 participants (6088 cases and 6778 controls) from eight countries. The results showed that the risk of breast cancer was associated with group II (OR = 1.23, 95% CI: 1.08–1.40) and group III (OR = 1.25, 95% CI: 1.09–1.43) PCBs, but not with group I (OR = 1.10, 95%CI: 0.97–1.24) PCBs or total PCB exposure (OR = 1.09, 95%CI: 0.97–1.22). Conclusions Our meta-analysis based on the selected studies found group II and group III PCB exposure might contribute to the risk of breast cancer. More studies in developing countries with higher PCB levels are needed, as well as studies to explore the relationships between mixtures of organochlorine compounds and breast cancer risk. PMID:26555153

  11. Metformin therapy and prostate cancer risk: a meta-analysis of observational studies

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Gang-Feng; Zhang, Xiao-Long; Luo, Zhen-Gang; Yan, Jia-Jun; Pan, Shou-Hua; Ying, Xiang-Rong; Pan, Jian-Gang; Zhang, Guan-Fu

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Several observational studies have shown that metformin therapy may modify the risk of prostate cancer. We carried out a meta-analysis of relevant studies evaluating the effect of metformin therapy on prostate cancer risk. Methods: We searched pubmed database (January 1966-February 2014) for case-control and cohort studies that assessed metformin therapy and prostate cancer risk. Two authors independently assessed eligibility and extracted data. Summary RRs was calculated using fixed-effects model or random-effects model. Heterogeneity among studies was examined using Q and I2 statistics. Results: We included six cohort studies and four case-control studies in the present meta-analysis, comprising 863,769 participants and 39,073 prostate cancer cases. The pooled RR of prostate cancer in relation to metformin therapy was 0.92 (95% CI: 0.84-1.02, P = 0.112). When we stratified the various studies by study type, we found that metformin therapy was associated with a significant reduced risk of prostate cancer among cohort studies (RR = 0.92, 95% CI [0.87, 0.96], P<0.001); however, no significant association was detected among case-control studies (RR = 0.95, 95% CI [0.78, 1.16], P = 0.632). There was also no indication of publication bias as suggested by Begg’s test (P = 0.421) and Egger’s test (P = 0.627). Conclusion: Our findings indicate that metformin therapy is not significantly associated with lower prostate cancer risk. PMID:26550231

  12. The association between physical activity and gastroesophageal cancer: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Behrens, Gundula; Jochem, Carmen; Keimling, Marlen; Ricci, Cristian; Schmid, Daniela; Leitzmann, Michael Fred

    2014-03-01

    Physical activity may decrease gastroesophageal cancer risk through a reduction of oxidative stress and decreased chronic inflammation, yet few epidemiologic studies have been able to report a clear inverse association between physical activity and gastroesophageal cancer. Because no meta-analysis has investigated the relation of physical activity to gastroesophageal cancer, we conducted a comprehensive systematic review and meta-analysis according to the PRISMA guidelines based on 24 studies with a total of 15,745 cases. When we compared high versus low physical activity levels and summarized associations according to anatomic site and tumor histology, risk reductions were evident for esophageal adenocarcinoma [relative risk (RR) = 0.79, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.66-0.94], gastric cardia adenocarcinoma (RR = 0.83, 95% CI = 0.69-0.99) and gastric non-cardia adenocarcinoma (RR = 0.72, 95% CI = 0.62-0.84). The risk reduction for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (RR = 0.94, 95% CI = 0.41-2.16) became statistically significant (RR = 0.66, 95% CI = 0.46-0.96) after excluding an influential study. The test for heterogeneity by gastroesophageal cancer subtype was statistically non-significant (p-difference = 0.71). The RR of total gastroesophageal cancer for high versus low physical activity was 0.82 (95% CI = 0.74-0.90). A dose-response analysis of frequency of physical activity and total gastroesophageal cancer risk revealed that the greatest risk reduction was achieved among those engaging in moderate to vigorous physical activity five times per week (RR = 0.67, 95% CI = 0.58-0.79). Our results provide support for an inverse relation of physical activity, in particular exercise frequency, to gastroesophageal cancer risk. PMID:24705782

  13. Pooled Bayesian meta-analysis of two Polish studies on radiation-induced cancers.

    PubMed

    Fornalski, Krzysztof W

    2015-11-01

    The robust Bayesian regression method was applied to perform meta-analysis of two independent studies on influence of low ionising radiation doses on the occurrence of fatal cancers. The re-analysed data come from occupational exposure analysis of nuclear workers in Świerk (Poland) and from ecological study of cancer risk from natural background radiation in Poland. Such two different types of data were analysed, and three popular models were tested: constant, linear and quadratic dose-response dependencies. The Bayesian model selection algorithm was used for all models. The Bayesian statistics clearly indicates that the popular linear no-threshold (LNT) assumption is not valid for presented cancer risks in the range of low doses of ionising radiation. The subject of LNT hypothesis use in radiation risk prediction and assessment is also discussed. PMID:25956788

  14. Systemic Treatment of Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wolpin, Brian M.; Mayer, Robert J.

    2008-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is the fourth most common non-cutaneous malignancy in the United States and the second most frequent cause of cancer-related death. Over the past 12 years, significant progress has been made in the systemic treatment of this malignant condition. Six new chemotherapeutic agents have been introduced, increasing median overall survival for patients with metastatic colorectal cancer from less than 9 months with no treatment to approximately 24 months. For patients with stage III (lymph node positive) colon cancer, an overall survival benefit for fluorouracil-based chemotherapy has been firmly established, and recent data have shown further efficacy for the inclusion of oxaliplatin in such adjuvant treatment programs. For patients with stage II colon cancer, the use of adjuvant chemotherapy remains controversial, but may be appropriate in a subset of individuals at higher risk for disease recurrence. Ongoing randomized clinical trials are evaluating how best to combine currently available therapies, while smaller studies are evaluating new agents, with the goal of continued progress in prolonging life among patients with metastatic colorectal cancer and increasing cure rates among those with resectable disease. PMID:18471507

  15. Catalase C-262T polymorphism and risk of prostate cancer: evidence from meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jieping; Feng, Fupeng; Zhu, Shimiao; Sun, Libin; Li, Gang; Jiang, Ning; Shang, Zhiqun; Niu, Yuanjie

    2015-03-10

    Catalase is an important endogenous antioxidant enzyme that detoxifies hydrogen peroxide to oxygen and water, thus limiting the deleterious effects of reactive oxygen species. Several studies investigated the role of the Catalase (CAT) C-262T gene polymorphism on the risk of prostate cancer (PCa), but get conflicting results. We performed a meta-analysis based on five studies, to determine whether Catalase C-262T polymorphism contributes to the risk of prostate cancer using odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). On the whole, our evidence indicates that CAT C-262T polymorphism significantly increases PCa risk in the allele comparison model (OR=1.094, 95% CI=1.015-1.178, P=0.018). In the stratified analysis by ethnicity, the same results are found among Caucasians (allele model, OR=1.090, 95% CI=1.009-1.177, P=0.028, dominant model, OR=1.108, 95% CI=1.023-1.201, P=0.012, recessive model, OR=1.379, 95% CI=1.158-1.641, P=0.000, homozygous model, OR=1.429, 95% CI=1.196-1.707, P=0.000, and heterozygote model, OR=1.224, 95% CI=1.020-1.469, P=0.030). In conclusion, this meta-analysis suggests a positive correlation between Catalase C-262T polymorphism and the development of PCa.

  16. Interventions with family caregivers of cancer patients: meta-analysis of randomized trials.

    PubMed

    Northouse, Laurel L; Katapodi, Maria C; Song, Lixin; Zhang, Lingling; Mood, Darlene W

    2010-01-01

    Family caregivers of cancer patients receive little preparation, information, or support to perform their caregiving role. However, their psychosocial needs must be addressed so they can maintain their own health and provide the best possible care to the patient. The purpose of this article is to analyze the types of interventions offered to family caregivers of cancer patients, and to determine the effect of these interventions on various caregiver outcomes. Meta-analysis was used to analyze data obtained from 29 randomized clinical trials published from 1983 through March 2009. Three types of interventions were offered to caregivers: psychoeducational, skills training, and therapeutic counseling. Most interventions were delivered jointly to patients and caregivers, but they varied considerably with regard to dose and duration. The majority of caregivers were female (64%) and Caucasian (84%), and ranged in age from 18 to 92 years (mean age, 55 years). Meta-analysis indicated that although these interventions had small to medium effects, they significantly reduced caregiver burden, improved caregivers' ability to cope, increased their self-efficacy, and improved aspects of their quality of life. Various intervention characteristics were also examined as potential moderators. Clinicians need to deliver research-tested interventions to help caregivers and patients cope effectively and maintain their quality of life.

  17. Does salmon calcitonin cause cancer? A review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Wells, G; Chernoff, J; Gilligan, J P; Krause, D S

    2016-01-01

    Recently an association between the use of calcitonin and cancer has been postulated. We reviewed the biological rationale and performed an additional analysis of historical data with respect to the possibility. An association cannot be excluded, but the relationship is weak and causality is unlikely. The purpose of the present study is to review the strength of association and likelihood of a causal relationship between use of calcitonin and cancer. We reviewed the evidence for this association, including the molecular signaling mechanisms of calcitonin, preclinical data, an "experiment of nature," and the results of a previous meta-analysis which showed a weak association. We performed an additional meta-analysis to incorporate the data from a novel investigational oral formulation of salmon calcitonin. Review of the literature did not identify a cellular signaling mechanism of action which might account for a causal relationship or toxicologic or postmarketing data to support the thesis. Additional clinical results incorporated into previous meta-analyses weakened but did not completely negate the possibility of association. A causal association between calcitonin use and malignancy is unlikely, as there is little biological plausibility. The preponderance of nonclinical and clinical evidence also does not favor a causal relationship. PMID:26438308

  18. The Mendelian colorectal cancer syndromes

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    A small minority of colorectal cancers (CRCs) (≤5%) are caused by a single, inherited faulty gene. These diseases, the Mendelian colorectal cancer (CRC) syndromes, have been central to our understanding of colorectal carcinogenesis in general. Most of the approximately 13 high-penetrance genes that predispose to CRC primarily predispose to colorectal polyps, and each gene is associated with a specific type of polyp, whether conventional adenomas (APC, MUTYH, POLE, POLD1, NTHL1), juvenile polyps (SMAD4, BMPR1A), Peutz-Jeghers hamartomas (LKB1/STK11) and mixed polyps of serrated and juvenile types (GREM1). Lynch syndrome (MSH2, MLH1, MSH6, PMS2), by contrast, is associated primarily with cancer risk. Major functional pathways are consistently inactivated in the Mendelian CRC syndromes: certain types of DNA repair (proofreading of DNA replication errors, mismatch repair and base excision repair) and signalling (bone morphogenetic protein (BMP), Wnt signalling and mTOR). The inheritance of the CRC syndromes also varies: most are dominant but some of the DNA repair deficiencies are recessive. Some of the Mendelian CRC genes are especially important because they play a role through somatic inactivation in sporadic CRC (APC, MLH1, SMAD4, POLE). Additional Mendelian CRC genes may remain to be discovered and searches for these genes are ongoing, especially in patients with multiple adenomas and hyperplastic polyps. PMID:26169059

  19. Association between Dairy Intake and Gastric Cancer: A Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Shu-bo; Yu, Jian-chun; Kang, Wei-ming; Ma, Zhi-qiang; Ye, Xin; Cao, Zhan-jiang

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Observational studies have given inconsistent findings on the relationship between intake of dairy products and gastric cancer. We therefore conducted a systematic review with a meta-analysis of observational studies to summarize available evidence on this point. Methods We searched the electronic literature databases of PubMed (Medline), EMBASE and the Chinese Biomedical Literature Database up until August 30, 2013. All studies were limited to the English language. Random-effects models were used to pool study results between dairy products consumption and the risk of gastric cancer. We also performed subgroup, publication bias and sensitivity analysis. Results Eight prospective studies and 18 case-control studies were included in our analysis, with a total number of 7272 gastric cancer cases and 223,355 controls. Pooled relative risks of all studies showed no significant association between dairy intake and gastric cancer (odds ratio [OR]: 1.09, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.96–1.25). When study design was separately analyzed, population-based case-control studies showed a positive association between dairy intake and gastric cancer risk (OR: 1.36; 95% CI: 1.07–1.74), whereas no associations were shown by hospital-based case-control studies (OR: 0.86, 95% CI: 0.72–1.02) or cohort studies (OR = 1.01, 95% CI = 0.91–1.13). Conclusions The meta-analysis shows that no clear association apparently exists between consumption of dairy products and gastric cancer risk. Further well-designed cohort and intervention studies should be conducted to verify this lack of association. PMID:25006674

  20. Serum Lipids and Breast Cancer Risk: A Meta-Analysis of Prospective Cohort Studies

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Rong

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Epidemiologic studies exploring causal associations between serum lipids and breast cancer risk have reported contradictory results. We conducted a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies to evaluate these associations. Methods Relevant studies were identified by searching PubMed and EMBASE through April 2015. We included prospective cohort studies that reported relative risk (RR) estimates with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the associations of specific lipid components (i.e., total cholesterol [TC], high-density lipoprotein cholesterol [HDL-C], low-density lipoprotein cholesterol [LDL-C], and triglycerides [TG]) with breast cancer risk. Either a fixed- or a random-effects model was used to calculate pooled RRs. Results Fifteen prospective cohort studies involving 1,189,635 participants and 23,369 breast cancer cases were included in the meta-analysis. The pooled RRs of breast cancer for the highest versus lowest categories were 0.96 (95% CI: 0.86–1.07) for TC, 0.92 (95% CI: 0.73–1.16) for HDL-C, 0.90 (95% CI: 0.77–1.06) for LDL-C, and 0.93 (95% CI: 0.86–1.00) for TG. Notably, for HDL-C, a significant reduction of breast cancer risk was observed among postmenopausal women (RR = 0.77, 95% CI: 0.64–0.93) but not among premenopausal women. Similar trends of the associations were observed in the dose-response analysis. Conclusions Our findings suggest that serum levels of TG but not TC and LDL-C may be inversely associated with breast cancer risk. Serum HDL-C may also protect against breast carcinogenesis among postmenopausal women. PMID:26554382

  1. Abnormal COX2 Protein Expression May Be Correlated with Poor Prognosis in Oral Cancer: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhi-Ming; Liu, Jie; Liu, Hong-Bo; Ye, Ming; Zhang, Yu-Fei; Yang, Dong-Sheng

    2014-01-01

    Background. The prognostic significance of COX2 for survival of patients with oral cancer remains controversial. Thus, the meta-analysis was performed in order to identify COX2 expression impact on prognosis of oral cancer. Method. Relevant literatures were searched using the following electronic databases without any language restrictions: Web of Science, the Cochrane Library Database, PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, and CBM. Version 12.0 STATA software (Stata Corporation, College Station, Texas, USA) was used for the current meta-analysis. Odds ratios (ORs) and hazard ratios (HRs) with their corresponding 95% confidence interval (95% CI) were also calculated to clarify the correlation between COX2 expression and prognosis of oral cancer. Results. Final analysis of 979 oral cancer patients from 12 clinical cohort studies was performed. The meta-analysis results show that COX2 expression in cancer tissues was significantly higher than those in normal and benign tissues (all P < 0.05). Combined HR of COX2 suggests that positive COX2 expression has a shorter overall survival (OS) than those of negative COX2 expression (P < 0.05). Conclusion. The meta-analysis study shows that elevated COX2 expression may be associated with the pathogenesis of oral cancer and with a worse prognosis in oral cancer patients. PMID:25028647

  2. Whole Grain Intake Reduces Pancreatic Cancer Risk: A Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies.

    PubMed

    Lei, Qiucheng; Zheng, Huazhen; Bi, Jingcheng; Wang, Xinying; Jiang, Tingting; Gao, Xuejin; Tian, Feng; Xu, Min; Wu, Chao; Zhang, Li; Li, Ning; Li, Jieshou

    2016-03-01

    Mounting evidence from epidemiology studies suggests that whole grain intake may reduce pancreatic cancer risk, but convincing evidence is scarce. We conducted a meta-analysis to assess the association between whole grain intake and pancreatic cancer risk. Relevant observational studies were identified by searching PubMed, Embase, Scopus, and Cochrane library databases for the period from January 1980 to July 2015, with no restrictions. We calculated the summary odds ratios (ORs) for pancreatic cancer using random-effects model meta-analysis. Between-study heterogeneity was analyzed using the I statistic. A total of 8 studies regarding whole grain intake were included in the meta-analysis. The pooled OR of pancreatic cancer for those with high versus low whole grain intake was 0.76 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.64-0.91; P = 0.002). There was no significant heterogeneity across these studies (I² = 11.7%; Pheterogeneity = 0.339). In the subgroup analysis by geographic area, the summary ORs of developing pancreatic cancer were 0.64 (95% CI, 0.53-0.79; P < 0.001; I ²= 0%; Pheterogeneity = 0.482) in the United States (n = 4) and 0.95 (95% CI, 0.63-1.43; P = 0.803; I ²= 45.6%; Pheterogeneity = 0.175) in Europe (n = 2). In the subgroup analysis by type of whole grain, the summary ORs were 0.72 (95% CI, 0.60-0.87; P = .001; I² = 0; Pheterogeneity = 0.876) for grains (n = 4) and 0.74 (95% CI, 0.27-2.02; P = 0.554; I² = 86.3%; Pheterogeneity = 0.007) for wheat (n = 2). A high intake of whole grains was associated with a reduced risk of pancreatic cancer. Because of the absent of more cohort studies, further prospective studies need to be conducted to ensure conclusions that are more robust. PMID:26945361

  3. What's New in Colorectal Cancer Research and Treatment?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Next Topic Additional resources for colorectal cancer What’s new in colorectal cancer research? Research is always going ... ways to find colorectal cancer early by studying new types of screening tests and improving the ones ...

  4. Percentage of Adults Who Receive Colorectal Cancer Screening as Appropriate

    MedlinePlus

    ... Appropriate Percentage of Adults Who Receive Colorectal Cancer Screening as Appropriate Colorectal cancer is the second leading ... Percentage of Adults Who Receive Recommended Colorectal Cancer Screening by Age Group 78pm-ubty Download these data » ...

  5. Coffee consumption and bladder cancer: a meta-analysis of observational studies

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Weixiang; Tong, Yeqing; Zhao, Qiang; Yu, Guangxia; Wei, Xiaoyun; Lu, Qing

    2015-01-01

    Controversial results of the association between coffee consumption and bladder cancer (BC) risk were reported among epidemiological studies. Therefore, we conducted this meta-analysis to clarify the association. Relevant studies were identified according to the inclusion criteria. Totally, 34 case-control studies and 6 cohort studies were included in our meta-analysis. The overall odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) between coffee consumption and BC risk was 1.33 (95% CI 1.19 to 1.48). The summary ORs of BC for an increase of 1 cup of coffee per day were 1.05 (95% CI 1.03 to 1.06) for case-control studies and 1.03 (95% CI 0.99 to 1.06) for cohort studies. The overall ORs for male coffee drinkers, female coffee drinkers and coffee drinkers of both gender were 1.31 (95% CI: 1.08 to 1.59), 1.30 (95% CI: 0.87 to 1.96) and 1.35 (95% CI: 1.20 to 1.51). Compared with smokers (OR = 1.24, 95% CI: 0.91 to 1.70), non-smokers had a higher risk (OR = 1.72, 95% CI: 1.25 to 2.35) for BC. Results of this meta-analysis suggested that there was an increased risk between coffee consumption and BC. Male coffee drinkers and non-smoking coffee drinkers were more likely to develop BC. PMID:25761588

  6. The diagnostics of colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Swiderska, Magdalena; Choromańska, Barbara; Dąbrowska, Ewelina; Konarzewska-Duchnowska, Emilia; Choromańska, Katarzyna; Szczurko, Grzegorz; Myśliwiec, Piotr; Dadan, Jacek; Ladny, Jerzy Robert; Zwierz, Krzysztof

    2014-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most frequent human malignant neoplasms. CRC has an estimated incidence of more than 1,000,000 new cases annually worldwide. Approximately one out of three people who develop CRC dies from the disease. Furthermore, CRC often affects inhabitants of industrialized countries in comparison to less developed countries. Several markers of colon cancer, including CEA, CA-19-9, TPS, TAG-72 and lysosomal hydrolases, have been identified and are now being adopted in routine clinical practice. Increased values of these markers are often the first signal of recurrence or metastases, which is useful in prediction and prognosis of clinical outcome of patients with CRC. Determination of the activity of lysosomal exoglycosidases in body fluids may bring some hope of improving diagnosis of colorectal cancer. However, it has to be remembered that currently the most effective diagnostic method of CRC is endoscopy. PMID:24876814

  7. The Impact of Underweight Status on the Prognosis of Ovarian Cancer Patients: A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Pergialiotis, Vasilios; Doumouchtsis, Stergios K; Perrea, Despina; Vlachos, Georgios D

    2016-01-01

    Malnutrition and underweight status pose an unfavorable prognosis for cancer patients. Several studies have addressed the impact of a low body mass index (BMI) (<18.5 kg/m(2)) on ovarian cancer progression. However, their results seem to be conflicting. The present meta-analysis investigates whether the underweight status negatively affects the progress of ovarian cancer. We conducted a systematic review searching the Medline (1966-2014), Scopus (2004-2014), Popline (1974-2014), ClinicalTrials.gov (2008-2014), and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (1999-2014) databases together with reference lists from included studies. All prospective and retrospective observational cohort studies were included. Statistical meta-analysis was performed using the RevMan 5.1 software. Current evidence suggests that the stage of the disease does not differ between underweight and normal-weight patients [odds ratio (OR) 0.80, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.46-1.39 for stage I; OR 1.27, 95% CI 0.71-2.27 for stage II; OR 1.03, 95% CI 0.71-1.51 for stage III; and OR 1.05, 95% CI 0.63-1.76 for stage IV disease]. Concurrently, the risk of residual disease after surgery (OR 1.03, 95% CI 0.69-1.52) and the risk of dying due to ovarian cancer (OR 1.08, 95% CI 0.64-1.85) seem to be similar. According to the findings of our systematic review, the underweight status does not seem to have a detrimental impact on ovarian cancer prognosis. However, the methodological limitations of published studies and the small number of enrolled underweight patients preclude firm results. Thus, future research in this field is necessary. PMID:27351098

  8. IL-17A and IL-17F polymorphisms and gastric cancer risk: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Li, Z; Liu, Y; Cao, D; Jiang, M; Luo, F

    2015-01-01

    We conducted a meta-analysis of eligible studies to estimate the association between gastric cancer risk and rs2275913G>A IL-17A and rs763780T>C IL-17F polymorphisms. We searched the relevant studies in both Chinese and English through PubMed, the Web of Science, the Cochrane Library, and EMBASE up to January 1, 2014, including 3939 cases and 5407 controls. Seven eligible case-control studies were selected, including seven studies on rs2275913G>A IL-17A and four studies on rs763780T>C IL-17F. The rs2275913 AG [odds ratio (OR) = 1.50, 95% confidence interval (95%CI) = 1.04-2.15] and GG (OR = 1.40, 95%CI = 1.00-1.96) genotypes were significantly associated with increased risk of gastric cancer compared with the AA genotype. The rs763780 TC (OR = 1.47, 95%CI = 1.32-1.64) and TT (OR = 1.49, 95%CI = 1.11-1.99) gen-otypes can influence gastric cancer risk. Subgroup analysis showed that rs2275913 GG (OR = 1.35, 95%CI = 1.05-1.73) and rs763780 TC (OR= 1.44, 95%CI = 1.20-1.75) genotypes were not significantly associated with increased risk of gastric cancer in Japanese populations. Our meta-analysis is the first to indicate that the rs2275913G>A and rs763780T>C polymor-phisms are risk factors for gastric cancer development.

  9. Meta-analysis: Does garlic intake reduce risk of gastric cancer?

    PubMed

    Kodali, R T; Eslick, Guy D

    2015-01-01

    In the past 2 decades, various epidemiological studies investigated whether garlic can positively modify the risk of gastric cancer. Garlic contains numerous sulfide compounds, including diallyl trisulfide, which have anticarcinogenic properties. We conducted a meta-analysis to determine if garlic intake reduces the risk of gastric cancer. An electronic search of MEDLINE, PubMed, and EMBASE to June 2014 was completed. There were 14 case control studies, 2 randomized controlled studies, and 1 cohort study that fulfilled our inclusion criteria. We used a random effects model to calculate pooled odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for risk of gastric cancer with garlic consumption. Meta-analysis of a total of 8,621 cases and 14,889 controls was conducted. Significant variability in duration of garlic intake and reference categories for amount of intake was noted. High, low, and any garlic intake were all associated with reduced risk of gastric cancer. High intake had the most significant risk reduction, OR = 0.49 (95% CI: 0.38-0.62). Heterogeneity was low (I² = 30.85, P = 0.17). A more modest risk reduction was associated with low intake, OR = 0.75 (95% CI: 0.58-0.97). Half of the studies did not separate garlic intake into high or low amounts, intake was only noted as consumption vs. non-consumption. Any amount of consumption still showed a risk reduction similar to low intake, OR = 0.77 (95% CI: 0.60-1.00). Low and any amount of consumption showed moderate heterogeneity (58% and 45%, respectively). Garlic intake appears to be associated with reduced risk of gastric cancer. Further high quality studies are required to confirm this finding and to assess the amount of garlic that needs to be consumed for protective effect.

  10. Dairy product consumption and gastric cancer risk: A meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yan; Lin, Lian-Jie; Sang, Li-Xuan; Dai, Cong; Jiang, Min; Zheng, Chang-Qing

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To investigate whether dairy product consumption is a risk factor for gastric cancer. METHODS: We searched the PubMed and Web of Science databases for English-language studies on dairy product consumption and gastric cancer risk that were published between October 1980 and September 2013. One author independently extracted data and assessed study quality. Based on the heterogeneity results, we used either the fixed effects model or the random effects model to compute the summary relative risks and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). We also analyzed subgroups according to the study design, geographic region, sex, and whether there were adjustments for confounders (smoking and drinking) with respect to the sources of heterogeneity. RESULTS: We found 39 studies that were potentially eligible for inclusion in this meta-analysis, including 10 cohort studies and 29 case-control studies. The summary relative risk for gastric cancer, comparing the highest and lowest dairy product consumption categories, was 1.06 (95%CI: 0.95-1.18). Specific analyses for milk, butter, and margarine yielded similar results, but the results for cheese and yogurt were different. There was significant heterogeneity for all studies (Q = 112.61; P = 0.000; I2 = 67.1%). No publication bias was observed (Egger’s test: P = 0.135; Begg’s test: P = 0.365). There was a nonsignificant association between dairy product consumption and gastric cancer risk in the subgroup analysis for the study design, sex, geographic region, and whether there were adjustments for confounders (smoking and drinking). CONCLUSION: In our meta-analysis, dairy product consumption was associated with a nonsignificantly increased risk of gastric cancer. However, this result should be verified using large, well-designed prospective studies. PMID:25400475

  11. Association between allergic conditions and risk of prostate cancer: A Prisma-Compliant Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Jianguo; Song, Jukun; Liu, Zezhen; Han, Jin; Luo, Heng; Liu, Yunlin; Jia, Zhenyu; Dong, Yuanbo; Zhang, Wei; Jiang, Funeng; Wu, Chinlee; Sun, Zaolin; Zhong, Weide

    2016-01-01

    Association between allergic conditions and prostate cancer risk has been investigated for many years. However, the results from available evidence for the association are inconsistent. We conducted a meta-analysis to evaluate the relationship between allergic conditions (asthma, atopy, hay fever and “any allergy”) and risk of prostate cancer. The PubMed and Embase databases were searched to screen observational studies meeting our meta-analysis criteria. Study selection and data extraction from included studies were independently performed by two authors. Twenty studies were considered eligible involving 5 case-control studies and 15 cohort studies. The summary relative risk (RR) for developing prostate cancer risk was 1.04 (95%CI: 0.92–1.17) for asthma, and 1.25 (95%CI: 0.74–2.10) for atopy, 1.04 (95%CI: 0.99–1.09) for hay fever, 0.96 (95%CI: 0.86–1.06) for any allergy. In the Subgroup and sensitivity analysis, similar results were produced. Little evidence of publication bias was observed. The present meta-analysis of observational studies indicates that no indication of an association between allergic conditions and risk of prostate cancer was found, and the meta-analysis does not support neither the original hypothesis of an overall cancer protective effect of allergic conditions, nor that of an opposite effect in the development of prostate cancer. PMID:27767045

  12. Tooth Loss and Head and Neck Cancer: A Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Xian-Tao; Luo, Wei; Huang, Wei; Wang, Quan; Guo, Yi; Leng, Wei-Dong

    2013-01-01

    Backgroud Epidemiological studies have shown that tooth loss is associated with risk of head and neck cancer (HNC); however, the results were inconsistent. Therefore, we conducted a meta-analysis to ascertain the relationship between tooth loss and HNC. Methods We searched for relevant observational studies that tested the association between tooth loss and risk of HNC from PubMed and were conducted up to January 30, 2013. Data from the eligible studies were independently extracted by two authors. The meta-analysis was performed using the Comprehensive Meta-Analysis 2.2 software. Sensitivity and subgroup analyses were conducted to evaluate the influence of various inclusions. Publication bias was also detected. Results Ten articles involving one cohort and ten case-control studies were yielded. Based on random-effects meta-analysis, an association between tooth loss and HNC risk was identified [increased risk of 29% for 1 to 6 teeth loss (OR = 1.29, 95% CI = 0.52–3.20, p = 0.59), 58% for 6 to 15 teeth loss (OR = 1.58, 95% CI = 1.08–2.32, p = 0.02), 63% for 11+ teeth loss (OR = 1.63, 95% CI = 1.23–2.14, p<0.001), 72% for 15+ teeth loss (OR = 1.72, 95% CI = 1.26–2.36, p<0.001), and 89% for 20+ teeth loss (OR = 1.89, 95% CI = 1.27–2.80, p<0.001)]. The sensitivity analysis shows that the result was robust, and publication bias was not detected. Conclusions Based on the current evidence, tooth loss is probably a significant and dependent risk factor of HNC, which may have a dose-response effect. People who lost six or more teeth should pay attention to symptoms of HNC, and losing 11 teeth or 15 teeth may be the threshold. PMID:24260154

  13. The impact of positive peritoneal cytology on prognosis in patients with cervical cancer: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Sang-Hee; Kim, Soo-Nyung; Shim, Seung-Hyuk; Lee, Ji-Young; Lee, Sun-Joo; Oh, In-Kyeong; Kim, Hyeon-Jeong; Kang, Soon-Beom

    2015-01-01

    Background: The impact of positive peritoneal cytology on the prognosis of cervical cancer is controversial. Thus, we performed a meta-analysis to determine its impact on recurrence, and to investigate correlations between abnormal cytology and/or lymph node metastasis in cervical cancer. Methods: A systematic literature review was conducted through July 2014. Odds ratios (ORs) and their 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were calculated by standard meta-analysis techniques with the fixed-effects models, if there was no significant statistical heterogeneity across studies by using I2. Results: Of 303 studies retrieved, 6 were included in the meta-analysis. These six case–control observational studies included 1360 cervical cancer patients who showed negative peritoneal cytology and 64 who showed positive peritoneal cytology. Over the combined study period, 20 of 45 in the positive peritoneal cytology group experienced recurrence, whereas 88 of 539 controls did. The meta-analysis based on the fixed-effects model indicated a significant increase in the risk of recurrence in the positive peritoneal cytology group relative to the control group (OR: 4.47; 95% CI: 2.33–8.58, P<0.001, I2=0.0%). Moreover, the results of our meta-analysis suggested that the positive peritoneal cytology group displayed more lymph node metastasis than the negative peritoneal cytology group (OR: 3.73; 95% CI: 2.13–6.53, P<0.001, I2=0.0%). Conclusions: Although based mainly on retrospective observational studies, our meta-analysis indicates that abnormal peritoneal cytology may be strongly associated with poor prognosis in patients with cervical cancer. Future research should verify this relationship through prospective observational studies over a longer term. PMID:26225551

  14. Chemotherapy for Late-Stage Cancer Patients: Meta-Analysis of Complete Response Rates

    PubMed Central

    Ashdown, Martin L.; Robinson, Andrew P.; Yatomi-Clarke, Steven L.; Ashdown, M. Luisa; Allison, Andrew; Abbott, Derek; Markovic, Svetomir N.; Coventry, Brendon J.

    2015-01-01

    Complete response (CR) rates reported for cytotoxic chemotherapy for late-stage cancer patients are generally low, with few exceptions, regardless of the solid cancer type or drug regimen. We investigated CR rates reported in the literature for clinical trials using chemotherapy alone, across a wide range of tumour types and chemotherapeutic regimens, to determine an overall CR rate for late-stage cancers. A total of 141 reports were located using the PubMed database. A meta-analysis was performed of reported CR from 68 chemotherapy trials (total 2732 patients) using standard agents across late-stage solid cancers—a binomial model with random effects was adopted. Mean CR rates were compared for different cancer types, and for chemotherapeutic agents with different mechanisms of action, using a logistic regression. Our results showed that the CR rates for chemotherapy treatment of late-stage cancer were generally low at 7.4%, regardless of the cancer type or drug regimen used. We found no evidence that CR rates differed between different chemotherapy drug types, but amongst different cancer types small CR differences were evident, although none exceeded a mean CR rate of 11%. This remarkable concordance of CR rates regardless of cancer or therapy type remains currently unexplained, and motivates further investigation. PMID:26834979

  15. Bisphosphonates in the Treatment of Patients With Metastatic Breast, Lung, and Prostate Cancer: A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jing; Huang, Wenhui; Zhou, Ruoyu; Jia, Shuting; Tang, Wenru; Luo, Ying; Zhang, Jihong

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this meta-analysis was to investigate whether bisphosphonates are a key therapy for bone metastases in lung cancer, breast cancer, and prostate cancer by comparing all randomized controlled trials that appraised the effects of bisphosphonates on risk of skeletal-related events (SREs).PubMed, Embase, and Medline databases (up to December 2014) were used to search all related articles. Using the data from 19 available publications, the authors examined the efficacy in treating or reducing the risk of SREs in lung cancer, breast cancer, and prostate cancer by meta-analysis.Bisphosphonates have demonstrated efficacy in treating or reducing the risk of SREs in lung cancer [odds ratio (OR) = 0.81, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.69-0.95, P = 0.008], breast cancer (OR = 0.62, 95% CI = 0.54-0.71, P = 0.000), and prostate cancer (OR = 0.62, 95% CI = 0.45-0.86, P = 0.004).This meta-analysis suggests that bisphosphonates have demonstrated efficacy in treating or reducing the risk of SREs in lung cancer, breast cancer, and prostate cancer.

  16. Religion, spirituality, and physical health in cancer patients: A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Jim, Heather S L; Pustejovsky, James E; Park, Crystal L; Danhauer, Suzanne C; Sherman, Allen C; Fitchett, George; Merluzzi, Thomas V; Munoz, Alexis R; George, Login; Snyder, Mallory A; Salsman, John M

    2015-11-01

    Although religion/spirituality (R/S) is important in its own right for many cancer patients, a large body of research has examined whether R/S is also associated with better physical health outcomes. This literature has been characterized by heterogeneity in sample composition, measures of R/S, and measures of physical health. In an effort to synthesize previous findings, a meta-analysis of the relation between R/S and patient-reported physical health in cancer patients was performed. A search of PubMed, PsycINFO, the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, and the Cochrane Library yielded 2073 abstracts, which were independently evaluated by pairs of raters. The meta-analysis was conducted for 497 effect sizes from 101 unique samples encompassing more than 32,000 adult cancer patients. R/S measures were categorized into affective, behavioral, cognitive, and 'other' dimensions. Physical health measures were categorized into physical well-being, functional well-being, and physical symptoms. Average estimated correlations (Fisher z scores) were calculated with generalized estimating equations with robust variance estimation. Overall R/S was associated with overall physical health (z = 0.153, P < .001); this relation was not moderated by sociodemographic or clinical variables. Affective R/S was associated with physical well-being (z = 0.167, P < .001), functional well-being (z = 0.343, P < .001), and physical symptoms (z = 0.282, P < .001). Cognitive R/S was associated with physical well-being (z = 0.079, P < .05) and functional well-being (z = 0.090, P < .01). 'Other' R/S was associated with functional well-being (z = 0.100, P < .05). In conclusion, the results of the current meta-analysis suggest that greater R/S is associated with better patient-reported physical health. These results underscore the importance of attending to patients' religious and spiritual needs as part of comprehensive

  17. Meta-analysis of residential exposure to radon gas and lung cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Pavia, Maria; Bianco, Aida; Pileggi, Claudia; Angelillo, Italo F.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the relation between residential exposure to radon and lung cancer. METHODS: A literature search was performed using Medline and other sources. The quality of studies was assessed. Adjusted odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the risk of lung cancer among categories of levels of exposure to radon were extracted. For each study, a weighted log-linear regression analysis of the adjusted odds ratios was performed according to radon concentration. The random effect model was used to combine values from single studies. Separate meta-analyses were performed on results from studies grouped with similar characteristics or with quality scores above or equal to the median. FINDINGS: Seventeen case-control studies were included in the meta-analysis. Quality scoring for individual studies ranged from 0.45 to 0.77 (median, 0.64). Meta-analysis based on exposure at 150 Bq/m3 gave a pooled odds ratio estimate of 1.24 (95% CI, 1.11-1.38), which indicated a potential effect of residential exposure to radon on the risk of lung cancer. Pooled estimates of fitted odds ratios at several levels of randon exposure were all significantly different from unity--ranging from 1.07 at 50 Bq/m3 to 1.43 at 250 Bq/m3. No remarkable differences from the baseline analysis were found for odds ratios from sensitivity analyses of studies in which > 75% of eligible cases were recruited (1.12, 1.00-1.25) and studies that included only women (1.29, 1.04-1.60). CONCLUSION: Although no definitive conclusions may be drawn, our results suggest a dose-response relation between residential exposure to radon and the risk of lung cancer. They support the need to develop strategies to reduce human exposure to radon. PMID:14758433

  18. Robot-assisted versus conventional laparoscopic surgery for endometrial cancer staging: A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shao-Hui; Li, Zhao-Ai; Huang, Rui; Xue, Hui-Qin

    2016-08-01

    This meta-analysis broadly compared the safety and efficacy of robot-assisted laparoscopy (RAL) with that of conventional laparoscopy (CL) for endometrial cancer staging. The advantages of RAL were evaluated through the outcomes in terms of conversion rates, complications, length of operation, blood loss, number of lymph nodes harvested, and length of hospitalization. Three electronic databases (PubMed, MEDLINE, and EmBASE) were searched to identify eligible studies. We selected all retrospective studies documenting a comparison between RAL and CL for endometrial cancer staging between 2005 and 2015, and tallied with meta-analyses criteria. Only studies published in English were included in this analysis. The outcomes of the extracted data were pooled and estimated by the Review Manager version 5.1 software. Seventeen studies met the eligibility criteria. Among the 2105 patients reported, 912 underwent RAL and the other 1193 underwent CL for endometrial cancer staging. Compared with CL, RAL had lower conversion rates [risk ratio, 0.4; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.25-0.64; p = 0.0002]. Its complications were also less than that of CL (risk ratio, 0.72; 95% CI, 0.56-0.94; p = 0.02). RAL was associated with significantly less intraoperative blood loss (weighted mean difference, -79.2 mL; 95% CI, from -103.43 to -54.97; p < 0.00001) and a shorter length of hospitalization (weighted mean difference, -0.37 days; 95% CI, from -0.57 to -0.17; p = 0.0003). We found no significant differences in the length of operation and number of lymph nodes harvested between the two groups. From our meta-analysis results, RAL is a safe and effective alternative to CL for endometrial cancer staging. Further studies are required to determine potential advantages or disadvantages of RAL.

