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Sample records for colorectal neoplasm screening

  1. [Cost analysis of the colorectal neoplasm screen program in Beijing].

    PubMed

    Mao, Ayan; Dong, Pei; Yan, Xiaoling; Hu, Guangyu; Chen, Qingkun; Qiu, Wuqi

    2015-05-01

    To conduct with a cost analysis of the colorectal neoplasm screening program in Beijing, and provide data evidence for decision making. Based on stratified cluster sampling method, we carried out a 2-stage colorectal neoplasm screening program within 6 districts, Dongcheng, Xicheng, Chaoyang, Haidian, Fengtai and Shijingshan, of Beijing city between October, 2012 to May. 2013. The first stage of the program was to conducting a cancer risk level evaluation for community residents who were forty years older and the second stage's task was to providing clinical exam for those high risk people who were selected from the first stage. There were about 12 953 residents were involved in this program. We calculated the main cost of the colorectal neoplasm screen program in Beijing. Then estimate the cost of detecting one Colorectal Neoplasm patient of this program and compare it with the total treatment cost for a patient. 2 487 high risk residents were selected by the first stage and 1 055 of them made appointment for the colonoscopy exam but only 375 accepted the exam, participate rate was 35.5%. 9 neoplasm cancer patients and 71 pre-cancer patient were found at the second stage, the detection rate were 69.2/100 000 and 546/100 000, respectively. The direct input for this neoplasm screening program was 227 100 CNY and the transport expense was 4 200 CNY in the calculations. The cost for detecting one cancer patient was about 19 900 CNY. Comparing with the total medical care cost of a cancer patient (1 282 800 CNY), especially for those have been diagnosed as middle to end stage cancer, the screening program (cost 842 800 CNY) might help to reduce the total health expenditure about 128 700 CNY, based on 12 953 local residents age above 40 years old. An colonoscopy based colorectal neoplasm screening program showed its function on medical expenditure saving and might have advantage on health social labor creating.

  2. Characteristics of and risk factors for colorectal neoplasms in young adults in a screening population

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seung Eun; Jo, Hee Bum; Kwack, Won Gun; Jeong, Yun Jin; Yoon, Yeo-Jin; Kang, Hyoun Woo

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To investigate prevalence and risk factors for colorectal neoplasms in adults aged < 50 years, for whom screening is not recommended. METHODS: This cross-sectional study compared prevalence and characteristics of colorectal and advanced adenomas in patients aged < 50 years who underwent colonoscopy screening with subjects aged ≥ 50 years. To evaluate risk factors for colorectal and advanced adenoma in young adults, we used multivariable logistic regression models. Colorectal neoplasm characteristics were evaluated and compared with those in older patients. RESULTS: Among 2819 patients included, prevalences of colorectal adenoma and advanced adenoma were 19.7% and 1.5%, respectively. As patient age increased, so did the prevalence of colorectal neoplasm. However, prevalence of advanced adenoma did not differ between age-groups 45-49 years and ≥ 50 years (OR = 0.43, 95%CI: 0.17-1.07, P = 0.070). In younger age-group (< 50 years), colorectal adenoma was significantly associated with older age, waist circumference (OR = 1.72, 95%CI: 1.15-2.55, P = 0.008), and current smoking (OR = 1.60, 95%CI: 1.07-2.41, P = 0.023). Alcohol consumption was an independent risk factor for colorectal advanced adenoma (OR = 3.69, 95%CI: 1.08-12.54, P = 0.037). Multiple neoplasms and large neoplasms (≥ 1 cm) were more prevalent in subjects ≥ 50 years. CONCLUSION: Current screening strategies for colorectal cancer may need to be amended to account for patient age, especially in young subjects with abdominal obesity, current smoking and alcohol consumption. PMID:26973394

  3. Characteristics of and risk factors for colorectal neoplasms in young adults in a screening population.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung Eun; Jo, Hee Bum; Kwack, Won Gun; Jeong, Yun Jin; Yoon, Yeo-Jin; Kang, Hyoun Woo

    2016-03-14

    To investigate prevalence and risk factors for colorectal neoplasms in adults aged < 50 years, for whom screening is not recommended. This cross-sectional study compared prevalence and characteristics of colorectal and advanced adenomas in patients aged < 50 years who underwent colonoscopy screening with subjects aged ≥ 50 years. To evaluate risk factors for colorectal and advanced adenoma in young adults, we used multivariable logistic regression models. Colorectal neoplasm characteristics were evaluated and compared with those in older patients. Among 2819 patients included, prevalences of colorectal adenoma and advanced adenoma were 19.7% and 1.5%, respectively. As patient age increased, so did the prevalence of colorectal neoplasm. However, prevalence of advanced adenoma did not differ between age-groups 45-49 years and ≥ 50 years (OR = 0.43, 95%CI: 0.17-1.07, P = 0.070). In younger age-group (< 50 years), colorectal adenoma was significantly associated with older age, waist circumference (OR = 1.72, 95%CI: 1.15-2.55, P = 0.008), and current smoking (OR = 1.60, 95%CI: 1.07-2.41, P = 0.023). Alcohol consumption was an independent risk factor for colorectal advanced adenoma (OR = 3.69, 95%CI: 1.08-12.54, P = 0.037). Multiple neoplasms and large neoplasms (≥ 1 cm) were more prevalent in subjects ≥ 50 years. Current screening strategies for colorectal cancer may need to be amended to account for patient age, especially in young subjects with abdominal obesity, current smoking and alcohol consumption.

  4. Changing epidemiology of colorectal cancer makes screening sigmoidoscopy less useful for identifying carriers of colorectal neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Rozen, Paul; Liphshitz, Irena; Barchana, Micha

    2012-08-01

    There is renewed interest in flexible sigmoidoscopy (FS) colorectal cancer (CRC) screening following trials showing significantly reduced CRC incidence and mortality. To evaluate the potential usefulness of FS screening in our population. We examined rectosigmoid (RS) cancer epidemiology in our Jewish population using Israel National Cancer Registry data, computed by CRC site, age groups, and gender. We also reviewed endoscopy-screening publications for prevalence of RS and proximal advanced adenomas (AAP) and having both or either. During 1980-2008, there were 64,559 CRCs registered; 31.6 % were RS cancer which has now decreased to 29 % of men's and 26 % of women's CRC (both P < 0.01). In <50 year olds, RS cancer occurred in 42 % of males' and 35 % of females' CRC, and in the last 2 decades this ratio is unchanged. In 50-74 year olds, RS cancer decreased to stable levels of 32 % of males' and 29 % females' CRC (both P < 0.01). In ≥75 year olds, RS cancer progressively decreased to 24 % of males' and 22 % females' CRC (both P < 0.001). From endoscopy screening reports in 40-79 year olds, RS AAPs occurred in 2.0-5.8 %, being least in women, most in men, and not increased with aging. Some 50-57 % of screenees had both RS and proximal AAPs, least when aged 40-49 years at 25 %, women were 35 %, and with aging 40 %, but most in men at 70 %. With the changing CRC epidemiology, having fewer RS neoplasms but more proximal cancer, the effectiveness of FS screening for identifying significant neoplasms decreases with screenees' age and especially in females. These make FS screening less suitable for our aging and increasingly female population.

  5. Extent of prevalence and size of flat neoplasms in a heterogeneous population undergoing routine colorectal cancer screening.

    PubMed

    Kim, J; Rami, P; O'Toole, J; Llor, X; Carroll, R E; Benya, R V

    2010-05-01

    The importance of identifying flat colorectal neoplasms is increasingly appreciated, although the extent of prevalence of these lesions in a general population is not known. To determine the extent of prevalence of flat neoplasms in a diverse population undergoing routine endoscopic screening for colorectal cancer. Patients referred to the Colorectal Cancer Screening Clinic over a 12-month period (n = 642). The patient population was 56% African American and 21% Caucasian; with a mean age of 59 + or - 9 years. Flat neoplasms were detected in 5.5% of all patients, similar to that reported elsewhere, with extent of prevalence being similar regardless of gender or race. Average size of flat neoplasms was of 2.8 + or - 2.3 mm (range 1-20 mm). However, there was no evidence of advanced pathology in any of the flat neoplasms identified. Flat neoplasms are common but may not be associated with advanced pathology in a population undergoing routine screening.

  6. Cost-effectiveness analysis on screening for colorectal neoplasm and management of colorectal cancer in Asia.

    PubMed

    Tsoi, K K F; Ng, S S M; Leung, M C M; Sung, J J Y

    2008-08-01

    Faecal occult blood testing (FOBT), flexible sigmoidoscopy (FS) and colonoscopy are recommended for subjects above 50 years of age for screening for colorectal cancer (CRC). To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of FOBT, FS and colonoscopy on the basis of disease prevalence, compliance rate and cost of screening procedures in Asian countries. A hypothetical population of 100 000 persons aged 50 undergoes either FOBT annually, FS every 5 years or colonoscopy every 10 years until the age of 80 years. Patients with positive FOBT or polyp in FS are offered colonoscopy. Surveillance colonoscopy is repeated every 3 years. The treatment cost of CRC, including surgery and chemotherapy, was evaluated. A Markov model was used to compare the cost-effectiveness of different screening strategies. Assuming a compliance rate of 90%, colonoscopy, FS and FOBT can reduce CRC incidence by 54.1%, 37.1% and 29.3% respectively. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) for FOBT (US$6222 per life-year saved) is lower than FS (US$8044 per life-year saved) and colonoscopy (US$7211 per life-year saved). When the compliance rate drops to 50% and 30%, FOBT still has the lowest ICER. FOBT is cost-effective compared to FS or colonoscopy for CRC screening in average-risk individuals aged from 50 to 80 years.

  7. Prevalence of synchronous colorectal neoplasms in surgically treated gastric cancer patients and significance of screening colonoscopy.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Akira; Koide, Naohiko; Takeuchi, Daisuke; Okumura, Motohiro; Ishizone, Satoshi; Suga, Tomoaki; Miyagawa, Shinichi

    2014-05-01

    The existence of other primary tumors during the treatment and management of gastric cancer (GC) is an important issue. The present study investigated the prevalence and management of synchronous colorectal neoplasms (CRN) in surgically treated GC patients. Of 381 surgically treated GC patients, 332 (87.1%) underwent colonoscopy to detect CRN before surgery or within a year after surgery. CRN were synchronously observed in 140 patients (42.2%). Adenoma was observed in 131 patients (39.4%). Endoscopic resection was done in 18 patients with adenoma. Colorectal cancer (CRC) was observed in 16 patients (4.8%), superficial CRC in 13 and advanced CRC in three patients. Endoscopic resection of superficial CRC was carried out in seven patients, whereas simultaneous surgical resection of CRC was done in nine patients. CRN were more frequently observed in men. CRC was more frequently observed in GC patients with distant metastasis, albeit without significance. The overall survival of GC patients with CRN or CRC was poorer than that of patients without CRN or CRC. Synchronous CRN were commonly associated with GC and screening colonoscopy should be offered to patients with GC. © 2013 The Authors. Digestive Endoscopy © 2013 Japan Gastroenterological Endoscopy Society.

  8. Predictive power of quantitative and qualitative fecal immunochemical tests for hemoglobin in population screening for colorectal neoplasm.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yanqin; Li, Qilong; Ge, Weiting; Cai, Shanrong; Zhang, Suzhan; Zheng, Shu

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of qualitative and quantitative fecal immunochemical tests (FITs) in population screening for colorectal neoplasm. A total of 9000 participants aged between 40 and 74 years were enrolled in this study. Each participant received two stool sampling tubes and was asked to simultaneously submit two stool samples from the same bowel movement. The stool samples of each participant were tested using an immunogold labeling FIT dipstick (qualitative FIT) and an automated fecal blood analyzer (quantitative FIT). Colonoscopy was performed for those who test positive in either FIT. The positive predictive values and population detection rates of the FITs for predicting colorectal neoplasm were compared. A total of 6494 (72.16%) participants simultaneously submitted two stool samples. The diagnostic consistency for a positive result between quantitative and qualitative FITs was poor (κ=0.278, 95% confidence interval=0.223-0.333). The positive predictive values of the quantitative FIT were significantly higher than those of the qualitative FIT for predicting large (≥1 cm) adenomas (23 cases, 14.29% and 16 cases, 6.72%, P=0.013) and colorectal cancer (10 cases, 6.21% and 5 cases, 2.10%, P=0.034); however, the population detection rate for advanced neoplasm of the quantitative FIT was not significantly different from that of the qualitative FIT. Quantitative FIT is superior to qualitative FIT in predicting advanced colorectal neoplasm during colorectal cancer screening. Further studies are needed to elucidate the causes of the predictive superiority.

  9. Prevalence of colorectal neoplasm in Chinese patients with high-risk coronary artery disease classified by the Asia-Pacific Colorectal Screening score.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiao Bo; Xu, Qing Ling; Xu, Chen Ying; Wu, Chao; Yu, Li Fen

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of colorectal neoplasms in patients coronary artery disease (CAD) with or without a family history of colorectal cancer (CRC). In this cross-sectional study, individuals with suspected CAD in the absence of cancer-related symptoms underwent coronary angiography for the first time, and were divided into CAD and non-CAD groups. Colonoscopy was performed in individuals at high-risk tier based on their Asia-Pacific colorectal screening (APCS) score. Their waist circumference (WC), height and body weight were measured. There were 634 of 1157 individuals at a high risk of developing advanced colorectal neoplasms, 91.0% (577/634) of whom were male smokers. The proportion of CAD patients in the high-risk tier was 81.5% (517/634), while the prevalences of adenomas (32.1% vs 22.2%, P < 0.05) and advanced adenomas (14.7% vs 8.5%, P < 0.05) were significantly higher in the CAD group than in the non-CAD group. After 83 individuals with a family history of CRC were excluded, only the prevalence of adenomas was still significantly higher in the CAD group than in the non-CAD group (25.5% vs 16.0%, P < 0.01). Body mass index (BMI) ≥ 25 kg/m(2) was correlated with the occurrence of adenomas (OR 2.133, 95% CI 1.219-3.730, P = 0.008) in CAD patients. Even in the absence of family history of CRC, CAD patients at a high risk of developing advanced colorectal neoplasms classified by the APCS score still showed a remarkably high prevalence of colorectal adenomas. Moreover, the association between the occurrence of adenomas and CAD was stronger in overweight (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m(2)) individuals. © 2015 Chinese Medical Association Shanghai Branch, Chinese Society of Gastroenterology, Renji Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  10. Sensitivity of 2-[(18)F]fluoro-2-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography for advanced colorectal neoplasms: a large-scale analysis of 7505 asymptomatic screening individuals.

    PubMed

    Sekiguchi, Masau; Kakugawa, Yasuo; Terauchi, Takashi; Matsumoto, Minori; Saito, Hiroshi; Muramatsu, Yukio; Saito, Yutaka; Matsuda, Takahisa

    2016-12-01

    The sensitivity of 2-[(18)F]fluoro-2-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) for advanced colorectal neoplasms among healthy subjects is not yet fully understood. The present study aimed to clarify the sensitivity by analyzing large-scale data from an asymptomatic screening population. A total of 7505 asymptomatic screenees who underwent both FDG-PET and colonoscopy at our Cancer Screening Division between February 2004 and March 2013 were analyzed. FDG-PET and colonoscopy were performed on consecutive days, and each examination was interpreted in a blinded fashion. The results of the two examinations were compared for each of the divided six colonic segments, with those from colonoscopy being set as the reference. The relationships between the sensitivity of FDG-PET and clinicopathological features of advanced neoplasms were also evaluated. Two hundred ninety-one advanced neoplasms, including 24 invasive cancers, were detected in 262 individuals. Thirteen advanced neoplasms (advanced adenomas) were excluded from the analysis because of the coexistence of lesions in the same colonic segment. The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of FDG-PET for advanced neoplasms were 16.9 % [95 % confidence interval (CI) 12.7-21.8 %], 99.3 % (95 % CI 99.2-99.4 %), 13.5 % (95 % CI 10.1-17.6 %), and 99.4 % (95 % CI 99.3-99.5 %), respectively. The sensitivity was lower for lesions with less advanced histological grade, of smaller size, and flat-type morphology, and for those located in the proximal part of the colon. FDG-PET is believed to be difficult to use as a primary screening tool in population-based colorectal cancer screening because of its low sensitivity for advanced neoplasms. Even when it is used in opportunistic cancer screening, the limit of its sensitivity should be considered.

  11. Incidence of colorectal neoplasms among male pilots

    PubMed Central

    Moshkowitz, Menachem; Toledano, Ohad; Galazan, Lior; Hallak, Aharon; Arber, Nadir; Santo, Erwin

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To assess the prevalence of colorectal neoplasms (adenomas, advanced adenomas and colorectal cancers) among Israeli military and commercial airline pilots. METHODS: Initial screening colonoscopy was performed on average-risk (no symptoms and no family history) airline pilots at the Integrated Cancer Prevention Center (ICPC) in the Tel-Aviv Medical Center. Visualized polyps were excised and sent for pathological examination. Advanced adenoma was defined as a lesion >10 mm in diameter, with high-grade dysplasia or villous histology. The results were compared with those of an age- and gender-matched random sample of healthy adults undergoing routine screening at the ICPC. RESULTS: There were 270 pilots (mean age 55.2 ± 7.4 years) and 1150 controls (mean age 55.7 ± 7.8 years). The prevalence of colorectal neoplasms was 15.9% among the pilots and 20.6% among the controls (P = 0.097, χ2 test). There were significantly more hyperplastic polyps among pilots (15.5% vs 9.4%, P = 0.004) and a trend towards fewer adenomas (14.8% vs 20.3% P = 0.06). The prevalence of advanced lesions among pilots and control groups was 5.9% and 4.7%, respectively (P = 0.49), and the prevalence of cancer was 0.7% and 0.69%, respectively (P = 0.93). CONCLUSION: There tends to be a lower colorectal adenoma, advanced adenoma and cancer prevalence but a higher hyperplastic polyp prevalence among pilots than the general population. PMID:25083084

  12. Incidence of colorectal neoplasms among male pilots.

    PubMed

    Moshkowitz, Menachem; Toledano, Ohad; Galazan, Lior; Hallak, Aharon; Arber, Nadir; Santo, Erwin

    2014-07-21

    To assess the prevalence of colorectal neoplasms (adenomas, advanced adenomas and colorectal cancers) among Israeli military and commercial airline pilots. Initial screening colonoscopy was performed on average-risk (no symptoms and no family history) airline pilots at the Integrated Cancer Prevention Center (ICPC) in the Tel-Aviv Medical Center. Visualized polyps were excised and sent for pathological examination. Advanced adenoma was defined as a lesion >10 mm in diameter, with high-grade dysplasia or villous histology. The results were compared with those of an age- and gender-matched random sample of healthy adults undergoing routine screening at the ICPC. There were 270 pilots (mean age 55.2 ± 7.4 years) and 1150 controls (mean age 55.7 ± 7.8 years). The prevalence of colorectal neoplasms was 15.9% among the pilots and 20.6% among the controls (P = 0.097, χ (2) test). There were significantly more hyperplastic polyps among pilots (15.5% vs 9.4%, P = 0.004) and a trend towards fewer adenomas (14.8% vs 20.3% P = 0.06). The prevalence of advanced lesions among pilots and control groups was 5.9% and 4.7%, respectively (P = 0.49), and the prevalence of cancer was 0.7% and 0.69%, respectively (P = 0.93). There tends to be a lower colorectal adenoma, advanced adenoma and cancer prevalence but a higher hyperplastic polyp prevalence among pilots than the general population.

  13. Development and validation of a scoring system to identify individuals at high risk for advanced colorectal neoplasms who should undergo colonoscopy screening.

    PubMed

    Tao, Sha; Hoffmeister, Michael; Brenner, Hermann

    2014-03-01

    Screening the population for colorectal cancer (CRC) by colonoscopy could reduce the disease burden. However, targeted screening of individuals at high risk could increase its cost effectiveness. We developed a scoring system to identify individuals with at least 1 advanced adenoma, based on easy-to-collect risk factors among 7891 participants of the German screening colonoscopy program. The system was validated in an independent sample of 3519 participants. Multiple logistic regression was used to develop the algorithm, and the regression coefficient-based scores were used to determine individual risks. Relative risk and numbers of colonoscopies needed for detecting one or more advanced neoplasm(s) were calculated for quintiles of the risk score. The predictive ability of the scoring system was quantified by the area under the curve. We identified 9 risk factors (sex, age, first-degree relatives with a history of CRC, cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, red meat consumption, ever regular use [at least 2 times/wk for at least 1 y] of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, previous colonoscopy, and previous detection of polyps) that were associated significantly with risk of advanced neoplasms. The developed score was associated strongly with the presence of advanced neoplasms. In the validation sample, individuals in the highest quintile of scores had a relative risk for advanced neoplasm of 3.86 (95% confidence interval, 2.71-5.49), compared with individuals in the lowest quintile. The number needed to screen to detect 1 or more advanced neoplasm(s) varied from 20 to 5 between quintiles of the risk score. In the validation sample, the scoring system identified patients with CRC or any advanced neoplasm with area under the curve values of 0.68 and 0.66, respectively. We developed a scoring system, based on easy-to-collect risk factors, to identify individuals most likely to have advanced neoplasms. This system might be used to stratify individuals for CRC

  14. Timing and Risk Factors for a Positive Fecal Immunochemical Test in Subsequent Screening for Colorectal Neoplasms

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Wan-Chung; Chung, Jui-Hung; Chiu, Han-Mo; Tu, Chia-Hung; Chen, Su-Chiu; Wu, Ming-Shiang

    2015-01-01

    Background Following a negative test, the performance of fecal immunochemical testing in the subsequent screening round is rarely reported. It is crucial to allocate resources to participants who are more likely to test positive subsequently following an initial negative result. Objective To identify risk factors associated with a positive result in subsequent screening. Methods Dataset was composed of consecutive participants who voluntarily underwent fecal tests and colonoscopy in a routine medical examination at the National Taiwan University Hospital between January 2007 and December 2011. Risk factor assessment of positive fecal test in subsequent screening was performed by using the Cox proportional hazards models. Results Our cohort consisted of 3783 participants during a 5-year period. In three rounds of subsequent testing, 3783, 1537, and 624 participants underwent fecal tests, respectively; 5.7%, 5.1%, and 3.9% tested positive, respectively, and the positive predictive values were 40.2%, 20.3%, and 20.8%, respectively. Age ≥60 years (adjusted hazard ratio: 1.53, 95% CI: 1.21–1.93) and male gender (1.32, 95% CI: 1.02–1.69) were risk factors; however, an interaction between age and gender was noted. Men had higher risk than women when they were <60 years of age (p = 0.002), while this difference was no longer observed when ≥60 years of age (p = 0.74). The optimal interval of screening timing for participant with baseline negative fecal test was 2 years. Conclusions Following a negative test, older age and male gender are risk factors for a positive result in the subsequent rounds while the gender difference diminishes with age. Biennial screening is sufficient following a negative fecal test. PMID:26332318

  15. Colorectal cancer screening.

    PubMed

    Bessa Caserras, Xavier

    2016-09-01

    In the latest meeting of the American Gastroenterological Association, several clinical studies were presented that aimed to evaluate the various colorectal cancer screening strategies, although most assessed the various aspects of faecal immunochemical testing (FIT) and colonoscopy. Data were presented from consecutive FIT-based screening rounds, confirming the importance of adherence to consecutive screening rounds, achieving a similar or superior diagnostic yield to endoscopic studies. There was confirmation of the importance of not delaying endoscopic study after a positive result. Participants with a negative FIT (score of 0) had a low risk for colorectal cancer. Several studies seemed to confirm the importance of high-quality colonoscopy in colorectal cancer screening programmes. The implementation of high-quality colonoscopies has reduced mortality from proximal lesions and reduced interval cancers in various studies. Finally, participants with a normal colonoscopy result or with a small adenoma are at low risk for developing advanced neoplasms during follow-up. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. A Risk-Scoring System Combined With a Fecal Immunochemical Test Is Effective in Screening High-Risk Subjects for Early Colonoscopy to Detect Advanced Colorectal Neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Han-Mo; Ching, Jessica Y L; Wu, Kai Chun; Rerknimitr, Rungsun; Li, Jingnan; Wu, Deng-Chiang; Goh, Khean Lee; Matsuda, Takahisa; Kim, Hyun-Soo; Leong, Rupert; Yeoh, Khay Guan; Chong, Vui Heng; Sollano, Jose D; Ahmed, Furqaan; Menon, Jayaram; Sung, Joseph J Y

    2016-03-01

    Age, sex, smoking, and family history are risk factors for colorectal cancer in Asia. The Asia-Pacific Colorectal Screening (APCS) scoring system was developed to identify subjects with a high risk for advanced neoplasm (AN). We tested an algorithm that combined APCS scores with fecal immunochemical test (FIT) in colorectal cancer screening. We performed a multicenter prospective study, enrolling asymptomatic individuals older than 40 years old in 12 Asia-Pacific regions from December 2011 to December 2013. APCS scores were calculated for each individual (0-1 = low risk [LR], 2-3 = medium risk [MR], and 4-7 = high risk [HR] for AN). LR and MR subjects were offered FIT and referred for early colonoscopies if FIT results were positive. HR subjects were offered colonoscopies. The proportions of subjects with ANs were determined for each group based on colonoscopy findings; odd ratios for LR and MR subjects were calculated compared to LR individuals. We calculated the sensitivity of the APCS-FIT algorithm in identifying subjects with AN. A total of 5657 subjects were recruited: 646 subjects (11.4%) were considered LR, 3243 subjects (57.3%) were considered MR, and 1768 subjects (31.3%) were considered HR for AN. The proportions of individuals with an AN in these groups were 1.5%, 5.1%, and 10.9%, respectively. Compared with LR group, MR and HR subjects had a 3.4-fold increase and a 7.8-fold increase in risk for AN, respectively. A total of 70.6% subjects with AN (95% confidence interval: 65.6%-75.1%) and 95.1% subjects with invasive cancers (95% confidence interval: 82.2%-99.2%) were correctly instructed to undergo early colonoscopy examination. The APCS scoring system, which is based on age, sex, family history, and smoking, is a useful tool for determining risk for colorectal cancer and advanced adenoma in asymptomatic subjects. Use of the APCS score-based algorithm in triaging subjects for FIT or colonoscopy can substantially reduce colonoscopy workload. Copyright

  17. The Synchronous Prevalence of Colorectal Neoplasms in Patients with Stomach Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang Su; Kim, Cha Young; Ha, Chang Yoon; Min, Hyun Ju; Kim, Hyun Jin; Kim, Tae Hyo

    2011-01-01

    Purpose The association between stomach cancer and colorectal cancer is controversial. The purpose of this study was to determine the synchronous prevalence of colorectal neoplasms in patients with stomach cancer. Methods A total of 123 patients with stomach cancer (86 male) and 246 consecutive, age- and sex-matched persons without stomach cancer were analyzed from July 2005 to June 2010. All of them underwent colonoscopy within 6 months after undergoing gastroscopy. Results The prevalence of colorectal neoplasms was significantly higher in the stomach cancer group (35.8%) than in the control group (17.9%) (P < 0.001). Colorectal neoplasms were more prevalent in the patients with stomach cancer (odds ratio [OR], 3.10; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.71 to 5.63). In particular, the difference in the prevalence of colorectal neoplasms was more prominent in the patients above 50 years old (OR, 3.54; 95% CI, 1.80 to 6.98). Conclusion The results showed that the synchronous prevalence of colorectal neoplasms was higher in patients with stomach cancer than in those without stomach cancer. Therefore, patients with stomach cancer should be regarded as a high-risk group for colorectal neoplasms, and colonoscopy should be recommended for screening. PMID:22102975

  18. The synchronous prevalence of colorectal neoplasms in patients with stomach cancer.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang Su; Jung, Woon Tae; Kim, Cha Young; Ha, Chang Yoon; Min, Hyun Ju; Kim, Hyun Jin; Kim, Tae Hyo

    2011-10-01

    The association between stomach cancer and colorectal cancer is controversial. The purpose of this study was to determine the synchronous prevalence of colorectal neoplasms in patients with stomach cancer. A total of 123 patients with stomach cancer (86 male) and 246 consecutive, age- and sex-matched persons without stomach cancer were analyzed from July 2005 to June 2010. All of them underwent colonoscopy within 6 months after undergoing gastroscopy. The prevalence of colorectal neoplasms was significantly higher in the stomach cancer group (35.8%) than in the control group (17.9%) (P < 0.001). Colorectal neoplasms were more prevalent in the patients with stomach cancer (odds ratio [OR], 3.10; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.71 to 5.63). In particular, the difference in the prevalence of colorectal neoplasms was more prominent in the patients above 50 years old (OR, 3.54; 95% CI, 1.80 to 6.98). The results showed that the synchronous prevalence of colorectal neoplasms was higher in patients with stomach cancer than in those without stomach cancer. Therefore, patients with stomach cancer should be regarded as a high-risk group for colorectal neoplasms, and colonoscopy should be recommended for screening.

  19. Colorectal cancer screening.

    PubMed

    Chan, Pak Wo Webber; Ngu, Jing Hieng; Poh, Zhongxian; Soetikno, Roy

    2017-01-01

    Colorectal cancer, which is the leading cancer in Singapore, can be prevented by increased use of screening and polypectomy. A range of screening strategies such as stool-based tests, flexible sigmoidoscopy, colonoscopy and computed tomography colonography are available, each with different strengths and limitations. Primary care physicians should discuss appropriate screening modalities with their patients, tailored to their individual needs. Physicians, patients and the government should work in partnership to improve uptake of colorectal cancer screening to reduce the morbidity and mortality from colorectal cancer. Copyright: © Singapore Medical Association.

  20. Colorectal cancer screening

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Pak Wo Webber; Ngu, Jing Hieng; Poh, Zhongxian; Soetikno, Roy

    2017-01-01

    Colorectal cancer, which is the leading cancer in Singapore, can be prevented by increased use of screening and polypectomy. A range of screening strategies such as stool-based tests, flexible sigmoidoscopy, colonoscopy and computed tomography colonography are available, each with different strengths and limitations. Primary care physicians should discuss appropriate screening modalities with their patients, tailored to their individual needs. Physicians, patients and the government should work in partnership to improve uptake of colorectal cancer screening to reduce the morbidity and mortality from colorectal cancer. PMID:28111691

  1. Helicobacter pylori infection is an independent risk factor of early and advanced colorectal neoplasm.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae Jun; Kim, Eun Ran; Chang, Dong Kyung; Kim, Young-Ho; Baek, Sun-Young; Kim, Kyunga; Hong, Sung Noh

    2017-06-01

    The role of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) in the development of colorectal neoplasm remains controversial. We examined the association between H. pylori infection and colorectal neoplasm in a large sample of healthy participants who underwent screening colonoscopy. A cross-sectional study of 8916 men, who participated in a regular health-screening examination that included an H. pylori-specific immunoglobulin G antibody test and colonoscopy, was conducted to evaluate the association between H. pylori and colorectal neoplasm. Multivariable analyses adjusted for age, body mass index, smoking status, alcohol intake, regular exercise, regular aspirin use, and family history of colorectal cancer showed that the odds ratio (OR) (95% confidence interval [CI]) for any adenoma and advanced neoplasm was 1.32 (1.07-1.61) and 1.90 (1.05-3.56) in participants with H. pylori infection and without H. pylori infection, respectively. The association persisted after further adjustment for inflammatory markers or metabolic variables including fasting blood glucose, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol. Regarding the location, a positive association was confined to cases with proximal adenomas and was observed similarly in all the evaluated subgroups. In a large-scale study, carefully controlled for confounding factors, involving asymptomatic participants without a history of colonoscopy, H. pylori infection was significantly associated with the risk of any colorectal adenoma and advanced colorectal neoplasm. Prospective studies are necessary to determine whether H. pylori eradication can reduce this risk. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Nonpolypoid colorectal neoplasms: gender differences in prevalence and malignant potential.

    PubMed

    Rondagh, Eveline J A; Masclee, Ad A M; van der Valk, Mirthe E; Winkens, Bjorn; de Bruïne, Adriaan P; Kaltenbach, Tonya; Soetikno, Roy M; Sanduleanu, Silvia

    2012-01-01

    Colonoscopy may fail to prevent colorectal cancer, especially in the proximal colon and in women. Nonpolypoid colorectal neoplasms may potentially explain some of these post-colonoscopy cancers. In the present study, we aimed to examine the prevalence and malignant potential of nonpolypoid colorectal neoplasms in a large population, with special attention to gender and location. We performed a cross-sectional study of all consecutive patients undergoing elective colonoscopy at a single academic medical center. The endoscopists were familiarized on the detection and treatment of nonpolypoid lesions. Advanced histology was defined by the presence of high-grade dysplasia or early cancer. We included 2310 patients (53.9% women, mean age 58.4 years) with 2143 colorectal polyps. Prevalences of colorectal neoplasms and nonpolypoid colorectal neoplasms were lower in women than in men (20.9% vs. 33.7%, p < 0.001 and 3.0% vs. 5.5%, p = 0.002). In women, nonpolypoid colorectal neoplasms were significantly more likely to contain advanced histology than polypoid ones (OR 2.89, 95% CI 1.24-6.74, p = 0.01), while this was not the case in men (OR 0.91, 95% CI 0.40-2.06, p = 0.83). Proximal neoplasms with advanced histology were more likely to be nonpolypoid than distal ones (OR 4.68, 95% CI 1.54-14.2, p = 0.006). Nonpolypoid mechanisms may play an important role in colorectal carcinogenesis, in both women and men. Although women have fewer colorectal neoplasms than men, they have nonpolypoid colorectal neoplasms, which frequently contain advanced histology.

  3. In Vivo Biomarkers for Targeting Colorectal Neoplasms

    PubMed Central

    Hsiung, Pei-Lin; Wang, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Summary Colorectal carcinoma continues to be a leading cause of cancer morbidity and mortality despite widespread adoption of screening methods. Targeted detection and therapy using recent advances in our knowledge of in vivo cancer biomarkers promise to significantly improve methods for early detection, risk stratification, and therapeutic intervention. The behavior of molecular targets in transformed tissues is being comprehensively assessed using new techniques of gene expression profiling and high throughput analyses. The identification of promising targets is stimulating the development of novel molecular probes, including significant progress in the field of activatable and peptide probes. These probes are being evaluated in small animal models of colorectal neoplasia and recently in the clinic. Furthermore, innovations in optical imaging instrumentation are resulting in the scaling down of size for endoscope compatibility. Advances in target identification, probe development, and novel instruments are progressing rapidly, and the integration of these technologies has a promising future in molecular medicine. PMID:19126961

  4. [Colorectal cancer screening].

    PubMed

    Castells, Antoni

    2015-09-01

    Colorectal cancer is one of malignancies showing the greatest benefit from preventive measures, especially screening or secondary prevention. Several screening strategies are available with demonstrated efficacy and efficiency. The most widely used are the faecal occult blood test in countries with population-based screening programmes, and colonoscopy in those conducting opportunistic screening. The present article reviews the most important presentations on colorectal cancer screening at the annual congress of the American Gastroenterological Association held in Washington in 2015, with special emphasis on the medium-term results of faecal occult blood testing strategies and determining factors and on strategies to reduce the development of interval cancer after colonoscopy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Automated screening of pigmentary skin neoplasms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudrin, Konstantin G.; Matorin, Oleg V.; Reshetov, Igor V.

    2015-01-01

    We have analysed the clinical symptoms and the malignization signs of pigmented skin neoplasms. We have estimated the complex of clinical parameters which could be measured for the purpose of skin screening diagnostic via digital image processing. Allowable errors of clinical parameter characterization have been calculated, and the origin of these errors has been discussed. Proposed technique for automated screening of pigmentary skin neoplasms should become an effective tool for early skin diagnostics.

  6. Screening for colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Mandel, Jack S

    2008-03-01

    Although there are several methods available for colon cancer screening, none is optimal. This article reviews methods for screening, including fecal occult blood tests, flexible sigmoidoscopy, colonoscopy, CT colonography, capsule endoscopy, and double contrast barium enema. A simple, inexpensive, noninvasive, and relatively sensitive screening test is needed to identify people at risk for developing advanced adenomas or colorectal cancer who would benefit from colonoscopy. It is hoped that new markers will be identified that perform better. Until then we fortunately have a variety of screening strategies that do work.

  7. [Colorectal cancer screening].

    PubMed

    Castells, Antoni

    2013-10-01

    Colorectal cancer is the paradigm of tumoral growth that is susceptible to preventive measures, especially screening. Various screening strategies with demonstrated efficacy and efficiency are currently available, notable examples being the fecal occult blood test and endoscopic tests. In addition, new modalities have appeared in the last few years that could become viable alternatives in the near future. The present article reviews the most important presentations on colorectal screening at the annual congress of the American Gastroenterological Association held in Orlando in May 2013, with special emphasis on the medium- and long-term results of strategies using the fecal occult blood test and flexible sigmoidoscopy, as well as initial experiences with the use of new biomarkers.

  8. Colorectal cancer screening in Asia.

    PubMed

    Ng, Siew C; Wong, Sunny H

    2013-01-01

    The incidence and mortality of colorectal cancer are rapidly rising in several countries in Asia. However, screening guidelines are lacking. Review of literature and local data published in peer review journals. The incidence, anatomical distribution and mortality of colorectal cancer among Asian populations are comparable to those in Western countries. Flat and depressed colonic lesions are not uncommon. Male gender, smoking, obesity, metabolic syndrome and family history are risk factors for colorectal cancer. Certain ethnic groups in Asia have increased susceptibility to colorectal cancer. Faecal occult blood test, flexible sigmoidoscopy and colonoscopy are recommended options for colorectal cancer screening in Asia. Regular screening should start at the age of 50 years. The optimal screening method in Asia remains unclear. Faecal immunochemical test has been suggested as the first choice of screening test in countries with limited resources. The role of nurse endoscopists in performing endoscopic procedures for colorectal cancer screening in Asia has not been defined. There is low public awareness and little support by health authorities for screening and prevention of this emerging disease. Screening for colorectal cancer should be a national health priority in most Asian countries. Studies on barriers to screening, education of the public and engagement of family physicians are important strategies in promoting colorectal cancer screening. With more health-care support, increased public acceptance and better access to the general population, colorectal cancer screening in Asia can be rewarding.

  9. Prevalence of synchronous colorectal neoplasms detected by colonoscopy in patients with gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Saito, Shin; Hosoya, Yoshinori; Togashi, Kazutomo; Kurashina, Kentaro; Haruta, Hidenori; Hyodo, Masanobu; Koinuma, Koji; Horie, Hisanaga; Yasuda, Yoshikazu; Nagai, Hideo

    2008-01-01

    Our purpose was to study the characteristics of colorectal neoplasms in patients with gastric cancer (GC). The study group comprised GC patients who underwent colonoscopy before resection of their GC. We examined the prevalence, site, and histology of colorectal neoplasms, as well as the clinicopathological features and treatment of the patients who had synchronous colorectal cancers (CRC). The logistic regression model was applied to investigate the features of the GC patients with concurrent CRC. We studied 466 GC patients (mean age 64.5 years; 147 women, 319 men), 143 (31%) of whom had a family history of gastrointestinal cancer. Synchronous colorectal adenoma and cancer were detected in 182 (39%) and 18 (4%) patients, respectively. Among the 18 synchronous CRCs, 11 were in the early stages and 10 of these were resected endoscopically. The other eight required simultaneous open radical surgery. All the GC patients with synchronous CRC were older than 50 years. Statistical analysis did not show a significant difference between the features of the patients with and those without concurrent CRC. The possibility of synchronous colorectal neoplasms in GC patients cannot be disregarded in clinical practice; however, screening of the large bowel may not be necessary in GC patients younger than 50 years.

  10. Developments in Colorectal Cancer Screening

    MedlinePlus

    ... tested at age 45. Read More "Colorectal Cancer" Articles Colorectal Cancer: A Personal Journey / The Importance of Early Detection / Developments in Colorectal Cancer Screening Summer 2016 Issue: Volume 11 Number 2 Page ... Us | Viewers & Players Friends of the National Library of Medicine (FNLM)

  11. Metabolic syndrome and colorectal neoplasms: An ominous association.

    PubMed

    Trabulo, Daniel; Ribeiro, Suzane; Martins, Cláudio; Teixeira, Cristina; Cardoso, Cláudia; Mangualde, João; Freire, Ricardo; Gamito, Élia; Alves, Ana L; Augusto, Fátima; Oliveira, Ana P; Cremers, Isabelle

    2015-05-07

    To evaluate the association of metabolic syndrome (MS) and colorectal cancer and adenomas in a Western country, where the incidence of MS is over 27%. This was a prospective study between March 2013 and March 2014. MS was diagnosed according to the National Cholesterol Education Program-ATP III. Demographic characteristics, anthropometric measurements, metabolic risk factors, and colonoscopic pathologic findings were assessed in patients with MS (group 1) who underwent routine colonoscopy at our department. This data was compared with consecutive patients without metabolic syndrome (group 2), with no differences regarding sex and age. Patients with incomplete colonoscopy, family history, or past history of colorectal neoplasm were excluded. Informed consent was obtained and the ethics committee approved this study. Statistical analysis was performed using Student's t-test and χ(2) test, with a P value ≤ 0.05 being considered statistically significant. Of 258 patients, 129 had MS; 51% males; mean-age 67.1 years (50-87). Among the MS group, 94% had high blood pressure, 91% had increased waist circumference, 60% had diabetes, 55% had low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level, 50% had increased triglyceride level, and 54% were obese [body mass index (BMI) 30 kg/m(2)]. 51% presented 4 criteria of MS. MS was associated with increased prevalence of adenomas (43% vs 25%, P = 0.004) and colorectal cancer (13% vs 5%, P = 0.027), compared with patients without MS. MS was also positively associated with multiple (≥ 3) adenomas (35% vs 9%, P = 0.024) and sessile adenomas (69% vs 53%, P = 0.05). No difference existed between location (P = 0.086), grade of dysplasia (P = 0.196), or size (P = 0.841) of adenomas. In addition, no difference was found between BMI (P = 0.078), smoking (P = 0.146), alcohol consumption (P = 0.231), and the presence of adenomas. MS is positively associated with adenomas and colorectal cancer. However, there is not enough information in western

  12. Metabolic syndrome and colorectal neoplasms: An ominous association

    PubMed Central

    Trabulo, Daniel; Ribeiro, Suzane; Martins, Cláudio; Teixeira, Cristina; Cardoso, Cláudia; Mangualde, João; Freire, Ricardo; Gamito, Élia; Alves, Ana L; Augusto, Fátima; Oliveira, Ana P; Cremers, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the association of metabolic syndrome (MS) and colorectal cancer and adenomas in a Western country, where the incidence of MS is over 27%. METHODS: This was a prospective study between March 2013 and March 2014. MS was diagnosed according to the National Cholesterol Education Program-ATP III. Demographic characteristics, anthropometric measurements, metabolic risk factors, and colonoscopic pathologic findings were assessed in patients with MS (group 1) who underwent routine colonoscopy at our department. This data was compared with consecutive patients without metabolic syndrome (group 2), with no differences regarding sex and age. Patients with incomplete colonoscopy, family history, or past history of colorectal neoplasm were excluded. Informed consent was obtained and the ethics committee approved this study. Statistical analysis was performed using Student’s t-test and χ2 test, with a P value ≤ 0.05 being considered statistically significant. RESULTS: Of 258 patients, 129 had MS; 51% males; mean-age 67.1 years (50-87). Among the MS group, 94% had high blood pressure, 91% had increased waist circumference, 60% had diabetes, 55% had low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level, 50% had increased triglyceride level, and 54% were obese [body mass index (BMI) 30 kg/m2]. 51% presented 4 criteria of MS. MS was associated with increased prevalence of adenomas (43% vs 25%, P = 0.004) and colorectal cancer (13% vs 5%, P = 0.027), compared with patients without MS. MS was also positively associated with multiple (≥ 3) adenomas (35% vs 9%, P = 0.024) and sessile adenomas (69% vs 53%, P = 0.05). No difference existed between location (P = 0.086), grade of dysplasia (P = 0.196), or size (P = 0.841) of adenomas. In addition, no difference was found between BMI (P = 0.078), smoking (P = 0.146), alcohol consumption (P = 0.231), and the presence of adenomas. CONCLUSION: MS is positively associated with adenomas and colorectal cancer. However, there is

  13. Age-specific incidence of all neoplasms after colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Levi, Fabio; Randimbison, Lalao; Blanc-Moya, Rafael; La Vecchia, Carlo

    2014-10-01

    Patients diagnosed with a specific neoplasm tend to have a subsequent excess risk of the same neoplasm. The age incidence of a second neoplasm at the same site is approximately constant with age, and consequently the relative risk is greater at younger age. It is unclear whether such a line of reasoning can be extended from a specific neoplasm to the incidence of all neoplasms in subjects diagnosed with a defined neoplasm. We considered the age-specific incidence of all non-hormone-related epithelial neoplasms after a first primary colorectal cancer (n = 9542) in the Vaud Cancer Registry data set. In subjects with a previous colorectal cancer, the incidence rate of all other epithelial non-hormone-related cancers was stable around 800 per 100,000 between age 30 and 60 years, and rose only about twofold to reach 1685 at age 70 to 79 years and 1826 per 100,000 at age 80 years or older. After excluding synchronous cancers, the rise was only about 1.5-fold, that is, from about 700 to 1000. In the general population, the incidence rate of all epithelial non-hormone-related cancers was 29 per 100,000 at age 30 to 39 years, and rose 30-fold to 883 per 100,000 at age 70 to 79 years. Excluding colorectal cancers, the rise of all non-hormone-related cancers was from 360 per 100,000 at age 40 to 49 years to 940 at age 70 to 79 years after colorectal cancer, and from 90 to 636 per 100,000 in the general population (i.e., 2.6- vs. 7.1-fold). The rise of incidence with age of all epithelial non-hormone-related second cancers after colorectal cancer is much smaller than in the general population. This can possibly be related to the occurrence of a single mutational event in a population of susceptible individuals, although alternative models are plausible within the complexity of the process of carcinogenesis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Colorectal cancer screening.

    PubMed

    Bretthauer, M

    2011-08-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cause of cancer death worldwide and a major health problem. In this review, the different approaches for CRC screening will be outlined with emphasis on evidence-based medicine. Evidence from randomized trials on the effectiveness of CRC screening is summarized. Several screening tools for CRC are available. They can be categorized according to their mode of action: early detection tools such as the faecal occult blood test (FOBT) and cancer prevention tools such as flexible sigmoidoscopy and colonoscopy. Meta-analyses of randomized trials show that FOBT screening reduces CRC mortality by 16% (risk ratio 0.84; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.78-0.9) compared with 30% (risk ratio 0.7; 95% CI 0.6-0.81) for flexible sigmoidoscopy screening. FOBT screening is cheap and noninvasive, but results in large numbers of false-positive tests and needs to be repeated frequently. Flexible sigmoidoscopy is more invasive, but is effective for once-only screening. Although colonoscopy screening is used in some countries, no randomized trials have been conducted to estimate its benefit, and therefore, it should not be recommended at the present time. Faecal occult blood test and flexible sigmoidoscopy are the two CRC screening tools that can be recommended as they have been proven to reduce CRC mortality. Colonoscopy has the potential to be superior to FOBT and flexible sigmoidoscopy, but needs to be evaluated in randomized trials before any recommendation can be provided. © 2011 The Association for the Publication of the Journal of Internal Medicine.

  15. Risk for Colorectal Adenomas Among Patients with Pancreatic Intraductal Papillary Mucinous Neoplasms: a Prospective Case-Control Study.

    PubMed

    Panic, Nikola; Capurso, Gabriele; Attili, Fabia; Vitale, Giovanna; Stigliano, Serena; Delle Fave, Gianfranco; Leoncini, Emanuele; Bulajic, Milutin; Di Giulio, Emilio; Costamagna, Guido; Boccia, Stefania; Larghi, Alberto

    2015-12-01

    It has been reported that patients with intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms of the pancreas are at an increased risk of colorectal cancer. The aim of our study was to investigate whether patients with intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms are at a higher risk of colorectal adenomas with respect to the general population, as this condition represents the precursor of sporadic colorectal cancer. A case-control study was conducted at the Catholic University and University Sapienza, Rome, Italy. The cases were patients with intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms without history of colorectal cancer, who had underwent screening colonoscopy for the first time. The controls were individuals who had underwent first time colonoscopy for screening or evaluation of non-specific abdominal symptoms. Chi-square and Fisher tests were used to compare the distributions of categorical variables. We enrolled 122 cases and 246 controls. Colorectal polyps were found in 52 cases (42.6%) and 79 controls (32.1%) (p<0.05). In 29 cases (23.8%) and 57 controls (23.2%) histological examination disclosed adenomatous polyps (p=0.90). There was no difference between the groups in relation to the presence of polyps with low-grade (19.7% vs. 19.8%, p=0.98) and high-grade dysplasia (4.9% vs. 4.5%, p=0.85). Patients with intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms of the pancreas are not at an increased risk for the development of adenomatous colorectal polyps.

  16. Endoscopic submucosal dissection for colorectal neoplasms: A review

    PubMed Central

    Sakamoto, Taku; Mori, Genki; Yamada, Masayoshi; Kinjo, Yuzuru; So, Eriko; Abe, Seiichiro; Otake, Yosuke; Nakajima, Takeshi; Matsuda, Takahisa; Saito, Yutaka

    2014-01-01

    The introduction of colorectal endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) has expanded the application of endoscopic treatment, which can be used for lesions with a low metastatic potential regardless of their size. ESD has the advantage of achieving en bloc resection with a lower local recurrence rate compared with that of piecemeal endoscopic mucosal resection. Moreover, in the past, surgery was indicated in patients with large lesions spreading to almost the entire circumference of the rectum, regardless of the depth of invasion, as endoscopic resection of these lesions was technically difficult. Therefore, a prime benefit of ESD is significant improvement in the quality of life for patients who have large rectal lesions. On the other hand, ESD is not as widely applied in the treatment of colorectal neoplasms as it is in gastric cancers owing to the associated technical difficulty, longer procedural duration, and increased risk of perforation. To diversify the available endoscopic treatment strategies for superficial colorectal neoplasms, endoscopists performing ESD need to recognize its indications, the technical issues involved in its application, and the associated complications. This review outlines the methods and type of devices used for colorectal ESD, and the training required by endoscopists to perform this procedure. PMID:25473168

  17. Endoscopic submucosal dissection for colorectal neoplasms: a review.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Taku; Mori, Genki; Yamada, Masayoshi; Kinjo, Yuzuru; So, Eriko; Abe, Seiichiro; Otake, Yosuke; Nakajima, Takeshi; Matsuda, Takahisa; Saito, Yutaka

    2014-11-21

    The introduction of colorectal endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) has expanded the application of endoscopic treatment, which can be used for lesions with a low metastatic potential regardless of their size. ESD has the advantage of achieving en bloc resection with a lower local recurrence rate compared with that of piecemeal endoscopic mucosal resection. Moreover, in the past, surgery was indicated in patients with large lesions spreading to almost the entire circumference of the rectum, regardless of the depth of invasion, as endoscopic resection of these lesions was technically difficult. Therefore, a prime benefit of ESD is significant improvement in the quality of life for patients who have large rectal lesions. On the other hand, ESD is not as widely applied in the treatment of colorectal neoplasms as it is in gastric cancers owing to the associated technical difficulty, longer procedural duration, and increased risk of perforation. To diversify the available endoscopic treatment strategies for superficial colorectal neoplasms, endoscopists performing ESD need to recognize its indications, the technical issues involved in its application, and the associated complications. This review outlines the methods and type of devices used for colorectal ESD, and the training required by endoscopists to perform this procedure.

  18. [Colorectal cancer screening with colonoscopy].

    PubMed

    Pereyra, Lisandro; Gómez, Estanislao J; Mella, José M; Cimmino, Daniel G; Boerr, Luis A

    2013-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer death worldwide and also in Argentina. In the past few years colorectal cancer screening has become more popular and colonoscopy has been postulated as the gold standard. In this review we analyzed the evidence supporting this method in contrast with its complications and disadvantages.

  19. Men with negative results of guaiac-based fecal occult blood test have higher prevalences of colorectal neoplasms than women with positive results.

    PubMed

    Brenner, Hermann; Hoffmeister, Michael; Birkner, Berndt; Stock, Christian

    2014-06-15

    Guaiac-based fecal occult blood tests (gFOBTs) are the most commonly applied tests for colorectal cancer screening globally but have relatively poor sensitivity to detect colorectal neoplasms. Men have higher prevalences of colorectal neoplasms than women. In case of a positive gFOBT result, participants are referred to colonoscopy, independent of sex. To assess performance of gFOBT in routine screening practice, we assessed age and sex specific prevalences (age groups: 55-59, 60-64, 65-69 and 70-74) of colorectal neoplasms in 182,956 women and men undergoing colonoscopy for primary screening and in 20,884 women and men undergoing colonoscopy to follow-up a positive gFOBT in Bavaria, Germany, in 2007-2009. We conducted model calculations to estimate prevalences among gFOBT negative individuals. Analogous model calculations were performed for women and men tested positive or negative with fecal immunochemical tests. In all age groups (55-59, 60-64, 65-69 and 70-74 years), men undergoing colonoscopy for primary screening had substantially higher prevalences of any colorectal neoplasms and essentially the same prevalences of advanced colorectal neoplasms compared to women undergoing colonoscopy to follow-up a positive gFOBT. Model calculations suggest that men with negative gFOBT likewise have substantially higher prevalences of colorectal neoplasms than gFOBT positive women in each age group. Model calculations further indicate that no such sex paradoxon occurs, and a much clearer risk stratification can be achieved with fecal immunochemical tests. Our findings underline need to move forward from and overcome shortcomings of gFOBT-based colorectal cancer screening. © 2013 UICC.

  20. The relationship of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and metabolic syndrome for colonoscopy colorectal neoplasm

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Shuang; Hong, Wandong; Wu, Wenzhi; Chen, Qinfen; Zhao, Qian; Wu, Jiansheng; Jin, Yin

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Colorectal neoplasm is considered to have a strong association with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and metabolic syndrome (MetS), respectively. The relationship among NAFLD, MetS, and colorectal neoplasm was assessed in 1793 participants. Participants were divided into 4 groups based on the status of NAFLD and MetS. Relative excess risks of interaction (RERI), attributable proportion (AP), and synergy index (SI) were applied to evaluate the additive interaction. NAFLD and MetS were significantly correlated with colorectal neoplasm and colorectal cancer (CRC), respectively. The incidence of CRC in NAFLD (+) MetS (+) group was significantly higher than other 3 groups. The result of RERI, AP, and SI indicated the significant additive interaction of NAFLD and MetS on the development of CRC. NAFLD and MetS are risk factors for colorectal neoplasm and CRC, respectively. And NAFLD and MetS have an additive effect on the development of CRC. PMID:28079806

  1. Increased risk of advanced neoplasms among asymptomatic siblings of patients with colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Ng, Siew C; Lau, James Y W; Chan, Francis K L; Suen, Bing Yee; Leung, Wai-Keung; Tse, Yee Kit; Ng, Simon S M; Lee, Janet F Y; To, Ka-Fai; Wu, Justin C Y; Sung, Joseph J Y

    2013-03-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second-most common cancer in Hong Kong. Relatives of patients with CRC have an increased risk of colorectal neoplasm. We assessed the prevalence of advanced neoplasms among asymptomatic siblings of patients with CRC. Patients with CRC were identified from the Prince of Wales Hospital CRC Surgery Registry from 2001 to 2011. Colonoscopies were performed for 374 siblings of patients (age, 52.6 ± 7.4 y) and 374 age- and sex-matched siblings of healthy subjects who had normal colonoscopies and did not have a family history of CRC (controls, 52.7 ± 7.4 y). We identified individuals with advanced neoplasms (defined as cancers or adenomas of at least 10 mm in diameter, high-grade dysplasia, with villous or tubulovillous characteristics). The prevalence of advanced neoplasms was 7.5% among siblings of patients and 2.9% among controls (matched odds ratio [mOR], 3.07; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.5-6.3; P = .002). The prevalence of adenomas larger than 10 mm was higher among siblings of patients than in controls (5.9% vs 2.1%; mOR, 3.34; 95% CI, 1.45-7.66; P = .004), as was the presence of colorectal adenomas (31.0% vs 18.2%; mOR, 2.19; 95% CI, 1.52-3.17; P < .001). Six cancers were detected among siblings of patients; no cancers were detected in controls. The prevalence of advanced neoplasms among siblings of patients was higher when their index case was female (mOR, 4.95; 95% CI, 1.81-13.55) and had distally located CRC (mOR, 3.10; 95% CI, 1.34-7.14). In Hong Kong, siblings of patients with CRC have a higher prevalence of advanced neoplasms, including CRC, than siblings of healthy individuals. Screening is indicated in this high-risk population. ClinicalTrials.gov number: NCT00164944. Copyright © 2013 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Endoscopic mucosal resection of non-polypoid colorectal neoplasm.

    PubMed

    Kaltenbach, Tonya; Soetikno, Roy

    2010-07-01

    Endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) is preferred to standard polypectomy for the resection of non-polypoid lesions because these lesions can be technically difficult to capture with a snare; furthermore, without submucosal injection the underlying muscularis propria may be excessively coagulated or even inadvertently resected. Because the resection plane of EMR is in the middle or deeper part of the submucosa, EMR allows the precise depth of the lesion to be evaluated. Although the majority of non-polypoid lesions are adenomatous, non-polypoid colorectal neoplasm has a high association with advanced pathology, irrespective of size. Using EMR, a complete pathologic specimen is obtained, the risk of lymph node metastasis can be accurately assessed based on the depth of invasion, and patients can be suitably managed. Used according to its indications, EMR provides curative resection, and obviates the higher morbidity, mortality, and cost associated with surgical treatment. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Effects of metabolic syndrome and findings from baseline colonoscopies on occurrence of colorectal neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Han-Mo; Lee, Yi-Chia; Tu, Chia-Hung; Chang, Li-Chun; Hsu, Wen-Feng; Chou, Chu-Kuang; Tsai, Kun-Feng; Liang, Jin-Tung; Shun, Chia-Tung; Wu, Ming-Shiang

    2015-06-01

    Metabolic syndrome is associated with increased risk of colorectal neoplasm, but little is known about its effects on the occurrence of neoplasm after colonoscopy. We investigated the effects of metabolic syndrome on the risk of advanced neoplasm after colonoscopy. We performed a prospective study of 4483 subjects age 50 years and older who underwent screening and surveillance colonoscopies as part of an annual health check-up at National Taiwan University Hospital. Baseline demographic data and colonoscopic findings were recorded. Subjects with either advanced adenoma or 3 or more adenomas detected at baseline were classified as high risk; those with fewer than 3 nonadvanced adenomas were classified as low risk; and those without any neoplastic lesions were classified as normal. The cumulative risk of detecting an advanced neoplasm during surveillance colonoscopies (3 and 5 years later) was correlated with risk group and metabolic syndrome. Hazard ratios (HRs) were calculated for occurrence of neoplasm according to baseline colonoscopic findings and clinical risk factors, including metabolic syndrome. Advanced neoplasms were detected during the surveillance colonoscopies in 1.3% of subjects in the normal group and in 2.4% of those in the low-risk group at 5 years, and in 8.5% of subjects in the high-risk group at 3 years. Subjects with metabolic syndrome had a significantly higher risk for subsequent advanced neoplasms (P < .0001). After stratification based on findings from baseline colonoscopies, the risk for neoplasm was significant in the normal (P < .001) and low-risk groups (P = .04), but not in the high-risk group (P = .48). In Cox regression analysis, metabolic syndrome had significant effects on the risk for advanced neoplasms in the normal (HR, 2.07; 95% confidence interval, 1.13-3.81) and low-risk groups (HR, 2.34; 95% confidence interval, 1.01-5.41), but not in the high-risk group. Metabolic syndrome is a significant risk factor for occurrence of

  4. Helicobacter pylori in colorectal neoplasms: is there an aetiological relationship?

    PubMed

    Jones, Mary; Helliwell, Peter; Pritchard, Colin; Tharakan, Joseph; Mathew, Joseph

    2007-05-12

    This pilot study was carried out to determine whether Helicobacter pylori can be detected in normal colon or in association with colorectal neoplasia. Paraffin processed colonic tissue blocks of normal colonic mucosa (n = 60), and patients diagnosed as adenoma (n = 60), and adenocarcinoma (n = 60) were retrieved from our archive; the adenoma group included tubular (n = 20), tubulovillous (n = 20) and villous adenomas (n = 20). 4 mum sections were stained by immunohistochemical methods using anti-Helicobacter pylori antibodies (polyclonal NCL-HPp and monoclonal NCL-C-jejuni). Significant numbers of Helicobacter pylori were identified in tubular adenomas (OR = 11.13; 95%CI = 1.62-76.70), tubulovillous adenomas (OR = 10.45; 95%CI = 1.52-71.52) and adenocarcinomas (OR = 8.13; 95%CI = 1.40-46.99) compared to controls: there was no association in numbers of Helicobacter pylori and villous adenomas (OR = 2.95; 95%CI = 0.29-9.96). We conclude that although, in this pilot study, there appears to be an association in the prevalence of Helicobacter pylori with some, but not all, colorectal neoplasms, we can not infer causality from these results. These findings need to be further substantiated with a prospective study and the use of molecular biological techniques to determine a causal association.

  5. Evidence for colorectal cancer screening.

    PubMed

    Bretthauer, Michael

    2010-08-01

    The incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC) has been increasing during the past decades, and the lifetime risk for CRC in industrialised countries is about 5%. CRC is a good candidate for screening, because it is a disease with high prevalence, has recognised precursors, and early treatment is beneficial. This paper outlines the evidence for efficacy from randomised trials for the most commonly used CRC screening tests to reduce CRC incidence and mortality in the average-risk population. Four randomised trials have investigated the effect of guaiac-based fecal occult blood screening on CRC mortality, with a combined CRC mortality risk reduction of 15-17% in an intention-to-screen analysis, and 25% for those people who attended screening. Flexible sigmoidoscopy screening has been evaluated in three randomised trials. The observed reduction in CRC incidence varied between 23 and 80%, and between 27 and 67% for CRC mortality, respectively (intention-to-screen analyses) in the trials with long follow-up time. No randomised trials exist in other CRC screening tools, included colonoscopy screening. FOBT and flexible sigmoidoscopy are the two CRC screening methods which have been tested in randomised trials and shown to reduce CRC mortality. These tests can be recommended for CRC screening. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The prevalence and associated factors of colorectal neoplasms in acromegaly: a single center based study.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Masaaki; Fukuoka, Hidenori; Iguchi, Genzo; Matsumoto, Ryusaku; Takahashi, Michiko; Nishizawa, Hitoshi; Suda, Kentaro; Bando, Hironori; Takahashi, Yutaka

    2015-06-01

    Colorectal neoplasms are well known to be a complication in cases of acromegaly; however, data on the prevalence of colorectal neoplasms in Asian patients with acromegaly are limited. Further, the factors associated with colorectal neoplasms in cases of acromegaly are controversial. Therefore, we aimed to clarify the prevalence of and factors associated with colorectal neoplasms in Japanese patients with acromegaly in a single center. We analyzed consecutive 57 patients who had undergone full-length colonoscopy at the time of diagnosis at Kobe University Hospital between 1986 and 2012. Of the 57 patients, 22 (38.6%), 18 (31.6%) and 3 (5.3%) patients were diagnosed with hyperplastic polyps, adenomas, and adenocarcinomas, respectively and the prevalence was significantly higher than in a historical control group, Chinese patients with irritable bowel syndrome (The odds ratio was 4.0, 8.7, and 17.5, respectively). The prevalence of adenocarcinomas was also significantly higher in these patients than in the general Japanese population (odds ratio 14.5). Patients with acromegaly who had colorectal neoplasms had longer disease duration than those without colorectal neoplasms. Of note, the area under the growth hormone (GH) concentration-time curve (GH AUC) during the oral glucose tolerance test was significantly higher in patients with adenocarcinomas than in those with no colonic lesion or those with hyperplastic polyps. Japanese patients with acromegaly exhibited an increased risk of colorectal neoplasms, especially colorectal adenocarcinomas. An increased GH AUC was associated with an increased risk for colon adenocarcinomas in patients with acromegaly.

  7. [Colonoscopies for colorectal cancer screening].

    PubMed

    Bessa Caserras, Xavier

    2014-09-01

    Colonoscopies play a vital role in population screening programs, either for initial examinations or as a test carried out after a positive result from a fecal occult blood test or sigmoidoscopy. Colonoscopies, and ancillary techniques such as polipectomies, must comply with basic quality criteria that must be reflected in the quality standards of screening programs. A quality colonoscopy is absolutely vital to avoid the occurrence of interval cancers. It is extremely important to detect any proximal lesions during a colonoscopy, especially those which are serrated, because they are difficult to identify and due to the increased risk of colorectal cancer. Regarding follow-up programs for resected colorectal polyps, current evidence of the relationship between the risk of neoplasia and certain variables (age, sex, smoker, BMI, diabetes, etc.) must allow for individualized risk and algorithms for screening and follow-up frequency to be developed for these patients. However, initial endoscopic exploration in a screening colonoscopy is essential to establishing the optimum interval and ensuring follow-up. Despite poor adherence to follow-up programs, mostly due to their overuse, follow-up colonoscopies 3 years after resection of all polypoid lesions detect clinically significant lesions as effectively as colonoscopies at one year.

  8. Promoting Colorectal Cancer Screening Discussion

    PubMed Central

    Christy, Shannon M.; Perkins, Susan M.; Tong, Yan; Krier, Connie; Champion, Victoria L.; Skinner, Celette Sugg; Springston, Jeffrey K.; Imperiale, Thomas F.; Rawl, Susan M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Provider recommendation is a predictor of colorectal cancer (CRC) screening. Purpose To compare the effects of two clinic-based interventions on patient–provider discussions about CRC screening. Design Two-group RCT with data collected at baseline and 1 week post-intervention. Participants/setting African-American patients that were non-adherent to CRC screening recommendations (n=693) with a primary care visit between 2008 and 2010 in one of 11 urban primary care clinics. Intervention Participants received either a computer-delivered tailored CRC screening intervention or a nontailored informational brochure about CRC screening immediately prior to their primary care visit. Main outcome measures Between-group differences in odds of having had a CRC screening discussion about a colon test, with and without adjusting for demographic, clinic, health literacy, health belief, and social support variables, were examined as predictors of a CRC screening discussion using logistic regression. Intervention effects on CRC screening test order by PCPs were examined using logistic regression. Analyses were conducted in 2011 and 2012. Results Compared to the brochure group, a greater proportions of those in the computer-delivered tailored intervention group reported having had a discussion with their provider about CRC screening (63% vs 48%, OR=1.81, p<0.001). Predictors of a discussion about CRC screening included computer group participation, younger age, reason for visit, being unmarried, colonoscopy self-efficacy, and family member/friend recommendation (all p-values <0.05). Conclusions The computer-delivered tailored intervention was more effective than a nontailored brochure at stimulating patient–provider discussions about CRC screening. Those who received the computer-delivered intervention also were more likely to have a CRC screening test (fecal occult blood test or colonoscopy) ordered by their PCP. Trial registration This study is registered at www

  9. [The usefulness of fecal tests in colorectal cancer screening].

    PubMed

    Castells, Antoni

    2014-09-01

    Colorectal cancer is a paradigm of neoplasms that are amenable to preventative measures, especially screening. Currently, to carry this out, there are various strategies that have proven effective and efficient. In countries that have organized population-level screening programs, the most common strategy is fecal occult blood testing. In recent years, new methods have appeared that could constitute viable alternatives in the near future, among which the detection of changes in fecal DNA is emphasized. In this article, we review the most relevant papers on colorectal cancer screening presented at the annual meeting of the American Gastroenterological Association held in Chicago in May 2014, with special emphasis on the medium and long-term performance of strategies to detect occult blood in feces and the first results obtained with fecal DNA testing.

  10. Alternatives to colonoscopy for population-wide colorectal cancer screening.

    PubMed

    Leung, William C Y; Foo, Dominic C C; Chan, T T; Chiang, M F; Lam, Allan H K; Chan, Heywood H W; Cheung, C Cl

    2016-02-01

    Colorectal cancer is one of the top three cancers in the world in terms of incidence. Colonoscopy, which many regard as the gold standard in diagnosis of colonic polyps and neoplasm, is costly, invasive and labour-intensive, and deemed an unsuitable population-wide index screening tool. Alternative modalities, including guaiac and immunohistochemical faecal occult blood tests, computed tomographic colonography, colon capsule endoscopy, flexible sigmoidoscopy, and double-contrast barium enema are available. The procedures, test characteristics, and their implications are reviewed. Immunohistochemical faecal occult blood testing appears to be the most suitable population-wide screening test for an average-risk population, with flexible sigmoidoscopy as an alternative. More evidence is needed to determine the role of computed tomographic colonography and colon capsule endoscopy in colorectal cancer screening.

  11. Risk of advanced proximal neoplasms according to distal colorectal findings: comparison of sigmoidoscopy-based strategies.

    PubMed

    Castells, Antoni; Bessa, Xavier; Quintero, Enrique; Bujanda, Luis; Cubiella, Joaquín; Salas, Dolores; Lanas, Angel; Carballo, Fernando; Morillas, Juan Diego; Hernández, Cristina; Jover, Rodrigo; Montalvo, Isabel; Arenas, Juan; Cosme, Angel; Hernández, Vicent; Iglesias, Begoña; Castro, Inés; Cid, Lucía; Sala, Teresa; Ponce, Marta; Andrés, Mercedes; Teruel, Gloria; Peris, Antonio; Roncales, María-Pilar; González-Rubio, Francisca; Seoane-Urgorri, Agustín; Grau, Jaume; Serradesanferm, Anna; Pellisé, Maria; Ono, Akiko; Cruzado, José; Pérez-Riquelme, Francisco; Alonso-Abreu, Inmaculada; Carrillo-Palau, Marta; de la Vega-Prieto, Mariola; Iglesias, Rosario; Amador, Javier; Blanco, José Manuel; Sastre, Rocío; Ferrándiz, Juan; González-Hernández, M José; Andreu, Montserrat

    2013-06-19

    Screening for colorectal cancer with sigmoidoscopy benefits from the fact that distal findings predict the risk of advanced proximal neoplasms (APNs). This study was aimed at comparing the existing strategies of postsigmoidoscopy referral to colonoscopy in terms of accuracy and resources needed. Asymptomatic individuals aged 50-69 years were eligible for a randomized controlled trial designed to compare colonoscopy and fecal immunochemical test. Sigmoidoscopy yield was estimated from results obtained in the colonoscopy arm according to three sets of criteria of colonoscopy referral (from those proposed in the UK Flexible Sigmoidoscopy, Screening for COlon REctum [SCORE], and Norwegian Colorectal Cancer Prevention [NORCCAP] trials). Advanced neoplasm detection rate, sensitivity, specificity, and number of individuals needed to refer for colonoscopy to detect one APN were calculated. Logistic regression analysis was performed to identify distal findings associated with APN. All statistical tests were two-sided. APN was found in 255 of 5059 (5.0%) individuals. Fulfillment of UK (6.2%), SCORE (12.0%), and NORCCAP (17.9%) criteria varied statistically significantly (P < .001). The NORCCAP strategy obtained the highest sensitivity for APN detection (36.9%), and the UK approach reached the highest specificity (94.6%). The number of individuals needed to refer for colonoscopy to detect one APN was 6 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 4 to 7), 8 (95% CI = 6 to 9), and 10 (95% CI = 8 to 12) when the UK, SCORE, and NORCCAP criteria were used, respectively. The logistic regression analysis identified distal adenoma ≥10 mm (odds ratio = 3.77; 95% CI = 2.52 to 5.65) as the strongest independent predictor of APN. Whereas the NORCCAP criteria achieved the highest sensitivity for APN detection, the UK recommendations benefited from the lowest number of individuals needed to refer for colonoscopy.