  19. Robot-assisted versus conventional laparoscopic surgery for endometrial cancer staging: A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shao-Hui; Li, Zhao-Ai; Huang, Rui; Xue, Hui-Qin

    2016-08-01

    This meta-analysis broadly compared the safety and efficacy of robot-assisted laparoscopy (RAL) with that of conventional laparoscopy (CL) for endometrial cancer staging. The advantages of RAL were evaluated through the outcomes in terms of conversion rates, complications, length of operation, blood loss, number of lymph nodes harvested, and length of hospitalization. Three electronic databases (PubMed, MEDLINE, and EmBASE) were searched to identify eligible studies. We selected all retrospective studies documenting a comparison between RAL and CL for endometrial cancer staging between 2005 and 2015, and tallied with meta-analyses criteria. Only studies published in English were included in this analysis. The outcomes of the extracted data were pooled and estimated by the Review Manager version 5.1 software. Seventeen studies met the eligibility criteria. Among the 2105 patients reported, 912 underwent RAL and the other 1193 underwent CL for endometrial cancer staging. Compared with CL, RAL had lower conversion rates [risk ratio, 0.4; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.25-0.64; p = 0.0002]. Its complications were also less than that of CL (risk ratio, 0.72; 95% CI, 0.56-0.94; p = 0.02). RAL was associated with significantly less intraoperative blood loss (weighted mean difference, -79.2 mL; 95% CI, from -103.43 to -54.97; p < 0.00001) and a shorter length of hospitalization (weighted mean difference, -0.37 days; 95% CI, from -0.57 to -0.17; p = 0.0003). We found no significant differences in the length of operation and number of lymph nodes harvested between the two groups. From our meta-analysis results, RAL is a safe and effective alternative to CL for endometrial cancer staging. Further studies are required to determine potential advantages or disadvantages of RAL. PMID:27590368

  20. The association of PTEN hypermethylation and breast cancer: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Shanshan; Chen, Jiansi; Mo, Xianwei

    2016-01-01

    Objective Phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) deleted on chromosome 10, as a tumor suppressor gene, is crucial for the development of both familial and sporadic breast cancer (BC). The aim of this study was to perform a meta-analysis to evaluate the clinicopathological significance of PTEN promoter hypermethylation in BC. Methods A comprehensive literature search was made in PubMed, Embase, Google Scholar, Chinese database (China National Knowledge Infrastructure [CNKI]), and Web of Science. The analysis of pooled data was performed with Review Manager 5.2. The fixed-effects or random-effects models were used to evaluate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results The meta-analysis included eight studies and a total of 923 patients. The frequency of PTEN promoter hypermethylation was significantly increased in ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) and invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) compared to normal breast tissues (OR =22.53, P=0.0002 and OR =22.86, P<0.00001, respectively). However, the frequency of PTEN promoter hypermethylation was similar between IDC and DCIS. Additionally, PTEN methylation was not significantly correlated to estrogen receptor (ER) or human epidermal growth factor type 2 (HER-2) status in patients with BC. Conclusion PTEN promoter hypermethylation is significantly associated with the risk of DCIS and IDC, suggesting PTEN promoter hypermethylation is a valuable biomarker for diagnosis of BC.

  1. Systematic review and meta-analysis of glyphosate exposure and risk of lymphohematopoietic cancers

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Ellen T.; Delzell, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT This systematic review and meta-analysis rigorously examines the relationship between glyphosate exposure and risk of lymphohematopoietic cancer (LHC) including NHL, Hodgkin lymphoma (HL), multiple myeloma (MM), and leukemia. Meta-relative risks (meta-RRs) were positive and marginally statistically significant for the association between any versus no use of glyphosate and risk of NHL (meta-RR = 1.3, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.0–1.6, based on six studies) and MM (meta-RR = 1.4, 95% CI = 1.0–1.9; four studies). Associations were statistically null for HL (meta-RR = 1.1, 95% CI = 0.7–1.6; two studies), leukemia (meta-RR = 1.0, 95% CI = 0.6–1.5; three studies), and NHL subtypes except B-cell lymphoma (two studies each). Bias and confounding may account for observed associations. Meta-analysis is constrained by few studies and a crude exposure metric, while the overall body of literature is methodologically limited and findings are not strong or consistent. Thus, a causal relationship has not been established between glyphosate exposure and risk of any type of LHC. PMID:27015139

  2. Systematic review and meta-analysis of glyphosate exposure and risk of lymphohematopoietic cancers.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ellen T; Delzell, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    This systematic review and meta-analysis rigorously examines the relationship between glyphosate exposure and risk of lymphohematopoietic cancer (LHC) including NHL, Hodgkin lymphoma (HL), multiple myeloma (MM), and leukemia. Meta-relative risks (meta-RRs) were positive and marginally statistically significant for the association between any versus no use of glyphosate and risk of NHL (meta-RR = 1.3, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.0-1.6, based on six studies) and MM (meta-RR = 1.4, 95% CI = 1.0-1.9; four studies). Associations were statistically null for HL (meta-RR = 1.1, 95% CI = 0.7-1.6; two studies), leukemia (meta-RR = 1.0, 95% CI = 0.6-1.5; three studies), and NHL subtypes except B-cell lymphoma (two studies each). Bias and confounding may account for observed associations. Meta-analysis is constrained by few studies and a crude exposure metric, while the overall body of literature is methodologically limited and findings are not strong or consistent. Thus, a causal relationship has not been established between glyphosate exposure and risk of any type of LHC.

  3. The association of PTEN hypermethylation and breast cancer: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Shanshan; Chen, Jiansi; Mo, Xianwei

    2016-01-01

    Objective Phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) deleted on chromosome 10, as a tumor suppressor gene, is crucial for the development of both familial and sporadic breast cancer (BC). The aim of this study was to perform a meta-analysis to evaluate the clinicopathological significance of PTEN promoter hypermethylation in BC. Methods A comprehensive literature search was made in PubMed, Embase, Google Scholar, Chinese database (China National Knowledge Infrastructure [CNKI]), and Web of Science. The analysis of pooled data was performed with Review Manager 5.2. The fixed-effects or random-effects models were used to evaluate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results The meta-analysis included eight studies and a total of 923 patients. The frequency of PTEN promoter hypermethylation was significantly increased in ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) and invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) compared to normal breast tissues (OR =22.53, P=0.0002 and OR =22.86, P<0.00001, respectively). However, the frequency of PTEN promoter hypermethylation was similar between IDC and DCIS. Additionally, PTEN methylation was not significantly correlated to estrogen receptor (ER) or human epidermal growth factor type 2 (HER-2) status in patients with BC. Conclusion PTEN promoter hypermethylation is significantly associated with the risk of DCIS and IDC, suggesting PTEN promoter hypermethylation is a valuable biomarker for diagnosis of BC. PMID:27672335

  4. Occupational exposures and colorectal cancers: A quantitative overview of epidemiological evidence

    PubMed Central

    Oddone, Enrico; Modonesi, Carlo; Gatta, Gemma

    2014-01-01

    A traditional belief widespread across the biomedical community was that dietary habits and genetic predisposition were the basic factors causing colorectal cancer. In more recent times, however, a growing evidence has shown that other determinants can be very important in increasing (or reducing) incidence of this malignancy. The hypothesis that environmental and occupational risk factors are associated with colorectal cancer is gaining ground, and high risks of colorectal cancer have been reported among workers in some industrial branches. The aim of this study was to investigate the epidemiologic relationship between colorectal cancer and occupational exposures to several industrial activities, by means of a scientific literature review and meta-analysis. This work pointed out increased risks of colorectal cancer for labourers occupied in industries with a wide use of chemical compounds, such as leather (RR = 1.70, 95%CI: 1.24-2.34), basic metals (RR = 1.32, 95%CI: 1.07-1.65), plastic and rubber manufacturing (RR = 1.30, 95%CI: 0.98-1.71 and RR = 1.27, 95%CI: 0.92-1.76, respectively), besides workers in the sector of repair and installation of machinery exposed to asbestos (RR = 1.40, 95%CI: 1.07-1.84). Based on our results, the estimated crude excess risk fraction attributable to occupational exposure ranged from about 11% to about 15%. However, homogeneous pattern of association between colorectal cancer and industrial branches did not emerge from this review. PMID:25253943

  5. Inflammatory networks underlying colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Lasry, Audrey; Zinger, Adar; Ben-Neriah, Yinon

    2016-03-01

    Inflammation is emerging as one of the hallmarks of cancer, yet its role in most tumors remains unclear. Whereas a minority of solid tumors are associated with overt inflammation, long-term treatment with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs is remarkably effective in reducing cancer rate and death. This indicates that inflammation might have many as-yet-unrecognized facets, among which an indolent course might be far more prevalent than previously appreciated. In this Review, we explore the various inflammatory processes underlying the development and progression of colorectal cancer and discuss anti-inflammatory means for its prevention and treatment.

  6. Risk of bladder cancer in renal transplant recipients: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yan, L; Chen, P; Chen, E-Z; Gu, A; Jiang, Z-Y

    2014-01-01

    Background: Renal transplantation has been associated with a significantly increased risk of developing cancers during long-term follow-up, but for bladder cancer, this risk is less clear. We therefore performed a meta-analysis to determine whether bladder cancer risk in renal transplant recipients was increased. Methods: Eligible studies were identified through searches of PubMed and other public resources. Random-effects meta-analyses were used to pool overall estimates for standardised incidence ratios (SIRs). Heterogeneity test, sensitivity analysis, and assessment of publishing bias were also performed. Results: We identified a 3.18-fold higher SIR (95% confidence intervals (CI): 1.34–7.53, P=0.008) of bladder cancer in patients following renal transplantation compared with the general population, based on data from 79 988 patients with a total follow-up of 308 458 patient-years. When stratified by ethnicity, the SIRs for bladder cancer were 2.00 (95% CI: 1.51–2.65, P=0.001) and 14.74 (95% CI: 3.66–59.35, P<0.001) between European and Asian renal transplant recipients, respectively. Conclusions: Our study demonstrated that the risk of developing bladder cancer in transplant populations was increased. Such association suggests that physicians should be more vigilant in checking for bladder cancer in transplantation recipient population. PMID:24496458

  7. OGG1 Mutations and Risk of Female Breast Cancer: Meta-Analysis and Experimental Data

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Kashif; Mahjabeen, Ishrat; Sabir, Maimoona; Mehmood, Humera; Kayani, Mahmood Akhtar

    2015-01-01

    In first part of this study association between OGG1 polymorphisms and breast cancer susceptibility was explored by meta-analysis. Second part of the study involved 925 subjects, used for mutational analysis of OGG1 gene using PCR-SSCP and sequencing. Fifteen mutations were observed, which included five intronic mutations, four splice site mutations, two 3′UTR mutations, three missense mutations, and a nonsense mutation. Significantly (p < 0.001) increased (~29 fold) breast cancer risk was associated with a splice site variant g.9800972T>G and 3′UTR variant g.9798848G>A. Among intronic mutations, highest (~15 fold) increase in breast cancer risk was associated with g.9793680G>A (p < 0.009). Similarly ~14-fold increased risk was associated with Val159Gly (p < 0.01), ~17-fold with Gly221Arg (p < 0.005), and ~18-fold with Ser326Cys (p < 0.004) in breast cancer patients compared with controls, whereas analysis of nonsense mutation showed that ~13-fold (p < 0.01) increased breast cancer risk was associated with Trp375STOP in patients compared to controls. In conclusion, a significant association was observed between OGG1 germ line mutations and breast cancer risk. These findings provide evidence that OGG1 may prove to be a good candidate of better diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of breast cancer. PMID:26089588

  8. Current concepts in colorectal cancer prevention

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Patricia A; Gerner, Eugene W

    2009-01-01

    Colorectal cancer chemoprevention, or chemoprophylaxis, is a drug-based approach to prevent colorectal cancer. Preventing colorectal adenomas with currently available agents demonstrates the promise of pharmacologic strategies directed at critical regulatory pathways. However, agent toxicity, lesion breakthrough and competing efficacy from endoscopy procedures challenge population-based implementation. This article reviews the role of colorectal cancer chemoprevention in the context of existing screening and surveillance guidelines and practice. Emphasis is placed on the role of the colorectal adenoma as a cancer precursor and its surrogacy in assessing individual risk and for evaluating chemoprevention efficacy. We discuss the importance of risk stratification for identifying subjects at moderate-to-high risk for colorectal cancer who are most likely to benefit from chemoprevention at an acceptable level of risk. PMID:19673624

  9. Colorectal cancer in Jordan: prevention and care.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Muayyad M; Dardas, Latefa; Dardas, Lubna; Ahmad, Huthaifa

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the knowledge, attitudes, and practices toward colorectal cancer prevention and care in Jordan. A survey was designed to produce reliable estimates for the population's knowledge, attitudes, and practices in all 12 governorates of Jordan by using stratified random sampling. A representative sample of the adult population in Jordan completed a comprehensive tool which explored participants' knowledge about the risk factors associated with colorectal cancer, cancer prevention through lifestyle changes, and early cancer diagnosis and screening. According to the participants (n = 3196), colorectal cancer had the second highest percentage of screening recommendation (12.6%) after breast cancer (57.3%). Only 340 individuals (11%) reported ever screening for cancer. About 20% of the participants had heard of one of the screening tests for colorectal cancer. In fact, only 290 (9.1%) participants had performed the colorectal cancer screening tests. This study provides data that will help colorectal cancer prevention and treatment programs and may enhance the efficiency of colorectal cancer-controlling programs. The findings confirm the necessity of starting colorectal screening intervention that targets the most vulnerable individuals.

  10. Clinicopathologic significance of legumain overexpression in cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhen, Ye; Chunlei, Guo; Wenzhi, Shen; Shuangtao, Zhao; Na, Luo; Rongrong, Wang; Xiaohe, Luo; Haiying, Niu; Dehong, Luo; Shan, Jiang; Xiaoyue, Tan; Rong, Xiang

    2015-01-01

    Since reports on the clinical significance of legumain in cancer have shown inconsistent results, we systematically evaluated clinical indicators of legumain in cancer. We searched the Cochrane Library, PubMed, Embase, and EBSCO databases and the Wangfang and CNKI databases in China by using “legumain” and (“neoplasms” OR “cancer”) as search terms. We included case-controlled studies of legumain and cancer. The quality of the studies was evaluated by using Lichtenstein’s guidelines, and valid data was extracted for analysis. In total, 10 articles were included in this study. Meta-analysis showed that legumain was overexpressed in cancer compared with in normal tissue and was higher in stage III–IV disease than in I–II disease. Moreover, legumain overexpression was correlated with poor prognosis and clinical stage. Furthermore, Cancer Genome Atlas data showed that among patients with rectal cancer, those with tumors overexpressing legumain had shorter overall survival than those in the low expression group (P < 0.05). Legumain appears to be involved in tumor development and deterioration; thus, it can potentially be developed into both a marker for monitoring and diagnosing tumors and a therapeutic target. PMID:26607955

  11. Prognostic Value of Osteopontin Splice Variant-c Expression in Breast Cancers: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Chengcheng; Wang, Zhiyan; Gu, Yanan; Jiang, Wen G.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. Osteopontin (OPN) is overexpressed in breast cancers, while its clinical and prognostic significance remained unclear. This study aimed to assess the prognostic value of OPN, especially its splice variants, in breast cancers. Methods. Data were extracted from eligible studies concerning the OPN and OPN-c expression in breast cancer patients and were used to calculate the association between OPN/OPN-c and survival. Two reviewer teams independently screened the literatures according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria based on quality evaluation. Following the processes of data extraction, assessment, and transformation, meta-analysis was carried out via RevMan 5.3 software. Results. A total of ten studies involving 1,567 patients were included. The results demonstrated that high level OPN indicated a poor outcome in the OS (HR = 2.22, 95% CI: 1.23–4.00, and P = 0.008; random-effects model) with heterogeneity (I2 = 62%) of breast cancer patients. High level OPN-c appeared to be more significantly associated with poor survival (HR = 2.14, 95% CI: 1.51–3.04, and P < 0.0001; fixed-effects model) with undetected heterogeneity (I2 = 0%). Conclusions. Our analyses indicated that both OPN and OPN-c could be considered as prognostic markers for breast cancers. The high level of OPN-c was suggested to be more reliably associated with poor survival in breast cancer patients. PMID:27462610

  12. Stomach cancer and occupational exposure to asbestos: a meta-analysis of occupational cohort studies

    PubMed Central

    Fortunato, L; Rushton, L

    2015-01-01

    Background: A recent Monographs Working Group of the International Agency for Research on Cancer concluded that there is limited evidence for a causal association between exposure to asbestos and stomach cancer. Methods: We performed a meta-analysis to quantitatively evaluate this association. Random effects models were used to summarise the relative risks across studies. Sources of heterogeneity were explored through subgroup analyses and meta-regression. Results: We identified 40 mortality cohort studies from 37 separate papers, and cancer incidence data were extracted for 15 separate cohorts from 14 papers. The overall meta-SMR for stomach cancer for total cohort was 1.15 (95% confidence interval 1.03–1.27), with heterogeneous results across studies. Statistically significant excesses were observed in North America and Australia but not in Europe, and for generic asbestos workers and insulators. Meta-SMRs were larger for cohorts reporting a SMR for lung cancer above 2 and cohort sizes below 1000. Conclusions: Our results support the conclusion by IARC that exposure to asbestos is associated with a moderate increased risk of stomach cancer. PMID:25928706

  13. Association between Metformin Therapy and Breast Cancer Incidence and Mortality: Evidence from a Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ting; Yang, Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Metformin may be associated with a decreased risk of breast cancer. We performed a meta-analysis to assess the effect of metformin intake on breast cancer risk and mortality. Methods We performed a PubMed and EMbase search for all available studies that described the risk of breast cancer and all-cause mortality in relation to the use of metformin among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Pooled relative risks (RRs) were determined using a random effects model to assess the strength of association between metformin and the risk of breast cancer. Results Fifteen articles from PubMed satisfied the inclusion criteria, including a total of 838,333 participants. Compared with the control group, metformin use was not related to a reduced incidence of breast cancer (RR, 0.964; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.761-1.221; p=0.761). However, metformin therapy was associated with decreased all-cause mortality (RR, 0.652; 95% CI, 0.488-0.873; p=0.004). No obvious publication bias was detected (incidence: pBegg=0.755, pEgger=0.008; mortality: pBegg=0.072, pEgger=0.185). Conclusion The present study suggested that metformin therapy may decrease the all-cause mortality of patients affected by breast cancer. However, this finding should be considered carefully and confirmed with further studies. PMID:26472977

  14. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase gene and susceptibility to breast cancer: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Zintzaras, E

    2006-04-01

    The methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene polymorphisms have been linked to the risk of developing breast cancer. A meta-analysis of 18 case-control studies investigating the association between the C677T and the A1298C polymorphisms of the MTHFR gene and breast cancer (BC) was carried out. The meta-analysis included genotype data on 5467/7336 and 3768/5276 cases/controls for C677T and A1298C, respectively. In the meta-analysis, the consistency of genetic effects across different ethnicities and the effect of menopausal status for various genetic contrasts were investigated. The overall analysis for investigating the association between the C677T allele T and the risk of developing BC showed significant heterogeneity (p = 0.08, I2 = 34%) and non-significant association [odds ratio (OR) 1.02; 95% confidence interval (0.95-1.10)]. The allele contrast was not significant in Caucasians (nine studies) and in East Asians (four studies) [OR 1.03 (0.93-1.14) and OR 0.96 (0.81-1.15), respectively] or in pre-menopausal (five studies) and post-menopausal (four studies) groups [OR 1.10 (0.94-1.29) and OR 1.06 (0.95-1.18), respectively]. The genotype contrast of the homozygotes (TT vs CC) produced significant results only for pre-menopausal cases [OR 1.46 (1.05-2.03)]. The recessive model for allele T produced significant association only in pre-menopausal cases [OR 1.49 (1.09-2.03)]. The dominant model for the effect of allele T produced no significant results, overall and in each subgroup. For the A1298C polymorphism, all genotype contrasts showed lack of association, overall and in Caucasians. In summary, the accumulated evidence supports an association in pre-menopausal women. BC is a complex disease with multifactorial etiology, and therefore, case-control studies that investigate gene-environment interaction might elucidate further the genetics of the disease.

  15. Bayesian meta-analysis, with application to studies of ETS and lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Tweedie, R L; Scott, D J; Biggerstaff, B J; Mengersen, K L

    1996-03-01

    Meta-analysis enables researchers to combine the results of several studies to assess the information they provide as a whole. It has been used to give a systematic overview of many areas in which data on a possible association between an exposure and an outcome have been collected in a number of studies but where the overall picture remains obscure, both as to the existence or size of the effect. This paper outlines some innovations in meta-analysis, based on using Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) techniques for implementing Bayesian hierarchical models, and compares these with a more well-known random effects (RE) model. The new techniques allow different aspects of variation to be incorporated into descriptions of the association, and in particular enable researchers to better quantify differences between studies. Both the classical and Bayesian methods are applied, in this paper, to the current collection of studies of the association between incidence of lung cancer in female never-smokers and exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), both in the home through spousal smoking and in the workplace. In this paper it is demonstrated that compared with the RE model, the Bayesian methods: (a) allow more detailed modeling of study heterogeneity to be incorporated; (b) are relatively robust against a wide choice of specifications of such information on heterogeneity; (c) allow for more detailed and satisfactory statements to be made, not only about the overall risk but about the individual studies, on the basis of the combined information. For the workplace exposure data set, the Bayesian methods give a somewhat lower overall estimate of relative risk of lung cancer associated with ETS, indicating the care that needs to be taken in using point estimates based on any one method of analysis. On the larger spousal data set the methods give similar answers. Some of the other concerns with meta-analysis are also considered. These include: consistency between different

  16. Potential Role of MicroRNA-210 as Biomarker in Human Cancers Detection: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Jiongjiong; Xie, Feng; Geng, Li; Shen, Weifeng; Sui, Chengjun; Yang, Jiamei

    2015-01-01

    We conducted this meta-analysis aimed to evaluate diagnostic accuracy of miR-210 in human cancers. A total of 673 cancer patients and 606 cancer-free individuals from 13 studies were contained in this meta-analysis. The overall diagnostic results in our study showed that the pooled sensitivity was 0.70, specificity was 0.76, and the AUC was 0.80. In addition, the PLR and NLR were 2.9 and 0.39, with DOR of 8. After the outliner exclusion detected by sensitivity analysis, these parameters had minimal change, which confirmed the stability of our work. The results in our studies showed that the miR-210 assay yielded relatively moderate accuracy in cancer patients and cancer-free individual differentiation. More basic researches are needed to highlight its role as supplement in clinical treatment. PMID:26446394

  17. Red Meat and Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer in men and the second in women worldwide. More than half of cases occur in more developed countries. The consumption of red meat (beef, pork, lamb, veal, mutton) is high in developed countries and accumulated evidence until today demonstrated a convincing association between the intake of red meat and especially processed meat and CRC risk. In this review, meta-analyses of prospective epidemiological studies addressed to this association, observed link of some subtypes of red meat with CRC risk, potential carcinogenic compounds, their mechanisms and actual recommendations of international guidelines are presented. PMID:26779313

  18. CONSUMPTION OF ANIMAL FOODS AND ENDOMETRIAL CANCER RISK: A SYSTEMATIC LITERATURE REVIEW AND META-ANALYSIS

    PubMed Central

    Bandera, Elisa V.; Kushi, Lawrence H.; Moore, Dirk F.; Gifkins, Dina M.; McCullough, Marjorie L.

    2008-01-01

    This paper summarizes and quantifies the current evidence relating dietary intake of animal products and endometrial cancer. Literature searches were conducted to identify peer-reviewed manuscripts published up to December 2006. Twenty-two manuscripts from three cohort studies and 16 case-control studies were identified. One of these cohort studies evaluated only fried meat and another only milk consumption; they were not included in our meta-analyses. The third cohort study identified did not present exposure levels and could not be included in dose-response meta-analysis. This cohort study did not show an association with meat or red meat consumption. Random-effects dose-response summary estimates for case-control studies evaluating these foods were 1.26 (95% CI: 1.03–1.54) per 100 g/day of total meat, 1.51 (95% CI: 1.19–1.93) per 100 g/day of red meat, 1.03 (95% CI: 0.32–3.28) per 100 g/day of poultry, 1.04 (95% CI: 0.55–1.98) per 100 g/day of fish, and 0.97 (95% CI: 0.93–1.01) per serving of dairy. Our meta-analysis, based on case-control data, suggests that meat consumption, particularly red meat, increases endometrial cancer risk. The current literature does not support an association with dairy products, while the evidence is inconsistent for poultry, fish, and eggs. More studies, particularly prospective studies, are needed. PMID:17638104

  19. Folate intake and breast cancer prognosis: a meta-analysis of prospective observational studies.

    PubMed

    Li, Bin; Lu, Ying; Wang, Lian; Zhang, Cai-Xia

    2015-03-01

    Some studies have investigated the association between folate intake and breast cancer prognosis, but the results have been far from conclusive. Thus, a meta-analysis was carried out to explore this association. We performed a comprehensive search of the PubMed, Web of Knowledge, and Cochrane databases from inception to May 2013. The summary hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using a random effects model. Prespecified stratified analyses, sensitivity analyses, and dose-response analysis were also carried out. Five studies, with a total of 7299 participants, were included in the meta-analysis. The pooled HR (95% CI) of the five studies on the association of dietary folate intake (highest vs. lowest) with all-cause mortality was 0.74 (0.60-0.92). Stratified analyses suggested that the inverse association of dietary folate and all-cause mortality was more easily detected in studies that focused on prediagnosis diets, included more patients (>1000), had longer follow-up periods (>7 years), used structured interviews, or had more categories of folate intake (>3). However, none of these differences was statistically significant. No significant association was found between total (dietary and supplementary) folate intake and all-cause mortality, or dietary folate intake and breast cancer-specific mortality, with pooled HRs (95% CI) of 0.93 (0.75-1.15) and 0.79 (0.61-1.01), respectively. Sensitivity analyses confirmed the robustness of the findings by excluding studies that poorly represented the cohort. Our findings suggest a significant inverse association between dietary folate intake and all-cause mortality, but not between total folate intake and all-cause mortality.

  20. Statin use and breast cancer survival and risk: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qi-Jun; Tu, Chao; Li, Yuan-Yuan; Zhu, Jingjing; Qian, Ke-Qing; Li, Wen-Jing; Wu, Lang

    2015-12-15

    The purpose of this study is to determine the associations between statin use and breast cancer survival and risk by performing a systematic review and meta-analysis. We searched PubMed, Embase and Web of Science up to August 2015 for identifying relevant prospective or case-control studies, or randomized clinical trials. Five prospective studies involving 60,911 patients reported the association between statin use and breast cancer mortality. Eleven prospective studies, 12 case-control studies and 9 randomized clinical trials involving 83,919 patients reported the association between statin use and breast cancer risk. After pooling estimates from all available studies, there was a significantly negative association between pre-diagnosis statin use and breast cancer mortality (for overall survival (OS): hazard ratio (HR) = 0.68, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.54-0.84; for disease specific survival (DSS): HR = 0.72, 95% CI 0.53-0.99). There was also a significant inverse association between post-diagnosis statin use and breast cancer DSS (HR = 0.65, 95% CI 0.43-0.98), although the association with breast cancer OS did not reach statistical significance (HR = 0.71, 95% CI 0.48-1.07). Additionally, there was a non-linear relationship for the duration of post-diagnosis statin use with breast cancer specific mortality. On the other hand, with regards to the relationship between statin use and breast cancer risk, no significant association was detected. Our analyses suggest that although statin use may not influence breast cancer risk, the use of statin may be associated with decrease mortality of breast cancer patients. Further large-scale studies are warranted to validate our findings.

  1. Statin use and breast cancer survival and risk: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yuan-Yuan; Zhu, Jingjing; Qian, Ke-Qing; Li, Wen-Jing; Wu, Lang

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the associations between statin use and breast cancer survival and risk by performing a systematic review and meta-analysis. We searched PubMed, Embase and Web of Science up to August 2015 for identifying relevant prospective or case-control studies, or randomized clinical trials. Five prospective studies involving 60,911 patients reported the association between statin use and breast cancer mortality. Eleven prospective studies, 12 case-control studies and 9 randomized clinical trials involving 83,919 patients reported the association between statin use and breast cancer risk. After pooling estimates from all available studies, there was a significantly negative association between pre-diagnosis statin use and breast cancer mortality (for overall survival (OS): hazard ratio (HR) = 0.68, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.54–0.84; for disease specific survival (DSS): HR = 0.72, 95% CI 0.53–0.99). There was also a significant inverse association between post-diagnosis statin use and breast cancer DSS (HR = 0.65, 95% CI 0.43–0.98), although the association with breast cancer OS did not reach statistical significance (HR = 0.71, 95% CI 0.48–1.07). Additionally, there was a non-linear relationship for the duration of post-diagnosis statin use with breast cancer specific mortality. On the other hand, with regards to the relationship between statin use and breast cancer risk, no significant association was detected. Our analyses suggest that although statin use may not influence breast cancer risk, the use of statin may be associated with decrease mortality of breast cancer patients. Further large-scale studies are warranted to validate our findings. PMID:26472026

  2. A meta analysis of pancreatic microarray datasets yields new targets as cancer genes and biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Goonesekere, Nalin C W; Wang, Xiaosheng; Ludwig, Lindsey; Guda, Chittibabu

    2014-01-01

    The lack of specific symptoms at early tumor stages, together with a high biological aggressiveness of the tumor contribute to the high mortality rate for pancreatic cancer (PC), which has a five year survival rate of less than 5%. Improved screening for earlier diagnosis, through the detection of diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers provides the best hope of increasing the rate of curatively resectable carcinomas. Though many serum markers have been reported to be elevated in patients with PC, so far, most of these markers have not been implemented into clinical routine due to low sensitivity or specificity. In this study, we have identified genes that are significantly upregulated in PC, through a meta-analysis of large number of microarray datasets. We demonstrate that the biological functions ascribed to these genes are clearly associated with PC and metastasis, and that that these genes exhibit a strong link to pathways involved with inflammation and the immune response. This investigation has yielded new targets for cancer genes, and potential biomarkers for pancreatic cancer. The candidate list of cancer genes includes protein kinase genes, new members of gene families currently associated with PC, as well as genes not previously linked to PC. In this study, we are also able to move towards developing a signature for hypomethylated genes, which could be useful for early detection of PC. We also show that the significantly upregulated 800+ genes in our analysis can serve as an enriched pool for tissue and serum protein biomarkers in pancreatic cancer.

  3. Association of XRCC1 Arg399Gln polymorphism with bladder cancer susceptibility: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Dengfeng; Liu, Chuan; Shi, Jing; Wang, Ning; Du, Xiaobo; Yin, Qinghua; Wang, Yajie

    2014-01-15

    Genetic variations in DNA repair genes are thought to modify DNA repair capacity and may to be related to cancer susceptibility. However, epidemiological study results have been inconsistent. In this meta-analysis, we assessed 24 case-control studies of association between the X-ray repair cross complementing group 1 (XRCC1) Arg399Gln polymorphism and bladder cancer susceptibility in the general population and in Asian and non-Asian subgroups. A moderately significant association with bladder cancer risk was found for AG vs GG (OR=1.110, 95% CI=1.018-1.210). No significant associations with bladder cancer risk were found for AA vs GG (OR=0.942, 95% CI=0.823-1.077), the dominant model AA/AG vs GG (OR=1.075, 95% CI=0.990-1.167) and the recessive model AA vs AG/GG(OR=0.890, 95% CI=0.788-1.005). In subgroup analysis, a moderately significant association was also found for AG vs GG (OR=1.091, 95% CI=1.008-1.180) in non-Asian subgroup. The analysis suggests that the XRCC1 Arg399Gln polymorphism might be a moderate risk factor for bladder cancer, especially in non-Asian population.

  4. Association between Tooth Loss and Gastric Cancer: A Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Hong; Zhao, Ke; Huang, Guang-Lei; Luo, Si-Yang; Peng, Ju-Xiang; Song, Ju-Kun

    2016-01-01

    Observational studies showed that tooth loss is associated with gastric cancer, but the findings are inconsistent. In this study, a meta-analysis was conducted to evaluate the relationship between tooth loss and gastric cancer. Relevant studies were screened in PubMed and Embase databases, and nine observational studies were considered eligible for the analysis. The combined relative risks for the highest versus the lowest categories of tooth loss were 1.86 (95% CI: 1.08–3.21) and 1.31 (95% CI: 1.12–1.53) in case control and cohort studies, respectively. However, unstable results were observed in the stratified and sensitivity analysis. The current evidence, based solely on four case-control studies and five cohort studies, suggested that tooth loss is a potential marker of gastric cancer. However, we can not concluded at this time that tooth loss may be a risk factor for gastric cancer due to significant heterogeneity among studies and mixed results between case-control studies and cohort studies. Additional large-scale and high-quality prospective studies are required to evaluate the association between tooth loss and risk of gastric cancer. PMID:26934048

  5. Migraine and breast cancer risk: a meta-analysis of observational studies based on MOOSE compliant.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiujuan; Wang, Minghao; Li, Shifei; Zhang, Yi

    2016-07-01

    It has long been speculated that migraine may contribute to an increased risk of breast cancer; however, results from previous studies have been inconclusive. To definitively interrogate this issue, we performed a meta-analysis to assess the correlation between these 2 diseases.Medline and PubMed were searched to identify relevant studies that had been published until October 2015. Based on a random effects model, relative risk (RR) and the corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI) were used to evaluate the pooled risk.A total of 7 studies involving 17,776 cases and 162,954 participants were included. Our study revealed that there was an inverse relationship between migraine and total breast cancer risk, with RR (95%CI) was 0.78 (0.66, 0.92). In subgroup-analysis, such an inverse relationship was also identified in the ductal and lobular carcinoma, case-control studies, and the ER/PR breast cancer. Little evidence indicative of a publication bias was uncovered.In conclusion, our study implicates a statistically significant inverse association between migraine and the risk of breast cancer. However, larger prospective cohort studies concerning other geographic populations to assess the association between migraine and the breast cancer risk are warranted.

  6. Association between pesticide exposure and risk of kidney cancer: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Bo; Hu, Yingfang; Liang, Zhen; Liu, Ben; Zheng, Xiangyi; Xie, Liping

    2016-01-01

    This meta-analysis aimed to evaluate the correlation between pesticide exposure and kidney cancer. We conducted a systematic search of the Cochrane Library, Embase, Web of Knowledge, and Medline (updated to March 1, 2015) to identify all relevant studies. References of the retrieved articles were also identified. Fixed- or random-effect models were used to summarize the estimates of relative risk (RR) with 95% confidence interval for the association between exposure of pesticide and risk of kidney cancer. The pooled RR estimate indicated that pesticide exposure might have an elevated risk for kidney cancer (RR =1.10, 95% confidence interval 1.01–1.19). In a subgroup analysis of high quality articles, we detected that pesticide exposure is a significant risk factor for kidney cancer in a subgroup analysis of case-control studies, (Newcastle–Ottawa Quality Assessment Scale score >6) (RR =1.31, 95% confidence interval 1.12–1.51). North America studies, odds ratio studies, and studies with effect estimate adjusted for more than two confounder studies. In conclusion, pesticide exposure may be a risk factor for kidney cancer. PMID:27418833

  7. Occupational Exposure to Asbestos and Ovarian Cancer: A Meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Camargo, M. Constanza; Straif, Kurt; Reina, Margarita; Al-Alem, Umaima; Demers, Paul A.; Landrigan, Philip J.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: A recent Monographs Working Group of the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) concluded that there is sufficient evidence for a causal association between exposure to asbestos and ovarian cancer. We performed a meta-analysis to quantitatively evaluate this association. Data sources: Searches of PubMed and unpublished data yielded a total of 18 cohort studies of women occupationally exposed to asbestos. Data extraction: Two authors independently abstracted data; any disagreement was resolved by consulting a third reviewer. Data synthesis: All but one study reported standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) comparing observed numbers of deaths with expected numbers for the general population; the exception was a study that reported standardized incidence ratios. For simplicity, we refer to all effect estimates as SMRs. The overall pooled SMR estimate for ovarian cancer was 1.77 (95% confidence interval, 1.37–2.28), with a moderate degree of heterogeneity among the studies (I2 = 35.3%, p = 0.061). Effect estimates were stronger for cohorts compensated for asbestosis, cohorts with estimated lung cancer SMRs > 2.0, and studies conducted in Europe compared with other geographic regions. Effect estimates were similar for studies with and without pathologic confirmation, and we found no evidence of publication bias (Egger’s test p-value = 0.162). Conclusions: Our study supports the IARC conclusion that exposure to asbestos is associated with increased risk of ovarian cancer. PMID:21642044

  8. Aspirin use and risk of breast cancer: systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Shanliang; Chen, Lin; Zhang, Xiaohui; Yu, Dandan; Tang, Jinhai; Zhao, Jianhua

    2015-11-01

    Previous studies concerning the association between aspirin use and breast cancer risk yielded inconsistent results. We aimed to investigate the association by meta-analysis. PubMed and EMBASE were searched for relevant studies. We calculated the summary relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) using random-effects models. Seventeen cohort studies and 15 case-control studies were included. The overall result showed that aspirin use decreased risk of breast cancer (RR, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.85-0.95). However, there was evidence of publication bias and heterogeneity and the association disappeared after correction using the trim-and-fill method. When stratified by study design, a significant benefit for aspirin users was only found in population-based and hospital-based case-control studies but not in cohort or nest case-control studies. Further subgroup analyses showed that aspirin use could decrease risk of in situ breast tumors or hormone receptor-positive tumors and reduce risk of breast cancer in postmenopausal women. Aspirin use may not affect overall risk of breast cancer, but decrease risk of in situ breast tumors or hormone receptor-positive tumors and reduce risk of breast cancer in postmenopausal women. Considering between-study significant heterogeneity and publication bias, confirmation in future studies is also essential. PMID:26315555

  9. A Meta Analysis of Pancreatic Microarray Datasets Yields New Targets as Cancer Genes and Biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Goonesekere, Nalin C. W.; Wang, Xiaosheng; Ludwig, Lindsey; Guda, Chittibabu

    2014-01-01

    The lack of specific symptoms at early tumor stages, together with a high biological aggressiveness of the tumor contribute to the high mortality rate for pancreatic cancer (PC), which has a five year survival rate of less than 5%. Improved screening for earlier diagnosis, through the detection of diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers provides the best hope of increasing the rate of curatively resectable carcinomas. Though many serum markers have been reported to be elevated in patients with PC, so far, most of these markers have not been implemented into clinical routine due to low sensitivity or specificity. In this study, we have identified genes that are significantly upregulated in PC, through a meta-analysis of large number of microarray datasets. We demonstrate that the biological functions ascribed to these genes are clearly associated with PC and metastasis, and that that these genes exhibit a strong link to pathways involved with inflammation and the immune response. This investigation has yielded new targets for cancer genes, and potential biomarkers for pancreatic cancer. The candidate list of cancer genes includes protein kinase genes, new members of gene families currently associated with PC, as well as genes not previously linked to PC. In this study, we are also able to move towards developing a signature for hypomethylated genes, which could be useful for early detection of PC. We also show that the significantly upregulated 800+ genes in our analysis can serve as an enriched pool for tissue and serum protein biomarkers in pancreatic cancer. PMID:24740004

  10. Molecular Diagnostic Applications in Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Huth, Laura; Jäkel, Jörg; Dahl, Edgar

    2014-01-01

    Colorectal cancer, a clinically diverse disease, is a leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Application of novel molecular diagnostic tests, which are summarized in this article, may lead to an improved survival of colorectal cancer patients. Distinction of these applications is based on the different molecular principles found in colorectal cancer (CRC). Strategies for molecular analysis of single genes (as KRAS or TP53) as well as microarray based techniques are discussed. Moreover, in addition to the fecal occult blood testing (FOBT) and colonoscopy some novel assays offer approaches for early detection of colorectal cancer like the multitarget stool DNA test or the blood-based Septin 9 DNA methylation test. Liquid biopsy analysis may also exhibit great diagnostic potential in CRC for monitoring developing resistance to treatment. These new diagnostic tools and the definition of molecular biomarkers in CRC will improve early detection and targeted therapy of colorectal cancer.

  11. Effects of Probiotics on Intestinal Mucosa Barrier in Patients With Colorectal Cancer after Operation

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Dun; Jiang, Xiao-Ying; Zhou, Lan-Shu; Song, Ji-Hong; Zhang, Xuan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Many studies have found that probiotics or synbiotics can be used in patients with diarrhea or inflammatory bowel disease for the prevention and treatment of some pathologies by improving gastrointestinal barrier function. However, there are few studies availing the use of probiotics in patients with colorectal cancer. To lay the foundation for the study of nutritional support in colorectal cancer patients, a meta-analysis has been carried out to assess the efficacy of probiotics on the intestinal mucosa barrier in patients with colorectal cancer after operation. To estimate the efficacy of probiotics on the intestinal mucosa barrier in patients with colorectal cancer after operation, a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials has been conducted. Databases including PubMed, Ovid, Embase, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and the China National Knowledge Infrastructure have been searched to identify suitable studies. Stata 12.0 was used for statistical analysis, and sensitivity analysis was also conducted. Six indicators were chosen to evaluate probiotics in protecting the intestinal mucosa barrier in patients with colorectal cancer. Ratios of lactulose to mannitol (L/M) and Bifidobacterium to Escherichia (B/E), occludin, bacterial translocation, and levels of secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and C-reactive protein (CRP) were chosen to evaluate probiotics in protecting the intestinal mucosa barrier in patients with colorectal cancer. Seventeen studies including 1242 patients were selected for meta-analysis, including 5 English studies and 12 Chinese studies. Significant effects were found in ratios of L/M (standardized mean difference = 3.83, P = 0.001) and B/E (standardized mean difference = 3.91, P = 0.000), occludin (standardized mean difference = 4.74, P = 0.000), bacterial translocation (standardized mean difference = 3.12, P = 0.002), and levels of SIgA (standardized mean

  12. Narrow-band imaging does not improve detection of colorectal polyps when compared to conventional colonoscopy: a randomized controlled trial and meta-analysis of published studies

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background A colonoscopy may frequently miss polyps and cancers. A number of techniques have emerged to improve visualization and to reduce the rate of adenoma miss. Methods We conducted a randomized controlled trial (RCT) in two clinics of the Gastrointestinal Department of the Sanitas University Foundation in Bogota, Colombia. Eligible adult patients presenting for screening or diagnostic elective colonoscopy were randomlsy allocated to undergo conventional colonoscopy or narrow-band imaging (NBI) during instrument withdrawal by three experienced endoscopists. For the systematic review, studies were identified from the Cochrane Library, PUBMED and LILACS and assessed using the Cochrane risk of bias tool. Results We enrolled a total of 482 patients (62.5% female), with a mean age of 58.33 years (SD 12.91); 241 into the intervention (NBI) colonoscopy and 241 into the conventional colonoscopy group. Most patients presented for diagnostic colonoscopy (75.3%). The overall rate of polyp detection was significantly higher in the conventional group compared to the NBI group (RR 0.75, 95%CI 0.60 to 0.96). However, no significant differences were found in the mean number of polyps (MD -0.1; 95%CI -0.25 to 0.05), and the mean number of adenomas (MD 0.04 95%CI -0.09 to 0.17). Meta-analysis of studies (regardless of indication) did not find any significant differences in the mean number of polyps (5 RCT, 2479 participants; WMD -0.07 95% CI -0.21 to 0.07; I2 68%), the mean number of adenomas (8 RCT, 3517 participants; WMD -0.08 95% CI -0.17; 0.01 to I2 62%) and the rate of patients with at least one adenoma (8 RCT, 3512 participants, RR 0.96 95% CI 0.88 to 1,04;I2 0%). Conclusion NBI does not improve detection of colorectal polyps when compared to conventional colonoscopy (Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12610000456055). PMID:21943365

  13. Tetrachloroethylene Exposure and Bladder Cancer Risk: A Meta-Analysis of Dry-Cleaning-Worker Studies

    PubMed Central

    Vlaanderen, Jelle; Straif, Kurt; Ruder, Avima; Blair, Aaron; Hansen, Johnni; Lynge, Elsebeth; Charbotel, Barbara; Loomis, Dana; Kauppinen, Timo; Kyyronen, Pentti; Pukkala, Eero; Weiderpass, Elisabete

    2014-01-01

    Background: In 2012, the International Agency for Research on Cancer classified tetrachloroethylene, used in the production of chemicals and the primary solvent used in dry cleaning, as “probably carcinogenic to humans” based on limited evidence of an increased risk of bladder cancer in dry cleaners. Objectives: We assessed the epidemiological evidence for the association between tetrachloroethylene exposure and bladder cancer from published studies estimating occupational exposure to tetrachloroethylene or in workers in the dry-cleaning industry. Methods: Random-effects meta-analyses were carried out separately for occupational exposure to tetrachloroethylene and employment as a dry cleaner. We qualitatively summarized exposure–response data because of the limited number of studies available. Results: The meta-relative risk (mRR) among tetrachloroethylene-exposed workers was 1.08 (95% CI: 0.82, 1.42; three studies; 463 exposed cases). For employment as a dry cleaner, the overall mRR was 1.47 (95% CI: 1.16, 1.85; seven studies; 139 exposed cases), and for smoking-adjusted studies, the mRR was 1.50 (95% CI: 0.80, 2.84; 4 case–control studies). Conclusions: Our meta-analysis demonstrates an increased risk of bladder cancer in dry cleaners, reported in both cohort and case–control studies, and some evidence for an exposure–response relationship. Although dry cleaners incur mixed exposures, tetrachloroethylene could be responsible for the excess risk of bladder cancer because it is the primary solvent used and it is the only chemical commonly used by dry cleaners that is currently identified as a potential bladder carcinogen. Relatively crude approaches in exposure assessment in the studies of “tetrachloroethylene-exposed workers” may have attenuated the relative risks. Citation: Vlaanderen J, Straif K, Ruder A, Blair A, Hansen J, Lynge E, Charbotel B, Loomis D, Kauppinen T, Kyyronen P, Pukkala E, Weiderpass E, Guha N. 2014. Tetrachloroethylene exposure

  14. CD147 and Prostate Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ning, Zhaoze; Yang, Zhenyu; Li, Hongru; Wang, Yonggang; Chen, Fang

    2016-01-01

    Background Prostate cancer is one of the most common non-cutaneous malignancies in men. We aimed to systemically evaluate the relationship between the expression of CD147 in tissues and the clinicopathological features of prostate cancer. Methods and Findings PubMed (1966–2016), EMBASE (1980–2016), the Cochrane Library (1996–2016), Web of Science (1945–2016), China National Knowledge Infrastructure (1982–2016), and the WanFang databases (1988–2016) were searched. Literature quality assessment was performed with the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Meta-analysis was performed by using Review Manager 5.3 and Stata 13.0. A total of 12591 prostate cancer patients from 14 studies were included. The results of the meta-analysis showed that there were significant differences in the positive expression rate in the following comparisons: prostatic cancer tissues vs. normal prostate tissues (odds ratio [OR] = 26.93, 95% confidence interval [CI] 7.95–91.20, P < 0.00001), prostatic cancer tissues vs. benign prostatic hyperplasia tissues (OR = 20.54, 95% CI 8.20–51.44, P < 0.00001), high Gleason score vs. low Gleason score (OR = 2.39, 95% CI 1.33–4.27, P = 0.03), TNM III to IV vs. TNM I to II (OR = 9.95, 95% CI 4.96–19.96, P < 0.00001), low or moderate differentiation vs. high differentiation (OR = 8.12, 95% CI 3.69–17.85, P < 0.00001), lymph node metastasis vs. non-lymph node metastasis (OR = 4.31, 95% CI 1.11–16.71, P = 0.03), and distant metastasis vs. non-distant metastasis (OR = 8.90, 95% CI 3.24–24.42, P < 0.00001). Conclusion The CD147 positive expression rate was closely related to the clinical characteristics of prostate cancer, but more research is needed to confirm the findings owing to the results of the subgroups. PMID:27684938

  15. Tailored Telephone Counseling Increases Colorectal Cancer Screening

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rawl, Susan M.; Christy, Shannon M.; Monahan, Patrick O.; Ding, Yan; Krier, Connie; Champion, Victoria L.; Rex, Douglas

    2015-01-01

    To compare the efficacy of two interventions to promote colorectal cancer screening participation and forward stage movement of colorectal cancer screening adoption among first-degree relatives of individuals diagnosed with adenomatous polyps. One hundred fifty-eight first-degree relatives of individuals diagnosed with adenomatous polyps were…

  16. History and present status of pulmonary metastasectomy in colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Treasure, Tom; Milošević, Mišel; Fiorentino, Francesca; Pfannschmidt, Joachim

    2014-01-01

    Clinical practice with respect to metastatic colorectal cancer differs from the other two most common cancers, breast and lung, in that routine surveillance is recommended with the specific intent of detecting liver and lung metastases and undertaking liver and lung resections for their removal. We trace the history of this approach to colorectal cancer by reviewing evidence for effectiveness from the 1950s to the present day. Our sources included published citation network analyses, the documented proposal for randomised trials, large systematic reviews, and meta-analysis of observational studies. The present consensus position has been adopted on the basis of a large number of observational studies but the randomised trials proposed in the 1980s and 1990s were either not done, or having been done, were not reported. Clinical opinion is the mainstay of current practice but in the absence of randomised trials there remains a possibility of selection bias. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) are now routine before adoption of a new practice but RCTs are harder to run in evaluation of already established practice. One such trial is recruiting and shows that controlled trial are possible. PMID:25356017

  17. Prenatal multivitamin supplementation and rates of pediatric cancers: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Goh, Y I; Bollano, E; Einarson, T R; Koren, G

    2007-05-01

    Prenatal supplementation of folic acid has been shown to decrease the risk of several congenital malformations. Several studies have recently suggested a potential protective effect of folic acid on certain pediatric cancers. The protective role of prenatal multivitamins has not been elucidated. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the potential protective effect of prenatal multivitamins on several pediatric cancers. Medline, PubMed, EMBASE, Toxline, Healthstar, and Cochrane databases were searched for studies published in all languages from 1960 to July 2005 on multivitamin supplementation and pediatric cancers. References from all articles collected were reviewed for additional articles. Two blinded independent reviewers assessed the articles for inclusion and exclusion. Rates of cancers in women supplemented with multivitamins were compared with unsupplemented women using a random effects model. Sixty-one articles were identified in the initial search, of which, seven articles met the inclusion criteria. There was an apparent protective effect for leukemia (odds ratio (OR)=0.61, 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.50-0.74), pediatric brain tumors (OR=0.73, 95% CI=0.60-0.88) and neuroblastoma (OR=0.53, 95% CI=0.42-0.68). In conclusion, maternal ingestion of prenatal multivitamins is associated with a decreased risk for pediatric brain tumors, neuroblastoma, and leukemia. Presently, it is not known which constituent(s) among the multivitamins confer this protective effect. PMID:17314929

  18. Effect of exercise on cancer-related fatigue: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Tomlinson, Deborah; Diorio, Caroline; Beyene, Joseph; Sung, Lillian

    2014-08-01

    Numerous randomized controlled trials have been conducted to determine efficacy of exercise on cancer-related fatigue. However, many trials lacked sufficient power to demonstrate significant differences, and little is known about how the effect of exercise differs depending on patient- and intervention-level characteristics. A meta-analysis was performed to determine whether exercise reduces fatigue compared with usual care or nonexercise control intervention in patients with cancer. The authors searched Ovid MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and CINAHL. Two authors independently extracted the data. Randomized controlled trials comparing exercise with control intervention in cancer patients in which fatigue was quantified were eligible. Seventy-two randomized controlled trials were identified, 71 in adults and 1 in children. Exercise had a moderate effect on reducing fatigue compared with control intervention. Exercise also improved depression and sleep disturbance. Type of exercise did not significantly influence the effect on fatigue, depression, or sleep disturbance. Exercise effect was larger in the studies published 2009 or later. There was only one pediatric study. The results of this study suggest that exercise is effective for the management of cancer-related fatigue. PMID:24743466

  19. Tai Chi Chuan Exercise for Patients with Breast Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Yuanqing; Yang, Kehu; Shi, Xiue; Liang, Haiqian; Zhang, Fengwa; Lv, Qingfang

    2015-01-01

    Objective. Tai Chi Chuan (TCC) is a form of aerobic exercise that may be an effective therapy for improving psychosomatic capacity among breast cancer survivors. This meta-analysis analyzed the available randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on the effects of TCC in relieving treatment-related side effects and quality of life in women with breast cancer. Methods. RCTs were searched in PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library through April 2014. Data were analyzed on pathology (pain, interleukin-6, and insulin-like growth factor 1), physical capacity (handgrip, limb physical fitness, and BMI), and well-being (physical, social, emotional, and general quality of life). Results. Nine RCTs, including a total of 322 breast cancer patients, were examined. Compared with control therapies, the pooled results suggested that TCC showed significant effects in improving handgrip dynamometer strength, limb elbow flexion (elbow extension, abduction, and horizontal adduction). No significant differences were observed in pain, interleukin-6, insulin-like growth factor, BMI, physical well-being, social or emotional well-being, or general health-related quality of life. Conclusion. The short-term effects of TCC may have potential benefits in upper limb functional mobility in patients with breast cancer. Additional randomized controlled trials with longer follow-up are needed to provide more reliable evidence. PMID:25793000

  20. Parity and endometrial cancer risk: a meta-analysis of epidemiological studies.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qi-Jun; Li, Yuan-Yuan; Tu, Chao; Zhu, Jingjing; Qian, Ke-Qing; Feng, Tong-Bao; Li, Changwei; Wu, Lang; Ma, Xiao-Xin

    2015-09-16

    The association between parity and endometrial cancer risk is inconsistent from observational studies. We aimed to quantitatively assess the relationship by summarizing all relevant epidemiological studies. PubMed (MEDLINE), Embase and Scopus were searched up to February 2015 for eligible case-control studies and prospective studies. Random-effects model was used to pool risk estimations. Ten prospective studies, 35 case-control studies and 1 pooled analysis of 10 cohort and 14 case-control studies including 69681 patients were identified. Pooled analysis revealed that there was a significant inverse association between parity and risk of endometrial cancer (relative risk (RR) for parous versus nulliparous: 0.69, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.65-0.74; I(2) = 76.9%). By evaluating the number of parity, we identified that parity number of 1, 2 or 3 versus nulliparous demonstrated significant negative association (RR = 0.73, 95% CI 0.64-0.84, I(2) = 88.3%; RR = 0.62, 95% CI 0.53-0.74, I(2) = 92.1%; and RR = 0.68, 95% CI 0.65-0.70, I(2) = 20.0% respectively). The dose-response analysis suggested a nonlinear relationship between the number of parity and endometrial cancer risk. The RR decreased when the number of parity increased. This meta-analysis suggests that parity may be associated with a decreased risk of endometrial cancer. Further studies are warranted to replicate our findings.

  1. Effect of exercise on cancer-related fatigue: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Tomlinson, Deborah; Diorio, Caroline; Beyene, Joseph; Sung, Lillian

    2014-08-01

    Numerous randomized controlled trials have been conducted to determine efficacy of exercise on cancer-related fatigue. However, many trials lacked sufficient power to demonstrate significant differences, and little is known about how the effect of exercise differs depending on patient- and intervention-level characteristics. A meta-analysis was performed to determine whether exercise reduces fatigue compared with usual care or nonexercise control intervention in patients with cancer. The authors searched Ovid MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and CINAHL. Two authors independently extracted the data. Randomized controlled trials comparing exercise with control intervention in cancer patients in which fatigue was quantified were eligible. Seventy-two randomized controlled trials were identified, 71 in adults and 1 in children. Exercise had a moderate effect on reducing fatigue compared with control intervention. Exercise also improved depression and sleep disturbance. Type of exercise did not significantly influence the effect on fatigue, depression, or sleep disturbance. Exercise effect was larger in the studies published 2009 or later. There was only one pediatric study. The results of this study suggest that exercise is effective for the management of cancer-related fatigue.

  2. Prognostic Indications of Elevated MCT4 and CD147 across Cancer Types: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Bovenzi, Cory D.; Hamilton, James; Tassone, Patrick; Johnson, Jennifer; Cognetti, David M.; Luginbuhl, Adam; Keane, William M.; Zhan, Tingting; Tuluc, Madalina; Bar-Ad, Voichita; Martinez-Outschoorn, Ubaldo; Curry, Joseph M.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Metabolism in the tumor microenvironment can play a critical role in tumorigenesis and tumor aggression. Metabolic coupling may occur between tumor compartments; this phenomenon can be prognostically significant and may be conserved across tumor types. Monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs) play an integral role in cellular metabolism via lactate transport and have been implicated in metabolic synergy in tumors. The transporters MCT1 and MCT4 are regulated via expression of their chaperone, CD147. Methods. We conducted a meta-analysis of existing publications on the relationship between MCT1, MCT4, and CD147 expression and overall survival and disease-free survival in cancer, using hazard ratios derived via multivariate Cox regression analyses. Results. Increased MCT4 expressions in the tumor microenvironment, cancer cells, or stromal cells were all associated with decreased overall survival and decreased disease-free survival (p < 0.001 for all analyses). Increased CD147 expression in cancer cells was associated with decreased overall survival and disease-free survival (p < 0.0001 for both analyses). Few studies were available on MCT1 expression; MCT1 expression was not clearly associated with overall or disease-free survival. Conclusion. MCT4 and CD147 expression correlate with worse prognosis across many cancer types. These results warrant further investigation of these associations. PMID:26779534

  3. Lung Cancer in Combined Pulmonary Fibrosis and Emphysema: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Koo, Hyun Jung; Do, Kyung-Hyun; Lee, Jung Bok; Alblushi, Sania; Lee, Sang Min

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Patients with combined pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema (CPFE) have been suggested to have an increased risk of lung cancer. We conducted a systematic review of all published data and performed a meta-analysis to define the characteristics of lung cancer that develops in CPFE. Method We searched Pubmed, Embase, and Cochrane to find original articles about lung cancer and CPFE published prior to September 2015. All titles/abstracts were reviewed by two radiologists to identify articles that used predefined selection criteria. Summary estimates were generated using a random-effect model and odds ratios (ORs) to develop squamous cell carcinoma (SqCC) were calculated. Kaplan–Meier survival curves were obtained for the survival of patients with CPFE and non-CPFE. Results Nine original articles that assessed 620 patients were included in this review. In the pooled data, patients were older age (70.4 years), almost all were heavy smokers (53.5 pack years), and males were predominant (92.6%). SqCC was the most common type (42.3%), followed by adenocarcinoma (34.4%). Compared with lung cancer population with an otherwise normal lung, the OR to develop SqCC in CPFE was 9.06 (95% CI, 6.08–13.5). The ORs in CPFE compared with lung cancers that developed in lungs with fibrosis or emphysema were also higher. The median survival for CPFE patients with lung cancer (19.5 months) was significantly shorter than in non-CPFE (53.1 months). Conclusions Lung cancer in CPFE, most commonly SqCC, presents in elderly heavy smokers with a male predominance. The median survival for CPFE patients with lung cancer is 19.5 months. PMID:27618692

  4. Evolving management of colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    van Zijp, Jochem van der Voort; Hoekstra, Harald J; Basson, Marc D

    2008-01-01

    This article reviews recent advances in surgical techniques and adjuvant therapies for colorectal cancer, including total mesorectal excision, the resection of liver and lung metastasis and advances in chemoradiation and foreshadows some interventions that may lie just beyond the frontier. In particular, little is known about the intracellular and extracellular cascades that may influence colorectal cancer cell adhesion and metastasis. Although the phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinases and focal adhesion associated proteins in response to integrin-mediated cell matrix binding (”outside in integrin signaling”) is well described, the stimulation of cell adhesion by intracellular signals activated by pressure prior to adhesion represents a different signal paradigm. However, several studies have suggested that increased pressure and shear stress activate cancer cell adhesion. Further studies of the pathways that regulate integrin-driven cancer cell adhesion may identify ways to disrupt these signals or block integrin-mediated adhesion so that adhesion and eventual metastasis can be prevented in the future. PMID:18609678

  5. Association between glutathione S-transferase M1 null genotype and risk of gallbladder cancer: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Sun, Hong-Li; Han, Bing; Zhai, Hong-Peng; Cheng, Xin-Hua; Ma, Kai

    2014-01-01

    Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are a family of enzymes which are involved in the detoxification of potential carcinogens. Glutathione S-transferase M1 (GSTM1) null genotype can impair the enzyme activity of GSTs and is suspected to increase the susceptibility to gallbladder cancer. Previous studies investigating the association between GSTM1 null genotype and risk of gallbladder cancer reported inconsistent findings. To quantify the association between GSTM1 null genotype and risk of gallbladder cancer, we performed a meta-analysis of published studies. We searched PubMed, Embase, and Wanfang databases for all possible studies. We estimated the pooled odds ratio (OR) with its 95% confidence interval (95% CI) to assess the association. Meta-analysis of total included studies showed that GSTM1 null genotype was not associated with gallbladder cancer risk (OR = 1.13, 95% CI 0.88-1.46, P = 0.332). Subgroup analysis by ethnicity showed that there was no association between GSTM1 null genotype and risk of gallbladder cancer in both Caucasians and Asians. However, meta-analysis of studies with adjusted estimations showed that GSTM1 null genotype was associated with increased risk of gallbladder cancer (OR = 1.46, 95% CI 1.02-2.09, P = 0.038). Thus, this meta-analysis shows that GSTM1 null genotype is likely to be associated with risk of gallbladder cancer. More studies with well design and large sample size are needed to further validate the association between GSTM1 null genotype and gallbladder cancer.

  6. Dietary fat intake and endometrial cancer risk: dose-response meta-analysis of epidemiological studies.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Luo; Hou, Rui; Gong, Ting-Ting; Wu, Qi-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have provided controversial evidence of the association between dietary fat intake and endometrial cancer (EC) risk. To address this inconsistency, we conducted this dose-response meta-analysis by total dietary fat intake, based on epidemiological studies published up to the end of June 2015 identified from PubMed, EMBASE and Web of Science. Two authors (RH and Q-JW) independently performed the eligibility evaluation and data extraction. All differences were resolved by discussion with the third investigator (LJ). Random-effects models were used to estimate summary relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Overall, the search yielded 16 studies (6 cohort and 10 case-control studies) that involved a total of 7556 EC cases and 563,781 non-cases. The summary RR for EC for each 30 g/day increment intake was 0.98 (95%CI = 0.95-1.001; I(2) = 0%; n = 11) for total dietary fat. Non-significant results were observed in plant-based fat (summary RR = 1.05, 95%CI = 0.94-1.18; I(2) = 0%; n = 5) and animal-based fat (summary RR = 1.17, 95%CI = 0.92-1.36; I(2) = 85.0%; n = 6). Additionally, the null associations were observed in almost all the subgroup and sensitivity analyses. In conclusion, findings of the present meta-analysis suggested a lack of association between total dietary fat intake and EC risk. Further studies, especially prospective designed studies are warranted to confirm our findings.

  7. Dietary fat intake and endometrial cancer risk: dose-response meta-analysis of epidemiological studies

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Luo; Hou, Rui; Gong, Ting-Ting; Wu, Qi-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have provided controversial evidence of the association between dietary fat intake and endometrial cancer (EC) risk. To address this inconsistency, we conducted this dose-response meta-analysis by total dietary fat intake, based on epidemiological studies published up to the end of June 2015 identified from PubMed, EMBASE and Web of Science. Two authors (RH and Q-JW) independently performed the eligibility evaluation and data extraction. All differences were resolved by discussion with the third investigator (LJ). Random-effects models were used to estimate summary relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Overall, the search yielded 16 studies (6 cohort and 10 case-control studies) that involved a total of 7556 EC cases and 563,781 non-cases. The summary RR for EC for each 30g/day increment intake was 0.98 (95%CI = 0.95–1.001; I2 = 0%; n = 11) for total dietary fat. Non-significant results were observed in plant-based fat (summary RR = 1.05, 95%CI = 0.94–1.18; I2 = 0%; n = 5) and animal-based fat (summary RR = 1.17, 95%CI = 0.92–1.36; I2 = 85.0%; n = 6). Additionally, the null associations were observed in almost all the subgroup and sensitivity analyses. In conclusion, findings of the present meta-analysis suggested a lack of association between total dietary fat intake and EC risk. Further studies, especially prospective designed studies are warranted to confirm our findings. PMID:26568366

  8. Wine drinking and epithelial ovarian cancer risk: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hee Seung; Shouten, Leo J.; Larsson, Susanna C.; Chung, Hyun Hoon; Kim, Yong Beom; Ju, Woong; Park, Noh Hyun; Song, Yong Sang; Kim, Seung Cheol; Kang, Soon-Beom

    2010-01-01

    Objective Wine has been the focus in the prevention of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) development because resveratrol abundant in wine has anti-carcinogenic properties. However, epidemiologic results have been heterogenous in the chemopreventive effect of wine on the development of EOC. Thus, we performed a meta-analysis for comparing EOC risk between wine and never drinkers using previous related studies. Methods After extensive search of the literature between January 1986 and December 2008, we analyzed 10 studies (3 cohort and 7 case control studies) with 135,871 women, who included 65,578 of wine and 70,293 of never drinkers. Results In all studies, there was no significant difference in EOC risk between wine and never drinkers (odds ratio [OR], 1.13; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.92 to 1.38; random effects). When we performed re-analysis according to the study design, 3 cohort and 7 case control studies showed that there were also no significant differences in EOC risk between wine and never drinkers, respectively (OR, 1.44 and 1.04; 95% CI, 0.74 and 2.82 and 0.88 to 1.22; random effects). In sub-analyses using 2 case-control studies, EOC risk was not different between former and never drinkers (OR, 1.12; 95% CI, 0.87 to 1.44; fixed effect), and between current and former drinkers (OR, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.41 to 1.34; random effects). Conclusion Although resveratrol, abundantly found in wine, is a promising naturally occurring compound with chemopreventive properties on EOC in preclinical studies, this meta-analysis suggests the epidemiologic evidence shows no association between wine drinking and EOC risk. PMID:20613902

  9. Single Gene Prognostic Biomarkers in Ovarian Cancer: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Willis, Scooter; Villalobos, Victor M.; Gevaert, Olivier; Abramovitz, Mark; Williams, Casey; Sikic, Branimir I.; Leyland-Jones, Brian

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To discover novel prognostic biomarkers in ovarian serous carcinomas. Methods A meta-analysis of all single genes probes in the TCGA and HAS ovarian cohorts was performed to identify possible biomarkers using Cox regression as a continuous variable for overall survival. Genes were ranked by p-value using Stouffer’s method and selected for statistical significance with a false discovery rate (FDR) <.05 using the Benjamini-Hochberg method. Results Twelve genes with high mRNA expression were prognostic of poor outcome with an FDR <.05 (AXL, APC, RAB11FIP5, C19orf2, CYBRD1, PINK1, LRRN3, AQP1, DES, XRCC4, BCHE, and ASAP3). Twenty genes with low mRNA expression were prognostic of poor outcome with an FDR <.05 (LRIG1, SLC33A1, NUCB2, POLD3, ESR2, GOLPH3, XBP1, PAXIP1, CYB561, POLA2, CDH1, GMNN, SLC37A4, FAM174B, AGR2, SDR39U1, MAGT1, GJB1, SDF2L1, and C9orf82). Conclusion A meta-analysis of all single genes identified thirty-two candidate biomarkers for their possible role in ovarian serous carcinoma. These genes can provide insight into the drivers or regulators of ovarian cancer and should be evaluated in future studies. Genes with high expression indicating poor outcome are possible therapeutic targets with known antagonists or inhibitors. Additionally, the genes could be combined into a prognostic multi-gene signature and tested in future ovarian cohorts. PMID:26886260

  10. Relationships between MGMT promoter methylation and gastric cancer: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Dan; Cao, Tao; Han, Ya-Di; Huang, Fu-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    A DNA repair enzyme, O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT), plays an important role in the development of gastric cancers. However, the role of MGMT promoter methylation in the occurrence of gastric cancer and its relationships with clinicopathologic characteristics has not been fully clarified. Thus, we performed a meta-analysis to evaluate the associations between MGMT promoter methylation and gastric cancer. Electronic databases, including PubMed and Web of Science, were used to systematically search related clinical studies published in English until April 1, 2016. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were calculated to evaluate the associations between MGMT promoter methylation and gastric cancer risk or clinicopathologic characteristics. A total of 16 studies including 1,935 patients and 1,948 control persons were included in the analysis. Our study suggested that MGMT promoter methylation frequency was associated with gastric cancer (OR=3.46, 95% CI: 2.13–5.61, P<0.001). Moreover, the frequency of MGMT promoter methylation in the no lymph node metastasis group was lower than that in lymph node metastasis group, with marginal significance (OR=0.65, 95% CI: 0.42–1.01, P=0.05). Additionally, the methylation rate of the MGMT promoter was much lower in patients without distant metastases than in those with metastases (OR=0.27, 95% CI: 0.18–0.40, P<0.001). No significant association of MGMT promoter methylation with Lauren classification, tumor location, tumor invasion, or Helicobacter pylori infection was found. In conclusion, the methylation status of the MGMT promoter was related to gastric cancer risk, distant metastasis, and lymph node metastasis, which indicates that MGMT promoter methylation may play an important role in gastric cancer development. PMID:27785051

  11. Household air pollution and cancers other than lung: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Josyula, Sowmya; Lin, Juan; Xue, Xiaonan; Rothman, Nathaniel; Lan, Qing; Rohan, Thomas E; Hosgood, H Dean

    2015-03-15

    Household air pollution (HAP) from solid fuel combustion contributes to 2.6% of the global burden of disease. HAP emissions are an established lung carcinogen; however, associations with other cancer sites have not been fully explored. We conducted a meta-analysis of 18 case-control studies. Using fixed-effects models, utilizing the adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) from each study, we evaluated the association between HAP and cervical neoplasia (663 cases and 1747 controls) and upper aero-digestive tract cancers (6022 cases and 15 325 controls). We found that HAP was associated with cervical neoplasia (OR = 6.46; 95% CI = 3.12-13.36; 4 studies); oral (OR = 2.44; 95% CI = 1.87-3.19; 4 studies; 1000 cases/3450 controls); nasopharyngeal (OR = 1.80; 95% CI = 1.42-2.29; 6 studies; 2231 cases/2160 controls); pharyngeal (OR = 3.56; 95% CI = 2.22-5.70; 4 studies; 1036 cases/3746 controls); and laryngeal (OR = 2.35; 95% CI = 1.72- 3.21; 5 studies; 1416 cases/4514 controls) cancers. The elevated risk for esophageal cancer (OR = 1.92; 95% CI = 0.82-4.49; 2 studies; 339 cases/1455 controls) was non-significant. HAP was associated with cervical neoplasia among studies that accounted for HPV infection (OR = 9.60; 95% CI = 3.79-24.32) and smoking (OR = 4.72; 95% CI = 1.84-12.07). Similarly, our observed associations between HAP and upper aero-digestive tract cancers remained significantly elevated when analyses were restricted to studies that controlled for smoking. No significant publication bias was detected. Our results suggest that the carcinogenic effect of HAP observed for lung cancer may extend to other cancers, including those of the cervix and the upper aero-digestive tract. Further research is needed to confirm these associations in prospective studies.

  12. New registry: National Cancer Patient Registry--Colorectal Cancer.

    PubMed

    Wendy, L; Radzi, M

    2008-09-01

    Colorectal cancer is emerging as one of the commonest cancers in Malaysia. Data on colorectal cancer from the National Cancer Registry is very limited. Comprehensive information on all aspects of colorectal cancer, including demographic details, pathology and treatment outcome are needed as the management of colorectal cancer has evolved rapidly over the years involving several disciplines including gastroenterology, surgery, radiology, pathology and oncology. This registry will be an important source of information that can help the development of guidelines to improve colorectal cancer care relevant to this country. The database will initially recruit all colorectal cancer cases from eight hospitals. The data will be stored on a customized web-based case report form. The database has begun collecting data from 1 October 2007 and will report on its first year findings at the end of 2008. PMID:19230248

  13. New registry: National Cancer Patient Registry--Colorectal Cancer.

    PubMed

    Wendy, L; Radzi, M

    2008-09-01

    Colorectal cancer is emerging as one of the commonest cancers in Malaysia. Data on colorectal cancer from the National Cancer Registry is very limited. Comprehensive information on all aspects of colorectal cancer, including demographic details, pathology and treatment outcome are needed as the management of colorectal cancer has evolved rapidly over the years involving several disciplines including gastroenterology, surgery, radiology, pathology and oncology. This registry will be an important source of information that can help the development of guidelines to improve colorectal cancer care relevant to this country. The database will initially recruit all colorectal cancer cases from eight hospitals. The data will be stored on a customized web-based case report form. The database has begun collecting data from 1 October 2007 and will report on its first year findings at the end of 2008.