  12. Perendoscopic Nd:YAG laser therapy of colorectal neoplasms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norberto, Lorenzo; Ranzato, Riccardo; Marino, Saverio; Erroi, F.; Angriman, Imerio; Donadi, Michele; Paratore, S.; Scuderi, G.; D'Amico, D. F.

    1996-01-01

    The range of application of Nd:YAG laser is now wide and of particular interest in the treatment of neoplastic lesions of the large bowel, both benign and malignant, which, besides the debilitating of vegetative lesions, may also provide a good hemostasis of the bleeding ones. Yag laser treatment of malignancies is indicated in patients not suitable for surgery due to the extent of the disease or to the high anesthesiologic/surgical risk. The treatment of choice for benign neoplasms is represented by endoscopic polypectomy, being Yag laser therapy reserved to patients with very large polyps and with a high anesthesiologic risk. Yag laser therapy is also recommended in teleangiectasies with active or previous bleeding, since it allows the complete ablation of such lesions with subsequent outstanding hemostasis. Furthermore this treatment may be advantageously associated to other operative endoscopic procedures, such as diatermotherapy, dilatation and injection therapy. It is also to be outlined that Yag laser therapy is currently used to cure benign diseases and for the palliation of advanced cancer in inoperable patients. Our laser instrument is an Nd:Yag laser MBB Medilas 2 with maximum power of 100 watts at the tip, with 'non-contact' laser fibers. We use flexible optic fiberendoscopes of several sizes, according to the type of lesion to be treated. Moreover we have employed both Savary dilators of progressive caliber from 5 to 15 mm and Rigiflex pneumatic balloons. Adequate bowel preparation by means of isosmotic solution was achieved in patients with non stenotic neoplasm, or evacuative enemas and fluid diet in patients with bowel neoplastic stenoses. The patients were premedicated with benzodiazepines. Stenotic malignant lesions have been treated with endoscopic dilatation before laser treatment. At each session 4,000 - 8,000 joules of energy were administered; all patients received an average of 5 - 6 laser sessions. Followup laser sessions have then been

  13. Non-invasive screening for colorectal cancer in Asia.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Han-Mo; Chang, Li-Chun; Hsu, Wen-Feng; Chou, Chu-Kuang; Wu, Ming-Shiang

    2015-12-01

    There is an increasing trend of colorectal cancer incidence in Asia and nearly 45% of CRC cases worldwide occur in Asia therefore screening for CRC becomes an urgent task. Stool-based tests, including guaiac fecal occult blood test (gFOBT) and fecal immunochemical test (FIT), can select subjects at risk of significant colorectal neoplasms from the large target population thus are currently the most commonly used non-invasive screening tool in large population screening programs. FIT has the advantage over gFOBT in terms of higher sensitivity for early neoplasms, the ability to provide high-throughput automatic analysis, and better public acceptance thus greater effectiveness on reducing CRC mortality and incidence is expected. Owing to the large target population and constrained endoscopic capacity and manpower, FIT is nowadays the most popular CRC screening test in Asia. Some Asian countries have launched nationwide screening program in the past one or two decades but also encountered some challenges such as low screening participation rate, low verification rate after positive stool tests, low public awareness, and insufficient manpower. In addition, some controversial or potential future research issues are also addressed in this review.

  14. Obesity and Metabolic Unhealthiness Have Different Effects on Colorectal Neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Ko, Sun-Hye; Baeg, Myong Ki; Ko, Seung Yeon; Jung, Hee Sun; Kim, Pumsoo; Choi, Myung-Gyu

    2017-08-01

    Obesity and insulin resistance are risk factors for colorectal neoplasms (CRN), but data regarding metabolic status, obesity, and CRN are lacking. To investigate the relationship between metabolic status, obesity, and CRN in Koreans who underwent colonoscopy. Retrospective, cross-sectional. Subjects were divided based on metabolic and obesity criteria, as follows: metabolically healthy nonobese (MHNO), metabolically healthy obese (MHO), metabolically unhealthy nonobese (MUNO), and metabolically unhealthy obese (MUO). Multiple regression was used to identify CRN and advanced CRN risk factors, with the MHNO group as reference. A total of 10,235 subjects was included, as follows: 5096 MHNO, 1538 MHO, 1746 MUNO, and 1855 MUO. Of these, 3297 had CRN (32.2%), and 434 (4.2%) had advanced CRN. Number of subjects with CRN in each group were: MHNO 25.8%, MHO 33.9%, MUNO 38.9%, and MUO 42.0% (P for trend < 0.001). Risk of CRN was increased in the MHO [odds ratio (OR) 1.239, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.082 to 1.418, P = 0.002], the MUNO (OR 1.233, 95% CI 1.086 to 1.400, P = 0.001), and the MUO groups (OR 1.510, 95% CI 1.338 to 1.706, P < 0.001), whereas risk of advanced CRN was increased in the MUNO (OR 1.587, 95% CI 1.222 to 2.062, P = 0.001) and the MUO groups (OR 1.456, 95% CI 1.116 to 1.900, P = 0.006). Obesity increased CRN risk with metabolically unhealthy status adding risk. For advanced CRN, metabolically unhealthy status increased the risk but obesity did not.

  15. Tailored Telephone Counseling Increases Colorectal Cancer Screening

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rawl, Susan M.; Christy, Shannon M.; Monahan, Patrick O.; Ding, Yan; Krier, Connie; Champion, Victoria L.; Rex, Douglas

    2015-01-01

    To compare the efficacy of two interventions to promote colorectal cancer screening participation and forward stage movement of colorectal cancer screening adoption among first-degree relatives of individuals diagnosed with adenomatous polyps. One hundred fifty-eight first-degree relatives of individuals diagnosed with adenomatous polyps were…

  16. Tailored Telephone Counseling Increases Colorectal Cancer Screening

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rawl, Susan M.; Christy, Shannon M.; Monahan, Patrick O.; Ding, Yan; Krier, Connie; Champion, Victoria L.; Rex, Douglas

    2015-01-01

    To compare the efficacy of two interventions to promote colorectal cancer screening participation and forward stage movement of colorectal cancer screening adoption among first-degree relatives of individuals diagnosed with adenomatous polyps. One hundred fifty-eight first-degree relatives of individuals diagnosed with adenomatous polyps were…

  17. Implementation Intentions and Colorectal Screening

    PubMed Central

    Greiner, K. Allen; Daley, Christine M.; Epp, Aaron; James, Aimee; Yeh, Hung-Wen; Geana, Mugur; Born, Wendi; Engelman, Kimberly K.; Shellhorn, Jeremy; Hester, Christina M.; LeMaster, Joseph; Buckles, Daniel; Ellerbeck, Edward F.

    2015-01-01

    Background Low-income and racial/ethnic minority populations experience disproportionate colorectal cancer (CRC) burden and poorer survival. Novel behavioral strategies are needed to improve screening rates in these groups. Purpose To test a theoretically based “implementation intentions” intervention for improving CRC screening among unscreened adults in urban safety-net clinics. Design Randomized controlled trial. Setting/participants Adults (N=470) aged ≥50 years, due for CRC screening, from urban safety-net clinics were recruited. Intervention The intervention (conducted in 2009–2011) was delivered via touchscreen computers that tailored informational messages to decisional stage and screening barriers. The computer then randomized participants to generic health information on diet and exercise (Comparison group) or “implementation intentions” questions and planning (Experimental group) specific to the CRC screening test chosen (fecal immunochemical test or colonoscopy). Main outcome measures The primary study outcome was completion of CRC screening at 26 weeks based on test reports (analysis conducted in 2012–2013). Results The study population had a mean age of 57 years, and was 42% non-Hispanic African American, 28% non-Hispanic white, and 27% Hispanic. Those receiving the implementation intentions–based intervention had higher odds (AOR=1.83, 95% CI=1.23, 2.73) of completing CRC screening than the Comparison group. Those with higher self-efficacy for screening (AOR=1.57, 95% CI=1.03, 2.39), history of asthma (AOR=2.20, 95% CI=1.26, 3.84), no history of diabetes (AOR=1.86, 95% CI=1.21, 2.86), and reporting they had never heard that “cutting on cancer” makes it spread (AOR=1.78, 95% CI=1.16, 2.72) were more likely to complete CRC screening. Conclusions The results of this study suggest that programs incorporating an implementation intentions approach can contribute to successful completion of CRC screening even among very low-income and

  18. Prospective evaluation of fecal calprotectin as a screening biomarker for colorectal neoplasia.

    PubMed

    Limburg, Paul J; Devens, Mary E; Harrington, Jonathan J; Diehl, Nancy N; Mahoney, Douglas W; Ahlquist, David A

    2003-10-01

    Stool testing is a well established method of screening for colorectal neoplasia. Emerging data suggest that novel biomarkers may offer performance advantages over fecal occult blood. In this large, prospective study, we assessed fecal calprotectin (a leukocyte-derived protein) as a screening biomarker for colorectal neoplasia. Fecal calprotectin was directly compared to fecal hemoglobin (Hb) and colonoscopy as the existing criterion standards for stool screening and structural evaluation, respectively. Subjects included colonoscopy patients with a personal history of colorectal neoplasia, family history of colorectal cancer, or iron deficiency anemia. Stool specimens were collected before purgation, processed appropriately, and quantitatively analyzed for calprotectin (Nycomed Pharma, Oslo, Norway) and for Hb (Mayo Medical Laboratories, Rochester, MN) by masked technicians. Colonoscopies were performed by experienced endoscopists without prior knowledge of the fecal assay results. Among 412 subjects, 97 (24%) subjects had one or more colorectal neoplasms (including three with adenocarcinomas). Fecal calprotectin levels did not differ significantly between subjects with versus subjects without colorectal neoplasms (p = 0.33). Neither tumor number (p = 0.85) nor tumor size (p = 0.86) significantly influenced the observed fecal calprotectin concentrations. Estimates of the sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of fecal calprotectin for any colorectal neoplasms were 37%, 63%, 23%, and 76%, respectively. Comparable performance estimates for fecal Hb were 3%, 97%, 27%, and 77%, respectively. In this cohort of colonoscopy patients at above average risk, fecal calprotectin was a poor screening biomarker for colorectal neoplasia. Further investigation of tumor-derived, rather than blood-based, biomarkers may be a more rewarding approach to stool screening for colorectal neoplasia.

  19. Tailored telephone counseling increases colorectal cancer screening

    PubMed Central

    Rawl, Susan M.; Christy, Shannon M.; Monahan, Patrick O.; Ding, Yan; Krier, Connie; Champion, Victoria L.; Rex, Douglas

    2015-01-01

    To compare the efficacy of two interventions to promote colorectal cancer screening participation and forward stage movement of colorectal cancer screening adoption among first-degree relatives of individuals diagnosed with adenomatous polyps. One hundred fifty-eight first-degree relatives of individuals diagnosed with adenomatous polyps were randomly assigned to receive one of two interventions to promote colorectal cancer screening. Participants received either a tailored telephone counseling plus brochures intervention or a non-tailored print brochures intervention. Data were collected at baseline and 3 months post-baseline. Group differences and the effect of the interventions on adherence and stage movement for colorectal cancer screening were examined using t-tests, chi-square tests, and logistic regression. Individuals in the tailored telephone counseling plus brochures group were significantly more likely to complete colorectal cancer screening and to move forward on stage of change for fecal occult blood test, any colorectal cancer test stage and stage of the risk-appropriate test compared with individuals in the non-tailored brochure group at 3 months post-baseline. A tailored telephone counseling plus brochures intervention successfully promoted forward stage movement and colorectal cancer screening adherence among first-degree relatives of individuals diagnosed with adenomatous polyps. PMID:26025212

  20. Prevalence and risk factors of advanced colorectal neoplasms in asymptomatic Korean people between 40 and 49 years of age.

    PubMed

    Koo, Ja Eun; Kim, Kyung-Jo; Park, Hye Won; Kim, Hong-Kyu; Choe, Jae Won; Chang, Hye-Sook; Lee, Ji Young; Myung, Seung-Jae; Yang, Suk-Kyun; Kim, Jin-Ho

    2017-01-01

    Current guidelines recommend colon cancer screening for persons aged over 50 years. However, there are few data on colorectal cancer screening in 40- to 49-year-olds. This study assessed the prevalence and risk factors of colorectal neoplasms in 40- to 49-year-old Koreans. We analyzed the results of screening colonoscopies of 6680 persons 40-59 years of age (2206 aged 40-49 and 4474 aged 50-59 years). The prevalence of overall and advanced neoplasms in the 40- to 49-year age group was lower than in the 50- to 59-year age group (26.7% and 2.4% vs 37.8% and 3.5%, respectively). However, the prevalence of overall and advanced neoplasms increased to 39.1% and 5.4%, respectively, in 45- to 49-year-old individuals with metabolic syndrome. In the 40- to 49-year age group, age, current smoking, and metabolic syndrome were associated with an increased risk of advanced neoplasms (odds ratio [OR] 1.16, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.04-1.30; OR 3.12, 95% CI 1.20-8.12; and OR 2.00, 95% CI 1.09-3.67, respectively). Individuals aged 40-49 years had a lower prevalence of colorectal neoplasms than those aged 50-59 years, but some 40- to 49-year-olds showed a similar prevalence to those aged 50-59 years. Age, current smoking habits, and metabolic syndrome are associated with an increased risk of advanced neoplasms in subjects aged 40-49 years. Further studies are needed to stratify the risks of colon cancer and guide targeted screening in persons younger than 50 years old. © 2016 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  1. CRCHD Launches National Colorectal Cancer Outreach and Screening Initiative

    Cancer.gov

    The NCI CRCHD launches National Screen to Save Colorectal Cancer Outreach and Screening Initiative which aims to increase colorectal cancer screening rates among racially and ethnically diverse and rural communities.

  2. DNA Mismatch Repair Status Predicts Need for Future Colorectal Surgery for Metachronous Neoplasms in Young Individuals Undergoing Colorectal Cancer Resection.

    PubMed

    Aronson, Melyssa; Holter, Spring; Semotiuk, Kara; Winter, Laura; Pollett, Aaron; Gallinger, Steven; Cohen, Zane; Gryfe, Robert

    2015-07-01

    The treatment of colorectal cancer in young patients involves both management of the incident cancer and consideration of the possibility of Lynch syndrome and the development of metachronous colorectal cancers. This study aims to assess the prognostic role of DNA mismatch repair deficiency and extended colorectal resection for metachronous colorectal neoplasia risk in young patients with colorectal cancer. This is a retrospective review of 285 patients identified in our GI cancer registry with colorectal cancer diagnosed at 35 years or younger in the absence of polyposis. Using univariate and multivariate analysis, we assessed the prognostic role of mismatch repair deficiency and standard clinicopathologic characteristics, including the extent of resection, on the rate of developing metachronous colorectal neoplasia requiring resection. Mismatch repair deficiency was identified in biospecimens from 44% of patients and was significantly associated with an increased risk for metachronous colorectal neoplasia requiring resection (10-year cumulative risk, 13.5% ± 4.2%) compared with 56% of patients with mismatch repair-intact colorectal cancer (10-year cumulative risk, 5.8% ± 3.3%; p = 0.011). In multivariate analysis, mismatch repair deficiency was associated with a HR of 3.65 (95% CI, 1.44-9.21; p = 0.006) for metachronous colorectal neoplasia, whereas extended resection with ileorectal or ileosigmoid anastomosis significantly decreased the risk of metachronous colorectal neoplasia (HR, 0.21; 95% CI, 0.05-0.90; p = 0.036). This study had a retrospective design, and, therefore, recommendations for colorectal cancer surgery and screening were not fully standardized. Quality of life after colorectal cancer surgery was not assessed. Young patients with colorectal cancer with molecular hallmarks of Lynch syndrome were at significantly higher risk for the development of subsequent colorectal neoplasia. This risk was significantly reduced in those who underwent extended

  3. Urokinase type plasminogen activator receptor expression in colorectal neoplasms

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, S; Hayashi, Y; Wang, Y; Nakamura, T; Morita, Y; Kawasaki, K; Ohta, K; Aoyama, N; Kim, S; Itoh, H; Kuroda, Y; Doe, W

    1998-01-01

    Background—The urokinase type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) may play a critical role in cancer invasion and metastasis. 
Aims—To study the involvement of uPAR in colorectal carcinogenesis. 
Methods—The cellular expression and localisation of uPAR were investigated in colorectal adenomas and invasive carcinomas by in situ hybridisation, immunohistochemistry, and northern and western blot analyses. 
Results—uPAR mRNA expression was found mainly in the cytoplasm of dysplastic epithelial cells of 30% of adenomas with mild (19%), moderate (21%), and severe (47%) dysplasia, and in that of carcinomatous cells of 85% of invasive carcinomas: Dukes' stages A (72%), B (93%), and C (91%). Some stromal cells in the adjacent neoplastic epithelium were faintly positive. Immunoreactivity for uPAR was detected in dysplastic epithelial cells of 14% of adenomas and in carcinomatous cells of 49% of invasive carcinomas. uPAR mRNA and protein concentrations were significantly higher in severe than in mild or moderate dysplasia (p<0.05); they were notably higher in Dukes' stage A than in severe dysplasia (p<0.05), and significantly higher in Dukes' stage B than in stage A (p<0.05), but those in stage B were not different from those in stage C or in metastatic colorectal carcinomas of the liver. 
Conclusions—Colorectal adenoma uPAR, expressed essentially in dysplastic epithelial cells, was upregulated with increasing severity of atypia, and increased notably during the critical transition from severe dysplasic adenoma to invasive carcinoma. These findings implicate uPAR expression in the invasive and metastatic processes of colorectal cancer. 

 Keywords: urokinase type plasminogen activator receptor; colorectal adenoma; colorectal cancer; adenoma-carcinoma sequence PMID:9824607

  4. Screening for Muir-Torre syndrome using mismatch repair protein immunohistochemistry of sebaceous neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Maegan E; Riegert-Johnson, Douglas L; Thomas, Brittany C; Thomas, Colleen S; Heckman, Michael G; Krishna, Murli; DiCaudo, David J; Bridges, Alina G; Hunt, Katherine S; Rumilla, Kandelaria M; Cappel, Mark A

    2013-06-01

    Screening for the Muir-Torre variant of Lynch Syndrome (LS) using Mismatch Repair (MMR) gene immunohistochemistry (IHC) on sebaceous neoplasms (SNs) is technically feasible. To date, research into the clinical utility of MMR IHC for this indication is limited. We conducted a retrospective chart review of 90 patients with MMR IHC completed on at least one SN from January 2005 to May 2010. SNs included were adenomas, epitheliomas, carcinomas and basal and squamous cell carcinomas with sebaceous differentiation. Of the 90 patients, 13 (14 %) had genetically confirmed or fulfilled clinical criteria for a diagnosis of MTS and 51 patients (57 %) presented with an abnormal MMR IHC result (loss of one or more MMR proteins) on at least one SN. Abnormal IHC had a sensitivity of 85 %, specificity of 48 %, positive predictive value (PPV) of 22 % and negative predictive value (NPV) of 95 % when evaluating for MTS. When personal or family history of colorectal cancer (≥2 family members with a history of colorectal cancer) was taken into consideration, ignoring IHC results, sensitivity was 92 %, specificity was 99 %, PPV was 92 % and NPV was 99 %. MMR IHC on SNs when used to screen for MTS has poor diagnostic utility. We recommend that MMR IHC not be performed routinely on SNs when the patient does not have either personal or family history of colorectal cancer.

  5. Mass screening for colorectal cancer in Hungary.

    PubMed Central

    Preisich, P; Siba, S; Szakátsy, E

    1987-01-01

    Haemoccult screening for colorectal tumours was carried out in Hungary in small cities and villages around Budapest. Haemoccult slides were supplied to 17,662 individuals over 40 years of age, and 15,431 (87%) were returned. Of these, 346 (2.2%) were positive and 18 colorectal carcinomas were detected. Additionally, 24 patients with one or more polyps greater than 1 cm diameter were found. Of the screened cases of cancer 39% were in Dukes' stage A and B, a rate twice as good as when screening was not done. The cost per tumour detected amounted to about three times more than one monthly income, indicating that the costs of screening for colorectal cancer are relatively much higher in Hungary than in Western countries. All expenses were met from state funds. PMID:3625689

  6. Clinicopathological Features and Prognostic Factors of Colorectal Neuroendocrine Neoplasms

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Mengjie; Tan, Yinuo; Li, Xiaofen; Fu, Jianfei; Hu, Hanguang; Ye, Xianyun; Cao, Ying; Xu, Jinghong

    2017-01-01

    Background. Limited research is available regarding colorectal NENs and the prognostic factors remain controversial. Materials and Methods. A total of 68 patients with colorectal NENs were studied retrospectively. Clinical characteristics and prognosis between colonic and rectal NENs were compared. The Cox regression models were used to evaluate the predictive capacity. Results. Of the 68 colorectal NENs patients, 43 (63.2%) had rectal NENs, and 25 (36.8%) had colonic NENs. Compared with rectal NENs, colonic NENs more frequently exhibited larger tumor size (P < 0.0001) and distant metastasis (P < 0.0001). Colonic NENs had a worse prognosis (P = 0.027), with 5-year overall survival rates of 66.7% versus 88.1%. NET, NEC, and MANEC were noted in 61.8%, 23.5%, and 14.7% of patients, respectively. Multivariate analyses revealed that tumor location was not an independent prognostic factor (P = 0.081), but tumor size (P = 0.037) and pathological classification (P = 0.012) were independent prognostic factors. Conclusion. Significant differences exist between colonic and rectal NENs. Multivariate analysis indicated that tumor size and pathological classification were associated with prognosis. Tumor location was not an independent factor. The worse outcome of colonic NENs observed in clinical practice might be due not only to the biological differences, but also to larger tumor size in colonic NENs caused by the delayed diagnosis. PMID:28194176

  7. Prevalence of non-polypoid colorectal neoplasms in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    dos Santos, Carlos Eduardo Oliveira; Malaman, Daniele; Mönkemüller, Klaus; Dos Santos Carvalho, Tiago; Lopes, César Vivian; Pereira-Lima, Júlio Carlos

    2015-03-01

    Several studies suggest that non-polypoid lesions (NPL) show higher aggressiveness than polypoid lesions, particularly depressed lesions. The present study aimed to assess the prevalence of NPL and the presence of advanced histology in a Brazilian population. Two thousand and sixty-seven superficial neoplastic lesions diagnosed in 1135 patients were analyzed. Lesions were classified as polypoid and non-polypoid (flat and depressed) types, and evaluated for site, size, and histology (adenoma with grade of dysplasia, or early cancer). Prevalence of NPL was 46.5%. NPL predominated in the right colon (62.9%), whereas polypoid lesions were detected mainly in the left colon (53.2%) (P < 0.001). NPL had a 34% higher probability of occurring in the right colon than polypoid lesions (P < 0.001). NPL were smaller than polypoid lesions (P = 0.03). There were 208 lesions >10 mm, of which 40 (19.2%) had advanced histology: 13% (18/138) of polypoid lesions; 27.3% (18/66) of flat lesions; and 100% (4/4) of depressed lesions (P < 0.001). Among 1859 neoplasms ≤10 mm, only 18 (1%) had advanced histology, and 15 of them were depressed lesions (P < 0.001). Advanced histology was more commonly detected in NPL than in polypoid lesions (P = 0.007), with significant difference in size (P < 0.001). NPL showed more advanced histology than polypoid lesions (OR 2.06; P = 0.01), especially depressed lesions (OR 36.35; P < 0.001). Among all neoplasms, the prevalence of depressed lesions was 2.2%. NPL showed high prevalence and higher aggressiveness than polypoid lesions, especially the depressed type. © 2014 The Authors. Digestive Endoscopy © 2014 Japan Gastroenterological Endoscopy Society.

  8. Involvement of Activated Cdc42 Kinase1 in Colitis and Colorectal Neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Lv, Chaolan; Zhao, Xinmei; Gu, Hongxiang; Huang, Liyun; Zhou, Sanxi; Zhi, Fachao

    2016-12-07

    BACKGROUND Activated Cdc42 kinase1 (ACK1) is a non-receptor tyrosine kinase which is critical for cell survival, proliferation, and migration. Genomic amplification of ACK1 has been reported in multiple human cancers. We aimed to investigate ACK1 protein expression in colorectal mucosa with inflammation and neoplasm, and to evaluate its correlation with disease activity and severity. MATERIAL AND METHODS A total of 250 individuals who underwent total colonoscopy were collected randomly from January 2007 to May 2013 in Nanfang Hospital, Guangzhou, China. Colorectal mucosal biopsy specimens were obtained by endoscopy from 78 patients with ulcerative colitis (UC), 22 with Crohn's disease (CD), 20 with infectious colitis, 26 with non-IBD and noninfectious colitis, 16 with sporadic adenomas, 4 with dysplasia-associated lesions or masses, 10 with sporadic colorectal cancer (CRC), 4 with UC-related CRC, 10 with hyperplastic polyps, and 60 without colonic abnormalities. ACK1 protein levels were determined immunohistochemically. The correlations of ACK1 expression with disease activity and severity were also evaluated. RESULTS Significantly increased ACK1 expression was observed in epithelial cells of colorectal mucosa with inflammation and dysplasia compared to controls (P<0.05). ACK1 expression correlated with clinical activity in IBD (χ²=4.57, P=0.033 for UC; χ²=5.68, P=0.017 for CD), as well as grade of dysplasia in preneoplastic lesions (P<0.05). No significant differences in ACK1 expression were found between UC and CD, or between IBD and non-IBD conditions (P>0.05). CONCLUSIONS ACK1 protein is increased extensively in colitis and colorectal dysplasia. ACK1 overexpression may play a role in colorectal inflammation and neoplasms.

  9. Involvement of Activated Cdc42 Kinase1 in Colitis and Colorectal Neoplasms

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Chaolan; Gu, Hongxiang; Zhao, Xinmei; Huang, Liyun; Zhou, Sanxi; Zhi, Fachao

    2016-01-01

    Background Activated Cdc42 kinase1 (ACK1) is a non-receptor tyrosine kinase which is critical for cell survival, proliferation, and migration. Genomic amplification of ACK1 has been reported in multiple human cancers. We aimed to investigate ACK1 protein expression in colorectal mucosa with inflammation and neoplasm, and to evaluate its correlation with disease activity and severity. Material/Methods A total of 250 individuals who underwent total colonoscopy were collected randomly from January 2007 to May 2013 in Nanfang Hospital, Guangzhou, China. Colorectal mucosal biopsy specimens were obtained by endoscopy from 78 patients with ulcerative colitis (UC), 22 with Crohn’s disease (CD), 20 with infectious colitis, 26 with non-IBD and noninfectious colitis, 16 with sporadic adenomas, 4 with dysplasia-associated lesions or masses, 10 with sporadic colorectal cancer (CRC), 4 with UC-related CRC, 10 with hyperplastic polyps, and 60 without colonic abnormalities. ACK1 protein levels were determined immunohistochemically. The correlations of ACK1 expression with disease activity and severity were also evaluated. Results Significantly increased ACK1 expression was observed in epithelial cells of colorectal mucosa with inflammation and dysplasia compared to controls (P<0.05). ACK1 expression correlated with clinical activity in IBD (χ2=4.57, P=0.033 for UC; χ2=5.68, P=0.017 for CD), as well as grade of dysplasia in preneoplastic lesions (P<0.05). No significant differences in ACK1 expression were found between UC and CD, or between IBD and non-IBD conditions (P>0.05). Conclusions ACK1 protein is increased extensively in colitis and colorectal dysplasia. ACK1 overexpression may play a role in colorectal inflammation and neoplasms. PMID:27926694

  10. ACR Appropriateness Criteria colorectal cancer screening.

    PubMed

    Yee, Judy; Kim, David H; Rosen, Max P; Lalani, Tasneem; Carucci, Laura R; Cash, Brooks D; Feig, Barry W; Fowler, Kathryn J; Katz, Douglas S; Smith, Martin P; Yaghmai, Vahid

    2014-06-01

    Colorectal cancer is the third leading cause of cancer deaths in the United States. Most colorectal cancers can be prevented by detecting and removing the precursor adenomatous polyp. Individual risk factors for the development of colorectal cancer will influence the particular choice of screening tool. CT colonography (CTC) is the primary imaging test for colorectal cancer screening in average-risk individuals, whereas the double-contrast barium enema (DCBE) is now considered to be a test that may be appropriate, particularly in settings where CTC is unavailable. Single-contrast barium enema has a lower performance profile and is indicated for screening only when CTC and DCBE are not available. CTC is also the preferred test for colon evaluation following an incomplete colonoscopy. Imaging tests including CTC and DCBE are not indicated for colorectal cancer screening in high-risk patients with polyposis syndromes or inflammatory bowel disease. This paper presents the updated colorectal cancer imaging test ratings and is the result of evidence-based consensus by the ACR Appropriateness Criteria Expert Panel on Gastrointestinal Imaging. The ACR Appropriateness Criteria are evidence-based guidelines for specific clinical conditions that are reviewed every 2 years by a multidisciplinary expert panel. The guideline development and review include an extensive analysis of current medical literature from peer-reviewed journals and the application of a well-established consensus methodology (modified Delphi) to rate the appropriateness of imaging and treatment procedures by the panel. In those instances where evidence is lacking or not definitive, expert opinion may be used to recommend imaging or treatment.

  11. Screening for colorectal cancer: the business case.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Robert H; Colditz, Graham A; Pawlson, L Greg; Richman, Howard; Rosenthal, David; Salber, Patricia R

    2002-06-01

    Colorectal cancer screening is advocated by expert groups based on strong evidence of effectiveness, yet only approximately 1 in 3 Americans are screened. For a screening program to be effective, it is necessary for providers to offer and patients to accept screening, insurers to pay for screening, and provider groups to have monitoring and reminder systems and the expertise and facilities to perform the tests well. Whether and when such screening programs become successful depends on the priorities of healthcare decision makers as much as on the efforts of individual physicians and patients. There are strong arguments for decision makers giving colorectal cancer screening programs high priority: it saves as many lives as other services now in common use; it is a good use of scarce resources, costing less than $20,000 per year of life saved; and members of insurance programs increasingly expect screening benefits and programs, and failure to offer them might lead to member dissatisfaction and malpractice claims. Screening is costly, however, taking into account the cost of screening, follow-up tests, and treatments, and the costs occur many years before the benefits. Programs that are promoted to members but not fully implemented could create disappointment and backlash. Also, this screening can cause medical complications. Nevertheless, successful programs have been developed, proving that they are feasible in today's cost-conscious environment. We believe that colorectal cancer screening programs are integral to any organization purporting to provide high-quality care. Organizations without such programs should give them high priority for implementation.

  12. Advanced endoscopic technologies for colorectal cancer screening.

    PubMed

    Obstein, Keith L; Valdastri, Pietro

    2013-01-28

    Colorectal cancer is the third most common cancer in men and the second most common cancer in women worldwide. Diagnosing colorectal has been increasingly successful due to advances in technology. Flexible endoscopy is considered to be an effective method for early diagnosis and treatment of gastrointestinal cancer, making it a popular choice for screening programs. However, millions of people who may benefit from endoscopic colorectal cancer screening fail to have the procedure performed. Main reasons include psychological barriers due to the indignity of the procedure, fear of procedure related pain, bowel preparation discomfort, and potential need for sedation. Therefore, an urgent need for new technologies addressing these issues clearly exists. In this review, we discuss a set of advanced endoscopic technologies for colorectal cancer screening that are either already available or close to clinical trial. In particular, we focus on visual-inspection-only advanced flexible colonoscopes, interventional colonoscopes with alternative propulsion mechanisms, wireless capsule colonoscopy, and technologies for intraprocedural bowel cleansing. Many of these devices have the potential to reduce exam related patient discomfort, obviate the need for sedation, increase diagnostic yield, reduce learning curves, improve access to screening, and possibly avert the need for a bowel preparation.

  13. Advanced endoscopic technologies for colorectal cancer screening

    PubMed Central

    Obstein, Keith L; Valdastri, Pietro

    2013-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is the third most common cancer in men and the second most common cancer in women worldwide. Diagnosing colorectal has been increasingly successful due to advances in technology. Flexible endoscopy is considered to be an effective method for early diagnosis and treatment of gastrointestinal cancer, making it a popular choice for screening programs. However, millions of people who may benefit from endoscopic colorectal cancer screening fail to have the procedure performed. Main reasons include psychological barriers due to the indignity of the procedure, fear of procedure related pain, bowel preparation discomfort, and potential need for sedation. Therefore, an urgent need for new technologies addressing these issues clearly exists. In this review, we discuss a set of advanced endoscopic technologies for colorectal cancer screening that are either already available or close to clinical trial. In particular, we focus on visual-inspection-only advanced flexible colonoscopes, interventional colonoscopes with alternative propulsion mechanisms, wireless capsule colonoscopy, and technologies for intraprocedural bowel cleansing. Many of these devices have the potential to reduce exam related patient discomfort, obviate the need for sedation, increase diagnostic yield, reduce learning curves, improve access to screening, and possibly avert the need for a bowel preparation. PMID:23382621

  14. [Colorectal cancer screening: evidence and implementation].

    PubMed

    Brenner, H; Hoffmeister, M

    2014-03-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second most common cancer among both men and women in Germany. Owing to its relatively slow growth, perspectives for effective early detection are much better than for other forms of cancer. To summarize the evidence on effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of CRC screening, and to provide an overview on the current state and perspectives for effective CRC screening. Summary and critical review of evidence from randomized trials and observational epidemiological studies. A reduction in CRC mortality by offering annual fecal occult blood tests or once-only flexible sigmoidoscopy has been demonstrated in randomized trials. Novel fecal immunochemical tests for hemoglobin in stool have been shown to be more sensitive than traditional fecal occult blood tests and could substantially improve noninvasive CRC screening. Epidemiological studies suggest that the majority of CRC cases and deaths could be prevented by colonoscopy and removal of colorectal adenomas. However, adherence to screening offered outside organized screening programs is low. The National Cancer Plan recommends an organized CRC screening program in Germany. The law on the early detection of cancer from April 2013 has paved the way for its implementation. The great potential for CRC prevention by early detection has so far only been realized to a very limited extent in Germany. Introduction of an organized screening program and the offer of enhanced noninvasive screening tests could strongly enhance the utilization and effectiveness of CRC screening in Germany. The political frame has been set, and timely quality-assured implementation is required.

  15. Colorectal cancer screening in an expanding panorama of screening programmes.

    PubMed

    Hoff, Geir

    2010-08-01

    Cervical and breast cancer screening programmes have been introduced in times when both the professional requirements for evidence based medicine and public demand for quantification of benefits may have been less explicit. The World Health Organisation has recommended cancer screening only for cervix, breast and colorectal cancer (CRC) - the latter leaving health authorities with a choice between a multitude of screening methods of which the efficacy has been proven only for fecal occult blood testing (FOBT). Although we are far from seeing the perfect screening method and screening programme, cost effectiveness for CRC screening has been estimated at least as cost-effective as established programmes for cervix and breast cancer screening. Established and imminent screening programmes should be considered as natural platforms for randomised trial with commitment and responsibility to continuously improve the quality and effectiveness of the screening service provided. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Performance of a quantitative fecal immunochemical test in a colorectal cancer screening pilot program: a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Telford, Jennifer; Gentile, Laura; Gondara, Lovedeep; McGahan, Colleen; Coldman, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Background: British Columbia undertook a colorectal cancer screening pilot program in 3 communities. Our objective was to assess the performance of 2-specimen fecal immunochemical testing in the detection of colorectal neoplasms in this population-based screening program. Methods: A prospective cohort of asymptomatic, average-risk people aged 50 to 74 years completed 2 quantitative fecal immunochemical tests every 2 years, with follow-up colonoscopy if the result of either test was positive. Participant demographics, fecal immunochemical test results, colonoscopy quality indicators and pathology results were recorded. Non-screen-detected colorectal cancer that developed in program participants was identified through review of data from the BC Cancer Registry. Results: A total of 16 234 people completed a first round of fecal immunochemical testing, with a positivity rate of 8.6%; 5378 (86.0% of eligible participants) completed a second round before the end of the pilot program, with a positivity rate of 6.7%. Of the 1756 who had a positive test result, 1555 (88.6%) underwent colonoscopy. The detection rate of colorectal cancer was 3.5 per 1000 participants. The positive predictive value of the fecal immunochemical test was 4.9% (95% confidence interval [CI] 3.8%-6.0%) for colorectal cancer, 35.0% (95% CI 32.5%-37.2%) for high-risk polyps and 62.0% (95% CI 59.6%-64.4%) for all neoplasms. The number needed to screen was 283 to detect 1 cancer, 40 to detect 1 high-risk polyp and 22 to detect any neoplasm. Interpretation: Screening every 2 years with a 2-specimen fecal immunochemical test surpassed the current benchmark for colorectal cancer detection in population-based screening. This study has implications for other jurisdictions planning colorectal cancer screening programs. PMID:28018880

  17. Performance of a quantitative fecal immunochemical test in a colorectal cancer screening pilot program: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Telford, Jennifer; Gentile, Laura; Gondara, Lovedeep; McGahan, Colleen; Coldman, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    British Columbia undertook a colorectal cancer screening pilot program in 3 communities. Our objective was to assess the performance of 2-specimen fecal immunochemical testing in the detection of colorectal neoplasms in this population-based screening program. A prospective cohort of asymptomatic, average-risk people aged 50 to 74 years completed 2 quantitative fecal immunochemical tests every 2 years, with follow-up colonoscopy if the result of either test was positive. Participant demographics, fecal immunochemical test results, colonoscopy quality indicators and pathology results were recorded. Non-screen-detected colorectal cancer that developed in program participants was identified through review of data from the BC Cancer Registry. A total of 16 234 people completed a first round of fecal immunochemical testing, with a positivity rate of 8.6%; 5378 (86.0% of eligible participants) completed a second round before the end of the pilot program, with a positivity rate of 6.7%. Of the 1756 who had a positive test result, 1555 (88.6%) underwent colonoscopy. The detection rate of colorectal cancer was 3.5 per 1000 participants. The positive predictive value of the fecal immunochemical test was 4.9% (95% confidence interval [CI] 3.8%-6.0%) for colorectal cancer, 35.0% (95% CI 32.5%-37.2%) for high-risk polyps and 62.0% (95% CI 59.6%-64.4%) for all neoplasms. The number needed to screen was 283 to detect 1 cancer, 40 to detect 1 high-risk polyp and 22 to detect any neoplasm. Screening every 2 years with a 2-specimen fecal immunochemical test surpassed the current benchmark for colorectal cancer detection in population-based screening. This study has implications for other jurisdictions planning colorectal cancer screening programs.

  18. Barriers to Colorectal Cancer Screening in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Hasan, Fariha; Mahmood Shah, Sayed Mustafa; Munaf, Misbah; Khan, Muhammad R; Marsia, Shayan; Haaris, Syed Muhammad; Shaikh, Muhammad Hammad; Abdur Rahim, Ismail; Anwar, Muhammad Salar; Qureshi, Kassam S; Iqbal, Maham; Qazi, Sara; Kasi, Burhanuddin A; Tahir, Mahnoor; Ur Rehman, Syed Inam; Fatima, Kaneez

    2017-07-16

    Background The prevalence of colorectal cancer (CRC) is growing in Pakistan; however, there are no national screening programs or guidelines in place to curb its development. This study was conducted with the aim of ascertaining public awareness and attitudes regarding CRC and current screening practices. Furthermore, the study assessed perceived barriers which could impact future screening processes. Methods A cross-sectional, questionnaire-based study was conducted among urban dwellers of Karachi, Pakistan. We excluded any individuals belonging to the medical profession, those diagnosed previously with CRC or having any significant co-morbidity. The validated and pre-tested questionnaire was administered among the study participants to record demographic information, awareness of CRC risk factors, symptoms and screening tests. Attitudes towards screening and perceived barriers to screening were also assessed. Data were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS version 20.0) (IBM Corp., Armonk, NY). A knowledge score, out of a total of 14 points was calculated to reflect a participant's overall knowledge regarding CRC risk factors and signs/symptoms. Results The prevalence of CRC screening in eligible individuals (50 years or older) was 2.6% in our study population. Positive attitudes towards CRC management and screening were observed, with 75.1% (n = 296) acknowledging the preventive role of screening tests. Despite this only 14.9% (n = 58) of study participants expressed a future desire to undergo screening. Major barriers to screening were reported to be "a lack of knowledge regarding the screening procedure", a "lack of screening facilities" and that the "screening procedure is too expensive". A majority (n = 285, 72.3%) of the participants expressed a greater willingness to undergo screening if their doctor recommended it. Conclusion A national CRC screening and awareness program should be launched to promote awareness and facilitate

  19. Colorectal Cancer Screening in 3 Racial Groups

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Kimberly M.; Dickinson, Stephanie L.; DeGraffinreid, Cecilia R.; Tatum, Cathy M.; Paskett, Electra D.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To understand predictors of colorectal cancer (CRC) screening in African Americans, European Americans, and Native Americans as these groups differ in CRC incidence and mortality. Methods Participants were surveyed for knowledge, beliefs, and behaviors related to CRC. Results Predictive regression modeling found, after adjusting for race, CRC risk, and CRC worry, the odds of screening within guidelines were increased for men, those receiving doctor’s recommendation, those with polyp/tumor history, those under 70, those with more knowledge about CRC, and those with fewer barriers to screening. CRC screening rates did not differ by race. Conclusions These results reiterate the importance of knowledge, barriers, and physician recommendation for CRC screening in all racial groups. PMID:17555381

  20. Stool Testing for Colorectal Cancer Screening.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Douglas J; Imperiale, Thomas F

    2015-10-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) screening has been shown to reduce CRC incidence and mortality and is widely recommended. However, despite the demonstrated benefits of screening and ongoing efforts to improve screening rates, a large percentage of the population remains unscreened. Noninvasive stool based tests offer great opportunity to enhance screening uptake. The evidence supporting the use of both fecal immunochemical testing (FIT) and stool DNA (sDNA) has been growing rapidly and both tests are now commercially available for use. Other stool biomarkers (eg, RNA and protein based) are also actively under study both for use independently and as adjuncts to the currently available tests. This mini review provides current, state of the art knowledge about noninvasive stool based screening. It includes a more detailed examination of those tests currently in use (ie, FIT and sDNA) but also provides an overview of stool testing options under development (ie, protein and RNA).

  1. [Colorectal cancer screening: situation and prospect].

    PubMed

    Guo, Chunguang; Liu, Qian; Dai, Min

    2015-05-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the fourth most common cause of cancer death in China and the incidence has been increasing during the decades. It is reported to take decades for adenoma to transform to carcinoma, which is known as the main CRC pre-cancer lesion. It is important to carry out mass screening in the average risk populations to find the pre-cancer lesion and early cancer, which was the key approach to improve CRC survival. Fecal occult blood test and flexible sigmoidoscopy are the two CRC screening methods, which have been shown to reduce CRC mortality. It still needs to be confirmed in random clinical trials that the value of colonoscopy in CRC screening. In China, the most CRC screening experience was drawn from the works in Zhejiang province in 1970s. Consequently, the Chinese CRC treatment and guideline was founded to provide standard for the CRC screening project.

  2. Screening for colorectal cancer: spoiled for choice?

    PubMed

    Sarfati, Diana; Shaw, Caroline; McLeod, Melissa; Blakely, Tony; Bissett, Ian

    2016-08-19

    There are many different potential screening strategies for colorectal cancer (CRC) that vary both in the likely magnitude of their benefits on CRC mortality and their impact on health services. Many approaches to CRC screening are cost-effective, but there is substantial uncertainty about the optimal approach. Decision models using Markov or microsimulation modelling that compare the cost-effectiveness of different screening strategies are useful in this regard. We have reviewed recent decision models that compare the cost-effectiveness of one-off flexible sigmoidoscopy screening with immunochemical faecal occult blood (FIT) based screening. Models consistently show that any population-based screening is cost-effective compared with no screening, and that FIT-based screening is more effective than one-off sigmoidoscopy screening. The combination of one-off sigmoidoscopy with FIT is more effective in saving lives than either modality alone, but has the greatest impact on health service resources. The recent decision to proceed with biennial FIT-based screening is consistent with current evidence.

  3. Improving colorectal cancer screening: fact and fantasy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Dam, Jacques

    2008-02-01

    Premalignant diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, such as Barrett's esophagus, long-standing ulcerative colitis, and adenomatous polyps, have a significantly increased risk for development of adenocarcinoma, most often through an intermediate stage of dysplasia. Adenocarcinoma of the colon is the second most common cancer in the United States. Because patients with colorectal cancer often present with advanced disease, the outcomes are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Effective methods of early detection are essential. As non-polypoid dysplasia is not visible using conventional endoscopy, surveillance of patients with Barrett's esophagus and ulcerative colitis is performed via a system in which multiple random biopsies are obtained at prescribed intervals. Sampling error and missed diagnoses occur frequently and render current screening methods inadequate. Also, the examination of a tissue biopsy is time consuming and costly, and significant intra- and inter-observer variation may occur. The newer methods discussed herein demonstrate the potential to solve these problems by early detection of disease with high sensitivity and specificity. Conventional endoscopy is based on the observation of white light reflected off the tissue surface. Subtle changes in color and shadow reveal structural changes. New developments in optical imaging go beyond white light, exploiting other properties of light. Several promising methods will be discussed at this meeting and shall be briefly discussed below. However, few such imaging modalities have arrived at our clinical practice. Some much more practical methods to improve colorectal cancer screening are currently being evaluated for their clinical impact. These methods seek to overcome limitations other than those of detecting dysplasia not visible under white light endoscopy. The current standard practice of colorectal cancer screening utilizes colonoscopy, an uncomfortable, sometimes difficult medical

  4. Healthcare system factors and colorectal cancer screening.

    PubMed

    Zapka, Jane G; Puleo, Elaine; Vickers-Lahti, Maureen; Luckmann, Roger

    2002-07-01

    Developing effective programs to promote colorectal cancer (CRC) screening requires understanding of the effect of healthcare system factors on access to screening and adherence to guidelines. This study assessed the role of insurance status, type of plan, the frequency of preventive health visits, and provider recommendation on utilization of CRC screening tests using a cross-sectional, random-digit-dial survey of 1002 Massachusetts residents aged > or =50. A broad definition of CRC screening status included colonoscopy or barium enema (screening or diagnostic) within 10 years, flexible sigmoidoscopy (FSIG) within 5 years, and fecal occult blood testing (FOBT) in the past year as options; 51.7% of subjects aged 50 to 64 and 61.5% of older subjects were current. The uninsured had the lowest current testing rate. Among insured participants, type of insurance had little impact on CRC testing; older subjects enrolled in HMOs had marginally higher rates, although not statistically significant. Increased frequency of preventive health visits and ever receiving a physician's recommendation for FSIG or ever receiving FOBT cards were associated with higher rates of CRC screening among both age groups. Even when broad criteria are used to define current CRC screening status, a substantial proportion of the age-eligible population remains underscreened. Obtaining regular preventive care and receiving a physician's recommendation for screening appear to be potent facilitators of screening that should be considered in designing promotional efforts.

  5. Current status of screening for colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Garborg, K; Holme, Ø; Løberg, M; Kalager, M; Adami, H O; Bretthauer, M

    2013-08-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a leading cause of cancer morbidity and mortality. A well-defined precursor lesion (adenoma) and a long preclinical course make CRC a candidate for screening. This paper reviews the current evidence for the most important tests that are widely used or under development for population-based screening. In this narrative review, we scrutinized all papers we have been aware of, and carried out searches in PubMed and Cochrane library for relevant literature. Two screening methods have been shown to reduce CRC mortality in randomised trials: repetitive faecal occult blood testing (FOBT) reduces CRC mortality by 16%; once-only flexible sigmoidoscopy (FS) by 28%. FS screening also reduces CRC incidence (by 18%), FOBT does not. Colonoscopy screening has a potentially larger effect on CRC incidence and mortality, but randomised trials are lacking. New screening methods are on the horizon but need to be tested in large clinical trials before implementation in population screening. FS screening reduces CRC incidence and CRC mortality by removal of adenomas; FOBT reduces CRC mortality by early detection of cancer. Several other tests are available, but none has been evaluated in randomised trials. Screening strategies differ considerably across countries.

  6. Colorectal cancer screening with virtual colonoscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Yaorong; Vining, David J.; Ahn, David K.; Stelts, David R.

    1999-05-01

    Early detection and removal of colorectal polyps have been proven to reduce mortality from colorectal carcinoma (CRC), the second leading cause of cancer deaths in the United States. Unfortunately, traditional techniques for CRC examination (i.e., barium enema, sigmoidoscopy, and colonoscopy) are unsuitable for mass screening because of either low accuracy or poor public acceptance, costs, and risks. Virtual colonoscopy (VC) is a minimally invasive alternative that is based on tomographic scanning of the colon. After a patient's bowel is optimally cleansed and distended with gas, a fast tomographic scan, typically helical computed tomography (CT), of the abdomen is performed during a single breath-hold acquisition. Two-dimensional (2D) slices and three-dimensional (3D) rendered views of the colon lumen generated from the tomographic data are then examined for colorectal polyps. Recent clinical studies conducted at several institutions including ours have shown great potential for this technology to be an effective CRC screening tool. In this paper, we describe new methods to improve bowel preparation, colon lumen visualization, colon segmentation, and polyp detection. Our initial results show that VC with the new bowel preparation and imaging protocol is capable of achieving accuracy comparable to conventional colonoscopy and our new algorithms for image analysis contribute to increased accuracy and efficiency in VC examinations.

  7. Korean Guidelines for Colorectal Cancer Screening and Polyp Detection

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Bo-In; Hong, Sung Pil; Kim, Seong-Eun; Kim, Se Hyung; Hong, Sung Noh; Yang, Dong-Hoon; Shin, Sung Jae; Lee, Suck-Ho; Park, Dong Il; Kim, Young-Ho; Kim, Hyun Jung; Yang, Suk-Kyun; Kim, Hyo Jong; Jeon, Hae Jeong

    2012-01-01

    Now colorectal cancer is the second most common cancer in males and the fourth most common cancer in females in Korea. Since most of colorectal cancers occur after the prolonged transformation of adenomas into carcinomas, early detection and removal of colorectal adenomas are one of the most effective methods to prevent colorectal cancer. Considering the increasing incidence of colorectal cancer and polyps in Korea, it is very important to establish Korean guideline for colorectal cancer screening and polyp detection. The guideline was developed by the Korean Multi-Society Take Force and we tried to establish the guideline by evidence-based methods. Parts of the statements were draw by systematic reviews and meta-analyses. Herein we discussed epidemiology of colorectal cancers and adenomas in Korea and optimal methods for screening of colorectal cancer and detection of adenomas including fecal occult blood tests, radiologic tests, and endoscopic examinations. PMID:22741131

  8. [Cost-effectiveness of colorectal cancer screening].

    PubMed

    Heresbach, Denis; Manfrédi, Sylvain; Branger, Bernard; Bretagne, Jean-François

    2006-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) screening in France is based on a faecal occult blood test every two years in average risk subjects 50-74 years of age while other endoscopic or non-endoscopic screening methods are used in Europe and in the USA. Beside the reduced incidence of and mortality from CRC found in available studies, cost-effectiveness data need to be taken into account. Because of the delay between randomized controlled trials and clinical results, transitional probabilistic models of screening programs are useful for public health policy makers. The aim of the present review was to promote the implementation of cost-effectiveness studies, to provide a guide to analyze cost-effectiveness studies on CRC screening and, to propose a French cost effectiveness study comparing CRC screening strategies. Most of these trials were performed by US or UK authors and demonstrate that the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio varies between 5 000 and 15 000 US dollars/one year life gained, with wide variations: these results were highly dependent on the unit costs of the different devices as well as the predictive values of the screening tests. Although CRC screening programs have been implemented in several administrative districts of France since 2002, and the results of these randomized controlled trials using fecal occult blood have been updated, cost-effectiveness criteria need to be integrated; especially since the results of screening campaigns based on other tools such as flexible sigmoidoscopy should be available in 2007.

  9. [Colorectal cancer mass screening: present and future].

    PubMed

    Bretagne, Jean-François; Manfredi, Sylvain; Heresbach, Denis

    2007-01-01

    Hemoccult II is the only method of screening for colorectal cancer whose effectiveness in reducing specific mortality has been proved by randomized controlled trials. The first experience of French districts based on this strategy reproduced on a population scale the results of the experimental studies. Expanding screening in France to the general public is a public health priority. Large-scale media campaigns, which currently do not exist, could then be launched, and prevention opportunities seized. Immunological tests identifying the presence of blood in the stool have better sensitivity than the guaiac smear tests, especially for the diagnosis of adenomas and to a lesser extent, for that of cancers as a whole. These tests may constitute an alternative to guaiac tests, but are more expensive. Total colonoscopy, proposed every 10 years from the age of 50 years or once in a lifetime around the age of 60 years, is not a realistic method because of its cost and its risks. Sigmoidoscopies are under evaluation in several countries in randomized controlled trials but do not seem appropriate to either the epidemiologic trends of colorectal cancer or to the practice of endoscopy in France. Virtual colonoscopy is an attractive alternative to searching for blood in stool. The evaluation now underway should not interfere with the broad expansion of methods of proven efficacy. Virtual colonoscopy may face competition from numerous emerging techniques of endoscopic exploration of the colon, including the video-capsule. To obtain widespread participation in colorectal cancer screening, policy-makers must take the opinions of healthcare professionals and of the public into account. The medicoeconomic data will be a decisive factor in the choice between these new strategies.

  10. Correlation of N-myc downstream-regulated gene 1 subcellular localization and lymph node metastases of colorectal neoplasms

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Yan; Lv, Liyang; Du, Juan; Yue, Longtao; Cao, Lili

    2013-09-20

    Highlights: •We clarified NDRG1 subcellular location in colorectal cancer. •We found the changes of NDRG1 distribution during colorectal cancer progression. •We clarified the correlation between NDRG1 distribution and lymph node metastasis. •It is possible that NDRG1 subcellular localization may determine its function. •Maybe NDRG1 is valuable early diagnostic markers for metastasis. -- Abstract: In colorectal neoplasms, N-myc downstream-regulated gene 1 (NDRG1) is a primarily cytoplasmic protein, but it is also expressed on the cell membrane and in the nucleus. NDRG1 is involved in various stages of tumor development in colorectal cancer, and it is possible that the different subcellular localizations may determine the function of NDRG1 protein. Here, we attempt to clarify the characteristics of NDRG1 protein subcellular localization during the progression of colorectal cancer. We examined NDRG1 expression in 49 colorectal cancer patients in cancerous, non-cancerous, and corresponding lymph node tissues. Cytoplasmic and membrane NDRG1 expression was higher in the lymph nodes with metastases than in those without metastases (P < 0.01). Nuclear NDRG1 expression in colorectal neoplasms was significantly higher than in the normal colorectal mucosa, and yet the normal colorectal mucosa showed no nuclear expression. Furthermore, our results showed higher cytoplasmic NDRG1 expression was better for differentiation, and higher membrane NDRG1 expression resulted in a greater possibility of lymph node metastasis. These data indicate that a certain relationship between the cytoplasmic and membrane expression of NDRG1 in lymph nodes exists with lymph node metastasis. NDRG1 expression may translocate from the membrane of the colorectal cancer cells to the nucleus, where it is involved in lymph node metastasis. Combination analysis of NDRG1 subcellular expression and clinical variables will help predict the incidence of lymph node metastasis.

  11. Role of preoperative colonoscopy in patients with gastric cancer: a case control study of the prevalence of coexisting colorectal neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Han Mo; Gweon, Tae Geun; Seo, Ho Seok; Shim, Jung Ho; Oh, Sung Il; Choi, Myung Gyu; Song, Kyo Young; Jeon, Hae Myoung; Park, Cho Hyun

    2013-05-01

    We evaluated the prevalence of coexisting asymptomatic colorectal neoplasm (CRN) in patients with gastric cancer (GC). Preoperative colonoscopic examinations were performed in 495 patients with GC who underwent gastrectomy between January 2009 and December 2010. To compare the prevalence of CRN in these patients with that in a normal population, we selected 495 sex- and age-matched persons who underwent colonoscopies for health screening. Risk factors for CRN were evaluated by univariate and multivariate analyses. The overall incidence of CRN was 41.8 % (414/990). The prevalence of overall CRN, high-risk CRN, and colorectal carcinoma (CRC) were significantly higher in the GC group than in the control group (overall CRN: 48.9 % vs. 34.7 %; high-risk CRN: 28.3 % vs. 13.5 %; CRC: 2.6 % vs. 0.2 %; all P < 0.001). The presence of GC [odds ratio (OR), 1.82; 95 % confidence interval (CI), 1.4-2.38; P < 0.001], age ≥50 years (OR, 2.58; 95 % CI, 1.75-3.81; P < 0.001), and male sex (OR, 2.28; 95 % CI, 1.72-3.02; P < 0.001) were risk factors for overall CRN. In patients with GC, age ≥40 years (OR, 3.22; 95 % CI, 1.24-8.37; P = 0.016) and male sex (OR, 3.21; 95 % CI, 2.17-4.76; P < 0.001) were risk factors for overall CRN. The prevalence of coexisting CRN, including CRC, was higher in patients with GC than in the normal population. Preoperative colonoscopy is strongly indicated in patients with GC who are male and/or ≥40 years of age.

  12. Colon capsule endoscopy compared with conventional colonoscopy for the detection of colorectal neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Sieg, Andreas

    2011-03-01

    Given the low compliance with screening colonoscopy in countries with a national colorectal cancer screening program, noninvasive methods with an acceptable high rate of sensitivity and specificity are welcome to enlarge the array of screening tools. Colon capsule endoscopy seems to be a safe and effective method of visualizing the colonic mucosa without the need for sedation or insufflation of air. Bowel cleansing for colon capsule endoscopy is more rigorous as only excellent or good results can be accepted in order to obtain an adequate sensitivity. This restricts its application on persons who are able to drink 4 l of polyethylene glycol plus laxatives. The sensitivity of colon capsule endoscopy to detect polyps, advanced adenomas and cancer is lower compared with optical colonoscopy. It still seems to be an adequate alternative for patients reluctant to undergo colonoscopy. Conventional colonoscopy is still established as the gold standard in colorectal cancer screening and is used to evaluate positive screening tests of all programs. It is the only method with the ability to remove detected polyps and obtain biopsy specimens. © 2011 Expert Reviews Ltd

  13. Prevalence of colorectal neoplasms in young, average risk individuals: A turning tide between East and West.

    PubMed

    Leshno, Ari; Moshkowitz, Menachem; David, Maayan; Galazan, Lior; Neugut, Alfred I; Arber, Nadir; Santo, Erwin

    2016-08-28

    To determine the prevalence of colorectal neoplasia in average risk persons 40-59 years of age in Israel and to compare the results with other populations. We reviewed the results of asymptomatic average-risk subjects, aged 40 to 59 years, undergoing their first screening colonoscopy between April 1994 and January 2014. The detection rates of adenoma, advanced adenoma (AA) and colorectal cancer (CRC) were determined in the 40's and 50's age groups by gender. The prevalence of lesions was compared between age groups. After meticulous review of the literature, these results were compared to published studies addressing the prevalence of colorectal neoplasia in similar patient groups, in a variety of geographical locations. We included first screening colonoscopy results of 1750 individuals. The prevalence of adenomas, AA and CRC was 8.3%, 1.0% and 0.2% in the 40-49 age group and 13.7%, 2.4% and 0.2% in the 50-59 age group, respectively. Age-dependent differences in adenoma and AA rates were significant only among men (P < 0.005). Literature review disclosed 17 relevant studies. As expected, in both Asian and Western populations, the risks for overall adenoma and advanced adenoma was significantly higher in the 50's age group as compared to the 40's age group in a similar fashion. The result of the current study were similar to previous studies on Western populations. A substantially higher rate of adenoma, was observed in studies conducted among Asian populations in both age groups. The higher rate of colorectal neoplasia in Asian populations requires further investigation and reconsideration as to the starting age of screening in that population.

  14. Prevalence of colorectal neoplasms in young, average risk individuals: A turning tide between East and West

    PubMed Central

    Leshno, Ari; Moshkowitz, Menachem; David, Maayan; Galazan, Lior; Neugut, Alfred I; Arber, Nadir; Santo, Erwin

    2016-01-01

    AIM To determine the prevalence of colorectal neoplasia in average risk persons 40-59 years of age in Israel and to compare the results with other populations. METHODS We reviewed the results of asymptomatic average-risk subjects, aged 40 to 59 years, undergoing their first screening colonoscopy between April 1994 and January 2014. The detection rates of adenoma, advanced adenoma (AA) and colorectal cancer (CRC) were determined in the 40’s and 50’s age groups by gender. The prevalence of lesions was compared between age groups. After meticulous review of the literature, these results were compared to published studies addressing the prevalence of colorectal neoplasia in similar patient groups, in a variety of geographical locations. RESULTS We included first screening colonoscopy results of 1750 individuals. The prevalence of adenomas, AA and CRC was 8.3%, 1.0% and 0.2% in the 40-49 age group and 13.7%, 2.4% and 0.2% in the 50-59 age group, respectively. Age-dependent differences in adenoma and AA rates were significant only among men (P < 0.005). Literature review disclosed 17 relevant studies. As expected, in both Asian and Western populations, the risks for overall adenoma and advanced adenoma was significantly higher in the 50's age group as compared to the 40's age group in a similar fashion. The result of the current study were similar to previous studies on Western populations. A substantially higher rate of adenoma, was observed in studies conducted among Asian populations in both age groups. CONCLUSION The higher rate of colorectal neoplasia in Asian populations requires further investigation and reconsideration as to the starting age of screening in that population. PMID:27621582

  15. Molecular markers for colorectal cancer screening

    PubMed Central

    Dickinson, Brandon T.; Kisiel, John; Ahlquist, David A.; Grady, William M.

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC), although a significant cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, has seen a declining incidence and mortality in countries with programmatic screening. Fecal occult blood testing (FOBT) and endoscopic approaches are the predominant screening methods currently. The discovery of the adenoma→carcinoma sequence and a greater understanding of the genetic and epigenetic changes that drive the formation of CRC have contributed to innovative research to identify molecular markers for highly accurate, non-invasive screening tests for CRC. DNA, proteins, messenger RNA, and micro-RNA have all been evaluated. The observation of tumor cell exfoliation into the mucocellular layer of the colonic epithelium and proven stability of DNA in a harsh stool environment make stool DNA a particularly promising marker. The development of a clinically useful stool DNA test has required numerous technical advances, including optimization in DNA stabilization, the development of assays with high analytical sensitivity, and the identification of specific and broadly informative molecular markers. A multi-target stool DNA (MT-sDNA) test, which combines both mutant and methylated DNA markers and a fecal immunochemical test (FIT), recently performed favorably in a large cross-sectional validation study and has been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the screening of asymptomatic, average risk individuals. The ultimate way in which molecular marker screening assays will be used in clinical practice will require additional studies to determine optimal screening intervals, factors affecting compliance, management of false positive results, and the use of these assays in high-risk populations, as well as other considerations. PMID:25994221

  16. Molecular markers for colorectal cancer screening.

    PubMed

    Dickinson, Brandon T; Kisiel, John; Ahlquist, David A; Grady, William M

    2015-09-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC), although a significant cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, has seen a declining incidence and mortality in countries with programmatic screening. Faecal occult blood testing and endoscopic approaches are the predominant screening methods currently. The discovery of the adenoma-carcinoma sequence and a greater understanding of the genetic and epigenetic changes that drive the formation of CRC have contributed to innovative research to identify molecular markers for highly accurate, non-invasive screening tests for CRC. DNA, proteins, messenger RNA and micro-RNA have all been evaluated. The observation of tumour cell exfoliation into the mucocellular layer of the colonic epithelium and proven stability of DNA in a harsh stool environment make stool DNA a particularly promising marker. The development of a clinically useful stool DNA test has required numerous technical advances, including optimisation in DNA stabilisation, the development of assays with high analytical sensitivity, and the identification of specific and broadly informative molecular markers. A multitarget stool DNA test, which combines mutant and methylated DNA markers and a faecal immunochemical test, recently performed favourably in a large cross-sectional validation study and has been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the screening of asymptomatic, average-risk individuals. The ultimate way in which molecular marker screening assays will be used in clinical practice will require additional studies to determine optimal screening intervals, factors affecting compliance, management of false-positive results, and the use of these assays in high-risk populations, as well as other considerations.

  17. Perspectives on colorectal cancer screening: a focus group study

    PubMed Central

    Goel, Vivek; Gray, Ross; Chart, Pam; Fitch, Marg; Saibil, Fred; Zdanowicz, Yola

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Objective  To assess attitudes and acceptability of Ontario consumers and doctors towards colorectal screening with faecal occult blood testing (FOBT) and colonoscopy. Design, setting and participants  Focus groups with gender‐specific samples of the population, high‐risk gastroenterology patients and family doctors. Method  Semi‐structured interview guides used by facilitator to lead groups through knowledge of risk factors and prevention of colorectal cancer, the screening modalities, requirements for implementing screening programmes, barriers to screening and preferences towards screening. Main findings  There were low levels of knowledge about colorectal cancer and its prevention in the general population. FOBT was an acceptable screening modality, but considerable education about its use and benefits would be necessary to implement a screening programme. Colonoscopy was not perceived to be a good choice for a primary screen in the general population. The high‐risk group supported use of FOBT in the general population and emphasized the need for education. The doctors were more reluctant about screening, requesting clear guidelines. They also identified the time and resources that would be required if a screening programme were initiated. Conclusion  While colorectal screening is acceptable in this sample, information and decision aids are required to enable consumers and providers to make effective decisions. Implementation of colorectal screening programmes requires substantial educational efforts for both consumers and doctors. PMID:14982499

  18. Perioperative Systemic Therapy and Surgery Versus Surgery Alone for Resectable Colorectal Peritoneal Metastases.

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-05-05

    Colorectal Cancer; Colorectal Neoplasms; Colorectal Carcinoma; Colorectal Adenocarcinoma; Colorectal Cancer Metastatic; Peritoneal Carcinoma; Peritoneal Neoplasms; Peritoneal Cavity Cancer; Peritoneal Carcinomatosis; Peritoneal Metastases

  19. Current noninvasive tests for colorectal cancer screening: An overview of colorectal cancer screening tests

    PubMed Central

    Song, Le-Le; Li, Yue-Min

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) has become the third most common cancer in the world. Screening has been shown to be an effective way to identify early CRC and precancerous lesions, and to reduce its morbidity and mortality. Several types of noninvasive tests have been developed for CRC screening, including the fecal occult blood test (FOBT), the fecal immunochemical test (FIT), the fecal-based DNA test and the blood-based DNA test (the SEPT9 assay). FIT has replaced FOBT and become the major screening test due to high sensitivity, specificity and low costs. The fecal DNA test exhibited higher sensitivity than FIT but its current cost is high for a screening assay. The SEPT9 assay showed good compliance while its performance in screening needs further improvements. These tests exhibited distinct sensitivity and specificity in screening for CRC and adenoma. This article will focus on the performance of the current noninvasive in vitro diagnostic tests that have been used for CRC screening. The merits and drawbacks for these screening methods will also be compared regarding the techniques, usage and costs. We hope this review can provide suggestions for both the public and clinicians in choosing the appropriate method for CRC screening. PMID:27895817

  20. Colorectal Cancer Screening: Stool DNA and Other Noninvasive Modalities.

    PubMed

    Bailey, James R; Aggarwal, Ashish; Imperiale, Thomas F

    2016-03-01

    Colorectal cancer screening dates to the discovery of precancerous adenomatous tissue. Screening modalities and guidelines directed at prevention and early detection have evolved and resulted in a significant decrease in the prevalence and mortality of colorectal cancer via direct visualization or using specific markers. Despite continued efforts and an overall reduction in deaths attributed to colorectal cancer over the last 25 years, colorectal cancer remains one of the most common causes of malignancy-associated deaths. In attempt to further reduce the prevalence of colorectal cancer and associated deaths, continued improvement in screening quality and adherence remains key. Noninvasive screening modalities are actively being explored. Identification of specific genetic alterations in the adenoma-cancer sequence allow for the study and development of noninvasive screening modalities beyond guaiac-based fecal occult blood testing which target specific alterations or a panel of alterations. The stool DNA test is the first noninvasive screening tool that targets both human hemoglobin and specific genetic alterations. In this review we discuss stool DNA and other commercially available noninvasive colorectal cancer screening modalities in addition to other targets which previously have been or are currently under study.

  1. Diagnostic performance of fecal immunochemical test and sigmoidoscopy for advanced right-sided colorectal neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Castro, Inés; Estevez, Pamela; Cubiella, Joaquín; Hernandez, Vicent; González-Mao, Carmen; Rivera, Concepción; Iglesias, Felipe; Cid, Lucía; Soto, Santiago; de-Castro, Luisa; Vega, Pablo; Hermo, Jose Antonio; Macenlle, Ramiro; Martínez, Alfonso; Cid, Estela; Gil, Inés; Larzabal, Mikel; Bujanda, Luis; Castells, Antoni

    2015-05-01

    Colorectal cancer screening effect on right-sided colorectal neoplasia is limited. We compared fecal immunochemical test and simulated sigmoidoscopy diagnostic accuracy for advanced right-sided neoplasia detection. We analyzed 1,292 individuals with complete screening colonoscopy with a fecal immunochemical test determination before colonoscopy. Sigmoidoscopy and "hybrid strategy" (sigmoidoscopy or fecal hemoglobin concentration ≥ 20 µg hemoglobin/g) diagnostic yield were simulated according to UK Flexible Sigmoidoscopy, Screening for COlon REctum (SCORE), and Norwegian Colorectal Cancer Prevention (NORCCAP) trials criteria to complete colonic examination. We compared sensitivity and specificity of both strategies and of "hybrid strategy" for advanced right-sided neoplasia with McNemar test. An advanced right-sided neoplasia was detected in 47 (3.6 %) subjects. A fecal hemoglobin concentration ≥ 20 µg hemoglobin/g was determined in 6.6 % of the subjects and 10.1, 12.7, and 23.5 % met UK, SCORE, and NORCCAP criteria, respectively. Fecal immunochemical test was statistically more specific than sigmoidoscopy strategies (93.8 %, UK 90.3 %, SCORE 87.7 %, NORCCAP 77.8 %; p < 0.001). In contrast, fecal immunochemical test sensitivity for advanced right-sided neoplasia (17 %) was not statistically different than UK (21.3 %; p = 0.7) or SCORE (23.4 %; p = 0.5), although it was inferior than NORCCAP strategy (42.5 %; p < 0.001). Adding fecal immunochemical test to sigmoidoscopy increased number of positives (8.5-25.7 %), sensitivity (10-30 %), and significantly reduced advanced right-sided neoplasia specificity (p < 0.001). Fecal immunochemical test and sigmoidoscopy diagnostic yield for advanced right-sided neoplasia are low. Fecal immunochemical test is more specific than sigmoidoscopy but less sensitive than sigmoidoscopy according to NORCCAP criteria.