  14. Association Between the LIG1 Polymorphisms and Lung Cancer Risk: A Meta-analysis of Case-Control Studies.

    PubMed

    Li, Dan; Li, Ruoran; Zhang, Jinghao; Li, Ke; Wu, Yanmin

    2015-11-01

    Non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) is one of the pathways used to repair the DNA double-strand breaks. A number of genes involved in NHEJ have been implicated as lung cancer susceptibility genes such as the LIG1. However, some studies have generated conflicting results. The aim of this review and meta-analysis was to investigate the association between the LIG1 gene polymorphism and lung cancer risk. Studies focusing on the relationship between the LIG1 gene polymorphisms and susceptibility to lung cancer were selected from several electronic databases, with the last search up to October 25, 2014. Data were extracted by two independent reviewers, and the meta-analysis was performed with STATA version 12.0 software, calculating odds ratios (ORs) with 95 % confidence intervals (95 % CIs). According to the inclusion criteria, we included ten studies with a total of 4012 lung cancer cases and 5629 healthy controls in the meta-analysis. The results showed that the rs156641 polymorphism was significantly associated with lung cancer risk (dominant model: OR 0.694, 95 % CI 0.549-0.878; homozygote model: OR 0.677, 95 % CI 0.526-0.871; heterozygote model: OR 0.712, 95 % CI 0.556-0.913; additive model: OR 0.859, 95 % CI 0.767-0.962), whereas no association was found between rs3730931/rs439132/rs20579 polymorphisms and lung cancer. Our meta-analysis suggested that the rs156641 polymorphism in the LIG1 gene might be associated with an increased risk of lung cancer. PMID:27352326

  15. Association of the interleukin-6 gene -572G/C polymorphism with cancer risk: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Q; Zhang, B; Chen, Y; Li, M; Zhao, X; Fan, H; Li, S M

    2015-12-14

    The -572G/C polymorphism in interleukin-6 (IL-6) gene is associated with the development of cancer. However, previous studies have shown conflicting results; therefore, the association must be verified by an appropriate meta-analysis. For this purpose, we performed a literature search of the PubMed database to identify all reports on association between the IL-6 -572G/C polymorphism and cancer risk. Summary odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) were calculated for the -572G/C polymorphism and cancer in a fixed- and random-effect model, as appropriate. Publication bias was evaluated using the Begg's funnel plot. The meta-analysis was performed on the STATA (v.12.0) software. Seven studies, which analyzed 3387 cases and 4529 controls, were identified. The results of the meta-analysis showed no significant association between the -572G/C polymorphism in the IL-6 gene and cancer risk (GG vs CC: OR = 1.03, 95%CI = 0.76-1.40; GG vs CG: OR = 0.94, 95%CI = 0.82-1.09; dominant model: OR = 1.06, 95%CI = 0.92-1.21; recessive model: OR = 1.01, 95%CI = 0.86-1.18). The data were subjected to a subgroup analysis (stratified by race and cancer type), and no significant associations were found between the -572G/C polymorphism in the IL-6 gene and cancer risk. Therefore, the results of this meta-analysis suggested that the IL-6 -572G/C polymorphism was not associated with an elevated risk of cancer.

  16. Psychosocial interventions for adolescents and young adult cancer patients: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Richter, Diana; Koehler, Michael; Friedrich, Michael; Hilgendorf, Inken; Mehnert, Anja; Weißflog, Gregor

    2015-09-01

    Adolescent and young adult (AYA) cancer patients experience unique psychosocial needs and developmental challenges. A cancer diagnosis can stress this development and disrupt AYAs in their normal life. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to assess the impact of psychosocial interventions on mental health in AYAs. A literature research was conducted, which resulted in twelve eligible studies. The standardized mean difference between intervention and control conditions was 0.13 (95% CI: -0.16 to 0.42) for quality of life, 0.27 (95% CI: -0.22 to 0.76) for cancer-related knowledge and -0.16 (95% CI: -0.73 to 0.42) on psychological distress indicating, small and non-significant effects for interventions improving mental health. This work strengthens the need for age-appropriated interventions in psycho-oncology. Future research should develop interventions more graduated by age. Randomized intervention studies with larger samples and focusing psychosocial outcomes are needed to establish evidence-based psycho-oncological interventions for AYAs.

  17. Burnout in cancer professionals: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Trufelli, D C; Bensi, C G; Garcia, J B; Narahara, J L; Abrão, M N; Diniz, R W; Miranda, V Da Costa; Soares, H P; Del Giglio, A

    2008-11-01

    Burnout syndrome is typified by three dimensions: emotional exhaustion (EE), depersonalization (DP) and low personal accomplishment (PS), and is prevalent among cancer care providers. The objective is to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies that evaluated the presence of burnout syndrome in professionals dedicated to the care of cancer patients. A search was conducted of the MEDLINE, LILACS and COCHRANE databases. Articles were selected that had used the Maslach questionnaire to assess burnout syndrome prevalence, had evaluated at least 35 subjects (including physicians), had at least a 20% questionnaire response rate, and that were published in English, Spanish or Portuguese. Ten studies (2375 participants) were included in this analysis. Severe involvement by any one of the three dimensions ranged from 8% to 51%. The overall prevalence of EE was found to be 36% [95% confidence interval (CI) (31-41)], while for DP this was 34% [95% CI (30-39)] and for PS 25% [95% CI (0.16-34)], demonstrating considerable heterogeneity across studies. The prevalence of burnout syndrome is elevated among cancer professionals throughout the world but varies substantially among studies. Further research is needed to better understand and prevent this syndrome. PMID:18771533

  18. Meta-analysis of dioxin cancer dose response for three occupational cohorts.

    PubMed Central

    Crump, Kenny S; Canady, Richard; Kogevinas, Manolis

    2003-01-01

    This article presents a meta analysis of data from three cohorts occupationally exposed to TCDD and related compounds. A statistically significant (p = 0.02) trend was found in total cancer mortality with increasing dioxin exposure. The trend tests show an increase in total cancer at cumulative TEQ (unit of measurement for TCDD-like compounds that is defined as the amount of TCDD that would produce the same toxicity as a mixture of TCDD-like compounds) serum levels that would result from lifetime intake of 7 pg TEQ/kg body weight/day, with no increase at 6 pg/kg/day. A linear dose response provided a good fit to the combined data and predicted an ED(01) (dioxin exposure resulting in a 0.01 increase in lifetime risk of cancer mortality) of 45 pg/kg/day (95% confidence interval, 21-324). The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency estimates that current lifetime human exposures to dioxin average approximately 1 pg/kg/day (99% percentile: 3 pg/kg/day). Although it appears unlikely that current exposures through foods would reach either 7 pg/kg/day or the ED(01), our analysis argues for careful consideration of the upper ranges of long-term average exposures for dioxins. PMID:12727594

  19. Diet and cancer risk in the Korean population: a meta- analysis.

    PubMed

    Woo, Hae Dong; Park, Sohee; Oh, Kyungwon; Kim, Hyun Ja; Shin, Hae Rim; Moon, Hyun Kyung; Kim, Jeongseon

    2014-01-01

    Many studies have found links between diet and cancer. The summary estimates of the association between dietary factors and cancer risk were investigated using previously reported studies of the Korean population. Gastric cancer risk was inversely associated with the high intake of soy foods [OR (95% CI): 0.32 (0.25-0.40) for soybean, 0.56 (0.45-0.71) for soybean curd, and 0.67 (0.46-0.98) for soymilk], allium vegetables [OR (95% CI): 0.37 (0.26-0.53) for green onion, 0.54 (0.40-0.73) for garlic, and 0.54 (0.35-0.85) for onion], fruits [OR (95% CI): 0.61 (0.42-0.88)], and mushrooms [OR (95% CI): 0.43 (0.21-0.88)]. Salt and Kimchi were associated with an increased gastric cancer risk [OR (95% CI): 1.92 (1.52-2.43) and 2.21 (1.29-3.77), respectively]. Colorectal cancer risk was positively associated with meat intake [OR (95% CI): 1.25 (1.15-1.36)]. Total soy products, soybean curd, and soymilk showed an inverse association with breast cancer risk [OR (95% CI): 0.61 (0.38-0.99), 0.47 (0.34-0.66), and 0.75 (0.57-0.98), respectively]. Green/yellow and light colored vegetables were associated with a reduced risk of breast cancer [OR (95% CI): 0.34 (0.23-0.49) and 0.44 (0.21-0.90), respectively]. Mushroom intake was inversely associated in pre-menopausal women only [OR (95% CI): 0.47 (0.26-0.86)]. In conclusion, soy foods, fruits and vegetables might reduce cancer risk in the Korean population. High salt food might be risk factor for gastric cancer, and intake of high amount of meat might cause colorectal cancer.

  20. Diet and cancer risk in the Korean population: a meta- analysis.

    PubMed

    Woo, Hae Dong; Park, Sohee; Oh, Kyungwon; Kim, Hyun Ja; Shin, Hae Rim; Moon, Hyun Kyung; Kim, Jeongseon

    2014-01-01

    Many studies have found links between diet and cancer. The summary estimates of the association between dietary factors and cancer risk were investigated using previously reported studies of the Korean population. Gastric cancer risk was inversely associated with the high intake of soy foods [OR (95% CI): 0.32 (0.25-0.40) for soybean, 0.56 (0.45-0.71) for soybean curd, and 0.67 (0.46-0.98) for soymilk], allium vegetables [OR (95% CI): 0.37 (0.26-0.53) for green onion, 0.54 (0.40-0.73) for garlic, and 0.54 (0.35-0.85) for onion], fruits [OR (95% CI): 0.61 (0.42-0.88)], and mushrooms [OR (95% CI): 0.43 (0.21-0.88)]. Salt and Kimchi were associated with an increased gastric cancer risk [OR (95% CI): 1.92 (1.52-2.43) and 2.21 (1.29-3.77), respectively]. Colorectal cancer risk was positively associated with meat intake [OR (95% CI): 1.25 (1.15-1.36)]. Total soy products, soybean curd, and soymilk showed an inverse association with breast cancer risk [OR (95% CI): 0.61 (0.38-0.99), 0.47 (0.34-0.66), and 0.75 (0.57-0.98), respectively]. Green/yellow and light colored vegetables were associated with a reduced risk of breast cancer [OR (95% CI): 0.34 (0.23-0.49) and 0.44 (0.21-0.90), respectively]. Mushroom intake was inversely associated in pre-menopausal women only [OR (95% CI): 0.47 (0.26-0.86)]. In conclusion, soy foods, fruits and vegetables might reduce cancer risk in the Korean population. High salt food might be risk factor for gastric cancer, and intake of high amount of meat might cause colorectal cancer. PMID:25339056

  1. The Long Noncoding RNA MALAT-1 is A Novel Biomarker in Various Cancers: A Meta-analysis Based on the GEO Database and Literature

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yumin; Xue, Dan; Li, Yuwei; Pan, Xuya; Zhang, Xueying; Kuang, Biao; Zhou, Ming; Li, Xiaoling; Xiong, Wei; Li, Guiyuan; Zeng, Zhaoyang; Yang, Tubao

    2016-01-01

    Background: MALAT-1 is significantly overexpressed in various cancers, suggesting that it might be a potential biomarker of cancer. Methods: A meta-analysis was performed using microarray data obtained via the Affymetrix Human Genome U133 Plus 2.0 platform found in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database and data obtained through a systematic search of PubMed and Web of Science. The pooled odds ratio (OR) and hazard ratio (HR) with 95% CI (Confidence interval) were used to judge the value of biomarkers. Results: A total of 28 studies were included in this meta-analysis, comprising a total of 3573 patients. MALAT-1 was significantly linked with over survival (OS) (HR=1.58, 95%CI: 1.12-2.23), recurrence-free survival (RFS) (HR=2.32, 95% CI: 1.68-3.19) and death-free survival (DFS) (HR=3.28, 95% CI: 1.52-7.09). We found that MALAT-1 was a risk factor in the prognoses of lung cancer (HR=1.54, 95%CI: 1.01-2.34), digestive system cancer (HR=2.16, 95% CI: 1.34-3.48) and ovarian cancer (HR=3.98, 95% CI: 1.54-10.25). In contrast, MALAT-1 was a safe factor in the prognosis of B cell lineage cancer (HR=0.45, 95% CI: 0.33-0.61). MALAT-1 was also a risk factor of RFS in breast cancer (HR=1.97, 95% CI: 1.25-3.09) and the TNM stage in pancreatic cancer (OR=3.65, 95% CI: 1.86-7.18) and glioma (OR=4.30, 95% CI: 1.90-9.73) and was a safe factor in colorectal cancer (OR=0.17, 95% CI: 0.08-0.35). MALAT-1 was significantly associated with lymph node metastasis in clear cell carcinoma (OR=5.04, 95% CI: 2.36-10.78) and distant metastasis in pancreatic cancer (OR=11.64, 95% CI: 2.13-63.78). Conclusions: MALAT-1 can serve as a molecular marker in different types of cancers. PMID:27313790

  2. Fruits, vegetables, and bladder cancer risk: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Ana R; Vingeliene, Snieguole; Chan, Doris S M; Aune, Dagfinn; Abar, Leila; Navarro Rosenblatt, Deborah; Greenwood, Darren C; Norat, Teresa

    2015-01-01

    Smoking is estimated to cause about half of all bladder cancer cases. Case-control studies have provided evidence of an inverse association between fruit and vegetable intake and bladder cancer risk. As part of the World Cancer Research/American Institute for Cancer Research Continuous Update Project, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective studies to assess the dose-response relationship between fruit and vegetables and incidence and mortality of bladder cancer. We searched PubMed up to December 2013 for relevant prospective studies. We conducted highest compared with lowest meta-analyses and dose-response meta-analyses using random effects models to estimate summary relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs), and used restricted cubic splines to examine possible nonlinear associations. Fifteen prospective studies were included in the review. The summary RR for an increase of 1 serving/day (80 g) were 0.97 (95% CI: 0.95-0.99) I(2)  = 0%, eight studies for fruits and vegetables, 0.97 (95% CI: 0.94-1.00, I(2)  = 10%, 10 studies) for vegetables and 0.98 (95% CI: 0.96-1.00, I(2)  = 0%, 12 studies) for fruits. Results were similar in men and women and in current, former and nonsmokers. Amongst fruits and vegetables subgroups, for citrus fruits the summary RR for the highest compared with the lowest intake was 0.87 (95% CI: 0.76-0.99, I(2)  = 0%, eight studies) and for cruciferous vegetables there was evidence of a nonlinear relationship (P = 0.001). The current evidence from cohort studies is not consistent with a role for fruits and vegetables in preventing bladder cancer.

  3. The Prognostic Role of the Platelet-Lymphocytes Ratio in Gastric Cancer: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Zhengshui; Xu, Wei; Cheng, Hua; Shen, Wei; Ying, Jiaqi; Cheng, Fei; Xu, Wenji

    2016-01-01

    Background Systemic inflammatory parameters, such as the elevator PLR (platelet-lymphocyte ratio), the NLR (neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio) and the platelet count (PLT), have been found to be associated with the prognosis in gastric cancer; however, these results, especially those relating to the PLR, remain inconsistent. So we aimed to evaluate the prognostic role of the PLR in gastric cancer by conducting and presenting the findings of this meta-analysis. Methods We conducted a systematic literature search in PubMed, Embase and the Cochrane Library to evaluate the prognostic value of the PLR in gastric cancer. The quality of the included studies was evaluated using the Newcastle Ottawa Quality Assessment Scale (NOS). The hazard ratio (HR) /Odds Ratio (OR) and its 95% confidence were pooled using a random effects model. A funnel plot based on overall survival was used to evaluate the publication bias. Results It total, 8 studies comprising 4513 patients with gastric cancer met the pre-setting inclusion criteria. In comparison to the normal PLR, an elevated PLR was correlated with a higher risk of lymph node metastasis with an OR of 1.50 (95% Cl:1.24–1.82; I2 = 17%) and serosal invasion (T3 +T4) risk with an OR of 2.01 (95% Cl: 1.49–2.73; I2 = 55%), and an elevated PLR also increased the advanced stage (III +IV) risk with an OR of 1.99 (95% Cl: 1.60–2.46; I2 = 28%). An elevated PLR was not a reliable predictor for OS with an HR of 0.99 (95% CI: 0.9–1.1; I2 = 12%). Conclusions An elevated PLR was correlated with a higher risk of lymph node metastasis, serosal invasion and advanced stage (III +IV) risk in gastric cancer; however, the PLR may not act as a negative predictor for the overall survival of gastric cancer. PMID:27684077

  4. Occupation and cancer of the larynx: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Bayer, O; Cámara, R; Zeissig, S R; Ressing, M; Dietz, A; Locati, L D; Ramroth, H; Singer, S

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to explore the relationship between occupational exposure, defined by occupational categories and job title, and laryngeal cancer. A systematic review and meta-analysis of 21 tobacco and alcohol-adjusted case-control studies including data from 6,906 exposed cases and 10,816 exposed controls was performed to investigate the frequency of laryngeal cancer in different occupations. Job classifications were harmonized using the International Standard Classification of Occupations. Pooled odds ratios (OR [95 % confidence intervals (CI)]) were calculated for the different occupational groups. A significantly increased risk of laryngeal cancer was observed for the occupational category of 'production-related workers, transport equipment operators, and laborers' (OR=1.3 [1.2-1.4]); particularly at risk were occupations as: miners (OR=1.6 [1.2-2.1]), tailors (OR=1.7 [1.2-2.3]), blacksmith and toolmakers (OR=1.5 [1.2-1.7]), painters (OR=1.4 [1.1-1.9]), bricklayers and carpenters (OR=1.3 [1.2-1.5]), and transport equipment operators (OR=1.3 [1.2-1.5]). Individuals working as 'professional, technical, and related workers' (OR=0.7 [0.6- 0.8]), 'administrative and managerial workers' (OR=0.6 [0.4-0.7]), or 'clerical and related workers' (OR=0.8 [0.7-0.9]) had laryngeal cancer less frequently. Occupational exposure, defined by occupational categories and job title, is likely to be an independent risk factor for laryngeal cancer. Further research on specific occupations with increased risk of laryngeal cancer is warranted to explore the underlying mechanisms.

  5. Red and processed meat intake and risk of bladder cancer: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Li, Fei; An, Shengli; Hou, Lina; Chen, Pengliang; Lei, Chengyong; Tan, Wanlong

    2014-01-01

    Findings from epidemiologic studies concerning red and processed meat intake and bladder cancer risk remain conflicting. Thus, we conducted this meta-analysis to examine the associations of red and processed meat intake with bladder cancer. Eligible studies published up to May 2014 were retrieved via both computer searches and review of references. Finally, we identified 14 studies on red meat (involving 9,084 cases) and 11 studies on processed meat (7,562 cases) involving up to 1,558,848 individuals. Random-effects models were used to estimate summary relative risk estimates (SRRE) based on high vs. low intake, and heterogeneity between study results was explored through stratified analyses on the basis of red/processed meat category, gender, study design and geographical region. Overall, the SRRE for all studies regarding red meat intake was 1.15 (95% CI: 0.97-1.36). Significant positive association was observed between processed meat consumption and bladder cancer (SRRE = 1.22; 95% CI: 1.04-1.43). Interestingly, increased by 25% and 33% risk of bladder cancer were observed for red meat and processed meat intake respectively in populations from the American continent. In conclusion, our fi ndings showed that there was an absence of an association between red meat intake and bladder cancer, but suggested that high consumption of processed meat probably correlated with rising risk of bladder cancer. In addition, positive relationships were observed regarding people intake of red and processed meat in the American continent. These findings need to be confirmed in future research.

  6. Circulating adiponectin and breast cancer risk: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Macis, Debora; Guerrieri-Gonzaga, Aliana; Gandini, Sara

    2014-01-01

    Background: We conducted a meta-analysis in order to investigate whether circulating adiponectin, an insulin-sensitizing hormone produced by adipocytes, is associated with breast cancer risk. Methods: A systematic literature search was performed in PubMed, Medline, EMBASE, ISI Web of Knowledge and the Cochrane Library. The summary relative risk (SRR) was calculated by pooling the different study-specific estimates using the random effect models. Meta-regression, subgroup and sensitivity analyses were carried out to investigate between-study heterogeneity and to test publication bias. Results: Data from 15 observational studies, published between 2003 and April 2013 for a total of 4249 breast cancer cases, were analysed. The SRR for the ‘highest’ vs ‘lowest’ adiponectin levels indicated a 34% reduction in breast cancer risk [95% confidence interval (CI): 13%–50%]. Between-study heterogeneity was not substantial (I2 = 53%). Ten studies were included in the dose-response analysis: the SRR for an increase of 3 µg/ml of adiponectin corresponded to a 5% risk reduction (95% CI: 1%–9%). The comparison between ‘highest’ and ‘lowest’ levels of adiponectin showed an inverse association in postmenopausal women (SRR = 0.80; 95% CI: 0.63–1.01) and an indication of an inverse relationship in premenopausal women (SRR = 0.72, 95% CI: 0.30–1.72). No evidence of publication bias was found. Conclusions: Low circulating adiponectin levels are associated with an increased breast cancer risk. However, properly designed studies are needed to confirm the role of adiponectin as breast cancer biomarker, and clinical trials should be performed to identify those interventions that may be effective in modulating adiponectin levels and reducing breast cancer risk. PMID:24737805

  7. Meta-analysis of black tea consumption and breast cancer risk: update 2013.

    PubMed

    Nie, Xiao-Cui; Dong, Dao-Song; Bai, Yang; Xia, Pu

    2014-01-01

    Black tea is a commonly consumed beverage in the world, comprising approximately 80% of all tea consumed. We sought to examine the association between black tea consumption and risk of breast cancer, using all available epidemiologic evidence to date. PubMed, EMBASE, ISI Web of Science, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure Database, and China Biological Medicine Database were used to search for citations using the MeSH terms as "breast neoplasm" AND "black tea." Then we performed a meta-analysis of studies of breast cancer risk published between 1985 and 2013 by using RevMan 5.0 software. The results showed that no association between black tea consumption and breast cancer risk in overall [odds ratio (OR) = 0.97; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.89-1.05]. We further performed a stratified analysis according to region (United States/Europe). Black tea consumption did not decrease breast cancer risk in the United States (OR = 0.91; 95% CI = 0.78-1.07) and in Europe (OR = 0.99; 95% CI = 0.93-1.06). In addition, the summary OR from all cohort studies (OR = 1.04, 95% CI = 0.91-1.18) or all case-control studies (OR = 0.95, 95% CI = 0.88-1.02) showed black tea intake has no effects on breast cancer risk. However, the association between black tea consumption and breast cancer incidence remains unclear based on the current evidence. Further well-designed large studies are needed to confirm our result.

  8. Effects of exercise intervention in breast cancer survivors: a meta-analysis of 33 randomized controlled trails

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Guoqing; Zhang, Xiao; Wang, Yulan; Xiong, Huizi; Zhao, Yinghui; Sun, Fenyong

    2016-01-01

    Background Exercise is associated with favorable outcomes in cancer survivors. The purpose of this meta-analysis is to comprehensively summarize the effects of exercise intervention in breast cancer survivors. Methods A systematic search of PubMed, Elsevier, and Google scholar was conducted up to March 2015. References from relevant meta-analyses and reviews were also checked. Results Thirty-three randomized controlled trials were included in this meta-analysis, including 2,659 breast cancer survivors. Compared with the control group, quality of life was significantly improved in exercise intervention group, especially in mental health and general health subscales of short form 36 questionnaire, as well as emotion well-being and social well-being subscales of the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy. Besides, exercise alleviated the symptoms of depression and anxiety in the exercise group. Furthermore, exercise was also associated with positive outcomes in body mass index, lean mass, and muscle strength. In addition, the serum concentration of insulin, insulin-like growth factor-II, and insulin-like growth factor binding protein-1 was significantly reduced in exercise intervention group. However, based on the current data of this meta-analysis, there were no significant differences in sleep dysfunction or fatigue between groups. Conclusion Our study suggested that exercise intervention was beneficial to breast cancer survivors. Therefore, exercise should be recommended to this patient group. PMID:27110131

  9. Associations of body mass index with cancer incidence among populations, genders, and menopausal status: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun; Yang, Dong-Lin; Chen, Zhong-Zhu; Gou, Ben-Fu

    2016-06-01

    In order to further reveal the differences of association between body mass index (BMI) and cancer incidence across populations, genders, and menopausal status, we performed comprehensive meta-analysis with eligible citations. The risk ratio (RR) of incidence at 10 different cancer sites (per 5kg/m(2) increase in BMI) were quantified separately by employing generalized least-squares to estimate trends, and combined by meta-analyses. We observed significantly stronger association between increased BMI and breast cancer incidence in the Asia-Pacific group (RR 1.18:1.11-1.26) than in European-Australian (1.05:1.00-1.09) and North-American group (1.06:1.03-1.08) (meta-regression p<0.05). No association between increased BMI and pancreatic cancer incidence (0.94:0.71-1.24) was shown in the Asia-Pacific group (meta-regression p<0.05), whereas positive associations were found in other two groups. A significantly higher RR in men was found for colorectal cancer in comparison with women (meta-regression p<0.05). Compared with postmenopausal women, premenopausal women displayed significantly higher RR for ovarian cancer (pre- vs. post-=1.10 vs. 1.01, meta-regression p<0.05), but lower RR for breast cancer (pre- vs. post-=0.99 vs. 1.11, meta-regression p<0.0001). Our results indicate that overweight or obesity is a strong risk factor of cancer incidence at several cancer sites. Genders, populations, and menopausal status are important factors effecting the association between obesity and cancer incidence for certain cancer types.

  10. Associations of body mass index with cancer incidence among populations, genders, and menopausal status: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun; Yang, Dong-Lin; Chen, Zhong-Zhu; Gou, Ben-Fu

    2016-06-01

    In order to further reveal the differences of association between body mass index (BMI) and cancer incidence across populations, genders, and menopausal status, we performed comprehensive meta-analysis with eligible citations. The risk ratio (RR) of incidence at 10 different cancer sites (per 5kg/m(2) increase in BMI) were quantified separately by employing generalized least-squares to estimate trends, and combined by meta-analyses. We observed significantly stronger association between increased BMI and breast cancer incidence in the Asia-Pacific group (RR 1.18:1.11-1.26) than in European-Australian (1.05:1.00-1.09) and North-American group (1.06:1.03-1.08) (meta-regression p<0.05). No association between increased BMI and pancreatic cancer incidence (0.94:0.71-1.24) was shown in the Asia-Pacific group (meta-regression p<0.05), whereas positive associations were found in other two groups. A significantly higher RR in men was found for colorectal cancer in comparison with women (meta-regression p<0.05). Compared with postmenopausal women, premenopausal women displayed significantly higher RR for ovarian cancer (pre- vs. post-=1.10 vs. 1.01, meta-regression p<0.05), but lower RR for breast cancer (pre- vs. post-=0.99 vs. 1.11, meta-regression p<0.0001). Our results indicate that overweight or obesity is a strong risk factor of cancer incidence at several cancer sites. Genders, populations, and menopausal status are important factors effecting the association between obesity and cancer incidence for certain cancer types. PMID:26946037

  11. A meta-analysis on dose-response relationship between night shift work and the risk of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Wang, F; Yeung, K L; Chan, W C; Kwok, C C H; Leung, S L; Wu, C; Chan, E Y Y; Yu, I T S; Yang, X R; Tse, L A

    2013-11-01

    This study aimed to conduct a systematic review to sum up evidence of the associations between different aspects of night shift work and female breast cancer using a dose-response meta-analysis approach. We systematicly searched all cohort and case-control studies published in English on MEDLINE, Embase, PSYCInfo, APC Journal Club and Global Health, from January 1971 to May 2013. We extracted effect measures (relative risk, RR; odd ratio, OR; or hazard ratio, HR) from individual studies to generate pooled results using meta-analysis approaches. A log-linear dose-response regression model was used to evaluate the relationship between various indicators of exposure to night shift work and breast cancer risk. Downs and Black scale was applied to assess the methodological quality of included studies. Ten studies were included in the meta-analysis. A pooled adjusted relative risk for the association between 'ever exposed to night shift work' and breast cancer was 1.19 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.05-1.35]. Further meta-analyses on dose-response relationship showed that every 5-year increase of exposure to night shift work would correspondingly enhance the risk of breast cancer of the female by 3% (pooled RR = 1.03, 95% CI 1.01-1.05; Pheterogeneity < 0.001). Our meta-analysis also suggested that an increase in 500-night shifts would result in a 13% (RR = 1.13, 95% CI 1.07-1.21; Pheterogeneity = 0.06) increase in breast cancer risk. This systematic review updated the evidence that a positive dose-response relationship is likely to present for breast cancer with increasing years of employment and cumulative shifts involved in the work.

  12. Prognostic Value of Basic Fibroblast Growth Factor (bFGF) in Lung Cancer: A Systematic Review with Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Mingming; Hu, Ying; He, Jiabei; Li, Baolan

    2016-01-01

    Background Basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) is known to stimulate angiogenesis and thus to influence the proliferation, migration and survival of tumor cells. Many studies examined the relationship between human bFGF overexpression and survival in lung cancer patients, but the results have been mixed. To systematically summarize the clinical prognostic function of bFGF in lung cancer, we performed this systematic review with meta-analysis. Method Studies were identified by an electronic search of PubMed, EMBASE, China National Knowledge Infrastructure and Wanfang databases, including publications prior toAugust 2014. Pooled hazard ratios (HR) for overall survival (OS) were aggregated and quantitatively analyzed by meta-analysis. Results Twenty-two studies (n = 2154) were evaluated in the meta-analysis. Combined HR suggested that bFGF overexpression had an adverse impact on survival of patients with lung cancer(HR = 1.202,95%CI, 1.022–1.382). Our subgroup analysis revealed that the combined HR evaluating bFGF expression on OS in operable non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) was 1.553 (95%CI, 1.120–1.986); the combined HR in small cell lung cancer (SCLC) was 1.667 (95%CI, 1.035–2.299). There was no significant impact of bFGF expression on survival in advanced NSCLC. Conclusion This meta-analysis showed that bFGF overexpression is a potential indicator of worse prognosis for patients with operable NSCLC and SCLC, but is not associated with outcome in advanced NSCLC. The data suggests that high bFGF expression is highly related to poor prognosis. Nevertheless,more high-quality studies should be performed in order to provide additional evidence for the prognostic value of bFGF in lung cancer. PMID:26824699

  13. Coffee and cancer risk: A meta-analysis of prospective observational studies

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Anqiang; Wang, Shanshan; Zhu, Chengpei; Huang, Hanchun; Wu, Liangcai; Wan, Xueshuai; Yang, Xiaobo; Zhang, Haohai; Miao, Ruoyu; He, Lian; Sang, Xinting; Zhao, Haitao

    2016-01-01

    Meta-analyses on coffee and cancer incidence mainly restricted to limited cancers. We carried out a more comprehensive meta-analysis of cohort studies to explore association between coffee and most cancer types. We conducted comprehensive search and summarized relative risk (RR) and 95% confidence intervals for the highest versus lowest coffee intake and cancer using STATA12. We conducted dose-analysis if result suggested significant association. The publication bias was evaluated with begg’s and egger’s test. Finally, 105 individual prospective studies were included. Inverse associations were observed on oral, pharyngeal, colon, liver, prostate, endometrial cancer and melanoma, with RR 0.69 (95% CI = 0.48–0.99, I2 = 73.4%, P = 0.044), 0.87 (95% CI = 0.78–0.96, I2 = 28.4%, P = 0.007), 0.46 (95% CI = 0.37–0.57, I2 = 0%, P = 0), 0.89 (95% CI = 0.84–0.93, I2 = 30.3%, P = 0.003), 0.73 (95% CI = 0.67–0.80, I2  = 0%, P = 0) and 0.89 (95% CI = 0.80–0.99, I2  = 0%, P = 0.031) respectively. However, the relative risk for lung cancer is 2.18 (95% CI = 1.26–3.75, I2  = 63.3%, P = 0.005). The summary relative risk for increment of 2 cups of coffee were RR = 0.73, 95% CI = 0.67–0.79 for liver cancer, RR = 0.97, 95% CI = 0.96–0.98 for prostate cancer and RR = 0.88, 95% CI = 0.85–0.92 for endometrial cancer. Accordingly, coffee intake was associated with reduced risk of oral, pharynx, liver, colon, prostate, endometrial cancer and melanoma and increased lung cancer risk. PMID:27665923

  14. Risk factors for gastric cancer in Latin-America: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Bonequi, Patricia; Meneses-González, Fernando; Correa, Pelayo; Rabkin, Charles S.; Camargo, M. Constanza

    2013-01-01

    Background Latin America has among the highest gastric cancer incidence rates in the world, for reasons that are still unknown. In order to identify region-specific risk factors for gastric cancer, we conducted a meta-analysis summarizing published literature. Methods Searches of PubMed and regional databases for relevant studies published up to December 2011 yielded a total of 29 independent case-control studies. We calculated summary odds ratios (OR) for risk factors reported in at least five studies, including socioeconomic status (education), lifestyle habits (smoking and alcohol use), dietary factors (consumption of fruits, total vegetables, green vegetables, chili pepper, total meat, processed meat, red meat, fish and salt) and host genetic variants (IL1B-511T, IL1B-31C, IL1RN*2, TNFA-308A, TP53 codon 72 Arg and GSTM1 null). Study-specific ORs were extracted and summarized using random-effects models. Results Chili pepper was the only region-specific factor reported in at least five studies. Consistent with multifactorial pathogenesis, smoking, alcohol use, high consumption of red meat or processed meat, excessive salt intake and carriage of IL1RN*2 were each associated with a moderate increase in gastric cancer risk. Conversely, higher levels of education, fruit consumption, and total vegetable consumption were each associated with a moderately decreased risk. The other exposures were not significantly associated. No prospective study data were identified. Conclusion Risk factor associations for gastric cancer in Latin America are based on case-control comparisons that have uncertain reliability, particularly with regard to diet; the specific factors identified and their magnitudes of association are largely similar to those globally recognized. Future studies should emphasize prospective data collection and focus on region-specific exposures that may explain high gastric cancer risk. PMID:23224270

  15. Active and passive smoking and risk of breast cancer: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Macacu, Alina; Autier, Philippe; Boniol, Mathieu; Boyle, Peter

    2015-11-01

    Studies on active and passive tobacco smoking and breast cancer have found inconsistent results. A meta-analysis of observational studies on tobacco smoking and breast cancer occurrence was conducted based on systematic searches for studies with retrospective (case-control) and prospective (cohort) designs. Eligible studies were identified, and relative risk measurements were extracted for active and passive tobacco exposures. Random-effects meta-analyses were used to compute summary relative risks (SRR). Heterogeneity of results between studies was evaluated using the (I (2)) statistics. For ever active smoking, in 27 prospective studies, the SRR for breast cancer was 1.10 (95 % CI [1.09-1.12]) with no heterogeneity (I (2) = 0 %). In 44 retrospective studies, the SRR was 1.08 (95 % CI [1.02-1.14]) with high heterogeneity (I (2) = 59 %). SRRs for current active smoking were 1.13 (95 % CI [1.09-1.17]) in 27 prospective studies and 1.08 (95 % CI [0.97-1.20]) in 22 retrospective studies. The results were stable across different subgroup analyses, notably pre/post-menopause, alcohol consumption adjustments, including/excluding passive smokers from the referent group. For ever passive smoking, in 11 prospective studies, the SRR for breast cancer was 1.07 (95 % CI [1.02-1.13]) with no heterogeneity (I (2) = 1 %). In 20 retrospective studies, the SRR was 1.30 (95 % CI [1.10-1.54]) with high heterogeneity (I (2) = 74 %). Too few prospective studies were available for meaningful subgroup analyses. There is consistent evidence for a moderate increase in the risk of breast cancer in women who smoke tobacco. The evidence for a moderate increase in risk with passive smoking is more substantial than a few years ago.

  16. Relationship between bladder cancer and total fluid intake: a meta-analysis of epidemiological evidence

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Epidemiological findings regarding the association between total fluid intake and bladder cancer risk have yielded varying results. Our objective is to examine the possible associations between total fluid intake and bladder cancer risk. Methods Databases searched include the EMBASE and PUBMED, from inception to February 2014, with no limits on study language. We also reviewed the reference lists of identified studies. Stratified analyses were performed. A random-effect model was used to summarize the estimates of odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results Overall,17 case-control and four cohort studies were included. The overall OR of bladder cancer for the highest versus the lowest fluid intake was 1.06 (95% CI: 0.88-1.27). In the subgroup analyses, the overall ORs for coffee, green, and black tea intake were 1.17 (95% CI: 1.03-1.33), 0.76 (95% CI: 0.66-0.95), and 0.80 (95% CI: 0.65-0.97), respectively. A significantly decreased risk was observed in Asian people (OR 0.27; 95% CI: 0.10-0.72). Among smokers, a suggestive inverse association was observed between total fluid intake and overall bladder cancer risk (OR 0.80; 95% CI: 0.62-1.02). Conclusions Although this meta-analysis suggested that greater consumption of fluid may have a protective effect on bladder cancer in Asian people, there was no convincing evidence on this association because of the limitations of the individual trials. PMID:25033957

  17. Meta-analysis of robotic and laparoscopic surgery for treatment of rectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Shuang; Jiang, Hong-Gang; Chen, Zhi-Heng; Zhou, Shu-Yang; Liu, Xiao-Sun; Yu, Ji-Ren

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To conduct a meta-analysis to determine the relative merits of robotic surgery (RS) and laparoscopic surgery (LS) for rectal cancer. METHODS: A literature search was performed to identify comparative studies reporting perioperative outcomes for RS and LS for rectal cancer. Pooled odds ratios and weighted mean differences (WMDs) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were calculated using either the fixed effects model or random effects model. RESULTS: Eight studies matched the selection criteria and reported on 661 subjects, of whom 268 underwent RS and 393 underwent LS for rectal cancer. Compared the perioperative outcomes of RS with LS, reports of RS indicated favorable outcomes considering conversion (WMD: 0.25; 95% CI: 0.11-0.58; P = 0.001). Meanwhile, operative time (WMD: 27.92, 95% CI: -13.43 to 69.27; P = 0.19); blood loss (WMD: -32.35, 95% CI: -86.19 to 21.50; P = 0.24); days to passing flatus (WMD: -0.18, 95% CI: -0.96 to 0.60; P = 0.65); length of stay (WMD: -0.04; 95% CI: -2.28 to 2.20; P = 0.97); complications (WMD: 1.05; 95% CI: 0.71-1.55; P = 0.82) and pathological details, including lymph nodes harvested (WMD: 0.41, 95% CI: -0.67 to 1.50; P = 0.46), distal resection margin (WMD: -0.35, 95% CI: -1.27 to 0.58; P = 0.46), and positive circumferential resection margin (WMD: 0.54, 95% CI: 0.12-2.39; P = 0.42) were similar between RS and LS. CONCLUSION: RS for rectal cancer is superior to LS in terms of conversion. RS may be an alternative treatment for rectal cancer. Further studies are required. PMID:22215947

  18. [Network meta-analysis on selecting Chinese medical injections in radiotherapy for esophageal cancer].

    PubMed

    Ge, Long; Mao, Lei; Tian, Jin-hui; Shi, Fang-yu; Lou Li-li; Qiu, Xia; Li, Jin-long; Yang, Ke-hu

    2015-09-01

    To assess the clinical effect and safety of Chinese traditional medicine injection combined with radiotherapy for esophageal cancer. The relative randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of Chinese medical injections (CMI) combined with radiotherapy as well as simple radiotherapy for esophageal cancer were searched from PubMed, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, Chinese Biomedical Literature Database(CBM), China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Wanfang Database and VIP Database as at September 2014. Two researchers completed the data extraction and quality evaluation independently. The data were analyzed by GeMTC 0.14.3 and Stata 12. 0 software. Finally, 43 RCTs involving 3 289 patients were finally included. The star network was constructed by different comparison groups. The results of network meta-analysis showed that the seven CMIs combined with radiotherapy was superior to simple radiotherapy in the treatment of esophageal cancer in efficacy, quality of life, and reduction in the incidence of nausea and leucopenia, but with no significant difference among the seven CMIs. Probability ranking result showed a great possibility for Shenqi Fuzheng and astragalus polysaccharide injections in improving the overall response rate and quality of life, which were followed by cinobufagin and kangai injections. However, only one study was included for Shenqi Fuzheng and astragalus polysaccharide injections. Therefore, cinobufagin or kangai injections were preferred in improving the overall response rate and quality of life. Aidi or compound sophora injections were better than other CMIs in reducing? the incidences of nausea (III-IV) and leukopenia. More RCTs of Shenqi Fuzheng and astragalus polysaccharide injections combined with radiotherapy for patients with esophageal cancer were expected in the future to confirm our results. Moreover, study findings will be reported, particularly for the adverse events in radiotherapy for esophageal cancer.

  19. Who Benefits From Adjuvant Radiation Therapy for Gastric Cancer? A Meta-Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Ohri, Nitin; Garg, Madhur K.; Aparo, Santiago; Kaubisch, Andreas; Tome, Wolfgang; Kennedy, Timothy J.; Kalnicki, Shalom; Guha, Chandan

    2013-06-01

    Purpose: Large randomized trials have demonstrated significant survival benefits with the use of adjuvant chemotherapy or chemoradiation therapy for gastric cancer. The importance of adjuvant radiation therapy (RT) remains unclear. We performed an up-to-date meta-analysis of randomized trials testing the use of RT for resectable gastric cancer. Methods and Materials: We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials for randomized trials testing adjuvant (including neoadjuvant) RT for resectable gastric cancer. Hazard ratios describing the impact of adjuvant RT on overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) were extracted directly from the original studies or calculated from survival curves. Pooled estimates were obtained using the inverse variance method. Subgroup analyses were performed to determine whether the efficacy of RT varies with chemotherapy use, RT timing, geographic region, type of nodal dissection performed, or lymph node status. Results: Thirteen studies met all inclusion criteria and were used for this analysis. Adjuvant RT was associated with a significant improvement in both OS (HR = 0.78, 95% CI: 0.70-0.86, P<.001) and DFS (HR = 0.71, 95% CI: 0.63-0.80, P<.001). In the 5 studies that tested adjuvant chemoradiation therapy against adjuvant chemotherapy, similar effects were seen for OS (HR = 0.83, 95% CI: 0.67-1.03, P=.087) and DFS (HR = 0.77, 95% CI: 0.91-0.65, P=.002). Available data did not reveal any subgroup of patients that does not benefit from adjuvant RT. Conclusion: In randomized trials for resectable gastric cancer, adjuvant RT provides an approximately 20% improvement in both DFS and OS. Available data do not reveal a subgroup of patients that does not benefit from adjuvant RT. Further study is required to optimize the implementation of adjuvant RT for gastric cancer with regard to patient selection and integration with systemic therapy.

  20. Traffic-related air pollution and lung cancer: A meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Gongbo; Wan, Xia; Yang, Gonghuan; Zou, Xiaonong

    2015-01-01

    Background We conducted a meta-analysis to evaluate the association between traffic-related air pollution and lung cancer in order to provide evidence for control of traffic-related air pollution. Methods Several databases were searched for relevant studies up to December 2013. The quality of articles obtained was evaluated by the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology checklist. Statistical analysis, including pooling effective sizes and confidential intervals, was performed. Results A total of 1106 records were obtained through the database and 36 studies were included in our analysis. Among the studies included, 14 evaluated the association between ambient exposure to traffic-related air pollution and lung cancer and 22 studies involved occupational exposure to air pollution among professional drivers. Twenty-two studies were marked A level regarding quality, 13 were B level, and one was C level. Exposure to nitrogen dioxide (meta-odds ratio [OR]: 1.06, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.99–1.13), nitrogen oxide (meta-OR: 1.04, 95% CI: 1.01–1.07), sulfur dioxide (meta-OR: 1.03, 95% CI: 1.02–1.05), and fine particulate matter (meta-OR: 1.11, 95% CI: 1.00–1.22) were positively associated with a risk of lung cancer. Occupational exposure to air pollution among professional drivers significantly increased the incidence (meta-OR: 1.27, 95% CI: 1.19–1.36) and mortality of lung cancer (meta-OR: 1.14, 95% CI: 1.04–1.26). Conclusion Exposure to traffic-related air pollution significantly increased the risk of lung cancer. PMID:26273377

  1. Cancer risk in older people receiving statin therapy: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hong-Wei; Bian, Su-Yan; Zhu, Qi-Wei; Zhao, Yue-Xiang

    2016-01-01

    Background Although statins are well tolerated by most aged people, their potential carcinogenicity is considered as one of the biggest factors limiting the use of statins. The aim of the present study was to determine the risk of cancer in people aged over 60 years receiving statin therapy. Methods A comprehensive search for articles published up to December 2015 was performed, reviews of each randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compared the effects of statin mono-therapy with placebo on the risk of cancer in people aged > 60 years were conducted and data abstracted. All the included studies were evaluated for publication bias and heterogeneity. Pooled odds ratios (OR) estimates and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using the random effects model. Results A total of 12 RCTs, involving 62,927 patients (31,517 in statin therapy group and 31,410 in control group), with a follow-up duration of 1.9–5.4 years, contributed to the analysis. The statin therapy did not affect the overall incidence of cancer (OR = 1.03, 95% CI: 0.94–1.14, P = 0.52); subgroup analyses showed that neither the variety nor the chemical properties of the statins accounted for the incidence of cancer in older people. Conclusions Our meta-analysis findings do not support a potential cancer risk of statin treatment in people over 60 years old. Further targeted researches with a longer follow-up duration are warranted to confirm this issue. PMID:27781060

  2. Warehousing re-annotated cancer genes for biomarker meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Orsini, M; Travaglione, A; Capobianco, E

    2013-07-01

    Translational research in cancer genomics assigns a fundamental role to bioinformatics in support of candidate gene prioritization with regard to both biomarker discovery and target identification for drug development. Efforts in both such directions rely on the existence and constant update of large repositories of gene expression data and omics records obtained from a variety of experiments. Users who interactively interrogate such repositories may have problems in retrieving sample fields that present limited associated information, due for instance to incomplete entries or sometimes unusable files. Cancer-specific data sources present similar problems. Given that source integration usually improves data quality, one of the objectives is keeping the computational complexity sufficiently low to allow an optimal assimilation and mining of all the information. In particular, the scope of integrating intraomics data can be to improve the exploration of gene co-expression landscapes, while the scope of integrating interomics sources can be that of establishing genotype-phenotype associations. Both integrations are relevant to cancer biomarker meta-analysis, as the proposed study demonstrates. Our approach is based on re-annotating cancer-specific data available at the EBI's ArrayExpress repository and building a data warehouse aimed to biomarker discovery and validation studies. Cancer genes are organized by tissue with biomedical and clinical evidences combined to increase reproducibility and consistency of results. For better comparative evaluation, multiple queries have been designed to efficiently address all types of experiments and platforms, and allow for retrieval of sample-related information, such as cell line, disease state and clinical aspects.

  3. Active and passive smoking and risk of breast cancer: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Macacu, Alina; Autier, Philippe; Boniol, Mathieu; Boyle, Peter

    2015-11-01

    Studies on active and passive tobacco smoking and breast cancer have found inconsistent results. A meta-analysis of observational studies on tobacco smoking and breast cancer occurrence was conducted based on systematic searches for studies with retrospective (case-control) and prospective (cohort) designs. Eligible studies were identified, and relative risk measurements were extracted for active and passive tobacco exposures. Random-effects meta-analyses were used to compute summary relative risks (SRR). Heterogeneity of results between studies was evaluated using the (I (2)) statistics. For ever active smoking, in 27 prospective studies, the SRR for breast cancer was 1.10 (95 % CI [1.09-1.12]) with no heterogeneity (I (2) = 0 %). In 44 retrospective studies, the SRR was 1.08 (95 % CI [1.02-1.14]) with high heterogeneity (I (2) = 59 %). SRRs for current active smoking were 1.13 (95 % CI [1.09-1.17]) in 27 prospective studies and 1.08 (95 % CI [0.97-1.20]) in 22 retrospective studies. The results were stable across different subgroup analyses, notably pre/post-menopause, alcohol consumption adjustments, including/excluding passive smokers from the referent group. For ever passive smoking, in 11 prospective studies, the SRR for breast cancer was 1.07 (95 % CI [1.02-1.13]) with no heterogeneity (I (2) = 1 %). In 20 retrospective studies, the SRR was 1.30 (95 % CI [1.10-1.54]) with high heterogeneity (I (2) = 74 %). Too few prospective studies were available for meaningful subgroup analyses. There is consistent evidence for a moderate increase in the risk of breast cancer in women who smoke tobacco. The evidence for a moderate increase in risk with passive smoking is more substantial than a few years ago. PMID:26546245

  4. Meta-analysis of studies on breast cancer risk and diet in Chinese women

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Ying-Chao; Zheng, Dong; Sun, Jin-Jie; Zou, Zhi-Kang; Ma, Zhong-Li

    2015-01-01

    Objective: A meta-analysis was carried out to summarize published data on the relationship between breast cancer and dietary factors. Methods: Databases in Chinese (China National Knowledge Infrastructure [CNKI], China Biology Medicine [CBM], WanFang, VIP) and in English (PubMed and Web of Science) were searched for articles analyzing vegetable, fruit, soy food and fat consumption and breast cancer risk published through June 30, 2013. Random effects models were used to estimate summary odds ratios (OR) based on high versus low intake, and subgroup analysis was conducted according to region, study design, paper quality and adjustment for confounding factors to detect the potential source of heterogeneity. Every study was screened according to the inclusion criteria and exclusion criteria, evaluated in accordance with the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. RevMan 5.2 software was used for analysis. Results: Of 785 studies retrieved, 22 met inclusion criteria (13 in Chinese and 9 in English), representing 23,201 patients: 10,566 in the experimental group and 12,635 in the control group. Thirteen included studies showed vegetables consumption to be a relevant factor in breast cancer risk, OR = 0.77 (95% CI [confidence interval] 0.62-0.96). Eleven studies showed fruits consumption to be relevant, OR = 0.68 (95% CI 0.49-0.93). Significant differences were also found between those who consumed soy foods, OR = 0.68 (95% CI 0.50-0.93) and those who ate a high-fat diet, OR = 1.15 (95% CI 1.01-1.30). Conclusion: This analysis confirms the association between intake of vegetables, fruits, soy foods and fat and the risk of breast cancer from published sources. It’s suggested that high consumption of vegetables, fruits and soy foods may reduce the risk of breast cancer, while increasing fat consumption may increase the risk. PMID:25784976

  5. HER2 codon 655 polymorphism and breast cancer risk: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Tao, Weiyang; Wang, Chunyang; Han, Ruifa; Jiang, Hongchi

    2009-03-01

    To evaluate the association between HER2 codon 655 polymorphism and breast cancer risk in this meta-analysis. A comprehensive search was performed to identify all case-control studies investigating such association. Statistical analyses were conducted with software MIX 1.54. Twenty eligible reports, including 10,642 cases/11,259 controls, were identified. In overall analysis, the Val allele frequency in cases was significantly higher than that in controls (OR = 1.0921, 95% CI: 1.0013-1.191, P = 0.0466), while no associations were found in both recessive and dominant models. In subgroup analysis, HER2 codon 655 polymorphism was weakly associated with breast cancer risk in recessive (OR = 2.4624, 95% CI: 1.0619-5.7104, P = 0.0357), dominant (OR = 1.2781, 95% CI: 1.0353-1.5779, P = 0.0225), and co-dominant genetic models (OR = 1.2947, 95% CI: 1.0682-1.5693, P = 0.0085) in Asian population, respectively. Meanwhile, the susceptibility to breast cancer in people aged < or =45 was significantly increased in both recessive (OR = 2.2408; 95% CI: 1.2876-3.8998, P = 0.0043), and dominant models (OR = 1.2902, 95% CI: 1.1035-1.5085, P = 0.0014). No significant associations were observed in Caucasian, European, and Family history subgroups. So our analyses suggest HER2 codon 655 Val allele is weakly associated with an increased risk of breast cancer, and SNP at HER2 codon 655 could be considered as a susceptibility biomarker for breast cancer for Asian females or women age 45 years or younger. PMID:18438707

  6. Occupational exposure to diesel exhaust and lung cancer: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Lipsett, M; Campleman, S

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: We undertook a meta-analysis of epidemiological studies investigating the relationship between occupational diesel exhaust exposure and lung cancer. METHODS: Thirty of 47 studies initially identified as potentially relevant met specified inclusion criteria. We extracted or calculated 39 independent estimates of relative risk and derived pooled estimates of risk for all studies and for numerous study subsets by using a random-effects model. We also examined interstudy heterogeneity by using linear metaregressions. RESULTS: There was substantial heterogeneity in the pooled risk estimates for all studies combined and for most subsets. Several factors consistent with higher study quality, however, contributed to increased pooled estimates of risk and lower heterogeneity, including (1) adjustment for confounding by cigarette smoking and other covariates, (2) having a lower likelihood of selection bias, and (3) having increased study power. CONCLUSION: This analysis provides quantitative support for prior qualitative reviews that have ascribed an etiologic role to occupational diesel exhaust exposure in lung cancer induction. Among study populations most likely to have had substantial exposure to diesel exhaust, the pooled smoking-adjusted relative risk was 1.47 (95% confidence interval = 1.29, 1.67). PMID:10394308

  7. Group vs. individual exercise interventions for women with breast cancer: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Moyer, Anne

    2010-01-01

    Background Both during and after treatment, cancer survivors experience declines in physical and psychosocial quality of life (QoL). Prior research indicates that exercise interventions alleviate problems in physical functioning and some aspects of psychological functioning. For survivors seeking social support, exercise programs that are conducted in group settings may foster optimal QoL improvement (by addressing additional issues related to isolation, social support) over individually-based exercise programs. Methods We reviewed literature on group cohesion in exercise studies, and conducted a meta-analysis to test the hypothesis that group as compared to individual exercise interventions for breast cancer survivors would show greater improvement in QoL. Results As currently implemented, group exercise interventions showed no advantage. However, they typically did not provide any evidence that they capitalized upon potentially beneficial group processes. Conclusions Future exercise intervention studies could investigate the effect on QoL of deliberately using group dynamics processes, such as team building experiences and group goal setting to foster group cohesion. PMID:20607139

  8. Traditional herbal medicine as adjunctive therapy for nasopharyngeal cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Woojin; Lee, Won-Bock; Lee, Jungwoo; Min, Byung-Il; Lee, HyangSook; Cho, Seung-Hun

    2015-05-01

    The effectiveness of traditional herbal medicine (THM) as treatment for nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC) has not been clearly demonstrated. The aim of this study is to assess the effectiveness of THM as adjunctive therapies for NPC using the results of randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Five electronic databases, including English and Chinese databases, were systematically searched up to February 2014. All RCTs involving traditional herbal medicine in combination with conventional cancer therapy for NPC were included. Twenty-two RCTs involving 2,298 NPC patients were systematically reviewed. Of these 22 studies, 15 on 1482 patients reported a significant increase in the number surviving patients with survivals of more than 1, 3, or 5 years. Seven studies on 595 patients reported a significant increase in immediate tumor response, and three studies on 505 patients reported a significant decrease in distant metastasis. This meta-analysis of 22 studies suggests that THM combined with conventional therapy can provide an effective adjunctive therapy for NPC. More research and well-designed, rigorous, large clinical trials are required to address these issues.

  9. CD147/EMMPRIN overexpression and prognosis in cancer: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Xin, Xiaoyan; Zeng, Xianqin; Gu, Huajian; Li, Min; Tan, Huaming; Jin, Zhishan; Hua, Teng; Shi, Rui; Wang, Hongbo

    2016-01-01

    CD147/EMMPRIN (extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer) plays an important role in tumor progression and a number of studies have suggested that it is an indicator of tumor prognosis. This current meta-analysis systematically reevaluated the predictive potential of CD147/EMMPRIN in various cancers. We searched PubMed and Embase databases to screen the literature. Fixed-effect and random-effect meta-analytical techniques were used to correlate CD147 expression with outcome measures. A total of 53 studies that included 68 datasets were eligible for inclusion in the final analysis. We found a significant association between CD147/EMMPRIN overexpression and adverse tumor outcomes, such as overall survival, disease-specific survival, progression-free survival, metastasis-free survival or recurrence-free survival, irrespective of the model analysis. In addition, CD147/EMMPRIN overexpression predicted a high risk for chemotherapy drugs resistance. CD147/EMMPRIN is a central player in tumor progression and predicts a poor prognosis, including in patients who have received chemo-radiotherapy. Our results provide the evidence that CD147/EMMPRIN could be a potential therapeutic target for cancers. PMID:27608940

  10. Does night-shift work increase the risk of prostate cancer? a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Dapang; Yu, Haifeng; Bai, Yu; Zheng, Xiangyi; Xie, Liping

    2015-01-01

    Background Night-shift work is suggested to be associated with an increased risk of breast cancer, but its association with prostate cancer is still controversial. We examined this association by conducting a systematic review and meta-analysis. Methods Studies were identified by searching PubMed, EMBASE, Ovid, Web of Science, the Cochrane register, and the China National Knowledge Infrastructure databases through December 25, 2014. Summary relative risks (SRRs) with their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using a random effects or fixed effects model. Heterogeneity and publication bias were also evaluated. Results A total of 2,459,845 individuals from eight published studies were included in this meta-analysis. Analysis of all studies suggested that night-shift work was associated with a significantly increased risk of prostate cancer (RR: 1.24, 95% CI: 1.05–1.46; P=0.011). Sensitivity analysis showed that the association remained significant when repeating the analysis after removing one study each time. Dose–response meta-analysis suggested that an increase in night-shift work of 5 years duration was statistically significantly associated with a 2.8% (95% CI: 0.3, 5.4%, P=0.030) increase in the risk of prostate cancer. There was no significant publication bias. Conclusion Based on a meta-analysis, night-shift work is associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer. Because of the limited number of included studies and the large level of heterogeneity, further well-designed studies are still warranted to confirm the findings of our analysis. PMID:26491356

  11. The tumor necrosis factor-α-238 polymorphism and digestive system cancer risk: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Hui, Ming; Yan, Xiaojuan; Jiang, Ying

    2016-08-01

    Many studies have reported the association between tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)-238 polymorphism and digestive system cancer susceptibility, but the results were inconclusive. We performed a meta-analysis to derive a more precise estimation of the relationship between TNF-α-238 G/A polymorphism and digestive system cancer risk. Pooled analysis for the TNF-α-238 G/A polymorphism contained 26 studies with a total of 4849 cases and 8567 controls. The meta-analysis observed a significant association between TNF-α-238 G/A polymorphism and digestive system cancer risk in the overall population (GA vs GG: OR 1.19, 95 % CI 1.00-1.40, P heterpgeneity = 0.016; A vs G: OR 1.19, 95 % CI 1.03-1.39, P heterpgeneity = 0.015; dominant model: OR 1.20, 95 % CI 1.02-1.41, P heterpgeneity = 0.012). In the analysis of the ethnic subgroups, however, similar results were observed only in the Asian population, but not in the Caucasian population. Therefore, this meta-analysis suggests that TNF-α-238 G/A polymorphism is associated with a significantly increased risk of digestive system cancer. Further large and well-designed studies are needed to confirm these findings.

  12. Association between P16INK4a Promoter Methylation and Ovarian Cancer: A Meta-Analysis of 12 Published Studies

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Xun; Shi, Hao; Zhong, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Background Ovarian cancer is the primary cause of death in women diagnosed with gynecological malignancies worldwide. Absence of early symptoms prevents prompt diagnosis or successful therapeutic intervention. P16INK4a is a well-known tumor suppressor gene (TSG). Aberrant methylation of TSG promoter is an important epigenetic silencing mechanism leading to ovarian cancer progression. Studies have reported differences in methylation frequencies of the p16INK4a promoter between ovarian cancer and the corresponding control group. However, the association between p16INK4a promoter methylation and ovarian cancer remains unclear and controversial. Therefore, a meta-analysis was conducted to clarify the relationship between p16INK4a promoter methylation and ovarian cancer. Methods PubMed, Web of Science, EMBASE and CNKI were searched to identify eligible studies for the evaluation of the association between p16INK4a promoter methylation and ovarian cancer. Odds ratio (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) were calculated to determine the strength of association between p16INK4a promoter methylation and ovarian cancer. Results A total of 612 ovarian cancer patients and 289 controls from 12 eligible studies were included in the meta-analysis. Overall, a significant association was observed between p16INK4a methylation status and ovarian cancer risk using a fixed-effects model (OR = 2.02, 95% CI = 1.39–2.94). Conclusion The results of our meta-analysis show that aberrant methylation of p16INK4a promoter was significantly associated with ovarian cancer. It may represent a promising molecular marker to monitor the disease and provides new insights into the treatment of human ovarian cancer. PMID:27648827

  13. Update on Hereditary Colorectal Cancer.

    PubMed

    DA Silva, Felipe Carneiro; Wernhoff, Patrik; Dominguez-Barrera, Constantino; Dominguez-Valentin, Mev

    2016-09-01

    In the past two decades, significant advances have been made in our understanding of colorectal (CRC) tumors with DNA mismatch (MMR) repair deficiency. The knowledge from molecular and genetic alterations in a variety of clinical conditions has refined the disease terminology and classification. Hereditary non-polyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) encompasses a spectrum of conditions that have significant phenotypic overlapping that makes clinical diagnosis a challenging task. Distinguishing among the HNPCC disorders is clinically important, as the approach to surveillance for patients and their at-risk family members differs according to risks for colonic and extracolonic cancer associated with each syndrome. Prospective and next-generation studies will provide valuable clinical information regarding the natural history of disease that will help differentiate the Lynch syndrome mimics and guide diagnosis and management for heterogeneous conditions currently grouped under the category of familial CRC. The review is intended to present and discuss the molecular nature of various conditions related to MMR deficiency and discusses the tools and strategies that have been used in detecting these conditions. PMID:27630275

  14. Genetic architecture of colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Peters, Ulrike; Bien, Stephanie; Zubair, Niha

    2015-10-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a complex disease that develops as a consequence of both genetic and environmental risk factors. A small proportion (3-5%) of cases arise from hereditary syndromes predisposing to early onset CRC as a result of mutations in over a dozen well defined genes. In contrast, CRC is predominantly a late onset 'sporadic' disease, developing in individuals with no obvious hereditary syndrome. In recent years, genome wide association studies have discovered that over 40 genetic regions are associated with weak effects on sporadic CRC, and it has been estimated that increasingly large genome wide scans will identify many additional novel genetic regions. Subsequent experimental validations have identified the causally related variant(s) in a limited number of these genetic regions. Further biological insight could be obtained through ethnically diverse study populations, larger genetic sequencing studies and development of higher throughput functional experiments. Along with inherited variation, integration of the tumour genome may shed light on the carcinogenic processes in CRC. In addition to summarising the genetic architecture of CRC, this review discusses genetic factors that modify environmental predictors of CRC, as well as examples of how genetic insight has improved clinical surveillance, prevention and treatment strategies. In summary, substantial progress has been made in uncovering the genetic architecture of CRC, and continued research efforts are expected to identify additional genetic risk factors that further our biological understanding of this disease. Subsequently these new insights will lead to improved treatment and prevention of colorectal cancer. PMID:26187503

  15. Long Noncoding RNA H19 in Digestive System Cancers: A Meta-Analysis of Its Association with Pathological Features

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yang; Zhang, Xiaohui; Ying, Rongchao

    2016-01-01

    Long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) H19 has been reported to be upregulated in malignant digestive tumors, but its clinical relevance is not yet established. The meta-analysis was to investigate the association between H19 expression and pathological features of digestive system cancers. The databases of PubMed, EMBase, Web of Science, CNKI, and WanFang were searched for the related studies. A total of 478 patients from 6 studies were finally included. The meta-analysis showed that the patient group of high H19 expression had a higher risk of poorly differentiated grade, deep tumor invasion (T2 stage or more), lymph node metastasis, and advanced TNM stage than the group of low H19 expression, although there was no difference between them in terms of distant metastasis. Therefore, the high expression of lncRNA H19 might predict poor oncological outcomes of patients with digestive system cancers. PMID:27738631

  16. Targeted nanoparticles for colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Cisterna, Bruno A; Kamaly, Nazila; Choi, Won Il; Tavakkoli, Ali; Farokhzad, Omid C; Vilos, Cristian

    2016-09-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is highly prevalent worldwide, and despite notable progress in treatment still leads to significant morbidity and mortality. The use of nanoparticles as a drug delivery system has become one of the most promising strategies for cancer therapy. Targeted nanoparticles could take advantage of differentially expressed molecules on the surface of tumor cells, providing effective release of cytotoxic drugs. Several efforts have recently reported the use of diverse molecules as ligands on the surface of nanoparticles to interact with the tumor cells, enabling the effective delivery of antitumor agents. Here, we present recent advances in targeted nanoparticles against CRC and discuss the promising use of ligands and cellular targets in potential strategies for the treatment of CRCs. PMID:27529192

  17. Effect of Exercise Training on Peak Oxygen Consumption in Patients with Cancer: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Yuanyuan; Pituskin, Edith N.; Battaglini, Claudio L.; Scott, Jessica M.; Hornsby, Whitney E.; Haykowsky, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Background. We conducted a meta-analysis to determine the effects of supervised exercise training on peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak) in adults with cancer. Methods. A literature review using Ovid MEDLINE (1950–2010), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (1991–2010), AMED (1985–2010), Embase (1988–2010), PubMed (1966–2010), Scopus (1950–2010), and Web of Science (1950–2010) was performed to identify randomized controlled trials examining the effects of supervised exercise training on measurement of VO2peak (via gas exchange analysis) in adults with cancer. Studies were selected using predetermined criteria, and two independent reviewers extracted data. Weighted mean differences (WMDs) were calculated using random effect models. Results. Six studies evaluated VO2peak involving a total of 571 adult cancer patients (exercise, n = 344; usual care control, n = 227). Pooled data indicated that exercise training was associated with a statistically significant increase in VO2peak (WMD, 2.90 ml·kg−1·min−1; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.16–4.64); however, significant heterogeneity was evident in this estimate (I2, 87%). Usual care (control) was associated with a significant decline in VO2peak from baseline to postintervention (WMD, −1.02 ml·kg−1·min−1; 95% CI, −1.46 to −0.58; I2, 22%). Sensitivity analyses indicated superior improvements in VO2peak for studies conducted for a shorter duration (<4 months) and following the completion of adjuvant therapy (p-values < .001). Exercise training was not associated with a higher incidence of adverse events, although safety was not rigorously monitored or reported. Conclusions. Supervised exercise training is associated with significant improvements in VO2peak following a diagnosis of early-stage cancer, with minimal adverse events. PMID:21212429

  18. Dietary Nitrates, Nitrites, and Nitrosamines Intake and the Risk of Gastric Cancer: A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Song, Peng; Wu, Lei; Guan, Wenxian

    2015-12-01

    The potential associations between dietary consumption of nitrates, nitrites, and nitrosamines and gastric cancer risk have been investigated by several studies, but yielded inconclusive results. We conducted a meta-analysis to provide a quantitative assessment of their relationships. Relevant articles were identified by a systematic literature searching of PubMed and Embase databases prior to August 2015. Random-effects models were employed to pool the relative risks. A total of 22 articles consisting of 49 studies-19 studies for nitrates, 19 studies for nitrites, and 11 studies for N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA)-were included. The summary relative risk of stomach cancer for the highest categories, compared with the lowest, was 0.80 (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.69-0.93) for dietary nitrates intake, 1.31 (95% CI, 1.13-1.52) for nitrites, and 1.34 (95% CI, 1.02-1.76) for NDMA (p for heterogeneity was 0.015, 0.013 and <0.001, respectively). The study type was found as the main source of heterogeneity for nitrates and nitrites. The heterogeneity for NDMA could not be eliminated completely through stratified analysis. Although significant associations were all observed in case-control studies, the cohort studies still showed a slight trend. The dose-response analysis indicated similar results as well. High nitrates intake was associated with a weak but statistically significant reduced risk of gastric cancer. Whereas increased consumption of nitrites and NDMA seemed to be risk factors for cancer. Due to the lack of uniformity for exposure assessment across studies, further prospective researches are warranted to verify these findings.

  19. A genetic study and meta-analysis of the genetic predisposition of prostate cancer in a Chinese population

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Shan-Chao; Ren, Guoping; Yu, Yongwei; Wu, Yudong; Wu, Ji; Xue, Yao; Zhou, Bo; Zhang, Yanling; Xu, Xingxing; Li, Jie; He, Weiyang; Benlloch, Sara; Ross-Adams, Helen; Chen, Li; Li, Jucong; Hong, Yingqia; Kote-Jarai, Zsofia; Cui, Xingang; Hou, Jianguo; Guo, Jianming; Xu, Lei; Yin, Changjun; Zhou, Yuanping; Neal, David E.; Oliver, Tim; Cao, Guangwen; Zhang, Zhengdong; Easton, Douglas F.; Chelala, Claude; Olama, Ali Amin Al; Eeles, Rosalind A.; Zhang, Hongwei; Lu, Yong-Jie

    2016-01-01

    Prostate cancer predisposition has been extensively investigated in European populations, but there have been few studies of other ethnic groups. To investigate prostate cancer susceptibility in the under-investigated Chinese population, we performed single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array analysis on a cohort of Chinese cases and controls and then meta-analysis with data from the existing Chinese prostate cancer genome-wide association study (GWAS). Genotyping 211,155 SNPs in 495 cases and 640 controls of Chinese ancestry identified several new suggestive Chinese prostate cancer predisposition loci. However, none of them reached genome-wide significance level either by meta-analysis or replication study. The meta-analysis with the Chinese GWAS data revealed that four 8q24 loci are the main contributors to Chinese prostate cancer risk and the risk alleles from three of them exist at much higher frequencies in Chinese than European populations. We also found that several predisposition loci reported in Western populations have different effect on Chinese men. Therefore, this first extensive single-nucleotide polymorphism study of Chinese prostate cancer in comparison with European population indicates that four loci on 8q24 contribute to a great risk of prostate cancer in a considerable large proportion of Chinese men. Based on those four loci, the top 10% of the population have six- or two-fold prostate cancer risk compared with men of the bottom 10% or median risk respectively, which may facilitate the design of prostate cancer genetic risk screening and prevention in Chinese men. These findings also provide additional insights into the etiology and pathogenesis of prostate cancer. PMID:26881390

  20. Systematic review and meta-analysis of sutures coated with triclosan for the prevention of surgical site infection after elective colorectal surgery according to the PRISMA statement

    PubMed Central

    Sandini, Marta; Mattavelli, Ilaria; Nespoli, Luca; Uggeri, Fabio; Gianotti, Luca

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Several randomized clinical trials (RCTs) conducted to evaluate the effect of triclosan-coated suture on surgical site infection (SSI) yield to controversial results. The primary purpose of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to analyze the available RCTs, comparing the effect of triclosan-coated suture with uncoated suture on the incidence of SSI after elective colorectal operations. As secondary endpoint of the analysis, we considered length of hospital stay after surgery. Methods: We performed a systematic literature review through Medline, Embase, Pubmed, Scopus, Ovid, ISI Web of Science, and the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register searching for RCTs published from 1990 to 2015. To conduct these meta-analyses, we followed the guidelines and the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses statement. Study inclusion criteria were as follows: parallel-group RCTs in adult populations reporting the closure of the abdominal wall after elective colorectal operation with triclosan-coated suture or noncoated suture, and reporting the outcomes considered in the meta-analysis. Results: Six trials including 2168 patients (1102 treated and 1066 controls) provided data on SSIs. The overall rate was 11.7% (129/1102) in the triclosan group and 13.4% (143/1066) in the control group (odds ratio 0.81, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.58–1.13, P = 0.220). Heterogeneity among studies was moderate (I2 = 44.9%). No evidence of publication bias was detectable. Five RCTs (1783 patients; 914 treated and 689 controls) described hospital length of stay with no significant effect (mean difference: −0.02, 95% CI −0.11 to −0.07, P = 0.668). The I2 test for heterogeneity was 0% (P = 0.836). Moderator analyses showed no significant differences were detected in analyses comparing the suture materials (polydioxanone vs polyglactin). In open-label trials, the odds ratio for SSI risk was 0.62 (95% CI 0.20–1.93, P = 0

  1. Dietary Fat Intake and Risk of Gastric Cancer: A Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiao; Meng, Qingyang; Xi, Qiulei; Zhuang, Qiulin; Han, Yusong; Gao, Ying; Ding, Qiurong; Wu, Guohao

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives Consumption of dietary fat has been reported to be associated with gastric cancer risk, but the results of epidemiologic studies remain inconsistent. We conducted a meta-analysis to summarize the evidence regarding the association between dietary fat intake and gastric cancer risk. Methods A comprehensive search of PubMed and EMBASE was performed to identify observational studies providing quantitative estimates between dietary fat and gastric cancer risk. Random effects model was used to calculate the summary relative risk(SRR) in the highest versus lowest analysis. Categorical dose-response analysis was conducted to quantify the association between dietary fat intake and gastric cancer risk. Heterogeneity among studies was evaluated using I2 and tau2(between study variance)statistics. Subgroup analysis and publication bias analysis were also performed. Results Twenty-two articles were included in the meta-analysis. The SRR for gastric cancer was 1.18 for individuals with highest intake versus lowest intake of total fat (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.999–1.39; n = 28; P< 0.001; tau2 = 0.12; I2 = 69.5%, 95% CI: 55%-79%) and 1.08 with a daily increase in total fat intake (20 g/d) (95%CI: 1.02–1.14; n = 6; P = 0.09; tau2 = 0.002; I2 = 46.8%, 95% CI: 0%-79%). Positive association between saturated fat intake (SRR = 1.31; 95%CI: 1.09–1.58;n = 18;P<0.001; tau2 = 0.08; I2 = 60.6%, 95% CI: 34%-76%), inverse association between polyunsaturated fat intake (SRR = 0.77; 95%CI: 0.65–0.92; n = 16; P = 0.003; tau2 = 0.06; I2 = 56.2%, 95% CI: 23%-75%) and vegetable fat intake (SRR = 0.55; 95%CI: 0.41–0.74; n = 4;P = 0.12; tau2 = 0.04; I2 = 48.6%, 95% CI: 0%-83%), and no association between monounsaturated fat intake (SRR = 1.00; 95%CI: 0.79–1.25; n = 14; P< 0.001; tau2 = 0.10; I2 = 63.0%, 95% CI: 34%-79%) and animal fat intake (SRR = 1.10; 95%CI: 0.90–1.33; n = 6; P = 0.13;tau2 = 0.02; I2 = 42.0%, 95% CI: 0%-70%) and gastric cancer risk

  2. Reduced risk of prostate cancer in childless men as compared to fathers: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Yeqing; Xu, Xin; Zheng, Xiangyi; Xie, Liping

    2016-01-01

    The previously reported association between fatherhood status and prostate cancer risk was controversial. We carried out the present meta-analysis of all relevant studies to summarize evidence on this association. A comprehensive literature search of studies was performed in PubMed, Web of Science, and the Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) databases, covering all the papers published from their inception to September 2015. The combined risk estimates with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using a random effects model. Heterogeneity and publication bias were also evaluated. A total of 11 studies were finally included in this meta-analysis. We found a significantly reduced risk of prostate cancer associated with being childless (OR 0.91, 95% CI 0.87–0.96). There was statistically significant heterogeneity across the studies (P < 0.001, I2 = 88.2%). In summary, this meta-analysis supports that being fatherless is associated with a lower risk of prostate cancer. Because of the substantial heterogeneity and residual confounding, using other study designs to further explore this association and the underling mechanism is warranted. PMID:26752096

  3. Prognostic value of wingless-type proteins in non-small cell lung cancer patients: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Jiajia; Zhan, Ping; Qian, Hong; Wang, Xiaoxia; Katoh, Masaru; Phan, Kevin; Chung, Jin-Haeng

    2016-01-01

    Background Wingless-type protein (Wnt) signaling pathway plays a crucial role in the development of human malignancies, such as epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and the maintenance of cancer stem cells (CSCs). Several studies have shown that the expression levels of Wnt proteins, ligands of Wnt signaling pathway, are related to clinical outcomes of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. This meta-analysis aimed to assess the prognostic value of Wnts proteins in patients with NSCLC. Methods A multiple electronic literature search was conducted to identify all articles referring to the prognostic value of Wnt proteins in patients of NSCLC up to July 2016. Eligible studies were included in a meta-analysis in order to summarize the extracted data in terms of pooled hazard ratios (HRs) and their 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). Results Ten studies published between 2005 and 2015 were eligible for this meta-analysis. The total number of patients included was 1,805. The combined HR for all eligible studies evaluating the overall survival (OS) of NSCLC patients with positive Wnt expression was 1.60 (95% CI: 1.39–1.84). The subgroup analysis showed both Wnt1 and Wnt5a are associated with clinical outcome of NSCLC patients. Conclusions Overexpression of Wnt proteins, as well as Wnt1 or Wnt5a alone, was markedly associated with adverse OS in lung cancer patients, suggesting that Wnts may act as a prognostic marker among NSCLCs. PMID:27652206

  4. Systematic review and meta-analysis of uniportal versus multiportal video-assisted thoracoscopic lobectomy for lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Christopher G.; James, Rebecca S.; Tian, David H.; Yan, Tristan D.; Doyle, Mathew P.; Gonzalez-Rivas, Diego

    2016-01-01

    Background Uniportal video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) has emerged as a less invasive alternative to the conventional multiportal approach in the treatment of lung cancer. The benefits of this uniportal technique have not yet been characterized in patients undergoing VATS lobectomy. This meta-analysis aimed to compare the clinical outcomes of uniportal and multiportal VATS lobectomy for patients with lung cancer. Methods A systematic review was conducted using seven electronic databases. Endpoints for analysis included perioperative mortality and morbidity, operative time, length of hospital stay, perioperative blood loss, duration of postoperative drainage and rates of conversion to open thoracotomy. Results Eight relevant observational studies were identified and included for meta-analysis. Results demonstrated a statistically significant reduction in the overall rate of complications, length of hospital stay and duration of postoperative drainage for patients who underwent uniportal VATS lobectomy. There were no significant differences between the two treatment groups in regard to mortality, operative time, perioperative blood loss and rate of conversion to open thoracotomy. Conclusions The present meta-analysis demonstrated favourable outcomes for uniportal VATS lobectomy in the treatment of lung cancer compared to the conventional multiportal approach. However, long-term follow-up data is still needed to further characterize the benefits of the uniportal approach. PMID:27134832

  5. Prognostic value of wingless-type proteins in non-small cell lung cancer patients: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Jiajia; Zhan, Ping; Qian, Hong; Wang, Xiaoxia; Katoh, Masaru; Phan, Kevin; Chung, Jin-Haeng

    2016-01-01

    Background Wingless-type protein (Wnt) signaling pathway plays a crucial role in the development of human malignancies, such as epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and the maintenance of cancer stem cells (CSCs). Several studies have shown that the expression levels of Wnt proteins, ligands of Wnt signaling pathway, are related to clinical outcomes of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. This meta-analysis aimed to assess the prognostic value of Wnts proteins in patients with NSCLC. Methods A multiple electronic literature search was conducted to identify all articles referring to the prognostic value of Wnt proteins in patients of NSCLC up to July 2016. Eligible studies were included in a meta-analysis in order to summarize the extracted data in terms of pooled hazard ratios (HRs) and their 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). Results Ten studies published between 2005 and 2015 were eligible for this meta-analysis. The total number of patients included was 1,805. The combined HR for all eligible studies evaluating the overall survival (OS) of NSCLC patients with positive Wnt expression was 1.60 (95% CI: 1.39–1.84). The subgroup analysis showed both Wnt1 and Wnt5a are associated with clinical outcome of NSCLC patients. Conclusions Overexpression of Wnt proteins, as well as Wnt1 or Wnt5a alone, was markedly associated with adverse OS in lung cancer patients, suggesting that Wnts may act as a prognostic marker among NSCLCs.