  2. Public Awareness of Colorectal Cancer Screening: Knowledge, Attitudes, and Interventions for Increasing Screening Uptake

    PubMed Central

    Gimeno Garcia, Antonio Z.; Hernandez Alvarez Buylla, Noemi; Nicolas-Perez, David; Quintero, Enrique

    2014-01-01

    Colorectal cancer ranks as one of the most incidental and death malignancies worldwide. Colorectal cancer screening has proven its benefit in terms of incidence and mortality reduction in randomized controlled trials. In fact, it has been recommended by medical organizations either in average-risk or family-risk populations. Success of a screening campaign highly depends on how compliant the target population is. Several factors influence colorectal cancer screening uptake including sociodemographics, provider and healthcare system factors, and psychosocial factors. Awareness of the target population of colorectal cancer and screening is crucial in order to increase screening participation rates. Knowledge about this disease and its prevention has been used across studies as a measurement of public awareness. Some studies found a positive relationship between knowledge about colorectal cancer, risk perception, and attitudes (perceived benefits and barriers against screening) and willingness to participate in a colorectal cancer screening campaign. The mentioned factors are modifiable and therefore susceptible of intervention. In fact, interventional studies focused on average-risk population have tried to increase colorectal cancer screening uptake by improving public knowledge and modifying attitudes. In the present paper, we reviewed the factors impacting adherence to colorectal cancer screening and interventions targeting participants for increasing screening uptake. PMID:24729896

  3. Effects of supplemental vitamin D and calcium on normal colon tissue and circulating biomarkers of risk for colorectal neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Bostick, Roberd M

    2015-04-01

    This brief review, based on an invited presentation at the 17th Workshop on Vitamin D, is to summarize a line of the author's research that has been directed at the intertwined missions of clarifying and/or developing vitamin D and calcium as preventive agents against colorectal cancer in humans, understanding the mechanisms by which these agents may reduce risk for the disease, and developing 'treatable' biomarkers of risk for colorectal cancer. The biological plausibility and observational and clinical trial evidence for vitamin D and calcium in reducing risk for colorectal neoplasms, the development of pre-neoplastic biomarkers of risk for colorectal neoplasms, and the clinical trial findings from the author's research group on the efficacy of vitamin D and calcium in modulating these biomarkers are summarized. Regarding the latter, we tested the efficacy of 800 IU (20μg) of vitamin D3 and 2.0g of calcium daily, alone and combined vs. placebo over 6 months on modulating normal colon tissue and circulating hypothesis-based biomarkers of risk for colorectal neoplasms in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 2×2 factorial design clinical trial (n=92). The tissue-based biomarkers were measured in biopsies of normal-appearing rectal mucosa using immunohistochemistry with quantitative image analysis, and a panel of circulating inflammation markers was measured using enzyme-linked immunoassays (ELISA). Statistically significant proportional tissue increases in the vitamin D group relative to the placebo group were found in bax (51%), p21 (141%), APC (48%), E-cadherin (78%), MSH2 (179%), the CaSR (39%), and CYP27B1 (159%). In blood, there was a 77% statistically significant decrease in a summary inflammation z-score. The findings for calcium were similar to those for vitamin D. These findings indicate that supplemental vitamin D3 or calcium can favorably modulate multiple normal colon tissue and circulating hypothesis-based biomarkers of risk for colorectal

  4. Effects of Supplemental Vitamin D and Calcium on Normal Colon Tissue and Circulating Biomarkers of Risk for Colorectal Neoplasms

    PubMed Central

    Bostick, Roberd M.

    2015-01-01

    This brief review, based on an invited presentation at the 17th Workshop on Vitamin D, is to summarize a line of the author’s research that has been directed at the intertwined missions of clarifying and/or developing vitamin D and calcium and as preventive agents against colorectal cancer in humans, understanding the mechanisms by which these agents may reduce risk for the disease, and developing ‘treatable’ biomarkers of risk for colorectal cancer. The biological plausibility and observational and clinical trial evidence for vitamin D and calcium in reducing risk for colorectal neoplasms, the development of pre-neoplastic biomarkers of risk for colorectal neoplasms, and the clinical trial findings from the author’s research group on the efficacy of vitamin D and calcium in modulating these biomarkers are summarized. Regarding the latter, we tested the efficacy of 800 IU (20 µg) of vitamin D3 and 2.0g of calcium daily, alone and combined vs. placebo over 6 months on modulating normal colon tissue and circulating hypothesis-based biomarkers of risk for colorectal neoplasms in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 2×2 factorial design clinical trial (n = 92). The tissue-based biomarkers were measured in biopsies of normal-appearing rectal mucosa using immunohistochemistry with quantitative image analysis, and a panel of circulating inflammation markers was measured using enzyme-linked immunoassays (ELISA). Statistically significant proportional tissue increases in the vitamin D group relative to the placebo group were found in bax (51%), p21 (141%), APC (48%), E-cadherin (78%), MSH2 (179%), the CaSR (39%), and CYP27B1 (159%). In blood, there was a 77% statistically significant decrease in a summary inflammation z-score. The findings for calcium were similar to those for vitamin D. These findings indicate that supplemental vitamin D3 or calcium can favorably modulate multiple normal colon tissue and circulating hypothesis-based biomarkers of risk

  5. Colorectal Cancer Screening (PDQ®)—Patient Version

    Cancer.gov

    There are five types of tests that are used to screen for colorectal cancer: fecal occult blood test, sigmoidoscopy, colonoscopy, virtual colonoscopy, and DNA stool test. Learn more about these and other tests in this expert-reviewed summary.

  6. Colorectal neoplasm in cases of Clostridium septicum and Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus bacteraemia.

    PubMed

    Corredoira, Juan; Grau, Imma; Garcia-Rodriguez, José F; García-País, María Jose; Rabuñal, Ramón; Ardanuy, Carmen; García-Garrote, Fernando; Coira, Amparo; Alonso, Maria Pilar; Boleij, Annemarie; Pallares, Roman

    2017-06-01

    Bacteremia with Clostridium septicum (CS) and Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. gallolyticus (SGG) have both been associated with colorectal neoplasms (CRN) and colonoscopic examination is advised, however the differences and similarities in colorectal findings are not well known. This is a multicenter, comparative study of patients with CS bacteremia [44 of 664 cases (6.6%) of Clostridium spp.] and SGG bacteremia [257 of 596 cases (44.2%) of S. bovis group], carried out in three hospitals from Spain. Clinical findings related to bacteremia and associated CRN were collected. The main sources of infection were abdominal (77.7%) for CS bacteremia and endovascular (75%) for SGG bacteremia. CS bacteremia was more often associated with malignancies, (72.6% vs. 19.4%) and neutropenia (29.5% vs. 3.1%), and was more acute, with shock at presentation (63.6% vs. 3.9%) and higher 30-day mortality (47.7% vs. 9.7%) compared to SGG (P<0.05 for all). Both, patients with CS and SGG bacteremia often had concomitant CRN (43.1% vs. 49.8%) and most of them presented as occult CRN (73.7% vs. 91.4%; P=0.02). CS cases more often had invasive carcinomas (94.7% vs. 19.5%), location of CRN in the right colon (73.7% vs. 23.4%), larger tumor size (median 7 vs. 1.5cm), and a higher overall CRN related mortality rate (68.4% vs. 7.8%) compared to SGG cases (P<0.05 for all). Both, CS and SGG bacteremia are associated with occult CRN. CS cases more often had advanced carcinomas than SGG cases, suggesting a distinct temporal association with CRN. Copyright © 2017 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. [Screening colonoscopy among first degree relatives of patients with colorectal carcinoma].

    PubMed

    López-Köstner, Francisco; Fullerton, Demian A; Kronberg, Udo; Soto, Gonzalo; Zúñiga, Alvaro; Argandoña, Johanna; Miranda, Vanesa; Pinto, Eliana

    2006-08-01

    First degree relatives of patients with colorectal carcinoma are at a higher risk of having the disease than the general population. Therefore, they should be subjected to screening colonoscopy. To assess the effectiveness of colonoscopy among first degree relatives of patients with colorectal carcinoma. A free colonoscopy was offered to first degree relatives of patients operated on for colorectal cancer between 1998 and 2000. As inclusion criteria, subjects had to be asymptomatic, older than 40 years or less than 10 years younger than the index case. Each subject was contacted twice, inviting him/her to have a colonoscopy performed. Two hundred forty three relatives were contacted for the study and in 76, a colonoscopy was performed. Among the latter, a neoplasm was found in 13 (17%): One adenocarcinoma and 12 adenomas. Three of these lesions were located in the right colon. The main reason given by the 176 subjects that did not agree to have a colonoscopy was lack of interest. Screening colonoscopy is effective to detect adenoma and adenocarcinoma among first degree relatives of patients with colorectal carcinoma, however only 31% of all potential relatives agreed to undergo a colonoscopy.

  8. Colorectal cancer screening among Chinese American immigrants.

    PubMed

    Kim, Karen; Chapman, Christopher; Vallina, Helen

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the factors determining fecal occult blood test (FOBT) uptake in Chinese American immigrants. This study used a prospective, cross-sectional design with convenience sampling. An educational session on colorectal cancer screening (CRS) was provided to the participants during a health fair, and each participant was offered a no-cost FOBT kit. Data was collected over two consecutive years during three different health fairs. A questionnaire was used to collect demographic data. A total of 113 participants were recruited and 72% of them returned the FOBT kit. There was a significant association between having a primary-care physician (PCP) and having CRS in the past, even after controlling for age, gender and the length of time in the US (P = .009). Participants who visited a doctor for health maintenance were less likely to participate in the FOBT, compared to participants who never visited a doctor or who only visited a doctor when they were sick (P = .001). The length of time in the US had a significant effect on having a PCP (P = .002). However, having a PCP or having CRS in the past was not associated with participating in the screening and so was feeling at risk for CRC. In fact, 49% of Chinese women and 45% of Chinese men felt no risk of CRC. Future research and interventions that address knowledge deficits and focus on recent immigrants and their access to health care may have the potential to increase CRS among Chinese American immigrants.

  9. Colorectal cancer screening: Opportunities to improve uptake, outcomes, and disparities

    PubMed Central

    Shahidi, Neal; Cheung, Winson Y

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer screening has become a standard of care in industrialized nations for those 50 to 75 years of age, along with selected high-risk populations. While colorectal cancer screening has been shown to reduce both the incidence and mortality of colorectal cancer, it is a complex multi-disciplinary process with a number of important steps that require optimization before tangible improvements in outcomes are possible. For both opportunistic and programmatic colorectal cancer screening, poor participant uptake remains an ongoing concern. Furthermore, current screening modalities (such as the guaiac based fecal occult blood test, fecal immunochemical test and colonoscopy) may be used or performed suboptimally, which can lead to missed neoplastic lesions and unnecessary endoscopic evaluations. The latter poses the risk of adverse events, such as perforation and post-polypectomy bleeding, as well as financial impacts to the healthcare system. Moreover, ongoing disparities in colorectal cancer screening persist among marginalized populations, including specific ethnic minorities (African Americans, Hispanics, Asians, Indigenous groups), immigrants, and those who are economically disenfranchised. Given this context, we aimed to review the current literature on these important areas pertaining to colorectal cancer screening, particularly focusing on the guaiac based fecal occult blood test, the fecal immunochemical test and colonoscopy. PMID:28042387

  10. Image-enhanced endoscopy is critical in the detection, diagnosis, and treatment of non-polypoid colorectal neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Kaltenbach, Tonya; Soetikno, Roy

    2010-07-01

    Colonoscopy, the most sensitive test used to detect advanced adenoma and cancer, has been shown to prevent colorectal cancer (CRC) when combined with polypectomy. CRC remains the third most commonly diagnosed cancer and the second leading cause of cancer death in men and women in the United States. Image-enhanced endoscopy (IEE) is an integral part in the detection, diagnosis, and treatment of non-polypoid colorectal neoplasms. Both the dye-based and equipment-based varieties of IEE are readily available for application in today's practice of colonoscopy. Data are available to support its use, although further studies are needed to simplify the classification of colorectal lesions by the different techniques of equipment-based IEE. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. Non-polypoid colorectal neoplasms: Classification, therapy and follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Facciorusso, Antonio; Antonino, Matteo; Di Maso, Marianna; Barone, Michele; Muscatiello, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    In the last years, an increasing interest has been raised on non-polypoid colorectal tumors (NPT) and in particular on large flat neoplastic lesions beyond 10 mm tending to grow laterally, called laterally spreading tumors (LST). LSTs and large sessile polyps have a greater frequency of high-grade dysplasia and local invasiveness as compared to pedunculated lesions of the same size and usually represent a technical challenge for the endoscopist in terms of either diagnosis and resection. According to the Paris classification, NPTs are distinguished in slightly elevated (0-IIa, less than 2.5 mm), flat (0-IIb) or slightly depressed (0-IIc). NPTs are usually flat or slightly elevated and tend to spread laterally while in case of depressed lesions, cell proliferation growth progresses in depth in the colonic wall, thus leading to an increased risk of submucosal invasion (SMI) even for smaller neoplasms. NPTs may be frequently missed by inexperienced endoscopists, thus a careful training and precise assessment of all suspected mucosal areas should be performed. Chromoendoscopy or, if possible, narrow-band imaging technique should be considered for the estimation of SMI risk of NPTs, and the characterization of pit pattern and vascular pattern may be useful to predict the risk of SMI and, therefore, to guide the therapeutic decision. Lesions suitable to endoscopic resection are those confined to the mucosa (or superficial layer of submucosa in selected cases) whereas deeper invasion makes endoscopic therapy infeasible. Endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR, piecemeal for LSTs > 20 mm, en bloc for smaller neoplasms) remains the first-line therapy for NPTs, whereas endoscopic submucosal dissection in high-volume centers or surgery should be considered for large LSTs for which en bloc resection is mandatory and cannot be achieved by means of EMR. After piecemeal EMR, follow-up colonoscopy should be performed at 3 mo to assess resection completeness. In case of en bloc resection

  12. Temporal Trends in Colorectal Cancer Screening among Asian Americans.

    PubMed

    Fedewa, Stacey A; Sauer, Ann Goding; Siegel, Rebecca L; Smith, Robert A; Torre, Lindsey A; Jemal, Ahmedin

    2016-06-01

    Asian Americans (AA) are less likely to be screened for colorectal cancer compared with non-Hispanic Whites (NHW), with a widening disparity for some AA subgroups in the early 2000s. Whether these patterns have continued in more recent years is unknown. We examined temporal trends in colorectal cancer screening among AA overall compared with NHWs and by AA subgroup (Chinese, Japanese, Korean, Filipino, South Asian, Vietnamese) using data from the 2003, 2005, 2007, and 2009 California Health Interview Surveys. Unadjusted (PR) and adjusted (aPR) prevalence ratios for colorectal cancer screening, accounting for sociodemographic, health care, and acculturation factors, were calculated for respondents ages 50 to 75 years (NHW n = 60,125; AA n = 6,630). Between 2003 and 2009, colorectal cancer screening prevalence increased from 43.3% to 64.6% in AA (P ≤ 0.001) and from 58.1% to 71.4% in NHW (P ≤ 0.001). Unadjusted colorectal cancer screening was significantly lower among AA compared with NHW in 2003 [PR = 0.74; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.68-0.82], 2005 (PR = 0.78; 95% CI, 0.72-0.84), 2007 (PR = 0.91; 95% CI, 0.85-0.96), and 2009 (PR = 0.90; 95% CI, 0.84-0.97), though disparities narrowed over time. After adjustment, there were no significant differences in colorectal cancer screening between the two groups, except in 2003. In subgroup analyses, between 2003 and 2009, colorectal cancer screening significantly increased by 22% in Japanese, 56% in Chinese, 47% in Filipino, and 94% in Koreans. In our study of California residents, colorectal cancer screening disparities between AA and NHW narrowed, but were not eliminated and screening prevalence among AA remains below nationwide goals, including the Healthy People 2020 goal of increasing colorectal cancer screening prevalence to 70.5%. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 25(6); 995-1000. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  13. Celebrity appeal: reaching women to promote colorectal cancer screening.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Crystale Purvis; Gelb, Cynthia A; Lobb, Kathleen

    2015-03-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Screen for Life: National Colorectal Cancer Action Campaign works with the Entertainment Industry Foundation's National Colorectal Cancer Research Alliance to develop public service announcements (PSAs) featuring celebrities. Selection of Screen for Life celebrity spokespersons is based on a variety of factors, including their general appeal and personal connection to colorectal cancer. Screen for Life PSAs featuring celebrities have been disseminated exclusively through donated media placements and have been formatted for television, radio, print, and out-of-home displays such as dioramas in airports, other transit stations, and shopping malls. A 2012 national survey with women aged 50-75 years (n=772) investigated reported exposure to Screen for Life PSAs featuring actor Terrence Howard. In total, 8.3% of women recalled exposure to the PSAs. Celebrity spokespersons can attract the attention of both target audiences and media gatekeepers who decide which PSAs will receive donated placements.

  14. Colorectal cancer screening: will non-invasive procedures triumph?

    PubMed

    Church, Timothy

    2014-01-01

    In the US, colorectal cancer is the fourth most common cancer and the second most deadly. Screening is recommended, not only to reduce mortality, but to prevent cancer by detecting precancerous polyps. Many screening methods are available now, and newer methods based on molecular markers show promise for the future.

  15. Toward standardizing and reporting colorectal cancer screening indicators on an international level: The International Colorectal Cancer Screening Network.

    PubMed

    Benson, Victoria S; Atkin, Wendy S; Green, Jane; Nadel, Marion R; Patnick, Julietta; Smith, Robert A; Villain, Patricia

    2012-06-15

    The International Colorectal Cancer Screening Network was established in 2003 to promote best practice in the delivery of organized colorectal cancer screening programs. To facilitate evaluation of such programs, we defined a set of universally applicable colorectal cancer screening measures and indicators. To test the feasibility of data collection, we requested data on these variables and basic program characteristics from 26 organized full programs and 9 pilot programs in 24 countries. The size of the target population for each program varied considerably from a few thousand to 36 million. The majority of programs used fecal occult blood tests for primary screening, with more using guaiac than immunochemical tests. There was wide variation in the ability of screening programs to report the requested measures and in the values reported. In general, pilot programs were more likely to provide screening measure values than were full programs. As expected, detection rates for polyps and neoplasia were substantially higher in programs screening with endoscopy than in those using fecal occult blood tests. It is hoped that the screening measures and indicators, once revised in the light of this survey, will be adopted and used by existing programs and those in the early planning stages, allowing international comparison with the goal of improved colorectal cancer screening quality. Copyright © 2011 UICC.

  16. Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma Patients Have an Increased Risk of Coexisting Colorectal Neoplasms

    PubMed Central

    Baeg, Myong Ki; Choi, Myung-Gyu; Jung, Yun Duk; Ko, Sun-Hye; Lim, Chul-Hyun; Kim, Hyung Hun; Kim, Jin Su; Cho, Yu Kyung; Park, Jae Myung; Lee, In Seok; Kim, Sang-Woo

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) and colorectal neoplasms (CRNs) share risk factors. We aimed to investigate whether the CRN risk is increased in ESCC patients. Methods ESCC patients who underwent a colonoscopy within 1 year of diagnosis were retrospectively analyzed. Patients were matched 1:3 by age, gender, and body mass index to asymptomatic controls. CRN was defined as the histological confirmation of adenoma or adenocarcinoma. Advanced CRN was defined as any of the following: ≥3 adenomas, high-grade dysplasia, villous features, tumor ≥1 cm, or adenocarcinoma. The risk factors for both CRN and advanced CRN were evaluated by univariate and multivariate analyses. Results Sixty ESCC patients were compared with 180 controls. The ESCC group had significantly higher numbers of CRNs (odds ratio [OR], 2.311; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.265 to 4.220; p=0.006) and advanced CRNs (OR, 2.317; 95% CI, 1.185 to 4.530; p=0.013). Significant risk factors for both CRN and advanced CRN by multivariate analysis included ESCC (OR, 2.157, 95% CI, 1.106 to 4.070, p=0.024; and OR, 2.157, 95% CI, 1.045 to 4.454, p=0.038, respectively) and older age (OR, 1.068, 95% CI, 1.032 to 1.106, p<0.001; and OR, 1.065, 95% CI, 1.024 to 1.109, p=0.002, respectively). Conclusions The rates of CRN and advanced CRN are significantly increased in ESCC. Colonos-copy should be considered at ESCC diagnosis. PMID:25963088

  17. Associations between amount of smoking and alcohol intake and risk of colorectal neoplasm.

    PubMed

    Jung, Yoon Suk; Jung, Hwanseok; Yun, Kyung Eun; Ryu, Seungho; Chang, Yoosoo; Park, Dong Il; Choi, Kyuyong

    2016-04-01

    Although smoking and alcohol has been linked to an increased risk of colorectal neoplasm (CRN), large-scale studies to identify dose-dependent relationship between amount of smoking and alcohol consumption and risk of CRN are rare. We aimed to investigate the risk for CRN according to the amount of smoking and alcohol intake in a large sample of Korean adults. A cross-sectional study was performed on 31,714 examinees aged ≥30 years undergoing their first colonoscopy as part of routine preventive health care between 2010 and 2011. Never smokers were compared with six groups of smokers according to smoking amount, and individuals with alcohol intake of ≤ 6.25 g ethanol per day were compared with three groups according to alcohol amount. In adjusted models, the risk of overall CRN increased with increasing amount of smoking (P for trend < 0.001). The adjusted odds ratios for overall CRN comparing never smokers with six smoker groups according to smoking amount (≤2.50, 2.51-5.60, 5.61-9.00, 9.01-13.00, 13.01-19.50, and ≥19.51 pack-years) were 1.02, 1.19, 1.35, 1.53, 1.63, and 2.03, respectively. In addition, the risk of both non-advanced and advanced CRN increased with increasing amount of smoking (both P for trend < 0.001). However, the amount of alcohol consumption was not correlated with the risk of CRN. The prevalence of CRN was associated with increasing amount of smoking in a dose-response manner, whereas it was not associated with the amount of alcohol consumption. Our study suggests that smoking amount as well as smoking status should be considered for CRN risk stratification. © 2015 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  18. Colorectal-cancer incidence and mortality with screening flexible sigmoidoscopy.

    PubMed

    Schoen, Robert E; Pinsky, Paul F; Weissfeld, Joel L; Yokochi, Lance A; Church, Timothy; Laiyemo, Adeyinka O; Bresalier, Robert; Andriole, Gerald L; Buys, Saundra S; Crawford, E David; Fouad, Mona N; Isaacs, Claudine; Johnson, Christine C; Reding, Douglas J; O'Brien, Barbara; Carrick, Danielle M; Wright, Patrick; Riley, Thomas L; Purdue, Mark P; Izmirlian, Grant; Kramer, Barnett S; Miller, Anthony B; Gohagan, John K; Prorok, Philip C; Berg, Christine D

    2012-06-21

    The benefits of endoscopic testing for colorectal-cancer screening are uncertain. We evaluated the effect of screening with flexible sigmoidoscopy on colorectal-cancer incidence and mortality. From 1993 through 2001, we randomly assigned 154,900 men and women 55 to 74 years of age either to screening with flexible sigmoidoscopy, with a repeat screening at 3 or 5 years, or to usual care. Cases of colorectal cancer and deaths from the disease were ascertained. Of the 77,445 participants randomly assigned to screening (intervention group), 83.5% underwent baseline flexible sigmoidoscopy and 54.0% were screened at 3 or 5 years. The incidence of colorectal cancer after a median follow-up of 11.9 years was 11.9 cases per 10,000 person-years in the intervention group (1012 cases), as compared with 15.2 cases per 10,000 person-years in the usual-care group (1287 cases), which represents a 21% reduction (relative risk, 0.79; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.72 to 0.85; P<0.001). Significant reductions were observed in the incidence of both distal colorectal cancer (479 cases in the intervention group vs. 669 cases in the usual-care group; relative risk, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.64 to 0.80; P<0.001) and proximal colorectal cancer (512 cases vs. 595 cases; relative risk, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.76 to 0.97; P=0.01). There were 2.9 deaths from colorectal cancer per 10,000 person-years in the intervention group (252 deaths), as compared with 3.9 per 10,000 person-years in the usual-care group (341 deaths), which represents a 26% reduction (relative risk, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.63 to 0.87; P<0.001). Mortality from distal colorectal cancer was reduced by 50% (87 deaths in the intervention group vs. 175 in the usual-care group; relative risk, 0.50; 95% CI, 0.38 to 0.64; P<0.001); mortality from proximal colorectal cancer was unaffected (143 and 147 deaths, respectively; relative risk, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.77 to 1.22; P=0.81). Screening with flexible sigmoidoscopy was associated with a significant decrease in

  19. Colorectal-Cancer Incidence and Mortality with Screening Flexible Sigmoidoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Schoen, Robert E.; Pinsky, Paul F.; Weissfeld, Joel L.; Yokochi, Lance A.; Church, Timothy; Laiyemo, Adeyinka O.; Bresalier, Robert; Andriole, Gerald L.; Buys, Saundra S.; Crawford, E. David; Fouad, Mona N.; Isaacs, Claudine; Johnson, Christine C.; Reding, Douglas J.; O'Brien, Barbara; Carrick, Danielle M.; Wright, Patrick; Riley, Thomas L.; Purdue, Mark P.; Izmirlian, Grant; Kramer, Barnett S.; Miller, Anthony B.; Gohagan, John K.; Prorok, Philip C.; Berg, Christine D.

    2013-01-01

    Background The benefits of endoscopic testing for colorectal-cancer screening are uncertain. We evaluated the effect of screening with flexible sigmoidoscopy on colorectal-cancer incidence and mortality. Methods From 1993 through 2001, we randomly assigned 154,900 men and women 55 to 74 years of age either to screening with flexible sigmoidoscopy, with a repeat screening at 3 or 5 years, or to usual care. Cases of colorectal cancer and deaths from the disease were ascertained. Results Of the 77,445 participants randomly assigned to screening (intervention group), 83.5% underwent baseline flexible sigmoidoscopy and 54.0% were screened at 3 or 5 years. The incidence of colorectal cancer after a median follow-up of 11.9 years was 11.9 cases per 10,000 person-years in the intervention group (1012 cases), as compared with 15.2 cases per 10,000 person-years in the usual-care group (1287 cases), which represents a 21% reduction (relative risk, 0.79; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.72 to 0.85; P<0.001). Significant reductions were observed in the incidence of both distal colorectal cancer (479 cases in the intervention group vs. 669 cases in the usual-care group; relative risk, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.64 to 0.80; P<0.001) and proximal colorectal cancer (512 cases vs. 595 cases; relative risk, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.76 to 0.97; P = 0.01). There were 2.9 deaths from colorectal cancer per 10,000 person-years in the intervention group (252 deaths), as compared with 3.9 per 10,000 person-years in the usual-care group (341 deaths), which represents a 26% reduction (relative risk, 0.74; 95% CI, 0.63 to 0.87; P<0.001). Mortality from distal colorectal cancer was reduced by 50% (87 deaths in the intervention group vs. 175 in the usual-care group; relative risk, 0.50; 95% CI, 0.38 to 0.64; P<0.001); mortality from proximal colorectal cancer was unaffected (143 and 147 deaths, respectively; relative risk, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.77 to 1.22; P = 0.81). Conclusions Screening with flexible sigmoidoscopy was

  20. Screening for colorectal cancer on the front line.

    PubMed

    Lemon, Stephenie C; Zapka, Jane G; Estabrook, Barbara; Erban, Stephen; Luckmann, Roger

    2003-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assess knowledge, beliefs, and practices of primary care clinicians regarding colorectal cancer screening. We surveyed 77 primary care providers in six clinics in central Massachusetts to evaluate several factors related to colorectal cancer screening. Most agreed with guidelines for fecal occult blood test (97%) and sigmoidoscopy (87%), which were reported commonly as usual practice. Although the majority (86%) recommended colonoscopy as a colorectal cancer screening test, it was infrequently reported as usual practice. Also, 36% considered barium enema a colorectal cancer screening option, and it was rarely reported as usual practice. Despite lack of evidence supporting effectiveness, digital rectal examinations and in-office fecal occult blood test were commonly reported as usual practice. However, these were usually reported in combination with a guideline-endorsed testing option. Although only 10% reported that fecal occult blood test/home was frequently refused, 60% reported sigmoidoscopy was. Frequently cited patient barriers to sigmoidoscopy compliance included fear the procedure would hurt and that patients assume symptoms occur if there is a problem. Perceptions of health systems barriers to sigmoidoscopy were less strong. Most providers recommended guideline-endorsed colorectal cancer screening. However, patient refusal for sigmoidoscopy was common. Results indicate that multiple levels of intervention, including patient and provider education and systems strategies, may help increase prevalence.

  1. Screening for colorectal cancer and prostate cancer: challenges for New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Ann K; Potter, John D

    2014-06-06

    Prostate cancer and colorectal cancer are the most commonly registered cancers in New Zealanders and among the five most commonly registered cancers worldwide, but the balance of benefits and harms, and therefore appropriate screening policies, for these cancers differ. We aimed to compare the potential benefits and harms of screening for prostate cancer and colorectal cancer to aid prioritisation in New Zealand. Relevant reports from randomised controlled trials and systematic reviews of prostate cancer and colorectal cancer screening were reviewed to obtain estimates of the potential benefits and harms of screening for prostate cancer and colorectal cancer. The balance of potential benefits and harms of screening is better for colorectal cancer screening than for prostate cancer screening. For colorectal cancer, the balance of benefits and harms is better for flexible sigmoidoscopy screening than for faecal occult blood screening. In New Zealand, colorectal cancer screening should be a priority. Challenges include colonoscopy capacity, and decisions about the most appropriate screening modality.

  2. Physician–Patient Communication about Colorectal Cancer Screening

    PubMed Central

    Wolf, Michael S.; Baker, David W.

    2007-01-01

    Background Despite the documented benefits of colorectal cancer screening, patient participation rates remain low. Physician recommendation has been identified as a significant predictor of screening completion. Objective The aim of this study is to investigate how primary care physicians perceive colorectal cancer screening communication tasks, as well as to explore the form and content of actual screening discussions. Design The research design includes a mailed physician survey and a separate observational study in a sample of videotaped medical encounters. Participants and Data Sources The participants were 270 primary care physicians who completed a mailed questionnaire (57.9% response rate) and 18 physician–patient encounters that included discussions of colorectal cancer screening. Measurement The questionnaire focused on perceived importance and accomplishment of communication tasks relevant to colorectal cancer screening. Two of the authors reviewed transcripts of videotaped physician encounters to determine whether the same communication tasks assessed in the survey were accomplished. Interrater reliability was high across all of the mutually exclusive coding categories (Kappa > .90). Results Physicians rated colonoscopy as the most important screening option to discuss; self-reports indicate that colonoscopy (84.8%) is more frequently mentioned than fecal occult blood test (FOBT; 49.4%), flexible sigmoidoscopy (34.1%), or computed tomography (CT) imaging (18.1%). Explaining benefits and risks, describing test procedure and frequency, eliciting patient preferences, and making a plan for screening were all viewed as very important. Self-reported accomplishment of these communication tasks was considerably higher than that observed in our separate videotape sample. Conclusion Most physicians recognize and espouse the importance of recommending colorectal cancer screening to eligible patients. However, findings from both the physician survey and

  3. Derivation and validation of a prediction rule for estimating advanced colorectal neoplasm risk in average-risk Chinese.

    PubMed

    Cai, Quan-Cai; Yu, En-Da; Xiao, Yi; Bai, Wen-Yuan; Chen, Xing; He, Li-Ping; Yang, Yu-Xiu; Zhou, Ping-Hong; Jiang, Xue-Liang; Xu, Hui-Min; Fan, Hong; Ge, Zhi-Zheng; Lv, Nong-Hua; Huang, Zhi-Gang; Li, You-Ming; Ma, Shu-Ren; Chen, Jie; Li, Yan-Qing; Xu, Jian-Ming; Xiang, Ping; Yang, Li; Lin, Fu-Lin; Li, Zhao-Shen

    2012-03-15

    No prediction rule is currently available for advanced colorectal neoplasms, defined as invasive cancer, an adenoma of 10 mm or more, a villous adenoma, or an adenoma with high-grade dysplasia, in average-risk Chinese. In this study between 2006 and 2008, a total of 7,541 average-risk Chinese persons aged 40 years or older who had complete colonoscopy were included. The derivation and validation cohorts consisted of 5,229 and 2,312 persons, respectively. A prediction rule was developed from a logistic regression model and then internally and externally validated. The prediction rule comprised 8 variables (age, sex, smoking, diabetes mellitus, green vegetables, pickled food, fried food, and white meat), with scores ranging from 0 to 14. Among the participants with low-risk (≤3) or high-risk (>3) scores in the validation cohort, the risks of advanced neoplasms were 2.6% and 10.0% (P < 0.001), respectively. If colonoscopy was used only for persons with high risk, 80.3% of persons with advanced neoplasms would be detected while the number of colonoscopies would be reduced by 49.2%. The prediction rule had good discrimination (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve = 0.74, 95% confidence interval: 0.70, 0.78) and calibration (P = 0.77) and, thus, provides accurate risk stratification for advanced neoplasms in average-risk Chinese.

  4. Hereditary Colorectal Cancer: Genetics and Screening

    PubMed Central

    Offerhaus, G. Johan A.

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer and the third leading cause of cancer death in men and women in the United States. Each year more than 140,000 new patients are diagnosed. About 30% of patients with CRC report a family history of CRC. However, only 5% of colorectal cancers arise in the setting of a well-established Mendelian inherited disorder such as Lynch syndrome, familial adenomatous polyposis, MUTYH-associated polyposis, juvenile polyposis, hereditary mixed polyposis, or Peutz-Jeghers. In addition, serrated polyposis is a clinically defined syndrome with multiple serrated polyps in the colorectum and an increased CRC risk for which the genetics are unknown. The majority of familial colorectal cancers arise as so called non-syndromic familial colorectal cancer and likely have a more complex multigenetic cause. This review focuses on genetic and clinical aspects of Lynch syndrome, familial adenomatous polyposis and MUTYH-associated polyposis. PMID:26315524

  5. Colorectal cancer screening beliefs. Focus groups with first-degree relatives.

    PubMed

    Rawl, S M; Menon, U; Champion, V L; Foster, J L; Skinner, C S

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the perceived benefits and barriers to colorectal cancer screening reported by first-degree relatives of colorectal cancer patients. In this study, the authors used focus groups to identify perceived benefits and barriers to colorectal cancer screening among parents and children of colorectal cancer patients. Four focus groups were conducted with relatives of colorectal cancer patients seen at two university medical centers in the Midwest. The groups ranged in size from five to eight members each and were stratified by gender. Four benefits of colorectal cancer screening were identified by participants: finding colorectal cancer early, decreasing the chances of dying from colorectal cancer, freedom from worry about colorectal cancer, and reassurance that one was cancer-free. Four main barriers were identified that applied to all four types of colorectal cancer screening or to colorectal cancer screening in general. These included inadequate public awareness of colorectal cancer, inconsistent recommendations from healthcare providers, concerns about the efficacy of screening tests, and embarrassment. Barriers unique to each screening test also were identified. Understanding individual beliefs about the benefits and barriers to colorectal cancer screening will allow clinicians and researchers to develop effective interventions to increase screening. Results from the focus groups have been used to develop an instrument to measure benefits and barriers to colorectal cancer screening, which now needs to be tested with more culturally and socioeconomically diverse groups.

  6. Screening for colorectal cancer: possible improvements by risk assessment evaluation?

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Hans J; Jakobsen, Karen V; Christensen, Ib J; Brünner, Nils

    2011-11-01

    Emerging results indicate that screening improves survival of patients with colorectal cancer. Therefore, screening programs are already implemented or are being considered for implementation in Asia, Europe and North America. At present, a great variety of screening methods are available including colono- and sigmoidoscopy, CT- and MR-colonography, capsule endoscopy, DNA and occult blood in feces, and so on. The pros and cons of the various tests, including economic issues, are debated. Although a plethora of evaluated and validated tests even with high specificities and reasonable sensitivities are available, an international consensus on screening procedures is still not established. The rather limited compliance in present screening procedures is a significant drawback. Furthermore, some of the procedures are costly and, therefore, selection methods for these procedures are needed. Current research into improvements of screening for colorectal cancer includes blood-based biological markers, such as proteins, DNA and RNA in combination with various demographically and clinically parameters into a "risk assessment evaluation" (RAE) test. It is assumed that such a test may lead to higher acceptance among the screening populations, and thereby improve the compliances. Furthermore, the involvement of the media, including social media, may add even more individuals to the screening programs. Implementation of validated RAE and progressively improved screening methods may reform the cost/benefit of screening procedures for colorectal cancer. Therefore, results of present research, validating RAE tests, are awaited with interest.

  7. Colorectal cancer screening using fecal occult blood test and subsequent risk of colorectal cancer: a prospective cohort study in Japan.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyung-Jae; Inoue, Manami; Otani, Tetsuya; Iwasaki, Motoki; Sasazuki, Shizuka; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2007-01-01

    To investigate prospectively the association between colorectal cancer screening and subsequent risk of colorectal cancer death in a large-scale population-based cohort study (the JPHC study) with a 13-year follow-up period in Japan. We analyzed data from a population-based cohort of 42,150 (20,326 men and 21,824 women) subjects. Subjects who had undergone fecal occult blood test (FOBT) screening during the preceding 12 months were defined as the screened group. A total of 132 colorectal cancer deaths and 597 cases of newly diagnosed colorectal cancer were identified during the follow-up period. We observed a nearly 70% decrease in colorectal cancer mortality in screened versus unscreened subjects (RR=0.28, 95% CI=0.13-0.61). Screening participation was associated with a 30% reduced risk of death from all causes other than colorectal cancer (RR=0.70, 95% CI=0.61-0.79). However, the extent of mortality reduction was greater for colorectal cancer than other causes. A significant decrease in the incidence of advanced colorectal cancer was seen in screened subjects (RR=0.41, 95% CI=0.27-0.63), although the overall incidence rate did not differ significantly between the screened and unscreened groups. Although self-selection bias could not be fully controlled, these findings suggest that colorectal cancer screening may be associated with a reduction in mortality from colorectal cancer in the Japanese population.

  8. 42 CFR 410.37 - Colorectal cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations on coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Colorectal cancer screening tests: Conditions for...) BENEFITS Medical and Other Health Services § 410.37 Colorectal cancer screening tests: Conditions for and...) Colorectal cancer screening tests means any of the following procedures furnished to an individual for the...

  9. 42 CFR 410.37 - Colorectal cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations on coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Colorectal cancer screening tests: Conditions for...) BENEFITS Medical and Other Health Services § 410.37 Colorectal cancer screening tests: Conditions for and...) Colorectal cancer screening tests means any of the following procedures furnished to an individual for the...

  10. 42 CFR 410.37 - Colorectal cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations on coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Colorectal cancer screening tests: Conditions for...) BENEFITS Medical and Other Health Services § 410.37 Colorectal cancer screening tests: Conditions for and...) Colorectal cancer screening tests means any of the following procedures furnished to an individual for the...

  11. 42 CFR 410.37 - Colorectal cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations on coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Colorectal cancer screening tests: Conditions for...) BENEFITS Medical and Other Health Services § 410.37 Colorectal cancer screening tests: Conditions for and...) Colorectal cancer screening tests means any of the following procedures furnished to an individual for the...

  12. 42 CFR 410.37 - Colorectal cancer screening tests: Conditions for and limitations on coverage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Colorectal cancer screening tests: Conditions for...) BENEFITS Medical and Other Health Services § 410.37 Colorectal cancer screening tests: Conditions for and...) Colorectal cancer screening tests means any of the following procedures furnished to an individual for the...

  13. [Cost-effectiveness analysis on colorectal cancer screening program].

    PubMed

    Huang, Q C; Ye, D; Jiang, X Y; Li, Q L; Yao, K Y; Wang, J B; Jin, M J; Chen, K

    2017-01-10

    Objective: To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of colorectal cancer screening program in different age groups from the view of health economics. Methods: The screening compliance rates, detection rates in different age groups were calculated by using the data from colorectal cancer screening program in Jiashan county, Zhejiang province. The differences in indicator among age groups were analyzed with χ(2) test or trend χ(2) test. The ratios of cost to the number of case were calculated according to cost statistics. Results: The detection rates of immunochemical fecal occult blood test (iFOBT) positivity, advanced adenoma and colorectal cancer and early stage cancer increased with age, while the early diagnosis rates were negatively associated with age. After exclusion the younger counterpart, the cost-effectiveness of individuals aged >50 years could be reduced by 15%-30%. Conclusion: From health economic perspective, it is beneficial to start colorectal cancer screening at age of 50 years to improve the efficiency of the screening.

  14. Colorectal neoplasm characterization based on swept-source optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Chih-Wei; Chiu, Han-Mo; Sun, Chia-Wei

    2009-07-01

    Most of the colorectal cancer has grown from the adenomatous polyp. Adenomatous lesions have a well-documented relationship to colorectal cancer in previous studies. Thus, to detect the morphological changes between polyp and tumor can allow early diagnosis of colorectal cancer and simultaneous removal of lesions. In this paper, the various adenoma/carcinoma in-vitro samples are monitored by our swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) system. The significant results indicate a great potential for early detection of colorectal adenomas based on the SS-OCT imaging.

  15. Clinical outcomes from the CDC's Colorectal Cancer Screening Demonstration Program.

    PubMed

    Seeff, Laura C; Royalty, Janet; Helsel, William E; Kammerer, William G; Boehm, Jennifer E; Dwyer, Diane M; Howe, William R; Joseph, Djenaba; Lane, Dorothy S; Laughlin, Melinda; Leypoldt, Melissa; Marroulis, Steven C; Mattingly, Cynthia A; Nadel, Marion R; Phillips-Angeles, Ellen; Rockwell, Tanner J; Ryerson, A Blythe; Tangka, Florence K L

    2013-08-01

    Colorectal cancer remains the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths among US men and women. Screening rates have been slow to increase, and disparities in screening remain. To address the disparity in screening for this high burden but largely preventable disease, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) designed and established a 4-year Colorectal Cancer Screening Demonstration Program (CRCSDP) in 2005 for low-income, under-insured or uninsured men and women aged 50 to 64 years in 5 participating US program sites. In this report, the authors describe the design of the CRCSDP and the overall clinical findings and screening test performance characteristics, including the positive fecal occult blood testing (FOBT) rate; the rates of polyp, adenoma, and cancer detection with FOBTs and colonoscopies; and the positive predicative value for polyps, adenomas, and cancers. In total, 5233 individuals at average risk and increased risk were screened for colorectal cancer across all 5 sites, including 44% who underwent screening FOBT and 56% who underwent screening colonoscopy. Overall, 77% of all individuals screened were women. The FOBT positivity rate was 10%. Results from all screening or diagnostic colonoscopies indicated that 75% had negative results and required a repeat screening colonoscopy in 10 years, 16% had low-risk adenomas and required surveillance colonoscopy in 5 to 10 years, 8% had high-risk adenomas and required surveillance colonoscopy in 3 years, and 0.6% had invasive cancers. This report documents the successes and challenges in implementing the CDC's CRCSDP and describes the clinical outcomes of this 4-year initiative, the patterns in program uptake and test choice, and the comparative test performance characteristics of FOBT versus colonoscopy. Patterns in final outcomes from the follow-up of positive screening tests were consistent with national registry data. © 2013 American Cancer Society.

  16. [Colonoscopy quality control as a requirement of colorectal cancer screening].

    PubMed

    Quintero, Enrique; Alarcón-Fernández, Onofre; Jover, Rodrigo

    2013-11-01

    The strategies used in population-based colorectal screening strategies culminate in colonoscopy and consequently the success of these programs largely depends on the quality of this diagnostic test. The main factors to consider when evaluating quality are scientific-technical quality, safety, patient satisfaction, and accessibility. Quality indicators allow variability among hospitals, endoscopy units and endoscopists to be determined and can identify those not achieving recommended standards. In Spain, the working group for colonoscopy quality of the Spanish Society of Gastroenterology and the Spanish Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy have recently drawn up a Clinical Practice Guideline that contains the available evidence on the quality of screening colonoscopy, as well as the basic requirements that must be met by endoscopy units and endoscopists carrying out this procedure. The implementation of training programs and screening colonoscopy quality controls are strongly recommended to guarantee the success of population-based colorectal cancer screening.

  17. Using Elderly Educators to Increase Colorectal Cancer Screening.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinrich, Sally P.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Used elderly educator method for increasing rate of return of fecal occult blood sampling in colorectal screening among 171 socioeconomically disadvantaged older persons. Two methods using elderly educators had overall response rate of more than 60%. Found statistically significant difference between two methods that used elderly educators and two…

  18. Using Elderly Educators to Increase Colorectal Cancer Screening.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinrich, Sally P.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Used elderly educator method for increasing rate of return of fecal occult blood sampling in colorectal screening among 171 socioeconomically disadvantaged older persons. Two methods using elderly educators had overall response rate of more than 60%. Found statistically significant difference between two methods that used elderly educators and two…

  19. Knowledge of colorectal cancer screening among young Malaysians.

    PubMed

    Al-Naggar, Redhwan Ahmed; Bobryshev, Yuri V

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the knowledge and associated factors regarding colorectal cancer screening among university students in Malaysia. The questionnaire consisted of three parts: socio-demographic characteristics, lifestyle practice and knowledge of colorectal screening. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 300 students (21.3±1.4 years old). The majority of the participants were Malay with a monthly family income of less than 5,000 Ringgit Malaysia (equal to 1,700 USD) (67.0% and 76.0%, respectively). Regarding their lifestyle practices, the majority were non-smokers and had never consumed alcohol (83.7%, and 88.0%, respectively). The majority of the participants had no knowledge of digital rectal examination, colonoscopy, barium enema and fecal occult blood screening (63.3%, 60.7%, 74.0% and 62.3%, respectively). Univariate and multivariate analysis revealed that their age and the discipline which the students were studying significantly influenced their level of knowledge about colorectal screening. The present study results indicate that education campaigns about colorectal cancer should be promoted.

  20. Perspectives of Colorectal Cancer Risk and Screening among Dominicans and Puerto Ricans: Stigma and Misperceptions

    PubMed Central

    Goldman, Roberta E.; Diaz, Joseph A.; Kim, Ivone

    2013-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is the second most common cancer among Latinos, but a lower percentage of Latinos are screened than Whites and Blacks. Along with recognized economic barriers, differences in knowledge and perceptions might impede colorectal screening among Latinos. We conducted 147 individual, qualitative interviews with Dominicans and Puerto Ricans in the northeastern United States to explore their explanatory models for colorectal cancer and screening barriers. Many participants had not previously heard of colorectal cancer. The most commonly mentioned cause of colorectal cancer was anal sex. Also considered risks were “bad food,” digestion leading to constipation, and strained bowel movements. Screening barriers included stigma, misperceptions, embarrassment, and machismo. Progress toward increasing colorectal cancer screening requires normalization of this screening among Latinos. Higher patient familiarity, along with improved physician counseling and referral, might contribute to reducing stigma and other barriers, and to enhancing knowledge and Latino community support of colorectal cancer screening. PMID:19776255

  1. Perspectives of colorectal cancer risk and screening among Dominicans and Puerto Ricans: stigma and misperceptions.

    PubMed

    Goldman, Roberta E; Diaz, Joseph A; Kim, Ivone

    2009-11-01

    Colorectal cancer is the second most common cancer among Latinos, but a lower percentage of Latinos are screened than Whites and Blacks. Along with recognized economic barriers, differences in knowledge and perceptions might impede colorectal screening among Latinos. We conducted 147 individual, qualitative interviews with Dominicans and Puerto Ricans in the northeastern United States to explore their explanatory models for colorectal cancer and screening barriers. Many participants had not previously heard of colorectal cancer. The most commonly mentioned cause of colorectal cancer was anal sex. Also considered risks were "bad food," digestion leading to constipation, and strained bowel movements. Screening barriers included stigma, misperceptions, embarrassment, and machismo. Progress toward increasing colorectal cancer screening requires normalization of this screening among Latinos. Higher patient familiarity, along with improved physician counseling and referral, might contribute to reducing stigma and other barriers, and to enhancing knowledge and Latino community support of colorectal cancer screening.

  2. Telenovela: an innovative colorectal cancer screening health messaging tool

    PubMed Central

    Cueva, Melany; Kuhnley, Regina; Slatton, Jozieta; Dignan, Mark; Underwood, Emily; Landis, Kate

    2013-01-01

    Background Alaska Native people have nearly twice the rate of colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence and mortality as the US White population. Objective Building upon storytelling as a culturally respectful way to share information among Alaska Native people, a 25-minute telenovela-style movie, What's the Big Deal?, was developed to increase CRC screening awareness and knowledge, role-model CRC conversations, and support wellness choices. Design Alaska Native cultural values of family, community, storytelling, and humor were woven into seven, 3–4 minute movie vignettes. Written post-movie viewing evaluations completed by 71.3% of viewers (305/428) were collected at several venues, including the premiere of the movie in the urban city of Anchorage at a local movie theater, seven rural Alaska community movie nights, and five cancer education trainings with Community Health Workers. Paper and pencil evaluations included check box and open-ended questions to learn participants' response to a telenovela-style movie. Results On written-post movie viewing evaluations, viewers reported an increase in CRC knowledge and comfort with talking about recommended CRC screening exams. Notably, 81.6% of respondents (249/305) wrote positive intent to change behavior. Multiple responses included: 65% talking with family and friends about colon screening (162), 24% talking with their provider about colon screening (59), 31% having a colon screening (76), and 44% increasing physical activity (110). Conclusions Written evaluations revealed the telenovela genre to be an innovative way to communicate colorectal cancer health messages with Alaska Native, American Indian, and Caucasian people both in an urban and rural setting to empower conversations and action related to colorectal cancer screening. Telenovela is a promising health communication tool to shift community norms by generating enthusiasm and conversations about the importance of having recommended colorectal cancer screening

  3. Telenovela: an innovative colorectal cancer screening health messaging tool.

    PubMed

    Cueva, Melany; Kuhnley, Regina; Slatton, Jozieta; Dignan, Mark; Underwood, Emily; Landis, Kate

    2013-01-01

    Alaska Native people have nearly twice the rate of colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence and mortality as the US White population. Building upon storytelling as a culturally respectful way to share information among Alaska Native people, a 25-minute telenovela-style movie, What's the Big Deal?, was developed to increase CRC screening awareness and knowledge, role-model CRC conversations, and support wellness choices. Alaska Native cultural values of family, community, storytelling, and humor were woven into seven, 3-4 minute movie vignettes. Written post-movie viewing evaluations completed by 71.3% of viewers (305/428) were collected at several venues, including the premiere of the movie in the urban city of Anchorage at a local movie theater, seven rural Alaska community movie nights, and five cancer education trainings with Community Health Workers. Paper and pencil evaluations included check box and open-ended questions to learn participants' response to a telenovela-style movie. On written-post movie viewing evaluations, viewers reported an increase in CRC knowledge and comfort with talking about recommended CRC screening exams. Notably, 81.6% of respondents (249/305) wrote positive intent to change behavior. Multiple responses included: 65% talking with family and friends about colon screening (162), 24% talking with their provider about colon screening (59), 31% having a colon screening (76), and 44% increasing physical activity (110). Written evaluations revealed the telenovela genre to be an innovative way to communicate colorectal cancer health messages with Alaska Native, American Indian, and Caucasian people both in an urban and rural setting to empower conversations and action related to colorectal cancer screening. Telenovela is a promising health communication tool to shift community norms by generating enthusiasm and conversations about the importance of having recommended colorectal cancer screening exams.

  4. Factors associated with inadequate colorectal cancer screening with flexible sigmoidoscopy.

    PubMed

    Laiyemo, Adeyinka O; Doubeni, Chyke; Pinsky, Paul F; Doria-Rose, V Paul; Sanderson, Andrew K; Bresalier, Robert; Weissfeld, Joel; Schoen, Robert E; Marcus, Pamela M; Prorok, Philip C; Berg, Christine D

    2012-08-01

    Inadequate colorectal cancer screening wastes limited endoscopic resources. We examined patients factors associated with inadequate flexible sigmoidoscopy (FSG) screening at baseline screening and repeat screening 3-5 years later in 10 geographically-dispersed screening centers participating in the ongoing Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial. A total of 64,554 participants (aged 55-74) completed baseline questionnaires and underwent FSG at baseline. Of these, 39,385 participants returned for repeat screening. We used logistic regression models to assess factors that are associated with inadequate FSG (defined as a study in which the depth of insertion of FSG was <50 cm or visual inspection was limited to <90% of the mucosal surface but without detection of a polyp or mass). Of 7084 (11%) participants with inadequate FSG at baseline, 6496 (91.7%) had <50 cm depth of insertion (75.3% due to patient discomfort) and 500 (7.1%) participants had adequate depth of insertion but suboptimal bowel preparation. Compared to 55-59 year age group, advancing age in 5-year increments (odds ratios (OR) from 1.08 to 1.51) and female sex (OR = 2.40; 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.27-2.54) were associated with inadequate FSG. Obesity (BMI > 30 kg/m(2)) was associated with reduced odds (OR = 0.67; 95% CI: 0.62-0.72). Inadequate FSG screening at baseline was associated with inadequate FSG at repeat screening (OR = 6.24; 95% CI: 5.78-6.75). Sedation should be considered for patients with inadequate FSG or an alternative colorectal cancer screening method should be recommended. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Lessons learned from the CDC's Colorectal Cancer Screening Demonstration Program.

    PubMed

    Seeff, Laura C; Rohan, Elizabeth A

    2013-08-01

    This report briefly summarizes 13 articles in this dedicated supplement to Cancer documenting the full implementation and evaluation of CDC's Colorectal Cancer Screening Demonstration Program (CRCSDP). The supplement includes 3 articles that describe clinical and quality outcomes; 2 articles that describe programmatic and clinical costs; 3 that were based on a multiple case study, using qualitative methods to describe the overall implementation experience of this initiative; and 4 articles written by and about individual program sites. The comprehensive, multi-methods evaluation conducted alongside the program produced many important lessons regarding the design, start-up, and implementation of colorectal cancer screening in this high-need population, and paved the way for the CDC to establish a larger, population-based colorectal cancer control initiative, broadly aligned with expectations of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act through its population-based emphasis on using a health systems approach to increase colorectal cancer screening. Cancer 2013;119(15 suppl):2817-9. © 2013 American Cancer Society.

  6. Colorectal and extracolonic cancers detected at screening CT colonography in 10,286 asymptomatic adults.

    PubMed

    Pickhardt, Perry J; Kim, David H; Meiners, Ryan J; Wyatt, Kimberly S; Hanson, Meghan E; Barlow, Duncan S; Cullen, Priscilla A; Remtulla, Rahim A; Cash, Brooks D

    2010-04-01

    To retrospectively determine the detection rates, clinical stages, and short-term patient survival for all unsuspected cancers identified at screening computed tomographic (CT) colonography, including both colorectal carcinoma (CRC) and extracolonic malignancies. From April 2004 through March 2008, prospective colorectal and extracolonic interpretation was performed in 10,286 outpatient adults (5388 men, 4898 women; mean age, 59.8 years) undergoing screening CT colonography at two centers in this institutional review board-approved, HIPAA-compliant study. For all histologically proved, clinically unsuspected cancers detected at CT colonography that were identified at retrospective review of the medical records, the stage of disease, treatment, and clinical outcome were analyzed. Benign neoplasms (including advanced colorectal adenomas), symptomatic lesions, and tumors without pathologic proof were excluded. Statistical analysis was performed with Fisher exact test and two-sample z test. Unsuspected cancer was confirmed in 58 (0.56%) patients (33 women, 25 men; mean age, 60.8 years), which included invasive CRC in 22 patients (0.21%) and extracolonic cancer in 36 patients (0.35%). Extracolonic malignancies included renal cell carcinoma (n = 11), lung cancer (n = 8), non-Hodgkin lymphoma (n = 6), and a variety of other tumors (n = 11). Cancers in 31 patients (53.4%) were stage I or localized. At the most recent clinical follow-up (mean, 30.0 months +/- 11.8 [standard deviation]; range, 12-56 months), three patients (5.2%) had died of their cancer. The overall detection rate of unsuspected cancer is approximately one per 200 asymptomatic adults undergoing routine screening CT colonography, including about one invasive CRC per 500 cases and one extracolonic cancer per 300 cases. Detection and treatment at an early presymptomatic stage may have contributed to the favorable outcome. RSNA, 2010

  7. A novel multitarget stool DNA test for colorectal cancer screening.

    PubMed

    Malik, Pramod

    2016-01-01

    Review of: Imperiale TF, Ransohoff DF, Itzkowitz SH, Levin TR, Lavin P, Lidgard GP, Ahlquist DA, Berger BM. Multitarget stool DNA testing for colorectal-cancer screening. N Engl J Med 2014;370(14):1287-97. This Practice Pearl reviews the results of a prospective, multicenter, cross-sectional clinical study that evaluated the performance of a new multitarget stool DNA (or mt-sDNA) screening test for colorectal cancer (CRC) and compared it with a fecal immunochemical test (FIT) in individuals at average risk for CRC. The potential impact of this test on the future of CRC screening is also discussed in a brief commentary. mt-sDNA testing is a noninvasive screening test designed to detect DNA biomarkers associated with colorectal neoplasia and occult hemoglobin in the stool. The sensitivity of mt-sDNA testing for detection of CRC was 92.3%, compared with 73.8% for FIT (p = 0.002). Sensitivity for detecting advanced precancerous lesions was 42.4% for mt-sDNA testing and 23.8% for FIT (p < 0.001). The specificities of mt-sDNA testing and FIT were 86.6% and 94.9%, respectively (p < 0.001). mt-sDNA testing thus may be a first-line screening option for asymptomatic individuals at average risk for CRC who do not want to have a colonoscopy.

  8. Patient Navigation in a Colorectal Cancer Screening Program

    PubMed Central

    Escoffery, Cam; Fernandez, Maria E.; Vernon, Sally W.; Liang, Shuting; Maxwell, Annette E.; Allen, Jennifer D.; Dwyer, Andrea; Hannon, Peggy A.; Kohn, Marlana; DeGroff, Amy

    2015-01-01

    Context Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second leading cause of cancer death among cancers affecting both men and women in the United States. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s Colorectal Cancer Control Program (CRCCP) supports both direct clinical screening services (screening provision) and activities to promote screening at the population level (screening promotion). Objective The purpose of this study was to characterize patient navigation (PN) programs for screening provision and promotion for the first 1 to 2 years of program funding. Participants We conducted a cross-sectional survey of the 29 CRCCP grantees (25 states and 4 tribal organizations) and 14 in-depth interviews to assess program implementation. Main Outcome Measures The survey and interview guide collected information on CRC screening provision and promotion activities and PN, including the structure of the PN program, characteristics of the navigators, funding mechanism, and navigators’ activities. Results Twenty-four of 28 CRCCP grantees of the survey used PN for screening provision whereas 18 grantees used navigation for screening promotion. Navigators were often trained in nursing or public health. Navigation activities were similar for both screening provision and promotion, and common tasks included assessing and responding to patient barriers to screening, providing patient education, and scheduling appointments. For screening provision, activities centered on making reminder calls, educating patients on bowel preparation for colonoscopies, and tracking patients for completion of the tests. Navigation may influence screening quality by improving patients’ bowel preparation for colonoscopies. Conclusions Our study provides insights into PN across a federally funded CRC program. Results suggest that PN activities may be instrumental in recruiting people into cancer screening and ensuring completed screening and follow-up. PMID:25140407

  9. Validity of data in the Danish Colorectal Cancer Screening Database

    PubMed Central

    Thomsen, Mette Kielsholm; Njor, Sisse Helle; Rasmussen, Morten; Linnemann, Dorte; Andersen, Berit; Baatrup, Gunnar; Friis-Hansen, Lennart Jan; Jørgensen, Jens Christian Riis; Mikkelsen, Ellen Margrethe

    2017-01-01

    Background In Denmark, a nationwide screening program for colorectal cancer was implemented in March 2014. Along with this, a clinical database for program monitoring and research purposes was established. Objective The aim of this study was to estimate the agreement and validity of diagnosis and procedure codes in the Danish Colorectal Cancer Screening Database (DCCSD). Methods All individuals with a positive immunochemical fecal occult blood test (iFOBT) result who were invited to screening in the first 3 months since program initiation were identified. From these, a sample of 150 individuals was selected using stratified random sampling by age, gender and region of residence. Data from the DCCSD were compared with data from hospital records, which were used as the reference. Agreement, sensitivity, specificity and positive and negative predictive values were estimated for categories of codes “clean colon”, “colonoscopy performed”, “overall completeness of colonoscopy”, “incomplete colonoscopy”, “polypectomy”, “tumor tissue left behind”, “number of polyps”, “lost polyps”, “risk group of polyps” and “colorectal cancer and polyps/benign tumor”. Results Hospital records were available for 136 individuals. Agreement was highest for “colorectal cancer” (97.1%) and lowest for “lost polyps” (88.2%). Sensitivity varied between moderate and high, with 60.0% for “incomplete colonoscopy” and 98.5% for “colonoscopy performed”. Specificity was 92.7% or above, except for the categories “colonoscopy performed” and “overall completeness of colonoscopy”, where the specificity was low; however, the estimates were imprecise. Conclusion A high level of agreement between categories of codes in DCCSD and hospital records indicates that DCCSD reflects the hospital records well. Further, the validity of the categories of codes varied from moderate to high. Thus, the DCCSD may be a valuable data source for future research on

  10. Design and utilization of the colorectal and pancreatic neoplasm virtual biorepository: An early detection research network initiative

    PubMed Central

    Amin, Waqas; Singh, Harpreet; Dzubinski, Lynda Ann; Schoen, Robert E.; Parwani, Anil V.

    2010-01-01

    Background: The Early Detection Research Network (EDRN) colorectal and pancreatic neoplasm virtual biorepository is a bioinformatics-driven system that provides high-quality clinicopathology-rich information for clinical biospecimens. This NCI-sponsored EDRN resource supports translational cancer research. The information model of this biorepository is based on three components: (a) development of common data elements (CDE), (b) a robust data entry tool and (c) comprehensive data query tools. Methods: The aim of the EDRN initiative is to develop and sustain a virtual biorepository for support of translational research. High-quality biospecimens were accrued and annotated with pertinent clinical, epidemiologic, molecular and genomic information. A user-friendly annotation tool and query tool was developed for this purpose. The various components of this annotation tool include: CDEs are developed from the College of American Pathologists (CAP) Cancer Checklists and North American Association of Central Cancer Registries (NAACR) standards. The CDEs provides semantic and syntactic interoperability of the data sets by describing them in the form of metadata or data descriptor. The data entry tool is a portable and flexible Oracle-based data entry application, which is an easily mastered, web-based tool. The data query tool facilitates investigators to search deidentified information within the warehouse through a “point and click” interface thus enabling only the selected data elements to be essentially copied into a data mart using a dimensional-modeled structure from the warehouse’s relational structure. Results: The EDRN Colorectal and Pancreatic Neoplasm Virtual Biorepository database contains multimodal datasets that are available to investigators via a web-based query tool. At present, the database holds 2,405 cases and 2,068 tumor accessions. The data disclosure is strictly regulated by user’s authorization. The high-quality and well

  11. Colonoscopy versus fecal immunochemical testing in colorectal-cancer screening.

    PubMed

    Quintero, Enrique; Castells, Antoni; Bujanda, Luis; Cubiella, Joaquín; Salas, Dolores; Lanas, Ángel; Andreu, Montserrat; Carballo, Fernando; Morillas, Juan Diego; Hernández, Cristina; Jover, Rodrigo; Montalvo, Isabel; Arenas, Juan; Laredo, Eva; Hernández, Vicent; Iglesias, Felipe; Cid, Estela; Zubizarreta, Raquel; Sala, Teresa; Ponce, Marta; Andrés, Mercedes; Teruel, Gloria; Peris, Antonio; Roncales, María-Pilar; Polo-Tomás, Mónica; Bessa, Xavier; Ferrer-Armengou, Olga; Grau, Jaume; Serradesanferm, Anna; Ono, Akiko; Cruzado, José; Pérez-Riquelme, Francisco; Alonso-Abreu, Inmaculada; de la Vega-Prieto, Mariola; Reyes-Melian, Juana Maria; Cacho, Guillermo; Díaz-Tasende, José; Herreros-de-Tejada, Alberto; Poves, Carmen; Santander, Cecilio; González-Navarro, Andrés

    2012-02-23

    Colonoscopy and fecal immunochemical testing (FIT) are accepted strategies for colorectal-cancer screening in the average-risk population. In this randomized, controlled trial involving asymptomatic adults 50 to 69 years of age, we compared one-time colonoscopy in 26,703 subjects with FIT every 2 years in 26,599 subjects. The primary outcome was the rate of death from colorectal cancer at 10 years. This interim report describes rates of participation, diagnostic findings, and occurrence of major complications at completion of the baseline screening. Study outcomes were analyzed in both intention-to-screen and as-screened populations. The rate of participation was higher in the FIT group than in the colonoscopy group (34.2% vs. 24.6%, P<0.001). Colorectal cancer was found in 30 subjects (0.1%) in the colonoscopy group and 33 subjects (0.1%) in the FIT group (odds ratio, 0.99; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.61 to 1.64; P=0.99). Advanced adenomas were detected in 514 subjects (1.9%) in the colonoscopy group and 231 subjects (0.9%) in the FIT group (odds ratio, 2.30; 95% CI, 1.97 to 2.69; P<0.001), and nonadvanced adenomas were detected in 1109 subjects (4.2%) in the colonoscopy group and 119 subjects (0.4%) in the FIT group (odds ratio, 9.80; 95% CI, 8.10 to 11.85; P<0.001). Subjects in the FIT group were more likely to participate in screening than were those in the colonoscopy group. On the baseline screening examination, the numbers of subjects in whom colorectal cancer was detected were similar in the two study groups, but more adenomas were identified in the colonoscopy group. (Funded by Instituto de Salud Carlos III and others; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00906997.).

  12. Does a risk questionnaire add anything to a colorectal screening project? Report of a 3-year screening experience.

    PubMed

    Niv, Y

    1992-07-01

    A questionnaire to detect persons at high risk for colorectal cancer was used in conjunction with fecal occult blood tests in a 3-year screening program in Northern Israel. Screening was offered to 2,590 persons over 40 years of age and accepted by 1,797 (compliance of 69.4%). In the subsequent 2 years, occult blood testing (Hemoccult II) was offered to those who had had negative tests (compliance rate of 99.6% and 100%). Six hundred and thirty persons (35.1%) had risk factors according to the questionnaire, and 195 of them underwent colonoscopy, with a predictive value of 15.9% for a neoplastic lesion. The Hemoccult II test was positive in 71 participants (4.0%) of whom 67 were investigated with a similar predictive value for neoplastic lesion (16.4%). In the second and third annual screening, the fecal occult blood test was positive in 29 (2.6%) and 27 (2.5%), and had a two and three times higher predictive value for neoplastic lesions, respectively. This was accompanied by a decrease in the cost of discovery. In all three stages, an adenomatous polyp was found in 48, and cancer in 10 participants (2.6% and 0.5% of the 1,797 original participants). Although a questionnaire may be fruitful in colorectal cancer screening, the higher number of participants subjected to further examinations makes this approach very expensive. The annual stool examination for occult blood has a higher predictive value for colonic neoplasm and a lower cost than a one stage, broader population based, study.

  13. Relationship Between Enterococcus faecalis Infective Endocarditis and Colorectal Neoplasm: Preliminary Results From a Cohort of 154 Patients.

    PubMed

    Pericàs, Juan M; Corredoira, Juan; Moreno, Asunción; García-País, M José; Falces, Carlos; Rabuñal, Ramón; Mestres, Carlos A; Alonso, M Pilar; Marco, Francesc; Quintana, Eduard; Almela, Manel; Paré, Juan C; Llopis, Jaume; Castells, Antoni; Miró, José M

    2017-06-01

    The association between Streptococcus bovis group infective endocarditis and colorectal neoplasm (CRN) is well-known. However, no studies have assessed the association between Enterococcus faecalis infective endocarditis (EFIE) and CRN. We aimed to determine whether the prevalence of CRN is higher in patients with EFIE and an unclear source of infection than in patients with EFIE and a known source of infection or in the general population. Retrospective analysis of a cohort of 154 patients with definite EFIE (109 with an unclear source of infection and 45 with an identified source) from 2 Spanish teaching hospitals to determine the prevalence of CRN and other colorectal diseases. In the group with an unknown source of infection, 61 patients (56%) underwent colonoscopy; of these, 31 (50.8%) had CRN. Nonadvanced colorectal adenoma was detected in 22 patients (36%), advanced adenoma in 5 (8.2%), and colorectal carcinoma (CRC) in 4 (6.6%). Among patients who survived the EFIE episode with ≥ 2 years of follow-up, 1 case of CRC was subsequently diagnosed. Only 6 patients (13.3%) with an identified focus of infection underwent colonoscopy; 1 of these patients (16.7%) was diagnosed with CRN. The prevalence of adenomas was slightly higher than that of the Spanish population in the same age range, whereas that of CRC was 17-fold higher. CRN was found in more than half of patients with EFIE and an unclear focus of infection who underwent colonoscopy. Colonoscopy should be recommended in patients with EFIE and an unclear source of infection. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Colorectal cancer screening: 20 years of development and recent progress

    PubMed Central

    Zavoral, Miroslav; Suchanek, Stepan; Majek, Ondrej; Fric, Premysl; Minarikova, Petra; Minarik, Marek; Seifert, Bohumil; Dusek, Ladislav

    2014-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second most common cancer in Europe and its incidence is steadily increasing. This trend could be reversed through timely secondary prevention (screening). In the last twenty years, CRC screening programs across Europe have experienced considerable improvements (fecal occult blood testing; transition from opportunistic to population based program settings). The Czech Republic is a typical example of a country with a long history of nationwide CRC screening programs in the face of very high CRC incidence and mortality rates. Each year, approximately 8000 people are diagnosed with CRC and some 4000 die from this malignancy. Twenty years ago, the first pilot studies on CRC screening led to the introduction of the opportunistic Czech National Colorectal Cancer Screening Program in 2000. Originally, this program was based on the guaiac fecal occult blood test (FOBT) offered by general practitioners, followed by colonoscopy in cases of FOBT positivity. The program has continuously evolved, namely with the implementation of immunochemical FOBTs and screening colonoscopy, as well as the involvement of gynecologists. Since the establishment of the Czech CRC Screening Registry in 2006, 2405850 FOBTs have been performed and 104565 preventive colonoscopies recorded within the screening program. The overall program expanded to cover 25.0% of the target population by 2011. However, stagnation in the annual number of performed FOBTs lately has led to switching to the option of a population-based program with personal invitation, which is currently being prepared. PMID:24744575

  15. Colorectal cancer screening: The role of CT colonography

    PubMed Central

    Laghi, Andrea; Iafrate, Franco; Rengo, Marco; Hassan, Cesare

    2010-01-01

    Computed tomography colonography (CTC) in colorectal cancer (CRC) screening has two roles: one present and the other potential. The present role is, without any further discussion, the integration into established screening programs as a replacement for barium enema in the case of incomplete colonoscopy. The potential role is the use of CTC as a first-line screening method together with Fecal Occult Blood Test, sigmoidoscopy and colonoscopy. However, despite the fact that CTC has been officially endorsed for CRC screening of average-risk individuals by different scientific societies including the American Cancer Society, the American College of Radiology, and the US Multisociety Task Force on Colorectal Cancer, other entities, such as the US Preventive Services Task Force, have considered the evidence insufficient to justify its use as a mass screening method. Medicare has also recently denied reimbursement for CTC as a screening test. Nevertheless, multiple advantages exist for using CTC as a CRC screening test: high accuracy, full evaluation of the colon in virtually all patients, non-invasiveness, safety, patient comfort, detection of extracolonic findings and cost-effectiveness. The main potential drawback of a CTC screening is the exposure to ionizing radiation. However, this is not a major issue, since low-dose protocols are now routinely implemented, delivering a dose comparable or slightly superior to the annual radiation exposure of any individual. Indirect evidence exists that such a radiation exposure does not induce additional cancers. PMID:20731011

  16. Hereditary Colorectal Cancer: Genetics and Screening.

    PubMed

    Brosens, Lodewijk A A; Offerhaus, G Johan A; Giardiello, Francis M

    2015-10-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer and the third leading cause of cancer death in men and women in the United States. About 30% of patients with CRC report a family history of CRC. However, only 5% of CRCs arise in the setting of a well-established mendelian inherited disorder. In addition, serrated polyposis is a clinically defined syndrome with multiple serrated polyps in the colorectum and an increased CRC risk for which the genetics are unknown. This article focuses on genetic and clinical aspects of Lynch syndrome, familial adenomatous polyposis, and MUTYH-associated polyposis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Selections from current literature: screening for colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Rahman, M I; Chagoury, M E

    1994-09-01

    Of the five modalities currently used to screen for colorectal cancer, the DRE is the least useful as a solitary screening tool. Also, while FOBT is widely used, its high false positive rate and uncertain cost benefit ratio make it less than ideal as a screening tool. Flexible sigmoidoscopy in a well defined regimen, has been shown to result in a decrease in CRC mortality. Paramedical personnel with a moderate amount of training have been shown to be able to safely and efficiently perform screening sigmoidoscopy. This has the potential to make it widely available at an affordable cost to the general population; however, its limitations, namely its ability to detect only lesions found in the distal colon, need to be kept in mind. With all limitations in the above mentioned screening modalities, colonoscopy may be the best tool to detect colorectal cancers. It has a significant advantage over DCBE of being both a diagnostic and therapeutic tool; however, it is imperative that a randomized controlled trial be performed to fully document its potential efficacy, advantages and disadvantages. Finally while genetic testing looms on the horizon as a promising new tool for CRC screening, at this time there are still too many unanswered questions and dilemmas, ethical as well as others, to warrant its use in the general clinical setting. However, maybe in the future, CRC screening will involve a simple blood test performed at birth, or perhaps even prenatally.

  18. Diagnostic accuracy of immunochemical versus guaiac faecal occult blood tests for colorectal cancer screening.

    PubMed

    Parra-Blanco, Adolfo; Gimeno-García, Antonio Z; Quintero, Enrique; Nicolás, David; Moreno, Santiago G; Jiménez, Alejandro; Hernández-Guerra, Manuel; Carrillo-Palau, Marta; Eishi, Yoshinobu; López-Bastida, Julio

    2010-07-01

    Immunochemical tests show important advantages over chemical-based faecal occult blood tests (FOBT) for colorectal cancer (CRC) screening, but comparison studies are limited. This study was performed to compare the accuracy of a sensitive immunochemical test with the guaiac test for detecting significant neoplasia (advanced adenomas and CRC) in an average-risk population. A random sample of 2288 asymptomatic subjects 50-79 years of age was prospectively included. Participants received three cards of the guaiac test, one sample of a latex-agglutination test (haemoglobin cut-off 50 ng/ml), and an invitation to undergo colonoscopy. Test sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values (PPV and NPV) were calculated in 1756 compliers. Immunochemical and guaiac tests were positive in 143 (8.1%) and 62 (3.5%) subjects, respectively. Complete colonoscopy, performed in 402 participants (158 FOBT+ and 244 FOBT-), detected 14 (0.8%) patients with CRC and 49 (2.8%) with advanced adenomas. The immunochemical and guaiac tests for significant colorectal neoplasia showed sensitivities of 61% versus 23.8%, specificities of 95.1% versus 97.7%, PPVs of 43.4% versus 39.0%, and NPVs of 97.5% versus 95.4%, respectively. Proximal significant neoplasms were more frequently detected with the immunochemical test (85% vs. 15%) The relative risk for detecting significant neoplasia was superior in patients with a positive immunochemical test (RR 16.93; CI 7.94-36.10) than with a positive guaiac test (RR 3.34; CI 2.17-5.15). A sensitive immunochemical test is markedly superior to the guaiac test for detecting significant colorectal neoplasia, and should be considered the first-choice FOBT for CRC screening in the average-risk population.

  19. [Argyrophilic nucleolar organizer regions (AgNORs) as malignancy biomarkers in colorectal neoplasms].

    PubMed

    Santacroce, L; Bufo, P; Gagliardi, S; Mastropasqua, M G; Losacco, T

    2001-01-01

    The high incidence of intestinal cancer has aroused strong interest in researching and trying to discover its morphologic precursors. In this contest the study of nucleolar organizing regions could be interesting as prognostic factor for bowel neoplasm and useful for differential diagnosis of intestinal diseases. The Authors report on the results of their study performed on 30 selected samples from 6 different bowel lesions.

  20. Do no harm: no psychological harm from colorectal cancer screening.

    PubMed

    Kirkøen, Benedicte; Berstad, Paula; Botteri, Edoardo; Åvitsland, Tone Lise; Ossum, Alvilde Maria; de Lange, Thomas; Hoff, Geir; Bernklev, Tomm

    2016-03-01

    Participation in cancer screening programmes might cause worries in the population outweighting the benefits of reduced mortality. The present study aimed to investigate possible psychological harm of participation in a colorectal cancer (CRC) screening pilot in Norway. In a prospective, randomised trial participants (aged 50-74 years) were invited to either flexible sigmoidoscopy (FS) screening, faecal immunochemical test (FIT), or no screening (the control group; 1 : 1: 1). Three thousand two hundred and thirteen screening participants (42% of screened individuals) completed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale questionnaire as well as the SF-12-a health-related quality of life (HRQOL) questionnaire when invited to screening and when receiving the screening result. A control group was invited to complete the questionnaires only. Two thousand six hundred and eighteen control participants (35% of invited individuals) completed the questionnaire. A positive screening result did not increase participants' level of anxiety or depression, or decrease participants' level of HRQOL. Participants who received a negative result reported decreased anxiety and improvement on some HRQOL dimensions. However, no change was considered to be of clinical relevance. The current study showed no clinically relevant psychological harm of receiving a positive CRC screening result or of participating in FS or FIT screening, in a Norwegian population.

  1. Capsule endoscopy compared with conventional colonoscopy for detection of colorectal neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Sieg, Andreas

    2011-05-16

    Colon capsule endoscopy (CCE) may be a means to overcome the low adherence to colorectal cancer screening. The device is an ingestible capsule with a video camera at both ends that can take photographs as it progresses through the gastrointestinal tract. PillCam colon (PCC1) may be used for structural evaluation of the large bowel following an adequate cleaning procedure. PCC1 measures 11 mm × 31 mm and has dual cameras that enable the device to acquire video images from both ends with a wide coverage area, automatic light control and a frame rate of four frames per second. The system includes a sensor array and data recorder connected to the patient during the procedure. The recorded data are downloaded to the Given Imaging Rapid workstation for review of the colon video. The second generation of PillCam Colon (PCC2) is similar to PCC1 and incorporates new developments. The angle of view has been increased to 172 degrees. It has an adaptive frame rate, alternating from 35 frames per second while in motion to 4 images when virtually stationary. The new RAPID(®) software now includes a simple graphic interface tool for polyp size estimation. The procedure of bowel cleansing until capsule ingestion is similar to that used for traditional colonoscopy. However it is more rigorous as the bowel cleanliness for capsule colonoscopy has to be excellent or at least good to result in an adequate sensitivity of the method. Briefly, it consists of 3.5-4 L of split dose polyethylene glycol. Oral NaP boosters are administered after 1-2 h if the capsule has entered the small bowel. Sodium phosphate (NaP) seems to be a necessary adjunct to the regimen because the total transit time is doubled without NaP. The cleansing level was considered to be good to excellent in 72%-88% in studies with PCC1. The sensitivity for significant polyps (> 6 mm or more than 3 polyps >3 mm) ranged from 63%-88% with specificities between 64%-94%. PCC2 showed an improved sensitivity of 89% and a

  2. Analysis of various malignant neoplasms detected by FDG-PET cancer screening program: based on a Japanese Nationwide Survey.

    PubMed

    Minamimoto, Ryogo; Senda, Michio; Terauchi, Takashi; Jinnouchi, Seishi; Inoue, Tomio; Iinuma, Takeshi; Inoue, Takeshi; Ito, Kengo; Iwata, Hiroshi; Uno, Kimiichi; Oku, Shinya; Oguchi, Kazuhiro; Tsukamoto, Eriko; Nakashima, Rumi; Nishizawa, Sadahiko; Fukuda, Hiroshi; Murano, Takeshi; Yoshida, Tsuyoshi

    2011-01-01

    The most distinctive feature of FDG-PET cancer screening program is the ability to find various kinds of malignant neoplasms in a single test. The aim of this survey is to clarify the range and frequency of various malignant neoplasms detected by FDG-PET cancer screening performed in Japan. "FDG-PET cancer screening" was defined as FDG-PET or positron emission tomography and computed tomography (PET/CT) scan with or without other tests performed for cancer screening of healthy subjects. This survey was based on a questionnaire regarding FDG-PET cancer screening. We analyzed the situation of 9 less frequently found malignant neoplasms including malignant lymphoma, malignancy of head and neck, esophagus, hepatobiliary and gallbladder, pancreas, kidney, cervical and uterine, ovary, and bladder. The detailed information of subjects with the suspected 9 kinds of malignant neoplasms mentioned above in the FDG-PET cancer screening program was studied in a total of 1,219 cases from 212 facilities. A statistical significance between PET/CT and PET was found in relative sensitivity and PPV for renal cell cancer. Malignant lymphoma was frequently of indolent type, suspected head and neck cancers had many false-positive results, and pancreatic cancer detected in this program was often in the advanced stage even in asymptomatic subjects. The recommendation of combined screening modality to PET or PET/CT was as follows: gastric endoscopy for assessing early esophageal cancer; abdominal ultrasound for screening hepatobiliary and gallbladder cancer; pelvic magnetic resonance imaging for assessing gynecological and pelvic cancers; and the CA125 blood test for screening ovarian cancer. Delayed image was helpful depending on the type of suspected malignant neoplasm. We analyzed various types of malignant neoplasms detected by the FDG-PET cancer screening program and presented recommended combination of examinations to cover FDG-PET and PET/CT.

  3. Organized colorectal cancer screening in integrated health care systems.

    PubMed

    Levin, Theodore R; Jamieson, Laura; Burley, Daniel A; Reyes, Juan; Oehrli, Michael; Caldwell, Cindy

    2011-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is an ideal target for early detection and prevention through screening. Noninvasive screening options are the guaiac fecal occult blood test and the fecal immunochemical test. Organized screening offers the promise of uniformly delivering screening to all members of a population who are eligible and due. Organized screening is defined as an explicit policy with defined age categories, method, and interval for screening in a defined target population with a defined implementation and quality assurance structure, and tracking of cancer in the population. The UK National Health Service; the Ontario, Canada Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care; and the US Veteran's Health Administration have used varied organized approaches to deliver guaiac fecal occult blood test screening to their populations. Kaiser Permanente Northern California began CRC screening in the 1960s, initially using flexible sigmoidoscopy. Implementation of organized fecal immunochemical test outreach was associated with improved Healthcare Effectiveness Data and Information Set CRC screening rates between 2005 and 2010 from 37% to 69% and from 41% to 78% in the commercial and Medicare populations, respectively. Organized fecal immunochemical test screening has been associated with an increase in annually detected CRCs, almost entirely because of increased detection of localized-stage cancers.

  4. Colorectal Cancer in Iran: Molecular Epidemiology and Screening Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Dolatkhah, Roya; Somi, Mohammad Hossein; Bonyadi, Mortaza Jabbarpour; Asvadi Kermani, Iraj; Farassati, Faris; Dastgiri, Saeed

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. The increasing incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC) in the past three decades in Iran has made it a major public health burden. This study aimed to report its epidemiologic features, molecular genetic aspects, survival, heredity, and screening pattern in Iran. Methods. A comprehensive literature review was conducted to identify the relevant published articles. We used medical subject headings, including colorectal cancer, molecular genetics, KRAS and BRAF mutations, screening, survival, epidemiologic study, and Iran. Results. Age standardized incidence rate of Iranian CRCs was 11.6 and 10.5 for men and women, respectively. Overall five-year survival rate was 41%, and the proportion of CRC among the younger age group was higher than that of western countries. Depending on ethnicity, geographical region, dietary, and genetic predisposition, mutation genes were considerably diverse and distinct among CRCs across Iran. The high occurrence of CRC in records of relatives of CRC patients showed that family history of CRC was more common among young CRCs. Conclusion. Appropriate screening strategies for CRC which is amenable to early detection through screening, especially in relatives of CRCs, should be considered as the first step in CRC screening programs. PMID:25685149

  5. Cost of quality management and information provision for screening: colorectal cancer screening.

    PubMed

    Robert, G; Brown, J; Garvican, L

    2000-01-01

    To estimate the costs of a quality management (QM) system as proposed by the Quality Management for Screening report for a future national colorectal cancer screening programme. Estimates of the costs of the QM system, including the associated costs of education and training and information provision, were based on expert opinion, the existing literature, and the experience of the current National Health Service (NHS) breast cancer screening programme (BSP) and the NHS cervical cancer screening programme (CSP). The cost of a QM system to support a national colorectal cancer programme in the UK was estimated as approximately 3.8 million a year. Further annual costs related to QM will include 500000 for education and training and 200000 for information provision. Adding these additional costs to a previously published UK economic evaluation of colorectal cancer screening increases the cost-utility ratio to approximately 6500 per quality adjusted life year gained (over an eight year follow up period). Any new screening programme, or an existing one, must have QM to ensure that the quality of screening is high and to maintain the right balance between benefit and harm. The significant costs of such a QM system should be included in any economic evaluation of a screening programme.

  6. Developing screening services for colorectal cancer on Android smartphones.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hui-Ching; Chang, Chiao-Jung; Lin, Chun-Che; Tsai, Ming-Chang; Chang, Che-Chia; Tseng, Ming-Hseng

    2014-08-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is an important health problem in Western countries and also in Asia. It is the third leading cause of cancer deaths in both men and women in Taiwan. According to the well-known adenoma-to-carcinoma sequence, the majority of CRC develops from colorectal adenomatous polyps. This concept provides the rationale for screening and prevention of CRC. Removal of colorectal adenoma could reduce the mortality and incidence of CRC. Mobile phones are now playing an ever more crucial role in people's daily lives. The latest generation of smartphones is increasingly viewed as hand-held computers rather than as phones, because of their powerful on-board computing capability, capacious memories, large screens, and open operating systems that encourage development of applications (apps). If we can detect the potential CRC patients early and offer them appropriate treatments and services, this would not only promote the quality of life, but also reduce the possible serious complications and medical costs. In this study, an intelligent CRC screening app on Android™ (Google™, Mountain View, CA) smartphones has been developed based on a data mining approach using decision tree algorithms. For comparison, the stepwise backward multivariate logistic regression model and the fecal occult blood test were also used. Compared with the stepwise backward multivariate logistic regression model and the fecal occult blood test, the proposed app system not only provides an easy and efficient way to quickly detect high-risk groups of potential CRC patients, but also brings more information about CRC to customer-oriented services. We developed and implemented an app system on Android platforms for ubiquitous healthcare services for CRC screening. It can assist people in achieving early screening, diagnosis, and treatment purposes, prevent the occurrence of complications, and thus reach the goal of preventive medicine.

  7. Developing Screening Services for Colorectal Cancer on Android Smartphones

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Hui-Ching; Chang, Chiao-Jung; Lin, Chun-Che; Tsai, Ming-Chang; Chang, Che-Chia

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is an important health problem in Western countries and also in Asia. It is the third leading cause of cancer deaths in both men and women in Taiwan. According to the well-known adenoma-to-carcinoma sequence, the majority of CRC develops from colorectal adenomatous polyps. This concept provides the rationale for screening and prevention of CRC. Removal of colorectal adenoma could reduce the mortality and incidence of CRC. Mobile phones are now playing an ever more crucial role in people's daily lives. The latest generation of smartphones is increasingly viewed as hand-held computers rather than as phones, because of their powerful on-board computing capability, capacious memories, large screens, and open operating systems that encourage development of applications (apps). Subjects and Methods: If we can detect the potential CRC patients early and offer them appropriate treatments and services, this would not only promote the quality of life, but also reduce the possible serious complications and medical costs. In this study, an intelligent CRC screening app on Android™ (Google™, Mountain View, CA) smartphones has been developed based on a data mining approach using decision tree algorithms. For comparison, the stepwise backward multivariate logistic regression model and the fecal occult blood test were also used. Results: Compared with the stepwise backward multivariate logistic regression model and the fecal occult blood test, the proposed app system not only provides an easy and efficient way to quickly detect high-risk groups of potential CRC patients, but also brings more information about CRC to customer-oriented services. Conclusions: We developed and implemented an app system on Android platforms for ubiquitous healthcare services for CRC screening. It can assist people in achieving early screening, diagnosis, and treatment purposes, prevent the occurrence of complications, and thus reach the goal of

  8. Familial colorectal cancer screening: When and what to do?

    PubMed Central

    Del Vecchio Blanco, Giovanna; Paoluzi, Omero Alessandro; Sileri, Pierpaolo; Rossi, Piero; Sica, Giuseppe; Pallone, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third leading cause of death worldwide and represents a clinical challenge. Family members of patients affected by CRC have an increased risk of CRC development. In these individuals, screening is strongly recommended and should be started earlier than in the population with average risk, in order to detect neoplastic precursors, such as adenoma, advanced adenoma, and nonpolypoid adenomatous lesions of the colon. Fecal occult blood test (FOBT) is a non invasive, widespread screening method that can reduce CRC-related mortality. Sigmoidoscopy, alone or in addition to FOBT, represents another screening strategy that reduces CRC mortality. Colonoscopy is the best choice for screening high-risk populations, as it allows simultaneous detection and removal of preneoplastic lesions. The choice of test depends on local health policy and varies among countries. PMID:26185367

  9. Considering Culture in Physician– Patient Communication During Colorectal Cancer Screening

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Ge; Burke, Nancy; Somkin, Carol P.; Pasick, Rena

    2010-01-01

    Racial and ethnic disparities exist in both incidence and stage detection of colorectal cancer (CRC). We hypothesized that cultural practices (i.e., communication norms and expectations) influence patients’ and their physicians’ understanding and talk about CRC screening. We examined 44 videotaped observations of clinic visits that included a CRC screening recommendation and transcripts from semistructured interviews that doctors and patients separately completed following the visit. We found that interpersonal relationship themes such as power distance, trust, directness/indirectness, and an ability to listen, as well as personal health beliefs, emerged as affecting patients’ definitions of provider–patient effective communication. In addition, we found that in discordant physician–patient interactions (when each is from a different ethnic group), physicians did not solicit or address cultural barriers to CRC screening and patients did not volunteer culture-related concerns regarding CRC screening. PMID:19363141

  10. Efficacy of an endo-knife with a water-jet function (Flushknife) for endoscopic submucosal dissection of superficial colorectal neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Yoji; Uedo, Noriya; Ishihara, Ryu; Iishi, Hiroyasu; Kizu, Takashi; Inoue, Takuya; Chatani, Rika; Hanaoka, Noboru; Taniguchi, Tomoyasu; Kawada, Natsuko; Higashino, Koji; Shimokawa, Toshio; Tatsuta, Masaharu

    2010-02-01

    Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) is currently not a common treatment for colorectal neoplasms because it is time consuming and technically difficult. Flushknife--an electrosurgical endo-knife with a water-jet function--is expected to reduce the difficulty of colorectal ESD. The objective of this study was to investigate the efficacy of a water-jet function for colorectal ESD. This study was a prospective randomized controlled trial, which was conducted at a cancer referral center. A total of 49 patients, with a total of 51 superficial colorectal neoplasms (median tumor size of 30 mm), were enrolled and randomly assigned to undergo ESD using either the Flexknife (electrosurgical endo-knife without a water-jet function) or the Flushknife. Tumors were resected by ESD using each endo-knife. The procedures were conducted by two endoscopists. Operation time was defined as the main outcome measure. En bloc resection was achieved in 23 out of 26 (88%) lesions in the Flexknife group and in 24 out of 24 (100%) lesions in the Flushknife group. The mean operation time (95% confidence interval) was 87.3 (71.3-103.4) min in the Flexknife group and 61.0 (49.3-72.7) min in the Flushknife group (P=0.02). The Flushknife reduced the number of endoscopic device changes (P=0.001), the number of submucosal injections (P=0.001), and the mean amount of injected hyaluronate sodium (P=0.001) compared with the Flexknife. No severe adverse events were observed in either group. Without increasing adverse events, the endo-knife with a water-jet function efficiently reduced the operation time of colorectal ESD in patients with large superficial colorectal neoplasms. (University hospital Medical Information Network Clinical Trials Registry number UMIN000001302).

  11. Preferences for colorectal cancer screening strategies: a discrete choice experiment

    PubMed Central

    Hol, L; de Bekker-Grob, E W; van Dam, L; Donkers, B; Kuipers, E J; Habbema, J D F; Steyerberg, E W; van Leerdam, M E; Essink-Bot, M L

    2010-01-01

    Background: Guidelines underline the role of individual preferences in the selection of a screening test, as insufficient evidence is available to recommend one screening test over another. We conducted a study to determine the preferences of individuals and to predict uptake for colorectal cancer (CRC) screening programmes using various screening tests. Methods: A discrete choice experiment (DCE) questionnaire was distributed among naive subjects, yet to be screened, and previously screened subjects, aged 50–75 years. Subjects were asked to choose between scenarios on the basis of faecal occult blood test (FOBT), flexible sigmoidoscopy (FS), total colonoscopy (TC) with various test-specific screening intervals and mortality reductions, and no screening (opt-out). Results: In total, 489 out of 1498 (33%) screening-naïve subjects (52% male; mean age±s.d. 61±7 years) and 545 out of 769 (71%) previously screened subjects (52% male; mean age±s.d. 61±6 years) returned the questionnaire. The type of screening test, screening interval, and risk reduction of CRC-related mortality influenced subjects' preferences (all P<0.05). Screening-naive and previously screened subjects equally preferred 5-yearly FS and 10-yearly TC (P=0.24; P=0.11), but favoured both strategies to annual FOBT screening (all P-values <0.001) if, based on the literature, realistic risk reduction of CRC-related mortality was applied. Screening-naive and previously screened subjects were willing to undergo a 10-yearly TC instead of a 5-yearly FS to obtain an additional risk reduction of CRC-related mortality of 45% (P<0.001). Conclusion: These data provide insight into the extent by which interval and risk reduction of CRC-related mortality affect preferences for CRC screening tests. Assuming realistic test characteristics, subjects in the target population preferred endoscopic screening over FOBT screening, partly, due to the more favourable risk reduction of CRC-related mortality by endoscopy

  12. Early Outcomes of Endoscopic Submucosal Dissection for Colorectal Neoplasms According to Clinical Indications.

    PubMed

    Youk, Eui-Gon; Sohn, Dae Kyng; Hong, Chang Won; Lee, Seong Dae; Han, Kyung Su; Kim, Byung Chang; Chang, Hee Jin; Kim, Mi-Jung

    2016-05-01

    Although endoscopic submucosal dissection has been shown to be safe and effective for colorectal tumors, its clinical outcomes vary. The aim of this study is to assess the outcomes of endoscopic submucosal dissection according to clinical indications. This is a prospective, multicenter, single-arm study. The study was conducted at special hospitals for colorectal diseases and cancers. The study population included consecutive patients aged 20 to 80 years who underwent colorectal endoscopic submucosal dissection for 1) early colorectal cancer, 2) laterally spreading tumors ≥2 cm in diameter, and 3) submucosal tumors. Procedures were performed by experienced colonoscopists. The primary end points were en bloc and curative resection rates. En bloc resection was defined as endoscopic one-piece resection without tumor fragmentation. Curative resection was defined as en bloc resection and no pathologic requirement for additional surgery. Secondary end points included procedure time, complications, and hospital stay. Of 321 patients, 317 (98.8%) underwent en bloc resection and 231 (72.0%) underwent curative resection. The mean procedure time was 46.2 minutes. Mean hospital stay after the procedure was 3.1 days. Perforation occurred in 2 patients (0.6%), and bleeding occurred in 10 (3.1%) patients. All patients with complications were treated by endoscopic clipping or nonoperative management. Fifteen patients (4.7%) underwent additional radical surgery owing to the risks of lymph node metastasis. Although tumor size was smaller and procedure time shorter in the submucosal tumor group than in the laterally spreading tumor or early colorectal cancer group, there were no differences in clinical outcomes including en bloc and curative resection rates. Submucosal fibrosis was the only factor affecting endoscopic submucosal dissection procedure-related complications. Early outcomes in a limited population and the potential for selection bias were limitations of this study

  13. Equity and practice issues in colorectal cancer screening

    PubMed Central

    Buchman, Sandy; Rozmovits, Linda; Glazier, Richard H.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective To investigate overall colorectal cancer (CRC) screening rates, patterns in the use of types of CRC screening, and sociodemographic characteristics associated with CRC screening; and to gain insight into physicians’ perceptions about and use of fecal occult blood testing [FOBT] and colonoscopy for patients at average risk of CRC. Design Mixed-methods study using cross-sectional administrative data on patient sociodemographic characteristics and semistructured telephone interviews with physicians. Setting Toronto, Ont. Participants Patients aged 50 to 74 years and physicians in family health teams in the Toronto Central Local Health Integration Network. Main outcome measures Rates of CRC screening by type; sociodemographic characteristics associated with CRC screening; thematic analysis using constant comparative method for semistructured interviews. Main findings Ontario administrative data on CRC screening showed lower overall screening rates among those who were younger, male patients, those who had lower income, and recent immigrants. Colonoscopy rates were especially low among those with lower income and those who were recent immigrants. Semistructured interviews revealed that physician opinions about CRC screening for average-risk patients were divided: one group of physicians accepted the evidence and recommendations for FOBT and the other group of physicians strongly supported colonoscopy for these patients, believing that the FOBT was an inferior screening method. Physicians identified specialist recommendations and patient expectations as factors that influenced their decisions regarding CRC screening type. Conclusion There was considerable variation in CRC screening by sociodemographic characteristics. A key theme that emerged from the interviews was that physicians were divided in their preference for FOBT or colonoscopy; factors that influenced physician preference included the health care system, recommendations by other

  14. Cancer screening in Singapore, with particular reference to breast, cervical and colorectal cancer screening.

    PubMed

    Yeoh, K G; Chew, L; Wang, S C

    2006-01-01

    Cancer is the leading cause of mortality in Singapore, accounting for 27.1% of deaths in 2004. The most common cancers are those of the lung, colon and rectum, liver, stomach, and prostate in men; and breast, colon and rectum, lung, ovary and cervix in women. Singapore has the highest age-adjusted breast cancer incidence in Asia. National population screening programmes have been implemented for breast and cervical cancer. BreastScreen Singapore (BSS), the first population-based nationwide mammographic breast-screening programme in Asia, was launched in 2002, incorporating international standards and practice guidelines. For improved quality assurance, two-view screening mammography is carried out. From January 2002 until March 2004, BSS conducted over 84,000 screens, with an overall recall rate of 9.5%, and an overall invasive cancer detection rate of 4.48 per 1000 screened. Close to 30% of the cancers diagnosed was ductal carcinoma in situ. Papanicolaou (Pap) smear screening for cervical cancer has been available opportunistically since 1964. The national CervicalScreen Singapore programme was launched in 2004, aiming to achieve coverage of 80% of targeted women by 2010. Colorectal cancer currently has the highest incidence of all cancers in Singapore. The health authorities advocate colorectal cancer screening for the average risk population, starting from age 50 years, but in the absence of a national screening programme, the reliance is on opportunistic screening.

  15. Using a lay cancer screening navigator to increase colorectal cancer screening rates.

    PubMed

    Liu, Gerald; Perkins, Allen

    2015-01-01

    Preventive care is often not performed during the ambulatory office visit due to the acute nature of the visit. One possible strategy is the use of a lay cancer screening navigator using the lay health worker model. A training program for the lay cancer screening navigator and a patient registry for colorectal cancer screening was developed. The RE-AIM framework was used to evaluate the intervention. Descriptive statistics were generated for patient demographics. Reach: The lay cancer screening navigator contacted 91.9% of eligible patients. Effectiveness: At baseline, 28.6% of patients were current on their colorectal cancer screening, 40.5% at 6 months, and 42.2% at 12 months. Adoption: Patients contacted all reported being receptive to the intervention. Of the 368 fecal immunochemical test kits mailed, 151 were returned (41.0%), and 26 (17.2%) were positive. Maintenance: The percentage of patients who were current between 6 months and at 12 months were not significantly different. This study demonstrates that the use of a lay cancer screening navigator to increase the rate of colorectal cancer screening is a viable strategy. © Copyright 2015 by the American Board of Family Medicine.

  16. Referring patients for telephone counseling to promote colorectal cancer screening.

    PubMed

    Luckmann, Roger; Costanza, Mary E; Rosal, Milagros; White, Mary Jo; Cranos, Caroline

    2013-09-01

    To determine the feasibility, acceptability, and outcomes of a telephone counseling intervention promoting colorectal cancer (CRC) screening when patients are referred for counseling by primary care providers (PCPs). Interventional cohort study with no formal control group. PCPs in 3 practices were prompted to address CRC screening in patient encounters and, if appropriate, to recommend referral for telephone counseling. A telephone counselor called referred patients, made an appointment for a counseling call, and mailed an educational booklet to patients. Counseling included education about CRC and screening tests, motivational interviewing, barrier counseling, and facilitated referral for colonoscopy or mailing of a fecal occult blood testing kit. About 7 months following counseling, electronic records were searched for evidence of colonoscopy. PCPs addressed CRC screening with 1945 patients, most of whom were up-to-date with CRC testing, recommended counseling referral to 362, and of these 180 (49.7%) accepted the referral. A total of 140 (77.8%) of referred patients were contacted and 67 (37.2%) received counseling. After counseling 93.9% were planning on CRC screening compared with 54.6% at the beginning of the call. Of those planning a colonoscopy, 53.2% received one within 7 months. Referring patients for telephone counseling to promote CRC screening may be feasible and acceptable to PCPs and to some patients, and may increase CRC screening. Further evaluation of the intervention may be warranted to compare the rate of screening associated with the intervention to rates related to usual care and to other interventions.

  17. Interval cancers in a national colorectal cancer screening programme

    PubMed Central

    Stanners, Greig; Lang, Jaroslaw; Brewster, David H; Carey, Francis A; Fraser, Callum G

    2016-01-01

    Background Little is known about interval cancers (ICs) in colorectal cancer (CRC) screening. Objective The purpose of this study was to identify IC characteristics and compare these with screen-detected cancers (SCs) and cancers in non-participants (NPCs) over the same time period. Design This was an observational study done in the first round of the Scottish Bowel Screening Programme. All individuals (772,790), aged 50–74 years, invited to participate between 1 January 2007 and 31 May 2009 were studied by linking their screening records with confirmed CRC records in the Scottish Cancer Registry (SCR). Characteristics of SC, IC and NPC were determined. Results There were 555 SCs, 502 ICs and 922 NPCs. SCs were at an earlier stage than ICs and NPCs (33.9% Dukes’ A as against 18.7% in IC and 11.3% in NPC), screening preferentially detected cancers in males (64.7% as against 52.8% in IC and 59.7% in NPC): this was independent of a different cancer site distribution in males and females. SC in the colon were less advanced than IC, but not in the rectum. Conclusion ICs account for 47.5% of the CRCs in the screened population, indicating approximately 50% screening test sensitivity: guaiac faecal occult blood testing (gFOBT) sensitivity is less for women than for men and gFOBT screening may not be effective for rectal cancer. PMID:27536369

  18. Cost-effectiveness of colorectal cancer screening – an overview

    PubMed Central

    Lansdorp-Vogelaar, Iris; Knudsen, Amy; Brenner, Hermann

    2010-01-01

    There are several modalities available for a colorectal cancer (CRC) screening program. When determining which CRC screening program to implement, the costs of such programs should be considered in comparison to the health benefits they are expected to provide. Cost-effectiveness analysis provides a tool to do this. In this paper we review the evidence on the cost-effectiveness of CRC screening. Published studies universally indicate that when compared with no CRC screening, all screening modalities provide additional years of life at a cost that is deemed acceptable by most industrialized nations. Many recent studies even find CRC screening to be cost-saving. However, when the alternative CRC screening strategies are compared against each other in an incremental cost-effectiveness analysis, no single optimal strategy emerges across the studies. There is consensus that the new technologies of stool DNA testing, computed tomographic colonography and capsule endoscopy are not yet cost-effective compared with the established CRC screening tests. PMID:20833348

  19. Promoting colorectal cancer screening discussion: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Christy, Shannon M; Perkins, Susan M; Tong, Yan; Krier, Connie; Champion, Victoria L; Skinner, Celette Sugg; Springston, Jeffrey K; Imperiale, Thomas F; Rawl, Susan M

    2013-04-01

    Provider recommendation is a predictor of colorectal cancer (CRC) screening. To compare the effects of two clinic-based interventions on patient-provider discussions about CRC screening. Two-group RCT with data collected at baseline and 1 week post-intervention. African-American patients that were non-adherent to CRC screening recommendations (n=693) with a primary care visit between 2008 and 2010 in one of 11 urban primary care clinics. Participants received either a computer-delivered tailored CRC screening intervention or a nontailored informational brochure about CRC screening immediately prior to their primary care visit. Between-group differences in odds of having had a CRC screening discussion about a colon test, with and without adjusting for demographic, clinic, health literacy, health belief, and social support variables, were examined as predictors of a CRC screening discussion using logistic regression. Intervention effects on CRC screening test order by PCPs were examined using logistic regression. Analyses were conducted in 2011 and 2012. Compared to the brochure group, greater proportions of those in the computer-delivered tailored intervention group reported having had a discussion with their provider about CRC screening (63% vs 48%, OR=1.81, p<0.001). Predictors of a discussion about CRC screening included computer group participation, younger age, reason for visit, being unmarried, colonoscopy self-efficacy, and family member/friend recommendation (all p-values <0.05). The computer-delivered tailored intervention was more effective than a nontailored brochure at stimulating patient-provider discussions about CRC screening. Those who received the computer-delivered intervention also were more likely to have a CRC screening test (fecal occult blood test or colonoscopy) ordered by their PCP. This study is registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov NCT00672828. Copyright © 2013 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights

  20. Gender differences in attitudes impeding colorectal cancer screening

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Colorectal cancer screening (CRCS) is the only type of cancer screening where both genders reduce risks by similar proportions with identical procedures. It is an important context for examining gender differences in disease-prevention, as CRCS significantly reduces mortality via early detection and prevention. In efforts to increase screening adherence, there is increasing acknowledgment that obstructive attitudes prevent CRCS uptake. Precise identification of the gender differences in obstructive attitudes is necessary to improve uptake promotion. This study randomly sampled unscreened, screening - eligible individuals in Ontario, employing semi-structured interviews to elicit key differences in attitudinal obstructions towards colorectal cancer screening with the aim of deriving informative differences useful in planning promotions of screening uptake. Methods N = 81 participants (49 females, 32 males), 50 years and above, with no prior CRCS, were contacted via random-digit telephone dialing, and consented via phone-mail contact. Altogether, N = 4,459 calls were made to yield N = 85 participants (1.9% response rate) of which N = 4 participants did not complete interviews. All subjects were eligible for free-of-charge CRCS in Ontario, and each was classified, via standard interview by CRCS screening decision-stage. Telephone-based, semi-structured interviews (SSIs) were employed to investigate gender differences in CRCS attitudes, using questions focused on 5 attitudinal domains: 1) Screening experience at the time of interview; 2) Barriers to adherence; 3) Predictors of Adherence; 4) Pain-anxiety experiences related to CRCS; 5) Gender-specific experiences re: CRCS, addressing all three modalities accessible through Ontario’s program: a) fecal occult blood testing; b) flexible sigmoidoscopy; c) colonoscopy. Results Interview transcript analyses indicated divergent themes related to CRCS for each gender: 1) bodily intrusion, 2) perforation anxiety

  1. Gender differences in attitudes impeding colorectal cancer screening.

    PubMed

    Ritvo, Paul; Myers, Ronald E; Paszat, Lawrence; Serenity, Mardie; Perez, Daniel F; Rabeneck, Linda

    2013-05-24

    Colorectal cancer screening (CRCS) is the only type of cancer screening where both genders reduce risks by similar proportions with identical procedures. It is an important context for examining gender differences in disease-prevention, as CRCS significantly reduces mortality via early detection and prevention. In efforts to increase screening adherence, there is increasing acknowledgment that obstructive attitudes prevent CRCS uptake. Precise identification of the gender differences in obstructive attitudes is necessary to improve uptake promotion. This study randomly sampled unscreened, screening - eligible individuals in Ontario, employing semi-structured interviews to elicit key differences in attitudinal obstructions towards colorectal cancer screening with the aim of deriving informative differences useful in planning promotions of screening uptake. N = 81 participants (49 females, 32 males), 50 years and above, with no prior CRCS, were contacted via random-digit telephone dialing, and consented via phone-mail contact. Altogether, N = 4,459 calls were made to yield N = 85 participants (1.9% response rate) of which N = 4 participants did not complete interviews. All subjects were eligible for free-of-charge CRCS in Ontario, and each was classified, via standard interview by CRCS screening decision-stage. Telephone-based, semi-structured interviews (SSIs) were employed to investigate gender differences in CRCS attitudes, using questions focused on 5 attitudinal domains: 1) Screening experience at the time of interview; 2) Barriers to adherence; 3) Predictors of Adherence; 4) Pain-anxiety experiences related to CRCS; 5) Gender-specific experiences re: CRCS, addressing all three modalities accessible through Ontario's program: a) fecal occult blood testing; b) flexible sigmoidoscopy; c) colonoscopy. Interview transcript analyses indicated divergent themes related to CRCS for each gender: 1) bodily intrusion, 2) perforation anxiety, and 3) embarrassment for

  2. Colorectal cancer screening brochure for Latinos: focus group evaluation.

    PubMed

    Cooperman, Julia L; Efuni, Elizaveta; Villagra, Cristina; DuHamel, Katherine; Jandorf, Lina

    2013-09-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) can be effectively prevented via screening colonoscopy, yet adherence rates remain low among Latinos. Interventions targeting individual and cultural barriers to screening are needed. We developed an educational brochure to target these barriers faced by a diverse Latino population. The objective was to evaluate the responses of the target population to the culturally and theoretically informed brochure through community member focus groups. Facilitators conducted six focus groups, stratified by gender, language, and prior colonoscopy experience. Topics included: brochure content and layout, cancer knowledge, and CRC screening determinants. Focus groups documented community members' responses to the brochure's overall message and its informational and visual components. Changes to wording, visual aids, and content were suggested to make the brochure culturally more acceptable. Results indicated relevance of the theoretically and culturally guided approach to the development of the brochure leading to refinement of its content and design.

  3. Colorectal cancer population screening programs worldwide in 2016: An update.

    PubMed

    Navarro, Mercedes; Nicolas, Andrea; Ferrandez, Angel; Lanas, Angel

    2017-05-28

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most commonly diagnosed cancer in the world. The incidence and mortality show wide geographical variations. Screening is recommended to reduce both incidence and mortality. However, there are significant differences among studies in implementation strategies and detection. This review aimed to present the results and strategies of different screening programs worldwide. We reviewed the literature on national and international screening programs published in PubMed, on web pages, and in clinical guidelines. CRC Screening programs are currently underway in most European countries, Canada, specific regions in North and South America, Asia, and Oceania. The most extensive screening strategies were based on fecal occult blood testing, and more recently, the fecal immunochemical test (FIT). Participation in screening has varied greatly among different programs. The Netherlands showed the highest participation rate (68.2%) and some areas of Canada showed the lowest (16%). Participation rates were highest among women and in programs that used the FIT test. Men exhibited the greatest number of positive results. The FIT test has been the most widely used screening program worldwide. The advent of this test has increased participation rates and the detection of positive results.

  4. Colorectal cancer population screening programs worldwide in 2016: An update

    PubMed Central

    Navarro, Mercedes; Nicolas, Andrea; Ferrandez, Angel; Lanas, Angel

    2017-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most commonly diagnosed cancer in the world. The incidence and mortality show wide geographical variations. Screening is recommended to reduce both incidence and mortality. However, there are significant differences among studies in implementation strategies and detection. This review aimed to present the results and strategies of different screening programs worldwide. We reviewed the literature on national and international screening programs published in PubMed, on web pages, and in clinical guidelines. CRC Screening programs are currently underway in most European countries, Canada, specific regions in North and South America, Asia, and Oceania. The most extensive screening strategies were based on fecal occult blood testing, and more recently, the fecal immunochemical test (FIT). Participation in screening has varied greatly among different programs. The Netherlands showed the highest participation rate (68.2%) and some areas of Canada showed the lowest (16%). Participation rates were highest among women and in programs that used the FIT test. Men exhibited the greatest number of positive results. The FIT test has been the most widely used screening program worldwide. The advent of this test has increased participation rates and the detection of positive results. PMID:28611516

  5. Improving Colorectal Cancer Screening by Using Community Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Katz, Mira L.; Tatum, Cathy; Dickinson, Stephanie L.; Murray, David M.; Long-Foley, Kristie; Cooper, M. Robert; Daven, Morgan; Paskett, Electra D.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND The goal of the Carolinas Cancer Education and Screening (CARES) Project was to improve colorectal cancer (CRC) screening among low-income women in subsidized housing communities in 11 cities in North and South Carolina who were traditionally underserved by cancer control efforts. METHODS Cross-sectional samples were randomly selected from housing authority lists at 5 timepoints in this nonrandomized community-based intervention study. Face-to-face interviews focused on CRC knowledge, beliefs, barriers to screening, and screening behaviors. The intervention components were based on a previous evidence-based program. RESULTS A total of 2098 surveys were completed. Seventy-eight percent of the respondents were African American, 62% were 65+ years, and 4% were married. At baseline, the rate of CRC screening within guidelines was 49.3% and physician recommendation was the strongest predictor (odds ratio [OR] = 21.9) of being within guidelines. There was an increase in positive beliefs about CRC screening (P =.010) and in the intention to complete CRC screening in the next 12 months (P =.053) after the intervention. The odds of being within CRC screening guidelines for women living in a city that had received the intervention were not significantly different from women living in a city that had not received the intervention (P =.496). CONCLUSIONS Although CRC screening rates were not significantly better after the intervention, there was a positive change in beliefs about screening and intention to be screened. The results suggest that the dissemination of an evidence-based behavioral intervention may require a longer duration to engage hard-to-reach populations and change behaviors. PMID:17665496

  6. Clinical Perspectives on Colorectal Cancer Screening at Latino-Serving Federally Qualified Health Centers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coronado, Gloria D.; Petrik, Amanda F.; Spofford, Mark; Talbot, Jocelyn; Do, Huyen Hoai; Taylor, Victoria M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Colorectal cancer is the second most common cause of cancer death in the United States, and rates of screening for colorectal cancer are low. We sought to gather the perceptions of clinic personnel at Latino-serving Federally Qualified Health Centers (operating 17 clinics) about barriers to utilization of screening services for colorectal…

  7. The Association of Perceived Provider-Patient Communication and Relationship Quality with Colorectal Cancer Screening

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Underhill, Meghan L.; Kiviniemi, Marc T.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Two-thirds of adults aged 50 years and older are adherent to recommendations for colorectal cancer screening. Provider-patient communication and characteristics of the patient-provider relationship may relate to screening behavior. Methods: The association of provider communication quality, relationship, and colorectal cancer screening…

  8. The Association of Perceived Provider-Patient Communication and Relationship Quality with Colorectal Cancer Screening

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Underhill, Meghan L.; Kiviniemi, Marc T.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Two-thirds of adults aged 50 years and older are adherent to recommendations for colorectal cancer screening. Provider-patient communication and characteristics of the patient-provider relationship may relate to screening behavior. Methods: The association of provider communication quality, relationship, and colorectal cancer screening…

  9. Clinical Perspectives on Colorectal Cancer Screening at Latino-Serving Federally Qualified Health Centers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coronado, Gloria D.; Petrik, Amanda F.; Spofford, Mark; Talbot, Jocelyn; Do, Huyen Hoai; Taylor, Victoria M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Colorectal cancer is the second most common cause of cancer death in the United States, and rates of screening for colorectal cancer are low. We sought to gather the perceptions of clinic personnel at Latino-serving Federally Qualified Health Centers (operating 17 clinics) about barriers to utilization of screening services for colorectal…

  10. Strategies for expanding colorectal cancer screening at community health centers.

    PubMed

    Sarfaty, Mona; Doroshenk, Mary; Hotz, James; Brooks, Durado; Hayashi, Seiji; Davis, Terry C; Joseph, Djenaba; Stevens, David; Weaver, Donald L; Potter, Michael B; Wender, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Community health centers are uniquely positioned to address disparities in colorectal cancer (CRC) screening as they have addressed other disparities. In 2012, the federal Health Resources and Services Administration, which is the funding agency for the health center program, added a requirement that health centers report CRC screening rates as a standard performance measure. These annually reported, publically available data are a major strategic opportunity to improve screening rates for CRC. The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act enacted provisions to expand the capacity of the federal health center program. The recent report of the Institute of Medicine on integrating public health and primary care included an entire section devoted to CRC screening as a target for joint work. These developments make this the ideal time to integrate lifesaving CRC screening into the preventive care already offered by health centers. This article offers 5 strategies that address the challenges health centers face in increasing CRC screening rates. The first 2 strategies focus on improving the processes of primary care. The third emphasizes working productively with other medical providers and institutions. The fourth strategy is about aligning leadership. The final strategy is focused on using tools that have been derived from models that work. Copyright © 2013 American Cancer Society, Inc.

  11. Colorectal cancer screening: An updated review of the available options

    PubMed Central

    Issa, Iyad A; Noureddine, Malak

    2017-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. However, colon cancer incidence and mortality is declining over the past decade owing to adoption of effective screening programs. Nevertheless, in some parts of the world, CRC incidence and mortality remain on the rise, likely due to factors including “westernized” diet, lifestyle, and lack of health-care infrastructure and resources. Participation and adherence to different national screening programs remain obstacles limiting the achievement of screening goals. Different modalities are available ranging from stool based tests to radiology and endoscopy with varying sensitivity and specificity. However, the availability of these tests is limited to areas with high economic resources. Recently, FDA approved a blood-based test (Epi procolon®) for CRC screening. This blood based test may serve to increase the participation and adherence rates. Hence, leading to increase in colon cancer detection and prevention. This article will discuss various CRC screening tests with a particular focus on the data regarding the new approved blood test. Finally, we will propose an algorithm for a simple cost-effective CRC screening program. PMID:28811705

  12. Developments in Screening Tests and Strategies for Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sovich, Justin L.; Sartor, Zachary; Misra, Subhasis

    2015-01-01

    Background. Worldwide, colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer in men and second most common in women. It is the fourth most common cause of cancer mortality. In the United States, CRC is the third most common cause of cancer and second most common cause of cancer mortality. Incidence and mortality rates have steadily fallen, primarily due to widespread screening. Methods. We conducted keyword searches on PubMed in four categories of CRC screening: stool, endoscopic, radiologic, and serum, as well as news searches in Medscape and Google News. Results. Colonoscopy is the gold standard for CRC screening and the most common method in the United States. Technological improvements continue to be made, including the promising “third-eye retroscope.” Fecal occult blood remains widely used, particularly outside the United States. The first at-home screen, a fecal DNA screen, has also recently been approved. Radiological methods are effective but seldom used due to cost and other factors. Serum tests are largely experimental, although at least one is moving closer to market. Conclusions. Colonoscopy is likely to remain the most popular screening modality for the immediate future, although its shortcomings will continue to spur innovation in a variety of modalities. PMID:26504799

  13. National industry's interest in colorectal cancer screening programmes.

    PubMed Central

    Hart, A R; Barone, T L; Wicks, A C; Mayberry, J F

    1994-01-01

    The interest of the largest 200 British industries in developing and financing colorectal screening services for employees was determined. A standard questionnaire asked if the company would advertise screening supply names of employees to local hospitals and finance faecal occult blood testing. The reasons for rejection were noted. Eighty-six companies returned the questionnaire (43% response rate) of which 78 firms (39% of the total mailed) were prepared to advertise screening programmes at the workplace. A quarter of the companies were prepared to both advertise and release employee details. Companies willing to participate employed significantly more people (mean of 17,000 employees) than those rejecting screening (mean of 6100 employees, Mann-Whitney U test = 7, P < 0.05). Fifty-nine industries would consider financing screening, although only five made a definite decision to do so. All companies rejecting (36/36) were concerned about releasing employee information to hospitals. If screening does reduce mortality and community programmes are developed industry could and is prepared to advertise such programmes. If a partnership between hospitals and industry is developed, concerns about employee confidentiality needs to be addressed. PMID:7837182

  14. Ethical issues with colorectal cancer screening-a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, Bjørn

    2017-06-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) screening is widely recommended and implemented. However, sometimes CRC screening is not implemented despite good evidence, and some types of CRC screening are implemented despite lack of evidence. The objective of this article is to expose and elucidate relevant ethical issues in the literature on CRC screening that are important for open and transparent deliberation on CRC screening. An axiological question-based method is used for exposing and elucidating ethical issues relevant in HTA. A literature search in MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, PubMed Bioethics subset, ISI Web of Knowledge, Bioethics Literature Database (BELIT), Ethics in Medicine (ETHMED), SIBIL Base dati di bioetica, LEWI Bibliographic Database on Ethics in the Sciences and Humanities, and EUROETHICS identified 870 references of which 114 were found relevant according to title and abstract. The content of the included papers were subject to ethical analysis to highlight the ethical issues, concerns, and arguments. A wide range of important ethical issues were identified. The main benefits are reduced relative CRC mortality rate, and potentially incidence rate, but there is no evidence of reduced absolute mortality rate. Potential harms are bleeding, perforation, false test results, overdetection, overdiagnosis, overtreatment (including unnecessary removal of polyps), and (rarely) death. Other important issues are related to autonomy and informed choice equity, justice, medicalization, and expanding disease. A series of important ethical issues have been identified and need to be addressed in open and transparent deliberation on CRC screening. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Potential Biases Introduced by Conflating Screening and Diagnostic Testing in Colorectal Cancer Screening Surveillance.

    PubMed

    Becker, Elizabeth A; Griffith, Derek M; West, Brady T; Janz, Nancy K; Resnicow, Ken; Morris, Arden M

    2015-12-01

    Screening and postsymptomatic diagnostic testing are often conflated in cancer screening surveillance research. We examined the error in estimated colorectal cancer screening prevalence due to the conflation of screening and diagnostic testing. Using data from the 2008 National Health Interview Survey, we compared weighted prevalence estimates of the use of all testing (screening and diagnostic) and screening in at-risk adults and calculated the overestimation of screening prevalence across sociodemographic groups. The population screening prevalence was overestimated by 23.3%, and the level of overestimation varied widely across sociodemographic groups (median, 22.6%; mean, 24.8%). The highest levels of overestimation were in non-Hispanic white females (27.4%), adults ages 50-54 years (32.0%), and those with the highest socioeconomic vulnerability [low educational attainment (31.3%), low poverty ratio (32.5%), no usual source of health care (54.4%), and not insured (51.6%); all P < 0.001]. When the impetus for testing was not included, colorectal cancer screening prevalence was overestimated, and patterns of overestimation often aligned with social and economic vulnerability. These results are of concern to researchers who use survey data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) to assess cancer screening behaviors, as it is currently not designed to distinguish diagnostic testing from screening. Surveillance research in cancer screening that does not consider the impetus for testing risks measurement error of screening prevalence, impeding progress toward improving population health. Ultimately, to craft relevant screening benchmarks and interventions, we must look beyond "what" and "when" and include "why." ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  16. Underuse of Colorectal Cancer Screening Among Men Screened for Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Red, Sara N.; Kassan, Elisabeth C.; Williams, Randi M.; Penek, Sofiya; Lynch, John; Ahaghotu, Chiledum; Taylor, Kathryn L.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND Evidence suggests that colorectal cancer (CRC) screening reduces disease-specific mortality, whereas the utility of prostate cancer screening remains uncertain. However, adherence rates for prostate cancer screening and CRC screening are very similar, with population-based studies showing that approximately 50% of eligible US men are adherent to both tests. Among men scheduled to participate in a free prostate cancer screening program, the authors assessed the rates and correlates of CRC screening to determine the utility of this setting for addressing CRC screening nonadherence. METHODS Participants (N = 331) were 50 to 70 years old with no history of prostate cancer or CRC. Men registered for free prostate cancer screening and completed a telephone interview 1 to 2 weeks before undergoing prostate cancer screening. RESULTS One half of the participants who underwent free prostate cancer screening were eligible for but nonadherent to CRC screening. Importantly, 76% of the men who were nonadherent to CRC screening had a regular physician and/or health insurance, suggesting that CRC screening adherence was feasible in this group. Furthermore, multivariate analyses indicated that the only significant correlates of CRC screening adherence were having a regular physician, health insurance, and a history of prostate cancer screening. CONCLUSIONS Free prostate cancer screening programs may provide a teachable moment to increase CRC screening among men who may not have the usual systemic barriers to CRC screening, at a time when they may be very receptive to cancer screening messages. In the United States, a large number of men participate in annual free prostate cancer screening programs and represent an easily accessible and untapped group that can benefit from interventions to increase CRC screening rates. PMID:20578178

  17. Screening for germline mismatch repair mutations following diagnosis of sebaceous neoplasm.

    PubMed

    Everett, Jessica N; Raymond, Victoria M; Dandapani, Monica; Marvin, Monica; Kohlmann, Wendy; Chittenden, Anu; Koeppe, Erika; Gustafson, Shanna L; Else, Tobias; Fullen, Douglas R; Johnson, Timothy M; Syngal, Sapna; Gruber, Stephen B; Stoffel, Elena M

    2014-12-01

    IMPORTANCE Sebaceous neoplasms (SNs) define the Muir-Torre syndrome variant of Lynch syndrome (LS), which is associated with increased risk for colon and other cancers necessitating earlier and more frequent screening to reduce morbidity and mortality.Immunohistochemical (IHC) staining for mismatch repair (MMR) proteins in SNs can be used to screen for LS, but data on subsequent germline genetic testing to confirm LS diagnosis are limited.OBJECTIVE To characterize the utility of IHC screening of SNs in identification of germline MMR mutations confirming LS.DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Retrospective study at 2 academic cancer centers of 86 adult patients referred for clinical genetics evaluation after diagnosis of SN.MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Results of tumor IHC testing and germline genetic testing were reviewed to determine positive predictive value and sensitivity of IHC testing in diagnosis of LS. Clinical variables, including age at diagnosis of SN, clinical diagnostic criteria for LS and Muir-Torre syndrome, and family history characteristics were compared between mutation carriers and noncarriers.RESULTS Of 86 patients with SNs, 25 (29%) had germline MMR mutations confirming LS.Among 77 patients with IHC testing on SNs, 38 (49%) had loss of staining of 1 or more MMR proteins and 14 had germline MMR mutations. Immunohistochemical analysis correctly identified 13 of 16 MMR mutation carriers, corresponding to 81% sensitivity. Ten of 12 patients(83%) with more than 1 SN had MMR mutations. Fifty-two percent of MMR mutation carriers did not meet clinical diagnostic criteria for LS, and 11 of 25 (44%) did not meet the clinical definition of Muir-Torre syndrome. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Immunohistochemical screening of SNs is effective in identifying patients with germline MMR mutations and can be used as a first-line test when LSis suspected. Abnormal IHC results, including absence of MSH2, are not diagnostic of LS and should be interpreted cautiously in

  18. Colorectal cancer screening: the time to act is now.

    PubMed

    Brenner, Hermann; Stock, Christian; Hoffmeister, Michael

    2015-10-13

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer and the fourth most common cause of cancer deaths globally. However, there is overwhelming evidence that a large proportion of CRC cases and deaths could be prevented by screening. Nevertheless, CRC screening programmes are offered in a minority of countries only and often suffer from low adherence. Factors potentially accounting for hesitant implementation of and low adherence to CRC screening may include a lower attention in the public and the media than for other cancers and the fairly long follow-up time needed to fully disclose screening effects on CRC incidence and mortality. The latter results from the very slow development of most CRCs through the adenoma-carcinoma sequence, and it challenges the predominant or even exclusive reliance on evidence from randomized controlled trials in policy decisions on screening offers. Additional key elements of future research should include (1) studies evaluating diagnostic performance of novel biomarkers for non-invasive or minimally invasive CRC screening in true screening settings, (2) modelling studies evaluating expected short- and long-term impact, effectiveness, and cost-effectiveness of various screening options, and (3) timely and close monitoring of process quality and outcomes of existing and planned CRC screening programmes. Most importantly, however, translation of the vast existing evidence on CRC screening into actual screening programmes with the best possible levels of adherence needs to be fostered. This can be best achieved in the context of organized programmes. Depending on available infrastructure and resources, epidemiological patterns, population preferences, and costs, different screening offers might be preferred. According to current evidence, colonoscopy, flexible sigmoidoscopy, and faecal occult blood tests (preferably faecal immunochemical tests) are prime candidates for effective and cost-effective screening options, and

  19. Implications of polygenic risk for personalised colorectal cancer screening.

    PubMed

    Frampton, M J E; Law, P; Litchfield, K; Morris, E J; Kerr, D; Turnbull, C; Tomlinson, I P; Houlston, R S

    2016-03-01

    We modelled the utility of applying a personalised screening approach for colorectal cancer (CRC) when compared with standard age-based screening. In this personalised screening approach, eligibility is determined by absolute risk which is calculated from age and polygenic risk score (PRS), where the PRS is relative risk attributable to common genetic variation. In contrast, eligibility in age-based screening is determined only by age. We calculated absolute risks of CRC from UK population age structure, incidence and mortality rate data, and a PRS distribution which we derived for the 37 known CRC susceptibility variants. We compared the number of CRC cases potentially detectable by personalised and age-based screening. Using Genome-Wide Complex Trait Analysis to calculate the heritability attributable to common variation, we repeated the analysis assuming all common CRC risk variants were known. Based on the known CRC variants, individuals with a PRS in the top 1% have a 2.9-fold increased CRC risk over the population median. Compared with age-based screening (aged 60: 10-year absolute risk 1.96% in men, 1.19% in women, as per the UK NHS National Bowel Screening Programme), personalised screening of individuals aged 55-69 at the same risk would lead to 16% fewer men and 17% fewer women being eligible for screening with 10% and 8%, respectively, fewer screen-detected cases. If all susceptibility variants were known, individuals with a PRS in the top 1% would have an estimated 7.7-fold increased risk. Personalised screening would then result in 26% fewer men and women being eligible for screening with 7% and 5% fewer screen-detected cases. Personalised screening using PRS has the potential to optimise population screening for CRC and to define those likely to maximally benefit from chemoprevention. There are however significant technical and operational details to be addressed before any such programme is introduced. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford

  20. Acceptance, yield and feasibility of attaching HCV birth cohort screening to colorectal cancer screening in Spain.

    PubMed

    García-Alonso, Francisco Javier; Bonillo-Cambrodón, Daniel; Bermejo, Andrea; García-Martínez, Jesús; Hernández-Tejero, María; Valer López Fando, Paz; Piqueras, Belén; Bermejo, Fernando

    2016-10-01

    The US Centers for Disease Control recommends hepatitis C virus (HCV) screening for baby boomers. Spain presents a similar distribution of infected patients. We performed a cross sectional prospective study to evaluate the prevalence of undiagnosed HCV infection in subjects born between 1949 and 1974. All out-patients within the age range, both symptomatic and screening procedures, undergoing colonoscopy between December 2014 and June 2015 were offered a HCV antibody blood test and a survey including risk factors for HCV infection and attitude toward HCV screening. Patients with chronic HCV or with a previous negative HCV antibody test were excluded. A total of 570 subjects, 50% screening procedures, were analyzed. The median age was 55.7, 94.6% were born in Spain and 54.6% were women. Antibodies against HCV were found in 1.6% (95% CI: 0.8-3%) and HCV-RNA in 0.4% (0.1-1.3%). We found no statistically significant differences regarding HCV prevalence, risk factors or socioeconomic characteristics between subjects undergoing colorectal cancer screening and symptomatic subjects. Symptomatic and screening subjects undergoing colonoscopy support HCV screening and present a similar HCV risk profile. Results suggest linking colorectal and HCV screening would yield good results. Copyright © 2016 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Screening and surveillance for second malignant neoplasms in adult survivors of childhood cancer: A report from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (CCSS)

    PubMed Central

    Nathan, Paul Craig; Ness, Kirsten Kimberlie; Mahoney, Martin Christopher; Li, Zhenghong; Hudson, Melissa Maria; Ford, Jennifer Sylene; Landier, Wendy; Stovall, Marilyn; Armstrong, Gregory Thomas; Henderson, Tara Olive; Robison, Leslie L; Oeffinger, Kevin Charles

    2011-01-01

    Background Childhood cancer survivors may develop a second malignant neoplasm during adulthood and therefore require regular surveillance. Objective To examine adherence to population cancer screening guidelines by survivors at average risk of developing a second malignant neoplasm, and to cancer surveillance guidelines by survivors at high risk of developing a second malignant neoplasm. Design Retrospective cohort study. Setting The Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (CCSS), a 26 center study of long-term survivors of childhood cancer who were diagnosed between 1970 and 1986. Patients 4,329 male and 4,018 female survivors of childhood cancer who completed a CCSS questionnaire assessing screening and surveillance for new cancers. Measurements Patient-reported receipt and timing of mammography, Papanicolaou smear, colonoscopy, or skin examination was categorized as adherent to the United States Preventive Services Task Force guidelines for survivors at average risk for breast or cervical cancer, or the Children’s Oncology Group guidelines for survivors at high risk for developing breast, colorectal or skin cancer as a result of their therapy. Results Among average risk female survivors, 2,743/3,392 (80.9%) reported a Papanicolaou smear within the recommended period, and 140/209 (67.0%) reported a mammogram within the recommended period. Among high risk survivors, rates of recommended mammography among females, and colonoscopy and complete skin exams among both genders were only 241/522 (46.2%), 91/794 (11.5%) and 1,290/4,850 (26.6%), respectively. Limitations Data were self report. CCSS participants are a select group of survivors and their compliance may not be representative of all childhood cancer survivors. Conclusions Female survivors at average risk for developing a second malignant neoplasm demonstrate reasonable rates of screening for cervical and breast cancer. However, surveillance for new cancers is very poor amongst survivors at highest risk for colon

  2. Clinical Significance of Colonoscopy in Patients with Upper Gastrointestinal Polyps and Neoplasms: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Zhen-Jie; Lin, Yuan; Xiao, Jun; Wu, Liu-Cheng; Liu, Jun-Gang

    2014-01-01

    Background Some authors have studied the relationship between the presence of polyps, adenomas and cancers of upper gastrointestinal tract (stomach and duodenum) and risk of colorectal polyps and neoplasms; however, the results are controversial, which may be due to study sample size, populations, design, clinical features, and so on. No meta-analysis, which can be generalized to a larger population and could provide a quantitative pooled risk estimate of the relationship, of this issue existed so far. Methods We performed a meta-analysis to evaluate risk of colorectal polyps or neoplasms in patients with polyps, adenomas or cancers in upper gastrointestinal tract comparing with controls. A search was conducted through PubMed, EMBASE, reference lists of potentially relevant papers, and practice guidelines up to 27 November 2013 without languages restriction. Odd ratios (ORs) were pooled using random-effects models. Results The search yielded 3 prospective and 21 retrospective case-control studies (n = 37152 participants). The principal findings included: (1) OR for colorectal polyps was 1.15 (95% CI, 1.04–1.26) in the gastric polyps group comparing with control groups; (2) Patients with gastric polyps and neoplasms have higher risk (OR, 1.31 [95% CI, 1.06–1.62], and 1.72 [95% CI, 1.42–2.09], respectively) of colorectal neoplasms comparing with their controls; and (3) Positive association was found between the presence of colorectal neoplasms and sporadic duodenal neoplasms (OR, 2.59; 95% CI, 1.64–4.11). Conclusions Findings from present meta-analysis of 24 case-control studies suggest that the prevalence of colorectal polyps was higher in patients with gastric polyps than in those without gastric polyps, and the risk of colorectal neoplasms increases significantly in patients with gastric polyps, neoplasms, and duodenal neoplasms. Therefore, screening colonoscopy should be considered for patients with upper gastrointestinal polyps and neoplasms. PMID

  3. Prevalence of colorectal polyps in a group of subjects at average-risk of colorectal cancer undergoing colonoscopic screening in Tehran, Iran between 2008 and 2013.

    PubMed

    Sohrabi, Masoudreza; Zamani, Farhad; Ajdarkosh, Hossien; Rakhshani, Naser; Ameli, Mitra; Mohamadnejad, Mehdi; Kabir, Ali; Hemmasi, Gholamreza; Khonsari, Mahmoudreza; Motamed, Nima

    2014-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the prime causes of mortality around the globe, with a significantly rising incidence in the Middle East region in recent decades. Since detection of CRC in the early stages is an important issue, and also since to date there are no comprehensive epidemiologic studies depicting the Middle East region with special attention to the average risk group, further investigation is of significant necessity in this regard. Our aim was to investigate the prevalence of preneoplastic and neoplastic lesions of the colon in an average risk population. A total of 1,208 eligible asymptomatic, average- risk adults older than 40 years of age, referred to Firuzgar Hospotal in the years 2008-2012, were enrolled. They underwent colonoscopy screening and all polypoid lesions were removed and examined by an expert gastrointestinal pathologist. The lesions were classified by size, location, numbers and pathologic findings. Size of lesions was measured objectively by endoscopists. The mean age of participants was 56.5±9.59 and 51.6% were male. The overall polyp detection rate was 199/1208 (16.5 %), 26 subjects having non-neoplastic polyps, including hyperplastic lesions, and 173/1208 (14.3%) having neoplastic polyps, of which 26 (2.15%) were advanced neoplasms .The prevalence of colorectal neoplasia was more common among the 50-59 age group. Advanced adenoma was more frequent among the 60-69 age group. The majority of adenomas were detected in the distal colon, but a quarter of advanced adenomas were found in the proximal colon; advance age and male gender was associated with the presence of adenoma. It seems that CRC screening among average-risk population might be recommended in countries such as Iran. However, sigmioidoscopy alone would miss many colorectal adenomas. Furthermore, the 50-59 age group could be considered as an appropriate target population for this purpose in Iran.

  4. Narratives that Address Affective Forecasting Errors Reduce Perceived Barriers to Colorectal Cancer Screening

    PubMed Central

    Dillard, Amanda; Fagerlin, Angela; Cin, Sonya Dal; Zikmund-Fisher, Brian J; Ubel, Peter A

    2014-01-01

    Narratives from similar others may be an effective way to increase important health behaviors. In this study, we used a narrative intervention to promote colorectal cancer screening. Researchers have suggested that people may overestimate barriers to colorectal cancer screening. We recruited participants from the US, ages 49–60 who had never previously been screened for colorectal cancer, to read an educational message about screening for the disease. One-half of participants were randomly assigned to also receive a narrative within the message (control participants did not receive a narrative). The narrative intervention was developed according to predictions of affective forecasting theory. Compared to participants who received only the educational message, participants who received the message along with a narrative reported that the barriers to screening would have less of an impact on a future screening experience. The narrative also increased risk perception for colorectal cancer and interest in screening in the next year. PMID:20417005

  5. Primary care practice organization influences colorectal cancer screening performance.

    PubMed

    Yano, Elizabeth M; Soban, Lynn M; Parkerton, Patricia H; Etzioni, David A

    2007-06-01

    To identify primary care practice characteristics associated with colorectal cancer (CRC) screening performance, controlling for patient-level factors. Primary care director survey (1999-2000) of 155 VA primary care clinics linked with 38,818 eligible patients' sociodemographics, utilization, and CRC screening experience using centralized administrative and chart-review data (2001). Practices were characterized by degrees of centralization (e.g., authority over operations, staffing, outside-practice influence); resources (e.g., sufficiency of nonphysician staffing, space, clinical support arrangements); and complexity (e.g., facility size, academic status, managed care penetration), adjusting for patient-level covariates and contextual factors. Chart-based evidence of CRC screening through direct colonoscopy, sigmoidoscopy, or consecutive fecal occult blood tests, eliminating cases with documented histories of CRC, polyps, or inflammatory bowel disease. After adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics and health care utilization, patients were significantly more likely to be screened for CRC if their primary care practices had greater autonomy over the internal structure of care delivery (p<.04), more clinical support arrangements (p<.03), and smaller size (p<.001). Deficits in primary care clinical support arrangements and local autonomy over operational management and referral procedures are associated with significantly lower CRC screening performance. Competition with hospital resource demands may impinge on the degree of internal organization of their affiliated primary care practices.

  6. [Screening for colorectal cancer in Italy, 2010 survey].

    PubMed

    Zorzi, Manuel; Fedato, Chiara; Grazzini, Grazia; Sassoli de' Bianchi, Priscilla; Naldoni, Carlo; Pendenza, Melania; Sassatelli, Romano; Senore, Carlo; Visioli, Carmen Beatriz; Zappa, Marco

    2012-01-01

    We present the main results of the 2010 survey of the Italian screening programmes for colorectal cancer carried out by the National centre for screening monitoring (Osservatorio nazionale screening, ONS) on behalf of the Ministry of health. By the end of 2010, 105 programmes were active, 9 of which had been activated during the year, and 65% of Italians aged 50-69 years were residing in areas covered by organised screening programmes (theoretical extension). Twelve regions had their whole population covered. In the South of Italy and Islands, 5 new programmes were activated in 2010, with a theoretical extension of 29%. The majority of programmes employed the faecal occult blood test (FIT), while some adopted flexible sigmoidoscopy (FS) once in a lifetime and FIT for non-responders to FS. Overall, about 3,404,000 subjects were invited to undergo FIT, 47.2% of those to be invited within the year. The adjusted attendance rate was 48% and approximately 1,568,796 subjects were screened. Large differences in the attendance rate were observed among regions: 10% of programmes reported values lower than 24%. Positivity rate of FIT programmes was 5.5% at first screening (range: 1.6-11.3%) and 4.3% at repeat screening (range: 3.2-6.7%). The average attendance rate to total colonoscopy (TC) was 81.4% and in one region it was lower than 70%. Completion rate for total colonoscopy (TC) was 88.7%. Among the 740,281 subjects attending screening for the first time, the detection rate (DR) per 1,000 screened subjects was 2.4 for invasive cancer and 10.3 for advanced adenomas (AA - adenomas with a diameter ≥1 cm, with villous/tubulo-villous type or with high-grade dysplasia). As expected, the corresponding figures in the 843,204 subjects at repeat screening were lower (1.2‰ and 7.6‰ for invasive cancer and AA, respectively). The DR of cancer and adenomas increased with age and was higher among males. Many programmes reported some difficulties in guaranteeing TC in the

  7. Prospective Investigation of Body Mass Index, Colorectal Adenoma, and Colorectal Cancer in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial

    PubMed Central

    Kitahara, Cari M.; Berndt, Sonja I.; de González, Amy Berrington; Coleman, Helen G.; Schoen, Robert E.; Hayes, Richard B.; Huang, Wen-Yi

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Obesity has consistently been linked to an increased risk of colorectal cancer, particularly among men. Whether body mass index (BMI) differentially influences the risk across the stages of colorectal cancer development remains unclear. We evaluated the associations of BMI with colorectal adenoma incidence, adenoma recurrence, and cancer in the context of a large screening trial, in which cases and controls had an equal chance for disease detection. Methods We prospectively evaluated the association between baseline BMI and the risk of incident distal adenoma (1,213 cases), recurrent adenoma (752 cases), and incident colorectal cancer (966 cases) among men and women, ages 55 to 74 years, randomly assigned to receive flexible sigmoidoscopy screening as part of the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial. We calculated odds ratios (ORs) and 95% CIs for adenoma incidence and recurrence, and hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs for colorectal cancer incidence, using multivariable-adjusted models. Results Compared with normal-weight men (18.5 to 24.9 kg/m2), obese men (≥ 30 kg/m2) had significantly higher risk of incident adenoma (OR, 1.32; 95% CI, 1.06 to 1.65) and colorectal cancer (HR, 1.48; 95% CI, 1.16 to 1.89) and a borderline increased risk of recurrent adenoma (OR, 1.50; 95% CI, 0.98 to 2.30). No associations were observed for either adenoma or cancer in women. Conclusion Data from this large prospective study suggest that obesity is important throughout the natural history of colorectal cancer, at least in men, and colorectal cancer prevention efforts should encourage the achievement and maintenance of a healthy body weight in addition to regular screenings. PMID:23715565

  8. Prospective investigation of body mass index, colorectal adenoma, and colorectal cancer in the prostate, lung, colorectal, and ovarian cancer screening trial.