  6. ESR1 Gene Polymorphisms and Prostate Cancer Risk: A HuGE Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yu-Mei; Liu, Zu-Wang; Guo, Jing-Bo; Wang, Xiao-Fang; Zhao, Xin-Xin; Zheng, Xuan

    2013-01-01

    Background Many published data on the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the ESR1 gene and prostate cancer susceptibility are inconclusive. The aim of this Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) review and meta-analysis is to derive a more precise estimation of this relationship. Methods A literature search of PubMed, Embase, Web of Science and Chinese Biomedical (CBM) databases was conducted from their inception through July 1st, 2012. Crude odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated to assess the strength of association. Results Twelve case-control studies were included with a total 2,165 prostate cancer cases and 3,361 healthy controls. When all the eligible studies were pooled into the meta-analysis, ESR1 PvuII (C>T) and XbaI (A>G) polymorphisms showed no association with the risk of prostate cancer. However, in the stratified analyses based on ethnicity and country, the results indicated that ESR1 PvuII (C>T) polymorphism was significantly associated with increased risk of prostate cancer among Asian populations, especially among Indian population; while ESR1 XbaI (A>G) polymorphism may significantly increase the risk of prostate cancer among American population. Furthermore, we also performed a pooled analysis for all eligible case-control studies to explore the role of codon 10 (T>C), codon 325 (C>G), codon 594 (G>A) and +261G>C polymorphisms in prostate cancer risk. Nevertheless, no significant associations between these polymorphisms and the risk of prostate cancer were observed. Conclusion Results from the current meta-analysis indicate that ESR1 PvuII (C>T) polymorphism may be a risk factor for prostate cancer among Asian populations, especially among Indian population; while ESR1 XbaI (A>G) polymorphism may increase the risk of prostate cancer among American population. PMID:23805288

  7. Effect of COX-2 inhibitors and other non-steroidal inflammatory drugs on breast cancer risk: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    de Pedro, María; Baeza, Sara; Escudero, María-Teresa; Dierssen-Sotos, Trinidad; Gómez-Acebo, Inés; Pollán, Marina; Llorca, Javier

    2015-01-01

    Evidence on non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) use and breast cancer risk shows a slightly protective effect of these drugs, but previous studies lack randomized clinical trial results and present high heterogeneity in exposure measurement. This systematic review and meta-analysis widens the knowledge about NSAID use and breast cancer risk, updating the information from the last meta-analysis, focusing on evidence on specific effects of COX-2 inhibitors and differential expression patterns of hormonal receptors. A PubMed-database search was conducted to include all entries published with the keywords "BREAST CANCER NSAID ANTI-INFLAMMATORY" until 10/24/2013 providing original results from cohort studies, case-control studies, or randomized clinical trials with at least one reported relative risk (RR) or odds ratio (OR) on the association between any NSAID use and incidence of invasive breast cancer. This resulted in 49 publications, from which the information was retrieved about type of study, exposure characteristics, breast cancer characteristics, and breast cancer-NSAID association. Meta-analyses were performed separately for case-control and cohort studies and for different hormone-receptor status. NSAID use reduced invasive breast cancer risk by about 20 %. A similar effect was found for aspirin, acetaminophen, COX-2 inhibitors and, to a lesser extent, ibuprofen. The effect of aspirin was similar in preventing hormone-receptor-positive breast cancer. This meta-analysis suggests a slightly protective effect of NSAIDs-especially aspirin and COX-2 inhibitors- against breast cancer, which seems to be restricted to ER/PR+tumors.

  8. Computational Identification of Novel Stage-Specific Biomarkers in Colorectal Cancer Progression

    PubMed Central

    Palaniappan, Ashok; Ramar, Karthick; Ramalingam, Satish

    2016-01-01

    It is well-known that the conversion of normal colon epithelium to adenoma and then to carcinoma stems from acquired molecular changes in the genome. The genetic basis of colorectal cancer has been elucidated to a certain extent, and much remains to be known about the identity of specific cancer genes that are associated with the advancement of colorectal cancer from one stage to the next. Here in this study we attempted to identify novel cancer genes that could underlie the stage-specific progression and metastasis of colorectal cancer. We conducted a stage-based meta-analysis of the voluminous tumor genome-sequencing data and mined using multiple approaches for novel genes driving the progression to stage-II, stage-III and stage-IV colorectal cancer. The consensus of these driver genes seeded the construction of stage-specific networks, which were then analyzed for the centrality of genes, clustering of subnetworks, and enrichment of gene-ontology processes. Our study identified three novel driver genes as hubs for stage-II progression: DYNC1H1, GRIN2A, GRM1. Four novel driver genes were identified as hubs for stage-III progression: IGF1R, CPS1, SPTA1, DSP. Three novel driver genes were identified as hubs for stage-IV progression: GSK3B, GGT1, EIF2B5. We also identified several non-driver genes that appeared to underscore the progression of colorectal cancer. Our study yielded potential diagnostic biomarkers for colorectal cancer as well as novel stage-specific drug targets for rational intervention. Our methodology is extendable to the analysis of other types of cancer to fill the gaps in our knowledge. PMID:27243824

  9. Pruritus in Patients Treated with Targeted Cancer Therapies: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ensslin, Courtney J; Rosen, Alyx C; Wu, Shenhong; Lacouture, Mario E

    2014-01-01

    Background Pruritus has been anecdotally described in association with targeted cancer therapies. The risk of pruritus has not been systematically ascertained. Objective A systematic review and meta-analysis of the literature was conducted for axitinib, cetuximab, dasatinib, erlotinib, everolimus, gefitinib, imatinib, ipilimumab, lapatinib, nilotinib, panitumumab, pazopanib, rituximab, sorafenib, temsirolimus, tositumomab, vandetanib, and vemurafenib. Methods Databases from PubMed, Web of Science (01/1998–07/2012), and American Society of Clinical Oncology abstracts (2004–2012) were searched. Incidence and risk (RR) of pruritus were calculated using random or fixed effects model. Results The incidences of all-grade and high-grade pruritus were 17.4% (95% confidence interval (CI): 16.0%−19.0%) and 1.4% (95% CI: 1.2%−1.6%), respectively. There was an increased risk of all-grade pruritus (RR=2.90 (95% CI: 1.76–4.77, p<0.001)); and variation among different drugs (P<0.001). Limitations The reporting of pruritus may vary, resulting from concomitant medications, comorbidities, and underlying malignancies. We found a higher incidence of pruritus in patients with solid tumors, concordant with those targeted therapies with the highest pruritus incidences. Conclusion There is a significant risk of developing pruritus in patients receiving targeted therapies. In order to prevent suboptimal dosing and decreased quality of life, patients should be counseled and treated against this untoward symptom. PMID:23981682

  10. Pickled vegetables and the risk of oesophageal cancer: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Islami, F; Ren, J-S; Taylor, P R; Kamangar, F

    2009-01-01

    Background: Ecological and experimental studies have suggested a relationship between Asian pickled vegetable consumption and oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), but the results of epidemiological studies investigating the association have been inconsistent. We conducted a meta-analysis of observational studies of this association to evaluate the existing evidence. Methods: We searched the PubMed, ISI-Web of Science, J-EAST, IndMed, Vip Chinese Periodical, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure databases for all studies published in English or Chinese languages. Pooled results for all studies combined and for several study subgroups were computed. Results: A total of 34 studies were included in this analysis. The overall random effects odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for pickled vegetable consumption was 2.08 (1.66–2.60), but the results were heterogeneous across studies. After excluding the three most influential studies, the respective numbers were 2.32 (1.92–2.81). Similar to the overall association, the majority of subgroup analyses showed a statistically significant association between consuming pickled vegetables and OSCC risk. There were only three prospective studies. Conclusion: Our results suggest a potential two-fold increased risk of oesophageal cancer associated with the intake of pickled vegetables. However, because the majority of data was from retrospective studies and there was a high heterogeneity in the results, further well-designed prospective studies are warranted. PMID:19862003

  11. Intermittent hormone therapy versus continuous hormone therapy for locally advanced prostate cancer: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Dong, ZhiLong; Wang, Hanzhang; Xu, MengMeng; Li, Yang; Hou, MingLi; Wei, YanLing; Liu, Xingchen; Wang, ZhiPing; Xie, XiaoDong

    2015-01-01

    Few randomized studies have compared intermittent hormone therapy (IHT) with continuous hormone therapy (CHT) for the treatment of locally advanced prostate cancer (PCa). Here, we report the results of a meta-analysis of a randomized controlled trial, evaluating the effectiveness of IHT versus CHT for patients with locally advanced PCa. Types of intervention were IHT versus CHT. The primary endpoint of this study is overall mortality and the secondary endpoints are any progression of disease, quality of life (QOL) and adverse effects between two groups. Six randomized controlled trials totaling 2996 patients were included. Results are as follows: after hormone therapy, patients undergoing IHT demonstrated no significant difference from those undergoing CHT in terms of the overall mortality (OR = 1.0, 95% CI [0.86, 1.17]) and disease progression (OR = 1.16, 95% CI [0.86, 1.57]). Men treated with IHT also reported better QOL, fewer adverse effects and considerable economic benefit for the individual and the community. With no difference in overall mortality and incidence of progression, current clinical studies confirm that both therapeutic methods were safe and effective. However, our study also takes into account QOL. When these secondary measures are considered, IHT may be a better option over CHT as patients report a more affordable treatment with improved QOL and fewer adverse effects.

  12. Adoptive immunotherapy combined chemoradiotherapy for non-small-cell lung cancer: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Qian, Haili; Wang, Haijuan; Guan, Xiuwen; Yi, Zongbi; Ma, Fei

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the efficacies between adoptive immunotherapy combined chemoradiotherapy and chemoradiotherapy alone in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The databases PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane database were searched to identify eligible clinical trials. Data analyses were carried out using a comprehensive meta-analysis program, version 2 software. A total of seven articles were finally included in the analysis. Meta-analyses showed that compared with chemoradiotherapy alone, adoptive immunotherapy combined with chemoradiotherapy could improve the 2-year overall survival [odds ratio (OR)=2.45, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.60-3.75, P<0.001], but not 2-year progression-free survival (OR=1.81, 95% CI: 0.61-5.36, P=0.284). Specifically, early (OR=3.32, 95% CI: 1.38-7.95, P<0.01) but not advanced (OR=3.75, 95% CI: 0.96-14.68, P=0.057) NSCLC patients were likely to gain a large benefit from the adoptive immunotherapy. Most of the adoptive immunotherapy-induced adverse effects were self-limited, mainly including fever, shiver, nausea, fatigue, etc. and severe toxicities were not observed. Adoptive immunotherapy combined with chemoradiotherapy can delay the recurrence of NSCLC and improve survival in patients, where the benefits are even more significant in patients with early-stage NSCLC. PMID:26872311

  13. Meta-analysis of studies using statins as a reducer for primary liver cancer risk

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Guo-Chao; Liu, Yan; Ye, Yuan-Yuan; Hao, Fa-Bao; Wang, Kang; Gong, Jian-Ping

    2016-01-01

    A protective effect of statins on primary liver cancer (PLC) risk has been suggested. However, issues about the dose–response relationship, the protective effect of individual statins, and PLC risk reduction among at-risk populations remain unsolved. Therefore, a meta-analysis was conducted. PubMed and EMBASE were searched for studies providing the risk ratio (RR) on statins and PLC risk. Summary RRs were calculated using a random-effects model. Twenty-five studies were identified. Stain use was significantly associated with a reduced risk of PLC (RR = 0.60, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.53–0.69). The summary RR for every additional 50 cumulative defined daily doses per year was 0.87 (95% CI = 0.83–0.91). Evidence of a non-linear dose–response relationship between statins and PLC risk was found (Pnon-linearity < 0.01). All individual statins significantly reduced PLC risk, and the risk reduction was more evident with rosuvastatin. The inverse association between statins and PLC risk remained among populations with common risk factors. Subgroup analyses revealed more significant reduction in PLC risk by statins in high- versus non-high-risk populations (Pinteraction = 0.02). Overall, these findings add to our understanding of the association between statins and PLC risk. Whether statin use is causally associated with a reduced risk of PLC should be further studied. PMID:27198922

  14. Association of the TP53 codon 72 polymorphism and breast cancer risk: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Meire Luzia; Borja, Sarah Moreira; Cordeiro, Jacqueline Andréia Bernardes Leão; Saddi, Vera Aparecida; Ayres, Flávio Monteiro; Vilanova-Costa, Cesar Augusto Sam Tiago; Silva, Antonio Márcio Teodoro Cordeiro

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted in order to investigate the implications of the R72P polymorphism in the TP53 gene in breast cancer risk. The enlightenment of this matter might provide a piece of information about the potential implications of this polymorphism in patient risk. A meta-analysis was conducted considering a large sample size from studies with conflicting results on the R72P polymorphism in breast cancer patients. Relevant studies were selected from PubMed and SciELO databases for data extraction and statistical analysis. Database was built according to the continent and considering the genotype frequencies, sample size and genotyping methodology. The dominant models (RR vs RP + PP and RR + RP vs. PP), homozygous (RR vs. PP), heterozygous (RR vs. RP and RP vs. PP) and the allele (R vs. P) were used. Genotype frequencies were summarized and evaluated by χ(2) test of heterogeneity in 2×2 contingency tables with 95% CIs. Odds Ratios (OR) were calculated with a fixed-effect model (Mantel-Haenszel) or a random-effect model (DerSimonian-Laird) if the studies were considered homogeneous (P > 0.05) or heterogeneous (P < 0.05), respectively, using BioEstat® 5.0 software. Supported by a large sample size composed by 25,629 cases and 26,633 controls from 41 studies, we found significant association between the R72P polymorphism in the TP53 gene and the breast cancer risk. The overall data shows an increased risk due to the P allele dominant model, but not in Asia where the risk was associated with the R allele and R dominant model.

  15. Staging accuracy of esophageal cancer by endoscopic ultrasound: A meta-analysis and systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Puli, Srinivas R; Reddy, Jyotsna BK; Bechtold, Matthew L; Antillon, Daphne; Ibdah, Jamal A; Antillon, Mainor R

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the accuracy of endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) in the staging of esophageal cancer. METHODS: Only EUS studies confirmed by surgery were selected. Articles were searched in Medline and Pubmed. Two reviewers independently searched and extracted data. Meta-analysis of the accuracy of EUS was analyzed by calculating pooled estimates of sensitivity, specificity, likelihood ratios, and diagnostic odds ratio. Pooling was conducted by both the Mantel-Haenszel method (fixed effects model) and DerSimonian Laird method (random effects model). The heterogeneity of studies was tested using Cochran’s Q test based upon inverse variance weights. RESULTS: Forty-nine studies (n = 2558) which met the inclusion criteria were included in this analysis. Pooled sensitivity and specificity of EUS to diagnose T1 was 81.6% (95% CI: 77.8-84.9) and 99.4% (95% CI: 99.0-99.7), respectively. To diagnose T4, EUS had a pooled sensitivity of 92.4% (95% CI: 89.2-95.0) and specificity of 97.4% (95% CI: 96.6-98.0). With Fine Needle Aspiration (FNA), sensitivity of EUS to diagnose N stage improved from 84.7% (95% CI: 82.9-86.4) to 96.7% (95% CI: 92.4-98.9). The P value for the χ2 test of heterogeneity for all pooled estimates was > 0.10. CONCLUSION: EUS has excellent sensitivity and specificity in accurately diagnosing the TN stage of esophageal cancer. EUS performs better with advanced (T4) than early (T1) disease. FNA substantially improves the sensitivity and specificity of EUS in evaluating N stage disease. EUS should be strongly considered for staging esophageal cancer. PMID:18330935

  16. Association between physical activity and all cancer mortality: Dose-response meta-analysis of cohort studies.

    PubMed

    Li, Yingjun; Gu, Mengjia; Jing, Fangyuan; Cai, Shaofang; Bao, Chengzhen; Wang, Jianbing; Jin, Mingjuan; Chen, Kun

    2016-02-15

    The relationship between physical activity (PA) before cancer diagnosis and all cancer mortality among the general population is not well defined because of inconsistent results from published studies. Thus, the lack of a meta-analysis that addresses that issue prompted the current report. We conducted a literature search of PubMed and Web of Science to identify all relevant epidemiological studies published before February 28, 2015. We performed categorical and dose-response meta-analyses to evaluate and quantify the association between pre-diagnosis PA and all cancer mortality. A total of 32 prospective cohort studies involving 59,362 cancer deaths were included in this meta-analysis. The pooled relative risks (RRs) of all cancer mortality were 0.80 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.76-0.85)] for highest versus lowest PA group and 0.85 (95% CI = 0.82-0.88) for PA versus non/occasional PA group. Dose-response analysis showed that the increment in pre-diagnosis PA level was associated with a decreased risk of cancer death continuously. Moreover, an increment of 10 MET-h/week was related to a 7% lower risk for all cancer mortality (RR = 0.93, 95% CI = 0.91-0.95). In conclusion, the present meta-analysis provides evidence of an inverse association between pre-diagnosis PA and all cancer mortality among the general population. High-quality epidemiological studies that employ standardized PA assessments and unified definitions of PA levels should be developed in future.

  17. Efficacy of Vitamin and Antioxidant Supplements in Prevention of Esophageal Cancer: Meta-analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Myung, Seung-Kwon; Yang, Hyo Jin

    2013-01-01

    Background: Observational epidemiological studies have shown that higher intakes of vitamins or antioxidants were inversely associated with the risk of esophageal cancer. However, randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have reported no preventive efficacy of vitamin or antioxidant supplements on esophageal cancer. This meta-analysis aimed to investigate the efficacy of vitamin and antioxidant supplements in the prevention of esophageal cancer as reported by RCTs. Methods: We searched PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library in May 2013. Two authors independently reviewed and selected eligible articles based on predetermined selection criteria. Results: Of 171 articles searched from three databases and relevant bibliographies, 10 RCTs were included in the final analyses. In a fixed-effect meta-analysis of 10 trials, there was no efficacy of vitamin and antioxidant supplements in the prevention of esophageal cancer (relative risk [RR], 1.04; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.86–1.25; I2=0.0%). Also, subgroup meta-analyses showed that vitamin and antioxidant supplements had no preventive efficacy on esophageal cancer both in the high risk (RR, 1.04; 95% CI, 0.85–1.28; n=4) and non-high risk (RR, 1.01; 95% CI, 0.65–1.56; n=6) groups for esophageal cancer. Further, subgroup meta-analyses revealed no preventive efficacy on esophageal cancer by type of methodological quality and type of vitamin and antioxidant supplements. Conclusions: Unlike observational epidemiological studies, this meta-analysis of RCTs suggests that there is no clinical evidence to support the efficacy of vitamin and antioxidant supplements in the prevention of esophageal cancer. PMID:25337539

  18. Dependence receptors and colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Mehlen, Patrick; Tauszig-Delamasure, Servane

    2014-11-01

    The research on colorectal cancer (CRC) biology has been leading the oncology field since the early 1990s. The search for genetic alterations has allowed the identification of the main tumour suppressors or oncogenes. Recent work obtained in CRC has unexpectedly proposed the existence of novel category of tumour suppressors, the so-called 'dependence receptors'. These transmembrane receptors behave as Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde with two opposite sides: they induce a positive signalling (survival, proliferation, differentiation) in presence of their ligand, but are not inactive in the absence of their ligand and rather trigger apoptosis when unbound. This trait confers them a conditional tumour suppressor activity: they eliminate cells that grow abnormally in an environment offering a limited quantity of ligand. This review will describe how receptors such as deleted in colorectal carcinoma (DCC), uncoordinated 5 (UNC5), rearranged during transfection (RET) or TrkC constrain CRC progression and how this dependence receptor paradigm may open up therapeutical perspectives. PMID:25163468

  19. Tests to Detect Colorectal Cancer and Polyps

    MedlinePlus

    ... be acceptable screening tests for colorectal cancer: High-sensitivity fecal occult blood tests (FOBT). Both polyps and ... higher than that of gFOBT or FIT. Test sensitivity for adenomas is low. False-positive test results ...

  20. TAS-102 for Metastatic Colorectal Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    A summary of results from an international phase III trial that compared TAS-102 with placebo in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer whose disease progressed following prior treatments or who had health conditions that prevented the re-administrati

  1. Angiotensin-converting enzyme insertion/deletion polymorphism and gastric cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Gan, Lu; Liu, Xinyang; Wu, Zhenhua; Huang, Mingzu; Zhang, Xiaowei; Guo, Weijian

    2015-01-01

    Previous case-control studies on the association of the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism with gastric cancer were controversial. A meta-analysis was conducted to further evaluate the association between polymorphism in the ACE gene I/D and gastric cancer. We searched MEDLINE (PubMed), EMBASE, Web of Science, and CBM without language restrictions to Nov 20, 2014. Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to assess the strength of association. Eight studies involving 1480 gastric cancer cases and 3773 cancer-free controls were included. Overall, no significant association between ACE I/D polymorphism and gastric cancer risk was observed (OR = 1.15; 95% CI 0.90-1.46, P = 0.26). The subgroup analysis on the basis of H. Pylori status showed the decreased gastric cancer risk in H. Pylori negative subgroup (OR = 0.40; 95% CI: 0.27-0.59; P < 0.00001) rather than in H. Pylori positive subgroup (OR = 1.82, 95% CI: 0.87-3.82, P = 0.11). Subgroup analysis was performed according to ethnicity (Caucasian and Asian). The results showed no genetic effects between ACE I/D polymorphism and gastric cancer risk. This meta-analysis suggested that the ACE gene I/D polymorphism was associated gastric cancer risk in H. Pylori negative subjects. PMID:26131166

  2. Diet, microbiota, and colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Akin, Hakan; Tözün, Nurdan

    2014-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer in the world causing nearly 500,000 deaths every year. In addition to genetic background, environmental factors including diet and lifestyle are accepted as major contributors to adenoma and CRC development. Lifestyle factors include high BMI, obesity, and reduced physical activity. Growing interest and accumulating data on human microbiota implicate that host-microbe interplay has an important role in the development of metabolic, neoplastic, and inflammatory diseases. Findings from recent studies suggest that colon cancer risk is determined by the interaction between diet and gut microbiota. Dietary changes affect gut microbiota and conversely microbiota mediates the generation of dietary factors triggering colon cancer. Identification of the microbial communities associated with carcinogenesis is of crucial importance. Nowadays, with the evolvement of culture-independent molecular techniques, it has become possible to identify main bacterial species in healthy individuals, inflammatory conditions, and CRC. Some recent studies have shown the differences in intestinal microbiota between colon cancer patients and healthy individuals. Animal studies have provided a better understanding of interaction between pathobionts and symbionts in the development of colon cancer. There is no single causative organism identified in CRC; however, there is strong evidence that reduction of protective bacteria, increase in some bacteria (ie, fusobacterium members; Bacteroides/Prevotella), and age-related changes in microbiota have an impact on adenoma or cancer development. Future studies will enable us to understand procarcinogenic and anticarcinogenic mechanisms and give insights to rational manipulation of the microbiota with prebiotics, probiotics, or dietary modifications. PMID:25291132

  3. The stability of colorectal cancer mathematical models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khairudin, Nur Izzati; Abdullah, Farah Aini

    2013-04-01

    Colorectal cancer is one of the most common types of cancer. To better understand about the kinetics of cancer growth, mathematical models are used to provide insight into the progression of this natural process which enables physicians and oncologists to determine optimal radiation and chemotherapy schedules and develop a prognosis, both of which are indispensable for treating cancer. This thesis investigates the stability of colorectal cancer mathematical models. We found that continuous saturating feedback is the best available model of colorectal cancer growth. We also performed stability analysis. The result shows that cancer progress in sequence of genetic mutations or epigenetic which lead to a very large number of cells population until become unbounded. The cell population growth initiate and its saturating feedback is overcome when mutation changes causing the net per-capita growth rate of stem or transit cells exceed critical threshold.

  4. Abdominal metastases from colorectal cancer: intraperitoneal therapy

    PubMed Central

    Guend, Hamza; Patel, Sunil

    2015-01-01

    Patients with peritoneal metastasis from colorectal cancer represent a distinct subset with regional disease rather than systemic disease. They often have poorer survival outcomes with systemic chemotherapy. Optimal cytoreductive surgery and intraperitoneal chemotherapy (IPC) offers such patients a more directed therapy with improved survival. In this review, we discuss the diagnosis, evaluation and classification, as well as rational for treatment of peritoneal carcinomatosis (PC) secondary to colorectal cancer. PMID:26697203

  5. Common Polymorphisms in the NFKBIA Gene and Cancer Susceptibility: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Meng; Huang, Junjie; Tan, Xiuxiu; Bai, Jian; Wang, Hao; Ge, Yukun; Xiong, Hu; Shi, Jizhou; Lu, Wei; Lv, Zhaojie; Liang, Chaozhao

    2015-01-01

    Background NFKBIA encodes the inhibitors of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), which regulate the translation of the genes involved in the inflammatory and immune reactions. Polymorphisms (rs2233406, rs3138053, and rs696) of NFKBIA have been implicated in susceptibility to many cancer types. Material/Methods To evaluate the association between polymorphisms of NFKBIA and cancer susceptibility, a meta-analysis including a total of 7182 cancer cases and 10 057 controls from 28 case-control studies was performed. Data were extracted and pooled odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. Results Combined data demonstrated that rs3138053 polymorphism of NFKBIA was associated with cancer susceptibility in an allelic model (C vs. T: OR=10.754, 95%CI=4.175–27.697, Pheterogeneity=0.000), while the polymorphism of rs696 appeared to play a protective role in tumorigenesis (CC+CT vs. TT: OR=0.879, 95%CI=0.787–0.982, Pheterogeneity=0.107). When stratification analysis was performed by cancer type, an increased association of rs3138053 was recognized in hepatocarcinoma (C vs. T: OR=42.180, 95%CI=27.970–63.612, Pheterogeneity=0.007), while a decreased association of rs696 was identified in Hodgkin lymphoma (C vs. T: OR=0.792, 95%CI=0.656–0.956, Pheterogeneity=0.116; CC vs. TT: OR=0.658, 95%CI=0.448–0.965, Pheterogeneity=0.076; CC vs. CT+TT: OR=0.734, 95%CI=0.562–0.958, Pheterogeneity=0.347). By ethnicity, rs696 appears to be a protective candidate among Caucasians (CT vs. TT: OR=0.809, 95%CI=0.676–0.969, Pheterogeneity=0.459). Conclusions Our data demonstrated that the rs3138053 polymorphism of NFKBIA gene is a candidate for susceptibility to overall cancers, while rs696 plays a protective role. PMID:26488500

  6. Diagnostic Performance of Indocyanine Green-Guided Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy in Breast Cancer: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yidong; Mao, Feng; Lin, Yan; Guan, Jinghong; Sun, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    Background The diagnostic performance of indocyanine green (ICG) fluorescence-guided sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) for the presence of metastases in breast cancer remains unclear. Objective We performed a meta-analysis to investigate the diagnostic performance of ICG-guided SLNB. Methods Eligible studies were identified from searches of the databases PubMed and EMBASE up to September 2015. Studies that reported the detection rate of ICG fluorescence-guided SLNB with full axillary lymph node dissection and histological or immunohistochemical examinations were included. A meta-analysis was performed to generate pooled detection rate, sensitivity, specificity, false negative rate, diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) and a summary receiver operator characteristic curve (SROC). Results Nineteen published studies were included to generate a pooled detection rate, comprising 2594 patients. The pooled detection rate was 0.98 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.96–0.99). Six studies finally met the criteria for meta-analysis, which yielded a pooled sensitivity of 0.92 (95% CI, 0.85–0.96), specificity 1 (95% CI, 0.97–1), and DOR 311.47 (95% CI, 84.11–1153.39). The area under the SROC was 0.9758. No publication bias was found. Conclusion ICG fluorescence-guided SLNB is viable for detection of lymph node metastases in breast cancer. Large-scale randomized multi-center trials are necessary to confirm our results. PMID:27280407

  7. Eight Functional Polymorphisms in the Estrogen Receptor 1 Gene and Endometrial Cancer Risk: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xin; Gu, Yang; Wang, Ding-ning; Ni, Sha; Yan, Jun

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objective Emerging evidence indicates that common functional polymorphisms in the estrogen receptor 1 (ESR1) gene may have an impact on an individual’s susceptibility to endometrial cancer, but individually published results are inconclusive. The aim of this meta-analysis is to derive a more precise estimation of the associations between eight polymorphisms in the ESR1 gene and endometrial cancer risk. Methods A literature search of PubMed, Embase, Web of Science and China Biology Medicine (CBM) databases was conducted on publications published before November 1st, 2012. Crude odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. Statistical analyses were performed using the STATA 12.0 software. Results Thirteen case-control studies were included with a total of 7,649 endometrial cancer cases and 16,855 healthy controls. When all the eligible studies were pooled into the meta-analysis, the results indicated that PvuII (C>T) polymorphism was associated with an increased risk of endometrial cancer, especially among Caucasian populations. There were also significant associations between rs3020314 (C>T) polymorphism and an increased risk of endometrial cancer. Furthermore, rs2234670 (S/L) polymorphism may decrease the risk of endometrial cancer. However, no statistically significant associations were found in XbaI (A>G), Codon 325 (C>G), Codon 243 (C>T), VNTR (S/L) and rs2046210 (G>A) polymorphisms. Conclusion The current meta-analysis suggests that PvuII (C>T) and rs3020314 (C>T) polymorphisms may be risk factors for endometrial cancer, especially among Caucasian populations. PMID:23593326

  8. Prioritizing therapeutics for lung cancer: an integrative meta-analysis of cancer gene signatures and chemogenomic data.

    PubMed

    Fortney, Kristen; Griesman, Joshua; Kotlyar, Max; Pastrello, Chiara; Angeli, Marc; Sound-Tsao, Ming; Jurisica, Igor

    2015-03-01

    Repurposing FDA-approved drugs with the aid of gene signatures of disease can accelerate the development of new therapeutics. A major challenge to developing reliable drug predictions is heterogeneity. Different gene signatures of the same disease or drug treatment often show poor overlap across studies, as a consequence of both biological and technical variability, and this can affect the quality and reproducibility of computational drug predictions. Existing algorithms for signature-based drug repurposing use only individual signatures as input. But for many diseases, there are dozens of signatures in the public domain. Methods that exploit all available transcriptional knowledge on a disease should produce improved drug predictions. Here, we adapt an established meta-analysis framework to address the problem of drug repurposing using an ensemble of disease signatures. Our computational pipeline takes as input a collection of disease signatures, and outputs a list of drugs predicted to consistently reverse pathological gene changes. We apply our method to conduct the largest and most systematic repurposing study on lung cancer transcriptomes, using 21 signatures. We show that scaling up transcriptional knowledge significantly increases the reproducibility of top drug hits, from 44% to 78%. We extensively characterize drug hits in silico, demonstrating that they slow growth significantly in nine lung cancer cell lines from the NCI-60 collection, and identify CALM1 and PLA2G4A as promising drug targets for lung cancer. Our meta-analysis pipeline is general, and applicable to any disease context; it can be applied to improve the results of signature-based drug repurposing by leveraging the large number of disease signatures in the public domain.

  9. Clinical Potential of DNA Methylation in Gastric Cancer: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Sapari, Nur Sabrina; Loh, Marie; Vaithilingam, Aparna; Soong, Richie

    2012-01-01

    Background Accumulating evidence indicates aberrant DNA methylation is involved in gastric tumourigenesis, suggesting it may be a useful clinical biomarker for the disease. The aim of this study was to consolidate and summarize published data on the potential of methylation in gastric cancer (GC) risk prediction, prognostication and prediction of treatment response. Methods Relevant studies were identified from PubMed using a systematic search approach. Results were summarized by meta-analysis. Mantel-Haenszel odds ratios were computed for each methylation event assuming the random-effects model. Results A review of 589 retrieved publications identified 415 relevant articles, including 143 case-control studies on gene methylation of 142 individual genes in GC clinical samples. A total of 77 genes were significantly differentially methylated between tumour and normal gastric tissue from GC subjects, of which data on 62 was derived from single studies. Methylation of 15, 4 and 7 genes in normal gastric tissue, plasma and serum respectively was significantly different in frequency between GC and non-cancer subjects. A prognostic significance was reported for 18 genes and predictive significance was reported for p16 methylation, although many inconsistent findings were also observed. No bias due to assay, use of fixed tissue or CpG sites analysed was detected, however a slight bias towards publication of positive findings was observed. Conclusions DNA methylation is a promising biomarker for GC risk prediction and prognostication. Further focused validation of candidate methylation markers in independent cohorts is required to develop its clinical potential. PMID:22558417

  10. Meta-analysis of the relation between European and American smokeless tobacco and oral cancer

    PubMed Central

    Weitkunat, Rolf; Sanders, Edward; Lee, Peter N

    2007-01-01

    Background Smokeless tobacco is often referred to as a major contributor to oral cancer. In some regions, especially Southeast Asia, the risk is difficult to quantify due to the variety of products, compositions (including non-tobacco ingredients) and usage practices involved. In Western populations, the evidence of an increased risk in smokeless tobacco users seems unclear, previous reviews having reached somewhat differing conclusions. We report a detailed quantitative review of the evidence in American and European smokeless tobacco users, and compare our findings with previous reviews and meta-analyses. Methods Following literature review a meta-analysis was conducted of 32 epidemiological studies published between 1920 and 2005 including tests for homogeneity and publication bias. Results Based on 38 heterogeneous study-specific estimates of the odds ratio or relative risk for smokeless tobacco use, the random-effects estimate was 1.87 (95% confidence interval 1.40–2.48). The increase was mainly evident in studies conducted before 1980. No increase was seen in studies in Scandinavia. Restricting attention to the seven estimates adjusted for smoking and alcohol eliminated both heterogeneity and excess risk (1.02; 0.82–1.28). Estimates also varied by sex (higher in females) and by study design (higher in case-control studies with hospital controls) but more clearly in studies where estimates were unadjusted, even for age. The pattern of estimates suggests some publication bias. Based on limited data specific to never smokers, the random-effects estimate was 1.94 (0.88–4.28), the eight individual estimates being heterogeneous and based on few exposed cases. Conclusion Smokeless tobacco, as used in America or Europe, carries at most a minor increased risk of oral cancer. However, elevated risks in specific populations or from specific products cannot definitely be excluded. PMID:18005437

  11. Industrial risk factors for colorectal cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Lashner, B.A.; Epstein, S.S. )

    1990-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is the second most common malignancy in the United States, and its incidence rates have sharply increased recently, especially in males. Industrial exposures, both occupational and environmental, are important colorectal cancer risk factors that are generally unrecognized by clinicians. Migration studies have documented that colorectal cancer is strongly associated with environmental risk factors. The causal role of occupational exposures is evidenced by a substantial literature associating specific work practices with increased colorectal cancer risks. Industrially related environmental exposures, including polluted drinking water and ionizing radiation, have also been associated with excess risks. Currently, there is a tendency to attribute colorectal cancer, largely or exclusively, to dietary and other lifestyle factors, thus neglecting these industrially related effects. Concerted efforts are needed to recognize the causal role of industrial risk factors and to encourage government and industry to reduce carcinogenic exposures. Furthermore, cost-effective screening programs for high-risk population groups are critically needed to further reduce deaths from colorectal cancer. 143 references.