    PubMed

    Kitahara, Cari M; Berndt, Sonja I; de González, Amy Berrington; Coleman, Helen G; Schoen, Robert E; Hayes, Richard B; Huang, Wen-Yi

    2013-07-01

    Obesity has consistently been linked to an increased risk of colorectal cancer, particularly among men. Whether body mass index (BMI) differentially influences the risk across the stages of colorectal cancer development remains unclear. We evaluated the associations of BMI with colorectal adenoma incidence, adenoma recurrence, and cancer in the context of a large screening trial, in which cases and controls had an equal chance for disease detection. We prospectively evaluated the association between baseline BMI and the risk of incident distal adenoma (1,213 cases), recurrent adenoma (752 cases), and incident colorectal cancer (966 cases) among men and women, ages 55 to 74 years, randomly assigned to receive flexible sigmoidoscopy screening as part of the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial. We calculated odds ratios (ORs) and 95% CIs for adenoma incidence and recurrence, and hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs for colorectal cancer incidence, using multivariable-adjusted models. Compared with normal-weight men (18.5 to 24.9 kg/m(2)), obese men (≥ 30 kg/m(2)) had significantly higher risk of incident adenoma (OR, 1.32; 95% CI, 1.06 to 1.65) and colorectal cancer (HR, 1.48; 95% CI, 1.16 to 1.89) and a borderline increased risk of recurrent adenoma (OR, 1.50; 95% CI, 0.98 to 2.30). No associations were observed for either adenoma or cancer in women. Data from this large prospective study suggest that obesity is important throughout the natural history of colorectal cancer, at least in men, and colorectal cancer prevention efforts should encourage the achievement and maintenance of a healthy body weight in addition to regular screenings.

  9. Familial risk and colorectal cancer screening health beliefs and attitudes in an insured population.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Richard C; Emmons, Karen M; Fletcher, Robert H; Lobb, Rebecca; Miroshnik, Irina; Kemp, James Alan; Bauer, Mark

    2007-11-01

    To examine the relationship between health beliefs and attitudes toward colorectal cancer screening, strength of family history risk, and being appropriately screened for colorectal cancer. In February 2004, 7000 randomly selected members of a multi-specialty group practice located in Boston, MA were mailed a brief survey that was used to ascertain colorectal cancer family history. A follow-up survey that contained questions representing selected constructs of the Health Belief Model, Theory of Planned Behavior, and healthcare experiences was then mailed to all 355 individuals who reported a family history in the initial survey and 710 randomly selected participants with no colorectal cancer family history. Participants who were appropriately screened had higher mean scores for perceived cancer risk, subjective norms, and perceived benefits and lower scores for perceived barriers. Multivariate findings indicate that having high perceptions of risk for colorectal cancer was a significant correlate of being screened appropriately among individuals with a strong family history. For those at greatest colorectal cancer risk due to family history, ensuring that these individuals understand their personal risk might lead to increased colorectal cancer screening participation. Future intervention research is warranted to examine if raising perceptions of risk can increase screening behaviors in individuals with colorectal cancer risk due to family history.

  10. Screening for colorectal cancer: developing a preventive healthcare program utilizing nurse endoscopists.

    PubMed

    Eisemon, N; Stucky-Marshall, L; Talamonti, M S

    2001-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the United States. In 2000, approximately 130,200 new cases of colorectal cancer will be diagnosed, and 56,300 persons will die from the disease (Greenlee, Murray, Boldan, & Wingo, 2000). A survey conducted for the National Colorectal Cancer Roundtable by the Gallup Organization, found that 47% of people over 50 are not being screened. The National Colorectal Cancer Awareness Month, which began in March 2000, will educate Americans age 50 and older and prescribe physicians about the importance of colorectal cancer screening tests. The effect of increased education and directing physicians to include colorectal screening for their patients will create a need for non-physician endoscopists to meet the screening needs of the population. A colorectal cancer screening center was developed at a large Midwestern teaching hospital utilizing nurse endoscopists. The purpose of this article is to provide information for institutions to develop and implement a colorectal cancer screening center utilizing nurse endoscopists.

  11. An updated Asia Pacific Consensus Recommendations on colorectal cancer screening.

    PubMed

    Sung, J J Y; Ng, S C; Chan, F K L; Chiu, H M; Kim, H S; Matsuda, T; Ng, S S M; Lau, J Y W; Zheng, S; Adler, S; Reddy, N; Yeoh, K G; Tsoi, K K F; Ching, J Y L; Kuipers, E J; Rabeneck, L; Young, G P; Steele, R J; Lieberman, D; Goh, K L

    2015-01-01

    Since the publication of the first Asia Pacific Consensus on Colorectal Cancer (CRC) in 2008, there are substantial advancements in the science and experience of implementing CRC screening. The Asia Pacific Working Group aimed to provide an updated set of consensus recommendations. Members from 14 Asian regions gathered to seek consensus using other national and international guidelines, and recent relevant literature published from 2008 to 2013. A modified Delphi process was adopted to develop the statements. Age range for CRC screening is defined as 50-75 years. Advancing age, male, family history of CRC, smoking and obesity are confirmed risk factors for CRC and advanced neoplasia. A risk-stratified scoring system is recommended for selecting high-risk patients for colonoscopy. Quantitative faecal immunochemical test (FIT) instead of guaiac-based faecal occult blood test (gFOBT) is preferred for average-risk subjects. Ancillary methods in colonoscopy, with the exception of chromoendoscopy, have not proven to be superior to high-definition white light endoscopy in identifying adenoma. Quality of colonoscopy should be upheld and quality assurance programme should be in place to audit every aspects of CRC screening. Serrated adenoma is recognised as a risk for interval cancer. There is no consensus on the recruitment of trained endoscopy nurses for CRC screening. Based on recent data on CRC screening, an updated list of recommendations on CRC screening is prepared. These consensus statements will further enhance the implementation of CRC screening in the Asia Pacific region. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  12. Laypersons' views of material incentives for enhancing colorectal cancer screening.

    PubMed

    Hagoel, Lea; Rennert, Gad; Feder-Bubis, Paula

    2015-10-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) early detection improves health outcomes; screening programmes invest efforts in initiating invitations to target populations to be tested. Enhanced adherence is essential for reduction of morbidity and mortality. Participation rates in Israel are still relatively low. To explore lay views regarding the concept of receiving material incentives in exchange for enhanced adherence to CRC screening. Qualitative study. Between November 2009 and February 2010 six focus group discussions were carried out in two urban, middle and low socio-economic status primary care clinics in a Northern city in Israel. Participants were eligible individuals for CRC screening, aged 50-68 (N = 24). Data analysis followed the principles of grounded theory, supported by qualitative software. Participants found administering incentives in exchange for CRC screening inappropriate on rational and moral grounds. They valued their relations with the medical team and the health system more than the potential gain expected. Individuals eligible for CRC screening perceived themselves as responsible for their health, admitting difficulties in realizing this responsibility. Incentives were reported unsuitable for solving reported screening difficulties and a potential harm to the doctor-patient relationship. Focus group participants expressed an unconventional voice towards the use of material incentives. They pointed to the need for focused support of health behaviour change and valued their autonomy. While a proportion of the invitees in the target population see the importance of screening and appreciate the HMO's initiative to invite them for testing, they also expressed their need for support from the HMO in realizing the recommended health behaviour. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Left-sided early onset colorectal carcinomas: A sporadic neoplasm with aggressive behavior.

    PubMed

    Pilozzi, Emanuela; Lorenzon, Laura; Lo Baido, Simone; Ferri, Mario; Duranti, Enrico; Fochetti, Flavio; Mercantini, Paolo; Ramacciato, Giovanni; Balducci, Genoveffa; Ruco, Luigi

    2017-09-01

    Early onset (≤50y) colorectal carcinomas (EO-CRCs) are increasing in incidence according to epidemiological data. We investigated clinical-pathological, molecular features and outcomes of 62 left sided EO-CRCs (EOLS-CRCs) and compared them to a group of late onset (≥65) LS-CRCs (LOLS-CRCs). Samples were evaluated for pathological features and microsatellite instability (MSI). Overall survival (OS), disease free survival (DFS) and disease specific survival were evaluated in both groups. Five out 62 (8%) EOLS-CRCs showed MSI phenotype. Interestingly these cases were aged 26-39y. Most EOLS-CRCs present at advanced stage and this was statistically significant when compared to LOLS-CRCs. OS was better in EOLS-CRCs whilst DFS showed a worst profile in EOLS-CRCs either in low and high stages even though young patients were treated more often with adjuvant chemotherapy compared to older ones at the same disease stage. Most EOLS-CRCs are sporadic non Lynch, microsatellite stable (MSS) CRCs. Our data show that when compared with LOLS-CRCs the early group represents an aggressive disease with worst outcome underlining a possible different carcinogenic pathway. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Risk assessment and clinical decision making for colorectal cancer screening.

    PubMed

    Schroy, Paul C; Caron, Sarah E; Sherman, Bonnie J; Heeren, Timothy C; Battaglia, Tracy A

    2015-10-01

    Shared decision making (SDM) related to test preference has been advocated as a potentially effective strategy for increasing adherence to colorectal cancer (CRC) screening, yet primary care providers (PCPs) are often reluctant to comply with patient preferences if they differ from their own. Risk stratification advanced colorectal neoplasia (ACN) provides a rational strategy for reconciling these differences. To assess the importance of risk stratification in PCP decision making related to test preference for average-risk patients and receptivity to use of an electronic risk assessment tool for ACN to facilitate SDM. Mixed methods, including qualitative key informant interviews and a cross-sectional survey. PCPs at an urban, academic safety-net institution. Screening preferences, factors influencing patient recommendations and receptivity to use of a risk stratification tool. Nine PCPs participated in interviews and 57 completed the survey. Despite an overwhelming preference for colonoscopy by 95% of respondents, patient risk (67%) and patient preferences (63%) were more influential in their decision making than patient comorbidities (31%; P < 0.001). Age was the single most influential risk factor (excluding family history), with <20% of respondents choosing factors other than age. Most respondents reported that they would be likely to use a risk stratification tool in their practice either 'often' (43%) or sometimes (53%). Risk stratification was perceived to be important in clinical decision making, yet few providers considered risk factors other than age for average-risk patients. Providers were receptive to the use of a risk assessment tool for ACN when recommending an appropriate screening test for select patients. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Interactive, Culturally Sensitive Education on Colorectal Cancer Screening

    PubMed Central

    Menon, Usha; Szalacha, Laura A.; Belue, Rhonda; Rugen, Kathryn; Martin, Kelly R.; Kinney, Anita Y.

    2011-01-01

    Background Increasing colorectal cancer screening (CRCS) can have a substantial positive impact on morbidity and mortality. Objectives The purpose of this report is to describe the development and feasibility testing of a computer-based, theory-guided educational program designed to increase CRCS. Research Design This mixed-methods study used focus groups and subsequent randomized controlled trial design. Subjects Participants (N = 199) were randomized to an intervention or control group; 75% were African American; mean age was 57.36 (SD = 6.8); 71% were male. Measures Previously validated measures on knowledge, beliefs, and screening test adherence were used to establish pre- and post-intervention perceptions. Feasibility was measured by response and completion rates, and participants’ perceptions of the program. Results Before feasibility testing, the program was presented to 2 focus groups. Changes were made to the program based on discussion, leading to a visually appealing, easy to understand and navigate, self-paced program. In the RCT pilot test that followed, of the participants in the intervention group, 80% said the education helped them decide to get CRCS; 49% agreed it helped them overcome barriers; 91% agreed it was useful, 68% thought it raised new concerns about cancer, but only 30% said it made them worry about CRC; 95% agreed their doctor's office should continue giving such education, and 99% said they would inform family about the program. Conclusions The response rate of 83% demonstrated feasibility of conducting colorectal cancer education in the primary care setting; overall the program was well received; participants averaged 23 minutes to complete it. Participants sought no help from attending data collectors and navigated the revised touch screen program with ease. Computer-based education is feasible in primary care clinics. PMID:18725832

  16. Colorectal cancer screening with odour material by canine scent detection

    PubMed Central

    Kohnoe, Shunji; Yamazato, Tetsuro; Satoh, Yuji; Morizono, Gouki; Shikata, Kentaro; Morita, Makoto; Watanabe, Akihiro; Morita, Masaru; Kakeji, Yoshihiro; Inoue, Fumio; Maehara, Yoshihiko

    2011-01-01

    Objective Early detection and early treatment are of vital importance to the successful treatment of various cancers. The development of a novel screening method that is as economical and non-invasive as the faecal occult blood test (FOBT) for early detection of colorectal cancer (CRC) is needed. A study was undertaken using canine scent detection to determine whether odour material can become an effective tool in CRC screening. Design Exhaled breath and watery stool samples were obtained from patients with CRC and from healthy controls prior to colonoscopy. Each test group consisted of one sample from a patient with CRC and four control samples from volunteers without cancer. These five samples were randomly and separately placed into five boxes. A Labrador retriever specially trained in scent detection of cancer and a handler cooperated in the tests. The dog first smelled a standard breath sample from a patient with CRC, then smelled each sample station and sat down in front of the station in which a cancer scent was detected. Results 33 and 37 groups of breath and watery stool samples, respectively, were tested. Among patients with CRC and controls, the sensitivity of canine scent detection of breath samples compared with conventional diagnosis by colonoscopy was 0.91 and the specificity was 0.99. The sensitivity of canine scent detection of stool samples was 0.97 and the specificity was 0.99. The accuracy of canine scent detection was high even for early cancer. Canine scent detection was not confounded by current smoking, benign colorectal disease or inflammatory disease. Conclusions This study shows that a specific cancer scent does indeed exist and that cancer-specific chemical compounds may be circulating throughout the body. These odour materials may become effective tools in CRC screening. In the future, studies designed to identify cancer-specific volatile organic compounds will be important for the development of new methods for early detection of CRC

  17. Designing Colorectal Cancer Screening Decision Support: A Cognitive Engineering Enterprise

    PubMed Central

    Militello, Laura G.; Saleem, Jason J.; Borders, Morgan R.; Sushereba, Christen E.; Haverkamp, Donald; Wolf, Steven P.; Doebbeling, Bradley N.

    2016-01-01

    Adoption of clinical decision support has been limited. Important barriers include an emphasis on algorithmic approaches to decision support that do not align well with clinical work flow and human decision strategies, and the expense and challenge of developing, implementing, and refining decision support features in existing electronic health records (EHRs). We applied decision-centered design to create a modular software application to support physicians in managing and tracking colorectal cancer screening. Using decision-centered design facilitates a thorough understanding of cognitive support requirements from an end user perspective as a foundation for design. In this project, we used an iterative design process, including ethnographic observation and cognitive task analysis, to move from an initial design concept to a working modular software application called the Screening & Surveillance App. The beta version is tailored to work with the Veterans Health Administration’s EHR Computerized Patient Record System (CPRS). Primary care providers using the beta version Screening & Surveillance App more accurately answered questions about patients and found relevant information more quickly compared to those using CPRS alone. Primary care providers also reported reduced mental effort and rated the Screening & Surveillance App positively for usability. PMID:26973441

  18. Designing Colorectal Cancer Screening Decision Support: A Cognitive Engineering Enterprise.

    PubMed

    Militello, Laura G; Saleem, Jason J; Borders, Morgan R; Sushereba, Christen E; Haverkamp, Donald; Wolf, Steven P; Doebbeling, Bradley N

    2016-03-01

    Adoption of clinical decision support has been limited. Important barriers include an emphasis on algorithmic approaches to decision support that do not align well with clinical work flow and human decision strategies, and the expense and challenge of developing, implementing, and refining decision support features in existing electronic health records (EHRs). We applied decision-centered design to create a modular software application to support physicians in managing and tracking colorectal cancer screening. Using decision-centered design facilitates a thorough understanding of cognitive support requirements from an end user perspective as a foundation for design. In this project, we used an iterative design process, including ethnographic observation and cognitive task analysis, to move from an initial design concept to a working modular software application called the Screening & Surveillance App. The beta version is tailored to work with the Veterans Health Administration's EHR Computerized Patient Record System (CPRS). Primary care providers using the beta version Screening & Surveillance App more accurately answered questions about patients and found relevant information more quickly compared to those using CPRS alone. Primary care providers also reported reduced mental effort and rated the Screening & Surveillance App positively for usability.

  19. Colorectal Cancer Screening Participation: Comparisons With Mammography and Prostate-Specific Antigen Screening

    PubMed Central

    Lemon, Stephenie; Zapka, Jane; Puleo, Elaine; Luckmann, Roger; Chasan-Taber, Lisa

    2001-01-01

    Objectives. The relation of personal characteristics, health and lifestyle behaviors, and cancer screening practices to current colorectal cancer (CRC) screening was assessed and compared with those factors' relation to current mammography screening in women and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening in men. Methods. A cross-sectional random-digit-dialed telephone survey of 954 Massachusetts residents aged 50 and older was conducted. Results. The overall prevalence of current CRC screening was 55.3%. Logistic regression results indicated that family history of CRC (odds ratio [OR] = 1.98; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.02, 3.86), receiving a regular medical checkup (OR = 3.07; 95% CI = 2.00, 4.71), current screening by mammography in women and PSA in men (OR = 4.40; 95% CI = 2.94, 6.58), and vitamin supplement use (OR = 1.87; 95% CI = 1.27, 2.77) were significant predictors of CRC screening. Conclusions. Health and lifestyle behaviors were related to increased current CRC, mammography, and PSA screening. Personal factors independently related to CRC screening were not consistent with those related to mammography and PSA screening. This lack of consistency may reflect different stages of adoption of each type of screening by clinicians and the public. PMID:11499116

  20. Colorectal cancer screening participation: comparisons with mammography and prostate-specific antigen screening.

    PubMed

    Lemon, S; Zapka, J; Puleo, E; Luckmann, R; Chasan-Taber, L

    2001-08-01

    The relation of personal characteristics, health and lifestyle behaviors, and cancer screening practices to current colorectal cancer (CRC) screening was assessed and compared with those factors' relation to current mammography screening in women and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening in men. A cross-sectional random-digit-dialed telephone survey of 954 Massachusetts residents aged 50 and older was conducted. The overall prevalence of current CRC screening was 55.3%. Logistic regression results indicated that family history of CRC (odds ratio [OR] = 1.98; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.02, 3.86), receiving a regular medical checkup (OR = 3.07; 95% CI = 2.00, 4.71), current screening by mammography in women and PSA in men (OR = 4.40; 95% CI = 2.94, 6.58), and vitamin supplement use (OR = 1.87; 95% CI = 1.27, 2.77) were significant predictors of CRC screening. Health and lifestyle behaviors were related to increased current CRC, mammography, and PSA screening. Personal factors independently related to CRC screening were not consistent with those related to mammography and PSA screening. This lack of consistency may reflect different stages of adoption of each type of screening by clinicians and the public.

  1. Faecal immunochemical tests versus guaiac faecal occult blood tests: what clinicians and colorectal cancer screening programme organisers need to know.

    PubMed

    Tinmouth, Jill; Lansdorp-Vogelaar, Iris; Allison, James E

    2015-08-01

    Although colorectal cancer (CRC) is a common cause of cancer-related death, it is fortunately amenable to screening with faecal tests for occult blood and endoscopic tests. Despite the evidence for the efficacy of guaiac-based faecal occult blood tests (gFOBT), they have not been popular with primary care providers in many jurisdictions, in part because of poor sensitivity for advanced colorectal neoplasms (advanced adenomas and CRC). In order to address this issue, high sensitivity gFOBT have been recommended, however, these tests are limited by a reduction in specificity compared with the traditional gFOBT. Where colonoscopy is available, some providers have opted to recommend screening colonoscopy to their patients instead of faecal testing, as they believe it to be a better test. Newer methods for detecting occult human blood in faeces have been developed. These tests, called faecal immunochemical tests (FIT), are immunoassays specific for human haemoglobin. FIT hold considerable promise over the traditional guaiac methods including improved analytical and clinical sensitivity for CRC, better detection of advanced adenomas, and greater screenee participation. In addition, the quantitative FIT are more flexible than gFOBT as a numerical result is reported, allowing customisation of the positivity threshold. When compared with endoscopy, FIT are less sensitive for the detection of advanced colorectal neoplasms when only one time testing is applied to a screening population; however, this is offset by improved participation in a programme of annual or biennial screens and a better safety profile. This review will describe how gFOBT and FIT work and will present the evidence that supports the use of FIT over gFOBT, including the cost-effectiveness of FIT relative to gFOBT. Finally, specific issues related to FIT implementation will be discussed, particularly with respect to organised CRC screening programmes. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For

  2. Quantifying the utility of single nucleotide polymorphisms to guide colorectal cancer screening

    PubMed Central

    Jenkins, Mark A; Makalic, Enes; Dowty, James G; Schmidt, Daniel F; Dite, Gillian S; MacInnis, Robert J; Ait Ouakrim, Driss; Clendenning, Mark; Flander, Louisa B; Stanesby, Oliver K; Hopper, John L; Win, Aung K; Buchanan, Daniel D

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To determine whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) can be used to identify people who should be screened for colorectal cancer. Methods: We simulated one million people with and without colorectal cancer based on published SNP allele frequencies and strengths of colorectal cancer association. We estimated 5-year risks of colorectal cancer by number of risk alleles. Results: We identified 45 SNPs with an average 1.14-fold increase colorectal cancer risk per allele (range: 1.05–1.53). The colorectal cancer risk for people in the highest quintile of risk alleles was 1.81-times that for the average person. Conclusion: We have quantified the extent to which known susceptibility SNPs can stratify the population into clinically useful colorectal cancer risk categories. PMID:26846999

  3. Patient-Reported Barriers to Colorectal Cancer Screening

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Resa M.; Devers, Kelly J.; Kuzel, Anton J.; Woolf, Steven H.

    2010-01-01

    Background Barriers experienced by patients influence the uptake of colorectal cancer (CRC) screening. Prior research has quantified how often patients encounter these challenges but has generally not revealed their complex perspective and experience with barriers. Methods A two-part, mixed-methods study was conducted of primary care patients recruited from Virginia Ambulatory Care Outcome Research Network practices. First, in June–July 2005 a survey was mailed to 660 patients aged 50–75 years posing an open-ended question about “the most important barrier” to CRC screening. Second, beginning in October 2005 seven gender- and largely race-specific focus groups involving 40 patients aged 45–75 years were conducted. Beginning in October 2005, survey verbatim responses were coded and quantitatively analyzed and focus group transcripts were qualitatively analyzed. Results Responses to the open-ended survey question, answered by 74% of respondents, identified fear and the bowel preparation as the most important barriers to screening. Only 1.6% of responses cited the absence of physician advice. Focus group participants cited similar issues and other previously reported barriers, but their remarks exposed the intricacies of complex barriers, such as fear, lack of information, time, the role of physicians, and access to care. Participants also cited barriers that have little documentation in the literature, such as low self-worth, “para-sexual” sensitivities, fatalism, negative past experiences with testing, and skepticism about the financial motivation behind screening recommendations. Conclusions Mixed-methods analysis helps to disaggregate the complex nuances that influence patient behavior. In this study, patients explained the web of influences on knowledge, motivation, and ability to undergo CRC screening, which clinicians and policymakers should consider in designing interventions to increase the level of screening. PMID:20409499

  4. Colorectal cancer screening by colonoscopy: putting it into perspective.

    PubMed

    Vleugels, Jasper L A; van Lanschot, Meta C J; Dekker, Evelien

    2016-04-01

    Implementation of nationwide screening programs aims to decrease the disease burden of colorectal cancer (CRC) in the general population. Globally, most population screening programs for CRC are carried out by either fecal occult blood test, flexible sigmoidoscopy or colonoscopy. For screening programs with colonoscopy as the primary method, only circumstantial evidence from observational studies is available to prove its effectiveness, suggesting that colonoscopy effectively reduces CRC incidence and mortality. Currently, large randomized trials are being conducted to corroborate these findings. Besides the direct effect of a screening program for CRC, its protective effect is further enhanced by enrolment of patients that underwent polypectomy in surveillance programs. However, despite CRC screening and surveillance colonoscopies, interval CRC still occur. Those are predominantly located in the right-sided colon and potential explanations, besides unfavorable tumor characteristics, are preventable operator-dependent factors relating to the quality of the colonoscopy procedure. In an effort to reduce differences in endoscopists' performance and thereby the occurrence of interval CRC, quality indicators of colonoscopy have been introduced. In addition, emerging advanced colonoscopy techniques might contribute to improvement in polyp detection and removal. Meticulous inspection of the colonic mucosa not only results in the detection of advanced and relevant lesions, but also in the removal of many diminutive and small lesions leading to an increasing number of surveillance colonoscopies, known as the 'high-detection paradox'. More data on the cost-effectiveness of high-quality colonoscopy as a primary screening method and surveillance programs with intervals based on optimal risk stratification are eagerly awaited. © 2015 Japan Gastroenterological Endoscopy Society.

  5. Label-free tissue scanner for colorectal cancer screening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kandel, Mikhail E.; Sridharan, Shamira; Liang, Jon; Luo, Zelun; Han, Kevin; Macias, Virgilia; Shah, Anish; Patel, Roshan; Tangella, Krishnarao; Kajdacsy-Balla, Andre; Guzman, Grace; Popescu, Gabriel

    2017-06-01

    The current practice of surgical pathology relies on external contrast agents to reveal tissue architecture, which is then qualitatively examined by a trained pathologist. The diagnosis is based on the comparison with standardized empirical, qualitative assessments of limited objectivity. We propose an approach to pathology based on interferometric imaging of "unstained" biopsies, which provides unique capabilities for quantitative diagnosis and automation. We developed a label-free tissue scanner based on "quantitative phase imaging," which maps out optical path length at each point in the field of view and, thus, yields images that are sensitive to the "nanoscale" tissue architecture. Unlike analysis of stained tissue, which is qualitative in nature and affected by color balance, staining strength and imaging conditions, optical path length measurements are intrinsically quantitative, i.e., images can be compared across different instruments and clinical sites. These critical features allow us to automate the diagnosis process. We paired our interferometric optical system with highly parallelized, dedicated software algorithms for data acquisition, allowing us to image at a throughput comparable to that of commercial tissue scanners while maintaining the nanoscale sensitivity to morphology. Based on the measured phase information, we implemented software tools for autofocusing during imaging, as well as image archiving and data access. To illustrate the potential of our technology for large volume pathology screening, we established an "intrinsic marker" for colorectal disease that detects tissue with dysplasia or colorectal cancer and flags specific areas for further examination, potentially improving the efficiency of existing pathology workflows.

  6. Colorectal villous adenoma: transrectal US in screening for invasive malignancy.

    PubMed

    Hulsmans, F H; Tio, T L; Mathus-Vliegen, E M; Bosma, A; Tytgat, G N

    1992-10-01

    Exclusion of focal infiltrating malignancy in colorectal villous adenoma is a prerequisite when nonsurgical treatment is considered. In a study of 81 patients with endoscopically identified colorectal villous adenoma screened for malignancy with transrectal ultrasonography (US), 15 patients were excluded because of incomplete follow-up. Twelve carcinomas were present, confirmed with either histopathologic examination after surgical resection (n = 9) or biopsies during laser treatment (n = 3). Nine of them were detected with transrectal US on the basis of disruption of the anatomic wall layers (sensitivity, 75%). In 46 of the 54 adenomas transrectal US helped confirm the benign nature of the lesion (specificity, 85%). Seven of the eight false-positive cases happened to be previously treated with surgery or coagulation. Treatment-associated inflammatory changes in the wall layers seemed responsible for this misinterpretation. Because of the high predictive value for a negative result (benign adenoma, 94%), transrectal US is recommended for the evaluation of villous adenomas to detect malignancy, especially when nonsurgical treatment is considered. Transrectal US should be performed before diagnostic polypectomy.

  7. High-definition chromocolonoscopy vs. high-definition white light colonoscopy for average-risk colorectal cancer screening.

    PubMed

    Kahi, Charles J; Anderson, Joseph C; Waxman, Irving; Kessler, William R; Imperiale, Thomas F; Li, Xiaochun; Rex, Douglas K

    2010-06-01

    Flat and depressed colon neoplasms are an increasingly recognized precursor for colorectal cancer (CRC) in Western populations. High-definition chromoscopy is used to increase the yield of colonoscopy for flat and depressed neoplasms; however, its role in average-risk patients undergoing routine screening remains uncertain. Average-risk patients referred for screening colonoscopy at four U.S. medical centers were randomized to high-definition chromocolonoscopy or high-definition white light colonoscopy. The primary outcomes, patients with at least one adenoma and the number of adenomas per patient, were compared between the two groups. The secondary outcome was patients with flat or depressed neoplasms, as defined by the Paris classification. A total of 660 patients were randomized (chromocolonoscopy: 321, white light: 339). Overall, the mean number of adenomas per patient was 1.2+/-2.1, the mean number of flat polyps per patient was 1.4+/-1.9, and the mean number of flat adenomas per patient was 0.5+/-1.0. The number of patients with at least one adenoma (55.5% vs. 48.4%, absolute difference 7.1%, 95% confidence interval (-0.5% to 14.7%), P=0.07), and the number of adenomas per patient (1.3+/-2.4 vs. 1.1+/-1.8, P=0.07) were marginally higher in the chromocolonoscopy group. There were no significant differences in the number of advanced adenomas per patient (0.06+/-0.37 vs. 0.04+/-0.25, P=0.3) and the number of advanced adenomas<10 mm per patient (0.02+/-0.26 vs. 0.01+/-0.14, P=0.4). Two invasive cancers were found, one in each group; neither was a flat neoplasm. Chromocolonoscopy detected significantly more flat adenomas per patient (0.6+/-1.2 vs. 0.4+/-0.9, P=0.01), adenomas<5 mm in diameter per patient (0.8+/-1.3 vs. 0.7+/-1.1, P=0.03), and non-neoplastic lesions per patient (1.8+/-2.3 vs. 1.0+/-1.3, P<0.0001). High-definition chromocolonoscopy marginally increased overall adenoma detection, and yielded a modest increase in flat adenoma and small adenoma

  8. Evaluation of a 5-Marker Blood Test for Colorectal Cancer Early Detection in a Colorectal Cancer Screening Setting.

    PubMed

    Werner, Simone; Krause, Friedemann; Rolny, Vinzent; Strobl, Matthias; Morgenstern, David; Datz, Christian; Chen, Hongda; Brenner, Hermann

    2016-04-01

    In initial studies that included colorectal cancer patients undergoing diagnostic colonoscopy, we had identified a serum marker combination able to detect colorectal cancer with similar diagnostic performance as fecal immunochemical test (FIT). In this study, we aimed to validate the results in participants of a large colorectal cancer screening study conducted in the average-risk, asymptomatic screening population. We tested serum samples from 1,200 controls, 420 advanced adenoma patients, 4 carcinoma in situ patients, and 36 colorectal cancer patients with a 5-marker blood test [carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA)+anti-p53+osteopontin+seprase+ferritin]. The diagnostic performance of individual markers and marker combinations was assessed and compared with stool test results. AUCs for the detection of colorectal cancer and advanced adenomas with the 5-marker blood test were 0.78 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.68-0.87] and 0.56 (95% CI, 0.53-0.59), respectively, which now is comparable with guaiac-based fecal occult blood test (gFOBT) but inferior to FIT. With cutoffs yielding specificities of 80%, 90%, and 95%, the sensitivities for the detection of colorectal cancer were 64%, 50%, and 42%, and early-stage cancers were detected as well as late-stage cancers. For osteopontin, seprase, and ferritin, the diagnostic performance in the screening setting was reduced compared with previous studies in diagnostic settings while CEA and anti-p53 showed similar diagnostic performance in both settings. Performance of the 5-marker blood test under screening conditions is inferior to FIT even though it is still comparable with the performance of gFOBT. CEA and anti-p53 could contribute to the development of a multiple marker blood-based test for early detection of colorectal cancer. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  9. Screening for colorectal neoplasia: physicians' adherence to complete diagnostic evaluation.

    PubMed Central

    Myers, R E; Balshem, A M; Wolf, T A; Ross, E A; Millner, L

    1993-01-01

    This prospective study was done in a health maintenance organization colorectal cancer screening program to determine whether 166 persons found to have abnormal fecal occult blood test results typically underwent complete diagnostic evaluation (i.e., either colonoscopy or barium enema x-ray plus flexible sigmoidoscopy). Chart audit data show that 137 (82%) subjects contacted a physician to discuss follow-up. A complete diagnostic evaluation was recommended to only 52 (38%) patients who talked with a physician. Forty-two (81%) patients who were advised to get a complete diagnostic evaluation actually complied. Significant differences in clinical findings were observed for patients who did and did not have a complete diagnostic evaluation. PMID:8238690

  10. Increasing colorectal cancer screening compliance through community education.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Atnena; Tucker, Spencer P

    2012-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most commonly diagnosed cancers in the nation. The incidence is especially high in the state of Louisiana, where the number of male deaths caused by colon cancer is higher than that in any other state in America. The excessive number of deaths may be attributed to decreased compliance with current screening recommendations. CRC screening, like most preventative health measures, is largely at the mercy of primary care physicians (PCPs) who must recommend or refer the patient before the preventative health measure can be completed. The project removed PCP dependence and made the patient an active participant in his or her care through a community-focused education program. The program provided instruction on CRC prevention and screening. Educational avenues used included flyer distribution, newspaper advertisements, radio advertisements, and publicly displayed posters. Patients were able to use the contact information provided to make an appointment with a provider, and insurance prerequisites, such as PCP referrals, were handled by the office staff. At the conclusion of the program, a statistical analysis showed increased compliance as a result of the educational program. A positive correlation was found between the intent of the education and the number of respondents.

  11. Colorectal cancer screening practices of primary care providers: results of a national survey in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Norwati, Daud; Harmy, Mohamed Yusoff; Norhayati, Mohd Noor; Amry, Abdul Rahim

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of colorectal cancer has been increasing in many Asian countries including Malaysia during the past few decades. A physician recommendation has been shown to be a major factor that motivates patients to undergo screening. The present study objectives were to describe the practice of colorectal cancer screening by primary care providers in Malaysia and to determine the barriers for not following recommendations. In this cross sectional study involving 132 primary care providers from 44 Primary Care clinics in West Malaysia, self-administered questionnaires which consisted of demographic data, qualification, background on the primary care clinic, practices on colorectal cancer screening and barriers to colorectal cancer screening were distributed. A total of 116 primary care providers responded making a response rate of 87.9%. About 21% recommended faecal occult blood test (FOBT) in more than 50% of their patients who were eligible. The most common barrier was "unavailability of the test". The two most common patient factors are "patient in a hurry" and "poor patient awareness". This study indicates that colorectal cancer preventive activities among primary care providers are still poor in Malaysia. This may be related to the low availability of the test in the primary care setting and poor awareness and understanding of the importance of colorectal cancer screening among patients. More awareness programmes are required for the public. In addition, primary care providers should be kept abreast with the latest recommendations and policy makers need to improve colorectal cancer screening services in health clinics.

  12. Patient Navigation Program for Colorectal Cancer Screening in Chinese Americans at an Urban Community Health Center: Lessons Learned.

    PubMed

    Vora, Shalini; Lau, Jennifer D; Kim, Esther; Sim, Shao-Chee; Oster, Ady; Pong, Perry

    2017-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is a major cause of cancer-related deaths in Asian Americans, yet Asian Americans have the lowest colorectal cancer screening rates in New York City. The Charles B. Wang Community Health Center implemented a patient navigation program to increase colorectal cancer screening. This report describes the lessons learned from the program.

  13. CYP1A1, CYP2E1 and EPHX1 polymorphisms in sporadic colorectal neoplasms

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, Glaucia Maria M; Russo, Anelise; Proença, Marcela Alcântara; Gazola, Nathalia Fernanda; Rodrigues, Gabriela Helena; Biselli-Chicote, Patrícia Matos; Silva, Ana Elizabete; Netinho, João Gomes; Pavarino, Érika Cristina; Goloni-Bertollo, Eny Maria

    2016-01-01

    AIM To investigate the contribution of polymorphisms in the CYP1A1, CYP2E1 and EPHX1 genes on sporadic colorectal cancer (SCRC) risk. METHODS Six hundred forty-one individuals (227 patients with SCRC and 400 controls) were enrolled in the study. The variables analyzed were age, gender, tobacco and alcohol consumption, and clinical and histopathological tumor parameters. The CYP1A1*2A, CYP1A1*2C CYP2E1*5B and CYP2E1*6 polymorphisms were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). The EPHX1 Tyr113His, EPHX1 His139Arg and CYP1A1*2C polymorphisms were detected by real-time PCR. Chi-squared test and binary logistic regression were used in the statistical analysis. Haplotype analysis was conducted using the Haploview program, version 2.05. RESULTS Age over 62 years was a risk factor for SCRC development (OR = 7.54, 95%CI: 4.94-11.50, P < 0.01). Male individuals were less susceptible to SCRC (OR = 0.55, 95%CI: 0.35-0.85, P < 0.01). The CYP2E1*5B polymorphism was associated with SCRC in the codominant (heterozygous genotype: OR = 2.66, 95%CI: 1.64-4.32, P < 0.01), dominant (OR = 2.82, 95%CI: 1.74-4.55, P < 0.01), overdominant (OR = 2.58, 95%CI: 1.59-4.19, P < 0.01), and log-additive models (OR = 2.84, 95%CI: 1.78-4.52, P < 0.01). The CYP2E1*6 polymorphism was associated with an increased SCRC risk in codominant (heterozygous genotype: OR = 2.81, 95%CI: 1.84-4.28, P < 0.01; homozygous polymorphic: OR = 7.32, 95%CI: 1.85-28.96, P < 0.01), dominant (OR = 2.97, 95%CI: 1.97-4.50, P < 0.01), recessive (OR = 5.26, 95%CI: 1.35-20.50, P = 0.016), overdominant (OR = 2.64, 95%CI: 1.74-4.01, P < 0.01), and log-additive models (OR = 2.78, 95%CI: 1.91-4.06, P < 0.01). The haplotype formed by the minor alleles of the CYP2E1*5B (C) and CYP2E1*6 (A) polymorphisms was associated with SCRC (P = 0.002). However, the CYP1A1*2A, CYP1A1*2C, EPHX1 Tyr113His and EPHX1 His139Arg polymorphisms were not associated with SCRC. CONCLUSION In conclusion, the

  14. Small media and client reminders for colorectal cancer screening: current use and gap areas in CDC's Colorectal Cancer Control Program.

    PubMed

    Kreuter, Matthew W; Garibay, Lori B; Pfeiffer, Debbie J; Morgan, Jennifer C; Thomas, Melonie; Wilson, Katherine M; Pieters, Jennifer; Szczepaniec, Kellie; Scott, Amy; Poor, Timothy J

    2012-01-01

    CDC's Colorectal Cancer Control Program (CRCCP) funds 25 states and 4 tribal organizations to promote and increase colorectal cancer screening population-wide. The CRCCP grantees must use evidence-based strategies from the Guide to Community Preventive Services, including small media and client reminders. To assess the existing resources and needs to promote colorectal cancer screening, we conducted 2 web-based surveys of CRCCP grantees and their community partners. Survey 1 sought to identify priority populations, the number and quality of existing colorectal cancer resources for different population subgroups, and the types of small media and client reminder they were most interested in using. Survey 2 assessed screening messages that were used in the past or might be used in the future, needs for non-English-language information, and preferences for screening-related terminology. In survey 1 (n = 125 from 26 CRCCPs), most respondents (83%) indicated they currently had some information resources for promoting screening but were widely dissatisfied with the quality and number of these resources. They reported the greatest need for resources targeting rural populations (62% of respondents), men (53%), and Hispanics (45%). In survey 2 (n = 57 from 25 CRCCPs), respondents indicated they were most likely to promote colorectal cancer screening using messages that emphasized family (95%), role models (85%), or busy lives (83%), and least likely to use messages based on faith (26%), embarrassment (25%), or fear (22%). Nearly all (85%) indicated a need for resources in languages other than English; 16 different languages were mentioned, most commonly Spanish. These findings provide the first picture of CRCCP information resources and interests, and point to specific gaps that must be addressed to help increase screening.

  15. Cost-effectiveness of patient mailings to promote colorectal cancer screening.

    PubMed

    Sequist, Thomas D; Franz, Calvin; Ayanian, John Z

    2010-06-01

    Programs to promote colorectal cancer screening are common, yet information regarding the cost-effectiveness of such efforts is limited. To assess the cost-effectiveness of patient mailings to increase rates of colorectal cancer screening. Incremental cost-effectiveness analysis of a randomized, controlled trial. The intervention involved 21,860 patients aged 50 to 80 years across 11 health centers overdue for colorectal cancer screening. Patients were randomized to receive a mailing that included a tailored letter, educational brochure, and fecal occult blood test kit at baseline and 6 months follow-up. We calculated the incremental cost-effectiveness of these mailings to promote colorectal cancer screening by fecal occult blood testing, flexible sigmoidoscopy, or colonoscopy using internal cost estimates of labor and supplies. Colorectal cancer screening rates were higher for patients in the intervention compared with control patients (44% vs. 38%, P < 0.001). The total cost of the intervention was approximately $5.48 per patient, resulting in a cost-effectiveness ratio of $94 per additional patient screened. This estimate ranged from $69 to $156, based on assumptions of the cost of the intervention components, magnitude of intervention effect, age range, and size of the targeted patient population. Tailored patient mailings are a cost-effective approach to improve rates of colorectal cancer screening.

  16. Offering people a choice for colorectal cancer screening.

    PubMed

    Senore, Carlo; Ederle, Andrea; Benazzato, Luca; Arrigoni, Arrigo; Silvani, Marco; Fantin, Alberto; Fracchia, Mario; Armaroli, Paola; Segnan, Nereo

    2013-05-01

    To assess the population coverage and diagnostic yield of offering an immunochemical faecal occult blood test (FIT) to non-responders to a flexible sigmoidoscopy (FS) invitation. A cohort study conducted in a population-based colorectal cancer (CRC) screening programme. In this programme, eligible men and women aged 58 (Turin; 43,748 subjects) or 60 (Verona; 19,970 subjects) are invited, with a personal letter signed by their general practitioner, to undergo an FS. Bowel preparation is limited to a single enema self-administered at home. Subjects in whom one distal polyp >5 mm (≥ 10 mm in Turin) or at least one adenoma (one advanced adenoma or more than two adenomas in Turin) is detected at FS are referred for colonoscopy. People who do not respond to the invitation to undergo an FS are invited to have an FIT (OC-Sensor; Eiken, Tokyo, Japan; single sample, cut-off 100 ng/ml). Attendance rate and neoplasia yield were analysed in four consecutive birth cohorts. Overall participation rate for the FS invitation was 39.3% in Verona and 29.9% in Turin. Of the eligible non-responders to the FS invitation, 19.3% (95% CI 18.9% to 19.7%) underwent an FIT. As a result, the proportion of people undergoing screening by FS or FIT was 55.2% in Verona and 39.3% in Turin, with no gender differences in either centre. FIT detected 8.3% of all advanced adenomas and 20.4% of all CRCs diagnosed at screening. A strategy involving the sequential offer of FS and FIT is a feasible and efficient approach. FIT in people not attending for FS increases screening uptake and detection of advanced adenomas and CRCs.

  17. Using population data to reduce disparities in colorectal cancer screening, Arkansas, 2006.

    PubMed

    Greene, Paul; Mehta, Paulette; Yeary, Karen Hye-cheon Kim; Bursac, Zoran; Zhang, Jianjun; Goldsmith, Geoff; Henry-Tillman, Ronda

    2012-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is a common disease, and incidence and death rates are higher in medically underserved populations. The colorectal cancer death rate in Arkansas exceeds the national rate. The objective of this study was to examine population characteristics relevant to the design and implementation of a state-sponsored colorectal cancer screening program that is responsive to medically underserved populations. Trained interviewers in 2006 conducted a random-digit-dialed telephone survey comprising items selected from the Health Information National Trends Survey to characterize demographic factors, health care variables, and colorectal screening history in a sample (n = 2,021) representative of the Arkansas population. Univariate and multivariate analyses identified associations among population characteristics and screening status. Participants who were aged 50 to 64, who did not have health insurance, or who had an annual household income of $15,000 or less were significantly less likely than their counterparts to be in compliance with screening guidelines. Those who reported having a health care provider, having 5 or more health care visits during the past year, and receiving physician advice for colorectal screening were more likely to be in compliance with screening guidelines. Although a larger percentage of white participants were in compliance with screening guidelines, blacks had higher screening rates than whites when we controlled for screening advice. Survey results informed efforts to decrease disparities in colorectal cancer screening in Arkansas. Efforts should focus on reimbursing providers and patients for screening costs, encouraging the use of physicians as a point of entry to screening programs, and promoting a balanced approach (ie, multiple options) to screening recommendations. Our methods established a model for developing screening programs for medically underserved populations.

  18. Outreach and Inreach Organized Service Screening Programs for Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chou, Chu-Kuang; Chen, Sam Li-Sheng; Yen, Amy Ming-Fang; Chiu, Sherry Yueh-Hsia; Fann, Jean Ching-Yuan; Chiu, Han-Mo; Chuang, Shu-Lin; Chiang, Tsung-Hsien; Wu, Ming-Shiang; Wu, Chien-Yuan; Chia, Shu-Li; Lee, Yi-Chia; Chiou, Shu-Ti; Chen, Hsiu-Hsi

    2016-01-01

    Background Outreach (i.e., to invite those who do not use, or who under use screening services) and inreach (i.e., to invite an existing population who have already accessed the medical system) approaches may influence people to increase their use of screening test; however, whether their outcomes would be equivalent remains unclear. Methods A total of 3,363,896 subjects, 50–69 years of age, participated in a colorectal cancer (CRC) screening program using biennial fecal immunochemical tests; 34.5% participated during 2004–2009 when the outreach approach alone was used, and 65.5% participated from 2010–2013 when outreach was integrated with an inreach approach. We compared the outcomes of the two approaches in delivery of screening services. Results Coverage rates increased from 21.4% to 36.9% and the positivity rate increased from 4.0% to 7.9%, while referral for confirmatory diagnostic examinations declined from 80.0% to 53.3%. The first period detected CRC in 0.20% of subjects screened, with a positive predictive value (PPV) of 6.1%, and the second detected CRC in 0.34% of subjects, with a PPV of 8.0%. After adjusting for confounders, differences were observed in the PPV for CRC (adjusted relative risk, 1.50; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.41–1.60), cancer detection rate (1.20; 95% CI, 1.13–1.27), and interval cancer rate (0.72; 95% CI, 0.65–0.80). When we focused on the comparison between two approaches during the same study period of 2010–2013, the positivity rate of fecal testing (8.2% vs. 7.6%) and the PPV for CRC detection remained higher (1.07; 95% CI, 1.01–1.12) in subjects who were recruited from the inreach approach. Conclusions Outcomes of screening were equivalent or better after integration of outreach and inreach approaches. Impact The results will encourage makers of health-care policy to adopt the integration approach to deliver screening services. PMID:27171410

  19. Socioeconomic position and participation in colorectal cancer screening.

    PubMed

    Frederiksen, B L; Jørgensen, T; Brasso, K; Holten, I; Osler, M

    2010-11-09

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) screening with faecal occult blood test (FOBT) has the potential to reduce the incidence and mortality of CRC. Screening uptake is known to be inferior in people with low socioeconomic position (SEP) when compared with those with high position; however, the results of most previous studies have limited value because they are based on recall or area-based measures of socioeconomic position, and might thus be subject to selective participation and misclassification. In this study we investigated differences in CRC screening participation using register-based individual information on education, employment, and income to encompass different but related aspects of socioeconomic stratification. Also, the impact of ethnicity and cohabiting status was analysed. A feasibility study on CRC screening was conducted in two Danish counties in 2005 and 2006. Screening consisted of a self-administered FOBT kit mailed to 177 114 inhabitants aged 50-74 years. Information on individual socioeconomic status was obtained from Statistics Denmark. A total of 85 374 (48%) of the invited returned the FOBT kits. Participation was significantly higher in women than in men (OR=1.58 (1.55-1.61)), when all socioeconomic and demographic variables were included in the statistical model. Participation also increased with increasing level of education, with OR=1.38 (1.33-1.43) in those with a higher education compared with short education. Also, participation increased with increasing income levels, with OR=1.94 (1.87-2.01) in the highest vs lowest quintile. Individuals with a disability pension, the unemployed and self-employed people were significantly less likely to participate (OR=0.77 (0.74-0.80), OR=0.83 (0.80-0.87), and OR=0.85 (0.81-0.89), respectively). Non-western immigrants were less likely to participate (OR=0.62 (0.59-0.66)) in a model controlling for age, sex, and county; however, this difference might be attributed to low SEP in these ethnic groups ((OR=0

  20. Outreach and Inreach Organized Service Screening Programs for Colorectal Cancer.

    PubMed

    Chou, Chu-Kuang; Chen, Sam Li-Sheng; Yen, Amy Ming-Fang; Chiu, Sherry Yueh-Hsia; Fann, Jean Ching-Yuan; Chiu, Han-Mo; Chuang, Shu-Lin; Chiang, Tsung-Hsien; Wu, Ming-Shiang; Wu, Chien-Yuan; Chia, Shu-Li; Lee, Yi-Chia; Chiou, Shu-Ti; Chen, Hsiu-Hsi

    2016-01-01

    Outreach (i.e., to invite those who do not use, or who under use screening services) and inreach (i.e., to invite an existing population who have already accessed the medical system) approaches may influence people to increase their use of screening test; however, whether their outcomes would be equivalent remains unclear. A total of 3,363,896 subjects, 50-69 years of age, participated in a colorectal cancer (CRC) screening program using biennial fecal immunochemical tests; 34.5% participated during 2004-2009 when the outreach approach alone was used, and 65.5% participated from 2010-2013 when outreach was integrated with an inreach approach. We compared the outcomes of the two approaches in delivery of screening services. Coverage rates increased from 21.4% to 36.9% and the positivity rate increased from 4.0% to 7.9%, while referral for confirmatory diagnostic examinations declined from 80.0% to 53.3%. The first period detected CRC in 0.20% of subjects screened, with a positive predictive value (PPV) of 6.1%, and the second detected CRC in 0.34% of subjects, with a PPV of 8.0%. After adjusting for confounders, differences were observed in the PPV for CRC (adjusted relative risk, 1.50; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.41-1.60), cancer detection rate (1.20; 95% CI, 1.13-1.27), and interval cancer rate (0.72; 95% CI, 0.65-0.80). When we focused on the comparison between two approaches during the same study period of 2010-2013, the positivity rate of fecal testing (8.2% vs. 7.6%) and the PPV for CRC detection remained higher (1.07; 95% CI, 1.01-1.12) in subjects who were recruited from the inreach approach. Outcomes of screening were equivalent or better after integration of outreach and inreach approaches. The results will encourage makers of health-care policy to adopt the integration approach to deliver screening services.

  1. Effects of personalized colorectal cancer risk information on laypersons’ interest in colorectal cancer screening: the importance of individual differences

    PubMed Central

    Han, Paul K.J.; Duarte, Christine W.; Daggett, Susannah; Siewers, Andrea; Killam, Bill; Smith, Kahsi A.; Freedman, Andrew N.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate how personalized quantitative colorectal cancer (CRC) risk information affects laypersons’ interest in CRC screening, and to explore factors influencing these effects. Methods An online pre-post experiment was conducted in which a convenience sample (N=578) of laypersons, aged >50, were provided quantitative personalized estimates of lifetime CRC risk, calculated by the National Cancer Institute Colorectal Cancer Risk Assessment Tool (CCRAT). Self-reported interest in CRC screening was measured immediately before and after CCRAT use; sociodemographic characteristics and prior CRC screening history were also assessed. Multivariable analyses assessed participants’ change in interest in screening, and subgroup differences in this change. Results Personalized CRC risk information had no overall effect on CRC screening interest, but significant subgroup differences were observed. Change in screening interest was greater among individuals with recent screening (p=.015), higher model-estimated cancer risk (p=.0002), and lower baseline interest (p<.0001), with individuals at highest baseline interest demonstrating negative (not neutral) change in interest. Conclusion Effects of quantitative personalized CRC risk information on laypersons’ interest in CRC screening differ among individuals depending on prior screening history, estimated cancer risk, and baseline screening interest. Practice implications Personalized cancer risk information has personalized effects—increasing and decreasing screening interest in different individuals. PMID:26227576

  2. Tucatinib (ONT-380) and Trastuzumab for Patients With HER2-positive Metastatic Colorectal Cancer (MOUNTAINEER)

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-02-13

    Colorectal Cancer; Colorectal Carcinoma; Colorectal Tumors; Neoplasms, Colorectal; HER-2 Gene Amplification; Metastatic Cancer; Metastatic Colon Cancer; Adenocarcinoma of the Colon; Adenocarcinoma of the Rectum

  3. Insurance Coverage for CT Colonography Screening: Impact on Overall Colorectal Cancer Screening Rates.

    PubMed

    Smith, Maureen A; Weiss, Jennifer M; Potvien, Aaron; Schumacher, Jessica R; Gangnon, Ronald E; Kim, David H; Weeth-Feinstein, Lauren A; Pickhardt, Perry J

    2017-09-01

    Purpose To compare overall colorectal cancer (CRC) screening rates for patients who were eligible and due for CRC screening and who were with and without insurance coverage for computed tomographic (CT) colonography for CRC screening. Materials and Methods The institutional review board approved this retrospective cohort study, with a waiver of consent. This study used longitudinal electronic health record data from 2005 through 2010 for patients managed by one of the largest multispecialty physician groups in the United States. It included 33 177 patients under age 65 who were eligible and due for CRC screening and managed by the participating health system. Stratified Cox regression models provided propensity-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the relationship between CT colonography coverage and CRC screening. Results After adjustment, patients who had insurance coverage for CT colonography and were due for CRC screening had a 48% greater likelihood of being screened for CRC by any method compared with those without coverage who were due for CRC screening (HR, 1.48; 95% CI: 1.41, 1.55). Similarly, patients with CT colonography coverage had a greater likelihood of being screened with CT colonography (HR, 8.35; 95% CI: 7.11, 9.82) and with colonoscopy (HR, 1.38; 95% CI: 1.31, 1.45) but not with fecal occult blood test (HR, 1.00; 95% CI: 0.91, 1.10) than those without such insurance coverage. Conclusion Insurance coverage of CT colonography for CRC screening was associated with a greater likelihood of a patient being screened and a greater likelihood of being screened with a test that helps both to detect cancer and prevent cancer from developing (CT colonography or colonoscopy). (©) RSNA, 2017.

  4. Detection of genetic alterations in hereditary colorectal cancer screening.

    PubMed

    Pineda, Marta; González, Sara; Lázaro, Conxi; Blanco, Ignacio; Capellá, Gabriel

    2010-11-10

    There are two major hereditary colorectal cancer syndromes: Adenomatous Polyposis, secondary to APC germline alterations (FAP, Familial Adenomatous Polyposis) or secondary to MUTYH germline alterations (MAP, MUTYH associated Polyposis), and Lynch syndrome, associated with germline mutations in mismatch repair genes (MLH1, MSH2, MSH6 and PMS2). The elucidation of their genetic basis has depicted an increasingly complex picture that has lead to the implementation of complex diagnostic algorithms that include both tumor profiling and germline analyses. A variety of techniques at the DNA, RNA and protein level are used to screen for molecular alterations both in tumor biopsies (microsatellite instability analysis, mismatch repair protein immunohistochemistry, BRAF-Val600Glu detection and MLH1 promoter hypermethylation analysis) and in the germline (point mutation screening, copy number assessment). Also functional tests are more often used to characterize variants of unknown significance. Methodological issues associated with the techniques analyzed, as well as the algorithms used, are discussed. 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Time to benefit for colorectal cancer screening: survival meta-analysis of flexible sigmoidoscopy trials.

    PubMed

    Tang, Victoria; Boscardin, W John; Stijacic-Cenzer, Irena; Lee, Sei J

    2015-04-16

    To determine the time to benefit of using flexible sigmoidoscopy for colorectal cancer screening. Survival meta-analysis. A Cochrane Collaboration systematic review published in 2013, Medline, and Cochrane Library databases. Randomized controlled trials comparing screening flexible sigmoidoscopy with no screening. Trials with fewer than 100 flexible sigmoidoscopy screenings were excluded. Four studies were eligible (total n = 459,814). They were similar for patients' age (50-74 years), length of follow-up (11.2-11.9 years), and relative risk for colorectal cancer related mortality (0.69-0.78 with flexible sigmoidoscopy screening). For every 1000 people screened at five and 10 years, 0.3 and 1.2 colorectal cancer related deaths, respectively, were prevented. It took 4.3 years (95% confidence interval 2.8 to 5.8) to observe an absolute risk reduction of 0.0002 (one colorectal cancer related death prevented for every 5000 flexible sigmoidoscopy screenings). It took 9.4 years (7.6 to 11.3) to observe an absolute risk reduction of 0.001 (one colorectal cancer related death prevented for every 1000 flexible sigmoidoscopy screenings). Our findings suggest that screening flexible sigmoidoscopy is most appropriate for older adults with a life expectancy greater than approximately 10 years. © Tang et al 2015.

  6. Risk of colorectal cancer seven years after flexible sigmoidoscopy screening: randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Hoff, Geir; Grotmol, Tom; Skovlund, Eva; Bretthauer, Michael

    2009-05-29

    To determine the risk of colorectal cancer after screening with flexible sigmoidoscopy. Randomised controlled trial. Population based screening in two areas in Norway-city of Oslo and Telemark county (urban and mixed urban and rural populations). 55 736 men and women aged 55-64 years. Once only flexible sigmoidoscopy screening with or without a single round of faecal occult blood testing (n=13 823) compared with no screening (n=41 913). Planned end points were cumulative incidence and mortality of colorectal cancer after 5, 10, and 15 years. This first report from the study presents cumulative incidence after 7 years of follow-up and hazard ratio for mortality after 6 years. No difference was found in the 7 year cumulative incidence of colorectal cancer between the screening and control groups (134.5 v 131.9 cases per 100 000 person years). In intention to screen analysis, a trend towards reduced colorectal cancer mortality was found (hazard ratio 0.73, 95% confidence interval 0.47 to 1.13, P=0.16). For attenders compared with controls, a statistically significant reduction in mortality was apparent for both total colorectal cancer (hazard ratio 0.41, 0.21 to 0.82, P=0.011) and rectosigmoidal cancer (0.24, 0.08 to 0.76, P=0.016). A reduction in incidence of colorectal cancer with flexible sigmoidoscopy screening could not be shown after 7 years' follow-up. Mortality from colorectal cancer was not significantly reduced in the screening group but seemed to be lower for attenders, with a reduction of 59% for any location of colorectal cancer and 76% for rectosigmoidal cancer in per protocol analysis, an analysis prone to selection bias. Clinical trials NCT00119912.

  7. Decisional Stage Distribution for Colorectal Cancer Screening among Diverse, Low-Income Study Participants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hester, C. M.; Born, W. K.; Yeh, H. W.; Young, K. L.; James, A. S.; Daley, C. M.; Greiner, K. A.

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) screening uptake among minorities and those with lower incomes is suboptimal. Behavioral interventions specifically tailored to these populations can increase screening rates and save lives. The Precaution Adoption Process Model (PAPM) allows assignment of a decisional stage for adoption of a behavior such as CRC screening.…

  8. Decisional Stage Distribution for Colorectal Cancer Screening among Diverse, Low-Income Study Participants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hester, C. M.; Born, W. K.; Yeh, H. W.; Young, K. L.; James, A. S.; Daley, C. M.; Greiner, K. A.

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) screening uptake among minorities and those with lower incomes is suboptimal. Behavioral interventions specifically tailored to these populations can increase screening rates and save lives. The Precaution Adoption Process Model (PAPM) allows assignment of a decisional stage for adoption of a behavior such as CRC screening.…

  9. Systematic Review and Meta-study Synthesis of Qualitative Studies Evaluating Facilitators and Barriers to Participation in Colorectal Cancer Screening.

    PubMed

    Honein-AbouHaidar, Gladys N; Kastner, Monika; Vuong, Vincent; Perrier, Laure; Daly, Corinne; Rabeneck, Linda; Straus, Sharon; Baxter, Nancy N

    2016-06-01

    Screening reduces the incidence, morbidity, and mortality of colorectal cancer, yet participation tends to be low. We undertook a systematic review and meta-study synthesis of qualitative studies to identify facilitators and barriers to colorectal cancer screening participation. We searched major bibliographic databases for records published in all languages from inception to February 2015. Included primary studies that elicited views and perceptions towards colorectal cancer screening were appraised for relevance and quality. We used a two-stage synthesis to create an interpretation of colorectal cancer screening decisions grounded in primary studies; a thematic analysis to group themes and systematically compare studies and a meta-synthesis to generate an expanded theory of colorectal cancer screening participation. Ninety-four studies were included. The decision to participate in colorectal cancer screening depended on an individual's awareness of colorectal cancer screening. Awareness affected views of cancer, attitudes towards colorectal cancer screening modalities, and motivation for screening. Factors mediating awareness included public education to address misconceptions, primary care physician efforts to recommend screening, and the influence of friends and family. Specific barriers to participation in populations with lower participation rates included language barriers, logistical challenges to attending screening tests, and cultural beliefs. This study identifies key barriers, facilitators, and mediators to colorectal cancer screening participation. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 25(6); 907-17. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  10. The many faeces of colorectal cancer screening embarrassment: preliminary psychometric development and links to screening outcome.

    PubMed

    Consedine, Nathan S; Ladwig, Inga; Reddig, Maike K; Broadbent, Elizabeth A

    2011-09-01

    Although embarrassment may be among the most easily modified discrete emotional barriers to patients seeking health care or testing, work in the area of colorectal cancer (CRC) has been restricted by the absence of suitable instrumentation. The current report describes the development and validation of a self-report instrument assessing two specific aspects of CRC screening embarrassment and their links to screening outcomes. Convenience sampling was used to recruit 245 European American, African-American, and immigrant Caribbean community-dwelling men and women (aged 45-75 years) living in Brooklyn, New York. Participants completed the measure of CRC screening embarrassment, an array of convergent and divergent validity measures including dispositional embarrassment, general medical embarrassment, neuroticism, trait emotion, social desirability, previous treatment avoidance because of embarrassment, relevant health characteristics, and a brief CRC screening history. As expected, CRC screening embarrassment was not unidimensional and had two reliable and distinct components, one concentrated on faecal/rectal embarrassment and the other on embarrassment arising from unwanted intimacy during examinations. In addition to demonstrating patterns of convergent and divergent validity consistent with their separation, multivariate analyses indicated that faecal/rectal embarrassment (but not intimacy concerns) predicted CRC screening frequency. The current report extends current understanding by identifying the specific sources of embarrassment that may contribute to patients' avoidance of CRC screening. Directions for future study and implications for clinical practice and interventions are discussed. ©2010 The British Psychological Society.

  11. Hispanic acculturation and utilization of colorectal cancer screening in the United States.

    PubMed

    Shah, Mona; Zhu, Kangmin; Potter, John

    2006-01-01

    Despite the evidence on the effectiveness of colorectal cancer (CRC) screening procedures, its use remains low, especially among Hispanics. Social-cultural factors may play a role in the underutilization of cancer screening. This study aimed to examine whether low acculturation was a risk factor for the underutilization of colorectal cancer screening in the Hispanic population. The subjects were adults aged 50-80 years who identified themselves as Hispanic and never were diagnosed with colorectal cancer. Colorectal cancer screening utilization was assessed based on the use of at-home Fecal Occult Blood Test (FOBT) and the use of endoscopies (sigmoidoscopy, colonoscopy, or proctoscopy). Respondents who underwent a test for diagnostic purposes were excluded from the study. Our data showed that colorectal screening was underused in Hispanics compared to non-Hispanic Whites. There was a trend that acculturation level was inversely correlated with having an endoscopy in the past 5 years. This trend was also seen with having a FOBT in the past year or an endoscopy in the past 5 years. However, the association disappeared after adjusting for factors pertaining to utilizing other health care services. Additionally, after stratifying by gender, the association between the two variables was diluted. The findings show that low acculturation was associated with the underutilization of endoscopic colorectal cancer screening. This association may be related to lower utilization of health care services and/or language barriers that may contribute to the lower utilization.

  12. Circulating Tumor Cell Count Correlates with Colorectal Neoplasm Progression and Is a Prognostic Marker for Distant Metastasis in Non-Metastatic Patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Wen-Sy; Chen, Jinn-Shiun; Shao, Hung-Jen; Wu, Jen-Chia; Lai-Ming, Jr.; Lu, Si-Hong; Hung, Tsung-Fu; Chiu, Yen-Chi; You, Jeng-Fu; Hsieh, Pao-Shiu; Yeh, Chien-Yuh; Hung, Hsin-Yuan; Chiang, Sum-Fu; Lin, Geng-Ping; Tang, Reiping; Chang, Ying-Chih

    2016-04-01

    Enumeration of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) has been proven as a prognostic marker for metastatic colorectal cancer (m-CRC) patients. However, the currently available techniques for capturing and enumerating CTCs lack of required sensitivity to be applicable as a prognostic marker for non-metastatic patients as CTCs are even more rare. We have developed a microfluidic device utilizing antibody-conjugated non-fouling coating to eliminate nonspecific binding and to promote the multivalent binding of target cells. We then established the correlation of CTC counts and neoplasm progression through applying this platform to capture and enumerate CTCs in 2 mL of peripheral blood from healthy (n = 27), benign (n = 21), non-metastatic (n = 95), and m-CRC (n = 15) patients. The results showed that the CTC counts progressed from 0, 1, 5, to 36. Importantly, after 2-year follow-up on the non-metastatic CRC patients, we found that those who had ≥5 CTCs were 8 times more likely to develop distant metastasis within one year after curable surgery than those who had <5. In conclusion, by employing a sensitive device, CTC counts show good correlation with colorectal neoplasm, thus CTC may be as a simple, independent prognostic marker for the non-metastatic CRC patients who are at high risk of early recurrence.

  13. Circulating Tumor Cell Count Correlates with Colorectal Neoplasm Progression and Is a Prognostic Marker for Distant Metastasis in Non-Metastatic Patients.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Wen-Sy; Chen, Jinn-Shiun; Shao, Hung-Jen; Wu, Jen-Chia; Lai, Jr-Ming; Lu, Si-Hong; Hung, Tsung-Fu; Chiu, Yen-Chi; You, Jeng-Fu; Hsieh, Pao-Shiu; Yeh, Chien-Yuh; Hung, Hsin-Yuan; Chiang, Sum-Fu; Lin, Geng-Ping; Tang, Reiping; Chang, Ying-Chih

    2016-04-14

    Enumeration of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) has been proven as a prognostic marker for metastatic colorectal cancer (m-CRC) patients. However, the currently available techniques for capturing and enumerating CTCs lack of required sensitivity to be applicable as a prognostic marker for non-metastatic patients as CTCs are even more rare. We have developed a microfluidic device utilizing antibody-conjugated non-fouling coating to eliminate nonspecific binding and to promote the multivalent binding of target cells. We then established the correlation of CTC counts and neoplasm progression through applying this platform to capture and enumerate CTCs in 2 mL of peripheral blood from healthy (n = 27), benign (n = 21), non-metastatic (n = 95), and m-CRC (n = 15) patients. The results showed that the CTC counts progressed from 0, 1, 5, to 36. Importantly, after 2-year follow-up on the non-metastatic CRC patients, we found that those who had ≥5 CTCs were 8 times more likely to develop distant metastasis within one year after curable surgery than those who had <5. In conclusion, by employing a sensitive device, CTC counts show good correlation with colorectal neoplasm, thus CTC may be as a simple, independent prognostic marker for the non-metastatic CRC patients who are at high risk of early recurrence.

  14. Strategies and resources to address colorectal cancer screening rates and disparities in the United States and globally.

    PubMed

    Potter, Michael B

    2013-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is a significant cause of mortality in the United States and globally. In the United States, increased access to screening and effective treatment has contributed to a reduction in colorectal cancer incidence and mortality for the general population, though significant disparities persist. Worldwide, the disparities are even more pronounced, with vastly different colorectal cancer mortality rates and trends among nations. Newly organized colorectal cancer screening programs in economically developed countries with a high burden of colorectal cancer may provide pathways to reduce these disparities over time. This article provides an overview of colorectal cancer incidence, mortality, screening, and disparities in the United States and other world populations. Promising strategies and resources are identified to address colorectal cancer screening rates and disparities in the United States and worldwide.

  15. Cognitive mediators linking social support networks to colorectal cancer screening adherence.

    PubMed

    Honda, Keiko; Kagawa-Singer, Marjorie

    2006-10-01

    This paper argues that normative considerations are more important than attitudinal factors in engaging colorectal cancer screening, and tests a model explaining how unique cultural expressions of social networks influence screening adherence. Structural equation modeling was used to understand colorectal cancer screening in a population-based sample of 341 Japanese Americans aged 50 and over. The model accounted for 25% of the variance in screening adherence. Adherence was most strongly associated with family/friend subjective norms about colorectal cancer screening use. Emotional family support, but not the size of the networks, was indirectly related to adherence via increased family/friend subjective norms, while emotional friend support was directly related to adherence. While usual source of care was directly associated with adherence, better provider-patient communication was directly and indirectly associated with adherence via increased perceived benefits. The findings of this study support strengthening informal support networks to enhance adherence among Japanese Americans at risk.

  16. Cost-effectiveness of computerized tomographic colonography versus colonoscopy for colorectal cancer screening

    PubMed Central

    Heitman, Steven J.; Manns, Braden J.; Hilsden, Robert J.; Fong, Andrew; Dean, Stafford; Romagnuolo, Joseph

    2005-01-01

    Background Computerized tomographic (CT) colonography is a potential alternative to colonoscopy for colorectal cancer screening. Its main advantage, a better safety profile, may be offset by its limitations: lower sensitivity, need for colonoscopy in cases where results are positive, and expense. Methods We performed an economic evaluation, using decision analysis, to compare CT colonography with colonoscopy for colorectal cancer screening in patients over 50 years of age. Three-year outcomes included number of colonoscopies, perforations and adenomas removed; deaths from perforation and from colorectal cancer from missed adenomas; and direct health care costs. The expected prevalence of adenomas, test performance characteristics of CT colonography and colonoscopy, and probability of colonoscopy complications and cancer from missed adenomas were derived from the literature. Costs were determined in detail locally. Results Using the base-case assumptions, a strategy of CT colonography for colorectal cancer screening would cost $2.27 million extra per 100 000 patients screened; 3.78 perforation-related deaths would be avoided, but 4.11 extra deaths would occur from missed adenomas. Because screening with CT colonography would cost more and result in more deaths overall compared with colonoscopy, the latter remained the dominant strategy. Our results were sensitive to CT colonography's test performance characteristics, the malignant risk of missed adenomas, the risk of perforation and related death, the procedural costs and differences in screening adherence. Interpretation At present, CT colonography cannot be recommended as a primary means of population-based colorectal cancer screening in Canada. PMID:16217110

  17. Second primary colorectal cancer in the era of prevalent screening and imaging.

    PubMed

    Bae, Susie; Asadi, Muslim; Jones, Ian; McLaughlin, Stephen; Bui, Andrew; Steele, Malcolm; Tie, Jeanne; Gibbs, Peter

    2013-12-01

    Oncology literature is increasingly recognizing prevalence of second primary cancers including several longitudinal studies showing an increased risk of colorectal cancer following a prostate cancer diagnosis. A retrospective study was conducted to examine the relationship between prior prostate cancer diagnoses and subsequent colorectal cancer diagnoses. A multi-centre prospective colorectal cancer registry was queried for patients with a prior history of prostate, breast or lung cancer. Characteristics of these patients were compared to patients with colorectal cancer and no prior cancer history. Of 4660 cases of colorectal cancer diagnosed between 1998 and 2011, 2665 (57.2%) were male, median age was 68 years. For patients with a history of prostate cancer (n = 111), breast cancer (n = 61) and lung cancer (n = 23), the great majority of subsequent colorectal cancer diagnoses occurred in the initial 2 to 4 years after the first cancer diagnosis. This was accompanied by an increased rate of asymptomatic colorectal cancer at presentation, due to both screen detected and incidental cancer diagnoses. There was no clear relationship between any prostate cancer treatment and subsequent colorectal cancer risk, location or timing. In the modern era, there is an increased rate of colorectal cancer diagnosis in years shortly following another common cancer history. This is consistently seen across different primary tumour streams including prostate, breast and lung cancers and in part contributed by screen detected and incidental colorectal cancer diagnoses. Future studies should consider this potential confounding factor when asserting an increased rate of colorectal cancer as a second primary cancer. © 2013 The Authors. ANZ Journal of Surgery © 2013 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.

  18. [Colorectal cancer screening programme in Aragon (Spain): preliminary results].

    PubMed

    Solé Llop, Mª Esther; Cano Del Pozo, Mabel; García Montero, José-Ignacio; Carrera-Lasfuentes, Patricia; Lanas, Ángel

    2017-08-04

    To describe preliminary findings from the colorectal cancer screening programme in Aragon (Spain) to evaluate its implementation. We have collected data from the first year of the program (2014) based on faecal occult blood immunochemical (FOBTi) test in patients 60-69 years old. We report "indicators" defined by the "Red Nacional de Cribado". Invited population after exclusions: 12,518. Program participation rate: 45.28% (95%CI: 44.41-46.15). Inadequate tests: 0.21% (95%CI: 0.12-0.37); positive FOBTi test 10.75% (95%CI: 9.97-11.58) and colonoscopy acceptance 95.07% (95%CI: 93.04-96.52). Colonoscopy was appropriate and complete in 97.58% (95%CI: 95.98-98.55) of cases. The high- and low-risk adenoma detection rates were 14.7‰ (95%CI: 11.9-18.2) and 5.55‰ (95%CI: 3.9-7.8) respectively. The positive predictive value for any adenoma was 58.55% (95%CI: 54.49-62.49) and for invasive cancer was 5.36% (95%CI: 3.8-7.51). The indicator analysis of the ongoing programme suggests the programme is being implemented correctly in our community. Copyright © 2017 SESPAS. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. RNA-based mutation screening in hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Kohonen-Corish, M.; Ross, V.L.; Doe, W.F.

    1996-10-01

    Hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) is a cancer syndrome inherited in an autosomal dominant fashion. Four susceptibility genes are known, which code for DNA mismatch repair enzymes. The purpose of this study was to identify the HNPCC gene defects in a cohort of Australian HNPCC families and to evaluate the use of RNA-based screening methods. Six mutations were identified, four in the hMLH1 gene and two in hMSH2, by using a combination of DNA-based and RNA-based methods. One of the hMLH1 defects was a missense mutation, and the other five mutations would be expected to result in a shortened protein. These included a rare type of mRNA splicing mutation in hMLH1 exon 17. By use of reverse-transcriptase (RT) PCR, defective transcripts were detectable for three of the hMLH1 mutations but not for the fourth one, which was predicted to cause skipping of exon 15. Furthermore, many more alternative transcripts for the hMLH1 gene were found than previously described, and these were more abundant in the RNA samples prepared from whole blood than from lymphoblastoid cell lines. This confounded RNA-based screening for HNPCC mutations, because it was difficult to determine which aberrant RT-PCR fragment was the real hereditary defect. One of the splice-site mutations reported here causes skipping of exons 9 and 10, which also occurs as an alternative transcript. When the protein-truncation test was used, the results were indistinguishable between the patients in this family and controls. Other aberrant transcripts were also observed that varied in size between individuals but were unrelated to the hereditary defects. This study has important implications for the design of reliable diagnostic tests for HNPCC gene defects. 26 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  20. A single institution experience in compliance with universal screening for Lynch syndrome in colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Hill, Amy L; Sumra, Kirandeep K; Russell, Marcia M; Yoo, James; Ko, Clifford Y; Hart, Steven; Wainberg, Zev; Hecht, J Randolph; Lin, Anne Y

    2015-03-01

    Detection of Lynch syndrome has the potential to reduce morbidity and mortality among patients and their family members due to beneficial screening and treatment options. Several institutions have begun to adopt universal rather than risk-stratified screening protocols, but the lack of 100 % compliance rates requires identification of system-level interventions to improve screening practices. We aimed to identify patient, tumor, and system factors associated with lack of screening and identify system-based interventions to improve Lynch syndrome screening. This study is a retrospective analysis of Lynch syndrome screening among colorectal cancer patients undergoing surgery in a single healthcare system. Two hundred and sixty-two patients who underwent surgery for colorectal cancer were studied. Rate of Lynch syndrome screening. We identified that 75 % of the total cohort was screened for Lynch syndrome. Of patients under the age of 50, 78 % percent were screened. Lower screening rates were found among patients with complete pathologic tumor response and lower pathologic stage of tumor. Higher screening rates were found at the academic hospital and with colorectal surgeons. In multivariable logistic regression analysis, lower screening rates were associated with community hospital location (OR, 0.22; 95 % CI, 0.08-0.56). Results may not be generalizable to different hospital settings. Several potential system-level interventions were identified to improve screening rates including an emphasis on improved provider communication.

  1. Screening for colorectal cancer: a guidance statement from the American College of Physicians.

    PubMed

    Qaseem, Amir; Denberg, Thomas D; Hopkins, Robert H; Humphrey, Linda L; Levine, Joel; Sweet, Donna E; Shekelle, Paul

    2012-03-06

    Colorectal cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths for men and women in the United States. The American College of Physicians (ACP) developed this guidance statement for clinicians by assessing the current guidelines developed by other organizations on screening for colorectal cancer. When multiple guidelines are available on a topic or when existing guidelines conflict, ACP believes that it is more valuable to provide clinicians with a rigorous review of the available guidelines rather than develop a new guideline on the same topic. The authors searched the National Guideline Clearinghouse to identify guidelines developed in the United States. Four guidelines met the inclusion criteria: a joint guideline developed by the American Cancer Society, the U.S. Multi-Society Task Force on Colorectal Cancer, and the American College of Radiology and individual guidelines developed by the Institute for Clinical Systems Improvement, the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force, and the American College of Radiology. GUIDANCE STATEMENT 1: ACP recommends that clinicians perform individualized assessment of risk for colorectal cancer in all adults. GUIDANCE STATEMENT 2: ACP recommends that clinicians screen for colorectal cancer in average-risk adults starting at the age of 50 years and in high-risk adults starting at the age of 40 years or 10 years younger than the age at which the youngest affected relative was diagnosed with colorectal cancer. GUIDANCE STATEMENT 3: ACP recommends using a stool-based test, flexible sigmoidoscopy, or optical colonoscopy as a screening test in patients who are at average risk. ACP recommends using optical colonoscopy as a screening test in patients who are at high risk. Clinicians should select the test based on the benefits and harms of the screening test, availability of the screening test, and patient preferences. GUIDANCE STATEMENT 4: ACP recommends that clinicians stop screening for colorectal cancer in adults over the age

  2. Population Screening for Colorectal Cancer Means Getting FIT: The Past, Present, and Future of Colorectal Cancer Screening Using the Fecal Immunochemical Test for Hemoglobin (FIT)

    PubMed Central

    Fraser, Callum G.; Halloran, Stephen P.; Young, Graeme P.

    2014-01-01

    Fecal immunochemical tests for hemoglobin (FIT) are changing the manner in which colorectal cancer (CRC) is screened. Although these tests are being performed worldwide, why is this test different from its predecessors? What evidence supports its adoption? How can this evidence best be used? This review addresses these questions and provides an understanding of FIT theory and practices to expedite international efforts to implement the use of FIT in CRC screening. PMID:24672652

  3. Reducing Colorectal Cancer Incidence and Disparities: Performance and Outcomes of a Screening Colonoscopy Program in South Carolina.

    PubMed

    Xirasagar, Sudha; Li, Yi-Jhen; Burch, James B; Daguisé, Virginie G; Hurley, Thomas G; Hébert, James R

    This study evaluated the efficiency, effectiveness, and racial disparities reduction potential of Screening Colonoscopies for People Everywhere in South Carolina (SCOPE SC), a state-funded program for indigent persons aged 50-64 years (45-64 years for African American (AA)) with a medical home in community health centers. Patients were referred to existing referral network providers, and the centers were compensated for patient navigation. Data on procedures and patient demographics were analyzed. Of 782 individuals recruited (71.2% AA), 85% (665) completed the procedure (71.1% AA). The adenoma detection rate was 27.8% (males 34.6% and females 25.1%), advanced neoplasm rate 7.7% (including 3 cancers), cecum intubation rate 98.9%, inadequate bowel preparation rate 7.9%, and adverse event rate 0.9%. All indicators met the national quality benchmarks. The adenoma rate of 26.0% among AAs aged 45-49 years was similar to that of older Whites and AAs. We found that patient navigation and a medical home setting resulted in a successful and high-quality screening program. The observed high adenoma rate among younger AAs calls for more research with larger cohorts to evaluate the appropriateness of the current screening guidelines for AAs, given that they suffer 47% higher colorectal cancer mortality than Whites.

  4. Colorectal and interval cancers of the Colorectal Cancer Screening Program in the Basque Country (Spain)

    PubMed Central

    Portillo, Isabel; Arana-Arri, Eunate; Idigoras, Isabel; Bilbao, Isabel; Martínez-Indart, Lorea; Bujanda, Luis; Gutierrez-Ibarluzea, Iñaki

    2017-01-01

    AIM To assess proportions, related conditions and survival of interval cancer (IC). METHODS The programme has a linkage with different clinical databases and cancer registers to allow suitable evaluation. This evaluation involves the detection of ICs after a negative faecal inmunochemical test (FIT), interval cancer FIT (IC-FIT) prior to a subsequent invitation, and the detection of ICs after a positive FIT and confirmatory diagnosis without colorectal cancer (CRC) detected and before the following recommended colonoscopy, IC-colonoscopy. We conducted a retrospective observational study analyzing from January 2009 to December 2015 1193602 invited people onto the Programme (participation rate of 68.6%). RESULTS Two thousand five hundred and eighteen cancers were diagnosed through the programme, 18 cases of IC-colonoscopy were found before the recommended follow-up (43542 colonoscopies performed) and 186 IC-FIT were identified before the following invitation of the 769200 negative FITs. There was no statistically significant relation between the predictor variables of ICs with sex, age and deprivation index, but there was relation between location and stage. Additionally, it was observed that there was less risk when the location was distal rather than proximal (OR = 0.28, 95%CI: 0.20-0.40, P < 0.0001), with no statistical significance when the location was in the rectum as opposed to proximal. When comparing the screen-detected cancers (SCs) with ICs, significant differences in survival were found (P < 0.001); being the 5-years survival for SCs 91.6% and IC-FIT 77.8%. CONCLUSION These findings in a Population Based CRC Screening Programme indicate the need of population-based studies that continue analyzing related factors to improve their detection and reducing harm. PMID:28487610

  5. History, evolution, and current status of radiologic imaging tests for colorectal cancer screening.

    PubMed

    Levine, Marc S; Yee, Judy

    2014-11-01

    Colorectal cancer screening is thought to be an effective tool with which to reduce the mortality from colorectal cancer through early detection and removal of colonic adenomas and early colon cancers. In this article, we review the history, evolution, and current status of imaging tests of the colon-including single-contrast barium enema, double-contrast barium enema, computed tomographic (CT) colonography, and magnetic resonance (MR) colonography-for colorectal cancer screening. Despite its documented value in the detection of colonic polyps, the double-contrast barium enema has largely disappeared as a screening test because it is widely perceived as a labor-intensive, time-consuming, and technically demanding procedure. In the past decade, the barium enema has been supplanted by CT colonography as the major imaging test in colorectal cancer screening in the United States, with MR colonography emerging as another viable option in Europe. Although MR colonography does not require ionizing radiation, the radiation dose for CT colonography has decreased substantially, and regular screening with this technique has a high benefit-to-risk ratio. In recent years, CT colonography has been validated as an effective tool for use in colorectal cancer screening that is increasingly being disseminated.

  6. Obesity and screening for breast, cervical, and colorectal cancer in women: a review.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Sarah S; Palmieri, Rachel T; Nyante, Sarah J; Koralek, Daniel O; Kim, Sangmi; Bradshaw, Patrick; Olshan, Andrew F

    2008-05-01

    The literature examining obesity as a barrier to screening for breast, cervical, and colorectal cancer has not been evaluated systematically. With the increasing prevalence of obesity and its impact on cancer incidence and mortality, it is important to determine whether obesity is a barrier to screening so that cancers among women at increased risk because of their body size can be detected early or prevented entirely. On the basis of 32 relevant published studies (10 breast cancer studies, 14 cervical cancer studies, and 8 colorectal cancer studies), the authors reviewed the literature regarding associations between obesity and recommended screening tests for these cancer sites among women in the U.S. The most consistent associations between obesity and screening behavior were observed for cervical cancer. Most studies reported an inverse relation between decreased cervical cancer screening and increasing body size, and several studies reported that the association was more consistent among white women than among black women. For breast cancer, obesity was associated with decreased screening behavior among white women but not among black women. The literature regarding obesity and colorectal cancer screening adherence was mixed, with some studies reporting an inverse effect of body size on screening behavior and others reporting no effect. Overall, the results indicated that obesity most likely is a barrier to screening for breast and cervical cancers, particularly among white women; the evidence for colorectal cancer screening was inconclusive. Thus, efforts to identify barriers and increase screening for breast and cervical cancers may be targeted toward obese women, whereas outreach to all women should remain the objective for colorectal cancer screening programs.

  7. What is the best screening strategy to detect advanced colorectal adenomas? Simulation from ongoing Italian screening experiences.

    PubMed

    Ventura, Leonardo; Zappa, Marco; Carreras, Giulia; Ciatto, Stefano; Grazzini, Grazia

    2011-01-01

    The best screening strategy for colorectal cancer is still debated. We simulated two screening strategies, namely flexible sigmoidoscopy (single episode) and immunological fecal occult blood test (FOBT) (five biennial rounds) and comparing their results as regards advanced adenomas and colorectal cancer detection. A Markov model was developed to estimate the number of advanced adenomas and colorectal cancer detected with the two compared screening strategies. Two different scenarios, namely a) where the same compliance (50%) at both flexible sigmoidoscopy and immunological FOBT invitation is applied, and b) where the actual compliance observed at a national level (immunological FOBT, 45%; flexible sigmoidoscopy, 30%) is applied. In scenario a), immunological FOBT would detect a total of 20,573 adenomas and 3,952 colorectal cancers, performing 74,507 total colonoscopies compared to 20,939 and 2,511, respectively, detected by flexible sigmoidoscopy, with 17,985 total colonoscopies. In scenario b), immunological FOBT would detect 17,845 advanced adenomas with 65,215 colonoscopies performed compared to 12,672 detected by flexible sigmoidoscopy with 10,796 colonoscopies. The probability of having a colonoscopy for a subject attending all the five immunological FOBT rounds was 15.9%. The simulation suggests that also immunological FOBT screening may achieve a substantial detection of advanced adenomas and therefore may have an impact on colorectal cancer incidence.

  8. A randomized trial of direct mailing of fecal occult blood tests to increase colorectal cancer screening.

    PubMed

    Church, Timothy R; Yeazel, Mark W; Jones, Resa M; Kochevar, Laura K; Watt, Gavin D; Mongin, Steven J; Cordes, Jill E; Engelhard, Deborah

    2004-05-19

    Although colorectal cancer screening by using a fecal occult blood test (FOBT), flexible sigmoidoscopy, colonoscopy, or barium enema x-ray reduces the incidence of and death from colorectal cancer, the rate of colorectal cancer screening in the general population is low. We conducted a randomized trial consisting of direct mailing of FOBT kits to increase colorectal cancer screening among residents of Wright County, Minnesota, a community in which colorectal cancer screening was promoted. At baseline, we mailed a questionnaire about colorectal cancer screening to a random sample of Wright County residents aged 50 years or older who were randomly selected from the Minnesota State Driver's License and Identification Card database (estimated N = 1451). The sample was randomly allocated into three equal subgroups: one group (control) received only the questionnaire, one group received FOBT kits by direct mail with reminders, and one group received FOBT kits by direct mail without reminders. Study participants were sent a follow-up questionnaire 1 year after baseline. We used the responses to the questionnaires to estimate the 1-year change in self-reported screening rates in each group and the differences in the changes among the groups, along with the associated bootstrap 95% confidence intervals (CIs). At baseline, the estimated response rate was 86.5%, self-reported adherence to FOBT guidelines was 21.5%, and overall adherence to any colorectal cancer screening test guidelines was 55.8%. The 1-year rate changes in absolute percentage for self-reported adherence to FOBT use were 1.5% (95% CI = -2.9% to 5.9%) for the control group, 16.9% (95% CI = 11.5% to 22.3%) for the direct-mail-FOBT-with-no-reminders group, and 23.2% (95% CI = 17.2% to 29.3%) for the direct-mail-FOBT-with-reminders group. The 1-year rate changes for self-reported adherence to any colorectal cancer screening test were 7.8% (95% CI = 3.2% to 12.0%) for the control group, 13.2% (95% CI = 8.4% to 18

  9. Nanoscale/Molecular analysis of Fecal Colonocytes for Colorectal Cancer Screening | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Existing guidelines recommend colorectal cancer (CRC) screening for all patients over age 50. However, CRC remains the second leading cause of cancer death among Americans largely because colonoscopic screening of all the >100 million Americans over age 50 is unfeasible for both patient-related (non-compliance) and societal (inadequate endoscopic capacity and funding) reasons. |

  10. Cross-Cultural Validation of the Preventive Health Model for Colorectal Cancer Screening: An Australian Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flight, Ingrid H.; Wilson, Carlene J.; McGillivray, Jane; Myers, Ronald E.

    2010-01-01

    We investigated whether the five-factor structure of the Preventive Health Model for colorectal cancer screening, developed in the United States, has validity in Australia. We also tested extending the model with the addition of the factor Self-Efficacy to Screen using Fecal Occult Blood Test (SESFOBT). Randomly selected men and women aged between…

  11. Colorectal Cancer Screening at the Nexus of HIV, Minority Statuses, and Cultural Safety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ka'opua, Lana Sue I.; Diaz, Tressa P.; Park, Soon H.; Bowen, Talita; Patrick, Kevin; Tamang, Suresh; Braun, Kathryn L.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The incidence of non-AIDS-defining cancers has increased significantly among persons living with HIV (PLHIV). Screening education is recommended. Purpose: Social learning, minority stress, and cultural safety theories informed this pilot to assess the feasibility of a colorectal cancer screening intervention targeted to PLHIV, with…

  12. Attitudes to colorectal cancer screening among ethnic minority groups in the UK

    PubMed Central

    Robb, Kathryn A; Solarin, Ijeoma; Power, Emily; Atkin, Wendy; Wardle, Jane

    2008-01-01

    Background Colorectal screening by Flexible Sigmoidoscopy (FS) is under evaluation in the UK. Evidence from existing cancer screening programmes indicates lower participation among minority ethnic groups than the white-British population. To ensure equality of access, it is important to understand attitudes towards screening in all ethnic groups so that barriers to screening acceptance can be addressed. Methods Open- and closed-ended questions on knowledge about colorectal cancer and attitudes to FS screening were added to Ethnibus™ – a monthly, nationwide survey of the main ethnic minority communities living in the UK (Indian, Pakistani, Bangladeshi, Caribbean, African, and Chinese). Interviews (n = 875) were conducted, face-to-face, by multilingual field-workers, including 125 interviews with white-British adults. Results All respondents showed a notable lack of knowledge about causes of colorectal cancer, which was more pronounced in ethnic minority than white-British adults. Interest in FS screening was uniformly high (>60%), with more than 90% of those interested saying it would provide 'peace of mind'. The most frequently cited barrier to screening 'in your community' was embarrassment, particularly among ethnic minority groups. Conclusion Educational materials should recognise that non-white groups may be less knowledgeable about colorectal cancer. The findings of the current study suggest that embarrassment may be a greater deterrent to participation to FS screening among ethnic minority groups, but this result requires exploration in further research. PMID:18221519

  13. Colorectal Cancer Screening at the Nexus of HIV, Minority Statuses, and Cultural Safety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ka'opua, Lana Sue I.; Diaz, Tressa P.; Park, Soon H.; Bowen, Talita; Patrick, Kevin; Tamang, Suresh; Braun, Kathryn L.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The incidence of non-AIDS-defining cancers has increased significantly among persons living with HIV (PLHIV). Screening education is recommended. Purpose: Social learning, minority stress, and cultural safety theories informed this pilot to assess the feasibility of a colorectal cancer screening intervention targeted to PLHIV, with…

  14. Colorectal Cancer Screening: Knowledge, Perceived Benefits and Barriers, and Intentions among College and University Employees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bajracharya, Srijana M.; Wigglesworth, Janet K.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Early detection through routine screening is critical in reducing the incidence rate of colorectal cancer (CRC). Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine college and university employees' knowledge of CRC issues, their perceptions of the benefits of and barriers to CRC screening, and their intentions toward it. Methods: This…

  15. Cross-Cultural Validation of the Preventive Health Model for Colorectal Cancer Screening: An Australian Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flight, Ingrid H.; Wilson, Carlene J.; McGillivray, Jane; Myers, Ronald E.

    2010-01-01

    We investigated whether the five-factor structure of the Preventive Health Model for colorectal cancer screening, developed in the United States, has validity in Australia. We also tested extending the model with the addition of the factor Self-Efficacy to Screen using Fecal Occult Blood Test (SESFOBT). Randomly selected men and women aged between…

  16. Colorectal Cancer Screening: Knowledge, Perceived Benefits and Barriers, and Intentions among College and University Employees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bajracharya, Srijana M.; Wigglesworth, Janet K.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Early detection through routine screening is critical in reducing the incidence rate of colorectal cancer (CRC). Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine college and university employees' knowledge of CRC issues, their perceptions of the benefits of and barriers to CRC screening, and their intentions toward it. Methods: This…

  17. Prevalence of colorectal cancer screening among adults--Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, United States, 2010.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Djenaba A; King, Jessica B; Miller, Jacqueline W; Richardson, Lisa C

    2012-06-15

    Among cancers that affect both men and women, colorectal cancer is the second leading cause of cancer death. In 2007 (the most recent year for which data are available), >142,000 persons received a diagnosis for colorectal cancer and >53,000 persons died. Screening for colorectal cancer has been demonstrated to be effective in reducing the incidence of and mortality from the disease. In 2008, the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommended that persons aged 50-75 years at average risk for colorectal cancer be screened by using one or more of the following methods: high-sensitivity fecal occult blood testing (FOBT) every year, sigmoidoscopy every 5 years with FOBT every 3 years, or colonoscopy every 10 years.

  18. Association between documented family history of cancer and screening for breast and colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Carney, Patricia A; O'Malley, Jean P; Gough, Andrea; Buckley, David I; Wallace, James; Fagnan, Lyle J; Morris, Cynthia; Mori, Motomi; Heintzman, John D; Lieberman, David

    2013-11-01

    Previous research on ascertainment of cancer family history and cancer screening has been conducted in urban settings. To examine whether documented family history of breast or colorectal cancer is associated with breast or colorectal cancer screening. Medical record reviews were conducted on 3433 patients aged 55 and older from four primary care practices in two rural Oregon communities. Data collected included patient demographic and risk information, including any documentation of family history of breast or colorectal cancer, and receipt of screening for these cancers. A positive breast cancer family history was associated with an increased likelihood of being up-to-date for mammography screening (OR 2.09, 95% CI 1.45-3.00 relative to a recorded negative history). A positive family history for colorectal cancer was associated with an increased likelihood of being up-to-date with colorectal cancer screening according to U.S. Preventive Services Task Force low risk guidelines for males (OR 2.89, 95% CI 1.15-7.29) and females (OR 2.47, 95% CI 1.32-4.64) relative to a recorded negative family history. The absence of any recorded family cancer history was associated with a decreased likelihood of being up-to-date for mammography screening (OR 0.70, 95% CI 0.56-0.88 relative to recorded negative history) or for colorectal cancer screening (OR 0.75, 95% CI 0.60-0.96 in females, OR 0.68, 95% CI 0.53-0.88 in males relative to recorded negative history). Further research is needed to determine if establishing routines to document family history of cancer would improve appropriate use of cancer screening. © 2013.

  19. Utility of the Asia-Pacific colorectal screening scoring system and the presence of metabolic syndrome components in screening for sporadic colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiang-Yuan; Li, Zhen-Tao; Zhu, Yuan-Min; Wang, Wen-Chao; Ma, Yan; Liu, Yu-Lan

    2014-08-28

    To determine the utility of the Asia-Pacific colorectal screening (APCS) scoring system and metabolic syndrome components in individual screening for sporadic colorectal cancer. The subjects were patients admitted to the Peking University People's Hospital for colonoscopy between October 2012 and July 2013. Clinical information, including patient willingness to undergo colonoscopy, medical history, endoscopic findings, histology, and other information, was collected, and the patients were grouped according to APCS scores and the presence of metabolic syndrome components. Colorectal tumor detection rates were compared between the groups. A total of 219 patients were included in the study, 108 were male and 111 were female, resulting in a male-to-female ratio of 1:1.03. The average age of the patients was 56.8 ± 13.7 years. According to APCS scores, 88 (40.2%) patients were included in the average-risk (AR) group, 113 (51.6%) patients were included in the moderate-risk (MR) group, and 18 (8.2%) patients were included in the high-risk (HR) group. Colorectal tumors were detected in 69 (31.5%) subjects, and the detection rates in the AR, MR, and HR groups were 15.9%, 36.3%, and 77.8%, respectively. The difference in the detection rates between the three groups was statistically significant (P < 0.01). The combined detection rate of colorectal tumors in the APCS MR and HR groups was 42.0%. However, patients in the MR and HR groups who presented with metabolic syndrome components, in particular obesity, exhibited a significantly higher colorectal tumor detection rate (59.5%) than did those without these components (19.2%, P < 0.01) and those who underwent colonoscopy because of doctor's recommendation (36.5%, P < 0.01). The APCS scoring system can be used in individual screening for sporadic colorectal cancer. The combined use of APCS scores and the metabolic syndrome components, in particular obesity, will significantly improve the efficacy of individual colorectal

  20. Once-only flexible sigmoidoscopy screening in prevention of colorectal cancer: a multicentre randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Atkin, Wendy S; Edwards, Rob; Kralj-Hans, Ines; Wooldrage, Kate; Hart, Andrew R; Northover, John M A; Parkin, D Max; Wardle, Jane; Duffy, Stephen W; Cuzick, Jack

    2010-05-08

    Colorectal cancer is the third most common cancer worldwide and has a high mortality rate. We tested the hypothesis that only one flexible sigmoidoscopy screening between 55 and 64 years of age can substantially reduce colorectal cancer incidence and mortality. This randomised controlled trial was undertaken in 14 UK centres. 170 432 eligible men and women, who had indicated on a previous questionnaire that they would accept an invitation for screening, were randomly allocated to the intervention group (offered flexible sigmoidoscopy screening) or the control group (not contacted). Randomisation by sequential number generation was done centrally in blocks of 12, with stratification by trial centre, general practice, and household type. The primary outcomes were the incidence of colorectal cancer, including prevalent cases detected at screening, and mortality from colorectal cancer. Analyses were intention to treat and per protocol. The trial is registered, number ISRCTN28352761. 113 195 people were assigned to the control group and 57 237 to the intervention group, of whom 112 939 and 57 099, respectively, were included in the final analyses. 40 674 (71%) people underwent flexible sigmoidoscopy. During screening and median follow-up of 11.2 years (IQR 10.7-11.9), 2524 participants were diagnosed with colorectal cancer (1818 in control group vs 706 in intervention group) and 20 543 died (13 768 vs 6775; 727 certified from colorectal cancer [538 vs 189]). In intention-to-treat analyses, colorectal cancer incidence in the intervention group was reduced by 23% (hazard ratio 0.77, 95% CI 0.70-0.84) and mortality by 31% (0.69, 0.59-0.82). In per-protocol analyses, adjusting for self-selection bias in the intervention group, incidence of colorectal cancer in people attending screening was reduced by 33% (0.67, 0.60-0.76) and mortality by 43% (0.57, 0.45-0.72). Incidence of distal colorectal cancer (rectum and sigmoid colon) was reduced by 50% (0.50, 0.42-0.59; secondary

  1. Assessing Individual Risk for High-Risk Colorectal Adenoma at First-Time Screening Colonoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Yin; Rosner, Bernard A.; Ma, Jing; Tamimi, Rulla M.; Chan, Andrew T.; Fuchs, Charles S.

    2015-01-01

    Assessing risk of colorectal adenoma at first-time colonoscopy that are of higher likelihood of developing advanced neoplasia during surveillance could help tailor first-line colorectal cancer screening. We developed prediction models for high-risk colorectal adenoma (at least one adenoma ≥1 cm, or with advanced histology, or ≥3 adenomas) among 4,881 asymptomatic white men and 17,970 women who underwent colonoscopy as their first-time screening for colorectal cancer in two prospective U.S. studies using logistic regressions. C-statistics and Hosmer-Lemeshow tests were used to evaluate discrimination and calibration. Ten-fold cross-validation was used for internal validation. A total of 330 (6.7%) men and 678 (3.8%) women were diagnosed with high-risk adenoma at first-time screening colonoscopy. The model for men included age, family history of colorectal cancer, BMI, smoking, sitting watching TV/VCR, regular aspirin/NSAID use, physical activity, and a joint term of multivitamin and alcohol. For women, the model included age, family history of colorectal cancer, BMI, smoking, alcohol, beef/pork/lamb as main dish, regular aspirin/NSAID, calcium, and oral contraceptive use. The C-statistic of the model for men was 0.67 and 0.60 for women (0.64 and 0.57 in cross-validation). Both models calibrated well. The predicted risk of high-risk adenoma for men in the top decile was 15.4% vs 1.8% for men in the bottom decile (Odds Ratio[OR]=9.41), and 6.6% vs 2.1% for women (OR=3.48). In summary, we developed and internally validated an absolute risk assessment tool for high-risk colorectal adenoma among the U.S. population that may provide guidance for first-time colorectal cancer screening. PMID:25820865

  2. Assessing individual risk for high-risk colorectal adenoma at first-time screening colonoscopy.

    PubMed

    Cao, Yin; Rosner, Bernard A; Ma, Jing; Tamimi, Rulla M; Chan, Andrew T; Fuchs, Charles S; Wu, Kana; Giovannucci, Edward L

    2015-10-01

    Assessing risk of colorectal adenoma at first-time colonoscopy that are of higher likelihood of developing advanced neoplasia during surveillance could help tailor first-line colorectal cancer screening. We developed prediction models for high-risk colorectal adenoma (at least one adenoma ≥1 cm, or with advanced histology, or ≥3 adenomas) among 4,881 asymptomatic white men and 17,970 women who underwent colonoscopy as their first-time screening for colorectal cancer in two prospective US studies using logistic regressions. C-statistics and Hosmer-Lemeshow tests were used to evaluate discrimination and calibration. Ten-fold cross-validation was used for internal validation. A total of 330 (6.7%) men and 678 (3.8%) women were diagnosed with high-risk adenoma at first-time screening colonoscopy. The model for men included age, family history of colorectal cancer, BMI, smoking, sitting watching TV/VCR, regular aspirin/NSAID use, physical activity, and a joint term of multivitamin and alcohol. For women, the model included age, family history of colorectal cancer, BMI, smoking, alcohol, beef/pork/lamb as main dish, regular aspirin/NSAID, calcium, and oral contraceptive use. The C-statistic of the model for men was 0.67 and 0.60 for women (0.64 and 0.57 in cross-validation). Both models calibrated well. The predicted risk of high-risk adenoma for men in the top decile was 15.4% vs. 1.8% for men in the bottom decile (Odds Ratio [OR] = 9.41), and 6.6% vs. 2.1% for women (OR = 3.48). In summary, we developed and internally validated an absolute risk assessment tool for high-risk colorectal adenoma among the US population that may provide guidance for first-time colorectal cancer screening.

  3. Variation in Screening Abnormality Rates and Follow-Up of Breast, Cervical and Colorectal Cancer Screening within the PROSPR Consortium.

    PubMed

    Tosteson, Anna N A; Beaber, Elisabeth F; Tiro, Jasmin; Kim, Jane; McCarthy, Anne Marie; Quinn, Virginia P; Doria-Rose, V Paul; Wheeler, Cosette M; Barlow, William E; Bronson, Mackenzie; Garcia, Michael; Corley, Douglas A; Haas, Jennifer S; Halm, Ethan A; Kamineni, Aruna; Rutter, Carolyn M; Tosteson, Tor D; Trentham-Dietz, Amy; Weaver, Donald L

    2016-04-01

    Primary care providers and health systems have prominent roles in guiding effective cancer screening. To characterize variation in screening abnormality rates and timely initial follow-up for common cancer screening tests. Population-based cohort undergoing screening in 2011, 2012, or 2013 at seven research centers comprising the National Cancer Institute-sponsored Population-based Research Optimizing Screening through Personalized Regimens (PROSPR) consortium. Adults undergoing mammography with or without digital breast tomosynthesis (n = 97,683 ages 40-75 years), fecal occult blood or fecal immunochemical tests (n = 759,553 ages 50-75 years), or Papanicolaou with or without human papillomavirus tests (n = 167,330 ages 21-65 years). Breast, colorectal, or cervical cancer screening. Abnormality rates per 1000 screens; percentage with timely initial follow-up (within 90 days, except 9-month window for BI-RADS 3). Primary care clinic-level variation in percentage with screening abnormality and percentage with timely initial follow-up. There were 10,248/97,683 (104.9 per 1000) abnormal breast cancer screens, 35,847/759,553 (47.2 per 1000) FOBT/FIT-positive colorectal cancer screens, and 13,266/167,330 (79.3 per 1000) abnormal cervical cancer screens. The percentage with timely follow-up was 93.2 to 96.7 % for breast centers, 46.8 to 68.7  % for colorectal centers, and 46.6 % for the cervical cancer screening center (low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions or higher). The primary care clinic variation (25th to 75th percentile) was smaller for the percentage with an abnormal screen (breast, 8.5-10.3 %; colorectal, 3.0-4.8 %; cervical, 6.3-9.9 %) than for the percentage with follow-up within 90 days (breast, 90.2-95.8 %; colorectal, 43.4-52.0 %; cervical, 29.6-61.4 %). Variation in both the rate of screening abnormalities and their initial follow-up was evident across organ sites and primary care clinics. This highlights an opportunity for improving the delivery of

  4. Rural-urban differences in colorectal cancer screening capacity in Arizona.

    PubMed

    Benuzillo, Jose G; Jacobs, Elizabeth T; Hoffman, Richard M; Heigh, Russell I; Lance, Peter; Martínez, María Elena

    2009-12-01

    Colorectal cancer can be prevented via screening by the detection and removal of colorectal adenomas. Few data exist on screening capacity by rural/urban areas. Therefore, the aims of this work were to evaluate current colorectal cancer endoscopy screening capacity and to estimate potential volume for rural and urban regions in Arizona. Gastroenterologists and colorectal surgeons practicing in Arizona completed a survey (n = 105) that assessed current colonoscopy and sigmoidoscopy screening and estimated future capacity. Resources needed to increase capacity were identified, and differences between rural and urban regions were examined. Responders were more likely to practice in an urban region (89.5%). Physicians reported performing 8,717 endoscopic procedures weekly (8,312 in urban and 405 in rural regions) and the vast majority were colonoscopies (91% in urban and 97% in rural regions). Urban physicians estimated being able to increase their capacity by 35.7% (95% confidence interval 34.7-35.7) whereas rural physicians estimated an increase of 53.1% (95% confidence interval 48.1-58.0). The most commonly cited resource needed to increase capacity was a greater number of physicians in urban regions (52.1%); while the top response in rural areas was appropriate compensation (54.6%). Lastly, 27.3% of rural physicians noted they did not need additional resources to increase their capacity. In conclusion, Arizona has the ability to expand colorectal cancer screening endoscopic capacity; this potential increase was more pronounced in rural as compared to urban regions.

  5. A functional proteomics screen of proteases in colorectal carcinoma.

    PubMed Central

    McKerrow, J. H.; Bhargava, V.; Hansell, E.; Huling, S.; Kuwahara, T.; Matley, M.; Coussens, L.; Warren, R.

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Proteases facilitate several steps in cancer progression. To identify proteases most suitable for drug targeting, actual enzyme activity and not messenger RNA levels or immunoassay of protein is the ideal assay readout. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An automated microtiter plate assay format was modified to allow detection of all four major classes of proteases in tissue samples. Fifteen sets of colorectal carcinoma biopsies representing primary tumor, adjacent normal colon, and liver metastases were screened for protease activity. RESULTS: The major proteases detected were matrix metalloproteases (MMP9, MMP2, and MMP1), cathepsin B, cathepsin D, and the mast cell serine proteases, tryptase and chymase. Matrix metalloproteases were expressed at higher levels in the primary tumor than in adjacent normal tissue. The mast cell proteases, in contrast, were at very high levels in adjacent normal tissue, and not detectable in the metastases. Cathepsin B activity was significantly higher in the primary tumor, and highest in the metastases. The major proteases detected by activity assays were then localized in biopsy sections by immunohistochemistry. Mast cell proteases were abundant in adjacent normal tissue, because of infiltration of the lamina propria by mast cells. Matrix metalloproteases were localized to the tumor cells themselves; whereas, cathepsin B was predominantly expressed by macrophages at the leading edge of invading tumors. Although only low levels of urinary plasminogen activator were detected by direct enzyme assay, immunohistochemistry showed abundant protein within the tumor. CONCLUSIONS: This analysis, surveying all major classes of proteases by assays of activity rather than immunolocalization or in situ hybridization alone, serves to identify proteases whose activity is not completely balanced by endogenous inhibitors and which may be essential for tumor progression. These proteases are logical targets for initial efforts to produce low

  6. European guidelines for quality assurance in colorectal cancer screening and diagnosis. First Edition--Quality assurance in endoscopy in colorectal cancer screening and diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Valori, R; Rey, J-F; Atkin, W S; Bretthauer, M; Senore, C; Hoff, G; Kuipers, E J; Altenhofen, L; Lambert, R; Minoli, G

    2012-09-01

    Multidisciplinary, evidence-based guidelines for quality assurance in colorectal cancer screening and diagnosis have been developed by experts in a project coordinated by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. The full guideline document covers the entire process of population-based screening. It consists of 10 chapters and over 250 recommendations, graded according to the strength of the recommendation and the supporting evidence. The 450-page guidelines and the extensive evidence base have been published by the European Commission. The chapter on quality assurance in endoscopy includes 50 graded recommendations. The content of the chapter is presented here to promote international discussion and collaboration by making the principles and standards recommended in the new EU Guidelines known to a wider professional and scientific community. Following these recommendations has the potential to enhance the control of colorectal cancer through improvement in the quality and effectiveness of endoscopy and other elements in the screening process, including multidisciplinary diagnosis and management of the disease.

  7. Using tailored telephone counseling to accelerate the adoption of colorectal cancer screening.

    PubMed

    Costanza, Mary E; Luckmann, Roger; Stoddard, Anne M; White, Mary Jo; Stark, Jennifer R; Avrunin, Jill S; Rosal, Milagros C; Clemow, Lynn

    2007-01-01

    Few interventions to increase colorectal cancer screening have used a stage of change model to promote screening adoption. None have used computer-assisted tailored telephone counseling calls. This study's purpose was to implement and evaluate stage-based computer-assisted tailored telephone counseling to promote colorectal cancer screening in a primary care population. This randomized controlled trial used a two-stepped intervention that included a mailed booklet on colorectal cancer screening followed by computer-assisted telephone counseling that was based on the Precaution Adoption Process Model. Chart audit was used to document completion of colonoscopy, sigmoidoscopy or fecal occult blood testing. Record audits were completed on 2,474 (88%) of the 2,817 eligible participants. There was no significant difference in the frequency and nature of the screening tests completed in the study arms. In a sub-analysis, stages of adoption were evaluated pre- and post-telephone counseling. Over half those receiving counseling reported a change in stage towards screening adoption. Overall, the intervention did not increase colorectal screening compared to control. Two possible reasons for the absence of a screening effect include: (a) the focus of the protocol on education for most patients rather than motivation, and (b) the requirement that patients interested in screening seek further information and a referral on their own from their providers. While those receiving telephone counseling improved their stage of adoption, we cannot rule out selection bias. Stronger physician recommendation to speak with the counselors could improve call acceptance. Future colorectal screening should address these weaknesses.

  8. Sorting out measures and definitions of screening participation to improve comparability: the example of colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Bulliard, Jean-Luc; Garcia, Montse; Blom, Johannes; Senore, Carlo; Mai, Verna; Klabunde, Carrie

    2014-01-01

    Participation is a key indicator of the potential effectiveness of any population-based intervention. Defining, measuring and reporting participation in cancer screening programmes has become more heterogeneous as the number and diversity of interventions have increased, and the purposes of this benchmarking parameter have broadened. This study, centred on colorectal cancer, addresses current issues that affect the increasingly complex task of comparing screening participation across settings. Reports from programmes with a defined target population and active invitation scheme, published between 2005 and 2012, were reviewed. Differences in defining and measuring participation were identified and quantified, and participation indicators were grouped by aims of measure and temporal dimensions. We found that consistent terminology, clear and complete reporting of participation definition and systematic documentation of coverage by invitation were lacking. Further, adherence to definitions proposed in the 2010 European Guidelines for Quality Assurance in Colorectal Cancer Screening was suboptimal. Ineligible individuals represented 1% to 15% of invitations, and variable criteria for ineligibility yielded differences in participation estimates that could obscure the interpretation of colorectal cancer screening participation internationally. Excluding ineligible individuals from the reference population enhances comparability of participation measures. Standardised measures of cumulative participation to compare screening protocols with different intervals and inclusion of time since invitation in definitions are urgently needed to improve international comparability of colorectal cancer screening participation. Recommendations to improve comparability of participation indicators in cancer screening interventions are made.

  9. Selumetinib and Cyclosporine in Treating Patients With Advanced Solid Tumors or Advanced or Metastatic Colorectal Cancer

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-09-28

    Recurrent Colorectal Carcinoma; Solid Neoplasm; Stage IIIA Colorectal Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IIIB Colorectal Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IIIC Colorectal Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IVA Colorectal Cancer AJCC v7; Stage IVB Colorectal Cancer AJCC v7

  10. Guidelines on the use of cytoreductive surgery and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy in patients with peritoneal surface malignancy arising from colorectal or appendiceal neoplasms

    PubMed Central

    Dubé, P.; Sideris, L.; Law, C.; Mack, L.; Haase, E.; Giacomantonio, C.; Govindarajan, A.; Krzyzanowska, M.K.; Major, P.; McConnell, Y.; Temple, W.; Younan, R.; McCart, J.A.

    2015-01-01

    To meet the needs of patients, Canadian surgical and medical oncology leaders in the treatment of peritoneal surface malignancies (psms), together with patient representatives, formed the Canadian HIPEC Collaborative Group (chicg). The group is dedicated to standardizing and improving the treatment of psm in Canada so that access to treatment and, ultimately, the prognosis of Canadian patients with psm are improved. Patients with resectable psm arising from colorectal or appendiceal neoplasms should be reviewed by a multidisciplinary team including surgeons and medical oncologists with experience in treating patients with psm. Cytoreductive surgery and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy should be offered to appropriately selected patients and performed at experienced centres. The aim of this publication is to present guidelines that we recommend be applied across the country for the treatment of psm. PMID:25908915

  11. Implementing the CDC’s Colorectal Cancer Screening Demonstration Program: Wisdom From the Field

    PubMed Central

    Rohan, Elizabeth A.; Boehm, Jennifer E.; DeGroff, Amy; Glover-Kudon, Rebecca; Preissle, Judith

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND Colorectal cancer, as the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths among men and women in the United States, represents an important area for public health intervention. Although colorectal cancer screening can prevent cancer and detect disease early when treatment is most effective, few organized public health screening programs have been implemented and evaluated. From 2005 to 2009, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention funded 5 sites to participate in the Colorectal Cancer Screening Demonstration Program (CRCSDP), which was designed to reach medically underserved populations. METHODS The authors conducted a longitudinal, multiple case study to analyze program implementation processes. Qualitative methods included interviews with 100 stakeholders, 125 observations, and review of 19 documents. Data were analyzed within and across cases. RESULTS Several themes related to CRCSDP implementation emerged from the cross-case analysis: the complexity of colorectal cancer screening, the need for teamwork and collaboration, integration of the program into existing systems, the ability of programs to use wisdom at the local level, and the influence of social norms. Although these themes were explored independently from 1 another, interaction across themes was evident. CONCLUSIONS Colorectal cancer screening is clinically complex, and its screening methods are not well accepted by the general public; both of these circumstances have implications for program implementation. Using patient navigation, engaging in transdisciplinary teamwork, assimilating new programs into existing clinical settings, and deferring to local-level wisdom together helped to address complexity and enhance program implementation. In addition, public health efforts must confront negative social norms around colorectal cancer screening. PMID:23868482

  12. Predictors of Colorectal Cancer Screening Prior to Implementation of a Large Pragmatic Trial in Federally Qualified Health Centers.

    PubMed

    Petrik, Amanda F; Le, Thuy; Keast, Erin; Rivelli, Jennifer; Bigler, Keshia; Green, Beverly; Vollmer, William M; Coronado, Gloria

    2017-07-25

    Colorectal cancer screening can prevent cancer deaths. Federally qualified health centers serve a unique patient population that often is not screened. Knowing who in this environment is getting screened via fecal testing and via colonoscopy can assist in tailoring intervention to raise rates of colorectal cancer screening. We examined patient-level and neighborhood-level characteristics associated with being up to date with colorectal cancer screening guidelines. We also examined associations between these factors and being screened with a fecal test. We observed an increase in colorectal cancer screening rates from 2010 to 2015. Adjusted analyses revealed that the following factors were significantly associated with colorectal cancer screening: aged 65 or older, having any type of insurance, previous outpatient visits, and current or other preventive screenings. Among adults aged 50-75 who were up to date with colorectal cancer screening, factors associated with use of fecal testing, as opposed to colonoscopy, were: being younger, speaking a non-English language, being uninsured, having prior office visits, and having had a flu shot in past year. Our findings may inform clinic-based effort to raise rates of colorectal cancer screening, especially in the community clinic setting. ClinicalTrials.gov , NCT01742065.

  13. Get screened: a pragmatic randomized controlled trial to increase mammography and colorectal cancer screening in a large, safety net practice

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Most randomized controlled trials of interventions designed to promote cancer screening, particularly those targeting poor and minority patients, enroll selected patients. Relatively little is known about the benefits of these interventions among unselected patients. Methods/Design "Get Screened" is an American Cancer Society-sponsored randomized controlled trial designed to promote mammography and colorectal cancer screening in a primary care practice serving low-income patients. Eligible patients who are past due for mammography or colorectal cancer screening are entered into a tracking registry and randomly assigned to early or delayed intervention. This 6-month intervention is multimodal, involving patient prompts, clinician prompts, and outreach. At the time of the patient visit, eligible patients receive a low-literacy patient education tool. At the same time, clinicians receive a prompt to remind them to order the test and, when appropriate, a tool designed to simplify colorectal cancer screening decision-making. Patient outreach consists of personalized letters, automated telephone reminders, assistance with scheduling, and linkage of uninsured patients to the local National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection program. Interventions are repeated for patients who fail to respond to early interventions. We will compare rates of screening between randomized groups, as well as planned secondary analyses of minority patients and uninsured patients. Data from the pilot phase show that this multimodal intervention triples rates of cancer screening (adjusted odds ratio 3.63; 95% CI 2.35 - 5.61). Discussion This study protocol is designed to assess a multimodal approach to promotion of breast and colorectal cancer screening among underserved patients. We hypothesize that a multimodal approach will significantly improve cancer screening rates. The trial was registered at Clinical Trials.gov NCT00818857 PMID:20863395

  14. Patient Decision Aids for Colorectal Cancer Screening: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Volk, Robert J; Linder, Suzanne K; Lopez-Olivo, Maria A; Kamath, Geetanjali R; Reuland, Daniel S; Saraykar, Smita S; Leal, Viola B; Pignone, Michael P

    2016-11-01

    Decision aids prepare patients to make decisions about healthcare options consistent with their preferences. Helping patients choose among available options for colorectal cancer screening is important because rates are lower than screening for other cancers. This systematic review describes studies evaluating patient decision aids for colorectal cancer screening in average-risk adults and their impact on knowledge, screening intentions, and uptake. Sources included Ovid MEDLINE, Elsevier EMBASE, EBSCO CINAHL Plus, Ovid PsycINFO through July 21, 2015, pertinent reference lists, and Cochrane review of patient decisions aids. Reviewers independently selected studies that quantitatively evaluated a decision aid compared to one or more conditions or within a pre-post evaluation. Using a standardized form, reviewers independently extracted study characteristics, interventions, comparators, and outcomes. Analysis was conducted in August 2015. Twenty-three articles representing 21 trials including 11,900 subjects were eligible. Patients exposed to a decision aid showed greater knowledge than those exposed to a control condition (mean difference=18.3 of 100; 95% CI=15.5, 21.1), were more likely to be interested in screening (pooled relative risk=1.5; 95% CI=1.2, 2.0), and more likely to be screened (pooled relative risk=1.3; 95% CI=1.1, 1.4). Decision aid patients had greater knowledge than patients receiving general colorectal cancer screening information (pooled mean difference=19.3 of 100; 95% CI=14.7, 23.8); however, there were no significant differences in screening interest or behavior. Decision aids improve knowledge and interest in screening, and lead to increased screening over no information, but their impact on screening is similar to general colorectal cancer screening information. Copyright © 2016 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Crafting Appealing Text Messages to Encourage Colorectal Cancer Screening Test Completion: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, Shellie D; Denizard-Thompson, Nancy; Kronner, Donna; Miller, David P

    2015-01-01

    Background mHealth interventions that incorporate text messages have great potential to increase receipt of preventive health services such as colorectal cancer screening. However, little is known about older adult perspectives regarding the receipt of text messages from their health care providers. Objective To assess whether older adults would value and access text messages from their physician’s practice regarding colorectal cancer screening. Methods We conducted four focus groups with 26 adults, aged 50 to 75 years, who had either recently completed or were overdue for colorectal cancer screening. A trained moderator followed a semistructured interview guide covering participant knowledge and attitudes regarding colorectal cancer screening, potential barriers to colorectal cancer screening, attitudes about receiving electronic communications from a doctor’s office, and reactions to sample text messages. Results Participant responses to three primary research questions were examined: (1) facilitators and barriers to colorectal cancer screening, (2) attitudes toward receiving text messages from providers, and (3) characteristics of appealing text messages. Two themes related to facilitators of colorectal cancer screening were perceived benefits/need and family experiences and encouragement. Themes related to barriers included unpleasantness, discomfort, knowledge gaps, fear of complications, and system factors. Four themes emerged regarding receipt of text messages from health care providers: (1) comfort and familiarity with technology, (2) privacy concerns/potential for errors, (3) impact on patient-provider relationship, and (4) perceived helpfulness. Many participants expressed initial reluctance to receiving text messages but responded favorably when shown sample messages. Participants preferred messages that contained content that was important to them and were positive and reassuring, personalized, and friendly to novice texters (eg, avoided the use of

  16. Screening or Symptoms? How Do We Detect Colorectal Cancer in an Equal Access Health Care System?

    PubMed

    Hatch, Quinton M; Kniery, Kevin R; Johnson, Eric K; Flores, Shelly A; Moeil, David L; Thompson, John J; Maykel, Justin A; Steele, Scott R

    2016-02-01

    Detection of colorectal cancer ideally occurs at an early stage through proper screening. We sought to establish methods by which colorectal cancers are diagnosed within an equal access military health care population and evaluate the correlation between TNM stage at colorectal cancer diagnosis and diagnostic modality (i.e., symptomatic detection vs screen detection). A retrospective chart review of all newly diagnosed colorectal cancer patients from January 2007 to August 2014 was conducted at the authors' equal access military institution. We evaluated TNM stage relative to diagnosis by screen detection (fecal occult blood test, flexible sigmoidoscopy, CT colonography, colonoscopy) or symptomatic evaluation (diagnostic colonoscopy or surgery). Of 197 colorectal cancers diagnosed (59 % male; mean age 62 years), 50 (25 %) had stage I, 47 (24 %) had stage II, 70 (36 %) had stage III, and 30 (15 %) had stage IV disease. Twenty-five percent of colorectal cancers were detected via screen detection (3 % by fecal occult blood testing (FOBT), 0.5 % by screening CT colonography, 17 % by screening colonoscopy, and 5 % by surveillance colonoscopy). One hundred forty-eight (75 %) were diagnosed after onset of signs or symptoms. The preponderance of these was advanced-stage disease (stages III-IV), although >50 % of stage I-II disease also had signs or symptoms at diagnosis. The most common symptoms were rectal bleeding (45 %), abdominal pain (35 %), and change in stool caliber (27 %). The most common overall sign was anemia (60 %). Screening FOBT (odds ratio (OR) 8.7, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.0-78.3; P = 0.05) independently predicted early diagnosis with stage I-II disease. Patient gender and ethnicity were not associated with cancer stage at diagnosis. Despite equal access to colorectal cancer screening, diagnosis after development of symptomatic cancer remains more common. Fecal occult blood screen detection is associated with early stage at

  17. Unifying screening processes within the PROSPR consortium: a conceptual model for breast, cervical, and colorectal cancer screening.

    PubMed

    Beaber, Elisabeth F; Kim, Jane J; Schapira, Marilyn M; Tosteson, Anna N A; Zauber, Ann G; Geiger, Ann M; Kamineni, Aruna; Weaver, Donald L; Tiro, Jasmin A

    2015-06-01

    General frameworks of the cancer screening process are available, but none directly compare the process in detail across different organ sites. This limits the ability of medical and public health professionals to develop and evaluate coordinated screening programs that apply resources and population management strategies available for one cancer site to other sites. We present a trans-organ conceptual model that incorporates a single screening episode for breast, cervical, and colorectal cancers into a unified framework based on clinical guidelines and protocols; the model concepts could be expanded to other organ sites. The model covers four types of care in the screening process: risk assessment, detection, diagnosis, and treatment. Interfaces between different provider teams (eg, primary care and specialty care), including communication and transfer of responsibility, may occur when transitioning between types of care. Our model highlights across each organ site similarities and differences in steps, interfaces, and transitions in the screening process and documents the conclusion of a screening episode. This model was developed within the National Cancer Institute-funded consortium Population-based Research Optimizing Screening through Personalized Regimens (PROSPR). PROSPR aims to optimize the screening process for breast, cervical, and colorectal cancer and includes seven research centers and a statistical coordinating center. Given current health care reform initiatives in the United States, this conceptual model can facilitate the development of comprehensive quality metrics for cancer screening and promote trans-organ comparative cancer screening research. PROSPR findings will support the design of interventions that improve screening outcomes across multiple cancer sites.

  18. General practitioners' preferences with regard to colorectal cancer screening organisation Colon cancer screening medico-legal aspects.

    PubMed

    Papin-Lefebvre, Frédérique; Guillaume, Elodie; Moutel, Grégoire; Launoy, Guy; Berchi, Célia

    2017-09-06

    French health authorities put general practitioners at the heart of the colorectal cancer screening. This position raises organisational issues and poses medico-legal problems for the professionals and institutions involved in these campaigns, related to the key concepts of medical decisions and suitability of standards. The objective of our study is to reveal the preferences of general practitioners related to colorectal cancer screening organisation with regard to the medico-legal risk METHODS: A discrete choice questionnaire presenting hypothetical screening scenarios was mailed to 2114 physicians from 20 French different areas. The preferences of 358 general practitioners were analysed using logistic regression models. The factors that have significant impact on the preferences of general practitioners are the capacity of the primary care professional in the procedure, the manner in which pre-screening information is given to patients, the manner in which screening results are given to patients, the number of reminders sent to patients who test positive and who do not undergo a colonoscopy and the remuneration of the attending physician. Our results reveals that current colorectal cancer screening organisation is not adapted to general practitioners preferences. This work offers the public authorities avenues for reflection on possible developments in order to optimize the involvement of general practitioners in the promotion of cancer screening programme. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Effectiveness of patient navigator interventions on uptake of colorectal cancer screening in primary care settings.

    PubMed

    Muliira, Joshua Kanaabi; D'Souza, Melba Sheila

    2016-04-01

    Colorectal cancer is the fourth most common type of cancer in the world and every year it is responsible for 610,000 deaths worldwide. The aim of this review was to examine the effectiveness of patient navigator interventions towards enhancing uptake of colorectal cancer screening in primary care settings. Electronic databases such as PubMed, CINHAL, Google Scholar and SCOPUS were searched to retrieve articles reporting on primary studies applying any patient navigator intervention to promote uptake of colorectal cancer screening in eligible patients. The search yielded 292 articles and 15 met the inclusion criteria. All 15 studies were conducted in urban settings located in the USA. The findings of the review show that patient navigator interventions can increase colorectal cancer screening rates in diverse primary care settings. Patient navigator interventions were most effective in patients who belong to minority groups and enhanced uptake of colorectal cancer screening with rates ranging 11-91%. There is a need for further studies to examine the effectiveness of patient navigator interventions in rural populations and other countries. Such studies will help us to clearly characterize the effectiveness of patient navigator interventions. © 2015 Japan Academy of Nursing Science.

  20. [Impact of an informative intervention on the colorectal cancer screening program in primary care professionals].

    PubMed

    Benito-Aracil, Llúcia; Binefa-Rodriguez, Gemma; Milà-Diaz, Núria; Lluch-Canut, M Teresa; Puig-Llobet, Montse; Garcia-Martinez, Montse

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the impact of an intervention in primary care professionals on their current knowledge about colorectal cancer screening, subsequent surveillance recommendations and referral strategies. Cluster randomized controlled trial. Primary Care Centers in L'Hospitalet de Llobregat (Barcelona). Primary Care Professionals (doctors and nurses). Training session in six of the 12 centers (randomly selected) about the colorrectal cancer screening program, and three emails with key messages. Professionals and centers characteristics and two contextual variables; involvement of professionals in the screening program; information about colorectal cancer knowledge, risk factors, screening procedures, surveillance recommendations and referral strategies. The total score mean on the first questionnaire was 8.07 (1.38) and the second 8.31 (1.39). No statistically significant differences between the intervention and control groups were found, however, in 9 out of 11 questions the percentage of correct responses was increased in the intervention group, mostly related to the surveillance after the diagnostic examination. The intervention improves the percentage of correct answers, especially in those in which worst score obtained in the first questionnaire. This study shows that professionals are familiar with colorectal cancer screening, but there's a need to maintain frequent communication in order to keep up to date the information related to the colorectal cancer screening. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. Recruiting Patients into the CDC’s Colorectal Cancer Screening Demonstration Program

    PubMed Central

    Boehm, Jennifer E.; Rohan, Elizabeth A.; Preissle, Judith; DeGroff, Amy; Glover-Kudon, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND In 2005, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) funded 5 sites as part of the Colorectal Cancer Screening Demonstration Program (CRCSDP) to provide colorectal cancer screening to low-income, uninsured, and underinsured individuals. Funded sites experienced unexpected challenges in recruiting patients for services. METHODS The authors conducted a longitudinal, qualitative case study of all 5 sites to document program implementation, including recruitment. Data were collected during 3 periods over the 4-year program and included interviews, document review, and observations. After coding and analyzing the data, themes were identified and triangulated across the research team. Patterns were confirmed through member checking, further validating the analytic interpretation. RESULTS During early implementation, patient enrollment was low at 4 of the 5 CRCSDP sites. Evaluators found 3 primary challenges to patient recruitment: overreliance on in-reach to National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program patients, difficulty keeping colorectal cancer screening and the program a priority among staff at partnering primary care clinics responsible for patient recruitment, and a lack of public knowledge about the need for colorectal cancer screening among patients. To address these challenges, site staff expanded partnerships with additional primary care networks for greater reach, enhanced technical support to primary care providers to ensure more consistent patient enrollment, and developed tailored outreach and education. CONCLUSIONS Removing financial barriers to colorectal cancer screening was necessary but not sufficient to reach the priority population. To optimize colorectal cancer screening, public health practitioners must work closely with the health care sector to implement evidence-based, comprehensive strategies across individual, environmental, and systems levels of society. PMID:23868486

  2. Recruiting patients into the CDC's Colorectal Cancer Screening Demonstration Program: strategies and challenges across 5 sites.

    PubMed

    Boehm, Jennifer E; Rohan, Elizabeth A; Preissle, Judith; DeGroff, Amy; Glover-Kudon, Rebecca

    2013-08-01

    In 2005, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) funded 5 sites as part of the Colorectal Cancer Screening Demonstration Program (CRCSDP) to provide colorectal cancer screening to low-income, uninsured, and underinsured individuals. Funded sites experienced unexpected challenges in recruiting patients for services. The authors conducted a longitudinal, qualitative case study of all 5 sites to document program implementation, including recruitment. Data were collected during 3 periods over the 4-year program and included interviews, document review, and observations. After coding and analyzing the data, themes were identified and triangulated across the research team. Patterns were confirmed through member checking, further validating the analytic interpretation. During early implementation, patient enrollment was low at 4 of the 5 CRCSDP sites. Evaluators found 3 primary challenges to patient recruitment: overreliance on in-reach to National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program patients, difficulty keeping colorectal cancer screening and the program a priority among staff at partnering primary care clinics responsible for patient recruitment, and a lack of public knowledge about the need for colorectal cancer screening among patients. To address these challenges, site staff expanded partnerships with additional primary care networks for greater reach, enhanced technical support to primary care providers to ensure more consistent patient enrollment, and developed tailored outreach and education. Removing financial barriers to colorectal cancer screening was necessary but not sufficient to reach the priority population. To optimize colorectal cancer screening, public health practitioners must work closely with the health care sector to implement evidence-based, comprehensive strategies across individual, environmental, and systems levels of society. © 2013 American Cancer Society.

  3. Estimating sensitivity and sojourn time in screening for colorectal cancer: a comparison of statistical approaches.

    PubMed

    Prevost, T C; Launoy, G; Duffy, S W; Chen, H H

    1998-09-15

    The effectiveness of cancer screening depends crucially on two elements: the sojourn time (that is, the duration of the preclinical screen-detectable period) and the sensitivity of the screening test. Previous literature on methods of estimating mean sojourn time and sensitivity has largely concentrated on breast cancer screening. Screening for colorectal cancer has been shown to be effective in randomized trials, but there is little literature on the estimation of sojourn time and sensitivity. It would be interesting to demonstrate whether methods commonly used in breast cancer screening could be used in colorectal cancer screening. In this paper, the authors consider various analytic strategies for fitting exponential models to data from a screening program for colorectal cancer conducted in Calvados, France, between 1991 and 1994. The models yielded estimates of mean sojourn time of approximately 2 years for 45- to 54-year-olds, 3 years for 55- to 64-year-olds, and 6 years for 65- to 74-year-olds. Estimates of sensitivity were approximately 75%, 50%, and 40% for persons aged 45-54, 55-64, and 65-74 years, respectively. There is room for improvement in all models in terms of goodness of fit, particularly for the first year after screening, but results from randomized trials indicate that the sensitivity estimates are roughly correct.

  4. The Next Step Trial: impact of a worksite colorectal cancer screening promotion program.

    PubMed

    Tilley, B C; Vernon, S W; Myers, R; Glanz, K; Lu, M; Hirst, K; Kristal, A R

    1999-03-01

    The Next Step Trial was a randomized trial of worksite colorectal cancer screening promotion and nutrition interventions for automobile industry employees at increased risk of colorectal cancer. Interventions were tested at 28 worksites with 5,042 employees. This report describes results of the screening promotion intervention. Worksites randomized to the control group received a standard program including rectal examination, fecal occult blood testing, and flexible sigmoidoscopy. Intervention worksites received an enhanced program (i.e., standard program plus an educational booklet/telephone call). Compliance (i.e., completion of all recommended screening examinations) and coverage (i.e., completion of at least one screening examination), the primary and secondary outcomes, were measured over 2 years. In the 2 years prior to baseline, 61% of employees had been screened. After random assignment, baseline differences in several employee characteristics and worksite screening procedures were detected, including more past history of screening in control worksites. After adjusting for differences, we found modest, but higher, compliance and coverage in intervention compared with control worksites (odds ratio [95% confidence limits] = 1.46 [1.1-2.0] and 1.33 [1.1, 1.6], respectively). Adding a personally tailored behavioral intervention to a standard colorectal cancer screening program can promote continued employee participation in screening as measured by compliance. Further research is needed to assess intervention effects in other populations. Copyright 1999 American Health Foundation and Academic Press.

  5. Body mass index and up-to-date colorectal cancer screening among Marylanders aged 50 years and older.

    PubMed

    Menis, Mikhail; Kozlovsky, Bernard; Langenberg, Pat; Zhan, Min; Dwyer, Diane M; Israel, Ebenezer; Groves, Carmela; Hopkins, Annette; Steinberger, Eileen K

    2006-07-01

    Overweight and obese individuals are at increased risk for developing and dying from colorectal cancer. Studies suggest that overweight and obese women are more likely to avoid or delay cancer screening. Our objective was to determine whether overweight or obese adults aged 50 years and older living in Maryland in 2002 were less likely to be up-to-date with colorectal cancer screening than normal and underweight adults. The relationship between body mass index and colorectal cancer screening was evaluated based on responses from 3436 participants aged 50 years and older to the Maryland Cancer Survey 2002, a population-based random-digit-dial telephone survey. The survey contains self-reported information on colorectal cancer screening, height, weight, and potential confounders. Logistic regression was performed to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs), adjusted for age, sex, race, employment, marital status, education, area of residence, and health-care-related variables. Overall, 64.9% of Marylanders aged 50 and older were up-to-date with colorectal cancer screening. Compared with normal and underweight individuals, overweight individuals had similar odds of being up-to-date with colorectal cancer screening (OR, 1.05; 95% CI, 0.83-1.33). Obese individuals had slightly lower odds, but this difference was not statistically significant (OR, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.65-1.09). Recommendation by a health care provider for colorectal cancer screening was strongly associated with up-to-date colorectal cancer screening (OR, 36.7; 95% CI, 28.7-47.0). Our study shows no statistically significant association between body mass index levels and up-to-date colorectal cancer screening. We recommend that physicians and other health care providers increase up-to-date colorectal cancer screening rates in the population by referring their patients for appropriate screening.

  6. Colorectal cancer: update on recent advances and their impact on screening protocols.

    PubMed Central

    Briskey, E. N.; Pamies, R. J.

    2000-01-01

    As the third leading cause of cancer cases and deaths in the United States, colorectal cancer has been an area of intense interest. The objectives of this article are, through a review of the literature published between 1995 to 1998, to examine current trends in the epidemiology of colorectal cancer, new information on genetic, dietary, and other risk factors; to evaluate the effectiveness of current screening guidelines for various populations; to review information on chemoprevention; and finally to examine new concepts on the horizon in the area of colorectal cancer research. Much of the recent research in the field has focused on etiology, dietary, and other risk factors. Many genetic factors have been discovered, which serve to elucidate the mechanism of pathogenesis of colorectal cancer as well as offer possible targets for treatment strategies. Dietary and risk factors for colorectal cancer may pave the way for chemoprevention. In light of the most recent information on colorectal cancer, one is able to more accurately assess current screening guidelines for their effectiveness in all populations based on epidemiologic data, as well as evaluate more novel screening strategies for their possible utility in the future. In addition to a review of the most up-to-date literature, the authors also provide their recommendations for screening based on the evidence in which the review of the literature provides. Finally, current and future treatment options are discussed. It is our hope that the physicians will find this review useful in the evaluation and care of patients at risk of developing colorectal cancer. PMID:10881471

  7. Gender differences in correlates of colorectal cancer screening among black Medicare beneficiaries in Baltimore

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, Kathryn A.; Pollack, Craig E.; Phelan, Darcy F.; Markakis, Diane; Bone, Lee; Shapiro, Gary; Wenzel, Jennifer; Howerton, Mollie; Johnson, Lawrence; Garza, Mary A.; Ford, Jean G.

    2013-01-01

    Background Previous research has demonstrated colorectal cancer (CRC) screening disparities by gender. Little research has focused primarily on gender differences among older black individuals, and reasons for existing gender differences remain poorly understood. Methods We used baseline data from the Cancer Prevention and Treatment Demonstration Screening Trial. Participants were recruited from November 2006 to March 2010. In-person interviews were used to assess self-reported colorectal cancer screening behavior. Up-to-date colorectal cancer screening was defined as self-reported colonoscopy or sigmoidoscopy in the past 10 years or fecal occult blood testing in the past year. We used multivariable logistic regression to examine the association between gender and self-reported screening, adjusting for covariates. The final model was stratified by gender to examine factors differentially associated with screening outcomes for males and females. Results The final sample consisted of 1,552 female and 586 male black Medicare beneficiaries in Baltimore, Maryland. Males were significantly less likely than females to report being up-to-date with screening (77.5% versus 81.6%, p=0.030), and this difference was significant in the fully adjusted model (Odds Ratio: 0.72 95%Confidence Interval: 0.52–0.99). The association between having a usual source of care and receipt of cancer screening was stronger among males compared to females. Conclusions While observed differences in CRC screening were small, several factors suggest gender-specific approaches may be used to promote screening adherence among black Medicare beneficiaries. Impact Given disproportionate colorectal cancer mortality between white and black Medicare beneficiaries, gender-specific interventions aimed at increasing CRC screening may be warranted among older black patients. PMID:23629519

  8. Developing English and Spanish television public service announcements to promote colorectal cancer screening.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Crystale Purvis; Gelb, Cynthia A; Jameson, Heather; Macario, Everly; Jorgensen, Cynthia M; Seeff, Laura

    2005-10-01

    Screen for Life: National Colorectal Cancer Action Campaign (SFL) is a federally funded campaign to promote understanding of colorectal cancer and the importance of regular screening for adults aged 50 years and older. SFL uses a variety of communication strategies, including television public service announcements (PSAs). SFL materials are developed using the Health Communication Process endorsed by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, which has four stages: (a) planning and strategy development; (b) developing and pretesting concepts, messages, and materials; (c) implementing the program; and (d) assessing effectiveness and making refinements. This article describes SFL's application of this process to develop television PSAs in English and Spanish.

  9. Using focus groups to develop interventions to promote colorectal cancer screening among Vietnamese Americans

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Bang H.; Vo, Phuong H.; Doan, Hiep T.; McPhee, Stephen J.

    2008-01-01

    Background Colorectal cancer is the third most common cancer in Vietnamese Americans. Their colorectal screening rates are lower than the rates of whites. Methods Four focus groups were conducted to identify Vietnamese American sources and credibility of health information, media utilization, and intervention approaches. Results Vietnamese Americans trusted doctors and patient testimonials, and had access to, and received most of their health information from, Vietnamese-language print and electronic media. Recommended intervention approaches include promoting doctors' recommendation of screening and using Vietnamese-language mass media, print materials, and oral presentations. Conclusions Focus groups are useful in determining communication channels and intervention approaches. PMID:17020518

  10. Radiographic capsule-based system for non-cathartic colorectal cancer screening.

    PubMed

    Kimchy, Yoav; Lifshitz, Ronen; Lewkowitz, Shlomo; Bertuccio, Guiseppe; Arber, Nadir; Gluck, Nathan; Pickhardt, Perry J

    2017-05-01

    Many patients are reluctant to undergo optical colonoscopy for colorectal cancer screening. The Check-Cap colon imaging system is a non-invasive test that comprises an ingestible imaging capsule that emits and detects ultra-low-dose radiation. The capsule generates a 3D reconstruction of the colonic lumen for detection of polyps and cancer. Preliminary preclinical and clinical testing has demonstrated safety and feasibility. Mean radiation dose is estimated at 0.04 mSv. In conclusion, we describe a novel capsule-based, patient-friendly colorectal test that holds potential for non-invasive screening.

  11. Patient-reported outcomes following flexible sigmoidoscopy screening for colorectal cancer in a demonstration screening programme in the UK.