  12. Association between cooking oil fume exposure and lung cancer among Chinese nonsmoking women: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Yingbo; Jiang, Ying; Jin, Shan; Li, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer has been the main cause of cancer death around the world. Cigarette smoking has been identified as a risk factor for lung cancer in males. However, the etiological factors in nonsmoking women remain elusive. A meta-analysis was conducted to evaluate the relationship between cooking oil fume exposure and lung cancer among Chinese nonsmoking women. Thirteen articles containing three population-based case–control and ten hospital-based case–control studies were included in this meta-analysis. These studies with a total of 3,596 lung cancer women and 6,082 healthy controls were analyzed by RevMan 5.3. Fixed effects model or random effects model was used to obtain pooled estimates of risk ratio. The risk ratios with a 95% CI were 1.74 (95% CI =1.57–1.94) and 2.11 (95% CI =1.54–2.89), respectively. Cooking oil fume exposure as well as not using a kitchen ventilator when cooking was significantly associated with lung cancer among nonsmoking women (Z=10.07, P<0.00001; Z=4.65, P<0.00001). Cooking oil fume exposure, especially lacking a fume extractor, may increase the risk of lung cancer among Chinese nonsmoking women. PMID:27284248

  13. Association between dietary vitamin C intake and risk of esophageal cancer: A dose-response meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Bo, Yacong; Lu, Yan; Zhao, Yan; Zhao, Erjiang; Yuan, Ling; Lu, Weiquan; Cui, Lingling; Lu, Quanjun

    2016-04-15

    While several epidemiological studies have investigated the association between vitamin C and risk of esophageal cancer, the results remain inconsistent. In the present study, a meta-analysis was conducted to assess the impact of dietary vitamin C intake on esophageal cancer risk. Online databases were searched up to March 29, 2015, for studies on the association between dietary vitamin C intake and esophageal cancer risk. Pooled risk ratios (RRs) or odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using a random-effects model. Dose-response analyses were performed using the method of restricted cubic splines with four knots at percentiles of 5, 35, 65 and 95% of the distribution. Publication bias was estimated using Egger's tests and funnel plots. In all, 15 articles were included in this meta-analysis, including 20 studies, containing 7063 controls and 3955 cases of esophageal cancer. By comparing the highest vs. the lowest categories of vitamin C intake, we found that vitamin C was inversely associated with the risk of esophageal cancer [overall OR = 0.58, 95% CI = 0.49-0.68, I(2) = 56%]. A linear dose-response relationship was found. With an increase in dietary vitamin C intake of 50 mg/day, the risk of esophageal cancer statistically decreased by 13% (OR = 0.87, 95% CI = 0.80-0.93, p(linearity) = 0.0002). In conclusion, our analysis suggested that the higher intake of dietary vitamin C might have a protective effect against esophageal cancer.

  14. Association between cooking oil fume exposure and lung cancer among Chinese nonsmoking women: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Xue, Yingbo; Jiang, Ying; Jin, Shan; Li, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer has been the main cause of cancer death around the world. Cigarette smoking has been identified as a risk factor for lung cancer in males. However, the etiological factors in nonsmoking women remain elusive. A meta-analysis was conducted to evaluate the relationship between cooking oil fume exposure and lung cancer among Chinese nonsmoking women. Thirteen articles containing three population-based case-control and ten hospital-based case-control studies were included in this meta-analysis. These studies with a total of 3,596 lung cancer women and 6,082 healthy controls were analyzed by RevMan 5.3. Fixed effects model or random effects model was used to obtain pooled estimates of risk ratio. The risk ratios with a 95% CI were 1.74 (95% CI =1.57-1.94) and 2.11 (95% CI =1.54-2.89), respectively. Cooking oil fume exposure as well as not using a kitchen ventilator when cooking was significantly associated with lung cancer among nonsmoking women (Z=10.07, P<0.00001; Z=4.65, P<0.00001). Cooking oil fume exposure, especially lacking a fume extractor, may increase the risk of lung cancer among Chinese nonsmoking women. PMID:27284248

  15. Association between cooking oil fume exposure and lung cancer among Chinese nonsmoking women: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Xue, Yingbo; Jiang, Ying; Jin, Shan; Li, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Lung cancer has been the main cause of cancer death around the world. Cigarette smoking has been identified as a risk factor for lung cancer in males. However, the etiological factors in nonsmoking women remain elusive. A meta-analysis was conducted to evaluate the relationship between cooking oil fume exposure and lung cancer among Chinese nonsmoking women. Thirteen articles containing three population-based case-control and ten hospital-based case-control studies were included in this meta-analysis. These studies with a total of 3,596 lung cancer women and 6,082 healthy controls were analyzed by RevMan 5.3. Fixed effects model or random effects model was used to obtain pooled estimates of risk ratio. The risk ratios with a 95% CI were 1.74 (95% CI =1.57-1.94) and 2.11 (95% CI =1.54-2.89), respectively. Cooking oil fume exposure as well as not using a kitchen ventilator when cooking was significantly associated with lung cancer among nonsmoking women (Z=10.07, P<0.00001; Z=4.65, P<0.00001). Cooking oil fume exposure, especially lacking a fume extractor, may increase the risk of lung cancer among Chinese nonsmoking women.

  16. Correlation Between Interleukin-1β-511 C/T Polymorphism and Gastric Cancer in Chinese Populations: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Bo; Luo, Ming-xu; Zhou, Xin; Lv, Yo; Su, Guo-qiang

    2016-01-01

    Background Several studies have indicated that interleukin (IL)-1β-511 C/T polymorphism may contribute to individual susceptibility to gastric cancer, but the results vary among regions and races. No relevant meta-analysis has been conducted in a Chinese population. Therefore, we performed the current meta-analysis to investigate the possible correlation between IL-1β-511 C/T polymorphism and gastric cancer susceptibility in Chinese subjects. Material/Methods PubMed, EmBase, Cochrane Library, Chinese Biology Medicine (CBM), Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), and Wanfang databases were searched for case-control studies published before 21 January 2015 and investigating a correlation between IL-1β-511 C/T polymorphism and gastric cancer susceptibility. Two investigators independently screened the studies, extracted data, and evaluated the quality of included studies with the Newcastle-Ottawa scale. Meta-analysis was conducted with STATA 12.0. Results A total of 27 articles from 28 case-control studies were collected. Meta-analysis showed that IL-1β-511C/T polymorphism was related to increased susceptibility to gastric cancer in Chinese subjects [T vs. C: OR=1.21, 95%CI (1.07–1.37), P<0.01; TT vs. CC: OR=1.41, 95%CI (1.11–1.80), P<0.01; CT vs. CC: OR=1.26, 95% CI (1.05–1.50), P<0.01; TT+CT vs. CC: OR=1.31, 95%CI (1.08–1.58), P<0.01; and TT vs. CT+CC: OR=1.24, 95%CI (1.05–1.47), P<0.01]. Subgroup analysis showed a significant correlation between IL-1β-511C/T polymorphism and susceptibility to gastric cancer in residents of southern China and in patients with intestinal-type gastric cancer, but not in residents of northern China or in patients with diffuse gastric cancer. Moreover, H. pylori-infected subjects carrying T (CT+TT) exhibited a relatively higher risk of GC [OR=2.4, 95% CI (1.2–5.1), P=0.02]. Conclusions IL-1β-511C/T polymorphism is significantly associated with increased susceptibility to gastric cancer in residents of

  17. Precancerous Lesions in Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sandouk, Fayez; Al Jerf, Feras; Al-Halabi, M. H. D. Bassel

    2013-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cause of cancer death in the world. The incidence rate (ASR) and age distribution of this disease differ between most of African-Middle-Eastern (AMAGE) and North America and Europe for many reasons. However, in all areas, “CRC” is considered as one of the most preventable cancers, because it might develop from variant processes like polyps and IBD in addition to the genetic pathogenesis which became very well known in this disease. We tried in this paper to review all the possible reasons of the differences in incidence and age between the west and AMAGE. Also we reviewed all the mutations that lead to the hereditary and familiar clustering of this disease with the correlations with the surrounding food and environment of different areas. Then, we focused on the precancerous pathology of this disease with special focusing on early detection depending on new endoscopy technology and most important genetic studies. We lastly reviewed the evidence of some of the surveillance and put suggestions about future surveillance programs and how important those programs are on the psychological aspect of the patients and their families. PMID:23737765

  18. Nutritional status assessment in colorectal cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Joana Pedro; de Castro Cardoso Pereira, Paula Manuela; dos Reis Baltazar Vicente, Ana Filipa; Bernardo, Alexandra; de Mesquita, María Fernanda

    2013-01-01

    The present study intended to evaluate the nutritional status of Portuguese colorectal patients and associated it with surgery type as well as quality of life outcomes. Malnutrition can affect up to 85% of cancer patients and specifically 30-60% in colorectal cancer and can significantly influence health outcomes. A sample of 50 colorectal cancer patients was evaluated in what refers to several anthropometric measures, food intake, clinical history, complications rate before and after surgery procedure. The sample was divided between convention and fast-track procedures. Most of the individuals were overweight or obese but had lost weight on the past six months. Despite mild, there were signs of malnutrition in this sample with high losses of fat free mass, weight and also fat mass during the hospitalization period. These results reinforce the importance of malnutrition assessment in colorectal patients as well as consider weight loss on the past months and body composition in order to complement nutritional status evaluation.

  19. Genetics of Colorectal Cancer (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Cancer.gov

    Expert-reviewed information summary about the genetics of colorectal cancer, including information about specific genes and family cancer syndromes. The summary also contains information about screening for colorectal cancer and research aimed at prevention of this disease. Psychosocial issues associated with genetic testing and counseling of individuals who may have hereditary colorectal cancer syndrome are also discussed.

  20. Citrus Fruit Intake Substantially Reduces the Risk of Esophageal Cancer: A Meta-Analysis of Epidemiologic Studies.

    PubMed

    Wang, Anqiang; Zhu, Chengpei; Fu, Lilan; Wan, Xueshuai; Yang, Xiaobo; Zhang, Haohai; Miao, Ruoyu; He, Lian; Sang, Xinting; Zhao, Haitao

    2015-09-01

    Many epidemiologic studies indicate a potential association between fruit and vegetable intake and various cancers. The purpose of this meta-analysis is to investigate the association between citrus fruit intake and esophageal cancer risk. The authors conducted a comprehensive search on PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library from inception until July 2014. Studies presenting information about citrus intake and esophageal cancer were analyzed. The authors extracted the categories of citrus intake, study-specific odds ratio or relative risk, and the P value and associated 95% confidence intervals for the highest versus lowest dietary intake of citrus fruit level. The association was quantified using meta-analysis of standard errors with a random-effects model. Thirteen case-control studies and 6 cohort studies were eligible for inclusion. Citrus intake may significantly reduce risk of esophageal cancer (summary odds ratio = 0.63; 95% confidence interval = 0.52-0.75; P = 0), without notable publication bias (intercept = -0.79, P = 0.288) and with significant heterogeneity across studies (I = 52%). The results from epidemiologic studies suggest an inverse association between citrus fruit intake and esophageal cancer risk. The significant effect is consistent between case-control and cohort studies. Larger prospective studies with rigorous methodology should be considered to validate the association between citrus fruits and esophageal cancer.

  1. Prognostic significance of TAZ expression in various cancers: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Juntao; Ren, Pengwei; Gou, Jinhai; Li, Zhengyu

    2016-01-01

    Background The overexpression of transcriptional coactivator with PDZ-binding motif (TAZ), a Hippo pathway effector, was detected in a variety of cancers. However, controversies remain in published studies on the prognostic value of TAZ expression in cancer. We performed a meta-analysis to demonstrate the prognostic significance of TAZ in overall survival (OS) and its association with clinicopathologic characteristics. Methods A systematic literature search was performed by using PubMed, EMBASE, and Web of Science databases for eligible studies investigating the association between TAZ and survival. After extracting data, we used hazard ratio (HR), odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) for association evaluation, I2 for heterogeneity across studies, and Egger’s test and Begg’s funnel plot for publication bias assessment. Results A total of 15 studies including 2,881 patients were analyzed. Pooled results showed that a high TAZ was significantly associated with poor OS (HR =1.82, 95% CI =1.58–2.11; I2=33%; P=0.11). Subgroup analysis indicated significant correlation between TAZ overexpression and OS in patients stratified by ethnicity, sample size, sample source, and staining location. Furthermore, TAZ overexpression was associated with worse OS in hepatocellular carcinoma (HR =2.26, 95% CI =1.43–3.57; P=0.49) and gastrointestinal cancers (HR =2.00, 95% CI =1.54–2.58; P=0.97), but not in non-small-cell lung cancer (HR =1.71, 95% CI =0.93–3.14; P=0.08). TAZ overexpression was also found to be significantly associated with some clinicopathologic characteristics, including TNM stage (OR =2.56, 95% CI =1.60–4.11; P=0.52), tumor differentiation (OR =3.08, 95% CI =1.25–7.63; P=0.01), and lymph node metastasis (OR =2.53, 95% CI =1.81–3.53; P=0.58). Conclusion TAZ overexpression is not only a predictive factor of poor prognosis but also associated with advanced TNM stage, poor tumor differentiation, and lymph node metastasis. PMID:27601916

  2. Prognostic significance of TAZ expression in various cancers: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Juntao; Ren, Pengwei; Gou, Jinhai; Li, Zhengyu

    2016-01-01

    Background The overexpression of transcriptional coactivator with PDZ-binding motif (TAZ), a Hippo pathway effector, was detected in a variety of cancers. However, controversies remain in published studies on the prognostic value of TAZ expression in cancer. We performed a meta-analysis to demonstrate the prognostic significance of TAZ in overall survival (OS) and its association with clinicopathologic characteristics. Methods A systematic literature search was performed by using PubMed, EMBASE, and Web of Science databases for eligible studies investigating the association between TAZ and survival. After extracting data, we used hazard ratio (HR), odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) for association evaluation, I2 for heterogeneity across studies, and Egger’s test and Begg’s funnel plot for publication bias assessment. Results A total of 15 studies including 2,881 patients were analyzed. Pooled results showed that a high TAZ was significantly associated with poor OS (HR =1.82, 95% CI =1.58–2.11; I2=33%; P=0.11). Subgroup analysis indicated significant correlation between TAZ overexpression and OS in patients stratified by ethnicity, sample size, sample source, and staining location. Furthermore, TAZ overexpression was associated with worse OS in hepatocellular carcinoma (HR =2.26, 95% CI =1.43–3.57; P=0.49) and gastrointestinal cancers (HR =2.00, 95% CI =1.54–2.58; P=0.97), but not in non-small-cell lung cancer (HR =1.71, 95% CI =0.93–3.14; P=0.08). TAZ overexpression was also found to be significantly associated with some clinicopathologic characteristics, including TNM stage (OR =2.56, 95% CI =1.60–4.11; P=0.52), tumor differentiation (OR =3.08, 95% CI =1.25–7.63; P=0.01), and lymph node metastasis (OR =2.53, 95% CI =1.81–3.53; P=0.58). Conclusion TAZ overexpression is not only a predictive factor of poor prognosis but also associated with advanced TNM stage, poor tumor differentiation, and lymph node metastasis.

  3. The Association between RAD23B Ala249Val Polymorphism and Cancer Susceptibility: Evidence from a Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ying, Xiaojiang; Song, Junmin; Zhang, Ruoxin; Li, Zhen; Chen, Hongliang; Ye, Pingjiang; Shen, Yi; Pan, Weihuo; Chen, Zhiliang

    2014-01-01

    Background A number of studies have investigated associations of genetic variation in RAD23B Ala249Val (rs1805329 C>T) with cancer susceptibility; however, the findings are inconsistent. We performed a meta-analysis to acquire a more precise estimation of the relationship. Method We searched literatures from PubMed, Embase and Web of Science. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated to estimate the association between Ala249Val polymorphism and cancer risk. Results A total of 23 studies consisting of 10837 cases and 13971 controls were included in this meta-analysis. Overall, no significant associations were found between RAD23B Ala249Val polymorphism and cancer risk (Val/Val vs. Ala/Ala: OR = 0.97, 95% CI = 0.75–1.25; Ala/Val vs. Ala/Ala: OR = 1.08, 95% CI = 0.96–1.22; recessive model: OR = 0.93, 95% CI = 0.76–1.14 and dominant model: OR = 1.07, 95% CI = 0.94–1.20). We did not find any significant associations in the further stratification analyses by cancer type, ethnicity and source of control. Conclusions Despite some limitations, this meta-analysis indicates that it is unlikely that the RAD23B 249Val/Val polymorphism may contribute to the individual susceptibility to cancer risk. However, further advanced designed studies with larger sample size and different ethnicities should be conducted to confirm our results. PMID:24643114

  4. Genetic association between interluekin-4 rs2243250 polymorphism and gastric cancer susceptibility: evidence based on a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Chi; Huang, Jing-Yu; He, Zi-Qi; Weng, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Numerous studies have suggested that the interleukin-4 (IL-4) rs2243250 polymorphism is associated with gastric cancer susceptibility. However, the results were inconsistent. Hence, we carried out a meta-analysis to confirm the conclusion. Methods We searched PubMed, Embase, CBM, CNKI, and Wanfang Data to identify relevant studies up to August 20, 2015. Odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were used to estimate the association between IL-4 rs2243250 polymorphism and gastric cancer susceptibility. All the statistical analyses were performed with Stata 12.0 software. Results A total of eleven published case–control studies were identified, including 2,247 gastric cancer patients and 3,370 controls. Overall, no significant association between IL-4 rs2243250 polymorphism and gastric cancer susceptibility was observed in this meta-analysis (T vs C: OR =1.05, 95% CI =0.95–1.17; TT vs CC: OR =1.20, 95% CI =0.89–1.63; CT vs CC: OR =1.14, 95% CI =0.87–1.48; TT + CT vs CC: OR =1.13, 95% CI =0.89–1.44; TT vs CT + CC: OR =1.02, 95% CI =0.88–1.20). Similar results were found in subgroup analyses according to ethnicity and Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium in controls. Conclusion This meta-analysis suggests that IL-4 rs2243250 polymorphism may not be associated with gastric cancer susceptibility. Further studies are needed to validate this conclusion. PMID:27143935

  5. A meta-analysis of 87,040 individuals identifies 23 new susceptibility loci for prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Al Olama, Ali Amin; Kote-Jarai, Zsofia; Berndt, Sonja I; Conti, David V; Schumacher, Fredrick; Han, Ying; Benlloch, Sara; Hazelett, Dennis J; Wang, Zhaoming; Saunders, Ed; Leongamornlert, Daniel; Lindstrom, Sara; Jugurnauth-Little, Sara; Dadaev, Tokhir; Tymrakiewicz, Malgorzata; Stram, Daniel O; Rand, Kristin; Wan, Peggy; Stram, Alex; Sheng, Xin; Pooler, Loreall C; Park, Karen; Xia, Lucy; Tyrer, Jonathan; Kolonel, Laurence N; Le Marchand, Loic; Hoover, Robert N; Machiela, Mitchell J; Yeager, Merideth; Burdette, Laurie; Chung, Charles C; Hutchinson, Amy; Yu, Kai; Goh, Chee; Ahmed, Mahbubl; Govindasami, Koveela; Guy, Michelle; Tammela, Teuvo L J; Auvinen, Anssi; Wahlfors, Tiina; Schleutker, Johanna; Visakorpi, Tapio; Leinonen, Katri A; Xu, Jianfeng; Aly, Markus; Donovan, Jenny; Travis, Ruth C; Key, Tim J; Siddiq, Afshan; Canzian, Federico; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Takahashi, Atsushi; Kubo, Michiaki; Pharoah, Paul; Pashayan, Nora; Weischer, Maren; Nordestgaard, Borge G; Nielsen, Sune F; Klarskov, Peter; Røder, Martin Andreas; Iversen, Peter; Thibodeau, Stephen N; McDonnell, Shannon K; Schaid, Daniel J; Stanford, Janet L; Kolb, Suzanne; Holt, Sarah; Knudsen, Beatrice; Coll, Antonio Hurtado; Gapstur, Susan M; Diver, W Ryan; Stevens, Victoria L; Maier, Christiane; Luedeke, Manuel; Herkommer, Kathleen; Rinckleb, Antje E; Strom, Sara S; Pettaway, Curtis; Yeboah, Edward D; Tettey, Yao; Biritwum, Richard B; Adjei, Andrew A; Tay, Evelyn; Truelove, Ann; Niwa, Shelley; Chokkalingam, Anand P; Cannon-Albright, Lisa; Cybulski, Cezary; Wokołorczyk, Dominika; Kluźniak, Wojciech; Park, Jong; Sellers, Thomas; Lin, Hui-Yi; Isaacs, William B; Partin, Alan W; Brenner, Hermann; Dieffenbach, Aida Karina; Stegmaier, Christa; Chen, Constance; Giovannucci, Edward L; Ma, Jing; Stampfer, Meir; Penney, Kathryn L; Mucci, Lorelei; John, Esther M; Ingles, Sue A; Kittles, Rick A; Murphy, Adam B; Pandha, Hardev; Michael, Agnieszka; Kierzek, Andrzej M; Blot, William; Signorello, Lisa B; Zheng, Wei; Albanes, Demetrius; Virtamo, Jarmo; Weinstein, Stephanie; Nemesure, Barbara; Carpten, John; Leske, Cristina; Wu, Suh-Yuh; Hennis, Anselm; Kibel, Adam S; Rybicki, Benjamin A; Neslund-Dudas, Christine; Hsing, Ann W; Chu, Lisa; Goodman, Phyllis J; Klein, Eric A; Zheng, S Lilly; Batra, Jyotsna; Clements, Judith; Spurdle, Amanda; Teixeira, Manuel R; Paulo, Paula; Maia, Sofia; Slavov, Chavdar; Kaneva, Radka; Mitev, Vanio; Witte, John S; Casey, Graham; Gillanders, Elizabeth M; Seminara, Daniella; Riboli, Elio; Hamdy, Freddie C; Coetzee, Gerhard A; Li, Qiyuan; Freedman, Matthew L; Hunter, David J; Muir, Kenneth; Gronberg, Henrik; Neal, David E; Southey, Melissa; Giles, Graham G; Severi, Gianluca; Cook, Michael B; Nakagawa, Hidewaki; Wiklund, Fredrik; Kraft, Peter; Chanock, Stephen J; Henderson, Brian E; Easton, Douglas F; Eeles, Rosalind A; Haiman, Christopher A

    2014-10-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified 76 variants associated with prostate cancer risk predominantly in populations of European ancestry. To identify additional susceptibility loci for this common cancer, we conducted a meta-analysis of > 10 million SNPs in 43,303 prostate cancer cases and 43,737 controls from studies in populations of European, African, Japanese and Latino ancestry. Twenty-three new susceptibility loci were identified at association P < 5 × 10(-8); 15 variants were identified among men of European ancestry, 7 were identified in multi-ancestry analyses and 1 was associated with early-onset prostate cancer. These 23 variants, in combination with known prostate cancer risk variants, explain 33% of the familial risk for this disease in European-ancestry populations. These findings provide new regions for investigation into the pathogenesis of prostate cancer and demonstrate the usefulness of combining ancestrally diverse populations to discover risk loci for disease.

  6. A meta-analysis of 87,040 individuals identifies 23 new susceptibility loci for prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Al Olama, Ali Amin; Kote-Jarai, Zsofia; Berndt, Sonja I.; Conti, David V.; Schumacher, Fredrick; Han, Ying; Benlloch, Sara; Hazelett, Dennis J.; Wang, Zhaoming; Saunders, Ed; Leongamornlert, Daniel; Lindstrom, Sara; Jugurnauth-Little, Sara; Dadaev, Tokhir; Tymrakiewicz, Malgorzata; Stram, Daniel O.; Rand, Kristin; Wan, Peggy; Stram, Alex; Sheng, Xin; Pooler, Loreall C.; Park, Karen; Xia, Lucy; Tyrer, Jonathan; Kolonel, Laurence N.; Le Marchand, Loic; Hoover, Robert N.; Machiela, Mitchell J.; Yeager, Merideth; Burdette, Laurie; Chung, Charles C.; Hutchinson, Amy; Yu, Kai; Goh, Chee; Ahmed, Mahbubl; Govindasami, Koveela; Guy, Michelle; Tammela, Teuvo L.J.; Auvinen, Anssi; Wahlfors, Tiina; Schleutker, Johanna; Visakorpi, Tapio; Leinonen, Katri A.; Xu, Jianfeng; Aly, Markus; Donovan, Jenny; Travis, Ruth C.; Key, Tim J.; Siddiq, Afshan; Canzian, Federico; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Takahashi, Atsushi; Kubo, Michiaki; Pharoah, Paul; Pashayan, Nora; Weischer, Maren; Nordestgaard, Borge G.; Nielsen, Sune F.; Klarskov, Peter; Røder, Martin Andreas; Iversen, Peter; Thibodeau, Stephen N.; McDonnell, Shannon K; Schaid, Daniel J; Stanford, Janet L.; Kolb, Suzanne; Holt, Sarah; Knudsen, Beatrice; Coll, Antonio Hurtado; Gapstur, Susan M.; Diver, W. Ryan; Stevens, Victoria L.; Maier, Christiane; Luedeke, Manuel; Herkommer, Kathleen; Rinckleb, Antje E.; Strom, Sara S.; Pettaway, Curtis; Yeboah, Edward D.; Tettey, Yao; Biritwum, Richard B.; Adjei, Andrew A.; Tay, Evelyn; Truelove, Ann; Niwa, Shelley; Chokkalingam, Anand P.; Cannon-Albright, Lisa; Cybulski, Cezary; Wokołorczyk, Dominika; Kluźniak, Wojciech; Park, Jong; Sellers, Thomas; Lin, Hui-Yi; Isaacs, William B.; Partin, Alan W.; Brenner, Hermann; Dieffenbach, Aida Karina; Stegmaier, Christa; Chen, Constance; Giovannucci, Edward L.; Ma, Jing; Stampfer, Meir; Penney, Kathryn L.; Mucci, Lorelei; John, Esther M.; Ingles, Sue A.; Kittles, Rick A.; Murphy, Adam B.; Pandha, Hardev; Michael, Agnieszka; Kierzek, Andrzej M.; Blot, William; Signorello, Lisa B.; Zheng, Wei; Albanes, Demetrius; Virtamo, Jarmo; Weinstein, Stephanie; Nemesure, Barbara; Carpten, John; Leske, Cristina; Wu, Suh-Yuh; Hennis, Anselm; Kibel, Adam S.; Rybicki, Benjamin A.; Neslund-Dudas, Christine; Hsing, Ann W.; Chu, Lisa; Goodman, Phyllis J.; Klein, Eric A; Zheng, S. Lilly; Batra, Jyotsna; Clements, Judith; Spurdle, Amanda; Teixeira, Manuel R.; Paulo, Paula; Maia, Sofia; Slavov, Chavdar; Kaneva, Radka; Mitev, Vanio; Witte, John S.; Casey, Graham; Gillanders, Elizabeth M.; Seminara, Daniella; Riboli, Elio; Hamdy, Freddie C.; Coetzee, Gerhard A.; Li, Qiyuan; Freedman, Matthew L.; Hunter, David J.; Muir, Kenneth; Gronberg, Henrik; Neal, David E.; Southey, Melissa; Giles, Graham G.; Severi, Gianluca; Cook, Michael B.; Nakagawa, Hidewaki; Wiklund, Fredrik; Kraft, Peter; Chanock, Stephen J.; Henderson, Brian E.; Easton, Douglas F.; Eeles, Rosalind A.; Haiman, Christopher A.

    2014-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified 76 variants associated with prostate cancer risk predominantly in populations of European ancestry. To identify additional susceptibility loci for this common cancer, we conducted a meta-analysis of >10 million SNPs in 43,303prostate cancer cases and 43,737 controls from studies in populations of European, African, Japanese and Latino ancestry. Twenty-three novel susceptibility loci were revealed at P<5×10-8; 15 variants were identified among men of European ancestry, 7 from multiethnic analyses and one was associated with early-onset prostate cancer. These 23 variants, in combination with the known prostate cancer risk variants, explain 33% of the familial risk of the disease in European ancestry populations. These findings provide new regions for investigation into the pathogenesis of prostate cancer and demonstrate the utility of combining ancestrally diverse populations to discover risk loci for disease. PMID:25217961

  7. A meta-analysis of 87,040 individuals identifies 23 new susceptibility loci for prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Al Olama, Ali Amin; Kote-Jarai, Zsofia; Berndt, Sonja I; Conti, David V; Schumacher, Fredrick; Han, Ying; Benlloch, Sara; Hazelett, Dennis J; Wang, Zhaoming; Saunders, Ed; Leongamornlert, Daniel; Lindstrom, Sara; Jugurnauth-Little, Sara; Dadaev, Tokhir; Tymrakiewicz, Malgorzata; Stram, Daniel O; Rand, Kristin; Wan, Peggy; Stram, Alex; Sheng, Xin; Pooler, Loreall C; Park, Karen; Xia, Lucy; Tyrer, Jonathan; Kolonel, Laurence N; Le Marchand, Loic; Hoover, Robert N; Machiela, Mitchell J; Yeager, Merideth; Burdette, Laurie; Chung, Charles C; Hutchinson, Amy; Yu, Kai; Goh, Chee; Ahmed, Mahbubl; Govindasami, Koveela; Guy, Michelle; Tammela, Teuvo L J; Auvinen, Anssi; Wahlfors, Tiina; Schleutker, Johanna; Visakorpi, Tapio; Leinonen, Katri A; Xu, Jianfeng; Aly, Markus; Donovan, Jenny; Travis, Ruth C; Key, Tim J; Siddiq, Afshan; Canzian, Federico; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Takahashi, Atsushi; Kubo, Michiaki; Pharoah, Paul; Pashayan, Nora; Weischer, Maren; Nordestgaard, Borge G; Nielsen, Sune F; Klarskov, Peter; Røder, Martin Andreas; Iversen, Peter; Thibodeau, Stephen N; McDonnell, Shannon K; Schaid, Daniel J; Stanford, Janet L; Kolb, Suzanne; Holt, Sarah; Knudsen, Beatrice; Coll, Antonio Hurtado; Gapstur, Susan M; Diver, W Ryan; Stevens, Victoria L; Maier, Christiane; Luedeke, Manuel; Herkommer, Kathleen; Rinckleb, Antje E; Strom, Sara S; Pettaway, Curtis; Yeboah, Edward D; Tettey, Yao; Biritwum, Richard B; Adjei, Andrew A; Tay, Evelyn; Truelove, Ann; Niwa, Shelley; Chokkalingam, Anand P; Cannon-Albright, Lisa; Cybulski, Cezary; Wokołorczyk, Dominika; Kluźniak, Wojciech; Park, Jong; Sellers, Thomas; Lin, Hui-Yi; Isaacs, William B; Partin, Alan W; Brenner, Hermann; Dieffenbach, Aida Karina; Stegmaier, Christa; Chen, Constance; Giovannucci, Edward L; Ma, Jing; Stampfer, Meir; Penney, Kathryn L; Mucci, Lorelei; John, Esther M; Ingles, Sue A; Kittles, Rick A; Murphy, Adam B; Pandha, Hardev; Michael, Agnieszka; Kierzek, Andrzej M; Blot, William; Signorello, Lisa B; Zheng, Wei; Albanes, Demetrius; Virtamo, Jarmo; Weinstein, Stephanie; Nemesure, Barbara; Carpten, John; Leske, Cristina; Wu, Suh-Yuh; Hennis, Anselm; Kibel, Adam S; Rybicki, Benjamin A; Neslund-Dudas, Christine; Hsing, Ann W; Chu, Lisa; Goodman, Phyllis J; Klein, Eric A; Zheng, S Lilly; Batra, Jyotsna; Clements, Judith; Spurdle, Amanda; Teixeira, Manuel R; Paulo, Paula; Maia, Sofia; Slavov, Chavdar; Kaneva, Radka; Mitev, Vanio; Witte, John S; Casey, Graham; Gillanders, Elizabeth M; Seminara, Daniella; Riboli, Elio; Hamdy, Freddie C; Coetzee, Gerhard A; Li, Qiyuan; Freedman, Matthew L; Hunter, David J; Muir, Kenneth; Gronberg, Henrik; Neal, David E; Southey, Melissa; Giles, Graham G; Severi, Gianluca; Cook, Michael B; Nakagawa, Hidewaki; Wiklund, Fredrik; Kraft, Peter; Chanock, Stephen J; Henderson, Brian E; Easton, Douglas F; Eeles, Rosalind A; Haiman, Christopher A

    2014-10-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified 76 variants associated with prostate cancer risk predominantly in populations of European ancestry. To identify additional susceptibility loci for this common cancer, we conducted a meta-analysis of > 10 million SNPs in 43,303 prostate cancer cases and 43,737 controls from studies in populations of European, African, Japanese and Latino ancestry. Twenty-three new susceptibility loci were identified at association P < 5 × 10(-8); 15 variants were identified among men of European ancestry, 7 were identified in multi-ancestry analyses and 1 was associated with early-onset prostate cancer. These 23 variants, in combination with known prostate cancer risk variants, explain 33% of the familial risk for this disease in European-ancestry populations. These findings provide new regions for investigation into the pathogenesis of prostate cancer and demonstrate the usefulness of combining ancestrally diverse populations to discover risk loci for disease. PMID:25217961

  8. Antidepressants in the treatment of depression/depressive symptoms in cancer patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Over the past thirty years a number of studies have suggested that antidepressants can be effective in the treatment of depressive symptoms in patients with cancer. The aim of this paper was to review randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and to perform a meta-analysis in order to quantify their overall effect. Methods Pubmed and the Cochrane libraries were searched for the time period between 1980 and 2010. Results Nine RCTs were identified and reviewed. Six of them (with a total of 563 patients) fulfilled the criteria for meta-analysis, but exhibited an unclear risk for bias. The estimated effect size was 1.56 with 95% CI: 1.07- 2.28 (p= 0.021). There were no differences in discontinuation rates between antidepressants and placebo groups (RR= 0.86 with 95% CI 0.47- 1.56, p=0.62). Conclusions This meta-analysis suggests that antidepressants can be effective in treating depressive symptoms beside clinical depression. When considering the risk of side effects and interactions and the heterogeneity among the mostly small studies, a general recommendation cannot be made until well-controlled studies are conducted. PMID:23679841

  9. Association of fruit and vegetables with the risk of nasopharyngeal cancer: evidence from a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Jin, Jian; Ouyang, Zhiguo; Wang, Zhaoyan

    2014-07-10

    Quantification of the association between the intake of vegetables and fruit and risk of nasopharyngeal cancer (NPC) is controversial. Thus, we conducted a meta-analysis to assess the relationship between vegetables and fruit and NPC risk. Pertinent studies were identified by a search in PubMed, Web of Knowledge and Wan Fang Med Online. Random-effects models were used to calculate summary relative risks (RRs) and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Publication bias was estimated using Egger's regression asymmetry test. Finally, 15 articles comprising 8208 NPC cases were included in this meta-analysis. The combined results showed that there was significant association between vegetables and fruit intake and NPC risk. The pooled RRs were 0.60 (95% CI = 0.47-0.76) for vegetables and 0.63 (95% CI = 0.56-0.70) for fruit. No publication bias was detected. Our analysis indicated that intake of vegetables and fruit may have a protective effect on NPC. Since the potential biases and confounders could not be ruled out completely in this meta-analysis, further studies are needed.