    PubMed

    Robb, Kathryn A; Lo, Siu Hing; Power, Emily; Kralj-Hans, Ines; Edwards, Robert; Vance, Maggie; von Wagner, Christian; Atkin, Wendy; Wardle, Jane

    2012-12-01

    Flexible sigmoidoscopy (FS) screening for colorectal cancer will be introduced into the National Cancer Screening Programmes in England in 2013. Patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) from trial participants indicate high acceptability and no adverse physical or psychological consequences, but this may not generalize to routine screening in the community. This study examined PROMs in a community-based FS screening programme. Eligible adults aged 58-59 (n = 2016) registered at 34 London general practices were mailed a National Health Service-endorsed invitation to attend FS screening. Pain and side-effects were assessed in a 'morning-after' questionnaire, and satisfaction was assessed in a three-month follow-up questionnaire. Anxiety, self-rated health and colorectal symptoms were assessed at prescreening and follow-up. In total, 1020 people attended screening and were included in the current analyses, of whom 913 (90%) returned the morning-after questionnaire, and 674 (66%) the follow-up questionnaire. The prescreening questionnaire had been completed by 751 (74%) of those who attended. The majority (87%) of respondents reported no pain or mild pain, and the most frequent side-effect (wind) was only experienced more than mildly by 16%. Satisfaction was extremely high, with 98% glad they had the test; 97% would encourage a friend to have it. From prescreening to follow-up there were no changes in anxiety or self-rated health, and the number of colorectal symptoms declined. Satisfaction and changes in wellbeing were not moderated by gender, deprivation, ethnicity or screening outcome. PROMs indicate high acceptability of FS screening in 58-59 year olds, with no adverse effects on colorectal symptoms, health status or psychological wellbeing.

  12. Colorectal cancer screening with nurse-performed flexible sigmoidoscopy: results from a Canadian community-based program.

    PubMed

    Shapero, Theodore F; Hoover, Jean; Paszat, Lawrence F; Burgis, Elaine; Hsieh, Eugene; Rothwell, Deanna M; Rabeneck, Linda

    2007-04-01

    Despite highest-quality evidence that early detection of colorectal cancer (CRC) can lead to reduced mortality, no organized CRC screening programs exist in Canada. To report the safety, the feasibility, and the detection rate for the first Canadian community-based nurse-performed flexible sigmoidoscopy (FS) screening program for CRC, established in 1999. Cross-sectional analysis of data collected from a prospective study of FS done by nurses from March 1999 to November 2002. Estimate of differences between men and women in FS findings, with relative risks. Logistic regression used to calculate odds ratios for advanced neoplasia. Endoscopy suite of a community hospital. Asymptomatic men and women > or =50 years, with no previous history of CRC. FS done by a nurses, and colonoscopy for persons with abnormalities done by an experienced gastroenterologist. Mean depth of insertion of endoscope; duration of FS procedure; number and location of polyps found during FS; number, location, and type of polyps found during colonoscopy. A total of 1818 individuals (mean age, 62 years) underwent nurse-performed FS (mean duration, 7.3 minutes; mean depth of insertion of the endoscope, 53.5 cm), without complications. Results of the FS were abnormal for 240 (13.2%) of the 1818 participants; 231 (12.7%) underwent colonoscopy. Distal neoplasms (adenomas or cancer) were detected in 8.7% (158/1818). After adjustment for age and family history of CRC, the risk of advanced neoplasm in the distal colon for men was about twice that for women (odds ratio 1.95, 95% confidence interval 1.21-3.14). Cancer was detected in 5 of the 1818 participants screened (0.28%), and high-grade dysplasia was detected in an additional 5 (0.28%). One of the cancers and all the lesions with high-grade dysplasia were treated endoscopically. Our community-based nurse-performed FS screening program was feasible and safe. The referral rate for colonoscopy was 13%, and the cancer detection rate was 2.8 per 1000

  13. Understanding factors related to Colorectal Cancer (CRC) screening among urban Hispanics: use of focus group methodology.

    PubMed

    Varela, Alejandro; Jandorf, Lina; Duhamel, Katherine

    2010-03-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a major cause of cancer deaths among US Hispanics. Screening decreases mortality through early detection. To understand factors related to CRC screening among Hispanics, focus groups were conducted. Reasons for getting screened included peace of mind; influence from family and friends; and wanting to prevent CRC. Barriers included fear of finding cancer and fear of the examination. These results informed a survey to better understand CRC screening among Hispanics in a cross-sectional study. The information from both will direct the development of interventions to increase CRC screening among Hispanics.

  14. Understanding Factors Related to Colorectal Cancer (CRC) Screening Among Urban Hispanics: Use of Focus Group Methodology

    PubMed Central

    Varela, Alejandro; DuHamel, Katherine

    2010-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a major cause of cancer deaths among US Hispanics. Screening decreases mortality through early detection. To understand factors related to CRC screening among Hispanics, focus groups were conducted. Reasons for getting screened included peace of mind; influence from family and friends; and wanting to prevent CRC. Barriers included fear of finding cancer and fear of the examination. These results informed a survey to better understand CRC screening among Hispanics in a cross-sectional study. The information from both will direct the development of interventions to increase CRC screening among Hispanics. PMID:20082178

  15. Large granule-aggregating non-polypoid colorectal neoplasm: a clinically-important entity with unique cell loss and proliferation kinetics.

    PubMed

    Eguchi, H; Hasegawa, H; Yamada, H; Iino, U; Fujii, H

    2007-07-26

    The large non-polypoid colorectal neoplasm with a granule-aggregating appearance shows characteristic features clinicopathologically. The aim of this study was to investigate the developmental mechanisms of this unique lesion. Among large non-polypoid tumours with a diameter of 10 mm or more, 26 granule-aggregating tumours (GATs) were evaluated while using 19 polypoid tumours (PTs) as controls. Apoptosis and proliferation indices in the superficial and deeper portions of lesions were assessed by immunohistochemical staining with anti-ss-DNA and Ki-67 antibodies, respectively. These indices were also analyzed for clinicopathological conditions to clarify the developmental manner of GATs. The apoptosis index (AI) of GATs was significantly higher than that of PTs (p = 0.0003). Especially in the deeper portion of the tumour, the AI value of GATs (4.54, SD: 1.86) was statistically more significant than that (0.34, SD: 0.48) of PTs (p<0.001). However, irrespective of dysplasia, a higher AI of GATs in the deeper portion was demonstrated in the early stage (10-19 mm in diameter), in contrast to that of PTs (P = 0.0001). The Ki-67 labeling index as proliferation index (PI) of the deeper portion of GATs was 22.4 (SD: 7.8), which was significantly lower than that (33.4, SD: 11.7) of PTs (p = 0.0016). No significant differences in the superficial and the whole tumours were obtained comparing GATs and PTs. PI values of GATs increased with their size (p = 0.0034). The current investigation clearly indicates that colorectal adenomas/tumours with granule-aggregating appearance have a higher apoptosis index in the deeper portion. This was demonstrated from an early stage of growth. These characteristic cell loss and cell proliferation kinetics give this tumour unique clinical features, that is, a laterally spreading manner or infrequent invasion even after malignant transformation. Therefore, the importance of recognizing non-polypoid colorectal neoplasms with a granular feature as

  16. Initial participation as a predictor for continuous participation in population-based colorectal cancer screening.

    PubMed

    Saraste, Deborah; Öhman, Daniel J; Sventelius, Marika; Elfström, K Miriam; Blom, Johannes; Törnberg, Sven

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To assess patterns and probabilities of participation in multiple rounds of colorectal cancer screening. Methods All individuals who were invited to participate in population-based colorectal cancer screening in the Stockholm-Gotland region in Sweden between 1 January 2008 and 30 September 2015 were included in the study. Guaiac-based faecal occult blood testing was used. All individuals invited to the three first consecutive screening rounds were included in the analysis. Results There were 346,168 individuals eligible for invitation to screening. The average participation rate during the follow-up period was 60%. Eligible individuals could be invited 1-4 times, depending on age at first invitation. Of 48,959 individuals invited to the three first consecutive rounds of screening, 71% participated at least once, and 50% participated in all three rounds. Participation at first invitation was a predictor for participation in subsequent rounds, and the likelihood of continuous participation following participation in the first round was 84%. Of those who attended the first and second rounds, 93% also participated in the third round. Similar patterns of consistency were seen among non-participants. For individuals not participating in the first screening round, the likelihood of consistent non-participation was 71. Conclusions Participation in the first round of screening is a strong predictor for participation in subsequent rounds. Therefore, reducing barriers for initial participation is a key for achieving consistent participation over several rounds in organized colorectal cancer screening programmes.

  17. Cost-effectiveness of high-sensitivity faecal immunochemical test and colonoscopy screening for colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Aronsson, M; Carlsson, P; Levin, L-Å; Hager, J; Hultcrantz, R

    2017-07-01

    Colorectal cancer screening can decrease morbidity and mortality. However, there are widespread differences in the implementation of programmes and choice of strategy. The primary objective of this study was to estimate lifelong costs and health outcomes of two of the currently most preferred methods of screening for colorectal cancer: colonoscopy and sensitive faecal immunochemical test (FIT). A cost-effectiveness analysis of colorectal cancer screening in a Swedish population was performed using a decision analysis model, based on the design of the Screening of Swedish Colons (SCREESCO) study, and data from the published literature and registries. Lifelong cost and effects of colonoscopy once, colonoscopy every 10 years, FIT twice, FIT biennially and no screening were estimated using simulations. For 1000 individuals invited to screening, it was estimated that screening once with colonoscopy yielded 49 more quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) and a cost saving of €64 800 compared with no screening. Similarly, screening twice with FIT gave 26 more QALYs and a cost saving of €17 600. When the colonoscopic screening was repeated every tenth year, 7 additional QALYs were gained at a cost of €189 400 compared with a single colonoscopy. The additional gain with biennial FIT screening was 25 QALYs at a cost of €154 300 compared with two FITs. All screening strategies were cost-effective compared with no screening. Repeated and single screening strategies with colonoscopy were more cost-effective than FIT when lifelong effects and costs were considered. However, other factors such as patient acceptability of the test and availability of human resources also have to be taken into account. © 2017 BJS Society Ltd Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Patient and physician reminders to promote colorectal cancer screening: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Sequist, Thomas D; Zaslavsky, Alan M; Marshall, Richard; Fletcher, Robert H; Ayanian, John Z

    2009-02-23

    Screening reduces colorectal cancer mortality, but effective screening tests remain underused. Systematic reminders to patients and physicians could increase screening rates We conducted a randomized controlled trial of patient and physician reminders in 11 ambulatory health care centers. Participants included 21 860 patients aged 50 to 80 years who were overdue for colorectal cancer screening and 110 primary care physicians. Patients were randomly assigned to receive mailings containing an educational pamphlet, fecal occult blood test kit, and instructions for direct scheduling of flexible sigmoidoscopy or colonoscopy. Physicians were randomly assigned to receive electronic reminders during office visits with patients overdue for screening. The primary outcome was receipt of fecal occult blood testing, flexible sigmoidoscopy, or colonoscopy over 15 months, and the secondary outcome was detection of colorectal adenomas. Screening rates were higher for patients who received mailings compared with those who did not (44.0% vs 38.1%; P < .001). The effect increased with age: +3.7% for ages 50 to 59 years; +7.3% for ages 60 to 69 years; and +10.1% for ages 70 to 80 years (P = .01 for trend). Screening rates were similar among patients of physicians receiving electronic reminders and the control group (41.9% vs 40.2%; P = .47). However, electronic reminders tended to increase screening rates among patients with 3 or more primary care visits (59.5% vs 52.7%; P = .07). Detection of adenomas tended to increase with patient mailings (5.7% vs 5.2%; P = .10) and physician reminders (6.0% vs 4.9%; P = .09). Mailed reminders to patients are an effective tool to promote colorectal cancer screening, and electronic reminders to physicians may increase screening among adults who have more frequent primary care visits.

  19. Patient and Physician Reminders to Promote Colorectal Cancer Screening: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Sequist, Thomas D.; Zaslavsky, Alan M.; Marshall, Richard; Fletcher, Robert H.; Ayanian, John Z.

    2009-01-01

    Background Screening reduces colorectal cancer mortality, but effective screening tests remain underused. Systematic reminders to patients and physicians could increase screening rates. Methods We conducted a randomized controlled trial of patient and physician reminders in 11 ambulatory health centers. Participants included 21,860 patients ages 50 to 80 overdue for colorectal cancer screening and 110 primary care physicians. Patients were randomly assigned to receive mailings containing an educational pamphlet, fecal-occult-blood test kit, and instructions for direct scheduling of flexible sigmoidoscopy or colonoscopy. Physicians were randomly assigned to receive electronic reminders during office visits with patients overdue for screening. The primary outcome was receipt of fecal-occult-blood testing, flexible sigmoidoscopy, or colonoscopy over 15 months, and the secondary outcome was detection of colorectal adenomas. Results Screening rates were higher for patients who received mailings compared to those who did not (44.0% vs. 38.1%, p<0.001). The effect increased with age: +3.7% for ages 50-59; +7.3% for ages 60-69; and +10.1% for ages 70-80 (p=0.01 for trend). Screening rates were similar among patients of physicians receiving electronic reminders and the control group (41.9% vs. 40.2%, p=0.47). However, electronic reminders tended to increase screening rates among patients with 3 or more primary care visits (59.5% vs. 52.7%, p=0.07). Detection of adenomas tended to increase with patient mailings (5.7% vs. 5.2%, p=0.10) and physician reminders (6.0% versus 4.9%, p=0.09). Conclusions Mailed reminders to patients are an effective tool to promote colorectal cancer screening, and electronic reminders to physicians may increase screening among adults who more frequently use primary care. (ClinicalTrials.gov ID number NCT00355004) PMID:19237720

  20. Flexible sigmoidoscopy versus faecal occult blood testing for colorectal cancer screening in asymptomatic individuals.

    PubMed

    Holme, Øyvind; Bretthauer, Michael; Fretheim, Atle; Odgaard-Jensen, Jan; Hoff, Geir

    2013-10-01

    Colorectal cancer is the third most frequent cancer in the world. As the sojourn time for this cancer is several years and a good prognosis is associated with early stage diagnosis, screening has been implemented in a number of countries. Both screening with faecal occult blood test and flexible sigmoidoscopy have been shown to reduce mortality from colorectal cancer in randomised controlled trials. The comparative effectiveness of these tests on colorectal cancer mortality has, however, never been evaluated, and controversies exist over which test to choose. To compare the effectiveness of screening for colorectal cancer with flexible sigmoidoscopy to faecal occult blood testing. We searched MEDLINE and EMBASE (November 16, 2012), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (2012, Issue 11) and reference lists for eligible studies. Randomised controlled trials comparing screening with flexible sigmoidoscopy or faecal occult blood testing to each other or to no screening. Only studies reporting mortality from colorectal cancer were included. Faecal occult blood testing had to be repeated (annually or biennially). Data retrieval and assessment of risk of bias were performed independently by two review authors. Standard meta-analyses using a random-effects model were conducted for flexible sigmoidoscopy and faecal occult blood testing (FOBT) separately and we calculated relative risks with 95% confidence intervals (CI). We used a Bayesian approach (a contrast-based network meta-analysis method) for indirect analyses and presented the results as posterior median relative risk with 95% credibility intervals. We assessed the quality of evidence using GRADE. We identified nine studies comprising 338,467 individuals randomised to screening and 405,919 individuals to the control groups. Five studies compared flexible sigmoidoscopy to no screening and four studies compared repetitive guaiac-based FOBT (annually and biennially) to no screening. We did not

  1. E-mail to Promote Colorectal Cancer Screening Within Social Networks: Acceptability and Content.

    PubMed

    Cutrona, Sarah L; Wagner, Joann; Roblin, Douglas W; Gaglio, Bridget; Williams, Andrew; Torres-Stone, Rosalie; Mazor, Kathleen M

    2015-01-01

    Effective techniques to encourage colorectal cancer screening in underscreened populations have included social support interventions and e-mail reminders from physicians. Personalized e-mail messages to promote colorectal cancer screening within social networks could be even more effective but have not been studied. The authors interviewed 387 e-mail users, aged 42-73 years in Georgia, Hawaii, and Massachusetts. Participants were asked to edit a sample message in which the sender shares a recent colonoscopy experience and urges the recipient to discuss colorectal cancer screening with a doctor. For those reporting willingness to send this message, changes to the message and suggested subject lines were recorded. Edited text was analyzed for content and concordance with original message. The majority of participants (74.4%) were willing to e-mail a modifiable message. Of those willing, 63.5% edited the message. Common edits included deletion (17.7%) or modification (17.4%) of a negatively framed sentence on colon cancer risks and addition or modification of personalizing words (15.6%). Few edits changed the meaning of the message (5.6%), and even fewer introduced factual inaccuracies (1.7%). Modifiable e-mail messages offer a way for screened individuals to promote colorectal cancer screening to social network members. The accuracy and effects of such messages should be further studied.

  2. Quality assurance in pathology in colorectal cancer screening and diagnosis—European recommendations.

    PubMed

    Quirke, Phil; Risio, Mauro; Lambert, René; von Karsa, Lawrence; Vieth, Michael

    2011-01-01

    In Europe, colorectal cancer is the most common newly diagnosed cancer and the second most common cause of cancer deaths, accounting for approximately 436,000 incident cases and 212,000 deaths in 2008. The potential of high-quality screening to improve control of the disease has been recognized by the Council of the European Union who issued a recommendation on cancer screening in 2003. Multidisciplinary, evidence-based European Guidelines for quality assurance in colorectal cancer screening and diagnosis have recently been developed by experts in a pan-European project coordinated by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. The full guideline document consists of ten chapters and an extensive evidence base. The content of the chapter dealing with pathology in colorectal cancer screening and diagnosis is presented here in order to promote international discussion and collaboration leading to improvements in colorectal cancer screening and diagnosis by making the principles and standards recommended in the new EU Guidelines known to a wider scientific community.

  3. Deliberative and intuitive risk perceptions as predictors of colorectal cancer screening over time

    PubMed Central

    Hay, Jennifer L.; Ramos, Marcel; Li, Yuelin; Holland, Susan; Brennessel, Debra; Kemeny, M. Margaret

    2015-01-01

    Cancer risk perceptions may involve intuitions – including both affect as well as gut-level thoughts about risk – and deliberative risk magnitudes. Yet, little research has examined the potentially diverse relations between risk perceptions and behavior across time. A highly diverse primary care sample (N=544, aged ≥50) was utilized to compare how deliberative and intuitive perceptions of risk relate to chart-confirmed colorectal cancer screening at cross-sectional and prospective time points. At baseline, deliberative and intuitive risk perceptions were negatively associated with chart-confirmed colorectal cancer screening adherence in bivariable but not multivariable analyses. Among those who were non-adherent with colorectal cancer screening at baseline, deliberative and intuitive risk perceptions were positively associated with prospective uptake of chart-confirmed colorectal cancer screening adherence at 12-months in bivariable analyses; only deliberative risk perceptions remained significant in the multivariable model. This study indicates that diverse risk perceptions are differentially important for screening at different time points. PMID:26280754

  4. Quality assurance in pathology in colorectal cancer screening and diagnosis—European recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Quirke, Phil; Risio, Mauro; Lambert, René; von Karsa, Lawrence

    2010-01-01

    In Europe, colorectal cancer is the most common newly diagnosed cancer and the second most common cause of cancer deaths, accounting for approximately 436,000 incident cases and 212,000 deaths in 2008. The potential of high-quality screening to improve control of the disease has been recognized by the Council of the European Union who issued a recommendation on cancer screening in 2003. Multidisciplinary, evidence-based European Guidelines for quality assurance in colorectal cancer screening and diagnosis have recently been developed by experts in a pan-European project coordinated by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. The full guideline document consists of ten chapters and an extensive evidence base. The content of the chapter dealing with pathology in colorectal cancer screening and diagnosis is presented here in order to promote international discussion and collaboration leading to improvements in colorectal cancer screening and diagnosis by making the principles and standards recommended in the new EU Guidelines known to a wider scientific community. PMID:21061133

  5. [Attitudes of primary health care users to a colorectal cancer screening program].

    PubMed

    Ramos, Maria; Taltavull, Maria; Piñeiro, Pilar; Nieto, Raquel; Llagostera, Maria

    2013-01-01

    To describe the cultural, social and gender features that determine attitudes to colorectal cancer screening in a target group of patients aged 50 to 69 years old in the primary health care setting. We performed a qualitative ethnographic study from a gender perspective. Participants consisted of men and women aged 50 to 69 years old in the Balearic Islands and Barcelona. Group discussion and a field diary were used. The key element was diagnosis at an early stage. Until recently, cancer was considered an incurable disease but is currently perceived as a serious health problem that can be cured if diagnosed promptly. The participants requested more information on cancer and felt they were at risk, mainly because of their age. Men tended to pay attention to symptoms while women tended to ignore them. Attitudes to colorectal cancer screening were generally positive, even to colonoscopy. Some barriers to screening were identified in women, such as a fear of having cancer. The opportunity for early diagnosis is the key element in promoting participation in a colorectal cancer screening program. Perceptions-and hence willingness to participate in screening-differ between men and women. Factors to be taken into account in the design of population-based colorectal cancer programs are health concerns in men and fear of a cancer diagnosis in women. Copyright © 2012 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  6. Challenges and Possible Solutions to Colorectal Cancer Screening for the Underserved

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a leading cause of cancer mortality worldwide. CRC incidence and mortality can be reduced through screening. However, in the United States, screening participation remains suboptimal, particularly among underserved populations such as the uninsured, recent immigrants, and racial/ethnic minority groups. Increasing screening rates among underserved populations will reduce the US burden of CRC. In this commentary focusing on underserved populations, we highlight the public health impact of CRC screening, list key challenges to screening the underserved, and review promising approaches to boost screening rates. We identify four key policy and research priorities to increase screening among underserved populations: 1) actively promote the message, “the best test is the one that gets done”; 2) develop and implement methods to identify unscreened individuals within underserved population groups for screening interventions; 3) develop and implement approaches for organized screening delivery; and 4) fund and enhance programs and policies that provide access to screening, diagnostic follow-up, and CRC treatment for underserved populations. This commentary represents the consensus of a diverse group of experts in cancer control and prevention, epidemiology, gastroenterology, and primary care from across the country who formed the Coalition to Boost Screening among the Underserved in the United States. The group was organized and held its first annual working group meeting in conjunction with the World Endoscopy Organization’s annual Colorectal Cancer Screening Committee meeting during Digestive Disease Week 2012 in San Diego, California. PMID:24681602

  7. Quality indicators for colorectal cancer screening for colonoscopy(.)

    PubMed

    Schoenfeld, Philip S; Cohen, Jonathan

    2013-04-01

    The growing importance of colonoscopy in the prevention of colorectal cancer has stimulated an effort to identify and track quality indicators for this procedure. Several factors have been identified so far which are readily measurable and in many cases have been associated with improved patient outcomes. There is also ample evidence of variations in performance of this procedure. As a result, gathering data about quality indicators may play a vital role in the process of continuous quality improvement. Quality indicators for colonoscopy in colorectal cancer prevention are described along with the evidence that supports their use in benchmarking, quality reporting, and continuous quality improvement.

  8. How many individuals will need to be screened to increase colorectal cancer screening prevalence to 80% by 2018?

    PubMed

    Fedewa, Stacey A; Ma, Jiemin; Sauer, Ann Goding; Siegel, Rebecca L; Smith, Robert A; Wender, Richard C; Doroshenk, Mary K; Brawley, Otis W; Ward, Elizabeth M; Jemal, Ahmedin

    2015-12-01

    A recent study estimates that 277,000 colorectal cancer (CRC) cases and 203,000 CRC deaths will be averted between 2013 and 2030 if the National Colorectal Cancer Roundtable goal of increasing CRC screening prevalence to 80% by 2018 is reached. However, the number of individuals who need to be screened (NNS) to achieve this goal is unknown. In this communication, the authors estimate the NNS to achieve 80% by 2018 nationwide and by state. The authors estimated the NNS by subtracting adults aged 50 to 75 years who would need to be screened to achieve an 80% CRC screening prevalence from the number who are currently guideline-compliant from population estimates for this age group. The 2013 National Health Interview Survey and the 2012 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System were used to estimate CRC screening prevalence and data from the US Census Bureau were used to estimate population projections. The NNS were age-standardized and sex-standardized. Nationwide, 24.39 million individuals (95% confidence interval, 24.37-24.41 million) aged 50 to 75 years will need to be screened to achieve 80% by 2018. By state, the NNS ranged from 45,400 in Vermont to 2.72 million in California. The majority of individuals who need to be screened are aged 50 to 64 years and the largest subgroup is privately insured. The authors estimated that at least 24.4 million additional individuals in the United States will need to be screened to achieve the National Colorectal Cancer Roundtable goal of increasing CRC screening prevalence to 80% by 2018. To reach this goal, improving facilitators of CRC screening, including physician recommendation and patient awareness, is needed. © 2015 American Cancer Society.

  9. Preferences for colorectal cancer screening techniques and intention to attend: a multi-criteria decision analysis.

    PubMed

    Hummel, J Marjan; Steuten, Lotte G M; Groothuis-Oudshoorn, C J M; Mulder, Nick; Ijzerman, Maarten J

    2013-10-01

    Despite the expected health benefits of colorectal cancer screening programs, participation rates remain low in countries that have implemented such a screening program. The perceived benefits and risks of the colorectal cancer screening technique are likely to influence the decision to attend the screening program. Besides the diagnostic accuracy and the risks of the screening technique, which can affect the health of the participants, additional factors, such as the burden of the test, may impact the individuals' decisions to participate. To maximise the participation rate of a screening program for a new colorectal cancer program in the Netherlands, it is important to know the preferences of the screening population for alternative screening techniques. The aim of this study was to explore the impact of preferences for particular attributes of the screening tests on the intention to attend a colorectal cancer screening program. We used a web-based questionnaire to elicit the preferences of the target population for a selection of colon-screening techniques. The target population consisted of Dutch men and women aged 55-75 years. The analytic hierarchy process (AHP), a technique for multi-criteria analysis, was used to estimate the colorectal cancer screening preferences. Respondents weighted the relevance of five criteria, i.e. the attributes of the screening techniques: sensitivity, specificity, safety, inconvenience, and frequency of the test. With regard to these criteria, preferences were estimated between four alternative screening techniques, namely, immunochemical fecal occult blood test (iFOBT), colonoscopy, sigmoidoscopy, and computerized tomographic (CT) colonography. A five-point ordinal scale was used to estimate the respondents' intention to attend the screening. We conducted a correlation analysis on the preferences for the screening techniques and the intention to attend. We included 167 respondents who were consistent in their judgments of the

  10. Patient and provider characteristics associated with colorectal, breast, and cervical cancer screening among Asian Americans

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Caroline A.; Gomez, Scarlett Lin; Chan, Albert; Chan, John K.; McClellan, Sean R.; Chung, Sukyung; Olson, Cliff; Nimbal, Vani; Palaniappan, Latha P.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Routinely recommended screening for breast, cervical, and colorectal cancers can significantly reduce mortality from these types of cancer, yet screening is underutilized among Asians. Surveys rely on self-report and often are underpowered for analysis by Asian ethnicities. Electronic health records include validated (as opposed to recall-based) rates of cancer screening. In this paper we seek to better understand cancer screening patterns in a population of insured Asian Americans. METHODS We calculated rates of compliance with cervical, breast, and colorectal cancer screening among Asians from an EHR population, and compared them to non-Hispanic whites. We performed multivariable modeling to evaluate potential predictors (at the provider- and patient- level) of screening completion among Asian patients. RESULTS Aggregation of Asian subgroups masked heterogeneity in screening rates. Asian Indians and Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders had the lowest rates of screening in our sample, well below that of non-Hispanic whites. In multivariable analyses, screening completion was negatively associated with patient-physician language discordance for mammography (OR:0.81 95% CI:0.71–0.92) and colorectal cancer screening (OR:0.79 CI:0.72–0.87) and positively associated with patient-provider gender concordance for mammography (OR:1.16 CI:1.00–1.34) and cervical cancer screening (OR:1.66 CI:1.51–1.82). Additionally, patient enrollment in online health services increased mammography (OR:1.32 CI:1.20–1.46) and cervical cancer screening (OR:1.31 CI:1.24–1.37). CONCLUSIONS Language- and gender- concordant primary care providers, and culturally tailored online health resources may help improve preventive cancer screening in Asian patient populations. IMPACT This study demonstrates how use of EHR data can inform investigations of primary prevention practices within the healthcare delivery setting. PMID:25368396

  11. Rural-Urban Differences in Colorectal Cancer Screening Barriers in Nebraska.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Alejandro G; Watanabe-Galloway, Shinobu; Schnell, Paulette; Soliman, Amr S

    2015-12-01

    Nebraska ranks 36th nationally in colorectal cancer screening. Despite recent increases in CRC screening rates, rural areas in Nebraska have consistently shown lower rates of CRC screening uptake, compared to urban areas. The objective of this study was to investigate reasons for lower CRC screening rates among Nebraska residents, especially among rural residents. We developed a questionnaire based on Health Belief Model (HBM) constructs to identify factors associated with the use of CRC screening. The questionnaire was mailed in 2014 to adults aged 50-75 years in an urban community in the east and a rural community in the west regions of the state. Multiple logistic regression models were created to assess the effects of HBM constructs, rural residence, and demographic factors on CRC screening use. Of the 1200 surveys mailed, 393 were returned (rural n = 200, urban n = 193). Rural respondents were more likely to perceive screening cost as a barrier. Rural residents were also more likely to report that CRC cannot be prevented and it would change their whole life. In multiple regression models, rural residence, perceived embarrassment, and perceived unpleasantness about screening were significantly associated with reduced odds of receiving colonoscopy. Older age (62 years and older), having a personal doctor, and perceived risk of getting CRC were significantly associated with increased odds of receiving colonoscopy. Interventions to increase uptake of colorectal cancer screening in rural residents should be tailored to acknowledge unique perceptions of screening methods and barriers to screening.

  12. Cost-Effectiveness of Computed Tomographic Colonography Screening for Colorectal Cancer in the Medicare Population

    PubMed Central

    Lansdorp-Vogelaar, Iris; Rutter, Carolyn M.; Savarino, James E.; van Ballegooijen, Marjolein; Kuntz, Karen M.; Zauber, Ann G.

    2010-01-01

    Background The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) considered whether to reimburse computed tomographic colonography (CTC) for colorectal cancer screening of Medicare enrollees. To help inform its decision, we evaluated the reimbursement rate at which CTC screening could be cost-effective compared with the colorectal cancer screening tests that are currently reimbursed by CMS and are included in most colorectal cancer screening guidelines, namely annual fecal occult blood test (FOBT), flexible sigmoidoscopy every 5 years, flexible sigmoidoscopy every 5 years in conjunction with annual FOBT, and colonoscopy every 10 years. Methods We used three independently developed microsimulation models to assess the health outcomes and costs associated with CTC screening and with currently reimbursed colorectal cancer screening tests among the average-risk Medicare population. We assumed that CTC was performed every 5 years (using test characteristics from either a Department of Defense CTC study or the National CTC Trial) and that individuals with findings of 6 mm or larger were referred to colonoscopy. We computed incremental cost-effectiveness ratios for the currently reimbursed screening tests and calculated the maximum cost per scan (ie, the threshold cost) for the CTC strategy to lie on the efficient frontier. Sensitivity analyses were performed on key parameters and assumptions. Results Assuming perfect adherence with all tests, the undiscounted number life-years gained from CTC screening ranged from 143 to 178 per 1000 65-year-olds, which was slightly less than the number of life-years gained from 10-yearly colonoscopy (152–185 per 1000 65-year-olds) and comparable to that from 5-yearly sigmoidoscopy with annual FOBT (149–177 per 1000 65-year-olds). If CTC screening was reimbursed at $488 per scan (slightly less than the reimbursement for a colonoscopy without polypectomy), it would be the most costly strategy. CTC screening could be cost-effective at

  13. Effect of flexible sigmoidoscopy screening on colorectal cancer incidence and mortality: a randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Holme, Øyvind; Løberg, Magnus; Kalager, Mette; Bretthauer, Michael; Hernán, Miguel A; Aas, Eline; Eide, Tor J; Skovlund, Eva; Schneede, Jørn; Tveit, Kjell Magne; Hoff, Geir

    2014-08-13

    Colorectal cancer is a major health burden. Screening is recommended in many countries. To estimate the effectiveness of flexible sigmoidoscopy screening on colorectal cancer incidence and mortality in a population-based trial. Randomized clinical trial of 100,210 individuals aged 50 to 64 years, identified from the population of Oslo city and Telemark County, Norway. Screening was performed in 1999-2000 (55-64-year age group) and in 2001 (50-54-year age group), with follow-up ending December 31, 2011. Of those selected, 1415 were excluded due to prior colorectal cancer, emigration, or death, and 3 could not be traced in the population registry. Participants randomized to the screening group were invited to undergo screening. Within the screening group, participants were randomized 1:1 to receive once-only flexible sigmoidoscopy or combination of once-only flexible sigmoidoscopy and fecal occult blood testing (FOBT). Participants with positive screening test results (cancer, adenoma, polyp ≥10 mm, or positive FOBT) were offered colonoscopy. The control group received no intervention. Colorectal cancer incidence and mortality. A total of 98,792 participants were included in the intention-to-screen analyses, of whom 78,220 comprised the control group and 20,572 comprised the screening group (10,283 randomized to receive a flexible sigmoidoscopy and 10,289 to receive flexible sigmoidoscopy and FOBT). Adherence with screening was 63%. After a median of 10.9 years, 71 participants died of colorectal cancer in the screening group vs 330 in the control group (31.4 vs 43.1 deaths per 100,000 person-years; absolute rate difference, 11.7 [95% CI, 3.0-20.4]; hazard ratio [HR], 0.73 [95% CI, 0.56-0.94]). Colorectal cancer was diagnosed in 253 participants in the screening group vs 1086 in the control group (112.6 vs 141.0 cases per 100,000 person-years; absolute rate difference, 28.4 [95% CI, 12.1-44.7]; HR, 0.80 [95% CI, 0.70-0.92]). Colorectal cancer incidence was reduced

  14. Colorectal Cancer Screening among Latinos in Three Communities on the Texas-Mexico Border

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernández, María E.; Savas, Lara S.; Wilson, Katherine M.; Byrd, Theresa L.; Atkinson, John; Torres-Vigil, Isabel; Vernon, Sally W.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To assess colorectal cancer screening (CRCS) prevalence and psychosocial correlates of CRCS among Latinos in South Texas. Method: Using multivariable analyses, we examined the association of perceived susceptibility, self-efficacy, pros and cons, subjective norms, knowledge and fatalism on CRCS among 544 Latinos (50 years and older).…

  15. 76 FR 22108 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian Cancer Screening...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-20

    ... to determine if screening for prostate, lung, colorectal and ovarian cancer can reduce mortality from... of the trial is cancer specific mortality for each of the four cancer sites (prostate, lung... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Prostate, Lung...

  16. Colorectal cancer: consensus for CRC screening, but who addresses the controversies?

    PubMed

    Hoff, Geir

    2014-06-01

    In an update on recommendations for colorectal cancer screening, an Asia–Pacific consensus group has set a good standard for presenting level of agreement to recommendation levels. However, this update also exposes how consensus groups might concentrate on the less controversial issues—leaving the tricky questions in the dark.

  17. Colorectal Cancer Screening among Latinos in Three Communities on the Texas-Mexico Border

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernández, María E.; Savas, Lara S.; Wilson, Katherine M.; Byrd, Theresa L.; Atkinson, John; Torres-Vigil, Isabel; Vernon, Sally W.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To assess colorectal cancer screening (CRCS) prevalence and psychosocial correlates of CRCS among Latinos in South Texas. Method: Using multivariable analyses, we examined the association of perceived susceptibility, self-efficacy, pros and cons, subjective norms, knowledge and fatalism on CRCS among 544 Latinos (50 years and older).…

  18. [Colonoscopy in the screening, follow-up and treatment of colorectal cancer and precursor lesions].

    PubMed

    Pellisé, Maria

    2015-09-01

    Endoscopic polypectomy reduces the incidence of colorectal cancer and mortality due to this disease. Interval cancer is the marker par excellence of the effectiveness and quality of screening and surveillance programs. Interval cancer is defined as colorectal cancer appearing after a negative screening or surveillance test (whether colonoscopy or another type of test) for colorectal cancer and before the recommended date of the following screening test. It has been estimated that up to 75% of interval colorectal cancers may be due to poor endoscopic technique. Therefore, to reduce mortality from this disease, diagnostic and therapeutic colonoscopy must be carried out with high quality standards. In the latest congress of the American Gastroenterological Association, presentations were given on studies designed to analyse interval cancer and its possible causes, as well as to evaluate endoscopic techniques that could improve detection of polyps or optimize their complete resection. Likewise, strategies have begun to be evaluated that would allow rationalization of efforts and resources to achieve screening of the maximum number of individuals, with high quality standards, but without completely overloading the healthcare system. Finally, the congress also devoted substantial space to presentations on the management of post-polypectomy complications and large polyps. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. Patient Preferences and Adherence to Colorectal Cancer Screening in an Urban Population

    PubMed Central

    Wolf, Randi L.; Basch, Charles E.; Brouse, Corey H.; Shmukler, Celia; Shea, Steven

    2006-01-01

    We measured patient preferences for colorectal cancer (CRC) screening strategies and actual receipt of alternative CRC screening tests among an urban minority sample participating in an intervention study. The fecal occult blood test was the most preferred test, reportedly owing to its convenience and the noninvasive nature. For individuals who obtained a test that was other than their stated preference (41.1%), reasons for this discordance may be due to physician preferences that override patient preferences. PMID:16571715

  20. [Colorectal cancer screening: an absolute necessity and a concrete reality in the French community].

    PubMed

    Polus, M; Montrieux, C; Giet, D; Louis, E; Belaiche, J; Coche, E

    2009-02-01

    Colorectal cancer is a real problem of public health. Screening is an absolute necessity. An ambitious program of screening is launched in the French Community. Faecal occult blood test will be proposed to average risk patients in the general population. A total colonoscopy will be performed if FOBT is positive. First step colonoscopy will be proposed to high or very high risk patients. General practitioners are in the core of the multi-disciplinary program.

  1. [Colorectal cancer screening: an absolute necessity and an imminent reality in the French community].

    PubMed

    Polus, M; Stibbe, G; Van Laethem, J-L; Adler, M; Coche, E

    2009-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is a true problematic of public health. The screening is an absolute necessity. An ambitious program of screening is launched in French Community. Faecal occult blood test (FOBT) will be proposed to average risk patients in general population. A total colonoscopy will be performed if FOBT will be positive. First step colonoscopy will be proposed to high or very high risk patients. General practitioners are in the core of the multidisciplinary program.

  2. Using Comics to Promote Colorectal Cancer Screening in the Asian American and Pacific Islander Communities.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiayan Linda; Acevedo, Nazia; Sadler, Georgia Robins

    2017-06-23

    There are unaesthetic aspects in teaching people about the early detection of colorectal cancer using the fecal immunochemical test. Comics were seen as a way to overcome those unaesthetic aspects. This study used the Asian grocery store-based cancer education venue to pilot-test the clarity, cultural acceptability, and alignment of five colorectal cancer education comics intended for publication in Asian American and Pacific Islander (API) community newspapers. After developing the colorectal cancer education comics, API students asked shoppers to review a comic from their collection and provide feedback on how to make the comic clearer and more culturally pertinent to API readers. To evaluate viewers' responses, the students gathered such unobtrusive data as: (1) how many of the predetermined salient information points were discussed as the student educators interacted with shoppers and (2) how many comics the shoppers were willing to review. Shoppers were also asked to evaluate how effective the comics would be at motivating colorectal cancer screening among APIs. The students were able to cover all of the salient information points with the first comic. As evidence of the comics' capacity to engage shoppers' interest, shoppers willingly evaluated all five comics. Using multiple comics enabled the educators to repeatedly address the four salient colorectal cancer information points. Thus, the comics helped student educators to overcome the unesthetic elements of colorectal cancer discussions, while enabling them to engage shoppers in animated discussions, for far more time than with their conventional didactic educational methods.

  3. Colorectal cancer screening programme by faecal occult blood test in Tuscany: first round results.

    PubMed

    Grazzini, G; Castiglione, G; Ciabattoni, C; Franceschini, F; Giorgi, D; Gozzi, S; Mantellini, P; Lopane, P; Perco, M; Rubeca, T; Salvadori, P; Visioli, C B; Zappa, M

    2004-02-01

    Screening with faecal occult blood test (FOBT) has been shown to be effective in reducing mortality from colorectal cancer. Tuscany was the first region in Italy in which a screening programme for colorectal cancer by FOBT was initiated region-wide. The aim of the paper was to describe organizational aspects, a quality control model and the results of this experience. From June 2000 to December 2001, 192583 subjects aged 50-70 were invited to undergo a 1-day immunochemical test without any dietary restriction. A total of 78505 subjects (41%) performed the screening test, of whom 4537 responders had a positive test result (5.8%). Among them, 1122 refused any form of assessment or underwent a colonoscopy outside the screening referral centres, with an overall assessment compliance of 75.3%. Malignancies were found in 193 patients and at least a high-risk adenomatous polyp in 692 patients. In about a quarter of the positive subjects who underwent assessment, cancer or high-risk adenoma was detected. In conclusion, data from this experience supported the feasibility of biennial colorectal screening programme by FOBT, particularly regarding invitation compliance and positivity rate. Further efforts are necessary to implement screening extension and to improve data collection.

  4. Barriers to colorectal cancer screening in community health centers: A qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Lasser, Karen E; Ayanian, John Z; Fletcher, Robert H; Good, Mary-Jo DelVecchio

    2008-01-01

    Background Colorectal cancer screening rates are low among disadvantaged patients; few studies have explored barriers to screening in community health centers. The purpose of this study was to describe barriers to/facilitators of colorectal cancer screening among diverse patients served by community health centers. Methods We identified twenty-three outpatients who were eligible for colorectal cancer screening and their 10 primary care physicians. Using in-depth semi-structured interviews, we asked patients to describe factors influencing their screening decisions. For each unscreened patient, we asked his or her physician to describe barriers to screening. We conducted patient interviews in English (n = 8), Spanish (n = 2), Portuguese (n = 5), Portuguese Creole (n = 1), and Haitian Creole (n = 7). We audiotaped and transcribed the interviews, and then identified major themes in the interviews. Results Four themes emerged: 1) Unscreened patients cited lack of trust in doctors as a barrier to screening whereas few physicians identified this barrier; 2) Unscreened patients identified lack of symptoms as the reason they had not been screened; 3) A doctor's recommendation, or lack thereof, significantly influenced patients' decisions to be screened; 4) Patients, but not their physicians, cited fatalistic views about cancer as a barrier. Conversely, physicians identified competing priorities, such as psychosocial stressors or comorbid medical illness, as barriers to screening. In this culturally diverse group of patients seen at community health centers, similar barriers to screening were reported by patients of different backgrounds, but physicians perceived other factors as more important. Conclusion Further study of these barriers is warranted. PMID:18304342

  5. Incidence of interval cancers in faecal immunochemical test colorectal screening programmes in Italy.

    PubMed

    Giorgi Rossi, Paolo; Carretta, Elisa; Mangone, Lucia; Baracco, Susanna; Serraino, Diego; Zorzi, Manuel

    2017-01-01

    Objective In Italy, colorectal screening programmes using the faecal immunochemical test from ages 50 to 69 every two years have been in place since 2005. We aimed to measure the incidence of interval cancers in the two years after a negative faecal immunochemical test, and compare this with the pre-screening incidence of colorectal cancer. Methods Using data on colorectal cancers diagnosed in Italy from 2000 to 2008 collected by cancer registries in areas with active screening programmes, we identified cases that occurred within 24 months of negative screening tests. We used the number of tests with a negative result as a denominator, grouped by age and sex. Proportional incidence was calculated for the first and second year after screening. Results Among 579,176 and 226,738 persons with negative test results followed up at 12 and 24 months, respectively, we identified 100 interval cancers in the first year and 70 in the second year. The proportional incidence was 13% (95% confidence interval 10-15) and 23% (95% confidence interval 18-25), respectively. The estimate for the two-year incidence is 18%, which was slightly higher in females (22%; 95% confidence interval 17-26), and for proximal colon (22%; 95% confidence interval 16-28). Conclusion The incidence of interval cancers in the two years after a negative faecal immunochemical test in routine population-based colorectal cancer screening was less than one-fifth of the expected incidence. This is direct evidence that the faecal immunochemical test-based screening programme protocol has high sensitivity for cancers that will become symptomatic.

  6. Using lessons from breast, cervical, and colorectal cancer screening to inform the development of lung cancer screening programs.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Katrina; Kim, Jane J; Halm, Ethan A; Ballard, Rachel M; Schnall, Mitchell D

    2016-05-01

    Multiple advisory groups now recommend that high-risk smokers be screened for lung cancer by low-dose computed tomography. Given that the development of lung cancer screening programs will face many of the same issues that have challenged other cancer screening programs, the National Cancer Institute-funded Population-based Research Optimizing Screening through Personalized Regimens (PROSPR) consortium was used to identify lessons learned from the implementation of breast, cervical, and colorectal cancer screening that should inform the introduction of lung cancer screening. These lessons include the importance of developing systems for identifying and recruiting eligible individuals in primary care, ensuring that screening centers are qualified and performance is monitored, creating clear communication standards for reporting screening results to referring physicians and patients, ensuring follow-up is available for individuals with abnormal test results, avoiding overscreening, remembering primary prevention, and leveraging advances in cancer genetics and immunology. Overall, this experience emphasizes that effective cancer screening is a multistep activity that requires robust strategies to initiate, report, follow up, and track each step as well as a dynamic and ongoing oversight process to revise current screening practices as new evidence regarding screening is created, new screening technologies are developed, new biological markers are identified, and new approaches to health care delivery are disseminated. Cancer 2016;122:1338-1342. © 2016 American Cancer Society. © 2016 American Cancer Society.

  7. Choosing the optimal method in programmatic colorectal cancer screening: current evidence and controversies

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is an important health problem all over the world, being the third most common cancer and the second leading cause of cancer-related death in Western countries. The most important strategy for CRC prevention is screening (i.e. secondary prevention). Since it is widely accepted that adenomas and serrated polyps are the precursors of the vast majority of CRC, early detection and removal of these lesions is associated with a reduction of CRC incidence and, consequently, mortality. Moreover, cancers detected by screening are usually diagnosed at early stages and, therefore, curable by endoscopic or surgical procedures. This review will be address CRC screening strategies in average-risk population, which is defined by those individuals, men and women, 50 years of age or older, without any additional personal or familial predisposing risk factor. In order to maximize the impact of screening and ensure high coverage and equity of access, only organized screening programs (i.e. programmatic screening) should be implemented, as opposed to case-finding or opportunistic screening. For that reason and considering that the optimal approach for colorectal screening may differ depending on the scenario, this review will be focused on the advantages and limitations of each screening strategy in an organized setting. PMID:26136839

  8. Perceptions of colorectal cancer screening in urban African American clinic patients: differences by gender and screening status.

    PubMed

    Bass, Sarah Bauerle; Gordon, Thomas F; Ruzek, Sheryl Burt; Wolak, Caitlin; Ward, Stephanie; Paranjape, Anuradha; Lin, Karen; Meyer, Brian; Ruggieri, Dominique G

    2011-03-01

    African Americans have higher colorectal cancer (CRC) morbidity and mortality than whites, yet have low rates of CRC screening. Few studies have explored African Americans' own perceptions of barriers to CRC screening or elucidated gender differences in screening status. Focus groups were conducted with 23 African American patients between 50 and 70 years of age who were patients in a general internal medicine clinic in a large urban teaching hospital. Focus groups were delimited by gender and CRC screening status. Focus group transcripts were analyzed using an iterative coding process with consensus and triangulation to develop thematic categories. Results indicated key thematic differences in perceptions of screening by gender and CRC screening status. While both men and women who had never been screened had a general lack of knowledge about CRC and screening modalities, women had an overall sense that health screenings were needed and indicated a stronger need to have a positive relationship with their doctor. Women also reported that African American men do not get colonoscopy because of the perceived sexual connotation. Men who had never been screened, compared to those who had been screened, had less trust of their doctors and the health care system and indicated an overall fear of going to the doctor. They also reiterated the sexual connotation of having a colonoscopy and were apprehensive about being sedated during the procedure. Overall, men expressed more fear and were more reluctant to undergo CRC screening than women, but among those who had undergone CRC screening, particularly colonoscopy, men expressed advantages of having the screening. All groups were also found to have a negative attitude about the use of fecal occult blood testing and felt colonoscopy was the superior screening modality. Results suggest that messages and education about CRC screening, particularly colonoscopy, might place more emphasis on accuracy and might be more effective in

  9. Perceptions of Colorectal Cancer Screening in Urban African American Clinic Patients: Differences by Gender and Screening Status

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Thomas F.; Ruzek, Sheryl Burt; Wolak, Caitlin; Ward, Stephanie; Paranjape, Anuradha; Lin, Karen; Meyer, Brian; Ruggieri, Dominique G.

    2010-01-01

    African Americans have higher colorectal cancer (CRC) morbidity and mortality than whites, yet have low rates of CRC screening. Few studies have explored African Americans’ own perceptions of barriers to CRC screening or elucidated gender differences in screening status. Focus groups were conducted with 23 African American patients between 50 and 70 years of age who were patients in a general internal medicine clinic in a large urban teaching hospital. Focus groups were delimited by gender and CRC screening status. Focus group transcripts were analyzed using an iterative coding process with consensus and triangulation to develop thematic categories. Results indicated key thematic differences in perceptions of screening by gender and CRC screening status. While both men and women who had never been screened had a general lack of knowledge about CRC and screening modalities, women had an overall sense that health screenings were needed and indicated a stronger need to have a positive relationship with their doctor. Women also reported that African American men do not get colonoscopy because of the perceived sexual connotation. Men who had never been screened, compared to those who had been screened, had less trust of their doctors and the health care system and indicated an overall fear of going to the doctor. They also reiterated the sexual connotation of having a colonoscopy and were apprehensive about being sedated during the procedure. Overall, men expressed more fear and were more reluctant to undergo CRC screening than women, but among those who had undergone CRC screening, particularly colonoscopy, men expressed advantages of having the screening. All groups were also found to have a negative attitude about the use of fecal occult blood testing and felt colonoscopy was the superior screening modality. Results suggest that messages and education about CRC screening, particularly colonoscopy, might place more emphasis on accuracy and might be more effective in

  10. Faecal occult blood testing for colorectal cancer screening: the past or the future.

    PubMed

    Benton, Sally C; Seaman, Helen E; Halloran, Stephen P

    2015-02-01

    Screening for colorectal cancer (CRC) reduces CRC mortality; many countries have implemented population-based CRC screening programmes and many more are poised to do so. Whilst several different CRC screening modalities are available, choice will be influenced by cost, available resources (e.g. high-quality colonoscopy) and acceptability of the test by the invited population. For CRC screening, no screening test has so far surpassed the practicality, affordability and effectiveness of tests for the presence of blood in faeces (faecal occult blood tests, FOBt). The results of several large FOBt-based randomised controlled trials provide the best clinical evidence to support their use in population-based CRC screening. This review considers the current options for CRC screening and the future for FOBt.

  11. Identifying Communication Barriers to Colorectal Cancer Screening Adherence among Appalachian Kentuckians.

    PubMed

    Bachman, Audrey Smith; Cohen, Elisia L; Collins, Tom; Hatcher, Jennifer; Crosby, Richard; Vanderpool, Robin C

    2017-08-18

    Utilizing data from 40 in-depth interviews, this article identifies both barriers and facilitators to colorectal screening guideline adherence among Appalachian Kentucky adults recruited through a community-based research network. Key findings identify (a) varying levels of knowledge about screening guidelines, (b) reticence to engage in screening processes, and (c) nuanced communication with healthcare providers and family members regarding screening adherence. What participants knew about the screening process was often derived from personal stories or recalled stories from family members about their screening experiences. Reticence to engage in screening processes reflected reports of cumbersome preparation, privacy issues, embarrassment, medical mistrust, fear of receiving a cancer diagnosis, and lack of symptoms. Participants cited many ways to enhance patient-centered communication, and the findings from this study have implications for health communication message design and communication strategies for healthcare practices in Appalachian Kentucky clinics.

  12. Unifying Screening Processes Within the PROSPR Consortium: A Conceptual Model for Breast, Cervical, and Colorectal Cancer Screening

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jane J.; Schapira, Marilyn M.; Tosteson, Anna N. A.; Zauber, Ann G.; Geiger, Ann M.; Kamineni, Aruna; Weaver, Donald L.; Tiro, Jasmin A.

    2015-01-01

    General frameworks of the cancer screening process are available, but none directly compare the process in detail across different organ sites. This limits the ability of medical and public health professionals to develop and evaluate coordinated screening programs that apply resources and population management strategies available for one cancer site to other sites. We present a trans-organ conceptual model that incorporates a single screening episode for breast, cervical, and colorectal cancers into a unified framework based on clinical guidelines and protocols; the model concepts could be expanded to other organ sites. The model covers four types of care in the screening process: risk assessment, detection, diagnosis, and treatment. Interfaces between different provider teams (eg, primary care and specialty care), including communication and transfer of responsibility, may occur when transitioning between types of care. Our model highlights across each organ site similarities and differences in steps, interfaces, and transitions in the screening process and documents the conclusion of a screening episode. This model was developed within the National Cancer Institute–funded consortium Population-based Research Optimizing Screening through Personalized Regimens (PROSPR). PROSPR aims to optimize the screening process for breast, cervical, and colorectal cancer and includes seven research centers and a statistical coordinating center. Given current health care reform initiatives in the United States, this conceptual model can facilitate the development of comprehensive quality metrics for cancer screening and promote trans-organ comparative cancer screening research. PROSPR findings will support the design of interventions that improve screening outcomes across multiple cancer sites. PMID:25957378

  13. Spiritually Based Intervention to Increase Colorectal Cancer Screening among African Americans: Screening and Theory-Based Outcomes from a Randomized Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holt, Cheryl L.; Litaker, Mark S.; Scarinci, Isabel C.; Debnam, Katrina J.; McDavid, Chastity; McNeal, Sandre F.; Eloubeidi, Mohamad A.; Crowther, Martha; Bolland, John; Martin, Michelle Y.

    2013-01-01

    Colorectal cancer screening has clear benefits in terms of mortality reduction; however, it is still underutilized and especially among medically underserved populations, including African Americans, who also suffer a disproportionate colorectal cancer burden. This study consisted of a theory-driven (health belief model) spiritually based…

  14. Spiritually Based Intervention to Increase Colorectal Cancer Screening among African Americans: Screening and Theory-Based Outcomes from a Randomized Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holt, Cheryl L.; Litaker, Mark S.; Scarinci, Isabel C.; Debnam, Katrina J.; McDavid, Chastity; McNeal, Sandre F.; Eloubeidi, Mohamad A.; Crowther, Martha; Bolland, John; Martin, Michelle Y.

    2013-01-01

    Colorectal cancer screening has clear benefits in terms of mortality reduction; however, it is still underutilized and especially among medically underserved populations, including African Americans, who also suffer a disproportionate colorectal cancer burden. This study consisted of a theory-driven (health belief model) spiritually based…

  15. European guidelines for quality assurance in colorectal cancer screening and diagnosis. First Edition--Communication.

    PubMed

    Austoker, J; Giordano, L; Hewitson, P; Villain, P

    2012-09-01

    Multidisciplinary, evidence-based guidelines for quality assurance in colorectal cancer screening and diagnosis have been developed by experts in a project coordinated by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. The full guideline document covers the entire process of population-based screening. It consists of 10 chapters and over 250 recommendations, graded according to the strength of the recommendation and the supporting evidence. The 450-page guidelines and the extensive evidence base have been published by the European Commission. The chapter on communication includes 35 graded recommendations. The content of the chapter is presented here to promote international discussion and collaboration by making the principles and standards recommended in the new EU Guidelines known to a wider professional and scientific community. Following these recommendations has the potential to enhance the control of colorectal cancer through improvement in the quality and effectiveness of screening programmes and services. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  16. From guaiac to immune fecal occult blood tests: the emergence of technology in colorectal cancer screening.

    PubMed

    Greenwald, Beverly

    2005-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is the second leading cause of cancer deaths in the United States for both men and women. Colorectal cancer screening is an important means for reducing morbidity and mortality. The American Cancer Society recommends five different screening regimens for adults of average risk, age 50 years and older. The optimal effectiveness of a screening program is dependent on the accuracy of the screening test used. An accurate screening test would have high sensitivity (positive) when an adenomatous polyp or cancer is present and high specificity (negative) in their absence. In April 2002, the American Cancer Society Colorectal Cancer Advisory Group concluded that the immunochemical fecal occult blood test has some advantages that merit revision of their guideline statement for fecal occult blood testing, to include the immunochemical fecal occult blood test. The advantages cited were the possibility of improved sensitivity and specificity and the lack of required dietary restrictions, which make it a more patient-friendly test. Several types of immunochemical fecal occult blood tests are discussed in this article, including their advantages and disadvantages compared with those of the traditional guaiac fecal occult blood testing.

  17. ColoNav: patient navigation for colorectal cancer screening in deprived areas - Study protocol.

    PubMed

    Allary, C; Bourmaud, A; Tinquaut, F; Oriol, M; Kalecinski, J; Dutertre, V; Lechopier, N; Pommier, M; Benoist, Y; Rousseau, S; Regnier, V; Buthion, V; Chauvin, F

    2016-07-07

    The mass colorectal cancer screening program was implemented in 2008 in France, targeting 16 million French people aged between 50 and 74. The current adhesion is insufficient and the participation rate is even lower among the underserved population, increasing health inequalities within our health care system. Patient Navigation programs have proved their efficiency to promote the access to cancer screening and diagnosis. The purpose of the study is to assess the implementation of a patient navigation intervention that has been described in another cultural environment and another health care system. The main objective of the program is to increase the colorectal cancer screening participation rate among the deprived population through the intervention of a navigator to promote the Fecal Occult Blood Test (FOBT) and complementary exams. We performed a multisite cluster randomized controlled trial, with three groups (one experimental group and two control groups) for 18 months. The study attempts to give a better understanding of the adhesion barriers to colorectal cancer screening among underserved populations. If this project is cost-effective, it could create a dynamic based on peer approaches that could be developed for other cancer screening programs and other chronic diseases. NCT02369757.

  18. Las mujeres saludables: reaching Latinas for breast, cervical and colorectal cancer prevention and screening.

    PubMed

    Larkey, Linda

    2006-02-01

    Community health advisors have effectively promoted breast and cervical cancer prevention and screening among low-income Latina women. Specific elements of such programs, such as enhanced social support, may explain successes. Promotion of colorectal cancer screening has been less studied. Promotoras de Salud (i.e., Latina health advisors) implemented a 12-week program among women recruited from community-based organizations. The program educated 366 Latinas in breast, cervical and colorectal cancer prevention and screening and emphasized social support among class members. Pre- and post-intervention assessments demonstrated significant increases for fruit and vegetable consumption (3.05 to 3.60 servings/day), and physical activity (65.15 to 122.40 minutes/week). Of women previously non-compliant, 39 percent, 31 percent and 4 percent received Pap tests, mammography, and fecal occult blood test (FOBT), respectively. A culturally aligned education program using community health advisors and emphasizing social support among participants may improve prevention and selected screening behaviors, but more intensive interventions may be required for colorectal cancer screening compliance.

  19. Mental Illness Is Not Associated with Adherence to Colorectal Cancer Screening: Results from the California Health Interview Survey.

    PubMed

    Siantz, Elizabeth; Wu, Brian; Shiroishi, Mark; Vora, Hita; Idos, Gregory

    2017-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-specific death in the USA. Evidence suggests people with mental illness are less likely to receive preventive health services, including cancer screening. We hypothesized that mental illness is a risk factor for non-adherence to colorectal cancer-screening guidelines. We analyzed results of the 2007 California Health Interview Survey to test whether mental illness is a risk factor for non-adherence to colorectal cancer-screening recommendations among individuals age 50 or older (N = 15,535). This cross-sectional dataset is representative of California. Screening was defined as either fecal occult blood testing during the preceding year, sigmoidoscopy, or colonoscopy during the preceding 5 years. Mental illness was identified using the Kessler K6 screening tool. Associations were evaluated using weighted multivariate logistic regressions. Mental illness was not associated with colorectal cancer-screening adherence (OR 0.89; 95% CI 0.63-1.25). Risk factors for non-adherence included being female (OR 1.25; 95% CI 1.09-1.44), delaying accessing health care during the previous year (OR 1.89; 95% CI 1.56-2.29). Unlike previous studies, this study did not find a relationship between mental illness and colorectal cancer-screening adherence. This could be due to differences in study populations. State-specific healthcare policies involving care coordination for individuals with mental illness could also influence colorectal cancer-screening adherence in California.

  20. Non-compliance with the initial screening exam visit in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening Trial

    PubMed Central

    Marcus, Pamela M.; Ogden, Sheryl L.; Gren, Lisa H.; Childs, Jeffery C.; Pretzel, Shannon M; Lamerato, Lois E.; Walsh, Kayo; Rozjabek, Heather M.; Mabie, Jerome; Thomas, Brett; Riley, Tom

    2014-01-01

    Objective Identify predictors of non-compliance with first round screening exams in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening Trial. Method PLCO was conducted from 1993–2011 at 10 US institutions. A total of 154,897 healthy men and women ages 55–74 years were randomized. Intervention arm participants were invited to receive gender-appropriate screening exams for prostate, lung, colorectal and ovarian cancer. Using intervention-arm data (73,036 participants), non-compliance percentages for 13 covariates were calculated, as were unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios (ORs), and 95% confidence intervals. Covariates included demographic factors as well as factors specific to PLCO (e.g., method of consent, distance from screening center). Results The rate of non-compliance was 11% overall but varied by screening center. Significant associations were observed for most covariates but indicated modest increases or decreases in odds. An exception was use of a two-step consent process (consented intervention arm participants for exams after randomization) relative to a one-step process (consented all participants prior to randomization) (OR: 2.2, 95% CI: 2.0–2.5). Non-compliance percentages increased with further distance from screening centers, but ORs were not significantly different from 1. Conclusions Many factors modestly influenced compliance. Consent process was the strongest predictor of compliance. PMID:25038532

  1. Designing clinical and genetic guidelines of colorectal cancer screening as an effective roadmap for risk management

    PubMed Central

    Zali, Mohammad Reza; Safdari, Reza; Maserat, Elham; Asadzadeh Aghdaei, Hamid

    2016-01-01

    Aim: We aimed to present clinical and genetic guidelines of colorectal cancer screening for risk assessment of populations at risk. Background: National guidelines can be used as a guide for choosing the method of screening for each individual. These guidelines facilitate decision making and support the delivery of cancer screening service. Methods: In the first step, a comparative study was performed by using secondary data extracted from the literature review. Three countries (Canada, Australia and United States) were selected from 25 countries that are member in the International Cancer Screening Network (ICSN). The second step of study was qualitative survey. The study was based on the grounded theory approach. Study tool was semi-structured interview. Interviewing involves asking questions and getting answers from participants. 22 expert’s perspectives about guidelines of colorectal cancer screening were surveyed. Results: Screening program of selected countries was compared. Countries were surveyed by number of risk groups and subgroups, criteria for risk assessment, beginning age, recommendations, screening approaches and intervals. Australia and United States have three risk groups and Canada has two risk groups. Four risk groups were defined in the national guideline, including high risk, increased risk, average and low risk group. The high risk group comprises of 8 subgroups, increased risk group comprises of 3 subgroups and average risk group contain 4 subgroups. Approved clinical criteria for hereditary syndromes and the roadmap of genetic and pathologic survey were designed. Conclusions: Guidelines and pathways have a vital role in the quality improvement of CRC screening program. National guidelines were refined according to the environmental and genetic criteria of colorectal cancer in Iran. These guidelines provide evidence-based recommendations by risk groups. National pathways as a risk assessment tool can evaluate and improve the processes and

  2. Guidelines for colorectal cancer screening--a puzzle of tests and strategies.

    PubMed

    Van Gossum, A

    2010-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a leading cause of cancer death around the World. An effective way to reduce colorectal cancer mortality is to screen for it and its precursor, the adenoma. In industrialized countries the mortality related to CRC is decreasing probably due to better screening programmes in average-risk individuals as well as changes in risk factors. Screening procedures are various including faecal screening tests--which primarily detect colon cancer--and structural tests (endoscopy--flexible sigmoidoscopy or colonoscopy--, Barium enema, Computed Tomography Colonography) that may detect not only cancer but also its precursors. Video-colon capsule is a new tool for exploring the colon but needs further studies before becoming a screening test. The choice of a screening test includes several factors as cost, invasiveness, acceptability, adherence to repeat testing and acceptance referral for colonoscopy for positive tests as well as local financial resources. Every screening programme has advantages and limitations. Enhancing use and quality of CRC screening programmes is mandatory.

  3. Association of marital status and colorectal cancer screening participation in the USA.

    PubMed

    El-Haddad, B; Dong, F; Kallail, K J; Hines, R B; Ablah, E

    2015-05-01

    In the USA, for both men and women, colorectal cancer (CRC) ranks third in incidence and second in mortality. Despite evidence that it decreases mortality, CRC screening in the USA remains under-utilized. Some European studies have suggested that marital status affects participation in CRC screening, but the effect of marital status on CRC screening participation in the USA is unknown. In this study, the aim was to compare CRC screening participation rates among married and unmarried couples, separated, widowed, never married and divorced adults living in the USA. This was a retrospective data analysis of the 2010 Behavioural Risk Factor Surveillance System survey. The population studied included 239,300 participants, aged 50-75 years, who completed the 2010 survey. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to assess the association between adherence with CRC screening guidelines and marital status while accounting for survey stratum/weight and covariates. Individuals who were divorced or separated, never married or widowed had decreased odds of adherence with CRC screening guidelines compared with individuals who were married and unmarried couples. In this study, individuals living in the USA who were married and unmarried couples had increased odds of undergoing CRC screening compared to individuals in other marital status groups. Public health interventions are needed to promote CRC screening participation in these other groups. Colorectal Disease © 2015 The Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland.

  4. Role of micro-RNA in colorectal cancer screening.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Montes, José Antonio; Menéndez Sánchez, Pablo

    2014-12-01

    MicroRNAs are involved in carcinogenesis through postranscriptional gene regulatory activity. These molecules are involved in various physiological and pathological functions, such as apoptosis, cell proliferation and differentiation, which indicates their functionality in carcinogenesis as tumour suppressor genes or oncogenes. Several studies have determined the presence of microRNAs in different neoplastic diseases such as colon, prostate, breast, stomach, pancreas, and lung cancer. There are promising data on the usefulness of quantifying microRNAs in different organic fluids and tissues. We have conducted a review of the determinations of microRNAs in the diagnosis of colorectal cancer.

  5. Client-directed interventions to increase community demand for breast, cervical, and colorectal cancer screening a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Baron, Roy C; Rimer, Barbara K; Breslow, Rosalind A; Coates, Ralph J; Kerner, Jon; Melillo, Stephanie; Habarta, Nancy; Kalra, Geetika P; Chattopadhyay, Sajal; Wilson, Katherine M; Lee, Nancy C; Mullen, Patricia Dolan; Coughlin, Steven S; Briss, Peter A

    2008-07-01

    Most major medical organizations recommend routine screening for breast, cervical, and colorectal cancers. Screening can lead to early detection of these cancers, resulting in reduced mortality. Yet not all people who should be screened are screened, either regularly or, in some cases, ever. This report presents the results of systematic reviews of effectiveness, applicability, economic efficiency, barriers to implementation, and other harms or benefits of interventions designed to increase screening for breast, cervical, and colorectal cancers by increasing community demand for these services. Evidence from these reviews indicates that screening for breast cancer (mammography) and cervical cancer (Pap test) has been effectively increased by use of client reminders, small media, and one-on-one education. Screening for colorectal cancer by fecal occult blood test has been increased effectively by use of client reminders and small media. Additional research is needed to determine whether client incentives, group education, and mass media are effective in increasing use of any of the three screening tests; whether one-on-one education increases screening for colorectal cancer; and whether any demand-enhancing interventions are effective in increasing the use of other colorectal cancer screening procedures (i.e., flexible sigmoidoscopy, colonoscopy, double contrast barium enema). Specific areas for further research are also suggested in this report.

  6. Client-directed interventions to increase community access to breast, cervical, and colorectal cancer screening a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Baron, Roy C; Rimer, Barbara K; Coates, Ralph J; Kerner, Jon; Kalra, Geetika P; Melillo, Stephanie; Habarta, Nancy; Wilson, Katherine M; Chattopadhyay, Sajal; Leeks, Kimberly

    2008-07-01

    Most major medical organizations recommend routine screening for breast, cervical, and colorectal cancers. Screening can lead to early detection of these cancers, resulting in reduced mortality. Yet not all people who should be screened are screened, either regularly or, in some cases, ever. This report presents the results of systematic reviews of effectiveness, applicability, economic efficiency, barriers to implementation, and other harms or benefits of interventions designed to increase screening for breast, cervical, and colorectal cancers by increasing community access to these services. Evidence from these reviews indicates that screening for breast cancer (by mammography) has been increased effectively by reducing structural barriers and by reducing out-of pocket client costs, and that screening for colorectal cancer (by fecal occult blood test) has been increased effectively by reducing structural barriers. Additional research is needed to determine whether screening for cervical cancer (by Pap test) can be increased by reducing structural barriers and by reducing out-of-pocket costs, whether screening for colorectal cancer (fecal occult blood test) can be increased by reducing out-of-pocket costs, and whether these interventions are effective in increasing the use of other colorectal cancer screening procedures (i.e., flexible sigmoidoscopy, colonoscopy, double contrast barium enema). Specific areas for further research are also suggested in this report.

  7. Factors related with colorectal and stomach cancer screening practice among disease-free lung cancer survivors in Korea.

    PubMed

    Park, Sang Min; Lee, Jongmog; Kim, Young Ae; Chang, Yoon Jung; Kim, Moon Soo; Shim, Young Mog; Zo, Jae Ill; Yun, Young Ho

    2017-08-30

    Lung cancer survivors are more likely to develop colorectal and stomach cancer than the general population. However, little is known about the current status of gastrointestinal cancer screening practices and related factors among lung cancer survivors. We enrolled 829 disease-free lung cancer survivors ≥40 years of age, who had been treated at two hospitals from 2001 to 2006. The patients completed a questionnaire that included stomach and colorectal cancer screening after lung cancer treatment, as well as other sociodemographic variables. Among lung cancer survivors, correlations with stomach and colorectal screening recommendations were 22.7 and 25.8%, respectively. Of these, 40.7% reported receiving physician advice to screen for second primary cancer (SPC). Those who were recommended for further screening for other cancers were more likely to receive stomach cancer screening [adjusted odds ratios (aOR) = 1.63, 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.16-2.30] and colorectal cancer screening [aOR = 1.37, 95% CI, 0.99-1.90]. Less-educated lung cancer survivors were less likely to have stomach and colorectal cancer screenings. Lack of a physician's advice for SPC screening and lower educational status had negative impact on the gastrointestinal cancer screening rates of lung cancer survivors.

  8. Use of Evidence-Based Interventions to Address Disparities in Colorectal Cancer Screening.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Djenaba A; Redwood, Diana; DeGroff, Amy; Butler, Emily L

    2016-02-12

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second leading cause of cancer death among cancers that affect both men and women. Despite strong evidence of their effectiveness, CRC screening tests are underused. Racial/ethnic minority groups, persons without insurance, those with lower educational attainment, and those with lower household income levels have lower rates of CRC screening. Since 2009, CDC's Colorectal Cancer Control Program (CRCCP) has supported state health departments and tribal organizations in implementing evidence-based interventions (EBIs) to increase use of CRC screening tests among their populations. This report highlights the successful implementation of EBIs to address disparities by two CRCCP grantees: the Alaska Native Tribal Health Consortium (ANTHC) and Washington State's Breast, Cervical, and Colon Health Program (BCCHP). ANTHC partnered with regional tribal health organizations in the Alaska Tribal Health System to implement provider and client reminders and use patient navigators to increase CRC screening rates among Alaska Native populations. BCCHP identified patient care coordinators in each clinic who coordinated staff training on CRC screening and integrated client and provider reminder systems. In both the Alaska and Washington programs, instituting provider reminder systems, client reminder systems, or both was facilitated by use of electronic health record systems. Using multicomponent interventions in a single clinical site or facility can support more organized screening programs and potentially result in greater increases in screening rates than relying on a single strategy. Organized screening systems have an explicit policy for screening, a defined target population, a team responsible for implementation of the screening program, and a quality assurance structure. Although CRC screening rates in the United States have increased steadily over the past decade, this increase has not been seen equally across all populations. Increasing the

  9. Screening practices of unaffected people at familial risk of colorectal cancer Authors

    PubMed Central

    Ait Ouakrim, Driss; Boussioutas, Alex; Lockett, Trevor; Winship, Ingrid; Giles, Graham G; Flander, Louisa B; Keogh, Louise; Hopper, John L; Jenkins, Mark A

    2011-01-01

    Our objective was to determine screening practices of unaffected people in the general population at moderately increased and potentially high risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) due to their family history of the disease. 1627 participants in the Australasian Colorectal Cancer Family Registry (ACCFR) study were classified into two CRC risk categories according to the strength of their family history of the disease. We calculated the proportion of participants that adhered to national CRC screening guidelines by age-group and for each familial risk category. We performed a multinomial logistic regression analysis to evaluate the associations between screening and socio-demographic factors. Of the 1236 participants at moderately increased risk of CRC, 70 (6%) reported having undergone guideline-defined “appropriate” screening, 251 (20%) reported some, but less than appropriate screening and 915 (74%) reported never having had any CRC screening test. Of the 392 participants at potentially high risk of CRC, 3 (1%) reported appropriate screening, 140 (36%) reported some, but less than appropriate screening and 249 (64%) reported never having had any CRC screening test. On average, those of middle-age, higher education and who had resided in Australia longer were more likely to have had screening for CRC. The uptake of recommended screening by unaffected people at the highest familial risk of developing CRC is extremely low. Guidelines for CRC screening are not being implemented in the population. More research is needed to identify the reasons so as to enable development of strategies to improve participation in screening. PMID:22030089

  10. Diabetes Status and Being Up-to-Date on Colorectal Cancer Screening, 2012 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System.

    PubMed

    Porter, Nancy R; Eberth, Jan M; Samson, Marsha E; Garcia-Dominic, Oralia; Lengerich, Eugene J; Schootman, Mario

    2016-02-04

    Although screening rates for colorectal cancer are increasing, 22 million Americans are not up-to-date with recommendations. People with diabetes are an important and rapidly growing group at increased risk for colorectal cancer. Screening status and predictors of being up-to-date on screening are largely unknown in this population. This study used logistic regression modeling and data from the 2012 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System to examine the association between diabetes and colorectal cancer screening predictors with being up-to-date on colorectal cancer screening according to criteria of the US Preventive Services Task Force for adults aged 50 or older. State prevalence rates of up-to-date colorectal cancer screening were also calculated and mapped. The prevalence of being up-to-date with colorectal cancer screening for all respondents aged 50 or older was 65.6%; for respondents with diabetes, the rate was 69.2%. Respondents with diabetes were 22% more likely to be up-to-date on colorectal cancer screening than those without diabetes. Among those with diabetes, having a routine checkup within the previous year significantly increased the odds of being up-to-date on colorectal cancer screening (odds ratio, 1.90). Other factors such as age, income, education, race/ethnicity, insurance status, and history of cancer were also associated with up-to-date status. Regardless of diabetes status, people who had a routine checkup within the past year were more likely to be up-to-date than people who had not. Among people with diabetes, the duration between routine checkups may be of greater importance than the frequency of diabetes-related doctor visits. Continued efforts should be made to ensure that routine care visits occur regularly to address the preventive health needs of patients with and patients without diabetes.

  11. Colorectal Cancer Screening in Average Risk Populations: Evidence Summary

    PubMed Central

    Baxter, Nancy N.; Dubé, Catherine; Hey, Amanda

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. The objectives of this systematic review were to evaluate the evidence for different CRC screening tests and to determine the most appropriate ages of initiation and cessation for CRC screening and the most appropriate screening intervals for selected CRC screening tests in people at average risk for CRC. Methods. Electronic databases were searched for studies that addressed the research objectives. Meta-analyses were conducted with clinically homogenous trials. A working group reviewed the evidence to develop conclusions. Results. Thirty RCTs and 29 observational studies were included. Flexible sigmoidoscopy (FS) prevented CRC and led to the largest reduction in CRC mortality with a smaller but significant reduction in CRC mortality with the use of guaiac fecal occult blood tests (gFOBTs). There was insufficient or low quality evidence to support the use of other screening tests, including colonoscopy, as well as changing the ages of initiation and cessation for CRC screening with gFOBTs in Ontario. Either annual or biennial screening using gFOBT reduces CRC-related mortality. Conclusion. The evidentiary base supports the use of FS or FOBT (either annual or biennial) to screen patients at average risk for CRC. This work will guide the development of the provincial CRC screening program. PMID:27597935

  12. Colorectal Cancer Screening in Average Risk Populations: Evidence Summary.

    PubMed

    Tinmouth, Jill; Vella, Emily T; Baxter, Nancy N; Dubé, Catherine; Gould, Michael; Hey, Amanda; Ismaila, Nofisat; McCurdy, Bronwen R; Paszat, Lawrence

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. The objectives of this systematic review were to evaluate the evidence for different CRC screening tests and to determine the most appropriate ages of initiation and cessation for CRC screening and the most appropriate screening intervals for selected CRC screening tests in people at average risk for CRC. Methods. Electronic databases were searched for studies that addressed the research objectives. Meta-analyses were conducted with clinically homogenous trials. A working group reviewed the evidence to develop conclusions. Results. Thirty RCTs and 29 observational studies were included. Flexible sigmoidoscopy (FS) prevented CRC and led to the largest reduction in CRC mortality with a smaller but significant reduction in CRC mortality with the use of guaiac fecal occult blood tests (gFOBTs). There was insufficient or low quality evidence to support the use of other screening tests, including colonoscopy, as well as changing the ages of initiation and cessation for CRC screening with gFOBTs in Ontario. Either annual or biennial screening using gFOBT reduces CRC-related mortality. Conclusion. The evidentiary base supports the use of FS or FOBT (either annual or biennial) to screen patients at average risk for CRC. This work will guide the development of the provincial CRC screening program.

  13. Analysis of Hereditary Nonpolyposis Colorectal Cancer in Malay Cohorts using Immunohistochemical Screening.

    PubMed

    Wan Juhari, Wan Khairunnisa; Wan Abdul Rahman, Wan Faiziah; Mohd Sidek, Ahmad Shanwani; Abu Hassan, Muhammad Radzi; Ahmad Amin Noordin, Khairul Bariah; Zakaria, Andee Dzulkarnaen; Macrae, Finlay; Zilfalil, Bin Alwi

    2015-01-01

    Lynch syndrome (LS) is an inherited predisposition to colorectal, endometrial (uterine) and other cancers. Although most cancers are not inherited, about 5 percent (%) of people who have colorectal or endometrial cancer have the Lynch syndrome. It involves the alteration of mismatch repair (MMR) genes; MLH1, MSH2, MSH6 or PMS2. In this study, we analyzed the expression of MMR proteins in colorectal cancer in a Malay cohort by immunohistochemistry. A total of 17 patients were selected fulfilling one of the Bethesda criteria: colorectal cancer diagnosed in a patient aged less than 50 years old, having synchronous and metachronous colorectal cancer or with a strong family history. Immunohistochemical staining was performed on paraffin embedded tumour tissue samples using four antibodies: MLH1, MSH2, MSH6 and PMS2. Twelve out of 17 patients (70.6%) were noted to have a family history. A total of 41% (n=7) of the patients had abnormal immunohistochemical staining with one or more of the four antibodies. Loss of expression were noted in 13 tumour tissues with a negative staining score <4. Of 13 tumour tissues, four showed loss expression of MLH1. For PMS2, loss of expression were noted in five cases. Both MSH2 and MSH6 showed loss of expression in two tumour tissues respectively. Revised Bethesda criteria and immunohistochemical analysis constituted a convenient approach and is recommended to be a first-line screening for Lynch syndrome in Malay cohorts.

  14. Screening for colorectal cancer: the role of the primary care physician

    PubMed Central

    Triantafillidis, John K.; Vagianos, Constantine; Gikas, Aristofanis; Korontzi, Maria

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, the role of primary care physicians (PCPs) in the diagnosis and management of gastrointestinal disorders, including screening for colorectal cancer (CRC), has been recognized as very important. The available data indicate that PCPs are not adequately following CRC screening guidelines because a number of factors have been identified as significant barriers to the proper application of CRC screening guidelines. These factors include lack of time, patient reluctance, and challenges related to scheduling colonoscopy. Further positive engagement of PCPs with CRC screening is required to overcome these barriers and reach acceptable levels in screening rates. To meet the expectations of modern medicine, PCPs should not only be able to recommend occult blood testing or colonoscopy but also, under certain conditions, able to perform colonoscopy. In this review, the authors aim to provide the current knowledge of the role of PCPs in increasing the rate and successfully implementing a screening program for CRC by applying the relevant international guidelines. PMID:27676092

  15. Colorectal cancer screening among Korean American immigrants: unraveling the influence of culture.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hee Yun; Im, Hyojin

    2013-05-01

    Screening for colorectal cancer (CRC) is underutilized among ethnic minority groups, particularly among Korean American immigrants. To explore the role of cultural and health beliefs in CRC screening, a structured questionnaire was administered to 281 Korean American immigrants aged between 50 and 88 in the New York metropolitan area. Results showed that 20% of the sample had undergone a fecal occult blood test within the past year, and 35% of the respondents had received a sigmoidoscopy and/or colonoscopy within the previous five years. Binary logistic regression analyses revealed significant predictors including health belief constructs, such as perceived seriousness of cancer and confidence in screening uptake, and gender-specific cultural beliefs and attitudes about CRC screening. Perceived helplessness lowered CRC screening among the women, while fatalism lowered it among the men. The findings reinforce a need for cultural-and gender-specific intervention strategies to increase CRC screening in this particularly vulnerable population.

  16. Integrating Men’s Health and Masculinity Theories to Explain Colorectal Cancer Screening Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Christy, Shannon M.; Mosher, Catherine E.; Rawl, Susan M.

    2013-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cause of cancer deaths among men in the United States. Although CRC screening has been found to reduce CRC incidence and mortality, current screening rates among men are suboptimal due to various practical and psychosocial barriers. One potential barrier to CRC screening identified in qualitative studies with men is the threat to masculinity that endoscopic screening methods pose. Indeed, beliefs about masculinity have been predictive of other preventive health behaviors among men. In this review paper, we propose a novel conceptual framework to explain men’s CRC screening behavior that integrates masculinity norms, gender role conflict, men’s health care experiences, behaviors, and beliefs, and social and background variables. This framework has the potential to guide future research on men’s CRC screening behaviors and other health behaviors and may inform gender-sensitive interventions which target masculinity beliefs to increase preventive health behaviors. PMID:23813927

  17. [Screening for colorectal, skin, breast and prostate cancer. Essential knowledge for counseling].

    PubMed

    Hübner, J; Noftz, M R; Schnoor, M; Katalinic, A

    2014-10-01

    The major goal of cancer screening programs is the reduction of disease-specific mortality by detecting malignant tumors in an early and still curable stage. Sensitive screening tests are used in apparently healthy people and conspicuous findings are referred for further investigations. Taking the personal disease risk into account, persons considering participation in a screening program should be informed about the methods, benefits and disadvantages of the screening program. This information, together with personal preferences, is the basis for a well-informed decision for or against participation in a screening program. This article imparts essential knowledge that is needed for individual medical counseling on screening for colorectal, skin, breast and prostate cancer.

  18. Integrating men's health and masculinity theories to explain colorectal cancer screening behavior.

    PubMed

    Christy, Shannon M; Mosher, Catherine E; Rawl, Susan M

    2014-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cause of cancer deaths among men in the United States. Although CRC screening has been found to reduce CRC incidence and mortality, current screening rates among men are suboptimal due to various practical and psychosocial barriers. One potential barrier to CRC screening identified in qualitative studies with men is the threat to masculinity that endoscopic screening methods pose. Indeed, beliefs about masculinity have been predictive of other preventive health behaviors among men. In this review article, we propose a novel conceptual framework to explain men's CRC screening behavior that integrates masculinity norms, gender role conflict, men's health care experiences, behaviors, and beliefs, and social and background variables. This framework has the potential to guide future research on men's CRC screening behaviors and other health behaviors and may inform gender-sensitive interventions that target masculinity beliefs to increase preventive health behaviors.

  19. Are there biological differences between screen-detected and interval colorectal cancers in the English Bowel Cancer Screening Programme?

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Elizabeth; Rees, Colin J; Gill, Michael; Parker, Clare E; Bevan, Roisin; Perry, Sarah L; Bury, Yvonne; Mills, Sarah; Bradburn, D Michael; Bramble, Michael; Hull, Mark A

    2016-01-01

    Background: We measured biomarkers of tumour growth and vascularity in interval and screen-detected colorectal cancers (CRCs) in the English Bowel Cancer Screening Programme in order to determine whether rapid tumour growth might contribute to interval CRC (a CRC diagnosed between a negative guaiac stool test and the next scheduled screening episode). Methods: Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded sections from 71 CRCs (screen-detected 43, interval 28) underwent immunohistochemistry for CD31 and Ki-67, in order to measure the microvessel density (MVD) and proliferation index (PI), respectively, as well as microsatellite instability (MSI) testing. Results: Interval CRCs were larger (P=0.02) and were more likely to exhibit venous invasion (P=0.005) than screen-detected tumours. There was no significant difference in MVD or PI between interval and screen-detected CRCs. More interval CRCs displayed MSI-high (14%) compared with screen-detected tumours (5%). A significantly (P=0.005) higher proportion (51%) of screen-detected CRC resection specimens contained at least one polyp compared with interval CRC (18%) resections. Conclusions: We found no evidence of biological differences between interval and screen-detected CRCs, consistent with the low sensitivity of guaiac stool testing as the main driver of interval CRC. The contribution of synchronous adenomas to occult blood loss for screening requires further investigation. PMID:27219017

  20. Are there biological differences between screen-detected and interval colorectal cancers in the English Bowel Cancer Screening Programme?

    PubMed

    Walsh, Elizabeth; Rees, Colin J; Gill, Michael; Parker, Clare E; Bevan, Roisin; Perry, Sarah L; Bury, Yvonne; Mills, Sarah; Bradburn, D Michael; Bramble, Michael; Hull, Mark A

    2016-07-12

    We measured biomarkers of tumour growth and vascularity in interval and screen-detected colorectal cancers (CRCs) in the English Bowel Cancer Screening Programme in order to determine whether rapid tumour growth might contribute to interval CRC (a CRC diagnosed between a negative guaiac stool test and the next scheduled screening episode). Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded sections from 71 CRCs (screen-detected 43, interval 28) underwent immunohistochemistry for CD31 and Ki-67, in order to measure the microvessel density (MVD) and proliferation index (PI), respectively, as well as microsatellite instability (MSI) testing. Interval CRCs were larger (P=0.02) and were more likely to exhibit venous invasion (P=0.005) than screen-detected tumours. There was no significant difference in MVD or PI between interval and screen-detected CRCs. More interval CRCs displayed MSI-high (14%) compared with screen-detected tumours (5%). A significantly (P=0.005) higher proportion (51%) of screen-detected CRC resection specimens contained at least one polyp compared with interval CRC (18%) resections. We found no evidence of biological differences between interval and screen-detected CRCs, consistent with the low sensitivity of guaiac stool testing as the main driver of interval CRC. The contribution of synchronous adenomas to occult blood loss for screening requires further investigation.

  1. Development and validation of an instrument to measure factors related to colorectal cancer screening adherence.

    PubMed

    Vernon, S W; Myers, R E; Tilley, B C

    1997-10-01

    This report describes the development and refinement of a set of scales for use in research on predictors of colorectal cancer screening adherence. The study population included 2693 of 4490 eligible white male automotive employees who answered a mailed questionnaire (60% response rate) on beliefs and attitudes related to colorectal cancer and screening. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses and multitrait scaling analysis were used to evaluate the construct validity of a priori scales developed to measure salience and coherence, perceived susceptibility, worries about screening, screening efficacy, social influence, and intention. Analyses supported the construct validity of scales for salience and coherence, perceived susceptibility, and worries about screening. Four items originally assigned to the salience and coherence construct loaded on a separate factor that appeared to measure self-efficacy. There was no empirical support for scales measuring screening efficacy and social influence, and there was limited empirical support for a scale measuring intention. Confirmatory factor analysis of the scales measuring salience and coherence, self-efficacy, perceived susceptibility, and worries about screening showed a similar factor structure in white men with and without a personal history of polyps, indicating that the scales may be useful for studies of both colorectal cancer screening and surveillance. Multitrait scaling analysis showed some support for internal consistency reliability of those scales in women (n = 42) and in African-American men (n = 56), and there was some support for the factor structure in those two subgroups. Future studies should evaluate the psychometric properties of these and similar scales in diverse population subgroups.

  2. Effectiveness of interventions to increase screening for gastric and colorectal cancer in Korea.

    PubMed

    Hong, Nam Soo; Kam, Sin

    2014-01-01

    Public health centers in Korea play an important role at the community level in encouraging residents to participate in cancer screening, usually by sending reminders in the mail and by making phone calls. However, there have not been any studies on the effectiveness of these interventions by public health centers in Korea. The purpose of this study was to evaluate this question. The study was limited to male subjects aged 50-59 years living in one district of Daegu, Korea. A total of 923 subjects were selected for the study among the target population for gastric and colorectal cancer screening as part of the National Cancer Screening Program in 2012. The subjects were randomly assigned to one of four groups: control, postal intervention, telephone intervention, and telephone and postal intervention. Three months after the interventions, the results were confirmed by the National Health Insurance Corporation. Logistic regression analyses were performed to find differences in participation rates in cancer screening for each group. Men who received telephone and postal intervention were most likely (40.5%) to undergo gastric cancer screening, in comparison to the men who received telephone intervention only (31.7%), postal intervention only (22.2%) and those in the control group (17.9%). Also, men who received telephone and postal intervention were most likely (27.8%) to participate in colorectal cancer screening, followed by the men who received telephone intervention only (24.3%), postal intervention only (16.5%), and men in the control group (13.5%). Combined telephone and postal intervention and telephone only intervention as well produced significantly increased rates of participation in cancer screening in comparison to the control group. There was no significant difference, however, between the postal intervention only and control groups for either colorectal or gastric cancer screening.

  3. Stool DNA Testing to Screen for Colorectal Cancer in the Medicare Population

    PubMed Central

    Lansdorp-Vogelaar, Iris; Kuntz, Karen M.; Knudsen, Amy B.; Wilschut, Janneke A.; Zauber, Ann G.; van Ballegooijen, Marjolein

    2013-01-01

    Background Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) considered whether to reimburse stool DNA testing for colorectal cancer screening among Medicare enrollees. Objective To evaluate the conditions under which stool DNA testing could be cost-effective compared with the colorectal cancer screening tests currently reimbursed by CMS. Design Comparative microsimulation modeling study using two independently-developed models. Data Sources Derived from literature. Target Population 65-year-old (Medicare eligible) individuals; 50-year old individuals as sensitivity analysis. Time Horizon Lifetime. Perspective Third-party payer. Interventions Stool DNA test every 3 or 5 years in comparison to currently-recommended colorectal cancer screening strategies. Outcome Measures Life expectancy, lifetime costs, incremental cost-effectiveness ratios, threshold costs. Results of Base-Case Analysis Assuming a cost of $350 per test, strategies of stool DNA testing every 3 or 5 years yielded fewer life-years and higher costs than the currently recommended colorectal cancer screening strategies. Results of Threshold Analysis Screening with the stool DNA test would be cost-effective at per-test cost of $40 to $60 for 3-yearly stool DNA testing, depending on the simulation model used. There were no levels of sensitivity and specificity for which stool DNA testing would be cost-effective at its current cost of $350 per test. Stool DNA testing at 3-yearly intervals would be cost-effective at a cost of $350 per test if the relative adherence with stool DNA testing were at least 50% better than with other screening tests. Results of Sensitivity Analysis None of the above mentioned results changed significantly when considering a 50-year old cohort. Limitations We did not model other pathways than the traditional adenoma-carcinoma sequence. Conclusions Only if a significant reduction can be made to the test cost or if its availability would entice a large fraction of otherwise unscreened

  4. Colorectal Cancer Screening among Chinese, Cambodian, and Vietnamese Immigrants in Chicago.

    PubMed

    Kim, Karen; Chandrasekar, Edwin; Lam, Helen

    2015-12-01

    Asian Americans are now the most rapidly growing minority group in the USA. Over 60 % of Asian Americans in the USA are immigrants. Cancer has been the leading cause of death among Asian Americans since 1980. Understanding the barriers to screening is essential to reduce the unnecessary burden of cancer. Little is known about colorectal cancer screening behavior among foreign-born Asian Americans and how socio-demographic factors may influence the behavior. Even less is known about disaggregated Asian subgroups. Using data from the Chicago Asian Community Survey, a local health assessment survey of three Asian subgroups in Chicago, Chinese, Cambodian, and Vietnamese, this study found that the colorectal cancer screening rate were much lower among foreign-born Asian Americans in Chicago (30 %) than the national rate for the general population (59 %). Furthermore, we studied disaggregated data to determine colorectal cancer screening differences between communities. Findings from this study provide a critical evidence base to inform future research and intervention designs.

  5. Personalized medicine for prevention: can risk stratified screening decrease colorectal cancer mortality at an acceptable cost?

    PubMed

    Subramanian, Sujha; Bobashev, Georgiy; Morris, Robert J; Hoover, Sonja

    2017-04-01

    Tailored health care interventions are expected to transform clinical practice. The objective of this study was to develop an innovative model to assess the effectiveness, cost, and harms of risk stratified colorectal cancer screening. We updated a previously validated microsimulation model consisting of three interlinked components: risk assessment, natural history, and screening/treatment modules. We used data from representative national surveys and the literature to create a synthetic population that mimics the family history and genetic profile of the US population. We applied risk stratification based on published risk assessment tools to triage individuals into five risk categories: high, increased, medium, decreased, and low. On average, the incremental cost of risk stratified screening for colorectal cancer compared to the current approach at 60% and 80% compliance rates is $18,342 and $23,961 per life year gained. The harms in terms of false positives and perforations are consistently lower for personalized scenarios across all compliance rates. False positives are reduced by more than 47.0% and perforations by at least 9.9%. There is considerable uncertainty in the life years gained, but the reduction in harms remains stable under all scenarios. A key finding is that risk stratified screening can reduce harms at all levels of compliance. Therefore, selection of screening scenarios should include comprehensive comparisons of mortality, harms from screening, and cost. This study provides guidance for evaluating risk stratified cancer screening and further research is required to identify optimal implementation approaches in the real-world setting.

  6. Invitation coverage and participation in Italian cervical, breast and colorectal cancer screening programmes.

    PubMed

    Giorgi Rossi, Paolo; Carrozzi, Giuliano; Federici, Antonio; Mancuso, Pamela; Sampaolo, Letizia; Zappa, Marco

    2017-01-01

    Objectives In Italy, regional governments organize cervical, breast and colorectal cancer screening programmes, but there are difficulties in regularly inviting all the target populations and participation remains low. We analysed the determinants associated with invitation coverage of and participation in these programmes. Methods We used data on screening programmes from annual Ministry of Health surveys, 1999-2012 for cervical, 1999-2011 for breast and 2005-2011 for colorectal cancer. For recent years, we linked these data to the results of the national routine survey on preventive behaviours to evaluate the effect of spontaneous screening at Province level. Invitation and participation relative risk were calculated using Generalized Linear Models. Results There is a strong decreasing trend in invitation coverage and participation in screening programmes from North to South Italy. In metropolitan areas, both invitation coverage (rate ratio 0.35-0.96) and participation (rate ratio 0.63-0.88) are lower. An inverse association exists between spontaneous screening and both screening invitation coverage (1-3% decrease in invitation coverage per 1% spontaneous coverage increase) and participation (2% decrease in participation per 1% spontaneous coverage increase) for the three programmes. High recall rate has a negative effect on invitation coverage in the next round for breast cancer (1% decrease in invitation per 1% recall increase). Conclusions Organizational and cultural changes are needed to better implement cancer screening in southern Italy.

  7. Flexible Sigmoidoscopy in the Randomized Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening Trial: Added Yield from a Second Screening Examination

    PubMed Central

    Schoen, Robert E.; Pinsky, Paul F.; Bresalier, Robert S.; Doria-Rose, V. Paul; Laiyemo, Adeyinka O.; Church, Timothy; Yokochi, Lance A.; Yurgalevitch, Susan; Rathmell, Joshua; Andriole, Gerald L.; Buys, Saundra; Crawford, E. David; Fouad, Mona; Isaacs, Claudine; Lamerato, Lois; Reding, Douglas; Prorok, Philip C.; Berg, Christine D.

    2012-01-01

    Background Among randomized trials evaluating flexible sigmoidoscopy (FSG) for its effect on colorectal cancer mortality, only the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening Trial screened its participants more than one time. We report outcomes from the PLCO screening FSG program and evaluate the increased yield produced by a second FSG. Methods Participants were screened by 60-cm FSG in 10 regional screening centers at study entry and 3 or 5 years later, depending on the time of random assignment. Results from subsequent diagnostic intervention were tracked and recorded in a standardized fashion, and outcomes were compared according to sex and age. The protocol discouraged repeat FSG in persons with colorectal cancer or adenoma diagnosed after the initial FSG. Results Of 77 447 enrollees, 67 073 (86.6%) had at least one FSG and 39 443 (50.9%) had two FSGs. Diagnostic intervention occurred in 74.9% after a positive first FSG and in 78.7% after a positive repeat FSG. The second FSG increased the screening yield by 32%: Colorectal cancer or advanced adenoma was detected in 37.8 per 1000 persons after first screening and in 49.8 per 1000 persons after all screenings. The second FSG increased the yield of cancer or advanced adenoma by 26% in women and by 34% in men. Of 223 subjects who received a diagnosis of colorectal carcinoma within 1 year of a positive FSG, 64.6% had stage I and 17.5% had stage II disease. Conclusions Repeat FSG increased the detection of colorectal cancer or advanced adenoma in women by one-fourth and in men by one-third. Screen-detected carcinomas were early stage (stage I or II) in greater than 80% of screened persons. Colorectal cancer mortality data from the PLCO, as the definitive endpoint, will follow in later publications. PMID:22298838

  8. Flexible sigmoidoscopy in the randomized prostate, lung, colorectal, and ovarian (PLCO) cancer screening trial: added yield from a second screening examination.

    PubMed

    Weissfeld, Joel L; Schoen, Robert E; Pinsky, Paul F; Bresalier, Robert S; Doria-Rose, V Paul; Laiyemo, Adeyinka O; Church, Timothy; Yokochi, Lance A; Yurgalevitch, Susan; Rathmell, Joshua; Andriole, Gerald L; Buys, Saundra; Crawford, E David; Fouad, Mona; Isaacs, Claudine; Lamerato, Lois; Reding, Douglas; Prorok, Philip C; Berg, Christine D

    2012-02-22

    Among randomized trials evaluating flexible sigmoidoscopy (FSG) for its effect on colorectal cancer mortality, only the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening Trial screened its participants more than one time. We report outcomes from the PLCO screening FSG program and evaluate the increased yield produced by a second FSG. Participants were screened by 60-cm FSG in 10 regional screening centers at study entry and 3 or 5 years later, depending on the time of random assignment. Results from subsequent diagnostic intervention were tracked and recorded in a standardized fashion, and outcomes were compared according to sex and age. The protocol discouraged repeat FSG in persons with colorectal cancer or adenoma diagnosed after the initial FSG. Of 77 447 enrollees, 67 073 (86.6%) had at least one FSG and 39 443 (50.9%) had two FSGs. Diagnostic intervention occurred in 74.9% after a positive first FSG and in 78.7% after a positive repeat FSG. The second FSG increased the screening yield by 32%: Colorectal cancer or advanced adenoma was detected in 37.8 per 1000 persons after first screening and in 49.8 per 1000 persons after all screenings. The second FSG increased the yield of cancer or advanced adenoma by 26% in women and by 34% in men. Of 223 subjects who received a diagnosis of colorectal carcinoma within 1 year of a positive FSG, 64.6% had stage I and 17.5% had stage II disease. Repeat FSG increased the detection of colorectal cancer or advanced adenoma in women by one-fourth and in men by one-third. Screen-detected carcinomas were early stage (stage I or II) in greater than 80% of screened persons. Colorectal cancer mortality data from the PLCO, as the definitive endpoint, will follow in later publications.

  9. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D, vitamin D binding protein, and risk of colorectal cancer in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial

    PubMed Central

    Weinstein, Stephanie J.; Purdue, Mark P.; Smith-Warner, Stephanie A.; Mondul, Alison M.; Black, Amanda; Ahn, Jiyoung; Huang, Wen-Yi; Horst, Ronald L.; Kopp, William; Rager, Helen; Ziegler, Regina G.; Albanes, Demetrius

    2014-01-01

    The potential role of vitamin D in cancer prevention has generated substantial interest, and laboratory experiments indicate several anti-cancer properties for vitamin D compounds. Prospective studies of circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D], the accepted biomarker of vitamin D status, suggest an inverse association with colorectal cancer risk, but with some inconsistencies. Furthermore, the direct or indirect impact of the key transport protein, vitamin D binding protein (DBP), has not been examined. We conducted a prospective study of serum 25(OH)D and DBP concentrations and colorectal cancer risk in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial, based on 476 colorectal cancer cases and 476 controls, matched on age, sex, race, and date of serum collection. All subjects underwent sigmoidoscopic screening at baseline and once during follow-up. Conditional logistic regression estimated odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Circulating 25(OH)D was inversely associated with colorectal cancer (OR=0.60, 95% CI 0.38-0.94 for highest versus lowest quintile, p-trend 0.01). Adjusting for recognized colorectal cancer risk factors and accounting for seasonal vitamin D variation did not alter the findings. Neither circulating DBP nor the 25(OH)D:DBP molar ratio, a proxy for free circulating 25(OH)D, was associated with risk (OR=0.82, 95% CI 0.54-1.26, and OR=0.79, 95% CI 0.52-1.21, respectively), and DBP did not modify the 25(OH)D association. The current study eliminated confounding by colorectal cancer screening behavior, and supports an association between higher vitamin D status and substantially lower colorectal cancer risk, but does not indicate a direct or modifying role for DBP. PMID:25156182

  10. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D, vitamin D binding protein and risk of colorectal cancer in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial.

    PubMed

    Weinstein, Stephanie J; Purdue, Mark P; Smith-Warner, Stephanie A; Mondul, Alison M; Black, Amanda; Ahn, Jiyoung; Huang, Wen-Yi; Horst, Ronald L; Kopp, William; Rager, Helen; Ziegler, Regina G; Albanes, Demetrius

    2015-03-15

    The potential role of vitamin D in cancer prevention has generated substantial interest, and laboratory experiments indicate several anti-cancer properties for vitamin D compounds. Prospective studies of circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D], the accepted biomarker of vitamin D status, suggest an inverse association with colorectal cancer risk, but with some inconsistencies. Furthermore, the direct or indirect impact of the key transport protein, vitamin D binding protein (DBP), has not been examined. We conducted a prospective study of serum 25(OH)D and DBP concentrations and colorectal cancer risk in the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial, based on 476 colorectal cancer cases and 476 controls, matched on age, sex, race and date of serum collection. All subjects underwent sigmoidoscopic screening at baseline and once during follow-up. Conditional logistic regression estimated odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Circulating 25(OH)D was inversely associated with colorectal cancer (OR = 0.60, 95% CI 0.38-0.94 for highest versus lowest quintile, p trend 0.01). Adjusting for recognized colorectal cancer risk factors and accounting for seasonal vitamin D variation did not alter the findings. Neither circulating DBP nor the 25(OH)D:DBP molar ratio, a proxy for free circulating 25(OH)D, was associated with risk (OR = 0.82, 95% CI 0.54-1.26, and OR = 0.79, 95% CI 0.52-1.21, respectively), and DBP did not modify the 25(OH)D association. The current study eliminated confounding by colorectal cancer screening behavior, and supports an association between higher vitamin D status and substantially lower colorectal cancer risk, but does not indicate a direct or modifying role for DBP. © 2014 UICC.

  11. A population-based study of the extent of colorectal cancer screening in men with HIV.

    PubMed

    Antoniou, Tony; Jembere, Nathaniel; Saskin, Refik; Kopp, Alexander; Glazier, Richard H

    2015-02-01

    Because of the increased life-expectancy of persons with HIV, the need for age-appropriate colorectal cancer screening among these patients will increase. We examined rates of colorectal cancer screening among HIV-infected men aged 50 to 65 years. We used Ontario's administrative databases to identify all men between the ages of 50 and 65 years who were alive on April 1, 2007, and identified HIV-infected men using a validated case-finding algorithm. We excluded men with a history of colorectal cancer, anal cancer, inflammatory bowel disease and any colorectal investigation in the preceding five-years, and used multivariable regression to compare rates of colorectal cancer screening between men with and without HIV during five years of follow-up. We identified 743,801 men between the ages of 50 and 65 years, of whom 1,432 (0.19%) were HIV-infected. The proportions of men with and without HIV who underwent any screening during the 5-year follow up period were 49.1% (95% CI 46.5% to 51.7%) and 41.4% (95% CI 41.3% to 41.5%), respectively. Compared with HIV-negative men, men with HIV had lower rates of fecal occult blood testing [adjusted rate ratio (aRR) 0.74; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.63 to 0.87] and barium-enema radiography (aRR 0.66; 95% CI 0.39 to 1.12), but higher rates of colonoscopy (aRR 1.24; 95% CI 1.13 to 1.37), flexible sigmoidoscopy (aRR 1.72; 95% CI 1.28 to 2.30) and rigid sigmoidoscopy (aRR 2.98; 95% CI 2.26 to 3.93). As with the general population of men aged 50 to 65 years, less than half of the population of men with HIV received colorectal cancer screening. Strategies are required to improve uptake of this intervention.

  12. Trends in colorectal cancer screening over time for persons with and without chronic disability.

    PubMed

    Iezzoni, Lisa I; Kurtz, Stephen G; Rao, Sowmya R

    2016-07-01

    Persons with disabilities have often experienced disparities in routine cancer screening. However, with civil rights protections from the 1990 Americans with Disabilities Act, such disparities may diminish over time. To examine whether disability disparities exist for colorectal cancer screening and whether these screening patterns have changed over time. We analyzed National Health Interview Survey responses from civilian, non-institutionalized U.S. residents 50-75 years old from selected years between 1998 and 2010. We specified 7 chronic disability indicators using self-reported functional impairments, activity/participation limitations, and expected duration. Separately for women and men, we conducted bivariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses examining associations of self-reported colorectal cancer screening services with sociodemographic factors and disability type. Patterns of chronic disability differed somewhat between women and men; disability rates generally rose over time. For both women and men, colorectal cancer screening rates increased substantially from 1998 through 2010. Over time, relatively few statistically significant differences were reported in colorectal cancer screening rates between nondisabled persons and individuals with various disabilities. In 2010, reported screening rates were generally comparable between nondisabled and disabled persons. In the few statistically significant differences, persons with disabilities almost always reported higher colorectal cancer screening rates than nondisabled individuals. According to national survey data, reported use of colorectal cancer screening is similar between nondisabled persons and individuals with a variety of different disability types. Despite physical demands of some colorectal cancer screening tests, disparities do not appear between populations with and without disability. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Colorectal cancer screening comparing no screening, immunochemical and guaiac fecal occult blood tests: a cost-effectiveness analysis.

    PubMed

    van Rossum, Leo G M; van Rijn, Anne F; Verbeek, Andre L M; van Oijen, Martijn G H; Laheij, Robert J F; Fockens, Paul; Jansen, Jan B M J; Adang, Eddy M M; Dekker, Evelien

    2011-04-15

    Comparability of cost-effectiveness of colorectal cancer (CRC) screening strategies is limited if heterogeneous study data are combined. We analyzed prospective empirical data from a randomized-controlled trial to compare cost-effectiveness of screening with either one round of immunochemical fecal occult blood testing (I-FOBT; OC-Sensor®), one round of guaiac FOBT (G-FOBT; Hemoccult-II®) or no screening in Dutch aged 50 to 75 years, completed with cancer registry and literature data, from a third-party payer perspective in a Markov model with first- and second-order Monte Carlo simulation. Costs were measured in Euros (€), effects in life-years gained, and both were discounted with 3%. Uncertainty surrounding important parameters was analyzed. I-FOBT dominated the alternatives: after one round of I-FOBT screening, a hypothetical person would on average gain 0.003 life-years and save the health care system €27 compared with G-FOBT and 0.003 life years and €72 compared with no screening. Overall, in 4,460,265 Dutch aged 50-75 years, after one round I-FOBT screening, 13,400 life-years and €320 million would have been saved compared with no screening. I-FOBT also dominated in sensitivity analyses, varying uncertainty surrounding important effect and cost parameters. CRC screening with I-FOBT dominated G-FOBT and no screening with or without accounting for uncertainty. Copyright © 2010 UICC.

  14. Taishotoyama Symposium Barriers to colorectal cancer screening: economics, capacity and adherence.

    PubMed

    Inadomi, John M

    2008-12-01

    Colorectal cancer is the second leading cause of cancer death in the United States (U.S.). Fecal occult blood testing has been shown in randomized controlled trials to decrease mortality from colorectal cancer. The incidence and mortality associated with colorectal cancer has also been illustrated to be decreased with sigmoidoscopy and colonoscopy through case-control and prospective cohort studies. Current research focuses on determining which screening strategy is optimal, and how we may improve implementation. Primary screening colonoscopy may be most effective; however, this strategy would require up to 2.6 procedures per patient over their lifetime. Based on the U.S. census this equates to 7.5 million procedures annually; the current capacity in the U.S. is insufficient to provide this strategy for all eligible persons. Computed tomographic or magnetic resonance colonography (virtual colonoscopy) may be an attractive alternative, but capacity is also insufficient for implementation. Moreover, since virtual colonoscopy is a diagnostic but not therapeutic test, economic analysis has illustrated that this strategy will not be cost-effective compared to conventional colonoscopy unless it becomes much less expensive or is associated with greater adherence. Fecal DNA testing is a promising technology but current biomarkers are insufficiently sensitive to constitute a viable strategy. Newer tests such as self-propelled, self-guided endoscopes (Aer-O-Scope), 'active' endoscopes that decrease looping (Neoguide) and colon capsule endoscopy require formal evaluation through clinical trials prior to endorsement for colorectal cancer screening. Less than half of all eligible persons in the U.S. adhere to screening recommendations. Factors associated with screening adherence include the patient's level of education, income, access to health care, a family history of colon cancer, male gender and recommendation from the primary care physician. Conversely, non-adherence is

  15. Fecal-based colorectal cancer screening among the uninsured in northern Manhattan.

    PubMed

    Hillyer, Grace Clarke; Schmitt, Karen M; Freedberg, Daniel E; Kramer, Rachel A; Su, Yin; Rosenberg, Richard M; Neugut, Alfred I

    2014-08-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) screening reduces CRC mortality; however, for many reasons, uninsured individuals are less likely to utilize CRC screening tests. To compare CRC screening behaviors and outcomes with guaiac fecal occult blood testing (gFOBT) from 1998 to 2006 and fecal immunochemical testing (FIT) from 2006 to 2010 in a community-based program serving uninsured patients in northern Manhattan. In 2013, we conducted a retrospective record review of individuals aged ≥50 years who received fecal-based CRC screening at the Northern Manhattan Cancer Screening Partnership between 1998 and 2010. Included were those with household income ≤250% of the federal poverty level, no medical insurance coverage, and who were not up to date with CRC screening. We assessed screening positivity rate, positive predictive value, differences in the use of diagnostic colonoscopy, colonoscopic findings, and adenoma detection rates for gFOBT versus FIT. In total, 7,710 patients completed CRC screenings (4,951 gFOBT and 2,759 FIT). The majority were female, Hispanic, foreign born, and young at age of first screening. Compared to gFOBT, FIT detected twice as many positive tests (3.2% vs 1.5%, p≤0.001) and had a higher adenoma detection rate (18.2 vs 11.8, p=0.002). The improved positivity and adenoma detection rates with greater number of screening tests over time favor the use of FIT over gFOBT for colorectal screening among uninsured populations in northern Manhattan. Copyright © 2014 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Long-term lifestyle changes after colorectal cancer screening: randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Berstad, Paula; Løberg, Magnus; Larsen, Inger Kristin; Kalager, Mette; Holme, Øyvind; Botteri, Edoardo; Bretthauer, Michael; Hoff, Geir

    2015-08-01

    There is uncertainty whether cancer screening affects participant incentives for favourable lifestyle. The present study investigates long-term effects of colorectal cancer (CRC) screening on lifestyle changes. In 1999-2001, men and women drawn from the population registry were randomised to screening for CRC by flexible sigmoidoscopy ('invited-to-screening' arm) or to no-screening (control arm) in the Norwegian Colorectal Cancer Prevention trial. A subgroup of 3043 individuals in the 'invited-to-screening' and 2819 in the control arm, aged 50-55 years, randomised during 2001 had their lifestyle assessed by a questionnaire at inclusion and after 11 years (42% of cohort). The outcome was 11-year changes in lifestyle factors (body weight, smoking status, physical exercise, selected dietary habits) and in total lifestyle score (0-4 points, translating to the number of lifestyle recommendations adhered to). We compared outcomes in the two randomisation arms and attendees with positive versus negative findings. Total lifestyle scores improved in both arms. The improvement was smaller in the 'invited-to-screening' arm (score 1.43 at inclusion; 1.58 after 11 years) compared with the control arm (score 1.49 at inclusion; 1.67 after 11 years); adjusted difference -0.05 (95% CI -0.09 to -0.01; p=0.03). The change in the score was less favourable in screening attendees with a positive compared with negative screening result; adjusted difference -0.16 (95% CI -0.25 to -0.08; p<0.001). The present study suggests that possible unfavourable lifestyle changes after CRC screening are modest. Lifestyle counselling may be considered as part of cancer screening programmes. NCT00119912. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  17. An Economic Evaluation of Colorectal Cancer Screening in Primary Care Practice

    PubMed Central

    Meenan, Richard T.; Anderson, Melissa L.; Chubak, Jessica; Vernon, Sally W.; Fuller, Sharon; Wang, Ching-Yun; Green, Beverly B.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Recent colorectal cancer screening studies focus on optimizing adherence. This study evaluated the cost effectiveness of interventions using electronic health records (EHRs), automated mailings, and stepped support increases to improve 2-year colorectal cancer screening adherence. Methods Analyses were based on a parallel-design, randomized trial in which three stepped interventions (EHR-linked mailings [“automated”], automated plus telephone assistance [“assisted”], or automated and assisted plus nurse navigation to testing completion or refusal [navigated”]) were compared to usual care. Data were from August 2008–November 2011 with analyses performed during 2012–2013. Implementation resources were micro-costed; research and registry development costs were excluded. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) were based on number of participants current for screening per guidelines over 2 years. Bootstrapping examined robustness of results. Results Intervention delivery cost per participant current for screening ranged from $21 (automated) to $27 (navigated). Inclusion of induced testing costs (e.g., screening colonoscopy) lowered expenditures for automated (ICER=−$159) and assisted (ICER=−$36) relative to usual care over 2 years. Savings arose from increased fecal occult blood testing, substituting for more expensive colonoscopies in usual care. Results were broadly consistent across demographic subgroups. More intensive interventions were consistently likely to be cost effective relative to less intensive interventions, with willingness to pay values of $600–$1,200 for an additional person current for screening yielding ≥80% probability of cost effectiveness. Conclusions Two-year cost effectiveness of a stepped approach to colorectal cancer screening promotion based on EHR data is indicated, but longer-term cost effectiveness requires further study. PMID:25998922

  18. Contrasts in Rural and Urban Barriers to Colorectal Cancer Screening

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Terry C.; Rademaker, Alfred; Bailey, Stacy Cooper; Platt, Daci; Esparza, Julie; Wolf, Michael S.; Arnold, Connie L.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To contrast barriers to colon cancer (CRC) screening and Fecal Occult Blood Test (FOBT) completion between rural and urban safety-net patients. Methods Interviews were administered to 972 patients who were not up-to-date with screening. Results Rural patients were more likely to believe it was helpful to find CRC early (89.7% vs 66.1%, p < .0001), yet were less likely to have received a screening recommendation (36.4% vs. 45.8%, p = .03) or FOBT information (14.5% vs 32.3%, p < .0001) or to have completed an FOBT (22.0% vs 45.8%, p < .0001). Conclusions Interventions are needed to increase screening recommendation, education and completion, particularly in rural areas. PMID:23985175

  19. Public awareness of colorectal cancer and screening in a Spanish population.

    PubMed

    Gimeno-García, A Z; Quintero, E; Nicolás-Pérez, D; Jiménez-Sosa, A

    2011-09-01

    To investigate screening intentions and previous uptake of colorectal cancer (CRC) screening tests in a general population in Spain; and to determine knowledge about CRC, risk perceptions, major barriers to screening and perceived benefits of screening. Cross-sectional study. Six hundred consecutive Spanish individuals over 50 years of age completed a questionnaire to determine their screening intentions, previous CRC diagnostic procedures, and knowledge about screening procedures, risk factors for CRC, 5-year prognosis, warning signs and symptoms, incidence, age-related risk and perceived barriers to screening. Although 78.8% of subjects reported that they were willing to participate in CRC screening, only 12% had ever undergone a screening test, and none with screening intention. Awareness of a breast cancer screening test [odds ratio (OR) 1.67, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.04-2.70; P = 0.035], visiting a general practitioner in the preceding year (OR 3.08, 95% CI 1.86-5.08; P < 0.0001), awareness of risk factors (OR 2.32, 95% CI 1.49-3.61; P < 0.001), awareness of CRC signs or symptoms (OR 1.65, 95% CI 1.03-2.64; P = 0.04) and belief in the efficacy of CRC screening (OR 8.85, 95% CI 1.53-51.3; P = 0.01) were independent predictors for intention to participate in CRC screening. The most common reasons given for refusing screening were 'CRC tests might be dangerous' (28.2%), 'CRC tests might be painful' (17.9%) and 'feeling healthy' (16.2%). Although reported willingness to undergo CRC screening was high, CRC knowledge and actual uptake of CRC screening were low. An educational intervention to reduce barriers and increase awareness could improve uptake of CRC screening. Copyright © 2011 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The Association Between Primary Source of Healthcare Coverage and Colorectal Cancer Screening Among US Veterans.

    PubMed

    May, Folasade P; Yano, Elizabeth M; Provenzale, Dawn; Neil Steers, W; Washington, Donna L

    2017-08-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a deadly but largely preventable disease. Screening improves outcomes, but screening rates vary across healthcare coverage models. In the Veterans Health Administration (VA), screening rates are high; however, it is unknown how CRC screening rates compare for Veterans with other types of healthcare coverage. To determine whether Veterans with Veteran-status-related coverage (VA, military, TRICARE) have higher rates of CRC screening than Veterans with alternate sources of healthcare coverage. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of Veterans 50-75 years from the 2014 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System survey. We examined CRC screening rates and screening modalities. We performed multivariable logistic regression to identify the role of coverage type, demographics, and clinical factors on screening status. The cohort included 22,138 Veterans. Of these, 76.7% reported up-to-date screening. Colonoscopy was the most common screening modality (83.7%). Screening rates were highest among Veterans with Veteran-status-related coverage (82.3%), as was stool-based screening (10.8%). The adjusted odds of up-to-date screening among Veterans with Veteran-status-related coverage were 83% higher than among Veterans with private coverage (adjusted OR = 1.83, 95% CI = 1.52-2.22). Additional predictors of screening included older age, black race, high income, access to medical care, frequent medical visits, and employed or married status. CRC screening rates were highest among Veterans with Veteran-status-related coverage. High CRC screening rates among US Veterans may be related to system-level characteristics of VA and military care. Insight to these system-level characteristics may inform mechanisms to improve CRC screening in non-VA settings.

  1. Expressions of machismo in colorectal cancer screening among New Mexico Hispanic subpopulations.

    PubMed

    Getrich, Christina M; Sussman, Andrew L; Helitzer, Deborah L; Hoffman, Richard M; Warner, Teddy D; Sánchez, Victoria; Solares, Angélica; Rhyne, Robert L

    2012-04-01

    Although national colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence rates have steadily decreased, the rate for New Mexico Hispanics has been increasing, and screening rates are low. We conducted an exploratory qualitative study to determine barriers to CRC screening for New Mexico Hispanics. We found that machismo served as a dynamic influence on men's health-seeking behaviors; however, it was conceptualized differently by two distinct Hispanic subpopulations, and therefore appeared to play a different role in shaping their screening attitudes and behaviors. Machismo emerged as more of an influence for Mexican men, who expressed concern over colonoscopies being potentially transformative and/or stigmatizing, but was not as salient for Hispanos, who viewed the colonoscopy as "strictly medical," and were more concerned with discomfort and pain. Findings from the study highlight the importance of identifying varying characteristics among subpopulations to better understand screening barriers and provide optimal CRC screening counseling in primary care settings.

  2. Expressions of Machismo in Colorectal Cancer Screening Among New Mexico Hispanic Subpopulations

    PubMed Central

    Getrich, Christina M.; Sussman, Andrew L.; Helitzer, Deborah L.; Hoffman, Richard M.; Warner, Teddy D.; Sánchez, Victoria; Solares, Angélica; Rhyne, Robert L.

    2013-01-01

    Although national colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence rates have steadily decreased, the rate for New Mexico Hispanics has been increasing and screening rates are low. We conducted an exploratory qualitative study to determine barriers to CRC screening for New Mexico Hispanics. We found that machismo served as a dynamic influence on men’s health seeking behaviors; however, it was conceptualized differently by two distinct Hispanic subpopulations and therefore appeared to play a different role in shaping their screening attitudes and behaviors. Machismo emerged as more of an influence for Mexican men, who expressed concern over colonoscopies being potentially transformative and/or stigmatizing, but was not as salient for Hispanos, who viewed the colonoscopy as “strictly medical” and were more concerned with discomfort and pain. This study highlights the importance of identifying varying characteristics among subpopulations to better understand screening barriers and provide optimal CRC screening counseling in primary care settings. PMID:22138258

  3. Costs of planning and implementing the CDC's Colorectal Cancer Screening Demonstration Program.

    PubMed

    Subramanian, Sujha; Tangka, Florence K L; Hoover, Sonja; Beebe, Maggie C; DeGroff, Amy; Royalty, Janet; Seeff, Laura C

    2013-08-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) initiated the Colorectal Cancer Screening Demonstration Program (CRCSDP) to explore the feasibility of establishing a large-scale colorectal cancer screening program for underserved populations in the United States. The authors of the current report provide a detailed description of the total program costs (clinical and nonclinical) incurred during both the start-up and service delivery (screening) phases of the 4-year program. Tailored cost questionnaires were completed by staff at the 5 CRCSDP sites. Cost data were collected for clinical services and nonclinical programmatic activities (program management, data collection, and tracking, etc). In-kind contributions also were measured and were assigned monetary values. Nearly $11.3 million was expended by the 5 sites over 4 years, and 71% was provided by the CDC. The proportion of funding spent on clinical service delivery and service delivery/patient support comprised the largest proportion of cost during the implementation phase (years 2-4). The per-person nonclinical cost comprised a substantial portion of total costs for all sites. The cost per person screened varied across the 5 sites and by screening method. Overall, economies of scale were observed, with lower costs resulting from larger numbers of individuals screened. Programs incur substantial variable costs related to clinical services and semivariable costs related to nonclinical services. Therefore, programs that serve large populations are likely to achieve a lower cost per person. © 2013 American Cancer Society.

  4. Colorectal Cancer Screening and Race in an Equal Access Medical System.

    PubMed

    Haddad, James D; You, David M

    2016-02-01

    National colorectal cancer (CRC) screening rates have improved, but significant racial disparities have been identified. Improved access to care has been proposed as a solution to eliminate such disparities. To determine if racial disparities in CRC screening rates persist in a medical system without barriers to access or cost. A retrospective review study was performed, examining the healthcare effectiveness data and information set data from patients between the ages of 50 and 65 years who were eligible for CRC screening. Data on the type of CRC screening and rates of up-to-date screening were also examined. Data were available for 14,196 patients of whom 8809 (62%) reported race. Subjects included were 53% male and 47% female, with breakdown by race as follows: 53% White, 34% Asian/Pacific Islander, 11% Black, 1% Hispanic, and <1% Native-American. Overall, CRC screening and up-to-date rates were higher than the national average (81 and 72%, respectively). Blacks were less likely than non-Blacks to have undergone CRC screening (75 vs. 82%, p < 0.001), and were also less likely to be up-to-date with CRC screening (66 vs. 72%, p < 0.001). Despite elimination of access and cost barriers, racial disparities in CRC screening persist. Equal access to CRC screening tools will be necessary, but not sufficient, to eliminate the currently observed national trends. Further study should focus on elucidating patient-specific barriers to successful completion and maintenance of CRC screening.

  5. Primary Care Provider Perceptions of Colorectal Cancer Screening Barriers: Implications for Designing Quality Improvement Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Pickhardt, Perry J.; Schumacher, Jessica R.; Potvien, Aaron; Kim, David H.; Pfau, Patrick R.; Jacobs, Elizabeth A.; Smith, Maureen A.

    2017-01-01

    Aims. Colorectal cancer (CRC) screening is underutilized. Increasing CRC screening rates requires interventions targeting multiple barriers at each level of the healthcare organization (patient, provider, and system). We examined groups of primary care providers (PCPs) based on perceptions of screening barriers and the relationship to CRC screening rates to inform approaches for conducting barrier assessments prior to designing and implementing quality improvement interventions. Methods. We conducted a retrospective cohort study linking EHR and survey data. PCPs with complete survey responses for questions addressing CRC screening barriers were included (N = 166 PCPs; 39,430 patients eligible for CRC screening). Cluster analysis identified groups of PCPs. Multivariate logistic regression estimated odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for predictors of membership in one of the PCP groups. Results. We found two distinct groups: (1) PCPs identifying multiple barriers to CRC screening at patient, provider, and system levels (N = 75) and (2) PCPs identifying no major barriers to screening (N = 91). PCPs in the top half of CRC screening performance were more likely to identify multiple barriers than the bottom performers (OR, 4.14; 95% CI, 2.43–7.08). Conclusions. High-performing PCPs can more effectively identify CRC screening barriers. Targeting high-performers when conducting a barrier assessment is a novel approach to assist in designing quality improvement interventions for CRC screening. PMID:28163715

  6. Primary Care Provider Perceptions of Colorectal Cancer Screening Barriers: Implications for Designing Quality Improvement Interventions.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Jennifer M; Pickhardt, Perry J; Schumacher, Jessica R; Potvien, Aaron; Kim, David H; Pfau, Patrick R; Jacobs, Elizabeth A; Smith, Maureen A

    2017-01-01

    Aims. Colorectal cancer (CRC) screening is underutilized. Increasing CRC screening rates requires interventions targeting multiple barriers at each level of the healthcare organization (patient, provider, and system). We examined groups of primary care providers (PCPs) based on perceptions of screening barriers and the relationship to CRC screening rates to inform approaches for conducting barrier assessments prior to designing and implementing quality improvement interventions. Methods. We conducted a retrospective cohort study linking EHR and survey data. PCPs with complete survey responses for questions addressing CRC screening barriers were included (N = 166 PCPs; 39,430 patients eligible for CRC screening). Cluster analysis identified groups of PCPs. Multivariate logistic regression estimated odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for predictors of membership in one of the PCP groups. Results. We found two distinct groups: (1) PCPs identifying multiple barriers to CRC screening at patient, provider, and system levels (N = 75) and (2) PCPs identifying no major barriers to screening (N = 91). PCPs in the top half of CRC screening performance were more likely to identify multiple barriers than the bottom performers (OR, 4.14; 95% CI, 2.43-7.08). Conclusions. High-performing PCPs can more effectively identify CRC screening barriers. Targeting high-performers when conducting a barrier assessment is a novel approach to assist in designing quality improvement interventions for CRC screening.

  7. Colorectal Cancer Deaths Attributable to Nonuse of Screening in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Meester, Reinier G.S.; Doubeni, Chyke A.; Lansdorp-Vogelaar, Iris; Goede, S.L.; Levin, Theodore R.; Quinn, Virginia P.; van Ballegooijen, Marjolein; Corley, Douglas A.; Zauber, Ann G.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Screening is a major contributor to colorectal cancer (CRC) mortality reductions in the U.S., but is underutilized. We estimated the fraction of CRC deaths attributable to nonuse of screening to demonstrate the potential benefits from targeted interventions. Methods The established MISCAN-colon microsimulation model was used to estimate the population attributable fraction (PAF) in people aged ≥50 years. The model incorporates long-term patterns and effects of screening by age and type of screening test. PAF for 2010 was estimated using currently available data on screening uptake; PAF was also projected assuming constant future screening rates to incorporate lagged effects from past increases in screening uptake. We also computed PAF using Levin's formula to gauge how this simpler approach differs from the model-based approach. Results There were an estimated 51,500 CRC deaths in 2010, about 63% (N∼32,200) of which were attributable to non-screening. The PAF decreases slightly to 58% in 2020. Levin's approach yielded a considerably more conservative PAF of 46% (N∼23,600) for 2010. Conclusions The majority of current U.S. CRC deaths are attributable to non-screening. This underscores the potential benefits of increasing screening uptake in the population. Traditional methods of estimating PAF underestimated screening effects compared with model-based approaches. PMID:25721748

  8. [Results of the Czech National Colorectal Cancer Screening Programme - colonoscopy examinations].

    PubMed

    Suchánek, S; Májek, O; Zavoral, M; Seifert, B; Ngo, O; Dušek, L

    2014-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common cancers, and the Central European countries have the highest CRC burden worldwide. CRC screening has repeatedly been proven capable of decreasing CRC mortality and incidence rates. The nationwide Colorectal Cancer Screening Programme in the Czech Republic involves the colonoscopic examination as a diagnostic method (for patients with a positive FOBT result -  screening colonoscopy -  SC), or as a screening method (primary screening colonoscopy -  PSC). The aim of this article is to present the results of colonoscopic examinations performed as part of the Czech screening programme. For the purpose of quality assurance, the Czech programme has been equipped since 2006 with an information system called the Colorectal Cancer Screening Registry, which collects and evaluates data on preventive colonoscopies performed in the colonoscopy screening centres. Performance indicators, as specified in the European Guidelines (and adapted for the Czech programme), are employed to assess preventive colonoscopies performed in the Czech Republic. Since 2006, more than 110,000 SCs and almost 20,000 PSCs were recorded. Approximately 95% of SCs and almost 98% of PSC were classified as total, i.e. examining the entire colonic mucosa up to the caecum. The positive predictive value of FOBT for adenomas has increased slightly and continuously over time, and was 39.7% in 2013. In PSC, the adenoma detection rate (ADR) has recently increased compared to previous years, and was 27.3% in 2013. CRC was detected in 3.7% of individuals undergoing an SC examination and in 1.0% of individuals undergoing a PSC examination. The programme safety is controlled based on the monitoring of complications during colonoscopies; these can occur either during diagnostic colonoscopy (perforation in 0.03% of cases since 2006) or during endoscopic polypectomy (perforation in 0.12% of cases, bleeding in 0.73% of cases since 2006). Our results confirm that the

  9. POLE and POLD1 screening in 155 patients with multiple polyps and early-onset colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Esteban-Jurado, Clara; Giménez-Zaragoza, David; Muñoz, Jenifer; Franch-Expósito, Sebastià; Álvarez-Barona, Miriam; Ocaña, Teresa; Cuatrecasas, Miriam; Carballal, Sabela; López-Cerón, María; Marti-Solano, Maria; Díaz-Gay, Marcos; van Wezel, Tom; Castells, Antoni; Bujanda, Luis; Balmaña, Judith; Gonzalo, Victoria; Llort, Gemma; Ruiz-Ponte, Clara; Cubiella, Joaquín; Balaguer, Francesc; Aligué, Rosa; Castellví-Bel, Sergi

    2017-01-01

    Germline mutations in POLE and POLD1 have been shown to cause predisposition to colorectal multiple polyposis and a wide range of neoplasms, early-onset colorectal cancer being the most prevalent. In order to find additional mutations affecting the proofreading activity of these polymerases, we sequenced its exonuclease domain in 155 patients with multiple polyps or an early-onset colorectal cancer phenotype without alterations in the known hereditary colorectal cancer genes. Interestingly, none of the previously reported mutations in POLE and POLD1 were found. On the other hand, among the genetic variants detected, only two of them stood out as putative pathogenic in the POLE gene, c.1359 + 46del71 and c.1420G > A (p.Val474Ile). The first variant, detected in two families, was not proven to alter correct RNA splicing. Contrarily, c.1420G > A (p.Val474Ile) was detected in one early-onset colorectal cancer patient and located right next to the exonuclease domain. The pathogenicity of this change was suggested by its rarity and bioinformatics predictions, and it was further indicated by functional assays in Schizosaccharomyces pombe. This is the first study to functionally analyze a POLE genetic variant outside the exonuclease domain and widens the spectrum of genetic changes in this DNA polymerase that could lead to colorectal cancer predisposition. PMID:28423643

  10. Cost-effectiveness of mass screening for colorectal cancer: choice of fecal occult blood test and screening strategy.

    PubMed

    Sobhani, Iradj; Alzahouri, Kazem; Ghout, Idir; Charles, Delchier Jean; Durand-Zaleski, Isabelle

    2011-07-01

    Colorectal cancer is a major cause of mortality. This gives high public health priority to mass screening using a noninvasive, fecal occult blood test of asymptomatic individuals. A positive test selects those who should undergo colonoscopy to ensure early detection of colorectal cancer. Guaiac fecal occult blood test has low sensitivity. Automated immunochemical tests that measure the fecal human hemoglobin concentration are more sensitive and can be simplified as a 1- to 3-sample format with optimum cutoff points. The aim was to improve the sensitivity of the test by choosing an accurate format (1- to 3-sample and optimum hemoglobin concentration) while maintaining acceptable specificity and avoiding alteration of the screening program in terms of quality of life and economic outputs. We used a Markov model to estimate the cost-effectiveness of a screening program for a population of 100,000 asymptomatic individuals by use of immunological fecal tests with different cutoffs, leading to different sensitivity/specificity ratios, and to compare its incremental cost-effectiveness ratio compared with the guaiac fecal test program. The results suggest that a 3-sample immunological test with 50 ng/mL as a positive cutoff is cost-effective. It provides more asymptomatic cancer detection without significantly increasing normal colonoscopies. This format should be prospectively evaluated in mass screening.

  11. Influences and Practices in Colorectal Cancer Screening Among Health Care Providers Serving Northern Plains American Indians, 2011–2012

    PubMed Central

    Walaszek, Anne; Perdue, David G.; Rhodes, Kristine L.; Haverkamp, Donald; Forster, Jean

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The epidemiology of colorectal cancer, including incidence, mortality, age of onset, stage of diagnosis, and screening, varies regionally among American Indians. The objective of the Improving Northern Plains American Indian Colorectal Cancer Screening study was to improve understanding of colorectal cancer screening among health care providers serving Northern Plains American Indians. Methods Data were collected, in person, from a sample of 145 health care providers at 27 health clinics across the Northern Plains from May 2011 through September 2012. Participants completed a 32-question, self-administered assessment designed to assess provider practices, screening perceptions, and knowledge. Results The proportion of providers who ordered or performed at least 1 colorectal cancer screening test for an asymptomatic, average-risk patient in the previous month was 95.9% (139 of 145). Of these 139 providers, 97.1% ordered colonoscopies, 12.9% ordered flexible sigmoidoscopies, 73.4% ordered 3-card, guaiac-based, fecal occult blood tests, and 21.6% ordered fecal immunochemical tests. Nearly two-thirds (64.7%) reported performing in-office guaiac-based fecal occult blood tests using digital rectal examination specimens. Providers who reported receiving a formal update on colorectal cancer screening during the previous 24 months were more likely to screen using digital rectal exam specimens than providers who had received a formal update on colorectal cancer screening more than 24 months prior (73.9% vs 56.9%, respectively, χ2 = 4.29, P = .04). Conclusion Despite recommendations cautioning against the use of digital rectal examination specimens for colorectal cancer screening, the practice is common among providers serving Northern Plains American Indian populations. Accurate up-to-date, ongoing education for patients, the community, and health care providers is needed. PMID:27978410

  12. Influences and Practices in Colorectal Cancer Screening Among Health Care Providers Serving Northern Plains American Indians, 2011-2012.

    PubMed

    Nadeau, Melanie; Walaszek, Anne; Perdue, David G; Rhodes, Kristine L; Haverkamp, Donald; Forster, Jean

    2016-12-15

    The epidemiology of colorectal cancer, including incidence, mortality, age of onset, stage of diagnosis, and screening, varies regionally among American Indians. The objective of the Improving Northern Plains American Indian Colorectal Cancer Screening study was to improve understanding of colorectal cancer screening among health care providers serving Northern Plains American Indians. Data were collected, in person, from a sample of 145 health care providers at 27 health clinics across the Northern Plains from May 2011 through September 2012. Participants completed a 32-question, self-administered assessment designed to assess provider practices, screening perceptions, and knowledge. The proportion of providers who ordered or performed at least 1 colorectal cancer screening test for an asymptomatic, average-risk patient in the previous month was 95.9% (139 of 145). Of these 139 providers, 97.1% ordered colonoscopies, 12.9% ordered flexible sigmoidoscopies, 73.4% ordered 3-card, guaiac-based, fecal occult blood tests, and 21.6% ordered fecal immunochemical tests. Nearly two-thirds (64.7%) reported performing in-office guaiac-based fecal occult blood tests using digital rectal examination specimens. Providers who reported receiving a formal update on colorectal cancer screening during the previous 24 months were more likely to screen using digital rectal exam specimens than providers who had received a formal update on colorectal cancer screening more than 24 months prior (73.9% vs 56.9%, respectively, χ(2) = 4.29, P = .04). Despite recommendations cautioning against the use of digital rectal examination specimens for colorectal cancer screening, the practice is common among providers serving Northern Plains American Indian populations. Accurate up-to-date, ongoing education for patients, the community, and health care providers is needed.

  13. Faecal haemoglobin concentration influences risk prediction of interval cancers resulting from inadequate colonoscopy quality: analysis of the Taiwanese Nationwide Colorectal Cancer Screening Program.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Sherry Yueh-Hsia; Chuang, Shu-Ling; Chen, Sam Li-Sheng; Yen, Amy Ming-Fang; Fann, Jean Ching-Yuan; Chang, Dun-Cheng; Lee, Yi-Chia; Wu, Ming-Shiang; Chou, Chu-Kuang; Hsu, Wen-Feng; Chiou, Shu-Ti; Chiu, Han-Mo

    2017-02-01

    Interval colorectal cancer (CRC) after colonoscopy may affect effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of screening programmes. We aimed to investigate whether and how faecal haemoglobin concentration (FHbC) of faecal immunochemical testing (FIT) affected the risk prediction of interval cancer (IC) caused by inadequate colonoscopy quality in a FIT-based population screening programme. From 2004 to 2009, 29 969 subjects underwent complete colonoscopy after positive FIT in the Taiwanese Nationwide CRC Screening Program. The IC rate was traced until the end of 2012. The incidence of IC was calculated in relation to patient characteristics, endoscopy-related factors (such adenoma detection rate (ADR)) and FHbC. Poisson regression analysis was performed to assess the potential risk factors for colonoscopy IC. One hundred and sixty-two ICs developed after an index colonoscopy and the estimated incidence was 1.14 per 1000 person-years of observation for the entire cohort. Increased risk of IC was most remarkable in the uptake of colonoscopy in settings with ADR lower than 15% (adjusted relative risk (aRR)=3.09, 95% CI 1.55 to 6.18) and then higher FHbC (μg Hb/g faeces) (100-149: aRR=2.55, 95% CI 1.52 to 4.29, ≥150: aRR=2.74, 95% CI 1.84 to 4.09) with adjustment for older age and colorectal neoplasm detected at baseline colonoscopy. Similar findings were observed for subjects with negative index colonoscopy. Colonoscopy ICs arising from FIT-based population screening programmes were mainly influenced by inadequate colonoscopy quality and independently predicted by FHbC that is associated with a priori chance of advanced neoplasm. This finding is helpful for future modification of screening logistics based on FHbC. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  14. Use of the Analysis of the Volatile Faecal Metabolome in Screening for Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Diagnosis of colorectal cancer is an invasive and expensive colonoscopy, which is usually carried out after a positive screening test. Unfortunately, existing screening tests lack specificity and sensitivity, hence many unnecessary colonoscopies are performed. Here we report on a potential new screening test for colorectal cancer based on the analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the headspace of faecal samples. Faecal samples were obtained from subjects who had a positive faecal occult blood sample (FOBT). Subjects subsequently had colonoscopies performed to classify them into low risk (non-cancer) and high risk (colorectal cancer) groups. Volatile organic compounds were analysed by selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry (SIFT-MS) and then data were analysed using both univariate and multivariate statistical methods. Ions most likely from hydrogen sulphide, dimethyl sulphide and dimethyl disulphide are statistically significantly higher in samples from high risk rather than low risk subjects. Results using multivariate methods show that the test gives a correct classification of 75% with 78% specificity and 72% sensitivity on FOBT positive samples, offering a potentially effective alternative to FOBT. PMID:26086914

  15. The effects of tailoring knowledge acquisition on colorectal cancer screening self-efficacy.

    PubMed

    Jerant, Anthony; To, Patricia; Franks, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Interventions tailored to psychological factors such as personal and vicarious behavioral experiences can enhance behavioral self-efficacy but are complex to develop and implement. Information seeking theory suggests tailoring acquisition of health knowledge (without concurrent psychological factor tailoring) could enhance self-efficacy, simplifying the design of tailored behavior change interventions. To begin to examine this issue, the authors conducted exploratory analyses of data from a randomized controlled trial, comparing the effects of an experimental colorectal cancer screening intervention tailoring knowledge acquisition with the effects of a nontailored control on colorectal cancer screening knowledge and self-efficacy in 1159 patients comprising three ethnicity/language strata (Hispanic/Spanish, 23.4%, Hispanic/English, 27.2%, non-Hispanic/English, 49.3%) and 5 recruitment center strata. Adjusted for study strata, the mean postintervention knowledge score was significantly higher in the experimental group than in the control group. Adjusted experimental intervention exposure (B = 0.22, 95% CI [0.14, 0.30]), preintervention knowledge (B = 0.11, 95% CI [0.05, 0.16]), and postintervention knowledge (B = 0.03, 95% CI [0.01, 0.05]) were independently associated with subsequent colorectal cancer screening self-efficacy (p < .001 all associations). These exploratory findings suggest that tailoring knowledge acquisition may enhance self-efficacy, with potential implications for tailored intervention design, but this implication requires confirmation in studies specifically designed to examine this issue.

  16. Colorectal cancer screening of immigrants to Italy. Figures from the 2013 National Survey.

    PubMed

    Turrin, Anna; Zorzi, Manuel; Giorgi Rossi, Paolo; Senore, Carlo; Campari, Cinzia; Fedato, Chiara; Naldoni, Carlo; Anghinoni, Emanuela; Carrozzi, Giuliano; Sassoli De' Bianchi, Priscilla; Zappa, Marco

    2015-12-01

    Colorectal cancer screening programmes in Italy invite 50-69-year-old residents for a faecal immunochemical test every two years, regardless of their citizenship. The 2013 National Survey on Italian colorectal cancer screening programmes compared immigrants born in low- or middle-income countries with subjects who were born in Italy, by collecting aggregated data on compliance, faecal immunochemical test results, compliance with colonoscopy, detected lesions and stage at diagnosis separately for Italians and immigrants. Overall, 85 screening programmes invited 3,292,451 subjects, of whom 192,629 had been born abroad (5.9%). Compliance with invitation was lower in immigrants (34.3% vs. 51.3% in Italians), with p<0.001. Compliance wa