  10. Where is VEGF in the body? A meta-analysis of VEGF distribution in cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kut, C; Mac Gabhann, F; Popel, A S

    2007-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a major target for the inhibition of tumour vascularisation and the treatment of human cancer. Many tumours produce large quantities of VEGF, and as a result, diagnosis and prognosis of cancer may be predicted by measuring changes in VEGF concentrations in blood. In blood, the VEGF may be located in the plasma, or in the blood-borne cells and formed elements, in particular, platelets and leukocytes. In this study, we collate the measurements of VEGF in platelets, leukocytes, plasma and serum for breast, prostate, colorectal and other cancers. In addition, we analysed the concentration of VEGF in tumour tissue itself, as well as for other tissues in the human body. Although the concentration of VEGF in tumours is high, the size of tumours is small compared to other tissues, in particular, skeletal muscle. Thus, the total quantity of VEGF in tumours and in blood is small compared to the quantity in muscles. This large reservoir of VEGF may have important implications for the treatment of cancer. PMID:17912242

  11. Diagnostic value of IMP3 in pancreatic cancer: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qianqian; Wang, Tao; Wang, Zhu; Zheng, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Background and objectives: An increasing number of studies have examined the ability of IMP3 (insulin-like growth factor 2 messenger RNA binding protein 3) to be a marker for the diagnosis of pancreatic cancer (PCa). The exact role of IMP3 needs to be elucidated. The aim of this study is to determine the overall accuracy of IMP3 in PCa through a meta-analysis of published studies. Materials and methods: Publications addressing the accuracy of IMP3 in the diagnosis of PCa were selected from Pubmed, Embase, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, and The Chinese Journals Full-text Database (CNKI). The following indexes of test accuracy were computed for each study: sensitivity, specificity, positive likelihood ratio (PLR), negative likelihood ratio (NLR), and diagnostic odds ratio (DOR). The diagnostic threshold identified for each study was used to plot a summary receiver operating characteristic (SROC) curve. Statistical analysis was performed by Meta-Disc 1.4 and STATA 12.0 software. Results: 10 studies met the inclusion criteria. The summary estimates for IMP3 in the diagnosis of PCa were: sensitivity 0.82 (95% CI, 0.78-0.85), specificity 0.87 (95% CI, 0.83-0.90), positive likelihood ratio (PLR) 15.04 (95% CI, 1.83-123.26), negative likelihood ratio (NLR) 0.21 (95% CI, 0.10-0.46) and diagnostic odds ratio 70.10 (95% CI, 16.74-293.56). The SROC curve indicated that the maximum joint sensitivity and specificity (Q-value) was 0.87; the area under the curve was 0.94. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that IMP3 may be a useful diagnostic adjunctive tool for confirming PCa. However, further large scale studies are needed to confirm these findings. PMID:26379850

  12. Testosterone deficiency in testicular cancer survivors - a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Bandak, M; Jørgensen, N; Juul, A; Vogelius, I R; Lauritsen, J; Kier, M G; Mortensen, M S; Glovinski, P; Daugaard, G

    2016-05-01

    Results concerning treatment of Testicular Germ Cell Cancer (TGCC) and subsequent risk of testosterone deficiency are conflicting. To systematically evaluate and estimate the risk of testosterone deficiency (TD) in TGCC-patients according to treatment to optimize follow-up and for prevention of late effects related to hypogonadism. We performed a critical review of PubMed in January 2015 according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-analysis (PRISMA) statement. Twelve publications were selected for inclusion in this analysis. Eleven studies evaluated the risk of TD in TGCC-patients treated with standard chemotherapy (CT) and the odds ratio for TD was 1.8 (95% CI) (1.3-2.5), (p = 0.0007). Seven studies evaluated the risk of TD in TGCC-patients treated with non-conventional therapy and the odds ratio for TD was 3.1 (95% CI) (2.0-4.8), (p < 0.0001). Six studies evaluated the risk of TD in TGCC-patients treated with infradiaphragmatic radiotherapy (RT), and the odds ratio for TD was 1.6 (95% CI) (1.0-2.4), (p = 0.03). In all treatment groups the risk of TD was compared with TGCC-patients treated with orchiectomy alone. There was no indication of heterogeneity between studies in the three treatment groups. Strong evidence exists that standard CT, non-conventional therapy and infradiaphragmatic RT are associated with an increased risk of TD in TGCC-patients when compared with orchiectomy alone. The risk of testosterone defficiency appears to be highest in patients treated with non-conventional therapy. PMID:27009402

  13. Sexual behaviours and head and neck cancer: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Farsi, N J; El-Zein, M; Gaied, H; Lee, Y C A; Hashibe, M; Nicolau, B; Rousseau, M-C

    2015-12-01

    Human papillomaviruses (HPV) are associated with head and neck cancers (H&NC). Transmission of HPV to the upper aerodigestive tract occurs plausibly through sexual contact, although epidemiologic evidence on the role of sexual behaviours in H&NC aetiology is inconsistent. We conducted a meta-analysis of studies examining the association between four indicators of sexual behaviours (number of sexual partners and oral sex partners, oral sex practice, and age at first intercourse) and H&NC. Summary odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using fixed and random effects models for each indicator, contrasting 'highest' to 'lowest', 'ever' to 'never', or 'youngest' to 'oldest' categories. Twenty case-control studies were included out of 3838 identified publications. Using random effects models, summary ORs suggested an increased risk of H&NC for number of sexual partners [OR=1.29, 95% CI: 1.02-1.63] (19 studies) and number of oral sex partners [OR=1.69, 95% CI: 1.00-2.84] (5 studies), whereas no effect was observed with oral sex practice [OR=1.09, 95% CI: 0.88-1.35] (17 studies) and age at first intercourse [OR=1.40, 95% CI: 0.71-2.79] (6 studies). For number of sexual partners and oral sex practice, which were assessed in more studies, we further excluded studies contributing to heterogeneity and those not adjusted for age, sex, smoking, and alcohol consumption. The summary ORs were 0.95 (95% CI: 0.75-1.20) for number of sexual partners and 1.03 (95% CI: 0.84-1.26) for oral sex practice. Our findings highlight that observed associations might be partly attributed to confounding effects of sociodemographic and behavioural factors. PMID:26372414

  14. Occupational exposure to pesticides and prostate cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Lewis-Mikhael, Anne-Mary; Bueno-Cavanillas, Aurora; Ofir Guiron, Talia; Olmedo-Requena, Rocío; Delgado-Rodríguez, Miguel; Jiménez-Moleón, José Juan

    2016-02-01

    Epidemiological studies on exposure to pesticides and risk of prostate cancer (PC) provide inconsistent results. We aimed to explore various potential sources of heterogeneity not previously assessed and to derive updated risk estimates from homogenous studies. We searched PubMed, Web of Science and Scopus databases for case-control and cohort studies published from 1985 to April 2014. We assessed the quality of the articles using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Pooled estimates were calculated using random-effects models. Heterogeneity was explored using subset analyses and metaregression. Fifty-two studies were included in the review and 25 in the meta-analysis. No association was found between low exposure to pesticides and PC, but association was significant for high exposure, pooled OR 1.33 (1.02 to 1.63), I(2)=44.8%, p=0.024. Heterogeneity was explained by a number of variables including method used to assess exposure. Pooled OR was weak and non-significant for studies measuring serum pesticide level, 1.12 (0.74 to 1.50), I(2)=0.00%, p=0.966. For studies applying self-reporting of exposure, pooled estimate was 1.34 (0.91 to 1.77), I(2)=0.00%, p=0.493, while a high significant association was detected for grouped exposure assessment, 2.24 (1.36 to 3.11), I(2)=0.00%, p=0.955. In spite of a weak significant association detected when pooling ORs for high occupational exposure to pesticides, the magnitude of the association was related to the method of exposure assessment used by the original studies. A family history-pesticide exposure interaction was also observed for a number of pesticides.

  15. Epigenetics and Colorectal Cancer Pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Bardhan, Kankana; Liu, Kebin

    2013-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) develops through a multistage process that results from the progressive accumulation of genetic mutations, and frequently as a result of mutations in the Wnt signaling pathway. However, it has become evident over the past two decades that epigenetic alterations of the chromatin, particularly the chromatin components in the promoter regions of tumor suppressors and oncogenes, play key roles in CRC pathogenesis. Epigenetic regulation is organized at multiple levels, involving primarily DNA methylation and selective histone modifications in cancer cells. Assessment of the CRC epigenome has revealed that virtually all CRCs have aberrantly methylated genes and that the average CRC methylome has thousands of abnormally methylated genes. Although relatively less is known about the patterns of specific histone modifications in CRC, selective histone modifications and resultant chromatin conformation have been shown to act, in concert with DNA methylation, to regulate gene expression to mediate CRC pathogenesis. Moreover, it is now clear that not only DNA methylation but also histone modifications are reversible processes. The increased understanding of epigenetic regulation of gene expression in the context of CRC pathogenesis has led to development of epigenetic biomarkers for CRC diagnosis and epigenetic drugs for CRC therapy. PMID:24216997

  16. The 341C/T polymorphism in the GSTP1 gene and lung cancer risk: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Yan, F; Wang, R; Geng, L

    2016-01-01

    Numerous studies have evaluated the association between the 341C/T polymorphism in glutathione S-transferase P1 (GSTP1) and lung cancer risk. However, there are conflicting results from previous studies. To derive a more precise estimation of the association, we conducted this meta-analysis. A comprehensive search was conducted to identify the eligible studies examining the GSTP1 341C/T polymorphism and lung cancer risk. We used odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) to assess the strength of the association. The meta-analysis results showed that the GSTP1 341C/T polymorphism was significantly associated with lung cancer risk (TT vs CC: OR = 3.33, 95%CI = 1.49-7.44; CT vs CC: OR = 1.35, 95%CI = 1.10-1.65; dominant model: OR = 1.43, 95%CI = 1.05-1.96; recessive model: OR = 0.31, 95%CI = 0.14-0.70). The results indicate that the GSTP1 341C/T polymorphism may contribute to lung cancer risk. Conclusive evidence on the effects of this variant in lung cancer should be addressed in further studies. PMID:27525882

  17. Association between selenium intake and the risk of pancreatic cancer: a meta-analysis of observational studies

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lei; Wang, Jianfeng; Liu, Xudong; Liu, Qian; Zhang, Guozhuan; Liang, Lishuang

    2016-01-01

    Quantification of the association between the intake of selenium and risk of pancreatic cancer is still conflicting. Thus, we conducted a meta-analysis to summarize the evidence from epidemiological studies of selenium intake with the risk of pancreatic cancer. Pertinent studies were identified by a search of PubMed and Web of Knowledge to July 2016. The random-effect model was used. Sensitivity analysis and publication bias were conducted. Data from six studies including 1424 pancreatic cancer cases were used in this meta-analysis. Pooled results suggested that highest selenium intake amount compared with lowest amount was significantly associated with the risk of pancreatic cancer [summary relative risk (RR)=0.659, 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.489–0.889, I2=47.6%]. The associations were significant both in case–control studies [RR=0.618, 95%CI=0.399–0.956, I2=59.1%] and Americas [RR=0.570, 95%CI=0.357–0.909, I2=65.6%]. No publication bias was found. Our analysis suggested that the higher intake of selenium might reduce the risk of pancreatic cancer. PMID:27623938

  18. Diagnostic value of [18F] FDG-PET and PET/CT in urinary bladder cancer: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huojun; Xing, Wei; Kang, Qinqin; Chen, Chao; Wang, Linhui; Lu, Jianping

    2015-05-01

    An early diagnosis of urinary bladder cancer is crucial for early treatment and management. The objective of this systematic review was to assess the overall diagnostic accuracy of 18 F FDG-PET and PET/CT in urinary bladder cancer with meta-analysis. The PubMed and CNKI databases were searched for the eligible studies published up to June 01, 2014. The sensitivity, specificity, and other measures of accuracy of 18 F FDG-PET and PET/CT in the diagnosis of urinary bladder cancer were pooled along with 95 % confidence intervals (CI). Summary receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to summarize overall test performance. Ten studies met our inclusion criteria. The summary estimates for 18 F FDG-PET and PET/CT in the diagnosis of urinary bladder cancer in meta-analysis were as follows: a pooled sensitivity, 0.82 (95 % confidence interval [CI], 0.75 to 0.88); a pooled specificity, 0.92 (95 % CI, 0.87 to 0.95); positive likelihood ratio, 6.80 (95 % CI, 4.31 to 10.74); negative likelihood ratio, 0.27 (95 % CI, 0.19 to 0.36); and diagnostic odds ratio, 25.18 (95 % CI, 17.58 to 70.4). The results indicate that 18 F FDG-PET and PET/CT are relatively high sensitive and specific for the diagnosis of urinary bladder cancer.

  19. Efficacy and toxicity of external-beam radiation therapy for localised prostate cancer: a network meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Z; Zhang, J; Liu, Y; Chen, M; Guo, P; Li, K

    2014-01-01

    Background: Many radiation regimens for treating prostate cancer have been used over the years, but which regimen is optimal for localised or locally advanced prostate cancer lacks consensus. We performed a network meta-analysis to identify the optimal radiation regimen. Methods: We systematically reviewed data from 27 randomised controlled trials and could group seven radiation regimens as follows: low- and high-dose radiation therapy (LDRT and HDRT), LDRT+ short- or long-term androgen deprivation therapy (LDRT+SADT and LDRT+LADT), HDRT+SADT, hypofractionated radiotherapy (HFRT), and HFRT+SADT. The main outcomes were overall mortality (OM), prostate-specific antigen (PSA) failure, cancer-specific mortality, and adverse events. Results: For the network meta-analysis of 27 trials, LDRT+LADT and LDRT+SADT were associated with decreased risk of OM as compared with LDRT alone as was LDRT+LADT compared with HDRT. Apart from HFRT, all other treatments were associated with decreased risk of PSA failure as compared with LDRT. HFRT+SADT was associated with decreased risk of cancer-specific mortality as compared with HFRT, LDRT+SADT, HDRT, and LDRT. Conclusions: HFRT+SADT therapy might be the most efficacious treatment but with worst toxicity for localised or locally advanced prostate cancer, and HDRT showed excellent efficacy but more adverse events. PMID:24736585

  20. Coffee consumption and the risk of incident gastric cancer--A meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies.

    PubMed

    Deng, Wei; Yang, Hua; Wang, Jin; Cai, Jun; Bai, Zhigang; Song, Jianning; Zhang, Zhongtao

    2016-01-01

    As several epidemiological studies on the association of coffee consumption with gastric cancer risk have produced inconsistent results, this meta-analysis was designed to synthesize current evidence of this potential relationship. We searched PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library up to September 2014 to retrieve relevant articles. Prospective cohort studies were included if the relative risks (RRs) or hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for gastric cancer according to coffee consumption were reported. Fixed- or random-effects models were used based on heterogeneity. The search yielded 13 eligible cohort studies of 3484 incident gastric cancer patients from among 1,324,559 participants. A significantly increased risk was found between gastric cardia cancer and coffee consumption (RR = 1.50, 95% CI: 1.09-2.07). Compared with Europeans (RR = 1.12, 95% CI: 0.86-1.46) and Asians (RR = 0.96, 95% CI: 0.72-1.27), Americans (RR = 1.36, 95% CI: 1.06-1.74) demonstrated a significantly positive association. However, the significant differences of the pooled results vanished after adjusting for smoking or body mass index. Our meta-analysis results suggest that a high level of coffee consumption is a risk factor for gastric cancer. However, these results should not be overinterpreted because residual confounding effects of other factors could exist. PMID:26710312

  1. Effect of Diabetes Mellitus on Survival in Patients with Pancreatic Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Yixiang; Tao, Min; Jia, Xiaoyan; Xu, Hong; Chen, Kai; Tang, Hongwei; Li, Donghui

    2015-01-01

    Concurrent diabetes has been linked with an increased risk of death in many cancers, but findings in pancreatic cancer have been inconsistent. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the effect of diabetes on survival in patients with pancreatic cancer. Of 4, 463 original articles, 41 were included in the review; 29 studies with 33 risk estimates were included in the meta-analysis. In the overall comparison of patients with pancreatic cancer and diabetes with their nondiabetic counterparts, the former had significantly higher all-cause mortality (pooled HR: 1.13; 95% CI: 1.04–1.22). Subgroup analyses showed that diabetes was associated with poor survival in patients with resectable disease (HR: 1.37; 95% CI: 1.15–1.63) but not in those with unresectable disease (HR: 1.07; 95% CI: 0.89–1.29). The HR (95% CI) was 1.52 (1.20–1.93) for patients with new-onset diabetes (≤2 years of diabetes duration) and 1.22 (0.83–1.80) for those with longstanding diabetes (>2 years). Diabetes was associated with higher mortality overall in patients with pancreatic cancer. The effect of diabetes on overall survival was associated with the stages of tumor and the duration of diabetes. PMID:26598798

  2. Association between coffee consumption and the risk of oral cancer: a meta-analysis of observational studies

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ying; Wang, Xi; Cui, Dan

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Quantification of the association between the coffee consumption and risk of oral cancer is still conflicting. Thus, we conducted a meta-analysis to summarize the evidence from epidemiological studies of coffee consumption with the risk of oral cancer. Methods: Pertinent studies were identified by a search of PubMed and Web of Knowledge to March 2015. The random effect model was used. Sensitivity analysis and publication bias were conducted. Results: Data from 12 studies including 4,037 oral cancer cases and 1,872,231 participants were used in this meta-analysis. Pooled results suggested that highest coffee consumption amount versus lowest amount was significantly associated with the risk of oral cancer [summary relative risk (RR) = 0.694, 95% CI = 0.543-0.886, I2 = 65.0%]. The association was also significant in Europe [summary RR = 0.571, 95% CI = 0.378-0.863], but not in America. No publication bias was found. Conclusions: Our analysis suggested that the higher coffee consumption might reduce the risk of oral cancer, especially in Europe. PMID:26380002

  3. Urinary cadmium concentration and risk of breast cancer: a systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Larsson, Susanna C; Orsini, Nicola; Wolk, Alicja

    2015-09-01

    Cadmium is a toxic and persistent heavy metal with estrogenic activities. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of cohort, case-control, and cross-sectional studies of the association between urinary cadmium concentration, a biomarker of cadmium exposure, and breast cancer risk. Studies were identified by searching PubMed and Embase (to March 15, 2015) and by reviewing the reference lists of pertinent articles. Study-specific risk estimates were combined by using a random-effects model. We identified 2 cohort studies (with 67 breast cancer deaths) and 5 case-control studies and 1 cross-sectional study (with 1,416 cases and 5,083 controls) on urinary cadmium concentration in relation to breast cancer risk. The studies were published during the past 10 years (2006-2015). There was no consistent association between urinary cadmium and breast cancer mortality in the cohort studies. In case-control and cross-sectional studies, the pooled odds ratios were 2.24 (95% confidence interval: 1.50, 3.34; I(2) = 63.4%) for the highest versus lowest category of cadmium concentration and 1.66 (95% confidence interval: 1.23, 2.25) for each 0.5-µg/g creatinine increase of cadmium concentration. This meta-analysis suggests that a high cadmium exposure may be a risk factor for breast cancer, but large prospective studies are needed to confirm this finding.

  4. Association of osteopontin polymorphism with cancer risk: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Gang; Peng, Xiaoxing; Guo, Pengju; Yang, Ge

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the association of osteopontin gene -443 C>T, -156 G>GG, and -1748 A>G polymorphisms with cancer risk. The Medline, PubMed, PUBMED, EMBASE and Web of Science databases were searched. Meta-analyses were conducted using RevMan 5.2 software. After searching and evaluating the included papers, total 10 documents involved in -443 C>T, 8 papers involved in four articles involved in -156 G>GG and -1748 A>G were included into this meta analysis. There were no significant differences in genotype osteopontin -443 C>T distribution between cancer cases and control (OR=0.98, 95% CI=0.68-1.40, P=0.90; OR=0.90, 95% CI=0.60-1.35, P=0.62; OR=0.98, 95% CI=0.59-1.64, P=0.94; OR=0.87, 95% CI=0.60-1.25, P=0.44, respectively). Meanwhile, no association between osteopontin -1748 A>G polymorphism and tumors under all genetic models. (OR=0.73, 95% CI=0.54-1.00, P=0.05; OR=0.95, 95% CI=0.82-1.10, P=0.48; OR=1.31, 95% CI=0.95-1.81, P=0.10; OR=0.90, 95% CI=0.77-1.06, P=0.20, respectively). However, osteopontin -156 G>GG polymorphism is only partly related to the tumor risk. (GGGG+GGG vs GG model, OR=1.21, 95% CI=1.01-1.46, P=0.04; GGG vs GG model: OR=1.19, 95% CI=1.05-1.35, P=0.008, respectively) osteopontin gene polymorphisms, -443 C>T and -1748 A>G was not associated with cancer risk, but partly associated to tumor risk for -156 G>GG gene polymorphism. PMID:26885018

  5. Evaluation of prostate cancer antigen 3 for detecting prostate cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Yong; Cao, Wenzhou; Li, Quan; Shen, Hua; Liu, Chao; Deng, Junpeng; Xu, Jiangfeng; Shao, Qiang

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies indicate that prostate cancer antigen 3 (PCA3) is highly expressed in prostatic tumors. However, its clinical value has not been characterized. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical value of the urine PCA3 test in the diagnosis of prostate cancer by pooling the published data. Clinical trials utilizing the urine PCA3 test for diagnosing prostate cancer were retrieved from PubMed and Embase. A total of 46 clinical trials including 12,295 subjects were included in this meta-analysis. The pooled sensitivity, specificity, positive likelihood ratio (+LR), negative likelihood ratio (−LR), diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) and area under the curve (AUC) were 0.65 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.63–0.66), 0.73 (95% CI: 0.72–0.74), 2.23 (95% CI: 1.91–2.62), 0.48 (95% CI: 0.44–0.52), 5.31 (95% CI: 4.19–6.73) and 0.75 (95% CI: 0.74–0.77), respectively. In conclusion, the urine PCA3 test has acceptable sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of prostate cancer and can be used as a non-invasive method for that purpose. PMID:27161545

  6. Evaluation of prostate cancer antigen 3 for detecting prostate cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Yong; Cao, Wenzhou; Li, Quan; Shen, Hua; Liu, Chao; Deng, Junpeng; Xu, Jiangfeng; Shao, Qiang

    2016-05-01

    Previous studies indicate that prostate cancer antigen 3 (PCA3) is highly expressed in prostatic tumors. However, its clinical value has not been characterized. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical value of the urine PCA3 test in the diagnosis of prostate cancer by pooling the published data. Clinical trials utilizing the urine PCA3 test for diagnosing prostate cancer were retrieved from PubMed and Embase. A total of 46 clinical trials including 12,295 subjects were included in this meta-analysis. The pooled sensitivity, specificity, positive likelihood ratio (+LR), negative likelihood ratio (‑LR), diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) and area under the curve (AUC) were 0.65 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.63–0.66), 0.73 (95% CI: 0.72–0.74), 2.23 (95% CI: 1.91–2.62), 0.48 (95% CI: 0.44–0.52), 5.31 (95% CI: 4.19–6.73) and 0.75 (95% CI: 0.74–0.77), respectively. In conclusion, the urine PCA3 test has acceptable sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of prostate cancer and can be used as a non-invasive method for that purpose.

  7. Survival and disease-free benefits with mastectomy versus breast conservation therapy for early breast cancer: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yan; Jiang, Lei; Gao, Bo; Cheng, Zhi-Yuan; Jin, Jiaxin; Yang, Ke-Hu

    2016-06-01

    The objective of the present meta-analysis was to estimate the magnitude of survival and disease-free benefits from mastectomy compared with breast conservation therapy (BCT) in patients with early breast cancer. We searched PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Library, Web of Science, and Chinese biomedical literature database from their inception to May 2015. All the data were independently extracted from the publications by two reviewers. Results regarding the overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) in the meta-analysis were expressed as hazard ratios (HRs) with 95 % confidence intervals (CIs). Nine randomized control trials were eligible for final meta-analysis. Meta-analysis showed that mastectomy provided significant benefit in OS compared with BCT (HR 1.09, 95 % CI 1.01-1.19; P = 0.03). Sensitivity analysis gives similar OS estimates (HR 1.12, 95 % CI 1.01-1.25). In the subgroup analysis of patients according to tumor size, the pooled HRs for OS indicated that there is a borderline statistical difference between two arms in the subgroup with tumor size ranging between ≥2 cm and <5 cm (HR 1.09, 95 % CI 1.00-1.19), but subgroup analysis of tumor size <2 cm showed no statistically significant difference in OS (HR 1.08, 95 % CI 0.88-1.33) when comparing the BCT arm with the mastectomy arm. There was no significant difference in DFS between BCT and mastectomy groups (HR 1.08, 95 % CI 0.99-1.18; P = 0.08). Sensitivity analysis also gives similar DFS estimates (HR 1.11, 95 % CI 0.96-1.27). Subgroup analysis indicated that the pooled HRs for DFS did not favor mastectomy arm or BCT arm either in the subgroup with tumor size <2 cm (HR 1.09, 95 % CI 0.78-1.52) or in the subgroup with tumor size ranging between ≥2 cm and <5 cm (HR 1.08, 95 % CI 0.99-1.18) according to tumor size. Five-year OS decreased from 70 to 68 % with BCT. The present meta-analysis indicated that mastectomy might provide slight OS benefit compared with BCT in early

  8. CYP3A4*1B polymorphism and cancer risk: a HuGE review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Li-Ping; Yao, Fan; Luan, Hong; Wang, Yin-Ling; Dong, Xi-Hua; Zhou, Wen-Wen; Wang, Qi-Hui

    2013-04-01

    CYP450 3A4 (CYP3A4), encoded by the CYP3A4 gene, is a major enzyme catalyzing the metabolism of both endogenous and exogenous agents that may play a role in the etiology of carcinogenesis. Several potentially functional polymorphisms of the CYP3A4 gene have been implicated in cancer risk, but individually published studies have shown inconclusive results. The aim of this Human Genome Epidemiology (HuGE) review and meta-analysis was to investigate the association between CYP3A4*1B (rs2740574 A > G) polymorphism and cancer risk. Eleven studies were included with a total of 3,810 cancer patients and 3,173 healthy controls. We found that the G allele and GG genotype of CYP3A4*1B polymorphism were associated with increased risk of cancers using the fixed effects model (allele model: odds ratio (OR) = 1.24, 95 %CI: 1.09-1.42, P = 0.001; recessive model: OR = 1.77, 95 %CI: 1.30-2.41, P < 0.001; homozygous model: OR = 1.72, 95 %CI: 1.19-2.47, P = 0.004). Subgroup analyses by cancer type showed that the G allele and G carrier (AG + GG) of CYP3A4*1B polymorphism had significant associations with increased risk of prostate cancer, but not with breast cancer, leukemia, or other cancers. With further subgroup analysis based on different ethnicities, the results indicated that the GG genotype of CYP3A4*1B polymorphism might increase the risk of cancer among African populations. However, similar associations were not observed among Caucasian and Asian populations. Results from the current meta-analysis indicate that the G allele and GG genotype of CYP3A4*1B polymorphism might be associated with increased cancer risk, especially for prostate cancer among African populations.

  9. Systematic review and meta-analysis of the risk of severe and life-threatening thromboembolism in cancer patients receiving anti-EGFR monoclonal antibodies (cetuximab or panitumumab).

    PubMed

    Miroddi, Marco; Sterrantino, Carmelo; Simmonds, Mark; Caridi, Luigi; Calapai, Gioacchino; Phillips, Robert S; Stewart, Lesley A

    2016-11-15

    Cancer-associated thromboembolism is a substantial problem in clinical practice. An increase in the level of fibrinopeptide A (a substance associated with hypercoagulable states) has been observed in humans exposed to fluorouracil. Anti-EGFR monoclonal antibodies cetuximab and panitumumab, which are now widely used in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer, could prolong the uncovering of endothelial structures resulting from flouorouracil or other co-administered agents, thus favouring several factors leading to thromboembolism. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised, controlled trials assessing whether cancer patients receiving anti-EGFR monoclonal antibodies cetuximab and panitumumab are at increased risk of thromboembolic events. We searched electronic databases (Medline, Embase, Web of Science, Central) and reference lists. Phase II/III randomised, controlled trials comparing standard anti-cancer regimens with or without anti-EGFR monoclonal antibodies and reporting serious venous thromboembolic events were included in the analysis. Seventeen studies (12,870 patients) were considered for quantitative analysis. The relative risk (RR) for venous thromboembolism (18 comparisons) was 1.46 (95% CI 1.26 to 1.69); the RR of pulmonary embolism, on the basis of eight studies providing nine comparisons, was 1.55 (1.20 to 2.00). Cancer patients receiving anti-EGFR monoclonal antibodies-containing regimens are approximately 1.5 times more likely to experience venous or pulmonary embolism, compared to those treated with the same regimens without anti-EGFR monoclonal antibodies. Clinicians should consider patient's baseline thromboembolic risk when selecting regimens that include cetuximab or panitumumab. Potential non-reporting of these important adverse events remains a concern. PROSPERO registration number is CRD42014009165. PMID:27450994

  10. [Colorectal cancer (CCR): genetic and molecular alterations].

    PubMed

    Juárez-Vázquez, Clara Ibet; Rosales-Reynoso, Mónica Alejandra

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this review is to present a genetic and molecular overview of colorectal carcinogenesis (sporadic and hereditary origin) as a multistage process, where there are a number of molecular mechanisms associated with the development of colorectal cancer and genomic instability that allows the accumulation of mutations in proto-oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes, chromosomal instability, and methylation and microsatellite instability, and the involvement of altered expression of microRNAs' prognosis factors.

  11. Consumption of omega-3 fatty acids and the risk of skin cancers: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Noel, Sophie E; Stoneham, Adam C S; Olsen, Catherine M; Rhodes, Lesley E; Green, Adele C

    2014-07-01

    Skin cancers have a higher incidence than all other cancers combined and are a major cause of morbidity worldwide. Laboratory data suggest certain dietary constituents, notably omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs), could potentially protect against skin malignancy, although no large-scale review has been conducted in humans. The objective of this review and meta-analysis was to determine the relationship between dietary n-3 PUFAs and skin cancer incidence. It considered all published randomized controlled trials and observational studies up to March 2013. Five studies (two case-control and three cohort) were identified pertaining to oral n-3 PUFA consumption and incidence of basal cell carcinoma (BCC), squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), melanoma (or a combination) and were included in a random-effects meta-analysis. A further six studies considering nondietary n-3 PUFA exposure (e.g., by tissue analysis) and/or recognized biological markers of skin cancer risk (e.g., p53 expression) were analyzed qualitatively. Dietary n-3 PUFAs were not associated with BCC (pooled OR 1.05, 95% CIs 0.86-1.28). Consumption of high levels of n-3 PUFAs were inversely associated with melanoma, although with only one estimate available (OR 0.52, 95% CI 0.34-0.78), and SCC, although nonsignificantly (pooled OR 0.86, 95% CIs 0.59-1.23). Available evidence is suggestive, but currently inadequate, to support the hypothesis that n-3 PUFAs protect against skin malignancy.

  12. Soy food consumption and lung cancer risk: a meta-analysis using a common measure across studies.

    PubMed

    Wu, Sheng Hui; Liu, Zhong

    2013-01-01

    A published meta-analysis pooled individual studies by using the study-specific odds ratio (OR) or relative risk (RR) for the highest vs. lowest category of soy or isoflavone intake from each study, but it should be problematic to make comparison between studies/populations for lung cancer risk as the quantiles are so different from different studies/populations. Therefore, we conducted a meta-analysis to explore the association between exposure of estimated daily soy protein intake in grams and lung cancer risk. We extracted ORs or RRs and 95% confidence intervals (CIs), converted them to the estimated ones for daily soy protein intake and pooled them using fixed or random effects models from 11 epidemiologic studies. Overall, the inverse association between daily grams of soy protein intake and risk of lung cancer was borderline statistically significant (OR = 0.98, 95% CI = 0.96 to 1.00); the inverse association was statistically significant in nonsmokers (OR = 0.96; 95% CI = 0.93 to 0.99) and stronger than in smokers (P for difference <0.05). No statistical significance for the associations was observed between genders, the origin of the participants, study design and types of soy intake. This study suggests a borderline reduction in risk of lung cancer with daily soy protein intake in grams, and a significant inverse association in nonsmokers.

  13. Inorganic arsenic in drinking water and bladder cancer: a meta-analysis for dose-response assessment.

    PubMed

    Chu, Huei-An; Crawford-Brown, Douglas J

    2006-12-01

    Most arsenic cancer risk assessments have been based solely on epidemiological studies to characterize the dose-response relationship for arsenic-associated cancer and to perform risk calculations. However, current epidemiological evidence is too inconsistent and fraught with uncertainty regarding arsenic exposure to provide reliable estimates. This makes it hard to draw a firm conclusion about the shape and slope of the dose-response relationship from individual studies. Meta-analysis is a statistical approach to combining results across studies and offers expanded opportunities for obtaining an improved dose-response relationship. In this study, a meta-analysis of arsenic studies was conducted by combining seven epidemiological studies from different regions to get an overall dose-response relationship between the amount of arsenic intake and the excess probability of bladder cancer. Both the fixed-effect and random-effect models were used to calculate the averaged coefficient of the linear-logistic regression model. A homogeneity test was also conducted. The final product of this research is an aggregated dose-response model in the range of empirical observation of arsenic. Considering the most recent arsenic MCL (maximum contaminant level, i.e. 10microg/L), the associated bladder cancer risk (lifetime excess probability) at this MCL is 2.29 x 10-5.

  14. The safety and efficacy of the preoperative neoadjuvant chemotherapy for patients with cervical cancer: a systematic review and meta analysis

    PubMed Central

    He, Du; Duan, Chunyan; Chen, Jun; Lai, Lin; Chen, Jiaquan; Chen, Dian

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of the preoperative neoadjuvant chemotherapy for patients with cervical cancer. Methods: A systematic literature search was conducted using the PubMed, EMBASE and Cochrane databases. Studies comparing combined neoadjuvant chemotherapy treatment (NACT)/radical surgery treatment (RST) with RST alone in patients with cervical cancer were eligible for inclusion. Results: Eight studies were finally included in this meta analysis, involving a total of 1302 patients. Meta analysis shows that NACT might have lower lymph node metastasis than RST [OR=0.57, 95% CI (0.41, 0.79), P=0.0008]. However, there are no differentiation between two groups in operation time [SMD=0.16, 95% CI (-0.08, 0.48), P=0.19], intraoperative estimated blood loss [SMD=0.20, 95% CI (-0.19, 0.58), P=0.48], intraoperative and postoperative complication rates [OR=1.33, 95% CI (0.45, 3.92), P=0.60], overall survival rate [OR=1.07, 95% CI (0.48, 2.41), P=0.86] and recurrence rate [OR=1.06, 95% CI (0.56, 2.03), P=0.85]. Conclusions: The safety and efficacy of two treatments are similarly. However, NACT can reduce the rate of lymph node metastasis, which is an independent risk factor for cervical cancer prognosis and may improve the prognosis of cervical cancer. PMID:26628951

  15. Incidence and risk of hepatic toxicities with PD-1 inhibitors in cancer patients: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xi; Ran, Yuge; Wang, Kunjie; Zhu, Yuanxue; Li, Jinghua

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Anti-programmed cell death receptor-1 (PD-1) antibodies have demonstrated antitumor activity in many cancer entities. Hepatic adverse events (AEs) are one of its major side effects, but the overall risks have not been systematically evaluated. Thus, we conducted this meta-analysis to investigate the overall incidence and risk of developing hepatic AEs in cancer patients treated with PD-1 inhibitors. Methods PubMed, Embase, and oncology conference proceedings were searched for relevant studies. Eligible studies were randomized controlled trials of cancer patients treated with PD-1 inhibitors with adequate data on hepatic AEs. Results A total of nine randomized controlled trials with a variety of solid tumors were eligible for the meta-analysis. The use of PD-1 inhibitors significantly increased the risk of developing all-grade hepatic AEs but not for high-grade hepatic AEs in comparison with chemotherapy or everolimus control. Additionally, the risk of all-grade and high-grade hepatic AEs with a nivolumab/ipilimumab combination was substantially higher than ipilimumab. No significant differences in the risk of all-grade and high-grade hepatic AEs were found between PD-1 inhibitors monotherapy and ipilimumab. Conclusion While the use of PD-1 inhibitors is associated with an increased risk of developing hepatic AEs in cancer patients, this is primarily for lower grade events. PMID:27729774

  16. Tissue Specific Promoters in Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Rama, A. R.; Aguilera, A.; Melguizo, C.; Caba, O.; Prados, J.

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal carcinoma is the third most prevalent cancer in the world. In the most advanced stages, the use of chemotherapy induces a poor response and is usually accompanied by other tissue damage. Significant progress based on suicide gene therapy has demonstrated that it may potentiate the classical cytotoxic effects in colorectal cancer. The inconvenience still rests with the targeting and the specificity efficiency. The main target of gene therapy is to achieve an effective vehicle to hand over therapeutic genes safely into specific cells. One possibility is the use of tumor-specific promoters overexpressed in cancers. They could induce a specific expression of therapeutic genes in a given tumor, increasing their localized activity. Several promoters have been assayed into direct suicide genes to cancer cells. This review discusses the current status of specific tumor-promoters and their great potential in colorectal carcinoma treatment. PMID:26648599

  17. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARG) polymorphisms and breast cancer susceptibility: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Weifeng; Chen, Yuanmei; Wang, Yafeng; Gu, Haiyong; Chen, Shuchen; Kang, Mingqiang

    2015-01-01

    Background: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARG), a nuclear hormone receptor, plays a critical role in the lipid and glucose homeostasis, adipocyte differentiation, as well as intracellular insulin-signaling events. Several studies have been conducted to explore the associations of PPARG polymorphisms with breast cancer (BC), yet the findings are inconsistent. Methods: Databases of Pubmed and Embase were searched until October 5, 2014. The association between PPARG polymorphisms and BC risk was determined by crude odds ratios (ORs) with t